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Sample records for difficulty evaluation method

  1. Gray Comprehensive Evaluation Method on Coal Seam Water Injection in Order of Difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiao Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the coal mine water injection accurately, the gray comprehensive evaluation is applied in this paper, the depth of coal seam, the development degree of coal seam crack, porosity, gas pressure in coal seam, wetting edge of coal, firmness coefficient of coal are chosen as the main index to evaluate the method of water injection into coal mine. The results show that the gray comprehensive evaluation model has a relatively high reliability and accuracy, which can be used to predict the difficulty degree of water injection.

  2. The Usability Evaluation of Fakih Method Based on Technology for Students with Hearing Difficulties: The User's Retrospective

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    Sabdan, Muhammad Sayuti Bin; Alias, Norlidah; Jomhari, Nazean; Jamaludin, Khairul Azhar; DeWitt, Dorothy

    2014-01-01

    The study is aimed at evaluating the FAKIH method based on technology in teaching al-Quran, based on the user's retrospective. The participants of this study were five students selected based on hearing difficulties. The study employed the user evaluation framework. Teacher's journals were used to determine the frequency and percentage of…

  3. Gray Comprehensive Evaluation Method on Coal Seam Water Injection in Order of Difficulty

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the coal mine water injection accurately, the gray comprehensive evaluation is applied in this paper, the depth of coal seam, the development degree of coal seam crack, porosity, gas pressure in coal seam, wetting edge of coal, firmness coefficient of coal are chosen as the main index to evaluate the method of water injection into coal mine. The results show that the gray comprehensive evaluation model has a relatively high reliability and accuracy, which can be used to p...

  4. Investment Evaluation Difficulties

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    Bogdan Cosmin Gomoi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The financial criteria used for evaluation of the enterprise are not numerous; however, they are causing heated discussion on whether using a criterion at the expense of another. The most utilized financial criteria used in the ranking of investment alternatives are: the net present value criterion, the internal rate of return criterion, the payback period limit criterion and last, but not least, the profitability index criterion. These criteria have in mind, in the first place: \tinvestments impact on enterprise profitableness and results, by recording the future positive cash-flow \tinvestments influence on the balance of an enterprise, traced through the evolution, on one side of the working capital , on the other hand, the size of necessary working capital \tincidence of the investment project on enterprise risk level Therefore, to ensure the best possible decision making, investors must choose of using, and why not, even construction of relevant indicators regarding the opportunity of an investment decision in one alternative or another. It is advisable to take into account a number of principles, which are nothing more than to highlight various aspects of technical analysis of investment projects. As a result, it is preferable not to neglect the value of money in time problem, solved by using dynamic indicators of investment; investment project analysis with reference the binomial risk - profitableness, ensuring that profitableness of an investment is directly proportional to the risk category in which is framed; the basis for the investment decision to materialize with the help of marginal cash flow analysis and, certainly not with the help of paper profits; taking into consideration the fiscal policy of the company; elimination of the inflationary phenomenon in the decision process; targeting of low risk investment projects, because this risk adds to the whole risk of the enterprise etc.

  5. Difficulties Experienced in Setting and Achieving Goals by Participants of a Falls Prevention Programme: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation

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    Mason, Wendy; Haines, Terry P.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the ability of participants of a falls prevention programme to set and achieve goals. Methods: The study used a prospective longitudinal design and a mixed-methods approach to data collection. Study participants were (1) 220 older adults participating in a 15-week combined exercise and education falls prevention programme and (2) 9 practitioners (3 home-care nurses, 5 community workers, and an exercise physiologist) involved in delivering the programme. Data from goal-setting forms were analyzed, and descriptive statistics were used to determine the number of appropriate goals set and achieved. Data were analyzed according to programme setting (home- or group-based) and whether or not participants were classified as being from a Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) background in the Australian context. Semi-structured interviews with programme practitioners were thematically analyzed. Results: A total of 144 respondents (n=75 CALD group, n=41 non-CALD group, n=6 CALD home, n=22 non-CALD home) set 178 goals. Only 101 (57%) goals could be evaluated according to achievement, because participants set goals that focused on health state instead of behaviour, set goals not relevant to falls prevention, used inappropriate constructs to measure goal achievement, and either did not review their goals or dropped out of the programme before goal review. Of these 101 goals, 64 were achieved. Practitioners described their own difficulties in understanding the process of setting health behaviour goals along with communication, cultural, and logistic difficulties. Conclusions: Both CALD and non-CALD participants and those participating in both group- and home-based programmes experienced difficulty in setting and achieving goals to facilitate behaviour change for falls prevention. Data suggest that home-based participants had more difficulty in setting goals than their group-based counterparts and, to a lesser extent, that CALD participants

  6. Field Worker Evaluation of Dengue Vector Surveillance Methods: Factors That Determine Perceived Ease, Difficulty, Value, and Time Effectiveness in Australia and Malaysia.

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    Azil, Aishah H; Ritchie, Scott A; Williams, Craig R

    2015-10-01

    This qualitative study aimed to describe field worker perceptions, evaluations of worth, and time costs of routine dengue vector surveillance methods in Cairns (Australia), Kuala Lumpur and Petaling District (Malaysia). In Cairns, the BG-Sentinel trap is a favored method for field workers because of its user-friendliness, but is not as cost-efficient as the sticky ovitrap. In Kuala Lumpur, the Mosquito Larvae Trapping Device is perceived as a solution for the inaccessibility of premises to larval surveys. Nonetheless, the larval survey method is retained in Malaysia for prompt detection of dengue vectors. For dengue vector surveillance to be successful, there needs to be not only technical, quantitative evaluations of method performance but also an appreciation of how amenable field workers are to using particular methods. Here, we report novel field worker perceptions of dengue vector surveillance methods in addition to time analysis for each method. © 2014 APJPH.

  7. Identifying attributes of GPU programs for difficulty evaluation

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    Dale Tristram

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available General-purpose computation on graphics processing units (GPGPU has great potential to accelerate many scientific models and algorithms. However, some problems are considerably more difficult to accelerate than others, and it may be challenging for those new to GPGPU to ascertain the difficulty of accelerating a particular problem. Through what was learned in the acceleration of three problems, problem attributes have been identified that can assist in the evaluation of the difficulty of accelerating a problem on a GPU. The identified attributes are a problem's available parallelism, inherent parallelism, synchronisation requirements, and data transfer requirements. We envisage that with further development, these attributes could form the foundation of a difficulty classification system that could be used to determine whether GPU acceleration is practical for a candidate GPU acceleration problem, aid in identifying appropriate techniques and optimisations, and outline the required GPGPU knowledge.

  8. Difficulties in the evaluation and measuring of soil water infiltration

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    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso

    2013-04-01

    Soil water infiltration is the most important hydrological parameter for the evaluation and diagnosis of the soil water balance and soil moisture regime. Those balances and regimes are the main regulating factors of the on site water supply to plants and other soil organisms and of other important processes like runoff, surface and mass erosion, drainage, etc, affecting sedimentation, flooding, soil and water pollution, water supply for different purposes (population, agriculture, industries, hydroelectricity), etc. Therefore the evaluation and measurement of water infiltration rates has become indispensable for the evaluation and modeling of the previously mentioned processes. Infiltration is one of the most difficult hydrological parameters to evaluate or measure accurately. Although the theoretical aspects of the process of soil water infiltration are well known since the middle of the past century, when several methods and models were already proposed for the evaluation of infiltration, still nowadays such evaluation is not frequently enough accurate for the purposes being used. This is partially due to deficiencies in the methodology being used for measuring infiltration, including some newly proposed methods and equipments, and in the use of non appropriate empirical models and approaches. In this contribution we present an analysis and discussion about the main difficulties found in the evaluation and measurement of soil water infiltration rates, and the more commonly committed errors, based on the past experiences of the author in the evaluation of soil water infiltration in many different soils and land conditions, and in their use for deducing soil water balances under variable and changing climates. It is concluded that there are not models or methods universally applicable to any soil and land condition, and that in many cases the results are significantly influenced by the way we use a particular method or instrument, and by the alterations in the soil

  9. Evaluating the Difficulty of Cursive, Manuscript, Italic and D'Nealian Handwriting.

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    Duvall, Betty

    A study was conducted to establish a process for evaluating the difficulty of different handwritten letter forms. A criterion for calculating difficulty scores was delineated and four sets of letter forms were evaluated: manuscript, cursive, italic, and D'Nealian. Using the criterion, small letters were given a score of difficulty, the sum of…

  10. Difficulties Experienced by Education and Sociology Students in Quantitative Methods Courses.

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    Murtonen, Mari; Lehtinen, Erno

    2003-01-01

    Examined difficulties Finnish university students experienced in learning quantitative methods. Education and sociology students rated different topics on the basis of their difficulty. Overall, students considered statistics and quantitative methods more difficult than other domains. They tended to polarize academic subjects into…

  11. The Relationship between Task Difficulty and Second Language Fluency in French: A Mixed Methods Approach

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    Préfontaine, Yvonne; Kormos, Judit

    2015-01-01

    While there exists a considerable body of literature on task-based difficulty and second language (L2) fluency in English as a second language (ESL), there has been little investigation with French learners. This mixed methods study examines learner appraisals of task difficulty and their relationship to automated utterance fluency measures in…

  12. Difficulties in establishing routine amniocentesis for preterm labor evaluation.

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    McIntosh, Jennifer J; McHugh, Katherine; Haas, David M

    2012-03-01

    After a recent practice change implementing amniocentesis into the evaluation of preterm labor (PTL) or preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), actual performance of the procedure was tracked. Fifty-nine patients were admitted with these diagnoses. Twenty-three patients (39%) were offered amniocentesis and 36 patients (61%) were not offered amniocentesis as part of the clinical protocol. Seven (30%) patients of those offered an amniocentesis underwent the procedure. The predominant reasons for not performing an amniocentesis were patient refusal and provider discomfort. In conclusion, implementation of amniocentesis to evaluate for subclinical infection/inflammation in the setting of PTL or PPROM proved difficult, as only 7 of 59 (11.9%) patients admitted with these diagnoses actually received an amniocentesis.

  13. The living experience of difficulty telling the truth: a parse method study.

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    Baumann, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the living experience of difficulty telling the truth. Parse's research method was used to answer the question: What is the structure of the living experience of difficulty telling the truth? The participants were 9 nurses and 1 physician. The central finding of the study is the structure: difficulty telling the truth is uncomfortable dialogues with knowing silences arise with anguishing deliberations anticipating potential adversity, while contemplating intentional withholding gives rise to calm acquiescence. The findings are discussed in relation to the humanbecoming school of thought and extant literature. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Listening difficulty as a subjective measure for evaluation of speech transmission performance in public spaces.

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    Morimoto, Masayuki; Sato, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masaaki

    2004-09-01

    Listening difficulty ratings, using words with high word familiarity, are proposed as a new subjective measure for the evaluation of speech transmission in public spaces to provide realistic and objective results. Two listening tests were performed to examine their validity, compared with intelligibility scores. The tests included a reverberant signal and noise as detrimental sounds. The subject was asked to repeat each word and simultaneously to rate the listening difficulty into one of four categories: (1) not difficult, (2) a little difficult, (3) fairly difficult, and (4) extremely difficult. After the tests, the four categories were reclassified into, not difficult [response (1)] and some level of difficulty, (the other 3 responses). Listening difficulty is defined as the percentage of the total number of responses indicating some level of difficulty [i.e. not (1)]. The results of two listening tests demonstrated that listening difficulty ratings can evaluate speech transmission performance more accurately and sensitively than intelligibility scores for sound fields with higher speech transmission performance.

  15. [Quality of life in dementia: definitions, difficulties and interest of evaluation].

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    Mabire, Jean-Bernard; Gay, Marie-Claire

    2013-03-01

    The concept of quality of life appears to be easy to understand but, actually, is very complex when it comes to define it. Several notions are synonymous and often used indiscriminately such as happiness, life satisfaction and well-being. However, quality of life is dependant on several factors that, according to their presence or their absence, can change its perceptions and evaluation. Besides the difficulties of definition, methodological difficulties are added for its evaluation: how to measure a multi-factor concept whose definition is complex and non-consensual? What about its assessment in the elderly? Are the difficulties of definition and evaluation the same in studies involving elderly dementia patients? Starting from the historical context of quality of life we particularly discuss its definition and assessment in elderly patients with dementia.

  16. Method of encouraging attention by correlating video game difficulty with attention level

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    Pope, Alan T. (Inventor); Bogart, Edward H. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A method of encouraging attention in persons such as those suffering from Attention Deficit Disorder is provided by correlating the level of difficulty of a video game with the level of attention in a subject. A conventional video game comprises a video display which depicts objects for interaction with a player and a difficulty adjuster which increases the difficulty level, e.g., action speed and/or evasiveness of the depicted object, in a predetermined manner. The electrical activity of the brain is measured at selected sites to determine levels of awareness, e.g., activity in the beta, theta, and alpha states. A value is generated based on this measured electrical signal which is indicative of the level of awareness. The difficulty level of the game is increased as the awareness level value decreases and is decreased as this awareness level value increases.

  17. [Effects of reading difficulties on scholastic self-evaluation and mental health in elementary school children].

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    Yamashita, Toshiya; Hayashi, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    We aimed to examine the effects of reading difficulties on scholastic self-evaluation and mental health in elementary school students. Following guidelines for diagnosing reading disorders in elementary school students, we administered reading test batteries consisting of single sounds, single words, and single sentences to 41 fifth-grade elementary school students in Japan. The students' levels of scholastic self-evaluation, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms were assessed using self-rating questionnaires. By evaluating students' reading speed and the number of reading errors they made, we found that six students (14.6%) had reading difficulties (RD group) as per the guidelines for diagnosing reading disorders. The scholastic self-evaluation scores of this RD group were significantly lower than that of the non-RD group. No significant differences were found between the groups on self-esteem or depressive symptoms scores, which we considered to be indicators of mental health, Speed in reading single sounds and single words, and the number of reading errors in reading single sounds had significant negative correlations with scholastic self-evaluation scores. We found that reading difficulties might result in decreased scholastic self-evaluation in elementary school students; however, reading difficulties did not directly influence self-esteem or depression.

  18. Difficulties in applying numerical simulations to an evaluation of occupational hazards caused by electromagnetic fields.

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    Zradziński, Patryk

    2015-01-01

    Due to the various physical mechanisms of interaction between a worker's body and the electromagnetic field at various frequencies, the principles of numerical simulations have been discussed for three areas of worker exposure: to low frequency magnetic field, to low and intermediate frequency electric field and to radiofrequency electromagnetic field. This paper presents the identified difficulties in applying numerical simulations to evaluate physical estimators of direct and indirect effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields at various frequencies. Exposure of workers operating a plastic sealer have been taken as an example scenario of electromagnetic field exposure at the workplace for discussion of those difficulties in applying numerical simulations. The following difficulties in reliable numerical simulations of workers' exposure to the electromagnetic field have been considered: workers' body models (posture, dimensions, shape and grounding conditions), working environment models (objects most influencing electromagnetic field distribution) and an analysis of parameters for which exposure limitations are specified in international guidelines and standards.

  19. Examining Primary Pre-Service Teachers' Difficulties of Mathematics Teaching with the Micro-Teaching Method

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    Savas Basturk; Tastepe, Mehtap

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine primary pre-service teachers' difficulties of the teaching of mathematics with micro-teaching method. The participants of the study were 15 third grade pre-service teachers from the department of primary education in the faculty of education. In this grade which includes four sections, there were…

  20. Evaluation of the level of difficulty of patient cases for veterinary problem-solving examination: a preliminary comparison of three taxonomies of learning.

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    Koskinen, Heli

    2007-01-01

    An important issue that has received insufficient attention in the use of problem-based learning in the medical curriculum is the mode of assessing the level of difficulty of patient cases. In the present study, the level of difficulty of case-based questions in a veterinary degree final examination in reproduction was evaluated. First, cognitive taxonomies were evaluated to clarify whether qualitative methods such as Bloom's taxonomy, the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome (SOLO) taxonomy, and the Amsterdam Clinical Challenge Scale (ACCS) differed from each other as evaluation tools for problem-based cases. Using these taxonomies, 30 case-based questions from the final examination in reproduction in the Helsinki veterinary program were initially evaluated to determine which one was best suited to the evaluation of the difficulty of cases. In follow-up, the same cases were also evaluated by an experienced veterinary instructor in reproduction, with the aim of gaining insight into using these approaches to evaluating difficulty. It would appear, from this preliminary assessment, that the SOLO taxonomy may be the most suitable for evaluating the difficulty of patient cases, since the instructor's quality rating resembled more closely the SOLO than the Bloom taxonomy or the ACCS. It is to be emphasized that the purpose of this study was to provide a preliminary evaluation of possible approaches that might be used to assess patient-case difficulty. Resolving all issues will require a greater number of evaluations of all components.

  1. A useful method to overcome the difficulties of applying silicone gel sheet on irregular surfaces.

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    Grella, Roberto; Nicoletti, Gianfranco; D'Ari, Antonio; Romanucci, Vincenza; Santoro, Mariangela; D'Andrea, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    To date, silicone gel and silicone occlusive plates are the most useful and effective treatment options for hypertrophic scars (surgical and traumatic). Use of silicone sheeting has also been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of minor keloids in association with corticosteroid intralesional infiltration. In our practice, we encountered four problems: maceration, rashes, pruritus and infection. Not all patients are able to tolerate the cushion, especially children, and certain anatomical regions as the face and the upper chest are not easy to dress for obvious social, psychological and aesthetic reasons. In other anatomical regions, it is also difficult to obtain adequate compression and occlusion of the scar. To overcome such problems of applying silicone gel sheeting, we tested the use of liquid silicone gel (LSG) in the treatment of 18 linear hypertrophic scars (HS group) and 12 minor keloids (KS group) as an alternative to silicone gel sheeting or cushion. Objective parameters (volume, thickness and colour) and subjective symptoms such as pain and pruritus were examined. Evaluations were made when the therapy started and after 30, 90 and 180 days of follow-up. After 90 days of treatment with silicone gel alone (two applications daily), HS group showed a significant improvement in terms of volume decrease, reduced inflammation and redness and improved elasticity. In conclusion, on the basis of our clinical data, we find LSG to be a useful method to overcome the difficulties of applying silicone gel sheeting on irregular surface.

  2. Difficulties in applying numerical simulations to an evaluation of occupational hazards caused by electromagnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Zradziński, Patryk

    2015-01-01

    Due to the various physical mechanisms of interaction between a worker's body and the electromagnetic field at various frequencies, the principles of numerical simulations have been discussed for three areas of worker exposure: to low frequency magnetic field, to low and intermediate frequency electric field and to radiofrequency electromagnetic field. This paper presents the identified difficulties in applying numerical simulations to evaluate physical estimators of direct and indirect effec...

  3. RADAR: A novel fast-screening method for reading difficulties with special focus on dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyrnakis, Ioannis; Andreadakis, Vassilios; Selimis, Vassilios; Kalaitzakis, Michail; Bachourou, Theodora; Kaloutsakis, Georgios; Kymionis, George D; Smirnakis, Stelios; Aslanides, Ioannis M

    2017-01-01

    Dyslexia is a developmental learning disorder of single word reading accuracy and/or fluency, with compelling research directed towards understanding the contributions of the visual system. While dyslexia is not an oculomotor disease, readers with dyslexia have shown different eye movements than typically developing students during text reading. Readers with dyslexia exhibit longer and more frequent fixations, shorter saccade lengths, more backward refixations than typical readers. Furthermore, readers with dyslexia are known to have difficulty in reading long words, lower skipping rate of short words, and high gaze duration on many words. It is an open question whether it is possible to harness these distinctive oculomotor scanning patterns observed during reading in order to develop a screening tool that can reliably identify struggling readers, who may be candidates for dyslexia. Here, we introduce a novel, fast, objective, non-invasive method, named Rapid Assessment of Difficulties and Abnormalities in Reading (RADAR) that screens for features associated with the aberrant visual scanning of reading text seen in dyslexia. Eye tracking parameter measurements that are stable under retest and have high discriminative power, as indicated by their ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curves, were obtained during silent text reading. These parameters were combined to derive a total reading score (TRS) that can reliably separate readers with dyslexia from typical readers. We tested TRS in a group of school-age children ranging from 8.5 to 12.5 years of age. TRS achieved 94.2% correct classification of children tested. Specifically, 35 out of 37 control (specificity 94.6%) and 30 out of 32 readers with dyslexia (sensitivity 93.8%) were classified correctly using RADAR, under a circular validation condition (see section Results/Total Reading Score) where the individual evaluated was not included in the test construction group. In conclusion, RADAR is a novel

  4. Analysis of the Difficulties and Improvement Method on Introduction of PBL Approach in Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Takasei; Sessa, Salvatore

    In the field of international cooperation, it is increasing to introduce Japanese engineering educational model in the developing country to improve the quality of education and research activity. A naive implementation of such model in different cultures and educational systems may lead to several problems. In this paper, we evaluated the Project Based Learning (PBL) class, developed at Waseda University in Japan, and employed to the Egyptian education context at the Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology (E-JUST) . We found difficulties such as : non-homogeneous student’ s background, disconnection with the student’ s research, weak learning style adaptation, and irregular course conduction. To solve these difficulties at E-JUST, we proposed : the groupware introduction, project theme choice based on student’ s motivation, and curriculum modification.

  5. Evaluation of the difficulty of crystallization of organic compounds using the critical supersaturation ratio (Sc)

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    Nagamatsu, Daiki; Ida, Yasuo; Takiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    In the case of solvent selection, supersolubility is an index for improving crystallization behavior. However, supersolubility is affected by kinetic factors such as the cooling rate. An index for suitable solvent selection is needed. The supersaturation ratio (S) is one of the operation design indices of controlling crystallization behavior such as supersolubility. The S at 298 K (S298) of the pharmaceutical compounds theophylline, noscapine, clotrimazole, indomethacin, carbamazepine, naproxene and tolbutamide were measured in ethanol using a polythermal method. If the compound had a large lnS298, the cooling rate strongly affected the temperature of the cloud point in the cooling crystallization method. In order to estimate the crystallization behavior without the cooling rate effect, the critical supersaturation ratio (Sc) was proposed. Sc at 298 K (Sc298) was calculated from dissolution/cloud points at 0 K/min extrapolated from that of several heating/cooling rates to remove the kinetic effects on S. The lnSc298 values of theophylline, noscapine and clotrimazole were estimated in acetonitrile, methyl ethyl ketone, tetrahydrofuran, ethyl acetate, methanol, ethanol and isopropanol. The lnSc298 value of clotrimazole was the largest in all solvents. The results showed that lnSc298 was a simple index which could be used to evaluate the crystallization behavior resulting from the interaction between the solvent and the compound. In conclusion, the proposed lnSc298 should be useful for comparing the difficulty of crystallization which indicates how we should obtain desired crystals within a certain finite time period for development API in the manufacturing field without considering the effect of the heating/cooling rate.

  6. An evaluation of clinical treatment of convergence insufficiency for children with reading difficulties

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    Dusek Wolfgang A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study investigates two different treatment options for convergence insufficiency CI for a group of children with reading difficulties referred by educational institutes to a specialist eye clinic in Vienna. Methods One hundred and thirty four subjects (aged 7-14 years with reading difficulties were referred from an educational institute in Vienna, Austria for visual assessment. Each child was given either 8Δ base-in reading spectacles (n = 51 or computerised home vision therapy (HTS (n = 51. Thirty two participants refused all treatment offered (clinical control group. A full visual assessment including reading speed and accuracy were conducted pre- and post-treatment. Results Factorial analyses demonstrated statistically significant changes between results obtained for visits 1 and 2 for total reading time, reading error score, amplitude of accommodation and binocular accommodative facility (within subjects effects (p Conclusions Reading difficulties with no apparent intellectual or psychological foundation may be due to a binocular vision anomaly such as convergence insufficiency. Both the HTS and prismatic correction are highly effective treatment options for convergence insufficiency. Prismatic correction can be considered an effective alternative to HTS.

  7. Conceptual and practical difficulties with the economic evaluation of health services developments.

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    Coast, J; Hensher, M; Mulligan, J A; Shepperd, S; Jones, J

    2000-01-01

    Five recent economic evaluations comparing hospital at home schemes with acute hospital care faced remarkably similar problems. This paper outlines these problems and considers what strategies can be derived from these experiences, which will be relevant to economic evaluations of other aspects of the organisation of care, particularly those crossing the interfaces between primary and secondary health care or the interface between health and social services. The difficulties experienced can be divided into conceptual and practical problems. Conceptual problems were primarily associated with issues of context and related to the choice of comparator, capacity constraints and size of schemes, and the choice between a short or a long run perspective. Practical problems were connected with the time at which schemes were evaluated, the type of clinical study alongside which studies were conducted and the types of data available for use in the analysis. Strategies which can be pursued in conducting economic evaluations of organisational change include giving greater attention to conceptual and hence contextual problems as well as reporting these contextual issues in detail, accepting the need for repeated economic evaluations as organisational changes become more widespread and considering carefully the clinical study design where economic evaluations of organisational change are conducted alongside. These strategies are of importance not just to those conducting economic evaluations but also to those funding appraisals of changes in the organisation of care. Use of different strategies such as those suggested here should be evaluated.

  8. Difficulties in the neuroscience of creativity: jazz improvisation and the scientific method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Malinda; Limb, Charles J

    2013-11-01

    Creativity is a fundamental and remarkable human capacity, yet the scientific study of creativity has been limited by the difficulty of reconciling the scientific method and creative processes. We outline several hurdles and considerations that should be addressed when studying the cognitive neuroscience of creativity and suggest that jazz improvisation may be one of the most useful experimental models for the study of spontaneous creativity. More broadly, we argue that studying creativity in a way that is both scientifically and ecologically valid requires collaboration between neuroscientists and artists. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. Mixed methods research in pedagogy: Characteristics, advantages and difficulties in application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matović Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mixed methods research, as a new type of research, is discussed in the context of re-examining the relation between the two approaches, i.e. the possibility of not opposing, but connecting, combining and integrating them within research. The possibility to use such grounding in research as well could be quite important for pedagogy since the nature of the examined phenomena in this field is such that the majority has both quantitative and qualitative aspects. In order to explain the essence of a mixed methods research, the paper analyses its characteristics, first of all, what elements are combined, what is the nature of the relation between the combined elements and why they are combined, as well as its advantages and difficulties in application. The essential thing in a mixed methods research is the fact that combining refers to the research process as a whole, including the ontological and epistemological assumptions it is based on, which implies that the elements that are combined are understood rather broadly. The advantages and difficulties in application are considered in the context of the discussion of the possibility to combine all research elements, neutralise the limitations of quantitative and qualitative research methodology, implement the complex combining procedures etc. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179060: Modeli procenjivanja i strategije unapređivanja kvaliteta obrazovanja

  10. Evaluation of incest cases of Turkey in terms of DNA profiling difficulties.

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    Emre, Ramazan; Canturk, Kemal Murat; Komur, Ilhami; Dogan, Muhammed; Demirel, Husrev; Baspınar, Bunyamin

    2015-11-01

    We scanned suspicious 1200 paternity cases and 650 sexual abuse victims in Council of Forensic Medicine of Turkey between 2011 and 2014 and detected 50 incest cases and evaluated the forensic and genetic data of incest cases for source of DNA evidence, gender, age, SES (Socioeconomic status) and geographic location of victim, abusive person, extent of incest, pregnancy from incest and date of gestation termination and also aimed to discuss some DNA profiling difficulties. We detected incest from DNA evidences of curettage material (34%; Chorionic Villi (12%) and fetal tissue (22%)), alive baby after pregnancy (28%), sperm in vaginal swab (10%), sperm in anal swab (2%), sperm on clothing (24%) and in one case both sperm on clothing and in vaginal swab (2%). It was found that the most common incestuous relationship was elder-brother-sister incest (34%) and the second most common relationship was father-daughter incest (28%). The rarest incest was mother-son incest with only one reported case (2%). Forty-three victims (86%) were younger than 18 years old and 7 victims (14%) were older than 18 years old. Thirty-eight cases described full sexual intercourse and 31 of them culminated in pregnancy and 14 of them gave birth at the end of pregnancy. We had paternity rejection problem 3 (10%) of 31 incest cases between tested genetically related alleged fathers. Totally 20 STR loci did not discriminate the alleged fathers in two cases and we treated this problem increasing the number of STR loci and finally got the discrimination. In one case we detected same triallelic variant pattern at the same D3S1358 STR locus in both tested parents but child had not got STR variant; had only two alleles at this loci. We then evaluated the peak height values of STR variant alleles of tested persons and concluded a tetra-allelic baby without any STR incompatibility of 15 STR loci. Finally, forensic experts should aware of some DNA profiling difficulties while analyzing paternity incest

  11. The Role of Personality Traits, Core Self-Evaluation, and Emotional Intelligence in Career Decision-Making Difficulties

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    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia; Bar-On, Reuven

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the role of personality traits, core self-evaluation, and emotional intelligence (EI) in career decision-making difficulties. Italian university students (N = 232) responded to questions on the Big Five Questionnaire, Core Self-Evaluation Scale, Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory, and Career Decision-Making Difficulties…

  12. Evaluating the User Experience of Exercising Reaching Motions With a Robot That Predicts Desired Movement Difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzad, Navid; Van der Loos, H F Machiel

    2016-01-01

    The notion of an optimal difficulty during practice has been articulated in many areas of cognitive psychology: flow theory, the challenge point framework, and desirable difficulties. Delivering exercises at a participant's desired difficulty has the potential to improve both motor learning and users' engagement in therapy. Motivation and engagement are among the contributing factors to the success of exercise programs. The authors previously demonstrated that error amplification can be used to introduce levels of challenge into a robotic reaching task, and that machine-learning algorithms can dynamically adjust difficulty to the desired level with 85% accuracy. Building on these findings, we present the results of a proof-of-concept study investigating the impacts of practicing under desirable difficulty conditions. A control condition with a predefined random order for difficulty levels was deemed more suitable for this study (compared to constant or continuously increasing difficulty). By practicing the task at their desirable difficulties, participants in the experimental group perceived their performance at a significantly higher level and reported lower required effort to complete the task, in comparison to a control group. Moreover, based on self-reports, participants in the experimental group were willing, on average, to continue the training session for 4.6 more training blocks (∼45 min) compared to the control group's average. This study demonstrates the efficiency of delivering the exercises at the user's desired difficulty level to improve the user's engagement in exercise tasks. Future work will focus on clinical feasibility of this approach in increasing stroke survivors' engagement in their therapy programs.

  13. Diagnostic difficulties and pitfalls in rapid on-site evaluation of endobronchial ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monaco Sara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the novel techniques utilizing fine needle aspiration (FNA in the diagnosis of mediastinal and lung lesions is the endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS-guided FNA. In this study, we describe five cases which had a discrepancy between on-site evaluation and final diagnosis, or a diagnostic dilemma when rendering the preliminary diagnosis, in order to illustrate some of the diagnostic difficulties and pitfalls that can occur in EBUS FNA. Methods: A total of five EBUS FNA cases from five patients were identified in our records with a discrepancy between the rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE and final diagnosis, or that addressed a diagnostic dilemma. All of the cases had histological confirmation or follow-up. The cytomorphology in the direct smears, cell block, and immunohistochemical stains were reviewed, along with the clinical history and other available information. Results: Two cases were identified with a nondefinitive diagnosis at ROSE that were later diagnosed as malignant (metastatic signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma and metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC on the final cytological diagnosis. Three additional cases were identified with a ROSE and final diagnosis of malignant (large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC and two squamous cell carcinomas, but raised important diagnostic dilemmas. These cases highlight the importance of recognizing discohesive malignant cells and bland neoplasms on EBUS FNA, which may lead to a negative or a nondefinitive preliminary diagnosis. Neuroendocrine tumors can also be difficult due to the wide range of entities in the differential diagnosis, including benign lymphocytes, lymphomas, small and nonsmall cell carcinomas, and the lack of immunohistochemical stains at the time of ROSE. Finally, the background material in EBUS FNAs may be misleading and unrelated to the cells of interest. Conclusions: This study illustrates the cytomorphology of five EBUS FNA cases that address some of the

  14. Difficulties of sex determination from forensic bone degraded DNA: A comparison of three methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quincey, Danielle; Carle, Georges; Alunni, Véronique; Quatrehomme, Gérald

    2013-09-01

    Sex determination is of paramount importance in forensic anthropology. Numerous anthropological methods have been described, including visual assessments and various measurements of bones. Nevertheless, whatever the method used, the percentage of correct classification of a single bone usually varies between 80% and 95%, due to significant intra- and inter-population variations, and sometimes variations coming from secular trends. DNA is increasingly used in a forensic context. But forensic DNA extraction from bone raises several issues, because the samples are very often badly altered and/or in very small quantity. Nuclear DNA is difficult to get from degraded samples, according to low copy number, at least in comparison with mitochondrial DNA. In a forensic context (as in a paeleoanthropological context) DNA sex determination is usually complicated by the weak amount of DNA, the degraded nature of nucleic acids, the presence of enzymatic inhibitors in DNA extracts, the possible faint amplification of Y band and the risk of contamination during either excavation or manipulation of samples. The aim of this work was to compare three methods of DNA sex determination from bones: procedure #1 using a single PCR amplification, procedure #2 using a double PCR amplification, and procedure #3 adding bleaching for decontamination of the bone, instead of simply rubbing the bone. These processes were applied to samples of bones (49 samples coming from 39 individuals) that were in various states of post mortem alteration. The main results are the following. (i) No DNA could be extracted from three skulls (parietal bones, mastoid process), the compact bone of one rib, and the diaphysis of one femur; (ii) there was a contamination in three skulls; and (iii) the Y band did not appear in two male cases, with one of the three procedures (male tibia, procedure #2) and with procedures #2 and #3 (male femur). This study emphasises the main issue while working with altered bones: the

  15. The Investigation of the Degree of Difficulty in the Learning Materials by the Recursive Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Wu, Shing-Ling

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify the difficulty of learning materials in the network by using learner's portfolio in the asynchronous learning system. Asynchronous learning takes the advantage of information technology that records the learning portfolio of the learner. The data of the learning portfolio reflects the characteristics of…

  16. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Chinese Feeding Difficulty Index (Ch-FDI for People with Dementia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan F Liu

    Full Text Available To develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a Chinese Feeding Difficulty Index (Ch-FDI which assesses feeding difficulties in people with dementia (PwD.Scale items were developed using literature review based on Model of Feeding Difficulty. Content validity was evaluated and items were modified by expert panel. Following translation and back-translation, the Ch-FDI was piloted on residents with dementia. The reliability was tested by inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability. Internal reliability was established by calculating Cronbach's α coefficient. The concurrent validity was evaluated by correlating with similar scale, the Edinburgh Feeding Evaluation in Dementia (EdFED. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA with varimax rotation and parallel analysis (PA was performed to test construct validity.Participants were recruited from long-term care facilities in Taiwan. A total of 213 residents with dementia participated in this study during May, 2010 to February, 2011.Content validation, translation and psychometric testing were completed on the 19 items of the Ch-FDI. The translated scale was piloted on 213 residents with dementia of feeding difficulty who were recruited from eight long-term care facilities in Taiwan. The reliability was supported by the internal consistency of Cronbach's α of 0.68 and a test-retest coefficient of 0.85. The content validity, face validity, concurrent validity, and construct validity were used.The Ch-FDI is a newly developed scale with fair psychometric properties aimed to measure feeding difficulties among residents with dementia in long-term care facilities in Taiwan. Using this reliable and valid tool can help healthcare providers to assess feeding problems of PwD and provide feeding assistance in order to promote quality of care during mealtime in long-term care facilities.

  17. Evaluating mental health difficulties and associated outcomes among HIV-positive adolescents in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Dorothy E; Turner, Elizabeth L; Shayo, Aisa M; Mmbaga, Blandina; Cunningham, Coleen K; O'Donnell, Karen

    2016-07-01

    AIDS-related mortality among HIV-positive adolescents has risen by 50% despite the scale up of antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART maladherence likely plays a role in the increase of AIDS-related deaths among adolescents and has shown to be associated with psychosocial and mental health difficulties. Addressing the specific mental health needs of HIV-positive adolescents is critical to ending the HIV epidemic. This cross-sectional study prospectively enrolled HIV-positive adolescents (12-24 years) in Moshi, Tanzania. A structured questionnaire was administered that included questions about home, school, adherence, and measures of stigma (Berger Stigma Scale) and mental health. Mental health measures included depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), emotional/behavioral difficulties (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), and traumatic experiences/post-traumatic stress symptoms (The University of California Los Angeles-post-traumatic stress disorder-Reaction Index). Mental health difficulties were prevalent among HIV-positive adolescents and were associated with incomplete adherence and stigma. Resources are needed to reduce HIV stigma and address mental health among HIV-positive adolescents in low-resource settings. This will improve not only mental health, but may also improve ART adherence and virologic suppression, improving overall health of the individual and reducing the risk of HIV transmission to others.

  18. Using Economic Methods Evaluatively

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Julian

    2017-01-01

    As evaluators, we are often asked to determine whether policies and programs provide value for the resources invested. Addressing that question can be a quandary, and, in some cases, evaluators question whether cost-benefit analysis is fit for this purpose. With increased interest globally in social enterprise, impact investing, and social impact…

  19. Using Economic Methods Evaluatively

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Julian

    2017-01-01

    As evaluators, we are often asked to determine whether policies and programs provide value for the resources invested. Addressing that question can be a quandary, and, in some cases, evaluators question whether cost-benefit analysis is fit for this purpose. With increased interest globally in social enterprise, impact investing, and social impact…

  20. [Simple and useful evaluation of motor difficulty in childhood (9-12 years old children ) by interview score on motor skills and soft neurological signs--aim for the diagnosis of developmental coordination disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Mitsuru; Suzuki, Shuhei

    2009-09-01

    Many children with developmental disorders are known to have motor impairment such as clumsiness and poor physical ability;however, the objective evaluation of such difficulties is not easy in routine clinical practice. In this study, we aimed to establish a simple method for evaluating motor difficulty of childhood. This method employs a scored interview and examination for detecting soft neurological signs (SNSs). After a preliminary survey with 22 normal children, we set the items and the cutoffs for the interview and SNSs. The interview consisted of questions pertaining to 12 items related to a child's motor skills in his/her past and current life, such as skipping, jumping a rope, ball sports, origami, and using chopsticks. The SNS evaluation included 5 tests, namely, standing on one leg with eyes closed, diadochokinesia, associated movements during diadochokinesia, finger opposition test, and laterally fixed gaze. We applied this method to 43 children, including 25 cases of developmental disorders. Children showing significantly high scores in both the interview and SNS were assigned to the "with motor difficulty" group, while those with low scores in both the tests were assigned to the "without motor difficulty" group. The remaining children were assigned to the "with suspicious motor difficulty" group. More than 90% of the children in the "with motor difficulty" group had high impairment scores in Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC), a standardized motor test, whereas 82% of the children in the "without motor difficulty" group revealed no motor impairment. Thus, we conclude that our simple method and criteria would be useful for the evaluation of motor difficulty of childhood. Further, we have discussed the diagnostic process for developmental coordination disorder using our evaluation method.

  1. How to Reach Evidence-Based Usability Evaluation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcilly, Romaric; Peute, Linda

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses how and why to build evidence-based knowledge on usability evaluation methods. At each step of building evidence, requisites and difficulties to achieve it are highlighted. Specifically, the paper presents how usability evaluation studies should be designed to allow capitalizing evidence. Reciprocally, it presents how evidence-based usability knowledge will help improve usability practice. Finally, it underlines that evaluation and evidence participate in a virtuous circle that will help improve scientific knowledge and evaluation practice.

  2. Voltammetry Method Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyt, N. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pereira, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Willit, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Williamson, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-07-29

    The purpose of the ANL MPACT Voltammetry project is to evaluate the suitability of previously developed cyclic voltammetry techniques to provide electroanalytical measurements of actinide concentrations in realistic used fuel processing scenarios. The molten salts in these scenarios are very challenging as they include high concentrations of multiple electrochemically active species, thereby creating a variety of complications. Some of the problems that arise therein include issues related to uncompensated resistance, cylindrical diffusion, and alloying of the electrodeposited metals. Improvements to the existing voltammetry technique to account for these issues have been implemented, resulting in good measurements of actinide concentrations across a wide range of adverse conditions.

  3. Evaluation of oral epithelial dysplastic features in oral lichen planus: The diagnostic difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bina Kashyap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lichen planus (LP is chronic, mucocutaneous, autoimmune disease which can affect oral mucosa, skin, scalp, nails, and genital mucosa. The prevalence of oral LP (OLP varies with different geographic distribution. It presents symmetrical and bilateral or multiple lesions with varying clinical types accompanying with burning sensation and sometimes pain. Due to its potentially malignant nature, the evaluation of cell proliferation brings important information regarding diagnosis and prognosis of several types of cancer. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four cases of OLP were retrieved and were histologically assessed under 10× and 40× magnifications for valuation of the dysplastic features. The grading was done by the criteria followed by Odukoya et al. The data obtained were tabulated and subjected for the statistical analysis. Results: Epithelial dysplasias were observed in 60 cases of OLP which Grade I had 9 cases, Grade II 27 and Grade III 24 cases. Four cases of OLP did not show any dysplasia. The interrater reliability was found to be in strong or substantial agreement in assessing few of the dysplastic features. Male:female ratio was 1.2:1 with buccal mucosa being the most common site. Conclusion: Our study showed the importance to establish a correct diagnosis of OLP based on the history, clinical presentations, and histopathology. Furthermore, the long-term follow-up of the patient with OLP is mandatory when dysplasia is encountered on histopathology.

  4. Validity and reliability of a new tool to evaluate handwriting difficulties in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nackaerts, Evelien; Heremans, Elke; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C. M.; Broeder, Sanne; Vandenberghe, Wim; Bergmans, Bruno; Nieuwboer, Alice

    2017-01-01

    Background Handwriting in Parkinson’s disease (PD) features specific abnormalities which are difficult to assess in clinical practice since no specific tool for evaluation of spontaneous movement is currently available. Objective This study aims to validate the ‘Systematic Screening of Handwriting Difficulties’ (SOS-test) in patients with PD. Methods Handwriting performance of 87 patients and 26 healthy age-matched controls was examined using the SOS-test. Sixty-seven patients were tested a second time within a period of one month. Participants were asked to copy as much as possible of a text within 5 minutes with the instruction to write as neatly and quickly as in daily life. Writing speed (letters in 5 minutes), size (mm) and quality of handwriting were compared. Correlation analysis was performed between SOS outcomes and other fine motor skill measurements and disease characteristics. Intrarater, interrater and test-retest reliability were assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Spearman correlation coefficient. Results Patients with PD had a smaller (p = 0.043) and slower (p 0.769 for both groups). Conclusion The SOS-test is a short and effective tool to detect handwriting problems in PD with excellent reliability. It can therefore be recommended as a clinical instrument for standardized screening of handwriting deficits in PD. PMID:28253374

  5. 护理操作技术难度评价及应用研究%Application Research on Nursing Operation Evaluation and Technical Diffi-culties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳

    2016-01-01

    Objective This article set up an objective, scientific nursing procedures, appropriate technology difficulty evalu-ation system. Methods From 6, 120 in Shanxi Province 3 armour hospital clinical questionnaire of nursing staff, related the-ory, combined with ahp to jing-jing ma the evaluation index system of nursing operation technical difficulties as architec-ture. for the determination of 50 selected item evaluation of the technical difficulties of based nursing service operation pro-ject. Results Finally it is concluded that the results of the survey for 50 nursing difficulty operating coefficient between 0.54~1.59, and the numerical scores are obey the normal distribution, so the results are to be believed, and comply with the relevant professional explanation. Conclusion The nursing service operation difficulty coefficient evaluation can be compre-hensive, system for nursing human resource and nursing workload calculation, bonus allocation, provide a scientific basis for clinical operation assessment.%目的:建立起客观、适用、科学的护理操作技术难度评价体系é方法从对山西省内6所共120名三甲医院临床护理人员进行问卷调查入手,结合层次分析法相关理论,以马晶晶《护理操作技术难度评价指标体系》作为构架,对所选需测定的50项基础护理服务操作项目进行技术难度评价é结果50项护理难度操作系数处于0.54~1.59之间,并且各个得分数值都是服从正态分布,因此结果可信,并且符合相关专业的解释é结论《护理服务操作难度系数评价表》可以全面、系统为护理人力资源配备、护理人员工作量计算、奖金分配、临床操作考核提供科学依据é

  6. Evaluation methods for hospital facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fronczek-Munter, Aneta

    2013-01-01

    Initial position & background: There are various methods and tools for evaluating facilities. The focus is usually on the technical building performance, function/usability or form/beauty. Examples are: Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE) and Usability Appraisal. Nevertheless, evaluations of buildings...... according to focus areas and proposes which evaluation methods to use in different building phases of healthcare facilities. Hospital evaluations with experts and users are also considered; their subjective view on space, function, technology, usability and aesthetics. Results & solutions: This paper...... of creating buildings with enhanced usability. Additionally various evaluation methods used in hospital cases in Denmark and Norway are presented. Involvement of users is proposed, not just in defining requirements but also in co-creation/design and evaluation of solutions. The theories and preliminary...

  7. Evaluating the components of an emergent literacy intervention for preschool children at risk for reading difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Purpura, David J.; Wilson, Shauna B.; Walker, Patricia M.; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine

    2013-01-01

    Many preschool children are at risk for reading problems because of inadequate emergent literacy skills. Evidence supports the effectiveness of interventions to promote these skills, but questions remain about which intervention components work and whether combining intervention components will result in larger gains. In this study, 324 preschoolers (mean age = 54.32 months, SD = 5.88) from low-income backgrounds (46% girls and 54% boys; 82% African American, 14% White, and 4% other) were randomized to combinations of meaning-focused (dialogic reading or shared reading) and code-focused (phonological awareness, letter knowledge, or both) interventions or a control group. Interventions had statistically significant positive impacts only on measures of their respective skill domains. Combinations of interventions did not enhance outcomes across domains, indicating instructional needs in all areas of weakness for young children at risk for later reading difficulties. Less time for each intervention in the combined phonological awareness and letter knowledge intervention conditions, however, did not result in reduced effects relative to nearly twice as much time for each intervention when children received either only the phonological awareness intervention or only the letter knowledge intervention. This finding suggests that a relatively compact code-focused intervention can address the needs of children with weaknesses in both domains. PMID:23073367

  8. Perceptions and difficulties in the use of participative methodologies and formative evaluation in science of physical activity degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Castejón Oliva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the process of adapting teaching skills within the framework of the European Higher Education Area, particularly with the introduction of Degree in Physical Activity and Sport Science from Universidad Autónoma of Madrid. The objective is to analyze the perceptions and difficulties of the teachers and students on participatory methodologies and formative evaluation systems. Data sources are from documentary analysis of the tutorials for the subjects, individual interviews with the teachers (n=4 and group interviews with the students (n=12. The results show inconsistencies between what is proposed and implemented by the teachers, and how students perceive.

  9. A mixed methods contribution to the study of health public policies: complementarities and difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The use of mixed methods (combining quantitative and qualitative data) is developing in a variety of forms, especially in the health field. Our own research has adopted this perspective from the outset. We have sought all along to innovate in various ways and especially to develop an equal partnership, in the sense of not allowing any single approach to dominate. After briefly describing mixed methods, in this article we explain and illustrate how we have exploited both qualitative and quantitative methods to answer our research questions, ending with a reflective analysis of our experiment. PMID:26559730

  10. Entropy method for determination of weight of evaluating indicators in fuzzy synthetic evaluation for water quality assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Zhi-hong; YUN Yi; SUN Jing-nan

    2006-01-01

    Considering the difficulty of fuzzy synthetic evaluation method in calculation of the multiple factors and ignorance of the relationship among evaluating objects, a new weight evaluation process using entropy method was introduced. This improved method for determination of weight of the evaluating indicators was applied in water quality assessment of the Three Gorges reservoir area.The results showed that this method was favorable for fuzzy synthetic evaluation when there were more than one evaluating objects.One calculation was enough for calculating every monitoring point. Compared with the original evaluation method, the method predigested the fuzzy synthetic evaluation process greatly and the evaluation results are more reasonable.

  11. Computer Architecture Performance Evaluation Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Eeckhout, Lieven

    2010-01-01

    Performance evaluation is at the foundation of computer architecture research and development. Contemporary microprocessors are so complex that architects cannot design systems based on intuition and simple models only. Adequate performance evaluation methods are absolutely crucial to steer the research and development process in the right direction. However, rigorous performance evaluation is non-trivial as there are multiple aspects to performanceevaluation, such as picking workloads, selecting an appropriate modeling or simulation approach, running the model and interpreting the results usi

  12. Evaluation methods for hospital projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelow, Janet R; Zuckweiler, Kathryn M; Rosacker, Kirsten M

    2010-01-01

    The authors report the findings of a survey of hospital managers on the utilization of various project selection and evaluation methodologies. The focus of the analysis was the empirical relationship between a portfolio of project evaluation(1) methods actually utilized for a given project and several measures of perceived project success. The analysis revealed that cost-benefit analysis and top management support were the two project evaluation methods used most often by the hospital managers. The authors' empirical assessment provides evidence that top management support is associated with overall project success.

  13. The difficulties of "polluter pays" policy in agricultural pollution in UK and methods to improve it

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural wastes pollution became serious after great improvement in technology and the encouragement of production for the government since the end of the World War Ⅱ. Economists and environmental scholars suggested that "polluter pays" policy be employed in agricultural pollution control. However, it was hard to implement "'polluter pays " policy alone in agricultural wastes pollution. In practice, there were two social factors which contributed to the improvement of water quality in the southwest of United Kingdom. One method is to communicate with farmers and then give farmers some advice or exhortation on facilities and management. The other method is to get up a telephone hotline for public to report water quality and probable pollution. Therefore, the consideration and combination of social factors in the control of agricultural wastes pollution are necessary and important. Education of basic natural sciences relevant to agricultural pollution, system management of agricultural pollutants and laws relevant to agricultural pollution is suggested to be the third social factor that British government can consider.

  14. KPG Index versus OPG Measurements: A Comparison between 3D and 2D Methods in Predicting Treatment Duration and Difficulty Level for Patients with Impacted Maxillary Canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Dalessandri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to test the agreement between orthopantomography (OPG based 2D measurements and the KPG index, a new index based on 3D Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT images, in predicting orthodontic treatment duration and difficulty level of impacted maxillary canines. Materials and Methods. OPG and CBCT images of 105 impacted canines were independently scored by three orthodontists at t0 and after 1 month (t1, using the KPG index and the following 2D methods: distance from cusp tip and occlusal plane, cusp tip position in relation to the lateral incisor, and canine inclination. Pearson’s coefficients were used to evaluate the degree of agreement and the χ2 with Yates correction test was used to assess the independence between them. Results. Inter- and intrarater reliability were higher with KPG compared to 2D methods. Pearson’s coefficients showed a statistically significant association between all the indexes, while the χ2 with Yates correction test resulted in a statistically significant rejection of independency only for one 2D index. Conclusions. 2D indexes for predicting impacted maxillary canines treatment duration and difficulty sometimes are discordant; a 3D index like the KPG index could be useful in solving these conflicts.

  15. Evaluation of the adjudicated incest cases in Turkey: difficulties in notification of incestuous relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Tarık; Karbeyaz, Kenan; Ayranci, Unal

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and evaluation of the adjudicated incest cases in the heavy penal court in a province of western Turkey. The court files of 65 incest cases during a 10-year period between 1999 and 2008 were explored. When compared to those who lived in cities, the cases who lived in rural areas, such as villages or towns, had been exposed to penetration more frequently (94.3% and 70.0%, respectively, p<0.01). For the cases where the victim and perpetrator lived in the same house, the accused were generally members of the nuclear family (p<0.001). When compared to those who had not been exposed to penetration, most of those who had been exposed to it were determined to apply later (after 10 days) to judicial institutions (77.8%, p<0.01). The education and awareness of persons, such as teachers and physicians, who may confront incestuous relationships rather frequently are very important in the protection of children and in their adaptation to society.

  16. Difficulty in Clinical Evaluation of Radial Nerve Injury due to Multiple Trauma to the Humerus, Wrist, and Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balik Mehmet Sabri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radial nerve damage is frequently encountered in humeral fractures. The radial nerve is primarily damaged when the humerus gets fractured, while secondary damage maybe due to post-traumatic manipulations and surgical exploration. High impact traumatic nerve injury, serious neuropathic pain, lack of response to therapeutic interventions, and indifference to the Tinel test are indications for surgical intervention. Since most humeral fracture-induced low impact radial nerve injuries resolve spontaneously, conservative therapy is preferred. We present a patient with humeral fracture-associated radial nerve injury, accompanied with digital amputation and flexor tendon avulsion on the same arm. These injuries required immediate surgery, thus rendering the clinical evaluation of the radial nerve impossible. We would like to highlight and discuss the inherent difficulties associated with multiple trauma of the upper arm.

  17. Residents in difficulty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette K.; O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg; Hansen, Dorthe H.;

    2016-01-01

    Background The majority of studies on prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty have been conducted in English-speaking countries and the existing literature may not reflect the prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in other parts of the world such as the Scand......Background The majority of studies on prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty have been conducted in English-speaking countries and the existing literature may not reflect the prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in other parts of the world...... of the topic. Methods We performed a mixed methods study. All regional residency program directors (N = 157) were invited to participate in an e-survey about residents in difficulty. Survey data were combined with database data on demographical characteristics of the background population (N = 2399...

  18. LNG Safety Assessment Evaluation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muna, Alice Baca [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); LaFleur, Angela Christine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories evaluated published safety assessment methods across a variety of industries including Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), hydrogen, land and marine transportation, as well as the US Department of Defense (DOD). All the methods were evaluated for their potential applicability for use in the LNG railroad application. After reviewing the documents included in this report, as well as others not included because of repetition, the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist is most suitable to be adapted to the LNG railroad application. This report was developed to survey industries related to rail transportation for methodologies and tools that can be used by the FRA to review and evaluate safety assessments submitted by the railroad industry as a part of their implementation plans for liquefied or compressed natural gas storage ( on-board or tender) and engine fueling delivery systems. The main sections of this report provide an overview of various methods found during this survey. In most cases, the reference document is quoted directly. The final section provides discussion and a recommendation for the most appropriate methodology that will allow efficient and consistent evaluations to be made. The DOE Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist was then revised to adapt it as a methodology for the Federal Railroad Administration’s use in evaluating safety plans submitted by the railroad industry.

  19. METHODS FOR CALF WELFARE EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. CZISZTER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the welfare assessment with reference to calves. Assessment methods were divided into individual level and farm (system level. At the farm level the ANI 35L is discussed and the ANSVSA, Romanian evaluation from is presented. Also, the EFSA opinion on poor welfare in intensive calf farming systems is presented.

  20. Evaluation of profanity deobfuscation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Laboreiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cursing is a form of expression that is noted by its intensity. When someone uses this form of expression they are emitting a spontaneous and raw form of opinion, usually suppressed for the ``mild ways'' and sensitive people. As it happens, this sort of expression is also valuable when doing some sort of opinion mining and sentiment analysis, now a routine task across the social networks. Therefore in this work we try to evaluate the methods that allow the recovery of this forms of expression, disguised through obfuscation methods, often as a way to escape automatic censorship.

  1. The Assessment of Math Learning Difficulties in a Primary Grade-4 Child with High Support Needs: Mixed Methods Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Mundia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This mixed-methods study incorporated elements of survey, case study and action research approaches in investigating an at-risk child. Using an in-take interview, a diagnostic test, an error analysis, and a think-aloud clinical interview, the study identified the child’s major presenting difficulties. These included: inability to use the four arithmetic operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division efficiently; not understanding the relationship between units, tens and hundreds; using any two of the four arithmetic processes (+, - , x, ÷ in combination within one operation; treating each column as a separate problem; place value problems / wrong alignment of numbers; poor eye-hand coordination leading to dysgraphia; and memory lapses. The other problems that became apparent through this investigation and implied in the findings include possible causal factors such as dyscalculia, dyslexia, low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, and math anxiety. Further assessment, intervention and research are recommended to address problems of this vulnerable child.

