WorldWideScience

Sample records for differing long-term impacts

  1. Long term radiological impact of thorium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, S.; Schapira, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Thorium extraction produces a certain amount of radioactive wastes. Potential long term radiological impact of these residues has been calculated using the recent ICRP-68 ingestion dose factors in connection with the computing code DECAY, developed at Orsay and described in this work. This code solves the well known Bateman's equations which govern the time dependence of a set of coupled radioactive nuclei. Monazites will be very likely the minerals to be exploited first, in case of an extensive use of thorium as nuclear fuel. Because monazites contain uranium as well, mining residues will contain not only the descendants of 232 Th and a certain proportion of non-extracted thorium (taken here to be 5%), but also this uranium, if left in the wastes for economical reasons. If no uranium would be present at all in the mineral, the potential radiotoxicity would strongly decrease in approximately 60 years, at the pace of the 5.8 years period of 228 Ra, which becomes the longest-lived radionuclide of the 4n radioactive family in the residues. Moreover, there is no risk due to radon exhalation, because of the very short period of 220 Rn. These significant differences between uranium and thorium mining have to be considered in view of some estimated long term real radiological impacts due to uranium residues, which could reach a value of the order of 1 mSv/year, the dose limit recommended for the public by the recent ICRP-60. (authors). 15 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs., 43 appendices

  2. Short-term antibiotic treatment has differing long-term impacts on the human throat and gut microbiome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobsson, H.; Jernberg, C.; Andersson, A.F.; Sjolund-Karlsson, M.; Jansson, J.K.; Engstrand, L.

    2010-01-15

    Antibiotic administration is the standard treatment for the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, the main causative agent of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. However, the long-term consequences of this treatment on the human indigenous microbiota are relatively unexplored. Here we studied short- and long-term effects of clarithromycin and metronidazole treatment, a commonly used therapy regimen against H. pylori, on the indigenous microbiota in the throat and in the lower intestine. The bacterial compositions in samples collected over a four year period were monitored by analyzing the 16S rRNA gene using 454-based pyrosequencing and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). While the microbial communities of untreated control subjects were relatively stable over time, dramatic shifts were observed one week after antibiotic treatment with reduced bacterial diversity in all treated subjects in both locations. While the microbiota of the different subjects responded uniquely to the antibiotic treatment some general trends could be observed; such as a dramatic decline in Actinobacteria in both throat and feces immediately after treatment. Although the diversity of the microbiota subsequently recovered to resemble the pre treatment states, the microbiota remained perturbed in some cases for up to four years post treatment. In addition, four years after treatment high levels of the macrolide resistance gene erm(B) were found, indicating that antibiotic resistance, once selected for, can persist for longer periods of time than previously recognized. This highlights the importance of a restrictive antibiotic usage in order to prevent subsequent treatment failure and potential spread of antibiotic resistance.

  3. Long-term impact of zinc supplementation in sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, Van Miriam M.J.; Bos, Emilie Julie; Ampe, Bart; Bikker, Paul; Vanhauteghem, Donna; Bockstaele, Van Filip; Cornillie, Pieter; Broeck, Van Den Wim; Laing, Du Gijs; Maes, Dominiek; Tuyttens, Frank A.M.; Janssens, Geert P.J.; Millet, Sam

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the long-term impact of zinc (Zn) supplementation on performance and Zn status biomarkers in sows and on whether this possible impact depends on housing conditions. Materials and methods: Six groups of sows were allotted to group housing on two different floor types during

  4. Long term storage of Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor isolates using different cryopreservation techniques and its impact on laccase activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eichlerová, Ivana; Homolka, Ladislav; Tomšovský, M.; Lisá, Ludmila

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 12 (2015), s. 1345-1353 ISSN 1878-6146 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/0709 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Basidiomycetes * Cryopreservant * Liquid nitrogen Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.244, year: 2015

  5. Long term impacts of international outsourcing of manufacturing on sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moosavirad, Seyed Hamed; Kara, Sami; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2014-01-01

    International outsourcing seems to be a cost efficient way of production. However, there are serious concerns about its long term impacts on the environmental, social and economic sustainability. This paper aims to quantify these impacts by using input output analysis, linear programming and system......% international outsourcing scenario and the baseline scenario due to their differences in production technologies. © 2014 CIRP....... dynamics in a case study including European electrical industry (outsourcer), Chinese electrical industry (outsourcee) and their main suppliers. Results depict the differences related to the total CO2 emissions, the number of employees and the gross value added of these two regions between a 10...

  6. Differences in impact of long term caregiving for mentally ill older adults on the daily life of informal caregivers: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegwaard, Marian I; Aartsen, Marja J; Grypdonck, Mieke Hf; Cuijpers, Pim

    2013-03-27

    Owing to the policy of extramuralization of care in most Western countries older people with severe mental illness have to rely more and more on informal caregivers for daily care. Caregivers themselves are often aged, and although caregiving implies an impact on daily life that exceeds the boundaries of usual informal care, the impact differs across caregivers. Some caregivers seem to suffer more than others, and the differences cannot be fully understood by factors currently known to exacerbate the burden of caregiving. In order to help caregivers reduce the impact of caregiving it is important to gain a deeper understanding of factors influencing the burden and its impact on the caregiver's life. With this in mind, the aim of the study is to explore and understand differences in the impact of long-term caregiving on the quality of life of caregivers who look after older adults with severe mental illness. A qualitative, associative, inductive strategy and continuous simultaneous coding were used to interpret the data of 19 semi-structured interviews. We identified an underlying psychological factor "perceived freedom of choice" which explains the gross differences in impact, leading to a definition of two main types of caregivers. Depending on how people perceive freedom of choice to provide care, the consequences of caregiving can be characterized as a process of gain (type 1) or loss (type 2). Four influential factors deepen the impact of caregiving for the type 2 caregivers, and two subtypes are identified for this category. Consequences of caregiving are most readily seen in a deteriorating quality of the relationship with the care recipient and in the psychosocial well-being of the caregiver. The concept of freedom of choice adds to our understanding of the differences and explains the variation in impact on the caregivers' life. The type 1 caregiver generally experiences gain whereas type 2 generally experiences loss, which puts the latter group typically

  7. Long-Term Impact of Intrauterine Neuroinflammation and Treatment with Magnesium Sulphate and Betamethasone: Sex-Specific Differences in a Preterm Labor Murine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-20

    intrauterine neuroinflammation and treatment with magnesium sulphate and betamethasone: Sex -specific differences in a preterm labor murine model...widespread use of Mg504 in clinical practice, its effects on adult offspring are not well known nor have sex -specific differences in therapeutic...injury. Prenatal treatment with MgSOJbetamethasone confers long-term benefits beyond cerebral palsy prevention with sex -specific differences in

  8. Long-term impact of sales promotion on brand image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Mandić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Sales promotion (SP is an inevitable tool in the marketing communications mix, especially in the FMCG markets, due to pressures such as retailers’ growing demands and increasing competition. This has proven to be an issue for many companies, especially those with a premium brand positioning and those concerned about the impact that SP might have on the long-term image of the company. Despite the fact that literature is replete with research on SP, it seems to be vastly generalized and mostly focused on price reductions. Thus, this paper aims to analyze and discuss the issue of the long-term impact that SP has on companies, especially on premium brands in the FMCG markets. It concludes that, when used properly and strategically, SP may have a positive long-term impact on brands.

  9. Predicting the long-term citation impact of recent publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegehuis, Clara; Litvak, Nelli; Waltman, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental problem in citation analysis is the prediction of the long-term citation impact of recent publications. We propose a model to predict a probability distribution for the future number of citations of a publication. Two predictors are used: The impact factor of the journal in which a

  10. Predicting the long-term citation impact of recent publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegehuis, Clara; Litvak, Nelli; Waltman, Ludo

    A fundamental problem in citation analysis is the prediction of the long-term citation impact of recent publications. We propose a model to predict a probability distribution for the future number of citations of a publication. Two predictors are used: the impact factor of the journal in which a

  11. Long term radiological impact of a uranium mine restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Veronica; Bordonaba Marisa; Sanchez Guillermo

    2008-01-01

    During the 1990s, many uranium mines were closed as consequence of low prices of this mineral. It was due to a decrease in the demand for uranium and an increase in the overall supply. The resulting was a further complicated implementation of sites restorations. This report deals with one of the relevant aspects of the radiological protection scope: 'the evaluation of the long term radiological impact in the population due to the uranium mine restoration activities' for the uranium mine sited in Saelices el Chico (Salamanca, Spain). These restoration activities have basically consisted of recovering the original site by filling the old open pits with the material stockpiled in the waste dumps. The main problems associated with this material include radon release and particles emission. The strategy used to solve this problem has been covered these structures with a layer with beds of clay material rock, waste material and a cover tree. The pathways considered for the radiological impact have been: 1) Inhalation; 2) Ingestion of contaminated water, milk, vegetables and meat; 3) External exposure from clouds immersion, grounds concentrations and direct gamma radiation. Three computer codes have been used with the object of evaluating the above-mentioned impact. Two of them are well-known NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) codes: RESRAD 6.30 and MILDOS-AREA. We have also applied DOEFLURA, developed in ENUSA [1, 2, 3]. Four scenarios have been studied: Resident Farmer Scenario, Resident scenario, Livestock pasture scenario and Forest scenario, Estimation of radioactive doses for the member of the public in the different scenarios has been calculated with this programme. A period of 3500 years from now has been studied. (author)

  12. Long-term socioeconomic impacts of flooding in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jina, A.

    2013-05-01

    Natural disasters lead to myriad negative impacts upon society, causing loss of life, property, and income. Among disasters, floods annually affect the most people, and lead to widespread negative outcomes, particularly in developing countries. While immediate effects of disasters are readily observed, long-term socioeconomic effects have received little attention. Recent work in development economics finds that environmental exposure in early life can have negative impacts upon later outcomes in health, education, and labor markets. Such research is problematic for disasters, however, as objective measurements of hazard exposure are difficult to obtain. This study develops a remote sensing method to detect flooding in Bangladesh, one of the most flood-prone countries, using MODIS 8-day composite data. This approach addresses one of the main problems in the literature on the social impacts of disasters by deriving an objective measure rather than using self-reported damages. Flood data from 2000-2012 is matched to geolocated social surveys conducted by the Bangladesh government to identify impacts of exposure to floods at critical periods of life. While flooding is noted to be a natural and important part of ecosystem functioning in Bangladesh, we aim to understand the impacts of a flood of greater than normal magnitude or abnormal timing to identify the effects on human capital formation. We find that an increase in flooding of one standard deviation (SD) above the mean in the birth month leads to a 3% increase in stunting (2 SD below cohort height). This has implications for physical and cognitive development, shown elsewhere to persist to adulthood. We find that children from households that are exposed to floods while in elementary school are more likely to drop out. Other impacts will be identified in the course of this research. The stated impacts suggest that the long-term health and economic fortunes of the rural poor in Bangladesh are significantly

  13. Differences in impact of long term caregiving for mentally ill older adults on the daily life of informal caregivers: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Zegwaard, Marian I; Aartsen, Marja J; Grypdonck, Mieke HF; Cuijpers, Pim

    2013-01-01

    Background: Owing to the policy of extramuralization of care in most Western countries older people with severe mental illness have to rely more and more on informal caregivers for daily care. Caregivers themselves are often aged, and although caregiving implies an impact on daily life that exceeds the boundaries of usual informal care, the impact differs across caregivers. Some caregivers seem to suffer more than others, and the differences cannot be fully understood by factors currently kno...

  14. Determining long-term regional erosion rates using impact craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergarten, Stefan; Kenkmann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    More than 300,000 impact craters have been found on Mars, while the surface of Moon's highlands is even saturated with craters. In contrast, only 184 impact craters have been confirmed on Earth so far with only 125 of them exposed at the surface. The spatial distribution of these impact craters is highly inhomogeneous. Beside the large variation in the age of the crust, consumption of craters by erosion and burial by sediments are the main actors being responsible for the quite small and inhomogeneous crater record. In this study we present a novel approach to infer long-term average erosion rates at regional scales from the terrestrial crater inventory. The basic idea behind this approach is a dynamic equilibrium between the production of new craters and their consumption by erosion. It is assumed that each crater remains detectable until the total erosion after the impact exceeds a characteristic depth depending on the crater's diameter. Combining this model with the terrestrial crater production rate, i.e., the number of craters per unit area and time as a function of their diameter, allows for a prediction of the expected number of craters in a given region as a function of the erosion rate. Using the real crater inventory, this relationship can be inverted to determine the regional long-term erosion rate and its statistical uncertainty. A limitation by the finite age of the crust can also be taken into account. Applying the method to the Colorado Plateau and the Deccan Traps, both being regions with a distinct geological history, yields erosion rates in excellent agreement with those obtained by other, more laborious methods. However, these rates are formally exposed to large statistical uncertainties due to the small number of impact craters. As higher crater densities are related to lower erosion rates, smaller statistical errors can be expected when large regions in old parts of the crust are considered. Very low long-term erosion rates of less than 4

  15. Impact of Long-Term Care on Retirement Wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Anna M

    2015-01-01

    Retirement wellness is the result of retiring at an appropriate age, saving enough and managing risks appropriately. One of the major risks that often is not addressed effectively is the long-term care (LTC) risk, i.e., the risk of needing help due to physical or cognitive limitations. In 2014, the Society of Actuaries issued a call for papers on the link between LTC and retirement security. This article will discuss the topic of LTC and retirement security broadly, drawing from several of the papers. Some of the topics include the impact of LTC on the individual, family members and caregivers; modeling results showing the impact of LTC on assets needed for a secure retirement; alternative methods of financing LTC; the link between housing decisions and LTC; and some ideas for the future.

  16. Long-term vegetation monitoring for different habitats in floodplains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LANG Petra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A floodplain-restoration project along the Danube between Neuburg and Ingolstadt (Germany aims to bring back water and sediment dynamic to the floodplain. The accompanied long-term monitoring has to document the changes in biodiversity related to this new dynamics. Considerations on and results of the vegetation monitoring concept are documented in this paper. In a habitat rich ecosystem like a floodplain different habitats (alluvial forest, semi-aquatic/aquatic sites have different demands on the sampling methods. Therefore, different monitoring designs (preferential, random, systematic, stratified random and transect sampling are discussed and tested for their use in different habitat types of the floodplain. A stratified random sampling is chosen for the alluvial forest stands, as it guarantees an equal distribution of the monitoring plots along the main driving factors, i.e. influence of water. The parameters distance to barrage, ecological flooding, height above thalweg and distance to the new floodplain river are used for stratifying and the plots are placed randomly into these strata, resulting in 117 permanent plots. Due to small changes at the semi-aquatic/aquatic sites a transect sampling was chosen. Further, a rough stratification (channel bed, river bank adjacent floodplain was implemented, which was only possible after the start of the restoration project. To capture the small-scale changes due to the restoration measures on the vegetation, 99 additional plots completed the transect sampling. We conclude that hetereogenous study areas need different monitoring approaches, but, later on, a joint analysis must be possible.

  17. Long-term impact of prematurity on postnatal neurohormonal regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Ziborova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the psychophysiological and neuroendocrine differences characteristic of premature children, which are as a result of long-term perinatal consequences. Particular emphasis is laid on the effects of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical stress system, the performance of which is reprogramed during complicated pregnancy, labor, and postnatal period under pain stress due to medical manipulations. Being extremely sensitive to all these exposures, the brain of a premature infant develops during activation of the stress system and takes on a few distinctive properties in addition to independent neuroanatomical distinctions due to premature birth. The altered neurohormonal patterns revealed in very prematurely born children and adolescents involve the regulation of mental processes, behavior, metabolism, and circadian rhythms (sleep-wake regulation, which differ from those in their maturely born peers. These cases allow learning and behavior problems and lower cognitive estimates to be considered in normally developing children born extremely prematurely who have also hormonal dysregulation.

  18. Long-term nutritional impact of sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, M; Hould, F S; Lescelleur, O; Marceau, S; Lebel, S; Julien, F; Simard, S; Biertho, Laurent

    2017-10-01

    Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) has become a predominant bariatric procedure throughout the world. However, the long-term nutritional impact of this procedure is unknown. To describe the nutritional deficiencies before and after SG and to analyze the influence of baseline weight on nutritional status. University-affiliated tertiary care center. All patients who underwent SG as a standalone procedure between 2008 and 2012 were included in this study. Patients were given multivitamin supplementation. Data were obtained from our prospectively maintained electronic database and are reported as mean ± standard deviation and percentage. Bivariate analyses were conducted to evaluate the influence of selected variables on outcomes. The mean age of the 537 patients was 48.0 ± 11.3 years, with an initial body mass index of 48.1 ± 8.7 kg/m 2 . Excess weight loss and total weight loss were 56.2% and 28.0% at 1 year and 43.0% and 21.1% at 5 years, respectively (Pvitamin B12 in 30.3% and 16.4% (Pvitamin D 63.2% and 24.3% (Pvitamin A insufficiency peaked from 7.9% preoperatively to 28.7% at 3 months (Pvitamin B12 and vitamin D. Nutritional deficiencies are common in patients with morbid obesity before and after surgery. Preoperative supplementation and long-term nutritional follow-up are required to prevent nutritional deficiencies. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-term environmental impacts of geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.

    1983-05-01

    This paper summarizes a study of the long-term environmental impacts of geologic repositories for radioactive wastes. Conceptual repositories in basalt, granite, salt, and tuff were considered. Site-specific hydrological and geochemical parameters were used wherever possible, supplemented with generic parameters when necessary. Radiation doses to future maximally exposed individuals who use the contaminated groundwater and surface water were calculated and compared with a performance criterion of 10 -4 Sv/yr for radiation exposures from probable events. The major contributors to geologic isolation are the absence of groundwater if the repository is in natural salt, the slow dissolution of key radioelements as limited by solubility and by diffusion and convection in groundwater, long water travel times from the waste to the environment, and sorption retardation in the media surrounding the repository. In addition, dilution by surface water can considerably reduce the radiation exposures that result from the small fraction of the waste radioactivity that may ultimately reach the environment. Estimates of environmental impacts are made both for unreprocessed spent fuel and for reprocessing wastes. Accelerated dissolution of waste exposed to groundwater during the period of repository heating is also considered. This study of environmental impacts is a portion of a more comprehensive study of geologic waste disposal carried out by the Waste Isolation System Panel of the US National Research Council

  20. Assessing the Long-Term Impacts of Water Quality Outreach and Education Efforts on Agricultural Landowners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Smith, Douglas B.; McEvoy, Jamie P.

    2011-01-01

    We assess the long-term effectiveness of outreach and education efforts associated with a water quality improvement project in a watershed located in northern Utah, USA. Conducted 15 years after the original project began, our research examines the lasting impacts of different extension activities on landowners' motivations to participate and…

  1. Differences in impact of long term caregiving for mentally ill older adults on the daily life of informal caregivers: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegwaard, M.I.; Aartsen, M.J.; Grypdonck, M.H.F.; Cuijpers, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Owing to the policy of extramuralization of care in most Western countries older people with severe mental illness have to rely more and more on informal caregivers for daily care. Caregivers themselves are often aged, and although caregiving implies an impact on daily life that exceeds

  2. Evaluation of long term radiological impact on population close to remediated uranium mill tailings storages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerouanton, David; Delgove, Laure

    2008-01-01

    A methodology is elaborated in order to evaluate the long term radiological impact of remediated uranium mill tailings storage. Different scenarios are chosen and modelled to cover future evolution of the tailings storages. Radiological impact is evaluated for different population such as adults and children living in the immediate vicinity or directly on the storage, road workers or walkers on the storage. Equation and methods are detailed. (author)

  3. Impact of different cryoprotectants on the survival of freeze-dried Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus casei/paracasei during long-term storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jofré, A; Aymerich, T; Garriga, M

    2015-01-01

    The production of long shelf-life highly concentrated dried probiotic/starter cultures is of paramount importance for the food industry. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of glucose, lactose, trehalose, and skim milk applied alone or combined upon the survival of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679, Lactobacillus casei/paracasei CTC1677 and L. casei/paracasei CTC1678 during freeze-drying and after 39 weeks of storage at 4 and 22 °C. Immediately after freeze-drying, the percentage of survivors was very high (≥ 94%) and only slight differences were observed among strains and cryoprotectants. In contrast, during storage, survival in the dried state depended on the cryoprotectant, temperature and strain. For all the protectants assayed, the stability of the cultures was remarkably higher when stored under refrigeration (4 °C). Under these conditions, skim milk alone or supplemented with trehalose or lactose showed the best performance (reductions ≤ 0.9 log units after 39 weeks of storage). The lowest survival was observed during non-refrigerated storage and with glucose and glucose plus milk; no viable cells left at the end of the storage period. Thus, freeze-drying in the presence of appropriate cryoprotectants allows the production of long shelf-life highly concentrated dried cultures ready for incorporation in high numbers into food products as starter/potential probiotic cultures.

  4. Differential maps, difference maps, interpolated maps, and long term prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talman, R.

    1988-06-01

    Mapping techniques may be thought to be attractive for the long term prediction of motion in accelerators, especially because a simple map can approximately represent an arbitrarily complicated lattice. The intention of this paper is to develop prejudices as to the validity of such methods by applying them to a simple, exactly solveable, example. It is shown that a numerical interpolation map, such as can be generated in the accelerator tracking program TEAPOT, predicts the evolution more accurately than an analytically derived differential map of the same order. Even so, in the presence of ''appreciable'' nonlinearity, it is shown to be impractical to achieve ''accurate'' prediction beyond some hundreds of cycles of oscillation. This suggests that the value of nonlinear maps is restricted to the parameterization of only the ''leading'' deviation from linearity. 41 refs., 6 figs

  5. Long term impacts of nuclear energy: On which purpose do we try to evaluate them?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beutler, Didier

    1998-01-01

    The indicators and the time limits for evaluation of the long term impacts of nuclear energy depend on the purpose: assessing the total cost of electricity generation; comparing different nuclear strategies; responding to public acceptance concerns; elaborating and selecting the most sustainable energy systems. Indicators that can be used are: consumption of non renewable resources; concentrations in the environment; individual exposures; collective dose; potential radiotoxicity. For all of them predicted or conditional values can be applied

  6. Long-Term Hydrologic Impacts of Controlled Drainage Using DRAINMOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, S.; Bowling, L. C.; Frankenberger, J.

    2017-12-01

    Controlled drainage is a management strategy designed to mitigate water quality issues caused by subsurface drainage but it may increase surface ponding and runoff. To improve controlled drainage system management, a long-term and broader study is needed that goes beyond the experimental studies. Therefore, the goal of this study was to parametrize the DRAINMOD field-scale, hydrologic model for the Davis Purdue Agricultural Center located in Eastern Indiana and to predict the subsurface drain flow and surface runoff and ponding at this research site. The Green-Ampt equation was used to characterize the infiltration, and digital elevation models (DEMs) were used to estimate the maximum depressional storage as the surface ponding parameter inputs to DRAINMOD. Hydraulic conductivity was estimated using the Hooghoudt equation and the measured drain flow and water table depths. Other model inputs were either estimated or taken from the measurements. The DRAINMOD model was calibrated and validated by comparing model predictions of subsurface drainage and water table depths with field observations from 2012 to 2016. Simulations based on the DRAINMOD model can increase understanding of the environmental and hydrological effects over a broader temporal and spatial scale than is possible using field-scale data and this is useful for developing management recommendations for water resources at field and watershed scales.

  7. Long-term impacts of electricity generation systems. Draft technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    technology options, energy demands and the vision for the future world are not described. Readers should later study those issues, based on the information provided in this document. To understand the nature of impacts, comparison of different types of impacts is helpful, and presentation of these impacts is a key for the comparison. How to value and weight the impacts for comparison of far future impacts is the main issue in methodological approaches. Both non-monetary valuation and monetary valuation are introduced with equal emphasis. These valuation methodologies, however, have limitations in their applications. In the method of monetary valuation, the concept of discounting is central in valuing far future impacts. Discounting affects the weight of far future impacts relative to impacts on the present generation. This concept may be used for sensitivity analysis with a range of discount rates, and the results may be presented for the decision making process. There is much opposition to monetary valuation of long-term impacts, so analysts need to take some other valuation method in many cases. However, in non-monetary valuation, it is not possible to have all indicators which could be used for comparison between two long-term impacts. Therefore, qualitative analysis is also required in many cases. Including results of qualitative analysis, multi-criteria analysis should be considered for assessment of long-term impacts. Temporal and spatial grouping should be made on the impacts, and analysis and decision making will be made with some weighting process. The weighting may be conducted according to a social choice including subjective valuation. Time period to be considered in the impact assessment is an important issue in the long-term impact assessment. Cut off time-period may be set to make consistent comparisons of different impacts

  8. Long-term impact of earthquakes on sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempesta, Daniela; Curcio, Giuseppe; De Gennaro, Luigi; Ferrara, Michele

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the impact of the 6.3 magnitude 2009 L'Aquila (Italy) earthquake on standardized self-report measures of sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, PSQI) and frequency of disruptive nocturnal behaviours (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index-Addendum, PSQI-A) two years after the natural disaster. Self-reported sleep quality was assessed in 665 L'Aquila citizens exposed to the earthquake compared with a different sample (n = 754) of L'Aquila citizens tested 24 months before the earthquake. In addition, sleep quality and disruptive nocturnal behaviours (DNB) of people exposed to the traumatic experience were compared with people that in the same period lived in different areas ranging between 40 and 115 km from the earthquake epicenter (n = 3574). The comparison between L'Aquila citizens before and after the earthquake showed a significant deterioration of sleep quality after the exposure to the trauma. In addition, two years after the earthquake L'Aquila citizens showed the highest PSQI scores and the highest incidence of DNB compared to subjects living in the surroundings. Interestingly, above-the-threshold PSQI scores were found in the participants living within 70 km from the epicenter, while trauma-related DNBs were found in people living in a range of 40 km. Multiple regressions confirmed that proximity to the epicenter is predictive of sleep disturbances and DNB, also suggesting a possible mediating effect of depression on PSQI scores. The psychological effects of an earthquake may be much more pervasive and long-lasting of its building destruction, lasting for years and involving a much larger population. A reduced sleep quality and an increased frequency of DNB after two years may be a risk factor for the development of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder.

  9. Long term performance of different radon remedial methods in Sweden

    CERN Document Server

    Clavensjoe, B

    2002-01-01

    The object of this project was to investigate the long time effectiveness of different radon remedial methods. The ten years project started 1991. From start the investigation comprised of 105 dwellings (91 single-family houses and 14 flats in multi-family buildings). In all of the dwellings remedial measures were carried out in the eighties. Before and immediately after the reduction the local measured the radon concentrations. New measurements of the radon concentrations have been made every third year; in 1991, 1994, 1997 and in 2000. Twelve different radon remedial methods and method combinations were used. The radon sources were building materials as well as sub-soils. In all of the dwellings the radon concentrations were measured by nuclear track films during 3 months (January-March) measurements and in half of them the air change rates by passive tracer gas methods. The results of the 2000 and the 1991 (within brackets) studies showed that the radon concentration was up to 200 Bq/m sup 3 in 54 (54) sin...

  10. Long term performance of different radon remedial methods in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavensjoe, Bertil

    2002-06-01

    The object of this project was to investigate the long time effectiveness of different radon remedial methods. The ten years project started 1991. From start the investigation comprised of 105 dwellings (91 single-family houses and 14 flats in multi-family buildings). In all of the dwellings remedial measures were carried out in the eighties. Before and immediately after the reduction the local authorities measured the radon concentrations. New measurements of the radon concentrations have been made every third year; in 1991, 1994, 1997 and in 2000. Twelve different radon remedial methods and method combinations were used. The radon sources were building materials as well as sub-soils. In all of the dwellings the radon concentrations were measured by nuclear track films during 3 months (January-March) measurements and in half of them the air change rates by passive tracer gas methods. The results of the 2000 and the 1991 (within brackets) studies showed that the radon concentration was up to 200 Bq/m 3 in 54 (54) single-family houses and 7 (7) flats, between 210 Bq/m 3 and 400 Bq/m 3 in 23 (18) single-family houses and 5 (6) flats, and higher than 400 Bq/m 3 in 12 (18) single-family houses and 2 (1) flats. The study 1991 showed also that in about 40 % of the cases the radon concentration had increased by more than 30 % only a few years after reduction actions had been taken. In 19 dwellings the radon concentration was at least doubled. In no fewer than 38 dwellings the radon level has been over 400 Bq/m 3 in at least one of the four measuring occasions. The change in radon concentrations was not specific to any given method but seemed to be evenly distributed over all of them. The investigation results showed the necessity for repeated measuring where counter measures have been taken. The causes for increasing radon levels have been made clear in all except 2-3 cases

  11. Impact of long-term and short-term therapies on seminal parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jlenia Elia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this work was: i to evaluate the prevalence of male partners of subfertile couples being treated with long/short term therapies for non andrological diseases; ii to study their seminal profile for the possible effects of their treatments on spermatogenesis and/or epididymal maturation. Methods: The study group was made up of 723 subjects, aged between 25 and 47 years. Semen analysis was performed according to World Health Organization (WHO guidelines (1999. The Superimposed Image Analysis System (SIAS, which is based on the computerized superimposition of spermatozoa images, was used to assess sperm motility parameters. Results: The prevalence of subjects taking pharmacological treatments was 22.7% (164/723. The prevalence was 3.7% (27/723 for the Short-Term Group and 18.9% (137/723 for the Long-Term Group. The subjects of each group were also subdivided into subgroups according to the treatments being received. Regarding the seminal profile, we did not observe a significant difference between the Long-Term, Short-Term or the Control Group. However, regarding the subgroups, we found a significant decrease in sperm number and progressive motility percentage in the subjects receiving treatment with antihypertensive drugs compared with the other subgroups and the Control Group. Conclusions: In the management of infertile couples, the potential negative impact on seminal parameters of any drugs being taken as Long-Term Therapy should be considered. The pathogenic mechanism needs to be clarified.

  12. Geomagnetic Storms and Long-Term Impacts on Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkham, Harold; Makarov, Yuri V.; Dagle, Jeffery E.; DeSteese, John G.; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Diao, Ruisheng

    2011-12-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was commissioned to study the potential impact of a severe GIC event on the western U.S.-Canada power grid (referred to as the Western Interconnection). The study identified long transmission lines (length exceeding 150 miles) that did not include series capacitors. The basic assumption for the study is that a GIC is more likely to couple to long transmission lines, and that series capacitors would block the flow of the induced DC GIC. Power system simulations were conducted to evaluate impacts to the bulk power system if transformers on either end of these lines failed. The study results indicated that the Western Interconnection was not substantially at risk to GIC because of the relatively small number of transmission lines that met this criterion. This report also provides a summary of the Hydro-Québec blackout on March 13, 1989, which was caused by a GIC. This case study delves into the failure mechanisms of that event, lessons learned, and preventive measures that have been implemented to minimize the likelihood of its reoccurrence. Finally, the report recommends that the electric power industry consider the adoption of new protective relaying approaches that will prevent severe GIC events from catastrophically damaging transformers. The resulting changes may increase the likelihood of smaller disruptions but should prevent an unlikely yet catastrophic national-level event.

  13. The Impact of EuroSCORE II Risk Factors on Prediction of Long-Term Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barili, Fabio; Pacini, Davide; D'Ovidio, Mariangela; Dang, Nicholas C; Alamanni, Francesco; Di Bartolomeo, Roberto; Grossi, Claudio; Davoli, Marina; Fusco, Danilo; Parolari, Alessandro

    2016-10-01

    The European System for Cardiac Operation Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) II has not been tested yet for predicting long-term mortality. This study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between EuroSCORE II and long-term mortality and to develop a new algorithm based on EuroSCORE II factors to predict long-term survival after cardiac surgery. Complete data on 10,033 patients who underwent major cardiac surgery during a 7-year period were retrieved from three prospective institutional databases and linked with the Italian Tax Register Information System. Mortality at follow-up was analyzed with time-to-event analysis. The Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival at 1 and 5 were, respectively, 95.0% ± 0.2% and 84.7% ± 0.4%. Both discrimination and calibration of EuroSCORE II decreased in the prediction of 1-year and 5-year mortality. Nonetheless, EuroSCORE II was confirmed to be an independent predictor of long-term mortality with a nonlinear trend. Several EuroSCORE II variables were independent risk factors for long-term mortality in a regression model, most of all very low ejection fraction (less than 20%), salvage operation, and dialysis. In the final model, isolated mitral valve surgery and isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery were associated with improved long-term survival. The EuroSCORE II cannot be considered a direct estimator of long-term risk of death, as its performance fades for mortality at follow-up longer than 30 days. Nonetheless, it is nonlinearly associated with long-term mortality, and most of its variables are risk factors for long-term mortality. Hence, they can be used in a different algorithm to stratify the risk of long-term mortality after surgery. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Towards Improved Understanding of Drought and Drought Impacts from Long Term Earth Observation Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, C.; Wang, S.; Liu, J.; Hadwen, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    Drought is a complex natural disaster, which often emerges slowly, but can occur at various time scales and have impacts that are not well understood. Long term observations of drought intensity and frequency are often quantified from precipitation and temperature based indices or modelled estimates of soil water storage. The maturity of satellite based observations has created the potential to enhance the understanding of drought and drought impacts, particularly in regions where traditional data sets are limited by remoteness or inaccessibility, and where drought processes are not well-quantified by models. Long term global satellite data records now provide observations of key hydrological variables, including evaporation modelled from thermal sensors, soil moisture from microwave sensors, ground water from gravity sensors and vegetation condition that can be modelled from optical sensors. This study examined trends in drought frequency, intensity and duration over diverse ecoregions in Canada, including agricultural, grassland, forested and wetland areas. Trends in drought were obtained from the Canadian Drought Monitor as well as meteorological based indices from weather stations, and evaluated against satellite derived information on evaporative stress (Anderson et al. 2011), soil moisture (Champagne et al. 2015), terrestrial water storage (Wang and Li 2016) and vegetation condition (Davidson et al. 2009). Data sets were evaluated to determine differences in how different sensors characterize the hydrology and impacts of drought events from 2003 to 2016. Preliminary results show how different hydrological observations can provide unique information that can tie causes of drought (water shortages resulting from precipitation, lack of moisture storage or evaporative stress) to impacts (vegetation condition) that hold the potential to improve the understanding and classification of drought events.

  15. [The Development of Long-Term Care Policies and the Impact on Nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shiao-Chi; Tsai, Yin-Yin; Yeh, Shin-Ting

    2015-10-01

    The government must reform and enhance current medical and long-term care services in order to respond effectively to societal ageing and labor shortage trends and to ensure sustainable operations. The post-acute care system should be reoriented on the home and community instead of the hospital. The Long Term Care Service Act integrates long-term care services that were previously dispersed amongst different departments, sets up a long-term care development fund, and improves the quality and allocation of long-term care services. Moreover, the Long Term Care Insurance Act will implement a bundle payment system to assist disabled families. The integration of automation and information technology will make long-term care more efficient. Although nurses are more skilled at elderly care and counseling than other community care professionals, nurses generally lack training in business management. Home and community-based services thus require better-trained manpower, opportunities to set care agents, and opportunities to offer flexible caring jobs. Therefore, nurses should strengthen their capabilities in post-acute care, business management, cooperation, and coordination.

  16. Gender differences in success at quitting smoking: Short- and long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marqueta, Adriana; Nerín, Isabel; Gargallo, Pilar; Beamonte, Asunción

    2016-06-14

    Smoking cessation treatments are effective in men and women. However, possible sex-related differences in the outcome of these treatments remain a controversial topic. This study evaluated whether there were differences between men and women in the success of smoking cessation treatment, including gender-tailored components, in the short and long term (> 1 year). A telephone survey was carried out between September 2008 and June 2009 in smokers attended in a Smoking Cessation Clinic. All patients who have successfully completed treatment (3 months) were surveyed by telephone to determine their long-term abstinence. Those who remained abstinent were requested to attend the Smoking Cessation Clinic for biochemical validation (expired CO ≤10 ppm). The probability of remaining abstinent in the long-term was calculated using a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. The treatment success rate at 3-months was 41.3% (538/1302) with no differences by sex 89% (479/538) among those located in the telephonic follow-up study and 47.6% (256/479) were abstinent without differences by sex (p = .519); abstinence was validated with CO less than 10 ppm in 191 of the 256 (53.9% men and 46.1% women). In the survival analysis, the probability of men and women remaining abstinent in the long-term was not significant. There are no differences by sex in the outcome of smoking cessation treatment that included gender-tailored components in the short and long term (> 1 year).

  17. Short- and long-term impact of critical illness on relatives: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Fiona; Rattray, Janice

    2008-05-01

    This paper is a report of a literature review undertaken to identify the short- and long-term impact of critical illness on relatives. Patients in intensive care can experience physical and psychological consequences, and their relatives may also experience such effects. Although it is recognized that relatives have specific needs, it is not clear whether these needs are always met and whether further support is required, particularly after intensive care. The following databases were searched for the period 1950-2007: Medline, British Nursing Index and Archive, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and EMB Reviews--Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials. Search terms focused on adult relatives of critically ill adult patients during and after intensive care. Recurrent topics were categorized to structure the review, i.e. 'relatives needs', 'meeting relatives' needs', 'interventions', 'satisfaction', 'psychological outcomes' and 'coping'. Studies have mainly identified relatives' immediate needs using the Critical Care Family Needs Inventory. There are few studies of interventions to meet relatives' needs and the short- and long-term effects of critical illness on relatives. Despite widespread use of the Critical Care Family Needs Inventory, factors such as local or cultural differences may influence relatives' needs. Relatives may also have unidentified needs, and these needs should be explored. Limited research has been carried out into interventions to meet relatives' needs and the effects of critical illness on their well-being, yet some relatives may experience negative psychological consequences far beyond the acute phase of the illness.

  18. Numerical simulation of gender differences in a long-term microgravity exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Poch, Antoni

    The objective of this work is to analyse and simulate gender differences when individuals are exposed to long-term microgravity. Risk probability of a health impairment which may put in jeopardy a long-term mission is also evaluated. Computer simulations are becoming a promising research line of work, as physiological models become more and more sophisticated and reliable. Technological advances in state-of-the-art hardware technology and software allow nowadays for better and more accurate simulations of complex phenomena, such as the response of the human cardiovascular system to long-term exposure to microgravity. Experimental data for long-term missions are difficult to achieve and reproduce, therefore the predictions of computer simulations are of a major importance in this field. Our approach is based on a previous model developed and implemented in our laboratory (NELME: Numerical Evaluation of Long-term Microgravity Effects). The software simulates the behaviour of the cardiovascular system and different human organs, has a modular architecture, and allows to introduce perturbations such as physical exercise or countermeasures. The implementation is based on a complex electricallike model of this control system, using inexpensive software development frameworks, and has been tested and validated with the available experimental data. Gender differences have been implemented for this specific work, as an adjustment of a number of parameters that are included in the model. Women versus men physiological differences have been therefore taken into account, based upon estimations from the physiology bibliography. A number of simulations have been carried out for long-term exposure to microgravity. Gravity varying from Earth-based to zero, and time exposure are the two main variables involved in the construction of results, including responses to patterns of physical aerobical exercise, and also thermal stress simulating an extra-vehicular activity. Results show

  19. Impact of microbial activity on the radioactive waste disposal: long term prediction of biocorrosion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libert, Marie; Schütz, Marta Kerber; Esnault, Loïc; Féron, Damien; Bildstein, Olivier

    2014-06-01

    This study emphasizes different experimental approaches and provides perspectives to apprehend biocorrosion phenomena in the specific disposal environment by investigating microbial activity with regard to the modification of corrosion rate, which in turn can have an impact on the safety of radioactive waste geological disposal. It is found that iron-reducing bacteria are able to use corrosion products such as iron oxides and "dihydrogen" as new energy sources, especially in the disposal environment which contains low amounts of organic matter. Moreover, in the case of sulphate-reducing bacteria, the results show that mixed aerobic and anaerobic conditions are the most hazardous for stainless steel materials, a situation which is likely to occur in the early stage of a geological disposal. Finally, an integrated methodological approach is applied to validate the understanding of the complex processes and to design experiments aiming at the acquisition of kinetic data used in long term predictive modelling of biocorrosion processes. © 2013.

  20. Evaluation of urban air pollution impact. Agglomeration of Toulon impact at short and long term; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Agglomeration de Toulon impact a cour et long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    A health impact assessment of air pollution based on the I.n.V.S. guidelines has been conducted in Toulon according to the Regional Plan for the quality of air in the region of Provence-Alpes-Cote d Azur. Short-term effects on morbidity (hospital admissions) and mortality and long-term effects on mortality were estimated. Four cities were included in the study area: Toulon, La Garde, La Seyne-sur-mer and La Valette-du-Var (population: 267.808 inhabitants. Two periods of study have been defined: 1999 for the mortality analysis and 2000 for the morbidity analysis and the long- term effects. For 1999, number of advanced deaths due to air pollution is around 84 for total mortality including 30 deaths due to cardio-vascular diseases and 10 deaths due to respiratory diseases. The different scenarios of air pollution reduction showed that the most effective ones are those which lead to reduce of 25% the mean of the involved pollutant. Regarding long-term effects, the different scenario showed that the respect of the European Community limits value for the year 2010 would allow to avoid 118 deaths over one year. Results showed that air pollution are even resulting in health effects for some levels of pollution lower than current French limits. The most effective actions should therefore associate reduction of the source emissions on a daily basis and decrease of the over-limits levels of pollution. (author)

  1. Approaches to long-term conditions management and care for older people: similarities or differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullett, Michael; Neno, Rebecca

    2008-03-01

    In the past few years, there has been an increased emphasis both on the care for older people and the management of long-term conditions within the United Kingdom. Currently, the Department of Health and the Scottish Executive identify and manage these two areas as separate entities. The aim of this article is to examine the current approaches to both of these areas of care and identify commonalities and articulate differences. The population across the world and particularly within the United Kingdom is ageing at an unprecedented rate. The numbers suffering long-term illness conditions has also risen sharply in recent years. As such, nurses need to be engaged at a strategic level in the design of robust and appropriate services for this increasing population group. A comprehensive literature review on long-term conditions and the care of older people was undertaken in an attempt to identify commonalities and differences in strategic and organizational approaches. A policy analysis was conducted to support the paper and establish links that may inform local service development. Proposing service development based on identified needs rather than organizational boundaries after the establishment of clear links between health and social care for those with long-term conditions and the ageing population. Nurse Managers need to be aware of the similarities and differences in political and theoretical approaches to the care for older people and the management of long-term conditions. By adopting this view, creativity in the service redesign and service provision can be fostered and nurtured as well as achieving a renewed focus on partnership working across organizational boundaries. With the current renewed political focus on health and social care, there is an opportunity in the UK to redefine the structure of care. This paper proposes similarities between caring for older people and for those with long-term conditions, and it is proposed these encapsulate the wider

  2. Crop rotations and poultry litter impact dynamic soil chemical properties and soil biota long-term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynamic soil physiochemical interactions with conservation agricultural practices and soil biota are largely unknown. Therefore, this study aims to quantify long-term (12-yr) impacts of cover crops, poultry litter, crop rotations, and conservation tillage and their interactions on soil physiochemica...

  3. The Impact of a Death Education Program for Nurses in a Long-Term Care Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Stephen; Brown, Isabel

    1983-01-01

    Assessed the impact of a death education program for nursing staff (N=130) of a long-term care institution. Analysis of nurses' chart entries (problem-oriented record format-POR) revealed a statistically significant increase from pre- to post-course in charting of patients' subjective state. (Author/JAC)

  4. Impact of Diabetes on Long-Term Outcome After Primary Angioplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Luca, Giuseppe; Dirksen, Maurits T; Spaulding, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes has been shown to be associated with worse survival and repeat target vessel revascularization (TVR) after primary angioplasty. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of diabetes on long-term outcome in patients undergoing primary angioplasty treated with bare metal sten...

  5. The impact of health behaviour on long term sickness absence: results from DWECS/DREAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karl B; Lund, Thomas; Labriola, Merete

    2007-01-01

    Long term sickness absence (LTSA) is a major public health problem. We examined the impact of four, potentially modifiable, health behaviours, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, leisure time physical activity, and the associated variable of body mass index on the risk of subsequent LTSA...

  6. Long-term impact on work and private life after Guillain-Barre syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernsen, RAJAM; de Jager, AEJ; Schmitz, PIM; van der Meche, FGA

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the long-term impact of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) on work and private life of patients and their partners. Methods: Three to six years after the onset of GBS 150 patients who participated in the Dutch Guillain-Barre trial received a questionnaire specifically drafted for

  7. Pension Funds and the Impact of Switching Regulation on Long-Term Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Pedraza Morales, Alvaro Enrique; Fuentes, Olga; Searle, Pamela; Stewart, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    This paper looks at the impact of members' ability to switch pension fund provider and /or portfolio on the allocation of pension funds to long-term investments. The level of annual turnover in pension fund portfolios was compared with the amount of short-term investments (using government treasury bills and bank deposits as proxy). The investment regulations around switching and other mar...

  8. The Long-Term Economic Impact of in Utero and Postnatal Exposure to Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreca, Alan I.

    2010-01-01

    I use an instrumental-variables identification strategy and historical data from the United States to estimate the long-term economic impact of in utero and postnatal exposure to malaria. My research design matches adults in the 1960 Decennial Census to the malaria death rate in their respective state and year of birth. To address potential…

  9. Faculty Development in Higher Education: Long-Term Impact of a Summer Teaching and Learning Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persellin, Diane; Goodrick, Terry

    2010-01-01

    Past participants of the Associated Colleges of the South Summer Teaching and Learning Workshop were surveyed to determine long-term impact of this type of professional development experience. Results indicate a large majority of participants across rank and academic discipline continued to view the workshop as effective and valued feedback from…

  10. The impact of health behaviour on long term sickness absence : Results from DWECS/DREAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, Karl B.; Lund, Thomas; Labriola, Merete; Bultmann, Ute; Villadsen, Ebbe

    Long term sickness absence (LTSA) is a major public health problem. We examined the impact of four, potentially modifiable, health behaviours, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, leisure time physical activity, and the associated variable of body mass index on the risk of subsequent LTSA. This was

  11. Long-term impact of interferon beta-1b in patients with CIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edan, G; Kappos, L; Montalbán, X

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the long-term impact of early treatment initiation of interferon beta-1b (IFNB1b, Betaferon/Betaseron) in patients with a first event suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: In the original placebo-controlled phase of BENEFIT, patients were randomised to IFNB1b 250 μg...

  12. Comparative assessment of Japan's long-term carbon budget under different effort-sharing principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuramochi, Takeshi; Asuka, Jusen; Fekete, Hanna; Tamura, Kentaro; Höhne, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    This article assesses Japan's carbon budgets up to 2100 in the global efforts to achieve the 2 °C target under different effort-sharing approaches based on long-term GHG mitigation scenarios published in 13 studies. The article also presents exemplary emission trajectories for Japan to stay

  13. Individual Differences in the Effects of Retrieval from Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Gene A.; Unsworth, Nash

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined individual differences in the effects of retrieval from long-term memory (i.e., the testing effect). The effects of retrieving from memory make tested information more accessible for future retrieval attempts. Despite the broad applied ramifications of such a potent memorization technique there is a paucity of research…

  14. Long-term periodontal response to orthodontic treatment of palatally impacted maxillary canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioglio, Alberto; Vanni, Arianna; Bolamperti, Laura

    2013-06-01

    One of the most important aspects to take into consideration when evaluating the outcome of treatment of impacted maxillary canines is the final periodontal status. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term periodontal response of palatally impacted maxillary canines aligned using a codified procedure and the 'Easy Cuspid' compared with contralateral spontaneously erupted teeth. The periodontal conditions of the adjacent teeth were also considered. From an initial sample of 124 patients, 33 patients (24 females and 9 males) were selected. All patients who had undergone surgical orthodontic treatment conducted in accordance with a standardized protocol were recalled for follow-up at an average of 4.6 years after the end of treatment. The average treatment time was 29 months and the mean eruption time of the previously impacted tooth was 3.1 months. The average probing depth values showed no significant clinical differences. Probing depths recorded at the vestibular surface of the lateral incisor (P alignment of palatally impacted canines without damage to the periodontium.

  15. Impact of the components of Mediterranean nutrition regimen on long-term prognosis of diabetic patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Mosharraf

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The impact of different nutritional regimens on long-term prognosis and outcome in diabetic patients with coronary artery disease (CAD has been questioned. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the effects of different nutritional components of Mediterranean regimen on long-term cardiovascular events in diabetic patients with CAD in the Iranian population. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, we recruited 233 consecutive patients with the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and with at least 6 months of documented CAD. Nutritional assessment was obtained by a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ and the diet score was calculated on the basis of the Mediterranean diet quality index (Med-DQI. For Assessing long-term CAD prognosis, the patients were followed by telephone for one year. The study endpoint was long-term major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event (MACCE. RESULTS: Death was observed in 19 patients (8.2% during the one-year follow-up. Two patients (0.9% suffered non-fatal myocardial infarction and 14 (6.0% needed revascularization within 1 year after discharge from hospital. Overall MACCE within one year in the study population was 12.4%. There were significant differences between number of deaths and dietary scores of saturated fatty acid, cholesterol, meats, fish, and fruit and vegetables (P < 0.05. Moreover, significant differences were found between MACCE rate and dietary scores of saturated fatty acid, cholesterol, and fruit and vegetables (P < 0.05. Using multivariate logistic regression models, Mediterranean dietary regimen could effectively predict long-term death as well as MACCE adjusted for gender and age variables. CONCLUSION: Mediterranean dietary regimens, including low level of cholesterol and saturated fatty acid, can effectively improve long-term outcome including death and MACCE in diabetic patients with CAD.   Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, Coronary

  16. Long term PM2.5 estimation and its impact on human health in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Sheng; Pozzer, Andrea; Cao, Chunxiang

    2014-05-01

    Due to the economic growth and urbanization, the emissions of pollutants have increased significantly in the North China Plain (NCP). Beijing, the capital of China, is located at the northern tip of NCP, and it is considered one of the most densely populated cities with the poorest air quality. This is of major concerns, because of the impact of high pollutants concentration on human health. The present study analyses the characteristics of AOD and the particulate matter with diameter health in the central Beijing areas. We acquire AOD from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) in Beijing from 2001 to 2012. The AOD data are fitted with a lognormal distribution, and the 95% of the cumulative probability is used as the threshold for episodes of high AOD. Most episodes occur in summer, mostly in June, though this is combined with high precipitation. Episodes of high AOD caused by coarse pollutants occur only in March and April, and they are mostly caused by dust from the north. According to wind direction, wind speed, boundary layer height (BLH) and pollutant emission distribution, episodes of high AOD are due to the anthropogenic pollutants from the south (Hebei province). Based on ground PM2.5 observation from the US embassy in Beijing from 2010 to 2011, we establish a relationship between PM2.5and AERONET AOD, including BLH and relative humidity (RH) correction. Thanks to this method, 12 years of PM2.5 are estimated for the Beijing central area, allowing the estimation of long term concentrations of this pollutant. Since there is no obvious difference among the daily PM2.5 of six stations lying in Chaoyang, Dongcheng, and Xicheng district, we use the daily PM2.5 from US embassy station to represent the PM2.5 concentration in these three districts, and calculate yearly premature mortality due to long term exposure to PM2.5among the population with an age of ≥ 30 yr in these three districts.

  17. The attribution of work environment in explaining gender differences in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labriola, Merete; Holte, Kari Anne; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2011-01-01

    . Conclusion Differences in psychosocial work environments in terms of emotional demands, reward at work, management quality and role conflicts, explained roughly 30% of women's excess long-term sickness absence risk. Assuming women and men had identical working conditions would leave the larger part......Objectives To identify differences in risk of long-term sickness absence between female and male employees in Denmark and to examine to what extent differences could be explained by work environment factors. Methods A cohort of 5026 employees (49.1% women, mean age 40.4 years; 50.9% men, mean age....... Results 298 workers (5.9%) received sickness absence compensation for 8 weeks or more. Women had an excess risk of 37% compared to men, when adjusting for age, family status and socio-economic position. Physical work environment exposures could not explain this difference, whereas differences...

  18. THE IMPACT OF ECONOMIC INFRASTRUCTURE ON LONG TERM ECONOMIC GROWTH IN BOTSWANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strike Mbulawa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth rate for the Botswana economy has slowed down in recent years. This has been explained by weak global demand in minerals, subdued commodity prices and persistent electricity supply problems. The government is making efforts to diversify the economy to tap from other sources of growth. The government has come with two initiatives to boast growth: increasing expenditure on roads and improved generation of electricity. Literature has failed to agree on the causal linkage between growth and infrastructure development.  Previous studies employed different measures of infrastructure development and models resulting in conflicting findings. As a point of departure this study uses a log linear model and different measures of growth and infrastructure to examine the link between the two variables in the context of Botswana. Using vector error correction model and Ordinary Least Squares the study finds that long term economic growth is explained by both measures of infrastructure (electricity distribution and maintenance of roads. The impact of the former was more pronounced than the impact of the later. Evidence supports the infrastructure led growth hypothesis.

  19. Persistent, Long-term Cerebral White Matter Changes after Sports-Related Repetitive Head Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazarian, Jeffrey J.; Zhu, Tong; Zhong, Jianhui; Janigro, Damir; Rozen, Eric; Roberts, Andrew; Javien, Hannah; Merchant-Borna, Kian; Abar, Beau; Blackman, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Repetitive head impacts (RHI) sustained in contact sports are thought to be necessary for the long-term development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Our objectives were to: 1) characterize the magnitude and persistence of RHI-induced white matter (WM) changes; 2) determine their relationship to kinematic measures of RHI; and 3) explore their clinical relevance. Methods Prospective, observational study of 10 Division III college football players and 5 non-athlete controls during the 2011-12 season. All subjects underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), physiologic, cognitive, and balance testing at pre-season (Time 1), post-season (Time 2), and after 6-months of no-contact rest (Time 3). Head impact measures were recorded using helmet-mounted accelerometers. The percentage of whole-brain WM voxels with significant changes in fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) from Time 1 to 2, and Time 1 to 3 was determined for each subject and correlated to head impacts and clinical measures. Results Total head impacts for the season ranged from 431–1,850. No athlete suffered a clinically evident concussion. Compared to controls, athletes experienced greater changes in FA and MD from Time 1 to 2 as well as Time 1 to 3; most differences at Time 2 persisted to Time 3. Among athletes, the percentage of voxels with decreased FA from Time 1 to 2 was positively correlated with several helmet impact measures. The persistence of WM changes from Time 1 to 3 was also associated with changes in serum ApoA1 and S100B autoantibodies. WM changes were not consistently associated with cognition or balance. Conclusions A single football season of RHIs without clinically-evident concussion resulted in WM changes that correlated with multiple helmet impact measures and persisted following 6 months of no-contact rest. This lack of WM recovery could potentially contribute to cumulative WM changes with subsequent RHI exposures. PMID:24740265

  20. Long-term impacts of mega-projects: the discount rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, C.; Rietveld, P.; Priemus, H.; van Wee, B.

    2013-01-01

    In social cost-benefit analysis (SCBA), discount rates are used to convert costs and benefits that occur at different points in time, to present values that can be added and subtracted. Especially if important costs and benefits occur in the long term (more than say 30 years), the discount rate may

  1. Rural-urban differences in the long-term care of the disabled elderly in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Ying; Zhou, Litao; Chen, Kun

    2013-01-01

    In China, the rapid rate of population aging and changes in the prevalence of disability among elderly people could have significant effects on the demand for long-term care. This study aims to describe the urban-rural differences in use and cost of long-term care of the disabled elderly and to explore potential influencing factors. This study uses data from a cross-sectional survey and a qualitative investigation conducted in Zhejiang province in 2012. The participants were 826 individuals over 60 years of age, who had been bedridden or suffered from dementia for more than 6 months. A generalized linear model and two-part regression model were applied to estimate costs, with adjustment of covariates. Pensions provide the main source of income for urban elderly, while the principal income source for rural elderly is their family. Urban residents spend more on all services than do rural residents. Those who are married spend less on daily supplies and formal care than the unmarried do. Age, incapacitation time, comorbidity number, level of income, and bedridden status influence spending on medical care (β=-0.0316, -0.0206, 0.1882, 0.3444, and -0.4281, respectively), but the cost does not increase as the elderly grow older. Urban residents, the married, and those with a higher income level tend to spend more on medical equipment. Urban residence and living status are the two significant factors that affect spending on personal hygiene products. The use of long-term care services varies by living area. Long-term care of the disabled elderly imposes a substantial burden on families. Our study revealed that informal care involves huge opportunity costs to the caregivers. Chinese policy makers need to promote community care and long-term care insurance to relieve the burden of families of disabled elderly, and particular attention should be given to the rural elderly.

  2. Rural-urban differences in the long-term care of the disabled elderly in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In China, the rapid rate of population aging and changes in the prevalence of disability among elderly people could have significant effects on the demand for long-term care. This study aims to describe the urban-rural differences in use and cost of long-term care of the disabled elderly and to explore potential influencing factors. METHODS: This study uses data from a cross-sectional survey and a qualitative investigation conducted in Zhejiang province in 2012. The participants were 826 individuals over 60 years of age, who had been bedridden or suffered from dementia for more than 6 months. A generalized linear model and two-part regression model were applied to estimate costs, with adjustment of covariates. RESULTS: Pensions provide the main source of income for urban elderly, while the principal income source for rural elderly is their family. Urban residents spend more on all services than do rural residents. Those who are married spend less on daily supplies and formal care than the unmarried do. Age, incapacitation time, comorbidity number, level of income, and bedridden status influence spending on medical care (β=-0.0316, -0.0206, 0.1882, 0.3444, and -0.4281, respectively, but the cost does not increase as the elderly grow older. Urban residents, the married, and those with a higher income level tend to spend more on medical equipment. Urban residence and living status are the two significant factors that affect spending on personal hygiene products. CONCLUSIONS: The use of long-term care services varies by living area. Long-term care of the disabled elderly imposes a substantial burden on families. Our study revealed that informal care involves huge opportunity costs to the caregivers. Chinese policy makers need to promote community care and long-term care insurance to relieve the burden of families of disabled elderly, and particular attention should be given to the rural elderly.

  3. BASEL III: long-term impact on economic performance and fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Angelini; Laurent Clerc; Vasco Cúrdia; Leonardo Gambacorta; Andrea Gerali; Alberto Locarno; Roberto Motto; Werner Roeger; Skander J. van den Heuvel; Jan Vlcek

    2011-01-01

    We assess the long-term economic impact of the new regulatory standards (the Basel III reform), answering the following questions: 1) What is the impact of the reform on longterm economic performance? 2) What is the impact of the reform on economic fluctuations? 3) What is the impact of the adoption of countercyclical capital buffers on economic fluctuations? The main results are the following: 1) Each percentage point increase in the capital ratio causes a median 0.09 percent decline in the ...

  4. Long-term impacts of battery electric vehicles on the German electricity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, H. U.; Jochem, P.

    2016-05-01

    The emerging market for electric vehicles gives rise to an additional electricity demand. This new electricity demand will affect the electricity system. For quantifying those impacts a model-based approach, which covers long-term time horizons is necessary in order to consider the long lasting investment paths in electricity systems and the market development of electric mobility. Therefore, we apply a bottom-up electricity system model showing a detailed spatial resolution for different development paths of electric mobility in Germany until 2030. This model is based on a linear optimization which minimizes the discounted costs of the electricity system. We observe an increase of electricity exchange between countries and electricity generated by renewable energy sources. One major result turns out to be that electric vehicles can be integrated in the electricity system without increasing the system costs when a controlled (postponing) charging strategy for electric vehicles is applied. The impact on the power plant portfolio is insignificant. Another important side effect of electric vehicles is their substantial contribution to decreasing CO2 emissions of the German transport sector. Hence, electric mobility might be an integral part of a sustainable energy system of tomorrow.

  5. Application of washed MSWI fly ash in cement composites: long-term environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenzhou; Tian, Sicong; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, long-term environmental impacts of compact and ground cement composites, in which 30 wt.% of cement was replaced by washed municipal solid wastes incineration (MSWI) fly ash, were investigated for use in building industry. Consecutive leaching tests over a time span of 180 days were performed in acid water, deionized water, and saline water, respectively, with the accumulative concentration of different elements determined in the leachate. Different leaching behaviors are observed among different potential toxic elements (PTEs). For instance, higher concentrations of V in the leachate were observed from the compact cement composites than those from the ground ones. The concentration of Ba in the leachate increased with the decrease of particle size of the cement composites, and an initial increase in the leaching efficiency of Sn was followed by a clear decline with the leaching time. In addition, kinetic study revealed that the leaching behaviors of potential toxic elements follow a second-order model. The results demonstrated that the addition of washed MSWI fly ash into cement can contribute to the attrition resistance, indicating that the washed MSWI fly ash could be a promising alternative for cement as supplementary building materials.

  6. Norway spruce crown structure changes under long-term multiple stress impact in Central European Mts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, Ivo; Cudlín, Pavel; Polák, T.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 22, Suppl. 1 (2003), s. 252-255 ISSN 1335-342X. [Long Term Air Pollution Effect on Forest Ecosystems (International Meeting for Specialists in Air Pollution Effects on Forest Ecosystems)/20./. Zvolen, 30.08.2002-01.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK 355 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Norway spruce * crown transformation * tree status Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.100, year: 2003

  7. Environmental Issues in the Power Sector : Long-Term Impacts and Policy Options for Karnataka

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This study of the long-term environmental impacts and policy options for power sector development in Karnataka, is one of a series undertaken by the Bank, in cooperation with the Government of India and state governments. It is a follow-up to the broader study Environmental Issues in the Power Sector (EIPS) (ESMAP/World Bank 1998), and the general methodology developed for EIPS, is used fo...

  8. The Long-term Impact of Birth Order on Health and Educational Attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Barclay, Kieron

    2014-01-01

    This doctoral thesis examines the long-term impact of birth order on health, and educational attainment. Swedish register data is used to link individuals to their siblings, thereby allowing members of the sibling group to be compared to one another. This thesis consists of an introductory chapter summarizing empirical research on the relationship between birth order and educational attainment, intelligence, health, and personality, as well the theoretical frameworks that have been developed ...

  9. The long term impact of the 1918 influenza pandemic in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Bakken, Magnus Røthe; Husøy, Sigrid Johanne

    2016-01-01

    A growing literature show the negative effect of prenatal health shocks on childhood and adult outcomes. Several studies exploit disease outbreaks to find causal effects of in utero exposure on various outcomes. We build on the existing literature by applying theories of in utero health effects to Norwegian data. This thesis uses the 1918 Spanish Influenza pandemic as a natural experiment to investigate the impact of prenatal health shock on various long term outcomes in Norway...

  10. The Long-Term Economic Impact of In Utero and Postnatal Exposure to Malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Barreca

    2009-01-01

    I use an instrumental-variables identification strategy and historical data from the United States to estimate the long-term economic impact of in utero and postnatal exposure to malaria. My research design matches adults in the 1960 Decennial Census to the malaria death rate in their respective state and year of birth. To address potential omitted variables bias and measurement-error bias, I use variation in "malaria-ideal" temperatures to instrument for malaria exposure. My estimates indica...

  11. Glucose variability negatively impacts long-term functional outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Kazuhide; Peng, Monica; Velasco, Carlos; Schaefer, Eric; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Frankel, Heidi

    2012-04-01

    Significant glycemic excursions (so-called glucose variability) affect the outcome of generic critically ill patients but has not been well studied in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of glucose variability on long-term functional outcome of patients with TBI. A noncomputerized tight glucose control protocol was used in our intensivist model surgical intensive care unit. The relationship between the glucose variability and long-term (a median of 6 months after injury) functional outcome defined by extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE) was analyzed using ordinal logistic regression models. Glucose variability was defined by SD and percentage of excursion (POE) from the preset range glucose level. A total of 109 patients with TBI under tight glucose control had long-term GOSE evaluated. In univariable analysis, there was a significant association between lower GOSE score and higher mean glucose, higher SD, POE more than 60, POE 80 to 150, and single episode of glucose less than 60 mg/dL but not POE 80 to 110. After adjusting for possible confounding variables in multivariable ordinal logistic regression models, higher SD, POE more than 60, POE 80 to 150, and single episode of glucose less than 60 mg/dL were significantly associated with lower GOSE score. Glucose variability was significantly associated with poorer long-term functional outcome in patients with TBI as measured by the GOSE score. Well-designed protocols to minimize glucose variability may be key in improving long-term functional outcome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Long-term impact of perfusion CT data after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathys, Christian; Martens, Daniel; Reichelt, Dorothea C.; Caspers, Julian; Aissa, Joel; May, Rebecca; Antoch, Gerald; Turowski, Bernd [University Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Duesseldorf (Germany); Haenggi, Daniel [University Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Neurosurgery, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    Dynamic perfusion computed tomography (PCT) has been established as a diagnostic instrument for the detection of vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The purpose of this study was to assess the prognostic impact of PCT parameters after SAH on the long-term outcome of patients. Three hundred twelve patients were retrospectively interrogated with a questionnaire 23.06 {+-} 14.33 months after spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. The modified Rankin scale (mRS) was determined, respectively. Scheduled PCT data sets from the first days after ictus were available for all patients. The maximum mean transit time over several examinations per hemisphere (MTT{sub PEAK}) values were significantly correlated (p {<=} 0.001, r = 0.422) with the clinical long-term outcome (mRS). Corresponding to our linear regression analysis, MTT{sub PEAK} is the second most important regressor (behind clinical severity of the initial hemorrhage) for the prediction of long-term mRS. An MTT{sub PEAK} threshold of 3.98 s (identified by receiver operating characteristic analysis, area under the curve = 0.75) predicted an unfavorable long-term outcome (mRS {>=} 2) with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of 67.3, 74.3, 84.5, 52.1, and 69.6 %, respectively. The presented data corroborate the relevance of PCT data for the clinical long-term outcome of SAH patients. By identification of patients who are at risk for a bad outcome and may need escalation of therapy, risk-benefit analysis is supported. (orig.)

  13. Postoperative CPAP use impacts long-term weight loss following bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collen, Jacob; Lettieri, Christopher J; Eliasson, Arn

    2015-03-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common among bariatric surgery candidates. After surgical weight loss, OSA frequently persists and untreated OSA can lead to weight gain. Long-term continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) adherence is unclear and poor adherence may worsen weight loss outcomes. We sought to determine the impact of CPAP use on long-term weight-loss outcomes in a cohort of bariatric patients. Long-term observational study of bariatric surgery patients with OSA. Patients were evaluated with polysomnography preoperatively and one-year postoperatively. The cohort was again evaluated a mean of 7.2 years later to determine the relationship between long-term CPAP use and subsequent regain of weight. Twenty-four consecutive patients (aged 48.5 ± 9.4 years at time of surgery; 73% female) were included in the initial assessment, and long-term outcome data were available on 22 subjects. Persistent OSA was documented in 21 of 22 subjects (95%) one year postoperatively. Final evaluation occurred 7.2 ± 2.3 years following surgery. Weight (213.3 ± 39.1 to 235.3 ± 47.1 lb, p = 0.10) and BMI (32.5 ± 5.4 to 37.3 ± 8.2 kg/m(2), p = 0.03) increased in most (n = 19, 86.4%) from postoperative to final evaluation. CPAP use declined from 83.3% (preoperatively) to 38.1% (one year) and to 23.8% (final evaluation). BMI increased among those not using CPAP at long-term follow-up compared to those with continued CPAP use (6.8% v -1.8%, p = 0.05). In our cohort of bariatric patients with OSA, long-term adherence to CPAP therapy was poor, and non-adherence was associated with weight gain. Ongoing follow-up of OSA in this population may help to preserve initial achievements after surgical weight loss. © 2014 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  14. Long-term musical training may improve different forms of visual attention ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Carolina; Loureiro, Maurício Alves; Caramelli, Paulo

    2013-08-01

    Many studies have suggested that structural and functional cerebral neuroplastic processes result from long-term musical training, which in turn may produce cognitive differences between musicians and non-musicians. We aimed to investigate whether intensive, long-term musical practice is associated with improvements in three different forms of visual attention ability: selective, divided and sustained attention. Musicians from symphony orchestras (n=38) and non-musicians (n=38), who were comparable in age, gender and education, were submitted to three neuropsychological tests, measuring reaction time and accuracy. Musicians showed better performance relative to non-musicians on four variables of the three visual attention tests, and such an advantage could not solely be explained by better sensorimotor integration. Moreover, in the group of musicians, significant correlations were observed between the age at the commencement of musical studies and reaction time in all visual attention tests. The results suggest that musicians present augmented ability in different forms of visual attention, thus illustrating the possible cognitive benefits of long-term musical training. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Global long-term ozone trends derived from different observed and modelled data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldewey-Egbers, M.; Loyola, D.; Zimmer, W.; van Roozendael, M.; Lerot, C.; Dameris, M.; Garny, H.; Braesicke, P.; Koukouli, M.; Balis, D.

    2012-04-01

    The long-term behaviour of stratospheric ozone amounts during the past three decades is investigated on a global scale using different observed and modelled data sets. Three European satellite sensors GOME/ERS-2, SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT, and GOME-2/METOP are combined and a merged global monthly mean total ozone product has been prepared using an inter-satellite calibration approach. The data set covers the 16-years period from June 1995 to June 2011 and it exhibits an excellent long-term stability, which is required for such trend studies. A multiple linear least-squares regression algorithm using different explanatory variables is applied to the time series and statistically significant positive trends are detected in the northern mid latitudes and subtropics. Global trends are also estimated using a second satellite-based Merged Ozone Data set (MOD) provided by NASA. For few selected geographical regions ozone trends are additionally calculated using well-maintained measurements of individual Dobson/Brewer ground-based instruments. A reasonable agreement in the spatial patterns of the trends is found amongst the European satellite, the NASA satellite, and the ground-based observations. Furthermore, two long-term simulations obtained with the Chemistry-Climate Models E39C-A provided by German Aerospace Center and UMUKCA-UCAM provided by University of Cambridge are analysed.

  16. Evaluation of sanitary impact of the urban air pollution. Avignon area impact at short and long term; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Zone d'Avignon impact a court et long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    An health impact assessment of air pollution based on the I.n.V.S. guidelines has been conducted in Avignon according to the Regional Plan for the quality of air in the region of Provence Alpes Cote d'Azur. Short term impact of atmospheric pollution has been estimated in term of mortality (total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) and hospital admissions (for respiratory, cardiovascular and cardiac reasons) attributable to air pollution. Long-term impact was also assessed by the number of deaths due to atmospheric pollution. The study has been carried out in seven cities homogeneously exposed belonging to Vaucluse (Avignon, Le Pontet, Morieres les Avignon, Sorgues and Vedene) and two cities of the Gard department (les Angles and Villeneuve les Avignon) representing a study population of 153,624 inhabitants. Two period of study have been defined: period 1999-2000 for short and long term evaluations on the mortality and the year 2001 for the morbidity analysis. This study rests on methodological principles of E.I.S. (evaluation of sanitary impact) of urban air pollution whom methodology is in four steps: identification of dangers, exposure estimation, choice of exposure-risk relationship and risk characterisation. The pollutions indicators are built from four pollutants nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide and PM{sub 10}. The exposure-risk relationships used come from epidemiological studies realised in general population, by preferring the multi centers studies and European ones. The number of deaths by year due to air pollution is 23, whom 10 by cardiovascular diseases, 2 by respiratory diseases. The most efficient scenario are these ones corresponding to air pollution decreases of 25% in the considered pollutant. About the long term sanitary benefits, the different scenario show that the European norm forecasted for 2005 is respected. The respect of the European norm expected for 2010 should allow to avoid 10 deaths on the totality of registered

  17. Long-Term Impact of a Cell Phone-Enhanced Parenting Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefever, Jennifer E Burke; Bigelow, Kathryn M; Carta, Judith J; Borkowski, John G; Grandfield, Elizabeth; McCune, Luke; Irvin, Dwight W; Warren, Steven F

    2017-11-01

    Home visiting programs support positive parenting in populations at-risk of child maltreatment, but their impact is often limited by poor retention and engagement. The current study assessed whether a cellular phone-supported version (PCI-C) of the Parent-Child Interactions (PCI) intervention improved long-term parenting practices, maternal depression, and children's aggression. Low-income mothers ( n = 371) of preschool-aged children were assigned to one of the three groups: PCI-C, PCI, and a wait-list control (WLC) group. Parenting improved in both intervention groups between baseline and 12-month follow-up compared to the WLC. Children in the PCI-C group were rated to be more cooperative and less aggressive than children in the WLC. The results offer evidence of the long-term effectiveness of PCI and the additional benefits of cellular phone supports for promoting intervention retention and improving children's behavior.

  18. Long-term neurophysiologic impact of childhood sleep disordered breathing on neurocognitive performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan SF

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Study Objective. To determine the impact of sleep disordered breathing (SDB in children on neurocognitive function 5 years later.Design, Setting, and Participants. A subgroup of 43 children from the Tucson Children’s Assessment of Sleep Apnea Study (TuCASA who had SDB (RDI > 6 events/hour at their initial exam (ages 6-11 years were matched on the basis of age (within 1 year, gender and ethnicity (Anglo/Hispanic to 43 children without SDB (Control, RDI < 4 events/hour. The Sustained Working Memory Task (SWMT which combines tests of working memory (1-Back Task, reaction time (Simple Reaction Time and attention (Multiplexing Task with concurrent electroencephalographic monitoring was administered approximately 5 years later.Results. There were no differences in performance on the working memory, reaction time and attention tests between the SDB and Control groups. However, the SDB group exhibited lower P300 evoked potential amplitudes during the Simple Reaction Time and Multiplexing Tasks. Additionally, peak alpha power during the Multiplexing Task was lower in the SDB Group with a similar trend in the Simple Reaction Time Task (p=0.08.Conclusions. SDB in children may cause subtle long-term changes in executive function that are not detectable with conventional neurocognitive testing and are only evident during neuroelectrophysiologic monitoring.

  19. The Impact of Long-Term Climate Change on Nitrogen Runoff at the Watershed Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorley, J.; Duffy, C.; Arenas Amado, A.

    2017-12-01

    The impact of agricultural runoff is a major concern for water quality of mid-western streams. This concern is largely due to excessive use of agricultural fertilizer, a major source of nutrients in many Midwestern watersheds. In order to improve water quality in these watersheds, understanding the long-term trends in nutrient concentration and discharge is an important water quality problem. This study attempts to analyze the role of long-term temperature and precipitation on nitrate runoff in an agriculturally dominated watershed in Iowa. The approach attempts to establish the concentration-discharge (C-Q) signature for the watershed using time series analysis, frequency analysis and model simulation. The climate data is from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), model GFDL-CM3 (Geophysical Fluid Dynamic Laboratory Coupled Model 3). The historical water quality data was made available by the IIHR-Hydroscience & Engineering at the University of Iowa for the clear creek watershed (CCW). The CCW is located in east-central Iowa. The CCW is representative of many Midwestern watersheds with humid-continental climate with predominantly agricultural land use. The study shows how long-term climate changes in temperature and precipitation affects the C-Q dynamics and how a relatively simple approach to data analysis and model projections can be applied to best management practices at the site.

  20. A long-term, integrated impact assessment of alternative building energy code scenarios in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Sha; Eom, Jiyong; Evans, Meredydd; Clarke, Leon

    2014-01-01

    China is the second largest building energy user in the world, ranking first and third in residential and commercial energy consumption. Beginning in the early 1980s, the Chinese government has developed a variety of building energy codes to improve building energy efficiency and reduce total energy demand. This paper studies the impact of building energy codes on energy use and CO 2 emissions by using a detailed building energy model that represents four distinct climate zones each with three building types, nested in a long-term integrated assessment framework GCAM. An advanced building stock module, coupled with the building energy model, is developed to reflect the characteristics of future building stock and its interaction with the development of building energy codes in China. This paper also evaluates the impacts of building codes on building energy demand in the presence of economy-wide carbon policy. We find that building energy codes would reduce Chinese building energy use by 13–22% depending on building code scenarios, with a similar effect preserved even under the carbon policy. The impact of building energy codes shows regional and sectoral variation due to regionally differentiated responses of heating and cooling services to shell efficiency improvement. - Highlights: • We assessed long-term impacts of building codes and climate policy using GCAM. • Building energy codes would reduce Chinese building energy use by 13–22%. • The impacts of codes on building energy use vary by climate region and sub-sector

  1. Differences in health status between long-term and short-term benzodiazepine users.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandstra, S.M.; Furer, J.W.; Lisdonk, E.H. van de; Bor, J.H.J.; Zitman, F.G.; Weel, C. van

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite generally accepted advice to keep treatment short, benzodiazepines are often prescibed for more than six months. Prevention of long-term benzodiazepine use could be facilitated by the utilisation of risk indicators for long-term use. However, the characteristics of long-term

  2. No Youth Left behind? The Long-Term Impact of Displacement on Young Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Hardoy, Ines; Schøne, Pål

    2013-01-01

    We investigate short- and long-term impacts on labour market outcomes of experiencing a displacement for young workers. The period under study is 2000–2009. The end of the observation period is characterised by a shrinking labour market, coinciding with the start of the financial crisis. The main merit of the study is the inclusion of a wide battery of dependent variables. In general we find sizeable short-term effect on both unemployment and wage-employment. Furthermore, the results indicate...

  3. The long-term problems of contaminated land: Sources, impacts and countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, C.F. III

    1986-11-01

    This report examines the various sources of radiological land contamination; its extent; its impacts on man, agriculture, and the environment; countermeasures for mitigating exposures; radiological standards; alternatives for achieving land decontamination and cleanup; and possible alternatives for utilizing the land. The major potential sources of extensive long-term land contamination with radionuclides, in order of decreasing extent, are nuclear war, detonation of a single nuclear weapon (e.g., a terrorist act), serious reactor accidents, and nonfission nuclear weapons accidents that disperse the nuclear fuels (termed ''broken arrows'').

  4. The long-term problems of contaminated land: Sources, impacts and countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baes, C.F. III.

    1986-11-01

    This report examines the various sources of radiological land contamination; its extent; its impacts on man, agriculture, and the environment; countermeasures for mitigating exposures; radiological standards; alternatives for achieving land decontamination and cleanup; and possible alternatives for utilizing the land. The major potential sources of extensive long-term land contamination with radionuclides, in order of decreasing extent, are nuclear war, detonation of a single nuclear weapon (e.g., a terrorist act), serious reactor accidents, and nonfission nuclear weapons accidents that disperse the nuclear fuels (termed ''broken arrows'')

  5. Impact of process variations and long term degradation on 6T-SRAM cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Th. Fischer

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In modern deep-submicron CMOS technologies voltage scaling can not keep up with the scaling of the dimensions of transistors. Therefore the electrical fields inside the transistors are not constant anymore, while scaling down the device area. The rising electrical fields bring up reliability problems, such as hot carrier injection. Also other long term degradation mechanisms like Negative Bias Temperature Instability (NBTI come into the focus of circuit design.

    Along with process device parameter variations (threshold voltage, mobility, variations due to the degradation of devices form a big challenge for designers to build circuits that both yield high under the influence of process variations and remain functional with respect to long term device drift.

    In this work we present the influence of long term degradation and process variations on the performance of SRAM core-cells and parametric yield of SRAM arrays. For different use cases we show the performance degradation depending on temperature and supply voltage.

  6. What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory?

    OpenAIRE

    Cowan, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    In the recent literature there has been considerable confusion about the three types of memory: long-term, short-term, and working memory. This chapter strives to reduce that confusion and makes up-to-date assessments of these types of memory. Long- and short-term memory could differ in two fundamental ways, with only short-term memory demonstrating (1) temporal decay and (2) chunk capacity limits. Both properties of short-term memory are still controversial but the current literature is rath...

  7. Long-Term Impacts Faced by Patients and Families After Harmful Healthcare Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottosen, Madelene J; Sedlock, Emily W; Aigbe, Aitebureme O; Bell, Sigall K; Gallagher, Thomas H; Thomas, Eric J

    2018-01-17

    Patients and families report experiencing a multitude of harms from medical errors resulting in physical, emotional, and financial hardships. Little is known about the duration and nature of these harms and the type of support needed to promote patient and family healing after such events. We sought to describe the long-term impacts (LTIs) reported by patients and family members who experienced harmful medical events 5 or more years ago. We performed a content analysis on 32 interviews originally conducted with 72 patients or family members about their views of the factors contributing to their self-reported harmful event. Interviews selected occurred 5 or more years after the harmful event and were grouped by time since event, 5 to 9 years (22 interviews) or 10 or more years (10 interviews) for analysis. We analyzed these interviews targeting spontaneous references of ongoing impacts experienced by the participants. Participants collectively described the following four LTIs: psychological, social/behavioral, physical, and financial. Most cited psychological impacts with half-reporting ongoing anger and vivid memories. More than half reported ongoing physical impacts and one-third experienced ongoing financial impacts. Long-term social and behavioral impacts such as alterations in lifestyle, self-identity, and healthcare seeking behaviors were the most highly reported. These patients and families experienced many profound LTIs after their harmful medical event. For some, these impacts evolved into secondary harms ongoing 10 years and more after the event. Our results draw attention to the persistent impacts patients and families may experience long after harmful events and the need for future research to understand and support affected patients and families.

  8. Long-term CO2 injection and its impact on near-surface soil microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwosdz, Simone; West, Julia M; Jones, David; Rakoczy, Jana; Green, Kay; Barlow, Tom; Blöthe, Marco; Smith, Karon; Steven, Michael; Krüger, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Impacts of long-term CO 2 exposure on environmental processes and microbial populations of near-surface soils are poorly understood. This near-surface long-term CO 2 injection study demonstrated that soil microbiology and geochemistry is influenced more by seasonal parameters than elevated CO 2 Soil samples were taken during a 3-year field experiment including sampling campaigns before, during and after 24 months of continuous CO 2 injection. CO 2 concentrations within CO 2 -injected plots increased up to 23% during the injection period. No CO 2 impacts on geochemistry were detected over time. In addition, CO 2 -exposed samples did not show significant changes in microbial CO 2 and CH 4 turnover rates compared to reference samples. Likewise, no significant CO 2 -induced variations were detected for the abundance of Bacteria, Archaea (16S rDNA) and gene copy numbers of the mcrA gene, Crenarchaeota and amoA gene. The majority (75%-95%) of the bacterial sequences were assigned to five phyla: Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria and Bacteroidetes The majority of the archaeal sequences (85%-100%) were assigned to the thaumarchaeotal cluster I.1b (soil group). Univariate and multivariate statistical as well as principal component analyses showed no significant CO 2 -induced variation. Instead, seasonal impacts especially temperature and precipitation were detected. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. An assessment method of long-term radiation impacts to environment and public individual from tritium discharged by inland NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shangguan Zhihong; Huang Yanjun; Tao Yunliang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an assessment method of environmental impacts from long-term releases of tritium of inland nuclear power plant is proposed; the tritium concentrations in different environmental materials, including the two main chemical form HTO and OBT. and the radiation dose to public individuals including drinking water, food, inhalation. skin adsorption, are estimated based on the method and environmental parameters from typical inland NPP. The two discharge pathways, gaseous and liquid, are considered with particular concerns to drinking and irrigation ascribed to liquid discharge. This study would contribute to the assessment techniques of environmental impacts and safety of inland NPP. (authors)

  10. Impact of diabetes on treatment outcomes and long-term survival in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Young Ae; Kim, Song Yee; Jo, Kyung-Wook; Kim, Hee Jin; Park, Seung-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Kim, Eun Kyung; Lee, Ki Man; Lee, Sung Soon; Park, Jae Seuk; Koh, Won-Jung; Kim, Dae Yun; Shim, Tae Sun

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM), a globally increasing metabolic disease, on treatment outcomes and long-term survival in patients with multidrug-resistant forms of tuberculosis (MDR-TB). We analyzed outcomes in a large cohort to assess the impact of DM on treatment outcomes of patients with MDR-TB. MDR-TB patients newly diagnosed or retreated between 2000 and 2002 and followed for 8-11 years were retrospectively analyzed with respect to the effect of DM as a comorbidity on their treatment outcome and long-term survival. Of 1,407 patients with MDR-TB, 239 (17.0%) had coexisting DM. The mean age and body mass index were higher in MDR-TB patients with DM [MDR-TBDM(+)] than in those without DM [MDR-TBDM(-)]. Patients with MDR-TB and a comorbidity of DM had a significantly lower treatment success rate than those without a history of DM (36.0 vs. 47.2%, p = 0.002). In addition, DM was the negative predictor for MDR-TB treatment success in multivariate analyses [odds ratio 0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.26-0.99]. Mean survival times were also lower in MDR-TBDM(+) than in MDR-TBDM(-) patients (102 vs. 114 months, p = 0.001), with DM as a significant predictor of poor long-term survival in multivariate analyses (hazard ratio 1.59, 95% CI 1.01-2.50). Among MDR-TB patients, DM was a relatively common comorbidity. In patients undergoing treatment for MDR-TB and followed for 8-11 years, it was found to be independently associated with an increased risk of both treatment failure and death. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Understanding long-term variations in an elephant piosphere effect to manage impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietjie Landman

    Full Text Available Surface water availability is a key driver of elephant impacts on biological diversity. Thus, understanding the spatio-temporal variations of these impacts in relation to water is critical to their management. However, elephant piosphere effects (i.e. the radial pattern of attenuating impact are poorly described, with few long-term quantitative studies. Our understanding is further confounded by the complexity of systems with elephant (i.e. fenced, multiple water points, seasonal water availability, varying population densities that likely limit the use of conceptual models to predict these impacts. Using 31 years of data on shrub structure in the succulent thickets of the Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa, we tested elephant effects at a single water point. Shrub structure showed a clear sigmoid response with distance from water, declining at both the upper and lower limits of sampling. Adjacent to water, this decline caused a roughly 300-m radial expansion of the grass-dominated habitats that replace shrub communities. Despite the clear relationship between shrub structure and ecological functioning in thicket, the extent of elephant effects varied between these features with distance from water. Moreover, these patterns co-varied with other confounding variables (e.g. the location of neighboring water points, which limits our ability to predict such effects in the absence of long-term data. We predict that elephant have the ability to cause severe transformation in succulent thicket habitats with abundant water supply and elevated elephant numbers. However, these piosphere effects are complex, suggesting that a more integrated understanding of elephant impacts on ecological heterogeneity may be required before water availability is used as a tool to manage impacts. We caution against the establishment of water points in novel succulent thicket habitats, and advocate a significant reduction in water provisioning at our study site

  12. Understanding long-term variations in an elephant piosphere effect to manage impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, Marietjie; Schoeman, David S; Hall-Martin, Anthony J; Kerley, Graham I H

    2012-01-01

    Surface water availability is a key driver of elephant impacts on biological diversity. Thus, understanding the spatio-temporal variations of these impacts in relation to water is critical to their management. However, elephant piosphere effects (i.e. the radial pattern of attenuating impact) are poorly described, with few long-term quantitative studies. Our understanding is further confounded by the complexity of systems with elephant (i.e. fenced, multiple water points, seasonal water availability, varying population densities) that likely limit the use of conceptual models to predict these impacts. Using 31 years of data on shrub structure in the succulent thickets of the Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa, we tested elephant effects at a single water point. Shrub structure showed a clear sigmoid response with distance from water, declining at both the upper and lower limits of sampling. Adjacent to water, this decline caused a roughly 300-m radial expansion of the grass-dominated habitats that replace shrub communities. Despite the clear relationship between shrub structure and ecological functioning in thicket, the extent of elephant effects varied between these features with distance from water. Moreover, these patterns co-varied with other confounding variables (e.g. the location of neighboring water points), which limits our ability to predict such effects in the absence of long-term data. We predict that elephant have the ability to cause severe transformation in succulent thicket habitats with abundant water supply and elevated elephant numbers. However, these piosphere effects are complex, suggesting that a more integrated understanding of elephant impacts on ecological heterogeneity may be required before water availability is used as a tool to manage impacts. We caution against the establishment of water points in novel succulent thicket habitats, and advocate a significant reduction in water provisioning at our study site, albeit with greater

  13. Right ventricular pacemaker lead position is associated with differences in long-term outcomes and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Chance M; Lenz, Charles J; Shih, Henry H; Ebrille, Elisa; Rosenbaum, Andrew N; van Zyl, Martin; Aung, Htin; Manocha, Kevin K; Deshmukh, Abhishek J; Hodge, David O; Mulpuru, Siva K; Cha, Yong-Mei; Espinosa, Raul E; Asirvatham, Samuel J; Mcleod, Christopher J

    2017-08-01

    Cardiac pacing from the right ventricular apex is associated with detrimental long-term effects and nonapical pacing locations may be associated with improved outcomes. There is little data regarding complications with nonapical lead positions. The aim of this study was to assess long-term outcomes and lead-related complications associated with differing ventricular lead tip position. All adult patients who underwent dual-chamber pacemaker implantation from 2004 to 2014 were included if they had postprocedure chest radiographs amenable to lead position determination. Long-term outcomes and lead-related complication rates were recorded. These were compared at 5 years between: (1) apical and septal leads, (2) apical and nonseptal nonapical (NSNA), and (3) apical and septal with >40% ventricular pacing. We retrospectively evaluated 3,450 patients, which included 238 with a septal position and 733 with NSNA lead positions. Septal lead position was associated with a lower mortality compared to apical leads (24% vs. 31%, P = 0.02). In patients with greater than 40% pacing, septal leads were associated with significantly higher rates of incident atrial fibrillation compared to apical leads (49% vs. 34%, P = 0.04). NSNA positions were associated with a significantly higher rate of lead dislodgement (4% vs. 2%, P = 0.005) and need for revision (8% vs. 5%, P = 0.005). Septal pacemaker lead position is associated with a lower mortality compared to apically placed leads, but a higher incidence of atrial fibrillation with higher percentage ventricular pacing. NSNA lead locations are associated with more complications and should be avoided. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-01-01

    Pursuant to the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-414), DOE was directed to designate a facility or facilities for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury generated within the United States. Therefore, DOE has analyzed the storage of up to 10,000 metric tons (11,000 tons) of elemental mercury in a facility(ies) constructed and operated in accordance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (74 FR 31723). DOE prepared this Final Mercury Storage EIS in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) implementing regulations (40 CFR 1500–1508), and DOE’s NEPA implementing procedures (10 CFR 1021) to evaluate reasonable alternatives for a facility(ies) for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury. This Final Mercury Storage EIS analyzes the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven candidate locations: Grand Junction Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado; Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; Hawthorne Army Depot near Hawthorne, Nevada; Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; Kansas City Plant in Kansas City, Missouri; Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas. As required by CEQ NEPA regulations, the No Action Alternative was also analyzed as a basis for comparison. DOE intends to decide (1) where to locate the elemental mercury storage facility(ies) and (2) whether to use existing buildings, new buildings, or a combination of existing and new buildings. DOE’s Preferred Alternative for the long-term management and storage of mercury is the Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas.

  15. Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement Volume1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-01-01

    Pursuant to the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-414), DOE was directed to designate a facility or facilities for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury generated within the United States. Therefore, DOE has analyzed the storage of up to 10,000 metric tons (11,000 tons) of elemental mercury in a facility(ies) constructed and operated in accordance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (74 FR 31723).DOE prepared this Final Mercury Storage EIS in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) implementing regulations (40 CFR 1500–1508), and DOE’s NEPA implementing procedures (10 CFR 1021) to evaluate reasonable alternatives for a facility(ies) for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury. This Final Mercury Storage EIS analyzes the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven candidate locations:Grand Junction Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado; Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; Hawthorne Army Depot near Hawthorne, Nevada; Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho;Kansas City Plant in Kansas City, Missouri; Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas. As required by CEQ NEPA regulations, the No Action Alternative was also analyzed as a basis for comparison. DOE intends to decide (1) where to locate the elemental mercury storage facility(ies) and (2) whether to use existing buildings, new buildings, or a combination of existing and new buildings. DOE’s Preferred Alternative for the long-term management and storage of mercury is the Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas.

  16. Predicted environmental impacts of long-term waste management at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topp, S.V.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes the different alternative approaches to long-term waste management at SRP, along with their probable relative costs, risks, and uncertainties; the issue of methodology for decision-making in nuclear waste management is also raised. This paper contains a preliminary listing of the SRP alternaties including a simple cost-risk analysis. The alternatives are: glass shipped offsite to Federal repository; air-cooled vault with glass at SRP; liquid waste slurry stored in SRP bedrock cavern; and continued tank farm operation with salt and sludge

  17. Impact of long-term land application of broiler litter on environmentally related soil properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingery, W.L. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States); Wood, C.W.; Mullins, G.L. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)] [and others

    1994-01-01

    The largest portion of Alabama`s rapidly growing poultry industry is geographically concentrated in the Sand Mountain region of northern Alabama. The result is that large amounts of waste are applied to relatively small areas of agricultural soils. A study was conducted to determine the effects of long-term broiler waste (litter) application on environmentally related soil conditions in the region. The region has an average annual rainfall of 1325 mm, which is evenly distributed throughout the year, a thermic temperature regime, and soils in the region are of the Ultisol order. In each of four major broiler-producing counties, three pairs of sites consisting of long-term (15-28 yr) littered and nonlittered fields on matching soil series and maintained under perennial tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) were sampled. Soil cores were taken to 3 m or lithic contact and depth-incremented samples (0-15, 15-30, and each subsequent 30-cm interval) were analyzed for organic C, total N, NO{sub 3}-N, pH, electrical conductivity, and acid-extractable P, K, Ca, Mg, Co, and Zn. Litter application increased organic C and total N to depths of 15 and 30 cm, respectively, as compared with nonlittered soils, whereas pH was 0.5 units higher to a depth of 60 cm under littered soils. Significant accumulation of NO{sub 3}N was found in littered soils to or near bedrock. Extractable P concentrations in littered soils were more than six times greater than in nonlittered soils to a depth of 60 cm. Elevated levels of extractable K, Ca, and Mg to depths greater than 60 cm also were found as a result of long-term litter use. Extractable Cu and Zn had accumulated in littered soils to a depth of 45 cm. These findings indicate that long-term land application of broiler litter, at present rates, has altered soil chemical conditions and has created a potential for adverse environmental impacts in the Sand Mountain region of Alabama. 43 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Long-term impact of earthquake stress on fasting glucose control and diabetes prevalence among Chinese adults of Tangshan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Cuixia; Zhang, Yun; Yu, Lulu; Li, Na; Song, Mei; Wang, Lan; Zhao, Xiaochuan; Gao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xueyi

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the long-term influence of stresses from the 1976 Tangshan earthquake on blood glucose control and the incidence of diabetes mellitus in Chinese people of Tangshan. 1,551 adults ≥ 37 years of age were recruited for this investigation in Tangshan city of China, where one of the deadliest earthquakes occurred in 1796. All subjects finished a questionnaire. 1,030 of them who experienced that earthquake were selected into the exposure group, while 521 were gathered as the control group who have not exposed to any earthquake. The numbers of subjects who were first identified with diabetes or had normal FBG but with diabetic history were added for the calculation of diabetes prevalence. Statistic-analysis was applied on the baseline data, and incidences of IFG as well as diabetes among all groups. Statistic comparisons indicate there is no significant difference on average fasting glucose levels between the control group and the exposure group. However, the prevalence of IFG and diabetes among the exposure group displays significant variance with the control group. The prevalence of diabetes among exposure groups is significantly higher than the control group. Women are more likely to have diabetes after experiencing earthquake stresses compared to men. The earthquake stress was linked to higher diabetes incidence as an independent factor. The earthquake stress has long-term impacts on diabetes incidence as an independent risk factor. Emerging and long-term managements regarding the care of IFG and diabetes in populations exposed to earthquake stress should be concerned.

  19. Racial differences in long-term adherence to oral antidiabetic drug therapy: a longitudinal cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meigs James B

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adherence to oral antidiabetic medications is often suboptimal. Adherence differences may contribute to health disparities for black diabetes patients, including higher microvascular event rates, greater complication-related disability, and earlier mortality. Methods In this longitudinal retrospective cohort study, we used 10 years of patient-level claims and electronic medical record data (1/1/1992–12/31/2001 to assess differences in short- and long-term adherence to oral antidiabetic medication among 1906 newly diagnosed adults with diabetes (26% black, 74% white in a managed care setting in which all members have prescription drug coverage. Four main outcome measures included: (1 time from diabetes diagnosis until first prescription of oral antidiabetic medication; (2 primary adherence (time from first prescription to prescription fill; (3 time until discontinuation of oral antidiabetic medication from first prescription; and (4 long-term adherence (amount dispensed versus amount prescribed over a 24-month follow-up from first oral antidiabetic medication prescription. Results Black patients were as likely as whites to initiate oral therapy and fill their first prescription, but experienced higher rates of medication discontinuation (HR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.7 and were less adherent over time. These black-white differences increased over the first six months of therapy but stabilized thereafter for patients who initiated on sulfonylureas. Significant black-white differences in adherence levels were constant throughout follow-up for patients initiated on metformin therapy. Conclusion Racial differences in adherence to oral antidiabetic drug therapy persist even with equal access to medication. Early and continued emphasis on adherence from initiation of therapy may reduce persistent racial differences in medication use and clinical outcomes.

  20. THE IMPACT OF THE FOREIGN CAPITAL BANKS ON ENSURING FINANCIAL STABILITY ON LONG TERM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isac\tBORS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focusing on analysing the role played by the foreign banks within the national and international banking system as well the impact the foreign banks have on the autochthon banking system, on the financial activity, on the real economy and on the financial stability on long terms. The research conducted highlights the fact that along the positive impact on the banking system and on the economy of the host country, generated by their quality as vectors of mobilizing and directioning the international financial flows towards the host country, there can also be considered a negative impact. The study shows that the impact of the negative effects, that have as main cause the reversibility of the international financial flows, depends, on a great extent, on the specific conditions of the host country, on the characteristics of the foreign banks, but mostly, by the share held by the foreign countries within the framework of the host banking system. Starting from the role played by the capitalization of the banking system to ensure financial stability, the research made on Romania’s case shows both, the positive effects generated by the presence of the foreign banks and also, their vulnerability in front of this excessive dependence on the foreign capital induced by this presence. The solution to reduce this dependence can only come from the autochthon capital direction whose mobilization may countervail the gap made by the foreign banks and, by surceasing the process of financial disintermediation, to ensure the maintenance of the financial stability on long term.

  1. Long-term impacts of unconventional drilling operations on human and animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Michelle; Oswald, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Public health concerns related to the expansion of unconventional oil and gas drilling have sparked intense debate. In 2012, we published case reports of animals and humans affected by nearby drilling operations. Because of the potential for long-term effects of even low doses of environmental toxicants and the cumulative impact of exposures of multiple chemicals by multiple routes of exposure, a longitudinal study of these cases is necessary. Twenty-one cases from five states were followed longitudinally; the follow-up period averaged 25 months. In addition to humans, cases involved food animals, companion animals and wildlife. More than half of all exposures were related to drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations; these decreased slightly over time. More than a third of all exposures were associated with wastewater, processing and production operations; these exposures increased slightly over time. Health impacts decreased for families and animals moving from intensively drilled areas or remaining in areas where drilling activity decreased. In cases of families remaining in the same area and for which drilling activity either remained the same or increased, no change in health impacts was observed. Over the course of the study, the distribution of symptoms was unchanged for humans and companion animals, but in food animals, reproductive problems decreased and both respiratory and growth problems increased. This longitudinal case study illustrates the importance of obtaining detailed epidemiological data on the long-term health effects of multiple chemical exposures and multiple routes of exposure that are characteristic of the environmental impacts of unconventional drilling operations.

  2. LONG-TERM EVOLUTION OF DOUBLE WHITE DWARF BINARIES ACCRETING THROUGH DIRECT IMPACT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, Kyle; Kalogera, Vassiliki; Sepinsky, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the long-term evolution of angular momentum in double white dwarf binaries undergoing direct impact accretion over a broad range of parameter space. We allow the rotation rate of both components to vary and account for the exchange of angular momentum between the spins of the white dwarfs and the orbit, while conserving the total angular momentum. We include gravitational, tidal, and mass transfer effects in the orbital evolution, and allow the Roche radius of the donor star to vary with both the stellar mass and the rotation rate. We examine the long-term stability of these systems, focusing in particular on those systems that may be progenitors of AM CVn or SNe Ia. We find that our analysis yields an increase in the predicted number of stable systems compared to that in previous studies. Additionally, we find that by properly accounting for the effects of asynchronism between the donor and the orbit on the Roche-lobe size, we eliminate oscillations in the orbital parameters, which were found in previous studies. Removing these oscillations can reduce the peak mass transfer rate in some systems, keeping them from entering an unstable mass transfer phase

  3. Impact of long-term corticosteroid therapy on the distribution pattern of lower limb atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenberg, T; Diehm, N; Zwahlen, M; Kalka, C; Do, D-D; Gretener, S; Ortmann, J; Baumgartner, I

    2010-04-01

    Ectopic calcification and mediacalcinosis can be promoted by corticosteroid use. Aim of the present investigation is to describe macrovascular disease features in patients with long-term corticosteroid therapy and symptomatic lower limb peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAD). A consecutive series of 2783 patients undergoing clinical and angiographic work-up of PAD were screened for long-term (>5 years) corticosteroid use (group A). Comparison was performed to a randomly selected age-, sex- and risk factor-matched PAD control cohort from the same series without corticosteroid use (group B). Patients with diabetes mellitus or severe renal failure were excluded. Arterial calcification was evaluated by qualitative assessment on radiographic images. Severity of atherosclerotic lesions was analysed from angiographic images using a semi-quantitative score (Bollinger score). In general, 12 patients (5 males, mean age 78.5 +/- 9.0 years) with 15 ischaemic limbs qualified to be enrolled in group A and were compared to 23 matching control patients (6 2 males, mean age 79.5 +/- 6 years) with 32 ischaemic limbs. Incompressibility of ankle arteries determined by measurement of the ankle-brachial index was seen in 12 limbs (80%) in group A compared to 3 limbs (9%) in group B (p = 0.0009). No significant difference was found comparing group A and B for segmental calcification, whereas comparison of the atherosclerotic burden using the angiographic severity score showed a significantly higher score at the infragenicular arterial level in group A (p = 0.001). Findings suggest that the long-term corticosteroid therapy is associated with a distally accentuated, calcifying peripheral atherosclerosis inducing arterial incompressibility. This occlusion pattern is comparable to patients with renal failure or diabetes. Further research is required to support our observations.

  4. Sex differences in sport-related concussion long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covassin, Tracey; Savage, Jennifer L; Bretzin, Abigail C; Fox, Meghan E

    2017-09-18

    Approximately 1.6 to 3.8 million recreational and sports-related concussions (SRC) occur each year in the Unites States. Research suggest that female athletes are at a greater risk for a SRC compared to male athletes competing in comparable sports (i.e., soccer, basketball). Moreover, female athletes have reported more total symptoms and greater neurocognitive impairments following a SRC. Female athletes have been found to report greater symptom provocation as measured by the Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS), and increased brain activation compared to males. There is a scarcity of research on long-term effects of SRC in male and female athletes. Therefore, the aim of this review article is to summarize the existing literature on sex differences in acute and sub-acute SRC outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Differences Awareness Model to Fundament Long Term Strategy Extension in a New Emerging Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mădălina ŞERBAN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The globalization opened the opportunity for multinational companies to increase their businesses in emerging markets and also to local giants from developing countries to step in the western markets. The objective of this paper is to propose a model for analyzing the differences between operating businesses in emerging markets and developed markets. The model purpose is to be applied in the strategic process by mainly the multinationals or local giants intending to develop long term businesses outside their traditional geographies. The studies on emerging markets identified two main axes to be considered when appreciating the attractiveness of the markets: the business dynamics both inside and outside the company and the institutional environment, as facilitator of efficient encounter between sellers and buyers.

  6. Root length and alveolar bone level of impacted canines and adjacent teeth after orthodontic traction: a long-term evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    da SILVA, Aldir Cordeiro; CAPISTRANO, Anderson; de ALMEIDA-PEDRIN, Renata Rodrigues; CARDOSO, Maurício de Almeida; CONTI, Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira; CAPELOZZA, Leopoldino

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the long-term effects of orthodontic traction on root length and alveolar bone level in impacted canines and adjacent teeth. Material and Methods Sample consisted of 16 patients (nine males and seven females), mean initial age 11 years and 8 months presenting with unilaterally maxillary impacted canines, palatally displaced, treated with the same surgical and orthodontic approach. Teeth from the impacted-canine side were assigned as Group I (GI), and contralateral teeth as control, Group II (GII). The mean age of patients at the end of orthodontic treatment was 14 years and 2 months and the mean post-treatment time was 5 years and 11 months. Both contralateral erupted maxillary canines and adjacent teeth served as control. Root length and alveolar bone level (buccal and palatal) were evaluated on cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. The comparison of root length and alveolar bone level changes between groups were assessed by applying paired t-test, at a significance level of 5% (p<0.05). Results There were no statistically significant differences in root length and buccal and palatal bone levels of canines and adjacent teeth among groups. Conclusions Impacted canine treatment by closed-eruption technique associated with canine crown perforation, has a minimal effect on root length and buccal and palatal alveolar bone level in both canine and adjacent teeth, demonstrating that this treatment protocol has a good long-term prognosis. PMID:28198979

  7. Different impact of intermediate and unfavourable cytogenetics at the time of diagnosis on outcome of de novo AML after allo-SCT: a long-term retrospective analysis from a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahi, H; Remberger, M; Machaczka, M; Ungerstedt, J; Mattson, J; Ringden, O; Le-Blanc, Katarina; Ljungman, P; Hägglund, H

    2012-12-01

    Karyotype of myeloblasts at the time of AML diagnosis has been shown to be prognostic significant for pre-remission outcome and outcome after allo-SCT, but the latter requires further studies. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the impact of intermediate and unfavourable cytogenetics at the time of primary diagnosis on outcome after allo-SCT in de novo AML. The study included 169 patients who underwent allo-SCT at Karolinska University Hospital between 1980 and 2010. Intermediate and unfavourable cytogenetics were found in 129 (76%) and 40 patients (24%), respectively. Myeloablative and reduced-intensity conditioning were given to 120 (71%) and 49 (29%) patients, respectively. Allo-SCT was performed in CR1 in 122 patients (72%). TRM was 16% in both cytogenetics groups. Relapse occurred in 29% patients with intermediate and in 45% patients with unfavourable cytogenetics (P=0.01). The probabilities of 5-year OS for patients with intermediate and unfavourable cytogenetics were 60 and 43%, respectively (P=0.02). Multivariate analysis revealed intermediate cytogenetics, chronic GVHD, and recipient CMV-negative serostatus as variables associated with favourable OS. Our study showed that outcome after allo-SCT in de novo AML differs depending on cytogenetic risk-group; however its position in post-remission therapy of eligible AML patients is not threatened.

  8. Excavation-drier method of energy-peat extraction reduces long-term climatic impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvan, N.; Silvan, K.; Laine, J. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Parkano (Finland)], e-mail: niko.silvan@metla.fi; Vaisanen, S.; Soukka, R. [Lappeenranta Univ.of Techology (Finland)

    2012-11-01

    Climatic impacts of energy-peat extraction are of increasing concern due to EU emissions trading requirements. A new excavation-drier peat extraction method has been developed to reduce the climatic impact and increase the efficiency of peat extraction. To quantify and compare the soil GHG fluxes of the excavation drier and the traditional milling methods, as well as the areas from which the energy peat is planned to be extracted in the future (extraction reserve area types), soil CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O fluxes were measured during 2006-2007 at three sites in Finland. Within each site, fluxes were measured from drained extraction reserve areas, extraction fields and stockpiles of both methods and additionally from the biomass driers of the excavation-drier method. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), described at a principal level in ISO Standards 14040:2006 and 14044:2006, was used to assess the long-term (100 years) climatic impact from peatland utilisation with respect to land use and energy production chains where utilisation of coal was replaced with peat. Coal was used as a reference since in many cases peat and coal can replace each other in same power plants. According to this study, the peat extraction method used was of lesser significance than the extraction reserve area type in regards to the climatic impact. However, the excavation-drier method seems to cause a slightly reduced climatic impact as compared with the prevailing milling method. (orig.)

  9. Abiotic dechlorination in rock matrices impacted by long-term exposure to TCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Charles E; Towne, Rachael M; Lippincott, David R; Lacombe, Pierre J; Bishop, Michael E; Dong, Hailiang

    2015-01-01

    Field and laboratory tests were performed to evaluate the abiotic reaction of trichloroethene (TCE) in sedimentary rock matrices. Hydraulically conductive fractures, and the rock directly adjacent to the hydraulically conductive fractures, within a historically contaminated TCE bedrock aquifer were used as the basis for this study. These results were compared to previous work using rock that had not been exposed to TCE (Schaefer et al., 2013) to assess the impact of long-term TCE exposure on the abiotic dechlorination reaction, as the longevity of these reactions after long-term exposure to TCE was hitherto unknown. Results showed that potential abiotic TCE degradation products, including ethane, ethene, and acetylene, were present in the conductive fractures. Using minimally disturbed slices of rock core at and near the fracture faces, laboratory testing on the rocks confirmed that abiotic dechlorination reactions between the rock matrix and TCE were occurring. Abiotic daughter products measured in the laboratory under controlled conditions were consistent with those measured in the conductive fractures, except that propane also was observed as a daughter product. TCE degradation measured in the laboratory was well described by a first order rate constant through the 118-d study. Observed bulk first-order TCE degradation rate constants within the rock matrix were 1.3×10(-8) s(-1). These results clearly show that abiotic dechlorination of TCE is occurring within the rock matrix, despite decades of exposure to TCE. Furthermore, these observed rates of TCE dechlorination are expected to have a substantial impact on TCE migration and uptake/release from rock matrices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of long-term impact of formal certified cardiopulmonary resuscitation training program among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saramma, P P; Raj, L Suja; Dash, P K; Sarma, P S

    2016-04-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care guidelines are periodically renewed and published by the American Heart Association. Formal training programs are conducted based on these guidelines. Despite widespread training CPR is often poorly performed. Hospital educators spend a significant amount of time and money in training health professionals and maintaining basic life support (BLS) and advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) skills among them. However, very little data are available in the literature highlighting the long-term impact of these training. To evaluate the impact of formal certified CPR training program on the knowledge and skill of CPR among nurses, to identify self-reported outcomes of attempted CPR and training needs of nurses. Tertiary care hospital, Prospective, repeated-measures design. A series of certified BLS and ACLS training programs were conducted during 2010 and 2011. Written and practical performance tests were done. Final testing was undertaken 3-4 years after training. The sample included all available, willing CPR certified nurses and experience matched CPR noncertified nurses. SPSS for Windows version 21.0. The majority of the 206 nurses (93 CPR certified and 113 noncertified) were females. There was a statistically significant increase in mean knowledge level and overall performance before and after the formal certified CPR training program (P = 0.000). However, the mean knowledge scores were equivalent among the CPR certified and noncertified nurses, although the certified nurses scored a higher mean score (P = 0.140). Formal certified CPR training program increases CPR knowledge and skill. However, significant long-term effects could not be found. There is a need for regular and periodic recertification.

  11. Long-term impact of a preclinical endovascular skills course on medical student career choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason T; Son, Ji H; Chandra, Venita; Lilo, Emily; Dalman, Ronald L

    2011-10-01

    Surging interest in the 0 + 5 integrated vascular surgery (VS) residency and successful recruitment of the top students in medical school requires early exposure to the field. We sought to determine the impact of a high-fidelity simulation-based preclinical endovascular skills course on medical student performance and ultimate career specialty choices. Fifty-two preclinical medical students enrolled in an 8-week VS elective course from 2007 to 2009. Students completed a baseline and postcourse survey and performed a renal angioplasty/stent procedure on an endovascular simulator (pretest). A curriculum consisting of didactic teaching covering peripheral vascular disease and weekly mentored simulator sessions concluded with a final graded procedure (posttest). Long-term follow-up surveys 1 to 3 years after course completion were administered to determine ultimate career paths of participants as well as motivating factors for career choice. Objective and subjective performance measured on the simulator and through structured global assessment scales improved in all students from pre- to posttest, particularly with regard to technical skill and overall procedural competency (P choices including surgical subspecialties (64%), radiology (10%), and cardiology (6%). Most respondents indicated major reasons for continued interest in VS were the ability to practice endovascular procedures on the simulator (92%) and mentorship from VS faculty (70%). Basic endovascular skills can be efficiently introduced through a simulation-based curriculum and lead to improved novice performance. Early exposure of preclinical medical students provides an effective teaching and recruitment tool for procedural-based fields, particularly surgical subspecialties. Mentored exposure to endovascular procedures on the simulator positively impacts long-term medical student attitudes toward vascular surgery and ultimate career choices. Copyright © 2011 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by

  12. Impact of Procedure-Related Complications on Long-term Islet Transplantation Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, Robert; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine; Raverdi, Violeta; Bonner, Caroline; Gmyr, Valery; Defrance, Frederique; Leroy, Clara; Sergent, Geraldine; Hubert, Thomas; Ernst, Oliver; Noel, Christian; Kerr-Conte, Julie; Pattou, François

    2015-05-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation offers a promising biotherapy for the treatment of type 1 diabetes, but this procedure has met significant challenges over the years. One such challenge is to address why primary graft function still remains inconsistent after islet transplantation. Several variables have been shown to affect graft function, but the impact of procedure-related complications on primary and long-term graft functions has not yet been explored. Twenty-six patients with established type 1 diabetes were included in this study. Each patient had two to three intraportal islet infusions to obtain 10,000 islet equivalent (IEQ)/kg in body weight, equaling a total of 68 islet infusions. Islet transplantation consisted of three sequential fresh islet infusions within 3 months. Islet infusions were performed surgically or under ultrasound guidance, depending on patient morphology, availability of the radiology suite, and patient medical history. Prospective assessment of adverse events was recorded and graded using "Common Terminology Criteria for adverse events in Trials of Adult Pancreatic Islet Transplantation." There were no deaths or patients dropouts. Early complications occurred in nine of 68 procedures. β score 1 month after the last graft and optimal graft function (β score ≥7) rate were significantly lower in cases of procedure-related complications (P = 0.02, P = 0.03). Procedure-related complications negatively impacted graft function (P = 0.009) and was an independent predictive factor of long-term graft survival (P = 0.033) in multivariate analysis. Complications occurring during radiologic or surgical intraportal islet transplantation significantly impair primary graft function and graft survival regardless of their severity.

  13. Fulfillment of the long-term safety functions by the different barriers during the main time frames after repository closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preter, P. de; Lalieux, Ph.

    2002-01-01

    In general terms the basis long-term safety functions of a disposal system (i.e. the engineered barrier system, including the waste forms and the host rock) are the functions that the system as a whole or its constituents must fulfill in order to assure an adequate level of long-term radiological safety. The long-term safety functions of a disposal system constitute a generic and methodological tool that can be used in a double sense. In the first place these functions provide an a priori instrument for designing the system: the implementer must ensure that these safety functions are fulfilled by a series of robust system barriers and components. These functions can also be used as an a posteriori means to describe and assess in general terms the functioning of the system. In this way they are an important qualitative element to help to support the safety case and to identify further R and D priorities. By providing a general description of system functioning they are also a communication tool to stakeholders who are less familiar with the details of a safety case. Instead of limiting the description to a multi-barrier system, the safety functions enable to better explain how the different barriers contribute to one or more safety functions and by which processes this is performed. By doing so the system description moves from multi-barrier to multi-function. The aim of this paper is to provide such a general description of the system functioning for the Belgian case of deep disposal of high-level waste (mainly spent fuel or vitrified waste from fuel reprocessing) in the Boom Clay, o poorly-indurated argillaceous formation. From the detailed safety and performance evaluations the main time frames after repository closure are identified. Each time frame relates to a period during which the successive safety functions play a key role. Also, in each time frame the radiological impact on the environment is distinctly different. (authors)

  14. Long-term impacts on sewers following food waste disposer installation in housing areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Jonathan; Hedström, Annelie; Viklander, Maria

    2014-01-01

    To increase biogas generation and decrease vehicle transportation of solid waste, the integration of food waste disposers (FWDs) into the wastewater system has been proposed. However, concerns have been raised about the long-term impact of the additional load of the FWDs on sewer systems. To examine the said impact, this study has used closed-circuit television inspection techniques to evaluate the status of 181 concrete pipes serving single family housing areas with a diameter of 225 mm, ranging from a 100% connection rate of households with an FWD to none. A minor study was also performed on a multi-family housing area, where mainly plastic pipes (200 mm) were used. The extent and distribution of deposits related to the ratio of FWDs, inclination and pipe sagging (backfalls) were ascertained by using linear regression and analysis of variance. The results showed that FWDs have had an impact on the level of deposits in the sewer, but this has, in turn, been of minor significance. With a high connection rate of FWDs upstream of a pipe, the extent of the total level of deposits, as well as finer sediments, was statistically determined to be greater. However, the majority of the deposits were observed to be small, which would suggest the impact of FWDs on sewer performance to be minor. As food waste not compatible with the FWD was seen in the sewers, educational campaigns could be beneficial to further lower the risks of sewer blocking.

  15. Long-term Health and Socioeconomic Impacts of Landscape Fire Emissions in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jina, A.; Marlier, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    Among natural disasters, wildfires are perhaps the most complex case of a coupled human-natural system, with both direct and indirect costs to society. A major contributor to these indirect costs is the impact upon health in the short- and long-term. Air pollution from fires is associated with more deaths from cardio-pulmonary diseases, yet little or no research has looked beyond the short-term mortality and morbidity associated with wildfire pollution, particularly in developing countries where impacts may be greatest but monitoring presents a constant challenge. We address this by using an interdisciplinary approach combining modeled air pollution with econometric methods to identify the long-term effects of air pollution on health and cognitive ability. These impacts will persist in society, and can lead to decreased education, loss of earnings, and a suppression of economic activity. We take the case of Indonesia, which is prone to large, catastrophic fires during El Niño conditions. Satellite data partially compensate for the lack of monitoring data for air pollution, but there are still significant gaps in data availability and difficulty in retrieving surface concentrations. In this study, surface fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations at 2x2.5° resolution are obtained from GISS-E2-Puccini (the new version of the NASA GISS ModelE General Circulation Model (GCM)), run with monthly fire emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3). 24-hour ambient PM2.5 concentrations across Indonesia are matched to geographically and socioeconomic surveys. We find that exposure to high levels of PM2.5 at birth (and in utero) has negative impacts upon physical development of infants. This is associated with health problems later in life, as well as lower educational and labor market outcomes. A one standard deviation increase in ambient air pollution exposure leads to effects comparable to those from indoor air pollution. We also find a

  16. Long-term response to genomic selection: effects of estimation method and reference population structure for different genetic architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaansen, John W M; Coster, Albart; Calus, Mario P L; van Arendonk, Johan A M; Bovenhuis, Henk

    2012-01-24

    Genomic selection has become an important tool in the genetic improvement of animals and plants. The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of breeding value estimation method, reference population structure, and trait genetic architecture, on long-term response to genomic selection without updating marker effects. Three methods were used to estimate genomic breeding values: a BLUP method with relationships estimated from genome-wide markers (GBLUP), a Bayesian method, and a partial least squares regression method (PLSR). A shallow (individuals from one generation) or deep reference population (individuals from five generations) was used with each method. The effects of the different selection approaches were compared under four different genetic architectures for the trait under selection. Selection was based on one of the three genomic breeding values, on pedigree BLUP breeding values, or performed at random. Selection continued for ten generations. Differences in long-term selection response were small. For a genetic architecture with a very small number of three to four quantitative trait loci (QTL), the Bayesian method achieved a response that was 0.05 to 0.1 genetic standard deviation higher than other methods in generation 10. For genetic architectures with approximately 30 to 300 QTL, PLSR (shallow reference) or GBLUP (deep reference) had an average advantage of 0.2 genetic standard deviation over the Bayesian method in generation 10. GBLUP resulted in 0.6% and 0.9% less inbreeding than PLSR and BM and on average a one third smaller reduction of genetic variance. Responses in early generations were greater with the shallow reference population while long-term response was not affected by reference population structure. The ranking of estimation methods was different with than without selection. Under selection, applying GBLUP led to lower inbreeding and a smaller reduction of genetic variance while a similar response to selection was

  17. Sex Difference in Bottlenose Dolphin Sightings during a Long-term Bridge Construction Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Weaver

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Almost nothing is known about the effect of long-term bridge construction on free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus. The species’ natural history predicts that there should be sex differences in reaction to construction because bottlenose dolphins show sex differences in most of their behaviors. A 5-year bridge construction project over a narrow but important dolphin corridor at John’s Pass tidal inlet, St. Petersburg FL, brought chronic environmental changes. The purpose of this 8-year study was to determine if bridge construction was associated with changes in dolphin sightings. The sex difference hypothesis was tested with a comparison of sighting probabilities before, during and after bridge construction. Sighting probabilities were generated for 68 adults seen n = 6504 times during N = 951 small-boat surveys of the 6.5-mile estuarine study area, documented with photo identification June 2005-December 2012. The sex difference hypothesis was supported with a significant interaction between construction and gender. Female sightings showed a significant linear decline across construction. Male sightings did not change across construction. The main conclusion is that adult males and females may react differently to habitat changes associated with anthropogenic activities. Sex differences in environmental monitoring and vigilance associated with maternal behavior may have played a role. This is the first report on John’s Pass dolphins that evaluates changes in their behavior during a major construction project across a narrow but important dolphin corridor.

  18. IMPACT OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION PROCESSES ON THE NECESSITY OF LONG-TERM BUDGET PLANNING INTRODUCTION IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganna Muzychenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Association Agreement between Ukraine and the European Union was ratified in September 2014. Ukraine has undertaken to implement and enforce EU standards, including in the financial sphere, which are regulated by international law. The purpose of the study is to determine the impact of European integration processes on the necessity of the long-term budget forecasting process introduction into the budget process of Ukraine and the revelation of special budgetary rules regulated this process in the EU. The methodology. The list of requirements (budget procedures and rules for their introduction by law into the budget process of Ukraine was determined based on the generalization and systematization of normative legal acts that regulate the medium-term financial planning as the EU standard. The results showed that the long-term budget forecast developing procedure in the budget process will allow the government to timely identify the unfavourable trend in the state’s fiscal policy and introduce preventive measures, determine the full scale of economy’s and business’ reaction to the reforms’ introduction and new laws adoption, estimate fiscal space for fiscal policy implementation for coming years, take into consideration the budget forecast’s indicators during the annual adoption of budget decisions. The study defines the difference between the budget forecast and the planned budget: the forecast is for five years and more, the plan is for one year only; forecast indicators are not mandatory for implementation, they are only guidelines, and planned indicators are mandatory for implementation; the budget forecast is approved by the order of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine and annually specified, the planned budget (for the current budget year is approved by the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine by adopting the relevant law, amendments are an exception and also approved by law. The practical implementation. Governments of countries that

  19. Impacts of informal caregiver availability on long-term care expenditures in OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Byung-Kwang; Bhattacharya, Jay; McDonald, Kathryn M; Garber, Alan M

    2004-12-01

    To quantify the effects of informal caregiver availability and public funding on formal long-term care (LTC) expenditures in developed countries. Secondary data were acquired for 15 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries from 1970 to 2000. Secondary data analysis, applying fixed- and random-effects models to time-series cross-sectional data. Outcome variables are inpatient or home heath LTC expenditures. Key explanatory variables are measures of the availability of informal caregivers, generosity in public funding for formal LTC, and the proportion of the elderly population in the total population. Aggregated macro data were obtained from OECD Health Data, United Nations Demographic Yearbooks, and U.S. Census Bureau International Data Base. Most of the 15 OECD countries experienced growth in LTC expenditures over the study period. The availability of a spouse caregiver, measured by male-to-female ratio among the elderly, is associated with a $28,840 (1995 U.S. dollars) annual reduction in formal LTC expenditure per additional elderly male. Availability of an adult child caregiver, measured by female labor force participation and full-time/part-time status shift, is associated with a reduction of $310 to $3,830 in LTC expenditures. These impacts on LTC expenditure vary across countries and across time within a country. The availability of an informal caregiver, particularly a spouse caregiver, is among the most important factors explaining variation in LTC expenditure growth. Long-term care policies should take into account behavioral responses: decreased public funding in LTC may lead working women to leave the labor force to provide more informal care.

  20. Ecological impacts of long-term application of biosolids to a radiata pine plantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Jianming; Kimberley, Mark O.; Ross, Craig; Gielen, Gerty; Tremblay, Louis A.; Champeau, Olivier; Horswell, Jacqui; Wang, Hailong

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of the ecological impact of applying biosolids is important for determining both the risks and benefits. This study investigated the impact on soil physical, chemical and biological properties, tree nutrition and growth of long-term biosolids applications to a radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantation growing on a Sandy Raw Soil in New Zealand. Biosolids were applied to the trial site every 3 years from tree age 6 to 19 years at three application rates: 0 (Control), 300 (Standard) and 600 (High) kg nitrogen (N) ha −1 , equivalent to 0, 3 and 6 Mg ha −1 of dry biosolids, respectively. Tree nutrition status and growth have been monitored annually. Soil samples were collected 13 years after the first biosolids application to assess the soil properties and functioning. Both the Standard and High biosolids treatments significantly increased soil (0–50 cm depth) total carbon (C), N, and phosphorus (P), Olsen P and cation exchange capacity (CEC), reduced soil pH, but had no significant effects on soil (0–20 cm depth) physical properties including bulk density, total porosity and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The High biosolids treatment also increased concentrations of soil total cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) at 25–50 cm depth, but these concentrations were still considered very low for a soil. Ecotoxicological assessment showed no significant adverse effects of biosolids application on either the reproduction of springtails (Folsomia candida) or substrate utilisation ability of the soil microbial community, indicating no negative ecological impact of bisolids-derived heavy metals or triclosan. This study demonstrated that repeated application of biosolids to a plantation forest on a poor sandy soil could significantly improve soil fertility, tree nutrition and pine productivity. However, the long-term fate of biosolids-derived N, P and litter-retained heavy metals needs to be further monitored in the receiving

  1. Ecological impacts of long-term application of biosolids to a radiata pine plantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Jianming, E-mail: jianming.xue@scionresearch.com [Scion, Private Bag 29237, Christchurch (New Zealand); Kimberley, Mark O., E-mail: mark.kimberley@scionresearch.com [Scion, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua (New Zealand); Ross, Craig, E-mail: rossc@landcareresearch.co.nz [Landcare, Private Bag 11052, Palmerston North (New Zealand); Gielen, Gerty, E-mail: gerty.gielen@scionresearch.com [Scion, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua (New Zealand); Tremblay, Louis A., E-mail: louis.tremblay@cawthron.org.nz [Cawthron Institute, Private Bag 2, Nelson (New Zealand); School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, PO Box 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Champeau, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.champeau@cawthron.org.nz [Cawthron Institute, Private Bag 2, Nelson (New Zealand); Horswell, Jacqui, E-mail: jacqui.horswell@esr.cri.nz [ESR, P O Box 50-348, Porirua (New Zealand); Wang, Hailong, E-mail: hailong@zafu.edu.cn [Scion, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua (New Zealand); Key Laboratory of Soil Contamination Bioremediation of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, Lin' an, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 311300 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Assessment of the ecological impact of applying biosolids is important for determining both the risks and benefits. This study investigated the impact on soil physical, chemical and biological properties, tree nutrition and growth of long-term biosolids applications to a radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantation growing on a Sandy Raw Soil in New Zealand. Biosolids were applied to the trial site every 3 years from tree age 6 to 19 years at three application rates: 0 (Control), 300 (Standard) and 600 (High) kg nitrogen (N) ha{sup −1}, equivalent to 0, 3 and 6 Mg ha{sup −1} of dry biosolids, respectively. Tree nutrition status and growth have been monitored annually. Soil samples were collected 13 years after the first biosolids application to assess the soil properties and functioning. Both the Standard and High biosolids treatments significantly increased soil (0–50 cm depth) total carbon (C), N, and phosphorus (P), Olsen P and cation exchange capacity (CEC), reduced soil pH, but had no significant effects on soil (0–20 cm depth) physical properties including bulk density, total porosity and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The High biosolids treatment also increased concentrations of soil total cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) at 25–50 cm depth, but these concentrations were still considered very low for a soil. Ecotoxicological assessment showed no significant adverse effects of biosolids application on either the reproduction of springtails (Folsomia candida) or substrate utilisation ability of the soil microbial community, indicating no negative ecological impact of bisolids-derived heavy metals or triclosan. This study demonstrated that repeated application of biosolids to a plantation forest on a poor sandy soil could significantly improve soil fertility, tree nutrition and pine productivity. However, the long-term fate of biosolids-derived N, P and litter-retained heavy metals needs to be further monitored in the

  2. Exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola has no long-term impact on honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, G Christopher; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia D

    2007-06-01

    We conducted a long-term investigation to ascertain effects on honey bee, Apis mellifera L., colonies during and after exposure to flowering canola, Brassica napus variety Hyola 420, grown from clothianidin-treated seed. Colonies were placed in the middle of 1-ha clothianidin seed-treated or control canola fields for 3 wk during bloom, and thereafter they were moved to a fall apiary. There were four treated and four control fields, and four colonies per field, giving 32 colonies total. Bee mortality, worker longevity, and brood development were regularly assessed in each colony for 130 d from initial exposure to canola. Samples of honey, beeswax, pollen, and nectar were regularly collected for 130 d, and the samples were analyzed for clothianidin residues by using high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. Overall, no differences in bee mortality, worker longevity, or brood development occurred between control and treatment groups throughout the study. Weight gains of and honey yields from colonies in treated fields were not significantly different from those in control fields. Although clothianidin residues were detected in honey, nectar, and pollen from colonies in clothianidin-treated fields, maximum concentrations detected were 8- to 22-fold below the reported no observable adverse effects concentration. Clothianidin residues were not detected in any beeswax sample. Assessment of overwintered colonies in spring found no differences in those originally exposed to treated or control canola. The results show that honey bee colonies will, in the long-term, be unaffected by exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola.

  3. Climate Change Impacts on pricing Long-Term Flood Insurance: A Comprehensive Study for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, J.C.J.H.; Botzen, W.J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Recently long-term flood insurance contracts with a duration of 5, 10 or 15 years have been proposed as a solution for covering flood risk and mitigating increasing flood losses. Establishing a long-term relation between the policyholder and the insurer can provide better incentives to reduce risk

  4. Long-term monitoring of stream bank stability under different vegetation cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzeminska, Dominika; Skaalsveen, Kamilla; Kerkhof, Tjibbe

    2017-04-01

    Vegetated buffer zones are common environmental measures in many countries, including Norway. The presence of riparian vegetation on stream banks not only provides ecological benefits but also influence bank slope stability, through several complex interactions between riparian vegetation and hydro - mechanical processes. The hydrological processes associated with slope stability are complex and yet difficult to quantify, especially because their transient effects (e.g. changes throughout the vegetation life cycle). Additionally, there is very limited amount of field scale research focusing on investigation of coupled hydrological and mechanical influence of vegetation on stream bank behavior, accounting for both seasonal time scale and different vegetation type, and none dedicated to marine clay soils (typically soil for Norway). In order to fill this gap we established continues, long term hydrogeological monitoring o selected cross - section within stream bank, covered with different types of vegetation, typical for Norwegian agriculture areas (grass, shrubs, and trees). The monitoring involves methods such as spatial and temporal monitoring of soil moisture conditions, ground water level and fluctuation of water level in the stream. Herein we will present first 10 months of monitoring data: observed hydrological trends and differences between three cross - sections. Moreover, we will present first modelling exercises that aims to estimate stream banks stability with accounting on presence of different vegetation types using BSTEM and HYDRUS models. With this presentation, we would like to stimulate the discussion and get feedback that could help us to improve both, our experimental set up and analysis approach.

  5. Gender differences in patients starting long-term home mechanical ventilation due to obesity hypoventilation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Andreas; Midgren, Bengt; Janson, Christer; Lindberg, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is often diagnosed late. The aim of this study was to analyse gender differences at initiation of long-term mechanical ventilation (LTMV) in patients with (OHS), to analyse gender differences in treatment effect and to study how the prescription of LTMV due to OHS has changed over time. Data on patients on LTMV due to OHS between 1996 and 2014 were obtained from Swedevox, a nationwide health quality registry of patients on LTMV in Sweden. When starting LTMV, women were generally older (age 64.4 ± 11.2 vs. 60.1 ± 12.1 years, p obese (BMI 43.0 ± 8.2 vs. 41.5 ± 7.9 kg/m2, p differ. During the study period, the age of patients at the initiation of LTMV rose by 3.4 years/decade (P = 0.001) in women and with 1.9 years/decade (P = 0.048) in men but there were no significant changes in BMI (P = 0.425). Diagnosis of OHS is more delayed in women and as a consequence the disease is more advanced when diagnosed. In spite of this, there is no gender difference in survival rate in patients with OHS treated with LTMV. More and older patients with OHS nowadays gain access to LTMV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-Term Fertilization Impacts on Soil Fertility and Resources Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Bom, Frederik Johannes T

    the nutrient contents. Finally, plants that are better at taking up P from the soil under limiting conditions could play an important role in improving sustainability, but experiments with modern cereal varieties suggest that modern breeding has resulted in varieties with rather similar ability for P uptake...... nutrient inputs from synthetic fertilisers and animal manure, and variable soil fertility conditions, affect growth, productivity, and resilience of cereal crops, and examined the effects on soil phosphorus pools and soil microbial communities. The study included 20 year year of experimental field data......, new field experimentation and lab and green-house trials with soils from the Long-Term Nutrient Depletion Trial at the KU experimental farm in Taastrup, Denmark. The field was purposely depleted of nutrients for 30 years before the introduction of different permanent nutrient application treatments...