  2. Therapeutic education unit for heart failure: setting-up and difficulties. Initial evaluation of the I-CARE programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juillière, Yves; Jourdain, Patrick; Roncalli, Jérome; Boireau, Amélie; Guibert, Hélène; Lambert, Hélène; Spinazze, Laure; Jondeau, Guillaume; Sonnier, Pierre; Rouanne, Céline; Bidet, Angélique; Sandrin-Berthon, Brigitte; Trochu, Jean-Nöel

    2009-01-01

    Education programmes are required in chronic diseases. The insuffisance cardiaque : éducation thérapeutique (I-CARE) programme was developed in France to promote the setting-up of therapeutic education units for chronic heart failure. To evaluate the setting-up of such units, assessing the influence of training on the creation and organization of the unit, the problems encountered and the contribution of the dedicated educational tools. We submitted a questionnaire to the first 136 trained centres. The questionnaire was divided into two sections: one section dealing with educational practices and the other with the advantages and disadvantages of the tools provided. The participation rate reached 69.1%. Seventy-four centres (78.7%) declared themselves to be active in therapeutic education. Unit educational activities determined an educational diagnosis (89.2% of the centres) and provided education by means of collective workshops (73.0%) or one-to-one teaching sessions (75.7%). A complete education programme for a patient consisted of a median of four sessions (25th-75th percentile, 2-5 sessions) and lasted for a median of 6 h (25th-75th percentile, 4-10 h). The education team was multidisciplinary and usually included a nurse (93.2%), a dietician (78.4%), a cardiologist (71.6%) and a physiotherapist (40.5%). Heart failure educational tools were used only in part in most centres (89.2%). All advantages and disadvantages were recorded. This first evaluation of the setting-up of therapeutic education units in the I-CARE programme has yielded promising results, despite expected difficulties. The effects of therapeutic education on the behaviour of heart failure patients remain to be determined.

  3. Evaluation of Genre Difficulty of the Task in Chinese Speaking Test%汉语口语测试任务的体裁难度评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂丹

    2012-01-01

    Genre is a key factor affecting the task difficulty in speaking test. Evaluating the genre difficulty of the task reasoningly and choosing the suitable genre types is the foundation of the task design in speaking test. Based on the task samples in C. TEST speaking test, this paper makes a tentative exploration into the evaluation of the difficulty of the four genres and their eight cognitive styles. Through the perception survey and the actual measurement, we acquire the hierarchy of genre difficulty, and we set up a 5-level-scale of the evaluation of the genre difficulty, which is ex- pected to be a reference for the task designer in speaking test and spoken Chinese teaching to assess the genre difficulty seientifiealy and to choose the genre types reasonably.%体裁是影响口语测试任务难度的重要因素,理性地评估任务的体裁难度,选择适宜的体裁类型,是口语测试任务设计的基础。本文基于C.TEST面试型口语测试的任务样本,对四大体裁及其八大认知类型的难度评估进行了初步探索。通过对体裁难度的感知调查和实测调查,我们确定了体裁类型的难度层级,建立了评估体裁难度的5级量表,以此作为口语测试以及口语教学的任务设计者科学评价体裁难度、合理选择体裁类型的参考依据。

  4. An evaluation of the ‘Lego® Therapy’ intervention used to support children with social communication difficulties in their mainstream classroom

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the Lego® Therapy intervention (LeGoff, 2004) for six children, aged six to ten, with varying social communication difficulties. Lego® Therapy is a small-group, child-led and peer-based social development programme. Relevant theory and existing literature is explored firstly, before a systematic review of social communication intervention evaluations is presented. This is followed by a review of current Lego® Therapy studies, highlighting the limited evide...

  5. Discount method for programming language evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtev, Svetomir; Christensen, Tommy Aagaard; Thomsen, Bent

    2016-01-01

    internal language design evaluation methods and large scale surveys and quantitative evaluation methods. The method is designed to be applicable even before a compiler or IDE is developed for a new language. To test the method, a usability evaluation experiment was carried out on the Quorum programming......This paper presents work in progress on developing a Discount Method for Programming Language Evaluation inspired by the Discount Usability Evaluation method (Benyon 2010) and the Instant Data Analysis method (Kjeldskov et al. 2004). The method is intended to bridge the gap between small scale...

  6. Evaluation of an Innovative Programme for Training Teachers of Children with Learning and Behavioural Difficulties in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, Marcia; Hornby, Garry; Everatt, John; Macfarlane, Angus

    2017-01-01

    This article reports the views of recent graduates of a competency based, blended learning teacher education programme for specialist resource teachers of children with learning and behaviour difficulties in New Zealand. Identifying and developing the competencies needed by teachers in the field of special needs education is important in ensuring…

  7. Systems Evaluation Methods, Models, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Siefeng; Xie, Naiming; Yuan, Chaoqing

    2011-01-01

    A book in the Systems Evaluation, Prediction, and Decision-Making Series, Systems Evaluation: Methods, Models, and Applications covers the evolutionary course of systems evaluation methods, clearly and concisely. Outlining a wide range of methods and models, it begins by examining the method of qualitative assessment. Next, it describes the process and methods for building an index system of evaluation and considers the compared evaluation and the logical framework approach, analytic hierarchy process (AHP), and the data envelopment analysis (DEA) relative efficiency evaluation method. Unique

  8. Methods for evaluating information sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2012-01-01

    The article briefly presents and discusses 12 different approaches to the evaluation of information sources (for example a Wikipedia entry or a journal article): (1) the checklist approach; (2) classical peer review; (3) modified peer review; (4) evaluation based on examining the coverage...

  9. Evaluation of DNA and RNA extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin Shiaw, C S; Shiran, M S; Cheah, Y K; Tan, G C; Sabariah, A R

    2010-06-01

    This study was done to evaluate various DNA and RNA extractions from archival FFPE tissues. A total of 30 FFPE blocks from the years of 2004 to 2006 were assessed with each modified and adapted method. Extraction protocols evaluated include the modified enzymatic extraction method (Method A), Chelex-100 extraction method (Method B), heat-induced retrieval in alkaline solution extraction method (Methods C and D) and one commercial FFPE DNA Extraction kit (Qiagen, Crawley, UK). For RNA extraction, 2 extraction protocols were evaluated including the enzymatic extraction method (Method 1), and Chelex-100 RNA extraction method (Method 2). Results show that the modified enzymatic extraction method (Method A) is an efficient DNA extraction protocol, while for RNA extraction, the enzymatic method (Method 1) and the Chelex-100 RNA extraction method (Method 2) are equally efficient RNA extraction protocols.

  10. Facilitating endoscopic submucosal dissection: the suture-pulley method significantly improves procedure time and minimizes technical difficulty compared with conventional technique: an ex vivo study (with video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, Hiroyuki; Kumar, Nitin; Ryou, Marvin; Abidi, Wasif; Ryan, Michele B.; Thompson, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The lack of countertraction in endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) results in increased technical demand and procedure time. Although the suture-pulley method for countertraction has been reported, its effectiveness compared with the traditional ESD technique remains unclear. Objective To objectively analyze efficacy of countertraction using the suture-pulley method for ESD. Design Prospective ex vivo animal study. Setting Animal laboratory. Interventions Twenty simulated gastric lesions were created in porcine stomachs by using a standard circular template 30 mm in diameter. In the control arm (n = 10), ESD was performed by using the standard technique. In the suture-pulley arm (N = 10), a circumferential incision was made, and an endoscopic suturing device was used to place the suture pulley. Main Outcome Measurements The primary outcome of this study was total procedure time. Results The median total procedure time with the suture-pulley method was significantly shorter than the traditional ESD technique (median, 25% to 75%, interquartile range [IQR]: 531 seconds [474.3–549.3 seconds] vs 845 seconds [656.3–1547.5 seconds], P < .001). The median time (IQR) for suture-pulley placement was 160.5 seconds (150.0–168.8 seconds). Although there was a significantly longer procedure time for proximal versus middle/lower stomach lesions with traditional ESD (median, 1601 seconds; IQR, 1547.5–1708.8 seconds vs median, 663 seconds; IQR, 627.5–681.8 seconds; P =.01), there was no significant difference in procedure time for lesions of various locations when using the suture-pulley method. Compared with traditional ESD, the suture-pulley method was less demanding in all categories evaluated by the NASA Task Load Index. Limitations Ex vivo study. Conclusions The suture-pulley method facilitates direct visualization of the submucosal layer during ESD and significantly reduces procedure time and technical difficulty. In addition, the benefit of the suture

  11. Evaluation of turbulence mitigation methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Huebner, C.S.; Dijk, J.; Schutte, K.; Schwering, P.B.W.

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric turbulence is a well-known phenomenon that diminishes the recognition range in visual and infrared image sequences. There exist many different methods to compensate for the effects of turbulence. This paper focuses on the performance of two software-based methods to mitigate the effects

  12. Evaluation Methods of The Text Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Marius

    2006-01-01

    The paper highlights some evaluation methods to assess the quality characteristics of the text entities. The main concepts used in building and evaluation processes of the text entities are presented. Also, some aggregated metrics for orthogonality measurements are presented. The evaluation process for automatic evaluation of the text entities is…

  13. Improving Phonological Awareness in Parents of Children at Risk of Literacy Difficulties: A Preliminary Evaluation of the Boost Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Boyes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPhonological awareness is an important skill underpinning the development of early literacy. Given the central role of parents in supporting the development of children’s early literacy skills, and that poor parental phonological awareness is associated with poorer child literacy outcomes, it is possible that improving parent phonological awareness may aid literacy development for at-risk children. This study is a preliminary evaluation of a program aiming to improve phonological awareness skills of parents in low socioeconomic status communities, and also provide these parents with strategies to support their child’s literacy development.MethodsAfter completing the program, participants were asked if it had helped them learn about how to assist their child’s reading and spelling, whether they planned on using the resources provided, and if they would be likely to attend a future workshop building on the Boost program. Phonological awareness measures (rhyme, syllable, and phoneme level, and measures of overall confidence in performance on the phonological awareness tasks, were administered both before and after attending the program.ResultsAlmost all parents indicated that the program helped with learning how to assist their child’s reading and spelling, that they would use the resources provided, and would likely attend a future workshop. Significant increases in pre- to post-program phonological awareness scores were obtained at the rhyme and phoneme level.ConclusionThe program and associated resources appear acceptable to parents in communities with high rates of literacy problems and improved parents’ phonological awareness skills. However, findings are preliminary and further evaluation using more rigorous methodologies and testing whether improvements in parents’ phonological awareness translate into better literacy outcomes for children is needed.

  14. Methods for evaluating information sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2012-01-01

    . Reading a text is often not a simple process. All the methods discussed here are steps on the way on learning how to read, understand, and criticize texts. According to hermeneutics it involves the subjectivity of the reader, and that subjectivity is influenced, more or less, by different theoretical...

  15. Evaluation of Design Methods for Geometric Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kymmel, Mogens; Beran, M.; Foldager, L.;

    1985-01-01

    Geometric control can produce desirable control by decoupling the input disturbances from the selected output variables. The basic principle for this method was originally introduced by Wonham. The mathematical complexity involved, however, makes the method very hard to get accepted by the chemical...... community. The paper evaluates Wonham's original method together with three other methods, i.e. eigenvalue/eigenvector methods by Shah et al, the graph theory by Schizas and Evans and the simplified method by Kümmel et al. The evaluation considers the basic potential of the methods, the prerequisite...... of the designer, transparency, computer demand, and potential for pole shift....

  16. Study of Two Graphic Symbol-Teaching Methods for Individuals with Physical Disabilities and Additional Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emms, Laila; Gardner, Hilary

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to establish whether contrasting teaching methods had an effect on performance accuracy in the recall of graphic symbols. The secondary purpose was to establish whether the iconicity of symbols had an effect on performance accuracy. A direct symbol-teaching method and a contextual symbol-teaching method were…

  17. Prenatal diagnosis of gonosomal anomalies: limitations of the FISH method and genetic counseling difficulties in 15 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braha, Elena; Martiniuc, Violeta; Panzaru, Monica; Caba, Lavinia; Butnariu, Lăcrămioara; Onofriescu, M; Socolov, Demetra; Grigore, Mihaela; Nemescu, D; Mihălceanu, Elena; Iliev, G; Gorduza, E V

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal diagnosis (PD) by FISH or cell culture is today an important tool for the prevention of chromosomal anomalies. A difficult issue is prenatal detection of gonosomal anomalies. Most gonosomal anomalies neither affect life expectancy nor cause psychomotor retardation, but sexualization disorders and the lack of reproductive potential are a constant finding. This study aimed at identifying the medical problems the specialists and the parental couple are faced with at the time of the diagnosis of fetal gonosomal anomalies. This retrospective study (2004-2012) was conducted in the Prenatal Genetic Diagnosis Department of "CuzaVoda" Maternity by FISH technique in 1685 pregnancies. The AneuVysion probes were used for identifying and enumerating chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y via fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in interphase nuclei obtained from amniotic fluid. Fifteen fetuses were selected in which we were faced with difficulties interpreting the number of gonosomes: monosomy X (5 cases), pseudomosaicism XX/XY (3), trisomy XXY (3 cases), trisomy XYY (1 case), 45,X/46.XX mosaicism (1 case) and triploidy XXX (2 cases). Later, by repeating the analysis, 2 cases with pseudomosaicism XX/XY were excluded. A case highlighting the limitations of the FISH test was that of a fetus in which the FISH test revealed trisomy XXY, while postnatal karyotyping showed a six cell line mosaicism (marker and ring X chromosomes). All parental couples received nondirective genetic counseling, respecting the individuals' dignity and rights of self-determination. Parents received information on the natural course of the disease, treatment options, and psychological support and were involved in their child's recovery.

  18. The Challenges and Difficulties from the Localization of SPA Method%SPA模式的特点及本土化经营面临的困境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    SPA模式为中国服装企业带来先进的管理理念和创新的经营模式,但是在SPA模式本土化的过程中,中国式SPA模式面临传统模式的挑战与水土不服的困境。论文从产品开发模式、产品生产形式、销售终端扩张模式以及加盟店经营模式等角度阐述SPA模式本土化经营面临的困境。%SPA method brings advanced management concept and innovative business model for Chinese garment enterprises. During the Localization of SPA method, SPA method faces a lot of challenges and difficulties from the traditional mode and local marketing environment. The paper has focused on the unique parts of SPA method, such as Product development system, Product form, Sales terminal expansion mode and franchise mode, and put the details on the difficulties during the localization of SPA method.

  19. Difficulties Regarding Determination of Plasticity Index of Silty Soils by use of Casagrande and Fall Cone Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Rikke; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl

    2012-01-01

    Soil plasticity index and thereby the liquid limit and plastic limit are often used in order to classify the soil type and determine soil properties. Generally, two methods, i.e. the Casagrande cup method and the fall cone method are adopted in order to determine the liquid limit of soil. In many...... or high plasticity. In addition, critics of the fall cone method indicate that the liquid limit can be determined by the fall cone even though it is not possible with the Casagrande cup which is why the soil should be noted as non-plastic. This paper presents how the Casagrande cup method is inapplicable...... countries, the fall cone is the preferred method to determine the liquid limit due to simplicity and comparative reproducibility. However, some researchers state that the liquid limit obtained by using the fall cone method cannot represent the soil plasticity particularly in soil with either very low...

  20. Piezoelectric device vs. conventional rotative instruments in impacted third molar surgery: relationships between surgical difficulty and postoperative pain with histological evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rullo, Rosario; Addabbo, Francesco; Papaccio, Giampaolo; D'Aquino, Riccardo; Festa, Vincenzo Maria

    2013-03-01

    To investigate and compare the influence of surgical difficulty on postoperative pain after treatment of impacted mandibular third molars by rotatory osteotomy or Piezoelectric surgery. A prospective, randomized, split-mouth study was performed of 52 patients with bilateral and symmetrically oriented impacted mandibular third molars, who were surgically treated using a burr (Group A) on one random side of the lower jaw and a Piezoelectric device (Group B) on the contralateral side. Surgical difficulty was evaluated using a modified version of the Parant scale to categorize "simple extractions" and "complex extractions". Primary outcome parameters were the comparison of the postoperative pain evaluation rated on the Visual Analogue Scale from day 0 to day 6 postsurgery, and the assessment of differences in surgery time between the groups. Bone biopsies were taken during surgery to assess differences in bone tissue damage levels between the two different techniques. In "complex extractions" lower pain evaluation and significantly shorter surgery times were recorded when rotatory instruments were used. In "simple extractions", similar surgery times were observed for both techniques, but pain was greatest on the day of surgery when the burr was used. Bone heat osteonecrosis was observed only in the rotatory group and a high level of alkaline phosphatase was noted only in the Piezoelectric group. Pain after extraction of a mandibular third molar increases with increased surgical difficulty and especially in longer interventions. The integrity of the bony structure observed after the ultrasonic technique may favour the bone healing process. Copyright © 2012 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation Methods for Intelligent Tutoring Systems Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Jim; Mark, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The 1993 paper in "IJAIED" on evaluation methods for Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) still holds up well today. Basic evaluation techniques described in that paper remain in use. Approaches such as kappa scores, simulated learners and learning curves are refinements on past evaluation techniques. New approaches have also arisen, in…

  2. Methods of Generating and Evaluating Hypertext.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blustein, James; Staveley, Mark S.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on methods of generating and evaluating hypertext. Highlights include historical landmarks; nonlinearity; literary hypertext; models of hypertext; manual, automatic, and semi-automatic generation of hypertext; mathematical models for hypertext evaluation, including computing coverage and correlation; human factors in evaluation; and…

  3. Empirical evaluation methods in computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Henrik I

    2002-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of methods for the empirical evaluation of computer vision techniques. The practical use of computer vision requires empirical evaluation to ensure that the overall system has a guaranteed performance. The book contains articles that cover the design of experiments for evaluation, range image segmentation, the evaluation of face recognition and diffusion methods, image matching using correlation methods, and the performance of medical image processing algorithms. Sample Chapter(s). Foreword (228 KB). Chapter 1: Introduction (505 KB). Contents: Automate

  4. Methods of evaluating cleanliness of ventilation ducts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹勇; 罗运有; 于丹; 甘丽斯

    2009-01-01

    A testing system for evaluating cleanliness of ventilation ducts was constructed. Comparisons of four evaluation methods for quantifying the amount of dust on the inner surface of ventilation ducts are presented. The experimental results show that the wiping by solvent method is more efficient than that by the wiping method,especially used on low cleanliness duct surface. The gravimetric tape method is an efficient method of collecting dust samples on the duct surface with low amounts of dust,particularly used to check the cleanliness level after the cleaning work. The optical method can be set up rapidly and is useful for fieldwork measurements.

  5. 'True' null allele detection in microsatellite loci: a comparison of methods, assessment of difficulties and survey of possible improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, M J; Bornelöv, S; Kruczyk, M; Baltzer, N; Komorowski, J

    2015-05-01

    Null alleles are alleles that for various reasons fail to amplify in a PCR assay. The presence of null alleles in microsatellite data is known to bias the genetic parameter estimates. Thus, efficient detection of null alleles is crucial, but the methods available for indirect null allele detection return inconsistent results. Here, our aim was to compare different methods for null allele detection, to explain their respective performance and to provide improvements. We applied several approaches to identify the 'true' null alleles based on the predictions made by five different methods, used either individually or in combination. First, we introduced simulated 'true' null alleles into 240 population data sets and applied the methods to measure their success in detecting the simulated null alleles. The single best-performing method was ML-NullFreq_frequency. Furthermore, we applied different noise reduction approaches to improve the results. For instance, by combining the results of several methods, we obtained more reliable results than using a single one. Rule-based classification was applied to identify population properties linked to the false discovery rate. Rules obtained from the classifier described which population genetic estimates and loci characteristics were linked to the success of each method. We have shown that by simulating 'true' null alleles into a population data set, we may define a null allele frequency threshold, related to a desired true or false discovery rate. Moreover, using such simulated data sets, the expected null allele homozygote frequency may be estimated independently of the equilibrium state of the population.

  6. Research on image scrambling degree evaluation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Sen; Liao, Xiaofeng; Chen, Jinyu; Liu, Yijun; Wang, Xiao

    2005-12-01

    This paper discussed the evaluation problem of image scrambling degree (ISD). Inspired by the evaluation method of image texture characteristics, three new metrics for assessing objectively the ISD were proposed. The first method utilized the performance of energy concentration of Walsh transformation (WT), which took into account the properties that a good ISD measurement method should be contented. The second method used angular second moment (ASM) of image gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). The third method combined the entropy of GLCM with image texture characteristic. Experimental results show that the proposed metrics are effective to assess the ISD, which correlates well with subjective assessment. Considering the computational complexity, the first evaluation method based on WT is remarkably superior to the method based on ASM and GLCM in terms of the time cost.

  7. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  8. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-12-31

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  9. Parental Influences on Greek Adolescents' Career Decision-Making Difficulties: The Mediating Role of Core Self-Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumoundourou, Georgia; Tsaousis, Ioannis; Kounenou, Kalliope

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the influence of family characteristics (family function and parental authority styles) and core self-evaluations (CSE), in adolescents' career formation. Drawing on the relational framework of Cutrona and Russell, the study examined the mediating role of CSE on the relationship between family and parental…

  10. Parental Influences on Greek Adolescents' Career Decision-Making Difficulties: The Mediating Role of Core Self-Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumoundourou, Georgia; Tsaousis, Ioannis; Kounenou, Kalliope

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the influence of family characteristics (family function and parental authority styles) and core self-evaluations (CSE), in adolescents' career formation. Drawing on the relational framework of Cutrona and Russell, the study examined the mediating role of CSE on the relationship between family and parental…

  11. Evaluation of a Short-term, Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Primary Age Children with Anger-Related Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Rachel L.; Treadwell, Susanne; Dosani, Sima; Frederickson, Norah

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the school-based short-term, cognitive-behavioral group anger management programme, "Learning How to Deal with our Angry Feelings" (Southampton Psychology Service, 2003). Thirteen groups of children aged 7- to 11-years-old were randomly allocated to two different cohorts: One cohort ("n"?=?35) first received the intervention…

  12. Avaliação otoneurológica em crianças com queixa de dificuldades escolares: pesquisa da função vestibular Otoneurologic evaluation in children with school difficulties: vestibular function investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Sartori Franco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Segundo a literatura, a disfunção vestibular infantil pode afetar consideravelmente a habilidade de comunicação e o desempenho escolar. OBJETIVO: Estudar a função vestibular em crianças com dificuldades escolares e suas queixas vestibulares. ESTUDO DE CASO: Estudo Clínico com coorte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas 50 crianças entre 7 e 12 anos, que freqüentavam escolas públicas de Piracicaba durante os anos de 2004 e 2005. Os procedimentos foram: anamnese; exame otorrinolaringológico; exame audiológico e avaliação vestibular. RESULTADOS: Das crianças avaliadas, 62,0% não relataram dificuldades escolares e 38,0% referiram ter dificuldades. A queixa geral mais comum foi de tontura (36,0%, e o sintoma mais comum no ambiente escolar foi de cefaléia (50,0%. Encontramos 74,2% de exame vestibular normal nas crianças sem dificuldades escolares e 31,6% de normalidade nas crianças com dificuldades. Encontramos alterações vestibulares de origem periférica irritativa tanto unilateral como bilateral, num total de 68,4% para as crianças com dificuldades escolares e um total de 25,8% para crianças sem dificuldades escolares. CONCLUSÃO: A queixa de atordoamento, o sintoma de náuseas e as dificuldades em ler e copiar apresentaram uma relação estatisticamente significante. Todas as alterações vestibulares encontradas foram de origem periférica irritativa. Os dados revelaram uma relação estatisticamente significante.According to the literature, child vestibular dysfunctions can considerably affect their ability of communication and school performance. AIM: to study the vestibular function in children with school difficulties and associated symptoms. CASE STUDY: Clinical study with transversal cohort. METHOD: Research subjects were 50 school children between 7 and 12 years old, from a public school of Piracicaba city, during the years 2004 and 2005. The procedure was based on: anamnesis; otorrinolaryngologic

  13. Evaluation of Registration Methods on Thoracic CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, K.; van Ginneken, B.; Reinhardt, J.;

    2011-01-01

    EMPIRE10 (Evaluation of Methods for Pulmonary Image REgistration 2010) is a public platform for fair and meaningful comparison of registration algorithms which are applied to a database of intra-patient thoracic CT image pairs. Evaluation of non-rigid registration techniques is a non trivial task...

  14. Consumer behavior changing: methods of evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elīna Gaile-Sarkane

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to methods of analyses of consumer buying behavior as well as to evaluation of most important factors what influences consumer behavior. This research aims at investigations about the changes in consumer behavior caused by globalization and development of information technologies; it helps to understand the specific factors what should be taken into account in evaluation of consumer behavior. The authors employ well-established quantitative and qualitative methods of research: grouping, analysis, synthesis, expert method, statistic method, etc. Research findings disclosed that there is possibility to introduce new methods for evaluation of changing consumer behavior.

  15. Evaluation of Sight, Sound, Symbol Instructional Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarotti, Michael C.; Slaichert, William M.

    Evaluated was the Sight-Sound-Symbol (S-S-S) method of teaching basic reading skills with four groups of 16 trainable mentally retarded children. The method involved use of a musical keyboard to teach children to identify numbers, letters, colors, and shapes. Groups either received individual S-S-S instruction for 10 minutes daily, received S-S-S…

  16. Assessment and Evaluation Methods for Access Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Dallas

    2014-01-01

    This article serves as a primer for assessment and evaluation design by describing the range of methods commonly employed in library settings. Quantitative methods, such as counting and benchmarking measures, are useful for investigating the internal operations of an access services department in order to identify workflow inefficiencies or…

  17. Evaluation method research on prestressed concrete bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Qiao; LIN Yang-zi; REN Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Considering the construction features of prestressed concrete bridge, the comprehensive evaluation method about the bridge damage conditions are studied. Particular attentions are paid on establishing a multi-level evaluation model for damaged prestressed concrete bridge, and the evaluation indices of the model as well as the rating standards are defined in the model. A normal relative function about the evaluation indices of each element is developed to calculate the relative degree, and for each element which is no sub-level elements. When evaluating the elements in sub-item level or index level of the model, the weights of elements that are pertained to one element are adopted, taking account of their deterioration degree. At the same time, the dam-age conditions of bridge are characterized by relative degree, element evaluation scale and structural technology mark of bridge ,so it agrees with Code for Maintenance of Highway Bridges and Culvers.

  18. Breathing difficulties - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difficulty breathing - first aid; Dyspnea - first aid; Shortness of breath - first aid ... Breathing difficulty is almost always a medical emergency. An exception is feeling slightly winded from normal activity, ...

  19. "System evaluates system": method for evaluating the efficiency of IS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dita Blazkova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In paper I deal with the possible solution of evaluating the efficiency of information systems in companies. The large number of existing methods used to address the efficiency of information systems is dependent on the subjective responses of the user that may distort output evaluation. Therefore, I propose a method that eliminates the subjective opinion of a user as the primary data source. Applications, which I suggests as part of the method, collects relevant data. In this paper I describe the application in detail. This is a follow-on program on any system that runs parallel with it. The program automatically collects data for evaluation. Data include mainly time data, positions the mouse cursor, printScreens, i-grams of previous, etc. I propose a method of evaluation of the data, which identifies the degree of the friendliness of the information system to the user. Thus, the output of the method is the conclusion whether users, who work with the information system, can handle effectively work with it.

  20. Quantitative Efficiency Evaluation Method for Transportation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Qin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An effective evaluation of transportation network efficiency/performance is essential to the establishment of sustainable development in any transportation system. Based on a redefinition of transportation network efficiency, a quantitative efficiency evaluation method for transportation network is proposed, which could reflect the effects of network structure, traffic demands, travel choice, and travel costs on network efficiency. Furthermore, the efficiency-oriented importance measure for network components is presented, which can be used to help engineers identify the critical nodes and links in the network. The numerical examples show that, compared with existing efficiency evaluation methods, the network efficiency value calculated by the method proposed in this paper can portray the real operation situation of the transportation network as well as the effects of main factors on network efficiency. We also find that the network efficiency and the importance values of the network components both are functions of demands and network structure in the transportation network.

  1. Implementation and the choice of evaluation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    1984-01-01

    with an approach founded more in phenomenology and social science. The role of analytical methods is viewed very differently in the two paradigms as in the conception of the policy process in general. Allthough analytical methods have come to play a prominent (and often dominant) role in transportation evaluation...... as definded by the programmed paradigm, the way in which analytical methods have been applied in practice can be criticized for narrowing and biasing policy formulation and implementation. The adaptive paradigm has its own problems, one being a less developed theoretical and methodological basis than......The development of evaluation and implementation processes has been closely interrelated in both theory and practice. Today, two major paradigms of evaluation and implementation exist: the programmed paradigm with its approach based on the natural science model, and the adaptive paradigm...

  2. Mixed method approaches to evaluate conservation impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens Friis; Burgess, Neil D.; Chamshama, Shabani A.O.

    2015-01-01

    management on two forests in Tanzania was evaluated using a mixed method approach. Current forest condition, forest increment and forest use patterns were assessed through forest inventories, and changes in forest disturbance levels before and after the implementation of decentralized forest management were...... that a mixed methods approach comprises a valid and promising way to evaluate impacts of conservation policies, even in the absence of control sites. By carefully linking policy outcomes to policy outputs, such an approach not only identifies whether such policies work as intended, but also potential...

  3. Veterinary and human vaccine evaluation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, T. J. D.; Edmond, K.; Gubbins, S.; Paton, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the universal importance of vaccines, approaches to human and veterinary vaccine evaluation differ markedly. For human vaccines, vaccine efficacy is the proportion of vaccinated individuals protected by the vaccine against a defined outcome under ideal conditions, whereas for veterinary vaccines the term is used for a range of measures of vaccine protection. The evaluation of vaccine effectiveness, vaccine protection assessed under routine programme conditions, is largely limited to human vaccines. Challenge studies under controlled conditions and sero-conversion studies are widely used when evaluating veterinary vaccines, whereas human vaccines are generally evaluated in terms of protection against natural challenge assessed in trials or post-marketing observational studies. Although challenge studies provide a standardized platform on which to compare different vaccines, they do not capture the variation that occurs under field conditions. Field studies of vaccine effectiveness are needed to assess the performance of a vaccination programme. However, if vaccination is performed without central co-ordination, as is often the case for veterinary vaccines, evaluation will be limited. This paper reviews approaches to veterinary vaccine evaluation in comparison to evaluation methods used for human vaccines. Foot-and-mouth disease has been used to illustrate the veterinary approach. Recommendations are made for standardization of terminology and for rigorous evaluation of veterinary vaccines. PMID:24741009

  4. Method and apparatus for product design evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saakes, D.P.

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for product design evaluation that comprises - providing a model of a product design to be developed, and - with the aid of light beams projecting a material and/or pattern or a colour image onto the model, wherein the model is placed on a worktop and that during th

  5. Evaluation of Abiotic Resource LCIA Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A. F. Alvarenga

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In a life cycle assessment (LCA, the impacts on resources are evaluated at the area of protection (AoP with the same name, through life cycle impact assessment (LCIA methods. There are different LCIA methods available in literature that assesses abiotic resources, and the goal of this study was to propose recommendations for that impact category. We evaluated 19 different LCIA methods, through two criteria (scientific robustness and scope, divided into three assessment levels, i.e., resource accounting methods (RAM, midpoint, and endpoint. In order to support the assessment, we applied some LCIA methods to a case study of ethylene production. For RAM, the most suitable LCIA method was CEENE (Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (but SED (Solar Energy Demand and ICEC (Industrial Cumulative Exergy Consumption/ECEC (Ecological Cumulative Exergy Consumption may also be recommended, while the midpoint level was ADP (Abiotic Depletion Potential, and the endpoint level was both the Recipe Endpoint and EPS2000 (Environmental Priority Strategies. We could notice that the assessment for the AoP Resources is not yet well established in the LCA community, since new LCIA methods (with different approaches and assessment frameworks are showing up, and this trend may continue in the future.

  6. Method to evaluate foaming in petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga, A.K.; Rezende, D.A.; Santos, R.F.; Mansur, C.R.E. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas], e-mail: celias@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-01-15

    In oil fields, gravitational separation tanks are generally used to separate the oil, gas and water phases, remove emulsifying agents present at the interfaces and permit the coalescence of water droplets associated with the crude oil being pumped. The main problem that influences the performance of these separators is the formation of foam. In this work, a method was developed to evaluate foaming in crude oil in laboratory scale, reproducing the operation conditions in gas-oil separators in real fields. This method was employed with seven crude oil samples, and the performance of silicone anti foams with different molar masses could be tested. The results indicated that the method of evaluating the breakdown of foam in oil by using the Aging Cell apparatus in a roller oven proved to be suitable. It was observed that the oil viscosity is a determining factor in predicting whether or not foam will form. (author)

  7. Workplace bullying and sleep difficulties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Hogh, Annie; Garde, Anne Helene

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aims of the present study were to investigate whether being subjected to bullying and witnessing bullying at the workplace was associated with concurrent sleep difficulties, whether frequently bullied/witnesses have more sleep difficulties than occasionally bullied/witnesses, and whe......PURPOSE: The aims of the present study were to investigate whether being subjected to bullying and witnessing bullying at the workplace was associated with concurrent sleep difficulties, whether frequently bullied/witnesses have more sleep difficulties than occasionally bullied....../witnesses, and whether there were associations between being subjected to bullying or witnessing bullying at the workplace and subsequent sleep difficulties. METHODS: A total of 3,382 respondents (67 % women and 33 % men) completed a baseline questionnaire about their psychosocial work environment and health....... The overall response rate was 46 %. At follow-up 2 years later, 1671 of those responded to a second questionnaire (49 % of the 3,382 respondents at baseline). Sleep difficulties were measured in terms of disturbed sleep, awakening problems, and poor quality of sleep. RESULTS: Bullied persons and witnesses...

  8. Feminist research: definitions, methodology, methods and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, C

    1993-03-01

    The literature relating to feminist research both within and beyond nursing is reviewed in this paper. Feminist research is located within a post-positivist paradigm, and various definitions are considered. The distinctive methodological approach of feminist research is discussed, and interviewing and ethnography are evaluated as suitable methods for use in feminist research. Oakley's (1981) paper on interviewing women is subjected to criticism. A final section examines attempts by three sets of writers to propose evaluation criteria for feminist research. The review concludes that a number of paradoxes and dilemmas in feminist research have yet to be resolved.

  9. Readiness Enhancement Management Strategies (REMS): a proof of concept and evaluation feasibility study of staff training to improve service engagement by people with personality difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, M; Jinks, M; McMurran, M

    2015-09-01

    One third of people diagnosed with PD do not complete treatment and non-completion is associated with poorer clinical outcomes. Equipping staff to be better able to engage this client group is important, and web-based, self-directed learning is a potentially cost-effective way to train staff. This study examined the implementation of a web-based training programme called Readiness Enhancement Management Strategies (REMS) in three types of service. Completion rates were 94.4% in community health services; 92.3% in prison offender health services; and 46.5% in probation services. Staff found the content of REMS acceptable and useful. This study demonstrated that staff in NHS and criminal justice settings can complete REMS, but staff in probation services are challenged by time pressures and limited computer access. Staff at probation sites were less familiar with PD issues compared with the NHS staff. A web-based staff training programme called Readiness Enhancement Management Strategies (REMS) was developed to promote the engagement of people with personality difficulties in treatment. This 'proof of concept' study examined the REMS implementation process, its acceptability and the feasibility of using service data for future evaluation. Staff in six services working with people diagnosed with personality disorder or undiagnosed people with personality difficulties were eligible to participate: two community health services, two prison offender health services and two probation services. Of 92 eligible staff, 74 were available to undertake REMS. These staff completed knowledge and acceptability surveys and rated service user engagement with treatment. The proportion of treatment sessions attended by service users was collected for a 30-week period. REMS completion rates were community - 94.4%, prison - 92.3% and probation - 46.5%. Three quarters of participants rated REMS as 7 out of 10 or higher. All teams were able to provide service data for the study period

  10. Implementation and the choice of evaluation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    1984-01-01

    with an approach founded more in phenomenology and social science. The role of analytical methods is viewed very differently in the two paradigms as in the conception of the policy process in general. Allthough analytical methods have come to play a prominent (and often dominant) role in transportation evaluation...... as definded by the programmed paradigm, the way in which analytical methods have been applied in practice can be criticized for narrowing and biasing policy formulation and implementation. The adaptive paradigm has its own problems, one being a less developed theoretical and methodological basis than...... the programmed paradigm. By emphasizing the importance of the process of social interaction and subordinating analysis to this process, the adaptive paradigm reduces the likelihood of analytical methods narrowing and biasing implementation. To fulfil this subordinate role and to aid social interaction...

  11. [Agricultural products handling: methods of feasibility evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, G J; Herrera, J E

    1993-06-01

    Post-harvest problems are important constraints to the expansion of production of food in many Latin American countries. Besides problems of bulkiness, perishability and seasonal production patterns, the necessity of reducing transportation costs, increasing rural employment, and finding new markets for processed products, requires the development of processing technologies. Possible processed products include a vast range of alternatives. Given limited time and resources, it is not always feasible to carry out detailed studies. Hence a practical, low-cost methodology is needed to evaluate the available options. This paper presents a series of methods to evaluate different processing possibilities. It describes in detail each method including a rapid initial assessment, market and consumer research, farm-oriented research, costs and returns analysis and finally, some marketing and promotion strategies.

  12. Methods of Evaluating Performances for Marketing Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Cucu

    2005-01-01

    There are specific methods for assessing and improving the effectiveness of a marketing strategy. A marketer should state in the marketing plan what a marketing strategy is supposed to accomplish. These statements should set forth performance standards, which usually are stated in terms of profits, sales, or costs. Actual performance must be measured in similar terms so that comparisons are possible. This paper describes sales analysis and cost analysis, two general ways of evaluating the act...

  13. Methods of Evaluating Performances for Marketing Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Cucu

    2005-01-01

    There are specific methods for assessing and improving the effectiveness of a marketing strategy. A marketer should state in the marketing plan what a marketing strategy is supposed to accomplish. These statements should set forth performance standards, which usually are stated in terms of profits, sales, or costs. Actual performance must be measured in similar terms so that comparisons are possible. This paper describes sales analysis and cost analysis, two general ways of evaluating the act...

  14. Comprehensive evaluation methods for dam service status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU ZhongRu; XU Bo; GU ChongShi; LI ZhanChao

    2012-01-01

    More than 87000 dams have been built in China,and about one third of them are risky projects.A number of high and ultra-high dams are being constructed in China's western region.The current dam construction practice tends to focus on socio-economic benefits and neglect the environment and ecology.Furthermore,periodic examinations are intended to ensure the structural safety of dams.This paper proposes a general evaluation principle for dam service.This principle stipulates that dam projects should have maximum socio-economic benefits and minimum negative effects on the environment and ecology.To satisfy the general principle of mutual harmony,socio-economic benefits,dam safety,environment,and ecology are analyzed,and the evaluation methods for dam service status are discussed.Then,a fusion algorithm of interlayer assessment is proposed on the basis of evidence theory and the fuzzy comprehensive analysis method.Finally,a comprehensive evaluation model is established.Example analysis shows that the proposed theories and methods can fulfill scientific assessment of the service status of dams.

  15. PROBLEMS CONCERNING ALTERNATIVE EVALUATION METHODS: THE CASE OF SCIENCE AND TEHNOLOGY TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin DEVECİOĞLU-KAYMAKÇI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent changes on the Science and Tehnology (ST curriculum have required using alternative evaluation methods in learning and teaching process. The aim of this study is to determine the ST teachers’ problems while using the alternative evaluation methods during their courses. To achieve this, semi-structured interviews have been conducted with 10 ST teachers from different parts of Trabzon during the academic year 2008-2009. The data, analyzed qualitatively, reveals that the teachers have important difficulties in determining, using and evaluating these methods. At the end of the research, it has been concluded that besides the lack of physical infrastructure, labs and libraries, computer and other technologies in their schools, most of the teachers lack the knowledge and skills to implement these methods. The result of the study has shown that ST teachers need an adaptation process to appropriate the aims and importance of alternative evaluation methods effectively.

  16. Adolescent Bullying and Sleep Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C. Hunter

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated whether adolescents who report having been bullied, being bullies, or report both being a bully and being bullied experience more sleep difficulties than children uninvolved in bullying. The study drew upon cognitive theories of insomnia, investigating whether the extent to which young people report worrying about bullying can moderate associations between victimization and sleep difficulties. Participants were 5420 adolescents who completed a self-report questionnaire. Pure Victims (OR = 1.72, 95% CI [1.07, 2.75], Pure Bullies (OR = 1.80, 95% CI [1.16, 2.81], and Bully-Victims (OR = 2.90, 95% CI [1.17, 4.92] were all more likely to experience sleep difficulties when compared to uninvolved young people. The extent to which young people reported worrying about being bullied did not moderate the links between victimization and sleep difficulties. In this way, bullying is clearly related to sleep difficulties among adolescents but the conceptual reach of the cognitive model of insomnia in this domain is questioned.

  17. Communication difficulties in teenagers with health impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samokhvalova, Anna G.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary psychological and pedagogical studies pay special attention to the socialization of physically impaired children, inclusive education and methods of providing such children with a safe environment to assist in their development. However, difficulties in interpersonal communication experienced by children with health impairments have remained beyond the research scope. The authors conducted a comparative analysis of communication difficulties in typically developed teenagers aged 12-13 years (n = 100 and the problems faced by their peers with visual (n = 30, auditory (n = 30, speech (n = 25 and motor (n = 15 impairments. Actual communication difficulties in teenagers were studied in two ways: the subjective component of impaired communication was registered through a content analysis of a sentence completion test and the objective manifestations of impaired communication were identified through expert evaluation of children’s communicative behavior (educators and psychologists who had been in close contact with the teenagers acted as experts. First, the authors identified typical standard communication problems that were characteristic of teenagers aged 12-13 years, that is, problems with aggression, tolerance, the ability to admit wrongdoing and make concessions, empathy, self-control, self-analysis and self-expression in communication. Second, typical communication difficulties characteristic of physically impaired children were revealed: failure to understand meaning; feelings of awkwardness and shame of oneself; expectations of a negative attitude toward oneself; gelotophobia; and manifestations of despotism, petulance and egotism as defensive reactions in situations of impaired communication. Third, the authors described specific communication difficulties in teenagers with auditory, visual, speech and motor impairments.

  18. Usability Evaluation Method for Agile Software Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Masood Butt

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Agile methods are the best fit for tremendously growing software industry due to its flexible and dynamic nature. But the software developed using agile methods do meet the usability standards? To answer this question we can see that majority of agile software development projects currently involve interactive user interface designs, which can only be possible by following User Centered Design (UCD in agile methods. The question here is, how to integrate UCD with agile models. Both Agile models and UCD are iterative in nature but agile models focus on coding and development of software; whereas, UCD focuses on user interface of the software. Similarly, both of them have testing features where the agile model involves automated tested code while UCD involves an expert or a user to test the user interface. In this paper, a new agile usability model is proposed and the evaluation is of the proposed model is presented by practically implementing it in three real life projects. . Key results from these projects clearly show: the proposed agile model incorporates usability evaluation methods, improves the relationship between usability experts to work with agile software experts; in addition, allows agile developers to incorporate the result from UCD into subsequent interactions.

  19. Residents in difficulty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; O'Neill, Lotte; Hansen, Dorthe Høgh;

    2016-01-01

    Background The majority of studies on prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty have been conducted in English-speaking countries and the existing literature may not reflect the prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in other parts of the world such as the Scand......Background The majority of studies on prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty have been conducted in English-speaking countries and the existing literature may not reflect the prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in other parts of the world...... such as the Scandinavian countries, where healthcare systems are slightly different. The aim of this study was to examine prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in one out of three postgraduate medical training regions in Denmark, and to produce both a quantifiable overview and in-depth understanding...

  20. Existing bridge evaluation using deficiency point method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vičan Josef

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the transforming EU countries, transportation infrastructure has a prominent position in advancing industry and society. Recent developments show, that attention should be moved from the design of new structures towards the repair and reconstruction of existing ones to ensure and increase their satisfactory structural reliability and durability. The problem is very urgent because many construction projects, especially transport infrastructure, in most European countries are more than 50-60 years old and require rehabilitations based on objective evaluations. Therefore, the paper presents methodology of existing bridge evaluation based on reliability concept using Deficiency Point Method. The methodology was prepared from the viewpoint to determine the priority order for existing bridge rehabilitation.

  1. Avaliação do processamento auditivo em crianças com dificuldades de aprendizagem Auditory processing evaluation in children with learning difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilene Engelmann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Esclarecer a relação entre dificuldades de aprendizagem e o transtorno do processamento auditivo em uma turma de segunda série. MÉTODOS: Através da aplicação de testes de leitura os alunos foram classificados quanto à fluência em leitura, sendo um com maior fluência (grupo A e outro com menor fluência (grupo B. Os testes de processamento auditivo foram comparados entre os grupos. RESULTADOS: Todos os participantes apresentaram dificuldades de aprendizagem e transtorno do processamento auditivo em quase todos os subperfis primários. Verificou-se que a variável memória sequencial verbal do grupo de menor fluência em leitura (grupo B foi significantemente melhor (p=0,030. CONCLUSÃO: Questiona-se o diagnóstico de transtorno primário do processamento auditivo e salienta-se a importância da memória sequencial verbal no aprendizado da leitura e escrita. Em face do que foi observado, mais pesquisas deverão ser realizadas objetivando o estudo dessa variável e sua relação com o processamento auditivo temporal.PURPOSE: To clarify the relationship between learning difficulties and auditory processing disorder in second grade students. METHODS: Based on the application of reading tests, the students of a second grade class of an elementary school were classified into two groups, according to their reading fluency: a group with better fluency (group A and another with less fluency (group B. A between-group analysis of the auditory processing tests was carried out. RESULTS: All participants presented learning difficulties and auditory processing disorder in almost every primary subprofiles. It was observed that the verbal sequential memory abilities of the less fluent group (group B was significantly better (p=0,030. CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of primary auditory processing disorder is questioned, and it is emphasized the importance of stimulating verbal sequential memory to the learning of reading and writing abilities. In

  2. Evaluation of laryngoscopic view, intubation difficulty and sympathetic response during direct laryngoscopy in sniffing position and simple head extension: a prospective and randomized comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Pal

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: Sniffing position provided better glottis visualization and intubation difficulty score and increased the success rate of intubation as compared to simple head extension. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(8.000: 1895-1901

  3. Evaluation of registration methods on thoracic CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, K.; van Ginneken, B.; Reinhardt, J.

    2011-01-01

    . This is compounded by the fact that researchers typically test only on their own data, which varies widely. For this reason, reliable assessment and comparison of different registration algorithms has been virtually impossible in the past. In this work we present the results of the launch phase of EMPIRE10, which...... method and the evaluation is independent, using the same criteria for all participants. All results are published on the EMPIRE10 website (http://empire10.isi.uu.nl). The challenge remains ongoing and open to new participants. Full results from 24 algorithms have been published at the time of writing...

  4. Image Inpainting Methods Evaluation and Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Vreja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the upgrowing of digital processing of images and film archiving, the need for assisted or unsupervised restoration required the development of a series of methods and techniques. Among them, image inpainting is maybe the most impressive and useful. Based on partial derivative equations or texture synthesis, many other hybrid techniques have been proposed recently. The need for an analytical comparison, beside the visual one, urged us to perform the studies shown in the present paper. Starting with an overview of the domain, an evaluation of the five methods was performed using a common benchmark and measuring the PSNR. Conclusions regarding the performance of the investigated algorithms have been presented, categorizing them in function of the restored image structure. Based on these experiments, we have proposed an adaptation of Oliveira’s and Hadhoud’s algorithms, which are performing well on images with natural defects.

  5. Modern methods of human life evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa Viktorovna Nifantova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors classified the methods of evaluation of life and human health, physical and mental suffering, identified influencing factors affecting the value of the estimate cost of living on the basis of generalization of extensive theoretical and empirical material of various domestic and foreign publications. From the perspective of human capital theory, various approaches to modeling monetary value of human life are reviewed, for example, the demographic approach, consequential, direct investments in human lived during the interval years, theory of utility to the human society, the cost of risk unit and society's willingness to pay for the damages, as well as costs to society to reduce the risk of premature death of its member.

  6. Seismic evaluation methods for existing buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, B.J.

    1995-07-01

    Recent US Department of Energy natural phenomena hazards mitigation directives require the earthquake reassessment of existing hazardous facilities and general use structures. This applies also to structures located in accordance with the Uniform Building Code in Seismic Zone 0 where usually no consideration is given to seismic design, but where DOE specifies seismic hazard levels. An economical approach for performing such a seismic evaluation, which relies heavily on the use of preexistent structural analysis results is outlined below. Specifically, three different methods are used to estimate the seismic capacity of a building, which is a unit of a building complex located on a site considered low risk to earthquakes. For structures originally not seismically designed, which may not have or be able to prove sufficient capacity to meet new arbitrarily high seismic design requirement and which are located on low-seismicity sites, it may be very cost effective to perform detailed site-specific seismic hazard studies in order to establish the true seismic threat. This is particularly beneficial, to sites with many buildings and facilities to be seismically evaluated.

  7. Methods for the comparative evaluation of pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busse, Reinhard

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Political background: As a German novelty, the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen; IGWiG was established in 2004 to, among other tasks, evaluate the benefit of pharmaceuticals. In this context it is of importance that patented pharmaceuticals are only excluded from the reference pricing system if they offer a therapeutic improvement. The institute is commissioned by the Federal Joint Committee (Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss, G-BA or by the Ministry of Health and Social Security. The German policy objective expressed by the latest health care reform (Gesetz zur Modernisierung der Gesetzlichen Krankenversicherung, GMG is to base decisions on a scientific assessment of pharmaceuticals in comparison to already available treatments. However, procedures and methods are still to be established. Research questions and methods: This health technology assessment (HTA report was commissioned by the German Agency for HTA at the Institute for Medical Documentation and Information (DAHTA@DIMDI. It analysed criteria, procedures, and methods of comparative drug assessment in other EU-/OECD-countries. The research question was the following: How do national public institutions compare medicines in connection with pharmaceutical regulation, i.e. licensing, reimbursement and pricing of drugs? Institutions as well as documents concerning comparative drug evaluation (e.g. regulations, guidelines were identified through internet, systematic literature, and hand searches. Publications were selected according to pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Documents were analysed in a qualitative matter following an analytic framework that had been developed in advance. Results were summarised narratively and presented in evidence tables. Results and discussion: Currently licensing agencies do not systematically assess a new drug's added value for patients and society. This is why many

  8. Comparison of parent adolescent scores on Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arman, Soroor; Amel, Afsaneh Karbasi; Maracy, Mohamad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Child and adolescent psychiatry has benefited from the application of self-report questionnaires because it is short, less costly and easy to apply. So we select the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and evaluate the agreement between the self-report and parent report form. Materials and Methods: Subjects were 1934 Adolescents, 11-18 years old. After obtaining the samples consent, SDQ parent rated form and self-rated form were filled. The collected data were analyzed using the STATA statistical package version 9. Results: The adolescents obtained higher total difficulty scores than their parents, but it was not significant (P = 0.203). Boys had higher total difficulty scores than girls by parent informant (P = 0.001), but by self-report girls had higher total difficulty scores than boys (P = 0.42). 11-14 years had higher total difficulty scores by parent report than self-report (P = 0.42), but 15-18 years had higher total difficulty scores by self-report than parent report (P = 0.36). Conclusion: SDQ self-rating from adolescents may contribute better to the diagnostic process in the clinical setting. PMID:24250700

  9. Comparison of parent adolescent scores on Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroor Arman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child and adolescent psychiatry has benefited from the application of self-report questionnaires because it is short, less costly and easy to apply. So we select the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ and evaluate the agreement between the self-report and parent report form. Materials and Methods: Subjects were 1934 Adolescents , 11-18 years old. After obtaining the samples consent, SDQ parent rated form and self-rated form were filled. The collected data were analyzed using the STATA statistical package version 9. Results: The adolescents obtained higher total difficulty scores than their parents, but it was not significant (P = 0.203. Boys had higher total difficulty scores than girls by parent informant (P = 0.001, but by self-report girls had higher total difficulty scores than boys (P = 0.42. 11-14 years had higher total difficulty scores by parent report than self-report (P = 0.42, but 15-18 years had higher total difficulty scores by self-report than parent report (P = 0.36. Conclusion: SDQ self-rating from adolescents may contribute better to the diagnostic process in the clinical setting .

  10. Multilevel summation method for electrostatic force evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, David J; Wu, Zhe; Phillips, James C; Stone, John E; Skeel, Robert D; Schulten, Klaus

    2015-02-10

    The multilevel summation method (MSM) offers an efficient algorithm utilizing convolution for evaluating long-range forces arising in molecular dynamics simulations. Shifting the balance of computation and communication, MSM provides key advantages over the ubiquitous particle–mesh Ewald (PME) method, offering better scaling on parallel computers and permitting more modeling flexibility, with support for periodic systems as does PME but also for semiperiodic and nonperiodic systems. The version of MSM available in the simulation program NAMD is described, and its performance and accuracy are compared with the PME method. The accuracy feasible for MSM in practical applications reproduces PME results for water property calculations of density, diffusion constant, dielectric constant, surface tension, radial distribution function, and distance-dependent Kirkwood factor, even though the numerical accuracy of PME is higher than that of MSM. Excellent agreement between MSM and PME is found also for interface potentials of air–water and membrane–water interfaces, where long-range Coulombic interactions are crucial. Applications demonstrate also the suitability of MSM for systems with semiperiodic and nonperiodic boundaries. For this purpose, simulations have been performed with periodic boundaries along directions parallel to a membrane surface but not along the surface normal, yielding membrane pore formation induced by an imbalance of charge across the membrane. Using a similar semiperiodic boundary condition, ion conduction through a graphene nanopore driven by an ion gradient has been simulated. Furthermore, proteins have been simulated inside a single spherical water droplet. Finally, parallel scalability results show the ability of MSM to outperform PME when scaling a system of modest size (less than 100 K atoms) to over a thousand processors, demonstrating the suitability of MSM for large-scale parallel simulation.

  11. Evaluation of methods to assess physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, Nicole Y. J. M.

    Epidemiological evidence has accumulated that demonstrates that the amount of physical activity-related energy expenditure during a week reduces the incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and all-cause mortality. To further understand the amount of daily physical activity and related energy expenditure that are necessary to maintain or improve the functional health status and quality of life, instruments that estimate total (TDEE) and physical activity-related energy expenditure (PAEE) under free-living conditions should be determined to be valid and reliable. Without evaluation of the various methods that estimate TDEE and PAEE with the doubly labeled water (DLW) method in females there will be eventual significant limitations on assessing the efficacy of physical activity interventions on health status in this population. A triaxial accelerometer (Tritrac-R3D, (TT)), an uniaxial (Computer Science and Applications Inc., (CSA)) activity monitor, a Yamax-Digiwalker-500sp°ler , (YX-stepcounter), by measuring heart rate responses (HR method) and a 7-d Physical Activity Recall questionnaire (7-d PAR) were compared with the "criterion method" of DLW during a 7-d period in female adults. The DLW-TDEE was underestimated on average 9, 11 and 15% using 7-d PAR, HR method and TT. The underestimation of DLW-PAEE by 7-d PAR was 21% compared to 47% and 67% for TT and YX-stepcounter. Approximately 56% of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the registration of body movement with accelerometry. A larger proportion of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} was explained by jointly incorporating information from the vertical and horizontal movement measured with the CSA and Tritrac-R3D (rsp2 = 0.87). Although only a small amount of variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the number of steps taken per day, because of its low cost and ease of use, the Yamax-stepcounter is useful in studies promoting daily walking. Thus, studies involving the

  12. Difficulties and Methods of Investigating Torturing Confession Cases%刑讯逼供案件的侦查难点及方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚德晋; 李波阳

    2013-01-01

      我国法律虽明确禁止刑讯逼供,并将其规定为犯罪行为,但在司法实践中刑讯逼供却屡禁不止,成为刑事诉讼过程中的一大顽疾。刑讯逼供之所以屡禁不止,其中因刑讯逼供案件自身的特点而导致的侦查破案难是重要的原因之一。有些刑讯逼供的犯罪分子认为自己是司法人员可以逃避法律的制裁,或存在侥幸心理轻信刑讯逼供行为很难被发现和定罪,进而无所顾忌经常作案。因此,针对刑讯逼供案件的侦查难点进行分析,对其侦查方法开展研究,对于有效打击刑讯逼供犯罪具有重要意义。%Even though torturing confessions is explicitly banned by laws and stipulated as a kind of criminal behavior in China, it still happens frequently in the judicial practice. Torturing confessions has become a recurring problem in the process of criminal proceedings. One of the important reasons why cases happen frequently is that it is difficult to investigate and solve such cases because of their own characteristics. Some offenders think they can avoid the sanctions of laws because they are judicial officers or take for granted that their behavior is hard to be found and convicted if they are lucky so that they commit crimes frequently having nothing to fear about. Therefore, it is of great significance for effectively fighting against crimes of torturing confessions to analyze and study difficulties and methods of investigating cases of torturing confessions.

  13. Communication difficulties in teenagers with health impairments

    OpenAIRE

    Samokhvalova, Anna G.; Kryukova, Tatyana L.

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary psychological and pedagogical studies pay special attention to the socialization of physically impaired children, inclusive education and methods of providing such children with a safe environment to assist in their development. However, difficulties in interpersonal communication experienced by children with health impairments have remained beyond the research scope. The authors conducted a comparative analysis of communication difficulties in typically developed teenagers aged ...

  14. Simple and efficient methods for the accurate evaluation of patterning effects in ultrafast photonic switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jing; Ding, Yunhong; Peucheret, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Although patterning effects (PEs) are known to be a limiting factor of ultrafast photonic switches based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs), a simple approach for their evaluation in numerical simulations and experiments is missing. In this work, we experimentally investigate and verify...... as well as the operation bit rate. Furthermore, a simple and effective method for probing the maximum PEs is demonstrated, which may relieve the computational effort or the experimental difficulties associated with the use of long PRBSs for the simulation or characterization of SOA-based switches. Good...... agrement with conventional PRBS characterization is obtained. The method is suitable for quick and systematic estimation and optimization of the switching performance....

  15. International genomic evaluation methods for dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Genomic evaluations are rapidly replacing traditional evaluation systems used for dairy cattle selection. Economies of scale in genomics promote cooperation across country borders. Genomic information can be transferred across countries using simple conversion equations, by modifying mult...

  16. A quantitative method for silica flux evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonewille, R. H.; O'Connell, G. J.; Toguri, J. M.

    1993-02-01

    In the smelting of copper and copper/nickel concentrates, the role of silica flux is to aid in the removal of iron by forming a slag phase. Alternatively, the role of flux may be regarded as a means of controlling the formation of magnetite, which can severely hinder the operation of a furnace. To adequately control the magnetite level, the flux must react rapidly with all of the FeO within the bath. In the present study, a rapid method for silica flux evaluation that can be used directly in the smelter has been developed. Samples of flux are mixed with iron sulfide and magnetite and then smelted at a temperature of 1250 °C. Argon was swept over the reaction mixture and analyzed continuously for sulfur dioxide. The sulfur dioxide concentration with time was found to contain two peaks, the first one being independent of the flux content of the sample. A flux quality parameter has been defined as the height-to-time ratio of the second peak. The value of this parameter for pure silica is 5100 ppm/min. The effects of silica content, silica particle size, and silicate mineralogy were investigated. It was found that a limiting flux quality is achieved for particle sizes less than 0.1 mm in diameter and that fluxes containing feldspar are generally of a poorer quality. The relative importance of free silica and melting point was also studied using synthetic flux mixtures, with free silica displaying the strongest effect.

  17. SEAM PUCKERING EVALUATION METHOD FOR SEWING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRAD Raluca

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an automated method for the assessment and classification of puckering defects detected during the preproduction control stage of the sewing machine or product inspection. In this respect, we have presented the possible causes and remedies of the wrinkle nonconformities. Subjective factors related to the control environment and operators during the seams evaluation can be reduced using an automated system whose operation is based on image processing. Our implementation involves spectral image analysis using Fourier transform and an unsupervised neural network, the Kohonen Map, employed to classify material specimens, the input images, into five discrete degrees of quality, from grade 5 (best to grade 1 (the worst. The puckering features presented in the learning and test images have been pre-classified using the seam puckering quality standard. The network training stage will consist in presenting five input vectors (derived from the down-sampled arrays, representing the puckering grades. The puckering classification consists in providing an input vector derived from the image supposed to be classified. A scalar product between the input values vectors and the weighted training images is computed. The result will be assigned to one of the five classes of which the input image belongs. Using the Kohonen network the puckering defects were correctly classified in proportion of 71.42%.

  18. A mixed method analysis of an Early Intervention Program for students with behavioural and concentration difficulties in two schools in Malmö, Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Michael David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research, set in two schools in Malmö, Sweden, was to examine the outcomes of a combined approach of a behavioural modification program and a biofeedback intervention for students, aged 7 to 12, with behavioural and concentration difficulties. Biofeedback is the use of technology to measure physiological changes in the body (such as heart rate and breathing) and gives this information back to the user. The behavioural modification program was an intervention known as Family Cl...

  19. Mathematical Difficulties and ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucangeli, Daniela; Cabrele, Silvia

    2006-01-01

    Most of the research on academics and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has focused on reading disorders in children with ADHD rather than difficulties in mathematics. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of studies focusing on students with attention deficit disorders with or without hyperactivity and 1 area of…

  20. Democratizing Evaluation: Meanings and Methods from Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Katherine E.; Johnson, Trav D.

    2000-01-01

    Uses the results of an instrumental case study to identify issues connected to evaluation participation and its representation and the role of the internal evaluator in democratic, deliberative evaluation. Identified direct participation and participation by representation, sanctioned or unsanctioned representation, and extrinsic and intrinsic…

  1. Methods of marketing and advertising activity evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Yakovlev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The result of the business entities’ activities is associated with the development of instruments of the economic processes efficiency determination, including marketing activities. It has determined the purpose of the article. The methodological principles in this area are developed. It is proved that the increase in sales of the profit margin is only partly dependent on the implementation of advertising measures. The methodical approaches for estimation of exhibition and advertising activity and promotion of its employees are specified. The results of work involve evaluation of the advertising effect value on the basis of share of the advertising impact on the increase of sales and revenue from the sale of products. The corresponding proportion of such impact is determined based on the consumer inquiry. The index of trade fair works, its calculation based on two components: how many times a specific company participated in such events; and how well the company was presented at relevant trade fairs. The indices of the cost on advertising and promotion of certain products manufacturer are provided. The scientific innovation of the research is as follows. It is proved that the sales increase effect should not be assigned to advertising only. The compositions that influence the consumer preferences and their share in the total value effect are determined. The new is the proposed index of influence of the trade fair work results depending on the selected factors. The practical importance of the research results involve more accurate calculation of the effect of the activities made and, consequently, increase efficiency of the business entities.

  2. The Evaluation of Difficulties in the Sense of Pre - Service Teachers That are Encountered in the Teaching Practice Lesson in the Div ision of Mentally Retarded Teacher Training Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selahattin Avşaroğlu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to evaluate the difficulties in the sense of teacher candidates that are experienced by students, who are enrolled in the Mentally Retarded Teacher Training Depar tment, in teaching application courses. For this purpose, in the academic year 2009 - 2010, thirty eight (38 last year students, training in seven primary schools and in the educational practice school situated in the centre of Konya province were intervi ewed. In the survey, data were obtained with the semi structured interviews. The interviews were recorded with the tape recorder and the data transcripts were analyzed with the help of content analysis method. According to the research findings, the interv iewed teachers stated that their supervisor teachers did not guide them sufficiently, and they experienced defects in explaining and instructing school and classroom rules, and in practice of training activities and sharing information with others are dete rmined. Additionally, nearly half of the student teachers had problems in interacting with supervisor teachers, and the student teachers stated that there were a large amount of material deficiencies in schools and classrooms.

  3. Difficulties in learning and teaching statistics: teacher views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koparan, Timur

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to define teacher views about the difficulties in learning and teaching middle school statistics subjects. To serve this aim, a number of interviews were conducted with 10 middle school maths teachers in 2011-2012 school year in the province of Trabzon. Of the qualitative descriptive research methods, the semi-structured interview technique was applied in the research. In accordance with the aim, teacher opinions about the statistics subjects were examined and analysed. Similar responses from the teachers were grouped and evaluated. The teachers stated that it was positive that middle school statistics subjects were taught gradually in every grade but some difficulties were experienced in the teaching of this subject. The findings are presented in eight themes which are context, sample, data representation, central tendency and dispersion measure, probability, variance, and other difficulties.

  4. Computational Evaluation of the Traceback Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kol, Sheli; Nir, Bracha; Wintner, Shuly

    2014-01-01

    Several models of language acquisition have emerged in recent years that rely on computational algorithms for simulation and evaluation. Computational models are formal and precise, and can thus provide mathematically well-motivated insights into the process of language acquisition. Such models are amenable to robust computational evaluation,…

  5. [School difficulties in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenberg, T L; Buffone, M R; Scardia, C; Facente, C

    2002-12-01

    Loss, failure and desertion are those words, which better describe the most frequent difficulties incurred by teenagers, and their relation to the school environment, and indicate, as well, the lack of connection between individual aspirations and school achievements obtained. Despite the likelihood of school difficulties throughout the entire educational career, from the kindergarten to the college, we are able to recognize certain specific "disturbances" which come out during the adolescence, basically relating to the school experiences. School failure, school desertion and school abandonment are, in fact, issues mainly discussed in coincidence with the beginning of the adolescent age and the attending of the high school. The aetiopathogenesis of school discomfort is mostly determined by more than only one factor: psychological, physical, cognitive and environmental aspects, all together, contribute in various ways, to the rise and persisting of the above described problems. Suggesting a univocal characterization of the adolescent with school difficulties, is indeed a hard task, since school failure is not an exclusive feature of only one kind of personality or the expression of only one type of conflict. Once identified the individuals more subject to risk, and the warning signs of actual uneasiness, it is important therefore to intervene timely and in different ways in order to avoid the worsening or the excessive extension of the school difficulties and of their frequent and serious consequences on the teenagers' individual and domestic well-being. Such type of prevention definitely belongs to the Adolescent Medicine, and must be developed on different levels, by involving not only the teenagers, but also their families, the school, and the whole social environment in which the teenagers live and with which they interact.

  6. Idiopathic chondrolysis - diagnostic difficulties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.; Scougall, J.

    1984-07-01

    Four cases of idiopathic chondrolysis of the hip in three white girls and one Maori girl are reported. The authors stress the causes why a disease with characteristic clinical and radiographic appearances and normal biochemical findings presents diagnostic difficulties. It is suspected that idiopathic chondrolysis is a metabolic disorder of chondrocytes, triggered by environment circumstances in susceptible individuals. Idiopathic chondrolysis is probably one of the most common causes of coxarthrosis in women.

  7. Reading difficulties in Albanian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdyli, Rrezarta; Cuetos, Fernando

    2012-10-01

    Albanian is an Indo-European language with a shallow orthography, in which there is an absolute correspondence between graphemes and phonemes. We aimed to know reading strategies used by Albanian disabled children during word and pseudoword reading. A pool of 114 Kosovar reading disabled children matched with 150 normal readers aged 6 to 11 years old were tested. They had to read 120 stimuli varied in lexicality, frequency, and length. The results in terms of reading accuracy as well as in reading times show that both groups were affected by lexicality and length effects. In both groups, length and lexicality effects were significantly modulated by school year being greater in early grades and later diminish in length and just the opposite in lexicality. However, the reading difficulties group was less accurate and slower than the control group across all school grades. Analyses of the error patterns showed that phonological errors, when the letter replacement leading to new nonwords, are the most common error type in both groups, although as grade rises, visual errors and lexicalizations increased more in the control group than the reading difficulties group. These findings suggest that Albanian normal children use both routes (lexical and sublexical) from the beginning of reading despite of the complete regularity of Albanian, while children with reading difficulties start using sublexical reading and the lexical reading takes more time to acquire, but finally both routes are functional.

  8. Development and Evaluation of Chemical Diagnostic Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    PANA + 0.2% benzotriazole ( BTA ). _Steel coupon added. C Grease Formulation: Formulation B + 11% lithium Evaluation of alkali stearate (2628 ppm Li...is obtained in less time. Selected basestocks were further evaluated with a complete additive package (1% octyl PANA and 0.2% benzotriazole ) in the...PANA at 220 0C. b Injresence of 1% octyl PANA + 0.2% BTA and steel coupon at.’ 220 C. 139 GEO-CENTERS, INC. V. of deuteration (> 97 atom %). Nevertheless

  9. Measuring Difficulty in English-Chinese Translation: Towards a General Model of Translation Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sanjun

    2012-01-01

    Accurate assessment of a text's level of translation difficulty is critical for translator training and accreditation, translation research, and the language industry as well. Traditionally, people rely on their general impression to gauge a text's translation difficulty level. If the evaluation process is to be more effective and the…

  10. Method of evaluation of fuel losses through evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. Бойченко

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate fuel losses through evaporation it is important to correctly select the evaluation method of losses through evaporation. The existing methods have been analysed. Among them the method of dynamic evaporability by blowing through the fuel sample a tenfold volume of air - the method of direct comparison of the samples. Also the optical properties of fuel were inves­tigated. Developing the idea of refractometric method of evaluation of losses through evaporation, we propose a complex method based on graphical and refractometric ways of losses evaluation

  11. Dyscalculia ≠ maths difficulties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Maria Christina Secher

    2016-01-01

    Using Bourdieu’s notion of field, the Scandinavian field of maths pedagogy occurs at a time characterised by increasing inclusion efforts in primary school. Various stakeholders in maths pedagogy are arguing about what should be done about pupils who perform poorly in mathematics and what causes...... their difficulties. Four analytical positions are presented here: the diagnostic, the structural, the interventionist and the complementary. The literature examined includes academic articles on math pedagogy and scholarly journals for maths teachers from the period 1995–2014. A total of 103 articles were analysed...

  12. Simplified method for video performance evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshbarger, John H.

    1996-04-01

    Meaningful performance evaluation of video equipment can be complex, requiring specialized equipment in which results must be interpreted by technically trained operators. The alternative to this has been to attempt evaluation by visual inspection of patterns such as the SMPTE RP-133 Medical Imaging Standard. However this involves subjective interpretation and does not indicate the point in a system at which degradation has occurred. The video waveform of such a pattern is complex and not suitable for quantitative analysis. The principal factors which influence quality of a video image on a day-to-day basis are resolution, gray scale and color, if employed. If these qualities are transmitted and displayed without degradation beyond acceptable limits, suitable performance is assured. Performance evaluation by inspection of the image produced on a video display monitor is subject to interpretation; this is resolved by inserting, at the display, the original 'perfect' electronically generated waveform to serve as a reference. Thus the viewer has a specific visual comparison as the basis for performance evaluation. Another valuable feature of the test pattern insert is that a test segment can be placed on recorded images. Thus each image recalled by tape playback or from digital storage will carry an integral means for quality assurance.

  13. A Ranking Method for Evaluating Constructed Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attali, Yigal

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a comparative judgment approach for holistically scored constructed response tasks. In this approach, the grader rank orders (rather than rate) the quality of a small set of responses. A prior automated evaluation of responses guides both set formation and scaling of rankings. Sets are formed to have similar prior scores and…

  14. A method to evaluate response models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnes, Merijn; Wapperom, Sjoerd; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Bickmore, Timothy; Marcella, Stacy; Sidner, Candace

    We are working towards computational models of mind of virtual characters that act as suspects in interview (interrogation) training of police officers. We implemented a model that calculates the responses of the virtual suspect based on theory and observation. We evaluated it by means of our test,

  15. Low Carbon Supply Chain’s Performance Evaluation Based on Entropy Method and Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study constructed a performance evaluation index system of low carbon supply chain from the economic, resources and environment. This index system highlights the environmental value orientation and green culture technology evaluation. On this basis, uses entropy value method to definite the index system of index weigh and uses the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to establish the evaluation model. It overcomes the respective faults of the entropy value method and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method and makes low carbon supply chain performance evaluation more scientific and accurate. Finally, the model was verified analysis.

  16. Evaluation Method of Power Recived Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Shigeyuki; Nakagawa, Tadasuke; Akatsu, Masaharu; Komoda, Norihisa

    The electric power liberalization will expand. The method of judging the service selection is requested by customers. The method of comparing each energy unit price based on the average demanded is general. However, there are risks in customer's energy demand in the future. In the supply contract, there is freedom of contract changes according to demand changes. By this contract changes customers can avoid the risks. In this paper, we think that there was value in contract changes and we proposed the new method for analyzing the economy of this value.

  17. Evaluation of Ponseti method in neglected clubfoot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav Sinha

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Painless, supple, plantigrade, and cosmetically acceptable feet were achieved in neglected clubfeet without any extensive surgery. A fair trial of conservative Ponseti method should be tried before resorting to extensive soft tissue procedure.

  18. Cultural Discrepancies Multiply Difficulties in Translating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨姝

    2016-01-01

    Translators always face dilemmas while translating source text into target text. Whether the language form is more im-portant than the real underlying meaning is constantly a controversial issue in translation. In practice, to keep the target text in the same genre and form as the source text and accurately render the original meaning from the author is highly difficult, espe-cially in literature translation. Therefore, previous research regarding difficulties in translating various languages in diverse cul-tures are to be reviewed, followed by a more specific context in which literature translations from Chinese to English and Eng-lish to Chinese are analyzed. Difficulties exposed in these translations are dealt with by experienced translators who employ vari-ous strategies. How effective these translations are in transmitting the original source language in both form and other functions are then evaluated. Moreover, the impacts that culture have on translation are further discussed. It comes to conclude that transla-tors may apply effective methods to minimize the gap between source language and target language, despite being unable to ex-actly render the meaning and form of the source text, especially when over one source language is involved.

  19. Comparative Evaluation of the Sniffing Position with Simple Head Extension for Laryngoscopic View and Intubation Difficulty in Adults Undergoing Elective Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Prakash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of patient position on mask ventilation, laryngoscopic view, intubation difficulty, and the stance adopted by the anesthesiologist during laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation was investigated in 546 anesthetized adults in this prospective, randomized study. Patients were randomly assigned to either the sniffing position group or the simple extension group. The distribution of Cormack grades was comparable between the two groups (P=0.144. The IDS score [median (IQR] was 0 (0–2 in the sniffing group and 1 (0–2 in the simple extension group; P=0.002. There were significant differences between groups with regard to intensity of lifting force, external laryngeal manipulation, alternate techniques used, number of attempts, and the stance adopted by anesthesiologist. We conclude that the sniffing position is superior to simple head extension with regard to ease of intubation as assessed by IDS. An upright stance is adopted by more anesthesiologists performing intubation with patients in the sniffing position.

  20. Comparative Evaluation of the Sniffing Position with Simple Head Extension for Laryngoscopic View and Intubation Difficulty in Adults Undergoing Elective Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Smita; Rapsang, Amy G.; Mahajan, Saurabh; Bhattacharjee, Shameek; Singh, Rajvir; Gogia, Anoop R.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of patient position on mask ventilation, laryngoscopic view, intubation difficulty, and the stance adopted by the anesthesiologist during laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation was investigated in 546 anesthetized adults in this prospective, randomized study. Patients were randomly assigned to either the sniffing position group or the simple extension group. The distribution of Cormack grades was comparable between the two groups (P = 0.144). The IDS score [median (IQR)] was 0 (0–2) in the sniffing group and 1 (0–2) in the simple extension group; P = 0.002. There were significant differences between groups with regard to intensity of lifting force, external laryngeal manipulation, alternate techniques used, number of attempts, and the stance adopted by anesthesiologist. We conclude that the sniffing position is superior to simple head extension with regard to ease of intubation as assessed by IDS. An upright stance is adopted by more anesthesiologists performing intubation with patients in the sniffing position. PMID:22110497

  1. Data Collection Methods for Evaluating Museum Programs and Exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Amy Crack; Cohn, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Museums often evaluate various aspects of their audiences' experiences, be it what they learn from a program or how they react to an exhibition. Each museum program or exhibition has its own set of goals, which can drive what an evaluator studies and how an evaluation evolves. When designing an evaluation, data collection methods are purposefully…

  2. Wellsite Evaluation Method of Undercompacted Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Qingxia; Wei Xinghua; Hu Yutao; Yang Haibo

    2000-01-01

    Staring from the view point of practical application, based on large amount of pressure well- logging data home and abroad, the author demonstrated how to distinguish overpressure Formation using wellsite data througl selected methods such as drilling parameters, rock cutting analysis, drilling fluid parameters, and electric welline logs.

  3. Multicentre evaluation of commercial kit methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, J; Declerck, P J; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen;

    1993-01-01

    in the production of data from each of the commercial kits tested. A considerable variation of PAI activity results reported from the laboratories testing the same commercial kits was observed. The range of reported results could in individual samples exceed the median value indicating an interlaboratory variation...... activity levels and a CV of about 16% for high PAI activity levels. The high imprecision of the kits in the low concentration range of PAI activity indicates that unspecific factors in plasma may interfere with determination of active PAI. This was confirmed by the evaluation of the results from one...

  4. Performance Evaluation Methods for Assistive Robotic Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Katherine M.; Feil-Seifer, David J.; Matarić, Maja J.; Yanco, Holly A.

    Robots have been developed for several assistive technology domains, including intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorders, eldercare, and post-stroke rehabilitation. Assistive robots have also been used to promote independent living through the use of devices such as intelligent wheelchairs, assistive robotic arms, and external limb prostheses. Work in the broad field of assistive robotic technology can be divided into two major research phases: technology development, in which new devices, software, and interfaces are created; and clinical, in which assistive technology is applied to a given end-user population. Moving from technology development towards clinical applications is a significant challenge. Developing performance metrics for assistive robots poses a related set of challenges. In this paper, we survey several areas of assistive robotic technology in order to derive and demonstrate domain-specific means for evaluating the performance of such systems. We also present two case studies of applied performance measures and a discussion regarding the ubiquity of functional performance measures across the sampled domains. Finally, we present guidelines for incorporating human performance metrics into end-user evaluations of assistive robotic technologies.

  5. The Study on Educational Technology Abilities Evaluation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Duan

    The traditional methods used to evaluate the test, the test did not really measure that we want to measuring things. Test results and can not serve as a basis for evaluation, so it was worth the natural result of its evaluation of weighing. This system is full use of technical means of education, based on education, psychological theory, to evaluate the object-based, evaluation tools, evaluation of secondary teachers to primary and secondary school teachers in educational technology as the goal, using a variety of evaluation of side France, from various angles established an informal evaluation system.

  6. The Operational Testing Effectiveness Evaluation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    compared, testing methods improved, and critics silenced . Given that checking IOT&E assessments against operational data seemed to be common sense, was...history of OT&E, discussing the poasibility that the record of frequent convulsive organizational change is related to the lack of adequate feedback on... silence the critics, and ultimately ensure that the weapons reaching the ramp really are effective and suitable. 30 ~• x , .-.-. I- BIBLIOGRAPH d Books

  7. MERITED LABOUR: METHODOLOGY AND METHODS OF EVALUATION

    OpenAIRE

    N.Z. Shaimardanov; T.V. Polkova; O.A. Shahova

    2009-01-01

    A methodological approach to the analysis of the economic category "merited labour", in which the employee is considered as a subject and an object of work at once is worked out, method of calculation of the integral index of merited labour in the subjects of Russia in the dynamics and in the context of industries and municipalities of the Sverdlovsk region is justified. Ratings of integral indicators of quality of life in terms of "merited labour" program are composed. Integral indices and r...

  8. Evaluation of toothbrush disinfection via different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basman, Adil; Peker, Ilkay; Akca, Gulcin; Alkurt, Meryem Toraman; Sarikir, Cigdem; Celik, Irem

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of using a dishwasher or different chemical agents, including 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate, 2% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), a mouthrinse containing essential oils and alcohol, and 50% white vinegar, for toothbrush disinfection. Sixty volunteers were divided into five experimental groups and one control group (n = 10). Participants brushed their teeth using toothbrushes with standard bristles, and they disinfected the toothbrushes according to instructed methods. Bacterial contamination of the toothbrushes was compared between the experimental groups and the control group. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Duncan's multiple range tests, with 95% confidence intervals for multiple comparisons. Bacterial contamination of toothbrushes from individuals in the experimental groups differed from those in the control group (p method for elimination of all tested bacterial species was 50% white vinegar, followed in order by 2% NaOCl, mouthrinse containing essential oils and alcohol, 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate, dishwasher use, and tap water (control). The results of this study show that the most effective method for disinfecting toothbrushes was submersion in 50% white vinegar, which is cost-effective, easy to access, and appropriate for household use.

  9. Evaluation of toothbrush disinfection via different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil BASMAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of using a dishwasher or different chemical agents, including 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate, 2% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, a mouthrinse containing essential oils and alcohol, and 50% white vinegar, for toothbrush disinfection. Sixty volunteers were divided into five experimental groups and one control group (n = 10. Participants brushed their teeth using toothbrushes with standard bristles, and they disinfected the toothbrushes according to instructed methods. Bacterial contamination of the toothbrushes was compared between the experimental groups and the control group. Data were analyzed by Kruskal–Wallis and Duncan's multiple range tests, with 95% confidence intervals for multiple comparisons. Bacterial contamination of toothbrushes from individuals in the experimental groups differed from those in the control group (p < 0.05. The most effective method for elimination of all tested bacterial species was 50% white vinegar, followed in order by 2% NaOCl, mouthrinse containing essential oils and alcohol, 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate, dishwasher use, and tap water (control. The results of this study show that the most effective method for disinfecting toothbrushes was submersion in 50% white vinegar, which is cost-effective, easy to access, and appropriate for household use.

  10. Mathematics difficulties & classroom leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Maria Christina Secher

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates possible links between inclusion, students, for whom mathematics is extensively difficult, and classroom leadership through a case study on teaching strategies and student participation in four classrooms at two different primary schools in Denmark. Three sets of results...... are presented: 1) descriptions of the teachers’ classroom leadership to include all their students in the learning community, 2) the learning community produced by stated and practiced rules for teaching and learning behavior, 3) the classroom behavior of students who experience difficulties with mathematics....... The findings suggest that the teachers’ pedagogical choices and actions support an active learning environment for students in diverse learning needs, and that the teachers practise dimensions of inclusive classroom leadership that are known to be successful for teaching mathematics to all students. Despite...

  11. Credit Institutions Management Evaluation using Quantitative Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Dardac

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Credit institutions supervising mission by state authorities is mostly assimilated with systemic risk prevention. In present, the mission is orientated on analyzing the risk profile of the credit institutions, the mechanism and existing systems as management tools providing to bank rules the proper instruments to avoid and control specific bank risks. Rating systems are sophisticated measurement instruments which are capable to assure the above objectives, such as success in banking risk management. The management quality is one of the most important elements from the set of variables used in the quoting process in credit operations. Evaluation of this quality is – generally speaking – fundamented on quantitative appreciations which can induce subjectivism and heterogeneity in quotation. The problem can be solved by using, complementary, quantitative technics such us DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis.

  12. [Evaluation of Wits appraisal with superimposition method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, T; Ahn, J; Baumrind, S

    1999-07-01

    To compare the conventional Wits appraisal with superimposed Wits appraisal in evaluation of sagittal jaw relationship change between pre and post orthodontic treatment. The sample consists of 48-case pre and post treatment lateral head films. Computerized digitizing is used to get the cephalometric landmarks and measure conventional Wits value, superimposed Wits value and ANB angle. The correlation analysis among these three measures was done by SAS statistical package. The change of ANB angle has higher correlation with the change of superimposed Wits than that of the conventional Wits. The r-value is as high as 0.849 (P < 0.001). The superimposed Wits appraisal reflects the change of sagittal jaw relationship more objectively than the conventional one.

  13. An educational method for evaluating the resistance to the treatment in the diagnosis of dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo Chiappini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a didactical method that has been proven effective for evaluating the “resistance to the treatment” of the student is presented. This parameter is essential for distinguishing the learning difficulties in mathematics from the learning disorder of dyscalculia. The method is based on GimmeFive, an application that has been designed to develop skills in mental calculation of multi-digit additions and subtractions. In this paper we present the results of two experiments conducted with groups of students respectively with learning difficulties in mathematics and dyscalculia. These experiments allowed to show the effectiveness of the didactical method in the evaluation of the resistance to the treatment and to discuss the features that make it adequate for the evaluation of the learning disorder. An educational method for evaluating the resistance to the treatment in the diagnosis of dyscalculiaIn questo lavoro viene presentato un metodo didattico che si è dimostrato efficace per valutare la resistenza al trattamento dello studente che è uno dei parametri fondamentali per distinguere la difficoltà di apprendimento in matematica dal disturbo di apprendimento noto come discalculia. Il metodo si basa sull’uso dell’applicazione GimmeFive che è stata progettata per sviluppare competenze nel calcolo mentale di addizioni e sottrazioni a più cifre. In questo lavoro vengono presentati risultati di due sperimentazioni condotte con gruppi di studenti rispettivamente con difficoltà di apprendimento e con diagnosi di discalculia. Queste sperimentazioni hanno consentito di mostrare l’efficacia del metodo didattico nella valutazione della resistenza al trattamento e di discutere le caratteristiche che lo rendono adeguato per la valutazione del disturbo di apprendimento.

  14. A review of methods for quantitative evaluation of spinal curvature

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a complete overview of the existing methods for quantitative evaluation of spinal curvature from medical images, and to summarize the relevant publications, which may not only assist in the introduction of other researchers to the field, but also be a valuable resource for studying the existing methods or developing new methods and evaluation strategies. Key evaluation issues and future considerations, supported by the results of the overview, are also disc...

  15. A review of methods for quantitative evaluation of spinal curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrtovec, Tomaz; Pernus, Franjo; Likar, Bostjan

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a complete overview of the existing methods for quantitative evaluation of spinal curvature from medical images, and to summarize the relevant publications, which may not only assist in the introduction of other researchers to the field, but also be a valuable resource for studying the existing methods or developing new methods and evaluation strategies. Key evaluation issues and future considerations, supported by the results of the overview, are also discussed.

  16. The Evaluation of Flammability Properties Regarding Testing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldová Linda Makovická

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address the historical comparison methods with current methods for the assessment of flammability characteristics for materials an especially for wood, wood components and wooden buildings. Nowadays in European Union brings harmonization in evaluated of standards into each European country and try to make one concept of evaluated the flammability properties. In each European country to the one standard level which will be used by evaluation of materials regarding flammability. In our article we focused mainly on improving the evaluation methods in terms of flammability characteristics of using materials at building industry. In the article we present examples of different assessment methods at their own test methods in terms of fire prevention. On the base of old compared of materials by STN, BS and DIN methods for testing materials on fire and new methods of evaluating the flammability properties regarding EU standards before and after starting the flash over.

  17. An Evaluation Method for Distortion Energy Parameterization of Triangular Meshes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Jing; ZHAO Xiu-yang; ZHANG Cai-ming; YANG Bo

    2013-01-01

    Parameterization of triangle meshes is a fundamental problem for texture mapping, surface fitting, surface reconstruction, and mesh editing. The deformation of triangular meshes caused by the parameterized process is the measurement of parameterization. Traditional standard method has its limitation when evaluating mixture distortion energy parameterizations. Thus an evaluation method bases on distortion energy parameterization of triangular meshes is introduced for the limitation. The novel method employs an adaptive expression form to the mixture energy, and uses a weight factor to represent distortion energy distribution. By using this method, we can evaluate all kinds of parameterization in a uniform measurement and acquire a more intuitive and clear evaluation.

  18. Mastoidectomy: anatomical parameters x surgical difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Júnior, Anastácio Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The lowered temporal meninges and/ or anterior sigmoid sinus are contiditions that can determine surgical difficulties in performing mastoidectomy. Objective: To correlate in the tomography the extent of the prolapse of the sigmoid sinus and of temporal meninges with the surgical difficulty in the mastoidectomy. Method: The tomographic measurements of prolapse sigmoid and of temporal meninges were correlated with the presence or non-presence of the surgical difficulty observed during the mastoidectomy procedure in patients with ostomatoiditis chronic (n=30. Form of study: Contemporary cohort transverse. Results: In 10 patients were observed surgical difficulty distributed as: due to prolapse of the sigmoid sinus (n = 2 or temporal meninges prolapse (n = 7 or both (n = 1. In patients in which the surgical difficulty was due to sigmoid sinus prolapse, the tomography distance of the anterior border of the sigmoid sinus to posterior wall of external auditory canal was lower than 9 mm. In patients in which surgical difficulty was due to temporal meninges prolapse, the tomographic distance to the upper plane of the petrous bone was 7 mm. Conclusion: The computerized tomography distance between the temporal meninges and the upper plane of the petrous bone 7 mm and the distance of the anterior border of the sigmoid sinus to posterior wall of external auditory canal was lower than 9 mm are predictive to the surgical difficulties to perform mastoidectomy.

  19. Study of the aerodynamic forces evaluation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian GALETUSE

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews some of the different formulations of the force exerted on a submerged body by the fluid flowing around it. The study is particularly focused on identifying the most appropriate formulations and their inherent assumptions and experimental conditions that fit the current experimental techniques. Several force formulations are derived using different assumptions such as finite and infinite domain, simple and double connected domains. The aim was to obtain formulations that can benefit from the data gathered through the particle image velocimetry method, more explicitly the velocity field around the body and its derivatives. The equations were afterwards discussed in terms of their exposure to error magnification due to the limitations of the experimental method and recommendations were made for appropriate situations in which different formulations should be used. In conclusion, all different force formulations are valid and can be used with the Particle Image Velocimetry data but the accuracy of each outcome depends on the problem definition. As a future objective, experimental work should be performed and test the different equations for different flow conditions, steady, unsteady, quasi-steady, and also for different domain ranges.

  20. Overcoming Algebraic and Graphic Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Ana Lucia Braz

    This paper describes student difficulties in first-year calculus classes and suggests some instructional strategies to address these difficulties. Participants in this study were 200 low socio-economic background freshmen majoring in business in Brazil. Results show that the main difficulties are related to lack of understanding of algebraic…

  1. The relative degree of difficulty of L2 Spanish /d, t/, trill, and tap by L1 English speakers: Auditory and acoustic methods of defining pronunciation accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltmunson, Jeremy C.

    2005-07-01

    This study has investigated the L2 acquisition of Spanish word-medial /d, t, r, (fish hook)/, word-initial /r/, and onset cluster /(fish hook)/. Two similar experiments were designed to address the relative degree of difficulty of the word-medial contrasts, as well as the effect of word-position on /r/ and /(fish hook)/ accuracy scores. In addition, the effect of vowel height on the production of [r] and the L2 emergence of the svarabhakti vowel in onset cluster /(fish hook)/ were investigated. Participants included 34 Ll English speakers from a range of L2 Spanish levels who were recorded in multiple sessions across a 6-month or 2-month period. The criteria for assessing segment accuracy was based on auditory and acoustic features found in productions by native Spanish speakers. In order to be scored as accurate, the L2 productions had to evidence both the auditory and acoustic features found in native speaker productions. L2 participant scores for each target were normalized in order to account for the variation of features found across native speaker productions. The results showed that word-medial accuracy scores followed two significant rankings (from lowest to highest): /r <= d <= (fish hook) <= t/ and /r <= (fish hook) <= d <= t/; however, when scores for /t/ included a voice onset time criterion, only the ranking /r <= (fish hook) <= d <= t/ was significant. These results suggest that /r/ is most difficult for learners while /t/ is least difficult, although individual variation was found. Regarding /r/, there was a strong effect of word position and vowel height on accuracy scores. For productions of /(fish hook)/, there was a strong effect of syllable position on accuracy scores. Acoustic analyses of taps in onset cluster revealed that only the experienced L2 Spanish participants demonstrated svarabhakti vowel emergence with native-like performance, suggesting that its emergence occurs relatively late in L2 acquisition.

  2. Investment Portfolio Formation Using Multi-criteria evaluation Method MULTIMOORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilius Vaišvilas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Information that has to be analyzed by investors is complicated and can be interpreted differently by different people, which is why choosing what should be added to the investment portfolio is complicated task. Complexity grows substantially when there are more alternatives to choose from. Multi – criteria evaluation method can be used to choose the best alternatives. Multi–criteria evaluation method MULTIMOORA is not subjective because there is no need to decide ratio of any given variable that is evaluated. MULTIMOORA consists of: formation of ratio system, application of multi – criteria evaluation method as well as investment evaluation and ranking. Purpose of this article is to apply multi – criteria evaluation method MULTIMOORA for the formation and management of investment portfolio from stocks of the Baltic stock market companies. Methods used in the analysis for the article: analysis of scientific literature, statistical analysis, organization and comparison of data, idealization, calculations of MULTIMOORA.

  3. Evaluation criteria and test methods for electrochromic windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czanderna, A.W. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA)); Lampert, C.M. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Report summarizes the test methods used for evaluating electrochromic (EC) windows, and summarizes what is known about degradation of their performance, and recommends methods and procedures for advancing EC windows for buildings applications. 77 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Standardized evaluation method for electromagnetic tracking systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Johann; Maurer, Calvin, Jr.; Figl, Michael; Bax, Michael; Bergmann, Helmar; Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Shahidi, Ramin

    2005-04-01

    The major aim of this work was to define a protocol for evaluation of electromagnetic tracking systems (EMTS). Using this protocol we compared two commercial EMTS: the Ascension microBIRD (B) and NDI Aurora (A). To enable reproducibility and comparability of the assessments a machined base plate was designed, in which a 50 mm grid of holes is precision drilled for position measurements. A circle of 32 equispaced holes in the center enables the assessment of rotation. A small mount which fits into pairs of grid holes on the base plate is used to mount the sensor in a defined and rigid way. Relative positional/orientational errors are found by subtracting the known distances/rotations between the machined locations from the differences of the mean observed positions/rotation. To measure the influence of metallic objects we inserted rods (made of SST 303, SST 416, aluminum, and bronze) into the sensitive volume between sensor and emitter. Additionally the dynamic behavior was tested by using an optical sensor mounted on a spacer in a distance of 150 mm to the EMTS sensors. We found a relative positional error of 0.96mm +/- 0.68mm, range -0.06mm;2.23mm (A) and 1.14mm +/- 0.78mm, range -3.72mm;1.57mm (B) for a give distance of 50 mm. The positional jitter amounted to 0.14 mm(A) / 0.20mm (B). The relative rotation error was found to be 1.81 degrees(A) / 0.63 degrees(B). For the dynamic behavior we calculated an error of 1.63mm(A)/1.93mm(B). The most relevant distortion caused by metallic objects results from SST 416. The maximum error 4.2mm(A)/41.9mm(B) occurs when the rod is close to the sensor(20mm).

  5. Pre-exploration of Verification Methods of the College Students Whose Families with Financial Difficulties%高校家庭经济困难学生认定方式初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽霞

    2012-01-01

    The party and government attach great importance to the college task of helping impoverished undergraduates,increased the subsidy amount year after year.Currently,most universities have implemented the grading management subsidize students with financial difficulties,as well as the subsidy amount,so the cognizance of students with financial difficulties is the basic of university task of helping impoverished undergraduate,funded directly related to the fair and equitable.This paper analyzes the problems encountered recognized the importance of school work to identify,explore new methods of economic difficulties students identified with practice.%党和政府十分重视高校助困工作,逐年增加了资助额度。目前,多数高校都实行经济困难学生定级管理资助,资助额度量级而定,所以,经济困难学生认定是高校助困工作的基础,直接关系到资助的公正公平性。本文分析了认定的重要性和我校认定工作中遇到的问题,结合实践探索了经济困难学生认定的新方法。

  6. Iodine absorption cells quality evaluation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabina, Jan; Zucco, Massimo; Holá, Miroslava; Šarbort, Martin; Acef, Ouali; Du-Burck, Frédéric; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2016-12-01

    The absorption cells represent an unique tool for the laser frequency stabilization. They serve as irreplaceable optical frequency references in realization of high-stable laser standards and laser sources for different brands of optical measurements, including the most precise frequency and dimensional measurement systems. One of the most often used absorption media covering visible and near IR spectral range is molecular iodine. It offers rich atlas of very strong and narrow spectral transitions which allow realization of laser systems with ultimate frequency stabilities in or below 10-14 order level. One of the most often disccussed disadvantage of the iodine cells is iodine's corrosivity and sensitivity to presence of foreign substances. The impurities react with absorption media and cause spectral shifts of absorption spectra, spectral broadening of the transitions and decrease achievable signal-to-noise ratio of the detected spectra. All of these unwanted effects directly influence frequency stability of the realized laser standard and due to this fact, the quality of iodine cells must be precisely controlled. We present a comparison of traditionally used method of laser induced fluorescence (LIF) with novel technique based on hyperfine transitions linewidths measurement. The results summarize advantages and drawbacks of these techniques and give a recommendation for their practical usage.

  7. MERITED LABOUR: METHODOLOGY AND METHODS OF EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Z. Shaimardanov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A methodological approach to the analysis of the economic category "merited labour", in which the employee is considered as a subject and an object of work at once is worked out, method of calculation of the integral index of merited labour in the subjects of Russia in the dynamics and in the context of industries and municipalities of the Sverdlovsk region is justified. Ratings of integral indicators of quality of life in terms of "merited labour" program are composed. Integral indices and ratings of decent work in the RF subjects and municipalities of the Sverdlovsk region are calculated and analyzed. The practical significance of the work consists in the possibility of use in forming the monitoring of social and labor sphere of the region taking into account regional specificity, and in application of the integral index of merited labour allowing to give a qualitative description of the social and labor sphere of the region and estimate the effectiveness of policies of executive power in this area.

  8. Systems and methods for circuit lifetime evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaps, Timothy L. (Inventor); Sheldon, Douglas J. (Inventor); Bowerman, Paul N. (Inventor); Everline, Chester J. (Inventor); Shalom, Eddy (Inventor); Rasmussen, Robert D. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Systems and methods for estimating the lifetime of an electrical system in accordance with embodiments of the invention are disclosed. One embodiment of the invention includes iteratively performing Worst Case Analysis (WCA) on a system design with respect to different system lifetimes using a computer to determine the lifetime at which the worst case performance of the system indicates the system will pass with zero margin or fail within a predetermined margin for error given the environment experienced by the system during its lifetime. In addition, performing WCA on a system with respect to a specific system lifetime includes identifying subcircuits within the system, performing Extreme Value Analysis (EVA) with respect to each subcircuit to determine whether the subcircuit fails EVA for the specific system lifetime, when the subcircuit passes EVA, determining that the subcircuit does not fail WCA for the specified system lifetime, when a subcircuit fails EVA performing at least one additional WCA process that provides a tighter bound on the WCA than EVA to determine whether the subcircuit fails WCA for the specified system lifetime, determining that the system passes WCA with respect to the specific system lifetime when all subcircuits pass WCA, and determining that the system fails WCA when at least one subcircuit fails WCA.

  9. A method proposal for cumulative environmental impact assessment based on the landscape vulnerability evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlickova, Katarina; Vyskupova, Monika, E-mail: vyskupova@fns.uniba.sk

    2015-01-15

    Cumulative environmental impact assessment deals with the occasional use in practical application of environmental impact assessment process. The main reasons are the difficulty of cumulative impact identification caused by lack of data, inability to measure the intensity and spatial effect of all types of impacts and the uncertainty of their future evolution. This work presents a method proposal to predict cumulative impacts on the basis of landscape vulnerability evaluation. For this purpose, qualitative assessment of landscape ecological stability is conducted and major vulnerability indicators of environmental and socio-economic receptors are specified and valuated. Potential cumulative impacts and the overall impact significance are predicted quantitatively in modified Argonne multiple matrixes while considering the vulnerability of affected landscape receptors and the significance of impacts identified individually. The method was employed in the concrete environmental impact assessment process conducted in Slovakia. The results obtained in this case study reflect that this methodology is simple to apply, valid for all types of impacts and projects, inexpensive and not time-consuming. The objectivity of the partial methods used in this procedure is improved by quantitative landscape ecological stability evaluation, assignment of weights to vulnerability indicators based on the detailed characteristics of affected factors, and grading impact significance. - Highlights: • This paper suggests a method proposal for cumulative impact prediction. • The method includes landscape vulnerability evaluation. • The vulnerability of affected receptors is determined by their sensitivity. • This method can increase the objectivity of impact prediction in the EIA process.

  10. Prevalence and correlates of psychopathology in children and adolescents evaluated with the strengths and difficulties questionnaire dysregulation profile in a clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, Juan José; Serrano-Drozdowskyj, Elena; García Nieto, Rebeca; Díaz de Neira-Hernando, Mónica; Pérez-Fominaya, Margarita; Molina-Pizarro, Cristian Antonio; De León-Martínez, Victoria; Baca-García, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The clinical presentation of children and adolescents referred to mental health services is frequently complicated by comorbid and severe affective and behavioral dysregulation. This dysregulation phenotype seems to be an indicator of overall psychopathology, symptom severity and functional impairment. Currently, this phenotype is assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist. However, the widely used Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) has been recently validated to screen the Dysregulation Profile (SDQ-DP) in clinical settings. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and demographic, psychosocial and clinical correlates of the SDQ-DP phenotype in a Spanish clinical sample. In a clinical sample of 623 consecutively referred children and adolescents (4-17 years old), we compared clinical and sociodemographic correlates between subjects who met the SDQ-DP criteria (DP) and those who did not (NO_DP). Sociodemographic data, parent-rated SDQ, Children's Global Assessment Scale, Clinical Global Impression, family Apgar scale and clinical diagnoses were collected by experienced child and adolescent psychiatrists. Overall in our sample, 175 subjects (28.1%) met the SDQ-DP criteria (DP group). Compared with the NO_DP group, the DP subjects had significantly higher scores on internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, problems with peers and overall problems as well as significantly lower scores on prosocial behavior. Clinical diagnoses assigned revealed that DP subjects showed significantly greater psychiatric comorbidity. DP subjects also showed significantly worse family functioning and increased symptom severity and significantly lower scores on psychosocial functioning. A high prevalence of children and adolescents with the dysregulated profile, assessed by the SDQ-DP, was found in our clinical setting. The SDQ-DP may serve as an index of overall psychological severity and functional impairment. In addition, it may indicate family

  11. Evaluation of the Lagrangian Marker Method in CTH: Taylor Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    ARL-TR-7235•MAR 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Evaluation of the Lagrangian Marker Method in CTH: Taylor Impact by Stephen Schraml Approved for...Research Laboratory Evaluation of the Lagrangian Marker Method in CTH: Taylor Impact by Stephen Schraml Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL...

  12. Using Developmental Evaluation Methods with Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Winkelen, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the use of developmental evaluation methods with community of practice programmes experiencing change or transition to better understand how to target support resources. Design/methodology/approach: The practical use of a number of developmental evaluation methods was explored in three organizations over a…

  13. EVALUATION METHODS USED FOR TANGIBLE ASSETS BY ECONOMIC ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csongor CSŐSZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available At many entities the net asset value is influenced by the evaluation methods applied for tangible assets, because the value of intangible assets and financial assets is small in most cases. The objective of this paper is to analyze the differences between the procedures / methods of evaluation applied by micro and small entities and medium and large entities for tangible assets in Romania and Hungary. Furthermore, we analyze the differences between the procedures / methods of evaluation applied by micro and small entities in Romania and Hungary, respectively the differences between medium and large entities regarding de evaluation methods for tangible assets in Romania and Hungary. For this empirical study the questionnaire is used – as research technique, and to demonstrate the significant differences between the evaluation methods we used the Kolmogorov – Smirnov Z test.

  14. [Reconstituting evaluation methods based on both qualitative and quantitative paradigms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Hiroaki; Okubo, Suguru; Yoshie, Satoru; Kai, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Debate about the relationship between quantitative and qualitative paradigms is often muddled and confusing and the clutter of terms and arguments has resulted in the concepts becoming obscure and unrecognizable. In this study we conducted content analysis regarding evaluation methods of qualitative healthcare research. We extracted descriptions on four types of evaluation paradigm (validity/credibility, reliability/credibility, objectivity/confirmability, and generalizability/transferability), and classified them into subcategories. In quantitative research, there has been many evaluation methods based on qualitative paradigms, and vice versa. Thus, it might not be useful to consider evaluation methods of qualitative paradigm are isolated from those of quantitative methods. Choosing practical evaluation methods based on the situation and prior conditions of each study is an important approach for researchers.

  15. New approach to equipment quality evaluation method with distinct functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljević Vladimir M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents new approach for improving method for quality evaluation and selection of equipment (devices and machinery by applying distinct functions. Quality evaluation and selection of devices and machinery is a multi-criteria problem which involves the consideration of numerous parameters of various origins. Original selection method with distinct functions is based on technical parameters with arbitrary evaluation of each parameter importance (weighting. Improvement of this method, presented in this paper, addresses the issue of weighting of parameters by using Delphi Method. Finally, two case studies are provided, which included quality evaluation of standard boilers for heating and evaluation of load-haul-dump (LHD machines, to demonstrate applicability of this approach. Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP is used as a control method.

  16. Deep Dive: Evaluation Methods for Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Clinicians currently use electronic health records (EHR) which have often not been designed with the user in mind. Participatory design requires a thorough evaluation of the system using mixed methods. When different methods yield conflicting results, synthesis is challenging. This panel will present four cases of triangulation approaches to evaluate EHR usability and usage in multiple institutions. The audience will have a better idea how to triangulate results from multiple innovative methods such as the use of eye-tracking techniques and mixed methods approaches to evaluation.

  17. 喂养困难儿童进食技能的评估及相关因素分析%Evaluation of eating skill development of children with feeding difficulty and analysis of its influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣; 李风景; 陈银花; 毛春婷; 李晓南

    2011-01-01

    目的 评估喂养困难儿童进食技能和喂养行为的相关因素,为临床干预提供科学依据.方法 采用直接问询法,通过问询父母了解189名6个月~4岁喂养困难儿童的喂养史,对其进行体格检查评估、膳食调查评估、喂养行为及进食技能发育水平评估,并运用多元逐步回归分析喂养困难儿童进食技能发育水平与喂养行为的关系.结果 189名儿童中进食技能发育落后者占50.3%(95/189).儿童进食行为问题依次为:进食不专心占91.0%(172/189),进食时间过长占54.5%(103/189),1~4岁嗜好零食占41.1%(60/146),进食恶心占27.0%(51/189).喂养人喂养行为问题包括:食物质地制备不合理,引入泥糊状或固体食物的时间延迟占36.0%(68/189);强迫进食占77.8%(147/189);长期追喂占78.8%(115/146);未能适时提供餐具训练为27.5%(52/189).经相关分析显示,儿童进食技能发育落后与不同质地食物及其引入时间延迟、未能适时进行餐具训练、进食不专心、家长喂养知识欠缺显著相关(F分别为11.892、10.256、3.601、5.007,均P<0.05).结论 喂养困难儿童存在多种喂养行为问题,食物的引入时间和质地、未能适时进行餐具训练、进食不专心、父母喂养知识欠缺对儿童进食技能发育产生显著影响.%Objective To evaluate eating skills of infants with feeding difficulty and feeding behavior so as to provide scientific basis for clinical interventions. Methods In direct inquiry method,the parents of 189 children aged 6 months to 4 years were investigated for feeding history of their children with feeding difficulty. The physical examination results, physical development, diet investigation results and feeding behavior and eating skill development of the children were evaluated. The relationship between eating skill development and their parents' feeding behaviors was analyzed with multiple stepwise regression analysis. Results In 189 children,50.3% (95

  18. A hybrid method for evaluating enterprise architecture implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikpay, Fatemeh; Ahmad, Rodina; Yin Kia, Chiam

    2017-02-01

    Enterprise Architecture (EA) implementation evaluation provides a set of methods and practices for evaluating the EA implementation artefacts within an EA implementation project. There are insufficient practices in existing EA evaluation models in terms of considering all EA functions and processes, using structured methods in developing EA implementation, employing matured practices, and using appropriate metrics to achieve proper evaluation. The aim of this research is to develop a hybrid evaluation method that supports achieving the objectives of EA implementation. To attain this aim, the first step is to identify EA implementation evaluation practices. To this end, a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) was conducted. Second, the proposed hybrid method was developed based on the foundation and information extracted from the SLR, semi-structured interviews with EA practitioners, program theory evaluation and Information Systems (ISs) evaluation. Finally, the proposed method was validated by means of a case study and expert reviews. This research provides a suitable foundation for researchers who wish to extend and continue this research topic with further analysis and exploration, and for practitioners who would like to employ an effective and lightweight evaluation method for EA projects.

  19. A Novel Output Prediction Method in Production Management Based on Parameter Evaluation Using DHNN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiantao Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Output prediction is one of the difficult issues in production management. To overcome this difficulty, a dynamic-improved multiple linear regression model based on parameter evaluation using discrete Hopfield neural networks (DHNN is presented. First, a traditional multiple linear regression model is established; this model takes the factors in production lifecycle (not only one phase of the production into account, such as manufacturing resources, manufacturing process, and product rejection rate, so it makes the output prediction be more accurate. Then a static-improved model is built using the backstepping method. Finally, we obtain the dynamic-improved model based on parameter evaluation using DHNN. These three models are applied to an aviation manufacturing enterprise based on the actual data, and the results of the output prediction show that the models have practical value.

  20. An evaluation of teaching methods utilized during an HIV miniresidency course for Thai physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, S C

    1997-02-01

    This study examines the efficacy of medical education methods in improving the knowledge base and clinical skills of participants attending a 2-day miniresidency course in HIV infection. Instructional methods included: a didactic lecture format, diagnostic algorithm presentation, color slide photographic demonstration, bedside teaching rounds, and "meet-the-professor" sessions. Questions to assess the various instructional formats were administered and teaching methods were evaluated. Fifty-seven Thai physicians, highly exposed to HIV patient care duties, completed both precourse and postcourse tests. Overall, significant improvement was noted in participant's final global test score. However, discrepancies existed among the efficacy of instructional methods. Recognizing physical signs of HIV infection, as taught by slide photographs, revealed a high baseline level of expertise. Statistically significant postcourse gains were made in physician's diagnostic decision-making ability and basic knowledge of HIV and AIDS taught respectively by the methods of a teaching algorithm and didactic lecture. Despite the latter, participation performed poorly regarding HIV case management. This observation may be related to test design and cultural differences but likely underscores the difficulty in imparting clinical HIV management skills to course participants over a short period of time. Future continuing medical education (CME) courses intended to enhance physician care for the HIV infected must strive to refine evaluation methods for assessing case management skills while exploring innovative instructional techniques when current methods are ineffective.

  1. Comparison of different approaches to evaluation of statistical error of the DSMC method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, M. Yu.; Shkarupa, E. V.