  7. Long-term variability and impact on human health of biologically active UV radiation in Moscow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanova, Ekaterina; Chubarova, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    the developed classification for Moscow. Booth, C.R. and S. Madronich, 1994: Radiation amplification factors: improved formulation accounts for large increases in ultraviolet radiation associated with Antarctic ozone depletion. In: Ultraviolet Radiation in Antarctica: Measurements and Biological Research [Weiler, C.S. and P.A. Penhale (eds.)]. AGU Antarctic Research Series, 62, Washington, DC, USA, 39-42. Chubarova N.Y., 2008: UV variability in Moscow according to long-term UV measurements and reconstruction model. Atmos.Chem.Phys., 8, 3025-3031 Oriowo, M. et al., 2001:, Action spectrum for in vitro UV-induced cataract using whole lenses. Invest.Ophthalmol.&Vis.Sci, 42, 2596-2602. CIE, 1993: Reference Action Spectra for Ultraviolet Induced Erythema and Pigmentation of Different Human skin Types. CIE Research Note, CIE Technical Collection., N.3 CIE, 2006: Action spectrum for the production of previtamin D3 in human skin, Technical report 174, International commission on illumination

  8. Modelling impacts of atmospheric deposition and temperature on long-term DOC trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicka, K; Rowe, E C; Evans, C D; Monteith, D T; E I Vanguelova; Wade, A J; J M Clark

    2017-02-01

    It is increasingly recognised that widespread and substantial increases in Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in remote surface, and soil, waters in recent decades are linked to declining acid deposition. Effects of rising pH and declining ionic strength on DOC solubility have been proposed as potential dominant mechanisms. However, since DOC in these systems is derived mainly from recently-fixed carbon, and since organic matter decomposition rates are considered sensitive to temperature, uncertainty persists over the extent to which other drivers that could influence DOC production. Such potential drivers include fertilisation by nitrogen (N) and global warming. We therefore ran the dynamic soil chemistry model MADOC for a range of UK soils, for which time series data are available, to consider the likely relative importance of decreased deposition of sulphate and chloride, accumulation of reactive N, and higher temperatures, on soil DOC production in different soils. Modelled patterns of DOC change generally agreed favourably with measurements collated over 10-20years, but differed markedly between sites. While the acidifying effect of sulphur deposition appeared to be the predominant control on the observed soil water DOC trends in all the soils considered other than a blanket peat, the model suggested that over the long term, the effects of nitrogen deposition on N-limited soils may have been sufficient to raise the "acid recovery DOC baseline" significantly. In contrast, reductions in non-marine chloride deposition and effects of long term warming appeared to have been relatively unimportant. The suggestion that future DOC concentrations might exceed preindustrial levels as a consequence of nitrogen pollution has important implications for drinking water catchment management and the setting and pursuit of appropriate restoration targets, but findings still require validation from reliable centennial-scale proxy records, such as those being developed

  9. Media multitasking and memory: Differences in working memory and long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncapher, Melina R; K Thieu, Monica; Wagner, Anthony D

    2016-04-01

    Increasing access to media in the 21st century has led to a rapid rise in the prevalence of media multitasking (simultaneous use of multiple media streams). Such behavior is associated with various cognitive differences, such as difficulty filtering distracting information and increased trait impulsivity. Given the rise in media multitasking by children, adolescents, and adults, a full understanding of the cognitive profile of media multitaskers is imperative. Here we investigated the relationship between chronic media multitasking and working memory (WM) and long-term memory (LTM) performance. Four key findings are reported (1) heavy media multitaskers (HMMs) exhibited lower WM performance, regardless of whether external distraction was present or absent; (2) lower performance on multiple WM tasks predicted lower LTM performance; (3) media multitasking-related differences in memory reflected differences in discriminability rather than decision bias; and (4) attentional impulsivity correlated with media multitasking behavior and reduced WM performance. These findings suggest that chronic media multitasking is associated with a wider attentional scope/higher attentional impulsivity, which may allow goal-irrelevant information to compete with goal-relevant information. As a consequence, heavy media multitaskers are able to hold fewer or less precise goal-relevant representations in WM. HMMs' wider attentional scope, combined with their diminished WM performance, propagates forward to yield lower LTM performance. As such, chronic media multitasking is associated with a reduced ability to draw on the past--be it very recent or more remote--to inform present behavior.

  10. Evaluation of sanitary impact of urban air pollution. Montpellier area impact at short and long term; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Zone de Montpellier impact a court et long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The assessment of the health impact of urban atmospheric pollution in Montpellier agglomeration has been carried out as part of the development of atmosphere protection plan. The study, based on the four standardised steps of health risk assessment, has two objectives. First of all, it aims at assessing the short-term impact of atmospheric pollution on mortality (total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) and on hospital intakes (for respiratory, cardiovascular and cardiac reasons). Second, the long-term impact is assessed by the number of deaths due to atmospheric pollution. On the other part, the computation of the expected health gain, as a function of different scenarios of atmospheric pollutants reduction, can allow to plan air quality improvement measures. The assessment of atmospheric pollution impact has been carried out in eleven cities, homogeneously exposed, belonging to Montpellier agglomeration (Castelnau-le-Lez, Clapiers, Le Cres, Grabels, Jacou, Juvignac, Montferrier-sur-Lez, Montpellier, Saint-Clement-de-Riviere, Saint- Jean-de-Vedas, Vendargues). It is based on the analysis of mortality figures during two years (1999 and 2000) and of hospital intakes during four years (from 1999 to 2002). The studied population is made up 288.059 inhabitants. Atmospheric pollution indicators analysed are ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and particles having diameter below 10 {mu}m. Every year, the atmospheric pollution is directly responsible in the studied area of 34 anticipated deaths, among including 13 for cardiovascular reason and 4 for respiratory reason. For morbidity, it generates every year 79 hospital admissions for cardiovascular reason, 15 for cardiac reason, 9 for respiratory reason for older than 65 years old people and 4 for 15-64 years old people. Older than 65 years old people are proportionally more impacted. These events could theoretically be avoided with pollution levels in the order of those reached the less polluted days. Health

  11. The community impact of consolidating long-term inpatient care at a single state hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, N

    2000-06-01

    A community impact model was used to estimate how consolidation of all long-term inpatient care at one state mental hospital affected the town in which the hospital was located. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to measure objective and subjective impacts of the hospital's expanded role. Objective impacts included employment, retail sales, and use of local services such as police, welfare, and education. Subjective impacts included residents' perceptions of safety. Data were obtained from hospital records, service providers, merchants, residents, and persons living on the streets or in shelters. Overall, the policy had a positive net impact on the community, estimated at roughly $4 million during the 18 months after implementation. Nearly $1 million was a direct payment from the state in lieu of taxes for the property occupied by the hospital. The hospital's payments to businesses in the town increased 10 percent. The number of hospital employees increased by 61 percent, to 1,336. The number of local residents working in the hospital grew from 200 to 320, and the proportion of the hospital's annual payroll paid to local residents increased from 14 to 24 percent. Local service use did not increase, and no change was noted in the crime rate. More patients were discharged to other towns than were admitted from the host town. Eighty percent of the residents surveyed said the town had either improved or had not changed. The benefits brought by the consolidation are likely to be sustained in the long run if the state continues the current rate of payments to the community and the hospital continues its policy of discharging patients to the town where they resided before hospitalization.

  12. Impact of purchasing the CPAP device on acceptance and long-term adherence: a Belgian model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemans, Joke; Rodenstein, Daniel; Bousata, Jamila; Mwenge, Gimbada Benny

    2018-02-01

    In Belgium, patients with moderate to severe OSA (AHI > 20) who show less than 30 micro-arousals per hour slept (MAI) cannot benefit from CPAP refund by the social security (SS). To assess the influence of reimbursement on CPAP acceptance, and long-term adherence. OSA patients (AHI > 20) were included regardless of MAI. All patients were offered a CPAP trial of 3-5 days for habituation. Two groups were defined and compared: «Out of pocket money» patients (OOP) with MAI < 30 that were invited to purchase their device and «reimbursed group» that were offered a CPAP reimbursed by the social security. 812 patients were found: 59 in the OOP group, mostly females, sleepier and using more hypnotics. Out of the reimbursed group, 183 patients were matched to the OOP patients on the grounds of age, AHI and BMI. 90% of OOP and 94% of reimbursed patients (p 0.379) accepted a CPAP trial; 74% of OOP and 90% of reimbursed patients acquired a CPAP device (p 0.005) thereafter, whereas 82% and, respectively, 84% of those (p 0.254) were still on CPAP after a mean follow-up of 711 and 604 days with a mean ± SD daily compliance of 5.3 ± 3 and 6.1 ± 2 h, respectively (p 0.159). Only fatigue scale seems to influence the purchase of CPAP by OOP patients. CPAP reimbursement influences the purchase of CPAP but once the device becomes available there is no difference with reimbursed patients in long-term adherence.

  13. Long term neurocognitive impact of low dose prenatal methylmercury exposure in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hugh Simon; Kwok, Ka Ming; Chan, Peggy Hiu Ying; So, Hung Kwan; Li, Albert Martin; Ng, Pak Cheung; Fok, Tai Fai

    2013-04-01

    International studies suggest that low dose prenatal methylmercury exposure (>29 nmol/L) has long-term adverse neurocognitive effects. There is evidence that the majority of children in Hong Kong exceed this level as a result of high fish consumption of mothers during pregnancy. To study whether there are any associations between low-dose prenatal methylmercury exposure and neurocognitive outcomes in Hong Kong children. All 1057 children from the original birth cohort were eligible for entry into the study, except children with conditions that would affect neurocognitive development, but were unrelated to methylmercury exposure. Subjects were assessed by a wide panel of tests covering a broad range of neurocognitive functions: Hong Kong Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (HK-WISC), Hong Kong List Learning Test (HKLLT), Tests of Everyday Attention for Children (TEACH), Boston Naming Test, and Grooved Pegboard Test. 608 subjects were recruited (median age 8.2 years, IQR 7.3, 8.8; 53.9% boys). After correction by confounders including child age and sex, multivariate analysis showed that cord blood mercury concentration was significantly associated with three subtests: Picture Arrangement of HK-WISC (coefficient -0.944, P=0.049) and Short and Long Delay Recall Difference of the HKLLT (coefficient -1.087, P=0.007 and coefficient -1.161, P=0.005, respectively), i.e., performance worsened with increasing prenatal methylmercury exposure in these subtests. Small, but statistically significant adverse associations between prenatal methylmercury exposure and long-term neurocognitive effects (a visual sequencing task and retention ability of verbal memory) were found in our study. These effects are compatible with findings of studies with higher prenatal methylmercury exposure levels and suggest that safe strategies to further reduce exposure levels in Hong Kong are desirable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    In the recent literature there has been considerable confusion about the three types of memory: long-term, short-term, and working memory. This chapter strives to reduce that confusion and makes up-to-date assessments of these types of memory. Long- and short-term memory could differ in two fundamental ways, with only short-term memory demonstrating (1) temporal decay and (2) chunk capacity limits. Both properties of short-term memory are still controversial but the current literature is rather encouraging regarding the existence of both decay and capacity limits. Working memory has been conceived and defined in three different, slightly discrepant ways: as short-term memory applied to cognitive tasks, as a multi-component system that holds and manipulates information in short-term memory, and as the use of attention to manage short-term memory. Regardless of the definition, there are some measures of memory in the short term that seem routine and do not correlate well with cognitive aptitudes and other measures (those usually identified with the term "working memory") that seem more attention demanding and do correlate well with these aptitudes. The evidence is evaluated and placed within a theoretical framework depicted in Fig. 1.

  15. Urban-rural differences in self-reported limiting long-term illness in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kate A

    2003-12-01

    Previous research suggests that there are significant differences in health between urban and rural areas. The aim of this study is to describe the pattern and magnitude of urban-rural variation in health in Scotland and to examine the factors associated with health inequalities in urban and rural areas. The data used in this study were limiting long-term illness (LLTI) and socio-economic data collected by the 1991 Census. A rurality indicator was created using Scottish Household Survey rurality classifications. Multilevel Poisson regression modelling was carried out with LLTI as a health indicator for each type of rurality within Scotland. A variety of socio-economic factors were investigated for each rurality. Areas with the highest Standardized Illness Ratios (SIRs) (>125) are predominantly urban whereas the lowest SIRs (rural areas. Rural communities are more heterogeneous than urban areas in terms of their social make-up with relation to health; however, when these areas are split according to minor road length and different socio-economic factors are added, the model fit for each new model is improved and the reduction in total variation is comparable with that of the urban models. These findings suggest that rural areas should not be treated as a homogeneous group but should be subdivided into rural types.

  16. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG LONG-TERM COLORECTAL CANCER SURVIVORS WITH OSTOMIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Marcia; McMullen, Carmit K.; Altschuler, Andrea; Mohler, M. Jane; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Herrinton, Lisa J.; Wendel, Christopher S.; Baldwin, Carol M.; Krouse, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe how gender shapes the concerns and adaptations of long-term (> 5 years) colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors with ostomies. Design Qualitative study using content analysis of focus group content. Setting Member of Kaiser Permanente, residing in either Oregon, Southwest Washington State, or Northern California. Sample Four female and four male focus groups selected from quantitative survey participants with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores in the highest or lowest quartile. Methods Eight focus groups, discussed challenges of living with an ostomy. Content was recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using directive and summative content analysis. Main Research Variables HRQOL domains of physical, psychological, social and spiritual well being. Findings All groups reported avoiding foods that cause gas or rapid transit, and discussed how limiting the amount of food eaten controlled the output. All groups discussed physical activities, getting support from friends and family, and the importance of being resilient. Both genders identified challenges with sexuality/intimacy. Coping and adjustment difficulties were discussed by women with men only discussing these issues to a small extent. Difficulties with sleep were primarily identified by Low HRQOL women. Problems with body image and depression were discussed only by Low HRQOL women. Conclusions Common issues included diet management, physical activity, social support and sexuality. Women with low HRQOL discussed problems with depression, body image, and sleep. Implications for Nursing Application of these gender-based differences can inform educational interventions for CRC survivors with ostomies. PMID:21875846

  17. [Variation characteristics of soil carbon sequestration under long-term different fertilization in red paddy soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Zhang, Yang-zhu; Gao, Ju-sheng; Zhang, Wen-ju; Liu, Shu-jun

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the changes of soil organic carbon (SOC) content, the saturation capacity of soil carbon sequestration and its cooperation with carbon input (crop source and organic fertilizer source carbon) under long-term (1982-2012) different fertilization in red paddy soil. The results showed that fertilization could increase SOC content. The SOC content of all the fertilization treatments demonstrated a trend of stabilization after applying fertilizer for 30 years. The SOC content in the treatments applying organic manure with mineral fertilizers was between 21.02 and 21.24 g · kg(-1), and the increase rate ranged from 0.41 to 0.59 g · kg(-1) · a(-1). The SOC content in the treatments applying mineral fertilizers only was 15.48 g · kg(-1). The average soil carbon sequestration in the treatments that applied organic manure with mineral fertilizers ranged from 43.61 to 48.43 t C · hm(-2), and the average SOC storage over the years in these treatments was significantly greater than those applying mineral fertilizers only. There was an exponentially positive correlation between C sequestration efficiency and annual average organic C input. It must input exogenous organic carbon at least at 0. 12 t C · hm(-2) · a(-1) to maintain the balance of soil organic carbon under the experimental conditions.

  18. A Quantitative Method for Long-Term Water Erosion Impacts on Productivity with a Lack of Field Experiments: A Case Study in Huaihe Watershed, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degen Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Water erosion causes reduced farmland productivity, and with a longer period of cultivation, agricultural productivity becomes increasingly vulnerable. The vulnerability of farmland productivity needs assessment due to long-term water erosion. The key to quantitative assessment is to propose a quantitative method with water loss scenarios to calculate productivity losses due to long-term water erosion. This study uses the agricultural policy environmental extender (APEX model and the global hydrological watershed unit and selects the Huaihe River watershed as a case study to describe the methodology. An erosion-variable control method considering soil and water conservation measure scenarios was used to study the relationship between long-term erosion and productivity losses and to fit with 3D surface (to come up with three elements, which are time, the cumulative amount of water erosion and productivity losses to measure long-term water erosion. Results showed that: (1 the 3D surfaces fit significantly well; fitting by the 3D surface can more accurately reflect the impact of long-term water erosion on productivity than fitting by the 2D curve (to come up with two elements, which are water erosion and productivity losses; (2 the cumulative loss surface can reflect differences in productivity loss caused by long-term water erosion.

  19. The long-term impact of war on health and wellbeing in Northern Vietnam: some glimpses from a recent survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerawichitchainan, Bussarawan; Korinek, Kim

    2012-06-01

    War is deemed a major threat to public health; yet, the long-term effects of war on individual health have rarely been examined in the context of developing countries. Based on data collected as a pilot follow-up to the Vietnam Longitudinal Survey, this study examines current health profiles of northern Vietnamese war survivors who entered early adulthood during the Vietnam War and now represent Vietnam's older adult population. To ascertain how war and military service in the early life course may have had long-term impacts on health status of Vietnam's current older adults, we compare multi-dimensional measures of health among veterans and nonveterans, and within these groups, regardless of their military service, between combatants and noncombatants. Multivariate results suggest that despite prolonged exposure to war, veterans and those who served in combat roles are not significantly different from their civilian and noncombatant counterparts on most health outcomes later in life. This is in contrast to American veterans who fought on the opposing side of the war. The near absence of differences in older adult health among northern Vietnamese with varying degrees of war involvement might be explained by the encompassing extent of war; the notion that time heals; and the hardiness and resilience against ill health that are by-products of shared struggle in war and a victorious outcome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of sanitary impact of urban air pollution. Agglomeration of Agen impact at short and long term; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Agglomeration d'Agen impact a court et long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    A health impact assessment of air pollution based on the I.n.V.S. guidelines has been conducted in Agen according to the regional Plan for the quality of air in the region of Aquitaine to assess short term effects of pollutants on morbidity (hospital admissions in 2002) and mortality (deaths in 2001), and long-term effects on mortality. This study is based on the four standardised steps of health risk assessment. It has been carried out in 8 cities homogeneously exposed, belonging to Agen agglomeration, representing a study population of 60,515 inhabitants. Atmospheric pollution indicators analysed are ozone and particles having diameter below 10 {mu}m. Short-term impact of atmospheric pollution has been estimated in term of mortality (total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) and on hospital intakes (for respiratory, cardiovascular and cardiac reasons) attributable to air pollution.Long-term impact was also assessed by the number of deaths due to atmospheric pollution. In 2001, the atmospheric pollution has directly been responsible in the studied area of 4 anticipated deaths, including 2 for cardiovascular reason. A decrease by 25% of the pollutants could allow avoiding 2 premature deaths per year among the 4 attributable to air pollution. Concerning long-term effects, a decrease by 5 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of the annual mean of P.M.10 would allow avoiding 11 premature deaths per year. The results of this study should be interpreted with care because of the limits of the method. However, they show that air pollution can have a health impact even in a small city like Agen, since everyone is exposed to air pollution. (author)

  1. Long-term human exposure to lead from different media and intake pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Thomsen, Marianne; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2010-10-15

    Lead (Pb) is well known as an environmental pollutant: it can accumulate in various media, so actual lead exposure reflects both historical and present contaminations. Two main challenges then emerge: obtaining updated information to gain an overall picture of the sources of exposure, and predicting the resulting internal body exposure levels and effects that occur under long-term exposure conditions. In this paper, a modeling approach is used to meet these challenges with reference to Danish exposure conditions. Levels of lead content in various media have been coupled with data for lead intake and absorption in the human body, for both children and adults. An age-dependent biokinetic model allows then for determination of the blood lead levels resulting from chronic exposure. The study shows that the actual intake of lead is up to 27% of the Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) for children and around 8% for adults. It is confirmed that the critical route of exposure is via ingestion, accounting for 99% of total lead intake, while inhalation contributes only to 1% of total lead intake. The resulting lead levels in the blood after 2 years of exposure to actual contamination conditions have been estimated as up to 2.2μg/dl in children and almost 1μg/dl in adults. Impacts from lead can occur even at such levels. The role of historical and present sources to lead in the environment is discussed, and, for specific child and adult exposure scenarios, external-internal concentration relationships for the direct linkage between lead in environmental media and resulting concentrations of lead in blood are then presented. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The long-term environmental impacts of the Mount Polley mine tailings spill, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Patrick; Hudson-Edwards, Karen; Macklin, Mark; Brewer, Paul; Bird, Graham; Williams, Richard

    2015-04-01

    On the 4th August 2014 a tailings impoundment failure at the Mount Polley gold and copper mine in British Columbia, Canada, released approximately 25 million m3 of solid and liquid waste into Hazeltine Creek, Quesnel Lake and Polley Lake. The sheer volume of the tailings released caused Haseltine Creek channel to expand from 2m to over 25m in width and Polley Lake water level to rise by 1.7m. The spill also removed trees in a 900 km2 corridor either side of Hazeltine Creek. Local residents and government officials have expressed serious concerns regarding the potential long-term effects on regional biodiversity, water security and to the livelihoods of First Nation communities. Among impoundment failures, the Mount Polley disaster is unique in that the solid tailings contain an unusual mixture of metal contaminants (arsenic, copper, gold, manganese, nickel, lead, vanadium). As particulate matter is the principal carrier of metal contaminants, the spilled tailings may reside in the regional soils and sediments for 1000s of years serving as a secondary source of pollution. The environmental risk posed by the spilled tailings is compounded by the location of the spill in a mountainous forested catchment, affected by severe winters with prominent spring snow melts that have the potential to remobilise very large quantities of spilled tailings. No data currently exist on the short- to long-term behaviour of these tailings in soils and sediments and the effects of the clean-up operations on their behaviour in this type of river environment. In this study, we adopt a multidisciplinary approach to determine the environmental and geomorphological impacts of the tailings spill. We have two specific objectives. (1) The physicochemical speciation and geochemical stability of spilled tailings will be characterised in surface and hyporheic sediments using bulk chemistry, mineralogical (XRD and SEM) and speciation methods (sequential extractions, electron microprobe analysis, XAS

  3. Projecting the long-term biogeochemical impacts of a diverse agroforestry system in the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolz, K. J.; DeLucia, E. H.; Paul, R. F.

    2014-12-01

    results illustrate the potential long-term biogeochemical impacts that can be generated by a land-use transition to a diverse agroforestry system in the Midwest.

  4. Long-term impacts of coral bleaching events on the world's warmest reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, John; Al-Harthi, Suaad; Al-Cibahy, Ashraf

    2011-10-01

    The southern Arabian Gulf houses some of the most thermally tolerant corals on earth, but severe bleaching in the late 1990s caused widespread mortality. More than a decade later, corals still dominated benthos (mean: 40 ± 3% cover on 10 sites spanning > 350 km; range: 11.0-65.6%), but coral communities varied spatially. Sites to the west generally had low species richness and coral cover (mean: 3.2 species per transect, 31% cover), with Porites dominated communities (88% of coral) that are distinct from more diverse and higher cover eastern sites (mean: 10.3 species per transect, 62% cover). These patterns reflect both the more extreme bleaching to the west in the late 1990s as well as the higher faviid dominated recruitment to the east in subsequent years. There has been limited recovery of the formerly dominant Acropora, which now represents bleaching can have substantial long-term impacts on coral communities, even in areas with corals tolerant to environmental extremes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The impact of the long-term playing of musical instruments on the stomatognathic system - review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głowacka, Arleta; Matthews-Kozanecka, Maja; Kawala, Maciej; Kawala, Beata

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we have made a review of the influence of playing musical instruments on the formation of malocclusion and TMJ disorders in musicians. Primary attention was paid to the effects of wind and stringed instruments. The aim of the article was the presentation of research and opinions about this problem in the last 25 years. It is reported that long-term and repetitive playing of musical instruments, particularly stringed (violin and viola) and wind instruments can cause dysfunctions of the stomatognathic system. The impact of wind instruments was assessed in terms of the type of mouthpiece. We studied the possibility of repositioning the front teeth and reducing the width of the upper dental arch and overbite. There were also reports on the use of a specific instrument to improve the child's occlusion. Studies have also been performed on the usefulness of relaxation plates in order to improve, and even prevent, dysfunction caused by the constant stress on the same parts of the stomatognathic system. The experiments were mainly based on interviews, dental cast analyses and cephalometric analyses. Additional methods were dynamometer tests and muscle tension palpation.

  6. Impact of liability and site closure and long-term care issues on future siting efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin, E.M.; Hana, S.L.A.

    1988-01-01

    Washington's research in the area of financial responsibility for liability and cleanup for radioactive materials licensees and low-level radioactive waste permittees is offered to assist unsited states and regions in their planning and development of new low-level waste disposal capacity. The state considered the need for third party bodily injury and property damage financial responsibility and determined that the USDOT requirements comprehensively cover transport of wastes. In regard to licensees' facilities, it is the state's opinion that an adequate technical basis for third party requirements has not yet been developed. Also considered was the need for financial assurance for cleanup, which is covered for transportation, but generally not available for facilities. Three options are examined to provide such coverage, and the economic impact on licensees assessed. Finally, the current low-level waste disposal site operator's insurance coverage is analyzed and deficiencies are identified. Washington is also conducting research into site closure and perpetual care and maintenance requirements for the commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility located on the Hanford reservation near Richland, Washington. This research includes a site assessment and identification and formulation of site-specific design elements for closure and long-term care

  7. Long-Term Human Induced Impacts on Marajó Island Landscapes, Amazon Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Schaan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Archaeology is a discipline that can offer a long term perspective on the impacts human societies have had on the environment. Landscape studies are critical for understanding these impacts, because they embrace a dialectical view regarding the relationship between humans and their immediate surroundings. Such studies are well suited to the Amazon basin, a region that has driven much media attention due to astonishing rates of deforestation in certain areas, with likely consequences on the planet’s climate, posing challenges to the survival of the human species for the coming decades. In fact, although much has been said about the impacts of contemporary societies on tropical forest environments, ancient landscape management practices have not yet been considered part of the equation. Thus far, we know that Amerindian societies have been actively transforming their surroundings for millennia. On the eve of European contact, large, complex societies were bringing about long-lasting transformations of landscapes throughout the basin. Conquest and colonization resulted in epidemics, enslavement, and changes to the indigenous economies that managed to survive the genocide. Afterwards, as colonizers would exploit traditional resources leading, in many instances, to their exhaustion, a huge quantity of information on sustainable ways of dealing with certain environments became lost. Traditional knowledge, however, still survives among certain indigenous, peasant (caboclo, and African-Brazilian populations. Documentation of surviving management practices together with the study of the archaeological record could provide valuable information for policy makers. This article examines historical transformations that took place on Marajó Island during the last two millennia and advocates the importance of archaeological research for understanding the historical ecology of landscape change. It is argued that ancient economic strategies, some still being

  8. Microarray-based transcriptomic analysis of differences between long-term gregarious and solitarious desert locusts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Badisco

    Full Text Available Desert locusts (Schistocerca gregaria show an extreme form of phenotypic plasticity and can transform between a cryptic solitarious phase and a swarming gregarious phase. The two phases differ extensively in behavior, morphology and physiology but very little is known about the molecular basis of these differences. We used our recently generated Expressed Sequence Tag (EST database derived from S. gregaria central nervous system (CNS to design oligonucleotide microarrays and compare the expression of thousands of genes in the CNS of long-term gregarious and solitarious adult desert locusts. This identified 214 differentially expressed genes, of which 40% have been annotated to date. These include genes encoding proteins that are associated with CNS development and modeling, sensory perception, stress response and resistance, and fundamental cellular processes. Our microarray analysis has identified genes whose altered expression may enable locusts of either phase to deal with the different challenges they face. Genes for heat shock proteins and proteins which confer protection from infection were upregulated in gregarious locusts, which may allow them to respond to acute physiological challenges. By contrast the longer-lived solitarious locusts appear to be more strongly protected from the slowly accumulating effects of ageing by an upregulation of genes related to anti-oxidant systems, detoxification and anabolic renewal. Gregarious locusts also had a greater abundance of transcripts for proteins involved in sensory processing and in nervous system development and plasticity. Gregarious locusts live in a more complex sensory environment than solitarious locusts and may require a greater turnover of proteins involved in sensory transduction, and possibly greater neuronal plasticity.

  9. Impact of Prosthesis-Patient Mismatch on Long-term Functional Capacity After Mechanical Aortic Valve Replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petit-Eisenmann, H.; Epailly, E.; Velten, M.; Radojevic, J.; Eisenmann, B.; Kremer, H.; Kindo, M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) after aortic valve replacement (AVR) for aortic stenosis on exercise capacity remains controversial. The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term impact of PPM after mechanical AVR on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). METHODS: The study

  10. The Long-Term Impact of Service-Learning on Graduates' Civic Engagement and Career Exploration in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hok-ka, Carol Ma; Wing-fung, Chad Chan; Cheung-ming, Alfred Chan

    2016-01-01

    Service-learning (SL) is a relatively new pedagogy in Hong Kong and so far, no study of SL's long-term impact in Hong Kong exists. To explore SL's impacts on Hong Kong students, researchers conducted a quantitative study to compare graduates with SL experience to graduates without SL experience in terms of three domains: (1) adaptability, brain…

  11. Long-term impact of postoperative radiotherapy in carcinoma of the vulva FIGO I/II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Martin; Wagener, Birgit; Schaffer, Moshe; Duehmke, Eckhart

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Between 1953 and 1978, postoperative radiotherapy was used as an adjuvant therapy for carcinoma of the vulva that had not been treated with radical vulvectomy. We evaluated long-term results and possible prognostic factors. Methods and Materials: Ninety-two patients were treated. Surgical procedures were simple vulvectomy, electrocoagulation, or local excision. Radiotherapy doses to the vulva ranged from 0 to 90 Gy. All patients received radiotherapy to the inguinal lymph nodes, ranging from 30 to 60 Gy. Thirty-year retrospective follow-up was done evaluating the records and statistical survival rates. Results: Five-year actuarial survival rates in T1 patients were 71% (77% cause-specific survival rate), for T2 patients 43% (48% cause-specific survival rate). The difference between T1 and T2 patients was significant (p < 0.05). Patients with tumors of the labia minora had a significantly higher survival rate than those with different sites affected. Doses of 45 Gy or more to the vulva were sufficient to increase the 5-year cause-specific survival rate from 55% to 88%. The results in three subgroups were analyzed, group 1 having received electrocoagulation, but no radiotherapy of the vulva; group 2, local excision and doses of 40 Gy to the vulva; group 3, local excision and doses of 60 Gy to the vulva. There was a significant effect on 10-year cause-specific survival rates: 48% in group 1, 11% in group 2, and 88% in group 3. In multivariate analysis, the significant independent factors were T classification, tumor sites and--with only marginal significance--radiation doses to the vulva. Conclusions: The prognosis in early vulva carcinoma after nonradical surgery primarily depends on T classification and the site of the primary tumor. With univariate analyses, the dose has a significant effect on survival. In multivariate analyses the dose is a marginal independent factor in the whole group of patients. After nonradical surgery of early vulva carcinoma, the

  12. Comparative study of different stochastic weather generators for long-term climate data simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate is one of the single most important factors affecting watershed ecosystems and water resources. The effect of climate variability and change has been studied extensively in some places; in many places, however, assessments are hampered by limited availability of long term continuous climate ...

  13. Short-term memory and long-term memory are still different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Dennis

    2017-09-01

    A commonly expressed view is that short-term memory (STM) is nothing more than activated long-term memory. If true, this would overturn a central tenet of cognitive psychology-the idea that there are functionally and neurobiologically distinct short- and long-term stores. Here I present an updated case for a separation between short- and long-term stores, focusing on the computational demands placed on any STM system. STM must support memory for previously unencountered information, the storage of multiple tokens of the same type, and variable binding. None of these can be achieved simply by activating long-term memory. For example, even a simple sequence of digits such as "1, 3, 1" where there are 2 tokens of the digit "1" cannot be stored in the correct order simply by activating the representations of the digits "1" and "3" in LTM. I also review recent neuroimaging data that has been presented as evidence that STM is activated LTM and show that these data are exactly what one would expect to see based on a conventional 2-store view. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Long-term potential and actual evapotranspiration of two different forests on the Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra Amatya; S. Tian; Z. Dai; Ge Sun

    2016-01-01

    A reliable estimate of potential evapotranspiration (PET) for a forest ecosystem is critical in ecohydrologic modeling related with water supply, vegetation dynamics, and climate change and yet is a challenging task due to its complexity. Based on long-term on-site measured hydro-climatic data and predictions from earlier validated hydrologic modeling studies...

  15. LONG-TERM OUTCOME OF THE DIFFERENT TREATMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR RECURRENT AND PERSISTENT CUSHING DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-de-Los-Monteros, Ana Laura; Sosa-Eroza, Ernesto; Espinosa, Etual; Mendoza, Victoria; Arreola, Rocio; Mercado, Moises

    2017-07-01

    Treatment alternatives for persistent and recurrent Cushing disease (CD) include pituitary surgical re-intervention, radiation therapy (RT), pharmacotherapy, and bilateral adrenalectomy (BA). The decision of which of these alternatives is better suited for the individual patient rests on clinical judgment and the availability of resources. This retrospective cohort study was performed at a referral center to evaluate the long-term efficacy of different secondary interventions for persistent and recurrent CD. We evaluated the hospital charts of 84 patients (77 female, median age 34 years, median follow up 6.3 years) with CD diagnosed, treated, and followed at our multidisciplinary clinic according to a pre-established protocol. Of the 81 patients who were initially treated with transsphenoidal surgery (TSS), 61.7% had a long-lasting remission, 16% had persistent disease, and 22% achieved remission but relapsed during follow-up. The most frequently used secondary treatment was pituitary re-intervention, followed by ketoconazole, RT, and BA. Early remissions were observed in 66.6% of the re-operated and in 58.3% of the radiated patients; long-lasting remission was achieved in 33.3% and 41.6% of these patients, respectively. Nelson syndrome developed in 41.6% of the patients who underwent BA. Upon last follow-up, 88% of all the patients are in remission, and 9.5% are biochemically controlled with ketoconazole. The efficacy of treatment alternatives for recurrent or persistent CD varies considerably among patients and multiple interventions are often required to achieve long-lasting remission. ACTH = adrenocorticotrophic hormone; BA = bilateral adrenalectomy; CBG = cabergoline; CD = Cushing disease; CV = coefficient of variation; DXM = dexamethasone; IQR = interquartile range; RT = radiation therapy; SRS = stereotactic radiosurgery; TSS = transsphenoidal surgery; UFC = urinary free cortisol; ULN = upper limit of normal.

  16. Medium-long term soil resilience against different disturbances: wildfires, silvicultural treatments and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedo de Santiago, Javier; Borja, Manuel Esteban Lucas; de las Heras, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    Soils of semiarid Mediterranean forest ecosystems are very fragile and sensitive to changes due to different anthropogenic and natural disturbances. The increasing vulnerability of semiarid lands within this world framework has generated growing awareness in the field of research, with highly intensified study into soils properties. One of the main problems of Mediterranean forests is wildfire disturbance. Fire should be considered more an ecological factor but, in contrast to the role of fire, it is now a closely related factor to human action. On the other hand, to improve the recovery of forest communities after fire, silvicultural treatments are needed and, for that matter, another disturbance is added to the ecosystem. By last, climate change is also affecting the fire regime increasing fire frequency and burned area, enhancing the destructiveness to Mediterranean ecosystems. After all of these three disturbances, changes in vegetation dynamics and soil properties are expected to occur due to the plant-soil feedback. Soil plays an essential role in the forest ecosystem's fertility and stability and specifically soil microorganisms, which accomplish reactions to release soil nutrients for vegetation development, for that is essential to enlarge knowledge about soil properties resilience in semiarid forest ecosystems. Physico-chemical and microbiological soil properties, and enzyme activities have been studied in two Aleppo pine forest stands that have suffered three disturbances: 1) a wildfire event, 2) silvicultural treatments (thinning) and 3) an artificial drought (simulating climate change) and results showed that soil recovered after 15 years. Final results showed that soils have been recovered from the three disturbances at the medium-long term.

  17. Benzodiazepines Withdrawal: Initial Outcomes and Long-Term Impact on Falls in a French Nursing Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Javelot

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Long-term use of benzodiazepines (BZDs is known to induce tolerance and dependence, and increase the risk of falls-related injuries in older adults. We present a study carried out in a French nursing home that concerns the implementation of a BZD withdrawal program reassessed at one year. BZD deprescription was achieved by gradual cessation of doses. A secondary benefit of this program was assessed by comparing the number of falls among residents before and after withdrawal. The number of falls was recorded over a six-month period prior to the onset of withdrawal (T1 and then over a six-month period after reassessment at one year (T2. At the beginning, 31 (28.7% of the patients were under BZD. Total deprescription was obtained for 11 patients. The number of falls per patient over the T1 period was not different between the two groups (future non-withdrawn and withdrawn patients in BZD: 2.1 ± 1.3 and 2.3 ± 0.6 falls per resident, respectively. Conversely, the number of falls per patient was significantly decreased in the population completely withdrawn in BZD between the T1 and T2 periods (2.3 ± 0.6 vs. 0.5 ± 0.2 falls, p = 0.01. The results show that BZD deprescription, through a gradual reduction of doses, is possible to achieve.

  18. Establishing research priorities relating to the long-term impact of TIA and minor stroke through stakeholder-centred consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Grace M; Backman, Ruth; McMullan, Christel; Mathers, Jonathan; Marshall, Tom; Calvert, Melanie

    2018-01-01

    that care should be delivered (clinical setting and follow-up pathway); impact on family members; and education/training for health care professionals. Background Clinical management after transient ischaemic attack (TIA) and minor stroke focuses on stroke prevention. However, evidence demonstrates that many patients experience ongoing residual impairments. Residual impairments post-TIA and minor stroke may affect patients' quality of life and return to work or social activities. Research priorities of patients, health care professionals and key stakeholders relating to the long-term impact of TIA and minor stroke are unknown. Methods Our objective was to establish the top shared research priorities relating to the long-term impact of TIA and minor stroke through stakeholder-centred consensus. A one-day priority setting consensus meeting took place with representatives from different stakeholder groups in October 2016 (Birmingham, UK). Nominal group technique was used to establish research priorities. This involved three stages: (i) gathering research priorities from individual stakeholders; (ii) interim prioritisation in three subgroups; and (iii) final priority setting. Results The priority setting consensus meeting was attended by 11 stakeholders. The individual stakeholders identified 34 different research priorities. During the interim prioritisation exercise, the three subgroups generated 24 unique research priorities which were discussed as a whole group. Following the final consensus discussion, 11 shared research priorities were unanimously agreed.The 11 research questions encompass a range of categories, including: understanding the existing care patients receive (according to diagnosis and geographical location); exploring what optimal care post-TIA/minor stroke should comprise (identifying and treating impairments, information giving and support groups) and how that care should be delivered (clinical setting and follow-up pathway); impact on family members

  19. Long-term Differences in Tillage and Land Use Affect Intra-aggregate Pore Heterogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchenko, A.N.; Wang, A.N.W.; Smucker, A.J.M.; Rivers, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in computed tomography provide measurement tools to study internal structures of soil aggregates at micrometer resolutions and to improve our understanding of specific mechanisms of various soil processes. Fractal analysis is one of the data analysis tools that can be helpful in evaluating heterogeneity of the intra-aggregate internal structures. The goal of this study was to examine how long-term tillage and land use differences affect intra-aggregate pore heterogeneity. The specific objectives were: (i) to develop an approach to enhance utility of box-counting fractal dimension in characterizing intra-aggregate pore heterogeneity; (ii) to examine intra-aggregate pores in macro-aggregates (4-6 mm in size) using the computed tomography scanning and fractal analysis, and (iii) to compare heterogeneity of intra-aggregate pore space in aggregates from loamy Alfisol soil subjected to 20 yr of contrasting management practices, namely, conventional tillage (chisel plow) (CT), no-till (NT), and native succession vegetation (NS). Three-dimensional images of the intact aggregates were obtained with a resolution of 14.6 (micro)m at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL. Proposed box-counting fractal dimension normalization was successfully implemented to estimate heterogeneity of pore voxel distributions without bias associated with different porosities in soil aggregates. The aggregates from all three studied treatments had higher porosity associated with large (>100 (micro)m) pores present in their centers than in their exteriors. Pores 15 to 60 (micro)m were equally abundant throughout entire aggregates but their distributions were more heterogeneous in aggregate interiors. The CT aggregates had greater numbers of pores 15 to 60 (micro)m than NT and NS. Distribution of pore voxels belonging to large pores was most heterogeneous in the aggregates from NS, followed by NT and by CT. This result was consistent with presence of

  20. Long-term health and medical cost impact of smoking prevention in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li Yan; Michael, Shannon L

    2015-02-01

    To estimate smoking progression probabilities from adolescence to young adulthood and to estimate long-term health and medical cost impacts of preventing smoking in today's adolescents. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we first estimated smoking progression probabilities from adolescence to young adulthood. Then, using the predicted probabilities, we estimated the number of adolescents who were prevented from becoming adult daily smokers as a result of a hypothetical 1 percentage point reduction in the prevalence of ever smoking in today's adolescents. We further estimated lifetime medical costs saved and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained as a result of preventing adolescents from becoming adult daily smokers. All costs were in 2010 dollars. Compared with never smokers, those who had tried smoking at baseline had higher probabilities of becoming current or former daily smokers at follow-up regardless of baseline grade or sex. A hypothetical 1 percentage point reduction in the prevalence of ever smoking in 24.5 million students in 7th-12th grades today could prevent 35,962 individuals from becoming a former daily smoker and 44,318 individuals from becoming a current daily smoker at ages 24-32 years. As a result, lifetime medical care costs are estimated to decrease by $1.2 billion and lifetime QALYs is estimated to increase by 98,590. Effective smoking prevention programs for adolescents go beyond reducing smoking prevalence in adolescence; they also reduce daily smokers in young adulthood, increase QALYs, and reduce medical costs substantially in later life. This finding indicates the importance of continued investment in effective youth smoking prevention programs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Long-term weight gain and economic impact in pigs castrated under local anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G. Telles

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Castration is a controversial practice in swine production because in some countries is still performed without anaesthesia, and therefore causes intense suffering and stress to animals. This study investigated the effect of pre-surgical administration of local anaesthesia (LA on the growth performance of piglets until the end of the growth phase (102 days. Piglets aged 3 to 5 days were selected in pairs of similar weights and same age. They were originated from 22 litters. The groups were randomly assigned to one of two treatments. Castration was performed with (LA; n = 45 or without (NLA; n = 45 intra-testicular administration of 0.5 mL of 2% lidocaine plus adrenaline per testicle, administered by an automatic repeating vaccinator. Castration was performed 10 min later. Average daily weight gain and economic impact were evaluated between the intervals before castration until 21 (weaning phase, before castration until 60 (end of the initial nursery phase and before castration until 102 (growth phase days of age. Average daily weight gain data were analyzed by comparing the average daily weight gain between the weaning phase, 60 and 102 days of age versus the initial weight (pre-castration. At the end of the growing phase, animals treated with LA showed greater weight gain than animals castrated without anaesthesia. LA also showed improved cost:benefit ratio and theore might provide greater economic benefit under the conditions used in this study. Our findings have proved that castration with LA improves long-term weight gain of piglets.

  2. Impact of glaciations on the long-term erosion in Southern Patagonian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Labric, Thibaud; Herman, Frederic; Baumgartner, Lukas; Shuster, David L.; Braun, Jean; Reiners, Pete W.; Valla, Pierre G.; Leuthold, Julien

    2014-05-01

    The Southern Patagonian Andes are an ideal setting to study the impact of Late-Cenozoic climate cooling and onset of glaciations impact on the erosional history of mountain belts. The lack of tectonic activity during the last ~12 Myr makes the denudation history mainly controlled by surface processes, not by tectonics. Moreover, the glaciations history of Patagonia shows the best-preserved records within the southern hemisphere (with the exception of Antarctica). Indeed, the dry climate on the leeward side of Patagonia and the presence of lava flows interbedded with glacial deposits has allowed an exceptional preservation of late Cenozoic moraines with precise dating using K-Ar analyses on lava flow. The chronology of moraines reveals a long history covering all the Quaternary, Pliocene, and up to the Upper Miocene. The early growth of large glaciers flowing on eastern foothills started at ~7-6 Myr, while the maximum ice-sheet extent dates from approximately 1.1 Myr. In order to quantify the erosion history of the Southern Patagonian Andes and compare it to the glaciations sediment record, we collected samples along an age-elevation profile for low-temperature thermochronology in the eastern side of the mountain belt (Torres del Paine massif). The (U-Th)/He age-elevation relationship shows a clear convex shape providing an apparent long-term exhumation rate of ~0.2 km/Myr followed by an exhumation rate increase at ~6 Myr. Preliminary results of 4He/3He thermochronometry for a subset of samples complete the erosion history for the Plio-Pleistocene epoch. We used inverse procedure predicting 4He distributions within an apatite grain using a radiation-damage and annealing model to quantify He-diffusion kinetics in apatite. The model also allows quantifying the impact of potential U-Th zonation throughout each apatite crystal. Inversion results reveal a denudation history composed by a pulse of denudation at ~6 Ma, as suggested by the age-elevation relationship

  3. Assessing the long term impact of phosphorus fertilization on phosphorus loadings using AnnAGNPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yongping; Bingner, Ronald L; Locke, Martin A; Stafford, Jim; Theurer, Fred D

    2011-06-01

    High phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields has been an environmental concern because of potential water quality problems in streams and lakes. To better understand the process of P loss and evaluate the effects of different phosphorus fertilization rates on phosphorus losses, the USDA Annualized AGricultural Non-Point Source (AnnAGNPS) pollutant loading model was applied to the Ohio Upper Auglaize watershed, located in the southern portion of the Maumee River Basin. In this study, the AnnAGNPS model was calibrated using USGS monitored data; and then the effects of different phosphorus fertilization rates on phosphorus loadings were assessed. It was found that P loadings increase as fertilization rate increases, and long term higher P application would lead to much higher P loadings to the watershed outlet. The P loadings to the watershed outlet have a dramatic change after some time with higher P application rate. This dramatic change of P loading to the watershed outlet indicates that a "critical point" may exist in the soil at which soil P loss to water changes dramatically. Simulations with different initial soil P contents showed that the higher the initial soil P content is, the less time it takes to reach the "critical point" where P loadings to the watershed outlet increases dramatically. More research needs to be done to understand the processes involved in the transfer of P between the various stable, active and labile states in the soil to ensure that the model simulations are accurate. This finding may be useful in setting up future P application and management guidelines.

  4. Impact of short-term severe accident management actions in a long-term perspective. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    The present systems for severe accident management are focused on mitigating the consequences of special severe accident phenomena and to reach a safe plant state. However, in the development of strategies and procedures for severe accident management, it is also important to consider the long-term perspective of accident management and especially to secure the safe state of the plant. The main reason for this is that certain short-term actions have an impact on the long-term scenario. Both positive and negative effects from short-term actions on the accident management in the long-term perspective have been included in this paper. Short-term actions are accident management measures taken within about 24 hours after the initiating event. The purpose of short-term actions is to reach a stable status of the plant. The main goal in the long-term perspective is to maintain the reactor in a stable state and prevent uncontrolled releases of activity. The purpose of this short Technical Note, deliberately limited in scope, is to draw attention to potential long-term problems, important to utilities and regulatory authorities, arising from the way a severe accident would be managed during the first hours. Its objective is to encourage discussions on the safest - and maybe also most economical - way to manage a severe accident in the long term by not making the situation worse through inappropriate short-term actions, and on the identification of short-term actions likely to make long-term management easier and safer. The Note is intended as a contribution to the knowledge base put at the disposal of Member countries through international collaboration. The scope of the work has been limited to a literature search. Useful further activities have been identified. However, there is no proposal, at this stage, for more detailed work to be undertaken under the auspices of the CSNI. Plant-specific applications would need to be developed by utilities

  5. On the long-term stability of calibration standards in different matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandić, A.; Vukanac, I.; Djurašević, M.; Novković, D.; Šešlak, B.; Milošević, Z.

    2012-01-01

    In order to assure Quality Control in accordance with ISO/IEC 17025, it was important, from metrological point of view, to examine the long-term stability of calibration standards previously prepared. Comprehensive reconsideration on efficiency curves with respect to the ageing of calibration standards is presented in this paper. The calibration standards were re-used after a period of 5 years and analysis of the results showed discrepancies in efficiency values. - Highlights: ► Long-term stability of calibration standards (ISO 17025 Quality Control) was analyzed. ► Calibration standards covered the wide range of densities and chemical composition. ► Mineralized grass, powdered milk, surface soil and sand were used as standard matrices. ► Calibration standards were re-evaluated after 5 years. ► Results showed discrepancies of efficiency values.

  6. On the long-term stability of calibration standards in different matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandić, A; Vukanac, I; Djurašević, M; Novković, D; Šešlak, B; Milošević, Z

    2012-09-01

    In order to assure Quality Control in accordance with ISO/IEC 17025, it was important, from metrological point of view, to examine the long-term stability of calibration standards previously prepared. Comprehensive reconsideration on efficiency curves with respect to the ageing of calibration standards is presented in this paper. The calibration standards were re-used after a period of 5 years and analysis of the results showed discrepancies in efficiency values. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cell-Specific PKM Isoforms Contribute to the Maintenance of Different Forms of Persistent Long-Term Synaptic Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiangyuan; Adler, Kerry; Farah, Carole Abi; Hastings, Margaret H; Sossin, Wayne S; Schacher, Samuel

    2017-03-08

    Multiple kinase activations contribute to long-term synaptic plasticity, a cellular mechanism mediating long-term memory. The sensorimotor synapse of Aplysia expresses different forms of long-term facilitation (LTF)-nonassociative and associative LTF-that require the timely activation of kinases, including protein kinase C (PKC). It is not known which PKC isoforms in the sensory neuron or motor neuron L7 are required to sustain each form of LTF. We show that different PKMs, the constitutively active isoforms of PKCs generated by calpain cleavage, in the sensory neuron and L7 are required to maintain each form of LTF. Different PKMs or calpain isoforms were blocked by overexpressing specific dominant-negative constructs in either presynaptic or postsynaptic neurons. Blocking either PKM Apl I in L7, or PKM Apl II or PKM Apl III in the sensory neuron 2 d after 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) treatment reversed persistent nonassociative LTF. In contrast, blocking either PKM Apl II or PKM Apl III in L7, or PKM Apl II in the sensory neuron 2 d after paired stimuli reversed persistent associative LTF. Blocking either classical calpain or atypical small optic lobe (SOL) calpain 2 d after 5-HT treatment or paired stimuli did not disrupt the maintenance of persistent LTF. Soon after 5-HT treatment or paired stimuli, however, blocking classical calpain inhibited the expression of persistent associative LTF, while blocking SOL calpain inhibited the expression of persistent nonassociative LTF. Our data suggest that different stimuli activate different calpains that generate specific sets of PKMs in each neuron whose constitutive activities sustain long-term synaptic plasticity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Persistent synaptic plasticity contributes to the maintenance of long-term memory. Although various kinases such as protein kinase C (PKC) contribute to the expression of long-term plasticity, little is known about how constitutive activation of specific kinase isoforms sustains long-term

  8. Effects of Different Types of True-False Questions on Memory Awareness and Long-Term Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Lydia; Verkoeijen, Peter; Schmidt, Henk

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of two different true-false questions on memory awareness and long-term retention of knowledge. Participants took four subsequent knowledge tests on curriculum learning material that they studied at different retention intervals prior to the start of this study (i.e. prior to the first test). At the first and…

  9. Assessing the impact of agricultural R&D investments on long-term projections of food security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristkova, Zuzana Smeets; Dijk, Van Michiel; Meijl, Van Hans

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to analyze the impact of public agricultural Research and Development (R&D) investments on agricultural productivity and long-term food security to derive policy recommendations. The methodological approach is based on the application of the state-of-the art

  10. The Long-Term Impact of Admission Policies: A Comparative Study of Two Emergent Research Institutions in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Gloria; Horn, Catherine; Dizinno, Gerry; Barlow, Libby

    2013-01-01

    The present study explored the long-term impact of admission policies at two aspiring research institutions in Texas. Six years of longitudinal institutional data were analyzed for all full-time first time in college undergraduate students at both universities. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to identify relationships and…

  11. Assessing the Long-term Impact of Microcredit on Rural Poverty: Does the Timing and Length of Participation Matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhane, G.; Gardebroek, C.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, microfinance institutions are seen as beacons of hope to help eradicate poverty through, among others, providing credit to poor rural households. Availability of small but repeated loans is, in the long-term, expected to impact on poverty. However, decades after the introduction of

  12. Impacts of long-term waste-water irrigation on the development of sandy Luvisols: consequences for metal pollutant distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van F.; Jongmans, A.G.; Lamy, I.; Baize, D.; Chevallier, P.

    2008-01-01

    Studies relating macro- and microscopic aspects of impacts of long-term contaminative practices on soils are scarce. We performed such an approach by assessing the fate of metal pollutants in an area close to Paris, where sandy Luvisols were irrigated for 100 years with urban waste water. As a

  13. Evaluating Indicator-Based Methods of "Measuring Long-Term Impacts of a Science Center on Its Community"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eric Allen

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses some of the challenges faced when attempting to evaluate the long-term impact of informal science learning interventions. To contribute to the methodological development of informal science learning research, we critically examine (Falk and Needham (2011) "Journal of Research in Science Teaching," 48: 1-12.) study…

  14. Long-term Impact of Bile Duct Injury on Morbidity, Mortality, Quality of Life, and Work Related Limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, Klaske A. C.; de Reuver, Philip R.; van Dieren, Susan; van Delden, Otto M.; Rauws, Erik A.; Busch, Olivier R.; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Gouma, Dirk J.

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of long-term comprehensive outcome of multimodality treatment of bile duct injury (BDI) in terms of morbidity, mortality, quality of life (QoL), survival, and work related limitations. The impact of BDI on work ability is scarcely investigated. BDI patients referred to a tertiary center

  15. Impact of Infection Prevention and Control Initiatives on Acute Respiratory Infections in a Pediatric Long-Term Care Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Meghan T; Jackson, Olivia; Cohen, Bevin; Hutcheon, Gordon; Saiman, Lisa; Larson, Elaine; Neu, Natalie

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated the collective impact of several infection prevention and control initiatives aimed at reducing acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in a pediatric long-term care facility. ARIs did not decrease overall, though the proportion of infections associated with outbreaks and average number of cases per outbreak decreased. Influenza rates decreased significantly. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:859-862.

  16. Safety case methodology for decommissioning of research reactors. Assessment of the long term impact of a flooding scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladescu, G.; Banciu, O.

    1999-01-01

    The paper contains the assessment methodology of a Safety Case fuel decommissioning of research reactors, taking into account the international approach principles. The paper also includes the assessment of a flooding scenario for a decommissioned research reactor (stage 1 of decommissioning). The scenario presents the flooding of reactor basement, radionuclide migration through environment and long term radiological impact for public. (authors)

  17. Long-term socio-economic impact of vestibular schwannoma for patients under observation and after surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tos, Tina; Caye-Thomasen, Per; Stangerup, Sven-Eric

    2003-01-01

    This study describes and compares the long-term socio-economic impact for patients diagnosed with a vestibular schwannoma and either operated on or observed. A consecutive sample of patients diagnosed with vestibular schwannoma in Denmark and either operated on (748 patients) or observed...

  18. Long term impact of emotional, social and cognitive intelligence competencies and GMAT on career and life satisfaction and career success

    OpenAIRE

    Amdurer, Emily; Boyatzis, Richard E.; Saatcioglu, Argun; Smith, Melvin L.; Taylor, Scott N.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACTCareer scholars have called for a broader definition of career success by inviting greater exploration of its antecedents. While success in various jobs has been predicted by intelligence and in other studies by competencies, especially in management, long term impact of having intelligence and using competencies has not been examined. Even in collegiate outcome studies, few have examined the longer term impact on graduates’ careers or lives. This study assesses the impact of demonstr...

  19. Impact of Electronic Health Records on Long-Term Care Facilities: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Clemens Scott; Mileski, Michael; Vijaykumar, Alekhya Ganta; Viswanathan, Sneha Vishnampet; Suskandla, Ujwala; Chidambaram, Yazhini

    2017-09-29

    Long-term care (LTC) facilities are an important part of the health care industry, providing care to the fastest-growing group of the population. However, the adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) in LTC facilities lags behind other areas of the health care industry. One of the reasons for the lack of widespread adoption in the United States is that LTC facilities are not eligible for incentives under the Meaningful Use program. Implementation of an EHR system in an LTC facility can potentially enhance the quality of care, provided it is appropriately implemented, used, and maintained. Unfortunately, the lag in adoption of the EHR in LTC creates a paucity of literature on the benefits of EHR implementation in LTC facilities. The objective of this systematic review was to identify the potential benefits of implementing an EHR system in LTC facilities. The study also aims to identify the common conditions and EHR features that received favorable remarks from providers and the discrepancies that needed improvement to build up momentum across LTC settings in adopting this technology. The authors conducted a systematic search of PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), and MEDLINE databases. Papers were analyzed by multiple referees to filter out studies not germane to our research objective. A final sample of 28 papers was selected to be included in the systematic review. Results of this systematic review conclude that EHRs show significant improvement in the management of documentation in LTC facilities and enhanced quality outcomes. Approximately 43% (12/28) of the papers reported a mixed impact of EHRs on the management of documentation, and 33% (9/28) of papers reported positive quality outcomes using EHRs. Surprisingly, very few papers demonstrated an impact on patient satisfaction, physician satisfaction, the length of stay, and productivity using EHRs. Overall, implementation of EHRs has been found to be effective in the few LTC

  20. Speaking up and Speaking Out? Long-Term Impact of Critical Multicultural Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Jill Ewing

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the long-term effects of critical multicultural pedagogy on seven adolescents. Four years later, participants continued to demonstrate awareness of privilege and racism, yet few were actively engaged in antiracist work. Participants also expressed disillusionment and lamented the lack of productive discussions of critical…

  1. Long-term management impacts on carbon storage in Lake States forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Powers; Randall Kolka; Brian Palik; Rachel McDonald; Martin. Jurgensen

    2011-01-01

    We examined carbon storage following 50+ years of forest management in two long-term silvicultural studies in red pine and northern hardwood ecosystems of North America’s Great Lakes region. The studies contrasted various thinning intensities (red pine) or selection cuttings, shelterwoods, and diameter-limit cuttings (northern hardwoods) to unmanaged controls of...

  2. Understanding long-term impacts of R&D funding: The EU framework programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Despite a large and growing effort in the evaluation of public R&D funding programmes, we know surprisingly little about their long-term effects. This is a pity, because the conventional justifications for state intervention in research depend upon phenomena such as the production and use of public

  3. Impact of long-term HPN on daily life in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persoon, Anke; Huisman-de Waal, Getty; Naber, Ton A.; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Tas, Tirzah; Sauerwein, Hans; van Achterberg, Theo

    2005-01-01

    Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is a therapy that changes life radically and often means lifelong dependence on parenteral feeding. The aim of this study was to gain insight into problems experienced by adult patients who were dependent on long-term HPN. A survey was performed on all patients at the

  4. Impact of long-term HPN on daily life in adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persoon, A.; Huisman-de Waal, G.J.; Naber, A.H.J.; Schoonhoven, L.; Tas, T.; Sauerwein, H.P.; Achterberg, T. van

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is a therapy that changes life radically and often means lifelong dependence on parenteral feeding. The aim of this study was to gain insight into problems experienced by adult patients who were dependent on long-term HPN. METHODS: A survey was

  5. LONG-TERM CULTURAL IMPACTS OF DISASTER DECISION-MAKING: The Case of Post Earthquake Reconstruction in Marathwada, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Jigyasu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Emergency situations are special since they present decision makers with a context that is characterized by extraordinary constraints on resources, need for urgency of actions and a critical psychosocial state that is markedly different than the normal situation. However, actions taken under these extraordinary situations can have a profound bearing on the longterm recovery of the community and its heritage. This paper considers the critical aspects of decision-making in emergency situations that need to be considered for sustainable longterm recovery of cultural heritage. It is difficult however to judge these essential considerations beforehand without evaluating the impacts of these decisions in hindsight. These considerations will be illustrated through case study of post-earthquake reconstruction in Marathwada in India by assessing the long-term impact of rehabilitation policies formulated in the immediate aftermath of the earthquake. Patterns of adaptation and change in these areas demonstrate how small decisions taken during emergency can have wider socio-economic and physical implications. These cases will also show the importance of understanding the local context, especially with respect to local vulnerabilities as well as capacities, skills and resources while making decisions. These would also emphasize the necessity and ways of engaging various stakeholders, especially the local community, not as passive recipients but as important actors in the decision-making process. These considerations are significant for conservation professionals making decisions during emergencies, especially with regards to immediate protection, repairs and long-term recovery of cultural heritage, while we largely remain at the periphery of the reconstruction process.