    2012-11-01

    Although the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is widely used for solving the steady problems of the rarefied gas dynamics, the questions of its statistical error evaluation are far from being absolutely clear. Typically, the statistical error in the Monte Carlo method is estimated by the standard deviation determined by the variance of the estimate and the number of its realizations. It is assumed that sampled realizations are independent. In distinction from the classical Monte Carlo method, in the DSMC method the time-averaged estimate is used and the sampled realizations are dependent. Additional difficulties in the evaluation of the statistical error are caused by the complexity of the estimates used in the DSMC method. In the presented work we compare two approaches to evaluating the statistical error. One of them is based on the results of the equilibrium statistical mechanics and the "persistent random walk". Another approach is based on the central limit theorem for Markov processes. Each of these approaches has its own benefits and disadvantages. The first approach mentioned above does not require additional computations to construct estimates of the statistical error. On the other hand it allows evaluating statistical error only in the case when all components of velocity and temperature are equivalent. The second approach to evaluating the statistical error is applicable to simulation by the DSMC method a flows with any degree of nonequilibrium. It allows evaluating the statistical errors of the estimates of velocity and temperature components. The comparison of these approaches was realized on the example of a number of classic problems with different degree of nonequilibrium.

  2. 对大学生竞技健美操难度动作训练方法的研究%On College Students'Competitive Aerobics Difficulty Movement Training Method Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕延峰

    2011-01-01

    大学生竞技健美操近几年发展迅速,难度动作作为竞技健美操的一个重要部分,其发展也相当迅速,难度动作的训练方法直接影响其完成质量。通过运用文献资料、逻辑分析的方法,结合实际健美操训练实践对难度动作训练的方法进行了探讨,为大学生竞技健美操的全面发展提供基础理论支持。%Students Aerobics rapid development in recent years,the difficulty of the action as a competitive bodybuilding is an important part of its development is quite rapid and difficult action to complete the training methods that directly affect their quality.In this paper,literature,logical analysis method,combined with practical training practice aerobics training action of the difficulty of the method are discussed,for college students the comprehensive development of competitive bodybuilding to make a basic theoretical support.

  3. DATA SYNTHESIS AND METHOD EVALUATION FOR BRAIN IMAGING GENETICS

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, Jinhua; Kim, Sungeun; Yan, Jingwen; Moore, Jason; Saykin, Andrew; Shen, Li

    2014-01-01

    Brain imaging genetics is an emergent research field where the association between genetic variations such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and neuroimaging quantitative traits (QTs) is evaluated. Sparse canonical correlation analysis (SCCA) is a bi-multivariate analysis method that has the potential to reveal complex multi-SNP-multi-QT associations. We present initial efforts on evaluating a few SCCA methods for brain imaging genetics. This includes a data synthesis method to create...

  4. Evaluating website quality: Five studies on user-focused evaluation methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elling, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of evaluating websites among potential users are widely acknowledged. There are several methods that can be used to evaluate the websites’ quality from a users’ perspective. In current practice, many evaluations are executed with inadequate methods that lack research-based validation. T

  5. Intellectual Data Analysis Method for Evaluation of Virtual Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Strigūnaitė

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to present a method for virtual team performance evaluation based on intelligent team member collaboration data analysis. The motivation for the research is based on the ability to create an evaluation method that is similar to ambiguous expert evaluations. The concept of the hierarchical fuzzy rule based method aims to evaluate the data from virtual team interaction instances related to implementation of project tasks. The suggested method is designed for project managers or virtual team leaders to help in virtual teamwork evaluation that is based on captured data analysis. The main point of the method is the ability to repeat human thinking and expert valuation process for data analysis by applying fuzzy logic: fuzzy sets, fuzzy signatures and fuzzy rules. The fuzzy set principle used in the method allows evaluation criteria numerical values to transform into linguistic terms and use it in constructing fuzzy rules. Using a fuzzy signature is possible in constructing a hierarchical criteria structure. This structure helps to solve the problem of exponential increase of fuzzy rules including more input variables. The suggested method is aimed to be applied in the virtual collaboration software as a real time teamwork evaluation tool. The research shows that by applying fuzzy logic for team collaboration data analysis it is possible to get evaluations equal to expert insights. The method includes virtual team, project task and team collaboration data analysis. The advantage of the suggested method is the possibility to use variables gained from virtual collaboration systems as fuzzy rules inputs. Information on fuzzy logic based virtual teamwork collaboration evaluation has evidence that can be investigated in the future. Also the method can be seen as the next virtual collaboration software development step.

  6. Intellectual Data Analysis Method for Evaluation of Virtual Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Krikščiūnienė

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to present a method for virtual team performance evaluation based on intelligent team member collaboration data analysis. The motivation for the research is based on the ability to create an evaluation method that is similar to ambiguous expert evaluations. The concept of the hierarchical fuzzy rule based method aims to evaluate the data from virtual team interaction instances related to implementation of project tasks.The suggested method is designed for project managers or virtual team leaders to help in virtual teamwork evaluation that is based on captured data analysis. The main point of the method is the ability to repeat human thinking and expert valuation process for data analysis by applying fuzzy logic: fuzzy sets, fuzzy signatures and fuzzy rules.The fuzzy set principle used in the method allows evaluation criteria numerical values to transform into linguistic terms and use it in constructing fuzzy rules. Using a fuzzy signature is possible in constructing a hierarchical criteria structure. This structure helps to solve the problem of exponential increase of fuzzy rules including more input variables.The suggested method is aimed to be applied in the virtual collaboration software as a real time teamwork evaluation tool. The research shows that by applying fuzzy logic for team collaboration data analysis it is possible to get evaluations equal to expert insights. The method includes virtual team, project task and team collaboration data analysis.The advantage of the suggested method is the possibility to use variables gained from virtual collaboration systems as fuzzy rules inputs. Information on fuzzy logic based virtual teamwork collaboration evaluation has evidence that can be investigated in the future. Also the method can be seen as the next virtual collaboration software development step.

  7. A method for evaluating models that use galaxy rotation curves to derive the density profiles

    CERN Document Server

    de Almeida, Álefe O F; Rodrigues, Davi C

    2016-01-01

    There are some approaches, either based on General Relativity (GR) or modified gravity, that use galaxy rotation curves to derive the matter density of the corresponding galaxy, and this procedure would either indicate a partial or a complete elimination of dark matter in galaxies. Here we review these approaches, clarify the difficulties on this inverted procedure, present a method for evaluating them, and use it to test two specific approaches that are based on GR: the Cooperstock-Tieu (CT) and the Balasin-Grumiller (BG) approaches. Using this new method, we find that neither of the tested approaches can satisfactorily fit the observational data without dark matter. The CT approach results can be significantly improved if some dark matter is considered, while for the BG approach no usual dark matter halo can improve its results.

  8. A method for evaluating models that use galaxy rotation curves to derive the density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Álefe O. F.; Piattella, Oliver F.; Rodrigues, Davi C.

    2016-11-01

    There are some approaches, either based on General Relativity (GR) or modified gravity, that use galaxy rotation curves to derive the matter density of the corresponding galaxy, and this procedure would either indicate a partial or a complete elimination of dark matter in galaxies. Here we review these approaches, clarify the difficulties on this inverted procedure, present a method for evaluating them, and use it to test two specific approaches that are based on GR: the Cooperstock-Tieu (CT) and the Balasin-Grumiller (BG) approaches. Using this new method, we find that neither of the tested approaches can satisfactorily fit the observational data without dark matter. The CT approach results can be significantly improved if some dark matter is considered, while for the BG approach no usual dark matter halo can improve its results.

  9. Evaluation of laryngoscopic view, intubation difficulty and sympathetic response during direct laryngoscopy in sniffing position and simple head extension: a prospective and randomized comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmi Pal; Sangeeta Chauhan; Bhanu Kumar Ved; Shankar Rao Lad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Airway management is critical to the care of patients and direct laryngoscopy is the mainstay of airway management. Despite the proliferation of difficult airway devices, sniffing position for laryngoscopy remains the gold standard and ideal position. This prospective, randomized and single-blind study was done to evaluate and compare the laryngoscopic view, complexity of intubation and sympathetic response during laryngoscopy in sniffing position and simple head extension. Met...

  10. User perspectives on query difficulty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Schütze, Hinrich

    2011-01-01

    , or to statistical and linguistic features of the queries that may render them difficult. This work addresses query difficulty from a different angle, namely the users’ own perspectives on query difficulty. Two research questions are asked: (1) Are users aware that the query they submit to an IR system may......The difficulty of a user query can affect the performance of Information Retrieval (IR) systems. What makes a query difficult and how one may predict this is an active research area, focusing mainly on factors relating to the retrieval algorithm, to the properties of the retrieval data...... for synthesising the user-assessed causes of query difficulty through opinion fusion into an overall assessment of query difficulty. The resulting assessments of query difficulty are found to agree notably more to the TREC categories than the direct user assessments....

  11. A Preliminary Rubric Design to Evaluate Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in frequency of the use of mixed methods, both in research publications and in externally funded grants there are increasing calls for a set of standards to assess the quality of mixed methods research. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to conduct a multi-phase analysis to create a preliminary rubric to evaluate mixed…

  12. A Preliminary Rubric Design to Evaluate Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in frequency of the use of mixed methods, both in research publications and in externally funded grants there are increasing calls for a set of standards to assess the quality of mixed methods research. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to conduct a multi-phase analysis to create a preliminary rubric to evaluate mixed…

  13. On the computational assessment of white matter hyperintensity progression: difficulties in method selection and bias field correction performance on images with significant white matter pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes Hernandez, Maria del C.; Gonzalez-Castro, Victor; Wang, Xin; Doubal, Fergus; Munoz Maniega, Susana; Wardlaw, Joanna M. [Centre for Clinical Brian Sciences, Department of Neuroimaging Sciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Ghandour, Dina T. [University of Edinburgh, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Armitage, Paul A. [University of Sheffield, Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    Subtle inhomogeneities in the scanner's magnetic fields (B{sub 0} and B{sub 1}) alter the intensity levels of the structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) affecting the volumetric assessment of WMH changes. Here, we investigate the influence that (1) correcting the images for the B{sub 1} inhomogeneities (i.e. bias field correction (BFC)) and (2) selection of the WMH change assessment method can have on longitudinal analyses of WMH progression and discuss possible solutions. We used brain structural MRI from 46 mild stroke patients scanned at stroke onset and 3 years later. We tested three BFC approaches: FSL-FAST, N4 and exponentially entropy-driven homomorphic unsharp masking (E{sup 2}D-HUM) and analysed their effect on the measured WMH change. Separately, we tested two methods to assess WMH changes: measuring WMH volumes independently at both time points semi-automatically (MCMxxxVI) and subtracting intensity-normalised FLAIR images at both time points following image gamma correction. We then combined the BFC with the computational method that performed best across the whole sample to assess WMH changes. Analysis of the difference in the variance-to-mean intensity ratio in normal tissue between BFC and uncorrected images and visual inspection showed that all BFC methods altered the WMH appearance and distribution, but FSL-FAST in general performed more consistently across the sample and MRI modalities. The WMH volume change over 3 years obtained with MCMxxxVI with vs. without FSL-FAST BFC did not significantly differ (medians(IQR)(with BFC) = 3.2(6.3) vs. 2.9(7.4)ml (without BFC), p = 0.5), but both differed significantly from the WMH volume change obtained from subtracting post-processed FLAIR images (without BFC)(7.6(8.2)ml, p < 0.001). This latter method considerably inflated the WMH volume change as subtle WMH at baseline that became more intense at follow-up were counted as increase in the volumetric change. Measurement of WMH volume change remains

  14. A online credit evaluation method based on AHP and SPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingtao; Zhang, Ying

    2009-07-01

    Online credit evaluation is the foundation for the establishment of trust and for the management of risk between buyers and sellers in e-commerce. In this paper, a new credit evaluation method based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and the set pair analysis (SPA) is presented to determine the credibility of the electronic commerce participants. It solves some of the drawbacks found in classical credit evaluation methods and broadens the scope of current approaches. Both qualitative and quantitative indicators are considered in the proposed method, then a overall credit score is achieved from the optimal perspective. In the end, a case analysis of China Garment Network is provided for illustrative purposes.

  15. A Design Process Evaluation Method for Sustainable Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S. Magent

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This research develops a technique to model and evaluate the design process for sustainable buildings. Three case studies were conducted to validate this method. The resulting design process evaluation method for sustainable buildings (DPEMSB may assist project teams in designing their own sustainable building design processes. This method helps to identify critical decisions in the design process, to evaluate these decisions for time and sequence, to define information required for decisions from various project stakeholders, and to identify stakeholder competencies for process implementation. Published in the Journal AEDM - Volume 5, Numbers 1-2, 2009 , pp. 62-74(13

  16. Methods for Evaluating Text Extraction Toolkits: An Exploratory Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-22

    M T R 1 4 0 4 4 3 R 2 M I T R E T E C H N I C A L R E P O R T Methods for Evaluating Text Extraction Toolkits : An...JAN 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Methods for Evaluating Text Extraction Toolkits : An...contributes to closing this gap. We discuss an exploratory investigation into a method and a set of tools for evaluating a text extraction toolkit

  17. A new method for designing floor slabs on grade due to the difficulty of applying simplified design methods, amongst them being the Portland Cement Association (PCA and Wire Reinforcement Institute (WRI methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Ernesto Camero Sanabrial

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a methodology for designing slabs on grade for industrial floors where there is an eccentricity between the slab centroid and the gravity centre loads of the loaded axle of forklift trucks travelling over the floor. An example was used for analysing how Portland Cement Association (PCA and the Wire Reinforcement Institute (WRI methods are inadequate for designing floors sublected to this condition. The new proposal for designing slabs on grade for industrial floors has been called the Camero method. An example of an industrial floor designed to be capable of sustaining an infinite number of load applications (or 50-year life was compared to the results of the Camero method and PCA and WRI’s simplified methods. Industrial floors should be capable of sustaining an infinite number of load applications (50-year life if designed with the Camero method; on the other hand, if designed using PCA and WRI methods they will only last one year (in this example the number of axle load applications in a 1-year period was equal to the number of allowable repetitions because they will not be able to sustain an infinite number of load applications. It was concluded that designing plain concrete slabs (without reinforcement on grade according to PCA and the WRI methods leads to slab fatigue, even though extreme fibre stress should not exceed 50 percent (50% of static modulus of concrete rupture and slabs should sustain an infinite number of load repetitions (infinite amount of forklift truck traffic were considered parameters in their design.

  18. The study of coal mine equipment's comprehensive evaluation index system and evaluation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin-hua; SHI Guo-qing

    2004-01-01

    Equipment management is one of the important parts of business administration of coal. Most of coal mines take no account of their equipment management, and have no comprehensive and effective evaluation index system. Based on the analysis of the equipment evaluation measures of reform and the applications, the paper built up a comprehensive and effective evaluation index system of coal mine equipment, and improved the evaluation method with the use of fuzzy theory, analytic hierarchy process and entropy method.

  19. Finding function: evaluation methods for functional genomic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett Daniel R

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate evaluation of the quality of genomic or proteomic data and computational methods is vital to our ability to use them for formulating novel biological hypotheses and directing further experiments. There is currently no standard approach to evaluation in functional genomics. Our analysis of existing approaches shows that they are inconsistent and contain substantial functional biases that render the resulting evaluations misleading both quantitatively and qualitatively. These problems make it essentially impossible to compare computational methods or large-scale experimental datasets and also result in conclusions that generalize poorly in most biological applications. Results We reveal issues with current evaluation methods here and suggest new approaches to evaluation that facilitate accurate and representative characterization of genomic methods and data. Specifically, we describe a functional genomics gold standard based on curation by expert biologists and demonstrate its use as an effective means of evaluation of genomic approaches. Our evaluation framework and gold standard are freely available to the community through our website. Conclusion Proper methods for evaluating genomic data and computational approaches will determine how much we, as a community, are able to learn from the wealth of available data. We propose one possible solution to this problem here but emphasize that this topic warrants broader community discussion.

  20. Testability integrated evaluation method based on testability virtual test data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Guanjun; Zhao Chenxu; Qiu Jing; Zhang Yong

    2014-01-01

    Testability virtual test is a new test method for testability verification, which has the advantages such as low cost, few restrictions and large sample of test data. It can be used to make up the deficiency of testability physical test. In order to take the advantage of testability virtual test data effectively and to improve the accuracy of testability evaluation, a testability integrated eval-uation method is proposed in this paper based on testability virtual test data. Considering the char-acteristic of testability virtual test data, the credibility analysis method for testability virtual test data is studied firstly. Then the integrated calculation method is proposed fusing the testability vir-tual and physical test data. Finally, certain helicopter heading and attitude system is presented to demonstrate the proposed method. The results show that the testability integrated evaluation method is feasible and effective.

  1. 改良饮食模式对脑卒中后吞咽困难患者的效果评价%Effect evaluation of improved dietary patterns on swallowing difficulties of patients with stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖色青; 梁丹清; 王红; 梁云花; 韩春蕾

    2015-01-01

    Objective Effect evaluation of improved dietary patterns on swallowing difficulties of patients with stroke. Methods 72 cases of dysphagia after stroke were randomly divided into treatment group (36 cases) and control group (36 cases). Patients in the con-trol group were treated with conventional treatment and common dietary patterns. Patients in the treatment group were treated with the im-proved dietary patterns. 3 and 6 months later, neurological function ( modified Rankin Scale score of MRS) and the incidence of aspiration pneumonia were compared. Results The incidence of aspiration pneumonia in treatment group was significantly lower than that of control group and nerve function was significantly better than that of control group ( P<0. 05 ) . Conclusions Improved dietary patterns of post-stroke patients with dysphagia intervention could significantly reduce the occurrence of aspiration pneumonia and promote the recovery of neu-rological function.%目的:探讨改良饮食模式对脑卒中后吞咽困难患者的影响。方法将72例脑卒中后吞咽困难的患者随机分成治疗组和对照组各36例,两组患者在采取常规的治疗方法的基础上,对照组采取普通的饮食模式;治疗组则采取改良饮食模式。治疗3个月及6个月后比较两组患者神经功能(改良的Rankin量表评分,MRS)和吸入性肺炎的发病情况。结果治疗组吸入性肺炎的发生率明显低于对照组,神经功能情况明显优于对照组,差异均具有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论对脑卒中后吞咽困难患者进行改良饮食模式干预,可明显减少吸入性肺炎的发生,促进神经功能的恢复。

  2. Entrepreneur environment management behavior evaluation method derived from environmental economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Hou, Xilin; Xi, Fengru

    2013-12-01

    Evaluation system can encourage and guide entrepreneurs, and impel them to perform well in environment management. An evaluation method based on advantage structure is established. It is used to analyze entrepreneur environment management behavior in China. Entrepreneur environment management behavior evaluation index system is constructed based on empirical research. Evaluation method of entrepreneurs is put forward, from the point of objective programming-theory to alert entrepreneurs concerned to think much of it, which means to take minimized objective function as comprehensive evaluation result and identify disadvantage structure pattern. Application research shows that overall behavior of Chinese entrepreneurs environmental management are good, specially, environment strategic behavior are best, environmental management behavior are second, cultural behavior ranks last. Application results show the efficiency and feasibility of this method.

  3. Program evaluation and its application to equipment based on super-efficiency DEA and gray relation projection method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linbing Tang; Dong Guo; Jie Wu; Qingmei Tan

    2014-01-01

    For the gray attributes of the equipment program and its difficulty to carry out the quantitative assessment of the equip-ment program information, the gray relation projection method is simply reviewed. Combining the super-data envelopment analysis (DEA) model and the gray system theory, a new super-DEA for measuring the weight is proposed, and a gray relation projection model is established to rank the equipment programs. Final y, this approach is used to evaluate the equipment program. The results are verified valid and can provide a new way for evaluating the equipment program.

  4. Rockburst hazard evaluation and prevention methods in Polish copper mines

    OpenAIRE

    Butra, Jan; Kudełko, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Longstanding mining of copper deposit in the Legnica-Glogow Mining Basin (LGOM area) enabled to gain broad experience concerning the impact of geological and mining conditions on seismic and rockburst hazard. Basing on gathered data, the methods of rockburst prevention for deep copper mines were developed. Methods of rockburst hazard evaluation as well as rockburst control methods constitute a set of rockburst prevention. The prevention methods due to their nature and location within the prod...

  5. Equitable Financial Evaluation Method for Public-Private Partnership Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Yongjian; LIU Xinping; WANG Shouqing

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility study of a public-private partnership (PPP) project is regarded as one of the critical factors for successful implementation,but unfortunately the common financial evaluation methods currently used only represent the benefits of the private sector.There is,therefore,an urgent need to develop an equitable financial evaluation method for PPP projects.This paper presents a comprehensive literature review that examines international practices.An equitable financial evaluation method was then developed taking into account the inherent characteristics of PPP projects using six separate indicators and Monte Carlo simulations.The result for a bridge project in Romania shows that the method combines the viewpoints of all the relevant stakeholders to achieve an equitable financial evaluation of PPP projects.

  6. A Quantitative Evaluation Method for Transportation Network Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Qin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of a transportation network is the comprehensive performance index of the network. In order to evaluate the operation situation of the transportation network objectively, the scientific quantitative evaluation method for the network efficiency is very important. In this study, a new quantitative evaluation method for transportation network efficiency is developed, which could evaluate the transportation network performance comprehensively and reasonably. The method is defined in the context of network equilibrium, which could reflect the influences of travel behavior, travel cost, travel demands and link flows, all in equilibrium state, on network efficiency. The computation results compared with a previously proposed one by numerical example, which denote that the new method can quantitatively reflect the influence on the transportation network efficiency induced by traffic flows, user behavior and network structure, which accords with the practical situation.

  7. ASTM test methods for composite characterization and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, John E.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of the American Society for Testing and Materials is given. Under the topic of composite materials characterization and evaluation, general industry practice and test methods for textile composites are presented.

  8. Methods, measures and indicators for evaluating benefits of transportation research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, Louw

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide updated information by identifying and discussing methods, measures and indicators for evaluating benefits appropriate for transportation-related research facilities/programmes. The information has been...

  9. EVALUATION OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR DETERMINING PESTICIDES IN BABY FOOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three extraction methods and two detection techniques for determining pesticides in baby food were evaluated. The extraction techniques examined were supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), enhanced solvent extraction (ESE), and solid phase extraction (SPE). The detection techni...

  10. A dynamic performance evaluation method based on SD-BSC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG Chun-xian; PAN Xiao-dong; HU Xian-wu

    2007-01-01

    Taking into consideration the disadvantage of Balanced Scorecard (BSC) not being able to reflect time delay, nonlinear problems of causal relationship and being lack of effective simulation, we combined it with the characteristics of the System Dynamics (SD). Basing on the background of manufacturing enterprises,through SD integrating with the BSC we established a new performance evaluation method-SD-BSC method to overcome the disadvantage of BSC. A performance evaluation model of SD-BSC is provided and the simulation results are analyzed which show different production policies will lead to different customer's satisfaction degrees. The SD-BSC dynamic performance evaluation method can reflect dynamic, complex causal feedback relationship and time delay, so it compensates for the disadvantage of traditional financial performance evaluation method, and at the same time makes the BSC perfect.

  11. Study on Method of Comprehensive Evaluating for Information System Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a new method of evaluation for information system project is propoeed on the basis of the meta-synthesis methodology from qualitative analysis to quantitative analysis. DHGF is an integrated method of improved Delphi, analytic hierarchy process, grey interconnect degree and fuzzy comprehensive evaluating. It gives full play to their advantages and controls theirs disadvantages. The feasibility and effectiveness of DHGF are shown in the practical example.

  12. CHARACTERISTICS OF MIRR METHOD IN EVALUATION OF INVESTMENT PROJECTS' EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kukhta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There were analyzed characteristics of the Modified Internal Rate of Return method in the evaluation of investment projects, restrictions connected with its application, advantages and disadvantages compared with indicators of the original Internal Rate of Return and Net Present Value for projects with certain baseline characteristics. It was determined opportunities to adapt the method of Modified Internal Rate of Return to alternative computational approaches of the project cash flows evaluation.

  13. A formative multi-method approach to evaluating training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Holly; Scott, Victoria; Abraczinskas, Michelle; Scaccia, Jonathan; Stout, Soma; Wandersman, Abraham

    2016-10-01

    This article describes how we used a formative multi-method evaluation approach to gather real-time information about the processes of a complex, multi-day training with 24 community coalitions in the United States. The evaluation team used seven distinct, evaluation strategies to obtain evaluation data from the first Community Health Improvement Leadership Academy (CHILA) within a three-prong framework (inquiry, observation, and reflection). These methods included: comprehensive survey, rapid feedback form, learning wall, observational form, team debrief, social network analysis and critical moments reflection. The seven distinct methods allowed for both real time quality improvement during the CHILA and long term planning for the next CHILA. The methods also gave a comprehensive picture of the CHILA, which when synthesized allowed the evaluation team to assess the effectiveness of a training designed to tap into natural community strengths and accelerate health improvement. We hope that these formative evaluation methods can continue to be refined and used by others to evaluate training.

  14. Can health professionals learn qualitative evaluation methods on the World Wide Web? A case example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, A; Farel, A; Bontempi, J B; Umble, K; Polhamus, B; Trester, A

    2001-12-01

    The Enhancing Data Utilization Skills through Information Technology (EDUSIT) project trained Maternal and Child Health professionals to collect, analyze and interpret data via a year-long web-based course. The overall goal of the project was to strengthen the technology and analytic skills of the public health workforce. This article describes and analyzes a web-based module for training public health professionals to use qualitative research and evaluation methods that was one of six offered within the EDUSIT project. The qualitative module consisted of six units: overview of qualitative methods, planning qualitative studies, conducting field observations, qualitative interviewing, analyzing qualitative data and presenting qualitative findings. Evaluation results found no statistically significant changes in specific knowledge or beliefs about qualitative methods. However, the change in participants' self-efficacy was statistically significant. Participants' self-reports also showed significant changes in perceived skill levels in 'collecting qualitative data through an interview' and 'analyzing and interpreting qualitative data'. Most participants rated each lesson within the qualitative methods module as valuable, and most found the teaching methods used satisfactory, emphasizing the value of both the didactic teaching and the practical exercises and team project. The most common difficulty reported was finding the time to complete the module requirements while also working full-time. Implications of these findings for web-based teaching of public health professionals are discussed.

  15. An evaluation of acculturation stress,mental health issues and adaptation difficulties of international students in China%中国某高校留学生跨文化适应压力及其心理因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Zahid abbas; 梁雪梅; 刘可智

    2014-01-01

    目的:调查留学生跨文化适应压力的检出率及其相关因素。同时了解留学生的生理、心理因素与社会适应及中国文化之间的相互作用。方法采用抑郁焦虑压力量表、修订版社会文化适应量表和留学生版跨文化适应量表调查某高校共100名来自9个不同国家的留学生。结果调查结果显示32%的留学生存在跨文化适应压力问题,排前两位的适应问题分别是思念家乡和饮食问题。同时,留学生也存在压力、抑郁和焦虑等心理问题,不同年级留学生的压力问题发生率分别为:大一9.6%、大二37.5%、大三10.6%、大四25%、大五25%。抑郁症状发生率分别为:大一28.6%、大二12.5%、大三5%、大四40%和大五31.2%。焦虑症状发生率分别为:大一52.3%、大二37.5%、大三12.1%、大四30%和大五28.1%。社会文化适应第一位障碍是语言问题,其次是留学生在中国文化下保留自己的风俗习惯和个人兴趣的问题。结论留学生的适应问题突出,高校有必要加强引导和制定相关政策,以便留学生更好的适应中国文化。%Objective The purpose of present study was to determine the prevalence of acculturative stress,mental health is-sues and adaptation difficulties among international students in China.This study was also aimed to understand the physical, social and psychological interaction of international students in the host culture.Methods A total of 100 international students from nine countries completed the self administered questionnaires which were Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-2 1 ),Revised Socio Cultural Adj ustment Scale (SCAS-R),and Acculturative Stress Scale for International Students (ASSIS). These different scales were used to evaluate acculturation stress,mental health issues and adaptation difficulties respectively. Results Results showed that 32 percent of students were facing acculturation stress in new culture.The main

  16. Validation of Land Cover Products Using Reliability Evaluation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhong Shi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Validation of land cover products is a fundamental task prior to data applications. Current validation schemes and methods are, however, suited only for assessing classification accuracy and disregard the reliability of land cover products. The reliability evaluation of land cover products should be undertaken to provide reliable land cover information. In addition, the lack of high-quality reference data often constrains validation and affects the reliability results of land cover products. This study proposes a validation schema to evaluate the reliability of land cover products, including two methods, namely, result reliability evaluation and process reliability evaluation. Result reliability evaluation computes the reliability of land cover products using seven reliability indicators. Process reliability evaluation analyzes the reliability propagation in the data production process to obtain the reliability of land cover products. Fuzzy fault tree analysis is introduced and improved in the reliability analysis of a data production process. Research results show that the proposed reliability evaluation scheme is reasonable and can be applied to validate land cover products. Through the analysis of the seven indicators of result reliability evaluation, more information on land cover can be obtained for strategic decision-making and planning, compared with traditional accuracy assessment methods. Process reliability evaluation without the need for reference data can facilitate the validation and reflect the change trends of reliabilities to some extent.

  17. The evaluation of reflective learning from the nursing student's point of view: A mixed method approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Peña, Rosario; Fuentes-Pumarola, Concepció; Malagón-Aguilera, M Carme; Bonmatí-Tomàs, Anna; Bosch-Farré, Cristina; Ballester-Ferrando, David

    2016-09-01

    Adapting university programmes to European Higher Education Area criteria has required substantial changes in curricula and teaching methodologies. Reflective learning (RL) has attracted growing interest and occupies an important place in the scientific literature on theoretical and methodological aspects of university instruction. However, fewer studies have focused on evaluating the RL methodology from the point of view of nursing students. To assess nursing students' perceptions of the usefulness and challenges of RL methodology. Mixed method design, using a cross-sectional questionnaire and focus group discussion. The research was conducted via self-reported reflective learning questionnaire complemented by focus group discussion. Students provided a positive overall evaluation of RL, highlighting the method's capacity to help them better understand themselves, engage in self-reflection about the learning process, optimize their strengths and discover additional training needs, along with searching for continuous improvement. Nonetheless, RL does not help them as much to plan their learning or identify areas of weakness or needed improvement in knowledge, skills and attitudes. Among the difficulties or challenges, students reported low motivation and lack of familiarity with this type of learning, along with concerns about the privacy of their reflective journals and about the grading criteria. In general, students evaluated RL positively. The results suggest areas of needed improvement related to unfamiliarity with the methodology, ethical aspects of developing a reflective journal and the need for clear evaluation criteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Students' Difficulties with Quantum Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Guangtian

    2016-01-01

    We describe some common difficulties advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with concepts related to quantum measurement. We administered written tests to students enrolled in quantum mechanics courses and interviewed a subset of them to probe the difficulties in-depth and analyze their possible origins. Results from this research can be applied to develop learning tools to improve students' understanding of quantum measurement.

  19. Early Identification of Reading Difficulties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber; Juul, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Early screening for reading difficulties before the onset of instruction is desirable because it allows intervention that is targeted at prevention rather than remediation of reading difficulties. However, early screening may be too inaccurate to effectively allocate resources to those who need...

  20. Dyslexia and English: Degree of Difficulties Faced by the Students with Dyslexia while Learning English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevi Kaperoni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the hypothesis that students diagnosed with dyslexia face a greater amount of difficulty when they attempt to learn a foreign language and especially English. On a survey carried out in the form of a questionnaire, two groups of students completed the same questionnaire regarding their difficulty to learn the basic skills such as reading, writing, listening, and speaking. The questions mostly focused on the difficulty they may face in spelling, reading, and listening which are the main aspects of the language dyslexic students’ score lower than students without dyslexia. The answers were evaluated with the use of the statistical method of t-test. The findings of the survey displayed a great difference on the score chosen by the two teams, which indicates the greater degree of difficulty the dyslexic students face confirming the original hypothesis.

  1. Prevalence and factors associated with food intake difficulties among residents with dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Chi; Chiu, Chia-Hui; Liao, Yuan-Mei; Ho, Mu-Hsing; Chou, Kuei-Ru; Liu, Megan F.

    2017-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the prevalence of food intake difficulties and their associated factors among residents with dementia in long-term care facilities in Taiwan. The purpose of the study was to identify the best cutoff point for the Chinese Feeding Difficulty Index (Ch-FDI), which evaluates the prevalence of food intake difficulties and recognizes factors associated with eating behaviors in residents with dementia. Methods and findings A cross-sectional design was adopted. In total, 213 residents with dementia in long-term care facilities in Taiwan were recruited and participated in this study. The prevalence rate of food intake difficulties as measured by the Chinese Feeding Difficulty Index (Ch-FDI) was 44.6%. Factors associated with food intake difficulties during lunch were the duration of institutionalization (beta = 0.176), the level of activities of daily living-feeding (ADL-Q1) (beta = -0.235), and the length of the eating time (beta = 0.416). Associated factors during dinner were the illuminance level (beta = -0.204), sound volume level (beta = 0.187), ADL-Q1 (beta = -0.177), and eating time (beta = 0.395). Conclusions Food intake difficulties may potentially be associated with multiple factors including physical function and the dining environment according to the 45% prevalence rate among dementia residents in long-term care facilities. PMID:28225776

  2. A High Precision Comprehensive Evaluation Method for Flood Disaster Loss Based on Improved Genetic Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yuliang; LU Guihua; JIN Juliang; TONG Fang; ZHOU Ping

    2006-01-01

    Precise comprehensive evaluation of flood disaster loss is significant for the prevention and mitigation of flood disasters. Here, one of the difficulties involved is how to establish a model capable of describing the complex relation between the input and output data of the system of flood disaster loss. Genetic programming (GP) solves problems by using ideas from genetic algorithm and generates computer programs automatically. In this study a new method named the evaluation of the grade of flood disaster loss (EGFD) on the basis of improved genetic programming (IGP) is presented (IGPEGFD). The flood disaster area and the direct economic loss are taken as the evaluation indexes of flood disaster loss. Obviously that the larger the evaluation index value, the larger the corresponding value of the grade of flood disaster loss is. Consequently the IGP code is designed to make the value of the grade of flood disaster be an increasing function of the index value. The result of the application of the IGP-EGFD model to Henan Province shows that a good function expression can be obtained within a bigger searched function space; and the model is of high precision and considerable practical significance.Thus, IGP-EGFD can be widely used in automatic modeling and other evaluation systems.

  3. THE MOST PROMISING EMPLOYEE EVALUATION METHODS IN MODERN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana I. DROGOMYRETSKA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The essay is dedicated to the development of better understanding of the main goals of employee performance evaluation as an indispensable component of managing employees in modern organizations. It is suggested that most employers traditionally use a great number of appraisal methods to assess their employee performance. Traditional methods base their findings on the personality qualities of an individual like creativity, responsibility and leadership. Unlike them, the modern methods widely used in different companies, laid more stress on the employee evaluation work results. Finally, it is concluded that employee performance evaluation is the most burning problem faced by employers in today’s fast-moving business environment. That is why it is very important to understand the main organization’s tasks to select the right employee evaluation.

  4. Designing, Teaching, and Evaluating Two Complementary Mixed Methods Research Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    Teaching mixed methods research is difficult. This longitudinal explanatory study examined how two classes were designed, taught, and evaluated. Curriculum, Research, and Teaching (EDCS-606) and Mixed Methods Research (EDCS-780) used a research proposal generation process to highlight the importance of the purpose, research question and…

  5. Designing, Teaching, and Evaluating Two Complementary Mixed Methods Research Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    Teaching mixed methods research is difficult. This longitudinal explanatory study examined how two classes were designed, taught, and evaluated. Curriculum, Research, and Teaching (EDCS-606) and Mixed Methods Research (EDCS-780) used a research proposal generation process to highlight the importance of the purpose, research question and…

  6. What Can Mixed Methods Designs Offer Professional Development Program Evaluators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Victoria; Nevin, Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe the benefits and pitfalls of mixed methods designs. They argue that mixed methods designs may be preferred when evaluating professional development programs for p-K-12 education given the new call for accountability in making data-driven decisions. They summarize and critique the studies in terms of limitations…

  7. New Knowledge Network Evaluation Method for Design Rationale Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING Shikai; ZHAN Hongfei; LIU Jihong; WANG Kuan; JIANG Hao; ZHOU Jingtao

    2015-01-01

    Current design rationale (DR) systems have not demonstrated the value of the approach in practice since little attention is put to the evaluation method of DR knowledge. To systematize knowledge management process for future computer-aided DR applications, a prerequisite is to provide the measure for the DR knowledge. In this paper, a new knowledge network evaluation method for DR management is presented. The method characterizes the DR knowledge value from four perspectives, namely, the design rationale structure scale, association knowledge and reasoning ability, degree of design justification support and degree of knowledge representation conciseness. The DR knowledge comprehensive value is also measured by the proposed method. To validate the proposed method, different style of DR knowledge network and the performance of the proposed measure are discussed. The evaluation method has been applied in two realistic design cases and compared with the structural measures. The research proposes the DR knowledge evaluation method which can provide object metric and selection basis for the DR knowledge reuse during the product design process. In addition, the method is proved to be more effective guidance and support for the application and management of DR knowledge.

  8. TOPSIS Evaluation Method on "Have Both Hard and Soft" Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shi-lian

    2001-01-01

    In "Have Both Hard and Soft" systems, the soft targets and hard targets are divided into twodistinct target system. The measured results of soft target system are regarded as a matrix with intervalnumbers. On the basis of Topsis method, we discuss a new Topsis evaluation method on "Have Both Hardand Soft" systems, which combined soft targets with hard targets.

  9. Evaluation of thinning operations in older pine stands. Research methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter F. Giefing

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of forest operations in different scientific institutions resulted in inventing of various methods. The objective of this paper is to present a universal concept of a research method for the evaluation of forest operations (including thinning operations with a multicriteria analysis of ecological, ergonomic and economic aspects (3E. Special attention was paid to the ecological evaluation, which has not been widely researched. Analysis of all three aspects of the 3E evaluation was based on a literature study. The results showed that it is essential to consider all three aspects in the evaluation of timber harvesting and that mechanised thinning operations (harvester – forwarder are preferable, considering all three aspects, compared to those carried out by chainsaw and skidder.  

  10. Comprehensive Bridge Health Evaluation Method Based on Information Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li-ping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the bridge maintenance management decision, the health evaluation on bridge structure is far more than determination of abnormal index exceed fixed threshold, or evaluation on damage status and carrying capacity, the on-site human inspection should also be paid attention. In order to achieve more accurate and reliable health status evaluation result, it needs to take full advantage of various information and parameter. The D-S evidence information fusion was used in the paper to present comprehensive bridge health evaluation method. It fuses bridge operation status using abnormal status identification, bridge durability with residual life estimation, as well as human inspection rating, to arrive at health evaluation. The actual application examples to verify the method is also provided.

  11. Use Case Evaluation (UCE): A Method for Early Usability Evaluation in Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Jan; Høegh, Rune Thaarup; Hornbæk, K.

    2007-01-01

    t is often argued that usability problems should be identified as early as possible during software development, but many usability evaluation methods do not fit well in early development activities. We propose a method for usability evaluation of use cases, a widely used representation of design...

  12. A KARAOKE System Singing Evaluation Method that More Closely Matches Human Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hideyo; Hoguro, Masahiro; Umezaki, Taizo

    KARAOKE is a popular amusement for old and young. Many KARAOKE machines have singing evaluation function. However, it is often said that the scores given by KARAOKE machines do not match human evaluation. In this paper a KARAOKE scoring method strongly correlated with human evaluation is proposed. This paper proposes a way to evaluate songs based on the distance between singing pitch and musical scale, employing a vibrato extraction method based on template matching of spectrum. The results show that correlation coefficients between scores given by the proposed system and human evaluation are -0.76∼-0.89.

  13. Application of Fuzzy Borda Combination Evaluation in Subjective and Objective Evaluation Methods in Comprehensive Evaluation of Population Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jiajia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper constructs the comprehensive index evaluation of population development from the three aspects of human development, population and economic society and population, resources and environment, according to the movement course and changing trend of population development at home and abroad, and the guiding ideology of national population development strategy system. The index system consists of 3 first level indexes, 8 Secondary indexes, 22 tertiary level indexes and 42 fourth level indexes. And on the basis of commonly used comprehensive evaluation methods. The comprehensive evaluation of the population development in China in 2013 was made by using the combined evaluation method, which effectively overcomes the shortcomings of the objective evaluation method and the subjective evaluation method, and obtains a more credible comprehensive evaluation value.

  14. CONTACTLESS METHODS FOR QUALITY EVALUATION OF DAIRY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatin Zlatev

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the report is to present a comparative analysis of the methods and technical means for assessment of the quality and safety of dairy products, particularly yellow cheese by spectral characteristics. As a result of the analysis are established appropriate methods for representation of the spectral characteristics and classification of the researched product. In the development are shown and evaluated the accuracy and performance of the results of studies conducted in the laboratory of the Trakia University, faculty of Technics and technologies with the discussed methods for evaluation the quality of the food product.

  15. Quantitative methods for somatosensory evaluation in atypical odontalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porporatti, André Luís; Costa, Yuri Martins; Stuginski-Barbosa, Juliana;

    2015-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to identify reliable somatosensory evaluation methods for atypical odontalgia (AO) patients. The computerized search included the main databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library). The studies included used the following quantitative sensory testing (QST......) methods: mechanical detection threshold (MDT), mechanical pain threshold (MPT) (pinprick), pressure pain threshold (PPT), dynamic mechanical allodynia with a cotton swab (DMA1) or a brush (DMA2), warm detection threshold (WDT), cold detection threshold (CDT), heat pain threshold (HPT), cold pain detection...... compared with healthy subjects. In clinical settings, the most reliable evaluation method for AO in patients with persistent idiopathic facial pain would be intraindividual assessments using HPT or mechanical allodynia tests....

  16. DOE methods for evaluating environmental and waste management samples.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goheen, S C; McCulloch, M; Thomas, B L; Riley, R G; Sklarew, D S; Mong, G M; Fadeff, S K [eds.; Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods) provides applicable methods in use by. the US Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories for sampling and analyzing constituents of waste and environmental samples. The development of DOE Methods is supported by the Laboratory Management Division (LMD) of the DOE. This document contains chapters and methods that are proposed for use in evaluating components of DOE environmental and waste management samples. DOE Methods is a resource intended to support sampling and analytical activities that will aid in defining the type and breadth of contamination and thus determine the extent of environmental restoration or waste management actions needed, as defined by the DOE, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), or others.

  17. Automatable Evaluation Method Oriented toward Behaviour Believability for Video Games

    CERN Document Server

    Tencé, Fabien

    2010-01-01

    Classic evaluation methods of believable agents are time-consuming because they involve many human to judge agents. They are well suited to validate work on new believable behaviours models. However, during the implementation, numerous experiments can help to improve agents' believability. We propose a method which aim at assessing how much an agent's behaviour looks like humans' behaviours. By representing behaviours with vectors, we can store data computed for humans and then evaluate as many agents as needed without further need of humans. We present a test experiment which shows that even a simple evaluation following our method can reveal differences between quite believable agents and humans. This method seems promising although, as shown in our experiment, results' analysis can be difficult.

  18. System and method for evaluating a wire conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panozzo, Edward; Parish, Harold

    2013-10-22

    A method of evaluating an electrically conductive wire segment having an insulated intermediate portion and non-insulated ends includes passing the insulated portion of the wire segment through an electrically conductive brush. According to the method, an electrical potential is established on the brush by a power source. The method also includes determining a value of electrical current that is conducted through the wire segment by the brush when the potential is established on the brush. The method additionally includes comparing the value of electrical current conducted through the wire segment with a predetermined current value to thereby evaluate the wire segment. A system for evaluating an electrically conductive wire segment is also disclosed.

  19. A quantitative method for evaluating alternatives. [aid to decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forthofer, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    When faced with choosing between alternatives, people tend to use a number of criteria (often subjective, rather than objective) to decide which is the best alternative for them given their unique situation. The subjectivity inherent in the decision-making process can be reduced by the definition and use of a quantitative method for evaluating alternatives. This type of method can help decision makers achieve degree of uniformity and completeness in the evaluation process, as well as an increased sensitivity to the factors involved. Additional side-effects are better documentation and visibility of the rationale behind the resulting decisions. General guidelines for defining a quantitative method are presented and a particular method (called 'hierarchical weighted average') is defined and applied to the evaluation of design alternatives for a hypothetical computer system capability.

  20. Discussion method through evaluation of the teachers and students

    OpenAIRE

    Hasić, Ines

    2012-01-01

    In the theoretical part of my degree Discussion method through evaluation of the teachers and students, I have defined aim and purpose of education, what is the teacher´s role in education and I have defined learning methods. I have emphasized the discussion method with association of quality learning and knowledge, I have described what is the role of stimulating the discussion, what is the meaning of the right sequence questions and meaning of the good strategy in dealing with discussio...

  1. Methods of Identification and Evaluation of Brownfield Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safet Kurtovic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic objective of this paper was to determine the importance and potential restoration of brownfield sites in terms of economic prosperity of a particular region or country. In addition, in a theoretical sense, this paper presents the methods used in the identification of brownfield sites such as Smart Growth Network model and Thomas GIS model, and methods for evaluation of brownfield sites or the indexing method, cost-benefit and multivariate analysis.

  2. Methods of Identification and Evaluation of Brownfield Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safet Kurtović

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The basic objective of this paper was to determine the importance and potential restoration of brownfield sites in terms of economic prosperity of a particular region or country. In addition, in a theoretical sense, this paper presents the methods used in the identification of brownfield sites such as Smart Growth Network model and Thomas GIS model, and methods for evaluation of brownfield sites or the indexing method, cost-benefit and multivariate analysis.

  3. Evaluation of Information Requirements of Reliability Methods in Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marini, Vinicius Kaster; Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to characterize the information needed to perform methods for robustness and reliability, and verify their applicability to early design stages. Several methods were evaluated on their support to synthesis in engineering design. Of those methods, FMEA, FTA and HAZOP were selected...... on their insight on design risks and wide spread application. A pilot case study has been performed with a washing machine in using these methods to assess design risks, following a reverse engineering approach. The study has shown the methods can be initiated at early design stages, but cannot be concluded...

  4. Objective Evaluation Method of Steering Comfort Based on Movement Quality Evaluation of Driver Steering Maneuver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yiyong; LIU Yahui; WANG Man; JI Run; JI Xuewu

    2014-01-01

    The existing research of steering comfort mainly focuses on the subjective evaluation, aiming at designing and optimizing the steering system. In the development of steering system, especially the evaluation of steering comfort, the objective evaluation methods considered the kinematic characteristics of driver steering maneuver are not proposed, which means that the objective evaluation of steering cannot be conducted with the evaluation of kinematic characteristics of driver in steering maneuver. In order to propose the objective evaluation methods of steering comfort, the evaluation of steering movement quality of driver is developed on the basis of the study of the kinematic characteristics of steering maneuver. First, the steering motion trajectories of the driver in both comfortable and certain extreme uncomfortable operation conditions are detected using the Vicon motion capture system. The operation conditions are under the restrictions of the vertical height and horizontal distance between steering wheel center and the H-point of driver, and the steering resisting torque else. Next, the movement quality evaluation of driver steering maneuver is assessed using twelve kinds of evaluation indices based on the kinematic analyses of the steering motion trajectories to propose an objective evaluation method. Finally, an integrated discomfort index of steering maneuver is proposed on the basis of the regression analysis of subjective evaluation rating and the movement quality evaluation indices, including the Jerk, Discomfort and Joint Torque indices. The test results show that the proposed integrated discomfort index gives a good fitting with the subjective evaluation of discomfort, which means it can be used to evaluate or predict the discomfort level of steering maneuver. This paper proposes an objective evaluation method of steering comfort based on the movement quality evaluation of driver steering maneuver.

  5. Difficulties Encountered during Transition from Preclinical to Clinical Endodontics among Salman bin Abdul Aziz University Dental Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Mubashir Baig

    2015-01-01

    Background: The quality of academic training can best be analyzed by including the student’s perceptions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the short comings in preclinical endodontic training and also to find out key areas to stress upon for better student understanding and treatment outcome. Materials and Methods: A total of 72 structured questionnaires were distributed to the dental students who have already entered or finished clinical endodontic training in 4th year after successfully completing the preclinical endodontic course in 3rd year. The questions were focused on the list of difficulties encountered during each step of endodontics including patient consideration, access related difficulties, difficulties during working length determination, cleaning and shaping and obturation. The difficulty level for each of the questions was also rated on a scale of 1-3. About 88% of the questionnaires were returned for evaluation. The obtained answers were analyzed generating a data showing the type and level of difficulty. Results: Locating the apical constriction and controlling the length of the master cone has the highest percentage of difficulty among all the groups. Conclusions: This study helped in highlighting key areas of difficulties faced by the students. The training for students in future needs to be amended so that they are better able to manage such difficulties. PMID:26225100

  6. Financial Difficulty Effects on Depressive Symptoms Among Dementia Patient Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ilsung

    2016-11-01

    The financial difficulty of dementia caregivers and its effects on mental health has gained increasing attention from researchers. The present study examines the longitudinal relationship between financial difficulty and the depressive symptoms of dementia caregivers using matching methods to account for potential selection bias. Propensity score matching methods and mixed-effects models were used to determine the effects of financial difficulty on depressive symptoms among caregivers participating in the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health (REACH) intervention program. Propensity score matching confirmed that caregivers experiencing financial difficulty were more likely to have depressive symptoms. The results suggest that dementia caregivers require support for their financial difficulty. Future research should fully examine the complex relationship between financial difficulty and the mental health of caregivers and how this issue can be addressed through assessment and intervention methods.

  7. Evaluation Method of Web Site Based on Web Structure Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiJun-e; ZhouDong-ru

    2003-01-01

    The structure of Web site became more complex than before. During the design period of a Web site, the lack of model and method results in improper Web structure,which depend on the designer's experience. From the point of view of software engineering, every period in the software life must be evaluated before starting the next period's work. It is very important and essential to search relevant methods for evaluating Web structure before the site is completed. In this work, after studying the related work about the Web structure mining and analyzing the major structure mining methods (Page-rank and Hub/Authority), a method based on the Page-rank for Web structure evaluation in design stage is proposed. A Web structure modeling language WSML is designed, and the implement strategies for evaluating system of the Web site structure are given out. Web structure mining has being used mainly in search engines before. It is the first time to employ the Web structure mining technology to evaluate a Web structure in the design period of a Web site. It contributes to the formalization of the design documents for Web site and the improving of software engineering for large scale Web site, and the evaluating system is a practical tool for Web site construction.

  8. Nurse educators’ perceptions of OSCE as a clinical evaluation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Chabeli

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The South African Qualifications Authority, and the South African Nursing Council are in pursuit of quality nursing education to enable the learners to practise as independent and autonomous practitioners. The educational programme should focus on the facilitation of critical and reflective thinking skills that will help the learner to make rational decisions and solve problems. A way of achieving this level of functioning is the use of assessment and evaluation methods that measure the learners’ clinical competence holistically. This article is focused on the perceptions of twenty nurse educators, purposively selected from three Nursing Colleges affiliated to a university in Gauteng, regarding the use of OSCE (Objective Structured Clinical Examination as a clinical evaluation method within a qualitative and descriptive research strategy. Three focus group interviews were conducted in different sessions. A descriptive content analysis was used. Trustworthiness was ensured by using Lincoln and Guba’s model (1985. The results revealed both positive and negative aspects of OSCE as a clinical evaluation method with regard to: administrative aspects; evaluators; learners; procedures/instruments and evaluation. The conclusion drawn from the related findings is that OSCE does not measure the learners’ clinical competence holistically. It is therefore recommended that the identified negative perception be taken as challenges faced by nurse educators and that the positive aspects be strengthened. One way of meeting these recommendations is the use of varied alternative methods for clinical assessment and evaluation that focus on the holistic measurement of the learners’ clinical competence.

  9. A R&D Risk Management Method of Weapon Based on Advancement Degree of Difficulty%基于技术成熟困难度的航天型号研制风险管理方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张刚; 王潇茵; 马宽; 许胜; 杨海成

    2011-01-01

    By analyzing a variety o/R&D risk of weapons, it indicates that technical risk is the fundamental and paramount development risk. Most of today' s technology risk management is based on the qualitative assessment of risk management according to the traditional expertise. An assessment framework of lech' nology risk based on the advancement degree of difficulty assessment is presented. The technology maturity,the advancement degree of difficulty and the technology critical value are introduced to technology risk assessment process. Through the assessment results of advancement degree of difficulty and technology risk, the technical command system is guided to implement technology risk management and designer system is guided to carry out the R&D of key technology. According to the gaps between different technology maturity levels, the method is developed by combining the qualitative and quantitative approaches, which is dynamic and adaptable. The method can be used throughout the risk management of entire development cycle of aerospace project and has a strong relevance and practicality.%通过分析航天型号存在的各种研制风险,指出技术风险是最根本性和最重要的研制风险,但目前的技术风险管理多数是基于定性评价的管理方法,以传统的专家经验为主.本文提出了一种以技术成熟困难度评估为基础的技术风险评估框架和方法,将分级量化和相对规范的技术成熟度、技术成熟困难度和技术关键度引入风险评估的过程,通过技术成熟困难度和技术风险评估结果,指导型号设计师系统开展技术攻关策划和指挥系统实施技术风险管理该方法针对不同技术成熟度等级之间的跨越难度,将定性与定量的方法相结合,具有动态性好、适应性广的特征,可以贯穿航天型号整个研制周期实施风险管理,有着较强的针对性和实用性.

  10. Infantile Feeding Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. McCarthy DO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gastric volvulus refers to a torsion of all or part of the stomach that may cause an obstruction of the foregut. The clinical symptoms of gastric volvulus range from asymptomatic to life-threatening and thus must be rapidly diagnosed. However, the presenting symptoms of gastric volvulus vary widely, which may cause diagnosis to be delayed or missed. Objective. Describe varying presentations of gastric volvulus (including a case report of a rare presentation, pathophysiology of the entity, and how to diagnose/treat the phenomenon. Design/Method. Article review and case presentation. Results. Our patient was taken to the operating room for a gastropexy and G-tube placement. During surgery, the stomach was redundant and large, but not currently torsed, consistent with intermittent organoaxial volvulus. There are several approaches to classifying gastric volvulus as well as different theories on how to treat the volvulus based on type and degree of rotation that this article aims to detail more thoroughly. Conclusion. There are a growing number of case reports describing gastric volvulus, which had historically been viewed as a rare finding. The presenting symptoms of gastric volvulus commonly mimic other, more benign newborn diagnoses, and thus can be difficult to diagnose. We present our patient as well as an article review of other cases to highlight the diverse presentations of gastric volvulus so this potentially devastating disease can be diagnosed quickly with prompt treatment initiation.

  11. [An Introduction to Methods for Evaluating Health Care Technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ting-Ting

    2015-06-01

    The rapid and continual advance of healthcare technology makes ensuring that this technology is used effectively to achieve its original goals a critical issue. This paper presents three methods that may be applied by healthcare professionals in the evaluation of healthcare technology. These methods include: the perception/experiences of users, user work-pattern changes, and chart review or data mining. The first method includes two categories: using interviews to explore the user experience and using theory-based questionnaire surveys. The second method applies work sampling to observe the work pattern changes of users. The last method conducts chart reviews or data mining to analyze the designated variables. In conclusion, while evaluative feedback may be used to improve the design and development of healthcare technology applications, the informatics competency and informatics literacy of users may be further explored in future research.

  12. Using analytic network process for evaluating mobile text entry methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, Lanndon A; Seva, Rosemary R

    2016-01-01

    This paper highlights a preference evaluation methodology for text entry methods in a touch keyboard smartphone using analytic network process (ANP). Evaluation of text entry methods in literature mainly considers speed and accuracy. This study presents an alternative means for selecting text entry method that considers user preference. A case study was carried out with a group of experts who were asked to develop a selection decision model of five text entry methods. The decision problem is flexible enough to reflect interdependencies of decision elements that are necessary in describing real-life conditions. Results showed that QWERTY method is more preferred than other text entry methods while arrangement of keys is the most preferred criterion in characterizing a sound method. Sensitivity analysis using simulation of normally distributed random numbers under fairly large perturbation reported the foregoing results reliable enough to reflect robust judgment. The main contribution of this paper is the introduction of a multi-criteria decision approach in the preference evaluation of text entry methods.

  13. The Evaluation Methods of Decorative Concrete Horizontal Surfaces Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertas KLOVAS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article was to determine blemishes of concrete surfaces and divide those surfaces according to following methods provided by two documents and by authors proposed image scanning method - “ImageJ”. The first method was CIB Report No. 24 “Tolerances on blemishes of concrete”. This method enables to evaluate concrete surfaces according to their visual appearance by using certain reference cards. The second method was GOST 13015.0-83. This method enables to evaluate the concrete surfaces according to their biggest dimension of the blemishes. The third, authors proposed, method was “ImageJ”. Latter method is based on the free source computer program. It helps to establish the quantity and the dimensions of the blemishes in the desired scale. Authors suggested to imply a ration between blemishes area and the all specimen’s area as a factor for evaluation of concrete surface quality. Three different concrete compositions were made: BA1, BA7 and BA8. Also, five different formworks were used: wood impregnated with polymeric oil [WPO], wood covered with rubber [WCR], sawn timber [ST], metal [M] and plastic [P] formworks. Following parameters of the obtained results were calculated: mean value, dispersion, standard deviation and the coefficient of variation. Also maximum and minimum values of experimental results are given. Intervals of the experimental results are provided for each specimen with the biggest possibility. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.3.2006

  14. User Experience Evaluation Methods in Product Development (UXEM'09)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roto, Virpi; Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila, Kaisa; Law, Effie; Vermeeren, Arnold

    High quality user experience (UX) has become a central competitive factor of product development in mature consumer markets [1]. Although the term UX originated from industry and is a widely used term also in academia, the tools for managing UX in product development are still inadequate. A prerequisite for designing delightful UX in an industrial setting is to understand both the requirements tied to the pragmatic level of functionality and interaction and the requirements pertaining to the hedonic level of personal human needs, which motivate product use [2]. Understanding these requirements helps managers set UX targets for product development. The next phase in a good user-centered design process is to iteratively design and evaluate prototypes [3]. Evaluation is critical for systematically improving UX. In many approaches to UX, evaluation basically needs to be postponed until the product is fully or at least almost fully functional. However, in an industrial setting, it is very expensive to find the UX failures only at this phase of product development. Thus, product development managers and developers have a strong need to conduct UX evaluation as early as possible, well before all the parts affecting the holistic experience are available. Different types of products require evaluation on different granularity and maturity levels of a prototype. For example, due to its multi-user characteristic, a community service or an enterprise resource planning system requires a broader scope of UX evaluation than a microwave oven or a word processor that is meant for a single user at a time. Before systematic UX evaluation can be taken into practice, practical, lightweight UX evaluation methods suitable for different types of products and different phases of product readiness are needed. A considerable amount of UX research is still about the conceptual frameworks and models for user experience [4]. Besides, applying existing usability evaluation methods (UEMs) without

  15. Methods to evaluate fish freshness in research and industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsdottir, G.; Martinsdóttir, E.; Oehlenschläger, J.;

    1997-01-01

    Current work in a European concerted action project 'Evaluation of Fish Freshness' (AIR3 CT94-2283) focuses on harmonizing research activities in the area of fish freshness evaluation in leading fish laboratories in Europe (see Box 1). The overall aim of the concerted action project is to validate...... methods for the assessment of fish freshness and to discuss the freshness criteria for fish commercialized within the European Union. The project's participants are working in subgroups studying sensory analysis, microbiology, volatile compounds, proteins, lipids, adenosine triphosphate and physical...... measurements with respect to fish freshness evaluation. In this article, the different subgroups have summarized changes that occur in fish and methods to evaluate fish freshness as a first step towards the definition of criteria for fish freshness...

  16. A Review on Evaluation Methods of Climate Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Zong-Ci; LUO; Yong; HUANG; Jian-Bin

    2013-01-01

    There is scientific progress in the evaluation methods of recent Earth system models(ESMs).Methods range from single variable to multi-variables,multi-processes,multi-phenomena quantitative evaluations in five layers(spheres)of the Earth system,from climatic mean assessment to climate change(such as trends,periodicity,interdecadal variability),extreme values,abnormal characters and quantitative evaluations of phenomena,from qualitative assessment to quantitative calculation of reliability and uncertainty for model simulations.Researchers started considering independence and similarity between models in multi-model use,as well as the quantitative evaluation of climate prediction and projection efect and the quantitative uncertainty contribution analysis.In this manuscript,the simulations and projections by both CMIP5 and CMIP3 that have been published after 2007 are reviewed and summarized.

  17. On urban road traffic state evaluation index system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fei; Dong, Honghui; Jia, Limin; Sun, Xuan

    2017-01-01

    Traffic state evaluation is a basic and critical work in the research on road traffic congestion. It can provide basic data support for the improvement measures and information release in traffic management and service. The aim of this research is to obtain a comprehensive value to describe traffic state accurately based on the evaluation index system. In this paper, it is carried out using fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithm and fuzzy entropy weight method. In the framework, traffic flow was classified into six different states to determine the fuzzy range of indices using the improved FCM clustering analysis. Besides, fuzzy entropy weight method is proposed to compute the evaluation result of traffic state for section, road and road network, respectively. The experiments based on the traffic information in a subset of Beijing’s road network prove that the findings of traffic evaluation are in accordance with the actual situation and people’s sense of traffic state.

  18. Methods to evaluate fish freshness in research and industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsdottir, G.; Martinsdóttir, E.; Oehlenschläger, J.

    1997-01-01

    Current work in a European concerted action project 'Evaluation of Fish Freshness' (AIR3 CT94-2283) focuses on harmonizing research activities in the area of fish freshness evaluation in leading fish laboratories in Europe (see Box 1). The overall aim of the concerted action project is to validate...... methods for the assessment of fish freshness and to discuss the freshness criteria for fish commercialized within the European Union. The project's participants are working in subgroups studying sensory analysis, microbiology, volatile compounds, proteins, lipids, adenosine triphosphate and physical...... measurements with respect to fish freshness evaluation. In this article, the different subgroups have summarized changes that occur in fish and methods to evaluate fish freshness as a first step towards the definition of criteria for fish freshness...

  19. DIAGNOSTIC DIFFICULTIES IN BACTERIAL SPONDYLODISCITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Orso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To analyze aspects related to the diagnostic difficulty in patients with bacterial spondylodiscitis. Methods : Cross-sectional observational study with retrospective data collected in the period from March 2004 to January 2014.Twenty-one patients diagnosed with bacterial spondylodiscitis were analyzed. Results : Women were the most affected, as well as older individuals. Pain in the affected region was the initial symptom in 52% of patients, and 45.5% of the patients had low back pain, and those with dorsal discitis had back pain as the main complaint; the patients with thoracolumbar discitis had pain in that region, and only one patient had sacroiliac discitis. The average time between onset of symptoms and treatment was five months. The lumbar segment was the most affected with 11 cases (52%, followed by thoracolumbar in 24%, dorsal in 19% of cases and a case in the sacroiliac segment. Only seven patients had fever. Pain in the affected level was coincidentally the most common symptom. Conclusions : Early diagnosis of bacterial spondylodiscitis remains a challenge due to the nonspecific signs and symptoms reported by the patient and the wide variability of laboratory results and imaging. The basis for early diagnosis remains the clinical suspicion at the time of initial treatment.

  20. Multiple centroid method to evaluate the adaptability of alfalfa genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moysés Nascimento

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of multiple centroids to study the adaptability of alfalfa genotypes (Medicago sativa L.. In this method, the genotypes are compared with ideotypes defined by the bissegmented regression model, according to the researcher's interest. Thus, genotype classification is carried out as determined by the objective of the researcher and the proposed recommendation strategy. Despite the great potential of the method, it needs to be evaluated under the biological context (with real data. In this context, we used data on the evaluation of dry matter production of 92 alfalfa cultivars, with 20 cuttings, from an experiment in randomized blocks with two repetitions carried out from November 2004 to June 2006. The multiple centroid method proved efficient for classifying alfalfa genotypes. Moreover, it showed no unambiguous indications and provided that ideotypes were defined according to the researcher's interest, facilitating data interpretation.

  1. User perspectives on query difficulty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Schütze, Hinrich

    2011-01-01

    The difficulty of a user query can affect the performance of Information Retrieval (IR) systems. What makes a query difficult and how one may predict this is an active research area, focusing mainly on factors relating to the retrieval algorithm, to the properties of the retrieval data, or to sta......The difficulty of a user query can affect the performance of Information Retrieval (IR) systems. What makes a query difficult and how one may predict this is an active research area, focusing mainly on factors relating to the retrieval algorithm, to the properties of the retrieval data......, or to statistical and linguistic features of the queries that may render them difficult. This work addresses query difficulty from a different angle, namely the users’ own perspectives on query difficulty. Two research questions are asked: (1) Are users aware that the query they submit to an IR system may...

  2. Common Difficulties with Probabilistic Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Jack A.; Kelly, Ivan W.

    1983-01-01

    Several common errors reflecting difficulties in probabilistic reasoning are identified, relating to ambiguity, previous outcomes, sampling, unusual events, and estimating. Knowledge of these mistakes and interpretations may help mathematics teachers understand the thought processes of their students. (MNS)

  3. Difficulty Swallowing After Stroke (Dysphagia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Heroes Among Us Difficulty Swallowing After Stroke (Dysphagia) Updated:Nov 15,2016 Excerpted and adapted from "Swallowing Disorders After a Stroke," Stroke Connection Magazine July/August ...

  4. Evaluating Temporal Analysis Methods Using Residential Burglary Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Boldt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Law enforcement agencies, as well as researchers rely on temporal analysis methods in many crime analyses, e.g., spatio-temporal analyses. A number of temporal analysis methods are being used, but a structured comparison in different configurations is yet to be done. This study aims to fill this research gap by comparing the accuracy of five existing, and one novel, temporal analysis methods in approximating offense times for residential burglaries that often lack precise time information. The temporal analysis methods are evaluated in eight different configurations with varying temporal resolution, as well as the amount of data (number of crimes available during analysis. A dataset of all Swedish residential burglaries reported between 2010 and 2014 is used (N = 103,029. From that dataset, a subset of burglaries with known precise offense times is used for evaluation. The accuracy of the temporal analysis methods in approximating the distribution of burglaries with known precise offense times is investigated. The aoristic and the novel aoristic e x t method perform significantly better than three of the traditional methods. Experiments show that the novel aoristic e x t method was most suitable for estimating crime frequencies in the day-of-the-year temporal resolution when reduced numbers of crimes were available during analysis. In the other configurations investigated, the aoristic method showed the best results. The results also show the potential from temporal analysis methods in approximating the temporal distributions of residential burglaries in situations when limited data are available.

  5. Study on Turbulent Modeling in Gas Entrainment Evaluation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kei; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Nakamine, Yoshiaki; Imai, Yasutomo

    Suppression of gas entrainment (GE) phenomena caused by free surface vortices are very important to establish an economically superior design of the sodium-cooled fast reactor in Japan (JSFR). However, due to the non-linearity and/or locality of the GE phenomena, it is not easy to evaluate the occurrences of the GE phenomena accurately. In other words, the onset condition of the GE phenomena in the JSFR is not predicted easily based on scaled-model and/or partial-model experiments. Therefore, the authors are developing a CFD-based evaluation method in which the non-linearity and locality of the GE phenomena can be considered. In the evaluation method, macroscopic vortex parameters, e.g. circulation, are determined by three-dimensional CFD and then, GE-related parameters, e.g. gas core (GC) length, are calculated by using the Burgers vortex model. This procedure is efficient to evaluate the GE phenomena in the JSFR. However, it is well known that the Burgers vortex model tends to overestimate the GC length due to the lack of considerations on some physical mechanisms. Therefore, in this study, the authors develop a turbulent vortex model to evaluate the GE phenomena more accurately. Then, the improved GE evaluation method with the turbulent viscosity model is validated by analyzing the GC lengths observed in a simple experiment. The evaluation results show that the GC lengths analyzed by the improved method are shorter in comparison to the original method, and give better agreement with the experimental data.

  6. Predictors of difficult intubation defined by the intubation difficulty scale (IDS): predictive value of 7 airway assessment factors

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Suk-Hwan; Lee, Jeong-Gil; Yu, Soo-Bong; Kim, Doo-Sik; Ryu, Sie-Jeong; Kim, Kyung-Han

    2012-01-01

    Background The intubation difficulty scale (IDS) has been used as a validated difficulty score to define difficult intubation (DI). The purpose of this study is to identify airway assessment factors and total airway score (TAS) for predicting DI defined by the IDS. Methods There were 305 ASA physical status 1-2 patients, aged 19-70 years, who underwent elective surgery with endotracheal intubation. During the pre-anesthetic visit, we evaluated patients by 7 preoperative airway assessment fact...

  7. Desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bjork, RA; Kroll, JF

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 by the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois. In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is underst...

  8. Evaluation of AMOEBA: a spectral-spatial classification method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, Susan K.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Bryant, J.

    1982-01-01

    Muitispectral remotely sensed images have been treated as arbitrary multivariate spectral data for purposes of clustering and classifying. However, the spatial properties of image data can also be exploited. AMOEBA is a clustering and classification method that is based on a spatially derived model for image data. In an evaluation test, Landsat data were classified with both AMOEBA and a widely used spectral classifier. The test showed that irrigated crop types can be classified as accurately with the AMOEBA method as with the generally used spectral method ISOCLS; the AMOEBA method, however, requires less computer time.

  9. An architectural evaluation method for conservation of traditional dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ipekoglu, Basak [Izmir Institute of Technology, Izmir (Turkey). Department of Architectural Restoration, Faculty of Architecture

    2006-03-15

    Historic urban sites and traditional houses are the most important evidence of the past life style. The conservation of these traditional values in the context of conservation and revitalization of architectural heritage is in a sense the preservation of culture. The main goal of conservation is to enliven cultural properties by evaluating their architectural, historical, environmental, visual and aesthetic characteristics. These evaluation studies, which are essential in the context of conservation plans, are inevitable phases to determine the principles of the plans. This study is aimed to propose a method for the architectural evaluation phase, which is essential before conservation decisions. The proposed method is based on a gradation system. Odunpazari district in Eskisehir/Turkey is determined as the area to test this gradation method. It is proposed that this method explains the systematic way for evaluating architectural features belonging to historic sites whose conservation plans are to be prepared. In the study, traditional buildings are evaluated from the point of their exterior and interior architectural characteristics and classified as different value groups: A, B, C and D. This grouping will be advantageous to conservation decisions. Different technical teams may be organized to be responsible for these various value groups. As a result, a systematic approach for the determination of specialized teams and required equipment will be achieved. Thus, an accurate determination of required time and cost estimates will be realized. (author)

  10. Use of Thermoanalytic Methods in the Evaluation of Combusted Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Krepelka

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes possibilities of using thermoanalytic methods for the evaluation and comparison of materials designed for a direct combustion. Differential thermal analysis (DTA and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA were both used in the evaluation. The paper includes a description of methods of data processing from analyses for the purposes of comparison of used materials regarding their heating values. The following materials were analysed in the experiments: wooden coal of objectional grain size, fly ash from heating plant exhaust funnels, dendromass waste: spruce sawdust, micro-briquettes of spruce sawdust and fly-ash combined.

  11. Systematic comparative evaluation of methods for investigating the TCRβ repertoire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Wei; Zeng, Xiaojing

    2016-01-01

    advantages and disadvantages; however, a systematic evaluation and direct comparison of them would benefit researchers in the selection of the most suitable method. In this study, we used both pooled control plasmids and spiked-in cells to benchmark the MPCR bias. RNA from three healthy donors...... was subsequently processed with the two methods to perform a comparative evaluation of the TCR β chain sequences. Both approaches demonstrated high reproducibility (R2 = 0.9958 and 0.9878, respectively). No differences in gene usage were identified for most V/J genes (>60%), and an average of 52.03% of the CDR3...

  12. Evaluation and comparison of mammalian subcellular localization prediction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fink J Lynn

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determination of the subcellular location of a protein is essential to understanding its biochemical function. This information can provide insight into the function of hypothetical or novel proteins. These data are difficult to obtain experimentally but have become especially important since many whole genome sequencing projects have been finished and many resulting protein sequences are still lacking detailed functional information. In order to address this paucity of data, many computational prediction methods have been developed. However, these methods have varying levels of accuracy and perform differently based on the sequences that are presented to the underlying algorithm. It is therefore useful to compare these methods and monitor their performance. Results In order to perform a comprehensive survey of prediction methods, we selected only methods that accepted large batches of protein sequences, were publicly available, and were able to predict localization to at least nine of the major subcellular locations (nucleus, cytosol, mitochondrion, extracellular region, plasma membrane, Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum (ER, peroxisome, and lysosome. The selected methods were CELLO, MultiLoc, Proteome Analyst, pTarget and WoLF PSORT. These methods were evaluated using 3763 mouse proteins from SwissProt that represent the source of the training sets used in development of the individual methods. In addition, an independent evaluation set of 2145 mouse proteins from LOCATE with a bias towards the subcellular localization underrepresented in SwissProt was used. The sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each method and compared to a theoretical value based on what might be observed by random chance. Conclusion No individual method had a sufficient level of sensitivity across both evaluation sets that would enable reliable application to hypothetical proteins. All methods showed lower performance on the LOCATE

  13. Multi-criteria evaluation methods in the production scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, K.; Krenczyk, D.; Paprocka, I.; Kempa, W.; Grabowik, C.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a discussion on the practical application of different methods of multi-criteria evaluation in the process of scheduling in manufacturing systems. Among the methods two main groups are specified: methods based on the distance function (using metacriterion) and methods that create a Pareto set of possible solutions. The basic criteria used for scheduling were also described. The overall procedure of evaluation process in production scheduling was presented. It takes into account the actions in the whole scheduling process and human decision maker (HDM) participation. The specified HDM decisions are related to creating and editing a set of evaluation criteria, selection of multi-criteria evaluation method, interaction in the searching process, using informal criteria and making final changes in the schedule for implementation. According to need, process scheduling may be completely or partially automated. Full automatization is possible in case of metacriterion based objective function and if Pareto set is selected - the final decision has to be done by HDM.

  14. Students' rating as one of the methods for instruction evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, J

    1990-01-01

    World-wide knowledge in this field is summarized in this study. The information may be useful for university teachers, academical officials and people dealing with measuring quality of higher education. First part of the study is general. Terms of educational effectiveness, instructional effectiveness and pedagogical evaluation are characterized there. Differences between summative and formative evaluations are discussed. Three commonest approaches to the evaluation of higher education quality are analyzed (investigation of university prestige, study of objective indicators, correlation studies). It is emphasized that instructional quality is a relative term, multifaceted, with subjective elements and complexly conditioned. One of possible models for university instruction evaluation is presented and its eight variables are specified. A general strategy of such evaluation is described and attention is drawn to the fact that every assessment is based on a rough or clear concept of the best instruction under given conditions. Basic rules for instruction evaluation are stipulated as well as important principles which should be respected by anyone who wants to choose the most suitable method of university instruction evaluation. Second part of the study is special. The only method--evaluation using rating scales--is focused on. Students are said to be the most frequent evaluators of university instruction quality. Objections to the rating scales and negative experience with their non-professional application are presented. The construction of rating scales is described, i. e. the planning of the content and purpose of the scale, preparation of a blueprint, its practical verification and statistical interpretation. Practical instructions including an appropriate moment of administration, necessary number of raters, statistical analysis of significance of the results obtained are explained here for those who want to use the scale in their routine practice. Information

  15. A biosegmentation benchmark for evaluation of bioimage analysis methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvilekval Kristian

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present a biosegmentation benchmark that includes infrastructure, datasets with associated ground truth, and validation methods for biological image analysis. The primary motivation for creating this resource comes from the fact that it is very difficult, if not impossible, for an end-user to choose from a wide range of segmentation methods available in the literature for a particular bioimaging problem. No single algorithm is likely to be equally effective on diverse set of images and each method has its own strengths and limitations. We hope that our benchmark resource would be of considerable help to both the bioimaging researchers looking for novel image processing methods and image processing researchers exploring application of their methods to biology. Results Our benchmark consists of different classes of images and ground truth data, ranging in scale from subcellular, cellular to tissue level, each of which pose their own set of challenges to image analysis. The associated ground truth data can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods, to improve methods and to compare results. Standard evaluation methods and some analysis tools are integrated into a database framework that is available online at http://bioimage.ucsb.edu/biosegmentation/. Conclusion This online benchmark will facilitate integration and comparison of image analysis methods for bioimages. While the primary focus is on biological images, we believe that the dataset and infrastructure will be of interest to researchers and developers working with biological image analysis, image segmentation and object tracking in general.

  16. Evaluation of read count based RNAseq analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan; Li, Chung-I; Ye, Fei; Shyr, Yu

    2013-01-01

    RNAseq technology is replacing microarray technology as the tool of choice for gene expression profiling. While providing much richer data than microarray, analysis of RNAseq data has been much more challenging. To date, there has not been a consensus on the best approach for conducting robust RNAseq analysis. In this study, we designed a thorough experiment to evaluate six read count-based RNAseq analysis methods (DESeq, DEGseq, edgeR, NBPSeq, TSPM and baySeq) using both real and simulated data. We found the six methods produce similar fold changes and reasonable overlapping of differentially expressed genes based on p-values. However, all six methods suffer from over-sensitivity. Based on the evaluation of runtime using real data and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) using simulated data, we found that edgeR achieves a better balance between speed and accuracy than the other methods.

  17. Systematic evaluation of observational methods assessing biomechanical exposures at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takala, Esa-Pekka; Pehkonen, Irmeli; Forsman, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This systematic review aimed to identify published observational methods assessing biomechanical exposures in occupational settings and evaluate them with reference to the needs of different users. METHODS: We searched scientific databases and the internet for material from 1965...... to September 2008. Methods were included if they were primarily based on the systematic observation of work, the observation target was the human body, and the method was clearly described in the literature. A systematic evaluation procedure was developed to assess concurrent and predictive validity...... the use of technical instruments. Generally, the observations showed moderate to good agreement with the corresponding assessments made from video recordings; agreement was the best for large-scale body postures and work actions. Postures of wrist and hand as well as trunk rotation seemed to be more...

  18. DOE methods for evaluating environmental and waste management samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Thomas, B.L.; Riley, R.G.; Sklarew, D.S.; Mong, G.M.; Fadeff, S.K. [eds.

    1994-10-01

    DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods) is a resource intended to support sampling and analytical activities for the evaluation of environmental and waste management samples from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. DOE Methods is the result of extensive cooperation from all DOE analytical laboratories. All of these laboratories have contributed key information and provided technical reviews as well as significant moral support leading to the success of this document. DOE Methods is designed to encompass methods for collecting representative samples and for determining the radioisotope activity and organic and inorganic composition of a sample. These determinations will aid in defining the type and breadth of contamination and thus determine the extent of environmental restoration or waste management actions needed, as defined by the DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, or others. The development of DOE Methods is supported by the Analytical Services Division of DOE. Unique methods or methods consolidated from similar procedures in the DOE Procedures Database are selected for potential inclusion in this document. Initial selection is based largely on DOE needs and procedure applicability and completeness. Methods appearing in this document are one of two types, {open_quotes}Draft{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}Verified{close_quotes}. {open_quotes}Draft{close_quotes} methods that have been reviewed internally and show potential for eventual verification are included in this document, but they have not been reviewed externally, and their precision and bias may not be known. {open_quotes}Verified{close_quotes} methods in DOE Methods have been reviewed by volunteers from various DOE sites and private corporations. These methods have delineated measures of precision and accuracy.

  19. Coordination and resource-related difficulties encountered by Quebec's public health specialists and infectious diseases/medical microbiologists in the management of A (H1N1 - a mixed-method, exploratory survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhan Charles

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Quebec, the influenza A (H1N1 pandemic was managed using a top-down style that left many involved players with critical views and frustrations. We aimed to describe physicians' perceptions - infectious diseases specialists/medical microbiologists (IDMM and public health/preventive medicine specialists (PHPMS - in regards to issues encountered with the pandemics management at the physician level and highlight suggested improvements for future healthcare emergencies. Methods In April 2010, Quebec IDMM and PHPMS physicians were invited to anonymously complete a web-based learning needs assessment. The survey included both open-ended and multiple-choice questions. Descriptive statistics were used to report on the frequency distribution of multiple choice responses whereas thematic content analysis was used to analyse qualitative data generated from the survey and help understand respondents' experience and perceptions with the pandemics. Results Of the 102 respondents, 85.3% reported difficulties or frustrations in their practice during the pandemic. The thematic analysis revealed two core themes describing the problems experienced in the pandemic management: coordination and resource-related difficulties. Coordination issues included communication, clinical practice guidelines, decision-making, roles and responsibilities, epidemiological investigation, and public health expert advisory committees. Resources issues included laboratory resources, patient management, and vaccination process. Conclusion Together, the quantitative and qualitative data suggest a need for improved coordination, a better definition of roles and responsibilities, increased use of information technologies, merged communications, and transparency in the decisional process. Increased flexibility and less contradiction in clinical practice guidelines from different sources and increased laboratory/clinical capacity were felt critical to the proper

  20. Brain injury and severe eating difficulties at admission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard, Annette; Kaae Kristensen, Hanne

    with acquired brain injury were interviewed via qualitative semi-structured interviews. An explorative study was conducted to study eating difficulties. Qualitative content analysis was used. Results: Four main themes emerged from the analysis: personal values related to eating, swallowing difficulties, eating......Objective: The objective of this pilot study was to explore and interpret the way that individuals with acquired brain injury, admitted to inpatient neurorehabilitation with severe eating difficulties, experienced eating nine to fifteen months after discharge. Methods: Four individuals...

  1. Evaluation of current methods to estimate pulp yield of hemp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, de E.P.M.; Werf, van der H.M.G.

    1995-01-01

    Large-scale evaluation of hemp stems from field trials requires a rapid method for the characterization of stem quality. The large differences between bark and woody core in anatomical and chemical properties, make a quantification of these two fractions of primary importance for quality assessment.

  2. Risk evaluation methods at individual ship and company level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Heij (Christiaan); S. Knapp (Sabine)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractSafety management and risk profiling to identify substandard ships are of importance to the shipping industry. Whereas current methods rely heavily on detention risk and flag state performance, we extend the risk assessment by considering various risk dimensions and by evaluating a wide

  3. Evaluation of Three Different Osteosynthesis Methods for Mandibular Angle Fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira-Filho, Valfrido Antonio; Oliveira, Luis Fernando de Gorla; Reis, José Maurício Dos Santos Nunes;

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical behavior of different rigid fixation methods in mandible angle fractures. Three different plates were tested: one 4-hole grid miniplate, one 8-hole curved grid miniplate, and one 4-hole straight miniplate.For the loading tests, 30 polyurethane ...

  4. Methods of Evaluating Child Welfare in Indian Country: An Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kathleen; Cross, Terry L.; John, Laura; Carter, Patricia; Pavkov, Thomas; Wang, Ching-Tung; Diaz, Javier

    2011-01-01

    The poor quality and quantity of data collected in tribal communities today reflects a lack of true community participation and commitment. This is especially problematic for evaluation studies, in which the needs and desires of the community should be the central focus. This challenge can be met by emphasizing indigenous methods and voice. The…

  5. Bayesian Monte Carlo Method for Nuclear Data Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koning, A.J., E-mail: koning@nrg.eu

    2015-01-15

    A Bayesian Monte Carlo method is outlined which allows a systematic evaluation of nuclear reactions using TALYS. The result will be either an EXFOR-weighted covariance matrix or a collection of random files, each accompanied by an experiment based weight.

  6. Student Teachers' Views about Assessment and Evaluation Methods in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to find out assessment and evaluation approaches in a Mathematics Teacher Training Department based on the views and experiences of student teachers. The study used a descriptive survey method, with the research sample consisting of 150 third- and fourth-year Primary Mathematics student teachers. Data were collected using a…

  7. Evaluation of an enzymic method for starch purity determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, J.F. (Research Lab. for the Chemistry of Bioactive Carbohydrates and Proteins, Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom)); Cabalda, V.M. (Inst. of Research and Development, Chembiotech Ltd., Birmingham (United Kingdom))

    1993-02-01

    Independent evaluation of an enzyme method (AFNOR) on a wider than original array of starch types showed incomplete conversion of some starch components (up to 2.5%) to glucose, as assayed per gel permeation chromatography. The AFNOR method uses only a single enzyme regime consisting of amyloglucosidase from Aspergillus niger. Negligible amounts of starch were found in the precipitates/residues obtained after starch hydrolysis of the starch hydrolysates (<0.1%). Standard deviation of the method was <1% absolute for all starches studied. (orig.).

  8. Fuzzy evaluation method using fuzzy rule approach in multicriteria analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Mahmod

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A multicriteria analysis in ranking the quality of teaching using fuzzy rule is proposed. The proposed method uses the application of fuzzy sets and approximate reasoning in deciding the ranking of the quality of teaching in several courses. The proposed method introduces normalizing data which dampen the extreme value that exists in the data. The use of the model is suitable in evaluating situations that involve subjectivity, vagueness and imprecise information. Experimental results are comparable and the method performs better in some domains. .

  9. Dogmas in the assessment of usability evaluation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbæk, Kasper

    2010-01-01

    Usability evaluation methods (UEMs) are widely recognised as an essential part of systems development. Assessments of the performance of UEMs, however, have been criticised for low validity and limited reliability. The present study extends this critique by describing seven dogmas in recent work...... on UEMs. The dogmas include using inadequate procedures and measures for assessment, focusing on win-lose outcomes, holding simplistic models of how usability evaluators work, concentrating on evaluation rather than on design and working from the assumption that usability problems are real. We discuss...... research approaches that may help move beyond the dogmas. In particular, we emphasise detailed studies of evaluation processes, assessments of the impact of UEMs on design carried out in real-world systems development and analyses of how UEMs may be combined...

  10. Measuring the effectiveness of methods for evaluating noise jammers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Fang; HUANG Jian-guo

    2007-01-01

    Reliable evaluations of a noise jammer's effectiveness are necessary to properly design, manufacture, and operate one, so it is important to have an evaluation model. Based on their characteristics and principles, relevant factors were classified in terms of their contribution to a unit's effectiveness. In this way an evaluation index system was established. In the proposed mathematical model a noise jammer is analyzed by combining the model of system effectiveness with the method of analytic hierarchical process. A simulation of underwater acoustic countermeasures was used to test the rationality and feasibility of the model. The results showed that this model is an effective way to solve the challenge of evaluating the effectiveness of non-offensive weapons under single working phase.

  11. Holistic Evaluation of Lightweight Operating Systems using the PERCU Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, William T.C.; He, Yun (Helen); Carter, Jonathan; Glenski, Joseph; Rippe, Lynn; Cardo, Nicholas

    2008-05-01

    The scale of Leadership Class Systems presents unique challenges to the features and performance of operating system services. This paper reports results of comprehensive evaluations of two Light Weight Operating Systems (LWOS), Cray's Catamount Virtual Node (CVN) and Linux Environment (CLE) operating systems, on the exact same large-scale hardware. The evaluation was carried out over a 5-month period on NERSC's 19,480 core Cray XT-4, Franklin, using a comprehensive evaluation method that spans Performance, Effectiveness, Reliability, Consistency and Usability criteria for all major subsystems and features. The paper presents the results of the comparison between CVN and CLE, evaluates their relative strengths, and reports observations regarding the world's largest Cray XT-4 as well.

  12. Desirable Difficulties in Vocabulary Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, Robert A; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-01-01

    In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is understood and produced. From each perspective we discuss evidence that supports the notion that difficulties in learning and imposed costs to language processing may produce benefits because they are likely to increase conceptual understanding. We then consider the consequences of these processes for actual second-language learning and suggest that some of the domain-general cognitive advantages that have been reported for proficient bilinguals may reflect difficulties imposed by the learning process, and by the requirement to negotiate cross-language competition, that are broadly desirable. As Alice Healy and her collaborators were perhaps the first to demonstrate, research on desirable difficulties in vocabulary and language learning holds the promise of bringing together research traditions on memory and language that have much to offer each other.

  13. Evaluating a physician leadership development program - a mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throgmorton, Cheryl; Mitchell, Trey; Morley, Tom; Snyder, Marijo

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - With the extent of change in healthcare today, organizations need strong physician leaders. To compensate for the lack of physician leadership education, many organizations are sending physicians to external leadership programs or developing in-house leadership programs targeted specifically to physicians. The purpose of this paper is to outline the evaluation strategy and outcomes of the inaugural year of a Physician Leadership Academy (PLA) developed and implemented at a Michigan-based regional healthcare system. Design/methodology/approach - The authors applied the theoretical framework of Kirkpatrick's four levels of evaluation and used surveys, observations, activity tracking, and interviews to evaluate the program outcomes. The authors applied grounded theory techniques to the interview data. Findings - The program met targeted outcomes across all four levels of evaluation. Interview themes focused on the significance of increasing self-awareness, building relationships, applying new skills, and building confidence. Research limitations/implications - While only one example, this study illustrates the importance of developing the evaluation strategy as part of the program design. Qualitative research methods, often lacking from learning evaluation design, uncover rich themes of impact. The study supports how a PLA program can enhance physician learning, engagement, and relationship building throughout and after the program. Physician leaders' partnership with organization development and learning professionals yield results with impact to individuals, groups, and the organization. Originality/value - Few studies provide an in-depth review of evaluation methods and outcomes of physician leadership development programs. Healthcare organizations seeking to develop similar in-house programs may benefit applying the evaluation strategy outlined in this study.

  14. Evaluation of binding strength depending on the adhesive binding methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Pasanec Preprotić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A book with a personal value is worth remembering since it represents specific interests of an individual - author of the book. Therefore the original is the first issue of a book which is always bound manually. Due to cost-effectiveness, adhesive binding is most commonly used in author’s edition in paperback and hardback. Adhesive binding methods differ only if a paper leaf is a binding unit in adhesive binding form. The subject of the research is the quality of book block binding for two binding methods with/without mull fabric. The assumption is that double-fan adhesive binding method shows an extraordinary binding quality as compared to the rough spine method. For the needs of this research book block parameters remained unaltered: paper type, size and book volume. The results related to strength were obtained by using an experimental method of tensile strength for individual paper leaves. The rating of book block quality was conducted in accordance with FOGRA Nr.71006 guidelines for page pull-test. Furthermore, strength results for both methods were compared in order to evaluate the importance of changing the quality of adhesive binding. Statistical method ANOVA analysis of variance and Fisher’s F-test were used to evaluate the quality of book block binding.

  15. A Rapid Usability Evaluation (RUE) Method for Health Information Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Alissa L; Baker, Darrell A; Fahner, W Jeffrey; Milligan, Bryce S; Cox, Leeann; Hagg, Heather K; Saleem, Jason J

    2010-11-13

    Usability testing can help generate design ideas to enhance the quality and safety of health information technology. Despite these potential benefits, few healthcare organizations conduct systematic usability testing prior to software implementation. We used a Rapid Usability Evaluation (RUE) method to apply usability testing to software development at a major VA Medical Center. We describe the development of the RUE method, provide two examples of how it was successfully applied, and discuss key insights gained from this work. Clinical informaticists with limited usability training were able to apply RUE to improve software evaluation and elected to continue to use this technique. RUE methods are relatively simple, do not require advanced training or usability software, and should be easy to adopt. Other healthcare organizations may be able to implement RUE to improve software effectiveness, efficiency, and safety.

  16. Evaluation method for the drying performance of enzyme containing formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Jakob; Bach, P.; Jensen, Anker Degn;

    2008-01-01

    A method is presented for fast and cheap evaluation of the performance of enzyme containing formulations in terms of preserving the highest enzyme activity during spray drying. The method is based on modeling the kinetics of the thermal inactivation reaction which occurs during the drying process....... Relevant kinetic parameters are determined from differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) experiments and the model is used to simulate the severity of the inactivation reaction for temperatures and moisture levels relevant for spray drying. After conducting experiments and subsequent simulations...... for a number of different formulations it may be deduced which formulation performs best. This is illustrated by a formulation design study where 4 different enzyme containing formulations are evaluated. The method is validated by comparison to pilot scale spray dryer experiments....

  17. Evaluating maximum likelihood estimation methods to determine the hurst coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendziorski, C. M.; Bassingthwaighte, J. B.; Tonellato, P. J.

    1999-12-01

    A maximum likelihood estimation method implemented in S-PLUS ( S-MLE) to estimate the Hurst coefficient ( H) is evaluated. The Hurst coefficient, with 0.5long memory time series by quantifying the rate of decay of the autocorrelation function. S-MLE was developed to estimate H for fractionally differenced (fd) processes. However, in practice it is difficult to distinguish between fd processes and fractional Gaussian noise (fGn) processes. Thus, the method is evaluated for estimating H for both fd and fGn processes. S-MLE gave biased results of H for fGn processes of any length and for fd processes of lengths less than 2 10. A modified method is proposed to correct for this bias. It gives reliable estimates of H for both fd and fGn processes of length greater than or equal to 2 11.

  18. Systematic comparative evaluation of methods for investigating the TCRβ repertoire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Wei; Zeng, Xiaojing;

    2016-01-01

    advantages and disadvantages; however, a systematic evaluation and direct comparison of them would benefit researchers in the selection of the most suitable method. In this study, we used both pooled control plasmids and spiked-in cells to benchmark the MPCR bias. RNA from three healthy donors...... was subsequently processed with the two methods to perform a comparative evaluation of the TCR β chain sequences. Both approaches demonstrated high reproducibility (R2 = 0.9958 and 0.9878, respectively). No differences in gene usage were identified for most V/J genes (>60%), and an average of 52.03% of the CDR3...... variability was smaller compared with the biological variability. Through direct comparison, these findings provide novel insights into the two experimental methods, which will prove to be valuable in immune repertoire research and its interpretation....

  19. Comparative evaluation of patellar height methods in the Brazilian population☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Christian; Zaluski, Alexandre; e Albuquerque, Rodrigo Pires; de Sousa, Eduardo Branco; Cavanellas, Naasson

    2015-01-01

    Objective The methods most used for patellar height measurement were compared with the plateau–patella angle method. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted, in which lateral-view radiographs of the knee were evaluated using the three methods already established in the literature: Insall–Salvati (IS), Blackburne–Peel (BP) and Caton–Deschamps (CD). These were compared with the plateau–patella angle method. One hundred and ninety-six randomly selected patients were included in the sample. Results The data were initially evaluated using the chi-square test. This analysis was deemed to be positive with p < 0.0001. We compared the traditional methods with the plateau–patella angle measurement, using Fisher's exact test. In comparing the IS index with the plateau–patella angle, we did not find any statistically significant differences in relation to the proportion of altered cases between the two groups. The traditional methods were compared with the plateau–patella angle with regard to the proportions of cases of high and low patella, by means of Fisher's exact test. This analysis showed that the plateau–patella angle identified fewer cases of high patella than did the IS, BP and CD methods, but more cases of low patella. In comparing pairs, we found that the IS and CD indices were capable of identifying more cases of high patella than was the plateau–patella angle. In relation to the cases of low patella, the plateau–patella angle was capable of identifying more cases than were the other three methods. Conclusions The plateau–patella angle found more patients with low patella than did the classical methods and showed results that diverged from those of the other indices studied. PMID:26962492

  20. Comparative evaluation of patellar height methods in the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Behrendt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The methods most used for patellar height measurement were compared with the plateau-patella angle method. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted, in which lateral-view radiographs of the knee were evaluated using the three methods already established in the literature: Insall-Salvati (IS, Blackburne-Peel (BP and Caton-Deschamps (CD. These were compared with the plateau-patella angle method. One hundred and ninety-six randomly selected patients were included in the sample. RESULTS: The data were initially evaluated using the chi-square test. This analysis was deemed to be positive with p < 0.0001. We compared the traditional methods with the plateau-patella angle measurement, using Fisher's exact test. In comparing the IS index with the plateau-patella angle, we did not find any statistically significant differences in relation to the proportion of altered cases between the two groups. The traditional methods were compared with the plateau-patella angle with regard to the proportions of cases of high and low patella, by means of Fisher's exact test. This analysis showed that the plateau-patella angle identified fewer cases of high patella than did the IS, BP and CD methods, but more cases of low patella. In comparing pairs, we found that the IS and CD indices were capable of identifying more cases of high patella than was the plateau-patella angle. In relation to the cases of low patella, the plateau-patella angle was capable of identifying more cases than were the other three methods. CONCLUSIONS: The plateau-patella angle found more patients with low patella than did the classical methods and showed results that diverged from those of the other indices studied.

  1. Framing difficulties in quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Modir, Bahar; Sayre, Eleanor C

    2016-01-01

    Students' difficulties in quantum mechanics may be the result of unproductive framing and not fundamental inability to solve the problems or misconceptions about physics content. We observed groups of students solving quantum mechanics problems in an upper-division physics course. Using the lens of the epistemological framing, we investigated four frames in our observational data: algorithmic math, conceptual math, algorithmic physics, and conceptual physics. We then used our framework to seek an underlying structure to the long lists of published difficulties that span many topics in quantum mechanics. We mapped descriptions of published difficulties into errors in epistemological framing and resource use. We analyzed descriptions of students' problem solving to find their frames, and compared students' framing to framing (and frame shifting) required by problem statements. We found three categories of error: mismatches between students' framing and problem statement framing; inappropriate or absent transiti...

  2. Adopted youth and sleep difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radcliff Z

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Zach Radcliff, Allison Baylor, Bruce Rybarczyk Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA Abstract: Sleep is a critical component of healthy development for youth, with cascading effects on youth’s biological growth, psychological well-being, and overall functioning. Increased sleep difficulties are one of many disruptions that adopted youth may face throughout the adoption process. Sleep difficulties have been frequently cited as a major concern by adoptive parents and hypothesized in the literature as a problem that may affect multiple areas of development and functioning in adopted youth. However, there is limited research exploring this relationship. Using a biopsychosocial framework, this paper reviews the extant literature to explore the development, maintenance, and impact of sleep difficulties in adopted youth. Finally, implications for future research and clinical interventions are outlined. Keywords: adoption, sleep, youth

  3. An IMU Evaluation Method Using a Signal Grafting Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoji Niu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As various inertial measurement units (IMUs from different manufacturers appear every year, it is not affordable to evaluate every IMU through tests. Therefore, this paper presents an IMU evaluation method by grafting data from the tested IMU to the reference data from a higher-grade IMU. The signal grafting (SG method has several benefits: (a only one set of field tests with a higher-grade IMU is needed, and can be used to evaluate numerous IMUs. Thus, SG is effective and economic because all data from the tested IMU is collected in the lab; (b it is a general approach to compare navigation performances of various IMUs by using the same reference data; and, finally, (c through SG, one can first evaluate an IMU in the lab, and then decide whether to further test it. Moreover, this paper verified the validity of SG to both medium- and low-grade IMUs, and presents and compared two SG strategies, i.e., the basic-error strategy and the full-error strategy. SG provided results similar to field tests, with a difference of under 5% and 19.4%–26.7% for tested tactical-grade and MEMS IMUs. Meanwhile, it was found that dynamic IMU errors were essential to guarantee the effect of the SG method.

  4. An IMU Evaluation Method Using a Signal Grafting Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaoji; Wang, Qiang; Li, You; Zhang, Quan; Jiang, Peng

    2016-06-10

    As various inertial measurement units (IMUs) from different manufacturers appear every year, it is not affordable to evaluate every IMU through tests. Therefore, this paper presents an IMU evaluation method by grafting data from the tested IMU to the reference data from a higher-grade IMU. The signal grafting (SG) method has several benefits: (a) only one set of field tests with a higher-grade IMU is needed, and can be used to evaluate numerous IMUs. Thus, SG is effective and economic because all data from the tested IMU is collected in the lab; (b) it is a general approach to compare navigation performances of various IMUs by using the same reference data; and, finally, (c) through SG, one can first evaluate an IMU in the lab, and then decide whether to further test it. Moreover, this paper verified the validity of SG to both medium- and low-grade IMUs, and presents and compared two SG strategies, i.e., the basic-error strategy and the full-error strategy. SG provided results similar to field tests, with a difference of under 5% and 19.4%-26.7% for tested tactical-grade and MEMS IMUs. Meanwhile, it was found that dynamic IMU errors were essential to guarantee the effect of the SG method.

  5. Evaluation method of cracking resistance of lightweight aggregate concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季韬; 张彬彬; 陈永波; 庄一舟

    2014-01-01

    The cracking behavior of lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC) was investigated by mechanical analysis, SEM and cracking-resistant test where a shrinkage-restrained ring with a clapboard was used. The relationship between the ceramsite type and the cracking resistance of LWAC was built up and compared with that of normal-weight coarse aggregate concrete (NWAC). A new method was proposed to evaluate the cracking resistance of concrete, where the concepts of cracking coefficient ζt(t) and the evaluation index Acr(t) were proposed, and the development of micro-cracks and damage accumulation were recognized. For the concrete with an ascending cracking coefficient curve, the larger Acr(t) is, the lower cracking resistance of concrete is. For the concrete with a descending cracking coefficient curve, the larger Acr(t) is, the stronger the cracking resistance of concrete is. The evaluation results show that in the case of that all the three types of coarse aggregates in concrete are pre-soaked for 24 h, NWAC has the lowest cracking resistance, followed by the LWAC with lower water absorption capacity ceramsite and the LWAC with higher water absorption capacity ceramsite has the strongest cracking resistance. The proposed method has obvious advantages over the cracking age method, because it can evaluate the cracking behavior of concrete even if the concrete has not an observable crack.

  6. [A Standing Balance Evaluation Method Based on Largest Lyapunov Exponent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kun; Wang, Hongrui; Xiao, Jinzhuang; Zhao, Qing

    2015-12-01

    In order to evaluate the ability of human standing balance scientifically, we in this study proposed a new evaluation method based on the chaos nonlinear analysis theory. In this method, a sinusoidal acceleration stimulus in forward/backward direction was forced under the subjects' feet, which was supplied by a motion platform. In addition, three acceleration sensors, which were fixed to the shoulder, hip and knee of each subject, were applied to capture the balance adjustment dynamic data. Through reconstructing the system phase space, we calculated the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) of the dynamic data of subjects' different segments, then used the sum of the squares of the difference between each LLE (SSDLLE) as the balance capabilities evaluation index. Finally, 20 subjects' indexes were calculated, and compared with evaluation results of existing methods. The results showed that the SSDLLE were more in line with the subjects' performance during the experiment, and it could measure the body's balance ability to some extent. Moreover, the results also illustrated that balance level was determined by the coordinate ability of various joints, and there might be more balance control strategy in the process of maintaining balance.

  7. Operator performance evaluation using multi criteria decision making methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Ruzanita Mat; Ismail, Wan Rosmanira; Razali, Siti Fatihah

    2014-06-01

    Operator performance evaluation is a very important operation in labor-intensive manufacturing industry because the company's productivity depends on the performance of its operators. The aims of operator performance evaluation are to give feedback to operators on their performance, to increase company's productivity and to identify strengths and weaknesses of each operator. In this paper, six multi criteria decision making methods; Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), fuzzy AHP (FAHP), ELECTRE, PROMETHEE II, Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) and VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR) are used to evaluate the operators' performance and to rank the operators. The performance evaluation is based on six main criteria; competency, experience and skill, teamwork and time punctuality, personal characteristics, capability and outcome. The study was conducted at one of the SME food manufacturing companies in Selangor. From the study, it is found that AHP and FAHP yielded the "outcome" criteria as the most important criteria. The results of operator performance evaluation showed that the same operator is ranked the first using all six methods.

  8. A new method to evaluate human-robot system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, G.; Weisbin, C. R.

    2003-01-01

    One of the key issues in space exploration is that of deciding what space tasks are best done with humans, with robots, or a suitable combination of each. In general, human and robot skills are complementary. Humans provide as yet unmatched capabilities to perceive, think, and act when faced with anomalies and unforeseen events, but there can be huge potential risks to human safety in getting these benefits. Robots provide complementary skills in being able to work in extremely risky environments, but their ability to perceive, think, and act by themselves is currently not error-free, although these capabilities are continually improving with the emergence of new technologies. Substantial past experience validates these generally qualitative notions. However, there is a need for more rigorously systematic evaluation of human and robot roles, in order to optimize the design and performance of human-robot system architectures using well-defined performance evaluation metrics. This article summarizes a new analytical method to conduct such quantitative evaluations. While the article focuses on evaluating human-robot systems, the method is generally applicable to a much broader class of systems whose performance needs to be evaluated.

  9. Improvement of Web Design Using the Heuristic Evaluation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Strgar Kurecic

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problems of information presentation efficacy on Web. Research on how to design more functional and more attractive Web pages has been conducted. The graphic design heuristics for the Web have been defined, which could help designers to improve the efficacy of organization and information design on Web. Also, these rules present the basic criteria for objective evaluation of the Web design. The usage of the heuristic evaluation method, as the method for evaluation of the Web page graphic design has been suggested.The empirical part of the work comprises heuristic evaluation of the Web page graphic design according to the suggested heuristics, redesigning the Web pages of the Faculty of Graphic Arts according to the heuristic evaluation report and user testing by means of a poll. Analyzing the results obtained by user testing, it is proved that by the redesign according to the suggested graphic design heuristics for the Web, it is possible to create aesthetically and functionally better Web pages.

  10. Application of Risk Probability Evaluation Method to Offshore Platform Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jianxing; TAN Zhendong

    2005-01-01

    Offshore project risk concerns many influence factors with complex relationship, and traditional methods cannot be used for the evaluation on risk probability. To deal with this problem, a new method was developed by the combination of improved technique for order preference by similarity ideal solution method, analytical hierarchy process method and the network response surface method. The risk probability was calculated by adopting network response surface analysis based on the state variable of a known event and its degree of membership.This quantification method was applied to an offshore platform project, Bonan oil and gas field project in Bohai Bay in June 2004.There were 7 sub-projects and each includes 4 risk factors.The values of 28 risk factors, ranging from 10-6 to 10-4, were achieved. This precision conforms to the international principle of as low as reasonably practically.The evaluation indicates that the values of comprehensive level of construction group and ability of technical personnel on the spot are relatively high among all risk factors, so these two factors should be paid more attention to in offshore platform construction.

  11. Student evaluation of teaching and assessment methods in pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badyal Dinesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The students are in the best position to comment on the effectiveness of any teaching system and they may be regarded as the best judges to assess the teaching and evaluation methods. Objective: This study was designed to obtain student feedback on teaching and assessment methods in the subject of pharmacology and use it for improvement. Materials and Methods: Based on student feedback from batch 2006, innovative strategies were implemented. To know the effect of these strategies feedback was obtained from subsequent batch 2007 using a written validated questionnaire covering various aspects of teaching and assessment methods. Results: Students were satisfied with all teaching methods except lecture, seminars and pharmacy exercises. Majority of the students showed preference for tutorials, short answer questions and revision classes. All students felt that there should be more time for clinical pharmacology and bedside teaching. The performance score of the students (batch 2007 indicated improvement in their scores (12% when earlier feedback suggestions were implemented. The pass percentage of the subsequent batch in university examinations improved from 90 to 100%. Conclusion: The implementation of suggestions obtained from students resulted in improvement in their performance. Hence, it is very essential to synchronize teaching and evaluation methods with special requirements of medical students.

  12. A new method to evaluate imaging quality of CCD cameras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-juan; DU Hai-hui; DAI Jing-min; CHEN Ying-hang

    2005-01-01

    In order to evaluate the imaging quality of CCD cameras fully and rapidly,the minimum resolvable contrast (MRC) is presented in this paper and the system of measuring MRC is constructed as well,in which two integrating spheres are proposed to illuminate two sides of the target respectively.The variable contrast can be obtained by regulating the luminance of integrating spheres. Experimental results indicate that the error of measuring luminance is within ±0.3 cd/m2,MRC rises with the increase of the spatial frequency.The experimental results show that the method proposed is an effective approach to evaluate the imaging quality of CCD cameras.

  13. Progressive Concept Evaluation Method for Automatically Generated Concept Variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woldemichael Dereje Engida

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual design is one of the most critical and important phases of design process with least computer support system. Conceptual design support tool (CDST is a conceptual design support system developed to automatically generate concepts for each subfunction in functional structure. The automated concept generation process results in large number of concept variants which require a thorough evaluation process to select the best design. To address this, a progressive concept evaluation technique consisting of absolute comparison, concept screening and weighted decision matrix using analytical hierarchy process (AHP is proposed to eliminate infeasible concepts at each stage. The software implementation of the proposed method is demonstrated.

  14. Performance evaluation methods and instrumentation for mine ventilation fans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Man; WANG Xue-rong

    2009-01-01

    Ventilation fans are one of the most important pieces of equipment in coal mines. Their performance plays an important role in the safety of staff and production. Given the actual requirements of coal mine production, we instituted a research project on the measurement methods of key performance parameters such as wind pressure, amount of ventilation and power. At the end a virtual instrument for mine ventilation fans performance evaluation was developed using a USB interface. The practical perform-ance and analytical results of our experiments show that it is feasible, reliable and effective to use the proposed instrumentation for mine ventilation performance evaluation.

  15. A novel method to evaluate spin diffusion length of Pt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yan-qing; Sun, Niu-yi; Che, Wen-ru [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure and Pohl Institute of Solid State Physics and School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shan, Rong, E-mail: shan.rong@hotmail.com [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure and Pohl Institute of Solid State Physics and School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhu, Zhen-gang, E-mail: zgzhu@ucas.ac.cn [School of Electronic, Electrical and Communication Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-05-01

    Spin diffusion length of Pt is evaluated via proximity effect of spin orbit coupling (SOC) and anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in Pt/Co{sub 2}FeAl bilayers. By varying the thicknesses of Pt and Co{sub 2}FeAl layer, the thickness dependences of AHE parameters can be obtained, which are theoretically predicted to be proportional to the square of the SOC strength. According to the physical image of the SOC proximity effect, the spin diffusion length of Pt can easily be identified from these thickness dependences. This work provides a novel method to evaluate spin diffusion length in a material with a small value.

  16. Gender ratios for reading difficulties

    OpenAIRE

    Hawke, Jesse L.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; DeFries, John C.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of reading difficulties is typically higher in males than females in both referred and research-identified samples, and the ratio of males to females is greater in more affected samples. To explore possible gender differences in reading performance, we analyzed data from 1,133 twin pairs in which at least one member of each pair had a school-history of reading problems and from 684 twin pairs from a comparison sample with no reading difficulties. Although the difference between...

  17. Indicators of Difficulty in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This article sets out to investigate the correlation between indicators of difficulty observable in translation product and translation process data respectively. It has been claimed that the number of alternative renditions in the target text across a group of subjects translating the same source...... text item indicates the degree of cognitive effort. We identified words with high versus low target text variability across eight subjects and related these to various indicators of difficulty observable in process data from eye-tracking and keystroke logging: number of fixations, gaze time, pauses...

  18. Field evaluation of personal sampling methods for multiple bioaerosols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hsun Wang

    Full Text Available Ambient bioaerosols are ubiquitous in the daily environment and can affect health in various ways. However, few studies have been conducted to comprehensively evaluate personal bioaerosol exposure in occupational and indoor environments because of the complex composition of bioaerosols and the lack of standardized sampling/analysis methods. We conducted a study to determine the most efficient collection/analysis method for the personal exposure assessment of multiple bioaerosols. The sampling efficiencies of three filters and four samplers were compared. According to our results, polycarbonate (PC filters had the highest relative efficiency, particularly for bacteria. Side-by-side sampling was conducted to evaluate the three filter samplers (with PC filters and the NIOSH Personal Bioaerosol Cyclone Sampler. According to the results, the Button Aerosol Sampler and the IOM Inhalable Dust Sampler had the highest relative efficiencies for fungi and bacteria, followed by the NIOSH sampler. Personal sampling was performed in a pig farm to assess occupational bioaerosol exposure and to evaluate the sampling/analysis methods. The Button and IOM samplers yielded a similar performance for personal bioaerosol sampling at the pig farm. However, the Button sampler is more likely to be clogged at high airborne dust concentrations because of its higher flow rate (4 L/min. Therefore, the IOM sampler is a more appropriate choice for performing personal sampling in environments with high dust levels. In summary, the Button and IOM samplers with PC filters are efficient sampling/analysis methods for the personal exposure assessment of multiple bioaerosols.