  6. Impact of heavy repeated long term pesticide applications on soil properties in a cotton agroecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Altaf; Asi, Muhammad Rafique; Iqbal, Zafar; Chaudhry, Jamil Anwar

    2001-01-01

    A study was conducted under field conditions to investigate the effects of heavy repeated long term pesticide applications, at their recommended doses, on some biological properties in relation to the cotton agroecosystem at NIAB, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Control, test and treated soils before (BPA) and after pesticide applications (APA) were collected and analyzed at different stages of pesticide applications. The selective tests were measurements of microbial numbers, basal as well as substrate-induced respiration, nitrification, Fe-III reduction and the activities, of dehydrogenase and arginine deaminase. Endosulfan, profenophos + alphamethrin and methamidophos inhibited while monocrotophos and bifenthrin + acetamiprid enhanced the bacterial population numbers. The fungal population was depressed with endosulfan while monocrotophos, profenophos and methamidophos stimulated it. All other applied pesticides did not cause any appreciable change in total bacterial and fungal populations throughout the study period. Monocrotophos, propargite, endosulfan alone or with dimethoate and profenophos with cypermethrin or with ethion inhibited the respiration and hence affected the biomass. All other pesticides had no effect in test and treated soils compared to control soil. No pronounced inhibition or stimulation was seen in respiration after several weeks following the applications of pesticide. Endosulfan, endosulfan with dimethoate, methamidophos stimulated while profenophos + cypermethrin and bifenthrin + endosulfan inhibited the nitrification. All other pesticide applications showed similar nitrification rates in test and treated soils compared to control soil. Iron reduction capacity was stimulated by dimethoate + endosulfan and propenophos + cypermethrin and profenphos, methamidophos, propargite and diafenthiuron + profenophos reduced it. Soil dehydrogenase activity was inhibited by methamidophos, fenpropathrin, endosulfan + dimethoate and bifenthrin + ethion

  7. Evaluation of sanitary impact of urban air pollution. Agglomeration of Bayonne impact at short and long term; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Agglomeration de Bayonne impact a cour et long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    A health impact assessment of air pollution based on the I.n.V.S. guidelines has been conducted in Bayonne according to the regional Plan for the quality of air in the region of Aquitaine. It has been carried out in 16 cities homogeneously exposed, belonging to Bayonne agglomeration, representing a study population of 148,742 inhabitants. Atmospheric pollution indicators analyzed are ozone, nitrogen dioxide and particles having diameter below 10 {mu}m. Short-term impact of atmospheric pollution has been estimated in term of mortality (total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) and on hospital intakes (for respiratory, cardiovascular and cardiac reasons) attributable to air pollution. Long term impact was also assessed by the number of deaths due to atmospheric pollution. In 2001, the atmospheric pollution has directly been responsible in the studied area for 20 anticipated deaths. A decrease by 25% of the pollutants could allow avoiding half of the premature deaths and hospital intakes attributable to air pollution. Concerning long term effects, a decrease by 5 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of the annual mean of PM{sub 10} could allow avoiding 32 deaths per year. These results should be interpreted with care because of the limits of the method. However, they show that air pollution impact is non negligible even in a small agglomeration like Bayonne, since everyone is exposed to air pollution. They also suggest that a policy of atmospheric pollution reduction only based on not exceeding the standard levels would not have the expected benefits on the public health point of view. To decrease at the source the everyday and total pollutants emissions would be more efficient. (author)

  8. Evaluation of sanitary impact of urban air pollution. Agglomeration of Perigueux impact at short and long term; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Agglomeration de Perigueux impact a court et long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-15

    A health impact assessment of air pollution based on the I.n.V.S. guidelines has been conducted in Perigueux according to the regional Plan for the quality of air in the region of Aquitaine. It has been carried out in 5 cities homogeneously exposed, belonging to Perigueux agglomeration, representing a study population of 52,948 inhabitants. Atmospheric pollution indicators analysed are ozone, nitrogen dioxide and particles having diameter below 10 {mu}m. Short-term impact of atmospheric pollution has been estimated in term of mortality (total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) and on hospital intakes (for respiratory, cardiovascular and cardiac reasons) attributable to air pollution. Long term impact was also assessed by the number of deaths due to atmospheric pollution. In 2001, the atmospheric pollution has directly been responsible in the studied area for 5 anticipated deaths. A decrease by 25% of the pollutants could allow avoiding half of the premature deaths and hospital intakes attributable to air pollution. Concerning long term effects, a decrease by 5 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of the annual mean of P.M.10 could allow avoiding 10 deaths per year. These results should be interpreted with care because of the limits of the method. However, they show that air pollution can have an impact even in a small agglomeration like Perigueux, since everyone is exposed to air pollution. They also suggest that a policy of atmospheric pollution reduction only based on not exceeding the standard levels would not have the expected benefits on the public health point of view. To decrease at the source the every day and total pollutants emissions would be more efficient. (author)

  9. The Impact of Policy Incentives on Long-Term Care Insurance and Medicaid Costs: Does Underwriting Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Portia Y; Grabowski, David C

    2018-05-16

    To test whether underwriting modifies the effect of state-based incentives on individuals' purchase of long-term care insurance. Health and Retirement Study (HRS), 1996-2012. We estimated difference-in-difference regression models with an interaction of state policy indicators with individuals' probabilities of being approved for long-term care insurance. We imputed probabilities of underwriting approval for respondents in the HRS using a model developed with underwriting decisions from two U.S. insurance firms. We measured the elasticity response to long-term care insurance price using changes in simulated after-tax price as an instrumental variable for premium price. Tax incentives and Partnership programs increased insurance purchase by 3.62 percentage points and 1.8 percentage points, respectively, among those with the lowest risk (highest approval probability). Neither had any statistically significant effects among the highest risk individuals. We show that ignoring the effects of underwriting may lead to biased estimates of the potential state budget savings of long-term care insurance tax incentives. If the private market is to play a role in financing long-term care, policies need to address the underlying adverse selection problems. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  10. Evaluation of sanitary impact of urban air pollution. Agglomeration of Pau impact at short and long term; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Agglomeration de Pau impact a cour et long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    A health impact assessment of air pollution based on the I.n.V.S. guidelines has been conducted in Pau according to the regional Plan for the quality of air in the region of Aquitaine. Short-term effects of pollutants on morbidity (hospital admissions in 2002) and mortality (deaths in 2001) have been estimated. Long-term effect on mortality was also assessed. This study is based on the four standardised steps of health risk assessment. It has been carried out in twenty-nine cities homogeneously exposed, belonging to Pau agglomeration, i.e. a study population of about 150,000 inhabitants. Atmospheric pollution indicators analysed are ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and particles having diameter below 10 {mu}m. Short-term impact of atmospheric pollution has been estimated in term of mortality (total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) and on hospital intakes (for respiratory, cardiovascular and cardiac reasons) attributable to air pollution. Long term impact was also assessed by the number of deaths due to atmospheric pollution. In 2001, the atmospheric pollution has directly been responsible in the studied area for 17 anticipated deaths, including 7 for cardiovascular reason and 2 for respiratory reason. Concerning morbidity, it generated 20 hospital admissions for cardiovascular reason in 2002, 11 for cardiac reason, and 7 for respiratory reason among elderly people. Regarding long-term health gains, an annually decrease according to the European standards levels of 2010 could allow avoiding 12 deaths per year, and a decrease by 30% of the pollutants could allow avoiding 33 premature deaths per year. This study shows that, even if the relative risks associated to air pollution are quite low, the number of attributable cases is non negligible since everyone is exposed to air pollution. It also shows that a policy of atmospheric pollution reduction only based on not exceeding the standard levels would not have the expected benefits on the public health point of view

  11. Impacts of high energy prices on long-term energy-economic scenarios for Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krey, V.; Markewitz, P. [Research Center Juelich, Inst. of Energy Res., Systems Analysis and Technology Evaluation, Juelich (Germany); Horn, M. [DIW Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Matthes, C.; Graichen, V.; Harthan, R.O.; Repenning, J. [Oeko-Institut, Berlin (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Prices of oil and other fossil fuels on global markets have reached a high level in recent years. These levels were not able to be reproduced on the basis of scenarios and prognoses that were published in the past. New scenarios, based on higher energy price trajectories, have appeared only recently. The future role of various energy carriers and technologies in energy-economic scenarios will greatly depend on the level of energy prices. Therefore, an analysis of the impact of high energy prices on long-term scenarios for Germany was undertaken. Based on a reference scenario with moderate prices, a series of consistent high price scenarios for primary and secondary energy carriers were developed. Two scenarios with (i) continuously rising price trajectories and (ii) a price shock with a price peak during the period 2010-15 and a subsequent decline to the reference level are analysed. Two types of models have been applied in the analysis. The IKARUS energy systems optimisation model covers the whole of the German energy system from primary energy supply down to the end-use sectors. Key results in both high price scenarios include a replacement of natural gas by hard coal and renewable energy sources in electricity and heat generation. Backstop technologies like coal liquefaction begin to play a role under such conditions. Up to 10% of final energy consumption is saved in the end-use sectors, with the residential and transport sector being the greatest contributors. Even without additional restrictions, CO{sub 2} emissions significantly drop in comparison to the reference scenario. The ELIAS electricity investment analysis model focuses on the power sector. In the reference scenario with current allocation rules in the emissions trading scheme, the CO{sub 2} emissions decrease relatively steadily. The development is characterised by the phaseout of nuclear energy which is counterweighted by the increase of renewable. In the high price scenario, the CO{sub 2

  12. Sand mining impacts on long-term dune erosion in southern Monterey Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, E.B.; Sallenger, Abby; Sesto, Juan Conforto; Egley, L.; McGee, Timothy; Parsons, Rost

    2006-01-01

    Southern Monterey Bay was the most intensively mined shoreline (with sand removed directly from the surf zone) in the U.S. during the period from 1906 until 1990, when the mines were closed following hypotheses that the mining caused coastal erosion. It is estimated that the yearly averaged amount of mined sand between 1940 and 1984 was 128,000 m3/yr, which is approximately 50% of the yearly average dune volume loss during this period. To assess the impact of sand mining, erosion rates along an 18 km range of shoreline during the times of intensive sand mining (1940–1990) are compared with the rates after sand mining ceased (1990–2004). Most of the shoreline is composed of unconsolidated sand with extensive sand dunes rising up to a height of 46 m, vulnerable to the erosive forces of storm waves. Erosion is defined here as a recession of the top edge of the dune. Recession was determined using stereo-photogrammetry, and LIDAR and GPS surveys. Long-term erosion rates vary from about 0.5 m/yr at Monterey to 1.5 m/yr in the middle of the range, and then decrease northward. Erosion events are episodic and occur when storm waves and high tides coincide, allowing swash to undercut the dune and resulting in permanent recession. Erosion appears to be correlated with the occurrence of El Niños. The calculated volume loss of the dune in southern Monterey Bay during the 1997–98 El Niño winter was 1,820,000 m3, which is almost seven times the historical annual mean dune erosion of 270,000 m3/yr. The alongshore variation in recession rates appears to be a function of the alongshore gradient in mean wave energy and depletions by sand mining. After cessation of sand mining in 1990, the erosion rates decreased at locations in the southern end of the bay but have not significantly changed at other locations.

  13. The Long Term Impact of Micronutrient Supplementation during Infancy on Cognition and Executive Function Performance in Pre-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Warthon-Medina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain growth and development are critically dependent on several micronutrients. During early development cellular activity may be sensitive to micronutrient deficiencies, however the evidence from human studies is equivocal. The objective of this study was to examine the long-term cognitive and social-emotional effects of multiple micronutrient supplementation compared with iron supplementation alone, administered during infancy. This study was a follow-up to an initial randomized, double-blind controlled trial (RCT in 2010 in which 902 infants, aged 6–17 months, from Lima, Peru, were given daily supplements of either iron (Fe or multiple micronutrients (MMN including zinc (451 in each group. The supplementation period for both groups was six months. In 2012, a subsample of 184 children from the original cohort (now aged 36–48 months was randomly selected to participate in a follow-up trial and was assessed for intelligence, working memory, inhibition, and executive function. The tests showed no significant differences between the supplementation groups though there were some gender differences, with girls displaying higher scores than boys across both groups on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI Verbal IQ sentences subtest, the Day-Night cognitive test and on the Brief Infant-Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (BITSEA social competency, and boys scoring higher than girls in problem behaviour. The results indicate that MMN supplementation had no long term additional effects on cognitive function compared with iron supplementation alone. The timing of supplement administration for maximum impact on a child’s cognitive development requires further investigation.

  14. The Long Term Impact of Micronutrient Supplementation during Infancy on Cognition and Executive Function Performance in Pre-School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warthon-Medina, Marisol; Qualter, Pamela; Zavaleta, Nelly; Dillon, Stephanie; Lazarte, Fabiola; Lowe, Nicola M.

    2015-01-01

    Brain growth and development are critically dependent on several micronutrients. During early development cellular activity may be sensitive to micronutrient deficiencies, however the evidence from human studies is equivocal. The objective of this study was to examine the long-term cognitive and social-emotional effects of multiple micronutrient supplementation compared with iron supplementation alone, administered during infancy. This study was a follow-up to an initial randomized, double-blind controlled trial (RCT) in 2010 in which 902 infants, aged 6–17 months, from Lima, Peru, were given daily supplements of either iron (Fe) or multiple micronutrients (MMN) including zinc (451 in each group). The supplementation period for both groups was six months. In 2012, a subsample of 184 children from the original cohort (now aged 36–48 months) was randomly selected to participate in a follow-up trial and was assessed for intelligence, working memory, inhibition, and executive function. The tests showed no significant differences between the supplementation groups though there were some gender differences, with girls displaying higher scores than boys across both groups on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) Verbal IQ sentences subtest, the Day-Night cognitive test and on the Brief Infant-Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) social competency, and boys scoring higher than girls in problem behaviour. The results indicate that MMN supplementation had no long term additional effects on cognitive function compared with iron supplementation alone. The timing of supplement administration for maximum impact on a child’s cognitive development requires further investigation. PMID:26262642

  15. Long term microparticle impact fluxes on LDEF determined from optical survey of Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, C. G.; Oliver, J. P.; Cooke, W. J.; Downey, K. I.; Kassel, P. C.

    1995-01-01

    Many of the IDE metal-oxide-silicon (MOS) capacitor-discharge impact sensors remained active during the entire Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission. An optical survey of impact sites on the active surfaces of these sensors has been extended to include all sensors from the low-flux sides of LDEF (i.e. the west or trailing side, the earth end, and the space end) and 5-7 active sensors from each LDEF's high-flux sides (i.e. the east or leading side, the south side, and the north side). This survey was facilitated by the presence of a relatively large (greater than 50 micron diameter) optical signature associated with each impact site on the active sensor surfaces. Of the approximately 4700 impacts in the optical survey data set, 84% were from particles in the 0.5 to 3 micron size range. An estimate of the total number of hypervelocity impacts on LDEF from particles greater than 0.5 micron diameter yields a value of approximately 7 x 10(exp 6). Impact feature dimensions for several dozen large craters on MOS sensors and germanium witness plates are also presented. Impact fluxes calculated from the IDE survey data closely matched surveys of similar size impacts (greater than or equal to 3 micron diameter craters in Al, or marginal penetrations of a 2.4 micron thick Al foil) by other LDEF investigators. Since the first year IDE data were electronically recorded, the flux data could be divided into three long term time periods: the first year, the entire 5.8 year mission, and the intervening 4.8 years (by difference). The IDE data show that there was an order of magnitude decrease in the long term microparticle impact flux on the trailing side of LDEF, from 1.01 to 0.098 x 10(exp -4) m(exp 2)/s, from the first year in orbit compared to years 2-6. The long term flux on the leading edge showed an increase from 8.6 to 11.2 x 10(exp -4) m(exp -2)/s over this same time period. (Short term flux increases up to 10,000 times the background rate were recorded on the

  16. Assessing Long-Term Wind Conditions by Combining Different Measure-Correlate-Predict Algorithms: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.; Chowdhury, S.; Messac, A.; Hodge, B. M.

    2013-08-01

    This paper significantly advances the hybrid measure-correlate-predict (MCP) methodology, enabling it to account for variations of both wind speed and direction. The advanced hybrid MCP method uses the recorded data of multiple reference stations to estimate the long-term wind condition at a target wind plant site. The results show that the accuracy of the hybrid MCP method is highly sensitive to the combination of the individual MCP algorithms and reference stations. It was also found that the best combination of MCP algorithms varies based on the length of the correlation period.

  17. CREB expression in the brains of two closely related parasitic wasp species that differ in long-term memory formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, M.; Verbaarschot, P.; Hontelez, S.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.; Smid, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The cAMP/PKA signalling pathway and transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) play key roles in long-term memory (LTM) formation. We used two closely related parasitic wasp species, Cotesia glomerata and Cotesia rubecula, which were previously shown to be different in LTM

  18. A Diffusion Model Analysis of Adult Age Differences in Episodic and Semantic Long-Term Memory Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaniol, Julia; Madden, David J.; Voss, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments investigated adult age differences in episodic and semantic long-term memory tasks, as a test of the hypothesis of specific age-related decline in context memory. Older adults were slower and exhibited lower episodic accuracy than younger adults. Fits of the diffusion model (R. Ratcliff, 1978) revealed age-related increases in…

  19. Long Term Development of Gut Microbiota Composition in Atopic Children: Impact of Probiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, N. B. M. M.; Gorissen, D. M. W.; Eck, A.; Niers, L. E. M.; Vlieger, A. M.; Besseling-van der Vaart, I.; Budding, A. E.; Savelkoul, P. H. M.; van der Ent, C. K.; Rijkers, G. T.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Imbalance of the human gut microbiota in early childhood is suggested as a risk factor for immune-mediated disorders such as allergies. With the objective to modulate the intestinal microbiota, probiotic supplementation during infancy has been used for prevention of allergic diseases in infants, with variable success. However, not much is known about the long-term consequences of neonatal use of probiotics on the microbiota composition. The aim of this study was to assess the composition and microbial diversity in stool samples of infants at high-risk for atopic disease, from birth onwards to six years of age, who were treated with probiotics or placebo during the first year of life. Methods In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, a probiotic mixture consisting of B. bifidum W23, B. lactis W52 and Lc. Lactis W58 (Ecologic® Panda) was administered to pregnant women during the last 6 weeks of pregnancy and to their offspring during the first year of life. During follow-up, faecal samples were collected from 99 children over a 6-year period with the following time points: first week, second week, first month, three months, first year, eighteen months, two years and six years. Bacterial profiling was performed by IS-pro. Differences in bacterial abundance and diversity were assessed by conventional statistics. Results The presence of the supplemented probiotic strains in faecal samples was confirmed, and the probiotic strains had a higher abundance and prevalence in the probiotic group during supplementation. Only minor and short term differences in composition of microbiota were found between the probiotic and placebo group and between children with or without atopy. The diversity of Bacteroidetes was significantly higher after two weeks in the placebo group, and at the age of two years atopic children had a significantly higher Proteobacteria diversity (p < 0.05). Gut microbiota development continued between two and six years, whereby

  20. The Long-Term Impact of Educational and Health Spending on Unemployment Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAFER PIRIM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study used panel data regression analysis to evaluate the long-term effects of several measures of U.S. education expenditure on unemployment rates in 50 states and Washington D.C. over 25 years. The data included state-level statistics for fiscal effort, graduation rates, education spending per pupil, gross state product per capita, welfare spending, health spending, political party affiliation, union versus nonunion states, and unemployment rates. Results find that the best way to effectively reduce unemployment is investment in improving the quality of human capital through funding education. Findings specifically conclude that over the long term, investment in human capital through education as defined by per-pupil spending and health services could play a significant role in reducing unemployment rates.

  1. Mothers with HIP - the short term and long-term impact, what is new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecacci, Federico; Ottanelli, Serena; Petraglia, Felice

    2018-05-03

    Hyperglycemia is one of the most common medical conditions that women encounter during pregnancy and it is due to gestational diabetes (GDM) in the majority of cases [1]. GDM is associated with a higher incidence of maternal morbidity in pregnancy in term of hypertensive disorders/preclampsia and higher rate of cesarean delivery but also with long-term risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Pregnancy can therefore be considered a stress test; diagnosis of HIP can unmask a preexisting susceptibility and consequently a future risk for type 2 diabetes and can be a useful marker of future cardiovascular risk. Postpartum follow up provides an excellent opportunity to implement healthy lifestyle behaviors to prevent or delay the development of diabetes or cardiovascular disease. The aim of the current review is to focus on short and long term maternal morbidity of HIP. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Parents' experiences of pediatric palliative care and the impact on long-term parental grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Geest, Ivana M M; Darlington, Anne-Sophie E; Streng, Isabelle C; Michiels, Erna M C; Pieters, Rob; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M

    2014-06-01

    Approximately 25% of children diagnosed with cancer eventually die. Losing a child puts parents at increased risk for developing psychological problems. To explore parents' perceptions of the interaction with health care professionals (communication, continuity of care, and parental involvement) and symptom management during the pediatric palliative phase, and to investigate the influence on long-term grief in parents who lost a child to cancer. A total of 89 parents of 57 children who died of cancer between 2000 and 2004 participated in this retrospective cross-sectional study by completing a set of questionnaires measuring grief (Inventory of Traumatic Grief), parents' perceptions of the interaction with health care professionals (communication, continuity of care, and parental involvement), and symptom management during the palliative phase. Care was assessed on a five point Likert scale (1=disagree and 5=agree). Parents highly rated communication (4.6±0.6), continuity of care (4.3±0.6), and parental involvement (4.6±0.7) during the palliative phase. Parents' most often reported physical and psychological symptoms of their child during the palliative phase were fatigue (75%), pain (74%), anxiety to be alone (52%), and anger (48%). Higher ratings of parents on communication (β=-9.08, P=0.03) and continuity of care (β=-11.74, P=0.01) were associated with lower levels of long-term parental grief. The severity of the child's dyspnea (β=2.96, P=0.05), anxiety to be alone (β=4.52, Pparental grief. Multivariate models combining the interaction with health care professionals and symptom management showed a significant influence of both aspects on long-term parental grief. Both interaction with health care professionals, especially communication and continuity of care, and symptom management in children dying of cancer are associated with long-term parental grief levels. Copyright © 2014 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  3. Long-term Impact of Prevention Programs to Promote Effective Parenting: Lasting Effects but Uncertain Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Sandler, Irwin; Schoenfelder, Erin; Wolchik, Sharlene; MacKinnon, David

    2011-01-01

    This chapter reviews findings from 46 randomized experimental trials of preventive parenting interventions. The findings of these trials provide evidence of effects to prevent a wide range of problem outcomes and to promote competencies from one to twenty years later. However, there is a paucity of evidence concerning the processes that account for program effects. Three alternative pathways are proposed as a framework for future research on the long-term effects of preventive parenting progr...

  4. Impact of delirium on postoperative frailty and long term cardiovascular events after cardiac surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Masato; Izawa, Kazuhiro P.; Satomi-Kobayashi, Seimi; Tsuboi, Yasunori; Komaki, Kodai; Gotake, Yasuko; Sakai, Yoshitada; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Okita, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Background Postoperative delirium (POD) is a common and critical complication after cardiac surgery. However, the relationship between POD and postoperative physical frailty and the effect of both on long-term clinical outcomes have not been fully explored. Objective We aimed to examine the associations among POD, postoperative frailty, and major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Design This was a prospective cohort study. Methods We studied 329 consecutive patients undergoing elective cardiac s...

  5. The potential impact of urban growth simulation on the long-term planning of our cities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Waldeck, L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available of urban growth simulation on the long-term planning of our cities 4th Biennial Conference Presented by: Dr Louis Waldeck Date: 10 October 2012 Slide 2 of 17 Why Urban Growth Simulation? ? Reduced carbon footprint ? Reduce resource consumption... of the population concentrated in cities and the opportunities to gain efficiencies, cities are the most important arena for intervention.? Maurice Strong Unabated urbanisation Quest for sustainable development What makes a city sustainable? Slide 3 of 17...

  6. Impact of inhospital stent thrombosis and cerebrovascular accidents on long-term prognosis after percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Elena; Ndrepepa, Gjin; Schulz, Stefanie; Byrne, Robert; Hoppmann, Petra; Kufner, Sebastian; Ibrahim, Tareq; Tada, Tomohisa; Schunkert, Heribert; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Kastrati, Adnan

    2014-12-01

    Inhospital stent thrombosis (ST) and cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) are rare but serious adverse events after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The association of ST or CVA with long-term outcome after PCI remains poorly investigated. The study included 18,334 consecutive patients who underwent PCI. Patients were divided into 3 groups: the group with ST, the group with CVA, and the group without these events. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality at 3-year follow-up. Inhospital ST or CVA occurred in 59 patients (0.32%) and in 90 patients (0. 49%), respectively. There were 2,149 deaths (11.7%) during the follow-up: 26 deaths among patients with ST, 32 deaths among patients with CVA, and 2,091 deaths among patients without ST or CVA (Kaplan-Meier estimates of 3-year mortality 45.3%, 38.0%, and 12.9%, odds ratio 6.1, 95% CI 3.6-10.2, P < .001 for ST group vs the group without ST or CVA and odds ratio 4.2 [2.7-6.6], P < .001 for CVA group vs the group without ST or CVA). There was no significant difference in the 3-year mortality between CVA and ST groups (P = .29). The Cox proportional hazards model showed that ST (adjusted hazard ratio 4.97, 95% CI 2.58-9.56, P < .001) and CVA (adjusted hazard ratio 2.25 [1.25-4.04], P = .006) were independently associated with the increased risk of 3-year mortality. Inhospital ST and CVA after PCI are associated with the increased risk of 3-year mortality. Both events seem to have a similar impact on long-term survival. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Are older people more vulnerable to long-term impacts of disasters?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiey H

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hassan Rafiey,1 Yadollah Abolfathi Momtaz,2,3 Fardin Alipour,1 Hamidreza Khankeh,4 Shokoufeh Ahmadi,4 Mohammad Sabzi Khoshnami,1 Sharifah Azizah Haron3 1Research Center of Social Welfare Management, Department of Social Work, 2Iranian Research Center on Aging, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3Malaysian Research Institute on Ageing (MyAgeing, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 4Department of Health in Emergency and Disaster, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran Background: Despite the growing interest in the study of disasters, there is limited research addressing the elderly population that lead to prejudiced beliefs that older adults are more vulnerable to disasters than younger adults. This study aimed to compare positive mental health between elderly and young earthquake survivors.Method: Data for this study, consisting of 324 earthquake survivors, were obtained from a population-based cross-sectional survey conducted in Iran, 2015. The long-term effect of earthquake was assessed using the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form questionnaire. A one-way multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA using SPSS (version 22 was used in data analysis.Results: Older adults scored significantly a higher level of overall positive mental health (mean [M]=34.31, standard deviation [SD]=10.52 than younger age group (M=27.48, SD=10.56, t=-4.41; P<0.001. Results of MANCOVA revealed a statistically significant difference between older and young adults on the combined positive mental health subscales (F(3,317=6.95; P<0.001, after controlling for marital status, sex, and employment status.Conclusion: The present findings showing a higher level of positive mental health among elderly earthquake survivors compared with their younger counterparts in the wake of natural disasters suggest that advancing age per se does not contribute to increasing vulnerability. Keywords

  8. Immediate and persistent transcriptional correlates of long-term sensitization training at different CNS loci in Aplysia californica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Herdegen

    Full Text Available Repeated noxious stimulation produces long-term sensitization of defensive withdrawal reflexes in Aplysia californica, a form of long-term memory that requires changes in both transcription and translation. Previous work has identified 10 transcripts which are rapidly up-regulated after long-term sensitization training in the pleural ganglia. Here we use quantitative PCR to begin examining how these transcriptional changes are expressed in different CNS loci related to defensive withdrawal reflexes at 1 and 24 hours after long-term sensitization training. Specifically, we sample from a the sensory wedge of the pleural ganglia, which exclusively contains the VC nociceptor cell bodies that help mediate input to defensive withdrawal circuits, b the remaining pleural ganglia, which contain withdrawal interneurons, and c the pedal ganglia, which contain many motor neurons. Results from the VC cluster show different temporal patterns of regulation: 1 rapid but transient up-regulation of Aplysia homologs of C/EBP, C/EBPγ, and CREB1, 2 delayed but sustained up-regulation of BiP, Tolloid/BMP-1, and sensorin, 3 rapid and sustained up-regulation of Egr, GlyT2, VPS36, and an uncharacterized protein (LOC101862095, and 4 an unexpected lack of regulation of Aplysia homologs of calmodulin (CaM and reductase-related protein (RRP. Changes in the remaining pleural ganglia mirror those found in the VC cluster at 1 hour but with an attenuated level of regulation. Because these samples had almost no expression of the VC-specific transcript sensorin, our data suggests that sensitization training likely induces transcriptional changes in either defensive withdrawal interneurons or neurons unrelated to defensive withdrawal. In the pedal ganglia, we observed only a rapid but transient increase in Egr expression, indicating that long-term sensitization training is likely to induce transcriptional changes in motor neurons but raising the possibility of different

  9. Differences in the verbal fluency, working memory and executive functions in alcoholics: Short-term vs. long-term abstainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowska-Domagała, Katarzyna; Jabłkowska-Górecka, Karolina; Mokros, Łukasz; Koprowicz, Jacek; Pietras, Tadeusz

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess differences in verbal fluency, working memory and executive functions in two subgroups of alcohol-dependent patients, those undergoing short-term abstinence (STA) and those undergoing long-term abstinence (LTA), and to compare the level of cognitive functions in patients after long-term abstinence with healthy subjects. The study group consisted of 106 alcohol-dependent patients (53 immediately after drinking at least 3 days and 53 after at least one-year abstinence). The control group comprised 53 subjects, whose age, sex and education levels matched those of the patients in the experimental group. The dependence intensity was assessed using SADD and MAST scales. The neuropsychological assessment was based on the FAS Test, Stroop Test and TMT A&B Test. The results obtained for alcohol-dependent patients revealed significant disturbances of cognitive functions. Such results indicate the presence of severe frontal cerebral cortex dysfunctions. Frontal cortex dysfunctions affecting the verbal fluency and working memory subsystems and the executive functions also persisted during long-term abstinence periods. No significant correlations between the duration of dependence, quantity of alcohol consumed and efficiency of the working memory and executive functions were observed in alcohol-dependent subjects after short-term or long-term abstinence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-term human exposure to lead from different media and intake pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Thomsen, Marianne; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2010-01-01

    , and predicting the resulting internal body exposure levels and effects that occur under long-term exposure conditions. In this paper, a modeling approach is used to meet these challenges with reference to Danish exposure conditions. Levels of lead content in various media have been coupled with data for lead......Lead (Pb) is well known as an environmental pollutant: it can accumulate in various media, so actual lead exposure reflects both historical and present contaminations. Two main challenges then emerge: obtaining updated information to gain an overall picture of the sources of exposure......–internalconcentration relationships for the direct linkage between lead in environmental media and resultingconcentrations of lead in blood are then presented....

  11. Evaluation of sanitary impact of urban air pollution. Agglomeration of Bordeaux impact at short and long term; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Agglomeration de Bordeaux impact a cour et long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    A health impact assessment of air pollution based on the I.n.V.S. guidelines has been conducted in Bordeaux area. Atmospheric pollution indicators analyzed were ozone, nitrogen dioxide and particles having diameter below 10 {mu}m. Short term impact of atmospheric pollution has been estimated in term of mortality (total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) and hospital admissions (for respiratory, cardiovascular and cardiac reasons) attributable to air pollution. Long-term impact was also assessed by the number of deaths due to atmospheric pollution. The study has been carried out in 22 cities homogeneously exposed belonging to Bordeaux agglomeration, representing a study population of 604,238 inhabitants. In 2001, the atmospheric pollution has directly been responsible in the studied area of 56 anticipated deaths, including half for cardiovascular reasons and 7 for respiratory reasons. Regarding morbidity, 29 hospital admissions for respiratory disease were attributable to air pollution in 2002, including two-thirds among elderly people (aged 65 years and over). Further more, 81 hospitalizations for cardiovascular diseases that occurred in 2002 were attributable to air pollution, including 27 for cardiac reasons. A decrease by 25% of the pollutants could have allowed avoiding about half of the premature deaths and hospital intakes attributable to air pollution. Concerning long term effects, about 200 annual deaths are attributable to chronic exposure to air pollution, and a decrease by 5{mu}g/m{sup 3} of the annual mean of PM{sub 10} could allow avoiding half of these deaths. The results have to be interpreted with care because of the limits of the H.I.A. method. However, they show that air pollution has a non negligible impact even in a city like Bordeaux where target values are mostly respected. They also show that reducing air pollution can have a significant impact in term of mortality and morbidity. However, a policy of atmospheric pollution reduction

  12. Differential impact of white matter hyperintensities on long-term outcomes in ischemic stroke patients with large artery atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minyoul Baik

    Full Text Available The presence of white matter hyperintensity (WMH is related to poor long-term outcomes in stroke patients. However, the long-term outcome is unknown in patients with both large artery atherosclerosis (LAA and WMH.We investigated the impact of WMH on long-term outcome in patients with LAA. Consecutive patients in a prospective stroke registry were included. Patients were followed for a median of 7.7 years (interquartile range, 5.6-9.7. The degree of WMH was assessed by Fazekas grade on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. Total WMH burden was calculated by summation of Fazekas scores in periventricular and deep white matter. Severe WMH was defined as total burden score ≥ 3.Among 2529 patients, 639 patients (25.3% were classified with the LAA subtype. After applying exclusion criteria, the data from 538 patients were analyzed. The mean patient age was 65.7 ± 10.3 years. Severe WMHs were found in 243 patients (45.2%. During follow-up, 200 patients (37.2% died. Cox regression analysis showed that LAA patients with severe WMH had a 1.50-fold (95% CI, 1.12-2.00, p = 0.007 higher death rate compared to those without. In the older age group (≥65 years, Cox regression revealed that patients with severe WMH had a 1.75-fold (95% CI, 1.15-2.65, p = 0.008 higher 5-year death rate, whereas the younger age group did not have this association.The degree of WMH might be a surrogate marker for long-term outcome in patients with LAA. Atherosclerotic burdens in both small and large arteries might impact long-term prognosis in ischemic stroke patients.

  13. The impact of long term exposure to phthalic acid esters on reproduction in Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yongyong; Yang, Yuanjin; Gao, Yong; Wang, Xianfeng; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2015-01-01

    The environmental risk of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) is of great concern. We investigated the reproductive impairment of di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) on Chinese rare minnow, an endemic fish inhabiting the upper streams of the Yangtze River. Chinese rare minnow larvae were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of DEHP (0, 4.2, 13.3, and 40.8 μg/L) for 6 months. Plasma testosterone and 17β-estradiol levels decreased in females, accompanied by downregulation of cyp19a and cyp17 gene transcription in ovary. Increases in plasma testosterone concentration were observed in males, accompanied by downregulation of cyp19a gene transcription in testes. Hepatic VTG gene transcription was upregulated in males and females. Exposure to DEHP reduced egg production and inhibited oocyte maturation in females and retarded spermiation in males. Decreased egg protein content was measured in F1 embryos. These results indicate that long-term exposure to low concentrations of DEHP (13.3 μg/L) causes endocrine disruption and impairs fish reproduction. - Highlights: • PAEs in the aquatic environment may pose risk to endemic fish species. • Long-term exposure to DEHP affected sex hormone levels in rare minnow. • DEHP affected gonad development. • Long-term exposure caused reduction of fecundity, but not sex ratio. • Environmentally relevant concentrations of DEHP impair fish reproduction. - Long-term exposure to low concentrations of DEHP adversely impact Chinese rare minnow reproduction

  14. Dealing with the death of a long term patient; what is the impact and how do podiatrists cope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Kristy; Williams, Cylie M

    2017-01-01

    It is common for podiatrists and patients to develop long term professional relationships. Patient's decline in health or death may impact a practitioner's mental wellbeing. This research aimed to understand the impact of long term patient death on podiatrists and identify coping strategies. Australian podiatrists were eligible to participate if they had been practicing longer than 5 years and experienced the death of a long term patient in the previous 12 months. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with podiatrists and were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and individually analysed to identify key themes. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to explore the perceptions of podiatrists on the personal and professional impact following the death of a long term patient. Fifteen podiatrists (11 female) with a median of 15 (range 8-50) years' experience participated. Three major themes emerged: acknowledging connections, willing to share and listen, and creating support through starting the conversation. Participants indicated importance in recognition of the emotional influence of professional-patient relationships. They also discussed the importance of debriefing about death with the right person, which was most commonly colleagues. Participants talked about the emotional impact of death, suggesting the need for supporting discussion and resources, especially for new graduates. Death and dying can be an emotive topic and one which podiatrists may not be prepared for, yet likely to have to deal with throughout their career. These findings enable a better understanding of the impact of patient death and provide possible future directions for the profession to better support podiatrists in this area.

  15. Reforming Management of Behavior Symptoms and Psychiatric Conditions in Long-Term Care Facilities: A Different Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Steven A; Desai, Abhilash K

    2017-04-01

    Despite much attention including national initiatives, concerns remain about the approaches to managing behavior symptoms and psychiatric conditions across all settings, including in long-term care settings such as nursing homes and assisted living facilities. One key reason why problems persist is because most efforts to "reform" and "correct" the situation have failed to explore or address root causes and instead have promoted inadequate piecemeal "solutions." Further improvement requires jumping off the bandwagon and rethinking the entire issue, including recognizing and applying key concepts of clinical reasoning and the care delivery process to every situation. The huge negative impact of cognitive biases and rote approaches on related clinical problem solving and decision making and patient outcomes also must be addressed. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Functional Gain After Inpatient Stroke Rehabilitation: Correlates and Impact on Long-Term Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrutinio, Domenico; Monitillo, Vincenzo; Guida, Pietro; Nardulli, Roberto; Multari, Vincenzo; Monitillo, Francesco; Calabrese, Gianluigi; Fiore, Pietro

    2015-10-01

    Prediction of functional outcome after stroke rehabilitation (SR) is a growing field of interest. The association between SR and survival still remains elusive. We sought to investigate the factors associated with functional outcome after SR and whether the magnitude of functional improvement achieved with rehabilitation is associated with long-term mortality risk. The study population consisted of 722 patients admitted for SR within 90 days of stroke onset, with an admission functional independence measure (FIM) score of stroke onset to rehabilitation admission (PStroke Scale score at rehabilitation admission (P<0.001), and aphasia (P=0.021) were independently associated with FIM gain. The R2 of the model was 0.275. During a median follow-up of 6.17 years, 36.9% of the patients died. At multivariable Cox analysis, age (P<0.0001), coronary heart disease (P=0.018), atrial fibrillation (P=0.042), total cholesterol (P=0.015), and total FIM gain (P<0.0001) were independently associated with mortality. The adjusted hazard ratio for death significantly decreased across tertiles of increasing FIM gain. Several factors are independently associated with functional gain after SR. Our findings strongly suggest that the magnitude of functional improvement is a powerful predictor of long-term mortality in patients admitted for SR. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Long-term ionizing radiation impact on seed progeny of common reed in water bodies of the Chernobyl exclusive zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevtsova, N.L.; Yavnyuk, A.A.; Gudkov, D.Yi.

    2012-01-01

    Results of the investigation of common reed's (Phragmites australis (Trin) Ex. Steud.) biological characteristics under conditions of long-term ionizing radiation impact are represented. Indices of seeds' vitality and disorders are analyzed. Low vitality indices, significant ontogenesis disorders, and high percent of abnormalities of germs are determined in water bodies, where littoral plants receive the absorbed dose in a low-dose range of 1-12 cGy year -1 .

  18. Guillain-Barr? Syndrome: Prevalence and Long-Term Factors Impacting Bladder Function in an Australian Community Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Amatya, Bhasker; Khan, Fary; Whishaw, Michael; Pallant, Julie F.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Urinary dysfunction is associated with significant morbidity in persons with Guillain-Barr? Syndrome (GBS). The aim of this study was to describe prevalence and long-term impact of bladder dysfunction on daily activities and quality of life (QoL) in persons in chronic phase of GBS and to examine the relationships between commonly used continence measures in this cohort. Methods Prospective cohort (n=66) following GBS treatment (1996-2009) was recruited from a tertiary h...

  19. Quantitative estimation of the state of vault feet gymnasts on the different stages of the long-term training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Makarova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the vaults given about the state is conducted feet gymnasts on the different stages of the long-term training. 93 sportswomen of different qualification took part in research. The system of Big foot was used. It is set that on the early stages of the long-term training for gymnasts observed flattening heights of unevenness of navicular bone above the floor. With growth of qualification of sportswomen to avoid development of pathological changes of vaults feet actually not possibly. It is conditioned the rules of competitions to complication of competition compositions and technique of execution of elements of calisthenics. It is marked that appearance of flattening feet requires: corrections in the system of training; introduction of the specially developed methods on the removal of existent deformations; prophylaxis of flat-footedness; strengthening of musculoskeletal system feet.

  20. Understanding the differences amongst national regulatory criteria for the long-term safety of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, C.M.; Ferch, R.; Pescatore, C.

    2008-01-01

    Carl-Magnus Larsson detailed then the work of the Regulators' Forum and the origin of the LTSC initiative. He explained that one of the objectives of the LTSC was to identify a set of issues on long-term protection criteria and collate findings in a report. He explained why the idea of a 'collective opinion' was abandoned and why it should be replaced by a common understanding where differences between countries ought to be explained and understood. C.-M. Larsson detailed the different types of approaches to regulating long-term safety and the different approaches for numerical targets. He gave some explanations of the reasons for the differences in regulatory targets between countries (level of conservatism, progress in the safety case methodology, etc.). The regulatory function takes into account the nature of the demonstration (illustrations and societal demands). C.-M. Larsson referred to the evolution of IAEA safety fundamentals and stressed that the 'sustainability' concept, introduced by the Joint Convention, is not mentioned in the new safety standard. The term 'adequately protected' is now preferred in relation to future generations. The ICRP recommends that less emphasis be placed on assessment of doses in the long term. C.-M. Larsson concluded that one of the challenges for the regulator is not to promise nor require the impossible. (authors)

  1. Analysis of long-term impacts of TRU waste remaining at generator/storage sites for No Action Alternative 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, J.W.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Bergeron, M.P.; Streile, G.P.

    1997-09-01

    This report is a supplement to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal-Phase Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II). Described herein are the underlying information, data, and assumptions used to estimate the long-term human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in transuranic (TRU) waste remaining at major generator/storage sites after loss of institutional control under No Action Alternative 2. Under No Action Alternative 2, TRU wastes would not be emplaced at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) but would remain at generator/storage sites in surface or near-surface storage. Waste generated at smaller sites would be consolidated at the major generator/storage sites. Current TRU waste management practices would continue, but newly generated waste would be treated to meet the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. For this alternative, institutional control was assumed to be lost 100 years after the end of the waste generation period, with exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in the TRU waste possible from direct intrusion and release to the surrounding environment. The potential human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in TRU waste were analyzed for two different types of scenarios. Both analyses estimated site-specific, human-health impacts at seven major generator/storage sites: the Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The analysis focused on these seven sites because 99 % of the estimated TRU waste volume and inventory would remain there under the assumptions of No Action Alternative 2

  2. The impact of statin therapy on long-term cardiovascular outcomes in an outpatient cardiology practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hoang M.; Aronow, Wilbert S.; Mercando, Anthony D.; Kalen, Phoenix; Desai, Harit V.; Gandhi, Kaushang; Sharma, Mala; Amin, Harshad; Lai, Trung M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Statins reduce coronary events in patients with coronary artery disease. Material/Methods Chart reviews were performed in 305 patients (217 men and 88 women, mean age 74 years) not treated with statins during the first year of being seen in an outpatient cardiology practice but subsequently treated with statins. Based on the starting date of statins use, the long-term outcomes of myocardial infarction (MI), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABGS) before and after statin use were compared. Results Mean follow-up was 65 months before statins use and 66 months after statins use. MI occurred in 31 of 305 patients (10%) before statins, and in 13 of 305 patients (4%) after statins (pcardiology practice reduces the incidence of MI, PCI, and CABGS. PMID:22129898

  3. Impact of Open-Market Share Repurchases on Long-Term Stock Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Albaity

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available After the Asian financial crisis in 1997, firms listed on Bursa Malaysia were allowed to repurchase their shares on the open market. The number of companies engaged in share buyback is increasing and has become a tool to stabilize price by signaling undervaluation of the share. However, studies on share buyback in Malaysia are limited to the price performance surrounding the buyback events. This study aims to fill this gap by examining long-run price performance after the actual share buyback event over a sampling period of 2 years from 2009 to 2010 for Malaysian firms listed on FTSE Bursa Malaysia. There is no evidence to conclude that there exist long-term abnormal returns using the calendar-time portfolio approach that support the inefficient market hypothesis. On the contrary, buy-and-hold method was found to be significant supporting that the Malaysian stock market is semi-strong efficient.

  4. Long-term impact of prevention programs to promote effective parenting: lasting effects but uncertain processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Irwin N; Schoenfelder, Erin N; Wolchik, Sharlene A; MacKinnon, David P

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews findings from 46 randomized experimental trials of preventive parenting interventions. The findings of these trials provide evidence of effects to prevent a wide range of problem outcomes and to promote competencies from one to 20 years later. However, there is a paucity of evidence concerning the processes that account for program effects. Three alternative pathways are proposed as a framework for future research on the long-term effects of preventive parenting programs: (a) through program effects on parenting skills, perceptions of parental efficacy, and reduction in barriers to effective parenting; (b) through program-induced reductions in short-term problems of youth that persist over time, improvements in youth adaptation to stress, and improvements in youth belief systems concerning the self and their relationships with others; and (c) through effects on contexts in which youth become involved and on youth-environment transactions.

  5. Long-term multifactorial climate change impacts on mesofaunal biomass and nitrogen content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mette Vestergård; Dyrnum, Kristine; Michelsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    increased at elevated CO2, or tended do so. In contrast, enchytraeid N content decreased at elevated CO2. Soil microbial biomass N pool and litter C:N ratio also increased with elevated CO2, which suggests that mite biomasses are more coupled to microbial biomass, whereas enchytraeid biomass to a larger...... extent is governed by litter nitrogen concentration, i.e. litter quality. Structural equation modelling confirmed the positive coupling between soil microbial N content and oribatid biomass and further between oribatid and mesostigmatic biomass. The SEM also revealed a negative relationship between...... microbial N content and enchytraeid biomass. The biomass of all mesofaunal groups was reduced by spring drought, especially when combined with warming. Enchytraeid and especially collembolan biomass suffered greater drought declines than mite biomasses. We conclude that under long-term elevated CO2 exposure...

  6. Impact of type 1 diabetes on maternal long-term risk of hospitalisation and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Sine; Juul, Svend; Bytoft, Birgitte

    2018-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aims of this study were to examine long-term mortality and morbidity rates in mothers with type 1 diabetes, both overall and according to the level of albuminuria prior to pregnancy, the presence of hypertension, pre-eclampsia and periconceptional HbA1c. METHODS: This study...... was a part of the EPICOM (Environmental Versus Genetic and Epigenetic Influences on Growth, Metabolism and Cognitive Function in Offspring of Mothers with Type 1 Diabetes) study, which is a prospective follow-up study focusing on pregnancies complicated by maternal type 1 diabetes. We carried out...... a nationwide combined clinical and register-based cohort study of mortality rates and hospital admissions in mothers with diabetes (n = 986) who gave birth between 1992 and 2000. Control mothers (n = 91,441) were women from the background population, matched according to age and year of childbirth. Age...

  7. Impact of long term pesticide usage on soil microbial activities and 14C-monocrotophos degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayaputch, N.; Pimpan, P.; Phaikaew, Y.; Chukiatwatana, L.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of long term pesticide usage on soil microbial activities and degradation of 14 C-monocrotophos was observed under cotton field conditions. The experimental field was divided into treated and untreated plots. Pesticides were applied to treated plots at weekly intervals as in common practice in Thailand. The total numbers of applications were 11, 16 and 16 for first, second and third crop seasons, during the three years from 1996 to 1998. Soil samples at depths of 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm were sampled before and after pesticide application for the first two crops, while in the third crop season only the surface layer of soil was taken. The samples were assessed for CO 2 from respiration, soil microbial population, iron reduction capacity, and rates of nitrification. Soil biomass and microbial activities as measured from respiration and iron reduction decreased in the treated plots at both depths after each pesticide application over the three crop seasons, whereas samples from untreated plots at both depths did not show decreases. Repeated application of pesticides did not show any effect on nitrification rates of the first crop but there was inhibition in the second and third crops. Soil columns, treated with 14 C-monocrotophos one week after last pesticide application, were harvested after 0, 3, 6, 9, 18, 24 and 30 months. Extractable residues of 14 C were found only in the 0-15 cm layer. In treated and untreated plots, residues declined from 80.17 and 85.68 to 0.44% of the applied 14 C within 6 months. The long term usage of pesticides did not affect the half-life of 14 C-monocrotophos. Bound residues of 14 C were found at the highest concentrations, 18.94 and 12.58% of that applied, at 6 months in treated and untreated plots, thereafter the binding decreased to 4.68 and 2.74% within 30 months. (author)

  8. Long-term impact after fulminant Guillain-Barré syndrome, case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rougé A

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Alain Rougé,1,2 Jérémie Lemarié,1,2 Sébastien Gibot,1,2 Pierre Edouard Bollaert1,2 1Medical Intensive Care Unit, Hôpital Central, University Hospital of Nancy, Nancy, France; 2INSERM UMRS-1116, Faculty of Medicine, University of Lorraine, Nancy, France Abstract: A 47-year-old man was admitted to the intensive care unit a few hours after ­presenting to emergency department with acute diplopia and dysphonia. Swallowing disorders and respiratory muscular weakness quickly required invasive ventilation. On day 3, the patient was in a “brain-death”-like state with deep coma and absent brainstem reflexes. Electroencephalogram ruled out brain death diagnosis as a paradoxical sleep trace was recorded. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis, electrophysiologic studies, and a recent history of diarrhea led to the diagnosis of Campylobacter jejuni-related fulminant Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS mimicking brain death. The outcome was favorable after long Intensive Care Unit and inpatient rehabilitation stays, despite persistent disability at 9 years follow-up. This case and the associated literature review of 34 previously reported fulminant GBS patients emphasize the importance of electrophysiological investigations during clinical brain-death states with no definite cause. Fulminant GBS has a worse outcome than “standard” GBS with higher rates of severe disability (about 50%. Long-term physiotherapy and specific rehabilitation programs appear essential to improve recovery. Keywords: fulminant Guillain-Barré syndrome, brain death, electroencephalogram, C. jejuni, long-term follow 

  9. The impact of inter-annual variability of annual cycle on long-term persistence of surface air temperature in long historical records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qimin; Nian, Da; Fu, Zuntao

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies in the literature show that the annual cycle of surface air temperature (SAT) is changing in both amplitude and phase, and the SAT departures from the annual cycle are long-term correlated. However, the classical definition of temperature anomalies is based on the assumption that the annual cycle is constant, which contradicts the fact of changing annual cycle. How to quantify the impact of the changing annual cycle on the long-term correlation of temperature anomaly variability still remains open. In this paper, a recently developed data adaptive analysis tool, the nonlinear mode decomposition (NMD), is used to extract and remove time-varying annual cycle to reach the new defined temperature anomalies in which time-dependent amplitude of annual cycle has been considered. By means of detrended fluctuation analysis, the impact induced by inter-annual variability from the time-dependent amplitude of annual cycle has been quantified on the estimation of long-term correlation of long historical temperature anomalies in Europe. The results show that the classical climatology annual cycle is supposed to lack inter-annual fluctuation which will lead to a maximum artificial deviation centering around 600 days. This maximum artificial deviation is crucial to defining the scaling range and estimating the long-term persistence exponent accurately. Selecting different scaling range could lead to an overestimation or underestimation of the long-term persistence exponent. By using NMD method to extract the inter-annual fluctuations of annual cycle, this artificial crossover can be weakened to extend a wider scaling range with fewer uncertainties.

  10. Significance and function of different spinal collateral compartments following thoracic aortic surgery: immediate versus long-term flow compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meffert, Philipp; Bischoff, Moritz S; Brenner, Robert; Siepe, Matthias; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Kari, Fabian A

    2014-05-01

    Iatrogenic paraplegia has been accompanying cardiovascular surgery since its beginning. As a result, surgeons have been developing many theories about the exact mechanisms of this devastating complication. Thus, the impact of single arteries that contribute to the spinal perfusion is one of the most discussed subjects in modern surgery. The subsequent decision of reattachment or the permanent disconnection of these intercostal arteries divides the surgical community. On the one hand, the anatomical or vascular approach pleads for the immediate reimplantation to reconstruct the anatomical situation. On the other hand, the decision of the permanent disconnection aims at avoiding stealing phenomenon away from the spinal vascular network. This spinal collateral network can be described as consisting of three components-the intraspinal and two paraspinal compartments-that feed the nutrient arteries of the spinal cord. The exact functional impact of the different compartments of the collateral network remains poorly understood. In this review, the function of the intraspinal compartment in the context of collateral network principle as an immediate emergency backup system is described. The exact structure and architectural principles of the intraspinal compartment are described. The critical parameters with regard to the risk of postoperative spinal cord ischaemia are the number of anterior radiculomedullary arteries (ARMAs) and the distance between them in relation to the longitudinal extent of aortic disease. The paraspinal network as a sleeping reserve is proposed as the long-term backup system. This sleeping reserve has to be activated by arteriogenic stimuli. These are presented briefly, and prior findings regarding arteriogenesis are discussed in the light of the collateral network concept. Finally, the role of preoperative visualization of the ARMAs in order to evaluate the risk of postoperative paraplegia is emphasized.

  11. Effects of long-term grassland management on the carbon and nitrogen pools of different soil aggregate fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Gary; Crawley, Michael J; Fornara, Dario A

    2018-02-01

    Common grassland management practices include animal grazing and the repeated addition of lime and nutrient fertilizers to soils. These practices can greatly influence the size and distribution of different soil aggregate fractions, thus altering the cycling and storage of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in grassland soils. So far, very few studies have simultaneously addressed the potential long-term effect that multiple management practices might have on soil physical aggregation. Here we specifically ask whether and how grazing, liming and nutrient fertilization might influence C and N content (%) as well as C and N pools of different soil aggregate fractions in a long-term grassland experiment established in 1991 at Silwood Park, Berkshire, UK. We found that repeated liming applications over 23years significantly decreased the C pool (i.e. gCKg -1 soil) of Large Macro Aggregate (LMA>2mm) fractions and increased C pools within three smaller soil aggregate fractions: Small Macro Aggregate (SMA, 250μm-2mm), Micro Aggregate (MiA, 53-250μm), and Silt Clay Aggregate (SCAfractions was mainly caused by positive liming effects on aggregate fraction mass rather than on changes in soil C (and N) content (%). Liming effects could be explained by increases in soil pH, as this factor was significantly positively related to greater soil C and N pools of smaller aggregate fractions. Long-term grazing and inorganic nutrient fertilization had much weaker effects on both soil aggregate-fraction mass and on soil C and N concentrations, however, our evidence is that these practices could also contribute to greater C and N pools of smaller soil fractions. Overall our study demonstrates how agricultural liming can contribute to increase C pools of small (more stable) soil fractions with potential significant benefits for the long-term C balance of human-managed grassland soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of perioperative liver dysfunction on in-hospital mortality and long-term survival in infective endocarditis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, M; Sponholz, C; von Loeffelholz, C; Scheffel, P; Bauer, M; Kortgen, A; Lehmann, T; Färber, G; Pletz, M W; Doenst, T

    2017-12-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is often associated with multiorgan dysfunction and mortality. The impact of perioperative liver dysfunction (LD) on outcome remains unclear and little is known about factors leading to postoperative LD. We performed a retrospective, single-center analysis on 285 patients with left-sided IE without pre-existing chronic liver disease referred to our center between 2007 and 2013 for valve surgery. Sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score was used to evaluate organ dysfunction. Chi-square, Cox regression, and multivariate analyses were used for evaluation. Preoperative LD (Bilirubin >20 μmol/L) was present in 68 of 285 patients. New, postoperative LD occurred in 54 patients. Hypoxic hepatitis presented the most common origin of LD, accompanied with high short-term mortality. In-hospital mortality was higher in patients with preoperative and postoperative LD compared to patients without LD (51.5, 24.1, and 10.4%, respectively, p endocarditis is an independent predictor of short- and long-term mortalities. After surviving the hospital stay, 5-year prognosis is not different and quality of life is not affected by LD. S. aureus and duration of cardiopulmonary bypass represent risk factors for postoperative LD.

  13. The long term economic impact of severe obstetric complications for women and their children in Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick G C Ilboudo

    Full Text Available This study investigates the long term economic impact of severe obstetric complications for women and their children in Burkina Faso, focusing on measures of food security, expenditures and related quality of life measures. It uses a hospital based cohort, first visited in 2004/2005 and followed up four years later. This cohort of 1014 women consisted of two main groups of comparison: 677 women who had an uncomplicated delivery and 337 women who experienced a severe obstetric complication which would have almost certainly caused death had they not received hospital care (labelled a "near miss" event. To analyze the impact of such near miss events as well as the possible interaction with the pregnancy outcome, we compared household and individual level indicators between women without a near miss event and women with a near miss event who either had a live birth, a perinatal death or an early pregnancy loss. We used propensity score matching to remove initial selection bias. Although we found limited effects for the whole group of near miss women, the results indicated negative impacts: a for near miss women with a live birth, on child development and education, on relatively expensive food consumption and on women's quality of life; b for near miss women with perinatal death, on relatively expensive foods consumption and children's education and c for near miss women who had an early pregnancy loss, on overall food security. Our results showed that severe obstetric complications have long lasting consequences for different groups of women and their children and highlighted the need for carefully targeted interventions.

  14. Long-term outcome of schizoaffective disorder. Are there any differences with respect to schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Federica; Sanna, Lucia; Perra, Valeria; Pisu Randaccio, Rachele; Diana, Enrica; Carpiniello, Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies suggest that the clinical characteristics and long-term outcome of schizoaffective patients closely resemble those observed in schizophrenia when cases are diagnosed according to DSM criteria. The primary aim was to compare remission and recovery rates in a cohort of chronic schizoaffective and schizophrenic outpatients. A sample of 102 consecutive outpatients, 46 affected by schizophrenia (45.1%, mean age 44.22±9.97 years) and 66 affected by schizoaffective disorder (54.9%, mean age 43.00±9.07 years) was examined in the study. Personal data and psychiatric history were collected according to AMDP system; premorbid assessment was performed by means of PAS. Axis I and II psychiatric diagnosis was confirmed by means of SCID-I and II. Psychopathological status was evaluated by means of PANSS and CGI-SCH scales; neuropsychological evaluation was performed by means of BACS and MMSE; Functioning, subjective well-being and quality of life were respectively evaluated by means of PSP, SWN and WHOQoL-bref. Schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients investigated were characterized by an overlapping age at onset, mean duration of illness, mean duration of untreated psychosis and common sociodemographic characteristics; subjects' cross-sectional psychopathological and neurocognitive profiles were remarkably similar. However, schizoaffective patients are more frequently of the female gender, showing a better social premorbid adjustment and a somewhat more complicated clinical course in terms of more frequent hospitalizations and suicidality; outcome measures are substantially better among schizoaffective patients: rates of clinical remission were 43.5% and 54.5% in schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients, respectively; 13% and 25.8% of schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients, respectively, were considered as functionally remitted; recovery was observed in 6.5% and 22.7% of schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients, respectively; the majority of

  15. Long-term use of psychedelic drugs is associated with differences in brain structure and personality in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouso, José Carlos; Palhano-Fontes, Fernanda; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Ribeiro, Sidarta; Sanches, Rafael; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Hallak, Jaime E C; de Araujo, Draulio B; Riba, Jordi

    2015-04-01

    Psychedelic agents have a long history of use by humans for their capacity to induce profound modifications in perception, emotion and cognitive processes. Despite increasing knowledge of the neural mechanisms involved in the acute effects of these drugs, the impact of sustained psychedelic use on the human brain remains largely unknown. Molecular pharmacology studies have shown that psychedelic 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT)2A agonists stimulate neurotrophic and transcription factors associated with synaptic plasticity. These data suggest that psychedelics could potentially induce structural changes in brain tissue. Here we looked for differences in cortical thickness (CT) in regular users of psychedelics. We obtained magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images of the brains of 22 regular users of ayahuasca (a preparation whose active principle is the psychedelic 5HT2A agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT)) and 22 controls matched for age, sex, years of education, verbal IQ and fluid IQ. Ayahuasca users showed significant CT differences in midline structures of the brain, with thinning in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a key node of the default mode network. CT values in the PCC were inversely correlated with the intensity and duration of prior use of ayahuasca and with scores on self-transcendence, a personality trait measuring religiousness, transpersonal feelings and spirituality. Although direct causation cannot be established, these data suggest that regular use of psychedelic drugs could potentially lead to structural changes in brain areas supporting attentional processes, self-referential thought, and internal mentation. These changes could underlie the previously reported personality changes in long-term users and highlight the involvement of the PCC in the effects of psychedelics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  16. Long-term quality of life after conservative treatment versus surgery for different stages of acute sigmoid diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandlhuber, Martina; Genzinger, Christian; Brandlhuber, Bernhard; Sommer, Wieland H; Müller, Mario H; Kreis, Martin E

    2018-03-01

    It is controversial whether patients fare better with conservative or surgical treatment in certain stages of acute diverticulitis (AD), in particular when phlegmonous inflammation or covered micro- or macro-perforation are present. The aim of this study was to determine long-term quality of life (QoL) for AD patients who received either surgery or conservative treatment in different stages. We included patients treated for AD at the University Hospital Grosshadern, Munich, Germany, between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2010. Patients were classified by the Hansen and Stock (HS) classification, the modified Hinchey classification, and the German classification of diverticular disease (CDD). Pre-therapeutic staging was based on multidetector computed tomography. Long-term QoL was assessed by the Cleveland Global Quality of Life (CGQL) questionnaire, the Short Form 36 (SF-36), and the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI). Data are mean ± SEM. Patients with phlegmonous AD (HS type 2a, Hinchey Ia and CDD 1b, respectively) had a better long-term QoL on the GIQLI when they were operated (78.5 ± 2.5 vs. 70.7 ± 2.1; p life, patients fare better after elective sigmoid colectomy when abscess size exceeds 1 cm.

  17. The role of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism in individual differences in long-term memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Felten, Andrea; Markett, Sebastian; Fischer, Luise; Winkel, Katja; Cooper, Andrew; Reuter, Martin

    2014-12-01

    The protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in diverse memory processes and is strongly expressed in the hippocampus. The hippocampus itself is a key structure involved in the processing of information from short-term to long-term memory. Due to the putative role of BDNF in memory consolidation, a prominent single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the BDNF gene (BDNF Val66Met) was investigated in the context of long-term memory performance. N=138 students were presented with 40 words from 10 categories, each consisting of eight words such as 'fruits' or 'vehicles' in a memory recognition task (specifically the Deese-Roediger-McDermott Paradigm). Recognition performance was analyzed 25 min after the initial presentation of the word list and subsequently 1 week after the initial presentation. Overall, individual long-term memory performance immediately after learning the word list (T1) and performance 1 week later (T2) did not differ on the basis of the BDNF SNP, but an interaction effect of BDNF Val66Met by time-of-recall was found: Carriers of the Met66+ variant showed the strongest decline in hit rate performance over time.

  18. Simulated biomass, environmental impacts and best management practices for long-term switchgrass systems in a semi-arid region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Limei; Qian, Yaling; Brummer, Joe E.; Zheng, Jiyong; Wilhelm, Sarah; Parton, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term information on switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) as a biomass energy crop grown on marginally saline soil and the associated impacts on soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and best management practices (BMPs) are limited. In this study, we employed the DAYCENT model, based on a 4-year switchgrass field experiment, to evaluate the long-term biomass yield potential and environmental impacts, and further to develop BMPs for switchgrass in a semi-arid region. The model showed that long-term (14-year) annual mean biomass yields were 9.6 and 5.2 Mg ha −1 for irrigated and rainfed switchgrass systems, respectively. The simulated biomass yields correlated well with field-measured biomass with r 2 values of 0.99 and 0.89 for irrigated and rainfed systems, respectively. Soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil total nitrogen (STN) accumulated rapidly after switchgrass establishment, with mean accrual rates of 0.99–1.13 Mg C ha −1  yr −1 and 0.04–0.08 Mg N ha −1  yr −1 , respectively. Based on the outputs of numerous long-term model simulations with variable irrigation water supplies and N rates, the irrigation regime and N rate with the highest yield to input ratio were chosen as BMPs. The DAYCENT model predicted-BMP was irrigating every 14 days at 70% potential evapotranspiration combined with an N rate of 67 kg ha −1  yr −1 . Switchgrass established and produced biomass reasonably well in this semi-arid region; however, appropriate irrigation and N fertilization were needed for optimal biomass yield. Switchgrass had a great potential to sequester C into soils with low N 2 O emissions while supplying significant quantities of biomass for biofuel synthesis. - Highlights: • The DAYCENT model reliably simulated the growth of switchgrass on marginal land. • Long-term biomass and environmental impacts were simulated using the DAYCENT model. • Switchgrass produced biomass well on marginal land, but

  19. Herbivore Impact on Tundra Plant Community Dynamics Using Long-term Remote Sensing Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Q.; Engstrom, R.; Shiklomanov, N. I.

    2014-12-01

    Arctic tundra biome is now experiencing dramatic environmental changes accentuated by summer sea-ice decline, permafrost thaw, and shrub expansion. Multi-decadal time-series of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, a spectral metric of vegetation productivity) shows an overall "greening" trend across the Arctic tundra biome. Regional trends in climate plausibly explain large-scale patterns of increasing plant productivity, as diminished summer sea-ice extent warms the adjacent land causing tundra vegetation to respond positively (increased photosynthetic aboveground biomass). However, at more local scales, there is a great deal of spatial variability in NDVI trends that likely reflects differences in hydrology and soil conditions, disturbance history, and use by wildlife and humans. Particularly, habitat use by large herbivores, such as reindeer and caribou, has large impacts on vegetation dynamics at local and regional scales, but the role of herbivores in modulating the response of vegetation to warming climate has received little attention. This study investigates regional tundra plant community dynamics within inhabits of different sizes of wild caribou/reindeer herds across the Arctic using GIMMS NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) 3g data product. The Taimyr herd in Russia is one of the largest herds in the world with a population increase from 450,000 in 1975 to about 1 million animals in 2000. The population of the porcupine caribou herd has fluctuated in the past three decades between 100,000 and 180,000. Time-series of the maximum NDVI within the inhabit area of the Taimyr herd has increased about 2% per decade over the past three decades, while within the inhabit area of the Porcupine herd the maximum NDVI has increased about 5% per decade. Our results indicate that the impact of large herbivores can be detected from space and further analyses on seasonal dynamics of vegetation indices and herbivore behavior may provide more

  20. The impact of oral health on body image and social interactions among elders in long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Leeann R; Clarke, Laura Hurd; Phinney, Alison; MacEntee, Michael I

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to explore how social interactions and body image are influenced by perceived oral health among older people who live in long-term care facilities. Social interactions among frail elders in long-term care (LTC) facilities are limited, but to what extent body image and oral health influence their social relations is poorly understood. A positive body image and the perception of adequate oral health are linked to increased social contacts, as well as improved health and well-being irrespective of age. However, as frailty increases, it is unclear whether appearance and oral health priorities remain stable. Open-ended interviews were conducted with a purposefully selected group of cognitively intact, older men and women who exhibited varying degrees of frailty, social engagement and oral health conditions and lived in one of seven long-term care facilities. The interviews were analysed using a constant comparative technique, and a second interview with participants checked the trustworthiness of the analysis. Three major categories were expressed by the participants: (1) My mouth is fine; (2) It depends; and (3) Not that important. Within each category, there were several contributing and influencing factors. Social interactions among residents in LTC may be negatively impacted by poor oral health, but only if other personal and social issues are less bothersome than conditions with the mouth. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Woody debris along an upland chromosequence in boreal Manitoba and its impact on long-term carbon storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manies, K. L.; Harden, J. W. [US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bond-Lamberty, B. P. [University of Wisconsin, Dept. of Forest Ecology and Management, Madison, WI (United States); O' Neill, K. P. [USDA Agricultural Research Service, Appalachian Farming Systems Research Center, Beaver, WV (United States)

    2005-02-01

    The amount of standing dead and downed woody debris along an upland chromosequence was measured in an effort to investigate the role of fire-killed woody debris as a source of soil carbon in black spruce stands in Manitoba. Based on the measurement data and existing primary production values, a mass balance model was used to assess the potential impact of fire-killed wood on long-term carbon storage at this site. Long-term carbon was represented by the amount of carbon stored in deeper soil organic layers, persisting over millenia. Between 10 and 60 per cent of the deep-soil carbon was estimated to have been derived from wood biomass. The actual amount appears to be most affected by fire return interval, decay rate of wood, the amount of net primary production, and the decay rate of the post-fire carbon pool. Although the model was less sensitive to fire consumption rates and to rates at which standing dead wood becomes woody debris, all model runs clearly established that woody debris plays an important role in long-term carbon storage in this area. 53 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  2. The long-term impact of urbanization on nitrogen patterns and dynamics in Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Baojing; Dong Xiaoli; Peng Changhui; Luo Weidong; Chang Jie; Ge Ying

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization is an important process that alters the regional and global nitrogen biogeochemistry. In this study, we test how long-term urbanization (1952–2004) affects the nitrogen flows, emissions and drivers in the Greater Shanghai Area (GSA) based on the coupled human and natural systems (CHANS) approach. Results show that: (1) total nitrogen input to the GSA increased from 57.7 to 587.9 Gg N yr −1 during the period 1952–2004, mainly attributing to fossil fuel combustion (43%), Haber–Bosch nitrogen fixation (31%), and food/feed import (26%); (2) per capita nitrogen input increased from 13.5 to 45.7 kg N yr −1 , while per gross domestic product (GDP) nitrogen input reduced from 22.2 to 0.9 g N per Chinese Yuan, decoupling of nitrogen with GDP; (3) emissions of reactive nitrogen to the environment transformed from agriculture dominated to industry and human living dominated, especially for air pollution. This study provides decision-makers a novel view of nitrogen management. - Highlights: ► Major Nr emission source shifts from agriculture to industry alongside urbanization. ► Decoupling of nitrogen with GDP and urban expansion arises alongside urbanization. ► Nitrogen fluxes increase with population growth and living standard promotion. - Major nitrogen emission source shifts from agriculture to industry and human, and decoupling of nitrogen with GDP and urban expansion arises alongside urbanization.

  3. The long-term impact of urbanization on nitrogen patterns and dynamics in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Baojing; Dong, Xiaoli; Peng, Changhui; Luo, Weidong; Chang, Jie; Ge, Ying

    2012-12-01

    Urbanization is an important process that alters the regional and global nitrogen biogeochemistry. In this study, we test how long-term urbanization (1952-2004) affects the nitrogen flows, emissions and drivers in the Greater Shanghai Area (GSA) based on the coupled human and natural systems (CHANS) approach. Results show that: (1) total nitrogen input to the GSA increased from 57.7 to 587.9 Gg N yr(-1) during the period 1952-2004, mainly attributing to fossil fuel combustion (43%), Haber-Bosch nitrogen fixation (31%), and food/feed import (26%); (2) per capita nitrogen input increased from 13.5 to 45.7 kg N yr(-1), while per gross domestic product (GDP) nitrogen input reduced from 22.2 to 0.9 g N per Chinese Yuan, decoupling of nitrogen with GDP; (3) emissions of reactive nitrogen to the environment transformed from agriculture dominated to industry and human living dominated, especially for air pollution. This study provides decision-makers a novel view of nitrogen management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The impact of a standardized program on short and long-term outcomes in bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aird, Lisa N F; Hong, Dennis; Gmora, Scott; Breau, Ruth; Anvari, Mehran

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there has been an improvement in short- and long-term clinical outcomes since 2010, when the Ontario Bariatric Network led a province-wide initiative to establish a standardized system of care for bariatric patients. The system includes nine bariatric centers, a centralized referral system, and a research registry. Standardization of procedures has progressed yearly, including guidelines for preoperative assessment and perioperative care. Analysis of the OBN registry data was performed by fiscal year between April 2010 and March 2015. Three-month overall postoperative complication rates and 30 day postoperative mortality were calculated. The mean percentage of weight loss at 1, 2, and 3 years postoperative, and regression of obesity-related diseases were calculated. The analysis of continuous and nominal data was performed using ANOVA, Chi-square, and McNemar's testing. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed for factors affecting postoperative complication rate. Eight thousand and forty-three patients were included in the bariatric registry between April 2010 and March 2015. Thirty-day mortality was rare (bariatric care has contributed to improvements in complication rates and supported prolonged weight loss and regression of obesity-related diseases in patients undergoing bariatric surgery in Ontario.

  5. Family Processes in Child Anxiety: the Long-Term Impact of Fathers and Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart Parrigon, Kaela L; Kerns, Kathryn A

    2016-10-01

    The current study investigated links between parent and child anxiety, and family process factors, over a 9 year period. Specifically, we examined the role of partner conflict, attachment security and parental autonomy granting in explaining changes in child, father, and mother anxiety symptoms. We utilized data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 661), from when target children were in first grade (6 years), fifth grade (10 years), and 15 years of age. We tested a longitudinal path model including both fathers and mothers, and found that the model was a good fit for the data. We also found that lower attachment security to fathers and a restriction of maternal autonomy granting predicted which children maintained anxiety into adolescence. Partner conflict explained the association between earlier and later parental anxiety, which is a novel finding in the literature. Together, these findings suggest that fathers play an important long-term role in child anxiety, alongside the role of mothers.

  6. Impact of long term Yoga practice on sleep quality and quality of life in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh A Bankar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep disturbances and decline in the physical functionality are common conditions associated with aging. Pharmacological treatment of sleep disturbances can be associated with various adverse effects. Short term trials of Yoga on sleep have shown beneficial effects. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of long-term Yoga exercises on sleep quality and quality of life (QOL in the elderly. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in which data were collected from elderly people aged 60 years or more living in Nagpur city. We employed two types of survey questionnaires: Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI and QOL Leiden-Padua (LEIPAD Questionnaire. A total of 65 elderly men and women who signed an informed consent and completed questionnaires were included in the study. Sleep quality score PSQI and QOL (LEIPAD Questionnaire score of the study group were evaluated and compared with the control group using Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Total PSQI score in Yoga group was lower than that of the control group. Also various QOL scores of the Yoga groups were higher than the control group. Conclusion: Addition of regular Yoga exercises in the daily routine of elderly people can help to achieve good sleep quality as well as improve the QOL.

  7. Impact of repeated long term application of atrazine on soil properties and bound residues formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behki, R.; Khan, S.U.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of repeated long term application of the herbicide atrazine on the activities of microorganisms, enzymes, as well as on the bound residues formation, was investigated. Bacteria, fungi and soil respiration were in general inhibited in the first year of application. However, in the second and third year no such trend was observed. Similarly, a decreasing trend in the Fe(III)-reduction, nitrification and arginine deamination was observed in the first year whereas in the subsequent two years no such trend was prominent. The dehydrogenase and arylsulfatase activities showed an increasing trend after the application of the herbicide. Column studies showed that extractable residues of atrazine and carbofuran gradually decreased after the application of the pesticides. Amendments of the soil containing 14 C-bound residues did not increase 14 CO 2 evolution. Unextractable 14 C was higher and mineralization of 14 C-2,4-D was lower in previously untreated soil than in soils with histories of atrazine and carbofuran application. (author)

  8. Impact of surrounding environment evolution on long-term gas flux measurements in a temperate mixed forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurdebise, Quentin; Rixen, Toma; De Ligne, Anne; Vincke, Caroline; Heinesch, Bernard; Aubinet, Marc

    2016-04-01

    With the development of eddy covariance networks like Fluxnet, ICOS or NEON, long-term data series of carbon dioxide, water vapor and other gas exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and atmosphere will become more and more numerous. However, long-term analyses of such exchanges require a good understanding of measurement conditions during the investigated period. Independently of climate drivers, measurements may indeed be influenced by measurement conditions themselves subjected to long-term variability due to vegetation growth or set-up changes. The present research refers to the Vielsalm Terrestrial Observatory (VTO) where fluxes of momentum, carbon dioxide, latent and sensible heat have been continuously measured by eddy covariance during twenty years. VTO is an ICOS site installed in a mixed forest (beech, silver fir, Douglas fir, Norway spruce) in the Belgian Ardennes. A multidisciplinary approach was developed in order to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of several site characteristics: -displacement height (d) and relative measurement height (z-d) were determined using a spectral approach that compared observed and theoretical cospectra; -turbulence statistics were analyzed in the context of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory; -tree height during the measurement period was obtained by combining tree height inventories, a LIDAR survey and tree growth models; -measurement footprint was determined by using a footprint model. A good agreement was found between the three first approaches. Results show notably that z-d was subjected to both temporal and spatial evolution. Temporal evolution resulted from continuous tree growth as well as from a tower raise, achieved in 2009. Spatial evolution, due to canopy heterogeneity, was also observed. The impacts of these changes on measurements are investigated. In particular, it was shown that they affect measurement footprint, flux spectral corrections and flux quality. All these effects must be taken into

  9. Impact of long term care and mortality risk in community care and nursing homes populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Hugo; Mateus, Céu; Rosati, Nicoletta

    To identify the survival time, the mortality risk factors and the individuals' characteristics associated with cognitive and physical status at discharge, among the Portuguese long-term care (LTC) populations. Home-and-Community-Based Services (HCBS) and three types of Nursing Homes (NH). 20,984 individuals admitted and discharged in 2015. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the Cox Proportional Hazards Models were used to study the mortality risk; the Wilcoxon signed-rank test to identify the number of individuals with cognitive and physical changes between admission and discharge; two cumulative odds ordinal logistic regressions to predict the cognitive and physical dependence levels at discharge RESULTS: The mortality rate at HCBS was 30%, and 17% at the NH, with a median survival time of 173 and 200 days, respectively. The main factors associated with higher mortality were older age, male gender, family/neighbour support, neoplasms and cognitive/physical dependence at admission. In NH/HCBS, 26%/18% of individuals improve their cognitive status, while in physical status the proportion was 38%/27%, respectively. Finally, older age, being illiterate and being classified at the lowest cognitive and physical status at admission decrease the likelihood of achieving a higher level of cognitive and physical independence at discharge. The adoption of a robust and complete assessment tool, the definition of guidelines to enable a periodical assessment of individuals' autonomy and the adoption of benchmark metrics allowing the comparison of results between similar units are some of the main goals to be taken into account for future developments of this care in Portugal. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-term simulations of water and isoproturon dynamics in a heterogeneous soil receiving different urban waste composts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, Vilim; Coquet, Yves; Pot, Valérie; Romić, Davor; Benoit, Pierre; Houot, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    Implementing various compost amendments and tillage practices has a large influence on soil structure and can create heterogeneities at the plot/field scale. While tillage affects soil physical properties, compost application influences also chemical properties like pesticide sorption and degradation. A long-term field experiment called "QualiAgro" (https://www6.inra.fr/qualiagro_eng/), conducted since 1998 aims at characterizing the agronomic value of urban waste composts and their environmental impacts. A modeling study was carried out using HYDRUS-2D for the 2004-2010 period to confront the effects of two different compost types combined with the presence of heterogeneities due to tillage in terms of water and isoproturon dynamics in soil. A municipal solid waste compost (MSW) and a co-compost of sewage sludge and green wastes (SGW) have been applied to experimental plots and compared to a control plot without any compost addition (CONT). Two wick lysimeters, 5 TDR probes, and 7 tensiometers were installed per plot to monitor water and isoproturon dynamics. In the ploughed layer, four zones with differing soil structure were identified: compacted clods (Δ), non-compacted soil (Γ), interfurrows (IF), and the plough pan (PP). These different soil structural zones were implemented into HYDRUS-2D according to field observation and using measured soil hydraulic properties. Lysimeter data showed (2004 -2010 period) that the CONT plot had the largest cumulative water outflow (1388 mm) compared to the MSW plot (962 mm) and SGW plot (979 mm). HYDRUS-2D was able to describe cumulative water outflow after calibration of soil hydraulic properties, for the whole 2004-2010 period with a model efficiency value of 0.99 for all three plots. Isoproturon leaching showed had the largest cumulative value in the CONT plot (21.31 μg) while similar cumulated isoproturon leachings were measured in the SGW (0.663 μg) and MSW (0.245 μg) plots. The model was able to simulate

  11. Long-term functioning of a species-rich mountain meadow under different management regimes. Agriculture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mašková, Z.; Doležal, J.; Květ, Jan; Zemek, František

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 132 (2009), s. 192-202 ISSN 0167-8809 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH92034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Šumava National Park and Biosphere Reserve * grassland management * plant biomass Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.130, year: 2009

  12. Meso level influences on long term condition self-management: stakeholder accounts of commonalities and differences across six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Anne; Vassilev, Ivaylo; Pumar, Maria J Jesús; Todorova, Elka; Portillo, Mari Carmen; Foss, Christina; Koetsenruijter, Jan; Ratsika, Nikoleta; Serrano, Manuel; Knutsen, Ingrid A Ruud; Wensing, Michel; Roukova, Poli; Patelarou, Evridiki; Kennedy, Anne; Lionis, Christos

    2015-07-08

    European countries are increasingly adopting systems of self -care support (SMS) for long term conditions which focus on enhancing individual, competencies, skills, behaviour and lifestyle changes. To date the focus of policy for engendering greater self- management in the population has been focused in the main on the actions and motivations of individuals. Less attention has been paid to how the broader influences relevant to SMS policy and practice such as those related to food production, distribution and consumption and the structural aspects and economics relating to physical exercise and governance of health care delivery systems might be implicated in the populations ability to self- manage. This study aimed to identify key informants operating with knowledge of both policy and practice related to SMS in order to explore how these influences are seen to impact on the self-management support environment for diabetes type 2. Ninety semi-structured interviews were conducted with key stakeholder informants in Bulgaria, Spain, Greece, Norway, Netherlands and UK. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using thematic and textual analysis. Stakeholders in the six countries identified a range of influences which shaped diabetes self-management (SM). The infrastructure and culture for supporting self- management practice is viewed as driven by political decision-makers, the socio-economic and policy environment, and the ethos and delivery of chronic illness management in formal health care systems. Three key themes emerged during the analysis of data. These were 1) social environmental influences on diabetes self-management 2) reluctance or inability of policy makers to regulate processes and environments related to chronic illness management 3) the focus of healthcare system governance and gaps in provision of self-management support (SMS). Nuances in the salience and content of these themes between partner countries related to the presence and articulation of

  13. Clinical characteristics and long-term response to mood stabilizers in patients with bipolar disorder and different age at onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell’Osso, Bernardo; Buoli, Massimiliano; Riundi, Riccardo; D’Urso, Nazario; Pozzoli, Sara; Bassetti, Roberta; Mundo, Emanuela; Altamura, A Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Bipolar disorder (BD) is a prevalent, comorbid, and impairing condition. Potential predictors of response to pharmacological treatment are object of continuous investigation in patients with BD. The present naturalistic study was aimed to assess clinical features and long-term response to mood stabilizers in a sample of bipolar subjects with different ages at onset. Methods The study sample included 108 euthymic patients, diagnosed as affected by BD, either type I or II, according to the DSM-IV-TR, who were started on mood stabilizer treatment. Patients were followed-up for 24 months and the occurrence of any mood episode collected. At the end of the follow-up, patients were divided in 3 subgroups according to the age at onset (early-onset ≤30 years, middle-onset >30–≤45 years, and late-onset >45 years, respectively) and the long-term response to mood stabilizers was compared between them along with other clinical features. Results The three subgroups showed significant differences in terms of clinical and demographic features and, with respect to long-term response to mood stabilizers, the early-onset subgroup showed a better outcome in terms of reduction of major depressive episodes during the 24-month follow-up compared to the other subgroups (one way ANOVA, F = 3.57, p = 0.032). Conclusions Even though further controlled studies are needed to clarify the relationship between age at onset and outcome in BD, the present follow-up study suggests clinical peculiarities and different patterns of response to mood stabilizers across distinct subgroups of patients with BD and different ages at onset. PMID:19649214

  14. Risk-adjusted impact of administrative costs on the distribution of terminal wealth for long-term investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, Montserrat; Jarner, Søren Fiig; Nielsen, Jens Perch; Pérez-Marín, Ana M

    2014-01-01

    The impact of administrative costs on the distribution of terminal wealth is approximated using a simple formula applicable to many investment situations. We show that the reduction in median returns attributable to administrative fees is usually at least twice the amount of the administrative costs charged for most investment funds, when considering a risk-adjustment correction over a reasonably long-term time horizon. The example we present covers a number of standard cases and can be applied to passive investments, mutual funds, and hedge funds. Our results show investors the potential losses they face in performance due to administrative costs.

  15. Perioperative hyperoxia - Long-term impact on cardiovascular complications after abdominal surgery, a post hoc analysis of the PROXI trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonnes, Siv; Gogenur, Ismail; Sondergaard, Edith Smed

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased long-term mortality was found in patients exposed to perioperative hyperoxia in the PROXI trial, where patients undergoing laparotomy were randomised to 80% versus 30% oxygen during and after surgery. This post hoc follow-up study assessed the impact of perioperative hyperoxia...... included myocardial infarction, other heart disease, and acute coronary syndrome or death. Data were analysed in the Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: The primary outcome, acute coronary syndrome, occurred in 2.5% versus 1.3% in the 80% versus 30% oxygen group; HR 2.15 (95% CI 0.96-4.84). Patients...

  16. The effect of long-term impact of elevated temperature on changes in the microstructure of inconel 740H alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sroka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of investigations on microstructure changes after the long-term impact of temperature. The microstructure investigations were carried out by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The qualitative and quantitative identification of the existing precipitates was carried out using X-ray phase composition analysis. The effect of elevated temperature on precipitation processes of test material were described. The obtained results of investigations form part of the material characteristics of new-generation alloys, which can be indirectly associated with the stability of functional properties under the simultaneous effect of high temperature and stress.

  17. Long-term impacts of vaginal birth with mediolateral episiotomy on sexual and pelvic dysfunction and perineal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Bülent; Gün, İsmet; Özdamar, Özkan; Yılmaz, Ali; Muhçu, Murat

    2017-02-01

    To investigate whether spontaneous vaginal birth with mediolateral episiotomy has any long-term impact on urinary and/or fecal incontinence, sexual dysfunction and perineal pain in primiparous women. This matched case-control study included 150 women between 25 and 35 years old who had a singleton childbirth at least five years previously. Patients were grouped as; women who had a spontaneous vaginal delivery with mediolateral episiotomy (Group 1), an elective cesarean delivery (Group 2), and who had no delivery (Group 3). Controls were matched for age and delivery time. Urinary/fecal incontinence were questioned and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire was completed. Total FSFI and domain scores were compared. Statistical evaluation was performed using One-way ANOVA test or χ 2 test. Statistical significance was defined as p sexual dysfunction. Mean total FSFI points in Group 1 were significantly lower than in Groups 2 and 3 (p = 0.001). There were significant differences in sexual desire between groups 1 and 3 (p = 0.005), in arousal and in orgasm between both groups 1 and 2 (p = 0.001 and p = 0.038, respectively) and groups 1 and 3 (p = 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively). There was no significant difference between groups 2 and 3 in any parameters or total points. Vaginal delivery with mediolateral episiotomy is not associated with urinary and/or fecal incontinence and sexual dysfunction but associated with a decreased sexual functioning as well as sexual desire, arousal and orgasm within postpartum five years.

  18. Impact of long-term viral suppression in CD4+ recovery of HIV-children on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurbindo-Gutierrez Dolores

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of HAART may differ between children and adults because children have a developing immune system, and the long-term immunological outcome in HIV-infected children on HAART is not well-known. A major aim of our study was to determine CD4+ evolution associated with long-term VL control during 4 years of observation on HAART. Methods We carried out a retrospective study on a cohort of 160 vertically HIV-infected children. It was carried out from 1996 to 2004 in six large Spanish pediatric referral hospitals. We compared 33 children who had long-term VL suppression (VL ≤400 copies/ml in the first 12 months of follow-up and maintained that level throughout follow-up (Responders-group, and 127 children with persistently detectable VL in spite of ART switches (Non-Responders-group. Results We observed a quick initial and significant increase in CD4+ counts from the baseline to 12 months on HAART in both groups (p Non-Responders group sustained CD4+ increases and most of these children maintained high CD4+ level counts (≥25%. The Non-Responders group reached a plateau between 26% and 27% CD4+ at the first 12 months of follow-up that remained stable during the following 3 years. However, the Responders group reached a plateau between 30% and 32% CD4+ at 24, 36 and 48 months of follow-up. We found that the Responders group had higher CD4+ count values and higher percentages of children with CD4+ ≥25% than the Non-Responders group (p Conclusion Long-term VL suppression in turn induces large beneficial effects in immunological responses. However, it is not indispensable to recover CD4+ levels.

  19. Long-term impact of endometrial cancer diagnosis and treatment on health-related quality of life and cancer survivorship : Results from the randomized PORTEC-2 trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, Stephanie M.; Nout, Remi A.; Jurgenliemk-Schulz, Ina M.; Jobsen, Jan J; Lutgens, Ludy C.H.W.; Van Der Steen-Banasik, Elzbieta M.; Mens, Jan Willem M.; Slot, Annerie; Stenfert Kroese, Marika C.; Oerlemans, Simone; Putter, Hein; Verhoeven-Adema, Karen W.; Nijman, Hans W; Creutzberg, Carien L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term health-related quality of life (HRQL) after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) among PORTEC-2 trial patients, evaluate long-term bowel and bladder symptoms, and assess the impact of cancer on these endometrial cancer (EC)

  20. Long-term impact of endometrial cancer diagnosis and treatment on health-related quality of life and cancer survivorship : Results from the randomized PORTEC-2 trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Stephanie M.; Nout, Remi A.; Jurgenliemk-Schulz, Ina M.; Jobsen, Jan J.; Lutgens, Ludy C. H. W.; van der Steen-Banasik, Elzbieta M.; Mens, Jan Willem M.; Slot, Annerie; Kroese, Marika C. Stenfert; Oerlemans, Simone; Putter, Hein; Verhoeven-Adema, Karen W.; Nijman, Hans W.; Creutzberg, Carien L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the long-term health-related quality of life (HRQL) after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) among PORTEC-2 trial patients, evaluate long-term bowel and bladder symptoms, and assess the impact of cancer on these endometrial cancer (EC)

  1. Long-Term Impact of Endometrial Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment on Health-Related Quality of Life and Cancer Survivorship : Results From the Randomized PORTEC-2 Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Stephanie M.; Nout, Remi A.; Jurgenliemk-Schulz, Ina M.; Jobsen, Jan J.; Lutgens, Ludy C. H. W.; van der Steen-Banasik, Elzbieta M.; Mens, Jan Willem M.; Slot, Annerie; Kroese, Marika C. Stenfert; Oerlemans, Simone; Putter, Hein; Verhoeven-Adema, Karen W.; Nijman, Hans W.; Creutzberg, Carien L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term health-related quality of life (HRQL) after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) among PORTEC-2 trial patients, evaluate long-term bowel and bladder symptoms, and assess the impact of cancer on these endometrial cancer (EC)

  2. Long-term mental health outcome in post-conflict settings: Similarities and differences between Kosovo and Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eytan, Ariel; Munyandamutsa, Naasson; Nkubamugisha, Paul Mahoro; Gex-Fabry, Marianne

    2015-06-01

    Few studies investigated the long-term mental health outcome in culturally different post-conflict settings. This study considers two surveys conducted in Kosovo 8 years after the Balkans war and in Rwanda 14 years after the genocide. All participants (n = 864 in Kosovo; n = 962 in Rwanda) were interviewed using the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive episode (MDE) sections of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Proportions of participants who met diagnostic criteria for either PTSD or MDE were 33.0% in Kosovo and 31.0% in Rwanda, with co-occurrence of both disorders in 17.8% of the Rwandan sample and 9.5% of the Kosovan sample. Among patients with PTSD, patterns of symptoms significantly differed in the two settings, with avoidance and inability to recall less frequent and sense of a foreshortened future and increased startle response more common in Rwanda. Significant differences were also observed in patients with MDE, with loss of energy and difficulties concentrating less frequent and suicidal ideation more common in Rwanda. Comorbid PTSD and MDE were associated with decreased SF-36 subjective mental and physical health scores in both settings, but significantly larger effects in Kosovo than in Rwanda. Culturally different civilian populations exposed to mass trauma may differ with respect to their long-term mental health outcome, including comorbidity, symptom profile and health perception. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Long-term iron deficiency: Tracing changes in the proteome of different pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisrimler, Claudia-Nicole; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Lyon, David; Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Lüthje, Sabine

    2016-05-17

    Iron deficiency (-Fe) is one of the major problems in crop production. Dicots, like pea (Pisum sativum L.), are Strategy I plants, which induce a group of specific enzymes such as Fe(III)-chelate reductase (FRO), Fe responsive transporter (IRT) and H(+)-ATPase (HA) at the root plasma membrane under -Fe. Different species and cultivars have been shown to react diversely to -Fe. Furthermore, different kinds of experimental set-ups for -Fe have to be distinguished: i) short-term vs. long-term, ii) constant vs. acute alteration and iii) buffered vs. unbuffered systems. The presented work compares the effects of constant long-term -Fe in an unbuffered system on roots of four different pea cultivars in a timely manner (12, 19 and 25days). To differentiate the effects of -Fe and plant development, control plants (+Fe) were analyzed in comparison to -Fe plants. Besides physiological measurements, an integrative study was conducted using a comprehensive proteome analysis. Proteins, related to stress adaptation (e.g. HSP), reactive oxygen species related proteins and proteins of the mitochondrial electron transport were identified to be changed in their abundance. Regulations and possible functions of identified proteins are discussed. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) belongs to the legume family (Fabaceae) and is an important crop plant due to high Fe, starch and protein contents. According to FAOSTAT data (September 2015), world production of the garden pea quadrupled from 1970 to 2012. Since the initial studies by Gregor Mendel, the garden pea became the most-characterized legume and has been used in numerous investigations in plant biochemistry and physiology, but is not well represented in the "omics"-related fields. A major limitation in pea production is the Fe availability from soils. Adaption mechanisms to Fe deficiency vary between species, and even cultivars have been shown to react diversely. A label-free proteomic approach, in combination with physiological measurements

  4. Comparison of different chaotic maps in particle swarm optimization algorithm for long-term cascaded hydroelectric system scheduling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yaoyao; Zhou Jianzhong; Xiang Xiuqiao; Chen Heng; Qin Hui

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a novel chaotic particle swarm optimization (CPSO) algorithm and compares the efficiency of three one-dimensional chaotic maps within symmetrical region for long-term cascaded hydroelectric system scheduling. The introduced chaotic maps improve the global optimal capability of CPSO algorithm. Moreover, a piecewise linear interpolation function is employed to transform all constraints into restrict upriver water level for implementing the maximum of objective function. Numerical results and comparisons demonstrate the effect and speed of different algorithms on a practical hydro-system.

  5. Impact of Long-Term Treatment with Ivermectin on the Prevalence and Intensity of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncayo, Ana Lucia; Vaca, Maritza; Amorim, Leila; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Erazo, Silvia; Oviedo, Gisela; Quinzo, Isabel; Padilla, Margarita; Chico, Martha; Lovato, Raquel; Gomez, Eduardo; Barreto, Mauricio L.; Cooper, Philip J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections relies on the periodic and long-term administration of anthelmintic drugs to high-risk groups, particularly school-age children living in endemic areas. There is limited data on the effectiveness of long-term periodic anthelmintic treatment on the prevalence of STHs, particularly from operational programmes. The current study investigated the impact of 15 to 17 years of treatment with the broad-spectrum anthelmintic ivermectin, used for the control of onchocerciasis, on STH prevalence and intensity in school-age and pre-school children. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in communities that had received annual or twice-annual ivermectin treatments and geographically adjacent communities that had not received treatment in two districts of Esmeraldas Province in Ecuador. Stool samples were collected from school-age children and examined for STH infection using the Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration methods. Samples were collected also from pre-school children and examined by the formol-ether concentration method. Data on risk factors for STH infection were collected by parental questionnaire. We sampled a total of 3,705 school-age children (6–16 years) from 31 treated and 27 non-treated communities, and 1,701 pre-school children aged 0–5 years from 18 treated and 18 non-treated communities. Among school-age children, ivermectin treatment had significant effects on the prevalence (adjusted OR =  0.06, 95% CI 0.03–0.14) and intensity of Trichuris trichiura infection (adjusted RR = 0.28, 95% CI 0.11–0.70), but appeared to have no impact on Ascaris lumbricoides or hookworm infection. Reduced prevalence and intensities of T. trichiura infection were observed among children not eligible to receive ivermectina, providing some evidence of reduced transmission of T. trichiura infection in communities receiving mass ivermectin treatments. Conclusion Annual and twice

  6. Pulmonary homograft stenosis in the Ross procedure: Incidence, clinical impact and predictors in long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo González, Laura; Ruiz Ortiz, Martin; Delgado, Mónica; Mesa, Dolores; Villalba, Rafael; Rodriguez, Sara; Hidalgo, Francisco J; Alados, Pedro; Casares, Jaime; Suarez de Lezo, Jose

    2017-04-01

    The Ross procedure is used in the treatment of selected patients with aortic valve disease. Pulmonary graft stenosis can appear in the long-term follow-up after the Ross intervention, but the factors involved and its clinical implications are not fully known. To describe the incidence, clinical impact and predictors of homograft stenosis and reintervention after the Ross procedure in a prospective series in a tertiary referral hospital. From 1997 to 2009, 107 patients underwent the Ross procedure (mean age: 30±11 years; 69% men; 21 aged36mmHg) and surgical or percutaneous homograft reintervention. After 15 years of follow-up (median: 11 years), echocardiographic and clinical data were available in 91 (85%) and 104 (98%) patients, respectively: 26/91 (29%) patients developed homograft stenosis; 10/104 (10%) patients underwent 13 homograft reintervention procedures (three patients underwent surgical replacement, three received a percutaneous pulmonary valve and one needed stent implantation). The other three patients underwent two consecutive procedures in follow-up; one died because of a procedure-related myocardial infarction. Rates of survival free from homograft stenosis and reintervention at 1, 5 and 10 years were 96%, 82% and 75% and 99%, 94% and 91%, respectively. Paediatric patients had worse survival free from homograft stenosis (hazard ratio [HR] 3.50, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.56-7.90; P=0.002), although there were no significant differences regarding reintervention (HR: 2.01, 95% CI: 0.52-7.78; P=0.31). Younger age of homograft donor was also a stenosis predictor (HR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.94-0.99; P=0.046). The probabilities of homograft stenosis and reintervention 10 years after the Ross procedure were 29% and 10%, respectively; only one patient had a reintervention-related death. Younger donor and recipient age were associated with a higher rate of stenosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Long-Term Trends in Marriage Timing and the Impact of Migration, the Netherlands (1650-1899

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Störmer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The features of historical marriage patterns have been linked to debates in social and economic history about economic growth and female agency. However, there is a lack of empirical evidence on the demographics of marriage prior to the nineteenth century. Here, we study trends in sex-specific ages at first marriage, regional variation and the impact of migration on marital timing in the Netherlands in the period 1650-1900. We make use of two new large historical datasets, namely an aggregation of Dutch genealogies and the transcribed marriage banns of Amsterdam. This allows us to understand the features and developments of marriage ages from a long-term perspective in what is known as one of the core-areas of the so-called European Marriage Pattern. Our results show high marriage ages for both sexes from the beginning of our study period, increasing until the mid-19th century. A closer look at regional variation reveals clear differences between the provinces and between urban and rural settings with those in the western part of the country and in urban centers marrying earlier. Migrating individuals married on average later than non-migrating individuals both compared to men and women in the receiving community, as to the ‘stayers’ in the location of origin. As later marriage implies a reduction of the window of fertility, especially for women, our results suggest that migration and increasing regional mobility might have been an important driver of the demographic shift toward higher marriage ages and lower fertility in Europe between the 17th and 19th centuries.

  8. Long-Term Impact of Endometrial Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment on Health-Related Quality of Life and Cancer Survivorship: Results From the Randomized PORTEC-2 Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, Stephanie M. de; Nout, Remi A.; Jürgenliemk-Schulz, Ina M.; Jobsen, Jan J.; Lutgens, Ludy C.H.W.; Steen-Banasik, Elzbieta M. van der; Mens, Jan Willem M.; Slot, Annerie; Stenfert Kroese, Marika C.; Oerlemans, Simone; Putter, Hein; Verhoeven-Adema, Karen W.; Nijman, Hans W.; Creutzberg, Carien L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term health-related quality of life (HRQL) after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) among PORTEC-2 trial patients, evaluate long-term bowel and bladder symptoms, and assess the impact of cancer on these endometrial cancer (EC) survivors. Patients and Methods: In the PORTEC-2 trial, 427 patients with stage I high–intermediate-risk EC were randomly allocated to EBRT or VBT. The 7- and 10-year HRQL questionnaires consisted of EORTC QLQ-C30; subscales for bowel and bladder symptoms; the Impact of Cancer Questionnaire; and 14 questions on comorbidities, walking aids, and incontinence pads. Analysis was done using linear mixed models for subscales and (ordinal) logistic regression with random effects for single items. A two-sided P value <.01 was considered statistically significant. Results: Longitudinal HRQL analysis showed persisting higher rates of bowel symptoms with EBRT, without significant differences in global health or any of the functioning scales. At 7 years, clinically relevant fecal leakage was reported by 10.6% in the EBRT group, versus 1.8% for VBT (P=.03), diarrhea by 8.4% versus 0.9% (P=.04), limitations due to bowel symptoms by 10.5% versus 1.8% (P=.001), and bowel urgency by 23.3% versus 6.6% (P<.001). Urinary urgency was reported by 39.3% of EBRT patients, 25.5% for VBT, P=.05. No difference in sexual activity was seen between treatment arms. Long-term impact of cancer scores was higher among the patients who had an EC recurrence or second cancer. Conclusions: More than 7 years after treatment, EBRT patients reported more bowel symptoms with impact on daily activities, and a trend for more urinary symptoms, without impact on overall quality of life or difference in cancer survivorship issues.

  9. Long-Term Impact of Endometrial Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment on Health-Related Quality of Life and Cancer Survivorship: Results From the Randomized PORTEC-2 Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, Stephanie M. de, E-mail: s.m.de_boer.ONCO@lumc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Nout, Remi A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Jürgenliemk-Schulz, Ina M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Jobsen, Jan J. [Department of Radiotherapy, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Lutgens, Ludy C.H.W. [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), University Medical Centre Maastricht (Netherlands); Steen-Banasik, Elzbieta M. van der [Arnhem Radiotherapy Institute (ARTI), Arnhem (Netherlands); Mens, Jan Willem M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Slot, Annerie [Radiotherapy Institute Friesland, Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Stenfert Kroese, Marika C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radiotherapy Group Deventer, Deventer (Netherlands); Oerlemans, Simone [Research Department, Netherlands Comprehensive Cancer Organization, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Center of Research on Psychology in Somatic Diseases, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands); Putter, Hein [Department of Medical Statistics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Verhoeven-Adema, Karen W. [Comprehensive Cancer Center The Netherlands-West, Leiden (Netherlands); Nijman, Hans W. [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Creutzberg, Carien L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term health-related quality of life (HRQL) after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) among PORTEC-2 trial patients, evaluate long-term bowel and bladder symptoms, and assess the impact of cancer on these endometrial cancer (EC) survivors. Patients and Methods: In the PORTEC-2 trial, 427 patients with stage I high–intermediate-risk EC were randomly allocated to EBRT or VBT. The 7- and 10-year HRQL questionnaires consisted of EORTC QLQ-C30; subscales for bowel and bladder symptoms; the Impact of Cancer Questionnaire; and 14 questions on comorbidities, walking aids, and incontinence pads. Analysis was done using linear mixed models for subscales and (ordinal) logistic regression with random effects for single items. A two-sided P value <.01 was considered statistically significant. Results: Longitudinal HRQL analysis showed persisting higher rates of bowel symptoms with EBRT, without significant differences in global health or any of the functioning scales. At 7 years, clinically relevant fecal leakage was reported by 10.6% in the EBRT group, versus 1.8% for VBT (P=.03), diarrhea by 8.4% versus 0.9% (P=.04), limitations due to bowel symptoms by 10.5% versus 1.8% (P=.001), and bowel urgency by 23.3% versus 6.6% (P<.001). Urinary urgency was reported by 39.3% of EBRT patients, 25.5% for VBT, P=.05. No difference in sexual activity was seen between treatment arms. Long-term impact of cancer scores was higher among the patients who had an EC recurrence or second cancer. Conclusions: More than 7 years after treatment, EBRT patients reported more bowel symptoms with impact on daily activities, and a trend for more urinary symptoms, without impact on overall quality of life or difference in cancer survivorship issues.

  10. Predicting long-term citation impact of articles in social and personality psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Nick; Koval, Peter

    2010-06-01

    The citation impact of a comprehensive sample of articles published in social and personality psychology journals in 1998 was evaluated. Potential predictors of the 10-yr. citation impact of 1580 articles from 37 journals were investigated, including number of authors, number of references, journal impact factor, author nationality, and article length, using linear regression. The impact factor of the journal in which articles appeared was the primary predictor of the citations that they accrued, accounting for 30% of the total variance. Articles with greater length, more references, and more authors were cited relatively often, although the citation advantage of longer articles was not proportionate to their length. A citation advantage was also enjoyed by authors from the United States of America, Canada, and the United Kingdom. 37% of the variance in the total number of citations was accounted for by the study variables.

  11. Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge management options including long-term impacts after land application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Hiroko; ten Hoeve, Marieke; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2018-01-01

    -toxic impact categories other than freshwater eutrophication. The sensitivity analysis showed that the results were sensitive to soil and precipitation conditions. The ranking of scenarios was affected by local conditions for marine eutrophication. Overall, the present study highlighted the importance...... of including all sludge treatment stages and conducting a detailed N flow analysis, since the emission of reactive N into the environment is the major driver for almost all non-toxic impact categories....... happened. In general, the INC scenario performed better than or comparably to the scenarios with land application of the sludge. Human toxicity (non-carcinogenic) and eco-toxicity showed the highest normalised impact potentials for all the scenarios with land application. In both categories, impacts were...

  12. Long term contaminant migration and impacts from uranium mill tailings. Comparison of computer models using a hypothetical dataset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camus, H.

    1995-11-01

    and not to represent realistic releases. As such, the results presented do not reflect the actual impact of any real facility. While absolute conclusions about critical pathways etc should not be drawn, a number of useful indicative observations can be made arising from the results comparisons. The V1.07 exercise is essentially a simplified but comprehensive performance assessment of a hypothetical waste disposal facility. The range of results provided using a variety of modelling approaches and models in differing stages of development suggests that it is difficult to exclude from consideration particular contaminants or migration and exposure pathways in advance of detailed assumptions for source terms and other site and assessment specific features. This is consistent with results from an earlier, more generic, BIOMOVS multiple pathway study. Peak impacts on individuals from uranium mill tailings, may not arise for many hundreds of years. Since during this period many possible site and environmental changes might occur, not least because of human actions, a Reference Biosphere approach may be appropriate in developing the scenarios to be modelled for a real site. Reference Biospheres for solid waste disposal assessments are under discussion elsewhere within the BIOMOVS II programme. Methods are available for assessing radiological and non-radiological health risks to individuals from releases from tailings facilities, though their relative significance will be locally dependent. Simplifications to modelling of contaminant accumulation in soil (eg using a 100 year residence time for all contaminants) are probably inappropriate. The long term accumulation potential of the different contaminants may be substantially different. It follows that assumptions have to be made about soil structure and use over the long term. Simplification of the U-238 decay chain, i e assuming Pb-210 and Po-210 are in secular equilibrium with the long-lived parent, Ra-226, is probably not

  13. Long term contaminant migration and impacts from uranium mill tailings. Comparison of computer models using a hypothetical dataset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camus, H [CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; and others

    1995-11-01

    and not to represent realistic releases. As such, the results presented do not reflect the actual impact of any real facility. While absolute conclusions about critical pathways etc should not be drawn, a number of useful indicative observations can be made arising from the results comparisons. The V1.07 exercise is essentially a simplified but comprehensive performance assessment of a hypothetical waste disposal facility. The range of results provided using a variety of modelling approaches and models in differing stages of development suggests that it is difficult to exclude from consideration particular contaminants or migration and exposure pathways in advance of detailed assumptions for source terms and other site and assessment specific features. This is consistent with results from an earlier, more generic, BIOMOVS multiple pathway study. Peak impacts on individuals from uranium mill tailings, may not arise for many hundreds of years. Since during this period many possible site and environmental changes might occur, not least because of human actions, a Reference Biosphere approach may be appropriate in developing the scenarios to be modelled for a real site. Reference Biospheres for solid waste disposal assessments are under discussion elsewhere within the BIOMOVS II programme. Methods are available for assessing radiological and non-radiological health risks to individuals from releases from tailings facilities, though their relative significance will be locally dependent. Simplifications to modelling of contaminant accumulation in soil (eg using a 100 year residence time for all contaminants) are probably inappropriate. The long term accumulation potential of the different contaminants may be substantially different. It follows that assumptions have to be made about soil structure and use over the long term. Simplification of the U-238 decay chain, i e assuming Pb-210 and Po-210 are in secular equilibrium with the long-lived parent, Ra-226, is probably not

  14. Sexual selection, sexual isolation and pheromones in Drosophila melanogaster strains after long-term maintaining on different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajković, Jelena; Miličić, Dragana; Savić, Tatjana; Pavković-Lučić, Sofija

    2017-07-01

    Evolution of reproductive isolation may be a consequence of a variety of signals used in courtship and mate preferences. Pheromones play an important role in both sexual selection and sexual isolation. The abundance of pheromones in Drosophila melanogaster may depend on different environmental factors, including diet. The aim of this study was to ascertain to which degree principal pheromones affect sexual selection in D. melanogaster. We used D. melanogaster strains reared for 14 years on four substrates: standard cornmeal substrate and those containing tomato, banana and carrot. We have previously determined that long-term maintaining of these dietary strains resulted in differences in their cuticular hydrocarbons profile (CHs). In this work, we have tested the level of sexual selection and sexual isolation between aforementioned strains. We found that the high levels of cis-vaccenyl acetate, 7-pentacosene and 7,11-nonacosadiene in the strain reared on a substrate containing carrot affected the individual attractiveness and influenced sexual isolation between flies of this strain and flies reared on a substrate containing banana. Based on these results, long-term different diets, may contribute, to sexual behaviour of D. melanogaster via the effects of principal pheromones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical Risk Factors for Head Impact During Falls in Older Adults: A Prospective Cohort Study in Long-Term Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yijian; Mackey, Dawn C; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Leung, Pet-Ming; Feldman, Fabio; Robinovitch, Stephen N

    To examine risk factors associated with head impact during falls in older adults in long-term care (LTC). Two LTC facilities in British Columbia, Canada. 160 LTC residents. Prospective cohort study. Between 2007 and 2014, we video captured 520 falls experienced by participants. Each fall video was analyzed to determine whether impact occurred to the head. Using generalized estimating equation models, we examined how head impact was associated with other fall characteristics and health status prior to the fall. Head impact occurred in 33% of falls. Individuals with mild cognitive impairment were at higher risk for head impact (odds ratio = 2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-5.0) than those with more severe cognitive impairment. Impaired vision was associated with 2.0-fold (1.3-3.0) higher odds of head impact. Women were 2.2 times (1.4-3.3) more likely than men to impact their head during a fall. Head impact is common during falls in LTC, with less cognitively impaired, female residents who suffered from visual impairment, being most likely to impact their head. Future research should focus on improving our ability to detect neural consequences of head impact and evaluating the effect of interventions for reducing the risk for fall-related head injuries in LTC.

  16. Learning of spiking networks with different forms of long-term synaptic plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, D.S.; Sboev, A.G.; Serenko, A.V.; Rybka, R.B.; Moloshnikov, I.A.

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of modeling the learning process based on different forms of spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) has been studied. It has been shown that the learnability depends on the choice of the spike pairing scheme in the STDP rule and the type of the input signal used during learning [ru

  17. Where innovation processes make a difference in products' short- and long-term market success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enzing, C.; Batterink, M.H.; Janszen, F.H.A.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper seeks to investigate with reference to which factors the innovation processes of new and improved products differ and how these factors relate to the products' success on the market, with a specific focus on technology- and market-related factors. Design/methodology approach –

  18. Long-Term Forecast 2012 - An impact analysis of existing policy instruments in energy- and climate area; Laangsiktsprognos 2012 - En konsekvensanalys av gaellande styrmedel inom energi- och klimatomraadet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    The Energy Agency has a mandate that under 'Ordinance on climate reporting' (SFS 2005:626) out projections for the energy sector of the European Parliament and Council Decision No 280/2004/EC concerning a 'Mechanism for monitoring the emissions of the Community greenhouse gas'. This report contains a reference trajectory until 2030, and two sensitivity scenarios. The forecast is based on existing instruments, which means that results of the report should not be regarded as a proper projection of future energy, but as the impact of current policy instruments given different conditions such as economic growth and fuel prices. The Energy Authority's long-term forecasts are studied energy system's long-term development on the basis of policy instruments and several assumed conditions. The conditions for this long-term prognosis was established in January 2012 and has its basis in the policy instruments decided until the turn of 2011/2012. The work was partially done in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency assignments 'Assignment to provide input to a Swedish road map for Sweden without greenhouse gas emissions in 2050' as reported in December 2012. For a short-term development of the energy system the reader is referred to the Energy Authority's short-term forecasts that extend two to three years into the future and that are produced twice a year. Energy Agency's long-term projections are impact assessments with time horizon of 10-20 years which aims to describe the energy system's future development, provided a range of assumed conditions. If any of these conditions change it will also change forecast results. Economic development is an important assumption for the assessment of future energy.

  19. Fishing in dangerous waters: Remarks on a controversial appeal to spawner-recruit theory for long-term impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, R.I.; Deriso, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    In the Hudson River power plant case, the defending utility companies appealed to the practices of commercial fishery managers as precedent for their own uses of spawner-recruit models in forecasting the effects on stock abundances of long-term water withdrawals by the power plants. In contrast to this perception of spawner-recruit models as commonly accepted instruments of fishery management, the present survey of managers and regulatory agencies revealed instead a universal rejection of such models. The inadequacies of spawner-recruit models were attributed variously to the effects of environmental uncertainty, to imperfect knowledge of population regulation, and to the lack of sufficient biological meaning in the models themselves. In general, impact assessment little resembles fishery regulation because the options and privileges commonly exercised by a fishery manager are closed to impact management. In either case, long-term forecasting remains unreliable due to the problem, as yet unsolved, of predicting reproduction and recruitment in natural populations. 21 refs., 1 fig

  20. Acute inhibition of estradiol synthesis impacts vestibulo-ocular reflex adaptation and cerebellar long-term potentiation in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieni, Cristina V; Ferraresi, Aldo; Sullivan, Jacqueline A; Grassi, Sivarosa; Pettorossi, Vito E; Panichi, Roberto

    2018-03-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) adaptation is an ideal model for investigating how the neurosteroid 17 beta-estradiol (E2) contributes to the modification of behavior by regulating synaptic activities. We hypothesized that E2 impacts VOR adaptation by affecting cerebellar synaptic plasticity at the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell (PF) synapse. To verify this hypothesis, we investigated the acute effect of blocking E2 synthesis on gain increases and decreases in adaptation of the VOR in male rats using an oral dose (2.5 mg/kg) of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. We also assessed the effect of letrozole on synaptic plasticity at the PF synapse in vitro, using cerebellar slices from male rats. We found that letrozole acutely impaired both gain increases and decreases adaptation of the VOR without altering basal ocular-motor performance. Moreover, letrozole prevented long-term potentiation at the PF synapse (PF-LTP) without affecting long-term depression (PF-LTD). Thus, in male rats neurosteroid E2 has a relevant impact on VOR adaptation and affects exclusively PF-LTP. These findings suggest that E2 might regulate changes in VOR adaptation by acting locally on cerebellar and extra-cerebellar synaptic plasticity sites.

  1. Evaluation of long term performance measurements of PV modules with different technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Degner, T.; Ries, M.

    2004-01-01

    PV modules of six different technologies (m-Si, mc-Si, EFG, CIS, CdTe, a-Si) have been monitored concerning the performance under external conditions for a period of more than 2 years. In addition to the standard solar radiation measurements with pyranometer solar sensors with corresponding cell technology have been used to supplement the measurements. This allows in principle to consider spectral effects. The solar radiation measured with the sensor and the pyranometer is analysed on monthly...

  2. Similar and yet so different: cash-for-care in six European countries' long-term care policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Roit, Barbara; Le Bihan, Blanche

    2010-09-01

    In response to increasing care needs, the reform or development of long-term care (LTC) systems has become a prominent policy issue in all European countries. Cash-for-care schemes-allowances instead of services provided to dependents-represent a key policy aimed at ensuring choice, fostering family care, developing care markets, and containing costs. A detailed analysis of policy documents and regulations, together with a systematic review of existing studies, was used to investigate the differences among six European countries (Austria, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and Sweden). The rationale and evolution of their various cash-for-care schemes within the framework of their LTC systems also were explored. While most of the literature present cash-for-care schemes as a common trend in the reforms that began in the 1990s and often treat them separately from the overarching LTC policies, this article argues that the policy context, timing, and specific regulation of the new schemes have created different visions of care and care work that in turn have given rise to distinct LTC configurations. A new typology of long-term care configurations is proposed based on the inclusiveness of the system, the role of cash-for-care schemes and their specific regulations, as well as the views of informal care and the care work that they require. © 2010 Milbank Memorial Fund. Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  3. Relationship between soil aggregate strength, shape and porosity for soils under different long-term management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Heck, Richard J; Deen, Bill

    2016-01-01

    were mouldboard ploughing (MP) and no-tillage (NT). The soil coreswere exposed to a drop shatter test and airdried before separation into different size fractions. Ten aggregates fromthe 4–9.2mmsize fraction per core sample (i.e. 320 in all)were X-ray micro-CT scanned. The size, shape and porosity...... porosity and more rounded aggregates than the continuous corn rotation. Surprisingly, therewas no treatment effect on X-ray micro-CT resolvable porosities. Aggregate strength decreased with both total and X-ray micro-CT resolvable porosity even though the correlations were weak. Significant correlation...

  4. Impact of long-term climate change on a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulton, G.S.; Kautsky, U.; Moren, L.; Wallroth, T.

    2001-05-01

    -driven process domains. The process domains defined are the glacial domain, the permafrost domain and the temperate/boreal domain. Within each of these domains different regimes and subregimes have been identified, reflecting significantly different combinations of typical basic processes. These domains, regimes and subregimes are meant to depict the prevailing conditions within a certain area during a certain time period. The evolution at a studied site can then be described as a series of domains, regimes and subregimes. The climate-driven environmental processes likely to be of greatest significance for the performance of the geological barrier are: freezing; loading by a glacier; enhanced rates of groundwater flow; changes in groundwater recharge chemistry; changes in relative level of the sea and its salinity. In this report the processes for each of the domains are described qualitatively and quantitatively as divided into biosphere, thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical conditions. Especially, the impact on the geological barrier is described. The glaciation model has been applied to simulate the last 700,000 years and the next 200,000 years of environmental change along a flowline transect from the Norwegian coast, through Sweden and Denmark to northern Germany. The results are presented as domains and regimes in time and space and as properties such as ice thickness and basal temperature which vary continuously in time along the transect. Furthermore, site-specific climate-driven boundary conditions (ice thickness, head gradient, basal melt rate and basal temperature) have been calculated for an inland site and a Baltic coast site, respectively

  5. Impact of long-term climate change on a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulton, G.S. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom); Kautsky, U.; Moren, L. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Wallroth, T. [Bergab Consulting Geologists (Sweden)

    2001-05-01

    climate-driven process domains. The process domains defined are the glacial domain, the permafrost domain and the temperate/boreal domain. Within each of these domains different regimes and subregimes have been identified, reflecting significantly different combinations of typical basic processes. These domains, regimes and subregimes are meant to depict the prevailing conditions within a certain area during a certain time period. The evolution at a studied site can then be described as a series of domains, regimes and subregimes. The climate-driven environmental processes likely to be of greatest significance for the performance of the geological barrier are: freezing; loading by a glacier; enhanced rates of groundwater flow; changes in groundwater recharge chemistry; changes in relative level of the sea and its salinity. In this report the processes for each of the domains are described qualitatively and quantitatively as divided into biosphere, thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical conditions. Especially, the impact on the geological barrier is described. The glaciation model has been applied to simulate the last 700,000 years and the next 200,000 years of environmental change along a flowline transect from the Norwegian coast, through Sweden and Denmark to northern Germany. The results are presented as domains and regimes in time and space and as properties such as ice thickness and basal temperature which vary continuously in time along the transect. Furthermore, site-specific climate-driven boundary conditions (ice thickness, head gradient, basal melt rate and basal temperature) have been calculated for an inland site and a Baltic coast site, respectively.

  6. Analysis of the potential impact of capillarity on long-term geochemical processes in sulphidic waste-rock dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedretti, Daniele; Lassin, Arnault; Beckie, Roger D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Capillarity may affect geochemical reactions generating acid-rock drainage. • We studied its impact in a simplified, synthetic WRD. • Capillarity mainly affects the formation of secondary minerals. • It can strongly control long-term formation of gypsum and in turn sulfate release. • Capillarity can be also important for the analysis of calcite passivation. - Abstract: Assessing long-term production of acid rock drainage (ARD) from waste-rock dumps (WRDs) requires a careful analysis of the processes controlling acid-generating geochemical reactions under unsaturated conditions. In this work, we focus on the potential control of capillarity on these reactions, as previous studies showed that capillarity affects the activity of water and solutes in the unsaturated zone through the pore water pressure. We used capillarity-corrected thermodynamic databases and compared calculated speciation and solubility results with those from databases that do not account for capillarity. We developed a simple dynamic model with reduced geochemical components to analyze in detail the effect of capillarity. Results indicate that under low pH conditions simulations with capillarity-controlled reactions generate relatively larger dissolved sulfate concentrations from the WRDs over longer time scales, when compared against simulations without capillarity control. This occurs because capillarity strongly controls the formation of secondary sulfate-bearing minerals such as gypsum. When sufficient oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures are maintained within WRDs (such as in well-ventilated systems) and calcite content is insufficient to buffer acidity, the amount of secondary gypsum was calculated to be much larger in capillarity-corrected models. No appreciable effects of capillarity were observed under conditions where gypsum was not generated. Model results are also insensitive to temperature changes in typical climatic ranges. These results indicate some of

  7. Long-term trend of haze pollution and impact of particulate matter in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Zhen; Wang, Shuxiao; Jiang, Jingkun; Fu, Qingyan; Chen, Changhong; Xu, Bingye; Yu, Jianqiao; Fu, Xiao; Hao, Jiming

    2013-01-01

    Haze pollution caused by heavy particulate matter (PM) loading brings significant damage in eastern China. Long-term monitoring from 1980 to 2011 and 1-year field measurement in 2011–2012 are used for investigating visibility variation and the impact of PM pollution for the Yangtze River Delta (YRD). It was found that visual range in the YRD endured a sharp reduction from 13.2 km to 10.5 km during 1980–2000. Average mass extinction efficiency (MEE) for inhalable PM (PM 10 ) is 2.25 m 2 /g in 2001–2011, and extinction coefficient due to PM 10 is 207 Mm −1 , accounting for 36.2% of total extinction coefficient. MEE of PM 2.5 and PM 2.5–10 are 4.08 m 2 /g and 0.58 m 2 /g, respectively. Extinction coefficient due to PM 2.5 and PM 2.5–10 is 198 Mm −1 (39.6%) and 20 Mm −1 (4.0%) in 2011–2012. Maximum daily concentration of PM 10 and PM 2.5 is estimated to be 63 μg/m 3 (RH: 73%) and 38 μg/m 3 (RH: 70%) to keep visual range above 10 km. Fine particulate matter is the key factor for haze pollution improvement in the YRD area. -- Highlights: •Long-term visual range variation and its causes in the Yangtze River Delta are analyzed. •Quantitative contribution of particulate matter to haze pollution is estimated. •Mass extinction efficiency of PM 10 , PM 2.5 , and PM 2.5–10 is estimated. -- The long-term variation of haze pollution in the YRD and its cause is investigated and the quantitative contribution of particulate matter to haze pollution is estimated

  8. Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement Summary and Guide for Stakeholders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-01-01

    Pursuant to the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-414), DOE was directed to designate a facility or facilities for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury generated within the United States. Therefore, DOE has analyzed the storage of up to 10,000 metric tons (11,000 tons) of elemental mercury in a facility(ies) constructed and operated in accordance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (74 FR 31723). DOE prepared this Final Mercury Storage EIS in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) implementing regulations (40 CFR 1500–1508), and DOE’s NEPA implementing procedures (10 CFR 1021) to evaluate reasonable alternatives for a facility(ies) for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury. This Final Mercury Storage EIS analyzes the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven candidate locations: Grand Junction Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado; Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; Hawthorne Army Depot near Hawthorne, Nevada; Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; Kansas City Plant in Kansas City, Missouri; Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas. As required by CEQ NEPA regulations, the No Action Alternative was also analyzed as a basis for comparison. DOE intends to decide (1) where to locate the elemental mercury storage facility(ies) and (2) whether to use existing buildings, new buildings, or a combination of existing and new buildings. DOE’s Preferred Alternative for the long-term management and storage of mercury is the Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas.

  9. Modelling the Long Term Leaching Behaviour of 137CS from Different Stabilized Waste Matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kamash, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Leaching characteristics of ''1''3''7Cs from immobilized waste matrices in different cement-based grouts have been assessed to investigate the influence of the additives on the leaching behavior of the solid waste matrices. The International Atomic Energy's Agency (IAEA) standard leach method has been employed to study the leach pattern of 137 Cs radionuclide from the immobilized waste form. The examination of the leaching data revealed that clay additives reduces the leach rate for the studied radionuclide. The controlling leaching mechanism has been studied and the transport parameters were calculated for all studied waste matrices. Simplified analytical models have been derived to predict the Cumulative Leach Fraction (CLF) of radionuclides over the studied experimental period. These simplified research models could be used as a screening tool to assess the performance of the waste matrix under repository conditions. (author)

  10. Scenarios of long-term farm structural change for application in climate change impact assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandryk, M.; Reidsma, P.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Towards 2050, climate change is one of the possible drivers that will change the farming landscape, but market, policy and technological development may be at least equally important. In the last decade, many studies assessed impacts of climate change and specific adaptation strategies. However,

  11. Long-Term Impact of the Farm Financial Analysis Training Curriculum on FSA Borrowers in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balliet, Kenneth L.; Douglass, Mark B.; Hanson, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    The Farm Financial Analysis Training (FFAT) course covers fundamental skills and concepts in liquidity, profitability, solvency, and efficiency. The research reported here identifies and measures the impacts of FFAT on participants including: 1) perceived gains in knowledge, 2) changes in management behavior, 3) changes in specific farm assets and…

  12. The Impact of Long-Term Dental Health Education on Oral Hygiene Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Bonnie A.

    1982-01-01

    A study evaluated the impact of five years' exposure to a dental health curriculum on the oral hygiene of fifth-grade students. Findings of the study indicate that a well-designed dental health curriculum based on cognitive and behavioral objectives can result in a greater accumulation of dental health knowledge. (JN)

  13. Impact of Long-Term Communication Training on Managerial Style and Perceptions of Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane, Laura E.; Stacks, Don W.

    A study examined the impact of a working commitment to corporate communication and corporate communication education on perceptions of management and managerial style and the more general perceptions of the organization. Subjects, 15 male mid-level managers at a large southeastern chemical plant that had in place a continuing corporate…

  14. The long-term fiscal impact of funding cuts to Danish public fertility clinics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connolly, Mark P.; Postma, Maarten J.; Crespi, Simone; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; Ziebe, Soren

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the fiscal impact attributed to recent policy changes that limited funding to public fertility clinics in Denmark. Taking into consideration that introducing patient co-payments will influence the numbers of couples treated, the number of children born every year from assisted

  15. Long-term impacts of nitrogen deposition on coastal plant communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakeman, Robin J.; Brooker, Rob; Alexander, Jim

    2016-01-01

    , Fixed dune, Heath, Slack and Tall grass mire communities and despite falls in EIV-N for Improved grass, Strand and Wet grassland. The increase in EIV-N was highly correlated to the cumulative deposition between the surveys, and for sites in south-east Scotland, eutrophication impacts appear severe...

  16. Long-term costs and health impact of continued global fund support for antiretroviral therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Stover (John); E.L. Korenromp (Eline); M. Blakley (Matthew); R. Komatsu (Ryuichi); K.M. Viisainen (Kirsi); L. Bollinger (Lori); R. Atun (Rifat)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: By the end of 2011 Global Fund investments will be supporting 3.5 million people on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 104 low- and middle-income countries. We estimated the cost and health impact of continuing treatment for these patients through 2020. Methods and Findings:

  17. Long-term impact of war on healthcare costs: an eight-country study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabes-Figuera, R.; McCrone, P.; Bogic, M.; Ajdukovic, D.; Franciskovic, T.; Colombini, N.; Kucukalic, A.; Lecic-Tosevski, D.; Morina, N.; Popovski, M.; Schützwohl, M.; Priebe, S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Exposure to war can negatively affect health and may impact on healthcare costs. Estimating these costs and identifying their predictors is important for appropriate service planning. We aimed to measure use of health services in an adult population who had experienced war in the

  18. Investigation of nucleation events vertical extent: a long term study at two different altitude sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Boulon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present an analysis of the occurrence of nucleation events during more than three years of measurements at two different rural altitude sites, the puy de Dôme research station (1465 m a.s.l. and the Opme station (660 m a.s.l., central France. The collected database is a unique combination of scanning mobility particle sizer (10–400 nm, air ion spectrometers (from 0.8 to 42 nm for NTP-conditions, and, neutral clusters and air ion spectrometers (from 0.8 to 42 nm for NTP-conditions measurements at these two different altitudes nearly located research stations, from February 2007 to June 2010. The seasonality of the frequency of nucleation events was studied at the puy de Dôme station and maximum of events frequency was found during early spring and early autumn. During the measurement period, neither the particle formation rates (J2= 1.382 ± 0.195 s−1 nor the growth rates (GR1.3−20 nm = 6.20 ± 0.12 nm h−1 differ from one site to the other on average. Hovewer, we found that, on 437 sampling days in common to the two sites, the nucleation frequency was higher at the puy de Dôme station (35.9 %, 157 days than at the low elevation station of Opme (20.8 %, 91 days. LIDAR measurements and the evolution of the potential equivalent temperature revealed that the nucleation could be triggered either (i within the whole low tropospheric column at the same time from the planetary boundary layer to the top of the interface layer (29.2 %, 47 events, (ii above the planetary boundary layer upper limit (43.5 %, 70 events, and (iii at low altitude and then transported, conserving dynamic and properties, at high altitude (24.8 %, 40 events. This is the first time that the vertical extent of nucleation can be studied over a long observational period, allowing for a rigorous

  19. Long-term Effects of Different Irrigation Methods with Treated Wastewater on Soil Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Najafi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Reuse of wastewater for agricultural irrigation is increasing due to an increased demand for water resources in different parts of the world. Almost 70% of deviated water from rivers and pumped groundwater is used for agriculture. If wastewater is used for irrigation in agriculture, then the amount of discharged water from natural sources will be decreased and the flow of wastewater to the environment and its ensuing pollution will be prevented. Using wastewater in applications such as irrigation of agricultural lands has caused an increase of some exchangeable ions, salts and suspended solids (organic and mineral in the soil and has significantly affected physical, chemical and biological features. Therefore, paying attention to the soil health is important during use of wastewater when it is the source of irrigation water. In such cases, there will be some worries about pollution of harvested products, contact of farm workers with pathogenes and environmental issues in the farm. In these conditions, attention to irrigation methods along with consideration of environmental protection standards is important. Materials and Methods: In this study, the effects of treated wastewater (TW irrigation were tested on some chemical properties of soil for three years under five different irrigation treatments. The treatments were as follows: surface furrow irrigation (FI, surface drip irrigation (SDI, subsurface drip irrigation in 30 cm depth (SDI30, subsurface drip irrigation in 60 cm depth (SDI60 and bubbler irrigation (BI. At the end of the experiment, soil samples were collected from a depth of 0-30, 30-60 and 60-90 cm in order to measure the electrical conductivity (EC, pH, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, organic matter (OM and calcium carbonate equivalent (CaCO3. Results and Discussion: According to the results of soil analysis, the soil became more saline than the beginning by applying the treatments. Generally, in two plots of urban and

  20. Long term impact of organic amendments on forest soil properties under semiarid Mediterranean climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso González, Paloma; Francisco Martinez Murillo, Juan; Damian Ruiz Sinoga, Jose

    2017-04-01

    M, Zorzona BG, Caravaca F.: Soil microbial biomass and activity under different agricultural management systems in a semiarid Mediterranean agroecosystem. Soil and Tillage Research 109: 110-115, 2010. DOI: 10.1016/j.still.2010.05.005 Hueso-González, P., Martínez-Murillo, J.F., and Ruiz Sinoga., J.D.: The impact of organic amendments on forest soil properties under Mediterranean climatic conditions, Land Degradation and Development, 25, 604-612, 2014. Hueso-González, P., Martínez-Murillo, J.F., and Ruiz Sinoga., J.D.: Effects of topsoil treatments on afforestation in a dry-Mediterranean climate (Southern Spain), Solid Earth, 7, 1479-1489, 2016. Hueso-González, P., Ruíz Sinoga, J.D., Martínez-Murillo, J.F., and Lavee, H.: Overland flow generation mechanisms affected by topsoil treatment: Application to soil conservation, Geomorphology, 228, 796-804, 2015. Martínez-Murillo, J.F., Hueso-González, P., Ruiz-Sinoga, J.D., Lavee, H.: Short-Experimental fire effects in soil and water losses in southern of Spain. Land Degradation and Development, 27, 1513-1522, 2016. Parras-Alcántara L, Díaz-Jaimes L, Lozano-García B.: Organic farming affects C and N in soils under olive groves in Mediterranean areas. Land Degradation & Development, 2013. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2231.

  1. Long-term performance of different aluminum alloy designs as sacrificial anodes for rebars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Rincón, O.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance of various cathodic-protection designs using Aluminum alloys to protect prestressed piles. The results obtained with different system designs (bracelete type-Al/Zn/In alloy, thermosprayed aluminum (3-year evaluation and conventional Al/Zn/In anocies in an epoxy-painted steel bracelet (12-year evaluation, indicated that all of these systems may be used as sacrificial anodes for pile protection. However, the thermosprayed aluminum type can not be used in prestressed concrete piles because the very negative potentials ( < -1100 mV vs. Cu/CuSO4 they supply to the reinforcement could lead to hydrogen embrittlement.

    Este trabajo presenta la realización de varios diseños de protección catódica utilizando aleaciones de aluminio para la protección de pilotes pretensados. Los resultados obtenidos con diferentes diseños (aleación de Al/Zn/In, tipo brazalete y aluminio termorociado (3 años de evaluación y ánodos convencionales de Al/Zn/In colocados en un brazalete de acero pintado con epoxy (12 años de evaluación, indicaron que todos estos sistemas pueden ser utilizados como ánodos de sacrificio para la protección de los pilotes. Sin embargo, el sistema con aluminio termorociado no puede ser utilizado en pilotes de acero pretensado debido al potencial muy negativo alcanzado por la armadura (<-1100 mV vs Cu/CuSO4, lo cual podría inducir a daños por hidrógeno.

  2. Good Vibrations: The long term impact of a prison based music project

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, David; Caulfield, Laura; Atherton, Susie

    2009-01-01

    There is growing awareness amongst policy makers and those working in the criminal justice system of the contribution that can be made by the arts in prisons, in particular by more innovative projects that are often provided by charities and voluntary organisations. Numerous research studies have suggested that projects — such as music and art programmes — that offer participants a creative outlet have a positive impact on offenders, not least by encouraging them to engage with further learni...

  3. The long term impact of the 1918 influenza pandemic in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Bakken, Magnus Røthe; Husøy, Sigrid Johanne

    2016-01-01

    Advisor: Aline Bütikofer A growing literature show the negative effect of prenatal health shocks on childhood and adult outcomes. Several studies exploit disease outbreaks to find causal effects of in utero exposure on various outcomes. We build on the existing literature by applying theories of in utero health effects to Norwegian data. This thesis uses the 1918 Spanish Influenza pandemic as a natural experiment to investigate the impact of prenatal health shock on various ...