  19. Field evaluation of personal sampling methods for multiple bioaerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chi-Hsun; Chen, Bean T; Han, Bor-Cheng; Liu, Andrew Chi-Yeu; Hung, Po-Chen; Chen, Chih-Yong; Chao, Hsing Jasmine

    2015-01-01

    Ambient bioaerosols are ubiquitous in the daily environment and can affect health in various ways. However, few studies have been conducted to comprehensively evaluate personal bioaerosol exposure in occupational and indoor environments because of the complex composition of bioaerosols and the lack of standardized sampling/analysis methods. We conducted a study to determine the most efficient collection/analysis method for the personal exposure assessment of multiple bioaerosols. The sampling efficiencies of three filters and four samplers were compared. According to our results, polycarbonate (PC) filters had the highest relative efficiency, particularly for bacteria. Side-by-side sampling was conducted to evaluate the three filter samplers (with PC filters) and the NIOSH Personal Bioaerosol Cyclone Sampler. According to the results, the Button Aerosol Sampler and the IOM Inhalable Dust Sampler had the highest relative efficiencies for fungi and bacteria, followed by the NIOSH sampler. Personal sampling was performed in a pig farm to assess occupational bioaerosol exposure and to evaluate the sampling/analysis methods. The Button and IOM samplers yielded a similar performance for personal bioaerosol sampling at the pig farm. However, the Button sampler is more likely to be clogged at high airborne dust concentrations because of its higher flow rate (4 L/min). Therefore, the IOM sampler is a more appropriate choice for performing personal sampling in environments with high dust levels. In summary, the Button and IOM samplers with PC filters are efficient sampling/analysis methods for the personal exposure assessment of multiple bioaerosols.

  20. An evaluation of methods for estimating decadal stream loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Casey J.; Hirsch, Robert M.; Schwarz, Gregory E.; Holtschlag, David J.; Preston, Stephen D.; Crawford, Charles G.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2016-11-01

    Effective management of water resources requires accurate information on the mass, or load of water-quality constituents transported from upstream watersheds to downstream receiving waters. Despite this need, no single method has been shown to consistently provide accurate load estimates among different water-quality constituents, sampling sites, and sampling regimes. We evaluate the accuracy of several load estimation methods across a broad range of sampling and environmental conditions. This analysis uses random sub-samples drawn from temporally-dense data sets of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, nitrate, and suspended-sediment concentration, and includes measurements of specific conductance which was used as a surrogate for dissolved solids concentration. Methods considered include linear interpolation and ratio estimators, regression-based methods historically employed by the U.S. Geological Survey, and newer flexible techniques including Weighted Regressions on Time, Season, and Discharge (WRTDS) and a generalized non-linear additive model. No single method is identified to have the greatest accuracy across all constituents, sites, and sampling scenarios. Most methods provide accurate estimates of specific conductance (used as a surrogate for total dissolved solids or specific major ions) and total nitrogen - lower accuracy is observed for the estimation of nitrate, total phosphorus and suspended sediment loads. Methods that allow for flexibility in the relation between concentration and flow conditions, specifically Beale's ratio estimator and WRTDS, exhibit greater estimation accuracy and lower bias. Evaluation of methods across simulated sampling scenarios indicate that (1) high-flow sampling is necessary to produce accurate load estimates, (2) extrapolation of sample data through time or across more extreme flow conditions reduces load estimate accuracy, and (3) WRTDS and methods that use a Kalman filter or smoothing to correct for departures between

  1. Retractions of the gingival margins evaluated by holographic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Manole, Marius; de Sabata, Aldo; Rusu, Laura-Cristina; Stratul, Stefan; Dudea, Diana; Dughir, Ciprian; Duma, Virgil-Florin

    2015-05-01

    The periodontal disease is one of the most common pathological states of the teeth and gums system. The issue is that its evaluation is a subjective one, i.e. it is based on the skills of the dental medical doctor. As for any clinical condition, a quantitative evaluation and monitoring in time of the retraction of the gingival margins is desired. This phenomenon was evaluated in this study with a holographic method by using a He-Ne laser with a power of 13 mW. The holographic system we have utilized - adapted for dentistry applications - is described. Several patients were considered in a comparative study of their state of health - regarding their oral cavity. The impressions of the maxillary dental arch were taken from a patient during his/her first visit and after a period of six months. The hologram of the first model was superposed on the model cast after the second visit. The retractions of the gingival margins could be thus evaluated three-dimensionally in every point of interest. An evaluation of the retraction has thus been made. Conclusions can thus be drawn for the clinical evaluation of the health of the teeth and gums system of each patient.

  2. Description and evaluation of a surface runoff susceptibility mapping method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagadec, Lilly-Rose; Patrice, Pierre; Braud, Isabelle; Chazelle, Blandine; Moulin, Loïc; Dehotin, Judicaël; Hauchard, Emmanuel; Breil, Pascal

    2016-10-01

    Surface runoff is the hydrological process at the origin of phenomena such as soil erosion, floods out of rivers, mudflows, debris flows and can generate major damage. This paper presents a method to create maps of surface runoff susceptibility. The method, called IRIP (Indicator of Intense Pluvial Runoff, French acronym), uses a combination of landscape factors to create three maps representing the susceptibility (1) to generate, (2) to transfer, and (3) to accumulate surface runoff. The method input data are the topography, the land use and the soil type. The method aims to be simple to implement and robust for any type of study area, with no requirement for calibration or specific input format. In a second part, the paper focuses on the evaluation of the surface runoff susceptibility maps. The method is applied in the Lézarde catchment (210 km2, northern France) and the susceptibility maps are evaluated by comparison with two risk regulatory zonings of surface runoff and soil erosion, and two databases of surface runoff impacts on roads and railways. Comparison tests are performed using a standard verification method for dichotomous forecasting along with five verification indicators: accuracy, bias, success ratio, probability of detection, and false alarm ratio. The evaluation shows that the susceptibility map of surface runoff accumulation is able to identify the concentrated surface runoff flows and that the susceptibility map of transfer is able to identify areas that are susceptible to soil erosion. Concerning the ability of the IRIP method to detect sections of the transportation network susceptible to be impacted by surface runoff, the evaluation tests show promising probabilities of detection (73-90%) but also high false alarm ratios (77-92%). However, a qualitative analysis of the local configuration of the infrastructure shows that taking into account the transportation network vulnerability can explain numerous false alarms. This paper shows that the

  3. Evaluating effects of method of administration on Walking Impairment Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Karin S; Margolis, Mary Kay; Gilchrist, Kim A; Grandy, Susan P; Hiatt, William R; Ratchford, Andrea; Revicki, Dennis A; Weintraub, William S; Regensteiner, Judith G

    2003-08-01

    Intermittent claudication resulting from peripheral arterial disease (PAD) can substantially impair walking function. The Walking Impairment Questionnaire (WIQ) assesses patient self-reported difficulty in walking. Currently this questionnaire is validated for interviewer administration only. Since this can be burdensome in a large clinical trial, we examined the effects of alternative methods of administration on patient responses on the WIQ. The WIQ, which consists of four subscales (pain severity, distance, speed, stairs), was modified to be self-administered or interviewer-administered by telephone. Patients with PAD were recruited from two sites and randomized into two groups: in group 1 the WIQ was self-administered, then telephone-administered; in group 2 the WIQ was telephone-administered, then self-administered. The two administrations occurred 4 to 7 days apart. Additional measures (SF-36, EQ-5D, and PAD symptom scale) and clinical data were included to further assess the validity of the WIQ and symptoms in patients with claudication. Telephone interviews were conducted by trained interviewers using standardized scripts. Two-week test-retest reliability was assessed for both the self-administered WIQ (group 1) and the telephone-administered WIQ (group 2). Sixty patients were recruited at two sites (n = 30 per group). Seventy-eight percent were men; mean patient age was 67.1 years; and 83% of patients were white. Mean duration of PAD symptoms was 6.8 years. No significant differences were observed in WIQ subscale scores between self administration and telephone administration. No interaction effects between order and method of administration were detected. Cronbach alpha for distance, speed, and stair-climbing subscales ranged from 0.82 to 0.94. Correlations among WIQ subscales and the symptom scale were good (r = -0.34 to -0.57). Correlations of WIQ subscales with physical health subscales of the SF-36 (r = 0.24-0.59) were higher than for mental health

  4. EVALUATION OF SEROLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR METHODS OVE R CONVENTIONAL METHODS IN DIAGNOSIS OF PULMONARY AND EXTRA PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Despite advances in field of microbiology, diagn osis of Tuberculosis remains a challenge. Diagnosis of Extrapulmonary tuberculosis is more problematic due to low bacillary load in the specimen and difficulty in obtaining the specimen from the site of lesion in many cases. PCR and its modifications are a boon in diag nosis of tuberculosis in such cases. But serological methods like ELISA are still the first choice of small laboratories in India. AIM : Comparative evaluation of serological and molecular methods over conventional methods in diagnosis of extrapulmonary and pulmonary tuberculos is. METHODS : 170 different clinical specimens suspected of tuberculosis, (100 pulmonary an d 70 Extrapulmonary were examined by PCR using MPB 64 primer, culture and microscopy. A ll specimens were processed using USP methodology for inhibitors free PCR. TB Ig G, Ig M and Ig A was determined using PATHOZYME MYCO Kit. Response to ATT on clinical follow up was c onsidered as gold standard. RESULTS: Total pulmonary specimens found positive by any of the four tests was 87 (out of 100 while that for extrapulmonary samples was 63(out of 70 . F or Pulmonary Specimens the diagnostic accuracy of microscopy was 88.3%,for culture 88.3%,f or ELISA 67.4% and for PCR 94.1%.For extrapulmonary samples the diagnostic accuracy of microscopy was 30.1%,for culture 49.2%,for ELISA 44.4% and for PCR 87.3%. CONCLUSION: As diagnosis by microscopy and culture are sensitive and specific, for pulmonary spec imens, PCR should be kept reserved for clinically probable cases found negative by conventi onal tests. For Extrapulmonary specimens PCR can be used as an effective screening tool as c onventional methods are mostly negative. ELISA was found to have no role in diagnosis of pul monary TB. For Extrapulmonary TB ELISA can be used as an adjunct tool but results should b e interpreted with utmost caution after full evaluation of the patient both clinically and radiol

  5. Continuous Context-Aware Device Comfort Evaluation Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Jingjing; Jensen, Christian D.; Ma, Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    to calculate the sensitivity of a specific action to the context. We present two different methods for a mobile device to dynamically evaluate its security status when an action is requested, either by the user or by another device. The first method uses the predefined ideal context as a standard to assess...... context, such as its location, surroundings (e.g. objects and people in the immediate environment) and so on, because some actions may only be appropriate in some situations; this is not captured by traditional security models. In this paper, we examine the notion of Device Comfort and propose a way...... the comfort level of a device in the current context. The second method is based on the familiarity of the device with doing the particular action in the current context. These two methods suit different situations of the device owner’s ability to deal with system security. The assessment result can activate...

  6. Evaluation of therapeutic pulmonary surfactants by thin liquid film methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Roumen; Exerowa, Dotchi; Platikanov, Dimo; Bianco, Federico; Razzetti, Roberta

    2015-08-01

    An example of the application of the Black Foam Film (BFF) Method and the Wetting Film Method, using the Microinterferomertric and the Pressure Balance Techniques, for characterization interfacial properties of the animal derived therapeutic pulmonary surfactant preparations (TSP), is presented. BFF thickness, probability of black film formation, and disjoining pressure for foam films from TSP aqueous solutions are measured as well as the wetting properties of TSP solutions on solid surfaces with different hydrophobicity have been studied. Interfacial characteristics such as minimal surfactant concentration to obtain black film (critical concentration) and concentration at which a black film is 100% obtained (threshold concentration) are determined. An evaluation of the four widely used TSP – Curosurf, Infasurf, Survanta, and Alveofact – by these methods has been carried out. Thus the methods of the thin liquid films are useful tools for studying the interfacial properties of TSP solutions, as well as for their improvement.

  7. Field evaluation of broiler gait score using different sampling methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFS Cordeiro

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is today the world's largest broiler meat exporter; however, in order to keep this position, it must comply with welfare regulations while maintaining low production costs. Locomotion problems restrain bird movements, limiting their access to drinking and feeding equipment, and therefore their survival and productivity. The objective of this study was to evaluate locomotion deficiency in broiler chickens reared under stressful temperature conditions using three different sampling methods of birds from three different ages. The experiment consisted in determining the gait score of 28, 35, 42 and 49-day-old broilers using three different known gait scoring methods: M1, birds were randomly selected, enclosed in a circle, and then stimulated to walk out of the circle; M2, ten birds were randomly selected and gait scored; and M3, birds were randomly selected, enclosed in a circle, and then observed while walking away from the circle without stimulus to walking. Environmental temperature, relative humidity, and light intensity inside the poultry houses were recorded. No evidence of interaction between scoring method and age was found however, both method and age influenced gait score. Gait score was found to be lower at 28 days of age. The evaluation using the ten randomly selected birds within the house was the method that presented the less reliable results. Gait score results when birds were stimulated to walk were lower than when they were not simulated, independently of age. The gait scores obtained with the three tested methods and ages were higher than those considered acceptable. The highest frequency of normal gait score (0 represented 50% of the flock. These results may be related to heat stress during rearing. Average gait score incresead with average ambient temperature, relative humidity, and light intensity. The evaluation of gait score to detect locomotion problems of broilers under rearing conditions seems subjective and

  8. Application of Bayesian Network Learning Methods to Land Resource Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jiejun; HE Xiaorong; WAN Youchuan

    2006-01-01

    Bayesian network has a powerful ability for reasoning and semantic representation, which combined with qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis, with prior knowledge and observed data, and provides an effective way to deal with prediction, classification and clustering. Firstly, this paper presented an overview of Bayesian network and its characteristics, and discussed how to learn a Bayesian network structure from given data, and then constructed a Bayesian network model for land resource evaluation with expert knowledge and the dataset. The experimental results based on the test dataset are that evaluation accuracy is 87.5%, and Kappa index is 0.826. All these prove the method is feasible and efficient, and indicate that Bayesian network is a promising approach for land resource evaluation.

  9. ATAM-based Architecture Evaluation Using LOTOS Formal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usman Ashraf

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available System Architecture evaluation and formal specification are the significant processes and practical endeavors in all domains. Many methods and formal descriptive techniques have been proposed to make a comprehensive analysis and formal representation of a system architecture. This paper consists of two main parts, in first we evaluated system performance, quality attribute in Remote Temperature Sensor clients-Server architecture by implementing an ATAM model, which provides a comprehensive support for evaluation of architecture designs by considering design quality attributes and how they can be represented in the architecture. In the second part, we computed the selected system architecture in ISO standards formal description technique LOTOS with which a system can be specified by the temporal relation between interactions and behavior of the system. Our proposed approach improves on factors such as ambiguity, inconsistency and incompleteness in current system architecture.

  10. Evaluation Method of Collision Risk by Using True Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayama Imazu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to develop a useful application to use big data like as AIS for safety and efficiency of ship operation. AIS is very useful system to collect targets information, but this information is not effective use yet. The evaluation method of collision risk is one of the cause disturb. Usually the collision risk of ship is evaluated by the value of the Closest Point of Approach (CPA which is related to a relative motion. So, it becomes difficult to find out a safety pass in a congested water. Here, Line of Predicted Collision (LOPC and Obstacle Zone by Target (OZT for evaluation of collision risk are introduced, these values are related to a true motion and it became visible of dangerous place, so it will make easy to find out a safety pass in a congested water.

  11. Performance evaluation of electrorheological fluid using acoustic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Gong, Xun; Qin, Chuanxi; Zhang, De; Zhang, Dong; Wu, Haodong

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a simple method to evaluate the performance of electrorheological fluid (ERF) with acoustic parameters. The key parameters, such as the storage modulus and the loss modulus are obtained by ultrasonic shear wave reflectometry. By comparing and analyzing the value of the ratio of these two shear wave parameters, it could be easily and quickly to evaluate the performance of ERF. Four kinds of electrode surface morphology are chosen to vary the performance of ERF in this paper. The experimental results show that the optimum ERF system, for example the electrode surface morphology and DC electric field etc, are easily to be found by this method. Furthermore, the influence of leaky current is discussed also.

  12. Test Method for Compression Resilience Evaluation of Textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shui-yuan Hong

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A test method was proposed and a measurement system was developed to characterize the compression resilience properties of textiles based on the mechanical device, microelectronics, sensors and control system. Derived from the typical pressure-displacement curve and test data, four indices were defined to characterize the compression performance of textiles. The test principle and the evaluation method for compression resilience of textiles were introduced. Twelve types of textile fabrics with different structural features and made from different textile materials were tested. The one-way ANOVA analysis was carried out to identify the significance of the differences of the evaluation indices among the fabrics. The results show that each index is significantly different among different fabrics. The denim has the maximum compressional resilience and the polar fleece has the minimum compressional resilience.

  13. A new semiquantitative method for evaluation of metastasis progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volarevic, A; Ljujic, B; Volarevic, V; Milovanovic, M; Kanjevac, T; Lukic, A; Arsenijevic, N

    2012-01-01

    Although recent technical advancements are directed toward developing novel assays and methods for detection of micro and macro metastasis, there are still no reports of reliable, simple to use imaging software that could be used for the detection and quantification of metastasis in tissue sections. We herein report a new semiquantitative method for evaluation of metastasis progression in a well established 4T1 orthotopic mouse model of breast cancer metastasis. The new semiquantitative method presented here was implemented by using the Autodesk AutoCAD 2012 program, a computer-aided design program used primarily for preparing technical drawings in 2 dimensions. By using the Autodesk AutoCAD 2012 software- aided graphical evaluation we managed to detect each metastatic lesion and we precisely calculated the average percentage of lung and liver tissue parenchyma with metastasis in 4T1 tumor-bearing mice. The data were highly specific and relevant to descriptive histological analysis, confirming reliability and accuracy of the AutoCAD 2012 software as new method for quantification of metastatic lesions. The new semiquantitative method using AutoCAD 2012 software provides a novel approach for the estimation of metastatic progression in histological tissue sections.

  14. MIMO Terminal Performance Evaluation with a Novel Wireless Cable Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Kyösti, Pekka; Hentilä, Lassi

    2017-01-01

    Conventional conductive method, where antennas on the device under test (DUT) are disconnected from antenna ports and replaced with radio frequency (RF) coaxial cables, has been dominantly utilized in industry to evaluate multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) capable terminals. However, direct RF...... emulator output ports, a wireless cable connection can be achieved. The proposed method can be executed in a small RF shielded anechoic box, and offers low system cost, high measurement reliability and repeatability.......Conventional conductive method, where antennas on the device under test (DUT) are disconnected from antenna ports and replaced with radio frequency (RF) coaxial cables, has been dominantly utilized in industry to evaluate multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) capable terminals. However, direct RF...... cable connection introduces many practical problems and a radiated method to replace cable connection is highly desirable. Existing wireless cable method relies on the knowledge of a transfer matrix between the channel emulator (CE) output ports and DUT antenna ports, and also requires an anechoic...

  15. A novel method for evaluating tissue inhomogeneity in elastography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Peirui; WAN Mingxi; WANG Supin; ZHANG Dachun; DANG Jun

    2006-01-01

    Based on the detection of differential Rényi information (DRI) of segmented pre- and post-compression radio-frequency (RF) echo signals, a novel method for evaluating tissue inhomogeneity in elastography prior to the cross-correlation operation is proposed.In vitro experiments were carried out to corroborate the performance of the DRI method. Experimental results illustrate that valuable insights into local tissue inhomogeneity can be obtained through analyzing the DRI curves of the echo segments, which can provide information to aid the study of strain estimation algorithm in elastography.

  16. Semi-automatic method for routine evaluation of fibrinolytic components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collen, D; Tytgat, G; Verstraete, M

    1968-11-01

    A semi-automatic method for the routine evaluation of fibrinolytic activity is described. The principle is based upon graphic recording by a multichannel voltmeter of tension drops over a potentiometer, caused by variations in the influence of light upon a light-dependent resistance, resulting from modifications in the composition of the fibrin fibres by lysis. The method is applied to the assessment of certain fibrinolytic factors with widespread fibrinolytic endpoints, and the results are compared with simultaneously obtained visual data on the plasmin assay, the plasminogen assay, and on the euglobulin clot lysis time.

  17. Roles and methods of performance evaluation of hospital academic leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Yuan, Huikang; Li, Yang; Zhao, Xia; Yi, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    The rapidly advancing implementation of public hospital reform urgently requires the identification and classification of a pool of exceptional medical specialists, corresponding with incentives to attract and retain them, providing a nucleus of distinguished expertise to ensure public hospital preeminence. This paper examines the significance of academic leadership, from a strategic management perspective, including various tools, methods and mechanisms used in the theory and practice of performance evaluation, and employed in the selection, training and appointment of academic leaders. Objective methods of assessing leadership performance are also provided for reference.

  18. Evaluation of non cyanide methods for hemoglobin estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaya B Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hemoglobincyanide method (HiCN method for measuring hemoglobin is used extensively worldwide; its advantages are the ready availability of a stable and internationally accepted reference standard calibrator. However, its use may create a problem, as the waste disposal of large volumes of reagent containing cyanide constitutes a potential toxic hazard. Aims and Objective: As an alternative to drabkin`s method of Hb estimation, we attempted to estimate hemoglobin by other non-cyanide methods: alkaline hematin detergent (AHD-575 using Triton X-100 as lyser and alkaline- borax method using quarternary ammonium detergents as lyser. Materials and Methods: The hemoglobin (Hb results on 200 samples of varying Hb concentrations obtained by these two cyanide free methods were compared with a cyanmethemoglobin method on a colorimeter which is light emitting diode (LED based. Hemoglobin was also estimated in one hundred blood donors and 25 blood samples of infants and compared by these methods. Statistical analysis used was Pearson`s correlation coefficient. Results: The response of the non cyanide method is linear for serially diluted blood samples over the Hb concentration range from 3gm/dl -20 gm/dl. The non cyanide methods has a precision of + 0.25g/dl (coefficient of variation= (2.34% and is suitable for use with fixed wavelength or with colorimeters at wavelength- 530 nm and 580 nm. Correlation of these two methods was excellent (r=0.98. The evaluation has shown it to be as reliable and reproducible as HiCN for measuring hemoglobin at all concentrations. The reagents used in non cyanide methods are non-biohazardous and did not affect the reliability of data determination and also the cost was less than HiCN method. Conclusions: Thus, non cyanide methods of Hb estimation offer possibility of safe and quality Hb estimation and should prove useful for routine laboratory use. Non cyanide methods is easily incorporated in hemobloginometers

  19. Evaluation of Pediatric Manual Wheelchair Mobility Using Advanced Biomechanical Methods

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    There is minimal research of upper extremity joint dynamics during pediatric wheelchair mobility despite the large number of children using manual wheelchairs. Special concern arises with the pediatric population, particularly in regard to the longer duration of wheelchair use, joint integrity, participation and community integration, and transitional care into adulthood. This study seeks to provide evaluation methods for characterizing the biomechanics of wheelchair use by children with sp...

  20. A new method of AHP applied to personal credit evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ming-hui; XIONG Qi; CAO Jing

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new negative judgment matrix that combines the advantages of the reciprocal judgment matrix and the fuzzy complementary judgment matrix, and then puts forth the properties of this new matrix. In view of these properties, this paper derives a clear sequencing formula for the new negative judgment matrix, which improves the sequencing principle of AHP. Finally, this new method is applied to personal credit evaluation to show its advantages of conciseness and swiftness.

  1. A Method for Evaluating the Persuasive Potential of Software Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Munisamy Kolandai, Ammu Prabha

    2012-01-01

    Today, web, Internet, mobile and other ambient technologies engage in persuasive interaction with people. The technology designed to reinforce and change user’s attitude or behaviors or both through persuasion and social influence are persuasive technologies. Recently, persuasive systems and services are becoming increasingly abundant and ubiquitous. Evaluation of these systems is a challenging endeavor and typically requires a simple and efficient method. Nielsen suggests heuristic evaluatio...

  2. [Methods of health economic evaluation for health services research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icks, A; Chernyak, N; Bestehorn, K; Brüggenjürgen, B; Bruns, J; Damm, O; Dintsios, C-M; Dreinhöfer, K; Gandjour, A; Gerber, A; Greiner, W; Hermanek, P; Hessel, F; Heymann, R; Huppertz, E; Jacke, C; Kächele, H; Kilian, R; Klingenberger, D; Kolominsky-Rabas, P; Krämer, H; Krauth, C; Lüngen, M; Neumann, T; Porzsolt, F; Prenzler, A; Pueschner, F; Riedel, R; Rüther, A; Salize, H J; Scharnetzky, E; Schwerd, W; Selbmann, H-K; Siebert, H; Stengel, D; Stock, S; Völler, H; Wasem, J; Schrappe, M

    2010-12-01

    On August 30, 2010, the German Network for Health Services Research [Deutsches Netzwerk Versorgungsforschung e. V. (DNVF e. V.)] approved the Memorandum III "Methods for Health Services Research", supported by the member societies mentioned as authors and published in this Journal [Gesundheitswesen 2010; 72: 739-748]. The present paper focuses on methodological issues of economic evaluation of health care technologies. It complements the Memorandum III "Methods for Health Services Research", part 2. First, general methodological principles of the economic evaluations of health care technologies are outlined. In order to adequately reflect costs and outcomes of health care interventions in the routine health care, data from different sources are required (e. g., comparative efficacy or effectiveness studies, registers, administrative data, etc.). Therefore, various data sources, which might be used for economic evaluations, are presented, and their strengths and limitations are stated. Finally, the need for methodological advancement with regard to data collection and analysis and issues pertaining to communication and dissemination of results of health economic evaluations are discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Comparing three methods for evaluating impact wrench vibration emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Thomas W; Marcotte, Pierre; Warren, Cristopher; Welcome, Daniel E; Dong, Ren G

    2009-08-01

    To provide a means for comparing impact wrenches and similar tools, the international standard ISO 8662-7 prescribes a method for measuring the vibrations at the handles of tools during their operations against a cotton-phenolic braking device. To improve the standard, alternative loading mechanisms have been proposed; one device comprises aluminum blocks with friction brake linings, while another features plate-mounted bolts to provide the tool load. The objective of this study was to evaluate these three loading methods so that tool evaluators can select appropriate loading devices in order to obtain results that can be applied to their specific workplace operations. Six experienced tool operators used five tool models to evaluate the loading mechanisms. The results of this study indicate that different loads can yield different tool comparison results. However, any of the three devices appears to be adequate for initial tool screenings. On the other hand, vibration emissions measured in the laboratory are unlikely to be fully representative of those in the workplace. Therefore, for final tool selections and for reliably assessing workplace vibration exposures, vibration measurements should be collected under actual working conditions. Evaluators need to use appropriate numbers of tools and tool operators in their assessments; recommendations are provided.

  4. Gender Ratios for Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Jesse L.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcut, Erik G.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; DeFries, John C.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of reading difficulties is typically higher in males than females in both referred and research-identified samples, and the ratio of males to females is greater in more affected samples. To explore possible gender differences in reading performance, we analysed data from 1133 twin pairs in which at least one member of each pair had…

  5. Diffie-Hellman without Difficulty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2011-01-01

    An excellent way for a protocol to obtain shared keys is Diffie-Hellman. For the automated verification of security protocols, the use of Diffie-Hellman poses a certain amount of difficulty, because it requires algebraic reasoning. Several tools work in the free algebra and even for tools that do...

  6. Correlation between oro and hypopharynx shape and position with endotracheal intubation difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daher Rabadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Prediction of intubation difficulty can save patients from major preoperative morbidity or mortality. The purpose of this paper is to assess the correlation between oro-hypo pharynx position, neck size, and length with endotracheal intubation difficulty. The study also explored the diagnostic value of Friedman Staging System in prediction cases with difficult intubation. Method: The consecutive 500 ASA (I, II adult patients undergoing elective surgery were evaluated for oro and hypopharynx shape and position by modified Mallampati, Cormack and Lehane score as well as Friedman obstructive sleep apnea classification systems. Neck circumference and length were also measured. All cases were intubated by a single anesthesiologist who was uninformed of the above evaluation and graded intubation difficulty in visual analog score. Correlation between these findings and difficulty of intubation was assessed. Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive and Negative Predictive Values were also reported. Results: Cormack-Lehane grade had the strongest correlation with difficulty of intubation followed by Friedman palate position. Friedman palate position was the most sensitive and had higher positive and negative predictive values than modified Mallampati classification. Cormack-Lehane grade was found to be the most specific with the highest negative predictive value among the four studied classifications. Conclusion: Friedman palate position is a more useful, valuable and sensitive test compared to the modified Mallampati screening test for pre-anesthetic prediction of difficult intubation where its involvement in Multivariate model may raise the accuracy and diagnostic value of preoperative assessment of difficult airway.

  7. Toward Mixed Method Evaluations of Scientific Visualizations and Design Process as an Evaluation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Bret; Coffey, Dane; Thorson, Lauren; Schroeder, David; Ellingson, Arin M.; Nuckley, David J.

    2017-01-01

    In this position paper we discuss successes and limitations of current evaluation strategies for scientific visualizations and argue for embracing a mixed methods strategy of evaluation. The most novel contribution of the approach that we advocate is a new emphasis on employing design processes as practiced in related fields (e.g., graphic design, illustration, architecture) as a formalized mode of evaluation for data visualizations. To motivate this position we describe a series of recent evaluations of scientific visualization interfaces and computer graphics strategies conducted within our research group. Complementing these more traditional evaluations our visualization research group also regularly employs sketching, critique, and other design methods that have been formalized over years of practice in design fields. Our experience has convinced us that these activities are invaluable, often providing much more detailed evaluative feedback about our visualization systems than that obtained via more traditional user studies and the like. We believe that if design-based evaluation methodologies (e.g., ideation, sketching, critique) can be taught and embraced within the visualization community then these may become one of the most effective future strategies for both formative and summative evaluations.

  8. Evaluation of two surveillance methods for surgical site infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Haji Abdolbaghi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgical wound infection surveillance is an important facet of hospital infection control processes. There are several surveillance methods for surgical site infections. The objective of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of two different surgical site infection surveillance methods. Methods: In this prospective cross sectional study 3020 undergoing surgey in general surgical wards of Imam Khomeini hospital were included. Surveillance methods consisted of review of medical records for postoperative fever and review of nursing daily note for prescription of antibiotics postoperatively and during patient’s discharge. Review of patient’s history and daily records and interview with patient’s surgeon and the head-nurse of the ward considered as a gold standard for surveillance. Results: The postoperative antibiotic consumption especially when considering its duration is a proper method for surgical wound infection surveillance. Accomplishments of a prospective study with postdischarge follow up until 30 days after surgery is recommended. Conclusion: The result of this study showed that postoperative antibiotic surveillance method specially with consideration of the antibiotic usage duration is a proper method for surgical site infection surveillance in general surgery wards. Accomplishments of a prospective study with post discharge follow up until 30 days after surgery is recommended.

  9. Evaluation of five decontamination methods for filtering facepiece respirators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscusi, Dennis J; Bergman, Michael S; Eimer, Benjamin C; Shaffer, Ronald E

    2009-11-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the availability of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-certified N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) during an influenza pandemic. One possible strategy to mitigate a respirator shortage is to reuse FFRs following a biological decontamination process to render infectious material on the FFR inactive. However, little data exist on the effects of decontamination methods on respirator integrity and performance. This study evaluated five decontamination methods [ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), ethylene oxide, vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP), microwave oven irradiation, and bleach] using nine models of NIOSH-certified respirators (three models each of N95 FFRs, surgical N95 respirators, and P100 FFRs) to determine which methods should be considered for future research studies. Following treatment by each decontamination method, the FFRs were evaluated for changes in physical appearance, odor, and laboratory performance (filter aerosol penetration and filter airflow resistance). Additional experiments (dry heat laboratory oven exposures, off-gassing, and FFR hydrophobicity) were subsequently conducted to better understand material properties and possible health risks to the respirator user following decontamination. However, this study did not assess the efficiency of the decontamination methods to inactivate viable microorganisms. Microwave oven irradiation melted samples from two FFR models. The remainder of the FFR samples that had been decontaminated had expected levels of filter aerosol penetration and filter airflow resistance. The scent of bleach remained noticeable following overnight drying and low levels of chlorine gas were found to off-gas from bleach-decontaminated FFRs when rehydrated with deionized water. UVGI, ethylene oxide (EtO), and VHP were found to be the most promising decontamination methods; however, concerns remain about the throughput capabilities for EtO and VHP

  10. Chronobiological methods of human body self-regulation reserve evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Zaguskin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims Chronodiagnostical methods for evaluating reserve and unfavourable responses of human cardiac function and under prolonged stress load. Materials and methods 24-h ECG R–R interval recording of Holter-monitoring ECG recording and 1-h IPI and RespI recordings of healthy young and elderly subjects, post- MI patients, subjects suffered from chronic cerebral ischemia leading to a cognitive decline, healthy subjects following post-stress load, as well as R– R intervals recordings of the AHA ECG database of heart failure and AF. Chronodiagnostics, using non-linear symbolic dynamics method and redundancy quotient of ECG PI, RespI and R– R intervals; differential temperature survey to evaluate cellular immunity; biocontrolled laser therapy. Results Self-regulation reserve reduction of oxygen transfer body systems and increase in unfavourable response probability under stress load are accompanied by the amplitude and fluctuation increase of redundancy quotient in the ECG IPI, RespI and R–R intervals, as well as increase of hierarchical desynchronosis with dominating sympathicotonia and vagotonia, decrease in cellular immunity, reduction in rate spectrum of the ECG IPI and R–R intervals. Conclusion Symbolic dynamics method provides distinction between age-related and abnormal changes in hierarchy of cardiac rhythms. The amplitude and fluctuation increase of redundancy quotient indicates the increase of control intensity with oxygen transfer body systems and predicts the reduction of self-regulation reserve in cardiac rhythms and unfavourable response probability.

  11. Design and Evaluation Methods for Underwater Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Lin

    1996-12-31

    This thesis on underwater control systems is written with the designer in mind, assuming that the reader has some knowledge of control theory. It can be used as a text for undergraduate students and engineers. To help readers better understand the system they will be working with, the thesis is organised in a stepwise way. The reader will gain basic knowledge about underwater operations, equipment and control systems. Then the reader will be able to follow the steps to develop a required control system for an underwater equipment by first understanding the characteristics of the design problem, customer requirement, functional requirement, and possible solution, and then to present a mathematical model of the control problem. Having developed the concept, the thesis guides the reader to develop evaluation criteria and different ways to make the decision. The thesis gives an overview of how to achieve a successful design rather than giving the techniques for detailed control system design. Chapter 1 describes underwater operations and systems. Chapter 2 discusses issues of underwater control systems and control methods. Chapter 3 deals with design method and control systems theory, focusing on human-centered control. Chapter 4 discusses methods used to evaluate and rank products, and chapter 5 applies the methods to an example. 113 refs., 115 figs., 80 tabs.

  12. [Evaluation in the health sector: concepts and methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contandriopoulos, A P; Champagne, F; Denis, J L; Avargues, M C

    2000-12-01

    what is good and right). Did the intervention correspond to what should have been done according to the standards utilized? Evaluative research aims to employ valid scientific methods to analyze relationships between different components of an intervention. More specifically, evaluation research can be classified into six types of analysis, which employ different research strategies. Strategic analysis allows appreciation of the pertinence of an intervention; logical analysis, the soundness of the theoretical and operational bases of the intervention; productivity analysis, the technical efficiency with which resources are mobilized to produce goods or services; analysis of effects, effectiveness of goods and services in producing results; efficiency analysis, relations between the costs of the resources (or the services) used and the results; implementation analysis, appreciation of interactions between the process of the intervention and the context of implementation in the production of effects. The official finalities of all evaluation processes are of four types: (1)strategic, to aid the planning and development of an intervention, (2) formative, to supply information to improve an intervention in progress, (3) summative, to determine the effects of an intervention (to decide if it should be maintained, transformed or suspended), (4) fundamental, to contribute to the advancement of empirical and theoretical knowledge regarding the intervention. In addition, experience acquired in the field of evaluation suggests that evaluation is also productive in that it allows actors, in an organized setting, to reconsider the links between the objectives given, practices developed and their context of action. This task of achieving coherence is continuous and is one of the intrinsic conditions of action in an organized setting. In this perspective, evaluation can have a key role, given that it is not employed to legitimize new forms of control but rather to favor debate and

  13. Evaluation of methods of rapid mass killing of segregated early weaned piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Whiting, Terry L.; Steele, Gregory G.; Wamnes, Steinar; Green, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The operational logistics of mass killing of healthy, surplus piglets by manual blunt force trauma, controlled blunt force trauma, intraperitoneal injection of barbiturate, and free bullet were recorded. Objective performance variables evaluated were, speed of application, human resource and input cost, animal restraint required, and failure rate. Subjective evaluation of esthetics and difficulty of application indicated manual blunt force trauma is an unacceptable technique. Under field cond...

  14. Analysis of Photovoltaic System Energy Performance Evaluation Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, S.; Newmiller, J.; Kimber, A.; Flottemesch, R.; Riley, E.; Dierauf, T.; McKee, J.; Krishnani, P.

    2013-11-01

    Documentation of the energy yield of a large photovoltaic (PV) system over a substantial period can be useful to measure a performance guarantee, as an assessment of the health of the system, for verification of a performance model to then be applied to a new system, or for a variety of other purposes. Although the measurement of this performance metric might appear to be straight forward, there are a number of subtleties associated with variations in weather and imperfect data collection that complicate the determination and data analysis. A performance assessment is most valuable when it is completed with a very low uncertainty and when the subtleties are systematically addressed, yet currently no standard exists to guide this process. This report summarizes a draft methodology for an Energy Performance Evaluation Method, the philosophy behind the draft method, and the lessons that were learned by implementing the method.

  15. An in vitro method for evaluating vascular endothelial ADPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprino, L; Togna, A R; Stella, C; Togna, G

    1996-06-01

    Some xenobiotics, known to promote the development of thrombotic phenomena, affect vascular endothelium ADPase, a regulatory enzyme that inactivates vaso- and platelet-active adenine nucleotides. This proposed new experimental approach represents an improved method of evaluation of vascular endothelial ADPase activity which is assessed by measuring, at pre-established times, the degradation rate of exogenous ADP incubated with aortic bovine patches. The ADP dosage was performed by using a spectrophotometric enzymatic assay. Statistical analyses showed that the method is capable of highlighting the linearity of the ADPase activity time-course, thus indicating that the slopes of time-degradation curves of ADP are a valid index for this endothelial ectoenzyme activity. Results obtained with ADPase inhibiting or stimulating agent confirm that this in vitro method is an efficient tool for estimating the ability of xenobiotics or drugs to modify the nonthrombogenic properties of vascular endothelium.

  16. Evaluation of DNA extraction methods of rumen microbial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Rivera, Gabriela; Vargas-Cabrera, Yevani; González-Silva, Napoleón; Aguilera-García, Florentino; Gutiérrez-Vázquez, Ernestina; Bravo-Patiño, Alejandro; Cajero-Juárez, Marcos; Baizabal-Aguirre, Víctor Manuel; Valdez-Alarcón, Juan José

    2013-02-01

    The dynamism of microbial populations in the rumen has been studied with molecular methods that analyze single nucleotide polymorphisms of ribosomal RNA gene fragments (rDNA). Therefore DNA of good quality is needed for this kind of analysis. In this work we report the evaluation of four DNA extraction protocols (mechanical lysis or chemical lysis with CTAB, ethylxanthogenate or DNAzol(®)) from ruminal fluid. The suitability of two of these protocols (mechanical lysis and DNAzol(®)) was tested on single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) of rDNA of rumen microbial populations. DNAzol(®) was a simple method that rendered good integrity, yield and purity. With this method, subtle changes in protozoan populations were detected in young bulls fed with slightly different formulations of a supplement of multinutritional blocks of molasses and urea. Sequences related to Eudiplodinium maggi and a non-cultured Entodiniomorphid similar to Entodinium caudatum, were related to major fluctuating populations in an SSCP assay.

  17. Bayesian Monte Carlo method for nuclear data evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koning, A.J. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group NRG, P.O. Box 25, ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2015-12-15

    A Bayesian Monte Carlo method is outlined which allows a systematic evaluation of nuclear reactions using the nuclear model code TALYS and the experimental nuclear reaction database EXFOR. The method is applied to all nuclides at the same time. First, the global predictive power of TALYS is numerically assessed, which enables to set the prior space of nuclear model solutions. Next, the method gradually zooms in on particular experimental data per nuclide, until for each specific target nuclide its existing experimental data can be used for weighted Monte Carlo sampling. To connect to the various different schools of uncertainty propagation in applied nuclear science, the result will be either an EXFOR-weighted covariance matrix or a collection of random files, each accompanied by the EXFOR-based weight. (orig.)

  18. Advanced quantitative magnetic nondestructive evaluation methods - Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J. R.; Kusenberger, F. N.; Beissner, R. E.; Matzkanin, G. A.

    1979-01-01

    The paper reviews the scale of fatigue crack phenomena in relation to the size detection capabilities of nondestructive evaluation methods. An assessment of several features of fatigue in relation to the inspection of ball and roller bearings suggested the use of magnetic methods; magnetic domain phenomena including the interaction of domains and inclusions, and the influence of stress and magnetic field on domains are discussed. Experimental results indicate that simplified calculations can be used to predict many features of these results; the data predicted by analytic models which use finite element computer analysis predictions do not agree with respect to certain features. Experimental analyses obtained on rod-type fatigue specimens which show experimental magnetic measurements in relation to the crack opening displacement and volume and crack depth should provide methods for improved crack characterization in relation to fracture mechanics and life prediction.

  19. Bayesian Monte Carlo method for nuclear data evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    A Bayesian Monte Carlo method is outlined which allows a systematic evaluation of nuclear reactions using the nuclear model code TALYS and the experimental nuclear reaction database EXFOR. The method is applied to all nuclides at the same time. First, the global predictive power of TALYS is numerically assessed, which enables to set the prior space of nuclear model solutions. Next, the method gradually zooms in on particular experimental data per nuclide, until for each specific target nuclide its existing experimental data can be used for weighted Monte Carlo sampling. To connect to the various different schools of uncertainty propagation in applied nuclear science, the result will be either an EXFOR-weighted covariance matrix or a collection of random files, each accompanied by the EXFOR-based weight.

  20. FLICKER INDEX METHOD FOR EVALUATING FLICKER IN COLOR PDPs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小宁; 刘纯亮

    2004-01-01

    Objective In order to reduce the flicker in color plasma display panel (PDP), the highly peaked light output at certain positions and the strong luminance difference among subfields, which cause flicker in PDP, is analyzed; and a flicker index method is developed to evaluate flicker in PDP based on the flicker theory and the electroencephalograph response model for luminance. Methods This method considers flicker as a main result of the fundamental frequency component of luminance superimposed on the DC-component, the flicker index is defined as ratio between the positive square roots of the sum of the two square components. Results & Conclusion The calculation results of flicker index indicate that flicker can be obviously weakened via increase of subfield number, symmetrical selection and homogeneous interlaced distribution of major weight subfields . Flicker can be further reduced by choosing the suitable subfield order according to gray scale region of image.

  1. Systematic evaluation of observational methods assessing biomechanical exposures at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takala, Esa-Pekka; Irmeli, Pehkonen; Forsman, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, 9 University of Gothenburg and National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen   The aim of this project was to identify and systematically evaluate observational methods to assess workload on the musculoskeletal system. Searches...... observational methods presented in the literature, and to provide recommendations for their use.   METHODS   Search and selection of reference literature    Literature searches were conducted in the following electronic databases: PubMed, Embase, CISDOC, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar. The searches started......): musculoskeletal, back, neck, extremities. The results were first screened by title and abstract. About 580 potential references were identified, including original scientific reports, reviews and internet sources. Full texts of these references were collated in electronic (or scanned) format for further...

  2. Evaluation of an automated method for urinocolture screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ballabio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urinary tract infections are one of the most common diseases found in medical practice and are diagnosed with traditional methods of cultivation on plates. In this study we evaluated an automated instrumentation for screening of the urinocultures that can provide results quickly and guarantee traceability. The comparison of results obtained with automatic and plate methods is reported. Methods: 316 urine samples including midstream urine, urine catheter and urine bag have been analyzed by Alfred 60 (Alifax through light scattering technology that measures the replication of the bacteria. Simultaneously, the samples were sown on agar plates CPS3,Agar Cled, Mc Conkey Agar. Results:A total of 316 samples were analyzed by the automated method, 190 resulted negative, all confirmed by culture, while 126 were found positive. 82 cases were confirmed positive in culture plate, 65 with significant isolation of bacteria and 17 with polymicrobial flora with a significant charge. 44 cases were negative in culture plate but positive for the automated method. Conclusions: The absence of false negative results at low charges can represent a starting point to introduce an automated method for urinocolture screening.

  3. Performance evaluation of fault detection methods for wastewater treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas, Lluís; Villez, Kris; Aguado, Daniel; Rieger, Leiv; Rosén, Christian; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2011-02-01

    Several methods to detect faults have been developed in various fields, mainly in chemical and process engineering. However, minimal practical guidelines exist for their selection and application. This work presents an index that allows for evaluating monitoring and diagnosis performance of fault detection methods, which takes into account several characteristics, such as false alarms, false acceptance, and undesirable switching from correct detection to non-detection during a fault event. The usefulness of the index to process engineering is demonstrated first by application to a simple example. Then, it is used to compare five univariate fault detection methods (Shewhart, EWMA, and residuals of EWMA) applied to the simulated results of the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 1 long-term (BSM1_LT). The BSM1_LT, provided by the IWA Task Group on Benchmarking of Control Strategies, is a simulation platform that allows for creating sensor and actuator faults and process disturbances in a wastewater treatment plant. The results from the method comparison using BSM1_LT show better performance to detect a sensor measurement shift for adaptive methods (residuals of EWMA) and when monitoring the actuator signals in a control loop (e.g., airflow). Overall, the proposed index is able to screen fault detection methods.

  4. Systematic review of methods for evaluating healthcare research economic impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majdzadeh Reza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The economic benefits of healthcare research require study so that appropriate resources can be allocated to this research, particularly in developing countries. As a first step, we performed a systematic review to identify the methods used to assess the economic impact of healthcare research, and the outcomes. Method An electronic search was conducted in relevant databases using a combination of specific keywords. In addition, 21 relevant Web sites were identified. Results The initial search yielded 8,416 articles. After studying titles, abstracts, and full texts, 18 articles were included in the analysis. Eleven other reports were found on Web sites. We found that the outcomes assessed as healthcare research payback included direct cost-savings, cost reductions in healthcare delivery systems, benefits from commercial advancement, and outcomes associated with improved health status. Two methods were used to study healthcare research payback: macro-economic studies, which examine the relationship between research studies and economic outcome at the aggregated level, and case studies, which examine specific research projects to assess economic impact. Conclusions Our study shows that different methods and outcomes can be used to assess the economic impacts of healthcare research. There is no unique methodological approach for the economic evaluation of such research. In our systematic search we found no research that had evaluated the economic return of research in low and middle income countries. We therefore recommend a consensus on practical guidelines at international level on the basis of more comprehensive methodologies (such as Canadian Academic of Health Science and payback frameworks in order to build capacity, arrange for necessary informative infrastructures and promote necessary skills for economic evaluation studies.

  5. A Study of Rockburst Hazard Evaluation Method in Coal Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing of coal mining depth, the mining conditions are deteriorating, and dynamic hazard is becoming more likely to happen. This paper analyzes the relations and differences between rockburst in the coal mine and rockburst in the metal mine. It divides coal mine rockburst into two types including static loading type during roadway excavation process and dynamic loading type during mining face advancing. It proposes the correlation between the formation process of rockburst and the evolution of overlying strata spatial structure of the stope, criterion of rockburst occurrence, new classification, and predictive evaluation method for rockburst hazard that rockburst damage evaluation (RDE = released energy capacity (REC/absorbed energy capacity (AEC. Based on the relationship between RDE value and its corresponding level of rockburst hazard, the rockburst hazard can be divided into five types and evaluation index of each type can be achieved. Then the ongoing rockburst damage level can be classified in one of the five types, and the relative parameters, such as hazard extent, controlling measures also can be achieved. This new quantitative method could not only assess the impacting direction of rockburst occurrence, but also verify the effect of preventive measures for rockburst.

  6. A method to evaluate hydraulic fracture using proppant detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juntao; Zhang, Feng; Gardner, Robin P; Hou, Guojing; Zhang, Quanying; Li, Hu

    2015-11-01

    Accurate determination of the proppant placement and propped fracture height are important for evaluating and optimizing stimulation strategies. A technology using non-radioactive proppant and a pulsed neutron gamma energy spectra logging tool to determine the placement and height of propped fractures is proposed. Gd2O3 was incorporated into ceramic proppant and a Monte Carlo method was utilized to build the logging tools and formation models. Characteristic responses of the recorded information of different logging tools to fracture widths, proppant concentrations and influencing factors were studied. The results show that Gd capture gamma rays can be used to evaluate propped fractures and it has higher sensitivity to the change of fracture width and traceable proppant content compared with the exiting non-radioactive proppant evaluation techniques and only an after-fracture measurement is needed for the new method; The changes in gas saturation and borehole size have a great impact on determining propped fractures when compensated neutron and pulsed neutron capture tool are used. A field example is presented to validate the application of the new technique.

  7. Scatterscore method to evaluate changes in water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A.G.; Cardone, C. [U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-07-01

    In Pennsylvania, water quality is monitored at mine sites remediated with coal combustion by-products (CCB), on a quarterly or annual basis. This produces extensive data files including values for 32 parameters that are difficult to evaluate for overall changes in water quality. Tracking a few major parameters, such as pH, Fe or acidity, produces a complex data set that excludes other significant values. A quantitative measure of estimating if the overall change in water quality is an improvement, no significant change or deterioration should take into account all measured quantities. To assess the change in water quality at a site, a scatterscore evaluation was developed. In this reconnaissance method, a score is calculated based on the differences between up gradient (control) versus down gradient (treatment) water quality data sets. All parameters measured over a period of time at two sampling points are compared. This evaluation method indicated that there was slight to moderate improvement in water quality at 30% of the CCB remediated sites and slight deterioration at 25% of the sites. The scatterscore at the remaining sites indicated random change in the measured parameters. 19 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. The performance profile: A multi–criteria performance evaluation method for test–based problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaśkowski Wojciech

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In test-based problems, solutions produced by search algorithms are typically assessed using average outcomes of interactions with multiple tests. This aggregation leads to information loss, which can render different solutions apparently indifferent and hinder comparison of search algorithms. In this paper we introduce the performance profile, a generic, domain-independent, multi-criteria performance evaluation method that mitigates this problem by characterizing the performance of a solution by a vector of outcomes of interactions with tests of various difficulty. To demonstrate the usefulness of this gauge, we employ it to analyze the behavior of Othello and Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma players produced by five (coevolutionary algorithms as well as players known from previous publications. Performance profiles reveal interesting differences between the players, which escape the attention of the scalar performance measure of the expected utility. In particular, they allow us to observe that evolution with random sampling produces players coping well against the mediocre opponents, while the coevolutionary and temporal difference learning strategies play better against the high-grade opponents. We postulate that performance profiles improve our understanding of characteristics of search algorithms applied to arbitrary test-based problems, and can prospectively help design better methods for interactive domains.

  9. [Evaluation of using statistical methods in selected national medical journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sych, Z

    1996-01-01

    The paper covers the performed evaluation of frequency with which the statistical methods were applied in analyzed works having been published in six selected, national medical journals in the years 1988-1992. For analysis the following journals were chosen, namely: Klinika Oczna, Medycyna Pracy, Pediatria Polska, Polski Tygodnik Lekarski, Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny, Zdrowie Publiczne. Appropriate number of works up to the average in the remaining medical journals was randomly selected from respective volumes of Pol. Tyg. Lek. The studies did not include works wherein the statistical analysis was not implemented, which referred both to national and international publications. That exemption was also extended to review papers, casuistic ones, reviews of books, handbooks, monographies, reports from scientific congresses, as well as papers on historical topics. The number of works was defined in each volume. Next, analysis was performed to establish the mode of finding out a suitable sample in respective studies, differentiating two categories: random and target selections. Attention was also paid to the presence of control sample in the individual works. In the analysis attention was also focussed on the existence of sample characteristics, setting up three categories: complete, partial and lacking. In evaluating the analyzed works an effort was made to present the results of studies in tables and figures (Tab. 1, 3). Analysis was accomplished with regard to the rate of employing statistical methods in analyzed works in relevant volumes of six selected, national medical journals for the years 1988-1992, simultaneously determining the number of works, in which no statistical methods were used. Concurrently the frequency of applying the individual statistical methods was analyzed in the scrutinized works. Prominence was given to fundamental statistical methods in the field of descriptive statistics (measures of position, measures of dispersion) as well as

  10. Diffusion Monte Carlo methods applied to Hamaker Constant evaluations

    CERN Document Server

    Hongo, Kenta

    2016-01-01

    We applied diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) methods to evaluate Hamaker constants of liquids for wettabilities, with practical size of a liquid molecule, Si$_6$H$_{12}$ (cyclohexasilane). The evaluated constant would be justified in the sense that it lies within the expected dependence on molecular weights among similar kinds of molecules, though there is no reference experimental values available for this molecule. Comparing the DMC with vdW-DFT evaluations, we clarified that some of the vdW-DFT evaluations could not describe correct asymptotic decays and hence Hamaker constants even though they gave reasonable binding lengths and energies, and vice versa for the rest of vdW-DFTs. We also found the advantage of DMC for this practical purpose over CCSD(T) because of the large amount of BSSE/CBS corrections required for the latter under the limitation of basis set size applicable to the practical size of a liquid molecule, while the former is free from such limitations to the extent that only the nodal structure of...

  11. Indicators of Difficulty in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This article sets out to investigate the correlation between indicators of difficulty observable in translation product and translation process data respectively. It has been claimed that the number of alternative renditions in the target text across a group of subjects translating the same source...... and self-corrections. We found highly significant correlations between product and process data: high target text variability across subjects correlated with high fixation counts, long gaze time and long pauses. High variability in the target text was also associated with more self-corrections, but we...... text item indicates the degree of cognitive effort. We identified words with high versus low target text variability across eight subjects and related these to various indicators of difficulty observable in process data from eye-tracking and keystroke logging: number of fixations, gaze time, pauses...

  12. A questionnaire based evaluation of teaching methods amongst MBBS students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneshwar JN, Mirza Shiraz Baig, Zingade US, Khan ST

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The medical education and health care in India are facing serious challenges in content and competencies. Heightened focus on the quality of teaching in medical college has led to increased use of student surveys as a means of evaluating teaching. Objectives: A questionnaire based evaluation of 200 students (I MBBS & II MBBS about teaching methods was conducted at a Govt Medical College & Hospital, Aurangabad (MS with intake capacity of 150 students &established since 50 last years. Methods: 200 medical students of I MBBS & II MBBS voluntarily participated in the study. Based on teaching methods, an objective questionnaire paper was given to the participants to be solved in 1 hour. Results: As a teaching mode 59% of the students favored group discussion versus didactic lectures (14%. Almost 48% felt that those didactic lectures fail to create interest & motivation. Around 66% were aware of learning objectives. Conclusion: Strategies and futuristic plans need to be implemented so that medical education in India is innovative & creates motivation.

  13. Evaluation of pediatric manual wheelchair mobility using advanced biomechanical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavens, Brooke A; Schnorenberg, Alyssa J; Aurit, Christine M; Graf, Adam; Krzak, Joseph J; Reiners, Kathryn; Vogel, Lawrence C; Harris, Gerald F

    2015-01-01

    There is minimal research of upper extremity joint dynamics during pediatric wheelchair mobility despite the large number of children using manual wheelchairs. Special concern arises with the pediatric population, particularly in regard to the longer duration of wheelchair use, joint integrity, participation and community integration, and transitional care into adulthood. This study seeks to provide evaluation methods for characterizing the biomechanics of wheelchair use by children with spinal cord injury (SCI). Twelve subjects with SCI underwent motion analysis while they propelled their wheelchair at a self-selected speed and propulsion pattern. Upper extremity joint kinematics, forces, and moments were computed using inverse dynamics methods with our custom model. The glenohumeral joint displayed the largest average range of motion (ROM) at 47.1° in the sagittal plane and the largest average superiorly and anteriorly directed joint forces of 6.1% BW and 6.5% BW, respectively. The largest joint moments were 1.4% body weight times height (BW × H) of elbow flexion and 1.2% BW × H of glenohumeral joint extension. Pediatric manual wheelchair users demonstrating these high joint demands may be at risk for pain and upper limb injuries. These evaluation methods may be a useful tool for clinicians and therapists for pediatric wheelchair prescription and training.

  14. Evaluation of Pediatric Manual Wheelchair Mobility Using Advanced Biomechanical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke A. Slavens

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is minimal research of upper extremity joint dynamics during pediatric wheelchair mobility despite the large number of children using manual wheelchairs. Special concern arises with the pediatric population, particularly in regard to the longer duration of wheelchair use, joint integrity, participation and community integration, and transitional care into adulthood. This study seeks to provide evaluation methods for characterizing the biomechanics of wheelchair use by children with spinal cord injury (SCI. Twelve subjects with SCI underwent motion analysis while they propelled their wheelchair at a self-selected speed and propulsion pattern. Upper extremity joint kinematics, forces, and moments were computed using inverse dynamics methods with our custom model. The glenohumeral joint displayed the largest average range of motion (ROM at 47.1° in the sagittal plane and the largest average superiorly and anteriorly directed joint forces of 6.1% BW and 6.5% BW, respectively. The largest joint moments were 1.4% body weight times height (BW × H of elbow flexion and 1.2% BW × H of glenohumeral joint extension. Pediatric manual wheelchair users demonstrating these high joint demands may be at risk for pain and upper limb injuries. These evaluation methods may be a useful tool for clinicians and therapists for pediatric wheelchair prescription and training.

  15. Evaluation of two sterility testing methods for intravenous admixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condella, F; Eichelberger, K; Foote, L C; Griffin, R E

    1980-06-01

    The Addi-Chek Quality Control System (Millipore Corporation) and Ivex-2 Filterset (Abbott Laboratories) were evaluated to determine their effectiveness, applicability, and cost as part of a pharmacy quality-control program. Each method was tested using 50 solutions, 25 of which had been contaminated by inoculation with one of five micro-organisms; the other 25 solutions were used as controls. Aseptic technique was used, and procedures were carried out in a laminar air flow hood. Contaminated solutions were blinded from the person performing the tests. Addi-Chek detected contamination in all the inoculated solutions and in three of the uninoculated solutions. The latter may have been a result of adventitious contamination during the testing procedure. Ivex-2 detected contamination in 24 of the 25 inoculated solutions; no other contamination was found. The effectiveness of the methods in detecting low-level microbial contamination appears comparable. Both methods have been shown to be useful in the pharmacy setting, but Ivex-2 could be used to test for contamination when used as an in-line filter at the patient level. Ivex-2 is less expensive and warrants further evaluation in monitoring for microbial contamination during preparation and administration of intravenous solutions.

  16. Systematic Comparative Evaluation of Methods for Investigating the TCRβ Repertoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Wei; Zeng, Xiaojing; Zhang, Ruifang; Du, Yuanping; Hong, Xueyu; Cao, Hongzhi; Su, Zheng; Wang, Changxi; Wu, Jinghua; Nie, Chao; Xu, Xun; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing has recently been applied to profile the high diversity of antibodyome/B cell receptors (BCRs) and T cell receptors (TCRs) among immune cells. To date, Multiplex PCR (MPCR) and 5'RACE are predominately used to enrich rearranged BCRs and TCRs. Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages; however, a systematic evaluation and direct comparison of them would benefit researchers in the selection of the most suitable method. In this study, we used both pooled control plasmids and spiked-in cells to benchmark the MPCR bias. RNA from three healthy donors was subsequently processed with the two methods to perform a comparative evaluation of the TCR β chain sequences. Both approaches demonstrated high reproducibility (R2 = 0.9958 and 0.9878, respectively). No differences in gene usage were identified for most V/J genes (>60%), and an average of 52.03% of the CDR3 amino acid sequences overlapped. MPCR exhibited a certain degree of bias, in which the usage of several genes deviated from 5'RACE, and some V-J pairings were lost. In contrast, there was a smaller rate of effective data from 5'RACE (11.25% less compared with MPCR). Nevertheless, the methodological variability was smaller compared with the biological variability. Through direct comparison, these findings provide novel insights into the two experimental methods, which will prove to be valuable in immune repertoire research and its interpretation.

  17. Systematic Comparative Evaluation of Methods for Investigating the TCRβ Repertoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liu

    Full Text Available High-throughput sequencing has recently been applied to profile the high diversity of antibodyome/B cell receptors (BCRs and T cell receptors (TCRs among immune cells. To date, Multiplex PCR (MPCR and 5'RACE are predominately used to enrich rearranged BCRs and TCRs. Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages; however, a systematic evaluation and direct comparison of them would benefit researchers in the selection of the most suitable method. In this study, we used both pooled control plasmids and spiked-in cells to benchmark the MPCR bias. RNA from three healthy donors was subsequently processed with the two methods to perform a comparative evaluation of the TCR β chain sequences. Both approaches demonstrated high reproducibility (R2 = 0.9958 and 0.9878, respectively. No differences in gene usage were identified for most V/J genes (>60%, and an average of 52.03% of the CDR3 amino acid sequences overlapped. MPCR exhibited a certain degree of bias, in which the usage of several genes deviated from 5'RACE, and some V-J pairings were lost. In contrast, there was a smaller rate of effective data from 5'RACE (11.25% less compared with MPCR. Nevertheless, the methodological variability was smaller compared with the biological variability. Through direct comparison, these findings provide novel insights into the two experimental methods, which will prove to be valuable in immune repertoire research and its interpretation.

  18. Evaluating Downscaling Methods for Seasonal Climate Forecasts over East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J. Brent; Robertson, Franklin R.; Bosilovich, Michael; Lyon, Bradfield; Funk, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. National Multi-Model Ensemble seasonal forecasting system is providing hindcast and real-time data streams to be used in assessing and improving seasonal predictive capacity. The NASA / USAID SERVIR project, which leverages satellite and modeling-based resources for environmental decision making in developing nations, is focusing on the evaluation of NMME forecasts specifically for use in impact modeling within hub regions including East Africa, the Hindu Kush-Himalayan (HKH) region and Mesoamerica. One of the participating models in NMME is the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS5). This work will present an intercomparison of downscaling methods using the GEOS5 seasonal forecasts of temperature and precipitation over East Africa. The current seasonal forecasting system provides monthly averaged forecast anomalies. These anomalies must be spatially downscaled and temporally disaggregated for use in application modeling (e.g. hydrology, agriculture). There are several available downscaling methodologies that can be implemented to accomplish this goal. Selected methods include both a non-homogenous hidden Markov model and an analogue based approach. A particular emphasis will be placed on quantifying the ability of different methods to capture the intermittency of precipitation within both the short and long rain seasons. Further, the ability to capture spatial covariances will be assessed. Both probabilistic and deterministic skill measures will be evaluated over the hindcast period

  19. A Route Confidence Evaluation Method for Reliable Hierarchical Text Categorization

    CERN Document Server

    Hatami, Nima; Armano, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    Hierarchical Text Categorization (HTC) is becoming increasingly important with the rapidly growing amount of text data available in the World Wide Web. Among the different strategies proposed to cope with HTC, the Local Classifier per Node (LCN) approach attains good performance by mirroring the underlying class hierarchy while enforcing a top-down strategy in the testing step. However, the problem of embedding hierarchical information (parent-child relationship) to improve the performance of HTC systems still remains open. A confidence evaluation method for a selected route in the hierarchy is proposed to evaluate the reliability of the final candidate labels in an HTC system. In order to take into account the information embedded in the hierarchy, weight factors are used to take into account the importance of each level. An acceptance/rejection strategy in the top-down decision making process is proposed, which improves the overall categorization accuracy by rejecting a few percentage of samples, i.e., thos...

  20. Evaluation of Uranium Measurements in Water by Various Methods - 13571

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, Brian J. [Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure Group, 150 Royall Street, Canton, MA (United States); Workman, Stephen M. [ALS Laboratory Group, Environmental Division, 225 Commerce Drive, Fort Collins, CO 80524 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In December 2000, EPA amended its drinking water regulations for radionuclides by adding a Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for uranium (so called MCL Rule)[1] of 30 micrograms per liter (μg/L). The MCL Rule also included MCL goals of zero for uranium and other radionuclides. Many radioactively contaminated sites must test uranium in wastewater and groundwater to comply with the MCL rule as well as local publicly owned treatment works discharge limitations. This paper addresses the relative sensitivity, accuracy, precision, cost and comparability of two EPA-approved methods for detection of total uranium: inductively plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and alpha spectrometry. Both methods are capable of measuring the individual uranium isotopes U-234, U- 235, and U-238 and both methods have been deemed acceptable by EPA. However, the U-238 is by far the primary contributor to the mass-based ICP-MS measurement, especially for naturally-occurring uranium, which contains 99.2745% U-238. An evaluation shall be performed relative to the regulatory requirement promulgated by EPA in December 2000. Data will be garnered from various client sample results measured by ALS Laboratory in Fort Collins, CO. Data shall include method detection limits (MDL), minimum detectable activities (MDA), means and trends in laboratory control sample results, performance evaluation data for all methods, and replicate results. In addition, a comparison will be made of sample analyses results obtained from both alpha spectrometry and the screening method Kinetic Phosphorescence Analysis (KPA) performed at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) FUSRAP Maywood Laboratory (UFML). Many uranium measurements occur in laboratories that only perform radiological analysis. This work is important because it shows that uranium can be measured in radiological as well as stable chemistry laboratories and it provides several criteria as a basis for comparison of two uranium test methods. This data will

  1. Language difficulties and criminal justice: the need for earlier identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Karen; Garvani, Gillian; Gregory, Juliette; Kilner, Karen

    2015-01-01

    At least 60% of young people in the UK who are accessing youth justice services present with speech, language and communication difficulties which are largely unrecognized. The contributing reasons for this are discussed, suggesting that early language difficulty is a risk factor for other problems such as literacy difficulties and educational failure that may increasingly put the young person at risk of offending. Opportunities for identification and remediation of language difficulties before young people reach youth justice services are also outlined. To examine language skills in a sample of children in a secure children's home aged 11-17 years. A sample of 118 males were routinely assessed on four Comprehensive Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF) subtests and the British Picture Vocabulary Scale (BPVS). Around 30% of the participants presented with language difficulties scoring 1.5 SD (standard deviation) below the mean on the assessments. Despite them entering the home because their vulnerability was recognized, only two participants had a previous record of language difficulties. A total of 20% of the participants had a diagnosis of mental illness, 50% had a history of drug abuse and 31% had looked-after status prior to entry to the home. Children experiencing educational or emotional difficulties need to be routinely assessed for speech, language and communication difficulties. More population-based approaches to supporting the development of oral language skills in children and young people are also supported. © 2015 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  2. Computer-implemented security evaluation methods, security evaluation systems, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, George; Perkins, Casey J.; Lancaster, Mary J.; MacDonald, Douglas G.; Clements, Samuel L.; Hutton, William J.; Patrick, Scott W.; Key, Bradley Robert

    2015-07-28

    Computer-implemented security evaluation methods, security evaluation systems, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one aspect, a computer-implemented security evaluation method includes accessing information regarding a physical architecture and a cyber architecture of a facility, building a model of the facility comprising a plurality of physical areas of the physical architecture, a plurality of cyber areas of the cyber architecture, and a plurality of pathways between the physical areas and the cyber areas, identifying a target within the facility, executing the model a plurality of times to simulate a plurality of attacks against the target by an adversary traversing at least one of the areas in the physical domain and at least one of the areas in the cyber domain, and using results of the executing, providing information regarding a security risk of the facility with respect to the target.

  3. Computer-implemented security evaluation methods, security evaluation systems, and articles of manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, George; Perkins, Casey J.; Lancaster, Mary J.; MacDonald, Douglas G.; Clements, Samuel L.; Hutton, William J.; Patrick, Scott W.; Key, Bradley Robert

    2015-07-28

    Computer-implemented security evaluation methods, security evaluation systems, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one aspect, a computer-implemented security evaluation method includes accessing information regarding a physical architecture and a cyber architecture of a facility, building a model of the facility comprising a plurality of physical areas of the physical architecture, a plurality of cyber areas of the cyber architecture, and a plurality of pathways between the physical areas and the cyber areas, identifying a target within the facility, executing the model a plurality of times to simulate a plurality of attacks against the target by an adversary traversing at least one of the areas in the physical domain and at least one of the areas in the cyber domain, and using results of the executing, providing information regarding a security risk of the facility with respect to the target.

  4. Evaluating Communicative Teaching Method With Consideration of Psycholinguistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Hui

    2001-01-01

    @@ Communicative language teaching has been in vogue in the past ten years. Being a language teaching method, it is closely related to linguistics, sociology, educeational theories and so on, psycholinguistics, a branch of linguistics focusing on the mental processes involved in human being's language acquisition and production, play a most important role in the study of language teaching, including communicative language teaching (CLT) of course. In this paper the writer will evaluate the CLT with the consideration of psycholinguistics to what extent CLT is helpful for second language teaching and learning.

  5. A relative value method for measuring and evaluating cardiac reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xiaobo

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a very close relationship between the amplitude of the first heart sound (S1 and the cardiac contractility have been proven by previous studies, the absolute value of S1 can not be applied for evaluating cardiac contractility. However, we were able to devise some indicators with relative values for evaluating cardiac function. Methods Tests were carried out on a varied group of volunteers. Four indicators were devised: (1 the increase of the amplitude of the first heart sound after accomplishing different exercise workloads, with respect to the amplitude of the first heart sound (S1recorded at rest was defined as cardiac contractility change trend (CCCT. When the subjects completed the entire designed exercise workload (7000 J, the resulting CCCT was defined as CCCT(1; when only 1/4 of the designed exercise workload was completed, the result was defined as CCCT(1/4. (2 The ratio of S1 amplitude to S2 amplitude (S1/S2. (3 The ratio of S1 amplitude at tricuspid valve auscultation area to that at mitral auscultation area T1/M1 (4 the ratio of diastolic to systolic duration (D/S. Data were expressed as mean ± SD. Results CCCT(1/4 was 6.36 ± 3.01 (n = 67, CCCT(1 was 10.36 ± 4.2 (n = 33, S1/S2 was1.89 ± 0.94 (n = 140, T1/M1 was 1.44 ± 0.99 (n = 144, and D/S was 1.68 ± 0.27 (n = 172. Conclusions Using indicators CCCT(1/4 and CCCT(1 may be beneficial for evaluating cardiac contractility and cardiac reserve mobilization level, S1/S2 for considering the factor for hypotension, T1/M1 for evaluating the right heart load, and D/S for evaluating diastolic cardiac blood perfusion time.

  6. Evaluation of adhesive bond Young's modulus during crosslinking using a mechanical method and an ultrasound method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaro, B.; Budzik, M. K.; Castaings, M.; Jumel, J.; Shanahan, M. E. R.

    2012-03-01

    The strength and stability of adhesive bonded structures are related to polymer curing, when crosslinking occurs and leads to adhesive strength, stiffness and durability. Depending on the resin and curing agent used, cure time can vary from minutes to weeks. Methods based on dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) or calorimetric techniques (DSC, DTA) are valuable for evaluating mechanical properties of adhesives, but are devoted specifically to the polymers alone, and not in situ in adhesive bonds. In this contribution, we have monitored - during crosslinking - the Young's modulus of a slow-curing DGEBA - PAMAM adhesive system, with two non-destructive, in situ, methods used for the characterisation of the adhesive in a bonded system. The first method is based on measurements obtained from strain gauges mounted on one bonded adherend. The second method uses an ultrasound technique based on the through-transmission. Both methods suggest the same curing kinetics.

  7. An efficient method for evaluating energy-dependent sum rules

    CERN Document Server

    Dinur, Nir Nevo; Bacca, Sonia; Barnea, Nir

    2014-01-01

    Energy-dependent sum rules are useful tools in many fields of physics. In nuclear physics, they typically involve an integration of the response function over the nuclear spectrum with a weight function composed of integer powers of the energy. More complicated weight functions are also encountered, e.g., in nuclear polarization corrections of atomic spectra. Using the Lorentz integral transform method and the Lanczos algorithm, we derive a computationally efficient technique for evaluating such sum rules that avoids the explicit calculation of both the continuum states and the response function itself. Our numerical results for electric dipole sum rules of the Helium-4 nucleus with various energy-dependent weights show rapid convergence with respect to the number of Lanczos steps. This demonstrates the usefulness of the method in a variety of electroweak reactions.

  8. Characteristic Evaluation on Bolt Stress by Ultrasonic Nondestructive Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinxue Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the acoustoelasticity theory, a certain relationship exists between ultrasonic velocity and stress. By combining shear and longitudinal waves, this paper provides a nondestructive method of evaluating axial stress in a tightened bolt. For measuring the bolt axial stress in different situations, such as under low or high loads, this paper provides guidelines for calculating the stress for a given load factor. Experimental and calculated results were compared for three bolt test samples: an austenitic stainless steel bolt (A2-70 and low-carbon steel 4.8 and 8.8 bolts. On average, the experimental results were in good agreement with those obtained through calculations, thus providing a nondestructive method for bolt stress measurements.

  9. Acoustic Methods for Evaluation of High Energy Explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Lobanovsky, Yury I

    2013-01-01

    Two independent acoustic methods were used to verify the results of earlier explosion energy calculations of Chelyabinsk meteoroid. They are: estimations through a path length of infrasound wave and through maximum concentration of the wave energy. The energy of this explosion turned out the same as in earlier calculations, and it is close to 58 Mt of TNT. The first method, as well as evaluations through seismic signals and barograms, have confirmed the energy of Tunguska meteoroid explosion at 14.0 - 14.5 Mt level. Moreover, there is a good agreement between acoustic estimations and other data for the explosion energy of another meteoroid that was ended its flight over the southern part of Indian Ocean, and for two catastrophic volcanoes explosions - Bezymyanny and Krakatoa.

  10. ARABIC TEXT CATEGORIZATION ALGORITHM USING VECTOR EVALUATION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Odeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Text categorization is the process of grouping documents into categories based on their contents. This process is important to make information retrieval easier, and it became more important due to the huge textual information available online. The main problem in text categorization is how to improve the classification accuracy. Although Arabic text categorization is a new promising field, there are a few researches in this field. This paper proposes a new method for Arabic text categorization using vector evaluation. The proposed method uses a categorized Arabic documents corpus, and then the weights of the tested document's words are calculated to determine the document keywords which will be compared with the keywords of the corpus categorizes to determine the tested document's best category.

  11. Comparative evaluation of methods to quantify dissolution of nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Nanna B.; Kruse, Susanne; Baun, Anders

    2015-01-01

    dissolved concentration or by the solubility constant (Ksp). For nanomaterials it is essential to also assess solubility kinetics as nanomaterials will often not dissolve instantaneously upon contact with artificial aqueous media or natural waters. Dissolution kinetics will thereby influence their short...... and long-term environmental fate as well as laboratory test results. This highlights the need to evaluate and improve the reliability of methods applied to assess the solubility kinetics of nanomaterials. Based on existing OECD guidelines and guidance documents on aqueous dissolution of metals and metal....... Preliminary results showed that by using the DGT method the measured dissolved fraction was 5-7 times higher compared to using ultracentrifugation and dialysis membranes. Possible explanations include metal-specific interactions with the dialysis membranes as well as the DGT unit influencing the dissolution...

  12. Infrared non-destructive evaluation method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleine, Erwan; Erwan, James F; Lee, Ching-Pang; Stinelli, Stephanie

    2014-10-21

    A method of nondestructive evaluation and related system. The method includes arranging a test piece (14) having an internal passage (18) and an external surface (15) and a thermal calibrator (12) within a field of view (42) of an infrared sensor (44); generating a flow (16) of fluid characterized by a fluid temperature; exposing the test piece internal passage (18) and the thermal calibrator (12) to fluid from the flow (16); capturing infrared emission information of the test piece external surface (15) and of the thermal calibrator (12) simultaneously using the infrared sensor (44), wherein the test piece infrared emission information includes emission intensity information, and wherein the thermal calibrator infrared emission information includes a reference emission intensity associated with the fluid temperature; and normalizing the test piece emission intensity information against the reference emission intensity.

  13. ERRORS AND DIFFICULTIES IN TRANSLATING LEGAL TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia, CHIRILA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the accurate translation of legal texts has become highly important as the mistranslation of a passage in a contract, for example, could lead to lawsuits and loss of money. Consequently, the translation of legal texts to other languages faces many difficulties and only professional translators specialised in legal translation should deal with the translation of legal documents and scholarly writings. The purpose of this paper is to analyze translation from three perspectives: translation quality, errors and difficulties encountered in translating legal texts and consequences of such errors in professional translation. First of all, the paper points out the importance of performing a good and correct translation, which is one of the most important elements to be considered when discussing translation. Furthermore, the paper presents an overview of the errors and difficulties in translating texts and of the consequences of errors in professional translation, with applications to the field of law. The paper is also an approach to the differences between languages (English and Romanian that can hinder comprehension for those who have embarked upon the difficult task of translation. The research method that I have used to achieve the objectives of the paper was the content analysis of various Romanian and foreign authors' works.

  14. 'Theory of mind' II: Difficulties and critiques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastow, Michael

    2012-08-01

    'Theory of mind' will be further examined firstly by looking at the experimental situation that was used to put forward this notion. A fundamental difficulty regarding the failure of 'theory of mind' to account for the misunderstandings of everyday life will be discussed. Other difficulties in the experimental conceptualisation of this notion will then be studied. Critiques that have previously been made of 'theory of mind' will also be examined. 'Theory of mind' proposes an ideal of limpid understanding of the other. It is argued here that this notion of mind-reading is belied by its failure in our everyday lives. The experimental results by which this notion was proposed are neither sensitive nor specific. It is argued that there is also a fundamental error in this conception and its experimental design due to assessing a second-person phenomenon by a third-person method. Critiques of 'theory of mind' emphasise the epistemological difficulties and the fact that it is a poor explanation for the interactions of non-autistic subjects.

  15. Active citizenship and acquired neurological communication difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Catherine; Bennett, Amanda; Cairney, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    People with communication impairments may face barriers to civic participation, with resulting marginalisation of individuals who wish to be actively involved. The investigation aimed to explore the experience of civically engaged adults with acquired neurological communication difficulties. Six people with acquired neurological communication difficulties were interviewed. Discussion included the definition of active citizenship, their civic involvement, motivations, related barriers and facilitators. Qualitative analysis was undertaken, with data categorised, coded and examined for recurring themes. All participants were active in disability-related organisations and four undertook wider civic roles. Motivations included activity being out with the home and wanting to effect change for themselves and the populations they represented. Disability group meetings were more positive experiences than broader community activities, which were associated with fatigue and frustration, commonly resulting from communication difficulties and unmet support needs. All participants identified a need for professional and public educational about disability and communication and made recommendations on content, methods and priority groups. For these participants civic engagement had positive and negative dimensions. Speech and language therapists should promote reduction of the barriers that impede the active citizenship rights of people with communication support needs. Civic participation may be a relevant measure of outcome in communication impaired populations.

  16. How to evaluate the separation efficiency of CZE methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner-Merz, C; Holzgrabe, U

    2011-06-01

    In trying to estimate the separation efficiency of Capillary Electrophoresis (CE) methods, the resolution (RS), the number of theoretical plates (N) and the peak-to-valley ratio (p/v) are often used assessment criteria. This study demonstrates that these criteria are not as suitable to describe the separation efficiency in case of Capillary Zone Electrophoresis (CZE) methods as they are for Liquid Chromatography (LC) methods. The investigations were performed by means of a validated CZE method for the evaluation of tetracyclines and their related substances. Four impurities of tetracycline hydrochloride are described in the European Pharmacopoeia. Three were found in the sample used for our investigations, i.e. epi-tetracycline formed by keto-enol-tautomerism, anhydrotetracyclin and epi-anhydrotetracyline. It could be shown that higher values of these assessment criteria like RS do not necessarily represent better separation. Thus, a discussion on the usefulness of separation selectivity and efficiency as assessment criteria for capillary electrophoresis as well as on the introduction of additional parameters is needed.

  17. Evaluation of Isolation Methods for Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galatea Kallergi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Detection of CTCs is a poor prognostic factor for many cancer types; however, their very low frequency represents an obstacle for their detection. The objective of the current study was to compare the performance of commonly used methods for CTCs isolation. Methods: The evaluated methods using spiking experiments of MCF7, SKBR3 and MDA MB-231 breast cancer cell lines were (i ficoll density gradient separation (DGS, (ii red blood cell lysis (Erythrolysis isolation, (iii positive immunomagnetic selection (EpCAM Dynal beads, (iv two different negative immunomagnetic separation systems (Dynal vs Miltenyi CD45 beads as well as (v the Cell Search platform and (vi the ISET system. Results: The recovery rates of Erythrolysis and DGS were 39% and 24%, respectively. Magnetic isolations are ranked from the worse to the best recovery rate as follows:, Myltenyi-anti-CD45 microbeads (24%; Dynal-anti-EpCAM beads (75%; Dynabeads-anti-CD45 (97%. CTCs isolation from blood samples using the CellSearch and ISET systems revealed that the recovery rate for Cell Search and ISET was 52% and 95%, respectively. Conclusions: Dynal-anti-CD45 beads have the best recovery rate compared to other magnetic methods. Furthermore the recovery rate of ISET was higher compared to Cell Search, especially for the more aggressive MDA-MB 231 cell line.

  18. Method Evaluating the Durability of Aircraft Piston Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca PIANCASTELLI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A significant issue in aircraft engines is quantifying residual life to overhaul. The algorithm described in this paper calculates with a good level of reliability the residual life of a petrol piston engine. The method was tested on small, latest-generation, naturally-aspirated aircraft and racing piston engines, and has been effective in several experiments. This method is implemented directly on the electronic control system of the engine with very few lines of C-code. The method can also be used in many industrial engines. This innovative method assumes that only two main factors (power level and wear affect engine durability or time between overhauls. These two factors are considered as separate and combined with worst case criteria. The wear is assumed to follow a logarithmic law and a formula similar to the Miner’s law for material fatigue is used, making it possible to calculate the power-level curve with knowledge of only two points. The wear-curve is also related to elapsed engine cycles. The algorithm is very simple and can be implemented with just a few lines of software code accessing data collected from existing sensors. The system is currently used to evaluate actual residual life of racing engines.

  19. Evaluation of mercury speciation by EPA (Draft) Method 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laudal, D.L.; Heidt, M.K. [Energy & Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Nott, B. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require that the U.S. Environmental protection Agency (EPA) assess the health risks associated with mercury emissions. Also, the law requires a separate assessment of health risks posed by the emission of 189 tract chemicals (including mercury) for electric utility steam-generating units. In order to conduct a meaningful assessment of health and environmental effects, we must have, among other things, a reliable and accurate method to measure mercury emissions. In addition, the rate of mercury deposition and the type of control strategies used may depend upon the type of mercury emitted (i.e., whether it is in the oxidized or elemental form). It has been speculated that EPA (Draft) Method 29 can speciate mercury by selective absorption; however, this claim has yet to be proven. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have contracted with the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) at University of North Dakota to evaluate EPA (Draft) Method 29 at the pilot-scale level. The objective of the work is to determine whether EPA (Draft) Method 29 can reliably quantify and speciate mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired boilers.

  20. [Nationwide evaluation of German university teaching methods in neurology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesalski, A-S; Zupanic, M; Isenmann, S

    2015-06-01

    Germany is confronted with a lack of medical doctors and an increasing need for neurologists in particular. In order to recruit future doctors in neurology it is essential to attract young students when still at university. This article presents the first German national survey of medical students' acceptance of teaching methods in neurology. The participants evaluated teaching methods and examination formats and were asked about their preferences. The survey was based on a questionnaire distributed to 22 German medical schools and 1245 participating students. Interactive teaching methods, especially courses in practical examinations, clinical internships and bedside teaching were highly rated among the students. In contrast, multiple choice tests, as one of the most widespread examination methods, were poorly rated compared to practical and oral examinations. For most of the students it was not decisive, in which semester teaching of neurology took place, while the majority asked for additional and more intensive neurological education. The data give an overview of teaching of neurology in Germany and students' assessment of various approaches. The results should be utilized towards reorientation of future curricula that should aim at innovative and even more practically oriented teaching.

  1. Calibrating E-values for MS2 database search methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Rong-Fong

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The key to mass-spectrometry-based proteomics is peptide identification, which relies on software analysis of tandem mass spectra. Although each search engine has its strength, combining the strengths of various search engines is not yet realizable largely due to the lack of a unified statistical framework that is applicable to any method. Results We have developed a universal scheme for statistical calibration of peptide identifications. The protocol can be used for both de novo approaches as well as database search methods. We demonstrate the protocol using only the database search methods. Among seven methods -SEQUEST (v27 rev12, ProbID (v1.0, InsPecT (v20060505, Mascot (v2.1, X!Tandem (v1.0, OMSSA (v2.0 and RAId_DbS – calibrated, except for X!Tandem and RAId_DbS most methods require a rescaling according to the database size searched. We demonstrate that our calibration protocol indeed produces unified statistics both in terms of average number of false positives and in terms of the probability for a peptide hit to be a true positive. Although both the protocols for calibration and the statistics thus calibrated are universal, the calibration formulas obtained from one laboratory with data collected using either centroid or profile format may not be directly usable by the other laboratories. Thus each laboratory is encouraged to calibrate the search methods it intends to use. We also address the importance of using spectrum-specific statistics and possible improvement on the current calibration protocol. The spectra used for statistical (E-value calibration are freely available upon request. Open peer review Reviewed by Dongxiao Zhu (nominated by Arcady Mushegian, Alexey Nesvizhskii (nominated by King Jordan and Vineet Bafna. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section.

  2. MODERN METHODS OF EVALUATING THE PRODUCTIVITY OF THE RESEARCH ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanov D. A.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is development of the new methods of diagnostic the research activities productivity. It is known, that for the evaluation the productivity of a scientist we usually use a well-known index of Hirsch, the introduction of which in 2005 was a significant step forward compared with application of this index as the ratio of the number of references to works of scientist and publications themselves. At the same time even h-index as an indicator is not flawless, the main flaw is weak differential ability: a number of links to the most cited publications of the scientific worker does not matter after reaching a certain threshold. It is necessary to develop a method of estimating the productivity of scientific worker, which preserves dignities of h-index and removes its shortcomings. This will allow evaluating the productivity of research activities more objectively. Methodological bases of the research: a systematic approach (considering the science as a social institution in close connection with the society as a whole, a metasystem approach (considering the results of the scientific activities as a metasystem, i.e. the system with relatively independent components, probabilistic and statistical approach (considering the research activities as the random process, a synergistic approach (considering science like a self-organized system qualimetric approach (considering the productivity of scientific activity as latent variables that reflect a variety of criteria

  3. Evaluating bull fertility based on non-return method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prka Igor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the results of reproductive cows and heifers, different parameters of fertility are used, such as the service period, insemination index, intercalving time and others, and of the breeding bulls the values obtained through non-return. An ejaculate is taken up for further processing by veterinary centres only provided it meets the prescribed quality parameters. Rating semen parameters includes a macroscopic (volume, colour, consistency, smell and pH and a microscopic evaluation (mobility, density, percentage of live sperm and abnormal and damaged sperm. In addition to sperm quality and the fertility of the female animal, the results of the non-return method are also influenced by a number of exogenous causes (season, age, race, insemination techniques that have no small impact on the end result of insemination - pregnancy. In order to obtain more objective results of the fertility of bulls the following tasks were undertaken, namely: 1. to calculate with the non-return method the fertility of bulls in over 10,000 cows inseminated for the first time during a period of 6 years; and 2. to analyze the impact of semen quality, season, age of cow and bull, and the bull breed on the results of fertility.

  4. A new method for evaluating distance stereo acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoni, D; Rosenbaum, A L

    1991-01-01

    A new standardized method for evaluating distance stereo acuity has been developed, using the graphic capacity of a high-frequency microprocessor and liquid crystal binocular glasses. Images are alternately presented at a frequency of 60 cycles per second to each eye, using synchronized liquid crystal shutter glasses. The amount of disparity in the stereo patterns can be altered to allow a measurement as refined as 15 seconds of arc ("). This instrument is now commercially available as part of the Mentor B-Vat system. We evaluated distance Random Dot and Contour circle stereo acuity of 50 normal subjects using this new method and compared these results to conventional Titmus and Randot circles at near. The distance stereo acuity mean results were 139" for the Random Dot test and 41.1" for the Contour circles. The near stereo acuity results were 41.8" for the Titmus circles and 27" for the Randot circles. Statistically, the Titmus results at near can be compared to the Contour circles at distance. The distance Random Dot test results demonstrate much less stereoability than the other test. The application of these new distance stereotests will be discussed.

  5. A power flow method for evaluating vibration from underground railways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, M. F. M.; Hunt, H. E. M.

    2006-06-01

    One of the major sources of ground-borne vibration is the running of trains in underground railway tunnels. Vibration is generated at the wheel-rail interface, from where it propagates through the tunnel and surrounding soil into nearby buildings. An understanding of the dynamic interfaces between track, tunnel and soil is essential before engineering solutions to the vibration problem can be found. A new method has been developed to evaluate the effectiveness of vibration countermeasures. The method is based on calculating the mean power flow from the tunnel, paying attention to that part of the power which radiates upwards to places where buildings' foundations are expected to be found. The mean power is calculated for an infinite train moving through the tunnel with a constant velocity. An elegant mathematical expression for the mean power flow is derived, which can be used with any underground-tunnel model. To evaluate the effect of vibration countermeasures and track properties on power flow, a comprehensive three-dimensional analytical model is used. It consists of Euler-Bernoulli beams to account for the rails and the track slab. These are coupled in the wavenumber-frequency domain to a thin shell representing the tunnel embedded within an infinite continuum, with a cylindrical cavity representing the surrounding soil.

  6. Single well tracer method to evaluate enhanced recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheely, Jr., Clyde Q.; Baldwin, Jr., David E.

    1978-01-01

    Data useful to evaluate the effectiveness of or to design an enhanced recovery process (the recovery process involving mobilizing and moving hydrocarbons through a hydrocarbon-bearing subterranean formation from an injection well to a production well by injecting a mobilizing fluid into the injection well) are obtained by a process which comprises sequentially: determining hydrocarbon saturation in the formation in a volume in the formation near a well bore penetrating the formation, injecting sufficient of the mobilizing fluid to mobilize and move hydrocarbons from a volume in the formation near the well bore penetrating the formation, and determining by the single well tracer method a hydrocarbon saturation profile in a volume from which hydrocarbons are moved. The single well tracer method employed is disclosed by U.S. Pat. No. 3,623,842. The process is useful to evaluate surfactant floods, water floods, polymer floods, CO.sub.2 floods, caustic floods, micellar floods, and the like in the reservoir in much less time at greatly reduced costs, compared to conventional multi-well pilot test.

  7. Total energy evaluation in the Strutinsky shell correction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Baojing; Wang, Yan Alexander

    2007-08-14

    We analyze the total energy evaluation in the Strutinsky shell correction method (SCM) of Ullmo et al. [Phys. Rev. B 63, 125339 (2001)], where a series expansion of the total energy is developed based on perturbation theory. In agreement with Yannouleas and Landman [Phys. Rev. B 48, 8376 (1993)], we also identify the first-order SCM result to be the Harris functional [Phys. Rev. B 31, 1770 (1985)]. Further, we find that the second-order correction of the SCM turns out to be the second-order error of the Harris functional, which involves the a priori unknown exact Kohn-Sham (KS) density, rho(KS)(r). Interestingly, the approximation of rho(KS)(r) by rho(out)(r), the output density of the SCM calculation, in the evaluation of the second-order correction leads to the Hohenberg-Kohn-Sham functional. By invoking an auxiliary system in the framework of orbital-free density functional theory, Ullmo et al. designed a scheme to approximate rho(KS)(r), but with several drawbacks. An alternative is designed to utilize the optimal density from a high-quality density mixing method to approximate rho(KS)(r). Our new scheme allows more accurate and complex kinetic energy density functionals and nonlocal pseudopotentials to be employed in the SCM. The efficiency of our new scheme is demonstrated in atomistic calculations on the cubic diamond Si and face-centered-cubic Ag systems.

  8. Economic Difficulty and Coping Strategies of Low Income Faculty Members as Related to their Teaching Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo F. Frufonga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study ascertained the relationship between difficulties and coping strategies as related to teaching performance of West Visayas State University-Janiuay Campus (WVSU-JC faculty for the School Year 2014-2015. The survey-correlational method was used with teaching performance as dependent variables, experienced economic difficulties as the independent variable, and coping strategy as moderator variable. The participants in the study were the 52 faculty who were selected through purposive sampling. Data were gathered through a researcher-made questionnaire-checklist and Faculty Performance Evaluation System. The statistical tools used were frequency count, rank, mean, standard deviation, and Pearson's Product-Moment Coefficient of Correlation. All statistical computations were availed of through the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS software. Results revealed that the top economic difficulty experienced by faculty was limited cash. The topmost coping strategy employed by faculty was buying only basic foods or things for household. The faculty also experienced economic difficulty to a “moderate extent.” Nevertheless, the performance of the faculty was found to be “outstanding.” Teachers were affected by such financial crisis. However, despite their experienced economic difficulties, as major agents for change, they performed their best for the improvement of quality education. No significant relationships existed between coping strategies and teaching performance of faculty.

  9. 《学生家庭经济困难程度测评方案》实践研究%Practical Research on the Scheme Evaluating the Degree of Student Family Financial Difficulty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘忠义; 苏宏元

    2016-01-01

    贫困生认定是学生资助工作的“牛鼻子”,也是精准资助的难点,贫困生的认定实际上是贫困家庭的认定。因此,亟待建立一套信息采集便捷、衡量标准科学、程序规范得当、区分功能明显的《学生家庭经济困难程度测评方案》。研制测评方案应遵循资助与育人相结合、定量与定性相结合、学校家庭社会相结合、集中采信与动态采信相结合的原则。经过几年的研究,课题组形成了由14项指标、53条标准、“6段14步”操作体系构成的测评方案。该方案具有较好的信度、效度和满意度。在资助比例设定为15%的情况下,其总命中率在94%以上,参与测评的全体学生对测评程序、指标与权重、测评结果的满意度在90%左右。《学生家庭经济困难程度测评方案》的应用,要注意制度配套、教育跟进和操作的精细化。%Identify students who with financial difficult is not only the key of financing work, but also the difficulty of precise funded, actually It ’s the cognizance of economically disadvantaged families. Urgently need to establish an evaluation Scheme which has the features of gathering information convenient;scientific yardstick;proper procedures, distinguish function obvious.Developing the assessment scheme should abide the following principles:finance combined with education;combination of quantitative and qualitative;combining school family and society;centralized gathering information combined with dynamic gathering information. After several years of research, we have developed an evaluation scheme, the operating system constituted by 14 indicators;53 standards;6 stages 14 steps. The evaluation scheme has a good reliability;validity and satisfaction. In the case of funding set to 15%, the total hit rate is more than 94%. About 90%students who have participated in the evaluation are satisfied with the assessment procedure;index and weight

  10. Using crowdsourcing to evaluate published scientific literature: methods and example.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W Brown

    Full Text Available Systematically evaluating scientific literature is a time consuming endeavor that requires hours of coding and rating. Here, we describe a method to distribute these tasks across a large group through online crowdsourcing. Using Amazon's Mechanical Turk, crowdsourced workers (microworkers completed four groups of tasks to evaluate the question, "Do nutrition-obesity studies with conclusions concordant with popular opinion receive more attention in the scientific community than do those that are discordant?" 1 Microworkers who passed a qualification test (19% passed evaluated abstracts to determine if they were about human studies investigating nutrition and obesity. Agreement between the first two raters' conclusions was moderate (κ = 0.586, with consensus being reached in 96% of abstracts. 2 Microworkers iteratively synthesized free-text answers describing the studied foods into one coherent term. Approximately 84% of foods were agreed upon, with only 4 and 8% of ratings failing manual review in different steps. 3 Microworkers were asked to rate the perceived obesogenicity of the synthesized food terms. Over 99% of responses were complete and usable, and opinions of the microworkers qualitatively matched the authors' expert expectations (e.g., sugar-sweetened beverages were thought to cause obesity and fruits and vegetables were thought to prevent obesity. 4 Microworkers extracted citation counts for each paper through Google Scholar. Microworkers reached consensus or unanimous agreement for all successful searches. To answer the example question, data were aggregated and analyzed, and showed no significant association between popular opinion and attention the paper received as measured by Scimago Journal Rank and citation counts. Direct microworker costs totaled $221.75, (estimated cost at minimum wage: $312.61. We discuss important points to consider to ensure good quality control and appropriate pay for microworkers. With good

  11. MEASUREMENT AND ASSESSMENT METHODS USED AT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY LESSON AND THE DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED FEN VE TEKNOLOJİ DERSİNDE KULLANILAN ÖLÇMEDEĞERLENDİRME YÖNTEMLERİ VE KARŞILAŞILAN GÜÇLÜKLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etem YEŞİLYURT

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study, in which qualitative research method was used, is to determine the methods used by teachers at Science and Technology lessons to measure and assess students’ academic achievement levels and determine the difficulties encountered during the employment of these methods. The work group of this study consists of 54 Science and Technology teachers working at the downtowns of Diyarbakır, Elazığ, Hakkâri, Kahramanmaraş, Malatya, Şanlıurfa at 2009-2010 academic year. Data were obtained by a semi-structured interview form developed by the researcher and analyzed through NVivo 8 qualitative data analysis program. As a result of the research, teachers were determined to more frequently employ essay tests, complete-filling tests, multiple choice tests, true-false tests and equating tests that are among the traditional methods and also performance based processes, projects and portfolios that are among alternative methods. Students cannot state what they know at essay tests, they write whatever comes to their minds at complete-filling tests, and they can find incidentally the true answer at multiple choice tests, true-false tests and equating tests. At the methods of performance based processes and projects, teachers stated that they encountered such problems that students take their homework ready-made from internet, families help students excessively and students cannot put forth original products. Nitel araştırma yöntemi kullanılarak yapılan bu çalışmanın amacı, öğretmenlerin Fen ve Teknoloji dersinde öğrencilerin akademik başarısını ölçme ve değerlendirmede kullandıkları yöntemleri ve bu yöntemleri kullanırken karşılaştıkları güçlükleri belirlemektir. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu 2009-2010 akademik yılında Diyarbakır, Elazığ, Hakkâri, Kahramanmaraş, Malatya, Şanlıurfa il merkezinde görev yapan 54 Fen ve Teknoloji öğretmeni oluşturmaktadır. Veriler, ara

  12. Evaluation of alternative methods for the disinfection of toothbrushes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Yukio Komiyama

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate alternative methods for the disinfection of toothbrushes considering that most of the previously proposed methods are expensive and cannot be easily implemented. Two-hundred toothbrushes with standardized dimensions and bristles were included in the study. The toothbrushes were divided into 20 experimental groups (n = 10, according to microorganism considered and chemical agent used. The toothbrushes were contaminated in vitro by standardized suspensions of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus or Candida albicans. The following disinfectants were tested: 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate, 50% white vinegar, a triclosan-containing dentifrice solution, and a perborate-based tablet solution. The disinfection method was immersion in the disinfectant for 10 min. After the disinfection procedure, the number of remaining microbial cells was evaluated. The values of cfu/toothbrush of each group of microorganism after disinfection were compared by Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Dunn's test for multiple comparisons (5%. The chlorhexidine digluconate solution was the most effective disinfectant. The triclosan-based dentifrice solution promoted a significant reduction of all microorganisms' counts in relation to the control group. As to the disinfection with 50% vinegar, a significant reduction was observed for all the microorganisms, except for C. albicans. The sodium perborate solution was the less effective against the tested microorganisms. Solutions based on triclosan-containing dentifrice may be considered effective, nontoxic, cost-effective, and an easily applicable alternative for the disinfection of toothbrushes. The vinegar solution reduced the presence of S. aureus, S. mutans and S. pyogenes on toothbrushes.

  13. Methods for evaluating cervical range of motion in trauma settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voss Sarah

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Immobilisation of the cervical spine is a common procedure following traumatic injury. This is often precautionary as the actual incidence of spinal injury is low. Nonetheless, stabilisation of the head and neck is an important part of pre-hospital care due to the catastrophic damage that may follow if further unrestricted movement occurs in the presence of an unstable spinal injury. Currently available collars are limited by the potential for inadequate immobilisation and complications caused by pressure on the patient’s skin, restricted airway access and compression of the jugular vein. Alternative approaches to cervical spine immobilisation are being considered, and the investigation of these new methods requires a standardised approach to the evaluation of neck movement. This review summarises the research methods and scientific technology that have been used to assess and measure cervical range of motion, and which are likely to underpin future research in this field. A systematic search of international literature was conducted to evaluate the methodologies used to assess the extremes of movement that can be achieved in six domains. 34 papers were included in the review. These studies used a range of methodologies, but study quality was generally low. Laboratory investigations and biomechanical studies have gradually given way to methods that more accurately reflect the real-life situations in which cervical spine immobilisation occurs. Latterly, new approaches using virtual reality and simulation have been developed. Coupled with modern electromagnetic tracking technology this has considerable potential for effective application in future research. However, use of these technologies in real life settings can be problematic and more research is needed.

  14. An evaluation of teaching methods in the introductory physics classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Lauren Michelle Williams

    The introductory physics mechanics course at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte has a history of relatively high DFW rates. In 2011, the course was redesigned from the traditional lecture format to the inverted classroom format (flipped). This format inverts the classroom by introducing material in a video assigned as homework while the instructor conducts problem solving activities and guides discussions during the regular meetings. This format focuses on student-centered learning and is more interactive and engaging. To evaluate the effectiveness of the new method, final exam data over the past 10 years was mined and the pass rates examined. A normalization condition was developed to evaluate semesters equally. The two teaching methods were compared using a grade distribution across multiple semesters. Students in the inverted class outperformed those in the traditional class: "A"s increased by 22% and "B"s increased by 38%. The final exam pass rate increased by 12% under the inverted classroom approach. The same analysis was used to compare the written and online final exam formats. Surprisingly, no students scored "A"s on the online final. However, the percent of "B"s increased by 136%. Combining documented best practices from a literature review with personal observations of student performance and attitudes from first hand classroom experience as a teaching assistant in both teaching methods, reasons are given to support the continued use of the inverted classroom approach as well as the online final. Finally, specific recommendations are given to improve the course structure where weaknesses have been identified.

  15. Evaluation of pixel-wise geometric constraint-based phase-unwrapping method for low signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yatong; Liu, Ziping; Zhang, Song

    2016-12-01

    This paper evaluates the robustness of our recently proposed geometric constraint-based phase-unwrapping method to unwrap a low-signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) phase. Instead of capturing additional images for absolute phase unwrapping, the new phase-unwrapping algorithm uses geometric constraints of the digital fringe projection (DFP) system to create a virtual reference phase map to unwrap the phase pixel by pixel. Both simulation and experimental results demonstrate that this new phase-unwrapping method can even successfully unwrap low-SNR phase maps that bring difficulties for conventional multi-frequency phase-unwrapping methods.

  16. Evaluating methods for controlling depth perception in stereoscopic cinematography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Geng; Holliman, Nick

    2009-02-01

    Existing stereoscopic imaging algorithms can create static stereoscopic images with perceived depth control function to ensure a compelling 3D viewing experience without visual discomfort. However, current algorithms do not normally support standard Cinematic Storytelling techniques. These techniques, such as object movement, camera motion, and zooming, can result in dynamic scene depth change within and between a series of frames (shots) in stereoscopic cinematography. In this study, we empirically evaluate the following three types of stereoscopic imaging approaches that aim to address this problem. (1) Real-Eye Configuration: set camera separation equal to the nominal human eye interpupillary distance. The perceived depth on the display is identical to the scene depth without any distortion. (2) Mapping Algorithm: map the scene depth to a predefined range on the display to avoid excessive perceived depth. A new method that dynamically adjusts the depth mapping from scene space to display space is presented in addition to an existing fixed depth mapping method. (3) Depth of Field Simulation: apply Depth of Field (DOF) blur effect to stereoscopic images. Only objects that are inside the DOF are viewed in full sharpness. Objects that are far away from the focus plane are blurred. We performed a human-based trial using the ITU-R BT.500-11 Recommendation to compare the depth quality of stereoscopic video sequences generated by the above-mentioned imaging methods. Our results indicate that viewers' practical 3D viewing volumes are different for individual stereoscopic displays and viewers can cope with much larger perceived depth range in viewing stereoscopic cinematography in comparison to static stereoscopic images. Our new dynamic depth mapping method does have an advantage over the fixed depth mapping method in controlling stereo depth perception. The DOF blur effect does not provide the expected improvement for perceived depth quality control in 3D cinematography

  17. Early Pragmatic Language Difficulties in Siblings of Children with Autism: Implications for "DSM-5" Social Communication Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Meghan; Young, Gregory S.; Hutman, Ted; Johnson, Scott; Schwichtenberg, A. J.; Ozonoff, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Background: We evaluated early pragmatic language skills in preschool-age siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and examined correspondence between pragmatic language impairments and general language difficulties, autism symptomatology, and clinical outcomes. Methods: Participants were younger siblings of children with ASD…

  18. Early Pragmatic Language Difficulties in Siblings of Children with Autism: Implications for "DSM-5" Social Communication Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Meghan; Young, Gregory S.; Hutman, Ted; Johnson, Scott; Schwichtenberg, A. J.; Ozonoff, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Background: We evaluated early pragmatic language skills in preschool-age siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and examined correspondence between pragmatic language impairments and general language difficulties, autism symptomatology, and clinical outcomes. Methods: Participants were younger siblings of children with ASD…

  19. Ghosts, Troubles, Difficulties, and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2016-01-01

    not consider ‘ghosts’ or ‘haunting’ as a possible explanation. This causes difficulties when they narrate and contextualise their experience, and typically they present ambiguous narratives and stress their disbelief at and bewilderment with the experiences. Still, as I will try to show in my article......, their bewilderment and the way they use the notions ‘ghost’ and ‘haunting’ point to possible reinterpretations of these notions, so that the narrative mediation shapes not only the experience but also the ways that ‘ghosts’ and ‘haunting’ are reinterpreted in contemporary Denmark....

  20. Evaluation of fuzzy relation method for medical decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagholikar, Kavishwar; Mangrulkar, Sanjeev; Deshpande, Ashok; Sundararajan, Vijayraghavan

    2012-02-01

    The potential of computer based tools to assist physicians in medical decision making, was envisaged five decades ago. Apart from factors like usability, integration with work-flow and natural language processing, lack of decision accuracy of the tools has hindered their utility. Hence, research to develop accurate algorithms for medical decision support tools, is required. Pioneering research in last two decades, has demonstrated the utility of fuzzy set theory for medical domain. Recently, Wagholikar and Deshpande proposed a fuzzy relation based method (FR) for medical diagnosis. In their case studies for heart and infectious diseases, the FR method was found to be better than naive bayes (NB). However, the datasets in their studies were small and included only categorical symptoms. Hence, more evaluative studies are required for drawing general conclusions. In the present paper, we compare the classification performance of FR with NB, for a variety of medical datasets. Our results indicate that the FR method is useful for classification problems in the medical domain, and that FR is marginally better than NB. However, the performance of FR is significantly better for datasets having high proportion of unknown attribute values. Such datasets occur in problems involving linguistic information, where FR can be particularly useful. Our empirical study will benefit medical researchers in the choice of algorithms for decision support tools.

  1. Contamination of nanoparticles by endotoxin: evaluation of different test methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smulders Stijn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nanomaterials can be contaminated with endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides, LPS during production or handling. In this study, we searched for a convenient in vitro method to evaluate endotoxin contamination in nanoparticle samples. We assessed the reliability of the commonly used limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL assay and an alternative method based on toll-like receptor (TLR 4 reporter cells when applied with particles (TiO2, Ag, CaCO3 and SiO2, or after extraction of the endotoxin as described in the ISO norm 29701. Results Our results indicate that the gel clot LAL assay is easily disturbed in the presence of nanoparticles; and that the endotoxin extraction protocol is not suitable at high particle concentrations. The chromogenic-based LAL endotoxin detection systems (chromogenic LAL assay and Endosafe-PTS, and the TLR4 reporter cells were not significantly perturbed. Conclusion We demonstrated that nanoparticles can interfere with endotoxin detection systems indicating that a convenient test method must be chosen before assessing endotoxin contamination in nanoparticle samples.

  2. EVALUATION OF SAND RECLAIMED BY DRY TYPE VIBRATION METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nobuhisa TSUTSUMI; Kewei SUN

    1990-01-01

    It is customary to evaluate the sand reclamation efficiency by general standardmethod as sieve analysis etc.But the special method also can be used in the casewhere the weight of specimen sand is small and a more accurate result is expected.Inauthors’experiments,the grain-size analysis was carried out by an image analysingcomputer and the Na2O content analysis was done with a modified standard methodof acid consumption.From the results of analyses,it might be recognized that theCO2-sodium silicate bonded sand can be reclaimed by dry type vibration methodeffectively after pretreatment.The size and form of reclaimed sand grain are the sameas those of original new Sand and soda content in the remainder on the surface ofsand grain is about 0.I%.It is assumed that the sieve method may be replaced by theimage analysing computer in sand grain-size analysis in the future.It is also pro-posed that the titration method for measuring Na2O content may be necessary tobe studied further.

  3. Integrative Evaluation of the Current Postal Services by Employing the Evaluation Method of GE Corporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hong-bin; SUN Hao; WANG Wei-min

    2003-01-01

    The paper makes an integrative evaluation of the current main ten categories of postal services by using the Evaluation Method of GE Corporation on the basis of the integrative evaluation by some managers of postal enterprises concerned and some experts in the fields of postal services on the defined eight indexes, which cover the main 4 indexes that model the postal enterprise's strength and the other main 4 indexes that reflect the future development prospect of postal services. And further, according to the marks given by the managers and experts to all categories of postal services, the paper defines the quadrants of all categories of services to make certain the orientation and measures for the development of all these categories of postal services.

  4. Economic Evaluation for Energy Business Using Real Options Pricing Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, W.C. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-11-01

    Recently, facing the new era of restructuring, privatization, and liberalization the energy industry in the world is changing rapidly, and thus the uncertain factors tend to increase. This would imply that energy-related business is now confronted with new market risks as well as the simple price risks. The traditional investment valuation method using the concept of net present value (NPV) or internal rate of revenue (IRR) might not incorporate the managerial alternatives which enable managers to respond flexibly to the changes in business environment. This study pointed out the problems of the traditional discounted cash flow (DCF) method when evaluating a certain capital investment in energy industry. As an alternative, the real option pricing method (ROPM) was proposed, which is widely adopted in the field of profit projection for the venture business. In addition, when applying to energy sector the feasibility of ROPM was discussed, and the frameworks and major results of previous related studies were described. For those using the ROPM in real business, I explained the detailed procedures and solutions of ROPM, and introduced the log-transformed binomial model which provides a more efficient solution. In order to verify the usefulness of the ROPM, this study performed an empirical analysis for a virtual construction and operation project of power plant. And, the results from the ROPM was compared to those from the traditional DCF method. Based on the empirical results, the values of various investment opportunities were shown to be high. Therefore, the project not justified in terms of traditional DCF would turn into the project with a positive gross project value, properly reflecting managerial flexibilities inherent in the original project. (author). 58 refs., 32 figs., 33 tabs.

  5. Quantitative evaluation of solar wind time-shifting methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Taylor; Jackel, Brian

    2016-11-01

    Nine years of solar wind dynamic pressure and geosynchronous magnetic field data are used for a large-scale statistical comparison of uncertainties associated with several different algorithms for propagating solar wind measurements. The MVAB-0 scheme is best overall, performing on average a minute more accurately than a flat time-shift. We also evaluate the accuracy of these time-shifting methods as a function of solar wind magnetic field orientation. We find that all time-shifting algorithms perform significantly worse (>5 min) due to geometric effects when the solar wind magnetic field is radial (parallel or antiparallel to the Earth-Sun line). Finally, we present an empirical scheme that performs almost as well as MVAB-0 on average and slightly better than MVAB-0 for intervals with nonradial B.

  6. Dependability Evaluation of a Vehicle System by Simulation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yu-hang; LI Zhi-zhong; ZHENG Li; WANG Jin-chuan

    2008-01-01

    The vehicle system studied in this paper is a type of complex repairable system in which the subsystems follow various failure distributions and conform to arbitrary failure and repair distributions. The failure data of subsystems are sometimes lacking, and the reliability test sample sizes tend to be small. Monte-Carlo technique combined with Bayes method is used to evaluate its dependability(reliability and maintainability). Following the "first-in, first-out" queuing rule, the logic relation of dependability is established by means of repairing priority and event lists. Simulation outputs the entire history of a mission, statistics of reliability and maintainability parameters and provides the basic data for system reliability design and maintainability management.

  7. Novel evaluation method of TCP performance over satellite links

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lina; Gu Xuemai

    2006-01-01

    A novel and efficient method to evaluate the transmission control protocol (TCP) performance over satellite links is presented. A TCP module is divided into three functional blocks, namely data processing, congestion control and error control. The re-established TCP module is easy to update TCP congestion control strategy or error control strategy. With the proposed analysis approach, the interactions between different congestion control and error control mechanisms, as well as the performance of various combination protocols in satellite environments have been investigated. Simulation results obtained through a series of experiments have shown that SNACK-based error control strategy can perform well with any other congestion control strategy. The best performance can be achieved by TCP New Reno congestion control strategy and SNACK-based error control strategy.

  8. Evaluation of Continuation Desire as an Iterative Game Development Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Birke, Alexander; Reng, Lars

    2012-01-01

    When developing a game it is always valuable to use feedback from players in each iteration, in order to plan the design of the next iteration. However, it can be challenging to devise a simple approach to acquiring information about a player's engagement while playing. In this paper we will thus...... concerning a crowd game which is controlled by smartphones and is intended to be played by audiences in cinemas and at venues with large screens. The case study demonstrates how the approach can be used to help improve the desire to continue when developing a game....... use an evaluation method which focuses on assessing the desire to continue playing as an indicator of player engagement. This feedback can then be applied to detect and prevent any design decisions that would jeopardise a game's level of player engagement. The process is exemplified by a case study...

  9. Petrophysical evaluation methods: basal quartz formation, Manyberries Area , Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    Hydrocarbons, both oil and gas, have been discovered in the basal quartz formation in the Manyberries area of SE Alberta. Estimation of producible fluids and hydrocarbons in place has been difficult due to the very shaly nature of the reservoir rock. Calculations of water saturation with no corrections for clay conductivity underestimates the hydrocarbons in place. The Waxman-Smits evaluation technique, which provides a method to account for clay conductivities, was used to estimate water saturation based on total porosity. Work of other authors provides a technique to correlate total and effective porosities. This was used to estimate effective porosity and subsequently water saturation based on the effective porosity. Error analysis was undertaken to estimate the uncertainty in the calculated water saturations.

  10. Sustainable Supplier Performance Evaluation and Selection with Neofuzzy TOPSIS Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaharsooghi, S K; Ashrafi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Supplier selection plays an important role in the supply chain management and traditional criteria such as price, quality, and flexibility are considered for supplier performance evaluation in researches. In recent years sustainability has received more attention in the supply chain management literature with triple bottom line (TBL) describing the sustainability in supply chain management with social, environmental, and economic initiatives. This paper explores sustainability in supply chain management and examines the problem of identifying a new model for supplier selection based on extended model of TBL approach in supply chain by presenting fuzzy multicriteria method. Linguistic values of experts' subjective preferences are expressed with fuzzy numbers and Neofuzzy TOPSIS is proposed for finding the best solution of supplier selection problem. Numerical results show that the proposed model is efficient for integrating sustainability in supplier selection problem. The importance of using complimentary aspects of sustainability and Neofuzzy TOPSIS concept in sustainable supplier selection process is shown with sensitivity analysis.

  11. Basidiomycete cryopreservation on perlite: evaluation of a new method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homolka, Ladislav; Lisá, Ludmila; Nerud, Frantisek

    2006-06-01

    A new cryopreservation method using perlite as a carrier was evaluated on a large set of mycelial cultures of basidiomycetes. The viability and some other characteristics--growth, macro- and micromorphology, and laccase production--of 442 strains were tested after 48-h and then after 3-year storage in liquid nitrogen using a perlite protocol (PP). All (100%) of them survived successfully both 48-h storage and 3-year storage in liquid nitrogen without noticeable growth and morphological changes. Also laccase production was unchanged. The viability and laccase production of a part (250) of these strains were compared with those of the strains subjected to an original agar plug protocol (OP). Using OP, 144 strains (57.6%) out of 250 survived a 3-year storage in liquid nitrogen. The results indicate that the cryopreservation protocol used significantly influences survival of the strains. Markedly better results were achieved using the PP.

  12. Evaluation of the Yellow IRIS. An automated method for urinalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, C E; Carlson, D A; Daigneault, R W; Statland, B E

    1986-11-01

    The authors evaluated the Yellow IRIS automated urinalysis instrument (International Remote Imaging Systems, Chatsworth, CA 91311) in terms of its analytic performance as well as its ease of use. The Yellow IRIS is a system using automated intelligence microscopy (AIM), coupled with a dipstick reader and specific gravity module. The instrument can handle up to 30 specimens per hour in the authors' setting as compared with 10 specimens per hour using a full manual urinalysis coupled with microscopic examination. The authors conclude that the Yellow IRIS performed better than the manual method in terms of precision, linearity, and throughput. In addition, the diagnostic yield using this system in terms of abnormal results was higher than would have been picked up by manual analysis alone.

  13. Method for non-destructive evaluation of ceramic coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Kristen A.; Rosen, Elias P.; Jordan, Eric H.; Shahbazmohamadi, Sina; Vakhtin, Andrei B.

    2016-11-08

    A method for evaluating the condition of a ceramic coating deposited on a substrate comprising illuminating the ceramic coating with light, measuring the intensity of light returned from the ceramic coating as function of depth in the coating and transverse position on the coating, and analyzing the measured light intensities to obtain one or more of intensity of the light returned from the exposed coating surface relative to the intensity of light returned from the coating/substrate interface, intensity of the light returned from the coating/substrate interface relative to the intensity of light returned from the bulk of the ceramic coating, determination of roughness at the exposed surface of the ceramic coating, and determination of roughness of the interface between the ceramic coating and underlying bond coat or substrate.

  14. Method for non-destructive evaluation of ceramic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kristen A.; Rosen, Elias P.; Jordan, Eric H.; Shahbazmohamadi, Sina; Vakhtin, Andrei B.

    2016-11-08

    A method for evaluating the condition of a ceramic coating deposited on a substrate comprising illuminating the ceramic coating with light, measuring the intensity of light returned from the ceramic coating as function of depth in the coating and transverse position on the coating, and analyzing the measured light intensities to obtain one or more of intensity of the light returned from the exposed coating surface relative to the intensity of light returned from the coating/substrate interface, intensity of the light returned from the coating/substrate interface relative to the intensity of light returned from the bulk of the ceramic coating, determination of roughness at the exposed surface of the ceramic coating, and determination of roughness of the interface between the ceramic coating and underlying bond coat or substrate.

  15. Harmfulness Evaluation Method for On-Board Water Ballast Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kurtela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Having identified all the dominant factors and having puttogether a mosaic of all the factors resulting from a ship 's voyage,as well as a number of differently dimensioned criteria, theharmfulness evaluation method for water ballast managementon board has been elaborated. By careful analysis of the impactfactors to which status elements are adjoined, by the assignmentof harmfulness levels to the status elements, by determiningdifficulty factor values, by introduction of treatment methodsi.e. exchange of water ballast, certain characteristic managementscenarios according to ship type are developed. Cumulativescenarios provide insight into the total harmfulness ofwater ballast management. The introduction of a comprehensiveapproach results in the development of different scenariosapplicable to all ships. The established harmfulness evaluationmethod for water ballast management is applicable to all shiptypes, and it has been tested on various types of ships that weredischarging ballast in various ports worldwide.

  16. Evaluating the ready biodegradability of two poorly water-soluble substances: comparative approach of bioavailability improvement methods (BIMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetlove, Cyril; Chenèble, Jean-Charles; Barthel, Yves; Boualam, Marc; L'Haridon, Jacques; Thouand, Gérald

    2016-09-01

    Difficulties encountered in estimating the biodegradation of poorly water-soluble substances are often linked to their limited bioavailability to microorganisms. Many original bioavailability improvement methods (BIMs) have been described, but no global approach was proposed for a standardized comparison of these. The latter would be a valuable tool as part of a wider strategy for evaluating poorly water-soluble substances. The purpose of this study was to define an evaluation strategy following the assessment of different BIMs adapted to poorly water-soluble substances with ready biodegradability tests. The study was performed with two poorly water-soluble chemicals-a solid, anthraquinone, and a liquid, isodecyl neopentanoate-and five BIMs were compared to the direct addition method (reference method), i.e., (i) ultrasonic dispersion, (ii) adsorption onto silica gel, (iii) dispersion using an emulsifier, (iv) dispersion with silicone oil, and (v) dispersion with emulsifier and silicone oil. A two-phase evaluation strategy of solid and liquid chemicals was developed involving the selection of the most relevant BIMs for enhancing the biodegradability of tested substances. A description is given of a BIM classification ratio (R BIM), which enables a comparison to be made between the different test chemical sample preparation methods used in the various tests. Thereby, using this comparison, the BIMs giving rise to the greatest biodegradability were ultrasonic dispersion and dispersion with silicone oil or with silicone oil and emulsifier for the tested solid chemical, adsorption onto silica gel, and ultrasonic dispersion for the liquid one.

  17. Difficulties in clinical diagnosis of peripartum cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalakshmi B. Channaiah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM is a disorder which describes initial left ventricular dysfunction and symptoms of cardiac failure between the late stages of pregnancy and the first five months after delivery. PPCM is a difficult diagnosis to make because it resembles common cardiac issues that are normally experienced during pregnancy. Clinical presentation is representative of cardiac failure and is commonly misdiagnosed until further progression. This disorder is commonly seen in some regions of the world and rare in others. Proper evaluation and rapid treatment are crucial for an effective recovery. Subsequent pregnancies should be evaluated before pursuing. The purpose of this review article is to discuss the difficulties in clinical diagnosis and provide a concise and practical approach to treatment of suspected PPCM. [J Exp Integr Med 2015; 5(2.000: 69-74

  18. RAPID TEST METHOD FOR EVALUATION OF ANTIFREEZE ADDITIVE EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gushchin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Usage of chemical additives while executing concrete works at negative temperatures is considered as a convenient and economical method. Range of the used antifreeze additives is rather wide. A great number of new additives are advertised but their characteristics have not been practically studied. Evaluation of the antifreeze additive efficiency is unfortunately rather long process and it does not provide comprehensive data on concrete structure formation processes. Due to this development of rapid and comprehensive methodology for construction companies is urgently required.Freezing processes of antifreeze additive aqueous solutions and hardening of cement paste with them have been investigated in the paper. The paper proposes a methodology for determination of freezing point for aqueous solutions of chemical additives of various applications. Identity of  freezing point for a chemical additive aqueous solution and cement paste with an equal concentration of the additive in the paste pore fluid has been determined while taking  calcium nitrate and sodium formate additives as an example. The paper demonstrates the possibility to evaluate efficiency of antifreeze additive action on the basis of kinetics in temperature changes of the cement paste with additives by its consecutive freezing and defrosting.  A methodology for operational evaluation in the field of chemical additive application for concreting items at negative temperatures has been offered in the paper.  The methodology does not require  deficient and expensive test-equipment. It can be applied at ordinary construction companies and it is comprehensible for personnel of low-qualification.  The paper shows the possibility to develop an original methodology for designing concrete structure which is based on operating efficiency determinations  for single and integrated antifreeze additives.

  19. The evaluation method for antiplatelet effect of acetylsalicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Haruko; Mastumura, Takashi; Soeda, Shinji; Suzuki, Yuji; Watanabe, Masayuki; Kashiwakura, Emiko; Saso, Takayuki; Ikeda, Noriyuki; Tokuoka, Kentaro; Kitagawa, Yasuhisa; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    2014-12-01

    Reduced platelet aggregation by acetylsalicylic acid administration has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with thrombotic diseases, thus it is important to determine aspirin resistance in those cases. The antiplatelet effect of acetylsalicylic acid is rarely measured, but it has many problems. The aim of this study was to find the evaluation method for antiplatelet effect after administration of acetylsalicylic acid. We developed a particle counting method based upon laser light scattering, and utilized the platelet aggregation agonists, collagen, at 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 μg/mL, and adenosine diphosphate (ADP), at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 μM, to determine their effective concentrations. Seventeen healthy volunteers were administered acetylsalicylic acid at 162 mg/day, with platelet aggregation determined before and 20 min after administration. In all subjects, the rate of platelet aggregation induced by 1.0 μg/mL of collagen before taking acetylsalicylic acid was the highest value obtained, while 20 min after acetylsalicylic acid administration, aggregation induced by collagen at 1.0 μg/mL was significantly decreased as compared to before administration. As for the other concentrations of collagen and all those of ADP tested, platelet aggregation was either not significantly induced before taking acetylsalicylic acid or the rate of aggregation was not significantly decreased after taking acetylsalicylic acid. Our results indicate that collagen at 1.0 μg/mL is appropriate as a platelet aggregation agonist for evaluating the antiplatelet effect of acetylsalicylic acid. Thus, it is useful that the measurement is performed only once.

  20. An effective method for incoherent scattering radar's detecting ability evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ziqing; Yao, Ming; Deng, Xiaohua

    2016-06-01

    Ionospheric incoherent scatter radar (ISR), which is used to detect ionospheric electrons and ions, generally, has megawatt class transmission power and hundred meter level antenna aperture. The crucial purpose of this detecting technology is to get ionospheric parameters by acquiring the autocorrelation function and power spectrum of the target ionospheric plasma echoes. Whereas the ISR's echoes are very weak because of the small radar cross section of its target, estimating detecting ability will be significantly instructive and meaningful for ISR system design. In this paper, we evaluate the detecting ability through signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The soft-target radar equation is deduced to be applicable to ISR, through which we use data from International Reference Ionosphere model to simulate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of echoes, and then comparing the measured SNR from European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association and Advanced Modular Incoherent Scatter Radar with the simulation. The simulation results show good consistency with the measured SNR. For ISR, the topic of this paper is the first comparison between the calculated SNR and radar measurements; the detecting ability can be improved through increasing SNR. The effective method for ISR's detecting ability evaluation provides basis for design of radar system.

  1. A method for the evaluation of wide dynamic range cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ping Wah; Lu, Yu Hua

    2012-01-01

    We propose a multi-component metric for the evaluation of digital or video cameras under wide dynamic range (WDR) scenes. The method is based on a single image capture using a specifically designed WDR test chart and light box. Test patterns on the WDR test chart include gray ramps, color patches, arrays of gray patches, white bars, and a relatively dark gray background. The WDR test chart is professionally made using 3 layers of transparencies to produce a contrast ratio of approximately 110 dB for WDR testing. A light box is designed to provide a uniform surface with light level at about 80K to 100K lux, which is typical of a sunny outdoor scene. From a captured image, 9 image quality component scores are calculated. The components include number of resolvable gray steps, dynamic range, linearity of tone response, grayness of gray ramp, number of distinguishable color patches, smearing resistance, edge contrast, grid clarity, and weighted signal-to-noise ratio. A composite score is calculated from the 9 component scores to reflect the comprehensive image quality in cameras under WDR scenes. Experimental results have demonstrated that the multi-component metric corresponds very well to subjective evaluation of wide dynamic range behavior of cameras.

  2. Economic evaluation of recirculation as a method of pile cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, A.B.; Purcell, R.H.; McEwen, L.H.

    1954-04-07

    Reductions in irradiation costs and increases in production rate have provided a continuing incentive for more efficient operation of the Hanford Piles. These improvements have been obtained by means of higher specific powers, greater water flow rates, and better water utilization. However, the extent of the improvements which can be made in this manner may be limited by such factors as tube and slug corrosion, slug stability, and graphite damage rates at higher operating temperatures. Water purification and pumping costs are also factors to be considered. New slug designs are being developed which may be capable of much higher specific power operation. Higher graphite temperatures may also prove feasible, but the water plant performance limitations for the present single pass cooling systems may prove much more expensive to relieve. The use of recirculating cooling water as a means of attaining higher temperature, higher power operation has received preliminary study. A preliminary economic evaluation of an operating area equipped for recirculation versus single pass cooling is needed to better determine the relative merits of the two cooling methods. This report presents the results of such an evaluation and discusses the direction of future development work in the field of pile cooling.

  3. An Evaluation of Installation Methods for STS-1 Seismometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, L. Gary; Hutt, Charles R.

    1992-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This report documents the results of a series of experiments conducted by the authors at the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASl) during the spring and summer of 1991; the object of these experiments was to obtain and document quantitative performance comparisons of three methods of installing STS-1 seismometers. Historically, ASL has installed STS-1 sensors by cementing their thick glass base plates to the concrete floor of the vault (see Peterson and Tilgner, 1985, p 44 and Figure 31, p 51 for the details of this installation technique). This installation technique proved to be fairly satisfactory for the China Digital Seismic Network and for several sets of STS-1 sensors installed in other locations since that time. However, the cementing operation is rather labor intensive and the concrete requires a lengthy (about 1 week) curing time during which the sensor installed on it is noisy. In addition it is difficult to assure that all air bubbles have been removed from the interface between the cement and the glass base plate. If air bubbles are present beneath the plate, horizontal sensors can be unacceptably noisy. Moving a sensor installed in this manner requires the purchase of a new glass base plate because the old plate normally can not be removed without breakage. Therefore, this study was undertaken with the aim of developing an improved method of installing STS-1's. The goals were to develop a method which requires less field site labor during the installation and assures a higher quality installation when finished. In addition, the improved installation technique should promote portability. Two alternate installation techniques were evaluated in this study. One method replaces the cement between the base plate and the vault floor with sand. This method has been used in the French Geoscope program and in several IRIS/IDA installations made by the University of California at San Diego (UCSD) and possibly others. It is easily implemented in

  4. The relationship between complexity (taxonomy) and difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yih Tyng; Othman, Abdul Rahman

    2013-04-01

    Difficulty and complexity are important factors that occur in every test questions. These two factors will also affect the reliability of the test. Hence, difficulty and complexity must be considered by educators during preparation of the test questions. The relationship between difficulty and complexity is studied. Complexity is defined as the level in Bloom's Taxonomy. Difficulty is represented by the proportion of students scoring between specific score intervals. A chi-square test of independence between difficulty and complexity was conducted on the results of a continuous assessment of a third year undergraduate course, Probability Theory. The independence test showed that the difficulty and complexity are related. However, this relationship is small.

  5. Nondestructive Evaluation Methods for the Ares I Common Bulkhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James

    2010-01-01

    A large scale bonding demonstration test article was fabricated to prove out manufacturing techniques for the current design of the NASA Ares I Upper Stage common bulkhead. The common bulkhead serves as the single interface between the liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen portions of the Upper Stage propellant tank. The bulkhead consists of spin-formed aluminum domes friction stir welded to Y-rings and bonded to a perforated phenolic honeycomb core. Nondestructive evaluation methods are being developed for assessing core integrity and the core-to-dome bond line of the common bulkhead. Detection of manufacturing defects such as delaminations between the core and face sheets as well as service life defects such as crushed or sheared core resulting from impact loading are all of interest. The focus of this work will be on the application of thermographic, shearographic, and phased array ultrasonic methods to the bonding demonstration article as well as various smaller test panels featuring design specific defect types and geometric features.

  6. Video methods for evaluating physiologic monitor alarms and alarm responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafide, Christopher P; Zander, Miriam; Graham, Christian Sarkis; Weirich Paine, Christine M; Rock, Whitney; Rich, Andrew; Roberts, Kathryn E; Fortino, Margaret; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Lin, Richard; Keren, Ron

    2014-01-01

    False physiologic monitor alarms are extremely common in the hospital environment. High false alarm rates have the potential to lead to alarm fatigue, leading nurses to delay their responses to alarms, ignore alarms, or disable them entirely. Recent evidence from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and The Joint Commission has demonstrated a link between alarm fatigue and patient deaths. Yet, very little scientific effort has focused on the rigorous quantitative measurement of alarms and responses in the hospital setting. We developed a system using multiple temporarily mounted, minimally obtrusive video cameras in hospitalized patients' rooms to characterize physiologic monitor alarms and nurse responses as a proxy for alarm fatigue. This allowed us to efficiently categorize each alarm's cause, technical validity, actionable characteristics, and determine the nurse's response time. We describe and illustrate the methods we used to acquire the video, synchronize and process the video, manage the large digital files, integrate the video with data from the physiologic monitor alarm network, archive the video to secure servers, and perform expert review and annotation using alarm "bookmarks." We discuss the technical and logistical challenges we encountered, including the root causes of hardware failures as well as issues with consent, confidentiality, protection of the video from litigation, and Hawthorne-like effects. The description of this video method may be useful to multidisciplinary teams interested in evaluating physiologic monitor alarms and alarm responses to better characterize alarm fatigue and other patient safety issues in clinical settings.

  7. A simple capacitive method to evaluate ethanol fuel samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vello, Tatiana P.; de Oliveira, Rafael F.; Silva, Gustavo O.; de Camargo, Davi H. S.; Bufon, Carlos C. B.

    2017-01-01

    Ethanol is a biofuel used worldwide. However, the presence of excessive water either during the distillation process or by fraudulent adulteration is a major concern in the use of ethanol fuel. High water levels may cause engine malfunction, in addition to being considered illegal. Here, we describe the development of a simple, fast and accurate platform based on nanostructured sensors to evaluate ethanol samples. The device fabrication is facile, based on standard microfabrication and thin-film deposition methods. The sensor operation relies on capacitance measurements employing a parallel plate capacitor containing a conformational aluminum oxide (Al2O3) thin layer (15 nm). The sensor operates over the full range water concentration, i.e., from approximately 0% to 100% vol. of water in ethanol, with water traces being detectable down to 0.5% vol. These characteristics make the proposed device unique with respect to other platforms. Finally, the good agreement between the sensor response and analyses performed by gas chromatography of ethanol biofuel endorses the accuracy of the proposed method. Due to the full operation range, the reported sensor has the technological potential for use as a point-of-care analytical tool at gas stations or in the chemical, pharmaceutical, and beverage industries, to mention a few. PMID:28240312

  8. KRYLOV’S SUBSPACES ITERATIVE METHODS TO EVALUATE ELECTROSTATIC PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Versaci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the electromagnetic problems can be stated in terms of an inhomogeneous equation Af = g in which A is a differential, integral or integro-differential operator, g in the exitation source and f is the unknown function to be determined. Methods of Moments (MoM is a procedure to solve the equation above and, by means of an appropriate choice of the Basis/Testing (B/T, the problem can be translated into an equivalent linear system even of bigger dimensions. In this work we investigate on how the performances of the major Krylov’s subspace iterative solvers are affected by different choice of these sets of functions. More specifically, as a test case, we consider the algebric linear system of equations obtained by an electrostatic problem of evaluation of the capacitance and electrostatic charge distribution in a cylindrical conductor of finite length. Results are compared in terms of analytical/computational complexity and speed of convergence by exploiting three leading iterative methods (GMRES, CGS, BibGStab and B/T functions of Pulse/Pulse (P/P and Pulse/Delta (P/D type.

  9. A simple capacitive method to evaluate ethanol fuel samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vello, Tatiana P.; de Oliveira, Rafael F.; Silva, Gustavo O.; de Camargo, Davi H. S.; Bufon, Carlos C. B.

    2017-02-01

    Ethanol is a biofuel used worldwide. However, the presence of excessive water either during the distillation process or by fraudulent adulteration is a major concern in the use of ethanol fuel. High water levels may cause engine malfunction, in addition to being considered illegal. Here, we describe the development of a simple, fast and accurate platform based on nanostructured sensors to evaluate ethanol samples. The device fabrication is facile, based on standard microfabrication and thin-film deposition methods. The sensor operation relies on capacitance measurements employing a parallel plate capacitor containing a conformational aluminum oxide (Al2O3) thin layer (15 nm). The sensor operates over the full range water concentration, i.e., from approximately 0% to 100% vol. of water in ethanol, with water traces being detectable down to 0.5% vol. These characteristics make the proposed device unique with respect to other platforms. Finally, the good agreement between the sensor response and analyses performed by gas chromatography of ethanol biofuel endorses the accuracy of the proposed method. Due to the full operation range, the reported sensor has the technological potential for use as a point-of-care analytical tool at gas stations or in the chemical, pharmaceutical, and beverage industries, to mention a few.

  10. Evaluation of different field methods for measuring soil water infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso; Fonseca, Francisco

    2010-05-01

    Soil infiltrability, together with rainfall characteristics, is the most important hydrological parameter for the evaluation and diagnosis of the soil water balance and soil moisture regime. Those balances and regimes are the main regulating factors of the on site water supply to plants and other soil organisms and of other important processes like runoff, surface and mass erosion, drainage, etc, affecting sedimentation, flooding, soil and water pollution, water supply for different purposes (population, agriculture, industries, hydroelectricity), etc. Therefore the direct measurement of water infiltration rates or its indirect deduction from other soil characteristics or properties has become indispensable for the evaluation and modelling of the previously mentioned processes. Indirect deductions from other soil characteristics measured under laboratory conditions in the same soils, or in other soils, through the so called "pedo-transfer" functions, have demonstrated to be of limited value in most of the cases. Direct "in situ" field evaluations have to be preferred in any case. In this contribution we present the results of past experiences in the measurement of soil water infiltration rates in many different soils and land conditions, and their use for deducing soil water balances under variable climates. There are also presented and discussed recent results obtained in comparing different methods, using double and single ring infiltrometers, rainfall simulators, and disc permeameters, of different sizes, in soils with very contrasting surface and profile characteristics and conditions, including stony soils and very sloping lands. It is concluded that there are not methods universally applicable to any soil and land condition, and that in many cases the results are significantly influenced by the way we use a particular method or instrument, and by the alterations in the soil conditions by the land management, but also due to the manipulation of the surface

  11. Ghosts, Troubles, Difficulties, and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2016-01-01

    , especially if he or she does not think that this kind of occurrence is possible. Based on my fieldwork on haunted houses in Denmark today, this article deals with the narratives of people who have experiences that they cannot explain and that they consider to be on the limits of reason. Many of them do...... not consider ‘ghosts’ or ‘haunting’ as a possible explanation. This causes difficulties when they narrate and contextualise their experience, and typically they present ambiguous narratives and stress their disbelief at and bewilderment with the experiences. Still, as I will try to show in my article......, their bewilderment and the way they use the notions ‘ghost’ and ‘haunting’ point to possible reinterpretations of these notions, so that the narrative mediation shapes not only the experience but also the ways that ‘ghosts’ and ‘haunting’ are reinterpreted in contemporary Denmark....

  12. Information- Theoretic Analysis for the Difficulty of Extracting Hidden Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei-ming; LI Shi-qu; CAO Jia; LIU Jiu-fen

    2005-01-01

    The difficulty of extracting hidden information,which is essentially a kind of secrecy, is analyzed by information-theoretic method. The relations between key rate, message rate, hiding capacity and difficulty of extraction are studied in the terms of unicity distance of stego-key, and the theoretic conclusion is used to analyze the actual extracting attack on Least Significant Bit(LSB) steganographic algorithms.

  13. Factors Affecting the Difficulty of Verbal Analogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccas, Sonia; Moshinsky, Avital

    2003-01-01

    Examined factors affecting the difficulty of verbal analogies in a psychometric examination by characterizing 104 analogies using 5 defined attributes. Both knowledge and process attributes were found to contribute to the difficulty of verbal analogies assessed by 10 judges. (SLD)

  14. A consensus rating method for small virus-retentive filters. II. Method evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brorson, Kurt; Lute, Scott; Haque, Mohammed; Martin, Jerold; Sato, Terry; Moroe, Ichiro; Morgan, Michael; Krishnan, Mani; Campbell, Jennifer; Genest, Paul; Parrella, Joseph; Dolan, Sherri; Martin, Susan; Tarrach, Klaus; Levy, Richard; Aranha, Hazel; Bailey, Mark; Bender, Jean; Carter, Jeff; Chen, Qi; Dowd, Chris; Jani, Raj; Jen, David; Kidd, Stanley; Meltzer, Ted; Remington, Kathryn; Rice, Iris; Romero, Cynthia; Sato, Terry; Jornitz, Maik; Sekura, Carol Marcus; Sofer, Gail; Specht, Rachel; Wojciechowski, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Virus filters are membrane-based devices that remove large viruses (e.g., retroviruses) and/or small viruses (e.g., parvoviruses) from products by a size exclusion mechanism. In 2002, the Parenteral Drug Association (PDA) organized the PDA Virus Filter Task Force to develop a common nomenclature and a standardized test method for classifying and identifying viral-retentive filters. A test method based on bacteriophage PP7 retention was chosen based on developmental studies. The detailed final consensus filter method is published in the 2008 update of PDA Technical Report 41: Virus Filtration. Here, we evaluate the method and find it to be acceptable for testing scaled-down models of small virus-retentive filters from four manufacturers. Three consecutive lots of five filter types were tested (Pegasus SV4, Viresolve NFP, Planova 20N and 15N, Virosart CPV). Each passed the criteria specified in the test method (i.e., >4 log10 PP7 retention, >90% intravenous immunoglobulin passage, and passing integrity/installation testing) and was classified as PP7-LRV4.

  15. Study on a Quality Evaluation Method for College English Classroom Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-hua Sun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A quality evaluation method is an important means and the main basis on which to evaluate the college English classroom teaching quality of teachers. To overcome the one-sided subjectivity and resulting imprecision of the traditional classroom teaching quality evaluation method, a scientific and reasonable quality evaluation index system for college English classroom teaching is constructed. The fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method and the analytic hierarchy process method are combined to propose an improved multi-level fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model for obtaining a new college English classroom teaching quality evaluation method. In the proposed method, according to the fuzzy characteristics of a college English classroom teaching quality evaluation, the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is used to transform the qualitative evaluation indexes into limited quantitative evaluation indexes, then a judgment matrix is constructed to determine the weights among different levels by using the analytic hierarchy process method. Additionally, the college English classroom teaching quality is evaluated in detail. Finally, an actual case of college English classroom teaching is used to verify the effectiveness of the college English classroom teaching quality evaluation method. The results show that the proposed college English classroom teaching method can overcome the subjectivity and randomness shortcomings of the traditional classroom teaching quality evaluation methods, and improve the reliability, accuracy, and objectivity of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. It is an effective method to evaluate college English classroom teaching quality.

  16. Evaluation of nutria (Myocastor coypus) detection methods in Maryland, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Margaret A; Herrmann, Valentine; Hines, James; Nichols, James; Kendrot, Stephen R

    2017-01-01

    Nutria (Myocaster coypus), invasive, semi-aquatic rodents native to South America, were introduced into Maryland near Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge (BNWR) in 1943. Irruptive population growth, expansion, and destructive feeding habits resulted in the destruction of thousands of acres of emergent marshes at and surrounding BNWR. In 2002, a partnership of federal, state and private entities initiated an eradication campaign to protect remaining wetlands from further damage and facilitate the restoration of coastal wetlands throughout the Chesapeake Bay region. Program staff removed nearly 14,000 nutria from five infested watersheds in a systematic trapping and hunting program between 2002 and 2014. As part of ongoing surveillance activities, the Chesapeake Bay Nutria Eradication Project uses a variety of tools to detect and remove nutria. Project staff developed a floating raft, or monitoring platform, to determine site occupancy. These platforms are placed along waterways and checked periodically for evidence of nutria visitation. We evaluated the effectiveness of monitoring platforms and three associated detection methods: hair snares, presence of scat, and trail cameras. Our objectives were to (1) determine if platform placement on land or water influenced nutria visitation rates, (2) determine if the presence of hair snares influenced visitation rates, and (3) determine method-specific detection probabilities. Our analyses indicated that platforms placed on land were 1.5–3.0 times more likely to be visited than those placed in water and that platforms without snares were an estimated 1.7–3.7 times more likely to be visited than those with snares. Although the presence of snares appears to have discouraged visitation, seasonal variation may confound interpretation of these results. Scat was the least effective method of determining nutria visitation, while hair snares were as effective as cameras. Estimated detection probabilities provided by occupancy

  17. Facets of Career Decision-Making Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Tami; Gati, Itamar

    2006-01-01

    The present research investigated the relations among the measured and the expressed career decision-making difficulties in a sample of 299 young adults who intended to apply to college or university. As hypothesised, the correlations between career decision-making difficulties, as measured by the Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire…

  18. Student Difficulties with Quantum Mechanics Formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    We discuss student difficulties in distinguishing between the physical space and Hilbert space and difficulties related to the Time-independent Schroedinger equation and measurements in quantum mechanics. These difficulties were identified by administering written surveys and by conducting individual interviews with students.

  19. Further Evaluation of Scaling Methods for Rotorcraft Icing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching; Kreeger, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    The paper will present experimental results from two recent icing tests in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). The first test, conducted in February 2009, was to evaluate the current recommended scaling methods for fixed wing on representative rotor airfoils at fixed angle of attack. For this test, scaling was based on the modified Ruff method with scale velocity determined by constant Weber number and water film Weber number. Models were un-swept NACA 0012 wing sections. The reference model had a chord of 91.4 cm and scale model had a chord of 35.6 cm. Reference tests were conducted with velocity of 100 kt (52 m/s), droplet medium volume diameter (MVD) 195 m, and stagnation-point freezing fractions of 0.3 and 0.5 at angle of attack of 5deg and 7deg . It was shown that good ice shape scaling was achieved with constant Weber number for NACA 0012 airfoils with angle of attack up to 7deg . The second test, completed in May 2010, was primarily focused on obtaining transient and steady-state iced aerodynamics, ice accretion and shedding, and thermal icing validation data from an oscillating airfoil section over some selected ranges of icing conditions and blade assembly operational configurations. The model used was a 38.1-cm chord Sikorsky SC2110 airfoil section installed on an airfoil test apparatus with oscillating capability in the IRT. For two test conditions, size and condition scaling were performed. It was shown that good ice shape scaling was achieved for SC2110 airfoil at dynamic pitching motion. The data obtained will be applicable for future main rotor blade and tail rotor blade applications.

  20. Children with learning difficulties attending a psychopedagogic school program: evaluation of self-concept / Crianças com dificuldades escolares atendidas em programa de suporte psicopedagógico na escola: avaliação do autoconceito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Barroso Okano

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to assess the self-concept of 40 children of both sexes aged 7 to 10 years, enrolled in 1st and 2nd grade in a public school in the municipality of Uberaba, MG, of at least medium low intellectual level, divided into two groups: G1, consisting of 20 children with learning difficulties who were enrolled in a complementary program denoted Alternative Teaching in addition to the regular school program, and G2, consisting of 20 children with no learning difficulties, enrolled in a regular school program with good performance. The instruments used were: Progressive Color Matrices – Childhood Raven – Special Scale and the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale-Revised Manual. G1 children were found to have significantly lower overall self-concept and intellectual status scores, as well as significantly lower popularity than G2 children.

  1. Efficacy methods to evaluate health communication and marketing campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Uhrig, Jennifer; Davis, Kevin; McCormack, Lauren

    2009-06-01

    Communication and marketing are growing areas of health research, but relatively few rigorous efficacy studies have been conducted in these fields. In this article, we review recent health communication and marketing efficacy research, present two case studies that illustrate some of the considerations in making efficacy design choices, and advocate for greater emphasis on rigorous health communication and marketing efficacy research and the development of a research agenda. Much of the outcomes research in health communication and marketing, especially mass media, utilizes effectiveness designs conducted in real time, in the media markets or communities in which messages are delivered. Such evaluations may be impractical or impossible, however, imiting opportunities to advance the state of health communication and marketing research and the knowledge base on effective campaign strategies, messages, and channels. Efficacy and effectiveness studies use similar measures of behavior change. Efficacy studies, however, offer greater opportunities for experimental control, message exposure, and testing of health communication and marketing theory. By examining the literature and two in-depth case studies, we identify advantages and limitations to efficacy studies. We also identify considerations for when to adopt efficacy and effectiveness methods, alone or in combination. Finally, we outline a research agenda to investigate issues of internal and external validity, mode of message presentation, differences between marketing and message strategies, and behavioral outcomes.

  2. Evaluation of DNA extraction methods for freshwater eukaryotic microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eland, Lucy E; Davenport, Russell; Mota, Cesar R

    2012-10-15

    The use of molecular methods to investigate microalgal communities of natural and engineered freshwater resources is in its infancy, with the majority of previous studies carried out by microscopy. Inefficient or differential DNA extraction of microalgal community members can lead to bias in downstream community analysis. Three commercially available DNA extraction kits have been tested on a range of pure culture freshwater algal species with diverse cell walls and mixed algal cultures taken from eutrophic waste stabilization ponds (WSP). DNA yield and quality were evaluated, along with DNA suitability for amplification of 18S rRNA gene fragments by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). QiagenDNeasy(®) Blood and Tissue kit (QBT), was found to give the highest DNA yields and quality. Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to assess the diversity of communities from which DNA was extracted. No significant differences were found among kits when assessing diversity. QBT is recommended for use with WSP samples, a conclusion confirmed by further testing on communities from two tropical WSP systems. The fixation of microalgal samples with ethanol prior to DNA extraction was found to reduce yields as well as diversity and is not recommended.

  3. Development and evaluation of stavudine niosome by ether injection method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Shreedevi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was to encapsulate Stavudine in niosomes for achieving prolonged release & longer duration of action. Niosome are now widely studied as an alternative delivery system to liposome. An increasing number of non ionic surfactant has been found to form vesicles, capable of entrapping hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules. stavudine drug has shorter half life, Negligible protein binding. This drawback was decreased by formulating it as niosomes. In our present study we incorporated Stavudine into niosome by using ether injection method. In evaluation study the effect of the varying composition of non ionic surfactant and cholesterol on the properties such as zeta potential, drug content, vesicle size and drug release were studied. The result of the physiochemical characterisation and in vitro permeation studies of the prepared vesicles by dialysis membrane to get the idea of drug release. From the present investigation, it can be concluded that the developed niosome formulation of stavudine has shown great potential in the treatment of HIV by providing a prolonged release profile.

  4. Thinking Inside the Box: Simple Methods to Evaluate Complex Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Michael Menke

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We risk ignoring cheaper and safer medical treatments because they cannot be patented, lack profit potential, require too much patient-contact time, or do not have scientific results. Novel medical treatments may be difficult to evaluate for a variety of reasons such as patient selection bias, the effect of the package of care, or the lack of identifying the active elements of treatment. Whole Systems Research (WSR is an approach designed to assess the performance of complete packages of clinical management. While the WSR method is compelling, there is no standard procedure for WSR, and its implementation may be intimidating. The truth is that WSR methodological tools are neither new nor complicated. There are two sequential steps, or boxes, that guide WSR methodology: establishing system predictability, followed by an audit of system element effectiveness. We describe the implementation of WSR with a particular attention to threats to validity (Shadish, Cook, & Campbell, 2002; Shadish & Heinsman, 1997. DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v2i1.12365

  5. Mg2+-Based Method for the Pertuso Spring Discharge Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Sappa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the Environmental Monitoring Plan concerning the catchment work project of the Pertuso karst spring, which is going to be exploited to supply an important drinking water network in the south part of Roma district. The Pertuso Spring, located in the Upper Valley of the Aniene River, is the main outlet of a large karst aquifer, which is one of the most important water resources in the southeast part of Latium Region, Central Italy, used for drinking, agriculture, and hydroelectric supplies. The environmental monitoring activities provided data about one spring and two cross-sections of the Aniene River, from July 2014 to May 2016. A combined approach based on discharge measurements and hydrogeochemical analysis has been used to study flow paths and groundwater–surface water interaction in the study area. Tracer methods are particularly suitable in hydrogeological studies to assess transit times and flow properties in karst aquifers. The analysis of solute contents in the sampling points brought forth the identification of the Mg2+ ion as a conservative tracer in this specific system and, consequently, to the development of a conceptual model based on chemical mass balance for the Pertuso Spring discharge evaluation.

  6. New method for quantitative evaluation of esophageal sensibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Merino, V; Benages, A; Molina, R; Marcos-Buscheck, C; Tomás-Ridocci, M; Mora, F; Moreno-Osset, E; Mínguez, M

    1986-06-01

    A method for quantitating esophagus sensibility by an electric stimulation test is described. Square stimulus waveform at different voltages and durations were transmitted to the esophagus, three series of electric stimuli being used in successive durations (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 ms); in each series the voltage discharge was increased progressively from 0 mV, until the subject noted the first sensation. This procedure was carried out at all esophageal levels. The following parameters were analyzed: sensitive threshold along the esophagus; the relation of threshold sensibility (mV) duration of stimulus (ms), and reobase and cronaxia for each esophageal level. At all esophageal levels, the sensitive threshold was regular and coherent; in the middle esophagus a zone was found having higher sensitive threshold than the proximal and distal esophageal zones. The relationship between sensitive threshold and inverse of the stimulus duration indicated that esophageal sensibility follows the basic law of excitation of WEISS, at least with this type of stimulus, reobase and cronaxia being representative of the sensibility threshold along the esophagus. Quantitative esophageal sensibility, therefore is concluded to be particularly suited to evaluation by electric stimulation.

  7. Enhancement of wind stress evaluation method under storm conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingjian; Yu, Xiping

    2016-12-01

    Wind stress is an important driving force for many meteorological and oceanographical processes. However, most of the existing methods for evaluation of the wind stress, including various bulk formulas in terms of the wind speed at a given height and formulas relating the roughness height of the sea surface with wind conditions, predict an ever-increasing tendency of the wind stress coefficient as the wind speed increases, which is inconsistent with the field observations under storm conditions. The wave boundary layer model, which is based on the momentum and energy conservation, has the advantage to take into account the physical details of the air-sea interaction process, but is still invalid under storm conditions without a modification. By including the energy dissipation due to the presence of sea spray, which is speculated to be an important aspect of the air-sea interaction under storm conditions, the wave boundary layer model is improved in this study. The improved model is employed to estimate the wind stress caused by an idealized tropical cyclone motion. The computational results show that the wind stress coefficient reaches its maximal value at a wind speed of about 40 m/s and decreases as the wind speed further increases. This is in fairly good agreement with the field data.

  8. Evaluation of Investment Risks in CBA with Monte Carlo Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Korytárová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Investment decisions are at the core of any development strategy. Economic growth and welfare depend on productive capital, infrastructure, human capital, knowledge, total factor productivity and the quality of institutions. Decision-making process on the selection of suitable projects in the public sector is in some aspects more difficult than in the private sector. Evaluating projects on the basis of their financial profitability, where the basic parameter is the value of the potential profit, can be misleading in these cases. One of the basic objectives of the allocation of public resources is respecting of the 3E principle (Economy, Effectiveness, Efficiency in their whole life cycle. The life cycle of the investment projects consists of four main phases. The first pre-investment phase is very important for decision-making process whether to accept or reject a public project for its realization. A well-designed feasibility study as well as cost-benefit analysis (CBA in this phase are important assumptions for future success of the project. A future financial and economical CF which represent the fundamental basis for calculation of economic effectiveness indicators are formed and modelled in these documents. This paper deals with the possibility to calculate the financial and economic efficiency of the public investment projects more accurately by simulation methods used.

  9. Evaluation of Public Policies on Employment: Issues, Tools and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouder, Annie; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The increasing use of job training or retraining and employment programs in response to high rates of unemployment in France has spurred interest in program evaluation to see what results have been achieved. The contribution of traditional standardized evaluations and of emerging methodologies is being examined. Traditional evaluation methods…

  10. Evaluating Diversity Metrics: A Critique of the Equity Index Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth D.; Flammer, Keven

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evaluating diversity, inclusivity, and equity remains both a prevalent topic in education and a difficult challenge for most evaluators. Traditional metrics used to evaluate these constructs include questionnaires, focus groups, and anonymous comment solicitations. While each of these approaches offer value, they also possess a number…

  11. Study on the accuracy of comprehensive evaluating method based on fuzzy set theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Weixiang; Liu Xumin

    2005-01-01

    The evaluation method and its accuracy for evaluating complex systems are considered. In order to evaluate accurately complex systems, the existed evaluating methods are simply analyzed, and a new comprehensive evaluating method is developed. The new method is integration of Delphi approach, analytic hierarchy process, gray interconnect degree and fuzzy evaluation (DHGF). Its theory foundation is the meta-synthesis methodology from qualitative analysis to quantitative analysis. According to fuzzy set approach, using the methods of concordance of evaluation, redundant verify, double models redundant, and limitations of the method etc, the accuracy of evaluating method of DHGF is estimated, and a practical example is given. The result shows that using the method to evaluate complex system projects is feasible and credible.

  12. Storability evaluation of Golab apple with acoustic and penetration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R Bayati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Apple fruit (Mauls domestica Borkh, Rosaceae after citrus fruits, grape and banana, is the fourth important fruit in the world and is considered the most important fruit of temperate regions. In terms of trade volume, Iran is fourth producer and 17th exporter in the world. Among Iranian cultivars of apple fruit, known as “Golab apple”. Golab apple is one of the fragrant and tasty varieties and meanwhile is very sensitive and also its period of the postharvest shelf life is very short. In a study, the firmness of pear fruit during 4 weeks of storage was monitored using non-destructive impulse response (I-R and destructive Magness-Taylor (M-T puncture tests. The results of this study showed that the dominant frequency, stiffness coefficient and elasticity coefficient as a function of time could be expressed as a decreasing linear function (Gómez et al., 2005. Tiplica et al., (2010, showed that acoustic measurement can be a useful tool to discriminate different apple batches with a low error rate. Starting from the spectrum of the signal recorded by a microphone after the impact of a small hammer on the fruit, 18 key features were identified and used for the classification of apples belonging to 10 different varieties. The study aimed to evaluate apple firmness measured using both the penetrometer and acoustic methods. The methodologies were applied to Royal Gaya and Golden Smoothee apples harvested from 12 different orchards in Catalonia (Spain, on six different dates, and over three seasons. The results obtained showed a noticeable correlation between Magness Taylor firmness and acoustic measurements in Royal Gala, but no correlation was found for Golden Smoothee. In this study, also, acoustic measurements seemed to be a good tool for evaluating changes in tissue firmness during long-term storage (Molina-Delgado et al., 2009. In another study, it was presented a novel approach based on the simultaneous profiling of the

  13. Development of human performance evaluation methods and systems for human factors validation in an advanced control room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jun Su

    2008-02-15

    sources. Experiments are performed to demonstrate the validity of the SAE and the FIR. The results of the experiments reveal that the FIR and the SAE can be used as measures of effectiveness in monitoring and detection tasks and further as measures of situation awareness. In addition, a difficulty evaluation method in information searching (DEMIS) based on the SAE and the FIR is proposed and demonstrated with an application to complex diagnostic tasks. From the application results, it is demonstrated that DEMIS can find out the poor performance in information searching tasks such as monitoring and detection in NPPs and eventually the root causes leading to the poor performance by evaluating the effectiveness measures, the FIR and the SAE, and then by evaluating the difficulties coupled with poor performance in selective attention. Hence DEMIS is expected to be effectively used for the human factors validation in ACRs.

  14. From the new Austrian tunneling method to the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Shang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The new Austrian tunneling method (NATM is widely applied in design and construction of underground engineering projects. When the type and distribution of unfavorable geological bodies (UGBs associated with their influences on geoengineering are complicated or unfortunately are overlooked, we should pay more attentions to internal features of rocks grades IV and V (even in local but mostly controlling zones. With increasing attentions to the characteristics, mechanism and influences of engineering construction-triggered geohazards, it is crucial to fully understand the disturbance of these geohazards on project construction. A reasonable determination method in construction procedure, i.e. the shape of working face, the type of engineering support and the choice of feasible procedure, should be considered in order to mitigate the construction-triggered geohazards. Due to their high sensitivity to groundwater and in-situ stress, various UGBs exhibit hysteretic nature and failure modes. To give a complete understanding on the internal causes, the emphasis on advanced comprehensive geological forecasting and overall reinforcement treatment is therefore of more practical significance. Comprehensive evaluation of influential factors, identification of UGB, and measures of discontinuity dynamic controlling comprises the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method. In a case of a cut slope, the variations of UGBs and the impacts of key environmental factors are presented, where more severe construction-triggered geohazards emerged in construction stage than those predicted in design and field investigation stages. As a result, the weight ratios of different influential factors with respect to field investigation, design and construction are obtained.

  15. From the new Austrian tunneling method to the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanjun Shang; Kun Li; Wantong He; Chunbo Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The new Austrian tunneling method (NATM) is widely applied in design and construction of under-ground engineering projects. When the type and distribution of unfavorable geological bodies (UGBs) associated with their influences on geoengineering are complicated or unfortunately are overlooked, we should pay more attentions to internal features of rocks grades IV and V (even in local but mostly controlling zones). With increasing attentions to the characteristics, mechanism and influences of en-gineering construction-triggered geohazards, it is crucial to fully understand the disturbance of these geohazards on project construction. A reasonable determination method in construction procedure, i.e. the shape of working face, the type of engineering support and the choice of feasible procedure, should be considered in order to mitigate the construction-triggered geohazards. Due to their high sensitivity to groundwater and in-situ stress, various UGBs exhibit hysteretic nature and failure modes. To give a complete understanding on the internal causes, the emphasis on advanced comprehensive geological forecasting and overall reinforcement treatment is therefore of more practical significance. Compre-hensive evaluation of influential factors, identification of UGB, and measures of discontinuity dynamic controlling comprises the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method. In a case of a cut slope, the variations of UGBs and the impacts of key environmental factors are presented, where more severe construction-triggered geohazards emerged in construction stage than those pre-dicted in design and field investigation stages. As a result, the weight ratios of different influential factors with respect to field investigation, design and construction are obtained.

  16. Learning Difficulties and Working Memory Deficits among Primary School Students in Jakarta, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Wiguna, Tjhin; Setyawati WR, Noorhana; Kaligis, Fransiska; Belfer, Myron Lowell

    2012-01-01

    Objective: There are multiple possible etiologies for learning difficulties in children. There is growing evidence that many students identified as having learning difficulties have significant working memory deficits. To determine, in a sample of primary school students in Jakarta, Indonesia, the prevalence of learning difficulties and learning difficulties co-morbid with working memory deficits. Methods: Subjects (N=423) were recruited via proportional random sampling from 27 primary school...

  17. Individual differences in hemispheric preference and emotion regulation difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemisphericity or individual difference in the preference to use the left or the right hemispheric mode of information processing has been associated with various emotion-related differences. For example, the right hemisphericity has been linked with inhibition of emotional expression, feeling of tension, greater impulsivity etc. These observations suggest that right hemisphericity may be associated with greater difficulties in regulating emotions. However, direct empirical tests of such theoretical proposition are very thin. Aim: In view of this, the present study aims to investigate how and to what extent individual difference in hemispheric preference relate to emotion regulation. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two right-handed male subjects in the age range 18 to 20 years were assessed on self-report measures of hemispheric preference and emotion regulation difficulties. The correlation between dimensions of hemispheric preference and difficulties in regulating emotions was computed. A series of stepwise multiple regression analyses were also done to explore the relative significance of various dimensions of hemispheric preference in predicting emotion regulation difficulties. Results: The findings revealed that in general a preference for the right hemispheric mode of information processing was associated with greater emotion regulation difficulties. The correlation analysis indicated that while impulse control difficulties and difficulties in engaging goal directed behavior was associated with preference for almost all the right hemispheric mode of information processing, the nonacceptance of emotional responses and limited access to emotion regulation was related to preference for only global/synthetic (a right hemispheric mode of information processing. Similarly, the lack of emotional clarity facet of emotion regulation difficulties correlated significantly with a preference for the emotional mode of information processing

  18. Evaluation of Different Methods of Sperm Immunization in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Moatamed

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antifertility effects of naturally occuring antisperm antibody (ASA in infertile couples and studies on experimental immunization of various animals with sperm antigens represent ASA as an immunocontraceptive target. The effects of different factors on sperm immunogenecity and ASA production have been studied and different results have been reported. In this study, whole sperm immunization was evaluated. Methods: In this experimental study, whole mice sperm with different adjuvants i.e. complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA, incomplete Freund’s adjuvant (ICFA, cholera toxin subunit-β (CTS-β were administrated to mice by different routes; Intramuscular (IM, Subcutaneous (SC, Intranasal (IN, Intra peritoneal (IP, Intrarectal (IR, Intravaginal (IVA and oral. Control groups were inoculated with phosphate buffer saline (PBS plus corresponding adjuvant. Immunization was carried out on day 0,7,14,28 and ASA titers were detected by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA technique. The results were compared between control and experimental groups by Mann Whitney and Fisher exact tests. Results: The number of positive mice for ASA in IM, IN and SC experimental and control groups were significantly different (P=0.01, P=0.01, P=0.04 respectively. However, there were no significant differences between the IR, IVA, and oral experimental and control groups. No differences were observed between ASA in vaginal washing of all groups. Due to high mortality, the IP group was excluded from the study. Conclusion: It can be concluded that whole sperm antigen can induce immune response in female mice by IM, SC and IN routes, but not through IAV, IR and oral administration routes.

  19. Evaluative Indices Assigned to Contraceptive Methods by University Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Robert J.; Malo, Teri L.; Dodd, Virginia J.; Daley, Ellen M.; Mayer, Alyssa B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Preordinate attitudes and beliefs about contraception may influence acceptance or rejection of a particular method. Purpose: We examined the attitudes about contraception methods held by undergraduate students (N=792) at two large southeastern universities in the United States. Methods: Twelve methods were rated on 40 semantic…

  20. Review of experimental methods for evaluating effective delayed neutron fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, Yoshihiro [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    The International Effective Delayed Neutron Fraction ({beta}{sub eff}) Benchmark Experiments have been carried out at the Fast Critical Assembly of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute since 1995. Researchers from six countries, namely France, Italy, Russia, U.S.A., Korea, and Japan, participate in this FCA project. Each team makes use of each experimental method, such as Frequency Method, Rossi-{alpha} Method, Nelson Number Method, Cf Neutron Source Method, and Covariance Method. In this report these experimental methods are reviewed. (author)