  4. Long-term field phytoextraction of zinc/cadmium contaminated soil by Sedum plumbizincicola under different agronomic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lin; Li, Zhu; Wang, Jie; Liu, Hongyan; Li, Na; Wu, Longhua; Hu, Pengjie; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In two long-term field experiments the zinc (Zn)/cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola (S. plumbizincicola) was examined to optimize the phytoextraction of metal contaminated soil by two agronomic strategies of intercropping with maize (Zea mays) and plant densities. Soil total Zn and Cd concentrations decreased markedly after long-term phytoextraction. But shoot biomass and Cd and Zn concentrations showed no significant difference with increasing remediation time. In the intercropping experiment the phytoremediation efficiency in the treatment "S. plumbizincicola intercropped with maize" was higher than in S. plumbizincicola monocropping, and Cd concentrations of corn were below the maximum national limit. In the plant density experiment the phytoremediation efficiency increased with increasing plant density and 440,000 plants ha(-1) gave the maximum rate. These results indicated that S. plumbizincicola at an appropriate planting density and intercropped with maize can achieve high remediation efficiency to contaminated soil without affecting the cereal crop productivity. This cropping system combines adequate agricultural production with soil heavy metal phytoextraction.

  5. Using indirect methods to understand the impact of forced migration on long-term under-five mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kavita; Karunakara, Unni; Burnham, Gilbert; Hill, Kenneth

    2005-11-01

    Despite the large numbers of displaced persons and the often-lengthy periods of displacement, little is known about the impact of forced migration on long-term under-five mortality. This paper looks at the Brass Method (and adaptations of this method) and the Preceding Birth Technique in combination with a classification of women by their migration and reproductive histories, in order to study the impact of forced migration on under-five mortality. Data came from the Demography of Forced Migration Project, a study on mortality, fertility and violence in the refugee and host populations of Arua District, Uganda and Yei River District, Sudan. Results indicate that women who did not migrate in a situation of conflict and women who repatriated before the age of 15, had children with the highest under-five mortality rates compared with women who were currently refugees and women who repatriated after the age of 15.

  6. Sex differences in lung cancer survival: long-term trends using population-based cancer registry data in Osaka, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Fukuaki Lee; Ito, Yuri; Morishima, Toshitaka; Miyashiro, Isao; Nakayama, Tomio

    2017-09-01

    Several studies of sex differences in lung cancer survival have been reported. However, large-size population-based studies based on long-term observation are scarce. We investigated long-term trends in sex differences in lung cancer survival using population-based cancer registry data from Osaka, Japan. We analyzed 79 330 cases from the Osaka Cancer Registry (OCR) diagnosed between 1975 and 2007. We calculated 5-year relative survival in the six periods (1975-1980, 1981-1986, 1987-1992, 1993-1997, 1998-2002 and 2003-2007). To estimate the trends in sex differences in lung cancer survival throughout the study period, we applied a multivariate excess hazard model to control for confounders. The proportion of adenocarcinoma (ADC) and 5-year relative relative survival have increased for both sexes. Sex differences in lung cancer survival have widened over the period, especially in ADC and since the late 1990s. The excess hazard ratio of death within 5 years for males was 1.19 (95% CI: 1.16-1.21), adjusting for period at diagnosis, histologic type, stage, age group and treatment. We reported that females have better prognosis in lung cancer than males and the sex differences in lung cancer survival have become wider in Osaka, Japan. This can be partly explained by the sex differences in the proportions of histologic type and stage. Further studies considering other factors that influence sex differences in lung cancer survival are needed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Long-term genetic monitoring of a riverine dragonfly, Orthetrum coerulescens (Odonata: Libellulidae]: Direct anthropogenic impact versus climate change effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Rebecca; Hadrys, Heike

    2017-01-01

    Modern conservationists call for long term genetic monitoring datasets to evaluate and understand the impact of human activities on natural ecosystems and species on a global but also local scale. However, long-term monitoring datasets are still rare but in high demand to correctly identify, evaluate and respond to environmental changes. In the presented study, a population of the riverine dragonfly, Orthetrum coerulescens (Odonata: Libellulidae), was monitored over a time period from 1989 to 2013. Study site was an artificial irrigation ditch in one of the last European stone steppes and "nature heritage", the Crau in Southern France. This artificial riverine habitat has an unusual high diversity of odonate species, prominent indicators for evaluating freshwater habitats. A clearing of the canal and destruction of the bank vegetation in 1996 was assumed to have great negative impact on the odonate larval and adult populations. Two mitochondrial markers (CO1 & ND1) and a panel of nuclear microsatellite loci were used to assess the genetic diversity. Over time they revealed a dramatic decline in diversity parameters between the years 2004 and 2007, however not between 1996 and 1997. From 2007 onwards the population shows a stabilizing trend but has not reached the amount of genetic variation found at the beginning of this survey. This decline cannot be referred to the clearing of the canal or any other direct anthropogenic impact. Instead, it is most likely that the populations' decay was due to by extreme weather conditions during the specific years. A severe drought was recorded for the summer months of these years, leading to reduced water levels in the canal causing also other water parameters to change, and therefore impacting temperature sensitive riverine habitat specialists like the O. coerulescens in a significant way. The data provide important insights into population genetic dynamics and metrics not always congruent with traditional monitoring data (e

  8. Long-term regional shifts in plant community composition are largely explained by local deer impact experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Frerker

    Full Text Available The fact that herbivores and predators exert top-down effects to alter community composition and dynamics at lower trophic levels is no longer controversial, yet we still lack evidence of the full nature, extent, and longer-term effects of these impacts. Here, we use results from a set of replicated experiments on the local impacts of white-tailed deer to evaluate the extent to which such impacts could account for half-century shifts in forest plant communities across the upper Midwest, USA. We measured species' responses to deer at four sites using 10-20 year-old deer exclosures. Among common species, eight were more abundant outside the exclosures, seven were commoner inside, and 16 had similar abundances in- and outside. Deer herbivory greatly increased the abundance of ferns and graminoids and doubled the abundance of exotic plants. In contrast, deer greatly reduced tree regeneration, shrub cover (100-200 fold in two species, plant height, plant reproduction, and the abundance of forbs. None of 36 focal species increased in reproduction or grew taller in the presence of deer, contrary to expectations. We compared these results to data on 50-year regional shifts in species abundances across 62 sites. The effects of herbivory by white-tailed deer accurately account for many of the long-term regional shifts observed in species' abundances (R2 = 0.41. These results support the conjecture that deer impacts have driven many of the regional shifts in forest understory cover and composition observed in recent decades. Our ability to link results from shorter-term, local experiments to regional long-term studies of ecological change strengthens the inferences we can draw from both approaches.

  9. [Impact of nurse, nurses' aid staffing and turnover rate on inpatient health outcomes in long term care hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yunmi; Lee, Ji Yun; Kang, Hyuncheol

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to explore the impact of registered nurse/nurses' aid (RN/NA) staffing and turnover rate on inpatient health outcomes in long term care hospitals. A secondary analysis was done of national data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Services including evaluation of long term care hospitals in October-December 2010 and hospital general characteristics in July-September 2010. Final analysis of data from 610 hospitals included RN/NA staffing, turnover rate of nursing staff and 5 patient health outcome indicators. Finding showed that, when variables of organization and community level were controlled, patients per RN was a significant indicator of decline in ADL for patients with dementia, and new pressure ulcer development in the high risk group and worsening of pressure ulcers. Patients per NA was a significant indicator for new pressure ulcer development in the low risk group. Turnover rate was not significant for any variable. To maintain and improve patient health outcomes of ADL and pressure ulcers, policies should be developed to increase the staffing level of RN. Studies are also needed to examine causal relation of NA staffing level, RN staffing level and patient health outcomes with consideration of the details of nursing practice.

  10. Development of a Watershed-Scale Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment Model with the Asymptotic Curve Number Regression Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jichul Ryu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 52 asymptotic Curve Number (CN regression equations were developed for combinations of representative land covers and hydrologic soil groups. In addition, to overcome the limitations of the original Long-term Hydrologic Impact Assessment (L-THIA model when it is applied to larger watersheds, a watershed-scale L-THIA Asymptotic CN (ACN regression equation model (watershed-scale L-THIA ACN model was developed by integrating the asymptotic CN regressions and various modules for direct runoff/baseflow/channel routing. The watershed-scale L-THIA ACN model was applied to four watersheds in South Korea to evaluate the accuracy of its streamflow prediction. The coefficient of determination (R2 and Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE values for observed versus simulated streamflows over intervals of eight days were greater than 0.6 for all four of the watersheds. The watershed-scale L-THIA ACN model, including the asymptotic CN regression equation method, can simulate long-term streamflow sufficiently well with the ten parameters that have been added for the characterization of streamflow.

  11. The impact of professional development on classroom teaching for science educators participating in a long term community of practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Aaron C.

    Efforts to modify and improve science education in the United States have seen minimal success (Crawford, 2000; Borko & Putman, 1996; Puntambekar, Stylianou & Goldstein, 2007; Lustick, 2011). One important reason for this is the professional development that teachers go through in order to learn about and apply these new ideas is generally of poor quality and structured incorrectly for long-term changes in the classroom (Little, 1993; Fullen, 1996; Porter, 2000; Jeanpierre, Oberhauser, & Freeman, 2005). This grounded theory study explores a science community of practice and how the professional development achieved through participation in that community has effected the instruction of the teachers involved, specifically the incorporation of researched based effective science teaching instructional strategies. This study uses personal reflection papers written by the participants, interviews, and classroom observations to understand the influence that the science community of practice has had on the participants. Results indicate that participation in this science community of practice has significant impact on the teachers involved. Participants gained greater understanding of science content knowledge, incorporated effective science instructional strategies into their classroom, and were able to practice both content knowledge and strategies in a non-threatening environment thus gaining a greater understanding of how to apply them in the classrooms. These findings motivate continued research in the role that communities of practice may play in teacher professional develop and the effectiveness of quality professional development in attaining long-term, sustained improvement in science education.

  12. Long Term Environment and Economic Impacts of Coal Liquefaction in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, Jerald [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2014-03-31

    The project currently is composed of six specific tasks – three research tasks, two outreach and training tasks, and one project management and communications task. Task 1 addresses project management and communication. Research activities focused on Task 2 (Describe and Quantify the Economic Impacts and Implications of the Development and Deployment of Coal-to-Liquid Facilities in China), Task 3 (Development of Alternative Coal Gasification Database), and Task 4 (Geologic Carbon Management Options). There also were significant activities related to Task 5 (US-China Communication, Collaboration, and Training on Clean Coal Technologies) as well as planning activity performed in support of Task 6 (Training Programs).

  13. The long-term fiscal impact of funding cuts to Danish public fertility clinics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, Mark P; Postma, Maarten J; Crespi, Simone

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the fiscal impact attributed to recent policy changes that limited funding to public fertility clinics in Denmark. Taking into consideration that introducing patient co-payments will influence the numbers of couples treated, the number of children born every year from assisted...... reproductive technology will be affected. To reflect the government perspective, the model assessed the average life course of a cohort of assisted-conception singletons taking into consideration age-specific, per-capita government transfers (e.g. education, health care, family allowances, education, pensions...

  14. The long-term fiscal impact of funding cuts to Danish public fertility clinics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, Mark P; Postma, Maarten J; Crespi, Simone

    2011-01-01

    reproductive technology will be affected. To reflect the government perspective, the model assessed the average life course of a cohort of assisted-conception singletons taking into consideration age-specific, per-capita government transfers (e.g. education, health care, family allowances, education, pensions......This study evaluated the fiscal impact attributed to recent policy changes that limited funding to public fertility clinics in Denmark. Taking into consideration that introducing patient co-payments will influence the numbers of couples treated, the number of children born every year from assisted...

  15. Impact of long-term organic residue recycling in agriculture on soil solution composition and trace metal leaching in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambier, Philippe; Pot, Valérie; Mercier, Vincent; Michaud, Aurélia; Benoit, Pierre; Revallier, Agathe; Houot, Sabine

    2014-11-15

    Recycling composted organic residues in agriculture can reduce the need of mineral fertilizers and improve the physicochemical and biological properties of cultivated soils. However, some trace elements may accumulate in soils following repeated applications and impact other compartments of the agrosystems. This study aims at evaluating the long-term impact of such practices on the composition of soil leaching water, especially on trace metal concentrations. The field experiment QualiAgro started in 1998 on typical loess Luvisol of the Paris Basin, with a maize-wheat crop succession and five modalities: spreading of three different urban waste composts, farmyard manure (FYM), and no organic amendment (CTR). Inputs of trace metals have been close to regulatory limits, but supplies of organic matter and nitrogen overpassed common practices. Soil solutions were collected from wick lysimeters at 45 and 100 cm in one plot for each modality, during two drainage periods after the last spreading. Despite wide temporal variations, a significant effect of treatments on major solutes appears at 45 cm: DOC, Ca, K, Mg, Na, nitrate, sulphate and chloride concentrations were higher in most amended plots compared to CTR. Cu concentrations were also significantly higher in leachates of amended plots compared to CTR, whereas no clear effect emerged for Zn. The influence of amendments on solute concentrations appeared weaker at 1 m than at 45 cm, but still significant and positive for major anions and DOC. Average concentrations of Cu and Zn at 1m depth lied in the ranges [2.5; 3.8] and [2.5; 10.5 μg/L], respectively, with values slightly higher for plots amended with sewage sludge compost or FYM than for CTR. However, leaching of both metals was less than 1% of their respective inputs through organic amendments. For Cd, most values were <0.05 μg/L. So, metals added through spreading of compost or manure during 14 years may have increased metal concentrations in leachates of

  16. A qualitative analysis of the role of emotions in different patterns of long-term weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingels, John Spencer; Zizzi, Sam

    2018-08-01

    To explore participant perspectives of the impact emotions have on weight loss. A qualitative design gathered data through semi-structured interviews with participants in a weight management programme. The interview addresses the following research questions: (1) how do individuals working to lose weight perceive the impact emotions have on their long-term success, and (2) what strategies do more or less successful participants use to regulate their emotions? Researchers conducted and transcribed the interviews then completed content analysis to create and organise themes. Two broad themes emerged through the interviews with 21 participants: emotional impact and emotional regulation. Further subthemes captured emotions blocking action toward goals, strategies for regulating emotions (e.g. exercise, food) and the need for new strategies to regulate emotions. Themes were also split in to three groups based on weight outcomes: regainer, moderate success (3-6% loss) and large success (>7% loss). More successful participants, compared to regainers, shared being aware of the impact of their emotions and made efforts to develop healthy regulation strategies. Emotional awareness and regulation play an important role in participant's weight management experience. Taking time to build emotional awareness and strategies to manage emotions is important to participants in weight management.

  17. The long-term impact of magnesium in seawater on foraminiferal mineralogy: Mechanism and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, I.; de Nooijer, L.J.; Hart, M.B.; Reichart, G.-J.

    2016-01-01

    Foraminifera are unicellular protists, primarily known for their calcium carbonate shells thatprovide an extensive fossil record. This record, ranging from Cambrian to present shows both major shiftsand gradual changes in the relative occurrence of taxa producing different polymorphs of carbonate.

  18. Long-term impacts of college sexual assaults on women survivors' educational and career attainments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Sharyn; Howard, Rebecca; Murphy, Sharon; Moynihan, Mary M

    2018-02-15

    To examine the well-documented mental and physical health problems suffered by undergraduate women sexually assaulted while on campus with an exploration of how the trauma impacts a survivor's lifetime education trajectory and career attainment. In November and December 2015, researchers recruited US participants using an online crowdsourcing tool and a Listserv for sexual violence prevention and response professionals. Of 316 women who completed initial screening, 89 qualified to complete a Qualtrics survey. Eighty-one participants completed the online survey, and 32 participated in phone interviews. Ninety-one percent of the participants reported health problems related to the assault that they attributed to difficulties they faced in their attainment of their education and career goals. The findings suggest the importance of simultaneously examining the effects of human capital losses and mental and physical health problems attributed to the costly public health problem of campus sexual assault.

  19. Impact of obesity on long-term survival after aortic valve replacement with a small prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Biao; Yang, Hongyang; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Xiquan; Zhu, Wenjie; Cao, Guangqing; Wu, Shuming

    2013-07-01

    Although many studies have evaluated the impact of obesity on various medical treatments, it is not known whether obesity is related to late mortality with implantation of small aortic prostheses. This study evaluated the effect of obesity on the late survival of patients after aortic valve replacement (AVR) with implantation of a small aortic prosthesis (size ≤ 21 mm). From January 1998 to December 2008, 307 patients in our institution who underwent primary AVR with smaller prostheses survived 30 days after surgery. Patients were categorized as normal weight if body mass index (BMI) was prosthesis. Obesity or/and overweight may also affect the NYHA classification, even in the longer term. EOAI should be improved where possible, as it may reduce late mortality and improve quality of life in obese or overweight patients.

  20. Impact of long-term diesel contamination on soil microbial community structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sutton, Nora; Maphosa, Farai; Morillo, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Microbial community composition and diversity at a diesel-contaminated railway site were investigated by pyrosequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene fragments to understand the interrelationships among microbial community composition, pollution level, and soil geochemical and physical...... properties. To this end, 26 soil samples from four matrix types with various geochemical characteristics and contaminant concentrations were investigated. The presence of diesel contamination significantly impacted microbial community composition and diversity, regardless of the soil matrix type. Clean...... observed in contaminated samples. Redundancy analysis indicated that increased relative abundances of the phyla Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, and Euryarchaeota correlated with the presence of contamination. Shifts in the chemical composition of diesel constituents across the site and the abundance of specific...

  1. Potential long-term impacts of changes in US vehicle fuel efficiency standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezdek, Roger H.; Wendling, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    Changes in corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards have not been made due, in part, to concerns over their negative impact on the economy and jobs. This paper simulates the effects of enhanced CAFE standards through 2030 and finds that such changes could increase GDP and create 300,000 jobs distributed widely across states, industries, and occupations. In addition, enhanced CAFE standards could, each year, reduce US oil consumption by 30 billion gallons, save drivers $40 billion, and reduce US greenhouse gas emissions by 100 million tons. However, there is no free lunch. There would be widespread job displacement within many industries, occupations, and states, and increased CAFE standards require that fuel economy be given priority over other vehicle improvements, increase the purchase price of vehicles, require manufacturers to produce vehicles that they otherwise would not, and require consumers to purchase vehicles that would not exist except for CAFE

  2. Long-Term Health Impact of Early Nutrition: The Power of Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletzko, Berthold; Brands, Brigitte; Grote, Veit; Kirchberg, Franca F; Prell, Christine; Rzehak, Peter; Uhl, Olaf; Weber, Martina

    2017-01-01

    The Power of Programming conference 2016 at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich brought together about 600 researchers and other stakeholders from around the world who reviewed the recent evidence on the lasting health impact of environment and nutrition during early life, from pre-pregnancy to early childhood. The conference was hosted by the Early Nutrition Project, a multidisciplinary research collaboration funded by the European Commission with collaborating researchers from 35 institutions in 15 countries in Europe, the United States and Australia. The project explores the early origins of obesity, adiposity and associated non-communicable diseases, underlying mechanisms and opportunities for prevention. The project also proactively supports translational application of research findings. In fact, some existing evidence has already been rapidly adopted into policy, regulatory standards and practice. Further, broad dissemination of findings is achieved through the established digital eLearning platform of the Early Nutrition eAcademy, video clip-based learning and graphically supported messaging to consumers. The project demonstrated powerful effects of early metabolic programming on later health. Compared to other common prevention strategies, modifying risk trajectories in early life can achieve a much larger risk reduction and be more cost-effective. While some effective prevention strategies have been promptly implemented in policy and guidelines, legislation and practice, in other areas, the uptake is limited by a paucity of quality human intervention trials and insufficient evaluation of the feasibility of implementation and econometric impact. This needs to be strengthened by future collaborative research work. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Long-term climate change impacts on agricultural productivity in eastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavas, Daniel R.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Thomson, Allison M.; Gao, Xuejie

    2009-06-15

    Increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are expected to induce significant climate change over the next century and beyond, but the impacts on society remain highly uncertain. This work examines potential climate change impacts on the productivity of five major crops in northeastern China: canola, corn, potato, rice, and winter wheat. In addition to determining domain-wide trends, the objective is to identify vulnerable and emergent regions under future climate conditions, defined as having a greater than 10% decrease and increase in productivity, respectively. Data from the ICTP RegCM3 regional climate model for baseline (1961-1990) and future (2071-2100) periods under A2 scenario conditions are used as input in the EPIC agro-ecosystem simulation model in the domain [30ºN, 108ºE] to [42ºN, 123ºE]. Simulations are performed with and without the enhanced CO2 fertilization effect. Results indicate that aggregate potential productivity (i.e. if the crop is grown everywhere) increases 6.5% for rice, 8.3% for canola, 18.6% for corn, 22.9% for potato, and 24.9% for winter wheat, although with significant spatial variability for each crop. However, absent the enhanced CO2 fertilization effect, potential productivity declines in all cases ranging from 2.5-12%. Interannual yield variability remains constant or declines in all cases except rice. Climate variables are found to be more significant drivers of simulated yield changes than changes in soil properties, except in the case of potato production in the northwest where the effects of wind erosion are more significant. Overall, in the future period corn and winter wheat benefit significantly in the North China Plain, rice remains dominant in the southeast and emerges in the northeast, potato and corn yields become viable in the northwest, and potato yields suffer in the southwest with no other crop emerging as a clear beneficiary from among those simulated in this study.

  4. Long-term impact of war on healthcare costs: an eight-country study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Sabes-Figuera

    Full Text Available Exposure to war can negatively affect health and may impact on healthcare costs. Estimating these costs and identifying their predictors is important for appropriate service planning. We aimed to measure use of health services in an adult population who had experienced war in the former-Yugoslavia on average 8 years previously, and to identify characteristics associated with the use and costs of healthcare.War-affected community samples in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, FYR Macedonia, and Serbia were recruited through a random walk technique. Refugees in Germany, Italy and the UK were contacted through registers, organisations and networking. Current service use was measured for the previous three months and combined with unit costs for each country for the year 2006/7. A two-part approach was used, to identify predictors of service use with a multiple logistic regression model and predictors of cost with a generalised linear regression model.3,313 participants were interviewed in Balkan countries and 854 refugees in Western European countries. In the Balkan countries, traumatic events and mental health status were related to greater service use while in Western countries these associations were not found. Participants in Balkan countries with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD had costs that were 63% higher (p = 0.005 than those without PTSD. Distress experienced during the most traumatic war event was associated with higher costs (p = 0.013. In Western European countries costs were 76% higher if non-PTSD anxiety disorders were present (0.027 and 63% higher for mood disorders (p = 0.006.War experiences and their effects on mental health are associated with increased health care costs even many years later, especially for those who stayed in the area of conflict. Focussing on the mental health impact of war is important for many reasons including those of an economic nature.

  5. Modelling the impact of the long-term use of insecticide-treated bed nets on Anopheles mosquito biting time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Claudia P; Lyra, Silas P; Azevedo, Franciane; Greenhalgh, David; Massad, Eduardo

    2017-09-15

    Evidence of changing in biting and resting behaviour of the main malaria vectors has been mounting up in recent years as a result of selective pressure by the widespread and long-term use of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs), and indoor residual spraying. The impact of resistance behaviour on malaria intervention efficacy has important implications for the epidemiology and malaria control programmes. In this context, a theoretical framework is presented to understand the mechanisms determining the evolution of feeding behaviour under the pressure of use of ITNs. An agent-based stochastic model simulates the impact of insecticide-treated bed nets on mosquito fitness by reducing the biting rates, as well as increasing mortality rates. The model also incorporates a heritability function that provides the necessary genetic plasticity upon which natural selection would act to maximize the fitness under the pressure of the control strategy. The asymptotic equilibrium distribution of mosquito population versus biting time is shown for several daily uses of ITNs, and the expected disruptive selection on this mosquito trait is observed in the simulations. The relative fitness of strains that bite at much earlier time with respect to the wild strains, when a threshold of about 50% of ITNs coverage highlights the hypothesis of a behaviour selection. A sensitivity analysis has shown that the top three parameters that play a dominant role on the mosquito fitness are the proportion of individuals using bed nets and its effectiveness, the impact of bed nets on mosquito oviposition, and the mosquito genetic plasticity related to changing in biting time. By taking the evolutionary aspect into account, the model was able to show that the long-term use of ITNs, although representing an undisputed success in reducing malaria incidence and mortality in many affected areas, is not free of undesirable side effects. From the evolutionary point of view of the parasite virulence, it

  6. Long-Term Effect of Different Carbon Management Strategies on Water Flow and Related Processes for Three Loamy Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Schjønning, Per; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen

    2013-01-01

    on preferential flow and loss of colloids during heavy irrigation events. The field sites were all under long-term management and therefore represent up to 30 years of pairwise different management strategies. One field in each field pair was managed with a more C-repleting strategy (HighC) than the other (Low......The decline in organic matter of arable land, induced and accelerated by modern agriculture, has been identified as a threat to sustained soil quality. In this article, we studied strategies to counter this decrease by building up soil organic carbon (SOC) levels in the soils using several......C). Only small differences in SOC contents were identified, and none of the management strategies had succeeded in building up SOC pools large enough to saturate the soil with C. Only at one field site was the content of water-dispersible colloids lower in the HighC than the LowC treatment. Preferential...

  7. On the long-term impact of emissions from central European cities on regional air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Huszar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of urban emission from Central European cities on the present-day regional air quality, the regional climate model RegCM4.2 was coupled with the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the 2001–2010 period either with all urban emissions included (base case or without considering urban emissions. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban emissions was examined by performing reduction experiments with −20 % emission perturbation of NOx and/or non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC. The modeling system's air quality related outputs were evaluated using AirBase, and EMEP surface measurements showed reasonable reproduction of the monthly variation for ozone (O3, but the annual cycle of nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and sulfur dioxide (SO2 is more biased. In terms of hourly correlations, values achieved for ozone and NO2 are 0.5–0.8 and 0.4–0.6, but SO2 is poorly or not correlated at all with measurements (r around 0.2–0.5. The modeled fine particulates (PM2.5 are usually underestimated, especially in winter, mainly due to underestimation of nitrates and carbonaceous aerosols. European air quality measures were chosen as metrics describing the cities emission impact on regional air pollution. Due to urban emissions, significant ozone titration occurs over cities while over rural areas remote from cities, ozone production is modeled, mainly in terms of number of exceedances and accumulated exceedances over the threshold of 40 ppbv. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions also significantly contribute to concentrations in the cities themselves (up to 50–70 % for NOx and SO2, and up to 60 % for PM2.5, but the contribution is large over rural areas as well (10–20 %. Although air pollution over cities is largely determined by the local urban emissions, considerable (often a few tens of % fraction of the

  8. Long-term Impacts of Hurricane Wilma on Land Surface-Atmosphere Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, J. D.; Dowell, K. K.; Engel, V. C.; Smith, T. J.

    2008-05-01

    In October 2005, Hurricane Wilma made landfall along the mangrove forests of western Everglades National Park, Florida, USA. Damage from the storm varied with distance from landfall and included widespread mortality and extensive defoliation. Large sediment deposition events were recorded in the interior marshes, with erosion taking place along the coastal margins. Wilma made landfall near a 30 m flux tower where eddy-covariance measurements of ecosystem-level carbon and energy fluxes started in 2003. Repairs to the structure were completed in 2006, enabling comparisons of surface fluxes before and after the storm. One year after the hurricane, both the average and daily integrated CO2 fluxes are consistently lower than the pre-storm values. The storm's impact on standing live biomass and the slow recovery of leaf area appear to have resulted in decreased photosynthetic uptake capacity. Nighttime respiratory CO2 fluxes above the canopy are unchanged from pre-storm values. During some periods, daily integrated fluxes show the forest as a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Soil CO2 fluxes are not measured directly, but daytime soil temperatures and vertical heat fluxes have shown consistently higher values after the storm. Nighttime soil temperatures values have been slightly lower. These stronger diurnal soil temperature fluctuations indicate enhanced radiative fluxes at the soil surface, possibly as a result of the reduced leaf area. The increases in daytime soil temperatures are presumably leading to higher below-ground respiration rates and, along with the reduced photosynthetic capacity, contributing to the lower net CO2 assimilation rates. This hypothesis is supported by nearby measurements of declining surface elevations of the organic soils which have been correlated with mangrove mortality in impacted areas. Both sensible and latent heat fluxes above the canopy are found to be reduced following the hurricane, and soil heat storage is higher. Together

  9. What is the impact of antenatal diagnosis on long-term outlook?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garel, Laurent [CHU Ste-Justine, Department of Medical Imaging, Montreal (Canada)

    2008-06-15

    Congential malformations result in very significant consequences in paediatrics; more than 20% of infant mortality, more than 30% of paediatric ICU admissions, and one-third of overall admissions in the paediatric age group are linked to congential malformations. Health economics and antenatal diagnosis. Key issues yet to be addressed include: 1. Clarification of the objectives for screening for birth defects: Is it to detect cases or to prevent the birth of affected fetuses? 2. The establishment of the trade-of between resources allocated to screening and those allocated to help families and disabled children. 3. The value of a child born with structural or chromosomal defects compared with miscarriage of a normal fetus following amniocentesis. Apart from the ethical debates related to prenatal screening (variable expertise, rationing of resources, eugenics), the economic evaluations of antenatal diagnosis espouse the hypothesis and value judgment of the health commissioners. Indeed, prenatal screening and antenatal diagnosis carry high political and social stakes that make evidence-based evaluation of their impact more difficult than in any field in medicine. (orig.)

  10. Impact of obesity on long-term prognosis following acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Charlotte; Hassager, Christian; Hildebrandt, Per

    2005-01-01

    diabetes and hypertension. In both men and women, there was no association between obesity assessed as BMI and mortality [men: adjusted RR=0.99 (0.85-1.14, p=0.3); women: adjusted RR=0.90 (0.74-1.10, p=0.2)]. Men with WHR in the upper quartile had an increased mortality [adjusted RR=1.21 (1.07-1.37, p....01)]. Increasing WHR in women showed a trend of increased mortality, although this was not significant [adjusted RR=1.13 (0.95-1.34, p=0.2)]. CONCLUSION: In patients with acute myocardial infarction overall obesity as assessed by body mass index is inversely related to mortality. However, abdominal obesity appears......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of obesity on mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: This study comprises 6676 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction screened for entry into the Danish Trandolapril Cardiac Evaluation (TRACE) study. At baseline, body mass...

  11. A Qualitative Study of the Long Term Impact of Welfare Reform on Cambodian American Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Quintiliani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many Cambodian American families have struggled on the economic margins since their arrival to the U.S. in the 1980s. To raise families in poverty Cambodians created family survival strategies to buffer themselves against economic uncertainty and the vagaries of the social welfare system. They combine public assistance with formal and informal work activities of household members, including teenagers and young adults, to survive. With the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 or Welfare Reform, Cambodians lost vital economic resources. Based upon a longitudinal qualitative study from 1998-2007, this article looks back on how first generation Cambodian American household members adjusted to changes in welfare policy practices and how the loss of vital resources impacted the youth (15-19 years old coming of age in these families. The research findings and family case histories presented in this article illustrate the shared struggle of Cambodian family members in poverty. It reveals the significant challenges second generation Cambodian Americans face to achieve higher education goals when welfare policies systematically undercut family survival strategies.

  12. Emergency medical readmission: long-term trends and impact on mortality.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Glynn, Nigel

    2011-04-01

    There is increasing emphasis on prevention of emergency medical readmissions. The broad pattern of acute medical readmissions was studied over a seven-year period and the impact of any readmission on 30-day mortality was recorded. Significant predictors of outcome, including co-morbidity and illness severity score, were entered into a multivariate regression model, adjusting the univariate estimates of the readmission status on mortality. In total, 23,114 consecutive acute medical patients were admitted between 2002-8; the overall readmission rate was 27%. Readmission independently predicted an increased 30-day mortality; the odds ratio, was 1.12 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09 to 1.14). This fell to 1.05 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.08) when adjusted for outcome predictors including acute illness severity. The trend for readmissions was to progressively increase over time; the median times between consecutive admissions formed an exponential time series. Efforts to reduce or avoid readmissions may depend on an ability to modify the underlying chronic disease.

  13. Does fellowship pay: what is the long-term financial impact of subspecialty training in pediatrics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlin, Jonathan M; Simon, Harold K

    2011-02-01

    To (1) analyze the financial returns of fellowship training in pediatrics and to compare them with those generated from a career in general pediatrics and (2) evaluate the effects of including the newly enacted federal loan-repayment program and of changing the length of fellowship training. Although the choice to enter fellowship is based on many factors, economic considerations are important. We are not aware of any study that has focused on the financial impact of fellowship training in pediatrics. Using standard financial techniques, we estimated the financial returns that a graduating pediatric resident might anticipate from additional fellowship training followed by a career as a pediatric subspecialist and compared them with the returns that might be expected from starting a career as a general pediatrician immediately after residency. The financial returns of pediatric fellowship training varied greatly depending on which subspecialty fellowship was chosen. Pursuing a fellowship in most pediatric subspecialties was a negative financial decision when compared with pursuing no fellowship at all and practicing as a general pediatrician. Incorporating the federal loan-repayment program targeted toward pediatric subspecialists and decreasing the length of fellowship training from 3 to 2 years would substantially increase the financial returns of the pediatric subspecialties. Pediatric subspecialization yielded variable financial returns. The results from this study can be helpful to current pediatric residents as they contemplate their career options. In addition, our study may be valuable to policy makers evaluating health care reform and pediatric workforce-allocation issues.

  14. Impact of residual pulmonary obstruction on the long-term outcome of patients with pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Raffaele; Filippi, Lucia; Palla, Antonio; Visonà, Adriana; Bova, Carlo; Marzolo, Marco; Porro, Fernando; Villalta, Sabina; Ciammaichella, Maurizio; Bucherini, Eugenio; Nante, Giovanni; Battistelli, Sandra; Muiesan, Maria Lorenza; Beltramello, Giampietro; Prisco, Domenico; Casazza, Franco; Ageno, Walter; Palareti, Gualtiero; Quintavalla, Roberto; Monti, Simonetta; Mumoli, Nicola; Zanatta, Nello; Cappelli, Roberto; Cattaneo, Marco; Moretti, Valentino; Corà, Francesco; Bazzan, Mario; Ghirarduzzi, Angelo; Frigo, Anna Chiara; Miniati, Massimo; Prandoni, Paolo

    2017-05-01

    The impact of residual pulmonary obstruction on the outcome of patients with pulmonary embolism is uncertain.We recruited 647 consecutive symptomatic patients with a first episode of pulmonary embolism, with or without concomitant deep venous thrombosis. They received conventional anticoagulation, were assessed for residual pulmonary obstruction through perfusion lung scanning after 6 months and then were followed up for up to 3 years. Recurrent venous thromboembolism and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension were assessed according to widely accepted criteria.Residual pulmonary obstruction was detected in 324 patients (50.1%, 95% CI 46.2-54.0%). Patients with residual pulmonary obstruction were more likely to be older and to have an unprovoked episode. After a 3-year follow-up, recurrent venous thromboembolism and/or chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension developed in 34 out of the 324 patients (10.5%) with residual pulmonary obstruction and in 15 out of the 323 patients (4.6%) without residual pulmonary obstruction, leading to an adjusted hazard ratio of 2.26 (95% CI 1.23-4.16).Residual pulmonary obstruction, as detected with perfusion lung scanning at 6 months after a first episode of pulmonary embolism, is an independent predictor of recurrent venous thromboembolism and/or chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  15. Impact of radiotherapy on pain relief and recalcification in plasma cell neoplasms. Long-term experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balducci, Mario; Chiesa, Silvia; Manfrida, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of radiotherapy on pain relief and on recalcification in patients with osteolytic lesions due to plasma cell neoplasm. Patients and Methods: Pain relief was evaluated according to a 0-10 verbal numerical rating scale (NRS) and recalcification was measured using radiological imaging. Results: From 1996-2007, 52 patients were treated. Median total dose was 38 Gy (range, 16-50 Gy). Pain before radiotherapy was reported by 45 of 52 (86.5%) patients as being severe (8 ≤ NRS ≤ 10) in 5 (11%), moderate (5 ≤ NRS ≤ 7) in 27 (60%), and mild in 13 (29%). Pain relief was achieved in 41 of 45 patients (91%): complete relief was obtained in 21 (51.2%) and partial relief in 20 patients (48.8%); patients with severe pain experienced resolution and none presented an increase of pain. Drugs reduction/suspension was achieved in 7 of the 21 patients with complete response. Of 42 patients evaluable for recalcification, 21 (50%) presented a radiological response, which was identified as complete in 16 (38%). Conclusion: Our data confirm the effectiveness of radiotherapy for pain relief, including a reduction in drug intake, and on recalcification, thus, supporting its use in a multidisciplinary approach. (orig.)

  16. Assessing the Long Term Impact of Phosphorus Fertilization on Phosphorus Loadings Using AnnAGNPS

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Yongping; Bingner, Ronald L.; Locke, Martin A.; Stafford, Jim; Theurer, Fred D.

    2011-01-01

    High phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields has been an environmental concern because of potential water quality problems in streams and lakes. To better understand the process of P loss and evaluate the effects of different phosphorus fertilization rates on phosphorus losses, the USDA Annualized AGricultural Non-Point Source (AnnAGNPS) pollutant loading model was applied to the Ohio Upper Auglaize watershed, located in the southern portion of the Maumee River Basin. In this study, the ...

  17. Measuring Long-Term Impact Based on Network Centrality: Unraveling Cinematic Citations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Andreas; Horvát, Emőke-Ágnes

    2014-01-01

    Traditional measures of success for film, such as box-office revenue and critical acclaim, lack the ability to quantify long-lasting impact and depend on factors that are largely external to the craft itself. With the growing number of films that are being created and large-scale data becoming available through crowd-sourced online platforms, an endogenous measure of success that is not reliant on manual appraisal is of increasing importance. In this article we propose such a ranking method based on a combination of centrality indices. We apply the method to a network that contains several types of citations between more than 40,000 international feature films. From this network we derive a list of milestone films, which can be considered to constitute the foundations of cinema. In a comparison to various existing lists of ‘greatest’ films, such as personal favourite lists, voting lists, lists of individual experts, and lists deduced from expert polls, the selection of milestone films is more diverse in terms of genres, actors, and main creators. Our results shed light on the potential of a systematic quantitative investigation based on cinematic influences in identifying the most inspiring creations in world cinema. In a broader perspective, we introduce a novel research question to large-scale citation analysis, one of the most intriguing topics that have been at the forefront of scientific enquiries for the past fifty years and have led to the development of various network analytic methods. In doing so, we transfer widely studied approaches from citation analysis to the the newly emerging field of quantification efforts in the arts. The specific contribution of this paper consists in modelling the multidimensional cinematic references as a growing multiplex network and in developing a methodology for the identification of central films in this network. PMID:25295877

  18. Measuring long-term impact based on network centrality: unraveling cinematic citations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Spitz

    Full Text Available Traditional measures of success for film, such as box-office revenue and critical acclaim, lack the ability to quantify long-lasting impact and depend on factors that are largely external to the craft itself. With the growing number of films that are being created and large-scale data becoming available through crowd-sourced online platforms, an endogenous measure of success that is not reliant on manual appraisal is of increasing importance. In this article we propose such a ranking method based on a combination of centrality indices. We apply the method to a network that contains several types of citations between more than 40,000 international feature films. From this network we derive a list of milestone films, which can be considered to constitute the foundations of cinema. In a comparison to various existing lists of 'greatest' films, such as personal favourite lists, voting lists, lists of individual experts, and lists deduced from expert polls, the selection of milestone films is more diverse in terms of genres, actors, and main creators. Our results shed light on the potential of a systematic quantitative investigation based on cinematic influences in identifying the most inspiring creations in world cinema. In a broader perspective, we introduce a novel research question to large-scale citation analysis, one of the most intriguing topics that have been at the forefront of scientific enquiries for the past fifty years and have led to the development of various network analytic methods. In doing so, we transfer widely studied approaches from citation analysis to the the newly emerging field of quantification efforts in the arts. The specific contribution of this paper consists in modelling the multidimensional cinematic references as a growing multiplex network and in developing a methodology for the identification of central films in this network.

  19. Impact of playing American professional football on long-term brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, Daniel G; Newberg, Andrew; Thatcher, Robert; Jin, Yi; Wu, Joseph; Keator, David; Willeumier, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    The authors recruited 100 active and former National Football League players, representing 27 teams and all positions. Players underwent a clinical history, brain SPECT imaging, qEEG, and multiple neuropsychological measures, including MicroCog. Relative to a healthy-comparison group, players showed global decreased perfusion, especially in the prefrontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes, and cerebellar regions. Quantitative EEG findings were consistent, showing elevated slow waves in the frontal and temporal regions. Significant decreases from normal values were found in most neuropsychological tests. This is the first large-scale brain-imaging study to demonstrate significant differences consistent with a chronic brain trauma pattern in professional football players.

  20. Long-term costs and health impact of continued global fund support for antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Stover

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: By the end of 2011 Global Fund investments will be supporting 3.5 million people on antiretroviral therapy (ART in 104 low- and middle-income countries. We estimated the cost and health impact of continuing treatment for these patients through 2020. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Survival on first-line and second-line ART regimens is estimated based on annual retention rates reported by national AIDS programs. Costs per patient-year were calculated from country-reported ARV procurement prices, and expenditures on laboratory tests, health care utilization and end-of-life care from in-depth costing studies. Of the 3.5 million ART patients in 2011, 2.3 million will still need treatment in 2020. The annual cost of maintaining ART falls from $1.9 billion in 2011 to $1.7 billion in 2020, as a result of a declining number of surviving patients partially offset by increasing costs as more patients migrate to second-line therapy. The Global Fund is expected to continue being a major contributor to meeting this financial need, alongside other international funders and domestic resources. Costs would be $150 million less in 2020 with an annual 5% decline in first-line ARV prices and $150-370 million less with a 5%-12% annual decline in second-line prices, but $200 million higher in 2020 with phase out of stavudine (d4T, or $200 million higher with increased migration to second-line regimens expected if all countries routinely adopted viral load monitoring. Deaths postponed by ART correspond to 830,000 life-years saved in 2011, increasing to around 2.3 million life-years every year between 2015 and 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Annual patient-level direct costs of supporting a patient cohort remain fairly stable over 2011-2020, if current antiretroviral prices and delivery costs are maintained. Second-line antiretroviral prices are a major cost driver, underscoring the importance of investing in treatment quality to improve retention on first-line regimens.

  1. Impact of environmental factors on PADC radon detector sensitivity during long term storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasikiewicz, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    A broad set of data on poly-allyl diglycol carbonate (PADC) exposure to various environmental conditions has been collected for a period of 1 year in order to study the aging effect on the sensitivity to radon detection. Aging is a phenomenon that occurs during long PADC storage resulting in a loss of sensitivity and/or creation of false tracks. Conditions under investigation were storages under pure nitrogen or air atmospheres, in water solutions of different pHs, in a range of temperatures, humidity and exposure to UV, gamma and neutron radiations. It was found that PADC strongly responds to some external conditions through physical changes in the polymer material; for example, etching of UV exposed detectors led to 10% loss of their thickness and the removal of the tracks layer. Performance of detectors was compared with a control that was the sensitivity of detectors from the same sheet at the time of primary calibration - within 1 month of each sheet being manufactured. Substantial difference in performance was found between storage under pure, dry nitrogen and in the presence of water. The former preserves PADC radon detection properties for the period of one year without noticeable change. The latter, on the other hand significantly reduces its performance even after 3 months' storage. It was also established that storage under low temperature is not a suitable means to preserve PADC sensitivity to radon detection due to significant loss in the detector sensitivity.

  2. The long-term impact of war experiences and evacuation on people who were children during World War Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Melinda J; Robbins, Ian; Davies, Stephen; Feigenbaum, Janet

    2007-03-01

    During World War Two 1.9 million people were evacuated from British cities where the risk of bombing was perceived to be highest. 1.5 million of these were children who, often unaccompanied, were sent to live with strangers. Two hundred and forty-five people who were evacuated as children were compared with 96 of similar age who did not experience evacuation. Within this self-selected sample, significant numbers of the evacuees were found to have experienced abuse and neglect. Pre-evacuation abuse made continued abuse likely during evacuation, while abuse during evacuation led to children being more likely to continue to be abused on their return home. Abuse during evacuation led to increased scores on the Impact of Event Scale and General Health Questionnaire, and to insecure attachment patterns. The role of evacuation and abuse in the maintenance of long-term psychological problems is discussed.

  3. Evaluating the Impact of an Active Labour Market Policy on Employment: Short- and Long-Term Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Cansino

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Labour Market Insertion Contract was an Active Labour Market Policy introduced in Spain. It was aimed at individuals who had difficulties entering the labour market, and it was introduced with the purpose of reducing the rate of unemployment. This article provides an estimation of the average impact that this contract had on the employability of individuals in the short and long term. A microeconomic analysis was carried out based on causal statistical inference by using propensity score matching and kernel and radial estimators. Data was taken from the most comprehensive database available, which is the Continuous Sample of Work Histories. Results are consistent with literature reports and show that the employability of participants was inferior to that of individuals with similar, temporary-type contracts. This research contributes to the literature by evaluating whether there was empirical evidence to support the political decision to revoke or replace this kind of direct employment programme.

  4. Litter quality impacts short- but not long-term soil carbon dynamics in soil aggregate fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Roberta; Vanlauwe, Bernard; Six, Johan

    2011-04-01

    Complex molecules are presumed to be preferentially stabilized as soil organic carbon (SOC) based on the generally accepted concept that the chemical composition of litter is a major factor in its rate of decomposition. Hence, a direct link between litter quality and SOC quantity has been assumed, accepted, and ultimately incorporated in SOC models. Here, however, we present data from an incubation and field experiment that refutes the influence of litter quality on the quantity of stabilized SOC. Three different qualities of litter (Tithonia diversifolia, Calliandra calothyrsus, and Zea mays stover; 4 Mg C x ha(-1) yr(-1)) with and without the addition of mineral N fertilizer (0 or 120 kg N x ha(-1)season(-1) were added to a red clay Humic Nitisol in a 3-yr field trial and a 1.5-yr incubation experiment. The litters differed in their concentrations of N, lignin, and polyphenols with the ratio of (lignin + polyphenols): N ranging from 3.5 to 9.8 for the field trial and from 2.3 to 4.0 for the incubation experiment in the order of T. diversifolia stabilized after three annual additions in the field trial. Even within the most sensitive soil aggregate fractions, SOC contents and C:N ratios did not differ with litter quality, indicating that litter quality did not influence the mechanisms by which SOC was stabilized. While increasing litter quality displayed faster decomposition and incorporation of C into soil aggregates after 0.25 yr in the incubation study, all litters resulted in equivalent amounts of C stabilized in the soil after 1.5 yr, further corroborating the results of the field trial. The addition of N fertilizer did not affect SOC stabilization in either the field or the incubation trial. Thus, we conclude that, while litter quality controls shorter-term dynamics of C decomposition and accumulation in the soil, longer-term SOC patterns cannot be predicted based on initial litter quality effects. Hence, the formation and stabilization of SOC is more

  5. Impact of Prosthesis-Patient Mismatch on Long-term Functional Capacity After Mechanical Aortic Valve Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit-Eisenmann, Hélène; Epailly, Eric; Velten, Michel; Radojevic, Jelena; Eisenmann, Bernard; Kremer, Hélène; Kindo, Michel

    2016-12-01

    The impact of prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) after aortic valve replacement (AVR) for aortic stenosis on exercise capacity remains controversial. The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term impact of PPM after mechanical AVR on maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2max ). The study included 75 patients who had undergone isolated mechanical AVR for aortic stenosis with normal left ventricular (LV) function between 1994 and 2012. Their functional capacity was evaluated on average 4.6 years after AVR by exercise testing, including measurement of their VO 2max , and by determining their New York Heart Association functional class and Short Form-36 score. Two groups were defined by measuring the patients' indexed effective orifice area (iEOA) by transthoracic echocardiography: a PPM group (iEOA < 0.85 cm 2 /m 2 ) and a no-PPM group (iEOA ≥ 0.85 cm 2 /m 2 ). PPM was present in 37.0% of the patients. The percentage of the predicted VO 2max achieved was significantly lower in the PPM group (86.7 ± 19.5% vs 97.5 ± 23.0% in the no-PPM group; P = 0.04). Compared with the no-PPM group, the PPM group contained fewer patients in New York Heart Association functional class I and their mean Short Form-36 physical component summary score was significantly lower. The mean transvalvular gradient was significantly higher in the PPM group than in the no-PPM group (P < 0.001). Systolic and diastolic function and LV mass had normalized in both groups. PPM is associated in the long term with moderate but significant impairment of functional capacity, despite optimal LV reverse remodelling and normalization of LV systolic and diastolic function. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-Term Impact of Cyclosporin Reduction with MMF Treatment in Chronic Allograft Dysfunction: REFERENECE Study 3-Year Follow Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Frimat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcineurin inhibitor (CNI toxicity contributes to chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN. In the 2-year, randomized, study, we showed that 50% cyclosporin (CsA reduction in combination with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF treatment improves kidney function without increasing the risk for graft rejection/loss. To investigate the long-term effect of this regimen, we conducted a follow up study in 70 kidney transplant patients until 5 years after REFERENCE initiation. The improvement of kidney function was confirmed in the MMF group but not in the control group (CsA group. Four graft losses occurred, 2 in each group (graft survival in the MMF group 95.8% and 90.9% in control group. One death occurred in the control group. There was no statistically significant difference in the occurrence of serious adverse events or acute graft rejections. A limitation is the weak proportion of patient still remaining within the control group. On the other hand, REFERENCE focuses on the CsA regimen while opinions about the tacrolimus ones are still debated. In conclusion, CsA reduction in the presence of MMF treatment seems to maintain kidney function and is well tolerated in the long term.

  7. Assessment of the Impact of GNSS Processing Strategies on the Long-Term Parameters of 20 Years IWV Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Baldysz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Advanced processing of collected global navigation satellite systems (GNSS observations allows for the estimation of zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD, which in turn can be converted to the integrated water vapour (IWV. The proper estimation of GNSS IWV can be affected by the adopted GNSS processing strategy. To verify which of its elements cause deterioration and which improve the estimated GNSS IWV, we conducted eight reprocessings of 20 years of GPS observations (01.1996–12.2015. In each of them, we applied a different mapping function, the zenith hydrostatic delay (ZHD a priori value, the cut-off angle, software, and the positioning method. Obtained in such a way, the ZTD time series were converted to the IWV using the meteorological parameters sourced from the ERA-Interim. Then, based on them, the long-term parameters were estimated and compared to those obtained from the IWV derived from the radio sounding (RS observations. In this paper, we analyzed long-term parameters such as IWV mean values, linear trends, and amplitudes of annual and semiannual oscillations. A comparative analysis showed, inter alia, that in terms of the investigation of the IWV linear trend the precise point positioning (PPP method is characterized by higher accuracy than the differential one. It was also found that using the GPT2 model and the higher elevation mask brings benefits to the GNSS IWV linear trend estimation.

  8. Long-term influence of tillage and fertilization on net carbon dioxide exchange rate on two soils with different textures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiziene, Dalia; Feiza, Virginijus; Slepetiene, Alvyra; Liaudanskiene, Inga; Kadziene, Grazina; Deveikyte, Irena; Vaideliene, Asta

    2011-01-01

    The importance of agricultural practices to greenhouse gas mitigation is examined worldwide. However, there is no consensus on soil organic carbon (SOC) content and CO emissions as affected by soil management practices and their relationships with soil texture. No-till (NT) agriculture often results in soil C gain, though, not always. Soil net CO exchange rate (NCER) and environmental factors (SOC, soil temperature [T], and water content [W]), as affected by soil type (loam and sandy loam), tillage (conventional, reduced, and NT), and fertilization, were quantified in long-term field experiments in Lithuania. Soil tillage and fertilization affected total CO flux (heterotrophic and autotrophic) through effect on soil SOC sequestration, water, and temperature regime. After 11 yr of different tillage and fertilization management, SOC content was 23% more in loam than in sandy loam. Long-term NT contributed to 7 to 27% more SOC sequestration on loam and to 29 to 33% more on sandy loam compared with reduced tillage (RT) or conventional tillage (CT). Soil water content in loam was 7% more than in sandy loam. Soil gravimetric water content, averaged across measurement dates and fertilization treatments, was significantly less in NT than CT and RT in both soils. Soil organic carbon content and water storage capacity of the loam and sandy loam soils exerted different influences on NCER. The NCER from the sandy loam soil was 13% greater than that from the loam. In addition, NCER was 4 to 9% less with NT than with CT and RT systems on both loam and sandy loam soils. Application of mineral NPK fertilizers promoted significantly greater NCER from loam but suppressed NCER by 15% from sandy loam. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. Assessing the ecological long-term impact of wastewater irrigation on soil and water based on bioassays and chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Elisabeth; Hecht, Fabian; Schnellbacher, Nadine; Ternes, Thomas A; Wick, Arne; Wode, Florian; Coors, Anja

    2015-11-01

    The reuse of treated wastewater for irrigation and groundwater recharge can counteract water scarcity and reduce pollution of surface waters, but assessing its environmental risk should likewise consider effects associated to the soil. The present study therefore aimed at determining the impact of wastewater irrigation on the habitat quality of water after soil passage and of soil after percolation by applying bioassays and chemical analysis. Lab-scale columns of four different soils encompassing standard European soil and three field soils of varying characteristics and pre-contamination were continuously percolated with treated wastewater to simulate long-term irrigation. Wastewater and its percolates were tested for immobilization of Daphnia magna and growth inhibition of green algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) and water lentils (Lemna minor). The observed phytotoxicity of the treated wastewater was mostly reduced by soil passage, but in some percolates also increased for green algae. Chemical analysis covering an extensive set of wastewater-born organic pollutants demonstrated that many of them were considerably reduced by soil passage, particularly through peaty soils. Taken together, these results indicated that wastewater-born phytotoxic substances may be removed by soil passage, while existing soil pollutants (e.g. metals) may leach and impair percolate quality. Soils with and without wastewater irrigation were tested for growth of plants (Avena sativa, Brassica napus) and soil bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis) and reproduction of collembolans (Folsomia candida) and oligochaetes (Enchytraeus crypticus, Eisenia fetida). The habitat quality of the standard and two field soils appeared to be deteriorated by wastewater percolation for at least one organism (enchytraeids, plants or bacteria), while for two pre-contaminated field soils it also was improved (for plants and/or enchytraeids). Wastewater percolation did not seem to raise soil concentrations

  10. Antibiotic treatment of exacerbations of COPD in general practice: long-term impact on healthrelated quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Miravitlles

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Marc Miravitlles1, Carles Llor2, Jesús Molina3, Karlos Naberan4, Josep M Cots5, Fernando Ros6 on behalf of the EVOCA Study Group1Fundació Clínic. Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS, Hospital Clínic, Ciber de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES, Barcelona, Spain; 2Primary Health Care Center ‘Jaume I’, Societat Catalana de Medicina Familiar i Comunitària, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain; 3Primary Health Care Center ‘Francia’, Grupo de Respiratorio de la Sociedad Madrileña de Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria, Madrid, Spain; 4Primary Health Care Center ‘Fuentes de Ebro’, Grupo de Investigación del Instituto Aragonés Ciencias de la Salud (IACS, Zaragoza, Spain; 5Primary Health Care Center ‘La Marina’, Societat Catalana de Medicina Familiar i Comunitària, Facultat de Medicina, Barcelona, Spain; 6Medical Department, Bayer Healthcare, Barcelona, SpainObjective: To investigate the impact of exacerbations in health-related quality of life (HRQL of patients with COPD and to compare the effect of treatment of COPD exacerbations with moxifloxacin (400 mg/day for 5 days and amoxicillin/clavulanate (500/125 mg 3 times a day for 10 days on HRQL.Methods: 229 outpatients with stable COPD (mean age 68.2 years; mean FEV1 % predicted 49.3% participated in a prospective, observational study of 2 years’ duration. The St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ was completed at baseline and every 6 months thereafter.Results: COPD exacerbations (mean 2.7 episodes/patient occurred in 136 patients (124 patients received the study medications [amoxicillin/clavulanate 54, moxifloxacin 70]. Differences between baseline and the final visit were higher for moxifloxacin compared with amoxicillin/clavulanate for total SGRQ score (-2.60 [13.1] vs 4.21 [16.2], P = 0.05 and “Symptoms” subscale (-5.64 [16.7] vs 8.27 [21], P = 0.02. The same findings were observed in patients with two or more

  11. Long term continuous field survey to assess nutrient emission impact from irrigated paddy field into river catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogure, Kanami; Aichi, Masaatsu; Zessner, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    P balance. N and P surplus are calculated by difference between input and output in a paddy field. As to nutrient balance in 2015 surplus shows minus value between input as fertilizer and output as rice product. However, by taking account of input via irrigation water as nutrient source, N and P input and output balance with errors by 9% and 14%. Results of long term continuous survey suggest that irrigation water is one of nutrient sources in rice cultivation.

  12. Random Network Models to Predict the Long-Term Impact of HPV Vaccination on Genital Warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Domingo, Javier; Sánchez-Alonso, Víctor; Acedo, Luis; Villanueva-Oller, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The Human papillomaviruses (HPV) vaccine induces a herd immunity effect in genital warts when a large number of the population is vaccinated. This aspect should be taken into account when devising new vaccine strategies, like vaccination at older ages or male vaccination. Therefore, it is important to develop mathematical models with good predictive capacities. We devised a sexual contact network that was calibrated to simulate the Spanish epidemiology of different HPV genotypes. Through this model, we simulated the scenario that occurred in Australia in 2007, where 12–13 year-old girls were vaccinated with a three-dose schedule of a vaccine containing genotypes 6 and 11, which protect against genital warts, and also a catch-up program in women up to 26 years of age. Vaccine coverage were 73% in girls with three doses and with coverage rates decreasing with age until 52% for 20–26 year-olds. A fast 59% reduction in the genital warts diagnoses occurred in the model in the first years after the start of the program, similar to what was described in the literature. PMID:29035332

  13. The long-term impact of a math, science and technology program on grade school girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sandra Judd

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a math, science, and technology intervention program improved grade school girls' attitudes and stereotypes toward science and scientists, as well as participation levels in science-related activities, two years after their participating in the program. The intervention program evaluated was Operation SMART, developed by Girls Incorporated. Participants were recruited from the 6th and 7th grades from two public middle schools in Northern California. One hundred twenty-seven girls signed up for the survey and were assigned to either the SMART group (previous SMART participants) or Non-SMART group (no previous experience with SMART). The survey consisted of five parts: (1) a background information sheet, (2) the Modified Attitudes Toward Science Inventory, (3) the What Do You Do? survey, (4) the Draw-A-Scientist Test-Revised, and (5) a career interests and role models/influencer survey. Results indicated that there were no significant differences between the SMART and Non-SMART groups on any of the test measures. However, middle school attended did have a significant effect on the outcome variables. Girls from Middle School A reported more positive attitudes toward science, while girls from Middle School B reported higher participation levels in extracurricular science activities. Possible explanations for these findings suggest too much time had passed between treatment effect and time of measurement as well as the strong influence of teacher and school environment on girls' attitudes and stereotypes. Recommendations for future research are discussed.

  14. Differences in predictors of return to work among long-term sick-listed employees with different self-reported reasons for sick leave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijs, J.J.J.M.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Taris, T.W.; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The present study aimed to gain insight in the predictors of full return to work (RTW) among employees on long-term sick leave due to three different self-reported reasons for sick leave: physical, mental or comorbid physical and mental problems. This knowledge can be used to develop

  15. Mineralogical impact on long-term patterns of soil nitrogen and phosphorus enzyme activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikutta, Robert; Turner, Stephanie; Meyer-Stüve, Sandra; Guggenberger, Georg; Dohrmann, Reiner; Schippers, Axel

    2014-05-01

    Soil chronosequences provide a unique opportunity to study microbial activity over time in mineralogical diverse soils of different ages. The main objective of this study was to test the effect of mineralogical properties, nutrient and organic matter availability over whole soil pro-files on the abundance and activity of the microbial communities. We focused on microbio-logical processes involved in nitrogen and phosphorus cycling at the 120,000-year Franz Josef soil chronosequence. Microbial abundances (microbial biomass and total cell counts) and enzyme activities (protease, urease, aminopeptidase, and phosphatase) were determined and related to nutrient contents and mineralogical soil properties. Both, microbial abundances and enzyme activities decreased with soil depth at all sites. In the organic layers, microbial biomass and the activities of N-hydrolyzing enzymes showed their maximum at the intermediate-aged sites, corresponding to a high aboveground biomass. In contrast, the phosphatase activity increased with site age. The activities of N-hydrolyzing enzymes were positively correlated with total carbon and nitrogen contents, whereas the phosphatase activity was negatively correlated with the phosphorus content. In the mineral soil, the enzyme activities were generally low, thus reflecting the presence of strongly sorbing minerals. Sub-strate-normalized enzyme activities correlated negatively to clay content as well as poorly crystalline Al and Fe oxyhydroxides, supporting the view that the evolution of reactive sec-ondary mineral phases alters the activity of the microbial communities by constraining sub-strate availability. Our data suggest a strong mineralogical influence on nutrient cycling par-ticularly in subsoil environments.

  16. Impact of long term left ventricular assist device therapy on donor allocation in cardiac transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriel, Nir; Jorde, Ulrich P; Woo Pak, Sang; Jiang, Jeff; Clerkin, Kevin; Takayama, Hiroo; Naka, Yoshifumi; Schulze, P Christian; Mancini, Donna M

    2013-02-01

    Left Ventricular Assist Devices (LVAD) are increasingly used as a bridge to transplant (BTT) for patients with advanced congestive heart failure (CHF) and are assigned United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) high priority status (1B or 1A). The purpose of our study was asses the effect of organ allocation in the era of continuous flow pumps. A retrospective chart review was performed of all patients transplanted between 1/2001-1/2011 at Columbia University Medical Center. Seven hundred twenty six adult heart transplantations were performed. Two hundred seventy four BTT patients were implanted with LVAD; of which 227 patients were transplanted. Sixty three patients were transplanted as UNOS-1B, while 164 were transplanted as UNOS-1A (72%). Of these 164 patients, 65 were transplanted during their 30-day 1A period (43%) and 96 after upgrading to UNOS-1A for device complication (56%). For 452 non-device patients 139 (31%) were transplanted as UNOS-1A, 233 as UNOS-1B (52%), and 80 as UNOS-2 (17%). The percentage of patients bridged with LVAD increased from 19% in 2001 to 64% in 2010 while the number transplanted during their 30 day 1A grace period declined from 57% in 2005 to 16% in 2011; i.e. 84% of BTT patients in 2011 needed more than 30 days 1A time to be transplanted. Most LVAD patients are now transplanted while suffering device complication. There was no difference in post transplant survival between LVAD patients transplanted as UNOS 1B, 1A grace period or for a device complication As wait time for cardiac transplantation increased the percentage of patients being bridged to transplant with an LVAD has increased with the majority of them transplanted in the setting of device complication. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Health impact of exposure to suspended particulate matter. Epidemiology of long-term effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, Joachim; Peters, Annette; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Univ. Muenchen; Grote, Veit

    2002-01-01

    Chronic effects of ambient air pollutants are studied by cross-sectional and cohort designs including adjustment for confounder on an individual basis. This review summarizes the state of the art about chronic effects of ambient particulate air pollutants. A majority of regional cross-sectional studies show a higher risk for non-allergic, infectious respiratory diseases such as bronchitis in children who grew up in highly polluted areas. Impaired lung function was only shown in few of these studies, whereas in adults impairments were homogeneously seen in cross-sectional studies. A 10 μg/m 3 TSP or PM 10 increase in annual means increases the prevalence of bronchitis in children by 20-40%. According to North-American cohort studies total mortality can be estimated to increase by 24-50% for PM 10 (per 50 μg/m 3 increase), 17-25% for PM 2.5 (per 25 μg/m 3 increase), and 10-50% for sulfates (per 15 μg/m 3 increase). Prevalence of bronchitis and infectious respiratory health in East German children decreased along with the improvement of air quality. Further studies on chronic effects including an improved exposure assessment are needed to quantify health effects more precisely. These future studies should include a higher number of areas with different air pollution levels. They should help to set up more evidence-based regulations for the control of air pollutants and to improve the evaluation of clean air acts. (orig.) [de

  18. Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for alternative strategies for the long-term management and use of depleted uranium hexafluoride. Volume 1: Main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    This PEIS assesses the potential impacts of alternative management of alternative management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) currently stored at three DOE sites: Paducah site near Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth site near Portsmouth, Ohio; and K-25 site on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The alternatives analyzed in the PEIS include no action, long-term storage as UF 6 , long-term storage as uranium oxide, use as uranium oxide, use as uranium metal, and disposal. The preferred alternative for the long-term management of depleted UF 6 is to use the entire inventory of material

  19. Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for alternative strategies for the long-term management and use of depleted uranium hexafluoride. Volume 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    This PEIS assesses the potential impacts of alternative management of alternative management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) currently stored at three DOE sites: Paducah site near Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth site near Portsmouth, Ohio; and K-25 site on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The alternatives analyzed in the PEIS include no action, long-term storage as UF 6 , long-term storage as uranium oxide, use as uranium oxide, use as uranium metal, and disposal. The preferred alternative for the long-term management of depleted UF 6 is to use the entire inventory of material. This volume contains the appendices to volume I

  20. Long term impact of emotional, social and cognitive intelligence competencies and GMAT on career and life satisfaction and career success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdurer, Emily; Boyatzis, Richard E; Saatcioglu, Argun; Smith, Melvin L; Taylor, Scott N

    2014-01-01

    Career scholars have called for a broader definition of career success by inviting greater exploration of its antecedents. While success in various jobs has been predicted by intelligence and in other studies by competencies, especially in management, long term impact of having intelligence and using competencies has not been examined. Even in collegiate outcome studies, few have examined the longer term impact on graduates' careers or lives. This study assesses the impact of demonstrated emotional, social, and cognitive intelligence competencies assessed at graduation and g measured through GMAT at entry from an MBA program on career and life satisfaction, and career success assessed 5 to 19 years after graduation. Using behavioral measures of competencies (i.e., as assessed by others), we found that emotional intelligence competencies predict career satisfaction and success. Adaptability had a positive impact, but influence had the opposite effect on these career measures and life satisfaction. Life satisfaction was negatively affected by achievement orientation and positively affected by teamwork. Current salary, length of marriage, and being younger at time of graduation positively affect all three measures of life and career satisfaction and career success. GMAT (as a measure of g) predicted life satisfaction and career success to a slight but significant degree in the final model analyzed. Meanwhile, being female and number of children positively affected life satisfaction but cognitive intelligence competencies negatively affected it, and in particular demonstrated systems thinking was negative.

  1. Long term impact of emotional, social and cognitive intelligence competencies and GMAT on career and life satisfaction and career success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdurer, Emily; Boyatzis, Richard E.; Saatcioglu, Argun; Smith, Melvin L.; Taylor, Scott N.

    2014-01-01

    Career scholars have called for a broader definition of career success by inviting greater exploration of its antecedents. While success in various jobs has been predicted by intelligence and in other studies by competencies, especially in management, long term impact of having intelligence and using competencies has not been examined. Even in collegiate outcome studies, few have examined the longer term impact on graduates' careers or lives. This study assesses the impact of demonstrated emotional, social, and cognitive intelligence competencies assessed at graduation and g measured through GMAT at entry from an MBA program on career and life satisfaction, and career success assessed 5 to 19 years after graduation. Using behavioral measures of competencies (i.e., as assessed by others), we found that emotional intelligence competencies predict career satisfaction and success. Adaptability had a positive impact, but influence had the opposite effect on these career measures and life satisfaction. Life satisfaction was negatively affected by achievement orientation and positively affected by teamwork. Current salary, length of marriage, and being younger at time of graduation positively affect all three measures of life and career satisfaction and career success. GMAT (as a measure of g) predicted life satisfaction and career success to a slight but significant degree in the final model analyzed. Meanwhile, being female and number of children positively affected life satisfaction but cognitive intelligence competencies negatively affected it, and in particular demonstrated systems thinking was negative. PMID:25566128

  2. Long Term Impact of Emotional, Social and Cognitive Intelligence Competencies and GMAT on Career and Life Satisfaction and Career Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eAmdurer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTCareer scholars have called for a broader definition of career success by inviting greater exploration of its antecedents. While success in various jobs has been predicted by intelligence and in other studies by competencies, especially in management, long term impact of having intelligence and using competencies has not been examined. Even in collegiate outcome studies, few have examined the longer term impact on graduates’ careers or lives. This study assesses the impact of demonstrated emotional, social, and cognitive intelligence competencies assessed at graduation and g measured through GMAT at entry from an MBA program on career and life satisfaction, and career success assessed 5 to 19 years after graduation. Using behavioral measures of competencies (i.e., as assessed by others, we found that emotional intelligence competencies predict career satisfaction and success. Adaptability had a positive impact, but influence had the opposite effect on these career measures and life satisfaction. Life satisfaction was negatively affected by achievement orientation and positively affected by teamwork. Current salary, length of marriage, and being younger at time of graduation positively affect all three measures of life and career satisfaction and career success. GMAT (as a measure of g predicted life satisfaction and career success to a slight but significant degree in the final model analyzed. Meanwhile, being female and number of children positively affected life satisfaction but cognitive intelligence competencies negatively affected it, and in particular demonstrated systems thinking was negative.

  3. Undertaking high impact strategies: The role of national efficiency measures in long-term energy and emission reduction in steel making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Tengfang; Karali, Nihan; Sathaye, Jayant

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Evaluate long-term effects of national energy efficiency in steel making. • Use bottom-up optimization for projection in China, India and the U.S. • The effects include changes in steel production, energy use, emissions, and costs. • Three emission targets induce different structural changes and investments. • Projected energy and CO 2 intensity declines in each country from 2010 to 2050. - Abstract: In this paper, we applied bottom-up linear optimization modeling to analyze long-term national impacts of implementing energy efficiency measures on energy savings, CO 2 -emission reduction, production, and costs of steel making in China, India, and the U.S. We first established two base scenarios representing business-as-usual steel production for each country from 2010 to 2050; Base scenario (in which no efficiency measure is available) and Base-E scenario (in which efficiency measures are available), and model scenarios representing various emission-reduction targets that affects production, annual energy use and costs with the goal of cost minimization. A higher emission-reduction target generally induces larger structural changes and increased investments in nation-wide efficiency measures, in addition to autonomous improvement expected in the Base scenario. Given the same emission-reduction target compared to the base scenario, intensity of annual energy use and emissions exhibits declining trends in each country from year 2010 to 2050. While a higher emission-reduction target result in more energy reduction from the base scenario, such reduction can become more expensive to achieve. The results advance our understanding of long-term effects of national energy efficiency applications under different sets of emission-reduction targets for steel sectors in the three major economies, and provide useful implications for high impact strategies to manage production structures, production costs, energy use, and emission reduction in steel making

  4. Impact of postoperative complications on readmission and long-term survival in patients following surgery for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slankamenac, Ksenija; Slankamenac, Maja; Schlegel, Andrea; Nocito, Antonio; Rickenbacher, Andreas; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Turina, Matthias

    2017-06-01

    It is well known that specific postoperative complications such as stroke influence readmissions and overall survival (OS) after surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC). Whether overall hospital morbidity is associated with increased risk of readmission and poorer long-term survival is unknown. New tools are available to accurately quantify overall morbidity, such as the comprehensive complication index (CCI). The aim is to evaluate the impact of complications on readmission and overall survival (OS) in patients operated for colorectal cancer. Postoperative complications of patients undergoing surgery for CRC were assessed over a 5-year period using the Clavien-Dindo classification, and overall morbidity was assessed by using the CCI. Individual scores were analyzed regarding their association with readmission and OS by using the multivariate logistic and Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis, respectively. Two hundred eighty-four patients were operated for CRC, of which 22 (8%) were readmitted. One hundred five patients (37%) developed at least one postoperative complication during the hospital stay. While single complications or the use of severe complication only (grade ≥IIIb) was not associated with readmission, overall morbidity (CCI) predicted readmission (OR 1.02 (95% CI 1.0-1.04), p = 0.044). Similarly, morbidity assessed by the CCI had a significant negative predictive value on OS, e.g., patients with a CCI of 20 were 22% more likely to die within a 5-year follow-up, when compared to patients with a CCI of 10 (p = 0.022). Overall combined morbidity as assessed by the CCI leads to more frequent readmission, and is associated with poorer long-term survival after surgery for CRC.

  5. Short- and Long-Term Impacts of Neighborhood Built Environment on Self-Rated Health of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Amy

    2018-01-18

    Proximity to health care, healthy foods, and recreation is linked to improved health in older adults while deterioration of the built environment is a risk factor for poor health. Yet, it remains unclear whether individuals prone to good health self-select into favorable built environments and how long-term exposure to deteriorated environments impacts health. This study uses a longitudinal framework to address these questions. The study analyzes 3,240 Americans aged 45 or older from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics with good self-reported health at baseline, and follows them from 1999 to 2013. At each biennial survey wave, individual data are combined with data on services in the neighborhood of residence (defined as the zip code) from the Economic Census. The analysis overcomes the problem of residential self-selection by employing marginal structural models and inverse probability of treatment weights. Logistic regression estimates indicate that long-term exposure to neighborhood built environments that lack health-supportive services (e.g., physicians, pharmacies, grocery stores, senior centers, and recreational facilities) and are commercially declined (i.e., have a high density of liquor stores, pawn shops, and fast food outlets) increases the risk of fair/poor self-rated health compared to more average neighborhoods. Short-term exposure to the same environments as compared to average neighborhoods has no bearing on self-rated health after adjusting for self-selection. Results highlight the importance of expanding individuals' access to health-supportive services prior to their reaching old age, and expanding access for people unlikely to attain residence in service-dense neighborhoods. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Long-term impact of liver transplantation on respiratory function and nutritional status in children and adults with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowman, J K; Watson, D; Loganathan, S; Gunson, B K; Hodson, J; Mirza, D F; Clarke, J; Lloyd, C; Honeybourne, D; Whitehouse, J L; Nash, E F; Kelly, D; van Mourik, I; Newsome, P N

    2012-04-01

    Early liver transplant (LT) has been advocated for patients with cystic fibrosis liver disease (CFLD) and evidence of deterioration in nutritional state and respiratory function to prevent further decline. However, the impact of single LT on long-term respiratory function and nutritional status has not been adequately addressed. We performed a retrospective analysis of the outcomes of 40 (21 adult/19 pediatric) patients with CFLD transplanted between 1987 and 2009 with median follow-up of 47.8 months (range 4-180). One and five-year actuarial survival rates were 85%/64% for adult and 90%/85% for pediatric LT cohorts, respectively. Lung function remained stable until 4 years (FEV(1) % predicted; pretransplant 48.4% vs. 45.9%, 4 years posttransplant) but declined by 5 years (42.4%). Up to 4 years posttransplant mean annual decline in FEV(1) % was lower (0.74%; p = 0.04) compared with the predicted 3% annual decline in CF patients with comorbidity including diabetes. Number of courses of intravenous antibiotics was reduced following LT, from 3.9/year pretransplant to 1.1/year, 5 years posttransplant. Body mass index was preserved posttransplant; 18.0 kg/m(2) (range 15-24.3) pretransplant versus 19.6 kg/m(2) (range 16.4-22.7) 5 years posttransplant. In conclusion, LT is an effective treatment for selected patients with cirrhosis due to CFLD, stabilizing aspects of long-term lung function and preserving nutritional status. © Copyright 2011 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  7. Long-term User and Community Impacts of High-speed Rail in the United States’ Midwest Corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. Peters

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study contributes new insights in the debate over the viability of high-speed rail (HSR in the United States and the value proposition for government investment. The modeling focus of this study is two-fold, and the modeling approach makes a case for a fundamental shift from the current perspective of HSR viability. First, the user and community impact assessment of HSR is conducted in the same manner as traditional transportation system evaluation (i.e., vehicle operating costs (VOC, travel time, safety, emissions, and energy consumption to provide comparable conclusions regarding intercity transportation alternatives. Second, the model presented in this study analyzes both ridership and impacts within the same systematic framework to assess the long-term impacts on the individual transportation modes, total system metrics, and efficacy of alternate policies. Using this model, decision-makers can introduce various externalities to determine both the ideal and problematic conditions for the viability of a new HSR system.

  8. Long-term impacts of prescribed fire on stand structure, growth, mortality, and individual tree vigor in Pinus resinosa forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer S. Scherer; Anthony W. D' Amato; Christel C. Kern; Brian J. Palik; Matthew B. Russell

    2016-01-01

    Prescribed fire is increasingly being viewed as a valuable tool for mitigating the ecological consequences of long-term fire suppression within fire-adapted forest ecosystems. While the use of burning treatments in northern temperate conifer forests has at times received considerable attention, the long-term (>10 years) effects on forest structure and...

  9. Impact of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria inoculation methods on phosphorus transformation and long-term utilization in composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuquan; Zhao, Yue; Fan, Yuying; Lu, Qian; Li, Mingxiao; Wei, Qingbin; Zhao, Yi; Cao, Zhenyu; Wei, Zimin

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) application and inoculation methods on rock phosphate (RP) solubilization and bacterial community during composting. The results showed that PSB inoculation in different stages of composting, especially both in the beginning and cooling stages, not only improved the diversity and abundance of PSB and bacterial community, but also distinctly increased the content of potential available phosphorus. Redundancy analysis indicated that the combined inoculation of PSB in the initial stage with higher inoculation amount and in the cooling stage with lower inoculation amount was the best way to improve the inoculation effect and increase the solubilization and utilization of RP during composting. Besides, we suggested three methods to improve phosphorus transformation and long-term utilization efficiency in composts based on biological fixation of phosphates by humic substance and phosphate-accumulating organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of sanitary impact of the urban air pollution. Agglomeration of Angouleme, Niort and Poitiers impact at short and long term; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Agglomeration d'Angouleme, Niort et Poitiers impact a cour et long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    An health impact assessment of air pollution based on the I.n.V.S. guidelines has been conducted in Angouleme, Niort and Poitiers according to the Regional Plan for the quality of air in the region of Poitou- Charentes. Short-term effects on morbidity (hospital admissions in 2001 and 2002) and mortality were estimated. Long-term effects due to air pollution on mortality were also evaluated. The estimated numbers of hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory admissions due to air pollution are 19 in Angouleme, 11 in Niort and 19 in Poitiers. For long-term mortality the estimated impact is 25 in Angouleme, 19 in Niort and 23 in Poitiers. The different scenarios of air pollution reduction showed that the most effective ones are those which lead to reduce of 25% the mean of the involved pollutant. Results showed that air pollution are even resulting in health effects for some levels of pollution lower than current limits. The most effective actions should therefore associate reduction of the source emissions on a daily basis and decrease of the over-limits levels of pollution. (author)

  11. Evaluation of sanitary impact of urban air pollution. Agglomeration of Orleans and Tours impact at short and long term; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Agglomeration d'Orleans et de Tours impact a cour et long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    An health impact assessment of air pollution based on the I.n.V.S. guidelines has been conducted in Orleans and Tours according to the regional Plan for the quality of air in the region of Centre. Short-term effects on morbidity (hospital admissions in 2002 and 2003) and mortality. Long-term mortality was also estimated. The estimated numbers of hospitalizations are: Orleans: 11 [2-23]* for respiratory admissions and 26 [16-36]* for cardiovascular admissions; Tours: 11 [3-22]* for respiratory admissions and 34 [20-48]* for cardiovascular admissions. For long-term mortality the estimated impact is 59 [36-84]* in Orleans and 61 [37-86]* in Tours. The different scenarios of air pollution reduction showed that the most effective ones are those which lead to reduce of 25% the mean of the involved pollutant. Results showed that air pollution are even resulting in health effects for some levels of pollution than current limits. The most effective actions should therefore associate reduction of the source emissions on a daily basis and decrease of the over-limits levels of pollution. (author)

  12. Black Carbon and Sulfate Aerosols in the Arctic: Long-term Trends, Radiative Impacts, and Source Attributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Zhang, R.; Yang, Y.; Smith, S.; Rasch, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic has warmed dramatically in recent decades. As one of the important short-lived climate forcers, aerosols affect the Arctic radiative budget directly by interfering radiation and indirectly by modifying clouds. Light-absorbing particles (e.g., black carbon) in snow/ice can reduce the surface albedo. The direct radiative impact of aerosols on the Arctic climate can be either warming or cooling, depending on their composition and location, which can further alter the poleward heat transport. Anthropogenic emissions, especially, BC and SO2, have changed drastically in low/mid-latitude source regions in the past few decades. Arctic surface observations at some locations show that BC and sulfate aerosols had a decreasing trend in the recent decades. In order to understand the impact of long-term emission changes on aerosols and their radiative effects, we use the Community Earth System Model (CESM) equipped with an explicit BC and sulfur source-tagging technique to quantify the source-receptor relationships and decadal trends of Arctic sulfate and BC and to identify variations in their atmospheric transport pathways from lower latitudes. The simulation was conducted for 36 years (1979-2014) with prescribed sea surface temperatures and sea ice concentrations. To minimize potential biases in modeled large-scale circulations, wind fields in the simulation are nudged toward an atmospheric reanalysis dataset, while atmospheric constituents including water vapor, clouds, and aerosols are allowed to evolve according to the model physics. Both anthropogenic and open fire emissions came from the newly released CMIP6 datasets, which show strong regional trends in BC and SO2 emissions during the simulation time period. Results show that emissions from East Asia and South Asia together have the largest contributions to Arctic sulfate and BC concentrations in the upper troposphere, which have an increasing trend. The strong decrease in emissions from Europe, Russia and

  13. Evaluation of different nitrous oxide production models with four continuous long-term wastewater treatment process data series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spérandio, Mathieu; Pocquet, Mathieu; Guo, Lisha; Ni, Bing-Jie; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-03-01

    Five activated sludge models describing N2O production by ammonium oxidising bacteria (AOB) were compared to four different long-term process data sets. Each model considers one of the two known N2O production pathways by AOB, namely the AOB denitrification pathway and the hydroxylamine oxidation pathway, with specific kinetic expressions. Satisfactory calibration could be obtained in most cases, but none of the models was able to describe all the N2O data obtained in the different systems with a similar parameter set. Variability of the parameters can be related to difficulties related to undescribed local concentration heterogeneities, physiological adaptation of micro-organisms, a microbial population switch, or regulation between multiple AOB pathways. This variability could be due to a dependence of the N2O production pathways on the nitrite (or free nitrous acid-FNA) concentrations and other operational conditions in different systems. This work gives an overview of the potentialities and limits of single AOB pathway models. Indicating in which condition each single pathway model is likely to explain the experimental observations, this work will also facilitate future work on models in which the two main N2O pathways active in AOB are represented together.

  14. Bacteria and virus removal effectiveness of ceramic pot filters with different silver applications in a long term experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, H; van Halem, D; Smeets, P W M H; Soppe, A I A; Kroesbergen, J; Wubbels, G; Nederstigt, J; Gensburger, I; Heijman, S G J

    2014-03-15

    In 2012 more than 4 million people used a ceramic pot filter (CPF) as household water treatment system for their daily drinking water needs. In the normal production protocol most low cost filters are impregnated with a silver solution to enhance the microbial removal efficiency. The aim of this study was to determine the role of silver during the filtration and subsequent storage. Twenty-two CPFs with three different silver applications (non, only outside and both sides) were compared in a long-term loading experiment with Escherichia coli (K12 and WR1) and MS2 bacteriophages in natural challenge water under highly controlled laboratory circumstances. No significant difference in Log Removal Values were found between the filters with different silver applications. The results show that the storage time in the receptacle is the dominant parameter to reach E. coli inactivation by silver, and not the contact time during the filtration phase. The hypothesis that the absence of silver would enhance the virus removal, due to biofilm formation on the ceramic filter element, could not be confirmed. The removal effectiveness for viruses is still of major concern for the CPF. This study suggests that the ceramic pot filter characteristics, such as burnt material content, do not determine E. coli removal efficacies, but rather the contact time with silver during storage is the dominant parameter to reach E. coli inactivation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Short communication. Response of bacterial community composition to long-term applications of different composts in agricultural soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, M; Knapp, B A; Peintner, U; Insam, H

    2011-07-01

    Differences in the bacterial community composition of agricultural soils caused by a long-term (12 year) application of different composts were identified by cultivation-dependent and -independent methods (PCR-DGGE and 16S rRNA clone libraries). The number of colony forming units indicated that the successive incorporation of organic amendments increased the bacterial abundance (6.41-5.66 log10 cfu g-1dry soil) compared to control and mineral soils (5.54-3.74 log10 cfu g-1 dry soil). Isolated bacteria were dominated by Actinobacteria, whereby compost-amended soils and green compost-amended soils showed, respectively, higher number of members of Actinobacteria (100% and 64%) than control and mineral soils (50% and 40%). The 16S rRNA clone libraries were dominated by Proteobacteria (43%), Acidobacteria (21%) and Actinobacteria (13%). Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were most abundant in compost amended soils while Acidobacteria were more frequently found in mineral fertilizer and control soils. Partial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed a higher bacterial diversity than cultivation. In conclusion, we found differences of bacterial community composition with a cultivation approach and clone libraries between compost amended soils and control and mineral soil. (Author) 31 refs.

  16. Guillain-Barré Syndrome: Prevalence and Long-Term Factors Impacting Bladder Function in an Australian Community Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fary; Whishaw, Michael; Pallant, Julie F.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Urinary dysfunction is associated with significant morbidity in persons with Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS). The aim of this study was to describe prevalence and long-term impact of bladder dysfunction on daily activities and quality of life (QoL) in persons in chronic phase of GBS and to examine the relationships between commonly used continence measures in this cohort. Methods Prospective cohort (n=66) following GBS treatment (1996-2009) was recruited from a tertiary hospital and assessed using standardised measures for bladder dysfunction: American Urological Association (AUA) Symptom Index, Incontinence Impact Questionnaire, Urogenital Distress Inventory. Results Sixty-six participants (64% male, mean age 56 years, median disease duration of 6.1 years) completed the study. Of these more than half reported nocturia and one-third reported urinary urgency and frequency. Urinary problems impacted on participants' daily activities: physical recreation (21%), emotional health and mood (17%), entertainment (14%), participation and mobility (>30 min) (12%), and performance of household chores (8%). Since GBS, 49% reported interference of urinary symptoms with daily life to some extent; and adverse impact on QoL (10.6%). Significant relationship between bladder symptoms; and the level of urogenital distress (p<0.001) and the impact of urinary problems (p<0.001), was noted. Higher scores on the bladder scales showed significant correlations with psychological, functional and participation scales. The single QoL item (AUA scale) correlated significantly with all other bladder scales (rho=0.63-0.86). This can be a potential 'screening tool' to identify patients for further assessment. Conclusions Bladder dysfunction in chronic phase of GBS is not well studied. More research in longer-term screening and outcomes for bladder intervention are needed for integrated care and to guide treating clinicians. PMID:23894237

  17. Prevalent Long-Term Trends of Hypertension in Austria: The Impact of Obesity and Socio-Demography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Großschädl

    Full Text Available Globally there are only less long-term-studies on hypertension available to provide reliable estimates and identify risk groups. This study aims to analyse the prevalence and long-term-trend of hypertension in Austria, recognize affected subpopulations and investigate social inequalities.This representative population-based study is based on self-reported data of adults (mean age: 47.7 ± 17.5; n = 178,818 that were taken from five health surveys between 1973 and 2007. An adjustment of self-reported BMI was performed based on a preliminary validation study. Absolute changes (AC and aetiologic fractions (AF were calculated from logistic regressions in order to measure trends. To quantify the extent of social inequality, a relative index of inequality (RII was computed.During the study period the age-standardized hypertension prevalence increased from 1.0% to 18.8%, with a considerable rise from 1991 onwards. There was a positive trend in all subpopulations, with the highest AC among obese women (+50.2% and obese subjects aged 75 years and older (+54.4%, whereas the highest risk was observed among the youngest obese adults (AF: 99.4%. The RII for hypertension was higher for women than men, but in general unstable during the investigation period.Obesity and older age are significant factors for increased morbidity of hypertension. The most undesirable trends occurred in obese women and obese subjects aged 75 years and older. These risk groups should be given special attention when planning hypertension prevention programs. The high increase in the prevalence of hypertension is due to different aspects, e.g. a demographic change and a change in the definition of hypertension. These findings help to understand why hypertension is becoming more common in the Austrian population.

  18. Model analysis of check dam impacts on long-term sediment and water budgets in southeast Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Niraula, Rewati

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of check dam infrastructure on soil and water conservation at the catchment scale using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). This paired watershed study includes a watershed treated with over 2000 check dams and a Control watershed which has none, in the West Turkey Creek watershed, Southeast Arizona, USA. SWAT was calibrated for streamflow using discharge documented during the summer of 2013 at the Control site. Model results depict the necessity to eliminate lateral flow from SWAT models of aridland environments, the urgency to standardize geospatial soils data, and the care for which modelers must document altering parameters when presenting findings. Performance was assessed using the percent bias (PBIAS), with values of ±2.34%. The calibrated model was then used to examine the impacts of check dams at the Treated watershed. Approximately 630 tons of sediment is estimated to be stored behind check dams in the Treated watershed over the 3-year simulation, increasing water quality for fish habitat. A minimum precipitation event of 15 mm was necessary to instigate the detachment of soil, sediments, or rock from the study area, which occurred 2% of the time. The resulting watershed model is useful as a predictive framework and decision-support tool to consider long-term impacts of restoration and potential for future restoration.

  19. Memories of GAMES: Exploring the Long-Term Impacts of After-School Museum Programming on Girls' Attitudes Towards Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Sarah Elizabeth

    The purpose of this study is to investigate any lasting impacts of the University of Colorado Museum of Natural History's Girls at the Museum Exploring Science (GAMES) Program. Using assessment document analysis, student focus groups, and adult interviews, this study examined whether students' positive associations with science continue after completion of the program and whether the program affects the academic and career choices of past participants. Results from the analysis suggest that GAMES has a generally positive impact on participant attitudes towards science in both the short- and long-term. These results also support existing research in identifying key factors in the success of the program including hands-on activities, exposure to diverse careers and female role models, and the incorporation of authentic objects and experiences. These factors of success can contribute to the evidence base about the role of informal education programs in increasing science participation among women, as well as ways in which schools and universities can collaborate to effectively serve populations that are traditionally underrepresented in the sciences.

  20. Long-Term Audience Impacts of Live Fulldome Planetarium Lectures for Earth Science and Global Change Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, K. C.; Champlin, D. M.; Goldsworth, D. A.; Raynolds, R. G.; Dechesne, M.

    2011-09-01

    Digital Earth visualization technologies, from ArcGIS to Google Earth, have allowed for the integration of complex, disparate data sets to produce visually rich and compelling three-dimensional models of sub-surface and surface resource distribution patterns. The rendering of these models allows the public to quickly understand complicated geospatial relationships that would otherwise take much longer to explain using traditional media. At the Denver Museum of Nature & Science (DMNS), we have used such visualization technologies, including real-time virtual reality software running in the immersive digital "fulldome" Gates Planetarium, to impact the community through topical policy presentations. DMNS public lectures have covered regional issues like water resources, as well as global topics such as earthquakes, tsunamis, and resource depletion. The Gates Planetarium allows an audience to have an immersive experience-similar to virtual reality "CAVE" environments found in academia-that would otherwise not be available to the general public. Public lectures in the dome allow audiences of over 100 people to comprehend dynamically changing geospatial datasets in an exciting and engaging fashion. Surveys and interviews show that these talks are effective in heightening visitor interest in the subjects weeks or months after the presentation. Many visitors take additional steps to learn more, while one was so inspired that she actively worked to bring the same programming to her children's school. These preliminary findings suggest that fulldome real-time visualizations can have a substantial long-term impact on an audience's engagement and interest in science topics.

  1. Long-Term Climatic and Anthropogenic Impacts on Streamwater Salinity in New York State: INCA Simulations Offer Cautious Optimism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutchess, Kristina; Jin, Li; Ledesma, José L J; Crossman, Jill; Kelleher, Christa; Lautz, Laura; Lu, Zunli

    2018-02-06

    The long-term application of road salts has led to a rise in surface water chloride (Cl - ) concentrations. While models have been used to assess the potential future impacts of continued deicing practices, prior approaches have not incorporated changes in climate that are projected to impact hydrogeology in the 21st century. We use an INtegrated CAtchment (INCA) model to simulate Cl - concentrations in the Tioughnioga River watershed. The model was run over a baseline period (1961-1990) and climate simulations from a range of GCMs run over three 30-year intervals (2010-2039; 2040-2069; 2070-2099). Model projections suggest that Cl - concentrations in the two river branches will continue to rise for several decades, before beginning to decline around 2040-2069, with all GCM scenarios indicating reductions in snowfall and associated salt applications over the 21st century. The delay in stream response is most likely attributed to climate change and continued contribution of Cl - from aquifers. By 2100, surface water Cl - concentrations will decrease to below 1960s values. Catchments dominated by urban lands will experience a decrease in average surface water Cl - , although moderate compared to more rural catchments.

  2. Assessing Transformations of Algal Organic Matter in the Long-Term: Impacts of Humification-Like Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud Leloup

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Algae and cyanobacteria are important contributors to the natural organic matter (NOM of eutrophic water resources. The objective of this work is to increase knowledge on the modifications of algal organic matter (AOM properties in the long term to anticipate blooms footprint in such aquatic environments. The production of AOM from an alga (Euglena gracilis and a cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa was followed up and characterized during the stationary phase and after one year and four months of cultivation, in batch experiments. Specific UV absorbance (SUVA index, organic matter fractionation according to hydrophobicity and apparent molecular weight were combined to assess the evolution of AOM. A comparison between humic substances (HS mainly derived from allochthonous origins and AOM characteristics was performed to hypothesize impacts of AOM transformation processes on the water quality of eutrophic water resources. Each AOM fraction underwent a specific evolution pattern, depending on its composition. Impacts of humification-like processes were predominant over release of biopolymers due to cells decay and led to an increase in the hydrophobic compounds part and molecular weights over time. However, the hydrophilic fraction remained the major fraction whatever the growth stage. Organic compounds generated by maturation of these precursors corresponded to large and aliphatic structures.

  3. The Long-Term Impact of Foreign Multinational Enterprises in Spain: New Insights into an Old Topic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Puig

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of foreign capital and technology in the economic and social progress of late-developing countries remains a controversial issue in both academic and policy circles. In this essay, we examine the case of Spain in the light of the academic literature from the 1960s to the present. First, we identify and contextualize the intellectual concerns and controversies of two important generations of economists and historians and their approaches to the specific issue of multinational enterprises (MNEs. We then discuss what we consider to be the seven major contributions of recent Spanish scholarship in terms of: 1/ new quantitative evidence on FDI inward flows and firm demography analyses of foreign MNEs; 2/ new approaches to the transfer of technology by MNEs; 3/ collective and individual case studies of foreign MNEs, with a focus on their impact on local capabilities; 4/ identification of patterns of investment by MNE home countries; 5/ identification and study of the local actors of inward FDI; 6/ new perspectives gained from the history of international relations; and 7 new evidence on processes leading from inward FDI to outward FDI. We argue that the time is ripe for comprehensive re-assessments of the long-term impact of foreign MNEs and the role of Spain in the global economy.

  4. Does Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Negatively Impact Long-Term Survival and Freedom from Reintervention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahzad G. Raja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently published evidence has raised concerns about worse late mortality and increasing need for reintervention after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. We undertook this study to assess the impact of off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting on survival and freedom from reintervention at 10 years. From January 2002 to December 2002, 307 consecutive patients who had isolated multivessel off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting at our institution were compared to a control group of 397 patients that underwent multivessel on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting during the same period. In addition, univariate and risk-adjusted comparisons between the two groups were performed at 10 years. Kaplan-Meier survival was similar for the two cohorts. After adjusting for clinical covariates, off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting did not emerge as a significant independent predictor of long-term mortality (Hazard Ratio 0.91; 95% Confidence Interval 0.70–1.12, readmission to hospital for cardiac cause (Hazard Ratio 0.96; 95% Confidence Interval 0.78–1.10, or the need for reintervention (Hazard Ratio 0.93; 95% Confidence Interval 0.87–1.05. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting compared with on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting does not adversely impact survival or freedom from reintervention at a 10-year follow-up.

  5. Long-term impacts of peatland restoration on the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of blanket bogs in Northern Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambley, Graham; Hill, Timothy; Saunders, Matthew; Arn Teh, Yit

    2016-04-01

    Unmanaged peatlands represent an important long-term C sink and thus play an important part of the global C cycle. Despite covering only 12 % of the UK land area, peatlands are estimated to store approximately 20 times more carbon than the UK's forests, which cover 13% of the land area. The Flow Country of Northern Scotland is the largest area of contiguous blanket bog in the UK, and one of the biggest in Europe, covering an area in excess of 4000 km2 and plays a key role in mediating regional atmospheric exchanges of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapour (H2O). However, these peatlands underwent significant afforestation in the 1980s, when over 670 km2 of blanket bog were drained and planted with Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) and Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). This resulted in modifications to hydrology, micro-topography, vegetation and soil properties all of which are known to influence the production, emission and sequestration of key GHGs. Since the late 1990s restoration work has been carried out to remove forest plantations and raise water tables, by drain blocking, to encourage the recolonisation of Sphagnum species and restore ecosystem functioning. Here, we report findings of NEE and its constituent fluxes, GPP and Reco, from a study investigating the impacts of restoration on C dynamics over a chronosequence of restored peatlands. The research explored the role of environmental variables and microtopography in modulating land-atmosphere exchanges, using a multi-scale sampling approach that incorporated eddy covariance measurements with dynamic flux chambers. Key age classes sampled included an undrained peatland; an older restored peatland (17 years old); and a more recently restored site (12 years old). The oldest restored site showed the strongest uptake of C, with an annual assimilation rate of 858 g C m-2 yr-1 compared to assimilation rates of 501g C m-2 yr-1 and 575g C m-2 yr-1 from the younger restored site and

  6. Sex differences in long-term quality of life after stroke: Influence of mood and functional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Espuela, F; Portilla Cuenca, J C; Leno Díaz, C; Párraga Sánchez, J M; Gamez-Leyva, G; Casado Naranjo, I

    2017-12-19

    To evaluate long-term quality of life (QoL) in patients who have experienced a stroke and to analyse differences in QoL between sexes. We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional, observational study to gather sociodemographic variables and risk factors; data were also obtained on QoL, mood, and functional status using validated scales. The study was approved by our centre's ethics committee. Our final sample included 124 patients; mean age was 71.30±11.99 years. In the QoL study, the EuroQol-5D dimensions in which participants presented most problems were anxiety/depression (66.7%) and pain/discomfort (62.2%). We found significant inter-sex differences in the dimensions of mobility and usual activities (P=.016 and P=.005, respectively). Women also achieved substantially poorer EuroQoL-5D index values than men (0.45±0.45 vs. 0.65±0.38; P=.013). QoL was found to be associated with dependence for the activities of daily living (r=0.326; P=.001) and depressed mood (r=-0.514; Pde Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Climate-vegetation-fire interactions and their impact on long-term carbon dynamics in a boreal peatland landscape in northern Manitoba, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camill, Philip; Barry, Ann; Williams, Evie; Andreassi, Christian; Limmer, Jacob; Solick, Donald

    2009-12-01

    Climate warming may increase the size and frequency of fires in the boreal biome, possibly causing greater carbon release that amplifies warming. However, in peatlands, vegetation change may also control long-term fire and carbon accumulation, confounding simple relationships between climate, fire, and carbon accumulation. Using 17 peat cores dating to 8000 cal years B.P. from northern Manitoba, Canada, we addressed the following questions: (1) Do past climate changes correlate with shifts in peatland vegetation? (2) What is the relationship between peatland vegetation and fire severity? (3) What is the mean return interval for boreal peat fires, and how does it change across fires of different severities? (4) How does fire severity affect carbon accumulation rates? (5) Do fire and long-term carbon accumulation change directly in response to climate or indirectly though climate-driven changes in vegetation? We measured carbon accumulation rates, fire severity, and return intervals using macroscopic charcoal and changes in vegetation using macrofossils. Climate and vegetation changes covaried, with shifts from wetter fen to drier, forested bog communities during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM). Fires became more severe following the shift to forested bogs, with fire severity peaking after 4000 cal years B.P. rather than during the HTM. Rising fire severity, in turn, was correlated with a significant decrease in carbon accumulation from ˜6000 to 2000 cal years B.P. The Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age affected vegetation composition and permafrost, further impacting fire and carbon accumulation. Our results indicate that long-term changes in fire and carbon dynamics are mediated by climate-driven changes in vegetation.

  8. Cardiac Resynchronization in Different Age Groups: A MADIT-CRT Long-Term Follow-Up Substudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sabu; Moss, Arthur J; Zareba, Wojciech; McNitt, Scott; Barsheshet, Alon; Klein, Helmut; Goldenberg, Ilan; Huang, David T; Biton, Yitschak; Kutyifa, Valentina

    2016-02-01

    Cardiac resynchronization with defibrillators (CRT-D) reduces heart failure and mortality compared with defibrillators alone. Whether this applies to all ages is unclear. We assessed the association of age on heart failure and death as a post hoc analysis of the MADIT-CRT follow-up study, in which 1,281 patients with class I/II heart failure (HF) were randomized to CRT-D or implantable cardioverter-defibrillators alone. Different age groups (age groups, there were 399, 651, and 231 patients, respectively. We compared events with the use of a multivariate regression model. CRT-D compared with defibrillators alone significantly reduced the composite of HF or death across all age groups: age groups: age group: RRR = 59%. CRT-D reduced HF events and the composite of mortality or HF events during long-term follow-up in all age groups. CRT-D reduced mortality only in the 60-74 year age group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-term performance of activated carbon air cathodes with different diffusion layer porosities in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2011-08-01

    Activated carbon (AC) air-cathodes are inexpensive and useful alternatives to Pt-catalyzed electrodes in microbial fuel cells (MFCs), but information is needed on their long-term stability for oxygen reduction. AC cathodes were constructed with diffusion layers (DLs) with two different porosities (30% and 70%) to evaluate the effects of increased oxygen transfer on power. The 70% DL cathode initially produced a maximum power density of 1214±123mW/m 2 (cathode projected surface area; 35±4W/m 3 based on liquid volume), but it decreased by 40% after 1 year to 734±18mW/m 2. The 30% DL cathode initially produced less power than the 70% DL cathode, but it only decreased by 22% after 1 year (from 1014±2mW/m 2 to 789±68mW/m 2). Electrochemical tests were used to examine the reasons for the degraded performance. Diffusion resistance in the cathode was found to be the primary component of the internal resistance, and it increased over time. Replacing the cathode after 1 year completely restored the original power densities. These results suggest that the degradation in cathode performance was due to clogging of the AC micropores. These findings show that AC is a cost-effective material for oxygen reduction that can still produce ~750mW/m 2 after 1 year. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  10. The Long-Term Outcome Comparison of Different Time-Delayed Kallikrein Treatments in a Mouse Cerebral Ischemic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaohui Ni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Delayed administration of kallikrein after cerebral infarction can improve neurological function. However, the appropriate kallkrein treatment time after ischemic stroke has not been illuminated. In this study, we compared the long-term outcome among three kallikrein therapeutic regimens starting at different time points following mouse cerebral ischemia. Furthermore, the protective mechanisms involving neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and AKT-GSK3β-VEGF signaling pathway were analyzed. Human tissue kallikrein was injected through the tail vein daily starting at 8 h, 24 h, or 36 h after right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO until the 28th day. Three therapeutic regimens all protected against neurological dysfunction, but kallikrein treatment starting at 8 h after MCAO had the best efficacy. Additionally, kallikrein treatment at 8 h after MCAO significantly enhanced cell proliferation including neural stem cell and induced differentiation of neural stem cell into mature neuron. Kallikrein treatment starting at 8 h also promoted more angiogenesis than other two treatment regimens, which was associated with AKT-GSK3β-VEGF signaling pathway. Thus, we confirm that three delayed kallikrein treatments provide protection against cerebral infarction and furthermore suggest that kallikrein treatment starting at 8 h had a better effect than that at 24 h and 36 h. These findings provide the experimental data contributing to better clinical application of exogenous kallikrein.

  11. Long-Term Impact of Immunosuppressants at Therapeutic Doses on Male Reproductive System in Unilateral Nephrectomized Rats: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehui Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and sirolimus are commonly used in renal transplant recipients to prevent rejection. However, information for comparative effects of these agents on the male productive system is extremely limited and controversial. In a physiologically and clinically relevant rat model of unilateral nephrectomy, we demonstrated that long-term oral administration of both cyclosporine and sirolimus at doses equivalent to the therapeutic levels used for postrenal transplant patients significantly affects testicular development and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis accompanied by profound histological changes of testicular structures on both light and electron microscopic examinations. Spermatogenesis was also severely impaired as indicated by low total sperm counts along with reduction of sperm motility and increase in sperm abnormality after treatment with these agents, which may lead to male infertility. On the other hand, treatment with therapeutic dose of tacrolimus only induced mild reduction of sperm count without histological evidence of testicular injury. The current study clearly demonstrates that commonly used immunosuppressants have various impacts on male reproductive system even at therapeutic levels. Our data provide useful information for the assessment of male infertility in renal transplant recipients who wish to father children. Clinical trials to address these issues should be urged.

  12. The impact of the Danish Oxygen Register on adherence to guidelines for long-term oxygen therapy in COPD patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringbæk, Thomas Jørgen; Lange, Peter

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of The Danish Oxygen Register on COPD patients' treatment modalities, survival, and adherence to guidelines for long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT). DESIGN: The Danish Oxygen Register. SUBJECTS: 8487 COPD patients who received LTOT in the study period from November 1...... with the possibility of re-evaluation of the criteria for LTOT and adjustment for oxygen flow, with no change during the study period (P=0.43). In a representative subsample, 77.1% had smoking habits or measurement of CO-level registered in 1995 compared to 79.6% in year 2000 (P=0.65), and 25.1% vs. 21.2% (P=0.......34) were considered current smokers. The median survival increased from 1.07 to 1.40 years (P=0.032). CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to guidelines for LTOT has improved concerning administration of oxygen, but has remained poor concerning follow-up of the patients and smoking cessation. Survival of COPD patients...

  13. Long-Term Impact of Sediment Deposition and Erosion on Water Surface Profiles in the Ner River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Dysarz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to test forecasting of the sediment transport process, taking into account two main uncertainties involved in sediment transport modeling. These are: the lack of knowledge regarding future flows, and the uncertainty with respect to which sediment transport formula should be chosen for simulations. The river reach chosen for study is the outlet part of the Ner River, located in the central part of Poland. The main characteristic of the river is the presence of an intensive morphodynamic process, increasing flooding frequency. The approach proposed here is based on simulations with a sediment-routing model and assessment of the hydraulic condition changes on the basis of hydrodynamic calculations for the chosen characteristic flows. The data used include Digital Terrain Models (DTMs, cross-section measurements, and hydrological observations from the Dabie gauge station. The sediment and hydrodynamic calculations are performed using program HEC-RAS 5.0. Twenty inflow scenarios are of a 10-year duration and are composed on the basis of historical data. Meyer-Peter and Müller and Engelund-Hansen formulae are applied for the calculation of sediment transport intensity. The methodology presented here seems to be a good tool for the prediction of long-term impacts on water surface profiles caused by sediment deposition and erosion.

  14. Long-term impact of the ketogenic diet on growth and resting energy expenditure in children with intractable epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groleau, Veronique; Schall, Joan I; Stallings, Virginia A; Bergqvist, Christina A

    2014-09-01

    The long-term effects of the ketogenic diet, a high fat diet for treating intractable epilepsy, on resting energy expenditure (REE) are unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of 15 months of ketogenic diet treatment on growth and REE in children with intractable epilepsy. Growth, body composition, and REE were assessed at baseline, 3 months and 15 months in 24 children (14 males, 10 females; mean age 5 y 6 mo [SD 26 mo], range 7 mo-6 y 5 mo), 10 with cerebral palsy [CP]). Fifteen were identified as ketogenic diet responders at 3 months and continued on the ketogenic diet until 15 months. These were compared to 75 healthy children (43 males, 32 females; mean age 6 y 3 mo [SD 21 mo] age range 2-9 y). REE was expressed as percentage predicted, growth as height (HAz) and weight (WAz) z-scores, and body composition as fat and fat free mass (FFM). HAz declined -0.2 and -0.6 from baseline to 3 months and 15 months respectively (p = 0.001), while WAz was unchanged. In ketogenic diet responders, FFM, age and CP diagnosis predicted REE (overall R(2) = 0.76, pketogenic diet, linear growth status declined while weight status and REE were unchanged. REE remained reduced in children with CP. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  15. Long-term impact of the ketogenic diet on growth and resting energy expenditure in children with intractable epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    GROLEAU, VERONIQUE; SCHALL, JOAN I; STALLINGS, VIRGINIA A; BERGQVIST, CHRISTINA A

    2014-01-01

    AIM The long-term effects of the ketogenic diet, a high fat diet for treating intractable epilepsy, on resting energy expenditure (REE) are unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of 15 months of ketogenic diet treatment on growth and REE in children with intractable epilepsy. METHOD Growth, body composition and REE were assessed at baseline, 3 and 15 months in 24 children (14 males, 10 females; mean age 5y 6mo (SD 26mo), range 7mo–6y 5mo), 10 with cerebral palsy [CP]). Fifteen were identified as ketogenic diet responders at 3 months and continued on the ketogenic diet until 15 months. These were compared to 75 healthy children (43 males, 32 females; mean age 6y 3mo [SD 21mo] age range 2–9y). REE was expressed as percentage predicted, growth as height (HAz) and weight (WAz) z-scores, and body composition as fat and fat free mass (FFM). RESULTS HAz declined −0.2 and −0.6 from baseline to 3 and 15 months, respectively (p=0.001), while WAz was unchanged. In ketogenic diet responders, FFM, age and CP diagnosis predicted REE (overall R2=0.76, pketogenic diet, linear growth status declined while weight status and REE were unchanged. REE remained reduced in children with CP. PMID:24749520

  16. Long Term Quantification of Climate and Land Cover Change Impacts on Streamflow in an Alpine River Catchment, Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenliang Yin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the long term impacts of climate and land cover change on streamflow is of great important for sustainable water resources management in inland river basins. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was employed to simulate the streamflow in the upper reaches of Heihe River Basin, northwestern China, over the last half century. The Sequential Uncertainty Fitting algorithm (SUFI-2 was selected to calibrate and validate the SWAT model. The results showed that both Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE and determination coefficient (R2 were over 0.93 for calibration and validation periods, the percent bias (PBIAS of the two periods were—3.47% and 1.81%, respectively. The precipitation, average, maximum, and minimum air temperature were all showing increasing trends, with 14.87 mm/10 years, 0.30 °C/10 years, 0.27 °C/10 year, and 0.37 °C/10 years, respectively. Runoff coefficient has increased from 0.36 (averaged during 1964 to 1988 to 0.39 (averaged during 1989 to 2013. Based on the SWAT simulation, we quantified the contribution of climate and land cover change to streamflow change, indicated that the land cover change had a positive impact on river discharge by increasing 7.12% of the streamflow during 1964 to 1988, and climate change contributed 14.08% for the streamflow increasing over last 50 years. Meanwhile, the climate change impact was intensive after 2000s. The increasing of streamflow contributed to the increasing of total streamflow by 64.1% for cold season (November to following March and 35.9% for warm season (April to October. The results provide some references for dealing with climate and land cover change in an inland river basin for water resource management and planning.

  17. Race and Sex Differences of Long-Term Blood Pressure Profiles From Childhood and Adult Hypertension: The Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Zhang, Tao; Li, Shengxu; Zhang, Huijie; Xi, Bo; Shen, Hongbing; Fernandez, Camilo; Bazzano, Lydia; He, Jiang; Chen, Wei

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to characterize longitudinal blood pressure (BP) trajectories from childhood in black-white and sex groups and examine the association between childhood level-independent trajectories of BP and adult hypertension. The longitudinal cohort consisted of 2732 adults who had body mass index and BP measured 4 to 15 times from childhood (4-19 years) to adulthood (20-51 years). Model-estimated levels and linear slopes of BP and body mass index at childhood age points were calculated at 1-year intervals using the growth curve parameters and their first derivatives, respectively. Linear and nonlinear curve parameters differed significantly between race-sex groups; BP levels showed race and sex differences 15 years of age onward. Hypertensives had higher long-term BP levels than normotensives in race-sex groups. Although linear and nonlinear slope parameters of BP were race and sex specific, they differed consistently, significantly between hypertension and normotension groups. BP trajectories during young adulthood (20-35 years) were significantly greater in hypertensives than in normotensives; however, the trajectories during middle-aged adulthood (36-51 years) were significantly smaller in hypertensives than in normotensives. Level-independent linear slopes of systolic BP showed significantly negative associations (odds ratio=0.50≈0.76; P hypertension, adjusting for covariates. These associations were consistent across race-sex groups. These observations indicate that adult hypertension originates in childhood, with different longitudinal BP trajectory profiles during young and middle-aged adulthood in black-white and sex groups. Puberty is a crucial period for the development of hypertension in later life. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Long-term integrated river basin planning and management of water quantity and water quality in mining impacted catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohle, Ina; Zimmermann, Kai; Claus, Thomas; Koch, Hagen; Gädeke, Anne; Uhlmann, Wilfried; Kaltofen, Michael; Müller, Fabian; Redetzky, Michael; Schramm, Martina; Schoenheinz, Dagmar; Grünewald, Uwe

    2015-04-01

    During the last decades, socioeconomic change in the catchment of the Spree River, a tributary of the Elbe, has been to a large extent associated with lignite mining activities and the rapid decrease of these activities in the 1990s. There are multiple interconnections between lignite mining and water management both in terms of water quantity and quality. During the active mining period a large-scale groundwater depression cone has been formed while river discharges have been artificially increased. Now, the decommissioned opencast mines are being transformed into Europe's largest man-made lake district. However, acid mine drainage causes low pH in post mining lakes and high concentrations of iron and sulphate in post mining lakes and the river system. Next to potential changes in mining activities, also the potential impacts of climate change (increasing temperature and decreasing precipitation) on water resources of the region are of major interest. The fundamental question is to what extent problems in terms of water quantity and water quality are exacerbated and whether they can be mitigated by adaptation measures. In consequence, long term water resource planning in the region has to formulate adaptation measures to climate change and socioeconomic change in terms of mining activities which consider both, water quantity and water quality aspects. To assess potential impacts of climate and socioeconomic change on water quantity and water quality of the Spree River catchment up to the Spremberg reservoir in the scenario period up to 2052, we used a model chain which consists of (i) the regional climate model STAR (scenarios with a further increase in temperature of 0 and 2 K), (ii) mining scenarios (mining discharges, cooling water consumption of thermal power plants), (iii) the ecohydrological model SWIM (natural water balance), (iv) the long term water management model WBalMo (managed discharges, withdrawal of water users, reservoir operation) and (v) the

  19. Neural system for updating object working memory from different sources: sensory stimuli or long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Jennifer K; Courtney, Susan M

    2007-11-15

    Working memory (WM) is the active maintenance of currently relevant information so that it is available for use. A crucial component of WM is the ability to update the contents when new information becomes more relevant than previously maintained information. New information can come from different sources, including from sensory stimuli (SS) or from long-term memory (LTM). Updating WM may involve a single neural system regardless of source, distinct systems for each source, or a common network with additional regions involved specifically in sensory or LTM processes. The current series of experiments indicates that a single fronto-parietal network (including supplementary motor area, parietal, left inferior frontal junction, middle frontal gyrus) is active in updating WM regardless of the source of information. Bilateral cuneus was more active during updating WM from LTM than updating from SS, but the activity in this region was attributable to recalling information from LTM regardless of whether that information was to be entered into WM for future use or not. No regions were found to be more active during updating from SS than updating from LTM. Functional connectivity analysis revealed that different regions within this common update network were differentially more correlated with visual processing regions when participants updated from SS, and more correlated with LTM processing regions when participants updated from the contents of LTM. These results suggest that a single neural mechanism is responsible for controlling the contents of WM regardless of whether that information originates from a sensory stimulus or from LTM. This network of regions involved in updating WM interacts with the rest of the brain differently depending on the source of newly relevant information.

  20. Differences in kainate receptor involvement in hippocampal mossy fibre long-term potentiation depending on slice orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, John L; Amici, Mascia; Dargan, Sheila L; Culley, Georgia R; Fitzjohn, Stephen M; Jane, David E; Collingridge, Graham L; Lodge, David; Bortolotto, Zuner A

    2012-09-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a well-established experimental model used to investigate the synaptic basis of learning and memory. LTP at mossy fibre - CA3 synapses in the hippocampus is unusual because it is normally N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-independent. Instead it seems that the trigger for mossy fibre LTP involves kainate receptors (KARs). Although it is generally accepted that pre-synaptic KARs play an essential role in frequency facilitation and LTP, their subunit composition remains a matter of significant controversy. We have reported previously that both frequency facilitation and LTP can be blocked by selective antagonism of GluK1 (formerly GluR5/Glu(K5))-containing KARs, but other groups have failed to reproduce this effect. Moreover, data from receptor knockout and mRNA expression studies argue against a major role of GluK1, supporting a more central role for GluK2 (formerly GluR6/Glu(K6)). A potential reason underlying the controversy in the pharmacological experiments may reside in differences in the preparations used. Here we show differences in pharmacological sensitivity of synaptic plasticity at mossy fibre - CA3 synapses depend critically on slice orientation. In transverse slices, LTP of fEPSPs was invariably resistant to GluK1-selective antagonists whereas in parasagittal slices LTP was consistently blocked by GluK1-selective antagonists. In addition, there were pronounced differences in the magnitude of frequency facilitation and the sensitivity to the mGlu2/3 receptor agonist DCG-IV. Using anterograde labelling of granule cells we show that slices of both orientations possess intact mossy fibres and both large and small presynaptic boutons. Transverse slices have denser fibre tracts but a smaller proportion of giant mossy fibre boutons. These results further demonstrate a considerable heterogeneity in the functional properties of the mossy fibre projection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Climate change and coral reef bleaching: An ecological assessment of long-term impacts, recovery trends and future outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Andrew C.; Glynn, Peter W.; Riegl, Bernhard

    2008-12-01

    Since the early 1980s, episodes of coral reef bleaching and mortality, due primarily to climate-induced ocean warming, have occurred almost annually in one or more of the world's tropical or subtropical seas. Bleaching is episodic, with the most severe events typically accompanying coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomena, such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which result in sustained regional elevations of ocean temperature. Using this extended dataset (25+ years), we review the short- and long-term ecological impacts of coral bleaching on reef ecosystems, and quantitatively synthesize recovery data worldwide. Bleaching episodes have resulted in catastrophic loss of coral cover in some locations, and have changed coral community structure in many others, with a potentially critical influence on the maintenance of biodiversity in the marine tropics. Bleaching has also set the stage for other declines in reef health, such as increases in coral diseases, the breakdown of reef framework by bioeroders, and the loss of critical habitat for associated reef fishes and other biota. Secondary ecological effects, such as the concentration of predators on remnant surviving coral populations, have also accelerated the pace of decline in some areas. Although bleaching severity and recovery have been variable across all spatial scales, some reefs have experienced relatively rapid recovery from severe bleaching impacts. There has been a significant overall recovery of coral cover in the Indian Ocean, where many reefs were devastated by a single large bleaching event in 1998. In contrast, coral cover on western Atlantic reefs has generally continued to decline in response to multiple smaller bleaching events and a diverse set of chronic secondary stressors. No clear trends are apparent in the eastern Pacific, the central-southern-western Pacific or the Arabian Gulf, where some reefs are recovering and others are not. The majority of survivors and new recruits on

  2. Long-term impacts of selective logging on two Amazonian tree species with contrasting ecological and reproductive characteristics: inferences from Eco-gene model simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, C C; Kanashiro, M; Sebbenn, A M; Williams, T C R; Harris, S A; Boshier, D H

    2015-08-01

    The impact of logging and subsequent recovery after logging is predicted to vary depending on specific life history traits of the logged species. The Eco-gene simulation model was used to evaluate the long-term impacts of selective logging over 300 years on two contrasting Brazilian Amazon tree species, Dipteryx odorata and Jacaranda copaia. D. odorata (Leguminosae), a slow growing climax tree, occurs at very low densities, whereas J. copaia (Bignoniaceae) is a fast growing pioneer tree that occurs at high densities. Microsatellite multilocus genotypes of the pre-logging populations were used as data inputs for the Eco-gene model and post-logging genetic data was used to verify the output from the simulations. Overall, under current Brazilian forest management regulations, there were neither short nor long-term impacts on J. copaia. By contrast, D. odorata cannot be sustainably logged under current regulations, a sustainable scenario was achieved by increasing the minimum cutting diameter at breast height from 50 to 100 cm over 30-year logging cycles. Genetic parameters were only slightly affected by selective logging, with reductions in the numbers of alleles and single genotypes. In the short term, the loss of alleles seen in J. copaia simulations was the same as in real data, whereas fewer alleles were lost in D. odorata simulations than in the field. The different impacts and periods of recovery for each species support the idea that ecological and genetic information are essential at species, ecological guild or reproductive group levels to help derive sustainable management scenarios for tropical forests.

  3. The impact of mass deworming programmes on schooling and economic development: an appraisal of long-term studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullien, Sophie; Sinclair, David; Garner, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Documents from advocacy and fund-raising organizations for child mass deworming programmes in low- and middle-income countries cite unpublished economic studies claiming long-term effects on health, schooling and economic development. Methods: To summarize and appraise these studies, we searched for and included all long-term follow-up studies based on cluster-randomized trials included in a 2015 Cochrane review on deworming. We used Cochrane methods to assess risk of bias, and appraised the credibility of the main findings. Where necessary we contacted study authors for clarifications. Results: We identified three studies (Baird 2016, Ozier 2016 and Croke 2014) evaluating effects more than 9 years after cluster-randomized trials in Kenya and Uganda. Baird and Croke evaluate short additional exposures to deworming programmes in settings where all children were dewormed multiple times. Ozier evaluates potential spin-off effects to infants living in areas with school-based deworming. None of the studies used pre-planned protocols nor blinded the analysis to treatment allocation. Baird 2016 has been presented online in six iterations. The work is at high risk of reporting bias and selective reporting, and there are substantive changes between versions. The main cited effects on secondary school attendance and job sector allocation are from post hoc subgroup analyses, which the study was not powered to assess. The study did not find any evidence of effect on nutritional status, cognitive tests or school grades achieved, but these are not reported in the abstracts. Ozier 2016 has been presented online in four iterations, without substantive differences between versions. Higher cognitive test scores were associated with deworming, but the appropriate analysis was underpowered to reliably detect these effects. The size of the stated effect seems inconsistent with the short and indirect nature of the exposure to deworming, and a causal pathway for this

  4. Long-term effect of exercise therapy in patients with osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial comparing two different physiotherapy interventions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisters, M.; Veenhof, C.; Schellevis, F.; Bakker, D. de; Dekker, J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if behavioural graded activity (BGA) results in better long-term effectiveness (5 years after inclusion) than usual exercise therapy (UC; usual care) in patients with OA of the hip or knee. Relevance: The positive effects of exercise therapy in patients with osteoarthritis seem

  5. Prediction of short-term and long-term VOC emissions from SBR bitumen-backed carpet under different temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Chen, Q.; Bluyssen, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents two models for volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from carpet. One is a numerical model using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tech-nique for short-term predictions, the other an analytical model for long-term predictions. The numerical model can (1) deal with

  6. Adaptation to social isolation - Acute and long-term stress responses of growing gilts with different coping characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruis, MAW; te Brake, JHA; Engel, B; Buist, WG; Blokhuis, HJ; Koolhaas, JM

    The present experiment studied the acute and long-term stress responses of reactive and proactive prepubertal gilts to social isolation. Gilts with either reactive or proactive features were identified according to behavioral resistance in a backtest at a young age (2-4 days), respectively being low

  7. Similarities and Differences between Working Memory and Long-Term Memory: Evidence from the Levels-of-Processing Span Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Nathan S.; Myerson, Joel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Hale, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments compared the effects of depth of processing on working memory (WM) and long-term memory (LTM) using a levels-of-processing (LOP) span task, a newly developed WM span procedure that involves processing to-be-remembered words based on their visual, phonological, or semantic characteristics. Depth of processing had minimal effect on…

  8. Meso level influences on long term condition self-management: stakeholder accounts of commonalities and differences across six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, A.; Vassilev, I.; Pumar, M.J.; Todorova, E.; Portillo, M.C.; Foss, C.; Koetsenruijter, J.; Ratsika, N.; Serrano, M.; Knutsen, I.A.; Wensing, M.J.; Roukova, P.; Patelarou, E.; Kennedy, A.; Lionis, C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: European countries are increasingly adopting systems of self -care support (SMS) for long term conditions which focus on enhancing individual, competencies, skills, behaviour and lifestyle changes. To date the focus of policy for engendering greater self- management in the population has

  9. Boar variability in sperm cryo-tolerance after cooling of semen in different long-term extenders at various temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewska, K; Fraser, L

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated individual boar variability in the quality of pre-freeze (PF) and post-thaw (PT) semen cooled in different long-term (LT) extenders and for different holding times (HT). Sperm rich fractions were diluted with Androhep ® Plus (AHP), Androstar ® Plus (ASP), Safecell ® Plus (SCP) and TRIXcell ® Plus (TCP) extenders, stored for 2h at 17°C (HT 1) and additionally for 24h at 10°C (HT 2) and the samples were subsequently evaluated and frozen. Besides the analysis of CASA sperm variables, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), plasma membrane integrity (PMI), normal apical ridge (NAR) acrosome integrity, and viability (YO-PRO-1 - /PI - ) of sperm were assessed in the PF and PT semen. Results indicated that boar, extender and HT group affected the sperm quality characteristics. There were great variations in PMOT and the sperm motion patterns of the PF semen among the boars. Differences in the HT groups of the PF semen, with respect to the sperm membrane integrity, were less marked among the boars. Consistent variations in TMOT and PMOT in the PT semen were observed among the boars, being greater in the HT 2 group. Most of the CASA-analyzed sperm motion patterns were greater in the HT 2 group of the PT semen. Furthermore, sperm MMP, PMI and viability were greater in the HT 2 group of the PT semen in most of the boars, while consistent differences were observed among the boars for sperm NAR acrosome integrity in either HT group. The significant effect of the cryopreservation process on the sperm membrane proteome was evident from the number of protein bands, detected in the electrophoretic profiles of sperm of the HT 1 and HT 2 groups. The electrophoretic profiles of the PF and PT semen among boars with poor and good semen freezability, however, differed with respect to the abundance and types of sperm membrane-associated proteins. The overall results of this study provided evidence that there are differences among boars in response to the

  10. Aging of Dissolved Copper and Copper-based Nanoparticles in Five Different Soils: Short-term Kinetics vs. Long-term Fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the growing availability and use of copper-based nanomaterials (Cu-NMs), there is increasing concern regarding their release and potential impact on the environment. In this study, the short term (≤5 d) aging profile and the long-term (135 d) speciation of dissolved Cu, cop...

  11. Long-term ensemble forecast of snowmelt inflow into the Cheboksary Reservoir under two different weather scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfan, Alexander; Moreydo, Vsevolod; Motovilov, Yury; Solomatine, Dimitri P.

    2018-04-01

    A long-term forecasting ensemble methodology, applied to water inflows into the Cheboksary Reservoir (Russia), is presented. The methodology is based on a version of the semi-distributed hydrological model ECOMAG (ECOlogical Model for Applied Geophysics) that allows for the calculation of an ensemble of inflow hydrographs using two different sets of weather ensembles for the lead time period: observed weather data, constructed on the basis of the Ensemble Streamflow Prediction methodology (ESP-based forecast), and synthetic weather data, simulated by a multi-site weather generator (WG-based forecast). We have studied the following: (1) whether there is any advantage of the developed ensemble forecasts in comparison with the currently issued operational forecasts of water inflow into the Cheboksary Reservoir, and (2) whether there is any noticeable improvement in probabilistic forecasts when using the WG-simulated ensemble compared to the ESP-based ensemble. We have found that for a 35-year period beginning from the reservoir filling in 1982, both continuous and binary model-based ensemble forecasts (issued in the deterministic form) outperform the operational forecasts of the April-June inflow volume actually used and, additionally, provide acceptable forecasts of additional water regime characteristics besides the inflow volume. We have also demonstrated that the model performance measures (in the verification period) obtained from the WG-based probabilistic forecasts, which are based on a large number of possible weather scenarios, appeared to be more statistically reliable than the corresponding measures calculated from the ESP-based forecasts based on the observed weather scenarios.

  12. Long-term ensemble forecast of snowmelt inflow into the Cheboksary Reservoir under two different weather scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gelfan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A long-term forecasting ensemble methodology, applied to water inflows into the Cheboksary Reservoir (Russia, is presented. The methodology is based on a version of the semi-distributed hydrological model ECOMAG (ECOlogical Model for Applied Geophysics that allows for the calculation of an ensemble of inflow hydrographs using two different sets of weather ensembles for the lead time period: observed weather data, constructed on the basis of the Ensemble Streamflow Prediction methodology (ESP-based forecast, and synthetic weather data, simulated by a multi-site weather generator (WG-based forecast. We have studied the following: (1 whether there is any advantage of the developed ensemble forecasts in comparison with the currently issued operational forecasts of water inflow into the Cheboksary Reservoir, and (2 whether there is any noticeable improvement in probabilistic forecasts when using the WG-simulated ensemble compared to the ESP-based ensemble. We have found that for a 35-year period beginning from the reservoir filling in 1982, both continuous and binary model-based ensemble forecasts (issued in the deterministic form outperform the operational forecasts of the April–June inflow volume actually used and, additionally, provide acceptable forecasts of additional water regime characteristics besides the inflow volume. We have also demonstrated that the model performance measures (in the verification period obtained from the WG-based probabilistic forecasts, which are based on a large number of possible weather scenarios, appeared to be more statistically reliable than the corresponding measures calculated from the ESP-based forecasts based on the observed weather scenarios.

  13. Premorbid IQ subgroups in first episode non affective psychosis patients: Long-term sex differences in function and neurocognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Setién-Suero, Esther; Neergaard, Karl David; Belzunces, Àuria Albacete; Contreras, Fernando; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto

    2017-12-21

    Low IQ has been associated with schizophrenia, even to the point of being posited as a possible causal factor for psychosis. However, individuals with normal and high IQ also develop psychotic illnesses. The aim of this study was to characterize premorbid IQ subgroups at first episode of psychosis (FEP). The study sample comes from a large epidemiological, 3-year longitudinal, intervention program on psychosis containing individuals living in a catchment area in Spain. Estimated premorbid IQ (epIQ) scores were used to build low (110) epIQ subgroups in samples of FEP patients (N=292) and healthy controls (N=199). The epIQ subgroups were compared in sociodemographic, neuropsychological, clinical and premorbid characteristics. Long-term functional and cognitive outcome, with a focus on sex differences, were also explored. Low-epIQ was more frequently found in FEP patients (28.8%) than in healthy controls (14.6%). Low-epIQ patients were more likely to have worse premorbid adjustment, belong to low socioeconomic status families, have less years of education, and to be single, unemployed, and younger. They presented more severe impairments in processing speed, executive and global cognitive function. Female patients with low-epIQ showed better baseline function and more stable outcome than males. Our results indicate that low premorbid IQ is a morbid manifestation, easily detected in a subgroup of FEP patients that predicts poorer outcome particularly in males. This perspective provides important information for the tailoring of subgroup-specific early intervention programs for psychosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The impact of combined pulmonary fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on long-term survival after lung cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Yasuo; Sakairi, Yuichi; Yoshino, Mitsuru; Koh, Eitetsu; Hata, Atsushi; Suzuki, Hidemi; Yoshino, Ichiro

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of pulmonary fibrosis (PF) on postoperative complications and on long-term survival after surgical resection in lung cancer patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A retrospective chart review was conducted of 380 patients with COPD who had undergone pulmonary resection for lung cancer at the University Hospital between 1990 and 2005. The definition of COPD was a preoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) ratio of less than 70%; PF was defined as obvious bilateral fibrous change in the lower lung fields, confirmed by computed tomography. PF was present in 41 patients (10.8%) with COPD; the remaining 339 patients (89.2%) did not have PF. The preoperative FVC/FEV1 was significantly lower in the group of patients with PF than in the group without (p < 0.05). Acute lung injury and home oxygen therapy were significantly more common in the PF group; however, the 30-day mortality was similar between the groups. The cumulative survival at 3 and 5 years was 53.6 and 36.9%, respectively, in the PF group and 71.4 and 66.1%, respectively, in the non-PF group (p = 0.0009). Increased age, decreased body mass index, advanced pathologic stage, and the existence of PF were identified as independent risk factors for decreased survival. PF is a risk factor for decreased survival after surgical treatment in lung cancer patients with COPD. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Left ventricular dysfunction in repaired tetralogy of Fallot: incidence and impact on atrial arrhythmias at long term-follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Ali, Lamia; Trocchio, GianLuca; Crepaz, Roberto; Stuefer, Josef; Stagnaro, Nicola; Siciliano, Valeria; Molinaro, Sabrina; Sicari, Rosa; Festa, Pierluigi

    2016-09-01

    Left ventricle (LV) systolic dysfunction in repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) has been identified as a risk factor for functional status and adverse outcome. The aims of this cross-sectional followed by a prospective study were: (1) to evaluate the prevalence of LV systolic dysfunction in a large cohort of adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot, (2) to test the relationship between LV systolic dysfunction and other known risk factors and (3) to evaluate the impact of LV systolic dysfunction on adverse cardiac events. In a multicenter study, 237 adults repaired TOF (58 % males, age 30 ± 10 years) were evaluated by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Demographics, surgical history, ECG, Echo-Color Doppler and follow-up data were recorded. LV was dilated (Z value >2) in 16 patients (6 %), however 56 patients (23.6 %) had a reduced LV systolic function left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) (Z value <-2). Patients with LV systolic dysfunction were mainly males (82 %), had reduced right ventricle ejection fraction (RVEF), and higher right and left Late Gadolinium Enhanced scores. In a multivariate regression analysis male gender and RVEF resulted to be independent factors associated to LV systolic dysfunction. Atrial arrhythmias were the main adverse cardiac event at the follow-up and were associated to higher biventricular volumes and lower biventricular ejection fraction (EF); however multivariable analysis identified age, right ventricle end-diastolic volume (RVEDVi) and tricuspid regurgitation as independents factors associated to atrial arrhythmias. At long term follow-up at least ¼ of repaired TOF has LV dysfunction. Lower LVEF is associated to male gender and lower RVEF.

  16. The impact of social networks on knowledge transfer in long-term care facilities: Protocol for a study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valente Thomas W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social networks are theorized as significant influences in the innovation adoption and behavior change processes. Our understanding of how social networks operate within healthcare settings is limited. As a result, our ability to design optimal interventions that employ social networks as a method of fostering planned behavior change is also limited. Through this proposed project, we expect to contribute new knowledge about factors influencing uptake of knowledge translation interventions. Objectives Our specific aims include: To collect social network data among staff in two long-term care (LTC facilities; to characterize social networks in these units; and to describe how social networks influence uptake and use of feedback reports. Methods and design In this prospective study, we will collect data on social networks in nursing units in two LTC facilities, and use social network analysis techniques to characterize and describe the networks. These data will be combined with data from a funded project to explore the impact of social networks on uptake and use of feedback reports. In this parent study, feedback reports using standardized resident assessment data are distributed on a monthly basis. Surveys are administered to assess report uptake. In the proposed project, we will collect data on social networks, analyzing the data using graphical and quantitative techniques. We will combine the social network data with survey data to assess the influence of social networks on uptake of feedback reports. Discussion This study will contribute to understanding mechanisms for knowledge sharing among staff on units to permit more efficient and effective intervention design. A growing number of studies in the social network literature suggest that social networks can be studied not only as influences on knowledge translation, but also as possible mechanisms for fostering knowledge translation. This study will contribute to building

  17. Predicting the impact of long-term temperature changes on the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis: a mechanistic model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara D Mangal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Many parasites of medical and veterinary importance are transmitted by cold-blooded intermediate hosts or vectors, the abundance of which will vary with ambient temperatures, potentially altering disease prevalence. In particular, if global climate change will increase mean ambient temperature in a region endemic with a human pathogen then it is possible that the incidence of disease will similarly increase. Here we examine this possibility by using a mathematical model to explore the effects of increasing long-term mean ambient temperature on the prevalence and abundance of the parasite Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of schistosomiasis in humans.The model showed that the impact of temperature on disease prevalence and abundance is not straightforward; the mean infection burden in humans increases up to 30 degrees C, but then crashes at 35 degrees C, primarily due to increased mortalities of the snail intermediate host. In addition, increased temperatures changed the dynamics of disease from stable, endemic infection to unstable, epidemic cycles at 35 degrees C. However, the prevalence of infection was largely unchanged by increasing temperatures. Temperature increases also affected the response of the model to changes in each parameter, indicating certain control strategies may become less effective with local temperature changes. At lower temperatures, the most effective single control strategy is to target the adult parasites through chemotherapy. However, as temperatures increase, targeting the snail intermediate hosts, for example through molluscicide use, becomes more effective.These results show that S. mansoni will not respond to increased temperatures in a linear fashion, and the optimal control strategy is likely to change as temperatures change. It is only through a mechanistic approach, incorporating the combined effects of temperature on all stages of the life-cycle, that we can begin to predict the consequences of climate

  18. Evaluation of urban air pollution impact. Brest and Nantes impact at long term; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Brest et Nantes impact a long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The assessment for Brest and Nantes of the health impact in 1999 of chronic exposure to air pollution relies on four stages: health outcome identification, the selection of exposure-response functions, exposure assessment and risk characterization. The study characterizes: - the health gain due to a 25% decrease in air pollution levels; - the expected health impact of a 15% rise in air pollution levels. The results give the number of deaths attributable to air pollution. As for the health gain, the gain in days of life expectancy is also calculated. The study for Brest relies on one single exposure-response function. Concerning Nantes, the air control network is more complete and allows to use four exposure-response functions. The health gain due to a 25% decrease in air pollution levels is interpreted as a prudent evaluation of the health impact of air pollution. The estimated number of deaths due to the impact is around 38 (23 - 53) for Brest and around 40 (14 - 65) for Nantes. It means a decrease in the lifespan of 48 (29 - 68) days for Brest and 51 (17 - 84) days for Nantes. The uncertainty about exposure evaluation, the use of American exposure-response functions and of strong hypotheses to calculate the lifespan reduction generate more errors and uncertainty than for short term health impact assessment. (author)

  19. ClimaDat: A long-term network to study at different scales climatic processes and interactions between climatic compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgui, Josep Anton; Agueda, Alba; Batet, Oscar; Curcoll, Roger; Ealo, Marina; Grossi, Claudia; Occhipinti, Paola; Sánchez-García, Laura; Arias, Rosa; Rodó, Xavi

    2013-04-01

    ClimaDat (www.climadat.es) is a pioneer project of the Institut Català de Ciències del Clima (IC3) in collaboration with and funded by "la Caixa" Foundation. This project aims at studying the interactions between climate and ecosystems at different spatial and temporal scales. The ClimaDat project consists of a network of eight long-term observatory stations distributed over Spain, installed at natural and remote areas, and covering different climatic domains (e.g. Mediterranean, Atlantic, subtropics) and natural systems (e.g. delta, karsts, high mountain areas). Data obtained in the ClimaDat network will help us to understand how ecosystems are influenced by and eventually might feedback different processes in the climate system. The point of focus of these studies will be taken into account regional-and-local conditions to understand climatic global scale eventsThe data gathered will be used to study the behavior of the global element cycles and associated greenhouse gas emissions. The network is expected to offer near real-time (NRT) data free for the scientific community. Instrumentation installed at these stations mainly consists of: CO2, CH4, H2O, CO, N2O, SF6 and 222Rn analyzers, isotopic CO2, CH4 and H2O analyzers, meteorological sensors, eddy covariance equipment, four-component radiometers, soil moisture and temperature sensors, and sap flow meters. Each station may have a more focused subset of all this equipment, depending on the specific characteristics of the site. Instrumentation selected for this network has been chosen to comply with standards established in international research infrastructure projects, such as ICOS (http://www.icos-infrastructure.eu/home) or InGOS (http://www.ingos-infrastructure.eu/). Preliminary data time-series of greenhouse gases concentrations and meteorological variables are presented in this study for three currently operational ClimaDat stations: the Natural Park of the Ebre Delta (lat 40.75° N - long 0.79° E), the

  20. Changes in soil carbon and enzyme activity as a result of different long-term fertilization regimes in a greenhouse field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Zhang

    Full Text Available In order to discover the advantages and disadvantages of different fertilization regimes and identify the best management practice of fertilization in greenhouse fields, soil enzyme activities involved in carbon (C transformations, soil chemical characteristics, and crop yields were monitored after long-term (20-year fertilization regimes, including no fertilizer (CK, 300 kg N ha-1 and 600 kg N ha-1 as urea (N1 and N2, 75 Mg ha-1 horse manure compost (M, and M with either 300 or 600 kg N ha-1 urea (MN1 and MN2. Compared with CK, fertilization increased crop yields by 31% (N2 to 69% (MN1. However, compared with CK, inorganic fertilization (especially N2 also caused soil acidification and salinization. In the N2 treatment, soil total organic carbon (TOC decreased from 14.1±0.27 g kg-1 at the beginning of the long-term experiment in 1988 to 12.6±0.11 g kg-1 (P<0.05. Compared to CK, N1 and N2 exhibited higher soil α-galactosidase and β-galactosidase activities, but lower soil α-glucosidase and β-glucosidase activities (P<0.05, indicating that inorganic fertilization had different impacts on these C transformation enzymes. Compared with CK, the M, MN1 and MN2 treatments exhibited higher enzyme activities, soil TOC, total nitrogen, dissolved organic C, and microbial biomass C and N. The fertilization regime of the MN1 treatment was identified as optimal because it produced the highest yields and increased soil quality, ensuring sustainability. The results suggest that inorganic fertilizer alone, especially in high amounts, in greenhouse fields is detrimental to soil quality.

  1. Activity involvement and quality of life of people at different stages of dementia in long term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Dieneke; de Lange, Jacomine; Willemse, Bernadette; Twisk, Jos; Pot, Anne Margriet

    2016-01-01

    Involvement in activities is assumed to positively influence the quality of life of people with dementia, yet activity provision in long-term care remains limited. This study aims to provide more insight into the value of activity involvement for domains of the quality of life of long-term dementia care residents, taking resident characteristics and cognitive status into account. Data were derived from 144 long-term care facilities participating in the second measurement (2010/2011) of the living arrangements for dementia study. Amongst 1144 residents, the relationship between time involved in activities (activity pursuit patterns; RAI-MDS) and quality of life (Qualidem) was studied using multilevel linear regression analyses. Analyses were adjusted for residents' age, gender, neuropsychiatric symptoms, ADL dependency and cognition. To check for effect modification of cognition, interactions terms of the variables activity involvement and cognitive status were added to the analyses. Despite resident's cognitive status, their activity involvement was significantly related to better scores on care relationship, positive affect, restless tense behaviour, social relations, and having something to do. A negative relationship existed between the activity involvement and positive self-image. The explained variance in the quality of life between residents caused by the activity involvement was small. Activity involvement seems to be a small yet important contributor to higher well-being in long-term care resident at all stages of dementia. Adjusting activities to individual preferences and capabilities might enlarge this relationship. Further research is needed to confirm this hypothesis, using measurement instruments less sensitive to recall bias and differentiating between the active and passive activity involvement.

  2. A Band of Sisters: The Impact of Long-Term Small Group Participation--Forty Years in a Women's Prayer and Bible Study Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Kevin E.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on a case study of a women's prayer and Bible study group that has met for over forty years. The report focuses on factors contributing to the group's longevity and vitality over time, how it changed over the years, and its impact on the lives of the women who participated in it. It also addresses how this long-term group…

  3. Impact of aspirin and statins on long-term survival in patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction complicated by heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewinter, Christian; Bland, John M; Crouch, Simon

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Aspirin and statins are established therapies for acute myocardial infarction (MI), but their benefits in patients with chronic heart failure (HF) remain elusive. We investigated the impact of aspirin and statins on long-term survival in patients hospitalized with acute MI complicated by HF...

  4. Field-scale monitoring of the long-term impact and sustainability of drainage water reuse on the west side of California’s San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diminishing freshwater resources have brought attention to the reuse of degraded water as a potential water resource rather than as a disposal problem. Drainage water from tile-drained, irrigated agricultural land is degraded water that is often in large supply, but the long-term impact and sustain...

  5. Field-scale monitoring of the long-term impact and sustainability of drainage water reuse using ECa-directed soil sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diminishing freshwater resources have brought attention to the reuse of degraded water as a water resource rather than a disposal problem. Drainage water from tile-drained, irrigated agricultural land is degraded water that is often in large supply, but the long-term impact and sustainability of it...

  6. Using long-term ecosystem service and biodiversity data to study the impacts and adaptation options in response to climate change: insights from the global ILTER sites network

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vihervaara, P.; D'Amato, D.; Forsius, M.; Angelstam, P.; Baessler, C.; Balvanera, P.; Boldgiv, B.; Bourgeron, P.; Dick, J.; Kanka, R.; Klotz, S.; Maass, M.; Melecis, V.; Petřík, Petr; Shibata, H.; Tang, J.; Thompson, J.; Zacharias, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2013), s. 53-66 ISSN 1877-3435 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7AMB12SK156 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : climate change * long-term ecological monitoring * prmanen research plot Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.758, year: 2013

  7. Walking speed, rather than Expanded Disability Status Scale, relates to long-term patient-reported impact in progressive MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, L.V.A.E.; Kragt, J.J.; Polman, C.H.; Uitdehaag, B.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationships between 1-2 year changes in well-known physician-rated measurements (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Timed 25-Foot Walk (T25FW), 9-Hole Peg Test (9HPT)) and the long-term (= 5 years) outcome in patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures (Multiple Sclerosis

  8. Impacts of long-term nitrogen fertilization on acid buffering rates and mechanisms of a slightly calcareous clay soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yuting; Vries, de Wim; Thomas, Ben W.; Hao, Xiying; Shi, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    Acidification of cropland soils is a serious problem in China that may cause long term pH decline, which threatens the sustainability of soil fertility and crop yields. The objective of this research was to investigate those rates and mechanisms for a slightly calcareous soil. The field data were

  9. The Long-Term Impact of Autoimmune Pancreatitis on Pancreatic Function, Quality of Life, and Life Expectancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Buijs (Jan); D.L. Cahen (Djuna); M. van Heerde (Marianne); Rauws, EA; L.J.M. De Buy Wenniger (Lucas J. Maillette); B.E. Hansen (Bettina); K. Biermann (Katharina); J. Verheij (Joanne); F.P. Vleggaar (Frank); M.A. Brink (Menno); U. Beuers (Ulrich); H.R. van Buuren (Henk); M.J. Bruno (Marco)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjective To evaluate the long-term outcome of autoimmune pancreatitis. Methods Patients with at least 2 years of follow-up were included. Information was collected regarding disease characteristics, treatment outcome, diagnosed malignancies, and mortality. In addition, pancreatic

  10. The Long-Term Impact of Autoimmune Pancreatitis on Pancreatic Function, Quality of Life, and Life Expectancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Jorie; Cahen, Djuna L.; van Heerde, Marianne J.; Rauws, Erik A.; de Buy Wenniger, Lucas J. Maillette; Hansen, Bettina E.; Biermann, Katharina; Verheij, Joanne; Vleggaar, Frank P.; Brink, Menno A.; Beuers, Ulrich H. W.; van Buuren, Henk R.; Bruno, Marco J.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term outcome of autoimmune pancreatitis. Patients with at least 2 years of follow-up were included. Information was collected regarding disease characteristics, treatment outcome, diagnosed malignancies, and mortality. In addition, pancreatic function and quality of life were

  11. Neighborhood Effects in Temporal Perspective: The Impact of Long-Term Exposure to Concentrated Disadvantage on High School Graduation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodtke, Geoffrey T.; Harding, David J.; Elwert, Felix

    2011-01-01

    Theory suggests that neighborhood effects depend not only on where individuals live today, but also on where they lived in the past. Previous research, however, usually measures neighborhood context only once and does not account for length of residence, thereby understating the detrimental effects of long-term neighborhood disadvantage. This…

  12. The impact of long-term elevated CO2 on C and N retention in stable SOM pools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de M.A.; Kessel, van C.; Six, J.

    2008-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 frequently increases plant production and concomitant soil C inputs, which may cause additional soil C sequestration. However, whether the increase in plant production and additional soil C sequestration under elevated CO2 can be sustained in the long-term is unclear. One

  13. Preoperative sclerotherapy of facial venous malformations: impact on surgical parameters and long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Charles A; Braswell, Leah E; Wright, Lonnie B; Roberson, Paula K; Moore, Mary B; Waner, Milton; Buckmiller, Lisa M

    2011-07-01

    To analyze the operative benefit of preoperative sclerotherapy of facial venous malformations and assess long-term patient outcome. Preoperative sclerotherapy was performed in 24 consecutive patients referred before resection of facial venous malformation. Pretreatment imaging was reviewed for malformation dimensions (length, width, and height), and volumes were estimated. Sclerotherapy was performed with 3% sodium tetradecyl in the first 15 patients and 98% dehydrated alcohol in the remaining 9 patients. Operative blood loss, operative time, transfusion requirement, and hospital stay were recorded. Operative time per lesion volume and operative blood loss per lesion volume were calculated. Results were compared with 15 historical control patients who underwent resection of facial venous malformations without preoperative sclerotherapy. Long-term follow-up of study and control patients was performed. Compared with controls, patients undergoing preoperative venous sclerotherapy were significantly older (P = .0206) and had larger lesions in all three dimensions (height, P = .0002; length, P = .0010; width, P = .0004). Patients receiving sclerotherapy had shorter operative time per lesion volume (P lesion volume (P nerve paresis occurred in 8.3% of cases. Long-term follow-up revealed retreatment was required in 2 of 24 patients (8.3%). Preoperative sclerotherapy of venous malformations was associated with less operative time per lesion volume and less operative blood loss per lesion volume. Long-term follow-up revealed a low need for retreatment. Copyright © 2011 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Long-term outcomes of brief, intensive CBT for specific phobias: The negative impact of ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldorsdottir, Thorhildur; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2016-05-01

    The objectives were twofold: (a) examine long-term treatment effects in youth receiving 1-session treatment (OST) or educational support (EST) for a specific phobia (SP) and (b) examine the differential predictive and moderation effects of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms on immediate and long-term outcomes following the interventions. Eighty-three children (ages 6-15, 47% female, 89% White) with a SP were randomly assigned to receive OST or EST. Follow up assessments occurred at 1 week, 6 months, 1 year, and 4 years. Hierarchical linear growth modeling (HLGM) was used to explore the association of parent-reported ADHD symptoms, the 2 treatment conditions (i.e., OST vs. EST), and the trajectory of change in the severity of the SP from pretreatment to the 4-year follow-up. Age, conduct problems and learning problems were controlled for in all analyses. A greater immediate reduction in severity rating of the SP was observed in the OST compared to EST, whereas the trajectory of long-term outcomes was similar across conditions over time. Higher levels of ADHD symptoms predicted poor immediate and long-term treatment outcomes across treatment conditions. ADHD symptoms, however, did not moderate the relationship between treatment condition and immediate or long-term treatment outcomes. The results of the study need to be interpreted in light of several study limitations. However, if confirmed, the findings suggest that anxious youth with comorbid ADHD symptoms are less likely to benefit from brief, intensive psychotherapy and may require either longer, standard CBT treatment or adjunctive pharmacotherapy. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Effects of tillage on contents of organic carbon, nitrogen, water-stable aggregates and light fraction for four different long-term trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andruschkewitsch, R.; Geisseler, D.; Koch, H.-J.; Ludwig, B.

    2012-04-01

    Despite increasing interest in tillage techniques as a factor affecting organic carbon (Corg) dynamics and stabilization mechanisms little is known about the underlying processes. Our objectives were (i) to quantify the impact of different tillage treatments on the amount and distribution of of labile Corg pools, on the water-stable macro-aggregate (>250 µm) contents and on organic carbon (Corg) storage and (ii) to quantify the ability of soils under different tillage treatments, light fraction (LF) inputs and clay contents in macro-aggregate formation. Therefore four long-term tillage trials on loess soil in Germany with regular conventional tillage (CT, to 30 cm), mulch tillage (MT, to 10 cm), and no-tillage (NT) treatments. Samples were taken in 0-5 cm, 5-25 cm and 25-40 cm depth after 18-25 years of different tillage treatments and investigated on free and occluded LF (fLF and oLF, respectively) and on macro-aggregate contents. Furthermore an incubation experiment for the quantifcation of macro-aggregate formation was conducted. Macro-aggregates in soils from CT and NT treatments (0-5 and 5-25 cm soil depth) were destroyed and different amounts of light fraction (LF) and clay were applied. The four long-term tillage trials, differing in texture and climatic conditions, revealed consistent results in Corg storage among each other. Based on the equivalent soil mass approach (CT: 0-40, MT: 0-38, NT: 0-36 cm) the Corg stocks in the sampled profile were significantly higher for the MT treatment than for the CT and NT treatments. Significantly lower Corg, fLF, oLF, and macro-aggregate contents for the soils under CT treatment in comparison with the soils under NT and MT treatments were restricted on the top 5 cm. The correlation of the macro-aggregate content against the fLF and oLF contents suggested that the macro-aggregate content is influenced to a lesser extent directly by the physical impact of the different tillage treatments but by the contents of available

  16. Silorane, ormocer, methacrylate and compomer long-term staining susceptibility using ΔE and ΔE00 colour-difference formulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gregor, L.; Krejci, I.; Di Bella, E.; Feilzer, A.J.; Ardu, S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the staining susceptibility of a silorane (Filtek Silorane), an ormocer (Ceram X Duo), a methacrylate (Tetric EvoCeram) and a compomer (Dyract) exposed on the long term to various staining agents by using ΔE and ΔE00 colour-difference formulas. Thirty-six

  17. Different Immunological Phenotypes Associated with Preserved CD4+ T Cell Counts in HIV-Infected Controllers and Viremic Long Term Non-Progressors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaardbo, Julie Christine; Hartling, Hans J; Ronit, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    HIV-infected controllers control viral replication and maintain normal CD4+ T cell counts. Long Term Non-Progressors (LTNP) also maintain normal CD4+ T cell counts, but have on-going viral replication. We hypothesized that different immunological mechanisms are responsible for preserved CD4+ T cell...

  18. Long-term and realistic global change manipulations had low impact on diversity of soil biota in temperate heathland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Martin; Damgaard, Christian; Schmidt, Inger K

    2017-01-01

    C:N ratio. After eight years of treatment, however, the CO2-increased litter C:N ratio did not influence the diversity in any of the four fauna groups. The number of significant correlations between treatments, food source quality, and soil biota diversities was reduced from six to three after two...... and eight years, respectively. These results suggest a remarkable resilience within the soil biota against global climate change treatments in the long term....

  19. Long-term MRA follow-up after coiling of intracranial aneurysms: impact on mood and anxiety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferns, Sandra P.; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T.; Majoie, Charles B.L.M.; Rooij, Willem Jan J. van; Rinkel, Gabriel J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) screening for recurrence of a coiled intracranial aneurysm and formation of new aneurysms long-term after coiling may induce anxiety and depression. In coiled patients, we evaluated effects on mood and level of anxiety from long-term follow-up MRA in comparison to general population norms. Of 162 patients participating in a long-term (>4.5 years) MRA follow-up after coiling, 120 completed the EQ-5D questionnaire, a visual analog health scale and a self-developed screening related questionnaire at the time of MRA. Three months later, the same questionnaires were completed by 100 of these 120 patients. Results were compared to general population norms adjusted for gender and age. Any problem with anxiety or depression was reported in 56 of 120 patients (47%; 95%CI38 56%) at baseline and 42 of 100 patients (42%; 95%CI32 52%) at 3 months, equally for screen-positives and -negatives. Compared to the reference population, participants scored 38% (95%CI9 67%) and 27% (95%CI4 50%) more often any problem with anxiety or depression. Three months after screening, 21% (20 of 92) of screen-negatives and 13% (one of eight) of screen-positives reported to be less afraid of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) compared to before screening. One of eight screen-positives reported increased fear of SAH. Patients with coiled intracranial aneurysms participating in long-term MRA screening reported significantly more often to be anxious or depressed than a reference group. Screening did not significantly increase anxiety or depression temporarily. However, subjectively, patients did report an increase in anxiety caused by screening, which decreased after 3 months. (orig.)

  20. Long-term impact of earthquake stress on fasting glucose control and diabetes prevalence among Chinese adults of Tangshan

    OpenAIRE

    An, Cuixia; Zhang, Yun; Yu, Lulu; Li, Na; Song, Mei; Wang, Lan; Zhao, Xiaochuan; Gao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xueyi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the long-term influence of stresses from the 1976 Tangshan earthquake on blood glucose control and the incidence of diabetes mellitus in Chinese people of Tangshan. Methods: 1,551 adults ≥ 37 years of age were recruited for this investigation in Tangshan city of China, where one of the deadliest earthquakes occurred in 1796. All subjects finished a questionnaire. 1,030 of them who experienced that earthquake were selected into the exposure group, while 521 were gathe...

  1. Long-term MRA follow-up after coiling of intracranial aneurysms: impact on mood and anxiety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferns, Sandra P.; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T.; Majoie, Charles B.L.M. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rooij, Willem Jan J. van [St. Elisabeth Ziekenhuis, Department of Radiology, Tilburg (Netherlands); Rinkel, Gabriel J.E. [University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) screening for recurrence of a coiled intracranial aneurysm and formation of new aneurysms long-term after coiling may induce anxiety and depression. In coiled patients, we evaluated effects on mood and level of anxiety from long-term follow-up MRA in comparison to general population norms. Of 162 patients participating in a long-term (>4.5 years) MRA follow-up after coiling, 120 completed the EQ-5D questionnaire, a visual analog health scale and a self-developed screening related questionnaire at the time of MRA. Three months later, the same questionnaires were completed by 100 of these 120 patients. Results were compared to general population norms adjusted for gender and age. Any problem with anxiety or depression was reported in 56 of 120 patients (47%; 95%CI38<->56%) at baseline and 42 of 100 patients (42%; 95%CI32<->52%) at 3 months, equally for screen-positives and -negatives. Compared to the reference population, participants scored 38% (95%CI9<->67%) and 27% (95%CI4<->50%) more often any problem with anxiety or depression. Three months after screening, 21% (20 of 92) of screen-negatives and 13% (one of eight) of screen-positives reported to be less afraid of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) compared to before screening. One of eight screen-positives reported increased fear of SAH. Patients with coiled intracranial aneurysms participating in long-term MRA screening reported significantly more often to be anxious or depressed than a reference group. Screening did not significantly increase anxiety or depression temporarily. However, subjectively, patients did report an increase in anxiety caused by screening, which decreased after 3 months. (orig.)

  2. The restructuring of institutional long-term care in St. John's: impact of supply-induced demand on planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert C; McDonald, Jacqueline; Barrett, Brendan; Parfrey, Patrick S

    2011-01-01

    Restructuring of institutional long-term care was undertaken using predictions of future bed need with assumptions made on incidence rates of clients defined by type of disability, survival, and demographic changes. Recent substantial increase in the population rate of clients seeking placement across all degrees of disability, coincident with new facilities for those with modest disability, occurred. Consequently, more appropriate housing and supervised care beds, and more limited downsizing of nursing homes will be required.

  3. Long term effects of different tillage systems influencing yield and energy efficiency in maize (Zea mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Momirović, Nebojša; Dolijanović, Željko; Oljača, Mićo V.; Videnović, Živorad

    2011-01-01

    Adoption and improvement of different tillage systems toward agricultural sustainability has a great social, economical and environmental impact. The base of sustainability is a system productivity as ratio of output to input in a given system, measured in the same units, commonly as energy requirements. The objective of this study was to evaluate the aspect of energy requirements in the different soil tillage systems regarding total energy consumption under conventional tillage. The appropri...

  4. Drawings reflect a new dimension of the psychological impact of long-term remission of Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemensma, Jitske; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; van der Veen, Else M; Ramondt, Steven; Richardson, Stephanie K; Broadbent, Elizabeth; Romijn, Johannes A; Pereira, Alberto M; Biermasz, Nienke R; Kaptein, Adrian A

    2012-09-01

    Drawings can be used to assess perceptions of patients about their disease. We aimed to explore the utility of the drawing test and its relation to illness perceptions, quality of life (QoL), and clinical disease severity in patients after long-term remission of Cushing's syndrome. We conducted a cross-sectional study including 47 patients with long-term remission of Cushing's syndrome. Patients completed the drawing test, the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised, the Short-Form 36, the EuroQoL-5D, and the Cushing QoL. The Cushing's syndrome severity index was scored based on medical records. Characteristics of the drawings were strongly associated with the Cushing's syndrome severity index and severity ratings of health professionals (all P Cushing's syndrome because drawings do not share common properties with parameters of QoL or illness perceptions, but do represent the clinical severity of the disease. The assessment of drawings may enable doctors to appreciate the perceptions of patients with long-term remission of Cushing's syndrome and will lead the way in dispelling idiosyncratic beliefs.

  5. Factors impacting short and long-term kidney graft survival: modification by single intra-operative -high-dose induction with ATG-Fresenius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaden, Jürgen; May, Gottfried; Völp, Andreas; Wesslau, Claus

    2011-01-01

    A majority of recipients benefited from the intra-operative single high-dose induction (HDI) with ATG-Fresenius (ATG-F) still leaving a group of recipients who did not profit from this kind of induction. Therefore the aim of this retrospective analysis was 1st to identify the risk factors impacting short and long-term graft survival, and 2nd to assess the efficacy of this type of induction in kidney graft recipients with or without these risk factors. A total of 606 recipients receiving two different immunosuppressive treatment regimens (1st: Triple drug therapy [TDT, n=196] consisting mainly of steroids, azathioprine and cyclosporine; 2nd: TDT + 9 mg/kg ATG-F intra-operatively [HDI, n=410]) were included in this analysis and grouped according to their kidney graft survival time (short GST: ≤1 yr, n=100 and long GST: >5 yrs, n=506). The main risk factors associated with a shortened graft survival were pre-transplant sensitization, re-transplantation, rejections (in particular vascular or mixed ones) and the necessity of a long-term anti-rejection therapy. Adding ATG-F single high dose induction to TDT was more efficient in prolonging kidney graft survival than TDT alone not only in recipients without any risk factors (p<0.005) but also in recipients with at least one risk factor (p<0.021). Only in 4.6% of recipients having two or more risk factors this effect could not be demonstrated. The intra-operative single high-dose induction with ATG-F significantly improves the kidney graft survival in recipients with or without risk factors and can therefore be recommended.

  6. Long-term collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2007-01-01

    The Committee of the Long Term Collections (CLT) asks for your attention for the following message from a young Peruvian scientist, following the earthquake which devastated part of her country a month ago.

  7. Long-term C-CO2 emissions and carbon crop residue mineralization in an oxisol under different tillage and crop rotation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Hur Costa de Campos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil C-CO2 emissions are sensitive indicators of management system impacts on soil organic matter (SOM. The main soil C-CO2 sources at the soil-plant interface are the decomposition of crop residues, SOM turnover, and respiration of roots and soil biota. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impacts of tillage and cropping systems on long-term soil C-CO2 emissions and their relationship with carbon (C mineralization of crop residues. A long-term experiment was conducted in a Red Oxisol in Cruz Alta, RS, Brazil, with subtropical climate Cfa (Köppen classification, mean annual precipitation of 1,774 mm and mean annual temperature of 19.2 ºC. Treatments consisted of two tillage systems: (a conventional tillage (CT and (b no tillage (NT in combination with three cropping systems: (a R0- monoculture system (soybean/wheat, (b R1- winter crop rotation (soybean/wheat/soybean/black oat, and (c R2- intensive crop rotation (soybean/ black oat/soybean/black oat + common vetch/maize/oilseed radish/wheat. The soil C-CO2 efflux was measured every 14 days for two years (48 measurements, by trapping the CO2 in an alkaline solution. The soil gravimetric moisture in the 0-0.05 m layer was determined concomitantly with the C-CO2 efflux measurements. The crop residue C mineralization was evaluated with the mesh-bag method, with sampling 14, 28, 56, 84, 112, and 140 days after the beginning of the evaluation period for C measurements. Four C conservation indexes were used to assess the relation between C-CO2 efflux and soil C stock and its compartments. The crop residue C mineralization fit an exponential model in time. For black oat, wheat and maize residues, C mineralization was higher in CT than NT, while for soybean it was similar. Soil moisture was higher in NT than CT, mainly in the second year of evaluation. There was no difference in tillage systems for annual average C-CO2 emissions, but in some individual evaluations, differences between

  8. Volatile organic compounds in urban atmospheres: Long-term measurements of ambient air concentrations in differently loaded regions of Leipzig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knobloch, T.; Asperger, A.; Engewald, W. [University of Leipzig, Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Leipzig (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    For the comprehensive characterization of ambient air concentrations of a broad spectrum of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) an analytical method is described, consisting of adsorptive enrichment, thermal desorption without cryofocusing, and capillary gas chromatographic separation. The method was applied during two-week measuring campaigns in winter and summer 1995, and in the winter of 1996. Long-term sampling was carried out at sampling points in residential areas in the suburbs and near the city center of Leipzig. About 70 VOCs - mainly hydrocarbons from propene to hexadecane - were identified both by GC-MS and chromatographic retention data and quantified after external calibration. Mean values of VOC concentrations obtained during the sampling periods are reported and discussed with regard to the topographical location of the sampling points in the Leipzig area, seasonal variations, and possible emission sources. (orig.) With 7 figs., 3 tabs., 18 refs.

  9. Long-term cathode performance and the microbial communities that develop in microbial fuel cells fed different fermentation endproducts

    KAUST Repository

    Kiely, Patrick D.

    2011-01-01

    To better understand how cathode performance and substrates affected communities that evolved in these reactors over long periods of time, microbial fuel cells were operated for more than 1year with individual endproducts of lignocellulose fermentation (acetic acid, formic acid, lactic acid, succinic acid, or ethanol). Large variations in reactor performance were primarily due to the specific substrates, with power densities ranging from 835±21 to 62±1mW/m3. Cathodes performance degraded over time, as shown by an increase in power of up to 26% when the cathode biofilm was removed, and 118% using new cathodes. Communities that developed on the anodes included exoelectrogenic families, such as Rhodobacteraceae, Geobacteraceae, and Peptococcaceae, with the Deltaproteobacteria dominating most reactors. Pelobacter propionicus was the predominant member in reactors fed acetic acid, and it was abundant in several other MFCs. These results provide valuable insights into the effects of long-term MFC operation on reactor performance. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Characteristics of differently stabilised soil organic carbon fractions in relation to long-term fertilisation in Brown Earth of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangru; Zhang, Wenju; Xu, Minggang; Li, Shuangyi; An, Tingting; Pei, Jiubo; Xiao, Jing; Xie, Hongtu; Wang, Jingkuan

    2016-12-01

    Long-term use of artificial fertiliser has a significant impact on soil organic carbon (SOC). We used physical-chemical fractionation methods to assess the impact of long-term (26years) fertilisation in a maize cropping system developed on Brown Earth in Northeast China. Plot treatments consisted of control (CK); nitrogen (N) fertiliser (N2); low-level organic manure combined with inorganic N and phosphorus (P) fertiliser (M1N1P1); medium-level organic manure combined with inorganic N fertiliser (M2N2); and high-level organic manure combined with inorganic N and P fertiliser (M4N2P1). Our objectives were to (1) determine the contents of and variations in the SOC fractions; (2) explore the relationship between total SOC and its fractions. In treatments involving organic manure (M1N1P1, M2N2, and M4N2P1), total SOC and physically protected microaggregate (μagg) and μagg occluded particulate organic carbon (iPOC) contents increased by 9.9-58.9%, 1.3-34.7%, 29.5-127.9% relative to control, respectively. But there no significant differences (P>0.05) were detected for the chemically, physically-chemically, and physically-biochemically protected fractions among the M1N1P1, M2N2, and M4N2P1 treatments. Regression analysis revealed that there was a linear positive correlation between SOC and the unprotected coarse particulate organic carbon (cPOC), physically protected μagg, and iPOC fractions (Pfractions responded negatively to SOC content. The highest rate of C accumulation among the SOC fractions occurred in the cPOC fraction, which accounted for as much as 32% of C accumulation as total SOC increased, suggesting that cPOC may be the most sensitive fraction to fertiliser application. We found that treatments had no effect on C levels in H-μsilt and NH-μsilt, indicating that the microaggregated silt C-fractions may have reached a steady state in terms of C saturation in the Brown Earth of Northeast China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Early Hits and Long-Term Consequences: Tracking the Lasting Impact of Prenatal Smoke Exposure on Telomere Length in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKasson, Sarah; Mabile, Emily; Dunaway, Lauren F.; Drury, Stacy S.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the association between telomere length and prenatal tobacco exposure (PTE) in 104 children aged 4 to 14 years. Salivary telomere length (STL) was determined from salivary DNA using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Of the children, 18% had maternal reported PTE. Mean STL was significantly lower among children with PTE (6.4 vs 7.5, P < .05). Findings extend the literature demonstrating the negative long-term effects of PTE to include a cellular marker of aging linked to multiple negative health outcomes. PMID:23927510

  12. Introduction: Long term prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranger, G.

    2003-01-01

    Making a decision upon the right choice of a material appropriate to a given application should be based on taking into account several parameters as follows: cost, standards, regulations, safety, recycling, chemical properties, supplying, transformation, forming, assembly, mechanical and physical properties as well as the behaviour in practical conditions. Data taken from a private communication (J.H.Davidson) are reproduced presenting the life time range of materials from a couple of minutes to half a million hours corresponding to applications from missile technology up to high-temperature nuclear reactors or steam turbines. In the case of deep storage of nuclear waste the time required is completely different from these values since we have to ensure the integrity of the storage system for several thousand years. The vitrified nuclear wastes should be stored in metallic canisters made of iron and carbon steels, stainless steels, copper and copper alloys, nickel alloys or titanium alloys. Some of these materials are passivating metals, i.e. they develop a thin protective film, 2 or 3 nm thick - the so-called passive films. These films prevent general corrosion of the metal in a large range of chemical condition of the environment. In some specific condition, localized corrosion such as the phenomenon of pitting, occurs. Consequently, it is absolutely necessary to determine these chemical condition and their stability in time to understand the behavior of a given material. In other words the corrosion system is constituted by the complex material/surface/medium. For high level nuclear wastes the main features for resolving problem are concerned with: geological disposal; deep storage in clay; waste metallic canister; backfill mixture (clay-gypsum) or concrete; long term behavior; data needed for modelling and for predicting; choice of appropriate solution among several metallic candidates. The analysis of the complex material/surface/medium is of great importance

  13. Long-term and short-term action-effect links and their impact on effect monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Robert; Steinhauser, Robert; Janczyk, Markus; Steinhauser, Marco; Kunde, Wilfried

    2018-04-23

    People aim to produce effects in the environment, and according to ideomotor theory, actions are selected and executed via anticipations of their effects. Further, to ensure that an action has been successful and an effect has been realized, we must be able to monitor the consequences of our actions. However, action-effect links might vary between situations, some might apply for a majority of situations, while others might only apply to special occasions. With a combination of behavioral and electrophysiological markers, we show that monitoring of self-produced action effects interferes with other tasks, and that the length of effect monitoring is determined by both, long-term action-effect links that hold for most situations, and short-term action-effect links that emerge from a current setting. Effect monitoring is fast and frugal when these action-effect links allow for valid anticipation of action effects, but otherwise effect monitoring takes longer and delays a subsequent task. Specific influences of long-term and short-term links on the P1/N1 and P3a further allow to dissect the temporal dynamics of when these links interact for the purpose of effect monitoring. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Impact of acute kidney injury on long-term mortality and progression to chronic kidney disease among critically ill children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najlaa G. Al-Otaibi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the 2-year outcome of acute kidney injury (AKI following admission to pediatric critical care units (PICU. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted between January 2012 and December 2013. We followed 131 children admitted to PICU, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with a diagnosis of AKI, based on pRIFLE (pediatric risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage renal disease, for 2 years. During the study period, 46 children died and 38 of survivors completed the follow-up. Factors affecting long-term progression to chronic kidney disease were also evaluated. Results: The 2-year mortality was more than 40%. The main determinant of the 2-year mortality was the pediatric risk of mortality (PRISM score, which increased the risk of mortality by 6% per each one score (adjusted odds ratio, 1.06: 95% confidence interval: 1.00-1.11. By the end of the 2 years, 33% of survivors had reduction in the glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria, and 73% were hypertensive. Patients with more severe renal impairment at admission, based on the pRIFLE criteria, had higher mortality rate. This association, however, was not independent since it was influenced by baseline disease severity (PRISM score. Conclusion: Large proportion of patients admitted to PICU with AKI either died during the first 2 months of follow-up or developed long-term complications. The severity of AKI, however, was not an independent risk factor for mortality.

  15. Rice to vegetables: short- versus long-term impact of land-use change on the indigenous soil microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Dong, Zhi-Xing; Zhang, Xue-Xian; Li, Yun; Cao, Hui; Cui, Zong-Li

    2011-08-01

    OV soil have the lowest score of diversity (H = 3.48). The low level of bacterial diversity in OV soil was supported by sequencing of ten randomly selected 16S rDNA clones from each of the three rDNA libraries. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the ten OV clones belonged to Proteobacteria with eight in the gamma-subdivision and two in the alpha-subdivision. In contrast, the ten clones from NV and OP soils were classified into four and eight bacterial classes or unclassified groups, respectively. Taken together, our data suggest that land-use change from rice to vegetables resulted in a decrease of bacterial diversity and soil biomass despite an increase in the abundance of culturable microorganisms and, moreover, the decrease of bacterial diversity occurred during long-term rather than short-term vegetable cultivation.

  16. The long-term impact of wheelchair delivery on the lives of people with disabilities in three countries of the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Shore

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: While overall health status, and distance travelled into the community fluctuated over time, receipt of one of two models of a wheelchair in less-resourced settings of the world appears to have a positive sustained impact on employment and income. Further investigations should be carried out to confirm these results and explore the factors responsible for fluctuating variables. This study affirms the importance of long-term follow-up of outcomes associated with wheelchair distribution in less-resourced environments.

  17. Assessment of the long-term risk of a meteorite impact on a hypothetical Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal vault deep in plutonic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuschke, D.M.; Whitaker, S.H.; Goodwin, B.W.; Rasmussen, L.R.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes an assessment of the long-term radiological risk to an individual of the critical group that would result from a meteorite impact on a hypothetical reference disposal vault for used fuel, located 500 m below the Earth's surface. The purpose of the assessment was to determine if this radiological risk could exceed or approach the AECB risk criterion. (author). 47 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  18. The impact of reforestation on discharge and sediment fluxes in drylands: long-term evidences from the Western Rift Valley Escarpment (Northern Ethiopia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaha, Tesfaalem; Frankl, Amaury; Zenebe, Amanuel; Haile, Mitiku; Nyssen, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Deforestation and land degradation have been common problems in the Northern Ethiopian highlands, including for the Western Rift Valley Escarpment. In particular, the rapid deforestation of the steep catchments (average slope gradient of 44% ± 10%) in the second half of 20th century, together with rainfall variability and over-cultivation, resulted in the development of dense gully and scar networks. Subsequently, huge amounts sediment were taken to the densely populated graben bottoms. In response, extensive reforestation interventions were carried out as of the 1980s, resulting in improvements of vegetation cover in many catchments. This study analyses the spatio-temporal changes in vegetation cover and rainfall variability and their impact on discharge and sediment transport in escarpment catchments. Degree of rehabilitation was examined in 20 adjacent catchments by correlating the density of scar networks incised down to the bed rock with Normalize Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and slope gradient. Based on these results, 11 contrasting catchments were selected for detailed investigation. To study the current spatio-temporal variability in rainfall and its relation with daily peak discharge, 7 rain gauges were installed at different locations and altitudes. Trendlines of decadal rainfall variability since 1996 will be established based on the analysis of NOAA's rainfall estimates, and long-term rainfall variability will be explored by correlating the field data to long-term rainfall measurements in nearby synoptic stations. The changes in land use and cover will be detected from aerial photos of the 1935, 1965 and 1986. Peak discharges were monitored using 11 crest stage gauges. Fixed boulders were painted in stream reaches to quantify the transport of bedload. This was done by photographing the stream reaches and by measuring the displacement of painted boulders after flood events. In a multiple regression analysis, scar density was negatively related

  19. Differing long term trends for two common amphibian species (Bufo bufo and Rana temporaria in alpine landscapes of Salzburg, Austria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kyek

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the population trends of two widespread European anuran species: the common toad (Bufo bufo and the common frog (Rana temporaria. The basis of this study is data gathered over two decades of amphibian fencing alongside roads in the Austrian state of Salzburg. Different statistical approaches were used to analyse the data. Overall average increase or decrease of each species was estimated by calculating a simple average locality index. In addition the statistical software TRIM was used to verify these trends as well as to categorize the data based on the geographic location of each migration site. The results show differing overall trends for the two species: the common toad being stable and the common frog showing a substantial decline over the last two decades. Further analyses based on geographic categorization reveal the strongest decrease in the alpine range of the species. Drainage and agricultural intensification are still ongoing problems within alpine areas, not only in Salzburg. Particularly in respect to micro-climate and the availability of spawning places these changes appear to have a greater impact on the habitats of the common frog than the common toad. Therefore we consider habitat destruction to be the main potential reason behind this dramatic decline. We also conclude that the substantial loss of biomass of a widespread species such as the common frog must have a severe, and often overlooked, ecological impact.

  20. Storm impacts on a high energy sandy beach system, northwest Ireland: short (event) to long term (decadal) behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisado-Pintado, Emilia; Jackson, Derek; Cooper, Andrew; O'Connor, Marianne

    2017-04-01

    Long-term monitoring of beach dynamics is an important element in risk prevention and management of both natural and human resources at the coast. The predicted intensification in storminess (frequency, duration and magnitude), partly associated with climate change, represents a pressing concern for coastal communities globally and has undoubtedly led to an improvement in available techniques and technologies for observation and analysis. Here we examine a high energy Atlantic beach system at Five Fingers strand (NW Ireland) to help understand hydrodynamic forcing on beach response under various wave energy scenarios. The system, which has been modally attuned to a large swell wave environment, periodically undergoes significant morphological changes over various spatial and temporal scales manifest in the development and movements of dynamic nearshore bars and a nearshore ebb-tide delta. A combination of field and laboratory techniques (GPS, Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) Instrumentation, Drone surveys) implemented from the shoreface to the beach, captures the response and evolution of the system over the short (event), medium (weeks to months) and long-term (multiyear) timescale. Numerical modelling of nearshore wave hydrodynamics (using SWAN wave simulation model) helps understanding wave forcing across shoreface area and is ran under a number of iterative time intervals. Here, we investigate the role of infrequent and sometimes extreme events in the system to understand the importance of clustering of storminess and the occurrence of single high-magnitude storm events that perturb the inlet-beach system and thus induce key morphodynamic changes. Preliminary results show that ultimately the configuration of the ebb-tide channel influences the geomorphic response of the system. In the short term, a storm induced erosion of the shoreface is observed, which also appears to lead to changes in the ebb-tide channel, and ultimately the welding of a nearshore bar

  1. Methodological Aspects of the Potential Use of Dendrochronological Techniques When Analyzing the Long-Term Impact of Tourism on Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciapała, Szymon; Adamski, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Intensification of pedestrian tourism causes damage to trees near tourist tracks, and likewise changes the soil structure. As a result, one may expect that annual amount of trees growing near tracks is significantly lower than deeper in the forest. However, during the study of the long-term impact of tourism on the environment (determined from tree increment dynamics), some methodological problems may occur. It is particularly important in protected areas where law and administrative regulations related to nature conservation force research to be conducted using small samples. In this paper we have analyzed the data collected in the Polish part of the Tatra National Park in the two study plots divided into two zones each: the area directly under the influence of the tourist's trampling and the control group. The aim of such analyses was to present the potential effects of the factors which may affect the results of dendrochronological analysis: (i) small size of samples that affects their representativeness, (ii) spatial differences in the rates of the process, as a result of spatial variability of environmental factors and (iii) temporal differences in the rates of the process. This study confirms that the factors mentioned above could significantly influence the results and should be taken into consideration during the analysis.

  2. Methodological Aspects of the Potential Use of Dendrochronological Techniques When Analyzing the Long-Term Impact of Tourism on Protected Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Ciapała

    Full Text Available Intensification of pedestrian tourism causes damage to trees near tourist tracks, and likewise changes the soil structure. As a result, one may expect that annual amount of trees growing near tracks is significantly lower than deeper in the forest. However, during the study of the long-term impact of tourism on the environment (determined from tree increment dynamics, some methodological problems may occur. It is particularly important in protected areas where law and administrative regulations related to nature conservation force research to be conducted using small samples. In this paper we have analyzed the data collected in the Polish part of the Tatra National Park in the two study plots divided into two zones each: the area directly under the influence of the tourist's trampling and the control group. The aim of such analyses was to present the potential effects of the factors which may affect the results of dendrochronological analysis: (i small size of samples that affects their representativeness, (ii spatial differences in the rates of the process, as a result of spatial variability of environmental factors and (iii temporal differences in the rates of the process. This study confirms that the factors mentioned above could significantly influence the results and should be taken into consideration during the analysis.

  3. Long-term monitoring of molecular markers can distinguish different seasonal patterns of fecal indicating bacteria sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Timothy E; Thulsiraj, Vanessa; Zimmer-Faust, Amity G; Dagit, Rosi; Krug, Jenna; Hanley, Kaitlyn T; Adamek, Krista; Ebentier, Darcy L; Torres, Robert; Cobian, Uriel; Peterson, Sophie; Jay, Jennifer A

    2015-03-15

    Elevated levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) have been observed at Topanga Beach, CA, USA. To identify the FIB sources, a microbial source tracking study using a dog-, a gull- and two human-associated molecular markers was conducted at 10 sites over 21 months. Historical data suggest that episodic discharge from the lagoon at the mouth of Topanga Creek is the main source of bacteria to the beach. A decline in creek FIB/markers downstream from upper watershed development and a sharp increase in FIB/markers at the lagoon sites suggest sources are local to the lagoon. At the lagoon and beach, human markers are detected sporadically, dog marker peaks in abundance mid-winter, and gull marker is chronically elevated. Varied seasonal patterns of FIB and source markers were identified showing the importance of applying a suite of markers over long-term spatial and temporal sampling to identify a complex combination of sources of contamination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Long-term survival differences in gastric cancer after D2 lymphadenectomy and an improved assessment of resectability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Dimofte

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this work is to compare the long-term survival between a control group with mostly D1 lymphadenectomy and a study group with mostly D2 lymphadenectomy. Materials and Methods. We analyzed consecutive cases operated by a single surgeon performing mostly D2 lymphadenectomy and a control group of consecutive gastric cancer patients operated by a group of surgeons, performing mostly D1 lymphadenectomy, in a period when D2 lymphadenectomy was not the standard and was introduced as a new technique in our center. Results. We found 30,56% D2 lymphadenectomy in the control groups and 85,1% in the study group. At a five years interval from surgery the control group had no survivors, while the study group had 8 (20% survivors. Conclusions. The spleen and pancreas preserving D2 lymphadenectomy done by experienced surgeons, according to the current guidelines in order to select operable patients improves the overall survival of such gastric cancer patients.

  5. Long-term cathode performance and the microbial communities that develop in microbial fuel cells fed different fermentation endproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Patrick D; Rader, Geoffrey; Regan, John M; Logan, Bruce E

    2011-01-01

    To better understand how cathode performance and substrates affected communities that evolved in these reactors over long periods of time, microbial fuel cells were operated for more than 1 year with individual endproducts of lignocellulose fermentation (acetic acid, formic acid, lactic acid, succinic acid, or ethanol). Large variations in reactor performance were primarily due to the specific substrates, with power densities ranging from 835 ± 21 to 62 ± 1mW/m(3). Cathodes performance degraded over time, as shown by an increase in power of up to 26% when the cathode biofilm was removed, and 118% using new cathodes. Communities that developed on the anodes included exoelectrogenic families, such as Rhodobacteraceae, Geobacteraceae, and Peptococcaceae, with the Deltaproteobacteria dominating most reactors. Pelobacter propionicus was the predominant member in reactors fed acetic acid, and it was abundant in several other MFCs. These results provide valuable insights into the effects of long-term MFC operation on reactor performance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-term responses of rainforest erosional systems at different spatial scales to selective logging and climatic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, R. P. D.; Bidin, K.; Blake, W. H.; Chappell, N. A.; Clarke, M. A.; Douglas, I.; Ghazali, R.; Sayer, A. M.; Suhaimi, J.; Tych, W.; Annammala, K. V.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term (21–30 years) erosional responses of rainforest terrain in the Upper Segama catchment, Sabah, to selective logging are assessed at slope, small and large catchment scales. In the 0.44 km2 Baru catchment, slope erosion measurements over 1990–2010 and sediment fingerprinting indicate that sediment sources 21 years after logging in 1989 are mainly road-linked, including fresh landslips and gullying of scars and toe deposits of 1994–1996 landslides. Analysis and modelling of 5–15 min stream-suspended sediment and discharge data demonstrate a reduction in storm-sediment response between 1996 and 2009, but not yet to pre-logging levels. An unmixing model using bed-sediment geochemical data indicates that 49 per cent of the 216 t km−2 a−1 2009 sediment yield comes from 10 per cent of its area affected by road-linked landslides. Fallout 210Pb and 137Cs values from a lateral bench core indicate that sedimentation rates in the 721 km2 Upper Segama catchment less than doubled with initially highly selective, low-slope logging in the 1980s, but rose 7–13 times when steep terrain was logged in 1992–1993 and 1999–2000. The need to keep steeplands under forest is emphasized if landsliding associated with current and predicted rises in extreme rainstorm magnitude-frequency is to be reduced in scale. PMID:22006973

  7. Time-series analysis of the long-term hydrologic impacts of afforestation in the Águeda watershed of North-Central Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawtree, D.; Nunes, J. P.; Keizer, J. J.; Jacinto, R.; Santos, J.; Rial-Rivas, M. E.; Boulet, A.-K.; Tavares-Wahren, F.; Feger, K.-H.

    2014-11-01

    The north-central region of Portugal has undergone significant afforestation of the species Pinus pinaster and Eucalyptus globulus since the early 1900s; however, the long-term hydrologic impacts of this land cover change are not fully understood. To contribute to a better understanding of the potential hydrologic impacts of this land cover change, this study examines the temporal trends in 7 years of data from the Águeda watershed (part of the Vouga Basin) over the period of 1936 to 2010. Meteorological and hydrological records were analysed using a combined Thiel-Sen/Mann-Kendall trend testing approach, to assess the magnitude and significance of patterns in the observed data. These trend tests indicated that there had been no significant reduction in streamflow yield over either the entire test period, or during sub-record periods, despite the large-scale afforestation which had taken place. This lack of change is attributed to both the characteristics of the watershed and the nature of the land cover change. By contrast, a number of significant trends were found for baseflow index, which showed positive trends in the early data record (primarily during Pinus pinaster afforestation), followed by a reversal to negative trends later in the data record (primarily during Eucalyptus globulus afforestation). These changes are attributed to vegetation impacts on streamflow generating processes, both due to the species differences and to alterations in soil properties (i.e. promoting water repellency of the topsoil). These results highlight the importance of considering both vegetation types/dynamics and watershed characteristic when assessing hydrologic impacts, in particular with respect to soil properties.

  8. Impact of serial gait analyses on long-term outcome of hippotherapy in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutoh, Tomoko; Mutoh, Tatsushi; Tsubone, Hirokazu; Takada, Makoto; Doumura, Misato; Ihara, Masayo; Shimomura, Hideo; Taki, Yasuyuki; Ihara, Masahiro

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain data of gait parameters on predicting long-term outcome of hippotherapy. In 20 participants (4-19 years; GMFCS levels I to III) with cerebral palsy (CP), gait and balance abilities were examined after 10-m walking test using a portable motion recorder. Hippotherapy was associated with increased Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM)-66 at 1 year from the baseline (P Hippotherapy increased stride length, walking speed, and mean acceleration and decreased horizontal/vertical displacement ratio over time (P hippotherapy on motor and balance functions can be assessed from the early phase by serial monitoring of the gait parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of fuzzy – Neuro to model weather parameter variability impacts on electrical load based on long-term forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danladi Ali

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-term load forecasting provides vital information about future load and it helps the power industries to make decision regarding electrical energy generation and delivery. In this work, fuzzy – neuro model is developed to forecast a year ahead load in relation to weather parameter (temperature and humidity in Mubi, Adamawa State. It is observed that: electrical load increased with increase in temperature and relative humidity does not show notable effect on electrical load. The accuracy of the prediction is obtained at 98.78% with the corresponding mean absolute percentage error (MAPE of 1.22%. This confirms that fuzzy – neuro is a good tool for load forecasting. Keywords: Electrical load, Load forecasting, Fuzzy logic, Back propagation, Neuro-fuzzy, Weather parameter

  10. Social Impact of Recharging Activity in Long-Term HRI and Verbal Strategies to Manage User Expectations During Recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol Deshmukh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Social robots perform tasks to help humans in their daily activities. However, if they fail to fulfill expectations this may affect their acceptance. This work investigates the service degradation caused by recharging, during which the robot is socially inactive. We describe two studies conducted in an ecologically valid office environment. In the first long-term study (3 weeks, we investigated the service degradation caused by the recharging behavior of a social robot. In the second study, we explored the social strategies used to manage users’ expectations during recharge. Our findings suggest that the use of verbal strategies (transparency, apology, and politeness can make robots more acceptable to users during recharge.

  11. Evaluating long term forecasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lady, George M. [Department of Economics, College of Liberal Arts, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA), and its predecessor organizations, has published projections of U.S. energy production, consumption, distribution and prices annually for over 30 years. A natural issue to raise in evaluating the projections is an assessment of their accuracy compared to eventual outcomes. A related issue is the determination of the sources of 'error' in the projections that are due to differences between the actual versus realized values of the associated assumptions. One way to do this would be to run the computer-based model from which the projections are derived at the time the projected values are realized, using actual rather than assumed values for model assumptions; and, compare these results to the original projections. For long term forecasts, this approach would require that the model's software and hardware configuration be archived and available for many years, possibly decades, into the future. Such archival creates many practical problems; and, in general, it is not being done. This paper reports on an alternative approach for evaluating the projections. In the alternative approach, the model is run many times for cases in which important assumptions are changed individually and in combinations. A database is assembled from the solutions and a regression analysis is conducted for each important projected variable with the associated assumptions chosen as exogenous variables. When actual data are eventually available, the regression results are then used to estimate the sources of the differences in the projections of the endogenous variables compared to their eventual outcomes. The results presented here are for residential and commercial sector natural gas and electricity consumption. (author)

  12. Endoscopic stenting for common bile duct stenoses in chronic pancreatitis: results and impact on long-term outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickhoff, A; Jakobs, R; Leonhardt, A; Eickhoff, J C; Riemann, J F

    2001-10-01

    The overall incidence of common bile duct strictures due to chronic pancreatitis is reported to be approximately 10-30%. It remains a challenging problem for gastroenterologists and surgeons. The exact role of endoscopic stenting has not yet been clearly defined. Thirty-nine patients with chronic pancreatitis and symptomatic common bile duct stenoses underwent endoscopic stenting and were studied retrospectively. We were particularly interested in how many patients would achieve resolution of the stricture and tolerate removal of the stents in the long term. Indications for endoscopic stenting were symptomatic cholestasis, jaundice or cholangitis. The initial serum bilirubin was 8.3 mg/dl and the diameter of the common bile duct was 14.2 mm before stenting. Within 3-7 days of stenting, all patients presented improvement of jaundice and cholestasis. After a median stenting time of 9 months (range 1-144 months), 46% of the patients demonstrated regression of the stricture and clinical improvement, 26% required further stenting, and 28% were referred to surgery. Five patients received a self-expandable metal Wallstent. Thirty-one per cent demonstrated complete clinical recovery of the stricture as well as 10.2% a complete, radiologically verified stricture regression in a median follow-up of 58 months. There seems to be a therapeutic benefit for short-term endoscopic treatment but medium-term and long-term outcome remains questionable. Endoscopic stenting should be applied as an initial therapy before surgery, but it can be the definitive approach for older and morbid patients or cases with complete stricture regression after stent removal. Overall, it should not be considered as a routine procedure for symptomatic cases.

  13. The impact of long-term changes in water table height on carbon cycling in sub-boreal peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pypker, T. G.; Moore, P. A.; Waddington, J. M.; Hribljan, J. A.; Ballantyne, D.; Chimner, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    Peatlands are a critical component in the global carbon (C) cycle because they have been slowly sequestering atmospheric greenhouse gases as peat since the last glaciation. Today, soil C stocks in peatlands are estimated to represent 224 to 455 Pg, equal to 12-30% of the global soil C pool. At present, peatlands are estimated to sequester 76 Tg C yr-1. The flux of C to and from peatlands is likely to respond to climate change, thereby influencing atmospheric C concentrations. Peatland C budgets are tightly linked to their hydrology, hence, it is critical we understand how changes in hydrology will affect the C budgets of peatlands. The main objective of the project was to determine how long-term changes in water table height affect CO2 and CH4 fluxes from three adjacent peatlands. This study took place in the Seney National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR) in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. SNWR is home to the largest wetland drainage project in Michigan. In 1912, ditches and dikes were created in an effort to convert approximately 20,000 ha of peatland to agriculture. The ditches and dikes were unsuccessful in creating agricultural land, but they are still in place. The manipulation of water table heights provides an opportunity to research how long-term peat drying or wetting alters C cycling in peatlands. From May to November in 2009, 2010 and 2011, we monitored CO2 fluxes using eddy covariance and chamber techniques in three adjacent peatlands with lowered, relatively unaltered ("control") and raised water table heights. In 2011, we installed CH4 analyzers to continuously monitor CH4 fluxes at the sites with high and relatively unaltered water table heights. The results are compared across sites to determine how changes in water table height might affect C fluxes sub-boreal peatlands.

  14. Assessment of short and long-term outcomes of diabetes patient education using the health education impact questionnaire (HeiQ)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth Lauersen, Ditte; Christensen, Karl Bang; Christensen, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    increased self-management skills, improved acceptance of their chronic illness and decreased negative emotional response to their disease. Applying HeiQ as an outcome measure yielded new knowledge as to what patients with diabetes can obtain by participating in a patient education....... of affected individuals and escalating costs. Patient education is one option for improving patient self-management. However, there are large discrepancies in the outcomes of such programs and long-term data are lacking. We assessed the short and long-term outcomes of diabetes patient education using...... the health education impact questionnaire (HeiQ). Methods We conducted a observational cohort study of 83 type 2 diabetes patients participating in patient education programs in Denmark. The seven-scale HeiQ was completed by telephone interview at baseline and 2 weeks (76 participants, 93%) and 12 months (66...

  15. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for alternative strategies for the long-term management and use of depleted uranium hexafluoride. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    This PEIS assesses the potential impacts of alternative management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) currently stored at three DOE sites: Paducah site near Paducah, Kentucky, Portsmouth site near Portsmouth, Ohio; and K-25 site on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The alternatives analyzed in the PEIS include no action, long-term storage as UF 6 , long-term storage as uranium oxide, use as uranium oxide, use as uranium metal, and disposal. DOE's preferred alternative is to begin conversion of the depleted UF 6 inventory as soon as possible, either to uranium oxide, uranium metal, or a combination of both, while allowing for use of as much of this inventory as possible

  16. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for alternative strategies for the long-term management and use of depleted uranium hexafluoride. Volume 1: Main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    This PEIS assesses the potential impacts of alternative management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) currently stored at three DOE sites: Paducah site near Paducah, Kentucky, Portsmouth site near Portsmouth, Ohio; and K-25 site on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The alternatives analyzed in the PEIS include no action, long-term storage as UF 6 , long-term storage as uranium oxide, use as uranium oxide, use as uranium metal, and disposal. DOE's preferred alternative is to begin conversion of the depleted UF 6 inventory as soon as possible, either to uranium oxide, uranium metal, or a combination of both, while allowing for use of as much of this inventory as possible

  17. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for alternative strategies for the long-term management and use of depleted uranium hexafluoride. Volume 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    This PEIS assesses the potential impacts of alternative management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) currently stored at three DOE sites: Paducah site near Paducah, Kentucky, Portsmouth site near Portsmouth, Ohio; and K-25 site on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The alternatives analyzed in the PEIS include no action, long-term storage as UF 6 , long-term storage as uranium oxide, use as uranium oxide, use as uranium metal, and disposal. DOE's preferred alternative is to begin conversion of the depleted UF 6 inventory as soon as possible, either to uranium oxide, uranium metal, or a combination of both, while allowing for use of as much of this inventory as possible. This volume contains Appendices A--O

  18. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Comité des collectes à long terme

    2011-01-01

    It is the time of the year when our fireman colleagues go around the laboratory for their traditional calendars sale. A part of the money of the sales will be donated in favour of the long-term collections. We hope that you will welcome them warmly.

  19. Impact of self-monitoring of blood glucose log reliability on long-term glycemic outcomes in children with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Selvan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Logbooks of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG are useful in the modulation of insulin regimens, which aid in achieving glycemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. However, discrepancies in SMBG charting may impede its utility. This study aimed to assess the accuracy of log entries and its impact on long-term glycemic control. Methods: SMBG in logbooks was compared with readings in glucometer memory and discrepancies between the two were evaluated in 101 children with T1DM. The relationship between these discrepancies and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c over 44 months was assessed. Results: Errors in glucose charting were observed in 32.67% children. The most common observed error was omission (42.42%, followed by fabrication (27.27%, erroneous (18.18%, and others (12.12%. Age was not significantly different among children having accurate versus inaccurate SMBG logs. During follow-up of 44 months, children with accurate SMBG logs consistently had lower HbA1c as compared to children having inaccurate logs, which was statistically significant at 4, 16, 20, and 28 months' follow-up. The same was reflected in the proportion of children achieving HbA1c <7% and 7%–9%. Of the 14 children who had omissions, 9 had omission of high values only, 3 patients had omission of low values only, 1 had omission of both high and low values, and 1 had omission of normal values. Among logs with fabrication, parents were responsible in 2 of 9 incidents. In the remaining 7, it was the child himself/herself. Children with fabrication consistently had the highest HbA1c values among the different types of inaccurate blood glucose chartings, which was statistically significant at 32 and 36 months of follow-up. Conclusions: Reliability of SMBG logs is a significant problem among children with T1DM at our center. Children with accurate logs of SMBG readings were more likely to have better glycemic control on long-term follow-up.

  20. The Modern Role of Radiation Therapy in Treating Advanced-Stage Retinoblastoma: Long-Term Outcomes and Racial Differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orman, Amber [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Koru-Sengul, Tulay [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Miao, Feng [Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Markoe, Arnold [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Panoff, Joseph E., E-mail: jpanoff@med.miami.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To evaluate the effects of various patient characteristics and radiation therapy treatment variables on outcomes in advanced-stage retinoblastoma. Methods and Materials: