Sample records for differentiation alters intratumoral

  1. Alters Intratumoral Drug Distribution and Affects Therapeutic Synergy of Antiangiogenic Organoselenium Compound

    Youcef M. Rustum


    Full Text Available Tumor differentiation enhances morphologic and microvascular heterogeneity fostering hypoxia that retards intratumoral drug delivery, distribution, and compromise therapeutic efficacy. In this study, the influence of tumor biologic heterogeneity on the interaction between cytotoxic chemotherapy and selenium was examined using a panel of human tumor xenografts representing cancers of the head and neck and lung along with tissue microarray analysis of human surgical samples. Tumor differentiation status, microvessel density, interstitial fluid pressure, vascular phenotype, and drug delivery were correlated with the degree of enhancement of chemotherapeutic efficacy by selenium. Marked potentiation of antitumor activity was observed in H69 tumors that exhibited a well-vascularized, poorly differentiated phenotype. In comparison, modulation of chemotherapeutic efficacy by antiangiogenic selenium was generally lower or absent in well-differentiated tumors with multiple avascular hypoxic, differentiated regions. Tumor histomorphologic heterogeneity was found prevalent in the clinical samples studied and represents a primary and critical physiological barrier to chemotherapy.

  2. Osteoblasts promote castration-resistant prostate cancer by altering intratumoral steroidogenesis.

    Hagberg Thulin, Malin; Nilsson, Maria E; Thulin, Pontus; Céraline, Jocelyn; Ohlsson, Claes; Damber, Jan-Erik; Welén, Karin


    The skeleton is the preferred site for prostate cancer (PC) metastasis leading to incurable castration-resistant disease. The increased expression of genes encoding steroidogenic enzymes found in bone metastatic tissue from patients suggests that up-regulated steroidogenesis might contribute to tumor growth at the metastatic site. Because of the overall sclerotic phenotype, we hypothesize that osteoblasts regulate the intratumoral steroidogenesis of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in bone. We here show that osteoblasts alter the steroidogenic transcription program in CRPC cells, closely mimicking the gene expression pattern described in CRPC. Osteoblast-stimulated LNCaP-19 cells displayed an increased expression of genes encoding for steroidogenic enzymes (CYP11A1, HSD3B1, and AKR1C3), estrogen signaling-related genes (CYP19A1, and ESR2), and genes for DHT-inactivating enzymes (UGT2B7, UGT2B15, and UGT2B17). The observed osteoblast-induced effect was exclusive to osteogenic CRPC cells (LNCaP-19) in contrast to osteolytic PC-3 and androgen-dependent LNCaP cells. The altered steroid enzymatic pattern was specific for the intratibial tumors and verified by immunohistochemistry in tissue specimens from LNCaP-19 xenograft tumors. Additionally, the overall steroidogenic effect was reflected by corresponding levels of progesterone and testosterone in serum from castrated mice with intratibial xenografts. A bi-directional interplay was demonstrated since both proliferation and Esr2 expression of osteoblasts were induced by CRPC cells in steroid-depleted conditions. Together, our results demonstrate that osteoblasts are important mediators of the intratumoral steroidogenesis of CRPC and for castration-resistant growth in bone. Targeting osteoblasts may therefore be important in the development of new therapeutic approaches.

  3. Differentiation of brain metastases by percentagewise quantification of intratumoral-susceptibility-signals at 3 Tesla

    Radbruch, Alexander, E-mail: [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Heidelberg Medical Center (Germany); Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) (Germany); Graf, Markus, E-mail: [Software Development for Integrated Diagnosis and Therapy, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) (Germany); Kramp, Linda, E-mail: [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Heidelberg Medical Center (Germany); Wiestler, Benedikt, E-mail: [Department of Neurooncology, University of Heidelberg Medical Center (Germany); Floca, Ralf, E-mail: [Software Development for Integrated Diagnosis and Therapy, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) (Germany); Bäumer, Philipp, E-mail: [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Heidelberg Medical Center (Germany); Roethke, Matthias, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) (Germany); Stieltjes, Bram, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) (Germany); Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) (Germany); Heiland, Sabine, E-mail: [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Heidelberg Medical Center (Germany); Bendszus, Martin, E-mail: [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Heidelberg Medical Center (Germany)


    Introduction: Evaluation of intratumoral-susceptibility-signals (ITSS) in susceptibility-weighted-imaging (SWI) has been reported to improve diagnostic performance for solitary enhancing brain lesions. Due to the distinct morphologic variability of ITSS, standardized evaluation proved to be difficult. We analyzed, if a new postprocessing method using percentagewise quantification (PQ) of ITSS enables differentiation between different entities of cerebral metastases and may thus improve differential diagnosis in cases of unknown primary. Materials and methods: SWI and contrast enhanced T1-weighted MR images were acquired from 84 patients with intracerebral metastases (20 patients with mamma carcinoma (MC), 15 patients with malignant melanoma (MM), 49 patients with bronchial carcinoma (BC)) at 3 Tesla MR. Images were co-registered and enhancing lesions were delineated on T1-weighted images and the outline transferred to the corresponding SWI map. All voxels within the lesion presenting values below a reference value placed in the ventricular system were determined and percentagewise calculated. Results: Diagnostic performance of percentagewise quantification (PQ) of ITSS, as determined with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was excellent (AUC = 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90, 1.00) to discriminate MM from MC, good for the discrimination of MM and BC (AUC = 0.81, 95% CI 0.70, 0.92) and poor for the discrimination of MC and BC (AUC = 0.60; 95% CI 0.47, 0.73). Conclusion: PQ is a new approach for the assessment of SWI that can be used for differential diagnosis of intracerebral metastases. Metastases of MM and MC or BC can be distinguished with high sensitivity and specificity.

  4. Intratumoral heterogeneity: Role of differentiation in a potentially lethal phenotype of testicular cancer.

    Tu, Shi-Ming; Bilen, Mehmet Asim; Hess, Kenneth R; Broaddus, Russell R; Kopetz, Scott; Wei, Chongjuan; Pagliaro, Lance C; Karam, Jose A; Ward, John F; Wood, Christopher G; Rao, Priya; Tu, Zachary H; General, Rosale; Chen, Adrienne H; Nieto, Yago L; Yeung, Sai-Ching J; Lin, Sue-Hwa; Logothetis, Christopher J; Pisters, Louis L


    Intratumoral heterogeneity presents a major obstacle to the widespread implementation of precision medicine. The authors assessed the origin of intratumoral heterogeneity in nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis (NSGCT) and identified distinct tumor subtypes and a potentially lethal phenotype. In this retrospective study, all consecutive patients who had been diagnosed with an NSGCT between January 2000 and December 2010 were evaluated. The histologic makeup of primary tumors and the clinical course of disease were determined for each patient. A Fine and Gray proportional hazards regression analysis was used to determine the prognostic risk factors, and the Gray test was used to detect differences in the cumulative incidence of cancer death. In a separate prospective study, next-generation sequencing was performed on tumor samples from 9 patients to identify any actionable mutations. Six hundred fifteen patients were included in this study. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of yolk sac tumor in the primary tumor (P = .0003) was associated with an unfavorable prognosis. NSGCT could be divided into 5 subgroups. Patients in the yolk sac-seminoma subgroup had the poorest clinical outcome (P = .0015). These tumors tended to undergo somatic transformation (P Cancer 2016;122:1836-43. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  5. Differentiating intratumoral melanocytes from Langerhans cells in nonmelanocytic pigmented skin tumors in vivo by label-free third-harmonic generation microscopy

    Weng, Wei-Hung; Liao, Yi-Hua; Tsai, Ming-Rung; Wei, Ming-Liang; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Sun, Chi-Kuang


    Morphology and distribution of melanocytes are critical imaging information for the diagnosis of melanocytic lesions. However, how to image intratumoral melanocytes noninvasively in pigmented skin tumors is seldom investigated. Third-harmonic generation (THG) is shown to be enhanced by melanin, whereas high accuracy has been demonstrated using THG microscopy for in vivo differential diagnosis of nonmelanocytic pigmented skin tumors. It is thus desirable to investigate if label-free THG microscopy was capable to in vivo identify intratumoral melanocytes. In this study, histopathological correlations of label-free THG images with the immunohistochemical images stained with human melanoma black (HMB)-45 and cluster of differentiation 1a (CD1a) were made. The correlation results indicated that the intratumoral THG-bright dendritic-cell-like signals were endogenously derived from melanocytes rather than Langerhans cells (LCs). The consistency between THG-bright dendritic-cell-like signals and HMB-45 melanocyte staining showed a kappa coefficient of 0.807, 84.6% sensitivity, and 95% specificity. In contrast, a kappa coefficient of -0.37, 21.7% sensitivity, and 30% specificity were noted between the THG-bright dendritic-cell-like signals and CD1a staining for LCs. Our study indicates the capability of noninvasive label-free THG microscopy to differentiate intratumoral melanocytes from LCs, which is not feasible in previous in vivo label-free clinical-imaging modalities.

  6. Agonist anti-GITR monoclonal antibody induces melanoma tumor immunity in mice by altering regulatory T cell stability and intra-tumor accumulation.

    Adam D Cohen

    Full Text Available In vivo GITR ligation has previously been shown to augment T-cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity, yet the underlying mechanisms of this activity, particularly its in vivo effects on CD4+ foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs, have not been fully elucidated. In order to translate this immunotherapeutic approach to the clinic it is important gain better understanding of its mechanism(s of action. Utilizing the agonist anti-GITR monoclonal antibody DTA-1, we found that in vivo GITR ligation modulates regulatory T cells (Tregs directly during induction of melanoma tumor immunity. As a monotherapy, DTA-1 induced regression of small established B16 melanoma tumors. Although DTA-1 did not alter systemic Treg frequencies nor abrogate the intrinsic suppressive activity of Tregs within the tumor-draining lymph node, intra-tumor Treg accumulation was significantly impaired. This resulted in a greater Teff:Treg ratio and enhanced tumor-specific CD8+ T-cell activity. The decreased intra-tumor Treg accumulation was due both to impaired infiltration, coupled with DTA-1-induced loss of foxp3 expression in intra-tumor Tregs. Histological analysis of B16 tumors grown in Foxp3-GFP mice showed that the majority of GFP+ cells had lost Foxp3 expression. These "unstable" Tregs were absent in IgG-treated tumors and in DTA-1 treated TDLN, demonstrating a tumor-specific effect. Impairment of Treg infiltration was lost if Tregs were GITR(-/-, and the protective effects of DTA-1 were reduced in reconstituted RAG1(-/- mice if either the Treg or Teff subset were GITR-negative and absent if both were negative. Our results demonstrate that DTA-1 modulates both Teffs and Tregs during effective tumor treatment. The data suggest that DTA-1 prevents intra-tumor Treg accumulation by altering their stability, and as a result of the loss of foxp3 expression, may modify their intra-tumor suppressive capacity. These findings provide further support for the continued development of agonist

  7. Non-invasive assessment of intratumoral vascularity using arterial spin labeling: A comparison to susceptibility-weighted imaging for the differentiation of primary cerebral lymphoma and glioblastoma

    Furtner, J., E-mail: [Department of Biomedical Imaging und Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Comprehensive Cancer Center-Central Nervous System Tumors Unit (CCC-CNS), Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Schöpf, V., E-mail: [Department of Biomedical Imaging und Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Preusser, M., E-mail: [Department of Medicine I, Division of Oncology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Comprehensive Cancer Center-Central Nervous System Tumors Unit (CCC-CNS), Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Asenbaum, U., E-mail: [Department of Biomedical Imaging und Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Woitek, R., E-mail: [Department of Biomedical Imaging und Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Wöhrer, A., E-mail: [Institute of Neurology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Comprehensive Cancer Center-Central Nervous System Tumors Unit (CCC-CNS), Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Hainfellner, J.A., E-mail: [Institute of Neurology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Comprehensive Cancer Center-Central Nervous System Tumors Unit (CCC-CNS), Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Wolfsberger, S., E-mail: [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Comprehensive Cancer Center-Central Nervous System Tumors Unit (CCC-CNS), Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Prayer, D., E-mail: [Department of Biomedical Imaging und Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Comprehensive Cancer Center-Central Nervous System Tumors Unit (CCC-CNS), Medical University of Vienna (Austria)


    Using conventional MRI methods, the differentiation of primary cerebral lymphomas (PCNSL) and other primary brain tumors, such as glioblastomas, is difficult due to overlapping imaging characteristics. This study was designed to discriminate tumor entities using normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity values (nVITS) obtained from pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL), combined with intratumoral susceptibility signals (ITSS) from susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). Thirty consecutive patients with glioblastoma (n = 22) and PCNSL (n = 8), histologically classified according to the WHO brain tumor classification, were included. MRIs were acquired on a 3 T scanner, and included PASL and SWI sequences. nVITS was defined by the signal intensity ratio between the tumor and the contralateral normal brain tissue, as obtained by PASL images. ITSS was determined as intratumoral low signal intensity structures detected on SWI sequences and were divided into four different grades. Potential differences in the nVITS and ITSS between glioblastomas and PCNSLs were revealed using statistical testing. To determine sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy, as well as an optimum cut-off value for the differentiation of PCNSL and glioblastoma, a receiver operating characteristic analysis was used. We found that nVITS (p = 0.011) and ITSS (p = 0.001) values were significantly higher in glioblastoma than in PCNSL. The optimal cut-off value for nVITS was 1.41 and 1.5 for ITSS, with a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of more than 95%. These findings indicate that nVITS values have a comparable diagnostic accuracy to ITSS values in differentiating glioblastoma and PCNSL, offering a completely non-invasive and fast assessment of tumoral vascularity in a clinical setting.

  8. Differential intratumoral distributions of CD8 and CD163 immune cells as prognostic biomarkers in breast cancer.

    Fortis, Sotirios P; Sofopoulos, Michael; Sotiriadou, Nectaria N; Haritos, Christoforos; Vaxevanis, Christoforos K; Anastasopoulou, Eleftheria A; Janssen, Nicole; Arnogiannaki, Niki; Ardavanis, Alexandros; Pawelec, Graham; Perez, Sonia A; Baxevanis, Constantin N


    Tumor immune cell infiltrates are essential in hindering cancer progression and may complement the TNM classification. CD8+ and CD163+ cells have prognostic impact in breast cancer but their spatial heterogeneity has not been extensively explored in this type of cancer. Here, their potential as prognostic biomarkers was evaluated, depending on their combined densities in the tumor center (TC) and the tumor invasive margin (IM). CD8+ and CD163+ cells were quantified by immunohistochemistry of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor tissue samples from a cohort totaling 162 patients with histologically-confirmed primary invasive non-metastatic ductal breast cancer diagnosed between 2000 and 2015. Clinical follow-up (median 6.9 years) was available for 97 of these patients. Differential densities of CD8+ and CD163+ cells in the combined TC and IM compartments (i.e., high(H)/low(L), respectively for CD8+ cells and the reverse L/H combination for CD163+ cells) were found to have significant prognostic value for survival, and allowed better patient stratification than TNM stage, tumor size, lymph node invasion and histological grade. The combined evaluation of CD8+ and CD163+ cell densities jointly in TC and IM further improves prediction of clinical outcomes based on disease-free and overall survival. Patients having the favorable immune signatures had favorable clinical outcomes despite poor clinicopathological parameters. Given the important roles of CD8+ and CD163+ cells in regulating opposing immune circuits, adding an assessment of their differential densities to the prognostic biomarker armamentarium in breast cancer would be valuable. Larger validation studies are necessary to confirm these findings. Study code: IRB-ID 6079/448/10-6-13 Date of approval: 10/06/2013 Retrospective study (2000-2010) First patient prospectively enrolled 14/2/2014.

  9. Minimal-invasive magnetic heating of tumors does not alter intra-tumoral nanoparticle accumulation, allowing for repeated therapy sessions: an in vivo study in mice

    Kettering, Melanie; Richter, Heike; Wiekhorst, Frank; Bremer-Streck, Sibylle; Trahms, Lutz; Alois Kaiser, Werner; Hilger, Ingrid


    Localized magnetic heating treatments (hyperthermia, thermal ablation) using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) continue to be an active area of cancer research. For generating the appropriate heat to sufficiently target cell destruction, adequate MNP concentrations need to be accumulated into tumors. Furthermore, the knowledge of MNP bio-distribution after application and additionally after heating is significant, firstly because of the possibility of repeated heating treatments if MNPs remain at the target region and secondly to study potential adverse effects dealing with MNP dilution from the target region over time. In this context, little is known about the behavior of MNPs after intra-tumoral application and magnetic heating. Therefore, the present in vivo study on the bio-distribution of intra-tumorally injected MNPs in mice focused on MNP long term monitoring of pre and post therapy over seven days using multi-channel magnetorelaxometry (MRX). Subsequently, single-channel MRX was adopted to study the bio-distribution of MNPs in internal organs and tumors of sacrificed animals. We found no distinct change of total MNP amounts in vivo during long term monitoring. Most of the MNP amounts remained in the tumors; only a few MNPs were detected in liver and spleen and less than 1% of totally injected MNPs were excreted. Apparently, the application of magnetic heating and the induction of apoptosis did not affect MNP accumulation. Our results indicate that MNP mainly remained within the injection side after magnetic heating over a seven-days-observation and therefore not affecting healthy tissue. As a consequence, localized magnetic heating therapy of tumors might be applied periodically for a better therapeutic outcome.

  10. Imaging patterns of intratumoral calcification in the abdominopelvic cavity

    Yu, Mi Hye; Kim, Young Jun; Park, Hee Sun; Jung, Sung Il; Jeon, Hae Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul(Korea, Republic of)


    Intratumoral calcification is one of the most noticeable of radiologic findings. It facilitates detection and provides information important for correctly diagnosing tumors. In the abdominopelvic cavity, a wide variety of tumors have calcifications with various imaging features, though the majority of such calcifications are dystrophic in nature. In this article, we classify the imaging patterns of intratumoral calcification according to number, location, and morphology. Then, we describe commonly-encountered abdominopelvic tumors containing typical calcification patterns, focusing on their differentiable characteristics using the imaging patterns of intratumoral calcification.

  11. Imaging Patterns of Intratumoral Calcification in the Abdominopelvic Cavity

    Yu, Mi Hye; Park, Hee Sun; Jung, Sung Il; Jeon, Hae Jeong


    Intratumoral calcification is one of the most noticeable of radiologic findings. It facilitates detection and provides information important for correctly diagnosing tumors. In the abdominopelvic cavity, a wide variety of tumors have calcifications with various imaging features, though the majority of such calcifications are dystrophic in nature. In this article, we classify the imaging patterns of intratumoral calcification according to number, location, and morphology. Then, we describe commonly-encountered abdominopelvic tumors containing typical calcification patterns, focusing on their differentiable characteristics using the imaging patterns of intratumoral calcification. PMID:28246512

  12. Genetic alterations in poorly differentiated and undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas.

    Soares, Paula; Lima, Jorge; Preto, Ana; Castro, Patricia; Vinagre, João; Celestino, Ricardo; Couto, Joana P; Prazeres, Hugo; Eloy, Catarina; Máximo, Valdemar; Sobrinho-Simões, M


    Thyroid gland presents a wide spectrum of tumours derived from follicular cells that range from well differentiated, papillary and follicular carcinoma (PTC and FTC, respectively), usually carrying a good prognosis, to the clinically aggressive, poorly differentiated (PDTC) and undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC).It is usually accepted that PDTC and UTC occur either de novo or progress from a pre-existing well differentiated carcinoma through a multistep process of genetic and epigenetic changes that lead to clonal expansion and neoplastic development. Mutations and epigenetic alterations in PDTC and UTC are far from being totally clarified. Assuming that PDTC and UTC may derive from well differentiated thyroid carcinomas (WDTC), it is expected that some PDTC and UTC would harbour genetic alterations that are typical of PTC and FTC. This is the case for some molecular markers (BRAF and NRAS) that are present in WDTC, PDTC and UTC. Other genes, namely P53, are almost exclusively detected in less differentiated and undifferentiated thyroid tumours, supporting a diagnosis of PDTC or, much more often, UTC. Thyroid-specific rearrangements RET/PTC and PAX8/PPARγ, on the other hand, are rarely found in PDTC and UTC, suggesting that these genetic alterations do not predispose cells to dedifferentiation. In the present review we have summarized the molecular changes associated with the two most aggressive types of thyroid cancer.

  13. Genetic Alterations in Poorly Differentiated and Undifferentiated Thyroid Carcinomas

    Soares, Paula; Lima, Jorge; Preto, Ana; Castro, Patricia; Vinagre, João; Celestino, Ricardo; Couto, Joana P; Prazeres, Hugo; Eloy, Catarina; Máximo, Valdemar; Sobrinho-Simões, M


    Thyroid gland presents a wide spectrum of tumours derived from follicular cells that range from well differentiated, papillary and follicular carcinoma (PTC and FTC, respectively), usually carrying a good prognosis, to the clinically aggressive, poorly differentiated (PDTC) and undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC). It is usually accepted that PDTC and UTC occur either de novo or progress from a pre-existing well differentiated carcinoma through a multistep process of genetic and epigenetic changes that lead to clonal expansion and neoplastic development. Mutations and epigenetic alterations in PDTC and UTC are far from being totally clarified. Assuming that PDTC and UTC may derive from well differentiated thyroid carcinomas (WDTC), it is expected that some PDTC and UTC would harbour genetic alterations that are typical of PTC and FTC. This is the case for some molecular markers (BRAF and NRAS) that are present in WDTC, PDTC and UTC. Other genes, namely P53, are almost exclusively detected in less differentiated and undifferentiated thyroid tumours, supporting a diagnosis of PDTC or, much more often, UTC. Thyroid-specific rearrangements RET/PTC and PAX8/PPARγ, on the other hand, are rarely found in PDTC and UTC, suggesting that these genetic alterations do not predispose cells to dedifferentiation. In the present review we have summarized the molecular changes associated with the two most aggressive types of thyroid cancer. PMID:22654560

  14. Persistent organic pollutants alter DNA methylation during human adipocyte differentiation.

    van den Dungen, Myrthe W; Murk, Albertinka J; Kok, Dieuwertje E; Steegenga, Wilma T


    Ubiquitous persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can accumulate in humans where they might influence differentiation of adipocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether DNA methylation is one of the underlying mechanisms by which POPs affect adipocyte differentiation, and to what extent DNA methylation can be related to gene transcription. Adipocyte differentiation was induced in two human cell models with continuous exposure to different POPs throughout differentiation. From the seven tested POPs, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) decreased lipid accumulation, while tributyltin (TBT) increased lipid accumulation. In human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), TCDD and TBT induced opposite gene expression profiles, whereas after PFOS exposure gene expression remained relatively stable. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis showed that all three POPs affected DNA methylation patterns in adipogenic and other genes, possibly related to the phenotypic outcome, but without concomitant gene expression changes. Differential methylation was predominantly detected in intergenic regions, where the biological relevance of alterations in DNA methylation is unclear. This study demonstrates that POPs, at environmentally relevant levels, are able to induce differential DNA methylation in human differentiating adipocytes. Copyright © 2017 Wageningen University. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Culture adaptation alters transcriptional hierarchies among single human embryonic stem cells reflecting altered patterns of differentiation.

    Gokhale, Paul J; Au-Young, Janice K; Dadi, SriVidya; Keys, David N; Harrison, Neil J; Jones, Mark; Soneji, Shamit; Enver, Tariq; Sherlock, Jon K; Andrews, Peter W


    We have used single cell transcriptome analysis to re-examine the substates of early passage, karyotypically Normal, and late passage, karyotypically Abnormal ('Culture Adapted') human embryonic stem cells characterized by differential expression of the cell surface marker antigen, SSEA3. The results confirmed that culture adaptation is associated with alterations to the dynamics of the SSEA3(+) and SSEA3(-) substates of these cells, with SSEA3(-) Adapted cells remaining within the stem cell compartment whereas the SSEA3(-) Normal cells appear to have differentiated. However, the single cell data reveal that these substates are characterized by further heterogeneity that changes on culture adaptation. Notably the Adapted population includes cells with a transcriptome substate suggestive of a shift to a more naïve-like phenotype in contrast to the cells of the Normal population. Further, a subset of the Normal SSEA3(+) cells expresses genes typical of endoderm differentiation, despite also expressing the undifferentiated stem cell genes, POU5F1 (OCT4) and NANOG, whereas such apparently lineage-primed cells are absent from the Adapted population. These results suggest that the selective growth advantage gained by genetically variant, culture adapted human embryonic stem cells may derive in part from a changed substate structure that influences their propensity for differentiation.

  16. Differential Geometric Analysis of Alterations in MH α-Helices

    Hischenhuber, Birgit; Havlicek, Hans; Todoric, Jelena; Höllrigl-Binder, Sonja; Schreiner, Wolfgang; Knapp, Bernhard


    Antigen presenting cells present processed peptides via their major histocompatibility (MH) complex to the T cell receptors (TRs) of T cells. If a peptide is immunogenic, a signaling cascade can be triggered within the T cell. However, the binding of different peptides and/or different TRs to MH is also known to influence the spatial arrangement of the MH α-helices which could itself be an additional level of T cell regulation. In this study, we introduce a new methodology based on differential geometric parameters to describe MH deformations in a detailed and comparable way. For this purpose, we represent MH α-helices by curves. On the basis of these curves, we calculate in a first step the curvature and torsion to describe each α-helix independently. In a second step, we calculate the distribution parameter and the conical curvature of the ruled surface to describe the relative orientation of the two α-helices. On the basis of four different test sets, we show how these differential geometric parameters can be used to describe changes in the spatial arrangement of the MH α-helices for different biological challenges. In the first test set, we illustrate on the basis of all available crystal structures for (TR)/pMH complexes how the binding of TRs influences the MH helices. In the second test set, we show a cross evaluation of different MH alleles with the same peptide and the same MH allele with different peptides. In the third test set, we present the spatial effects of different TRs on the same peptide/MH complex. In the fourth test set, we illustrate how a severe conformational change in an α-helix can be described quantitatively. Taken together, we provide a novel structural methodology to numerically describe subtle and severe alterations in MH α-helices for a broad range of applications. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23703160

  17. Intra-tumor distribution of PEGylated liposome upon repeated injection: No possession by prior dose.

    Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Abu Lila, Amr S; Nishio, Miho; Tanaka, Masao; Ando, Hidenori; Kiwada, Hiroshi; Ishida, Tatsuhiro


    Liposomes have proven to be a viable means for the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to solid tumors. However, significant variability has been detected in their intra-tumor accumulation and distribution, resulting in compromised therapeutic outcomes. We recently examined the intra-tumor accumulation and distribution of weekly sequentially administered oxaliplatin (l-OHP)-containing PEGylated liposomes. In that study, the first and second doses of l-OHP-containing PEGylated liposomes were distributed diversely and broadly within tumor tissues, resulting in a potent anti-tumor efficacy. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying such a diverse and broad liposome distribution. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the influence of dosage interval on the intra-tumor accumulation and distribution of "empty" PEGylated liposomes. Intra-tumor distribution of sequentially administered "empty" PEGylated liposomes was altered in a dosing interval-dependent manner. In addition, the intra-tumor distribution pattern was closely related to the chronological alteration of tumor blood flow as well as vascular permeability in the growing tumor tissue. These results suggest that the sequential administrations of PEGylated liposomes in well-spaced intervals might allow the distribution to different areas and enhance the total bulk accumulation within tumor tissue, resulting in better therapeutic efficacy of the encapsulated payload. This study may provide useful information for a better design of therapeutic regimens involving multiple administrations of nanocarrier drug delivery systems.

  18. Intratumor DNA methylation heterogeneity reflects clonal evolution in aggressive prostate cancer

    Brocks, David; Assenov, Yassen; Minner, Sarah


    Despite much evidence on epigenetic abnormalities in cancer, it is currently unclear to what extent epigenetic alterations can be associated with tumors' clonal genetic origins. Here, we show that the prostate intratumor heterogeneity in DNA methylation and copy-number patterns can be explained b...

  19. Intratumor Heterogeneity and Branched Evolution Revealed by Multiregion Sequencing

    Gerlinger, Marco; Rowan, Andrew J.; Horswell, Stuart


    BACKGROUND: Intratumor heterogeneity may foster tumor evolution and adaptation and hinder personalized-medicine strategies that depend on results from single tumor-biopsy samples.METHODSTo examine intratumor heterogeneity, we performed exome sequencing, chromosome aberration analysis, and ploidy ...

  20. Intratumor Heterogeneity and Branched Evolution Revealed by Multiregion Sequencing

    Gerlinger, Marco; Rowan, Andrew J.; Horswell, Stuart


    BACKGROUND: Intratumor heterogeneity may foster tumor evolution and adaptation and hinder personalized-medicine strategies that depend on results from single tumor-biopsy samples.METHODSTo examine intratumor heterogeneity, we performed exome sequencing, chromosome aberration analysis, and ploidy ...

  1. Arterial spin-labeling assessment of normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity as a predictor of histologic grade of astrocytic neoplasms.

    Furtner, J; Schöpf, V; Schewzow, K; Kasprian, G; Weber, M; Woitek, R; Asenbaum, U; Preusser, M; Marosi, C; Hainfellner, J A; Widhalm, G; Wolfsberger, S; Prayer, D


    Pulsed arterial spin-labeling is a noninvasive MR imaging perfusion method performed with the use of water in the arterial blood as an endogenous contrast agent. The purpose of this study was to determine the inversion time with the largest difference in normalized intratumoral signal intensity between high-grade and low-grade astrocytomas. Thirty-three patients with gliomas, histologically classified as low-grade (n = 7) or high-grade astrocytomas (n = 26) according to the World Health Organization brain tumor classification, were included. A 3T MR scanner was used to perform pulsed arterial spin-labeling measurements at 8 different inversion times (370 ms, 614 ms, 864 ms, 1114 ms, 1364 ms, 1614 ms, 1864 ms, and 2114 ms). Normalized intratumoral signal intensity was calculated, which was defined by the signal intensity ratio of the tumor and the contralateral normal brain tissue for all fixed inversion times. A 3-way mixed ANOVA was used to reveal potential differences in the normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity between high-grade and low-grade astrocytomas. The difference in normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity between high-grade and low-grade astrocytomas obtained the most statistically significant results at 370 ms (P = .003, other P values ranged from .012-.955). The inversion time by which to differentiate high-grade and low-grade astrocytomas by use of normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity was 370 ms in our study. The normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity values at this inversion time mainly reflect the labeled intra-arterial blood bolus and therefore could be referred to as normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity. Our data indicate that the use of normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity values allows differentiation between low-grade and high-grade astrocytomas and thus may serve as a new, noninvasive marker for astrocytoma grading.

  2. Intratumoral Approaches for the Treatment of Melanoma.

    Bommareddy, Praveen K; Silk, Ann W; Kaufman, Howard L

    There have been significant advances in the immunotherapy of melanoma over the last decade. The tumor microenvironment is now known to promote an immune-suppressive milieu that can block effective immune-mediated tumor rejection. Several novel strategies designed to overcome local immunosuppression hold promise for treatment of melanoma and other cancers. These approaches include oncolytic viruses, plasmid DNA delivery, Toll-like receptor agonists, inflammatory dyes, cytokines, checkpoint inhibitors, immunomodulatory agents, and host and pathogenic cell-based vectors. In addition, there are several novel methods for local drug delivery, including direct injection, image-guided, electroporation, and nanodelivery techniques under study. The approval of talimogene laherparepvec (Imlygic), an attenuated, recombinant oncolytic herpesvirus, for melanoma treatment is the first intratumoral agent to receive regulatory approval for the treatment of patients with melanoma. This review will focus on the rationale for intratumoral treatment in melanoma, describe the clinical and safety data for some of the agents in clinical development, and provide a perspective for future clinical investigation with intratumoral approaches. Melanoma has been a paradigm tumor for progress in targeted therapy and immunotherapy and will likely also be the tumor to establish the therapeutic role of intratumoral treatment for cancer.

  3. Altered macrophage differentiation and immune dysfunction in tumor development.

    Sica, Antonio; Bronte, Vincenzo


    Tumors require a constant influx of myelomonocytic cells to support the angiogenesis and stroma remodeling needed for their growth. This is mediated by tumor-derived factors, which cause sustained myelopoiesis and the accumulation and functional differentiation of myelomonocytic cells, most of which are macrophages, at the tumor site. An important side effect of the accumulation and functional differentiation of these cells is that they can induce lymphocyte dysfunction. A complete understanding of the complex interplay between neoplastic and myelomonocytic cells might offer novel targets for therapeutic intervention aimed at depriving tumor cells of important growth support and enhancing the antitumor immune response.

  4. Genetic diversity in normal cell populations is the earliest stage of oncogenesis leading to intra-tumor heterogeneity

    Cory L Howk


    Full Text Available Random mutations and epigenetic alterations provide a rich substrate for microevolutionary phenomena to occur in proliferating epithelial tissues. Genetic diversity resulting from random mutations in normal cells is critically important for understanding the genetic basis of oncogenesis. However, evaluation of the cell-specific role of individual (epi-genetic alterations in living tissues is extremely difficult from a direct experimental perspective. We have developed a theoretical model for uterine epithelial cell proliferation. Computational simulations have shown that a base-line mutation rate of two mutations per cell division is sufficient to explain sporadic endometrial cancer as a rare evolutionary consequence with an incidence similar to that reported in SEER data. Simulation of the entire oncogenic process has allowed us to analyze the features of the tumor initiating cells and their clonal expansion. Analysis of the malignant features of individual cancer cells, such as de-differentiation status, proliferation potential, and immortalization status, permits a mathematical characterization of malignancy and a comparison of intra-tumor heterogeneity between individual tumors. We found, under the conditions specified, that cancer stem cells account for approximately 7% of the total cancer cell population. Taken together, our mathematical modeling describes the genetic diversity and evolution in a normal cell population at the early stages of oncogenesis and characterizes intra-tumor heterogeneity. This model has explored the role of accumulation of a large number of genetic alterations in oncogenesis as an alternative to traditional biological approaches emphasizing the driving role of a small number of genetic mutations, and this accumulation, along with environmental factors, has a significant impact on the growth advantage of and selection pressure on individual cancer cells and the resulting tumor composition and progression.

  5. Persistent organic pollutants alter DNA methylation during human adipocyte differentiation

    Dungen, van den Myrthe; Murk, Tinka; Steegenga, Wilma; Gils-Kok, van Dieuwertje


    Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling was performed in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) differentiated into adipocytes (day 10) while being continuously exposed to either one of three different persistent organic pollutants (POPs), namely TCDD, PFOS, and TBT. The Illumina Infinium 450K Human DNA

  6. Endometrial metaplasias and reactive changes: a spectrum of altered differentiation.

    Nicolae, Alina; Preda, Ovidiu; Nogales, Francisco F


    Endometrial metaplasias and changes (EMCs) are conditions frequently overlooked and misdiagnosed. The aim of this review is to update current issues and provide a classification with a practical clinicopathological approach. Hormonal or irritative stimuli are the main inducing factors of EMCs, although some metaplasias have a mutational origin. EMCs vary from reactive, degenerative lesions to those able to associate with malignancy or those having a preneoplastic potential. The most common types of EMCs are ciliated tubal metaplasia (CTM) and mucinous metaplasia (MM), which occur in simple and complex glands, and possibly these architectural changes hold the same prognostic significance as they do in hyperplastic endometrioid lesions. Immunohistochemically, CTM is positive for LhS28, bcl-2, PAX2 and p16(INK4A). Complex CTM is likely to be a precursor of ciliated endometrioid-type carcinomas. MMs should be evaluated architecturally, taking into account that their atypicality is minimal. The differentiation between complex MM and mucinous carcinoma may be extremely difficult. Surface complex, papillary MM in endometrial polyps can be considered as benign. Intestinal-type endometrial MM is rare and its presence should prompt further investigation of associated lesions in the endocervix. Endometrial squamous metaplasia (ESS) is often linked to chronic irritative situations. It should be differentiated from secondary involvement by a human papilomavirus-related cervical lesion. Morular metaplasia is a mutational phenomenon with a distinct phenotype that helps to differentiate it from ESS. Morules are benign, hormonally inert structures that are often markers of complex endometrioid glandular architecture, and they are associated with an attenuated malignancy. Endometrial reactive changes are commonly associated with desquamation or hormonal imbalance. The frequent, p16(INK4A) positive, benign surface papillary syncytial change may be misdiagnosed, in some cases, as

  7. Current status of intratumoral therapy for glioblastoma.

    Mehta, Ankit I; Linninger, Andreas; Lesniak, Maciej S; Engelhard, Herbert H


    With emerging drug delivery technologies becoming accessible, more options are expected to become available to patients with glioblastoma (GBM) in the near future. It is important for clinicians to be familiar with the underlying mechanisms and limitations of intratumoral drug delivery, and direction of recent research efforts. Tumor-adjacent brain is an extremely complex living matrix that creates challenges with normal tissue intertwining with tumor cells. For convection-enhanced delivery (CED), the role of tissue anisotropy for better predicting the biodistribution of the infusate has recently been studied. Computational predictive methods are now available to better plan CED therapy. Catheter design and placement—in addition to the agent being used—are critical components of any protocol. This paper overviews intratumoral therapies for GBM, highlighting key anatomic and physiologic perspectives, selected agents (especially immunotoxins), and some new developments such as the description of the glymphatic system.

  8. Surviving endoplasmic reticulum stress is coupled to altered chondrocyte differentiation and function.

    Kwok Yeung Tsang


    Full Text Available In protein folding and secretion disorders, activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress signaling (ERSS protects cells, alleviating stress that would otherwise trigger apoptosis. Whether the stress-surviving cells resume normal function is not known. We studied the in vivo impact of ER stress in terminally differentiating hypertrophic chondrocytes (HCs during endochondral bone formation. In transgenic mice expressing mutant collagen X as a consequence of a 13-base pair deletion in Col10a1 (13del, misfolded alpha1(X chains accumulate in HCs and elicit ERSS. Histological and gene expression analyses showed that these chondrocytes survived ER stress, but terminal differentiation is interrupted, and endochondral bone formation is delayed, producing a chondrodysplasia phenotype. This altered differentiation involves cell-cycle re-entry, the re-expression of genes characteristic of a prehypertrophic-like state, and is cell-autonomous. Concomitantly, expression of Col10a1 and 13del mRNAs are reduced, and ER stress is alleviated. ERSS, abnormal chondrocyte differentiation, and altered growth plate architecture also occur in mice expressing mutant collagen II and aggrecan. Alteration of the differentiation program in chondrocytes expressing unfolded or misfolded proteins may be part of an adaptive response that facilitates survival and recovery from the ensuing ER stress. However, the altered differentiation disrupts the highly coordinated events of endochondral ossification culminating in chondrodysplasia.

  9. Osteochondroma of the sella turcica presenting with intratumoral hemorrhage.

    Inoue, Tomoo; Takahashi, Noboru; Murakami, Kensuke; Nishimura, Shinjitsu; Kaimori, Mitsuomi; Nishijima, Michiharu


    A 29-year-old man presented with a primary sellar turcica osteochondroma manifesting as intratumoral hemorrhage mimicking pituitary apoplexy. The patient suffered sudden onset of headache concomitant with vision loss in the left eye. Radiography and computed tomography detected destruction and calcification of the sellar turcica. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a heterogeneously enhanced suprasellar mass that had elevated and compressed the optic chiasm. The preoperative diagnosis was hemorrhagic pituitary adenoma, craniopharyngioma, meningioma, or chordoma based on the signal heterogeneity of the lesion. To relieve the symptoms and make a definitive diagnosis, surgical removal via a basal interhemispheric approach was carried out. The tumor was not totally removed because of tight adhesion to the pituitary stalk, but postoperative ophthalmological examination revealed improvement of the visual disturbance. The histological diagnosis was osteochondroma based on the presence of mature chondrocytes and osteomatous tissue. Osteochondroma should be included in the differential diagnosis of tumors with acute hemorrhage in the sella turcica.

  10. MicroRNA and DNA methylation alterations mediating retinoic acid induced neuroblastoma cell differentiation.

    Stallings, Raymond L; Foley, Niamh H; Bray, Isabella M; Das, Sudipto; Buckley, Patrick G


    Many neuroblastoma cell lines can be induced to differentiate into a mature neuronal cell type with retinoic acid and other compounds, providing an important model system for elucidating signalling pathways involved in this highly complex process. Recently, it has become apparent that miRNAs, which act as regulators of gene expression at a post-transcriptional level, are differentially expressed in differentiating cells and play important roles governing many aspects of this process. This includes the down-regulation of DNA methyltransferases that cause the de-methylation and transcriptional activation of numerous protein coding gene sequences. The purpose of this article is to review involvement of miRNAs and DNA methylation alterations in the process of neuroblastoma cell differentiation. A thorough understanding of miRNA and genetic pathways regulating neuroblastoma cell differentiation potentially could lead to targeted therapies for this disease.

  11. Alterations of mineral elements in osteoblast during differentiation under hypo, moderate and high static magnetic fields.

    Zhang, Jian; Ding, Chong; Shang, Peng


    Static magnetic fields (SMFs) can enhance the ability of bone formation by osteoblast and is a potential physical therapy to bone disorders and the maintenance of bone health. But, the mechanism is not clear yet. Certain mineral elements including macro and trace elements are essential for normal bone metabolism. Deficiency of these elements can cause severe bone disorders including osteoporosis. However, there are few reports regarding the role of mineral elements in the regulation of bone formation under SMFs. In this study, hypomagnetic field (HyMF) of 500 nT, moderate SMF (MMF) of 0.2 T, and high SMF (HiMF) of 16 T were used to investigate the effects of SMFs on mineral element (calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc) alteration of MC3T3-E1 cells during osteoblast mineralization. The results showed that osteoblasts in differentiation accumulated more mineral elements than non-differentiated cell cultures. Furthermore, HyMF reduced osteoblast differentiation but did not affect mineral elements levels compared with control of geomagnetic field. MMF decreased osteoblast differentiation with elevated iron content. HiMF enhanced osteoblast differentiation and increased all the mineral contents except copper. It is suggested that the altered potential of osteoblast differentiation under SMFs may partially due to the involvement of different mineral elements.

  12. Epigenetic alteration of imprinted genes during neural differentiation of germline-derived pluripotent stem cells.

    Lee, Hye Jeong; Choi, Na Young; Lee, Seung-Won; Ko, Kisung; Hwang, Tae Sook; Han, Dong Wook; Lim, Jisun; Schöler, Hans R; Ko, Kinarm


    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), which are unipotent stem cells in the testes that give rise to sperm, can be converted into germline-derived pluripotent stem (gPS) by self-induction. The androgenetic imprinting pattern of SSCs is maintained even after their reprogramming into gPS cells. In this study, we used an in vitro neural differentiation model to investigate whether the imprinting patterns are maintained or altered during differentiation. The androgenetic patterns of H19, Snrpn, and Mest were maintained even after differentiation of gPS cells into NSCs (gPS-NSCs), whereas the fully unmethylated status of Ndn in SSCs was altered to somatic patterns in gPS cells and gPS-NSCs. Thus, our study demonstrates epigenetic alteration of genomic imprinting during the induction of pluripotency in SSCs and neural differentiation, suggesting that gPS-NSCs can be a useful model to study the roles of imprinted genes in brain development and human neurodevelopmental disorders.

  13. Surface Curvature Differentially Regulates Stem Cell Migration and Differentiation via Altered Attachment Morphology and Nuclear Deformation

    Werner, Maike; Blanquer, Sébastien B. G.; Haimi, Suvi P.; Korus, Gabriela; Dunlop, John W. C.; Duda, Georg N.; Grijpma, Dirk. W.


    Signals from the microenvironment around a cell are known to influence cell behavior. Material properties, such as biochemical composition and substrate stiffness, are today accepted as significant regulators of stem cell fate. The knowledge of how cell behavior is influenced by 3D geometric cues is, however, strongly limited despite its potential relevance for the understanding of tissue regenerative processes and the design of biomaterials. Here, the role of surface curvature on the migratory and differentiation behavior of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) has been investigated on 3D surfaces with well‐defined geometric features produced by stereolithography. Time lapse microscopy reveals a significant increase of cell migration speed on concave spherical compared to convex spherical structures and flat surfaces resulting from an upward‐lift of the cell body due to cytoskeletal forces. On convex surfaces, cytoskeletal forces lead to substantial nuclear deformation, increase lamin‐A levels and promote osteogenic differentiation. The findings of this study demonstrate a so far missing link between 3D surface curvature and hMSC behavior. This will not only help to better understand the role of extracellular matrix architecture in health and disease but also give new insights in how 3D geometries can be used as a cell‐instructive material parameter in the field of biomaterial‐guided tissue regeneration.

  14. Diagnostic biopsy does not commonly induce intratumoral CD8 T cell infiltration in Merkel cell carcinoma.

    Shinichi Koba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Merkel cell carcinoma is a polyomavirus-associated cancer that is strongly linked with T lymphocyte immune suppression in epidemiologic studies. CD8+ T cell infiltration into MCC tumors (intratumoral has recently been shown to be strongly predictive of improved survival. In contrast, the presence of CD8+ T cells at the border of the tumor (peritumoral had no independent prognostic value. Spontaneous regression has been reported for MCC approximately one thousand times more often than would be expected given the frequency of this cancer. Many of these events began shortly after biopsy, and in some cases lymphocytic infiltration was described. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine whether CD8+ lymphocyte infiltration in MCC tumors is commonly altered by biopsy.33 MCC patients who had microscopic confirmation of MCC on both an initial biopsy and a re-excision specimen were included in this study. Intratumoral and peritumoral CD8 lymphocyte infiltration was quantitated using immunohistochemistry and compared using the paired t-test in biopsy versus re-excision samples. There was a trend toward increased CD8 infiltration after biopsy in a peritumoral ('stalled' pattern (p = 0.08, however, biopsy was not associated with a significant increase in CD8 T cells in the clinically more important intratumoral location (p = 0.58. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The initial diagnostic biopsy for MCC does not commonly alter intratumoral CD8+ T cell infiltration, suggesting it does not directly induce immunologic recognition of this cancer. Because CD8 infiltration is typically stable after biopsy, this parameter may be useful to assess the efficacy of future immune therapies for this virus-associated, immunogenic, often-lethal cancer.

  15. Legumain Regulates Differentiation Fate of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells and Is Altered in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis.

    Jafari, Abbas; Qanie, Diyako; Andersen, Thomas L; Zhang, Yuxi; Chen, Li; Postert, Benno; Parsons, Stuart; Ditzel, Nicholas; Khosla, Sundeep; Johansen, Harald Thidemann; Kjærsgaard-Andersen, Per; Delaisse, Jean-Marie; Abdallah, Basem M; Hesselson, Daniel; Solberg, Rigmor; Kassem, Moustapha


    Secreted factors are a key component of stem cell niche and their dysregulation compromises stem cell function. Legumain is a secreted cysteine protease involved in diverse biological processes. Here, we demonstrate that legumain regulates lineage commitment of human bone marrow stromal cells and that its expression level and cellular localization are altered in postmenopausal osteoporotic patients. As shown by genetic and pharmacological manipulation, legumain inhibited osteoblast (OB) differentiation and in vivo bone formation through degradation of the bone matrix protein fibronectin. In addition, genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of legumain activity led to precocious OB differentiation and increased vertebral mineralization in zebrafish. Finally, we show that localized increased expression of legumain in bone marrow adipocytes was inversely correlated with adjacent trabecular bone mass in a cohort of patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Our data suggest that altered proteolytic activity of legumain in the bone microenvironment contributes to decreased bone mass in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  16. Intratumoral sampling variability in hepatocellular carcinoma: A case report


    The differential diagnosis between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and regenerative liver nodules and other primary liver tumors may be very difficult,particularly when performed on liver biopsies. Difficulties in histological typing may be often minimized by immunohistochemistry. Among the numerous markers proposed, CK18, Hep Par1 and glypican 3 (GPC3) are considered the most useful in HCC diagnosis. Here we report a case of HCC in a 72-year-old male with HBV-related chronic liver disease, characterized by a marked morphological and immunohistochemical intratumoral variability. In this case, tumor grading ranged from areas extremely well differentiated, similar to regenerative nodule, to undifferentiated regions, with large atypical multinucleated cells. While almost all sub nodules were immunostained by Hep Par 1, immunoreactivity for glypican 3 and for Ck18 was patchy, with negative tumor region adjacent to the highly immunoreactive areas. Our case stresses the relevance of sampling variability in the diagnosis of HCC, and indicates that caution should be taken in grading an HCC and in the interpretation of immunohistochemical stains when only small core biopsies from liver nodules are available.

  17. Stromal-epithelial interactions in aging and cancer: Senescent fibroblasts alter epithelial cell differentiation

    Parrinello, Simona; Coppe, Jean-Philippe; Krtolica, Ana; Campisi, Judith


    Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by arresting cells at risk for malignant tumorigenesis. However, senescent cells also secrete molecules that can stimulate premalignant cells to proliferate and form tumors, suggesting the senescence response is antagonistically pleiotropic. We show that premalignant mammary epithelial cells exposed to senescent human fibroblasts in mice irreversibly lose differentiated properties, become invasive and undergo full malignant transformation. Moreover, using cultured mouse or human fibroblasts and non-malignant breast epithelial cells, we show that senescent fibroblasts disrupt epithelial alveolar morphogenesis, functional differentiation, and branching morphogenesis. Further, we identify MMP-3 as the major factor responsible for the effects of senescent fibroblasts on branching morphogenesis. Our findings support the idea that senescent cells contribute to age-related pathology, including cancer, and describe a new property of senescent fibroblasts--the ability to alter epithelial differentiation--that might also explain the loss of tissue function and organization that is a hallmark of aging.

  18. Selective estrogen receptor modulators differentially alter the immune response of gilthead seabream juveniles.

    Rodenas, M C; Cabas, I; García-Alcázar, A; Meseguer, J; Mulero, V; García-Ayala, A


    17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), a synthetic estrogen used in oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy, tamoxifen (Tmx), a selective estrogen-receptor modulator used in hormone replacement therapy, and G1, a G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) selective agonist, differentially increased the hepatic vitellogenin (vtg) gene expression and altered the immune response in adult gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) males. However, no information exists on the effects of these compounds on the immune response of juveniles. This study aims, for the first time, to investigate the effects of the dietary intake of EE2, Tmx or G1 on the immune response of gilthead seabream juveniles and the capacity of the immune system of the specimens to recover its functionality after ceasing exposures (recovery period). The specimens were immunized with hemocyanin in the presence of aluminium adjuvant 1 (group A) or 120 (group B) days after the treatments ceased (dpt). The results indicate that EE2 and Tmx, but not G1, differentially promoted a transient alteration in hepatic vtg gene expression. Although all three compounds did not affect the production of reactive oxygen intermediates, they inhibited the induction of interleukin-1β (il1b) gene expression after priming. Interestingly, although Tmx increased the percentage of IgM-positive cells in both head kidney and spleen during the recovery period, the antibody response of vaccinated fish varied depending on the compound used and when the immunization was administered. Taken together, our results suggest that these compounds differentially alter the capacity of fish to respond to infection during ontogeny and, more interestingly, that the adaptive immune response remained altered to an extent that depends on the compound.

  19. Maraviroc reduces cytokine expression and secretion in human adipose cells without altering adipogenic differentiation.

    Díaz-Delfín, Julieta; Domingo, Pere; Giralt, Marta; Villarroya, Francesc


    Maraviroc (MVC) is a drug approved for use as part of HAART in treatment-experienced HIV-1 patients with CCR5-tropic virus. Despite the current concerns on the alterations in adipose tissue that frequently appear in HIV-infected patients under HAART, there is no information available on the effects of MVC on adipose tissue. Here we studied the effects of MVC during and after the differentiation of human adipocytes in culture, and compared the results with the effects of efavirenz (EFV). We measured the acquisition of adipocyte morphology; the gene expression levels of markers for mitochondrial toxicity, adipogenesis and inflammation; and the release of adipokines and cytokines to the medium. Additionally, we determined the effects of MVC on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in adipocytes. Unlike EFV-treated pre-adipocytes, MVC-treated pre-adipocytes showed no alterations in the capacity to differentiate into adipocytes and accumulated lipids normally. Consistent with this, there were no changes in the mRNA levels of PPARγ or SREBP-1c, two master regulators of adipogenesis. In addition, MVC caused a significant decrease in the gene expression and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, whereas EFV had the opposite effect. Moreover, MVC lowered inflammation-related gene expression and inhibited the LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory genes in differentiated adipocytes. We conclude that MVC does not alter adipocyte differentiation but rather shows anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting the expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Collectively, our results suggest that MVC may minimize adverse effects on adipose tissue development, metabolism, and inflammation, and thus could be a potentially beneficial component of antiretroviral therapy.

  20. The role of intratumoral lymphovascular density in distinguishing primary from secondary mucinous ovarian tumors

    de Lacerda Almeida, Bernardo Gomes; Bacchi, Carlos E; Carvalho, Jesus P; Ferreira, Cristiane R; Carvalho, Filomena M


    OBJECTIVE: Ovarian mucinous metastases commonly present as the first sign of the disease and are capable of simulating primary tumors. Our aim was to investigate the role of intratumoral lymphatic vascular density together with other surgical-pathological features in distinguishing primary from secondary mucinous ovarian tumors. METHODS: A total of 124 cases of mucinous tumors in the ovary (63 primary and 61 metastatic) were compared according to their clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical profiles. The intratumoral lymphatic vascular density was quantified by counting the number of vessels stained by the D2-40 antibody. RESULTS: Metastases occurred in older patients and were associated with a higher proportion of tumors smaller than 10.0 cm; bilaterality; extensive necrosis; extraovarian extension; increased expression of cytokeratin 20, CDX2, CA19.9 and MUC2; and decreased expression of cytokeratin 7, CA125 and MUC5AC. The lymphatic vascular density was increased among primary tumors. However, after multivariate analysis, the best predictors of a secondary tumor were a size of 10.0 cm or less, bilaterality and cytokeratin 7 negativity. Lack of MUC2 expression was an important factor excluding metastasis. CONCLUSIONS: The higher intratumoral lymphatic vascular density in primary tumors when compared with secondary lesions suggests differences in the microenvironment. However, considering the differential diagnosis, the best discriminator of a secondary tumor is the combination of tumor size, laterality and the pattern of expression of cytokeratin 7 and MUC2. PMID:25518016

  1. Antitumor activity of TNF-α after intratumoral injection using an in situ thermosensitive hydrogel.

    Xu, Yourui; Shen, Yan; Ouahab, Ammar; Li, Chang; Xiong, Yerong; Tu, Jiasheng


    Local drug delivery strategies based on nanoparticles, gels, polymeric films, rods and wafers are increasingly used in cancer chemotherapy in order to enhance therapeutic effect and reduce systemic toxicity. Herein, a biodegradable and biocompatible in situ thermosensitive hydrogel was designed and employed to deliver tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) locally by intratumoral injection. The triblock copolymer was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of β-butyrolactone (β-BL) and lactide (LA) in bulk using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as an initiator and Sn(Oct)2 as the catalyst, the polymer was characterized by NMR, gel permeation chromatography and differential scanning calorimetry. Blood and tumor pharmacokinetics and in vivo antitumor activity of TNF-α after intratumoral administration in hydrogel or solution with the same dose were evaluated on S180 tumor-bearing mice. Compared with TNF-α solution, TNF-α hydrogel exhibited a longer T1/2 (4-fold) and higher AUCtumor (19-fold), but Cmax was lower (0.5-fold), which means that the hydrogel formulation improved the efficacy with a lower systhemic exposure than the solution formation. In addition, TNF-α hydrogel improved the antitumor activity and survival due to lower systemic exposure than the solution. These results demonstrate that the in situ thermosensitive hydrogel-based local delivery system by intratumoral injection is well suited for the administration of TNF-α.

  2. Vaccinia virus-mediated intra-tumoral expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 enhances oncolysis of PC-3 xenograft tumors

    Schäfer Simon


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oncolytic viruses, including vaccinia virus (VACV, are a promising alternative to classical mono-cancer treatment methods such as surgery, chemo- or radiotherapy. However, combined therapeutic modalities may be more effective than mono-therapies. In this study, we enhanced the effectiveness of oncolytic virotherapy by matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9-mediated degradation of proteins of the tumoral extracellular matrix (ECM, leading to increased viral distribution within the tumors. Methods For this study, the oncolytic vaccinia virus GLV-1h255, containing the mmp-9 gene, was constructed and used to treat PC-3 tumor-bearing mice, achieving an intra-tumoral over-expression of MMP-9. The intra-tumoral MMP-9 content was quantified by immunohistochemistry in tumor sections. Therapeutic efficacy of GLV-1h255 was evaluated by monitoring tumor growth kinetics and intra-tumoral virus titers. Microenvironmental changes mediated by the intra-tumoral MMP-9 over-expression were investigated by microscopic quantification of the collagen IV content, the blood vessel density (BVD and the analysis of lymph node metastasis formation. Results GLV-1h255-treatment of PC-3 tumors led to a significant over-expression of intra-tumoral MMP-9, accompanied by a marked decrease in collagen IV content in infected tumor areas, when compared to GLV-1h68-infected tumor areas. This led to considerably elevated virus titers in GLV-1h255 infected tumors, and to enhanced tumor regression. The analysis of the BVD, as well as the lumbar and renal lymph node volumes, revealed lower BVD and significantly smaller lymph nodes in both GLV-1h68- and GLV-1h255- injected mice compared to those injected with PBS, indicating that MMP-9 over-expression does not alter the metastasis-reducing effect of oncolytic VACV. Conclusions Taken together, these results indicate that a GLV-1h255-mediated intra-tumoral over-expression of MMP-9 leads to a degradation of collagen IV

  3. Evidence of limited contributions for intratumoral steroidogenesis in prostate cancer

    J. Hofland (Johannes); W.M. van Weerden (Wytske); N.F. Dits (Natasja); J. Steenbergen (Jacobie); G.J.H.L. Leenders (Geert); G.W. Jenster (Guido); F.H. Schröder (Fritz); F.H. de Jong (Frank)


    textabstractAndrogen-deprivation therapy for prostate cancer (PC) eventually leads to castration-resistant PC (CRPC). Intratumoral androgen production might contribute to tumor progression despite suppressed serum androgen concentrations. In the present study, we investigated whether PC or CRPC

  4. Simulated microgravity alters multipotential differentiation of rat mesenchymal stem cells in association with reduced telomerase activity

    Sun, Lianwen; Gan, Bo; Fan, Yubo; Xie, Tian; Hu, Qinghua; Zhuang, Fengyuan

    Microgravity is one of the most important characteristics in space flight. Exposure to microgravity results in extensive physiological changes in humans. Bone loss is one of the changes with serious consequences; however, the mechanism retains unclear. As the origin of osteoprogenitors, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may play an important role in it. After cultured under simulated microgravity (in a rotary cell culture system, RCCS), MSCs were stained using oil red O to identify adipocytes. The mRNA level of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) γ2 was determined by RT-PCR. Otherwise, MSCs were induced to osteogenic differentiation after microgravity culture, and then the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was determined by PNPP and the content of osteocalcin (OC) by ELISA. Furthermore, the telomerase activity in MSCs was measured by TRAP. The results showed that simulated microgravity inhibited osteoblastic differentiation and induced adipogenic differentiation accompanied by the change of gene expression of BMP-2 and PPARγ2 in MSCs. Meanwhile, the telomerase activity decreased significantly in MSCs under simulated microgravity. The reduced bone formation in space flight may partly be due to the altered potential differentiation of MSCs associated with telomerase activity which plays a key role in regulating the lifespan of cell proliferation and differentiation. Therefore, telomerase activation/replacement may act as a potential countermeasure for microgravity-induced bone loss.

  5. Intratumoral LIGHT Restores Pericyte Contractile Properties and Vessel Integrity

    Anna Johansson-Percival; Zhi-Jie Li; Devina D. Lakhiani; Bo He; Xiao Wang; Juliana Hamzah; Ruth Ganss


    Normalization of the tumor vasculature is an emerging concept shown to improve anti-cancer therapy. However, there are currently no clinical interventions that effect long-lasting normalization. Here, we have developed a strategy for normalization by specific intratumoral delivery of LIGHT/TNFSF14. Importantly, normalization occurs by induced expression of contractile markers in intratumoral pericytes, which in turn re-establishes tight pericyte-vessel alignment. Restoring vessel integrity im...

  6. FOXA1 deletion in luminal epithelium causes prostatic hyperplasia and alteration of differentiated phenotype.

    DeGraff, David J; Grabowska, Magdalena M; Case, Tom C; Yu, Xiuping; Herrick, Mary K; Hayward, William J; Strand, Douglas W; Cates, Justin M; Hayward, Simon W; Gao, Nan; Walter, Michael A; Buttyan, Ralph; Yi, Yajun; Kaestner, Klaus H; Matusik, Robert J


    The forkhead box (Fox) superfamily of transcription factors has essential roles in organogenesis and tissue differentiation. Foxa1 and Foxa2 are expressed during prostate budding and ductal morphogenesis, whereas Foxa1 expression is retained in adult prostate epithelium. Previous characterization of prostatic tissue rescued from embryonic Foxa1 knockout mice revealed Foxa1 to be essential for ductal morphogenesis and epithelial maturation. However, it is unknown whether Foxa1 is required to maintain the differentiated status in adult prostate epithelium. Here, we employed the PBCre4 transgenic system and determined the impact of prostate-specific Foxa1 deletion in adult murine epithelium. PBCre4/Foxa1(loxp/loxp) mouse prostates showed progressive florid hyperplasia with extensive cribriform patterning, with the anterior prostate being most affected. Immunohistochemistry studies show mosaic Foxa1 KO consistent with PBCre4 activity, with Foxa1 KO epithelial cells specifically exhibiting altered cell morphology, increased proliferation, and elevated expression of basal cell markers. Castration studies showed that, while PBCre4/Foxa1(loxp/loxp) prostates did not exhibit altered sensitivity in response to hormone ablation compared with control prostates, the number of Foxa1-positive cells in mosaic Foxa1 KO prostates was significantly reduced compared with Foxa1-negative cells following castration. Unexpectedly, gene expression profile analyses revealed that Foxa1 deletion caused abnormal expression of seminal vesicle-associated genes in KO prostates. In summary, these results indicate Foxa1 expression is required for the maintenance of prostatic cellular differentiation.

  7. Liver cell adenoma showing sequential alteration of radiological findings suggestive of well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma

    Takayuki Kogure; Yoshiyuki Ueno; Satoshi Sekiguchi; Kazuyuki Ishida; Takehiko Igarashi; Yuta Wakui; Takao Iwasaki; Tooru Shimosegawa


    A liver tumor 35 mm in diameter was found incidentally in a 40-year-old woman who had no history of liver diseases or the use of oral contraceptives. Radiological diagnostics showed the typical findings of liver cell adenoma (LCA). Dynamic computed tomography revealed that the tumor showed a homogenous enhancement in the arterial phase and almost the same enhancement as the surrounding liver parenchyma in the delayed phase. The tumor was found to contain fat on magnetic resonance imaging. A benign fat containing liver tumor was suggested. However, radiological findings altered, which caused us to suspect that a welldifferentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) containing fat was becoming dedifferentiated. Partial hepatectomy was performed and the pathological findings showed the typical findings of LCA. This case was an extremely rare LCA, which had no background of risk for LCA and developed the sequential alteration of the radiological findings to suspect well-differentiated HCC.

  8. Direct intratumoral infusion of liposome encapsulated rhenium radionuclides for cancer therapy: Effects of nonuniform intratumoral dose distribution

    Hrycushko, Brian A.; Li Shihong; Goins, Beth; Otto, Randal A.; Bao, Ande [Department of Radiology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78229 (United States); Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78229 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78229 and Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78229 (United States)


    Purpose: Focused radiation therapy by direct intratumoral infusion of lipid nanoparticle (liposome)-carried beta-emitting radionuclides has shown promising results in animal model studies; however, little is known about the impact the intratumoral liposomal radionuclide distribution may have on tumor control. The primary objective of this work was to investigate the effects the intratumoral absorbed dose distributions from this cancer therapy modality have on tumor control and treatment planning by combining dosimetric and radiobiological modeling with in vivo imaging data. Methods: {sup 99m}Tc-encapsulated liposomes were intratumorally infused with a single injection location to human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma xenografts in nude rats. High resolution in vivo planar imaging was performed at various time points for quantifying intratumoral retention following infusion. The intratumoral liposomal radioactivity distribution was obtained from 1 mm resolution pinhole collimator SPECT imaging coregistered with CT imaging of excised tumors at 20 h postinfusion. Coregistered images were used for intratumoral dosimetric and radiobiological modeling at a voxel level following extrapolation to the therapeutic analogs, {sup 186}Re/{sup 188}Re liposomes. Effective uniform dose (EUD) and tumor control probability (TCP) were used to assess therapy effectiveness and possible methods of improving upon tumor control with this radiation therapy modality. Results: Dosimetric analysis showed that average tumor absorbed doses of 8.6 Gy/MBq (318.2 Gy/mCi) and 5.7 Gy/MBq (209.1 Gy/mCi) could be delivered with this protocol of radiation delivery for {sup 186}Re/{sup 188}Re liposomes, respectively, and 37-92 MBq (1-2.5 mCi)/g tumor administered activity; however, large intratumoral absorbed dose heterogeneity, as seen in dose-volume histograms, resulted in insignificant values of EUD and TCP for achieving tumor control. It is indicated that the use of liposomes encapsulating

  9. Differential gene regulation under altered gravity conditions in follicular thyroid cancer cells: relationship between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton

    Ulbrich, C.; Pietsch, J.; Grosse, J.; Wehland, M.; Schulz, H.; Saar, K.; Hübner, N.; Hauslage, J.; Hemmersbach, R.; Braun, M.; van Loon, J.; Vagt, N.; Egli, M.; Richter, P.; Einspanier, R.; Sharbati, S.; Baltz, T.; Infanger, M.; Ma, X.; Grimm, D.


    Extracellular matrix proteins, adhesion molecules, and cytoskeletal proteins form a dynamic network interacting with signalling molecules as an adaptive response to altered gravity. An important issue is the exact differentiation between real microgravity responses of the cells or cellular reactions

  10. Positional and expressive alteration of prohibitin during the induced differentiation of human hepatocarcinoma SMMC-7721 cells

    Dong-Hui Xu; Jian Tang; Qi-Fu Li; Song-Lin Shi; Xiang-Feng Chen; Ying Liang


    AIM: To explore the existence and distribution of prohibitin (PHB) in nuclear matrix and its co-localization with products of some related genes during the differentiation of human hepatocarcinoma SMMC-7721cells.METHODS: The nuclear matrix of the SHHC-7721 cells cultured with or without 5 x 10-3 mmol/L hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA) was selectively extracted.Western blot was used to analyze the expression of PHB in nuclear matrix; imrnunofluorescence microscope observation was used to analyze the distribution of PHB in cell. LCSM was used to observe the co-localization of PHB with products of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes.RESULTS: Western blot analysis showed that PHB existed in the composition of nuclear matrix proteins and was down-regulated by HMBA treatment.Immunofluorescence observation revealed that PHB existed in the nuclear matrix, and its distribution regions and expression levels were altered after HMBA treatment. Laser scanning confocal microscopy revealed the co-localization between PHB and the products of oncogenes or tumor repression genes including c-fos, c-myc, p53 and Rb and its alteration of distributive area in the cells treated by HMBA.CONCLUSION: These data confirm that PHB is a nuclear matrix protein, which is located in the nuclear matrix, and the distribution and expression of PHB and its relation with associated genes may play significant roles during the differentiation of SMHC-7721 cells.

  11. Altered goblet cell differentiation and surface mucus properties in Hirschsprung disease.

    Jay R Thiagarajah

    Full Text Available Hirschsprung disease-associated enterocolitis (HAEC leads to significant mortality and morbidity, but its pathogenesis remains unknown. Changes in the colonic epithelium related to goblet cells and the luminal mucus layer have been postulated to play a key role. Here we show that the colonic epithelium of both aganglionic and ganglionic segments are altered in patients and in mice with Hirschsprung disease (HSCR. Structurally, goblet cells were altered with increased goblet cell number and reduced intracellular mucins in the distal colon of biopsies from patients with HSCR. Endothelin receptor B (Ednrb mutant mice showed increased goblet cell number and size and increased cell proliferation compared to wild-type mice in aganglionic segments, and reduced goblet cell size and number in ganglionic segments. Functionally, compared to littermates, Ednrb-/- mice showed increased transepithelial resistance, reduced stool water content and similar chloride secretion in the distal colon. Transcript levels of goblet cell differentiation factors SPDEF and Math1 were increased in the distal colon of Ednrb-/- mice. Both distal colon from Ednrb mice and biopsies from HSCR patients showed reduced Muc4 expression as compared to controls, but similar expression of Muc2. Particle tracking studies showed that mucus from Ednrb-/- mice provided a more significant barrier to diffusion of 200 nm nanoparticles as compared to wild-type mice. These results suggest that aganglionosis is associated with increased goblet cell proliferation and differentiation and subsequent altered surface mucus properties, prior to the development of inflammation in the distal colon epithelium. Restoration of normal goblet cell function and mucus layer properties in the colonic epithelium may represent a therapeutic strategy for prevention of HAEC.

  12. Leishmania donovani infection induces anemia in hamsters by differentially altering erythropoiesis in bone marrow and spleen.

    William P Lafuse

    Full Text Available Leishmania donovani is a parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis by infecting and replicating in macrophages of the bone marrow, spleen, and liver. Severe anemia and leucopenia is associated with the disease. Although immune defense mechanisms against the parasite have been studied, we have a limited understanding of how L. donovani alters hematopoiesis. In this study, we used Syrian golden hamsters to investigate effects of L. donovani infection on erythropoiesis. Infection resulted in severe anemia and leucopenia by 8 weeks post-infection. Anemia was associated with increased levels of serum erythropoietin, which indicates the hamsters respond to the anemia by producing erythropoietin. We found that infection also increased numbers of BFU-E and CFU-E progenitor populations in the spleen and bone marrow and differentially altered erythroid gene expression in these organs. In the bone marrow, the mRNA expression of erythroid differentiation genes (α-globin, β-globin, ALAS2 were inhibited by 50%, but mRNA levels of erythroid receptor (c-kit, EpoR and transcription factors (GATA1, GATA2, FOG1 were not affected by the infection. This suggests that infection has a negative effect on differentiation of erythroblasts. In the spleen, erythroid gene expression was enhanced by infection, indicating that the anemia activates a stress erythropoiesis response in the spleen. Analysis of cytokine mRNA levels in spleen and bone marrow found that IFN-γ mRNA is highly increased by L. donovani infection. Expression of the IFN-γ inducible cytokine, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, was also up-regulated. Since TRAIL induces erythroblasts apoptosis, apoptosis of bone marrow erythroblasts from infected hamsters was examined by flow cytometry. Percentage of erythroblasts that were apoptotic was significantly increased by L. donovani infection. Together, our results suggest that L. donovani infection inhibits erythropoiesis in the bone marrow by

  13. Biological activity and safety of adenoviral vector-expressed wild-type p53 after intratumoral injection in melanoma and breast cancer patients with p53-overexpressing tumors

    Dummer, R; Bergh, J; Karlsson, Y; Horovitz, JA; Mulder, NH; Huinin, DT; Burg, G; Hofbauer, G; Osanto, S


    p53 mutations are common genetic alterations in human cancer. Gene transfer of a wild-type (wt) p53 gene reverses the loss of normal p53 function in vitro and in vivo. A phase I dose escalation study of single intratumoral (i.t.) injection of a replication-defective adenoviral expression vector cont

  14. Altered Transcriptional Control Networks with Trans-Differentiation of Isogenic Mutant KRas NSCLC Models

    John A Haley


    Full Text Available BackgroundThe capacity of cancer cells to undergo epithelial mesenchymal trans-differentiation has been implicated as a factor driving metastasis, through the acquisition of enhanced migratory/invasive cell programs and the engagement of anti-apoptotic mechanisms promoting drug and radiation resistance. Our aim was to define molecular signaling changes associated with mesenchymal trans-differentiation in two KRas mutant NSCLC models. We focused on central transcription and epigenetic regulators predicted to be important for mesenchymal cell survival.Experimental designWe have modeled trans-differentiation and cancer stemness in inducible isogenic mutant KRas H358 and A549 non-small cell lung cell backgrounds. We employed large-scale quantitative phospho-proteomic, proteomic, protein-protein interaction, RNA-Seq and network function prediction approaches to dissect the molecular events associated with the establishment and maintenance of the mesenchymal state.ResultsGene set enrichment and pathway prediction indicated BMI1, KDM5B, RUNX2, MYC/MAX, NFkB, LEF1, and HIF1 target networks were significantly enriched in the trans-differentiation of H358 and A549 NSCLC models. Physical overlaps between multiple networks implicate NR4A1 as an overlapping control between TCF and NFkB pathways. Enrichment correlations also indicated marked decrease in cell cycling, which occurred early in the EMT process. RNA abundance time course studies also indicated early expression of epigenetic and chromatin regulators, including CITED4, RUNX3, CMBX1 and SIRT4. ConclusionsMultiple transcription and epigenetic pathways where altered between epithelial and mesenchymal tumor cell states, notably the polycomb repressive complex-1, HP1g and BAF/Swi-Snf. Network analysis suggests redundancy in the activation and inhibition of pathway regulators, notably factors controlling epithelial cell state.

  15. Altered proliferation and differentiation properties of primary mammary epithelial cells from BRCA1 mutation carriers.

    Burga, Laura N; Tung, Nadine M; Troyan, Susan L; Bostina, Mihnea; Konstantinopoulos, Panagiotis A; Fountzilas, Helena; Spentzos, Dimitrios; Miron, Alexander; Yassin, Yosuf A; Lee, Bernard T; Wulf, Gerburg M


    Female BRCA1 mutation carriers have a nearly 80% probability of developing breast cancer during their life-time. We hypothesized that the breast epithelium at risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers harbors mammary epithelial cells (MEC) with altered proliferation and differentiation properties. Using a three-dimensional culture technique to grow MECs ex vivo, we found that the ability to form colonies, an indication of clonality, was restricted to the aldehyde dehydrogenase 1-positive fraction in MECs but not in HCC1937 BRCA1-mutant cancer cells. Primary MECs from BRCA1 mutation carriers (n = 9) had a 28% greater ability for clonal growth compared with normal controls (n = 6; P = 0.006), and their colonies were significantly larger. Colonies in controls and BRCA1 mutation carriers stained positive for BRCA1 by immunohistochemistry, and 79% of the examined single colonies from BRCA1 carriers retained heterozygosity for BRCA1 (ROH). Colonies from BRCA1 mutation carriers frequently showed high epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression (71% EGFR positive versus 44% in controls) and were negative for estrogen receptor (ERalpha; 32% ER negative, 44% mixed, 24% ER positive versus 90% ER positive in controls). Expression of CK14 and p63 were not significantly different. Microarray studies revealed that colonies from BRCA1-mutant PMECs anticipate expression profiles found in BRCA1-related tumors, and that the EGFR pathway is up-regulated. We conclude that BRCA1 haploinsufficiency leads to an increased ability for clonal growth and proliferation in the PMECs of BRCA1 mutation carriers, possibly as a result of EGFR pathway activation. These altered growth and differentiation properties may render BRCA1-mutant PMECs vulnerable to transformation and predispose to the development of ER-negative, EGFR-positive breast cancers.

  16. Differential Functional Connectivity Alterations of Two Subdivisions within the Right dlPFC in Parkinson's Disease

    Caspers, Julian; Mathys, Christian; Hoffstaedter, Felix; Südmeyer, Martin; Cieslik, Edna C.; Rubbert, Christian; Hartmann, Christian J.; Eickhoff, Claudia R.; Reetz, Kathrin; Grefkes, Christian; Michely, Jochen; Turowski, Bernd; Schnitzler, Alfons; Eickhoff, Simon B.


    Patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) often show impairments in executive function (EF) like decision-making and action control. The right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) has been strongly implicated in EF in healthy subjects and has repeatedly been reported to show alterations related to EF impairment in PD. Recently, two key regions for cognitive action control have been identified within the right dlPFC by co-activation based parcellation. While the posterior region is engaged in rather basal EF like stimulus integration and working memory, the anterior region has a more abstract, supervisory function. To investigate whether these functionally distinct subdivisions of right dlPFC are differentially affected in PD, we analyzed resting-state functional connectivity (FC) in 39 PD patients and 44 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Patients were examined both after at least 12 h withdrawal of dopaminergic drugs (OFF) and under their regular dopaminergic medication (ON). We found that only the posterior right dlPFC subdivision shows FC alterations in PD, while the anterior part remains unaffected. PD-related decreased FC with posterior right dlPFC was found in the bilateral medial posterior parietal cortex (mPPC) and left dorsal premotor region (PMd) in the OFF state. In the medical ON, FC with left PMd normalized, while decoupling with bilateral mPPC remained. Furthermore, we observed increased FC between posterior right dlPFC and the bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) in PD in the ON state. Our findings point to differential disturbances of right dlPFC connectivity in PD, which relate to its hierarchical organization of EF processing by stronger affecting the functionally basal posterior aspect than the hierarchically higher anterior part. PMID:28611616

  17. Oestradiol and progesterone differentially alter cytoskeletal protein expression and flame cell morphology in Taenia crassiceps.

    Ambrosio, Javier R; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Palacios-Arreola, M Isabel; Ruíz-Rosado, Azucena; Sánchez-Orellana, Pedro L; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Nava-Castro, Karen E; Martínez-Velázquez, Nancy; Escobedo, Galileo; Ibarra-Coronado, Elizabeth G; Valverde-Islas, Laura; Morales-Montor, Jorge


    We examined the effects of oestradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) on cytoskeletal protein expression in the helminth Taenia crassiceps - specifically actin, tubulin and myosin. These proteins assemble into flame cells, which constitute the parasite excretory system. Total protein extracts were obtained from E2- and P4-treated T. crassiceps cysticerci and untreated controls, and analysed by one- and two-dimensional protein electrophoresis, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and videomicroscopy. Exposure of T. crassiceps cysticerci to E2 and P4 induced differential protein expression patterns compared with untreated controls. Changes in actin, tubulin and myosin expression were confirmed by flow cytometry of parasite cells and immunofluorescence. In addition, parasite morphology was altered in response to E2 and P4 versus controls. Flame cells were primarily affected at the level of the ciliary tuft, in association with the changes in actin, tubulin and myosin. We conclude that oestradiol and progesterone act directly on T. crassiceps cysticerci, altering actin, tubulin and myosin expression and thus affecting the assembly and function of flame cells. Our results increase our understanding of several aspects of the molecular crosstalk between host and parasite, which might be useful in designing anthelmintic drugs that exclusively impair parasitic proteins which mediate cell signaling and pathogenic reproduction and establishment.

  18. Altered expression of adipose differentiation-related protein gene in placental tissue of pre-eclampsia

    ZHANG Chun-li; YAO Yuan-qing; LI Dong-hong; ZHANG Wei


    Objective: To investigate the altered expression of lipid metabolism-related gene adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) in pre-eclampsia. Methods: Semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to validate the altered expression of ADRP gene between pre-eclamptic placentas (preeclampsia group) and normotensive placentas (control group) respectively. In situ hybridization (ISH)was used to localize ADRP mRNA in pre-eclamptic placentas. Results: There was a significant difference in the levels of placental ADRP mRNA between pre-eclampsia group and control group (1.98± 0. 50 vs 1. 09±0. 20, P<0.01). Western blotting showed that placentas both in pre-eclampsia group and control group expressed the special ADRP band at 48. 1 kD. The relative levels of ADRP protein in pre-eclampsia group were significantly higher than those of control group (0. 40 ±0. 19 vs 0. 19 ±0. 09, P< 0. 01).ADRP mRNA was diffusely distributed in pre-eclamptic placentas. Their positive staining existed in cytoplasm of trophoblast. Conclusion: Abnormal expression of ADRP gene in pre-eclamptic placenta may be associated with the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia.

  19. Altered Pathway Analyzer: A gene expression dataset analysis tool for identification and prioritization of differentially regulated and network rewired pathways

    Kaushik, Abhinav; Ali, Shakir; Gupta, Dinesh


    Gene connection rewiring is an essential feature of gene network dynamics. Apart from its normal functional role, it may also lead to dysregulated functional states by disturbing pathway homeostasis. Very few computational tools measure rewiring within gene co-expression and its corresponding regulatory networks in order to identify and prioritize altered pathways which may or may not be differentially regulated. We have developed Altered Pathway Analyzer (APA), a microarray dataset analysis tool for identification and prioritization of altered pathways, including those which are differentially regulated by TFs, by quantifying rewired sub-network topology. Moreover, APA also helps in re-prioritization of APA shortlisted altered pathways enriched with context-specific genes. We performed APA analysis of simulated datasets and p53 status NCI-60 cell line microarray data to demonstrate potential of APA for identification of several case-specific altered pathways. APA analysis reveals several altered pathways not detected by other tools evaluated by us. APA analysis of unrelated prostate cancer datasets identifies sample-specific as well as conserved altered biological processes, mainly associated with lipid metabolism, cellular differentiation and proliferation. APA is designed as a cross platform tool which may be transparently customized to perform pathway analysis in different gene expression datasets. APA is freely available at PMID:28084397

  20. Analysis of intratumor heterogeneity unravels lung cancer evolution

    Bruin, Elza C de; McGranahan, Nicholas; Swanton, Charles


    Lung cancer is a disease with dismal outcome. We recently reported a detailed intratumor heterogeneity analysis in 7 non-small cell lung cancer samples, revealing spatially separated driver events as well as the temporal dynamics of mutational processes and demonstrating an important role for APOBEC-mediated heterogeneity later in disease evolution.

  1. Altered differentiation and paracrine stimulation of mammary epithelial cell proliferation by conditionally activated Smoothened.

    Visbal, Adriana P; LaMarca, Heather L; Villanueva, Hugo; Toneff, Michael J; Li, Yi; Rosen, Jeffrey M; Lewis, Michael T


    The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling network is critical for patterning and organogenesis in mammals, and has been implicated in a variety of cancers. Smoothened (Smo), the gene encoding the principal signal transducer, is overexpressed frequently in breast cancer, and constitutive activation in MMTV-SmoM2 transgenic mice caused alterations in mammary gland morphology, increased proliferation, and changes in stem/progenitor cell number. Both in transgenic mice and in clinical specimens, proliferative cells did not usually express detectable Smo, suggesting the hypothesis that Smo functioned in a non-cell autonomous manner to stimulate proliferation. Here, we employed a genetically tagged mouse model carrying a Cre-recombinase-dependent conditional allele of constitutively active Smo (SmoM2) to test this hypothesis. MMTV-Cre- or adenoviral-Cre-mediated SmoM2 expression in the luminal epithelium, but not in the myoepithelium, was required for the hyper-proliferative phenotypes. High levels of proliferation were observed in cells adjacent or in close-proximity to Smo expressing cells demonstrating that SmoM2 expressing cells were stimulating proliferation via a paracrine or juxtacrine mechanism. In contrast, Smo expression altered luminal cell differentiation in a cell-autonomous manner. SmoM2 expressing cells, purified by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) via the genetic fluorescent tag, expressed high levels of Ptch2, Gli1, Gli2, Jag2 and Dll-1, and lower levels of Notch4 and Hes6, in comparison to wildtype cells. These studies provide insight into the mechanism of Smo activation in the mammary gland and its possible roles in breast tumorigenesis. In addition, these results also have potential implications for the interpretation of proliferative phenotypes commonly observed in other organs as a consequence of hedgehog signaling activation.

  2. High-throughput sperm differential proteomics suggests that epigenetic alterations contribute to failed assisted reproduction.

    Azpiazu, Rubén; Amaral, Alexandra; Castillo, Judit; Estanyol, Josep Maria; Guimerà, Marta; Ballescà, Josep Lluís; Balasch, Juan; Oliva, Rafael


    Are there quantitative alterations in the proteome of normozoospermic sperm samples that are able to complete IVF but whose female partner does not achieve pregnancy? Normozoospermic sperm samples with different IVF outcomes (pregnancy versus no pregnancy) differed in the levels of at least 66 proteins. The analysis of the proteome of sperm samples with distinct fertilization capacity using low-throughput proteomic techniques resulted in the detection of a few differential proteins. Current high-throughput mass spectrometry approaches allow the identification and quantification of a substantially higher number of proteins. This was a case-control study including 31 men with normozoospermic sperm and their partners who underwent IVF with successful fertilization recruited between 2007 and 2008. Normozoospermic sperm samples from 15 men whose female partners did not achieve pregnancy after IVF (no pregnancy) and 16 men from couples that did achieve pregnancy after IVF (pregnancy) were included in this study. To perform the differential proteomic experiments, 10 no pregnancy samples and 10 pregnancy samples were separately pooled and subsequently used for tandem mass tags (TMT) protein labelling, sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) identification and peak intensity relative protein quantification. Bioinformatic analyses were performed using UniProt Knowledgebase, DAVID and Reactome. Individual samples (n = 5 no pregnancy samples; n = 6 pregnancy samples) and aliquots from the above TMT pools were used for western blotting. By using TMT labelling and LC-MS/MS, we have detected 31 proteins present at lower abundance (ratio no pregnancy/pregnancy 1.5) in the no pregnancy group. Bioinformatic analyses showed that the proteins with differing abundance are involved in chromatin assembly and lipoprotein metabolism (P values Economia y Competividad; FEDER BFU 2009-07118 and PI13/00699) and

  3. Differential tinnitus-related neuroplastic alterations of cortical thickness and surface area.

    Meyer, Martin; Neff, Patrick; Liem, Franziskus; Kleinjung, Tobias; Weidt, Steffi; Langguth, Berthold; Schecklmann, Martin


    Structural neuroimaging techniques have been used to identify cortical and subcortical regions constituting the neuroarchitecture of tinnitus. One recent investigation used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to analyze a sample of tinnitus patients (TI, n = 257) (Schecklmann et al., 2013). A negative relationship between individual distress and cortical volume (CV) in bilateral auditory regions was observed. However, CV has meanwhile been identified as a neuroanatomical measurement that confounds genetically distinct neuroanatomical traits, namely cortical thickness (CT) and cortical surface area (CSA). We performed a re-analysis of the identical sample using the automated FreeSurfer surface-based morphometry (SBM) approach (Fischl, 2012). First, we replicated the negative correlation between tinnitus distress and bilateral supratemporal gray matter volume. Second, we observed a negative correlation for CSA in the left periauditory cortex and anterior insula. Furthermore, we noted a positive correlation between tinnitus duration and CT in the left periauditory cortex as well as a negative correlation in the subcallosal anterior cingulate, a region collated to the serotonergic circuit and germane to inhibitory functions. In short, the results elucidate differential neuroanatomical alterations of CSA and CT for the two independent tinnitus-related psychological traits distress and duration. Beyond this, the study provides further evidence for the distinction and specific susceptibility of CSA and CT within the context of neuroplasticity of the human brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. White-throated sparrows alter songs differentially in response to chorusing anurans and other background noise.

    Lenske, Ariel K; La, Van T


    Animals can use acoustic signals to attract mates and defend territories. As a consequence, background noise that interferes with signal transmission has the potential to reduce fitness, especially in birds that rely on song. While much research on bird song has investigated vocal flexibility in response to urban noise, weather and other birds, the possibility of inter-class acoustic competition from anurans has not been previously studied. Using sound recordings from central Ontario wetlands, we tested if white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicolis) make short-term changes to their singing behaviour in response to chorusing spring peepers (Pseudacris crucifer), as well as to car noise, wind and other bird vocalizations. White-throated sparrow songs that were sung during the spring peeper chorus were shorter with higher minimum frequencies and narrower bandwidths resulting in reduced frequency overlap. Additionally, sparrows were less likely to sing when car noise and the vocalizations of other birds were present. These patterns suggest that birds use multiple adjustment strategies. This is the first report to demonstrate that birds may alter their songs differentially in response to different sources of noise. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title.

  5. Intratumor diversity and clonal evolution in cancer--a skeptical standpoint.

    Gisselsson, David


    Clonal evolution in cancer is intimately linked to the concept of intratumor cellular diversity, as the latter is a prerequisite for Darwinian selection at the micro-level. It has been frequently suggested in the literature that clonal evolution can be promoted by an elevated rate of mutation in tumor cells, so-called genomic instability, the mechanisms of which are now becoming increasingly well characterized. However, several issues need clarification before the presumably complex relationship between mutation rate, intratumor diversity, and clonal evolution can be understood sufficiently well to translate into models that predict the course of tumor disease. In particular, it has to be clarified which of the proposed mechanisms for genomic instability that are able to generate daughter cells with sufficient viability to form novel clones, how clones with different genomic changes differ phenotypically from each other, and what the selective forces are that guide competition among diverse clones in different microenvironments. Furthermore, standardized measurements of mutation rates at the chromosome level, as well as genotypic and phenotypic diversity, are essential to compare data from different studies. Finally, the relationship between clonal variation brought about by genomic instability, on the one hand, and cellular differentiation hierarchies, on the other hand, should be explored to put genomic instability in the context of the tumor stem cell hypothesis.

  6. Expression and significance of intratumoral interleukin-12 and interleukin-18 in human gastric carcinoma

    Zheng-Bao Ye; Tao Ma; Hao Li; Xiao-Long Jin; Hai-Min Xu


    AIM: To explore the effect of intratumoral expressions of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) on clinical features, angiogenesis and prognosis of gastric carcinoma.METHODS: The expressions of IL-12 and IL-18 from 50 samples of gastric cancer tissue were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, and microvessel density (MVD) was determined with microscopic imaging analysis system.RESULTS: The positive expression rates of IL-12 and IL-18 were 44% (22/50) and 26% (13/50), respectively. IL-12 was significantly associated with pathologic differentiation, depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and TNM stage, and IL-18 was closely related to distant metastasis. Intratumoral IL-12 and IL-18 expressions were not statistically related to MVD scoring. IL-12-positive patients survived significantly longer than those with IL-12-negative tumors, but there was no significant difference between IL-18-positive patients and IL-18-negative ones. The multivariate analysis with Cox proportional hazard model revealed IL-12, MVD and T stage were independent prognostic factors.CONCLUSION: The positive expressions of IL-12 and IL-18 can play an important role in progression and metastasis of gastric cancer, and IL-12 might be an independent factor of poor prognosis in gastric carcinoma.

  7. Renal pyramid echogenicity in ureteropelvic junction obstruction: correlation between altered echogenicity and differential renal function

    Chavhan, Govind; Daneman, Alan; Lim, Ruth; Traubici, Jeffrey [University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); Moineddin, Rahim [University of Toronto, Department of Family and Community Medicine, Toronto (Canada); Langlois, Valerie [University of Toronto, Division of Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada)


    Improvement in resolution and use of high-frequency transducers in US has enabled visualization of previously unreported changes in medullary pyramid echogenicity in children with obstructive hydronephrosis. To determine whether these unreported changes in echogenicity and morphology of the renal pyramids in ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction correlate with differential renal function (DRF) of the kidney as determined by technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine ({sup 99m}Tc-MAG3) scan. Renal sonograms in 60 children with UPJ obstruction were retrospectively reviewed. Children were divided into three groups based on the echogenicity of the pyramids: (1) normal echogenicity of the pyramids, (2) increased echogenicity of the pyramids with maintained corticomedullary differentiation (CMD), and (3) loss of CMD. DRF, as determined by {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 scan, of the obstructed kidney of {>=}45% was considered normal and of {<=}44% was considered abnormal based on a published study correlating histological changes with DRF. Fisher's exact test was performed for assessing the association between DRF and altered echogenicity of the pyramids. In group 1, which consisted of 13 patients with normal pyramids on US, DRF was normal in 11 and abnormal in two. In group 2, which consisted of 33 patients with echogenic pyramids and preserved CMD, DRF was normal in 15 and abnormal in 18. In group 3, which consisted of 14 patients with complete loss of CMD, DRF was normal in 2 and abnormal in 12. There was a strong correlation between abnormal pyramids and DRF (P=0.0009). The risk ratio (RR) of DRF becoming abnormal for those kidneys with abnormal echogenicity of the pyramids with preserved CMD (group 2) compared to normal pyramid echogenicity (group 1) was 1.56 (95% CI 1.088-2.236). The RR of DRF becoming abnormal for those kidneys with loss of CMD (group 3) compared to normal pyramid echogenicity (group 1) was 5.571 (95% CI 1.530-20.294). We observed that in obstructed kidneys

  8. Common protein biomarkers assessed by reverse phase protein arrays show considerable intratumoral heterogeneity in breast cancer tissues.

    Malinowsky, Katharina; Raychaudhuri, Mithu; Buchner, Theresa; Thulke, Sabrina; Wolff, Claudia; Höfler, Heinz; Becker, Karl-Friedrich; Avril, Stefanie


    Proteins are used as prognostic and predictive biomarkers in breast cancer. However, the variability of protein expression within the same tumor is not well studied. The aim of this study was to assess intratumoral heterogeneity in protein expression levels by reverse-phase-protein-arrays (RPPA) (i) within primary breast cancers and (ii) between axillary lymph node metastases from the same patient. Protein was extracted from 106 paraffin-embedded samples from 15 large (≥3 cm) primary invasive breast cancers, including different zones within the primary tumor (peripheral, intermediate, central) as well as 2-5 axillary lymph node metastases in 8 cases. Expression of 35 proteins including 15 phosphorylated proteins representing the HER2, EGFR, and uPA/PAI-1 signaling pathways was assessed using reverse-phase-protein-arrays. All 35 proteins showed considerable intratumoral heterogeneity within primary breast cancers with a mean coefficient of variation (CV) of 31% (range 22-43%). There were no significant differences between phosphorylated (CV 32%) and non-phosphorylated proteins (CV 31%) and in the extent of intratumoral heterogeneity within a defined tumor zone (CV 28%, range 18-38%) or between different tumor zones (CV 24%, range 17-38%). Lymph node metastases from the same patient showed a similar heterogeneity in protein expression (CV 27%, range 18-34%). In comparison, the variation amongst different patients was higher in primary tumors (CV 51%, range 29-98%) and lymph node metastases (CV 65%, range 40-146%). Several proteins showed significant differential expression between different tumor stages, grades, histological subtypes and hormone receptor status. Commonly used protein biomarkers of breast cancer, including proteins from HER2, uPA/PAI-1 and EGFR signaling pathways showed higher than previously reported intratumoral heterogeneity of expression levels both within primary breast cancers and between lymph node metastases from the same patient. Assessment

  9. Altering Work to Rest Ratios Differentially Influences Fatigue Indices During Repeated Sprint Ability Testing.

    La Monica, Michael B; Fukuda, David H; Beyer, Kyle S; Hoffman, Mattan W; Miramonti, Amelia A; Riffe, Josh J; Baker, Kayla M; Fragala, Maren S; Hoffman, Jay R; Stout, Jeffrey R


    This study examined the influence of recovery time on fatigue indices, performance (total work [TW], peak power [PP], and mean power [MP]), and oxygen consumption during repeated sprint ability (RSA) on a cycle ergometer. Eight recreationally-trained men performed 3 RSA protocols consisting of 10 × 6 s sprints with 12 s, 18 s, and 24 s rest intervals between each sprint. Fatigue indices were determined as percent decrement (%Dec) and rate of decline using either a log transform method or standard slope approach for TW, PP, and MP during respective RSA protocols. The maximal VO2 value in response to given sprint intervals and the minimal VO2 value in response to given rest periods (VO2 work and VO2 rest, respectively) were recorded. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to analyze all variables. Average VO2 work was not different among rest interval trials. Average VO2 rest with 12 s rest was greater than 18 s and 24 s (2.16 ± 0.17 L · min(-1), 1.91 ± 0.18 L · min(-1), 1.72 ± 0.15 L · min(-1), respectively), while 18 s was greater than 24 s. Average TW and MP were greater with 24 s rest than 12 s (4,604.44 ± 915.98 J vs. 4,305.46 ± 727.17 J, respectively), with no differences between RSA protocols for PP. No differences in %Dec were observed. Both methods of calculating rates of decline per sprint for PP and TW were greater during 12 s than 18 s or 24 s. Since changes were only noted between the 12 s and 24 s protocols, a 6 s differential in rest intervals may not be enough to elicit alterations in TW, PP, MP, or %Dec in RSA performance. Rate of decline may be a more sensitive measure of fatigue than %Dec.

  10. Developmental exposure to estrogen alters differentiation and epigenetic programming in a human fetal prostate xenograft model.

    Camelia M Saffarini

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most frequent non-cutaneous malignancy in men. There is strong evidence in rodents that neonatal estrogen exposure plays a role in the development of this disease. However, there is little information regarding the effects of estrogen in human fetal prostate tissue. This study explored early life estrogen exposure, with and without a secondary estrogen and testosterone treatment in a human fetal prostate xenograft model. Histopathological lesions, proliferation, and serum hormone levels were evaluated at 7, 30, 90, and 200-day time-points after xenografting. The expression of 40 key genes involved in prostatic glandular and stromal growth, cell-cycle progression, apoptosis, hormone receptors and tumor suppressors was evaluated using a custom PCR array. Epigenome-wide analysis of DNA methylation was performed on whole tissue, and laser capture-microdissection (LCM isolated epithelial and stromal compartments of 200-day prostate xenografts. Combined initial plus secondary estrogenic exposures had the most severe tissue changes as revealed by the presence of hyperplastic glands at day 200. Gene expression changes corresponded with the cellular events in the KEGG prostate cancer pathway, indicating that initial plus secondary exposure to estrogen altered the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, ultimately resulting in apoptosis inhibition and an increase in cell cycle progression. DNA methylation revealed that differentially methylated CpG sites significantly predominate in the stromal compartment as a result of estrogen-treatment, thereby providing new targets for future investigation. By using human fetal prostate tissue and eliminating the need for species extrapolation, this study provides novel insights into the gene expression and epigenetic effects related to prostate carcinogenesis following early life estrogen exposure.

  11. Diet, age, and prior injury status differentially alter behavioral outcomes following concussion in rats.

    Mychasiuk, Richelle; Hehar, Harleen; van Waes, Linda; Esser, Michael J


    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion affects a large portion of the population and although many of these individuals recover completely, a small subset of people experience lingering symptomology and poor outcomes. Little is known about the factors that affect individual susceptibility or resilience to poor outcomes after mTBI and there are currently no biomarkers to delineate mTBI diagnosis or prognosis. Based upon the growing literature associated with caloric intake and altered neurological aging and the ambiguous link between repetitive mTBI and progressive neurodegeneration, the current study was designed to examine the effect of a high fat diet (HFD), developmental age, and repetitive mTBI on behavioral outcomes following a mTBI. In addition, telomere length was examined before and after experimental mTBI. Sprague Dawley rats were maintained on a HFD or standard rat chow throughout life (including the prenatal period) and then experienced an mTBI/concussion at P30, P30 and P60, or only at P60. Behavioral outcomes were examined using a test battery that was administered between P61-P80 and included; beam-walking, open field, elevated plus maze, novel context mismatch, Morris water task, and forced swim task. Animals with a P30 mTBI often demonstrated lingering symptomology that was still present during testing at P80. Injuries at P30 and P60 rarely produced cumulative effects, and in some tests (i.e., beam walking), the first injury may have protected the brain from the second injury. Exposure to the high fat diet exacerbated many of the behavioral deficits associated with concussion. Finally, telomere length was shortened following mTBI and was influenced by the animal's dietary intake. Diet, age at the time of injury, and the number of prior concussion incidents differentially contribute to behavioral deficits and may help explain individual variations in susceptibility and resilience to poor outcomes following an mTBI.

  12. Ovarian intratumoral 21-hydroxylase deficiency in a postmenopausal hirsute woman.

    Souto, Selma B; Baptista, Pedro V; Barreto, Filomena; Sousa, Pedro F; Braga, Daniel C; Carvalho, Davide


    Virilising ovarian tumours are a rare cause of hyperandrogenism in women, accounting for less than 5% of all ovarian neoplasms. It occurs most often in - and postmenopausal women. We report a case of a 64 year-old woman with signs of virilisation that had started 3 years before. Blood hormone analysis revealed increased levels of testosterone, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone. The tetracosactin test revealed 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Radiological imaging demonstrated a nodule in her left ovary. The patient was submitted to bilateral laparoscopic oophorectomy, and histopathological examination revealed a luteoma of the left ovary. Postoperative serum testosterone level and 17-hydroxyprogesterone returned to normal levels in one month. Virilism regressed within six months. Our patient also showed an elevation in 17-OHP serum levels. Normalization of 17-OHP after oophorectomy suggests a case of intratumoral 21-hydroxylase deficiency. To our knowledge, this is the first description of ovarian intratumoral 21-hydroxylase deficiency in a postmenopausal woman.

  13. Surgical treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with severe intratumoral arterioportal shunt

    Hiromichi; Ishii; Teruhisa; Sonoyama; Shingo; Nakashima; Hiroyuki; Nagata; Atsushi; Shiozaki; Yoshiaki; Kuriu; Hisashi; Ikoma; Masayoshi; Nakanishi; Daisuke; Ichikawa; Hitoshi; Fujiwara; Kazuma; Okamoto; Toshiya; Ochiai; Yukihito; Kokuba; Chohei; Sakakura; Eigo; Otsuji


    We report a case of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that caused a severe arterioportal shunt (APS). A 49-year-old man was admitted to hospital due to esophagogastric variceal hemorrhage and HCC, and underwent endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) and endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS). He was then referred to our hospital. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a lowdensity lesion in the posterior segment of the liver and an intratumoral APS, which caused portal hypertension. Although the patient underwen...

  14. Cataloging altered gene expression in young and senescent cells using enhanced differential display

    Linskens, Maarten H.K.; Feng, Junli; Andrews, William H.; Enlow, Brett E.; Saati, Shahin M.; Tonkin, Leath A.; Funk, Walter D.; Villeponteau, Bryant


    Recently, a novel PCR-based technique, differential display (DD), has facilitated the study of differentially expressed genes at the mRNA level. We report here an improved version of DD, which we call Enhanced Differential Display (EDD). We have modified the technique to enhance reproducibility and

  15. Choline and methionine differentially alter methyl carbon metabolism in bovine neonatal hepatocytes

    Chandler, Tawny L.


    Intersections in hepatic methyl group metabolism pathways highlights potential competition or compensation of methyl donors. The objective of this experiment was to examine the expression of genes related to methyl group transfer and lipid metabolism in response to increasing concentrations of choline chloride (CC) and DL-methionine (DLM) in primary neonatal hepatocytes that were or were not exposed to fatty acids (FA). Primary hepatocytes isolated from 4 neonatal Holstein calves were maintained as monolayer cultures for 24 h before treatment with CC (61, 128, 2028, and 4528 μmol/L) and DLM (16, 30, 100, 300 μmol/L), with or without a 1 mmol/L FA cocktail in a factorial arrangement. After 24 h of treatment, media was collected for quantification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and cell lysates were collected for quantification of gene expression. No interactions were detected between CC, DLM, or FA. Both CC and DLM decreased the expression of methionine adenosyltransferase 1A (MAT1A). Increasing CC did not alter betaine-homocysteine S-methyltranferase (BHMT) but did increase 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (MTR) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) expression. Increasing DLM decreased expression of BHMT and MTR, but did not affect MTHFR. Expression of both phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) were decreased by increasing CC and DLM, while carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) was unaffected by either. Treatment with FA decreased the expression of MAT1A, MTR, MTHFR and tended to decrease PEMT but did not affect BHMT and MTTP. Treatment with FA increased CPT1A expression. Increasing CC increased secretion of VLDL and decreased the accumulation of ROS in media. Within neonatal bovine hepatocytes, choline and methionine differentially regulate methyl carbon pathways and suggest that choline may play a critical role in

  16. Prenatal exposure to urban air nanoparticles in mice causes altered neuronal differentiation and depression-like responses.

    David A Davis

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that excessive exposure to traffic-derived air pollution during pregnancy may increase the vulnerability to neurodevelopmental alterations that underlie a broad array of neuropsychiatric disorders. We present a mouse model for prenatal exposure to urban freeway nanoparticulate matter (nPM. In prior studies, we developed a model for adult rodent exposure to re-aerosolized urban nPM which caused inflammatory brain responses with altered neuronal glutamatergic functions. nPMs are collected continuously for one month from a local freeway and stored as an aqueous suspension, prior to re-aerosolization for exposure of mice under controlled dose and duration. This paradigm was used for a pilot study of prenatal nPM impact on neonatal neurons and adult behaviors. Adult C57BL/6J female mice were exposed to re-aerosolized nPM (350 µg/m(3 or control filtered ambient air for 10 weeks (3×5 hour exposures per week, encompassing gestation and oocyte maturation prior to mating. Prenatal nPM did not alter litter size, pup weight, or postnatal growth. Neonatal cerebral cortex neurons at 24 hours in vitro showed impaired differentiation, with 50% reduction of stage 3 neurons with long neurites and correspondingly more undifferentiated neurons at Stages 0 and 1. Neuron number after 24 hours of culture was not altered by prenatal nPM exposure. Addition of exogenous nPM (2 µg/ml to the cultures impaired pyramidal neuron Stage 3 differentiation by 60%. Adult males showed increased depression-like responses in the tail-suspension test, but not anxiety-related behaviors. These pilot data suggest that prenatal exposure to nPM can alter neuronal differentiation with gender-specific behavioral sequelae that may be relevant to human prenatal exposure to urban vehicular aerosols.

  17. Alteration of nuclear matrix-intermediate filament system and differential expression of nuclear matrix proteins during human hepatocarcinoma cell differentiation

    Jian Tang; Jing-Wen Niu; Dong-Hui Xu; Zhi-Xing Li; Qi-Fu Li; Jin-An Chen


    AIM:To investigate the association between the configurational and compositional changes of nuclear matrix and the differentiation of carcinoma cells.METHODS: Cells cultured with or without 5 × 10-3mmol/L of hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA) on Nickel grids were treated by selective extraction and prepared for whole mount observation under electron microscopy. The samples were examined under transmission electron microscope. Nuclear matrix proteins were selectively extracted and subjected to subcellular proteomics study. The protein expression patterns were analyzed by PDQuest software. Spots of differentially expressed nuclear matrix proteins were excised and subjected to in situ digestion with trypsin.The peptides were analyzed by matrix-assisted laserdesorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Data were submitted for database searching using Mascot tool (www. The nuclear matrix (NM) and intermediate filament (IF) in SMMC-7721 hepatocarcinoma cells were found relatively sparse and arranged irregularly.The nuclear lamina was non-uniform, and two kinds of filaments were not tightly connected. After induction for differentiation by HMBA, the NM-IF filaments were concentrated and distributed uniformly. The heterogeneous population of filaments, including highly branched utrathin filaments could also be seen in the regular meshwork. The connection between the two kinds of filaments and the relatively thin, condensed and sharply demarcated lamina composed of intermediatesized filaments was relatively fastened. Meanwhile, 21NM proteins changed remarkably during SMMC-7721cell differentiation. Four proteins, I.e. Mutant Pyst1,hypothetical protein, nucleophosmin1, and LBP were downregulated, whereas four other proteins, eIF6, p44subunit, β-tubulin, and SIN3B were upregulated with the last one, SR2/ASF found only in the differentiated SMMC-7721 cells.CONCLUSION: The induced differentiation of SMMC-7721cells by HMBA is

  18. Tungsten Promotes Sex-Specific Adipogenesis in the Bone by Altering Differentiation of Bone Marrow-Resident Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    Bolt, Alicia M; Grant, Michael P; Wu, Ting Hua; Flores Molina, Manuel; Plourde, Dany; Kelly, Alexander D R; Negro Silva, Luis Fernando; Lemaire, Maryse; Schlezinger, Jennifer J; Mwale, Fackson; Mann, Koren K


    Tungsten is a naturally occurring metal that increasingly is being incorporated into industrial goods and medical devices, and is recognized as an emerging contaminant. Tungsten preferentially and rapidly accumulates in murine bone in a concentration-dependent manner; however the effect of tungsten deposition on bone biology is unknown. Other metals alter bone homeostasis by targeting bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) differentiation, thus, we investigated the effects of tungsten on MSCsin vitroandin vivoIn vitro, tungsten shifted the balance of MSC differentiation by enhancing rosiglitazone-induced adipogenesis, which correlated with an increase in adipocyte content in the bone of tungsten-exposed, young, male mice. Conversely, tungsten inhibited osteogenesis of MSCsin vitro; however, we found no evidence that tungsten inhibited osteogenesisin vivo Interestingly, two factors known to influence adipogenesis are sex and age of mice. Both female and older mice have enhanced adipogenesis. We extended our study and exposed young female and adult (9-month) male and female mice to tungsten for 4 weeks. Although tungsten accumulated to a similar extent in young female mice, it did not promote adipogenesis. Interestingly, tungsten did not accumulate in the bone of older mice; it was undetectable in adult male mice, and just above the limit of detect in adult female mice. Surprisingly, tungsten enhanced adipogenesis in adult female mice. In summary, we found that tungsten alters bone homeostasis by altering differentiation of MSCs, which could have significant implications for bone quality, but is highly dependent upon sex and age.

  19. Control of Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Altering the Geometry of Nanofibers

    Satoshi Fujita


    Full Text Available Effective differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs is required for clinical applications. To control MSC differentiation, induction media containing different types of soluble factors have been used to date; however, it remains challenging to obtain a uniformly differentiated population of an appropriate quality for clinical application by this approach. We attempted to develop nanofiber scaffolds for effective MSC differentiation by mimicking anisotropy of the extracellular matrix structure, to assess whether differentiation of these cells can be controlled by using geometrically different scaffolds. We evaluated MSC differentiation on aligned and random nanofibers, fabricated by electrospinning. We found that induction of MSCs into adipocytes was markedly more inhibited on random nanofibers than on aligned nanofibers. In addition, adipoinduction on aligned nanofibers was also inhibited in the presence of mixed adipoinduction and osteoinduction medium, although osteoinduction was not affected by a change in scaffold geometry. Thus, we have achieved localized control over the direction of differentiation through changes in the alignment of the scaffold even in the presence of a mixed medium. These findings indicate that precise control of MSC differentiation can be attained by using scaffolds with different geometry, rather than by the conventional use of soluble factors in the medium.

  20. Alteration of microRNA expression of human dental pulp cells during odontogenic differentiation.

    Gong, Qimei; Wang, Runfu; Jiang, Hongwei; Lin, Zhengmei; Ling, Junqi


    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play momentous roles in various biological processes including cell differentiation. However, little is known about the role of miRNAs in human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) during odontogenic differentiation. The aims of this study were to investigate the expression of miRNAs in the primary culture of hDPCs when incubated in odontogenic medium. The potential characteristics of hDPCs were investigated by miRNA microarray and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Bioinformatics (ie, target prediction, Gene Ontology analysis, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes mapping tools) were applied for predicting the complementary target genes of miRNAs and their biological functions. A total of 22 miRNAs were differentially expressed in which 12 miRNAs up-regulated and 10 miRNAs down-regulated in differentiated hDPCs compared with the control. The target genes of differential miRNAs were predicted to associate with several biological functions and signaling pathways including the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the Wnt signaling pathway. The differential expression miRNAs may be involved in governing hDPC odontogenic differentiation, thus contributing to the future investigations of regulatory mechanisms in reparative dentin formation and dental pulp regeneration. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Multidetector Computed Tomography Features in Differentiating Exophytic Renal Angiomyolipoma from Retroperitoneal Liposarcoma

    Wang, Qiushi; Juan, Yu-Hsiang; Li, Yong; Xie, Jia-Jun; Liu, Hui; Huang, Hongfei; Liu, Zaiyi; Zheng, Junhui; Saboo, Ujwala S.; Saboo, Sachin S.; Liang, Changhong


    Abstract This study aims to evaluate the multidetector computed tomography (CT) imaging features in differentiating exophytic renal angiomyolipoma (AML) from retroperitoneal liposarcoma. We retrospectively enrolled 42 patients with confirmed exophytic renal AML (31 patients) or retroperitoneal liposarcoma (11 patients) during 8 years period to assess: renal parenchymal defect at site of tumor contact, supply from branches of renal artery, tumoral vessel extending through the renal parenchyma, dilated intratumoral vessels, hemorrhage, non–fat-containing intratumoral nodules with postcontrast enhancement, calcification, renal sinus enlargement, anterior displacement of kidneys, and other associated AML. Renal parenchymal defect, renal arterial blood supply, tumoral vessel through the renal parenchyma, dilated intratumoral vessels, intratumoral/perirenal hemorrhage, renal sinus enlargement, and associated AML were seen only or mainly in exophytic renal AML (all P value < 0.05); however, non–fat-attenuating enhancing intratumoral nodules, intratumoral calcification, and anterior displacement of the kidney were more common in liposarcoma (all P value < 0.05). AMLs reveal renal parenchymal defect at the site of tumor contact, supply from renal artery, tumoral vessel extending through the renal parenchyma, dilated intratumoral vessels, intratumoral and/or perirenal hemorrhage, renal sinus enlargement, and associated AML. Non–fat-attenuating enhancing intratumoral nodules, intratumoral calcifications, and anterior displacement of kidney were more commonly seen in liposarcoma. PMID:26376398

  2. Intratumoral heterogeneity of microRNA expression in breast cancer.

    Raychaudhuri, Mithu; Schuster, Tibor; Buchner, Theresa; Malinowsky, Katharina; Bronger, Holger; Schwarz-Boeger, Ulrike; Höfler, Heinz; Avril, Stefanie


    Profiling studies have identified specific microRNA (miRNA) signatures in malignant tumors including breast cancer. Our aim was to assess intratumoral heterogeneity in miRNA expression levels within primary breast cancers and between axillary lymph node metastases from the same patient. Specimens of 16 primary breast cancers were sampled in 8-10 distinct locations including the peripheral, intermediate, and central tumor zones, as well as two to five axillary lymph node metastases (n = 9). Total RNA was extracted from 132 paraffin-embedded samples, and the expression of miR-10b, miR-210, miR-31, and miR-335 was assessed as well as the reproducibility of RNA extraction and miRNA analysis by quantitative RT-PCR. Considerable intratumoral heterogeneity existed for all four miRNAs within primary breast cancers (CV 40%). No significant differences within (CV 34%) or between different tumor zones (CV 33%) were found. A similar variation in miRNA expression was observed between corresponding lymph node metastases (mean CV 40%). In comparison, the variation among different patients showed a CV of 80% for primary tumors and 103% for lymph node metastases. Both miRNA extraction procedures and quantitative RT-PCR showed high reproducibility (CV ≤ 2%). Thus, the intratumoral heterogeneity of miRNA expression in breast cancers can lead to significant sampling bias. Assessment of breast cancer miRNA profiles may require sampling at several different tumor locations and of several tumor-involved lymph nodes when deriving miRNA expression profiles of metastases.

  3. Sox7-sustained expression alters the balance between proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors at the onset of blood specification.

    Gandillet, Arnaud; Serrano, Alicia G; Pearson, Stella; Lie-A-Ling, Michael; Lacaud, Georges; Kouskoff, Valerie


    The molecular mechanisms that regulate the balance between proliferation and differentiation of precursors at the onset of hematopoiesis specification are poorly understood. By using a global gene expression profiling approach during the course of embryonic stem cell differentiation, we identified Sox7 as a potential candidate gene involved in the regulation of blood lineage formation from the mesoderm germ layer. In the present study, we show that Sox7 is transiently expressed in mesodermal precursors as they undergo specification to the hematopoietic program. Sox7 knockdown in vitro significantly decreases the formation of both primitive erythroid and definitive hematopoietic progenitors as well as endothelial progenitors. In contrast, Sox7-sustained expression in the earliest committed hematopoietic precursors promotes the maintenance of their multipotent and self-renewing status. Removal of this differentiation block driven by Sox7-enforced expression leads to the efficient differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors to all erythroid and myeloid lineages. This study identifies Sox7 as a novel and important player in the molecular regulation of the first committed blood precursors. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that the mere sustained expression of Sox7 is sufficient to completely alter the balance between proliferation and differentiation at the onset of hematopoiesis.

  4. Altered membrane dynamics of quantum dot-conjugated integrins during osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow derived progenitor cells.

    Chen, Hongfeng; Titushkin, Igor; Stroscio, Michael; Cho, Michael


    Functionalized quantum dots offer several advantages for tracking the motion of individual molecules on the cell surface, including selective binding, precise optical identification of cell surface molecules, and detailed examination of the molecular motion without photobleaching. We have used quantum dots conjugated with integrin antibodies and performed studies to quantitatively demonstrate changes in the integrin dynamics during osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow derived progenitor cells (BMPCs). Consistent with the unusually strong BMPC adhesion previously observed, integrins on the surface of undifferentiated BMPC were found in clusters and the lateral diffusion was slow (e.g., approximately 10(-11) cm2/s). At times as early as those after a 3-day incubation in the osteogenic differentiation media, the integrin diffusion coefficients increased by an order of magnitude, and the integrin dynamics became indistinguishable from that measured on the surface of terminally differentiated human osteoblasts. Furthermore, microfilaments in BMPCs consisted of atypically thick bundles of stress fibers that were responsible for restricting the integrin lateral mobility. Studies using laser optical tweezers showed that, unlike fully differentiated osteoblasts, the BMPC cytoskeleton is weakly associated with its cell membrane. Based on these findings, it appears likely that the altered integrin dynamics is correlated with BMPC differentiation and that the integrin lateral mobility is restricted by direct links to microfilaments.

  5. Histological evaluation of intratumoral myxoma virus treatment in an immunocompetent mouse model of melanoma.

    Doty, Rosalinda A; Liu, Jia; McFadden, Grant; Roy, Edward J; MacNeill, Amy L


    Two recombinant myxoma viruses (MYXV expressing a fluorescent protein [MYXV-Tred] and MYXV-Tred encoding murine interleukin-15 [MYXV-IL15]) were evaluated for therapeutic effects in an aggressive B16F10 melanoma model in immunocompetent mice. It was hypothesized that continuous expression of IL-15 within a tumor would recruit cytotoxic effector cells to induce an antitumor immune response and improve treatment efficacy. Weekly intratumoral injections were given to evaluate the effect of treatment on the median survival time of C57BL/6 mice bearing established B16F10 melanomas. Mice that received MYXV-Tred or MYXV-IL15 lived significantly longer than mice given treatment controls. Unexpectedly, the median survival time of MYXV-IL15-treated mice was similar to that of MYXV-treated mice. At 1, 2, and 4 days postinoculation, viral plaque assays detected replicating MYXV-Tred and MYXV-IL15 within treated tumors. At these time points in MYXV-IL15-treated tumors, IL-15 concentration, lymphocyte grades, and cluster of differentiation-3+ cell counts were significantly increased when compared to other treatment groups. However, viral titers, recombinant protein expression, and lymphocyte numbers within the tumors diminished rapidly at 7 days postinoculation. These data indicate that treatment with recombinant MYXV should be repeated at least every 4 days to maintain recombinant protein expression within a murine tumor. Additionally, neutrophilic inflammation was significantly increased in MYXV-Tred- and MYXV-IL15-treated tumors at early time points. It is speculated that neutrophilic inflammation induced by intratumoral replication of recombinant MXYV contributes to the antitumoral effect of MYXV treatment in this melanoma model. These findings support the inclusion of neutrophil chemotaxins in recombinant poxvirus oncolytic virotherapy.

  6. Increasing Human Neural Stem Cell Transplantation Dose Alters Oligodendroglial and Neuronal Differentiation after Spinal Cord Injury

    Katja M. Piltti


    Full Text Available Multipotent human central nervous system-derived neural stem cells transplanted at doses ranging from 10,000 (low to 500,000 (very high cells differentiated predominantly into the oligodendroglial lineage. However, while the number of engrafted cells increased linearly in relationship to increasing dose, the proportion of oligodendrocytic cells declined. Increasing dose resulted in a plateau of engraftment, enhanced neuronal differentiation, and increased distal migration caudal to the transplantation sites. Dose had no effect on terminal sensory recovery or open-field locomotor scores. However, total human cell number and decreased oligodendroglial proportion were correlated with hindlimb girdle coupling errors. Conversely, greater oligodendroglial proportion was correlated with increased Ab step pattern, decreased swing speed, and increased paw intensity, consistent with improved recovery. These data suggest that transplant dose, and/or target niche parameters can regulate donor cell engraftment, differentiation/maturation, and lineage-specific migration profiles.

  7. Erratum: PDGF-BB induces intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and promotes lymphatic metastasis

    Cao, R.H.; Bjorndahl, M.A.; Religa, P.;


    This corrects the article "PDGF-BB induces intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and promotes lymphatic metastasis", Cancer Cell, 2004, vol. 6(4), pg 333-45.......This corrects the article "PDGF-BB induces intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and promotes lymphatic metastasis", Cancer Cell, 2004, vol. 6(4), pg 333-45....

  8. PD-1 blockade expands intratumoral T memory cells

    Ribas, Antoni; Shin, Daniel Sanghoon; Zaretsky, Jesse; Frederiksen, Juliet; Cornish, Andrew; Avramis, Earl; Seja, Elizabeth; Kivork, Christine; Siebert, Janet; Kaplan-Lefko, Paula; Wang, Xiaoyan; Chmielowski, Bartosz; Glaspy, John A.; Tumeh, Paul C.; Chodon, Thinle; Pe’er, Dana; Comin-Anduix, Begoña


    Tumor responses to PD-1 blockade therapy are mediated by T cells, which we characterized in 102 tumor biopsies obtained from 53 patients treated with pembrolizumab, an antibody to PD-1. Biopsies were dissociated and single cell infiltrates were analyzed by multicolor flow cytometry using two computational approaches to resolve the leukocyte phenotypes at the single cell level. There was a statistically significant increase in the frequency of T cells in patients who responded to therapy. The frequency of intratumoral B cells and monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (moMDSCs) significantly increased in patients’ biopsies taken on treatment. The percentage of cells with a T regulatory phenotype, monocytes, and NK cells did not change while on PD-1 blockade therapy. CD8+ T memory cells were the most prominent phenotype that expanded intratumorally on therapy. However, the frequency of CD4+ T effector memory cells significantly decreased on treatment, whereas CD4+ T effector cells significantly increased in nonresponding tumors on therapy. In peripheral blood, an unusual population of blood cells expressing CD56 were detected in two patients with regressing melanoma. In conclusion, PD-1 blockade increases the frequency of T cells, B cells, and MDSCs in tumors, with the CD8+ T effector memory subset being the major T-cell phenotype expanded in patients with a response to therapy. PMID:26787823

  9. Differential motor alterations in children with three types of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Adrián Poblano


    Full Text Available Objective To determine frequency of motor alterations in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Method We evaluated 19 children aged 7-12 years with ADHD classified in three sub-types: Combined (ADHD-C, with Inattention (ADHD-I, and with Hyperactivity (ADHD-H. Controls were age- and gender matched healthy children. We utilized Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP for measuring motor skills. Results We observed differences between children with ADHD and controls in BOTMP general score and in static coordination, dynamic general- and hand- coordination, and in synkinetic movements. We also found differences in dynamic hand coordination between controls and children with ADHD-C; in dynamic general coordination between controls and children with ADHD-H; and in frequency of synkinetic movements between controls and children with ADHD-H. Conclusion Children with ADHD with a major degree of hyperactivity showed greater frequency of motor alterations.

  10. Intratumoral administration of holmium-166 acetylacetonate microspheres: antitumor efficacy and feasibility of multimodality imaging in renal cancer.

    Wouter Bult

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The increasing incidence of small renal tumors in an aging population with comorbidities has stimulated the development of minimally invasive treatments. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and demonstrate feasibility of multimodality imaging of intratumoral administration of holmium-166 microspheres ((166HoAcAcMS. This new technique locally ablates renal tumors through high-energy beta particles, while the gamma rays allow for nuclear imaging and the paramagnetism of holmium allows for MRI. METHODS: (166HoAcAcMS were administered intratumorally in orthotopic renal tumors (Balb/C mice. Post administration CT, SPECT and MRI was performed. At several time points (2 h, 1, 2, 3, 7 and 14 days after MS administration, tumors were measured and histologically analyzed. Holmium accumulation in organs was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. RESULTS: (166HoAcAcMS were successfully administered to tumor bearing mice. A striking near-complete tumor-control was observed in (166HoAcAcMS treated mice (0.10±0.01 cm(3 vs. 4.15±0.3 cm(3 for control tumors. Focal necrosis and inflammation was present from 24 h following treatment. Renal parenchyma outside the radiated region showed no histological alterations. Post administration CT, MRI and SPECT imaging revealed clear deposits of (166HoAcAcMS in the kidney. CONCLUSIONS: Intratumorally administered (166HoAcAcMS has great potential as a new local treatment of renal tumors for surgically unfit patients. In addition to strong cancer control, it provides powerful multimodality imaging opportunities.

  11. Algal Toxin Azaspiracid-1 Induces Early Neuronal Differentiation and Alters Peripherin Isoform Stoichiometry

    Linda V. Hjørnevik


    Full Text Available Azaspiracid-1 is an algal toxin that accumulates in edible mussels, and ingestion may result in human illness as manifested by vomiting and diarrhoea. When injected into mice, it causes neurotoxicological symptoms and death. Although it is well known that azaspiracid-1 is toxic to most cells and cell lines, little is known about its biological target(s. A rat PC12 cell line, commonly used as a model for the peripheral nervous system, was used to study the neurotoxicological effects of azaspiracid-1. Azaspiracid-1 induced differentiation-related morphological changes followed by a latter cell death. The differentiated phenotype showed peripherin-labelled neurite-like processes simultaneously as a specific isoform of peripherin was down-regulated. The precise mechanism behind this down-regulation remains uncertain. However, this study provides new insights into the neurological effects of azaspiracid-1 and into the biological significance of specific isoforms of peripherin.

  12. Salivary gland tumors of the parotid gland: CT and MR imaging findings with emphasis on intratumoral cystic components

    Kato, Hiroki; Watanabe, Haruo [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gifu (Japan); Kanematsu, Masayuki [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gifu (Japan); Gifu University Hospital, High-Level Imaging Diagnosis Center, Gifu (Japan); Mizuta, Keisuke; Aoki, Mitsuhiro [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Gifu (Japan)


    The purpose of this study was to assess computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of salivary gland tumors of the parotid gland with emphasis on intratumoral cystic components. Seventy-two histopathologically confirmed salivary gland tumors of the parotid gland (44 benign and 28 malignant), which underwent both CT and MR imaging including contrast-enhanced study, were included in this study. We retrospectively reviewed images for the presence, number, occupying rate, margin characteristics, distribution, and predominant MR signal intensity of intratumoral cystic components. The prevalence of cystic components was greater in malignant than benign tumors (79 vs. 50 %, p < 0.05). The number and occupying rate were similar between benign and malignant tumors. The irregular margins were more frequent in malignant than benign tumors (73 vs. 27 %, p < 0.01). The frequency of eccentric location was greater in benign than malignant tumors (91 vs. 55 %, p < 0.01), whereas the frequency of centric location was greater in malignant than benign tumors (32 vs. 0 %, p < 0.01). On T1-weighted images, the frequency of hyperintensity was greater in benign than malignant tumors (50 vs. 9 %, p < 0.01), whereas that of isointensity was greater in malignant than benign tumors (50 vs. 0 %, p < 0.01). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the absence of irregular margins of cystic components only was significantly correlated with the presence of benign salivary gland tumors (p < 0.01). Imaging features of intratumoral cystic components may help to differentiate benign from malignant tumors of the parotid salivary gland. (orig.)

  13. Multiple Antenatal Dexamethasone Treatment Alters Brain Vessel Differentiation in Newborn Mouse Pups.

    Winfried Neuhaus

    Full Text Available Antenatal steroid treatment decreases morbidity and mortality in premature infants through the maturation of lung tissue, which enables sufficient breathing performance. However, clinical and animal studies have shown that repeated doses of glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone and betamethasone lead to long-term adverse effects on brain development. Therefore, we established a mouse model for antenatal dexamethasone treatment to investigate the effects of dexamethasone on brain vessel differentiation towards the blood-brain barrier (BBB phenotype, focusing on molecular marker analysis. The major findings were that in total brains on postnatal day (PN 4 triple antenatal dexamethasone treatment significantly downregulated the tight junction protein claudin-5, the endothelial marker Pecam-1/CD31, the glucocorticoid receptor, the NR1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, and Abc transporters (Abcb1a, Abcg2 Abcc4. Less pronounced effects were found after single antenatal dexamethasone treatment and in PN10 samples. Comparisons of total brain samples with isolated brain endothelial cells together with the stainings for Pecam-1/CD31 and claudin-5 led to the assumption that the morphology of brain vessels is affected by antenatal dexamethasone treatment at PN4. On the mRNA level markers for angiogenesis, the sonic hedgehog and the Wnt pathway were downregulated in PN4 samples, suggesting fundamental changes in brain vascularization and/or differentiation. In conclusion, we provided a first comprehensive molecular basis for the adverse effects of multiple antenatal dexamethasone treatment on brain vessel differentiation.

  14. Storage Temperature Alters the Expression of Differentiation-Related Genes in Cultured Oral Keratinocytes.

    Utheim, Tor Paaske; Islam, Rakibul; Fostad, Ida G; Eidet, Jon R; Sehic, Amer; Olstad, Ole K; Dartt, Darlene A; Messelt, Edward B; Griffith, May; Pasovic, Lara


    Storage of cultured human oral keratinocytes (HOK) allows for transportation of cultured transplants to eye clinics worldwide. In a previous study, one-week storage of cultured HOK was found to be superior with regard to viability and morphology at 12°C compared to 4°C and 37°C. To understand more of how storage temperature affects cell phenotype, gene expression of HOK before and after storage at 4°C, 12°C, and 37°C was assessed. Cultured HOK were stored in HEPES- and sodium bicarbonate-buffered Minimum Essential Medium at 4°C, 12°C, and 37°C for one week. Total RNA was isolated and the gene expression profile was determined using DNA microarrays and analyzed with Partek Genomics Suite software and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Differentially expressed genes (fold change > 1.5 and P expression of cultures stored at 4°C and 12°C clustered close to the unstored control cultures. Cultures stored at 37°C displayed substantial change in gene expression compared to the other groups. In comparison with 12°C, 2,981 genes were differentially expressed at 37°C. In contrast, only 67 genes were differentially expressed between the unstored control and the cells stored at 12°C. The 12°C and 37°C culture groups differed most significantly with regard to the expression of differentiation markers. The Hedgehog signaling pathway was significantly downregulated at 37°C compared to 12°C. HOK cultures stored at 37°C showed considerably larger changes in gene expression compared to unstored cells than cultured HOK stored at 4°C and 12°C. The changes observed at 37°C consisted of differentiation of the cells towards a squamous epithelium-specific phenotype. Storing cultured ocular surface transplants at 37°C is therefore not recommended. This is particularly interesting as 37°C is the standard incubation temperature used for cell culture.

  15. Differential cloning of novel intestine-specific genes whose expression is altered under conditions of villus atrophy.

    Hodin, R A; Meng, S; Shei, A


    Atrophy of the small intestinal villi occurs in a variety of disease states and is associated with diarrhea, malabsorption, and impaired barrier function. We have previously demonstrated that villus atrophy is associated with an increase in lactase and a decrease in intestinal alkaline phosphatase gene expression. Given these changes in enterocyte phenotype with villus atrophy, we speculated that there may be other intestine-specific genes whose expression is altered as a function of epithelial growth state. We have employed two molecular techniques in order to identify and clone complementary DNAs (cDNA) which are differentially expressed in atrophic compared to normal small intestinal mucosa. In differential cDNA library (+/-) screening, duplicate filters of a normal jejunal cDNA library are hybridized with radiolabeled cDNA probes from either atrophic or control tissues. Comparisons of the intensities of hybridized clones allows for the identification of differentially expressed gene products. In the mRNA differential display system, RT-PCR is used to randomly amplify mRNA species. Similar to cDNA library screening, comparisons of radiolabeled bands on a polyacrylamide sequencing gel allow for the identification of differentially expressed genes. Using these methods, we have identified a novel cDNA, called D9, which appears to be expressed exclusively in the intestinal mucosa. Northern analyses have confirmed that the expression of the D9 mRNA is dramatically decreased under conditions of villus atrophy, suggesting an underlying relationship with epithelial growth state. DNA sequence analysis (GenBank) reveals no identity to previously cloned genes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Acute and chronic ethanol exposure differentially alters alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in the zebrafish liver.

    Tran, Steven; Nowicki, Magda; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert


    Chronic ethanol exposure paradigms have been successfully used in the past to induce behavioral and central nervous system related changes in zebrafish. However, it is currently unknown whether chronic ethanol exposure alters ethanol metabolism in adult zebrafish. In the current study we examine the effect of acute ethanol exposure on adult zebrafish behavioral responses, as well as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity in the liver. We then examine how two different chronic ethanol exposure paradigms (continuous and repeated ethanol exposure) alter behavioral responses and liver enzyme activity during a subsequent acute ethanol challenge. Acute ethanol exposure increased locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner. ADH activity was shown to exhibit an inverted U-shaped curve and ALDH activity was decreased by ethanol exposure at all doses. During the acute ethanol challenge, animals that were continuously housed in ethanol exhibited a significantly reduced locomotor response and increased ADH activity, however, ALDH activity did not change. Zebrafish that were repeatedly exposed to ethanol demonstrated a small but significant attenuation of the locomotor response during the acute ethanol challenge but ADH and ALDH activity was similar to controls. Overall, we identified two different chronic ethanol exposure paradigms that differentially alter behavioral and physiological responses in zebrafish. We speculate that these two paradigms may allow dissociation of central nervous system-related and liver enzyme-dependent ethanol induced changes in zebrafish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Differential Rearing Alters Forced Swim Test Behavior, Fluoxetine Efficacy, and Post-Test Weight Gain in Male Rats.

    Arndt, David L; Peterson, Christy J; Cain, Mary E


    Environmental factors play a key role in the etiology of depression. The rodent forced swim test (FST) is commonly used as a preclinical model of depression, with increases in escape-directed behavior reflecting antidepressant effects, and increases in immobility reflecting behavioral despair. Environmental enrichment leads to serotonergic alterations in rats, but it is unknown whether these alterations may influence the efficacy of common antidepressants. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were reared in enriched (EC), standard (SC), or isolated (IC) conditions. Following the rearing period, fluoxetine (10 or 20 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 23.5 hrs, 5 hrs, and 1 hr before locomotor and FST measures. Following locomotor testing and FST exposure, rats were weighed to assess fluoxetine-, FST-, and environmental condition-induced moderations in weight gain. Results revealed an antidepressant effect of environmental enrichment and a depressant effect of isolation. Regardless of significant fluoxetine effects on locomotor activity, fluoxetine generally decreased swimming and increased immobility in all three environmental conditions, with IC-fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) rats and EC-fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) rats swimming less than vehicle counterparts. Subchronic 20 mg/kg fluoxetine also induced significant weight loss, and differential rearing appeared to moderate weight gain following FST stress. These results suggest that differential rearing has the ability to alter FST behaviors, fluoxetine efficacy, and post-stressor well-being. Moreover, 20 mg/kg fluoxetine, administered subchronically, may lead to atypical effects of those commonly observed in the FST, highlighting the importance and impact of both environmental condition and dosing regimen in common animal models of depression.

  18. Familial Alzheimer's disease mutations differentially alter amyloid β-protein oligomerization.

    Gessel, Megan Murray; Bernstein, Summer; Kemper, Martin; Teplow, David B; Bowers, Michael T


    Although most cases of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are sporadic, ∼5% of cases are genetic in origin. These cases, known as familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD), are caused by mutations that alter the rate of production or the primary structure of the amyloid β-protein (Aβ). Changes in the primary structure of Aβ alter the peptide's assembly and toxic activity. Recently, a primary working hypothesis for AD has evolved where causation has been attributed to early, soluble peptide oligomer states. Here we posit that both experimental and pathological differences between FAD-related mutants and wild-type Aβ could be reflected in the early oligomer distributions of these peptides. We use ion mobility-based mass spectrometry to probe the structure and early aggregation states of three mutant forms of Aβ40 and Aβ42: Tottori (D7N), Flemish (A21G), and Arctic (E22G). Our results indicate that the FAD-related amino acid substitutions have no noticeable effect on Aβ monomer cross section, indicating there are no major structural changes in the monomers. However, we observe significant changes to the aggregation states populated by the various Aβ mutants, indicating that structural changes present in the monomers are reflected in the oligomers. Moreover, the early oligomer distributions differ for each mutant, suggesting a possible structural basis for the varied pathogenesis of different forms of FAD.

  19. Altered chromatin occupancy of master regulators underlies evolutionary divergence in the transcriptional landscape of erythroid differentiation.

    Jacob C Ulirsch


    Full Text Available Erythropoiesis is one of the best understood examples of cellular differentiation. Morphologically, erythroid differentiation proceeds in a nearly identical fashion between humans and mice, but recent evidence has shown that networks of gene expression governing this process are divergent between species. We undertook a systematic comparative analysis of six histone modifications and four transcriptional master regulators in primary proerythroblasts and erythroid cell lines to better understand the underlying basis of these transcriptional differences. Our analyses suggest that while chromatin structure across orthologous promoters is strongly conserved, subtle differences are associated with transcriptional divergence between species. Many transcription factor (TF occupancy sites were poorly conserved across species (∼25% for GATA1, TAL1, and NFE2 but were more conserved between proerythroblasts and cell lines derived from the same species. We found that certain cis-regulatory modules co-occupied by GATA1, TAL1, and KLF1 are under strict evolutionary constraint and localize to genes necessary for erythroid cell identity. More generally, we show that conserved TF occupancy sites are indicative of active regulatory regions and strong gene expression that is sustained during maturation. Our results suggest that evolutionary turnover of TF binding sites associates with changes in the underlying chromatin structure, driving transcriptional divergence. We provide examples of how this framework can be applied to understand epigenomic variation in specific regulatory regions, such as the β-globin gene locus. Our findings have important implications for understanding epigenomic changes that mediate variation in cellular differentiation across species, while also providing a valuable resource for studies of hematopoiesis.

  20. 10e12z CLA alters adipocyte differentiation and adipocyte cytokine expression and induces macrophage proliferation.

    Belda, Benjamin J; Thompson, Jerry T; Eser, Pinar O; Vanden Heuvel, John P


    The trans-10, cis-12 (10e12z) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer of CLA is responsible for loss of lipid storage or adipose tissue in vitro or in vivo. This isomer also induces inflammatory signaling in both mouse and human adipocytes in vitro. However, when these events occur and whether they are significant enough to affect other cell types are unclear. In these experiments, the 3T3-L1 cell line has been used to examine the interaction between inflammatory signaling and decreased differentiation or lipid storage induced by 10e12z CLA. In assays measuring both lipid accumulation and gene expression, differentiating 3T3-L1 cells exhibit concurrent induction of inflammatory signaling, as measured by cyclooxygenase-2 expression, and a decrease in adipocyte marker gene expression. Furthermore, in fully differentiated adipocytes, as identified in microarray assays and confirmed with real-time polymerase chain reaction, 10e12z CLA also significantly affected expression of both matrix metalloprotein-3 (MMP-3), collagen VI α 3 ColVI alpha 3 (VIα3) and the cytokine epiregulin, demonstrating that the effects of 10e12z broadly impact adipocyte function. In agreement with other experimental systems, 10e12z CLA inhibited RAW 264.7 cell proliferation; however, in response to adipocyte-conditioned media, 10e12z-CLA-treated adipocytes induced proliferation of this cell line, suggesting that the effect of 10e12z CLA is context dependent. These results are largely consistent with the known activation of the inflammatory mediator nuclear factor-κB in adipocytes in vitro and in vivo by 10e12z CLA treatment and demonstrate that adipose is an important target tissue of this isomer that impacts other cell types.

  1. Alterations in Epidermal Eicosanoid Metabolism Contribute to Inflammation and Impaired Late Differentiation in FLG-Mutated Atopic Dermatitis.

    Blunder, Stefan; Rühl, Ralph; Moosbrugger-Martinz, Verena; Krimmel, Christine; Geisler, Anita; Zhu, Huiting; Crumrine, Debra; Elias, Peter M; Gruber, Robert; Schmuth, Matthias; Dubrac, Sandrine


    Loss-of-function mutations in the FLG gene cause ichthyosis vulgaris (IV) and represent the major predisposing genetic risk factor for atopic dermatitis (AD). Although both conditions are characterized by epidermal barrier impairment, AD also exhibits signs of inflammation. This work was aimed at delineating the role of FLG loss-of-function mutations on eicosanoid metabolism in IV and AD. Using human epidermal equivalents (HEEs) generated with keratinocytes isolated from nonlesional skin of patients with FLG wild-type AD (WT/WT), FLG-mutated AD (FLG/WT), IV (FLG/FLG), or FLG WT control skin, we assessed the potential autocrine role of epidermal-derived eicosanoids in FLG-associated versus FLG-WT AD pathogenesis. Ultrastructural analyses demonstrated abnormal stratum corneum lipid architecture in AD and IV HEEs, independent of FLG genotype. Both AD (FLG/WT) and IV (FLG/FLG) HEEs showed impaired late epidermal differentiation. Only AD (FLG/WT) HEEs exhibited significantly increased levels of inflammatory cytokines. Analyses of lipid mediators revealed increased arachidonic acid and 12-lipoxygenase metabolites. Whereas treatment of control HEEs with arachidonic acid increased expression of inflammatory cytokines, 12-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid attenuated expression of late differentiation markers. Thus, FLG mutations lead to alterations in epidermal eicosanoid metabolism that could serve as an autocrine trigger of inflammation and impaired late epidermal differentiation in AD.

  2. Exercise training alters DNA methylation patterns in genes related to muscle growth and differentiation in mice.

    Kanzleiter, Timo; Jähnert, Markus; Schulze, Gunnar; Selbig, Joachim; Hallahan, Nicole; Schwenk, Robert Wolfgang; Schürmann, Annette


    The adaptive response of skeletal muscle to exercise training is tightly controlled and therefore requires transcriptional regulation. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism known to modulate gene expression, but its contribution to exercise-induced adaptations in skeletal muscle is not well studied. Here, we describe a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in muscle of trained mice (n = 3). Compared with sedentary controls, 2,762 genes exhibited differentially methylated CpGs (P 5%, coverage >10) in their putative promoter regions. Alignment with gene expression data (n = 6) revealed 200 genes with a negative correlation between methylation and expression changes in response to exercise training. The majority of these genes were related to muscle growth and differentiation, and a minor fraction involved in metabolic regulation. Among the candidates were genes that regulate the expression of myogenic regulatory factors (Plexin A2) as well as genes that participate in muscle hypertrophy (Igfbp4) and motor neuron innervation (Dok7). Interestingly, a transcription factor binding site enrichment study discovered significantly enriched occurrence of CpG methylation in the binding sites of the myogenic regulatory factors MyoD and myogenin. These findings suggest that DNA methylation is involved in the regulation of muscle adaptation to regular exercise training.

  3. Common protein biomarkers assessed by reverse phase protein arrays show considerable intratumoral heterogeneity in breast cancer tissues.

    Katharina Malinowsky

    Full Text Available Proteins are used as prognostic and predictive biomarkers in breast cancer. However, the variability of protein expression within the same tumor is not well studied. The aim of this study was to assess intratumoral heterogeneity in protein expression levels by reverse-phase-protein-arrays (RPPA (i within primary breast cancers and (ii between axillary lymph node metastases from the same patient. Protein was extracted from 106 paraffin-embedded samples from 15 large (≥3 cm primary invasive breast cancers, including different zones within the primary tumor (peripheral, intermediate, central as well as 2-5 axillary lymph node metastases in 8 cases. Expression of 35 proteins including 15 phosphorylated proteins representing the HER2, EGFR, and uPA/PAI-1 signaling pathways was assessed using reverse-phase-protein-arrays. All 35 proteins showed considerable intratumoral heterogeneity within primary breast cancers with a mean coefficient of variation (CV of 31% (range 22-43%. There were no significant differences between phosphorylated (CV 32% and non-phosphorylated proteins (CV 31% and in the extent of intratumoral heterogeneity within a defined tumor zone (CV 28%, range 18-38% or between different tumor zones (CV 24%, range 17-38%. Lymph node metastases from the same patient showed a similar heterogeneity in protein expression (CV 27%, range 18-34%. In comparison, the variation amongst different patients was higher in primary tumors (CV 51%, range 29-98% and lymph node metastases (CV 65%, range 40-146%. Several proteins showed significant differential expression between different tumor stages, grades, histological subtypes and hormone receptor status. Commonly used protein biomarkers of breast cancer, including proteins from HER2, uPA/PAI-1 and EGFR signaling pathways showed higher than previously reported intratumoral heterogeneity of expression levels both within primary breast cancers and between lymph node metastases from the same patient

  4. Developmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) alters sexual differentiation in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta)

    Jandegian, Caitlin M.; Deem, Sharon L.; Bhandari, Ramji K.; Holliday, Casey M.; Nicks, Diane; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.; Selcer, Kyle; Tillitt, Donald E.; vom Saal, Fredrick S.; Velez, Vanessa; Yang, Ying; Holliday, Dawn K.


    Environmental chemicals can disrupt endocrine signaling and adversely impact sexual differentiation in wildlife. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic chemical commonly found in a variety of habitats. In this study, we used painted turtles (Chrysemys picta), which have temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), as an animal model for ontogenetic endocrine disruption by BPA. We hypothesized that BPA would override TSD and disrupt sexual development. We incubated farm-raised turtle eggs at the male-producing temperature (26 °C), randomly assigned individuals to treatment groups: control, vehicle control, 17β-estradiol (E2, 20 ng/g-egg) or 0.01, 1.0, 100 μg BPA/g-egg and harvested tissues at hatch. Typical female gonads were present in 89% of the E2-treated “males”, but in none of the control males (n = 35). Gonads of BPA-exposed turtles had varying amounts of ovarian-like cortical (OLC) tissue and disorganized testicular tubules in the medulla. Although the percentage of males with OLCs increased with BPA dose (BPA-low = 30%, BPA-medium = 33%, BPA-high = 39%), this difference was not significant (p = 0.85). In all three BPA treatments, SOX9 patterns revealed disorganized medullary testicular tubules and β-catenin expression in a thickened cortex. Liver vitellogenin, a female-specific liver protein commonly used as an exposure biomarker, was not induced by any of the treatments. Notably, these results suggest that developmental exposure to BPA disrupts sexual differentiation in painted turtles. Further examination is necessary to determine the underlying mechanisms of sex reversal in reptiles and how these translate to EDC exposure in wild populations.

  5. Presence of intratumoral neutrophils is an independent prognostic factor in localized renal cell carcinoma

    Jensen, Hanne Krogh; Donskov, Frede; Marcussen, Niels;


    PURPOSE: We have previously demonstrated a significant negative impact of intratumoral neutrophils in metastatic renal cell carcinoma. This study assessed intratumoral neutrophils in localized clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study comprised 121 consecutive patients...... neutrophils was also an independent prognostic factor for cancer-specific survival (HR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.9 to 6.4; P .... CONCLUSION: The presence of intratumoral neutrophils is a new, strong, independent prognostic factor for short recurrence-free, cancer-specific, and overall survival in localized clear cell RCC....

  6. Differential spectral power alteration following acupuncture at different designated places revealed by magnetoencephalography

    You, Youbo; Bai, Lijun; Dai, Ruwei; Xue, Ting; Zhong, Chongguang; Liu, Zhenyu; Wang, Hu; Feng, Yuanyuan; Wei, Wenjuan; Tian, Jie


    As an ancient therapeutic technique in Traditional Chinese Medicine, acupuncture has been used increasingly in modern society to treat a range of clinical conditions as an alternative and complementary therapy. However, acupoint specificity, lying at the core of acupuncture, still faces many controversies. Considering previous neuroimaging studies on acupuncture have mainly employed functional magnetic resonance imaging, which only measures the secondary effect of neural activity on cerebral metabolism and hemodynamics, in the current study, we adopted an electrophysiological measurement technique named magnetoencephalography (MEG) to measure the direct neural activity. 28 healthy college students were recruited in this study. We filtered MEG data into 5 consecutive frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma band) and grouped 140 sensors into 10 main brain regions (left/right frontal, central, temporal, parietal and occipital regions). Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) based spectral analysis approach was further performed to explore the differential band-limited power change patterns of acupuncture at Stomach Meridian 36 (ST36) using a nearby nonacupoint (NAP) as control condition. Significantly increased delta power and decreased alpha as well as beta power in bilateral frontal ROIs were observed following stimulation at ST36. Compared with ST36, decreased alpha power in left and right central, right parietal as well as right temporal ROIs were detected in NAP group. Our research results may provide additional evidence for acupoint specificity.

  7. Age at developmental cortical injury differentially Alters corpus callosum volume in the rat

    Rosen Glenn D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Freezing lesions to developing rat cortex induced between postnatal day (P one and three (P1 – 3 lead to malformations similar to human microgyria, and further correspond to reductions in brain weight and cortical volume. In contrast, comparable lesions on P5 do not produce microgyric malformations, nor the changes in brain weight seen with microgyria. However, injury occurring at all three ages does lead to rapid auditory processing deficits as measured in the juvenile period. Interestingly, these deficits persist into adulthood only in the P1 lesion case 1. Given prior evidence that early focal cortical lesions induce abnormalities in cortical morphology and connectivity 1234, we hypothesized that the differential behavioral effects of focal cortical lesions on P1, P3 or P5 may be associated with underlying neuroanatomical changes that are sensitive to timing of injury. Clinical studies indicate that humans with perinatal brain injury often show regional reductions in corpus callosum size and abnormal symmetry, which frequently correspond to learning impairments 567. Therefore, in the current study the brains of P1, 3 or 5 lesion rats, previously evaluated for brain weight, and cortical volume changes and auditory processing impairments (P21-90, were further analyzed for changes in corpus callosum volume. Results Results showed a significant main effect of Treatment on corpus callosum volume [F (1,57 = 10.2, P Conclusion Decrements in corpus callosum volume in the P1 and 3 lesion groups are consistent with the reductions in brain weight and cortical volume previously reported for microgyric rats 18. Current results suggest that disruption to the cortical plate during early postnatal development may lead to more widely dispersed neurovolumetric anomalies and subsequent behavioral impairments 1, compared with injury that occurs later in development. Further, these results suggest that in a human clinical setting decreased

  8. Pyrethroids differentially alter voltage-gated sodium channels from the honeybee central olfactory neurons.

    Aklesso Kadala

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of neurons from the honey bee olfactory system to pyrethroid insecticides was studied using the patch-clamp technique on central 'antennal lobe neurons' (ALNs in cell culture. In these neurons, the voltage-dependent sodium currents are characterized by negative potential for activation, fast kinetics of activation and inactivation, and the presence of cumulative inactivation during train of depolarizations. Perfusion of pyrethroids on these ALN neurons submitted to repetitive stimulations induced (1 an acceleration of cumulative inactivation, and (2 a marked slowing of the tail current recorded upon repolarization. Cypermethrin and permethrin accelerated cumulative inactivation of the sodium current peak in a similar manner and tetramethrin was even more effective. The slow-down of channel deactivation was markedly dependent on the type of pyrethroid. With cypermethrin, a progressive increase of the tail current amplitude along with successive stimulations reveals a traditionally described use-dependent recruitment of modified sodium channels. However, an unexpected decrease in this tail current was revealed with tetramethrin. If one considers the calculated percentage of modified channels as an index of pyrethroids effects, ALNs are significantly more susceptible to tetramethrin than to permethrin or cypermethrin for a single depolarization, but this difference attenuates with repetitive activity. Further comparison with peripheral neurons from antennae suggest that these modifications are neuron type specific. Modeling the sodium channel as a multi-state channel with fast and slow inactivation allows to underline the effects of pyrethroids on a set of rate constants connecting open and inactivated conformations, and give some insights to their specificity. Altogether, our results revealed a differential sensitivity of central olfactory neurons to pyrethroids that emphasize the ability for these compounds to impair detection and

  9. Intratumor DNA Methylation Heterogeneity Reflects Clonal Evolution in Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    David Brocks


    Full Text Available Despite much evidence on epigenetic abnormalities in cancer, it is currently unclear to what extent epigenetic alterations can be associated with tumors’ clonal genetic origins. Here, we show that the prostate intratumor heterogeneity in DNA methylation and copy-number patterns can be explained by a unified evolutionary process. By assaying multiple topographically distinct tumor sites, premalignant lesions, and lymph node metastases within five cases of prostate cancer, we demonstrate that both DNA methylation and copy-number heterogeneity consistently reflect the life history of the tumors. Furthermore, we show cases of genetic or epigenetic convergent evolution and highlight the diversity in the evolutionary origins and aberration spectrum between tumor and metastatic subclones. Importantly, DNA methylation can complement genetic data by serving as a proxy for activity at regulatory domains, as we show through identification of high epigenetic heterogeneity at androgen-receptor-bound enhancers. Epigenome variation thereby expands on the current genome-centric view on tumor heterogeneity.

  10. Cafeteria diet differentially alters the expression of feeding-related genes through DNA methylation mechanisms in individual hypothalamic nuclei.

    Lazzarino, Gisela Paola; Andreoli, María Florencia; Rossetti, María Florencia; Stoker, Cora; Tschopp, María Virgina; Luque, Enrique Hugo; Ramos, Jorge Guillermo


    We evaluated the effect of cafeteria diet (CAF) on the mRNA levels and DNA methylation state of feeding-related neuropeptides, and neurosteroidogenic enzymes in discrete hypothalamic nuclei. Besides, the expression of steroid hormone receptors was analyzed. Female rats fed with CAF from weaning increased their energy intake, body weight, and fat depots, but did not develop metabolic syndrome. The increase in energy intake was related to an orexigenic signal of paraventricular (PVN) and ventromedial (VMN) nuclei, given principally by upregulation of AgRP and NPY. This was mildly counteracted by the arcuate nucleus, with decreased AgRP expression and increased POMC and kisspeptin expression. CAF altered the transcription of neurosteroidogenic enzymes in PVN and VMN, and epigenetic mechanisms associated with differential promoter methylation were involved. The changes observed in the hypothalamic nuclei studied could add information about their differential role in food intake control and how their action is disrupted in obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Retinoic Acid Induces Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation by Altering Both Encoding RNA and microRNA Expression.

    Jingcheng Zhang

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid (RA is a vitamin A metabolite that is essential for early embryonic development and promotes stem cell neural lineage specification; however, little is known regarding the impact of RA on mRNA transcription and microRNA levels on embryonic stem cell differentiation. Here, we present mRNA microarray and microRNA high-output sequencing to clarify how RA regulates gene expression. Using mRNA microarray analysis, we showed that RA repressed pluripotency-associated genes while activating ectoderm markers in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs. Moreover, RA modulated the DNA methylation of mESCs by altering the expression of epigenetic-associated genes such as Dnmt3b and Dnmt3l. Furthermore, H3K4me2, a pluripotent histone modification, was repressed by RA stimulation. From microRNA sequence data, we identified two downregulated microRNAs, namely, miR-200b and miR-200c, which regulated the pluripotency of stem cells. We found that miR-200b or miR-200c deficiency suppressed the expression of pluripotent genes, including Oct4 and Nanog, and activated the expression of the ectodermal marker gene Nestin. These results demonstrate that retinoid induces mESCs to differentiate by regulating miR-200b/200c. Our findings provide the landscapes of mRNA and microRNA gene networks and indicate the crucial role of miR-200b/200c in the RA-induced differentiation of mESCs.

  12. Intratumoral DNA electroporation induces anti-tumor immunity and tumor regression.

    Radkevich-Brown, Olga; Piechocki, Marie P; Back, Jessica B; Weise, Amy M; Pilon-Thomas, Shari; Wei, Wei-Zen


    In situ expression of a foreign antigen and an immune-modulating cytokine by intratumoral DNA electroporation was tested as a cancer therapy regimen. Transgene expression in the tumors was sustained for 2-3 weeks after intratumoral electroporation with mammalian expression plasmid containing firefly luciferase cDNA. Electroporation with cDNA encoding tetanus toxin fragment C (TetC) induced tetanus toxin-binding antibody, demonstrating immune recognition of the transgene product. Intratumoral electroporation with TetC and IL-12 cDNA after mice were treated with CD25 mAb to remove regulatory T cells induced IFN-gamma producing T-cell response to tumor-associated antigen, heavy inflammatory infiltration, regression of established tumors and immune memory to protect mice from repeated tumor challenge. Intratumoral expression of immune-modulating molecules may be most suitable in the neoadjuvant setting to enhance the therapeutic efficacy and provide long-term protection.

  13. Histological evaluation of intratumoral myxoma virus treatment in an immunocompetent mouse model of melanoma

    Doty RA


    Full Text Available Rosalinda A Doty,1 Jia Liu,2 Grant McFadden,2 Edward J Roy,3 Amy L MacNeill11Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, 2Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 3Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, USAAbstract: Two recombinant myxoma viruses (MYXV expressing a fluorescent protein [MYXV-Tred] and MYXV-Tred encoding murine interleukin-15 [MYXV-IL15] were evaluated for therapeutic effects in an aggressive B16F10 melanoma model in immunocompetent mice. It was hypothesized that continuous expression of IL-15 within a tumor would recruit cytotoxic effector cells to induce an antitumor immune response and improve treatment efficacy. Weekly intratumoral injections were given to evaluate the effect of treatment on the median survival time of C57BL/6 mice bearing established B16F10 melanomas. Mice that received MYXV-Tred or MYXV-IL15 lived significantly longer than mice given treatment controls. Unexpectedly, the median survival time of MYXV-IL15-treated mice was similar to that of MYXV-treated mice. At 1, 2, and 4 days postinoculation, viral plaque assays detected replicating MYXV-Tred and MYXV-IL15 within treated tumors. At these time points in MYXV-IL15-treated tumors, IL-15 concentration, lymphocyte grades, and cluster of differentiation-3+ cell counts were significantly increased when compared to other treatment groups. However, viral titers, recombinant protein expression, and lymphocyte numbers within the tumors diminished rapidly at 7 days postinoculation. These data indicate that treatment with recombinant MYXV should be repeated at least every 4 days to maintain recombinant protein expression within a murine tumor. Additionally, neutrophilic inflammation was significantly increased in MYXV-Tred- and MYXV-IL15-treated tumors at early time points. It is speculated that neutrophilic inflammation induced by intratumoral

  14. Radiosensitizing effect of intratumoral interleukin-12 gene electrotransfer in murine sarcoma

    Sedlar Ales


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interleukin-12 (IL-12 based radiosensitization is an effective way of tumor treatment. Local cytokine production, without systemic shedding, might provide clinical benefit in radiation treatment of sarcomas. Therefore, the aim was to stimulate intratumoral IL-12 production by gene electrotransfer of plasmid coding for mouse IL-12 (mIL-12 into the tumors, in order to explore its radiosensitizing effect after single or multiple intratumoral gene electrotransfer. Methods Solid SA-1 fibrosarcoma tumors, on the back of A/J mice, were treated intratumorally by mIL-12 gene electrotransfer and 24 h later irradiated with a single dose. Treatment effectiveness was measured by tumor growth delay and local tumor control assay (TCD50 assay. With respect to therapeutic index, skin reaction in the radiation field was scored. The tumor and serum concentrations of cytokines mIL-12 and mouse interferon γ (mIFNγ were measured. Besides single, also multiple intratumoral mIL-12 gene electrotransfer before and after tumor irradiation was evaluated. Results Single intratumoral mIL-12 gene electrotransfer resulted in increased intratumoral but not serum mIL-12 and mIFNγ concentrations, and had good antitumor (7.1% tumor cures and radiosensitizing effect (21.4% tumor cures. Combined treatment resulted in the radiation dose-modifying factor of 2.16. Multiple mIL-12 gene electrotransfer had an even more pronounced antitumor (50% tumor cures and radiosensitizing (86.7% tumor cures effect. Conclusions Single or multiple intratumoral mIL-12 gene electrotransfer resulted in increased intratumoral mIL-12 and mIFNγ cytokine level, and may provide an efficient treatment modality for soft tissue sarcoma as single or adjuvant therapy to tumor irradiation.

  15. Intratumoral Expression of IL-17 and Its Prognostic Role in Gastric Adenocarcinoma Patients

    Ju-gao Chen, Jian-chuan Xia, Xiao-ting Liang, Ke Pan, Wei Wang, Lin Lv, Jing-jing Zhao, Qi-jing Wang, Yong-qiang Li, Shi-ping Chen, Jia He, Li-xi Huang, Miao-la Ke, Yi-bing Chen, Hai-qing Ma, Zhen-wu Zeng, Zhi-wei Zhou, Alfred E Chang, Qiao Li


    Full Text Available In this study, we characterized the intratumoral expression of IL-17 and CD8+ TILs in gastric adenocarcinoma patients after resection and determined the correlation between the survival probability of gastric adenocarcinoma patients and the expression of IL-17 in tumor. Expression of IL-17 and CD8 was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and the prognostic effects of intratumoral IL-17 expression and CD8+ TILs were evaluated by Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Immunohistochemical detection revealed the presence of IL-17 and CD8+ cells in gastric adenocarcinoma tissue samples (90.6%, 174 out of 192 patients and 96.9%, 186 out of 192 patients, respectively. We have also found that intratumoral IL-17 expression was significantly correlated with age (p=0.004 and that the number of CD8+ TILs was significantly correlated with UICC staging (p=0.012 and the depth of tumor invasion (p=0.022. The five-year overall survival probability among patients intratumorally expressing higher levels of IL-17 was significantly better than those expressing lower levels of IL-17 (p=0.036. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses revealed that intratumoral IL-17 expression (HR: 0.521; 95% CI: 0.329-0.823; p=0.005 was an independent factor affecting the five-year overall survival probability. We conclude that low levels of intratumoral IL-17 expression may indicate poor prognosis in gastric adenocarcinoma patients.

  16. Spinal Fluid Lactate Dehydrogenase Level Differentiates between Structural and Metabolic Etiologies of Altered Mental Status in Children



    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Khosroshahi N, Alizadeh P, Khosravi M, Salamati P, Kamrani K. Spinal Fluid Lactate Dehydrogenase Level Differentiates between Structural and Metabolic Etiologies of Altered Mental Status in Children. Iran J Child Neurol. 2015 Winter;9(1:31-36.AbstractObjectiveAltered mental status is a common cause of intensive care unit admission inchildren. Differentiating structural causes of altered mental status from metabolic etiologies is of utmost importance in diagnostic approach and management of the patients. Among many biomarkers proposed to help stratifying patients with altered mental status, spinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase appears to be the most promising biomarker to predict cellular necrosis.Materials & MethodsIn this cross sectional study we measured spinal fluid level of lactatedehydrogenase in children 2 months to 12 years of age admitted to a single center intensive care unit over one year. Spinal fluid level of lactate dehydrogenase in 40 pediatric cases of febrile seizure was also determined as the control group.ResultsThe study group included 35 boys (58.3% and 25 girls (41.7%. Their meanage was 2.7+/-3 years and their mean spinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase levelwas 613.8+/-190.4 units/liter. The control group included 24 boys (55.8% and19 girls (44.2%. Their mean age was 1.3+/-1.2 years and their mean spinalfluid lactate dehydrogenase level was 18.9+/-7.5 units/liter. The mean spinalfluid lactate dehydrogenase level in children with abnormal head CT scan was246.3+/-351.5 units/liter compared to 164.5+/-705.7 in those with normal CTscan of the head (p=0.001.ConclusionSpinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase level is useful in differentiating structural andmetabolic causes of altered mental status in children. ReferencesFesk SK. Coma and confusional states: emergency diagnosis and management. Neurol Clin 1998; 16: 237- 56.Cucchiara BL, Kanser SE, Wolk DA, et al. Early impairment in consciousness Predicts

  17. Tertiary Intratumor Lymphoid Tissue in Colo-Rectal Cancer

    Federica Marchesi


    Full Text Available Ectopic (or tertiary lymphoid tissue develops at sites of inflammation or infection in non lymphoid organs and is associated with chronic inflammation. In colon mucosa, small lymphoid aggregates are already present in homeostatic conditions, as part of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and play an essential role in the immune response to perturbations of the mucosal microenvironment. Despite the recognized role of inflammation in tumor progression, the presence and biological function of lymphoid tissue in cancer has been poorly investigated. We identified aggregates of lymphocytes resembling tertiary lymphoid tissue in human colorectal cancer specimens; intratumor accumulations of lymphocytes display a high degree of compartmentalization, with B and T cells, mature dendritic cells and a network of CD21+ follicular dendritic cells (FDC. We analyzed the adaptation of colon lymphoid tissue in a murine model of colitis-associated cancer (AOM/DSS. B cell follicle formation increases in the context of the chronic inflammation associated to intestinal neoplasia, in this model. A network of lymphatic and haematic vessels surrounding B cell follicles is present and includes high endothelial venules (HEV. Future task is to determine whether lymphoid tissue contributes to the persistence of the tumor-associated inflammatory reaction, rather than represent a functional immune compartment, potentially participating to the anti tumor response.

  18. Intratumoral Heterogeneity of MicroRNA Expression in Rectal Cancer

    Eriksen, Anne Haahr Mellergaard; Andersen, Rikke Fredslund; Nielsen, Boye Schnack


    INTRODUCTION: An increasing number of studies have investigated microRNAs (miRNAs) as potential markers of diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. So far, agreement between studies has been minimal, which may in part be explained by intratumoral heterogeneity of miRNA expression. The aim of the present...... study was to assess the heterogeneity of a panel of selected miRNAs in rectal cancer, using two different technical approaches. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of the investigated miRNAs was analysed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and in situ hybridization (ISH...... using Spearman's correlation. RESULTS: ICCsingle (one sample from each patient) was higher than 50% for miRNA-21 and miRNA-31. For miRNA-125b, miRNA-145, and miRNA-630, ICCsingle was lower than 50%. The ICCmean (mean of three samples from each patient) was higher than 50% for miRNA-21(RT-qPCR and ISH...

  19. Tertiary Intratumor Lymphoid Tissue in Colo-Rectal Cancer

    Bergomas, Francesca [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Grizzi, Fabio [Laboratory of Molecular Gastroenterology, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Doni, Andrea; Pesce, Samantha [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Laghi, Luigi [Laboratory of Molecular Gastroenterology, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Department of Gastroenterology, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Allavena, Paola [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Mantovani, Alberto [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Department of Translational Medicine, University of Milan, Milan 20089 (Italy); Marchesi, Federica, E-mail: [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy)


    Ectopic (or tertiary) lymphoid tissue develops at sites of inflammation or infection in non lymphoid organs and is associated with chronic inflammation. In colon mucosa, small lymphoid aggregates are already present in homeostatic conditions, as part of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and play an essential role in the immune response to perturbations of the mucosal microenvironment. Despite the recognized role of inflammation in tumor progression, the presence and biological function of lymphoid tissue in cancer has been poorly investigated. We identified aggregates of lymphocytes resembling tertiary lymphoid tissue in human colorectal cancer specimens; intratumor accumulations of lymphocytes display a high degree of compartmentalization, with B and T cells, mature dendritic cells and a network of CD21{sup +} follicular dendritic cells (FDC). We analyzed the adaptation of colon lymphoid tissue in a murine model of colitis-associated cancer (AOM/DSS). B cell follicle formation increases in the context of the chronic inflammation associated to intestinal neoplasia, in this model. A network of lymphatic and haematic vessels surrounding B cell follicles is present and includes high endothelial venules (HEV). Future task is to determine whether lymphoid tissue contributes to the persistence of the tumor-associated inflammatory reaction, rather than represent a functional immune compartment, potentially participating to the anti tumor response.

  20. Whole genome sequence analysis suggests intratumoral heterogeneity in dissemination of breast cancer to lymph nodes.

    Kevin Blighe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intratumoral heterogeneity may help drive resistance to targeted therapies in cancer. In breast cancer, the presence of nodal metastases is a key indicator of poorer overall survival. The aim of this study was to identify somatic genetic alterations in early dissemination of breast cancer by whole genome next generation sequencing (NGS of a primary breast tumor, a matched locally-involved axillary lymph node and healthy normal DNA from blood. METHODS: Whole genome NGS was performed on 12 µg (range 11.1-13.3 µg of DNA isolated from fresh-frozen primary breast tumor, axillary lymph node and peripheral blood following the DNA nanoball sequencing protocol. Single nucleotide variants, insertions, deletions, and substitutions were identified through a bioinformatic pipeline and compared to CIN25, a key set of genes associated with tumor metastasis. RESULTS: Whole genome sequencing revealed overlapping variants between the tumor and node, but also variants that were unique to each. Novel mutations unique to the node included those found in two CIN25 targets, TGIF2 and CCNB2, which are related to transcription cyclin activity and chromosomal stability, respectively, and a unique frameshift in PDS5B, which is required for accurate sister chromatid segregation during cell division. We also identified dominant clonal variants that progressed from tumor to node, including SNVs in TP53 and ARAP3, which mediates rearrangements to the cytoskeleton and cell shape, and an insertion in TOP2A, the expression of which is significantly associated with tumor proliferation and can segregate breast cancers by outcome. CONCLUSION: This case study provides preliminary evidence that primary tumor and early nodal metastasis have largely overlapping somatic genetic alterations. There were very few mutations unique to the involved node. However, significant conclusions regarding early dissemination needs analysis of a larger number of patient samples.

  1. Alterations to mTORC1 signaling in the skeletal muscle differentially affect whole-body metabolism.

    Guridi, Maitea; Kupr, Barbara; Romanino, Klaas; Lin, Shuo; Falcetta, Denis; Tintignac, Lionel; Rüegg, Markus A


    The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a central node in a network of signaling pathways controlling cell growth and survival. This multiprotein complex integrates external signals and affects different nutrient pathways in various organs. However, it is not clear how alterations of mTORC1 signaling in skeletal muscle affect whole-body metabolism. We characterized the metabolic phenotype of young and old raptor muscle knock-out (RAmKO) and TSC1 muscle knock-out (TSCmKO) mice, where mTORC1 activity in skeletal muscle is inhibited or constitutively activated, respectively. Ten-week-old RAmKO mice are lean and insulin resistant with increased energy expenditure, and they are resistant to a high-fat diet (HFD). This correlates with an increased expression of histone deacetylases (HDACs) and a downregulation of genes involved in glucose and fatty acid metabolism. Ten-week-old TSCmKO mice are also lean, glucose intolerant with a decreased activation of protein kinase B (Akt/PKB) targets that regulate glucose transporters in the muscle. The mice are resistant to a HFD and show reduced accumulation of glycogen and lipids in the liver. Both mouse models suffer from a myopathy with age, with reduced fat and lean mass, and both RAmKO and TSCmKO mice develop insulin resistance and increased intramyocellular lipid content. Our study shows that alterations of mTORC1 signaling in the skeletal muscle differentially affect whole-body metabolism. While both inhibition and constitutive activation of mTORC1 induce leanness and resistance to obesity, changes in the metabolism of muscle and peripheral organs are distinct. These results indicate that a balanced mTORC1 signaling in the muscle is required for proper metabolic homeostasis.

  2. Intratumoral Heterogeneous F 18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake Corresponds with Glucose Transporter 1 and Ki-67 Expression in a Case of Krukenberg Tumor: Localization of Intratumoral Hypermetabolic Focus by Fused PET/MR

    Im, Hyung Jun; Kim, Youg il; Kim, Woo Ho; Kim, Seung Hyup; Kang, Keon Wook [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The expression of glucose transporters (Glut 1, Glut 3), Hexokinase II, and Ki-67 has been proposed to explain intratumoral heterogeneous F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake. We report a case of Krukenberg tumor with intratumoral heterogeneous FDG uptake which corresponded well with the expression tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was helpful for localizing the metabolically active area in the tumor specimen. This report elucidates the relationship between the intratumoral heterogeneous FDG uptake and biologic heterogeneity, and shows the usefulness of PET/MR in research on intratumoral heterogeneity.

  3. Altered lung morphogenesis, epithelial cell differentiation and mechanics in mice deficient in the Wnt/β-catenin antagonist Chibby.

    Damon Love

    Full Text Available The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway plays crucial roles in various aspects of lung morphogenesis and regeneration/repair. Here, we examined the lung phenotype and function in mice lacking the Wnt/β-catenin antagonist Chibby (Cby. In support of its inhibitory role in canonical Wnt signaling, expression of β-catenin target genes is elevated in the Cby(-/- lung. Notably, Cby protein is prominently associated with the centrosome/basal body microtubule structures in embryonic lung epithelial progenitor cells, and later enriches as discrete foci at the base of motile cilia in airway ciliated cells. At birth, Cby(-/- lungs are grossly normal but spontaneously develop alveolar airspace enlargement with reduced proliferation and abnormal differentiation of lung epithelial cells, resulting in altered pulmonary function. Consistent with the Cby expression pattern, airway ciliated cells exhibit a marked paucity of motile cilia with apparent failure of basal body docking. Moreover, we demonstrate that Cby is a direct downstream target for the master ciliogenesis transcription factor Foxj1. Collectively, our results demonstrate that Cby facilitates proper postnatal lung development and function.

  4. Altered lung morphogenesis, epithelial cell differentiation and mechanics in mice deficient in the Wnt/β-catenin antagonist Chibby.

    Love, Damon; Li, Feng-Qian; Burke, Michael C; Cyge, Benjamin; Ohmitsu, Masao; Cabello, Jeffrey; Larson, Janet E; Brody, Steven L; Cohen, J Craig; Takemaru, Ken-Ichi


    The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway plays crucial roles in various aspects of lung morphogenesis and regeneration/repair. Here, we examined the lung phenotype and function in mice lacking the Wnt/β-catenin antagonist Chibby (Cby). In support of its inhibitory role in canonical Wnt signaling, expression of β-catenin target genes is elevated in the Cby(-/-) lung. Notably, Cby protein is prominently associated with the centrosome/basal body microtubule structures in embryonic lung epithelial progenitor cells, and later enriches as discrete foci at the base of motile cilia in airway ciliated cells. At birth, Cby(-/-) lungs are grossly normal but spontaneously develop alveolar airspace enlargement with reduced proliferation and abnormal differentiation of lung epithelial cells, resulting in altered pulmonary function. Consistent with the Cby expression pattern, airway ciliated cells exhibit a marked paucity of motile cilia with apparent failure of basal body docking. Moreover, we demonstrate that Cby is a direct downstream target for the master ciliogenesis transcription factor Foxj1. Collectively, our results demonstrate that Cby facilitates proper postnatal lung development and function.

  5. Exposure of PC12 cells to NGF/ethanol results in accelerated differentiation and altered gene expression

    White, K.R.; Wooten, M.W. (Auburn Univ., AL (United States))


    The role of alcohols in affecting neuromorphogenesis was investigated in the pheochromocytoma cell line, PC12. The effect of ethanol at physiological concentrations in this system leads to accelerated neurite extension in the presence of suboptimal concentrations of NGF. Accelerated morphological differentiation was dependent upon the side chain length of the alcohol and not inhibited by pyrazole. Ethanol/NGF induced neurite extension can be blocked with 50nM of K252a, but not sphingozine, H7, H89, genistein or okadaic acid. Changes in the expression of 17 NGF-induced and/or neuronal transcripts were examined in relationship to time of NGF/ethanol exposure; dose of NGF/ethanol; and side-chain length of NFG/alcohol. The authors studies indicate that ethanol potentiates the effects of NFG and subsequent neurogenesis through both protein kinase C and cAMP-independent pathways. In addition, these data show that ethanol is capable of altering gene expression in a specific manner.

  6. Intratumor Heterogeneity of ALK-Rearrangements and Homogeneity of EGFR-Mutations in Mixed Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    Federica Zito Marino

    Full Text Available Non Small Cell Lung Cancer is a highly heterogeneous tumor. Histologic intratumor heterogeneity could be 'major', characterized by a single tumor showing two different histologic types, and 'minor', due to at least 2 different growth patterns in the same tumor. Therefore, a morphological heterogeneity could reflect an intratumor molecular heterogeneity. To date, few data are reported in literature about molecular features of the mixed adenocarcinoma. The aim of our study was to assess EGFR-mutations and ALK-rearrangements in different intratumor subtypes and/or growth patterns in a series of mixed adenocarcinomas and adenosquamous carcinomas.590 Non Small Cell Lung Carcinomas tumor samples were revised in order to select mixed adenocarcinomas with available tumor components. Finally, only 105 mixed adenocarcinomas and 17 adenosquamous carcinomas were included in the study for further analyses. Two TMAs were built selecting the different intratumor histotypes. ALK-rearrangements were detected through FISH and IHC, and EGFR-mutations were detected through IHC and confirmed by RT-PCR.10/122 cases were ALK-rearranged and 7 from those 10 showing an intratumor heterogeneity of the rearrangements. 12/122 cases were EGFR-mutated, uniformly expressing the EGFR-mutated protein in all histologic components.Our data suggests that EGFR-mutations is generally homogeneously expressed. On the contrary, ALK-rearrangement showed an intratumor heterogeneity in both mixed adenocarcinomas and adenosquamous carcinomas. The intratumor heterogeneity of ALK-rearrangements could lead to a possible impact on the therapeutic responses and the disease outcomes.

  7. Circulating tumor cells: exploring intratumor heterogeneity of colorectal cancer.

    Raimondi, Cristina; Nicolazzo, Chiara; Gradilone, Angela; Giannini, Giuseppe; De Falco, Elena; Chimenti, Isotta; Varriale, Elisa; Hauch, Siegfried; Plappert, Linda; Cortesi, Enrico; Gazzaniga, Paola


    The hypothesis of the "liquid biopsy" using circulating tumor cells (CTCs) emerged as a minimally invasive alternative to traditional tissue biopsy to determine cancer therapy. Discordance for biomarkers expression between primary tumor tissue and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has been widely reported, thus rendering the biological characterization of CTCs an attractive tool for biomarkers assessment and treatment selection. Studies performed in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients using CellSearch, the only FDA-cleared test for CTCs assessment, demonstrated a much lower yield of CTCs in this tumor type compared with breast and prostate cancer, both at baseline and during the course of treatment. Thus, although attractive, the possibility to use CTCs as therapy-related biomarker for colorectal cancer patients is still limited by a number of technical issues mainly due to the low sensitivity of the CellSearch method. In the present study we found a significant discordance between CellSearch and AdnaTest in the detection of CTCs from mCRC patients. We then investigated KRAS pathway activating mutations in CTCs and determined the degree of heterogeneity for KRAS oncogenic mutations between CTCs and tumor tissues. Whether KRAS gene amplification may represent an alternative pathway responsible for KRAS activation was further explored. KRAS gene amplification emerged as a functionally equivalent and mutually exclusive mechanism of KRAS pathway activation in CTCs, possibly related to transcriptional activation. The serial assessment of CTCs may represent an early biomarker of treatment response, able to overcome the intrinsic limit of current molecular biomarkers represented by intratumor heterogeneity.

  8. Comparison of circulating and intratumoral regulatory T cells in patients with renal cell carcinoma.

    Asma, Gati; Amal, Gorrab; Raja, Marrakchi; Amine, Derouiche; Mohammed, Chebil; Amel, Ben Ammar Elgaaied


    The clear evidence that tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) exists in the tumor microenvironment raises the question why renal cell carcinoma (RCC) progresses. Numerous studies support the implication of CD4(+)CD25(high) regulatory T (Treg) cells in RCC development. We aimed in this study to characterize the phenotype and function of circulating and intratumoral Treg cells of RCC patient in order to evaluate their implication in the inhibition of the local antitumor immune response. Our results demonstrate that the proportion of Treg in TIL was, in average, similar to that found in circulating CD4(+) T cells of patients or healthy donors. However, intratumoral Treg exhibit a marked different phenotype when compared with the autologous circulating Treg. A higher CD25 mean level, HLA-DR, Fas, and GITR, and a lower CD45RA expression were observed in intratumoral Treg, suggesting therefore that these cells are effector in the tumor microenvironment. Additionally, intratumoral Treg showed a higher inhibitory function on autologous CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells when compared with circulating Treg that may be explained by an overexpression of FoxP3 transcription factor. These findings suggest that intratumoral Treg could be major actors in the impairment of local antitumor immune response for RCC patients.

  9. Mathematical modeling analysis of intratumoral disposition of anticancer agents and drug delivery systems.

    Popilski, Hen; Stepensky, David


    Solid tumors are characterized by complex morphology. Numerous factors relating to the composition of the cells and tumor stroma, vascularization and drainage of fluids affect the local microenvironment within a specific location inside the tumor. As a result, the intratumoral drug/drug delivery system (DDS) disposition following systemic or local administration is non-homogeneous and its complexity reflects the differences in the local microenvironment. Mathematical models can be used to analyze the intratumoral drug/DDS disposition and pharmacological effects and to assist in choice of optimal anticancer treatment strategies. The mathematical models that have been applied by different research groups to describe the intratumoral disposition of anticancer drugs/DDSs are summarized in this article. The properties of these models and of their suitability for prediction of the drug/DDS intratumoral disposition and pharmacological effects are reviewed. Currently available mathematical models appear to neglect some of the major factors that govern the drug/DDS intratumoral disposition, and apparently possess limited prediction capabilities. More sophisticated and detailed mathematical models and their extensive validation are needed for reliable prediction of different treatment scenarios and for optimization of drug treatment in the individual cancer patients.

  10. Estrogenic environmental contaminants alter the mRNA abundance profiles of genes involved in gonadal differentiation of the American bullfrog.

    Wolff, Stephanie E; Veldhoen, Nik; Helbing, Caren C; Ramirez, Claire A; Malpas, Janae M; Propper, Catherine R


    Wildlife and human populations are exposed to anthropogenic mixtures of chemicals in the environment that may adversely influence normal reproductive function and development. We determined the effects of exposure to estrogenic chemicals and wastewater effluent (WWE) on developing gonads of the American bullfrog, Rana (Lithobates) catesbeiana, a species whose widespread distribution make it an ideal model for environmental monitoring of endocrine effects of chemical contaminants. Premetamorphic bullfrog tadpoles were exposed to treatment vehicle, 17β-estradiol (E2; 10(-9)M) or 4-tert-octylphenol (OP; 10(-9)M, 10(-8)M, and 10(-7)M). Additionally, gonadal differentiation was evaluated in bullfrog tadpoles from a WWE-containing site versus those from a reference location receiving no WWE. In both studies, phenotypic sex, steroidogenic factor-1 (nr5a1), and aromatase (cyp19a1) mRNA levels using quantitative real-time PCR were determined. Exposure to E2 or OP did not alter sex ratios. In controls, both nr5a1 and cyp19a1 transcript levels exhibited sexual dimorphism, with males demonstrating higher levels of nr5a1 and females greater abundance of cyp19a1. However, E2 exposure increased cyp19a1 mRNA abundance in testes and decreased levels in ovaries, eliminating the sexual dimorphism observed in controls. E2-exposed males exhibited increased nr5a1 transcript levels in the testes compared to controls, while females demonstrated no E2 effect. OP treatment had no effect on female cyp19a1 mRNA abundance, but exposure to 10(-7)M OP increased testicular transcript levels. Treatment with 10(-9) and 10(-8)M OP, but not 10(-7)M, resulted in decreased abundance of nr5a1 transcript in both ovaries and testes. Animals from the field had sexually dimorphic gonadal levels of cyp19a1, but both sexes from the WWE site exhibited elevated cyp19a1 transcript abundance compared to the reference location. Individual chemical compounds and anthropogenic wastewater effluent dispersed within

  11. Estrogenic environmental contaminants alter the mRNA abundance profiles of genes involved in gonadal differentiation of the American bullfrog

    Wolff, Stephanie E.; Veldhoen, Nik; Helbing, Caren C.; Ramirez, Claire A.; Malpas, Janae M.; Propper, Catherine R.


    Wildlife and human populations are exposed to anthropogenic mixtures of chemicals in the environment that may adversely influence normal reproductive function and development. We determined the effects of exposure to estrogenic chemicals and wastewater effluent (WWE) on developing gonads of the American bullfrog, Rana (Lithobates) catesbeiana, a species whose widespread distribution make it an ideal model for environmental monitoring for endocrine effects of chemical contaminants. Premetamorphic bullfrog tadpoles were exposed to treatment vehicle, 17β-estradiol (E2; 10−9 M) or 4-tert-octylphenol (OP; 10−9 M, 10−8 M, and 10−7 M). Additionally, gonadal differentiation was evaluated in bullfrog tadpoles from a WWE-containing site versus those from a reference location receiving no WWE. In both studies, phenotypic sex, steroidogenic factor-1 (nr5a1), and aromatase (cyp19a1) mRNA levels using quantitative real-time PCR were determined. Exposure to E2 or OP did not alter sex ratios. In controls, both nr5a1 and cyp19a1 transcript levels exhibited sexual dimorphism, with males demonstrating higher levels of nr5a1 and females greater abundance of cyp19a1. However, E2 exposure increased cyp19a1 mRNA abundance in testes and decreased levels in ovaries, eliminating the sexual dimorphism observed in controls. E2-exposed males exhibited increased nr5a1 transcript levels in the testes compared to controls, while females demonstrated no E2 effect. OP treatment had no effect on female cyp19a1 mRNA abundance, but exposure to 10−7 M OP increased testicular transcript levels. Treatment with 10−9 and 10−8 M OP, but not 10−7 M, resulted in decreased abundance of nr5a1 transcript in both ovaries and testes. Animals from the field had sexually dimorphic gonadal levels of cyp19a1, but both sexes from the WWE site exhibited elevated cyp19a1 transcript abundance compared to the reference location. Individual chemical compounds and anthropogenic wastewater effluent dispersed

  12. Episodic intrusion, internal differentiation, and hydrothermal alteration of the miocene tatoosh intrusive suite south of Mount Rainier, Washington

    du Bray, E.A.; Bacon, C.R.; John, D.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Mazdab, F.K.


    The Miocene Tatoosh intrusive suite south of Mount Rainier is composed of three broadly granodioritic plutons that are manifestations of ancestral Cascades arc magmatism. Tatoosh intrusive suite plutons have individually diagnostic characteristics, including texture, mineralogy, and geochemistry, and apparently lack internal contacts. New ion-microprobe U-Pb zircon ages indicate crystallization of the Stevens pluton ca. 19.2 Ma, Reflection-Pyramid pluton ca. 18.5 Ma, and Nisqually pluton ca. 17.5 Ma. The Stevens pluton includes rare, statistically distinct ca. 20.1 Ma zircon antecrysts. Wide-ranging zircon rare earth element (REE), Hf, U, and Th concentrations suggest late crystallization from variably evolved residual liquids. Zircon Eu/Eu*-Hf covariation is distinct for each of the Reflection-Pyramid, Nisqually, and Stevens plutons. Although most Tatoosh intrusive suite rocks have been affected by weak hydrothermal alteration, and sparse mineralized veins cut some of these rocks, significant base or precious metal mineralization is absent. At the time of shallow emplacement, each of these magma bodies was largely homogeneous in bulk composition and petrographic features, but, prior to final solidification, each of the Tatoosh intrusive suite plutons developed internal compositional variation. Geochemical and petrographic trends within each pluton are most consistent with differential loss of residual melt, possibly represented by late aplite dikes or erupted as rhyolite, from crystal-rich magma. Crystal-rich magma that formed each pluton evidently accumulated in reservoirs below the present level of exposure and then intruded to a shallow depth. Assembled by episodic intrusion, the Tatoosh intrusive suite may be representative of midsized composite plutonic complexes beneath arc volcanoes. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  13. Type-1 Collagen differentially alters β-catenin accumulation in primary Dupuytren's Disease cord and adjacent palmar fascia cells

    Gan Bing


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dupuytren's Disease (DD is a debilitating contractile fibrosis of the palmar fascia characterised by excess collagen deposition, contractile myofibroblast development, increased Transforming Growth Factor-β levels and β-catenin accumulation. The aim of this study was to determine if a collagen-enriched environment, similar to in vivo conditions, altered β-catenin accumulation by primary DD cells in the presence or absence of Transforming Growth Factor-β. Methods Primary DD and patient matched, phenotypically normal palmar fascia (PF cells were cultured in the presence or absence of type-1 collagen and Transforming Growth Factor-β1. β-catenin and α-smooth muscle actin levels were assessed by western immunoblotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. Results DD cells display a rapid depletion of cellular β-catenin not evident in patient-matched PF cells. This effect was not evident in either cell type when cultured in the absence of type-1 collagen. Exogenous addition of Transforming Growth Factor-β1 to DD cells in collagen culture negates the loss of β-catenin accumulation. Transforming Growth Factor-β1-induced α-smooth muscle actin, a marker of myofibroblast differentiation, is attenuated by the inclusion of type-1 collagen in cultures of DD and PF cells. Conclusion Our findings implicate type-1 collagen as a previously unrecognized regulator of β-catenin accumulation and a modifier of TGF-β1 signaling specifically in primary DD cells. These data have implications for current treatment modalities as well as the design of in vitro models for research into the molecular mechanisms of DD.

  14. Adolescent methylphenidate treatment differentially alters adult impulsivity and hyperactivity in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat model of ADHD.

    Somkuwar, S S; Kantak, K M; Bardo, M T; Dwoskin, L P


    Impulsivity and hyperactivity are two facets of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Impulsivity is expressed as reduced response inhibition capacity, an executive control mechanism that prevents premature execution of an intermittently reinforced behavior. During methylphenidate treatment, impulsivity and hyperactivity are decreased in adolescents with ADHD, but there is little information concerning levels of impulsivity and hyperactivity in adulthood after adolescent methylphenidate treatment is discontinued. The current study evaluated impulsivity, hyperactivity as well as cocaine sensitization during adulthood after adolescent methylphenidate treatment was discontinued in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) model of ADHD. Treatments consisted of oral methylphenidate (1.5mg/kg) or water vehicle provided Monday-Friday from postnatal days 28-55. During adulthood, impulsivity was measured in SHR and control strains (Wistar Kyoto and Wistar rats) using differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL) schedules. Locomotor activity and cocaine sensitization were measured using the open-field assay. Adult SHR exhibited decreased efficiency of reinforcement under the DRL30 schedule and greater levels of locomotor activity and cocaine sensitization compared to control strains. Compared to vehicle, methylphenidate treatment during adolescence reduced hyperactivity in adult SHR, maintained the lower efficiency of reinforcement, and increased burst responding under DRL30. Cocaine sensitization was not altered following adolescent methylphenidate in adult SHR. In conclusion, adolescent treatment with methylphenidate followed by discontinuation in adulthood had a positive benefit by reducing hyperactivity in adult SHR rats; however, increased burst responding under DRL compared to SHR given vehicle, i.e., elevated impulsivity, constituted an adverse consequence associated with increased risk for cocaine abuse liability.

  15. A Time-Based and Intratumoral Proteomic Assessment of a Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme

    de Aquino, Priscila F.; Carvalho, Paulo Costa; Nogueira, Fábio C. S.; da Fonseca, Clovis Orlando; de Souza Silva, Júlio Cesar Thomé; Carvalho, Maria da Gloria da Costa; Domont, Gilberto B.; Zanchin, Nilson I. T.; Fischer, Juliana de Saldanha da Gama


    Tumors consist of cells in different stages of transformation with molecular and cellular heterogeneity. By far, heterogeneity is the hallmark of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most malignant and aggressive type of glioma. Most proteomic studies aim in comparing tumors from different patients, but here we dive into exploring the intratumoral proteome diversity of a single GBM. For this, we profiled tumor fragments from the profound region of the same patient’s GBM but obtained from two surgeries a year’s time apart. Our analysis also included GBM‘s fragments from different anatomical regions. Our quantitative proteomic strategy employed 4-plex iTRAQ peptide labeling followed by a four-step strong cation chromatographic separation; each fraction was then analyzed by reversed-phase nano-chromatography coupled on-line with an Orbitrap-Velos mass spectrometer. Unsupervised clustering grouped the proteomic profiles into four major distinct groups and showed that most changes were related to the tumor’s anatomical region. Nevertheless, we report differentially abundant proteins from GBM’s fragments of the same region but obtained 1 year apart. We discuss several key proteins (e.g., S100A9) and enriched pathways linked with GBM such as the Ras pathway, RHO GTPases activate PKNs, and those related to apoptosis, to name a few. As far as we know, this is the only report that compares GBM fragments proteomic profiles from the same patient. Ultimately, our results fuel the forefront of scientific discussion on the importance in exploring the richness of subproteomes within a single tissue sample for a better understanding of the disease, as each tumor is unique. PMID:27597932

  16. Intratumoral injection of BCG-CWS-pretreated dendritic cells following tumor cryoablation.

    Kawamura, Naoshi; Udagawa, Masaru; Fujita, Tomonobu; Sakurai, Toshiharu; Yaguchi, Tomonori; Kawakami, Yutaka


    Intratumoral administration of dendritic cells (DC) following cryoablation of tumor is one of the personalized cancer immunotherapies which is able to induce immune responses to multiple endogenous tumor antigens, including shared and unique antigens. Here we describe protocols of cryoablation of tumors, generation of cultured DC, pretreatment of DC with a Toll-like receptor (TLR)-stimulating purified component of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin cell wall fraction (BCG-CWS) and highly immunogenic keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) antigen, and combined use of tumor cryoablation and intratumoral administration of BCG-CWS-pretreated DC in both a murine model and cancer patients.

  17. Medullary Endocannabinoids Contribute to the Differential Resting Baroreflex Sensitivity in Rats with Altered Brain Renin-Angiotensin System Expression.

    Schaich, Chris L; Grabenauer, Megan; Thomas, Brian F; Shaltout, Hossam A; Gallagher, Patricia E; Howlett, Allyn C; Diz, Debra I


    CB1 cannabinoid receptors are expressed on vagal afferent fibers and neurons within the solitary tract nucleus (NTS), providing anatomical evidence for their role in arterial baroreflex modulation. To better understand the relationship between the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and endocannabinoid expression within the NTS, we measured dorsal medullary endocannabinoid tissue content and the effects of CB1 receptor blockade at this brain site on cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in ASrAOGEN rats with low glial angiotensinogen, normal Sprague-Dawley rats and (mRen2)27 rats with upregulated brain RAS expression. Mass spectrometry revealed higher levels of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol in (mRen2)27 compared to ASrAOGEN rats (2.70 ± 0.28 vs. 1.17 ± 0.09 ng/mg tissue; P < 0.01), while Sprague-Dawley rats had intermediate content (1.85 ± 0.27 ng/mg tissue). Microinjection of the CB1receptor antagonist SR141716A (36 pmol) into the NTS did not change cardiac BRS in anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats (1.04 ± 0.05 ms/mmHg baseline vs. 1.17 ± 0.11 ms/mmHg after 10 min). However, SR141716A in (mRen2)27 rats dose-dependently improved BRS in this strain: 0.36 pmol of SR141716A increased BRS from 0.43 ± 0.03 to 0.71 ± 0.04 ms/mmHg (P < 0.001), and 36 pmol of SR141716A increased BRS from 0.47 ± 0.02 to 0.94 ± 0.10 ms/mmHg (P < 0.01). In contrast, 0.36 pmol (1.50 ± 0.12 vs. 0.86 ± 0.08 ms/mmHg; P < 0.05) and 36 pmol (1.38 ± 0.16 vs. 0.46 ± 0.003 ms/mmHg; P < 0.01) of SR141716A significantly reduced BRS in ASrAOGEN rats. These observations reveal differential dose-related effects of the brain endocannabinoid system that influence cardiovagal BRS in animals with genetic alterations in the brain RAS.

  18. Intratumoral gas formation of HCC after trancatheter arterial chemoembolization(TACE)

    Kim, Jou Yeoun; Park, Byeong Ho; Nam, Kyung Jin; Auh, Jong Young; Lee, Yung Il [College of Medicine Dong-A University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Bong Sig [Bong Saeng Memorial Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)


    To determine the factors predisposing to the intratumoral gas formation after TACE in the treatment of HCC. A total of 176 pathologically or clinically proven patients with HCC on whom CT scan had been performed in 2 weeks to 3 months after TACE were reviewed. The patients were classified in two groups; intratumoral gas-forming group(n = 18) and non-gas forming group(n = 158). Chi-square (X{sup 2}) test was applied to analyze the factors influencing to gas formation. The radiological factors studied were the morphologic type and location of HCC, presence or absence of tumor capsule on CT, the degree of tumor vascularities, presence of absence of portal vein thrombosis, presence or absence of arterioportal shunt, and TACE catheterization method on angiographic examination and the duration of post-TAE fever. Intratumoral gas formation after TACE occurred significantly in tumors with peripheral location or capsule on CT tumors with less vascularity or peripheral arterioportal shunt on angiographic examination, and TACE with selective catheterization method({rho} < 0.05). But the morphologic types of HCC and presence of main portal vein thrombosis were not significantly different between the two groups({rho} > 0.05). The average duration of fever sustained after TACE was longer in gas-forming group than those in non-gas forming group ({rho} < 0.05). TACE of HCC with weak collaterals or with peripherd prevent recanalization from collaterals has tendency to intratumoral gas from-his and prolonged fever duration.

  19. Blood flow dependence of the intratumoral distribution of peripheral benzodiazepine receptor binding in intact mouse fibrosarcoma

    Amitani, Misato [Radiochemistry Section, Department of Molecular Probes, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan) and Course of Allied Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)]. E-mail:; Zhang, Ming-Rong [Radiochemistry Section, Department of Molecular Probes, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Noguchi, Junko [Radiochemistry Section, Department of Molecular Probes, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); SHI Accelerator Service, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8686 (Japan); Kumata, Katsushi [Radiochemistry Section, Department of Molecular Probes, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Ito, Takehito [Radiochemistry Section, Department of Molecular Probes, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); SHI Accelerator Service, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8686 (Japan); Takai, Nobuhiko [Radiochemistry Section, Department of Molecular Probes, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Suzuki, Kazutoshi [Radiochemistry Section, Department of Molecular Probes, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Hosoi, Rie [Course of Allied Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Inoue, Osamu [Course of Allied Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)


    The intratumoral distribution of [{sup 11}C]AC-5216 binding, a novel peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) ligand, was examined by autoradiography both in vitro and in vivo using a murine fibrosarcoma model. The regional distribution of [{sup 11}C]AC-5216 in a tumor in vivo was significantly heterogeneous; the uptake of [{sup 11}C]AC-5216 was comparatively higher in the outer rim of the tumor and was lower in the central area. In contrast, the images obtained following the injection of [{sup 11}C]AC-5216 with a large amount of nonlabeled PK11195 showed a relatively homogeneous distribution, suggesting that [{sup 11}C]AC-5216 uptake represented specific binding to PBRs. In vitro autoradiograms of [{sup 11}C]AC-5216 binding were also obtained using the section of the fibrosarcoma that was the same as that used to examine in vivo binding. In vitro autoradiographic binding images showed homogeneous distribution, and significant discrepancies of the intratumoral distribution of [{sup 11}C]AC-5216 were observed between in vivo and in vitro images. The in vivo images of [{sup 11}C]AC-5216 uptake, compared with those of [{sup 14}C]iodoantipyrine uptake, obtained by dual autoradiography to evaluate the influence of blood flow revealed the similar intratumoral distributions of both tracers. These results indicate that the delivery process from the plasma to the tumor might be the rate-limiting step for the intratumoral distribution of PBR binding in vivo in a fibrosarcoma model.

  20. Altered profiles of nuclear matrix proteins during the differentiation of human gastric mucous adenocarcinoma MGc80-3 cells

    Chun-Hong Zhao; Qi-Fu Li


    AIM: To find and identify specific nuclear matrix proteins associated with proliferation and differentiation of carcinoma cells, which will be potential markers for cancer diagnosis and targets in cancer therapy.METHODS: Nuclear matrix proteins were selectively extracted from MGc80-3 cells treated with or without hexamethylamine bisacetamide (HMBA), and subjected to 2-D gel electrophoresis. The resulted protein patterns were analyzed by Melanie software. Spots of nuclear matrix proteins differentially expressed were excised and subjected to in situ digestion with trypsin. Peptide masses were obtained by matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis and submitted for database searching using Mascot tool.RESULTS: The MGc80-3 cells were induced into differentiation by HMBA. There were 22 protein spots which changed remarkably in the nuclear matrix, from differentiation of MGc80-3 cells compared to control.Eleven of which were identified. Seven proteins -actin, prohibitin, porin 31HL, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1, vimentin, ATP synthase, and heatshock protein 60 were downregulated, whereas three proteins - heat shock protein gp96, heat shock protein 90-beta, and valosin-containing protein were upregulated,and the oxygen-regulated protein was only found in the differentiated MGc80-3 cells.CONCLUSION: The induced differentiation of carcinoma cells is accompanied by the changes of nuclear matrix proteins. Further characterization of those proteins will show the mechanism of cellular proliferation and differentiation, as well as cancer differentiation.

  1. Effect of intratumoral administration on biodistribution of 64Cu-labeled nanoshells

    Xie H


    Full Text Available Huan Xie1, Beth Goins2, Ande Bao2, Zheng Jim Wang3, William T Phillips21Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Texas Southern University, Houston, TX, 2Department of Radiology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, 3MPI Research Inc, Mattawan, MIBackground: Gold nanoshells are excellent agents for photothermal ablation cancer therapy and are currently under clinical trial for solid tumors. Previous studies showed that passive delivery of gold nanoshells through intravenous administration resulted in limited tumor accumulation, which represents a major challenge for this therapy. In this report, the impact of direct intratumoral administration on the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of the nanoshells was systematically investigated.Methods: The gold nanoshells were labeled with the radionuclide, copper-64 (64Cu. Intratumoral infusion of 64Cu-nanoshells and two controls, ie, 64Cu-DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazaciclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid and 64Cu-DOTA-PEG (polyethylene glycol, as well as intravenous injection of 64Cu-nanoshells were performed in nude rats, each with a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma xenograft. The pharmacokinetics was determined by radioactive counting of serial blood samples collected from the rats at different time points post-injection. Using positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging, the in vivo distribution of 64Cu-nanoshells and the controls was monitored at various time points after injection. Organ biodistribution in the rats at 46 hours was analyzed by radioactive counting and compared between the different groups.Results: The resulting pharmacokinetic curves indicated a similar trend between the intratumorally injected agents, but a significant difference with the intravenously injected 64Cu-nanoshells. Positron emission tomography images and organ biodistribution results on rats after intratumoral administration

  2. Differential alterations in striatal acetylcholine function in rats during 12 months' continuous administration of haloperidol, sulpiride, or clozapine.

    Rupniak, N M; Briggs, R S; Petersen, M M; Mann, S; Reavill, C; Jenner, P; Marsden, C D


    Rats were treated continuously for 12 months with therapeutically equivalent doses of either haloperidol (1.4-1.6 mg/kg/day), sulpiride (102-109 mg/kg/day), or clozapine (24-27 mg/kg/day). After treatment for 3 and 12 months with haloperidol or clozapine but not sulpiride, striatal acetylcholine levels were increased. Striatal choline acetyltransferase activity was not altered by any drug treatment. Vmax for striatal acetylcholinesterase activity during the course of 12 months' treatment with haloperidol or clozapine, but not with sulpiride, tended to increase; Km was not altered by any drug treatment. Bmax for specific striatal [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate binding was not altered by haloperidol or sulpiride treatment but was transiently elevated after 6 months of clozapine treatment, thereafter returning to control levels. Kd was not altered by any drug treatment. These findings indicate that alterations in striatal acetylcholine content caused by chronic treatment with some but not all neuroleptics are due to changes in cholinergic neuronal activity rather than neurotransmitter synthesis or destruction. The effects of haloperidol but not those of clozapine may be related to the emergence of functional striatal dopamine receptor supersensitivity. Since haloperidol (which is associated with a high prevalence of tardive dyskinesias) but not clozapine (which is not) had similar effects on striatal cholinergic function, the latter may not be related to the emergence of tardive dyskinesias during chronic therapy.

  3. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein-6 Alters Skeletal Muscle Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Doaa Aboalola


    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-6 (IGFBP-6, the main regulator of insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2, is a component of the stem cell niche in developing muscle cells. However, its role in muscle development has not been clearly defined. In this study, we investigated the role of IGFBP-6 in muscle commitment and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells derived from the placenta. We showed that placental mesenchymal stem cells (PMSCs have the ability to differentiate into muscle cells when exposed to a specific culture medium by expressing muscle markers Pax3/7, MyoD, myogenin, and myosin heavy chain in a stage-dependent manner with the ultimate formation of multinucleated fibers and losing pluripotency-associated markers, OCT4 and SOX2. The addition of IGFBP-6 significantly increased pluripotency-associated markers as well as muscle differentiation markers at earlier time points, but the latter decreased with time. On the other hand, silencing IGFBP-6 decreased both pluripotent and differentiation markers at early time points. The levels of these markers increased as IGFBP-6 levels were restored. These findings indicate that IGFBP-6 influences MSC pluripotency and myogenic differentiation, with more prominent effects observed at the beginning of the differentiation process before muscle commitment.

  4. Design and development of a robotized system coupled to µCT imaging for intratumoral drug evaluation in a HCC mouse model.

    Gaétan Bour

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the most common cancer related deaths worldwide. One of the main challenges in cancer treatment is drug delivery to target cancer cells specifically. Preclinical evaluation of intratumoral drugs in orthotopic liver cancer mouse models is difficult, as percutaneous injection hardly can be precisely performed manually. In the present study we have characterized a hepatoma model developing a single tumor nodule by implantation of Hep55.1C cells in the liver of syngeneic C57BL/6J mice. Tumor evolution was followed up by µCT imaging, and at the histological and molecular levels. This orthotopic, poorly differentiated mouse HCC model expressing fibrosis, inflammation and cancer markers was used to assess the efficacy of drugs. We took advantage of the high precision of a previously developed robotized system for automated, image-guided intratumoral needle insertion, to administer every week in the tumor of the Hep55.1C mouse model. A significant tumor growth inhibition was observed using our robotized system, whereas manual intraperitoneal administration had no effect, by comparison to untreated control mice.

  5. Genetic alterations of hepatocellular carcinoma by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis and cloning sequencing of tumor differential DNA fragment

    Zhi-Hong Xian; Wen-Ming Cong; Shu-Hui Zhang; Meng-Chao Wu


    AIM: To study the genetic alterations and their association with clinicopathological characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and to find the tumor related DNA fragments.METHODS: DNA isolated from tumors and corresponding noncancerous liver tissues of 56 HCC patients was amplified by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)with 10 random 10-mer arbitrary primers. The RAPD bands showing obvious differences in tumor tissue DNA corresponding to that of normal tissue were separated,purified, cloned and sequenced. DNA sequences were analyzed and compared with GenBank data.RESULTS: A total of 56 cases of HCC were demonstrated to have genetic alterations, which were detected by at least one primer. The detestability of genetic alterations ranged from 20% to 70% in each case, and 17.9% to 50% in each primer. Serum HBV infection, tumor size,histological grade, tumor capsule, as well as tumor intrahepatic metastasis, might be correlated with genetic alterations on certain primers. A band with a higher intensity of 480 bp or so amplified fragments in tumor DNA relative to normal DNA could be seen in 27 of 56 tumor samples using primer 4. Sequence analysis of these fragments showed 91% homology with Homo sapiens double homeobox protein DUX10 gene.CONCLUSION: Genetic alterations are a frequent event in HCC, and tumor related DNA fragments have been found in this study, which may be associated with hepatocarcinogenesis. RAPD is an effective method for the identification and analysis of genetic alterations in HCC, and may provide new information for further evaluating the molecular mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis.

  6. Perfluorooctane sulfonate induces neuronal and oligodendrocytic differentiation in neural stem cells and alters the expression of PPARγ in vitro and in vivo

    Wan Ibrahim, Wan Norhamidah, E-mail: [Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, S-17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Tofighi, Roshan, E-mail: [Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, S-17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Onishchenko, Natalia, E-mail: [Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, S-17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Rebellato, Paola, E-mail: [Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S-17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Bose, Raj, E-mail: [Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, S-17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Uhlén, Per, E-mail: [Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S-17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Ceccatelli, Sandra, E-mail: [Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, S-17177 Stockholm (Sweden)


    Perfluorinated compounds are ubiquitous chemicals of major concern for their potential adverse effects on the human population. We have used primary rat embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) to study the effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on the process of NSC spontaneous differentiation. Upon removal of basic fibroblast growth factor, NSCs were exposed to nanomolar concentrations of PFOS for 48 h, and then allowed to differentiate for additional 5 days. Exposure to 25 or 50 nM concentration resulted in a lower number of proliferating cells and a higher number of neurite-bearing TuJ1-positive cells, indicating an increase in neuronal differentiation. Exposure to 50 nM also significantly increased the number of CNPase-positive cells, pointing to facilitation of oligodendrocytic differentiation. PPAR genes have been shown to be involved in PFOS toxicity. By q-PCR we detected an upregulation of PPARγ with no changes in PPARα or PPARδ genes. One of the downstream targets of PPARs, the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) was also upregulated. The number of TuJ1- and CNPase-positive cells increased after exposure to PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone (RGZ, 3 μM) and decreased after pre-incubation with the PPARγ antagonist GW9662 (5 μM). RGZ also upregulated the expression of PPARγ and UCP2 genes. Meanwhile GW9662 abolished the UCP2 upregulation and decreased Ca{sup 2+} activity induced by PFOS. Interestingly, a significantly higher expression of PPARγ and UCP3 genes was also detected in mouse neonatal brain after prenatal exposure to PFOS. These data suggest that PPARγ plays a role in the alteration of spontaneous differentiation of NSCs induced by nanomolar concentrations of PFOS. - Highlights: • PFOS decreases proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs). • PFOS induces neuronal and oligodendrocytic differentiation in NSCs. • PFOS alters expression of PPARγ and UCP2 in vitro. • PFOS alters expression of PPARγ and UCP3 in vivo. • Block of PPAR

  7. The influence of TP53 mutations on the prognosis of patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer may depend on the intratumor heterogeneity of the mutations.

    Lee, Shin Yup; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Hwangbo, Yup; Jeong, Ji Yun; Park, Ji Young; Lee, Eun Jin; Jin, Guang; Shin, Kyung Min; Yoo, Seung Soo; Lee, Jaehee; Lee, Eung Bae; Cha, Seung Ick; Kim, Chang Ho; Park, Jae Yong


    A large number of studies have evaluated the impact of TP53 mutations on the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, the results of these studies are still controversial. Recently, considerable intratumor heterogeneity for genetic alterations has been demonstrated in various human cancers, including lung cancer. In the present study, we evaluated TP53 mutations in NSCLCs by direct sequencing and observed remarkable variation in the values of relative intensity (RI, the height of the peak of mutated allele/the height of the peak of non-mutated allele) of the mutations. We also examined whether the RI values were associated with intratumor heterogeneity of TP53 mutations. In addition, we evaluated the relationship between TP53 mutations and survival outcome. The patients with a TP53 mutation did not have significantly worse survival compared to those without the mutation. However, when tumors with a TP53 mutation were categorized into two groups, those with a low and those with a high RI, the latter group had significantly worse survival compared to those with wild-type TP53 (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.58, 95% confidence interval = 1.21-5.48, P = 0.01), whereas the former group did not. These results suggest that intratumor genetic heterogeneity may be an important factor in determining the role of TP53 mutations on the prognosis of NSCLC patients.

  8. Altered MicroRNA Expression Profile in Exosomes during Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Zhang, Shui-Jun; Zhao, Chen; Qiu, Bin-Song; Gu, Hai-Feng; Hong, Jian-Fei; Cao, Li; Chen, Yu; Xia, Bing; Bi, Qin; Wang, Ya-Ping


    The physiological role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in osteoblast differentiation remains elusive. Exosomal miRNAs isolated from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) culture were profiled using miRNA arrays containing probes for 894 human matured miRNAs. Seventy-nine miRNAs (∼8.84%) could be detected in exosomes isolated from BMSC culture supernatants when normalized to endogenous control genes RNU44. Among them, nine exosomal miRNAs were up regulated and 4 miRNAs were under regulated significantly (Relative fold>2, p<0.05) when compared with the values at 0 day with maximum changes at 1 to 7 days. Five miRNAs (miR-199b, miR-218, miR-148a, miR-135b, and miR-221) were further validated and differentially expressed in the individual exosomal samples from hBMSCs cultured at different time points. Bioinformatic analysis by DIANA-mirPath demonstrated that RNA degradation, mRNA surveillance pathway, Wnt signaling pathway, RNA transport were the most prominent pathways enriched in quantiles with differential exosomal miRNA patterns related to osteogenic differentiation. These data demonstrated exosomal miRNA is a regulator of osteoblast differentiation. PMID:25503309

  9. Altered microRNA expression profile in exosomes during osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Ji-Feng Xu

    Full Text Available The physiological role of microRNAs (miRNAs in osteoblast differentiation remains elusive. Exosomal miRNAs isolated from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs culture were profiled using miRNA arrays containing probes for 894 human matured miRNAs. Seventy-nine miRNAs (∼8.84% could be detected in exosomes isolated from BMSC culture supernatants when normalized to endogenous control genes RNU44. Among them, nine exosomal miRNAs were up regulated and 4 miRNAs were under regulated significantly (Relative fold>2, p<0.05 when compared with the values at 0 day with maximum changes at 1 to 7 days. Five miRNAs (miR-199b, miR-218, miR-148a, miR-135b, and miR-221 were further validated and differentially expressed in the individual exosomal samples from hBMSCs cultured at different time points. Bioinformatic analysis by DIANA-mirPath demonstrated that RNA degradation, mRNA surveillance pathway, Wnt signaling pathway, RNA transport were the most prominent pathways enriched in quantiles with differential exosomal miRNA patterns related to osteogenic differentiation. These data demonstrated exosomal miRNA is a regulator of osteoblast differentiation.

  10. Intratumoral convergence of the TCR repertoires of effector and Foxp3+ CD4+ T cells.

    Michal Kuczma

    Full Text Available The presence of Foxp3(+ regulatory CD4(+ T cells in tumor lesions is considered one of the major causes of ineffective immune response in cancer. It is not clear whether intratumoral T(reg cells represent T(reg cells pre-existing in healthy mice, or arise from tumor-specific effector CD4(+ T cells and thus representing adaptive T(reg cells. The generation of T(reg population in tumors could be further complicated by recent evidence showing that both in humans and mice the peripheral population of T(reg cells is heterogenous and consists of subsets which may differentially respond to tumor-derived antigens. We have studied T(reg cells in cancer in experimental mice that express naturally selected, polyclonal repertoire of CD4(+ T cells and which preserve the heterogeneity of the T(reg population. The majority of T(reg cells present in healthy mice maintained a stable suppressor phenotype, expressed high level of Foxp3 and an exclusive set of TCRs not used by naive CD4(+ T cells. A small T(reg subset, utilized TCRs shared with effector T cells and expressed a lower level of Foxp3. We show that response to tumor-derived antigens induced efficient clonal recruitment and expansion of antigen-specific effector and T(reg cells. However, the population of T(reg cells in tumors was dominated by cells expressing TCRs shared with effector CD4(+ T cells. In contrast, T(reg cells expressing an exclusive set of TCRs, that dominate in healthy mice, accounted for only a small fraction of all T(reg cells in tumor lesions. Our results suggest that the T(reg repertoire in tumors is generated by conversion of effector CD4(+ T cells or expansion of a minor subset of T(reg cells. In conclusion, successful cancer immunotherapy may depend on the ability to block upregulation of Foxp3 in effector CD4(+ T cells and/or selectively inhibiting the expansion of a minor T(reg subset.

  11. Mitoxantrone-loaded albumin microspheres for localized intratumoral chemotherapy of breast cancer

    Almond, Brett Anthony

    The safety and efficacy of conventional chemotherapy is limited by its toxicity. The direct intratumoral injection of free or microsphere-loaded antineoplastic drugs is a promising modality for the treatment of solid tumors. Intratumoral chemotherapy delivers high localized doses of cytotoxic drugs to the tumor tissues than does systemic (intravenous) chemotherapy and it decreases systemic drug concentrations and toxicities. The use of drug-loaded microspheres also provides a prolonged release of drug into the surrounding tumor tissues, increasing exposure of the neoplasm to therapeutic levels of the cytotoxic drug. Mitoxantrone and 5-fluorouracil-loaded albumin microspheres were synthesized. The microspheres were synthesized using a suspension crosslinking technique and a glutardehyde crosslinking agent. The particle-size distribution of the microspheres was controlled by adjusting the emulsion energy and the concentration of cellulose acetate butyrate, the emulsion stabilization agent. Both microsphere size and crosslink density (glutaraldehyde concentration) were found to affect the in vitro release of loaded drugs in in vitro infinite sink conditions. The in vivo efficacy and toxicity of intratumoral chemotherapy with free and microsphere-loaded mitoxantrone were evaluated in a 16/C murine mammary adenocarcinoma model. Intratumoral chemotherapy with free mitoxantrone significantly improved survival and decreased toxicity compared to intravenously delivered drug. The efficacy of two size distributions of mitoxantrone-loaded albumin microspheres, corresponding to mean diameters of 5 to 10 mum and 20 to 40 mum, were evaluated delivered both alone and in combination with free mitoxantrone. Intratumoral injection of mitoxantrone-loaded microspheres was found to allow the safe delivery of increased doses compared to free drug. The maximum tolerated doses were approximately 40 mg/kg compared to 12 mg/kg, respectively. Intratumoral chemotherapy using free and

  12. TCR signal strength alters T-DC activation and interaction times and directs the outcome of differentiation.

    Nicholas eVan Panhuys


    Full Text Available The ability of CD4+ T cells to differentiate into effector subsets underpins their ability to shape the immune response and mediate host protection. During T cell receptor induced activation of CD4+ T cells both the quality and quantity of specific activatory peptide/MHC ligands have been shown to control the polarization of naïve CD4+ T cells in addition to co-stimulatory and cytokine based signals. Recently, advances in two photon microscopy and tetramer based cell tracking methods have allowed investigators to greatly extend the study of the role of TCR signaling in effector differentiation under in vivo conditions. In this review we consider data from recent in vivo studies analyzing the role of TCR signal strength in controlling the outcome of CD4+ T cell differentiation and discuss the role of the TCR in controlling the critical nature of CD4+ T cell interactions with dendritic cells during activation. We further propose a model whereby TCR signal strength controls the temporal aspects of T:DC interactions and the implications for this in mediating the downstream signaling events which influence the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of effector differentiation.

  13. p130Cas alters the differentiation potential of mammary luminal progenitors by deregulating c-Kit activity.

    Tornillo, Giusy; Elia, Angela Rita; Castellano, Isabella; Spadaro, Michela; Bernabei, Paola; Bisaro, Brigitte; Camacho-Leal, Maria Del Pilar; Pincini, Alessandra; Provero, Paolo; Sapino, Anna; Turco, Emilia; Defilippi, Paola; Cabodi, Sara


    It has recently been proposed that defective differentiation of mammary luminal progenitors predisposes to basal-like breast cancer. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved are still unclear. Here, we describe that the adaptor protein p130Cas is a crucial regulator of mouse mammary epithelial cell (MMEC) differentiation. Using a transgenic mouse model, we show that forced p130Cas overexpression in the luminal progenitor cell compartment results in the expansion of luminal cells, which aberrantly display basal cell features and reduced differentiation in response to lactogenic stimuli. Interestingly, MMECs overexpressing p130Cas exhibit hyperactivation of the tyrosine kinase receptor c-Kit. In addition, we demonstrate that the constitutive c-Kit activation alone mimics p130Cas overexpression, whereas c-Kit downregulation is sufficient to re-establish proper differentiation of p130Cas overexpressing cells. Overall, our data indicate that high levels of p130Cas, via abnormal c-Kit activation, promote mammary luminal cell plasticity, thus providing the conditions for the development of basal-like breast cancer. Consistently, p130Cas is overexpressed in human triple-negative breast cancer, further suggesting that p130Cas upregulation may be a priming event for the onset of basal-like breast cancer.

  14. Short term morphine exposure in vitro alters proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells and promotes apoptosis via mu receptors.

    Dafna Willner

    Full Text Available Chronic morphine treatment inhibits neural progenitor cell (NPC progression and negatively effects hippocampal neurogenesis. However, the effect of acute opioid treatment on cell development and its influence on NPC differentiation and proliferation in vitro is unknown. We aim to investigate the effect of a single, short term exposure of morphine on the proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of NPCs and the mechanism involved.Cell cultures from 14-day mouse embryos were exposed to different concentrations of morphine and its antagonist naloxone for 24 hours and proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis were studied. Proliferating cells were labeled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU and cell fate was studied with immunocytochemistry.Cells treated with morphine demonstrated decreased BrdU expression with increased morphine concentrations. Analysis of double-labeled cells showed a decrease in cells co-stained for BrdU with nestin and an increase in cells co-stained with BrdU and neuron-specific class III β-tubuline (TUJ1 in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, a significant increase in caspase-3 activity was observed in the nestin- positive cells. Addition of naloxone to morphine-treated NPCs reversed the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of morphine.Short term morphine exposure induced inhibition of NPC proliferation and increased active caspase-3 expression in a dose dependent manner. Morphine induces neuronal and glial differentiation and decreases the expression of nestin- positive cells. These effects were reversed with the addition of the opioid antagonist naloxone. Our results demonstrate the effects of short term morphine administration on the proliferation and differentiation of NPCs and imply a mu-receptor mechanism in the regulation of NPC survival.

  15. Acute aerobic exercise differentially alters acylated ghrelin and perceived fullness in normal-weight and obese individuals.

    Heden, Timothy D; Liu, Ying; Park, Youngmin; Dellsperger, Kevin C; Kanaley, Jill A


    Adiposity alters acylated ghrelin concentrations, but it is unknown whether adiposity alters the effect of exercise and feeding on acylated ghrelin responses. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether adiposity [normal-weight (NW) vs. obese (Ob)] influences the effect of exercise and feeding on acylated ghrelin, hunger, and fullness. Fourteen NW and 14 Ob individuals completed two trials in a randomized counterbalanced fashion, including a prior exercise trial (EX) and a no exercise trial (NoEX). During the EX trial, the participants performed 1 h of treadmill walking (55-60% peak O2 uptake) during the evening, 12 h before a 4-h standardized mixed meal test. Frequent blood samples were taken and analyzed for acylated ghrelin, and a visual analog scale was used to assess perceived hunger and fullness. In NW individuals, EX, compared with NoEX, reduced fasting acylated ghrelin concentrations by 18% (P = 0.03), and, in response to feeding, the change in acylated ghrelin (P = 0.02) was attenuated by 39%, but perceived hunger and fullness were unaltered. In Ob individuals, despite no changes in fasting or postprandial acylated ghrelin concentrations with EX, postprandial fullness was attenuated by 46% compared with NoEX (P = 0.05). In summary, exercise performed the night before a meal suppresses acylated ghrelin concentrations in NW individuals without altering perceived hunger or fullness. In Ob individuals, despite no changes in acylated ghrelin concentrations, EX reduced the fullness response to the test meal. Acylated ghrelin and perceived fullness responses are differently altered by acute aerobic exercise in NW and Ob individuals.

  16. Differential Larval Toxicity and Oviposition Altering Activity of Some Indigenous Plant Extracts against Dengue and Chikungunya Vector Aedes albopictus.

    Ruchi Yadav; Varun Tyagi; Tikar, Sachin N; Sharma, Ajay K.; Murlidhar J Mendki; Jain, Ashok K; Devanathan Sukumaran


    Background: Mosquitoes are well known as vectors of several disease causing pathogens. The extensive use of synthetic insecticides in the mosquito control strategies resulted to the development of pesticide resistance and fostered environmental deterioration. Hence in recent years plants become alternative source of mosquito control agents. The present study assessed the larvicidal and oviposition altering activity of six different plants species-Alstonia scholaris, Callistemon viminalis, Hyp...

  17. Truncated DNMT3B isoform DNMT3B7 suppresses growth, induces differentiation, and alters DNA methylation in human neuroblastoma

    Ostler, Kelly R.; Yang, Qiwei; Looney, Timothy J.; Li ZHANG; Vasanthakumar, Aparna; Tian, Yufeng; Kocherginsky, Masha; Stacey L. Raimondi; DeMaio, Jessica G.; Salwen, Helen R.; Gu, Song; Chlenski, Alexandre; Naranjo, Arlene; Gill, Amy; Peddinti, Radhika


    Epigenetic changes in pediatric neuroblastoma may contribute to the aggressive pathophysiology of this disease, but little is known about the basis for such changes. In this study, we examined a role for the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3B, in particular, the truncated isoform DNMT3B7 which is generated frequently in cancer. To investigate if aberrant DNMT3B transcripts alter DNA methylation, gene expression, and phenotypic character in neuroblastoma, we measured DNMT3B expression in primary tum...

  18. Lung adenocarcinoma of never smokers and smokers harbor differential regions of genetic alteration and exhibit different levels of genomic instability.

    Kelsie L Thu

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that the observed clinical distinctions between lung tumors in smokers and never smokers (NS extend beyond specific gene mutations, such as EGFR, EML4-ALK, and KRAS, some of which have been translated into targeted therapies. However, the molecular alterations identified thus far cannot explain all of the clinical and biological disparities observed in lung tumors of NS and smokers. To this end, we performed an unbiased genome-wide, comparative study to identify novel genomic aberrations that differ between smokers and NS. High resolution whole genome DNA copy number profiling of 69 lung adenocarcinomas from smokers (n = 39 and NS (n = 30 revealed both global and regional disparities in the tumor genomes of these two groups. We found that NS lung tumors had a greater proportion of their genomes altered than those of smokers. Moreover, copy number gains on chromosomes 5q, 7p, and 16p occurred more frequently in NS. We validated our findings in two independently generated public datasets. Our findings provide a novel line of evidence distinguishing genetic differences between smoker and NS lung tumors, namely, that the extent of segmental genomic alterations is greater in NS tumors. Collectively, our findings provide evidence that these lung tumors are globally and genetically different, which implies they are likely driven by distinct molecular mechanisms.

  19. Chronic imipramine treatment differentially alters the brain and plasma amino acid metabolism in Wistar and Wistar Kyoto rats.

    Nagasawa, Mao; Otsuka, Tsuyoshi; Yasuo, Shinobu; Furuse, Mitsuhiro


    In the present study, the amino acids which have the possibility for the therapeutic efficacy of imipramine were explored and compared between Wistar Kyoto rats, an animal model of depression, and Wistar rats as a normal model. The antidepressant-like effect caused by chronic imipramine treatment was confirmed by decreased immobility in the forced swimming test. Chronic imipramine administration altered the amino acid dynamics in the brain. In the striatum, the concentrations of asparagine, glutamine and methionine were significantly increased by chronic imipramine administration. In the thalamus and hypothalamus, chronic imipramine administration significantly decreased the valine concentration. On the other hand, no amino acid was altered by chronic imipramine administration in the hippocampus, brain stem and cerebellum. In addition, lower concentration of asparagine in the prefrontal cortex of WKY rats was improved by chronic imipramine administration. This amelioration only in WKY rats may be a specific effect of chronic imipramine administration under the depressive state. In conclusion, chronic imipramine administration altered the several amino acid dynamics in the brain. Modification of the amino acid metabolism in the brain may provide a new strategy in the development of therapeutic treatment of major depression.

  20. Prognostic value of podoplanin expression in intratumoral stroma and neoplastic cells of uterine cervical carcinomas

    Filomena M Carvalho


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinicopathological significance of podoplanin expression in the intratumoral stroma and neoplastic cells of early stage uterine cervical cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 143 patients with clinical stage I and IIA uterine cervical carcinomas underwent surgery between 2000 and 2007. Clinicopathological data and slides associated with these cases were retrospectively reviewed. Immunodetection of podoplanin expression in histologic sections of tissue microarray blocks was performed using the monoclonal antibody D2-40. RESULTS: Expression of podoplanin was detected in neoplastic cells in 31/143 (21.6% cases, with 29/31 (93.5% of these cases diagnosed as squamous carcinoma. For all of the cases examined, the strongest signal for podoplanin expression was observed at the proliferating edge of the tumor nests. The rate of positive podoplanin expression for node-positive cases was lower than that of node-negative (18.9% vs. 22.6%, respectively. Furthermore, the rate of positive podoplanin expression in fatal cases was 10.5% vs. 21.6%, respectively. In 27/143 (18.8% cases, podoplanin expression was detected in fibroblasts of the intratumoral stroma, and this expression did not correlate with patient age, clinical stage, tumor size, histologic type, depth of infiltration, or vascular involvement. Moreover, expression of podoplanin in intratumoral stroma fibroblasts was only negatively associated with nodal metastasis. A greater number of fatal cases was observed among negative intratumoral stroma fibroblasts (15.5% vs. 3.7%, respectively, although this difference was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary results suggest that podoplanin may have a role in host-tumor interactions and, as a result, may represent a favorable prognostic factor for squamous cervical carcinomas.

  1. Intratumoral Dendritic Cells and Chemoradiation for the Treatment of Murine Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Moyer, Jeffrey S.; Li, Ji; Wei, Shuang; Teitz-Tennenbaum, Seagal; Chang, Alfred E


    Dendritic cells are potent antigen presenting cells that have been shown to have significant antitumor effects in vitro and in vivo. However, the therapeutic efficacy of dendritic cells as an immunotherapeutic treatment has been limited by both immunologic tolerance and active immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment. To address this problem, we examined the ability of concurrent systemic chemotherapy and local, fractionated radiation to augment intratumoral dendritic cell injections i...

  2. Intratumoral injection of Clostridium novyi-NT spores induces antitumor responses

    Roberts, Nicholas J.; Zhang, Linping; Janku, Filip; Collins, Amanda; Bai, Ren-Yuan; Staedtke, Verena; Rusk, Anthony W.; Tung, David; Miller, Maria; Roix, Jeffrey; Khanna, Kristen V.; Murthy, Ravi; Benjamin, Robert S; Helgason, Thorunn; Szvalb, Ariel D.


    Species of Clostridium bacteria are notable for their ability to lyse tumor cells growing in hypoxic environments. We show that an attenuated strain of Clostridium novyi (C. novyi-NT) induces a microscopically precise, tumor-localized response in a rat orthotopic brain tumor model after intratumoral injection. It is well known, however, that experimental models often do not reliably predict the responses of human patients to therapeutic agents. We therefore used naturally occurring canine tum...

  3. Docosahexaenoyl ethanolamide improves glucose uptake and alters endocannabinoid system gene expression in proliferating and differentiating C2C12 myoblasts

    Jeffrey eKim


    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is a major storage site for glycogen and a focus for understanding insulin resistance and type-2-diabetes. New evidence indicates that overactivation of the peripheral endocannabinoid system (ECS in skeletal muscle diminishes insulin sensitivity. Specific n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA are precursors for the biosynthesis of ligands that bind to and activate the cannabinoid receptors. The function of the ECS and action of PUFA in skeletal muscle glucose uptake was investigated in proliferating and differentiated C2C12 myoblasts treated with either 25µM of arachidonate (AA or docosahexaenoate (DHA, 25µM of EC [anandamide (AEA, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, docosahexaenoylethanolamide (DHEA], 1µM of CB1 antagonist NESS0327, and CB2 antagonist AM630. Compared to the BSA vehicle control cell cultures in both proliferating and differentiated myoblasts those treated with DHEA, the EC derived from the n-3 PUFA DHA, had higher 24 h glucose uptake, while AEA and 2-AG, the EC derived from the n-6 PUFA AA, had lower basal glucose uptake. Adenylyl cyclase mRNA was higher in myoblasts treated with DHA in both proliferating and differentiated states while those treated with AEA or 2-AG were lower compared to the control cell cultures. Western blot and qPCR analysis showed higher expression of the cannabinoid receptors in differentiated myoblasts treated with DHA while the opposite was observed with AA. These findings indicate a compensatory effect of DHA and DHEA compared to AA-derived ligands on the ECS and associated ECS gene expression and higher glucose uptake in myoblasts.Key Words: endocannabinoid system •C2C12 myoblasts cannabinoid receptors glucose uptake gene expression DHEA • polyunsaturated fatty acids

  4. Assessment of the feasibility of TACE combined with intratumoral injection of cisplatin in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Zhaomin Song


    Full Text Available The feasibility of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE combined with intratumoral injection of cisplatin as treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma. 30 cases receiving TACE were denoted the TACE group, another 30 cases receiving TACE combined with an intratumoral multi-point injection of cisplatin were denoted the TACE/cisplatin group. Cases with partial remission/complete remission (PR/CR were analyzed using 2 tests; alpha fetoprotein (AFP, aspartate amino transferase (AST, total bilirubin (TBIL, erythrocyte, and platelet levels were detected and the differences between two groups were analyzed using the Student’s t-test; cases with complications, including intrahepatic metastasis (IM, upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB, and liver failure were also counted. The correlation of clinical parameters with PR/CR was analyzed using multifactorial correlation analysis. Cases with PR/CR in the TACE/cisplatin group were significantly more than in TACE group, accompanied by significant declination in FAP. There were no significant differences of AST, ALT, TBIL, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, white blood cells (WBC, red blood cells (RBC, and platelets (PLT between two groups; 3 cases with IM, one case with UGB and one case with LF were found in the TACE group, but only 1 case with IM was found in the TACE/cisplatin group. In addition, tumor stage was correlated with PR/CR. We concluded that TACE combined with intratumoral injection of cisplatin was more effective than TACE, and with fewer complications and side effects.

  5. Intratumoral injection of Clostridium novyi-NT spores induces antitumor responses.

    Roberts, Nicholas J; Zhang, Linping; Janku, Filip; Collins, Amanda; Bai, Ren-Yuan; Staedtke, Verena; Rusk, Anthony W; Tung, David; Miller, Maria; Roix, Jeffrey; Khanna, Kristen V; Murthy, Ravi; Benjamin, Robert S; Helgason, Thorunn; Szvalb, Ariel D; Bird, Justin E; Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita; Zhang, Halle H; Qiao, Yuan; Karim, Baktiar; McDaniel, Jennifer; Elpiner, Amanda; Sahora, Alexandra; Lachowicz, Joshua; Phillips, Brenda; Turner, Avenelle; Klein, Mary K; Post, Gerald; Diaz, Luis A; Riggins, Gregory J; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Kinzler, Kenneth W; Vogelstein, Bert; Bettegowda, Chetan; Huso, David L; Varterasian, Mary; Saha, Saurabh; Zhou, Shibin


    Species of Clostridium bacteria are notable for their ability to lyse tumor cells growing in hypoxic environments. We show that an attenuated strain of Clostridium novyi (C. novyi-NT) induces a microscopically precise, tumor-localized response in a rat orthotopic brain tumor model after intratumoral injection. It is well known, however, that experimental models often do not reliably predict the responses of human patients to therapeutic agents. We therefore used naturally occurring canine tumors as a translational bridge to human trials. Canine tumors are more like those of humans because they occur in animals with heterogeneous genetic backgrounds, are of host origin, and are due to spontaneous rather than engineered mutations. We found that intratumoral injection of C. novyi-NT spores was well tolerated in companion dogs bearing spontaneous solid tumors, with the most common toxicities being the expected symptoms associated with bacterial infections. Objective responses were observed in 6 of 16 dogs (37.5%), with three complete and three partial responses. On the basis of these encouraging results, we treated a human patient who had an advanced leiomyosarcoma with an intratumoral injection of C. novyi-NT spores. This treatment reduced the tumor within and surrounding the bone. Together, these results show that C. novyi-NT can precisely eradicate neoplastic tissues and suggest that further clinical trials of this agent in selected patients are warranted.

  6. Intratumoral steroidogenesis in castration-resistant prostate cancer: a target for therapy.

    Armandari, Inna; Hamid, Agus Rizal; Verhaegh, Gerald; Schalken, Jack


    Development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in a low androgen environment, arising from androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), is a major problem in patients with advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Several mechanisms have been hypothesized to explain the progression of PCa to CRPC during ADT, one of them is so called persistent intratumoral steroidogenesis. The existence of intratumoral steroidogenesis was hinted based on the residual levels of intraprostatic testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) after ADT. Accumulating evidence has shown that the intraprostatic androgen levels after ADT are sufficient to induce cancer progression. Several studies now have demonstrated that PCa cells are able to produce T and DHT from different androgen precursors, such as cholesterol and the adrenal androgen, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Furthermore, up-regulation of genes encoding key steroidogenic enzymes in PCa cells seems to be an indicator for active intratumoral steroidogenesis in CRPC cells. Currently, several drugs are being developed targeting those steroidogenic enzymes, some of which are now in clinical trials or are being used as standard care for CRPC patients. In the future, novel agents that target steroidogenesis may add to the arsenal of drugs for CRPC therapy.

  7. Advanced Ovarian Cancer Displays Functional Intratumor Heterogeneity That Correlates to Ex Vivo Drug Sensitivity.

    O'Donnell, Rachel L; Kaufmann, Angelika; Woodhouse, Laura; McCormick, Aiste; Cross, Paul A; Edmondson, Richard J; Curtin, Nicola J


    Epithelial ovarian cancer is recognized to be heterogeneous but is currently treated with a single treatment strategy. Successful patient stratification of emerging chemotherapy agents is dependent upon the availability of reliable biomarkers indicative of the entire tumor. The aim of this study was to evaluate intertumor and intratumor heterogeneity within a series of epithelial ovarian cancer using homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair status. Primary cultures generated from ascites and solid tumor from multiple intra-abdominal sites were characterized by their morphology and expression of protein markers. Results were compared with Formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue pathology.Homologous recombination function was determined by quantification of nuclear Rad51 foci. Growth inhibition (sulforhodamine B) assays were used to calculate the GI50 for cisplatin and rucaparib. Ascites with matched solid tumor were cultured from 25 patients.Concordance in functional HR status between ascites and solid tumor subcultures was seen in only 13 (52%) of 25 patients. Heterogeneity in HR status was seen even in patients with homogeneous histological subtype. Homologous recombination defective cultures were significantly more sensitive to cisplatin and rucaparib.Additionally, intertumor and intratumor heterogeneity was seen between the expression of epithelial and ovarian markers (EpCAM, cytokeratin, CA125, MOC-31, and vimentin). There was no relationship between heterogeneity of HR functional status and antigen expression. Intertumor and intratumor functional HR heterogeneity exists that cannot be detected using histological classification. This has implications for biomarker-directed treatment.

  8. Differential Proteomic Analysis Using iTRAQ Reveals Alterations in Hull Development in Rice (Oryza sativa L..

    Shuzhen Wang

    Full Text Available Rice hull, the outer cover of the rice grain, determines grain shape and size. Changes in the rice hull proteome in different growth stages may reflect the underlying mechanisms involved in grain development. To better understand these changes, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitative (iTRAQ MS/MS was used to detect statistically significant changes in the rice hull proteome in the booting, flowering, and milk-ripe growth stages. Differentially expressed proteins were analyzed to predict their potential functions during development. Gene ontology (GO terms and pathways were used to evaluate the biological mechanisms involved in rice hull at the three growth stages. In total, 5,268 proteins were detected and characterized, of which 563 were differentially expressed across the development stages. The results showed that the flowering and milk-ripe stage proteomes were more similar to each other (r=0.61 than either was to the booting stage proteome. A GO enrichment analysis of the differentially expressed proteins was used to predict their roles during rice hull development. The potential functions of 25 significantly differentially expressed proteins were used to evaluate their possible roles at various growth stages. Among these proteins, an unannotated protein (Q7X8A1 was found to be overexpressed especially in the flowering stage, while a putative uncharacterized protein (B8BF94 and an aldehyde dehydrogenase (Q9FPK6 were overexpressed only in the milk-ripe stage. Pathways regulated by differentially expressed proteins were also analyzed. Magnesium-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester [oxidative] cyclase (Q9SDJ2, and two magnesium-chelatase subunits, ChlD (Q6ATS0, and ChlI (Q53RM0, were associated with chlorophyll biosynthesis at different developmental stages. The expression of Q9SDJ2 in the flowering and milk-ripe stages was validated by qRT-PCR. The 25 candidate proteins may be pivotal markers for controlling rice hull development

  9. Repeated methamphetamine administration differentially alters fos expression in caudate-putamen patch and matrix compartments and nucleus accumbens.

    Jakub P Jedynak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The repeated administration of psychostimulant drugs produces a persistent and long-lasting increase ("sensitization" in their psychomotor effects, which is thought to be due to changes in the neural circuitry that mediate these behaviors. One index of neuronal activation used to identify brain regions altered by repeated exposure to drugs involves their ability to induce immediate early genes, such as c-fos. Numerous reports have demonstrated that past drug experience alters the ability of drugs to induce c-fos in the striatum, but very few have examined Fos protein expression in the two major compartments in the striatum--the so-called patch/striosome and matrix. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry to investigate the effects of pretreatment with methamphetamine on the ability of a subsequent methamphetamine challenge to induce Fos protein expression in the patch and matrix compartments of the dorsolateral and dorsomedial caudate-putamen and in the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens. Animals pretreated with methamphetamine developed robust psychomotor sensitization. A methamphetamine challenge increased the number of Fos-positive cells in all areas of the dorsal and ventral striatum. However, methamphetamine challenge induced Fos expression in more cells in the patch than in the matrix compartment in the dorsolateral and dorsomedial caudate-putamen. Furthermore, past experience with methamphetamine increased the number of methamphetamine-induced Fos positive cells in the patch compartment of the dorsal caudate putamen, but not in the matrix or in the core or shell of the nucleus accumbens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that drug-induced alterations in the patch compartment of the dorsal caudate-putamen may preferentially contribute to some of the enduring changes in brain activity and behavior produced by repeated treatment with methamphetamine.

  10. Landscape alterations influence differential habitat use of nesting buteos and ravens within sagebrush ecosystem: implications for transmission line development

    Coates, Peter S.; Howe, Kristy B.; Casazza, Michael L.; Delehanty, David J.


    A goal in avian ecology is to understand factors that influence differences in nesting habitat and distribution among species, especially within changing landscapes. Over the past 2 decades, humans have altered sagebrush ecosystems as a result of expansion in energy production and transmission. Our primary study objective was to identify differences in the use of landscape characteristics and natural and anthropogenic features by nesting Common Ravens (Corvus corax) and 3 species of buteo (Swainson's Hawk [Buteo swainsoni], Red-tailed Hawk [B. jamaicensis], and Ferruginous Hawk [B. regalis]) within a sagebrush ecosystem in southeastern Idaho. During 2007–2009, we measured multiple environmental factors associated with 212 nest sites using data collected remotely and in the field. We then developed multinomial models to predict nesting probabilities by each species and predictive response curves based on model-averaged estimates. We found differences among species related to nesting substrate (natural vs. anthropogenic), agriculture, native grassland, and edge (interface of 2 cover types). Most important, ravens had a higher probability of nesting on anthropogenic features (0.80) than the other 3 species (Artemisia spp.), favoring increased numbers of nesting ravens and fewer nesting Ferruginous Hawks. Our results indicate that habitat alterations, fragmentation, and forthcoming disturbances anticipated with continued energy development in sagebrush steppe ecosystems can lead to predictable changes in raptor and raven communities.

  11. Differential Larval Toxicity and Oviposition Altering Activity of Some Indigenous Plant Extracts against Dengue and Chikungunya Vector Aedes albopictus.

    Ruchi Yadav


    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are well known as vectors of several disease causing pathogens. The extensive use of synthetic insecticides in the mosquito control strategies resulted to the development of pesticide resistance and fostered environmental deterioration. Hence in recent years plants become alternative source of mosquito control agents. The present study assessed the larvicidal and oviposition altering activity of six different plants species-Alstonia scholaris, Callistemon viminalis, Hyptis suaveolens, Malvastrum coromandelianum, Prosopis juliflora, Vernonia cinerea against Aedes albopictus mosquito in laboratory.Leaf extracts of all the six plants species in five different solvents of various polarities were used in the range of 20-400ppm for larval bioassay and 50,100 and 200ppm for cage bioassay (for the study of oviposition behavior against Ae. albopictus. The larval mortality data were recorded after 24 h and subjected to Probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50, while OAI (Oviposition activity index was calculated for oviposition altering activity of the plant extracts.Vernonia cinerea extract in acetone and C. viminalis extract in isopropanol were highly effective against Aedes albopictus larvae with LC50 value 64.57, 71.34ppm respectively. Acetone extract of P. juliflora found to be strong oviposition-deterrent which inhibited >2 fold egg laying (OAI-0.466 at 100ppm.Vernonia cinerea and C. viminallis leaf extracts have the potential to be used as larvicide and P. juliflora as an oviposition-deterrent for the control of Ae. albopictus mosquito.

  12. Infection of chicken bone marrow mononuclear cells with subgroup J avian leukosis virus inhibits dendritic cell differentiation and alters cytokine expression.

    Liu, Di; Qiu, Qianqian; Zhang, Xu; Dai, Manman; Qin, Jianru; Hao, Jianjong; Liao, Ming; Cao, Weisheng


    Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) is an oncogenic retrovirus known to induce tumor formation and immunosuppression in infected chickens. One of the organs susceptible to ALV-J is the bone marrow, from which specialized antigen-presenting cells named dendritic cells (BM-DCs) are derived. Notably, these cells possess the unique ability to induce primary immune responses. In the present study, a method of cultivating and purifying DCs from chicken bone marrow in vitro was established to investigate the effects of ALV-J infection on BM-DC differentiation or generation. The results indicated that ALV-J not only infects the chicken bone marrow mononuclear cells but also appears to inhibit the differentiation and maturation of BM-DCs and to trigger apoptosis. Moreover, substantial reductions in the mRNA expression of TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, MHCI, and MHCII and in cytokine production were detected in the surviving BM-DCs following ALV-J infection. These findings indicate that ALV-J infection disrupts the process of bone marrow mononuclear cell differentiation into BM-DCs likely via altered antigen presentation, resulting in a downstream immune response in affected chickens.

  13. Differential alterations in gene expression profiles contribute to time-dependent effects of nandrolone to prevent denervation atrophy

    Bauman William A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anabolic steroids, such as nandrolone, slow muscle atrophy, but the mechanisms responsible for this effect are largely unknown. Their effects on muscle size and gene expression depend upon time, and the cause of muscle atrophy. Administration of nandrolone for 7 days beginning either concomitantly with sciatic nerve transection (7 days or 29 days later (35 days attenuated denervation atrophy at 35 but not 7 days. We reasoned that this model could be used to identify genes that are regulated by nandrolone and slow denervation atrophy, as well as genes that might explain the time-dependence of nandrolone effects on such atrophy. Affymetrix microarrays were used to profile gene expression changes due to nandrolone at 7 and 35 days and to identify major gene expression changes in denervated muscle between 7 and 35 days. Results Nandrolone selectively altered expression of 124 genes at 7 days and 122 genes at 35 days, with only 20 genes being regulated at both time points. Marked differences in biological function of genes regulated by nandrolone at 7 and 35 days were observed. At 35, but not 7 days, nandrolone reduced mRNA and protein levels for FOXO1, the mTOR inhibitor REDD2, and the calcineurin inhibitor RCAN2 and increased those for ApoD. At 35 days, correlations between mRNA levels and the size of denervated muscle were negative for RCAN2, and positive for ApoD. Nandrolone also regulated genes for Wnt signaling molecules. Comparison of gene expression at 7 and 35 days after denervation revealed marked alterations in the expression of 9 transcriptional coregulators, including Ankrd1 and 2, and many transcription factors and kinases. Conclusions Genes regulated in denervated muscle after 7 days administration of nandrolone are almost entirely different at 7 versus 35 days. Alterations in levels of FOXO1, and of genes involved in signaling through calcineurin, mTOR and Wnt may be linked to the favorable action of nandrolone on

  14. Stress Alters the Discriminative Stimulus and Response Rate Effects of Cocaine Differentially in Lewis and Fischer Inbred Rats

    Therese A. Kosten


    Full Text Available Stress enhances the behavioral effects of cocaine, perhaps via hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis activity. Yet, compared to Fischer 344 (F344 rats, Lewis rats have hyporesponsive HPA axis function and more readily acquire cocaine self-administration. We hypothesized that stress would differentially affect cocaine behaviors in these strains. The effects of three stressors on the discriminative stimulus and response rate effects of cocaine were investigated. Rats of both strains were trained to discriminate cocaine (10 mg/kg from saline using a two-lever, food-reinforced (FR10 procedure. Immediately prior to cumulative dose (1, 3, 10 mg/kg cocaine test sessions, rats were restrained for 15-min, had 15-min of footshock in a distinct context, or were placed in the shock-paired context. Another set of F344 and Lewis rats were tested similarly except they received vehicle injections to test if stress substituted for cocaine. Most vehicle-tested rats failed to respond after stressor exposures. Among cocaine-tested rats, restraint stress enhanced cocaine’s discriminative stimulus effects in F344 rats. Shock and shock-context increased response rates in Lewis rats. Stress-induced increases in corticosterone levels showed strain differences but did not correlate with behavior. These data suggest that the behavioral effects of cocaine can be differentially affected by stress in a strain-selective manner.

  15. TMPRSS2-ERG fusion, a common genomic alteration in prostate cancer activates C-MYC and abrogates prostate epithelial differentiation.

    Sun, C; Dobi, A; Mohamed, A; Li, H; Thangapazham, R L; Furusato, B; Shaheduzzaman, S; Tan, S-H; Vaidyanathan, G; Whitman, E; Hawksworth, D J; Chen, Y; Nau, M; Patel, V; Vahey, M; Gutkind, J S; Sreenath, T; Petrovics, G; Sesterhenn, I A; McLeod, D G; Srivastava, S


    The high prevalence of TMPRSS2-ERG rearrangements ( approximately 60%) in prostate cancer (CaP) leads to androgenic induction of the ETS-related gene (ERG) expression. However, the biological functions of ERG overexpression in CaP remain to be understood. ERG knockdown in TMPRSS2-ERG expressing CaP cells induced striking morphological changes and inhibited cell growth both in cell culture and SCID mice. Evaluation of the transcriptome and specific gene promoters in ERG siRNA-treated cells and investigation of gene expression signatures of human prostate tumors revealed ERG-mediated activation of C-MYC oncogene and the repression of prostate epithelial differentiation genes (PSA and SLC45A3/Prostein). Taken together, these data combining cell culture and animal models and human prostate tumors reveal that ERG overexpression in prostate tumor cells may contribute to the neoplastic process by activating C-MYC and by abrogating prostate epithelial differentiation as indicated by prostate epithelial specific markers.

  16. Holistic differential analysis of embryo-induced alterations in the proteome of bovine endometrium in the preattachment period.

    Berendt, Frank J; Fröhlich, Thomas; Schmidt, Susanne E M; Reichenbach, Horst-Dieter; Wolf, Eckhard; Arnold, Georg J


    During the peri-implantation period, molecular signaling between embryo and endometrium (layer of tissue lining the uterus lumen) is supposed to be crucial for the maintenance of pregnancy. To investigate embryo-induced alterations in the proteome of bovine endometrium in the preattachment period (day 18), we used monozygotic cattle twins (generated by embryo splitting) as a model eliminating genetic variability as a source for proteome differences. One of the twins was pregnant after the transfer of two in vitro produced blastocysts, while the corresponding twin received a sham-transfer and served as a nonpregnant control. The two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) analysis of the endometrium samples of three twin pairs (pregnant/nonpregnant) revealed four proteins with significantly higher abundance (p embryo-maternal interactions.

  17. Overexpression of plastidial thioredoxins f and m differentially alters photosynthetic activity and response to oxidative stress in tobacco plants

    Pascal eREY


    Full Text Available Plants display a remarkable diversity of thioredoxins (Trxs, reductases controlling the thiol redox status of proteins. The physiological function of many of them remains elusive, particularly for plastidial Trxs f and m, which are presumed based on biochemical data to regulate photosynthetic reactions and carbon metabolism. Recent reports revealed that Trxs f and m participate in vivo in the control of starch metabolism and cyclic photosynthetic electron transfer around photosystem I, respectively. To further delineate their in planta function, we compared the photosynthetic characteristics, the level and/or activity of various Trx targets and the responses to oxidative stress in transplastomic tobacco plants overexpressing either Trx f or Trx m. We found that plants overexpressing Trx m specifically exhibit altered growth, reduced chlorophyll content, impaired photosynthetic linear electron transfer and decreased pools of glutathione and ascorbate. In both transplastomic lines, activities of two enzymes involved in carbon metabolism, NADP-malate dehydrogenase and NADP-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase are markedly and similarly altered. In contrast, plants overexpressing Trx m specifically display increased capacity for methionine sulfoxide reductases, enzymes repairing damaged proteins by regenerating methionine from oxidized methionine. Finally, we also observed that transplastomic plants exhibit distinct responses when exposed to oxidative stress conditions generated by methyl viologen or exposure to high light combined with low temperature, the plants overexpressing Trx m being notably more tolerant than Wt and those overexpressing Trx f. Altogether, these data indicate that Trxs f and m fulfill distinct physiological functions. They prompt us to propose that the m type is involved in key processes linking photosynthetic activity, redox homeostasis and antioxidant mechanisms in the chloroplast.

  18. Perfluorinated chemicals: Differential toxicity, inhibition of aromatase activity and alteration of cellular lipids in human placental cells

    Gorrochategui, Eva; Pérez-Albaladejo, Elisabet [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA–CSIC, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Casas, Josefina [Department of Biomedicinal Chemistry, IQAC–CSIC, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Lacorte, Sílvia, E-mail: [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA–CSIC, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Porte, Cinta, E-mail: [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA–CSIC, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)


    The cytotoxicity of eight perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), namely, perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA), perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was assessed in the human placental choriocarcinoma cell line JEG-3. Only the long chain PFCs – PFOS, PFDoA, PFNA, PFOA – showed significant cytotoxicity in JEG-3 cells with EC50 values in the range of 107 to 647 μM. The observed cytotoxicity was to some extent related to a higher uptake of the longer chain PFCs by cells (PFDoA > PFOS ≫ PFNA > PFOA > PFHxA). Moreover, this work evidences a high potential of PFOS, PFOA and PFBS to act as aromatase inhibitors in placental cells with IC50s in the range of 57–80 μM, the inhibitory effect of PFBS being particularly important despite the rather low uptake of the compound by cells. Finally, exposure of JEG-3 cells to a mixture of the eight PFCs (0.6 μM each) led to a relative increase (up to 3.4-fold) of several lipid classes, including phosphatidylcholines (PCs), plasmalogen PC and lyso plasmalogen PC, which suggests an interference of PFCs with membrane lipids. Overall, this work highlights the ability of the PFC mixture to alter cellular lipid pattern at concentrations well below those that generate toxicity, and the potential of the short chain PFBS, often considered a safe substitute of PFOS, to significantly inhibit aromatase activity in placental cells. - Highlights: • Eight perfluorinated chemicals of different chain lengths have been selected. • Long chain ones – PFOS, PFDoA, PFNA, PFOA – were cytotoxic in placenta cells. • The uptake of long chain perfluorinated chemicals by cells was comparatively higher. • PFOS, PFOA and the short chain PFBS significantly inhibited aromatase activity. • A mixture of perfluorinated chemicals significantly altered placenta cell

  19. Increased temperature and altered summer precipitation have differential effects on biological soil crusts in a dryland ecosystem

    Johnson, Shannon L.; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Carney, Travis D.; Housman, David C.; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Belnap, Jayne


    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are common and ecologically important members of dryland ecosystems worldwide, where they stabilize soil surfaces and contribute newly fixed C and N to soils. To test the impacts of predicted climate change scenarios on biocrusts in a dryland ecosystem, the effects of a 2–3 °C increase in soil temperature and an increased frequency of smaller summer precipitation events were examined in a large, replicated field study conducted in the cold desert of the Colorado Plateau, USA. Surface soil biomass (DNA concentration), photosynthetically active cyanobacterial biomass (chlorophyll a concentration), cyanobacterial abundance (quantitative PCR assay), and bacterial community composition (16S rRNA gene sequencing) were monitored seasonally over 2 years. Soil microbial biomass and bacterial community composition were highly stratified between the 0–2 cm depth biocrusts and 5–10 cm depth soil beneath the biocrusts. The increase in temperature did not have a detectable effect on any of the measured parameters over 2 years. However, after the second summer of altered summer precipitation pattern, significant declines occurred in the surface soil biomass (avg. DNA concentration declined 38%), photosynthetic cyanobacterial biomass (avg. chlorophyll a concentration declined 78%), cyanobacterial abundance (avg. gene copies g−1 soil declined 95%), and proportion of Cyanobacteria in the biocrust bacterial community (avg. representation in sequence libraries declined 85%). Biocrusts are important contributors to soil stability, soil C and N stores, and plant performance, and the loss or reduction of biocrusts under an altered precipitation pattern associated with climate change could contribute significantly to lower soil fertility and increased erosion and dust production in dryland ecosystems at a regional scale.

  20. Early prenatal androgen exposure reduces testes size and sperm concentration in sheep without altering neuroendocrine differentiation and masculine sexual behavior.

    Scully, C M; Estill, C T; Amodei, R; McKune, A; Gribbin, K P; Meaker, M; Stormshak, F; Roselli, C E


    Prenatal androgens are largely responsible for growth and differentiation of the genital tract and testis and for organization of the control mechanisms regulating male reproductive physiology and behavior. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of inappropriate exposure to excess testosterone (T) during the first trimester of fetal development on the reproductive function, sexual behavior, and fertility potential of rams. We found that biweekly maternal T propionate (100 mg) treatment administered from Day 30-58 of gestation significantly decreased (P sexually attracted to estrous females. In summary, these results suggest that exposure to exogenous T during the first trimester of gestation can negatively impact spermatogenesis and compromise the reproductive fitness of rams. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Exosomes derived from mineralizing osteoblasts promote ST2 cell osteogenic differentiation by alteration of microRNA expression.

    Cui, Yazhou; Luan, Jing; Li, Haiying; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Han, Jinxiang


    Mineralizing osteoblasts (MOBs) can release exosomes, although the functional significance remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrate that exosomes derived from mineralizing pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells can promote bone marrow stromal cell (ST2) differentiation to osteoblasts. We reveal that MOB-derived exosomes significantly influence miRNA profiles in recipient ST2 cells, and these changes tend to activate the Wnt signaling pathway by inhibiting Axin1 expression and increasing β-catenin expression. We also suggest that MOB derived-exosomes partly induce the variation in miRNA expression in recipient ST2 cells by exosomal miRNA transfer. These findings suggest an exosome-mediated mode of cell-to-cell communication in the osteogenic microenvironment, and also indicate the potential of MOB exosomes in bone tissue engineering.

  2. Low and high doses of UV-B differentially modulate chlorpyrifos-induced alterations in nitrogen metabolism of cyanobacteria.

    Srivastava, Prabhat Kumar; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Prasad, Sheo Mohan


    The present study assessed the comparative responses on the specific growth rate, nitrogen metabolism and enzymes associated with nitrogen metabolism in two nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria-Nostoc muscorum and Phormidium foveolarum exposed to two UV-B doses (low; UV-BL: 0.5472kJm(-2) and high; UV-BH: 5.472kJm(-2)) and two doses of the insecticide chlorpyrifos (O,O-diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl phosphorothioate; low i.e. CPL, 1µgml(-1) and high i.e. CPH, 2µgml(-1)) singly and in combination. The specific growth rate, NO3(-) and NO2(-) uptake, nitrate assimilating enzymes - nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase and ammonium assimilating enzymes - glutamine synthetase and glutamate synthase were severely affected when treated either with CPH or/and UV-BH while glutamate dehydrogenase exhibited a stimulatory response. CPL also reduced all the measured parameters (except GDH activity) after 24h, however, a stimulatory effect was observed after 72h due to an increase in nitrogen metabolism (and other antioxidant) enzymes during this period. UV-BL did not cause significant alteration in the studied parameters while in combination with CP doses, it either alleviated the inhibitory effects or further enhanced the CPL induced activities of these enzymes (except GDH). Overall results indicate the resistant nature of P. foveolarum against the inhibitory doses of UV-B and chlorpyrifos in comparison to N. muscorum.

  3. Differential alterations of the concentrations of endocannabinoids and related lipids in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese diabetic patients

    Verde Roberta


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-AG, are produced by adipocytes, where they stimulate lipogenesis via cannabinoid CB1 receptors and are under the negative control of leptin and insulin. Endocannabinoid levels are elevated in the blood of obese individuals and nonobese type 2 diabetes patients. To date, no study has evaluated endocannabinoid levels in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT of subjects with both obesity and type 2 diabetes (OBT2D, characterised by similar adiposity and whole body insulin resistance and lower plasma leptin levels as compared to non-diabetic obese subjects (OB. Design and Methods The levels of anandamide and 2-AG, and of the anandamide-related PPARα ligands, oleoylethanolamide (OEA and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA, in the SAT obtained by abdominal needle biopsy in 10 OBT2D, 11 OB, and 8 non-diabetic normal-weight (NW subjects, were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All subjects underwent a hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp. Results As compared to NW, anandamide, OEA and PEA levels in the SAT were 2-4.4-fold elevated (p Conclusions The observed alterations emphasize, for the first time in humans, the potential different role and regulation of adipose tissue anandamide (and its congeners and 2-AG in obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  4. Differential effects of conifer and broadleaf litter inputs on soil organic carbon chemical composition through altered soil microbial community composition

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Shi-Rong; Wang, Jing-Xin; Shi, Zuo-Min; Xu, Jia; Hong, Pi-Zheng; Ming, An-Gang; Yu, Hao-Long; Chen, Lin; Lu, Li-Hua; Cai, Dao-Xiong


    A strategic selection of tree species will shift the type and quality of litter input, and subsequently magnitude and composition of the soil organic carbon (SOC) through soil microbial community. We conducted a manipulative experiment in randomized block design with leaf litter inputs of four native subtropical tree species in a Pinus massoniana plantation in southern China and found that the chemical composition of SOC did not differ significantly among treatments until after 28 months of the experiment. Contrasting leaf litter inputs had significant impacts on the amounts of total microbial, Gram-positive bacterial, and actinomycic PLFAs, but not on the amounts of total bacterial, Gram-negative bacterial, and fungal PLFAs. There were significant differences in alkyl/O-alkyl C in soils among the leaf litter input treatments, but no apparent differences in the proportions of chemical compositions (alkyl, O-alkyl, aromatic, and carbonyl C) in SOC. Soil alkyl/O-alkyl C was significantly related to the amounts of total microbial, and Gram-positive bacterial PLFAs, but not to the chemical compositions of leaf litter. Our findings suggest that changes in forest leaf litter inputs could result in changes in chemical stability of SOC through the altered microbial community composition.

  5. Differential alterations in the small intestine epithelial cell turnover during acute and chronic infection with Echinostoma caproni (Trematoda).

    Cortés, Alba; Muñoz-Antoli, Carla; Martín-Grau, Carla; Esteban, J Guillermo; Grencis, Richard K; Toledo, Rafael


    The intestinal epithelium plays a multifactorial role in mucosal defense. In this sense, augmented epithelial cell turnover appears as a potential effector mechanism for the rejection of intestinal-dwelling helminths. A BrdU pulse-chase experiment was conducted to investigate the infection-induced alterations on epithelial cell kinetics in hosts of high (mouse) and low (rat) compatibility with the intestinal trematode Echinostoma caproni. High levels of crypt-cell proliferation and tissue hyperplasia were observed in the ileum of infected mice, coinciding with the establishment of chronic infections. In contrast, the cell migration rate was about two times higher in the ileum of infected rats compared with controls, with no changes in tissue structure, indicating that an accelerated cell turnover is associated with worm expulsion. Our results indicate that E. caproni infection induces a rapid renewal of the intestinal epithelium in the low compatible host that may impair the establishment of proper, stable host-parasite interactions, facilitating worm clearance.

  6. Quantum Dots Do Not Alter the Differentiation Potential of Pancreatic Stem Cells and Are Distributed Randomly among Daughter Cells

    S. Danner


    Full Text Available With the increasing relevance of cell-based therapies, there is a demand for cell-labeling techniques for in vitro and in vivo studies. For the reasonable tracking of transplanted stem cells in animal models, the usage of quantum dots (QDs for sensitive cellular imaging has major advances. QDs could be delivered to the cytoplasm of the cells providing intense and stable fluorescence. Although QDs are emerging as favourable nanoparticles for bioimaging, substantial investigations are still required to consider their application for adult stem cells. Therefore, rat pancreatic stem cells (PSCs were labeled with different concentrations of CdSe quantum dots (Qtracker 605 nanocrystals. The QD labeled PSCs showed normal proliferation and their usual spontaneous differentiation potential in vitro. The labeling of the cell population was concentration dependent, with increasing cell load from 5 nM QDs to 20 nM QDs. With time-lapse microscopy, we observed that the transmission of the QD particles during cell divisions was random, appearing as equal or unequal transmission to daughter cells. We report here that QDs offered an efficient and nontoxic way to label pancreatic stem cells without genetic modifications. In summary, QD nanocrystals are a promising tool for stem cell labeling and facilitate tracking of transplanted cells in animal models.

  7. Kallikreins 5, 6 and 10 differentially alter pathophysiology and overall survival in an ovarian cancer xenograft model.

    David Pépin

    Full Text Available Human tissue kallikreins (KLKs are members of a multigene family of serine proteases aberrantly expressed in many cancer types. In ovarian cancer, 12 KLKs are upregulated, and of those KLK5, 6 and 10 have been the focus of investigations into new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. However, little is known about the contributions of KLK5, 6 and 10 to ovarian cancer pathophysiology.In this study, a panel of 13 human ovarian cancer cell lines was screened by ELISA for secretion of KLK5, 6, 8, 10, 13, and 14. The ES-2 cell line, devoid of these kallikreins, was transfected with expression vectors of KLK5, 6 and 10 individually or in pairs. Co-expression of KLK5, 6 and 10 was correlated with lessened aggressivity of ovarian cancer cell lines as defined by reduced colony formation in soft agar and tumorigenicity in nude mice. ES-2 clones overexpressing KLK5, 10/5, 10/6, 5/6 made significantly fewer colonies in soft agar. When compared to control mice, survival of mice injected with ES-2 clones overexpressing KLK10, 10/5, 10/6, 5/6 was significantly longer, while KLK6 was shorter. All groups displaying a survival advantage also differed quantitatively and qualitatively in their presentation of ascites, with both a reduced incidence of ascites and an absence of cellular aggregates within those ascites. The survival advantage conferred by KLK10 overexpression could be recapitulated with the exogenous administration of a recombinant KLK10. In conclusion, these findings indicate that KLK5, 6 and 10 may modulate the progression of ovarian cancer, and interact together to alter tumour pathophysiology. Furthermore, results support the putative role of KLK10 as a tumour suppressor and suggest it may hold therapeutic potential in ovarian cancer.

  8. Differential mechanisms of CDKN2A (p16) alteration in oral tongue squamous cell carcinomas and correlation with patient outcome.

    Lim, Annette M; Do, Hongdo; Young, Richard J; Wong, Stephen Q; Angel, Christopher; Collins, Marnie; Takano, Elena A; Corry, June; Wiesenfeld, David; Kleid, Stephen; Sigston, Elizabeth; Lyons, Bernard; Fox, Stephen B; Rischin, Danny; Dobrovic, Alexander; Solomon, Benjamin


    CDKN2A (p16) disruption is reported as a frequent event in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas that confers poor prognosis. We investigated the frequency of different potential mechanisms of CDKN2A inactivation in oral tongue squamous cell carcinomas (OTSCC) and their impact on patient outcome. From a cohort of 153 OTSCC patients, 131 formalin fixed paraffin embedded blocks of pre-treatment primary tumours were suitable for further molecular analysis. We assessed CDKN2A (p16) levels by immunohistochemistry (IHC), promoter methylation status by methylation-sensitive high resolution melting, mutation status by Sanger sequencing, gene copy number variation by fluorescence in situ hybridisation, and correlated these with patient outcome. We found that the majority of OTSCC did not overexpress p16 (110/116, 95%), assessed by IHC. The frequency of CDKN2A mutations was 20% (21/103), homozygous loss was 7% (7/97), hemizygous loss 31% (30/97), and promoter methylation was 18% (20/113). We found no evidence of these mechanisms in 24/106 (23%) p16 IHC negative tumours. No significant correlation was identified between any potential mechanism of CDKN2A inactivation and clinical features, including smoking status and age. There was a non-significant trend for worse overall survival for p16 IHC negative patients versus positive patients (HR = 1.81, 95% CI = 0.44-7.47, p = 0.40). No relationship was found between mechanisms of CDKN2A disruption and patient outcome. In conclusion, we demonstrate that CDKN2A alteration is a frequent event in OTSCC tumourigenesis. However, no correlation was identified between different potential mechanisms of CDKN2A disruption and clinical characteristics or patient outcome. © 2014 UICC.

  9. Chemotherapy Agents Alter Plasma Lipids in Breast Cancer Patients and Show Differential Effects on Lipid Metabolism Genes in Liver Cells.

    Sharma, Monika; Tuaine, Jo; McLaren, Blair; Waters, Debra L; Black, Katherine; Jones, Lynnette M; McCormick, Sally P A


    Cardiovascular complications have emerged as a major concern for cancer patients. Many chemotherapy agents are cardiotoxic and some appear to also alter lipid profiles, although the mechanism for this is unknown. We studied plasma lipid levels in 12 breast cancer patients throughout their chemotherapy. Patients received either four cycles of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by weekly paclitaxel or three cycles of epirubicin, cyclophosphamide and 5'-fluorouracil followed by three cycles of docetaxel. Patients demonstrated a significant reduction (0.32 mmol/L) in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) levels (0.18 g/L) and an elevation in apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels (0.15 g/L) after treatment. Investigation of the individual chemotherapy agents for their effect on genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism in liver cells showed that doxorubicin decreased ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) via a downregulation of the peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and liver X receptor α (LXRα) transcription factors. In contrast, ABCA1 levels were not affected by cyclophosphamide or paclitaxel. Likewise, apoA1 levels were reduced by doxorubicin and remained unaffected by cyclophosphamide and paclitaxel. Doxorubicin and paclitaxel both increased apoB protein levels and paclitaxel also decreased low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) protein levels. These findings correlate with the observed reduction in HDL-C and apoA1 and increase in apoB levels seen in these patients. The unfavourable lipid profiles produced by some chemotherapy agents may be detrimental in the longer term to cancer patients, especially those already at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This knowledge may be useful in tailoring effective follow-up care plans for cancer survivors.

  10. Noradrenergic lesions differentially alter the antidepressant-like effects of reboxetine in a modified forced swim test.

    Cryan, John F; Page, Michelle E; Lucki, Irwin


    The novel antidepressant reboxetine is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. In this study, the antidepressant-like effects of reboxetine were characterized in a modified rat forced swim test. Further, in order to investigate the role of the locus coeruleus and lateral tegmental noradrenergic systems in the mediation of reboxetine's effects, the impact of different chemical lesions of these two pathways was examined on the behavioral responses induced by reboxetine in the forced swim test. Reboxetine (5-20 mg/kg, s.c.) dose-dependently decreased immobility and swimming behavior in the forced swim test while it simultaneously increased climbing behavior. These effects were similar to those previously demonstrated with tricyclic antidepressants and are indicative of reboxetine's effects on the noradrenergic system. Discrete local injections of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine were employed to lesion the ventral noradrenergic bundle arising from cells located in the lateral tegmentum. This resulting lesion completely prevented reboxetine (10 mg/kg, s.c.)-induced decreases in immobility and increases in climbing behavior, demonstrating that an intact ventral noradrenergic bundle is required for the manifestation of reboxetine-induced antidepressant-like behavior in the test. In contrast, lesions of the dorsal noradrenergic bundle which consists of neurons arising from the nucleus locus coereleus, were achieved by systemic pretreatment with the selective noradrenergic neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4; 50 mg/kg, i.p.). The ability of reboxetine (10 mg/kg, s.c.) to increase climbing and decrease immobility was augmented by DSP-4 pretreatment. Furthermore, neither lesions of the dorsal noradrenergic bundle nor the ventral noradrenergic bundle altered baseline immobility scores in the forced swim test. Taken together, these data suggest that forebrain regions innervated by these two distinct noradrenergic pathways exert opposing influences

  11. Exposure to bloom-like concentrations of two marine Synechococcus cyanobacteria (strains CC9311 and CC9902) differentially alters fish behaviour.

    Hamilton, T J; Paz-Yepes, J; Morrison, R A; Palenik, B; Tresguerres, M


    Coastal California experiences large-scale blooms of Synechococcus cyanobacteria, which are predicted to become more prevalent by the end of the 21st century as a result of global climate change. This study investigated whether exposure to bloom-like concentrations of two Synechococcus strains, CC9311 and CC9902, alters fish behaviour. Black perch (Embiotoca jacksoni) were exposed to Synechococcus strain CC9311 or CC9902 (1.5 × 10(6) cells ml(-1)) or to control seawater in experimental aquaria for 3 days. Fish movement inside a testing arena was then recorded and analysed using video camera-based motion-tracking software. Compared with control fish, fish exposed to CC9311 demonstrated a significant preference for the dark zone of the tank in the light-dark test, which is an indication of increased anxiety. Furthermore, fish exposed to CC9311 also had a statistically significant decrease in velocity and increase in immobility and they meandered more in comparison to control fish. There was a similar trend in velocity, immobility and meandering in fish exposed to CC9902, but there were no significant differences in behaviour or locomotion between this group and control fish. Identical results were obtained with a second batch of fish. Additionally, in this second trial we also investigated whether fish would recover after a 3 day period in seawater without cyanobacteria. Indeed, there were no longer any significant differences in behaviour among treatments, demonstrating that the sp. CC9311-induced alteration of behaviour is reversible. These results demonstrate that blooms of specific marine Synechococcus strains can induce differential sublethal effects in fish, namely alterations light-dark preference behaviour and motility.

  12. Modification of collagen by 3-deoxyglucosone alters wound healing through differential regulation of p38 MAP kinase.

    Danielle T Loughlin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wound healing is a highly dynamic process that requires signaling from the extracellular matrix to the fibroblasts for migration and proliferation, and closure of the wound. This rate of wound closure is impaired in diabetes, which may be due to the increased levels of the precursor for advanced glycation end products, 3-deoxyglucosone (3DG. Previous studies suggest a differential role for p38 mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK during wound healing; whereby, p38 MAPK acts as a growth kinase during normal wound healing, but acts as a stress kinase during diabetic wound repair. Therefore, we investigated the signaling cross-talk by which p38 MAPK mediates wound healing in fibroblasts cultured on native collagen and 3DG-collagen. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using human dermal fibroblasts cultured on 3DG-collagen as a model of diabetic wounds, we demonstrated that p38 MAPK can promote either cell growth or cell death, and this was dependent on the activation of AKT and ERK1/2. Wound closure on native collagen was dependent on p38 MAPK phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2. Furthermore, proliferation and collagen production in fibroblasts cultured on native collagen was dependent on p38 MAPK regulation of AKT and ERK1/2. In contrast, 3DG-collagen decreased fibroblast migration, proliferation, and collagen expression through ERK1/2 and AKT downregulation via p38 MAPK. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, the present study shows that p38 MAPK is a key signaling molecule that plays a significantly opposite role during times of cellular growth and cellular stress, which may account for the differing rates of wound closure seen in diabetic populations.

  13. Wounding, insect chewing and phloem sap feeding differentially alter the leaf proteome of potato, Solanum tuberosum L.

    Duceppe Marc-Olivier


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various factors shape the response of plants to herbivorous insects, including wounding patterns, specific chemical effectors and feeding habits of the attacking herbivore. Here we performed a comparative proteomic analysis of the plant's response to wounding and herbivory, using as a model potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. subjected to mechanical wounding, defoliation by the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, or phloem sap feeding by the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas. Results Out of ~500 leaf proteins monitored by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE, 31 were up- or downregulated by at least one stress treatment compared to healthy control plants. Of these proteins, 29 were regulated by beetle chewing, 8 by wounding and 8 by aphid feeding. Some proteins were up- or downregulated by two different treatments, while others showed diverging expression patterns in response to different treatments. A number of modulated proteins identified by mass spectrometry were typical defense proteins, including wound-inducible protease inhibitors and pathogenesis-related proteins. Proteins involved in photosynthesis were also modulated, notably by potato beetle feeding inducing a strong decrease of some photosystem I proteins. Quantitative RT PCR assays were performed with nucleotide primers for photosynthesis-related proteins to assess the impact of wounding and herbivory at the gene level. Whereas different, sometimes divergent, responses were observed at the proteome level in response to wounding and potato beetle feeding, downregulating effects were systematically observed for both treatments at the transcriptional level. Conclusions These observations illustrate the differential impacts of wounding and insect herbivory on defense- and photosynthesis-related components of the potato leaf proteome, likely associated with the perception of distinct physical and chemical cues in planta.

  14. Alterations in intrinsic mitochondrial function with aging are fiber type-specific and do not explain differential atrophy between muscles.

    Picard, Martin; Ritchie, Darmyn; Thomas, Melissa M; Wright, Kathryn J; Hepple, Russell T


    To determine whether mitochondrial dysfunction is causally related to muscle atrophy with aging, we examined respiratory capacity, H(2) O(2) emission, and function of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) in permeabilized myofibers prepared from four rat muscles that span a range of fiber type and degree of age-related atrophy. Muscle atrophy with aging was greatest in fast-twitch gastrocnemius (Gas) muscle (-38%), intermediate in both the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and slow-twitch soleus (Sol) muscles (-21%), and non-existent in adductor longus (AL) muscle (+47%). In contrast, indices of mitochondrial dysfunction did not correspond to this differential degree of atrophy. Specifically, despite higher protein expression for oxidative phosphorylation (oxphos) system in fast Gas and EDL, state III respiratory capacity per myofiber wet weight was unchanged with aging, whereas the slow Sol showed proportional decreases in oxphos protein, citrate synthase activity, and state III respiration. Free radical leak (H(2) O(2) emission per O(2) flux) under state III respiration was higher with aging in the fast Gas, whereas state II free radical leak was higher in the slow AL. Only the fast muscles had impaired mPTP function with aging, with lower mitochondrial calcium retention capacity in EDL and shorter time to mPTP opening in Gas and EDL. Collectively, our results underscore that the age-related changes in muscle mitochondrial function depend largely upon fiber type and are unrelated to the severity of muscle atrophy, suggesting that intrinsic changes in mitochondrial function are unlikely to be causally involved in aging muscle atrophy. © 2011 The Authors. Aging Cell © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  15. Differential alterations of positive and negative regulators of beta catenin enhance endogenous expression and activity of beta catenin in A549 non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cells

    Supratim Ghatak


    Full Text Available Beta catenin has been well documented in previous studies to be involved in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Beta catenin abundance and transcriptional activity are significantly regulated by several factors. Though it is well known that Akt and Gsk3 beta are respective positive and negative regulators of beta catenin, however, no single study has so far documented how the expression and activity of both positive as well as negative regulators play favorable role on beta catenin expression and activity in NSCLC. In this study, we compared expression and activity of beta catenin and its regulators in normal lung cell WI38 and NSCLC cell A549 by western blot, qRT-PCR and luciferase assay. We observed that beta catenin positive regulators (Akt and Hsp90 and negative regulators (Gsk3 beta and microRNA-214 have differential expression and/or activity in NSCLC cell A549. However the differentially altered statuses of both the positive and negative regulators rendered cumulative positive effect on beta catenin expression and activity in A549. Our study thus suggests that chemotherapeutic modulations of regulating factors are crucial when abrogation and/or inhibition of key oncogenic proteins are necessary for cancer chemotherapy.

  16. Monoclonal origin of peritoneal implants and lymph node deposits in serous borderline ovarian tumors (s-BOT) with high intratumoral homogeneity.

    Horn, Lars-Christian; Höhn, Anne K; Einenkel, Jens; Siebolts, Udo


    Molecular studies have shown that the most prevalent mutations in serous ovarian borderline tumors (s-BOT) are BRAF and/or KRAS alterations. About one third of s-BOT represent peritoneal implants and/or lymph node involvement. These extraovarian deposits may be monoclonal or polyclonal in origin. To test both the hypotheses, mutational analyses using pyrosequencing for BRAF codon 600 and KRAS codon 12/13 and 61 of microdissected tissue was performed in 15 s-BOT and their invasive and noninvasive peritoneal implants. Two to 6 implants from different peritoneal sites were examined in 13 cases. Lymph node deposits were available for the analysis in 3 cases. Six s-BOT showed mutation in exon 2 codon 12 of the KRAS proto-oncogen. Five additional cases showed BRAF p.V600E mutation representing an overall mutation rate of 73.3%. Multiple (2-6) peritoneal implants were analyzed after microdissection in 13 of 15 cases. All showed identical mutational results when compared with the ovarian site of the disease. All lymph node deposits, including those with multiple deposits in different nodes, showed identical results, suggesting high intratumoral mutational homogeneity. The evidence presented in this study and the majority of data reported in the literature support the hypothesis that s-BOT with their peritoneal implants and lymph node deposits show identical mutational status of BRAF and KRAS suggesting a monoclonal rather than a polyclonal disease regarding these both tested genetic loci. In addition, a high intratumoral genetic homogeneity can be suggested. In conclusion, the results of the present study support the monoclonal origin of s-BOT and their peritoneal implants and lymph node deposits.

  17. Color Doppler ultrasound and gamma imaging of intratumorally injected 500 nm iron-silica nanoshells.

    Liberman, Alexander; Wu, Zhe; Barback, Christopher V; Viveros, Robert; Blair, Sarah L; Ellies, Lesley G; Vera, David R; Mattrey, Robert F; Kummel, Andrew C; Trogler, William C


    Perfluoropentane gas filled iron-silica nanoshells have been developed as stationary ultrasound contrast agents for marking tumors to guide surgical resection. It is critical to establish their long-term imaging efficacy, as well as biodistribution. This work shows that 500 nm Fe-SiO2 nanoshells can be imaged by color Doppler ultrasound over the course of 10 days in Py8119 tumor bearing mice. The 500 nm nonbiodegradable SiO2 and biodegradable Fe-SiO2 nanoshells were functionalized with diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) ligand and radiolabeled with (111)In(3+) for biodistribution studies in nu/nu mice. The majority of radioactivity was detected in the liver and kidneys following intravenous (IV) administration of nanoshells to healthy animals. By contrast, after nanoshells were injected intratumorally, most of the radioactivity remained at the injection site; however, some nanoshells escaped into circulation and were distributed similarly as those given intravenously. For intratumoral delivery of nanoshells and IV delivery to healthy animals, little difference was seen between the biodistribution of SiO2 and biodegradable Fe-SiO2 nanoshells. However, when nanoshells were administered IV to tumor bearing mice, a significant increase was observed in liver accumulation of SiO2 nanoshells relative to biodegradable Fe-SiO2 nanoshells. Both SiO2 and Fe-SiO2 nanoshells accumulate passively in proportion to tumor mass, during intravenous delivery of nanoshells. This is the first report of the biodistribution following intratumoral injection of any biodegradable silica particle, as well as the first report demonstrating the utility of DTPA-(111)In labeling for studying silica nanoparticle biodistributions.

  18. EGFR Regulates the Development and Microarchitecture of Intratumoral Angiogenic Vasculature Capable of Sustaining Cancer Cell Intravasation

    Petra Minder


    Full Text Available Many malignant characteristics of cancer cells are regulated through pathways induced by the tyrosine kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. Herein, we show that besides directly affecting the biology of cancer cells per se, EGFR also regulates the primary tumor microenvironment. Specifically, our findings demonstrate that both the expression and signaling activity of EGFR are required for the induction of a distinct intratumoral vasculature capable of sustaining tumor cell intravasation, a critical rate-limiting step in the metastatic cascade. An intravasation-sustaining mode of intratumoral angiogenic vessels depends on high levels of tumor cell EGFR and the interplay between EGFR-regulated production of interleukin 8 by tumor cells, interleukin-8–induced influx of tumor-infiltrating neutrophils delivering their unique matrix metalloproteinase-9, and neutrophil matrix metalloproteinase-9–dependent release of the vascular permeability and endothelial growth factor, VEGF. Our data indicate that through VEGF-mediated disruption of endothelial layer integrity and increase of intratumoral vasculature permeability, EGFR activity significantly facilitates active intravasation of cancer cells. Therefore, this study unraveled an important but overlooked function of EGFR in cancer, namely, its ability to create an intravasation-sustaining microenvironment within the developing primary tumor by orchestrating several interrelated processes required for the initial steps of cancer metastasis through vascular routes. Our findings also suggest that EGFR-targeted therapies might be more effective when implemented in cancer patients with early-staged primary tumors containing a VEGF-dependent angiogenic vasculature. Accordingly, early EGFR inhibition combined with various anti-VEGF approaches could synergistically suppress tumor cell intravasation through inhibiting the highly permeable angiogenic vasculature induced by EGFR

  19. IL-1β irreversibly inhibits tenogenic differentiation and alters metabolism in injured tendon-derived progenitor cells in vitro.

    Zhang, Kairui; Asai, Shuji; Yu, Bin; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi


    Tendon injuries are common, and the damaged tendon often turns into scar tissue and never completely regains the original biomechanical properties. Previous studies have reported that the mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β are remarkably up-regulated in injured tendons. To examine how IL-1β impacts tendon repair process, we isolated the injured tendon-derived progenitor cells (inTPCs) from mouse injured Achilles tendons and studied the effects of IL-1β on the inTPCs in vitro. IL-1β treatment strongly reduced expression of tendon cell markers such as scleraxis and tenomodulin, and also down-regulated gene expression of collagen 1, collagen 3, biglycan and fibromodulin in inTPCs. Interestingly, IL-1β stimulated lactate production with increases in hexokinase II and lactate dehydrogenase expression and a decrease in pyruvate dehydrogenase. Inhibition of lactate production restored IL-1β-induced down-regulation of collagen1 and scleraxis expression. Furthermore, IL-1β significantly inhibited adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation of inTPCs. Interestingly, inhibition of tenogenic and adipogenic differentiation was not recovered after removal of IL-1β while chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation abilities were not affected. These findings indicate that IL-1β strongly and irreversibly impairs tenogenic potential and alters glucose metabolism in tendon progenitors appearing in injured tendons. Inhibition of IL-1β may be beneficial for maintaining function of tendon progenitor cells during the tendon repair process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Arnaud Alexandre Rabat


    Full Text Available Chronic sleep restriction (CSR induces neurobehavioral deficits in young and healthy people with a morning failure of sustained attention process. Testing both the kinetic of failure and recovery of different cognitive processes (i.e. attention, executive under CSR and their potential links with subject’s capacities (stay awake, baseline performance, age and with some biological markers of stress and anabolism would be useful in order to understand the role of sleep debt on human behavior. Twelve healthy subjects spent 14 days in laboratory with 2 baseline days (B1 and B2, 8h TIB followed by 7 days of sleep restriction (SR1-SR7, 4h TIB, 3 sleep recovery days (R1-R3, 8h TIB and 2 more ones 8 days later (R12-R13. Subjective sleepiness (KSS, maintenance of wakefulness latencies (MWT were evaluated 4 times a day (10:00, 12:00 a.m. and 2:00, 4:00 p.m. and cognitive tests were realized at morning (8:30 a.m. and evening (6:30 p.m. sessions during B2, SR1, SR4, SR7, R2, R3 and R13. Saliva (B2, SR7, R2, R13 and blood (B1, SR6, R1, R12 samples were collected in the morning. Cognitive processes were differently impaired and recovered with a more rapid kinetic for sustained attention process. Besides, a significant time of day effect was only evidenced for sustained attention failures that seemed to be related to subject’s age and their morning capacity to stay awake. Executive processes were equally disturbed/recovered during the day and this failure/recovery process seemed to be mainly related to baseline subject’s performance and to their capacity to stay awake. Morning concentrations of testosterone, cortisol and α-amylase were significantly decreased at SR6-SR7, but were either and respectively early (R1, tardily (after R2 and no recovered (R13. All these results suggest a differential deleterious and restorative effect of CSR on cognition through biological changes of the stress pathway and subject’s capacity (ClinicalTrials-NCT01989741.

  1. Differential Kinetics in Alteration and Recovery of Cognitive Processes from a Chronic Sleep Restriction in Young Healthy Men.

    Rabat, Arnaud; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Roca-Paixao, Laura; Bougard, Clément; Van Beers, Pascal; Dispersyn, Garance; Guillard, Mathias; Bourrilhon, Cyprien; Drogou, Catherine; Arnal, Pierrick J; Sauvet, Fabien; Leger, Damien; Chennaoui, Mounir


    Chronic sleep restriction (CSR) induces neurobehavioral deficits in young and healthy people with a morning failure of sustained attention process. Testing both the kinetic of failure and recovery of different cognitive processes (i.e., attention, executive) under CSR and their potential links with subject's capacities (stay awake, baseline performance, age) and with some biological markers of stress and anabolism would be useful in order to understand the role of sleep debt on human behavior. Twelve healthy subjects spent 14 days in laboratory with 2 baseline days (B1 and B2, 8 h TIB) followed by 7 days of sleep restriction (SR1-SR7, 4 h TIB), 3 sleep recovery days (R1-R3, 8 h TIB) and two more ones 8 days later (R12-R13). Subjective sleepiness (KSS), maintenance of wakefulness latencies (MWT) were evaluated four times a day (10:00, 12:00 a.m. and 2:00, 4:00 p.m.) and cognitive tests were realized at morning (8:30 a.m.) and evening (6:30 p.m.) sessions during B2, SR1, SR4, SR7, R2, R3 and R13. Saliva (B2, SR7, R2, R13) and blood (B1, SR6, R1, R12) samples were collected in the morning. Cognitive processes were differently impaired and recovered with a more rapid kinetic for sustained attention process. Besides, a significant time of day effect was only evidenced for sustained attention failures that seemed to be related to subject's age and their morning capacity to stay awake. Executive processes were equally disturbed/recovered during the day and this failure/recovery process seemed to be mainly related to baseline subject's performance and to their capacity to stay awake. Morning concentrations of testosterone, cortisol and α-amylase were significantly decreased at SR6-SR7, but were either and respectively early (R1), tardily (after R2) and not at all (R13) recovered. All these results suggest a differential deleterious and restorative effect of CSR on cognition through biological changes of the stress pathway and subject's capacity (ClinicalTrials-NCT01989741).

  2. Pan-cancer analysis of the extent and consequences of intratumor heterogeneity | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) drives neoplastic progression and therapeutic resistance. We used the bioinformatics tools 'expanding ploidy and allele frequency on nested subpopulations' (EXPANDS) and PyClone to detect clones that are present at a ≥10% frequency in 1,165 exome sequences from tumors in The Cancer Genome Atlas. 86% of tumors across 12 cancer types had at least two clones. ITH in the morphology of nuclei was associated with genetic ITH (Spearman's correlation coefficient, ρ = 0.24-0.41; P < 0.001).

  3. Intratumoral Immunization by p19Arf and Interferon-β Gene Transfer in a Heterotopic Mouse Model of Lung Carcinoma

    João Paulo Portela Catani


    Full Text Available Therapeutic strategies that act by eliciting and enhancing antitumor immunity have been clinically validated as an effective treatment modality but may benefit from the induction of both cell death and immune activation as primary stimuli. Using our AdRGD-PG adenovector platform, we show here for the first time that in situ gene transfer of p19Arf and interferon-β (IFNβ in the LLC1 mouse model of lung carcinoma acts as an immunotherapy. Although p19Arf is sufficient to induce cell death, only its pairing with IFNβ significantly induced markers of immunogenic cell death. In situ gene therapy with IFNβ, either alone or in combination with p19Arf, could retard tumor progression, but only the combined treatment was associated with a protective immune response. Specifically in the case of combined intratumoral gene transfer, we identified 167 differentially expressed genes when using microarray to evaluate tumors that were treated in vivo and confirmed the activation of CCL3, CXCL3, IL1α, IL1β, CD274, and OSM, involved in immune response and chemotaxis. Histologic evaluation revealed significant tumor infiltration by neutrophils, whereas functional depletion of granulocytes ablated the antitumor effect of our approach. The association of in situ gene therapy with cisplatin resulted in synergistic elimination of tumor progression. In all, in situ gene transfer with p19Arf and IFNβ acts as an immunotherapy involving recruitment of neutrophils, a desirable but previously untested outcome, and this approach may be allied with chemotherapy, thus providing significant antitumor activity and warranting further development for the treatment of lung carcinoma.

  4. Lack of functioning intratumoral lymphatics in colon and pancreas cancer tissue.

    Olszewski, Waldemar L; Stanczyk, Marek; Gewartowska, Magdalena; Domaszewska-Szostek, Anna; Durlik, Marek


    There are controversial views as to whether intratumoral or peritumoral lymphatics play a dominant role in the metastatic process. Most clinical observations originate from studies of colon cancer. Colon contains mucosa and submucosa rich in lymphatics and with high lymph formation rate. This seems to be a prerequisite for easy metastasis of cancer cells to regional lymph nodes. However, there are other tissues as pancreas with a rudimentary lymphatic network where cancer metastasis formation is as intensive as in colon cancer. This contradicts the common notion that intratumor lymphatics play major role in metastases. We visualized interstitial space and lymphatics in the central and peripheral regions of colon and pancreas tumors using the color stereoscopic lymphography and simultaneously immunohistochemical performed stainings specific for lymphatic and blood endothelial cells. The density of open and compressed lymphatic and blood vessels was measured in the tumor core and edge. There were very few lymphatics in the colon and pancreas tumor core but numerous minor fluid "lakes" with no visible connection to the peritumoral lymphatics. Lining of "lakes" did not express molecular markers specific for lymphatic endothelial cells. Dense connective tissue surrounding tumor foci did not contain lymphatics. Peritumoral lymphatics were irregularly distributed in both types of tumor and only sporadically contained cells that might be tumor cells. Similar lymphoscintigraphic and histological pictures were seen in colon and pancreas cancer despite of different structure of both tissues. This suggests a uniform reaction of tissues to the growing cancer irrespective of the affected organ.

  5. Ovarian fibromas: MR imaging findings with emphasis on intratumoral cyst formation

    Kato, Hiroki, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Gifu University School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Kanematsu, Masayuki, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Gifu University School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); High-level Imaging Diagnosis Center, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Ono, Hiromi, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Gifu University School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Yano, Ryuichiro, E-mail: [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Furui, Tatsuro, E-mail: [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Morishige, Ken-ichirou, E-mail: [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Hatano, Yuichiro, E-mail: [Department of Pathology, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan)


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess MR imaging findings of ovarian fibromas with emphasis on intratumoral cyst formation. Materials and methods: MR images with a 1.5-T unit obtained in 17 consecutive patients (age range, 18–87 years; mean age, 58 years) with 17 histologically proven ovarian fibromas were retrospectively reviewed for the size, configuration, signal intensity of solid components, and presence of cystic degeneration and edema within tumor. Size, number, and location of intratumoral cysts were also assessed. Results: The maximum diameter of tumors ranged from 3.3 to 19.1 cm (mean, 10.9 cm). Seven (41%) tumors were multinodular. On T2-weighted images, solid components of tumors were heterogeneously mixed hypo- and hyperintensity in 16 (94%) tumors. Nine (53%) tumors demonstrated cysts and 16 (94%) demonstrated edema within tumor. The maximum diameter of the largest cysts ranged from 1.0 to 13.2 cm (mean, 6.4 cm), and the number of cysts per tumor ranged from 1 to 60 (mean, 15.6). Of the nine tumors with cystic formation, the predominant location of the cysts was peripheral in five (56%), exophytic in two (22%), central (11%) in one, and diffuse in one (11%). Conclusion: Peripheral or exophytic cyst formation may be characteristic MR imaging features with ovarian fibromas.

  6. Modulation of the Intratumoral Immune Landscape by Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus Virotherapy

    Jie Yin


    Full Text Available Vaccines and immunotherapeutic approaches to cancers with the advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors and chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells have recently demonstrated preclinical success and entered clinical trials. Despite advances in these approaches and combinatorial therapeutic regimens, depending on the nature of the cancer and the immune and metabolic landscape within the tumor microenvironment, current immunotherapeutic modalities remain inadequate. Recent clinical trials have demonstrated clear evidence of significant, and sometimes dramatic, antitumor activity, and long-term survival effects of a variety of oncolytic viruses (OVs, particularly oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV. Acting as a multifaceted gene therapy vector and potential adjuvant-like regimens, oHSV can carry genes encoding immunostimulatory molecules in its genome. The oncolytic effect of oHSV and the inflammatory response that the virus stimulates provide a one-two punch at attacking tumors. However, mechanisms underlying oHSV-induced restoration of intratumoral immunosuppression demand extensive research in order to further improve its therapeutic efficacy. In this review, we discuss the current OV-based therapy, with a focus on the unique aspects of oHSV-initiated antiviral and antitumor immune responses, arising from virus-mediated immunological cell death to intratumoral innate and adaptive immunity.

  7. Temperature-Sensitive Gels for Intratumoral Delivery of β-Lapachone: Effect of Cyclodextrins and Ethanol

    Marcilio S. S. Cunha-Filho


    Full Text Available This work evaluated the potential of Pluronics (varieties F127 and P123 in combination with solubilizing agents to be used as syringeable in situ gelling depots of intratumoral β-lapachone (βLAP. Pluronic dispersions prepared at various concentrations in the absence and the presence of ethanol and randomly methylated β-cyclodextrin (RMβCD were characterized regarding their rheological properties, drug solubilization capacity, and in vitro release. Pluronic F127 (18–23% formulations combined high ability to solubilize βLAP (enhancement solubility factor up to 50, adequate gel temperature range (over 25°C, and gel strength at 37°C enough to guarantee the permanence of the formulation in the administration site for a period of time. βLAP release rate was finely tuned by the concentration of the polymer and the addition of RMβCD (diffusion coefficient ranging between 9 and 69 μg·cm−2. The ethanol increases βLAP release rate but simultaneously led to weak gels. This paper shows that βLAP formulations involving temperature-reversible Pluronic gels may be suitable for intratumoral drug delivery purposes.

  8. Basal regulation of HPA and dopamine systems is altered differentially in males and females by prenatal alcohol exposure and chronic variable stress.

    Uban, Kristina A; Comeau, Wendy L; Ellis, Linda A; Galea, Liisa A M; Weinberg, Joanne


    Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on central nervous system function include an increased prevalence of mental health problems, including substance use disorders (SUD). The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and dopamine (DA) systems have overlapping neurocircuitries and are both implicated in SUD. PAE alters both HPA and dopaminergic activity and regulation, resulting in increased HPA tone and an overall reduction in tonic DA activity. However, effects of PAE on the interaction between HPA and DA systems have not been investigated. The present study examined PAE effects on basal regulation of central stress and DA systems in key brain regions where these systems intersect. Adult Sprague-Dawley male and female offspring from prenatal alcohol-exposed (PAE), pairfed (PF), and ad libitum-fed control (C) groups were subjected to chronic variable stress (CVS) or remained as a no stress (non-CVS) control group. Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA, as well as glucocorticoid and DA receptor (DA-R) expression were measured under basal conditions 24h following the end of CVS. We show, for the first time, that regulation of basal HPA and DA systems, and likely, HPA-DA interactions, are altered differentially in males and females by PAE and CVS. PAE augmented the typical attenuation in weight gain during CVS in males and caused increased weight loss in females. Increased basal corticosterone levels in control, but not PAE, females suggest that PAE alters the profile of basal hormone secretion throughout CVS. CVS downregulated basal CRH mRNA in the prefrontal cortex and throughout the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in PAE females but only in the posterior BNST of control females. PAE males and females exposed to CVS exhibited more widespread upregulation of basal mineralocorticoid receptor mRNA throughout the hippocampus, and an attenuated decrease in DA-R expression throughout the nucleus accumbens and striatum compared to CVS-exposed control

  9. Differential gene expression between squamous cell carcinoma of esophageus and its normal epithelium;altered pattern of mal,akr1c2,and rab11a expression

    Sakineh Kazemi-Noureini; Sergio Colonna-Romano; Abed-Ali Ziaee; Mohammad-Ali Malboobi; Mansour Yazdanbod; Parviz Setayeshgar; Bruno Maresca


    AIM: To identify the altered gene expression patterns in squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus (ESCC) in relation to adjacent normal esophageal epithelium.METHODS: Total RNA was extracted using SV total RNA isolation kit from snap frozen tissues of ESCC samples and normal esophageal epithelium far from the tumor. Radiolabeled cDNA were synthesized from equal quantities of total RNAs of tumor and normal tissues using combinations of 24 arbitrary 13-mer primers and three different anchoring oligo-dT primers and separated on sequencing gels. cDNA with considerable different amounts of signals in tumor and normal tissue were reamplified and cloned.Using southern blot, the clones of each band were controlled for false positive results caused by probable heterogeneity of cDNA population with the same size. Clones that confirmed differential expression by slot blot selected for sequencing and northern analysis. Corresponding full-length gene sequences was predicted using human genome project data, related transcripts were translated and used for various protein/motif searches to speculate their probable functions.RESULTS: The 97 genes showed different levels of cDNA in tumor and normal tissues of esophagus. The expression of mai gene was remarkably down regulated in all 10surveyed tumor tissues. Akr1c2, a member of the aldoketo reductase 1C family, which is involved in metabolism of sex hormones and xenobiotics, was up-regulated in 8out of 10 inspected ESCC samples. Rab11a, RPL7, and RPL28 showed moderate levels of differential expression.Many other cDNAs remained to further studies.CONCLUSION: The mai gene which is switched-off in all ESCC samples can be considered as a tumor suppressor gene that more studies in its regulation may lead to valuable explanations in ESCC development. Akr1c2 which is upregulated in ESCC probably plays an important role in tumor development of esophagus and may be proposed as a potential molecular target in ESCC treatments. Differential

  10. Calretinin and Neuropeptide Y interneurons are differentially altered in the motor cortex of the SOD1G93A mouse model of ALS

    Clark, Rosemary M.; Blizzard, Catherine A.; Young, Kaylene M.; King, Anna E.; Dickson, Tracey C.


    Increasing evidence indicates an excitatory/inhibitory imbalance may have a critical role in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Impaired inhibitory circuitry is consistently reported in the motor cortex of both familial and sporadic patients, closely associated with cortical hyperexcitability and ALS onset. Inhibitory network dysfunction is presumably mediated by intra-cortical inhibitory interneurons, however, the exact cell types responsible are yet to be identified. In this study we demonstrate dynamic changes in the number of calretinin- (CR) and neuropeptide Y-expressing (NPY) interneurons in the motor cortex of the familial hSOD1G93A ALS mouse model, suggesting their potential involvement in motor neuron circuitry defects. We show that the density of NPY-populations is significantly decreased by ~17% at symptom onset (8 weeks), and by end-stage disease (20 weeks) is significantly increased by ~30%. Conversely, the density of CR-populations is progressively reduced during later symptomatic stages (~31%) to end-stage (~36%), while CR-expressing interneurons also show alteration of neurite branching patterns at symptom onset. We conclude that a differential capacity for interneurons exists in the ALS motor cortex, which may not be a static phenomenon, but involves early dynamic changes throughout disease, implicating specific inhibitory circuitry. PMID:28294153

  11. Impact of circulating cholesterol levels on growth and intratumoral androgen concentration of prostate tumors.

    Elahe A Mostaghel

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is the second most common cancer in men. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT leads to tumor involution and reduction of tumor burden. However, tumors eventually reemerge that have overcome the absence of gonadal androgens, termed castration resistant PCa (CRPC. Theories underlying the development of CRPC include androgen receptor (AR mutation allowing for promiscuous activation by non-androgens, AR amplification and overexpression leading to hypersensitivity to low androgen levels, and/or tumoral uptake and conversion of adrenally derived androgens. More recently it has been proposed that prostate tumor cells synthesize their own androgens through de novo steroidogenesis, which involves the step-wise synthesis of androgens from cholesterol. Using the in vivo LNCaP PCa xenograft model, previous data from our group demonstrated that a hypercholesterolemia diet potentiates prostatic tumor growth via induction of angiogenesis. Using this same model we now demonstrate that circulating cholesterol levels are significantly associated with tumor size (R = 0.3957, p = 0.0049 and intratumoral levels of testosterone (R = 0.41, p = 0.0023 in LNCaP tumors grown in hormonally intact mice. We demonstrate tumoral expression of cholesterol uptake genes as well as the spectrum of steroidogenic enzymes necessary for androgen biosynthesis from cholesterol. Moreover, we show that circulating cholesterol levels are directly correlated with tumoral expression of CYP17A, the critical enzyme required for de novo synthesis of androgens from cholesterol (R = 0.4073, p = 0.025 Since hypercholesterolemia does not raise circulating androgen levels and the adrenal gland of the mouse synthesizes minimal androgens, this study provides evidence that hypercholesterolemia increases intratumoral de novo steroidogenesis. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that cholesterol-fueled intratumoral androgen synthesis may accelerate the

  12. Gene transfer of somatostatin receptor type 2 by intratumoral injection inhibits established pancreatic carcinoma xenografts

    Zhi-Yong Du; Ren-Yi Qin; Wei Xia; Rui Tian; Manoj Kumar


    AIM: To investigate the therapeutic effect of somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2) gene transfection on pancreatic carcinoma xenograftsin vivo in experimental cancers.METHODS: Human pancreatic cancer cell line Panc-1 was inoculated subcutaneously into the back of nude mice. When tumor nodules were grown as large as about 5 mm×5 mm days after inoculation, the mice were randomly divided into 3 groups (6 mice in each group). Group Ⅰ served as untreated control group. Group Ⅱ received an intratumoral injection of a combination of human cytomegalovirus promoter-6C (pCMV-6C) and lipofectamine 2000. Group Ⅲ received an intratumoral injection of a combination of pCMV-6C-SSTR2 and lipofectamine 2000. The rate of tumor growth was compared among these three groups. The expression of SSTR2 in these tumors was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western-blot. Apoptosis index (AI) in these tumors was examined by using TUNEL in situ.RESULTS: Intratumoral injection of a combination of pCMV-6C-SSTR2 and lipofectamine 2000 resulted in the expression of SSTR2 protein. The tumor size and weight in group Ⅲ (0.318±0.098 cm3, and 0.523±0.090 g,respectively) were significantly lower than those in group Ⅰ (2.058±0.176 cm3, and 1.412±0.146 g, respectively) and group Ⅱ (2.025±0.163 cm3, and 1.365±0.116 g, respectively)(P<0.05) The AI in group Ⅲ (1.47±0.13%) was significantly higher than that in group Ⅰ (0.56±0.09%) and group Ⅱ (0.57±0.11%) (P<0.05). But there were no significant differences between groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ.CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that re-expression of SSTR2 gene has antitumor effects on experimental pancreatic cancer. Restoration of SSTR2 gene expression through gene transfer in vivo might be a potential gene therapy strategy for human pancreatic cancer.

  13. A Kunjin replicon vector encoding granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor for intra-tumoral gene therapy

    Hoang-Le, D.; Smeenk, L.; Anraku, I.; Pijlman, G.P.; Wang, X.J.; Vrij, de J.; Liu, W.J.; Le, T.T.; Schroder, W.A.; Khromykh, A.A.; Suhrbier, A.


    We have recently developed a non-cytopathic RNA replicon-based viral vector system based on the flavivirus Kunjin. Here, we illustrate the utility of the Kunjin replicon system for gene therapy. Intra-tumoral injections of Kunjin replicon virus-like particles encoding granulocyte colony-stimulating

  14. Intratumoral modulation of the inducible co-stimulator ICOS by recombinant oncolytic virus promotes systemic anti-tumour immunity

    Zamarin, Dmitriy; Holmgaard, Rikke B.; Ricca, Jacob; Plitt, Tamar; Palese, Peter; Sharma, Padmanee; Merghoub, Taha; Wolchok, Jedd D.; Allison, James P.


    Emerging data suggest that locoregional cancer therapeutic approaches with oncolytic viruses can lead to systemic anti-tumour immunity, although the appropriate targets for intratumoral immunomodulation using this strategy are not known. Here we find that intratumoral therapy with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), in addition to the activation of innate immunity, upregulates the expression of T-cell co-stimulatory receptors, with the inducible co-stimulator (ICOS) being most notable. To explore ICOS as a direct target in the tumour, we engineered a recombinant NDV-expressing ICOS ligand (NDV-ICOSL). In the bilateral flank tumour models, intratumoral administration of NDV-ICOSL results in enhanced infiltration with activated T cells in both virus-injected and distant tumours, and leads to effective rejection of both tumours when used in combination with systemic CTLA-4 blockade. These findings highlight that intratumoral immunomodulation with an oncolytic virus expressing a rationally selected ligand can be an effective strategy to drive systemic efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade. PMID:28194010

  15. Heterogeneous intratumoral distribution of gadolinium nanoparticles within U87 human glioblastoma xenografts unveiled by micro-PIXE imaging.

    Carmona, Asuncion; Roudeau, Stéphane; L'Homel, Baptiste; Pouzoulet, Frédéric; Bonnet-Boissinot, Sarah; Prezado, Yolanda; Ortega, Richard


    Metallic nanoparticles have great potential in cancer radiotherapy as theranostic drugs since, they serve simultaneously as contrast agents for medical imaging and as radio-therapy sensitizers. As with other anticancer drugs, intratumoral diffusion is one of the main limiting factors for therapeutic efficiency. To date, a few reports have investigated the intratumoral distribution of metallic nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to determine the quantitative distribution of gadolinium (Gd) nanoparticles after direct intratumoral injection within U87 human glioblastoma tumors grafted in mice, using micro-PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) imaging. AGuIX (Activation and Guiding of Irradiation by X-ray) 3 nm particles composed of a polysiloxane network surrounded by gadolinium chelates were used. PIXE results indicate that the direct injection of Gd nanoparticles in tumors results in their heterogeneous diffusion, probably related to variations in tumor density. All tumor regions contain Gd, but with markedly different concentrations, with a more than 250-fold difference. Also Gd can diffuse to the healthy adjacent tissue. This study highlights the usefulness of mapping the distribution of metallic nanoparticles at the intratumoral level, and proposes PIXE as an imaging modality to probe the quantitative distribution of metallic nanoparticles in tumors from experimental animal models with micrometer resolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Intratumoral administration of Holmium-166 Acetylacetonate Microspheres: antitumor efficacy and feasibility of multimodality imaging in renal cancer

    Bult, W.; Kroeze, S.G.C.; Elschot, M.; Seevinck, P.R.; Beekman, F.J.; De Jong, H.W.A.M.; Uges, D.R.A.; Kosterink, J.G.W.; Luijten, P.R.; Hennink, W.E.; et al.


    The increasing incidence of small renal tumors in an aging population with comorbidities has stimulated the development of minimally invasive treatments. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and demonstrate feasibility of multimodality imaging of intratumoral administration of holmium-166 microsp

  17. Pectin from Prunus domestica L. induces proliferation of IEC-6 cells through the alteration of cell-surface heparan sulfate on differentiated Caco-2 cells in co-culture.

    Nishida, Mitsutaka; Murata, Kazuma; Oshima, Kazuya; Itoh, Chihiro; Kitaguchi, Kohji; Kanamaru, Yoshihiro; Yabe, Tomio


    Dietary fiber intake provides various physiological and metabolic effects for human health. Pectin, a water-soluble dietary fiber, induces morphological changes of the small intestine in vivo. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying pectin-derived morphological alterations have not been elucidated. Previously, we found that pectin purified from Prunus domestica L. altered the sulfated structure of cell-surface heparan sulfate (HS) on differentiated Caco-2 cells via fibronectin and α5β1 integrin. In this study, we investigated the biological significance of the effect of pectin on HS in differentiated Caco-2 cells. An in vitro intestinal epithelium model was constructed by co-culture of differentiated Caco-2 cells and rat IEC-6 cells, which were used as models of intestinal epithelium and intestinal crypt cells, respectively. We found that pectin-treated differentiated Caco-2 cells promoted growth of IEC-6 cells. Real-time RT-PCR analysis and western blotting showed that relative mRNA and protein expression levels of Wnt3a were upregulated by pectin treatment in differentiated Caco-2 cells. Analysis by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy demonstrated that pectin-induced structural alteration of HS markedly decreased the interaction with Wnt3a. However, depression in the secretion of Wnt3a from Caco-2 cells by anti-Wnt3a antibody did not affect the proliferation of IEC-6 cells in co-culture system. These observations indicated that pectin altered the sulfated structure of cell-surface HS to promote secretion of Wnt3a from differentiated Caco-2 cells and Wnt3a indirectly stimulated the proliferation of IEC-6 cells.

  18. The role of intratumoral and systemic IL-6 in breast cancer

    Dethlefsen, Christine; Højfeldt, Grith Westergaard; Hojman, Pernille


    circulating IL-6 and risk of breast cancer, prognosis for patients with prevalent disease, adverse effects and interventions to control systemic IL-6 levels in patients are discussed. In summary, direct application of IL-6 on breast cancer cells inhibits proliferation in estrogen receptor positive cells......, while high circulating IL-6 levels are correlated with a poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. This discrepancy reflects distinct roles of IL-6, with elevated systemic levels being a biomarker for tumor burden, physical inactivity, and impaired metabolism, while local intratumoral IL-6 signaling......Chronic low-grade inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of several cancer forms including breast cancer. The pleiotropic cytokine IL-6 is a key player in systemic inflammation, regulating both the inflammatory response and tissue metabolism during acute stimulations. Here, we...

  19. Multisite tumor sampling: a new tumor selection method to enhance intratumor heterogeneity detection.

    López, José I; Cortés, Jesús M


    Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) is increasingly being recognized as a highly complex process with high clinical impact that deserves special attention from practicing pathologists. The value of the ITH detection depends on the correctness of the pathologist's sampling. The goal of this review is 2-fold. On the one hand, we provide a basic scientific context for the practical pathologist's perspective. On the other hand, we encourage pathologists to adopt a more scientific and up-to-date approach to a key component of their daily work, namely, how to sample a tumor for reliable histological and molecular analysis. In particular, we review the consecutive steps of an efficient alternative to traditional approaches for detecting ITH: multisite tumor sampling. Notably, this type of sampling, based on a divide-and-conquer algorithm, is supported by scientific evidence showing its clinical applicability and practical advantages at no extra cost. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. GABA concentration and GABAergic neuron populations in limbic areas are differentially altered by brain serotonin deficiency in Tph2 knockout mice.

    Waider, Jonas; Proft, Florian; Langlhofer, Georg; Asan, Esther; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Gutknecht, Lise


    While tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (Tph2) null mutant (Tph2(-/-)) mice are completely deficient in brain serotonin (5-HT) synthesis, the formation of serotonergic neurons and pathfinding of their projections are not impaired. However, 5-HT deficiency, during development and in the adult, might affect morphological and functional parameters of other neural systems. To assess the influence of 5-HT deficiency on γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) systems, we carried out measurements of GABA concentrations in limbic brain regions of adult male wildtype (wt), heterozygous (Tph2(+/-)) and Tph2(-/-) mice. In addition, unbiased stereological estimation of GABAergic interneuron numbers and density was performed in subregions of amygdala and hippocampus. Amygdala and prefrontal cortex displayed significantly increased and decreased GABA concentrations, respectively, exclusively in Tph2(+/-) mice while no changes were detected between Tph2(-/-) and wt mice. In contrast, in the hippocampus, increased GABA concentrations were found in Tph2(-/-) mice. While total cell density in the anterior basolateral amygdala did not differ between genotypes, the number and density of the GABAergic interneurons were significantly decreased in Tph2(-/-) mice, with the group of parvalbumin (PV)-immunoreactive (ir) interneurons contributing somewhat less to the decrease than that of non-PV-ir GABAergic interneurons. Major morphological changes were also absent in the dorsal hippocampus, and only a trend toward reduced density of PV-ir cells was observed in the CA3 region of Tph2(-/-) mice. Our findings are the first to document that life-long reduction or complete lack of brain 5-HT transmission causes differential changes of GABA systems in limbic regions which are key players in emotional learning and memory processes. The changes likely reflect a combination of developmental alterations and functional adaptations of emotion circuits to balance the lack of 5-HT, and may underlie altered emotional

  1. Amphetamine and environmentally induced hyperthermia differentially alter the expression of genes regulating vascular tone and angiogenesis in the meninges and associated vasculature.

    Thomas, Monzy; George, Nysia I; Patterson, Tucker A; Bowyer, John F


    An amphetamine (AMPH) regimen that does not produce a prominent blood-brain barrier breakdown was shown to significantly alter the expression of genes regulating vascular tone, immune function, and angiogenesis in vasculature associated with arachnoid and pia membranes of the forebrain. Adult-male Sprague-Dawley rats were given either saline injections during environmentally-induced hyperthermia (EIH) or four doses of AMPH with 2 h between each dose (5, 7.5, 10, and 10 mg/kg d-AMPH, s.c.) that produced hyperthermia. Rats were sacrificed either 3 h or 1 day after dosing, and total RNA and protein was isolated from the meninges, arachnoid and pia membranes, and associated vasculature (MAV) that surround the forebrain. Vip, eNos, Drd1a, and Edn1 (genes regulating vascular tone) were increased by either EIH or AMPH to varying degrees in MAV, indicating that EIH and AMPH produce differential responses to enhance vasodilatation. AMPH, and EIH to a lesser extent, elicited a significant inflammatory response at 3 h as indicated by an increased MAV expression of cytokines Il1b, Il6, Ccl-2, Cxcl1, and Cxcl2. Also, genes related to heat shock/stress and disruption of vascular homeostasis such as Icam1 and Hsp72 were also observed. The increased expression of Ctgf and Timp1 and the decreased expression of Akt1, Anpep, and Mmp2 and Tek (genes involved in stimulating angiogenesis) from AMPH exposure suggest that angiogenesis was arrested or disrupted in MAV to a greater extent by AMPH compared to EIH. Alterations in vascular-related gene expression in the parietal cortex and striatum after AMPH were less in magnitude than in MAV, indicating less of a disruption of vascular homeostasis in these two regions. Changes in the levels of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins Igfbp1, 2, and 5 in MAV, compared to those in striatum and parietal cortex, imply an interaction between these regions to regulate the levels of insulin-like growth factor after AMPH damage. Thus, the

  2. Pointwise mutual information quantifies intratumor heterogeneity in tissue sections labeled with multiple fluorescent biomarkers

    Daniel M Spagnolo


    Full Text Available Background: Measures of spatial intratumor heterogeneity are potentially important diagnostic biomarkers for cancer progression, proliferation, and response to therapy. Spatial relationships among cells including cancer and stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME are key contributors to heterogeneity. Methods: We demonstrate how to quantify spatial heterogeneity from immunofluorescence pathology samples, using a set of 3 basic breast cancer biomarkers as a test case. We learn a set of dominant biomarker intensity patterns and map the spatial distribution of the biomarker patterns with a network. We then describe the pairwise association statistics for each pattern within the network using pointwise mutual information (PMI and visually represent heterogeneity with a two-dimensional map. Results: We found a salient set of 8 biomarker patterns to describe cellular phenotypes from a tissue microarray cohort containing 4 different breast cancer subtypes. After computing PMI for each pair of biomarker patterns in each patient and tumor replicate, we visualize the interactions that contribute to the resulting association statistics. Then, we demonstrate the potential for using PMI as a diagnostic biomarker, by comparing PMI maps and heterogeneity scores from patients across the 4 different cancer subtypes. Estrogen receptor positive invasive lobular carcinoma patient, AL13-6, exhibited the highest heterogeneity score among those tested, while estrogen receptor negative invasive ductal carcinoma patient, AL13-14, exhibited the lowest heterogeneity score. Conclusions: This paper presents an approach for describing intratumor heterogeneity, in a quantitative fashion (via PMI, which departs from the purely qualitative approaches currently used in the clinic. PMI is generalizable to highly multiplexed/hyperplexed immunofluorescence images, as well as spatial data from complementary in situ methods including FISSEQ and CyTOF, sampling many different

  3. Intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity predicts invasive components in breast ductal carcinoma in situ

    Yoon, Hai-Jeon [Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Yangchun-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yemi [Ewha Womans University, Clinical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bom Sahn [Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Yangchun-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ewha Womans University, Clinical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    This study investigated whether texture-based imaging parameters could identify invasive components of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We enrolled 65 biopsy-confirmed DCIS patients (62 unilateral, 3 bilateral) who underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), or breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI). We measured SUV{sub max} and intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity by the area under the curve (AUC) of cumulative SUV histograms (CSH) on PET, tumour-to-normal ratio (TNR) and coefficient of variation (COV) as an index of heterogeneity on BSGI, minimum ADC (ADC{sub min}) and ADC difference (ADC{sub diff}) as an index of heterogeneity on DWI. After surgery, final pathology was categorized as pure-DCIS (DCIS-P), DCIS with microinvasion (DCIS-MI), or invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Clinicopathologic features of DCIS were correlated with final classification. Final pathology confirmed 44 DCIS-P, 14 DCIS-MI, and 10 IDC. The invasive component of DCIS was significantly correlated with higher SUV{sub max} (p = 0.017) and lower AUC-CSH (p < 0.001) on PET, higher TNR (p = 0.008) and COV (p = 0.035) on BSGI, lower ADC{sub min} (p = 0.016) and higher ADC{sub diff} (p = 0.009) on DWI, and larger pathologic size (p = 0.018). On multiple regression analysis, AUC-CSH was the only significant predictor of invasive components (p = 0.044). The intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity of {sup 18}F-FDG PET was the most important predictor of invasive components of DCIS. (orig.)

  4. Intra-tumoral heterogeneity of gemcitabine delivery and mass transport in human pancreatic cancer

    Koay, Eugene J.; Baio, Flavio E.; Ondari, Alexander; Truty, Mark J.; Cristini, Vittorio; Thomas, Ryan M.; Chen, Rong; Chatterjee, Deyali; Kang, Ya'an; Zhang, Joy; Court, Laurence; Bhosale, Priya R.; Tamm, Eric P.; Qayyum, Aliya; Crane, Christopher H.; Javle, Milind; Katz, Matthew H.; Gottumukkala, Vijaya N.; Rozner, Marc A.; Shen, Haifa; Lee, Jeffrey E.; Wang, Huamin; Chen, Yuling; Plunkett, William; Abbruzzese, James L.; Wolff, Robert A.; Maitra, Anirban; Ferrari, Mauro; Varadhachary, Gauri R.; Fleming, Jason B.


    There is substantial heterogeneity in the clinical behavior of pancreatic cancer and in its response to therapy. Some of this variation may be due to differences in delivery of cytotoxic therapies between patients and within individual tumors. Indeed, in 12 patients with resectable pancreatic cancer, we previously demonstrated wide inter-patient variability in the delivery of gemcitabine as well as in the mass transport properties of tumors as measured by computed tomography (CT) scans. However, the variability of drug delivery and transport properties within pancreatic tumors is currently unknown. Here, we analyzed regional measurements of gemcitabine DNA incorporation in the tumors of the same 12 patients to understand the degree of intra-tumoral heterogeneity of drug delivery. We also developed a volumetric segmentation approach to measure mass transport properties from the CT scans of these patients and tested inter-observer agreement with this new methodology. Our results demonstrate significant heterogeneity of gemcitabine delivery within individual pancreatic tumors and across the patient cohort, with gemcitabine DNA incorporation in the inner portion of the tumors ranging from 38 to 74% of the total. Similarly, the CT-derived mass transport properties of the tumors had a high degree of heterogeneity, ranging from minimal difference to almost 200% difference between inner and outer portions of the tumor. Our quantitative method to derive transport properties from CT scans demonstrated less than 5% difference in gemcitabine prediction at the average CT-derived transport value across observers. These data illustrate significant inter-patient and intra-tumoral heterogeneity in the delivery of gemcitabine, and highlight how this variability can be reproducibly accounted for using principles of mass transport. With further validation as a biophysical marker, transport properties of tumors may be useful in patient selection for therapy and prediction of

  5. Intratumoral chemotherapy for lung cancer: re-challenge current targeted therapies

    Hohenforst-Schmidt W


    through passive transport within the tumor. Recent advances have enhanced the diffusion of pharmaceuticals through active transport by using pharmaceuticals designed to target the genome of tumors. In the present study, five patients with non-small cell lung cancer epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR negative stage IIIa–IV International Union Against Cancer 7 (UICC-7, and with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG 2 scores were administered platinum-based doublet chemotherapy using combined intratumoral-regional and intravenous route of administration. Cisplatin analogues were injected at 0.5%–1% concentration within the tumor lesion and proven malignant lymph nodes according to pretreatment histological/cytological results and the concentration of systemic infusion was decreased to 70% of a standard protocol. This combined intravenous plus intratumoral-regional chemotherapy is used as a first line therapy on this short series of patients. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of direct treatment of involved lymph nodes with cisplatin by endobronchial ultrasound drug delivery with a needle without any adverse effects. The initial overall survival and local response are suggestive of a better efficacy compared to established doublet cisplatin–based systemic chemotherapy in (higher standard concentrations alone according to the UICC 7 database expected survival. An extensive search of the literature was performed to gather information of previously published literature of intratumoral chemo-drug administration and formulation for this treatment modality. Our study shows a favorable local response, more than a 50% reduction, for a massive tumor mass after administration of five sessions of intratumoral chemotherapy plus two cycles of low-dose intravenous chemotherapy according to our protocol. These encouraging results (even in very sick ECOG 2 patients with central obstructive non-small cell lung cancer having a worse prognosis and quality of

  6. Amino acid starvation induced by protease inhibition produces differential alterations in redox status and the thiol proteome in organogenesis-stage rat embryos and visceral yolk sacs.

    Harris, Craig; Jilek, Joseph L; Sant, Karilyn E; Pohl, Jan; Reed, Matthew; Hansen, Jason M


    tissues following leupeptin treatment. Analysis of the thiol proteome showed few alterations to specific pathways mapped to the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database, but did reveal significant increases in concentrations of proteins associated with glycolysis/gluconeogenesis in the VYS and decreased concentrations proteins associated with ribosome biogenesis and function in the EMB. A subset of proteins elevated by >2-23-fold in the VYS were identified as serum (blood) proteins and represent the maternal-side proteins captured by the VYS and which are not degraded in the lysosomes as a result of leupeptin's inhibitory action. The observed constellation of proteins decreased in the EMB by leupeptin represent proteins from several adaptive pathways that are commonly altered in responses to amino acid starvation. These studies show clear differential responses to protease inhibition in VYS and EMB during organogenesis and suggest the possibility for additional roles of redox regulation, cellular adaptations and metabolic insufficiency caused by protease inhibition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Immunotherapeutic synergy between anti-CD137 mAb and intratumoral administration of a cytopathic Semliki Forest virus encoding IL-12

    Quetglas, José I; Dubrot, Juan; Bezunartea, Jaione; Sanmamed, Miguel F; Hervas-Stubbs, Sandra; Smerdou, Cristian; Melero, Ignacio


    .... In this study, we provide evidence for powerful synergistic effects of a combined strategy consisting of intratumoral injection of SFV-IL-12 and systemic delivery of agonist anti-CD137 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs...

  8. Ruptured high flow gastric varices with an intratumoral arterioportal shunt treated with balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration during temporary balloon occlusion of a hepatic artery

    Motoki Nakai; Morio Sato; Hirohiko Tanihata; Tetsuo Sonomura; Shinya Sahara; Nobuyuki Kawai; Masashi Kimura; Masaki Terada


    A patient presented with hematemesis due to gastric variceal bleeding with an intratumoral arterioportal shunt. Contrast-enhanced CT revealed gastric varices and hepatocellular carcinoma with tumor thrombi in the right portal vein. Angiography and angio-CT revealed a marked intratumoral arterioportal shunt accompanied with reflux into the main portal vein and gastric varices. Balloon-occluded retrograde venography from the gastro-renal shunt showed no visualization of gastric varices due to rapid blood flow through the intratumoral arterioportal shunt. The hepatic artery was temporarily occluded with a balloon catheter to reduce the blood flow through the arterioportal shunt, and then concurrent balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) was achieved. Vital signs stabilized immediately thereafter, and contrast-enhanced CT revealed thrombosed gastric varices. Worsening of hepatic function was not recognized. BRTO combined with temporary occlusion of the hepatic artery is a feasible interventional procedure for ruptured high flow gastric varices with an intratumoral arterioportal shunt.

  9. Industrial-age changes in atmospheric [CO2] and temperature differentially alter responses of faster- and slower-growing Eucalyptus seedlings to short-term drought.

    Lewis, James D; Smith, Renee A; Ghannoum, Oula; Logan, Barry A; Phillips, Nathan G; Tissue, David T


    Climate change may alter forest composition by differentially affecting the responses of faster- and slower-growing tree species to drought. However, the combined effects of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and temperature on drought responses of trees are poorly understood. Here, we examined interactive effects of temperature (ambient, ambient + °C) and [CO2] (290, 400 and 650mu;l l(-1)) on drought responses of Eucalyptus saligna Sm. (faster-growing) and E. sideroxylon A. Cunn. ex Woolls (slower-growing) seedlings. Drought was imposed via a controlled reduction in soil water over 1-2 weeks, re-watering seedlings when leaves visibly wilted. In ambient temperature, the effect of drought on the light-saturated net photosynthetic rate (Asat) in E. saligna decreased as [CO2] increased from pre-industrial to future concentrations, but rising [CO2] did not affect the response in Eucalyptus sideroxylon. In contrast, elevated temperature exacerbated the effect of drought in reducing Asat in both species. The drought response of Asat reflected changes in stomatal conductance (gs) associated with species and treatment differences in (i) utilization of soil moisture and (ii) leaf area ratio (leaf area per unit plant dry mass). Across [CO2] and temperature treatments, E. saligna wilted at higher soil water potentials compared with E. sideroxylon. Photosynthetic recovery from drought was 90% complete 2 days following re-watering across all species and treatments. Our results suggest that E. saligna (faster-growing) seedlings are more susceptible to drought than E. sideroxylon (slower-growing) seedlings. The greater susceptibility to drought of E. saligna reflected faster drawdown of soil moisture, associated with more leaf area and leaf area ratio, and the ability of E. sideroxylon to maintain higher gs at a given soil moisture. Inclusion of a pre-industrial [CO2] treatment allowed us to conclude that susceptibility of these species to short-term drought

  10. Expression of Intratumoral IGF-II Is Regulated by the Gene Imprinting Status in Triple Negative Breast Cancer from Vietnamese Patients

    Vinodh Kumar Radhakrishnan


    Full Text Available African American women suffer higher incidence and mortality of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC than Caucasian women. TNBC is very aggressive, causing the worst clinical outcome. We previously demonstrated that tumors from these patients express high IGF-II and exhibit high activation of the IGF signaling pathways. IGF-II gene expression is imprinted (monoallelic, promotes tumor progression, and metastasis and regulates Survivin, a TNBC prognostic marker. Since BC mortality has increased among young Vietnamese women, we analyzed 48 (paired TNBC samples from Vietnamese patients to assess IGF-II expression. We analyzed all samples by qrtPCR for identification of IGF-II heterozygosity and to determine allelic expression of the IGF-II gene. We also analyzed the tissues for proIGF-II and Survivin by RT-PCR and Western blotting. A total of 28 samples displayed IGF-II heterozygosity of which 78% were biallelic. Tumors with biallelic IGF-II gene expression exhibited the highest levels of proIGF-II and Survivin. Although 100% of these tissues corresponding normal samples were biallelic, they expressed significantly lower levels of or no proIGF-II and Survivin. Thus, IGF-II biallelic gene expression is differentially regulated in normal versus tumor tissues. We propose that intratumoral proIGF-II is dependent on the IGF-II gene imprinting status and it will promote a more aggressive TNBC.

  11. Correlation of intra-tumor 18F-FDG uptake heterogeneity indices with perfusion CT derived parameters in colorectal cancer.

    Florent Tixier

    Full Text Available Thirty patients with proven colorectal cancer prospectively underwent integrated 18F-FDG PET/DCE-CT to assess the metabolic-flow phenotype. Both CT blood flow parametric maps and PET images were analyzed. Correlations between PET heterogeneity and perfusion CT were assessed by Spearman's rank correlation analysis.Blood flow visualization provided by DCE-CT images was significantly correlated with 18F-FDG PET metabolically active tumor volume as well as with uptake heterogeneity for patients with stage III/IV tumors (|ρ|:0.66 to 0.78; p-value<0.02.The positive correlation found with tumor blood flow indicates that intra-tumor heterogeneity of 18F-FDG PET accumulation reflects to some extent tracer distribution and consequently indicates that 18F-FDG PET intra-tumor heterogeneity may be associated with physiological processes such as tumor vascularization.

  12. Comparative genetic study of intratumoral heterogenous MYCN amplified neuroblastoma versus aggressive genetic profile neuroblastic tumors.

    Berbegall, A P; Villamón, E; Piqueras, M; Tadeo, I; Djos, A; Ambros, P F; Martinsson, T; Ambros, I M; Cañete, A; Castel, V; Navarro, S; Noguera, R


    Intratumoral heterogeneous MYCN amplification (hetMNA) is an unusual event in neuroblastoma with unascertained biological and clinical implications. Diagnosis is based on the detection of MYCN amplification surrounded by non-amplified tumor cells by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). To better define the genetic features of hetMNA tumors, we studied the Spanish cohort of neuroblastic tumors by FISH and single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. We compared hetMNA tumors with homogeneous MNA (homMNA) and nonMNA tumors with 11q deletion (nonMNA w11q-). Of 1091 primary tumors, 28 were hetMNA by FISH. Intratumoral heterogeneity of 1p, 2p, 11q and 17q was closely associated with hetMNA tumors when analyzing different pieces for each case. For chromosome 2, 16 cases showed 2p intact, 4 focal gain at 2p24.3 and 8 MNA. The lengths of the smallest regions of overlap (SROs) for 2p gains and 1p deletions were between the SRO lengths observed in homMNA and nonMNA w11q- tumors. Co-occurrence of 11q- and +17q was frequently found with the largest SROs for both aberrations. The evidence for and frequency of different genetic subpopulations representing a hallmark of the hetMNA subgroup of NB indicates, on one hand, the presence of a considerable genetic instability with different SRO of either gains and losses compared with those of the other NB groups and highlights and, on the other hand, the need for multiple sampling from distant and macroscopically and microscopically distinct tumor areas. Narrowing down the different SRO for both deletions and gains in NB groups would be crucial to pinpointing the candidate gene(s) and the critical gene dosage with prognostic and therapeutic significance. This complexity of segmental chromosomal aberration patterns reinforces the necessity for a larger cohort study using FISH and pangenomic techniques to develop a suitable therapeutic strategy for these patients.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of DNA nano-meso-microspheres as drug delivery carriers for intratumoral chemotherapy

    Enriquez Schumacher, Iris Vanessa

    Conventional cancer chemotherapy results in systemic toxicity which severely limits effectiveness and often adversely affects patient quality of life. There is a need to find new drugs and delivery methods for less toxic therapy. Previous studies concerning DNA complexing with chemotherapy drugs suggest unique opportunities for DNA as a mesosphere drug carrier. The overall objective of this research was devoted to the synthesis and evaluation of novel DNA-drug nano-mesospheres designed for localized chemotherapy via intratumoral injection. My research presents DNA nano-meso-microspheres (DNA-MS) that were prepared using a modified steric stabilization method originally developed in this lab for the preparation of albumin MS. DNA-MS were prepared with glutaraldehyde covalent crosslinking (genipin crosslinking was attempted) through the DNA base pairs. In addition, novel crosslinking of DNA-MS was demonstrated using chromium, gadolinium, or iron cations through the DNA phosphate groups. Covalent and ionic crosslinked DNA-MS syntheses yielded smooth and spherical particle morphologies with multimodal size distributions. Optimized DNA-MS syntheses produced particles with narrow and normal size distributions in the 50nm to 5mum diameter size range. In aqueous dispersions approximately 200% swelling was observed with dispersion stability for more than 48 hours. Typical process conditions included a 1550rpm initial mixing speed and particle filtration through 20mum filters to facilitate preparation. DNA-MS were in situ loaded during synthesis for the first time with mitoxantrone, 5-fluorouracil, and methotrexate. DNA-MS drug incorporation was 12%(w/w) for mitoxantrone, 9%(w/w) for methotrexate, and 5%(w/w) for 5-fluorouracil. In vitro drug release into phosphate buffered saline was observed for over 35 days by minimum sink release testing. The effect of gadolinium crosslink concentration on mitoxantrone release was evaluated at molar equivalences in the range of 20% to

  14. Intratumor photosensitizer injection for photodynamic therapy: Pre-clinical experience with methylene blue, Pc 4, and Photofrin

    Baran, Timothy M.; Foster, Thomas H.


    Intravenous administration of some photosensitizers, including the FDA-approved Photofrin, results in significant systemic photosensitivity and a 2-3-day drug-light interval. Direct intratumor injection of photosensitizer could potentially eliminate these negative aspects of photodynamic therapy (PDT), while requiring a lower photosensitizer dose to achieve comparable drug concentration in the target tissue. We performed PDT using intratumor injection of 3 photosensitizers, methylene blue (MB), Pc 4, and Photofrin, in mouse tumor models. After a 0-15 minute drug-light interval, illumination was delivered by appropriate diode lasers. For animals receiving MB or Pc 4, surface illumination was delivered using a microlens-terminated fiber. For animals receiving Photofrin, interstitial illumination was delivered by a 1 cm diffuser. In animals receiving MB or Pc 4, tumor dimensions were measured daily post-PDT, with a cure being defined as no palpable tumor 90 days post-treatment. For Photofrin, animals were sacrificed 24 hours post-PDT and tumors were excised, with samples HE stained to assess PDT-induced necrosis. 55% of tumors were cured with MB-PDT, and significant tumor growth delay (p=0.002) was observed for Pc 4. For Photofrin PDT, the mean necrosis radius was 3.4+/-0.8 mm, compared to 2.9+/-1.3 mm for systemic administration, which was not a significant difference (p=0.58). Intratumoral injection of the photosensitizers methylene blue, Pc 4, and Photofrin is feasible, and results in appreciable tumor response. Further investigation is necessary to optimize treatment protocols and assess the systemic photosensitivity induced by intratumor injection.

  15. Altered fat differentiation and adipocytokine expression are inter-related and linked to morphological changes and insulin resistance in HIV-1-infected lipodystrophic patients

    Jan, Véronique; Cervera, Pascale; Maachi, Mustapha; Baudrimont, Marielle; Kim, Minji; Vidal, Hubert; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Levan, Philippe; Rozenbaum, Willy; Lombès, Anne; Capeau, Jacqueline; Bastard, Jean-Philippe


    ... together with fat morphology and we studied the relationship between changes in fat morphology, adipocytokine expression, markers of adipose tissue differentiation and whole body insulin sensitivity...

  16. The impact of intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity on postoperative recurrence and survival in resectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Dong, Xinzhe; Sun, Xiaorong; Zhao, Xianguang; Zhu, Wanqi; Sun, Lu; Huang, Yong; Li, Wenwu; Wan, Honglin; Xing, Ligang; Yu, Jinming


    Objective To evaluate the impact of intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity measured by 18F-FDG PET imaging on postoperative recurrence and survival for patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Results AUC-CSH, metabolic tumor volume and pN-stage were significant prognostic factors for RFS. Additionally, tumor recurrence of the low AUC-CSH group (≤ 0.478) was 3 times higher than high group (P = 0.015). The median OS of patients with advanced AJCC stage or low AUC-CSH was also significantly shorter than that of patients with stage I & II or high AUC-CSH (P = 0.021, 0.009). Multivariate analysis identified the AUC-CSH to be the only significant risk factor for postoperative recurrence and overall survival in whole-group and stage III patients. Materials and Methods 116 ESCC patients who underwent staging 18F-FDG PET-CT scan and surgical resection were reviewed. The metabolic parameters were assessed as follows: maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), metabolic tumor volume, and the area under the curve of the cumulative SUV-volume histogram (AUC-CSH), which is known to reflect the intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity. Regression analyses were used to identify clinicopathological and imaging variables associated with relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). Conclusions Intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity characterized by AUC-CSH can predict postoperative recurrence and survival in patients with resectable ESCC. PMID:28122340

  17. Gene expression profiling identifies microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF and Dickkopf-1 (DKK1 as regulators of microenvironment-driven alterations in melanoma phenotype.

    Mariusz L Hartman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The diversity of functional phenotypes observed within a tumor does not exclusively result from intratumoral genetic heterogeneity but also from the response of cancer cells to the microenvironment. We have previously demonstrated that the morphological and functional phenotypes of melanoma can be dynamically altered upon external stimuli. FINDINGS: In the present study, transcriptome profiles were generated to explore the molecules governing phenotypes of melanospheres grown in the bFGF(+EGF(+ serum-free cultures and monolayers maintained in the serum-containing medium. Higher expression levels of MITF-dependent genes that are responsible for differentiation, e.g., TYR and MLANA, and stemness-related genes, e.g., ALDH1A1, were detected in melanospheres. These results were supported by the observation that the melanospheres contained more pigmented cells and cells exerting the self-renewal capacity than the monolayers. In addition, the expression of the anti-apoptotic, MITF-dependent genes e.g., BCL2A1 was also higher in the melanospheres. The enhanced activity of MITF in melanospheres, as illustrated by the increased expression of 74 MITF-dependent genes, identified MITF as a central transcriptional regulator in melanospheres. Importantly, several genes including MITF-dependent ones were expressed in melanospheres and original tumors at similar levels. The reduced MITF level in monolayers might be partially explained by suppression of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, and DKK1, a secreted inhibitor of this pathway, was highly up-regulated in monolayers in comparison to melanospheres and original tumors. Furthermore, the silencing of DKK1 in monolayers increased the percentage of cells with self-renewing capacity. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that melanospheres can be used to unravel the molecular pathways that sustain intratumoral phenotypic heterogeneity. Melanospheres directly derived from tumor specimens more accurately mirrored

  18. Percutaneous Ethanol Intratumoral Injection for Treatment of Small Primary Liver Cancer:Summary of 240 Cases

    GUOJia; CHENHan; 等


    Objective To evaluate the therapeutic effects of percutaneous ethanol intratumoral injection(PETT) for treatment of small primary liver cancer(SPLC). Methods 240 patients with surgically or pathologically proved SPLC(<3 cm in diameter)were treated by PETT(under the guidance of B-ultrasound).Of the 240 patients ,163 had recurrent liver cancer,55 had inoperable liver cancer because of cardiac ,pulmonary ,hepat-ic and renal dydfunctions or due to the close proximity of trmor to the major vessels,and 22 refused to receive surgical resection.In 40 pa-tients who received surgical resection after PETT treatment, the resected tumors were pathologically evaluated for necrotic status and the pa-tients were followed up postoperatively.Results Postoperative1-,2- and 3-year survival rate of the 240 patients was 94.9%,84.2% and 66.3% respectively.Conclusion PETTcan be used as a non-invasive treatment for SPLC,and preoperative PETT appears to be helpful in reducing recurrence of postoperative liver cancer.

  19. Formulation of a charcoal suspension for intratumoral injection. Study of galenical excipients.

    Bonhomme-Faivre, L; Mathieu, M C; Depraetere, P; Grossiord, J L; Orbach-Arbouys, S; Puisieux, F; Seiller, M


    To tattoo human breast cancer prior to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or surgery, thus allowing a better localization of the remaining tumor by the surgeon, we developed a formulation containing 10% charcoal suspended in water for parenteral preparations. The present study concerns a new step in the development of the charcoal suspension. We sought to determine whether the addition of various excipients could improve the formulation properties and affect the labeling of tumor by the suspension. We have tested surfactants (egg lecithin, polysorbate 80, Cremophor EL, and Pluronic F68), isotonisants (sugars such as glucose and mannitol), polysaccharides (dextrans 20 and 40), and Cabosil, a pyrogenated silica. Except for glucose and mannitol, which were added at a 5% concentration, the other excipients were added at a 0.1% concentration, they were dissolved in water for parenteral injection and sterilized at 120 degrees C for 20 min. We then measured diffusion in vivo in mammary tumor. In vivo, when injected intratumorally in mice, a greater diffusion of charcoal particles was noted within the tumor (in the case of egg lecithin, polysorbate 80, dextran 20 and 40, and glucose) and sometimes in some organs (e.g., Cremophor EL and mannitol). Pluronic F68 slightly improved the stability of the suspension and did not lead to marked diffusion at the injection site, but it showed slight toxicity and cannot be used in the formulation. We concluded that the best formulation was an aqueous 10% micronized peat charcoal suspension.

  20. Comparison of detection pattern of HCC by ferumoxide-enhanced MRI and intratumoral blood flow pattern

    Itou, Naoki; Kotake, Fumio [Tokyo Medical Coll., Ami, Ibaraki (Japan). Kasumigaura Hospital; Saitou, Kazuhiro; Abe, Kimihiko


    We compared the detection rate and pattern of ferumoxide-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (Fe-MRI) with the intratumoral blood flow pattern determined by CT angiography (CTA) and CT portography (CTAP) in 124 nodes (34 cases) diagnosed as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or borderline HCC, based on the clinical course. Sequences to obtain a T1-weighted images (T1W), proton density-weighted images (PDW), T2-weighted images (T2W), T2*-weighted images (T2*W) were used in Fe-MRI. In nodes shown to be hypervascular on CTA, the detection rate by Fe-MRI was 69.7%. In nodes shown to be avascular by CTAP, the detection rate by Fe-MRI was 67.3%. These rates were higher than with other flow patterns. In nodes showing high signal intensity (HSI) on any sequences, arterial blood flow was increased and portal blood flow decreased in comparison with nodes without high signal intensity. All nodes showing HSI, both on Fe-MRI T2W and T2*W, were hypervascular on CTA, and portal blood flow was absent on CTAP. Nodes showing HSI on both T2*W and T2W were considered to have greater arterial blood flow and decreased portal blood flow compared with nodes appearing as HSI on T2*W, but only as iso- or low signal intensity on T2W (Mann-Whitney U-test; p<0.05). (author)

  1. Cytoreduction surgery reduces systemic myeloid suppressor cell populations and restores intratumoral immunotherapy effectiveness

    Predina Jarrod D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple immunotherapy approaches have improved adaptive anti-tumor immune responses in patients with early stage disease; however, results have been less dramatic when treating patients with late stage disease. These blunted responses are likely due to a host of factors, including changes in the tumor microenvironment and systemic immunosuppressive features, which accompany advanced tumor states. We hypothesized that cytoreductive surgery could control these immunosuppressive networks and restore the potency of immunotherapy in advanced disease scenarios. Methods To test these hypotheses, two representative intratumoral immunotherapies (an adenoviral vector encoding a suicide gene, AdV-tk, or a type-I interferon, Ad.IFNα were tested in murine models of lung cancer. Cytoreductive surgery was performed following treatment of advanced tumors. Mechanistic underpinnings were investigated using flow cytometry, in vivo leukocyte depletion methods and in vivo tumor neutralization assays. Results AdV-tk and Ad.IFNα were effective in treating early lung cancers, but had little anti-tumor effects in late stage cancers. Interestingly, in late stage scenarios, surgical cytoreduction unmasked the anti-tumor potency of both immunotherapeutic approaches. Immune mechanisms that explained restoration in anti-tumor immune responses included increased CD8 T-cell trafficking and reduced myeloid derived suppressor cell populations. Conclusion This study demonstrates that surgical resection combined with immunotherapy may be a rational therapeutic option for patients with advanced stage cancer.

  2. DREAMing: a simple and ultrasensitive method for assessing intratumor epigenetic heterogeneity directly from liquid biopsies.

    Pisanic, Thomas R; Athamanolap, Pornpat; Poh, Weijie; Chen, Chen; Hulbert, Alicia; Brock, Malcolm V; Herman, James G; Wang, Tza-Huei


    Many cancers comprise heterogeneous populations of cells at primary and metastatic sites throughout the body. The presence or emergence of distinct subclones with drug-resistant genetic and epigenetic phenotypes within these populations can greatly complicate therapeutic intervention. Liquid biopsies of peripheral blood from cancer patients have been suggested as an ideal means of sampling intratumor genetic and epigenetic heterogeneity for diagnostics, monitoring and therapeutic guidance. However, current molecular diagnostic and sequencing methods are not well suited to the routine assessment of epigenetic heterogeneity in difficult samples such as liquid biopsies that contain intrinsically low fractional concentrations of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and rare epigenetic subclonal populations. Here we report an alternative approach, deemed DREAMing (Discrimination of Rare EpiAlleles by Melt), which uses semi-limiting dilution and precise melt curve analysis to distinguish and enumerate individual copies of epiallelic species at single-CpG-site resolution in fractions as low as 0.005%, providing facile and inexpensive ultrasensitive assessment of locus-specific epigenetic heterogeneity directly from liquid biopsies. The technique is demonstrated here for the evaluation of epigenetic heterogeneity at p14(ARF) and BRCA1 gene-promoter loci in liquid biopsies obtained from patients in association with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN), respectively.

  3. Survival prediction in patients undergoing radionuclide therapy based on intratumoral somatostatin-receptor heterogeneity

    Ilhan, Harun; Higuchi, Takahiro; Buck, Andreas K.; Lehner, Sebastian; Bartenstein, Peter; Bengel, Frank; Schatka, Imke; Muegge, Dirk O.; Papp, László; Zsótér, Norbert; Große-Ophoff, Tobias; Essler, Markus; Bundschuh, Ralph A.


    The NETTER-1 trial demonstrated significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) in neuroendocrine tumors (NET) emphasizing the high demand for response prediction in appropriate candidates. In this multicenter study, we aimed to elucidate the prognostic value of tumor heterogeneity as assessed by somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-PET/CT. 141 patients with SSTR-expressing tumors were analyzed obtaining SSTR-PET/CT before PRRT (1-6 cycles, 177Lu somatostatin analog). Using the Interview Fusion Workstation (Mediso), a total of 872 metastases were manually segmented. Conventional PET parameters as well as textural features representing intratumoral heterogeneity were computed. The prognostic ability for PFS and overall survival (OS) were examined. After performing Cox regression, independent parameters were determined by ROC analysis to obtain cut-off values to be used for Kaplan-Meier analysis. Within follow-up (median, 43.1 months), 75 patients showed disease progression (median, 22.2 m) and 54 patients died (median, 27.6 m). Cox analysis identified 8 statistically independent heterogeneity parameters for time-to-progression and time-to-death. Among them, the textural feature Entropy predicted both PFS and OS. Conventional PET parameters failed in response prediction. Imaging-based heterogeneity assessment provides prognostic information in PRRT candidates and outperformed conventional PET parameters. Its implementation in clinical practice can pave the way for individualized patient management. PMID:27705948

  4. Prognostic value of preoperative intratumoral FDG uptake heterogeneity in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer

    Lee, Maria; Kim, Hee Seung; Chung, Hyun Hoon; Kim, Jae-Weon; Park, Noh-Hyun; Song, Yong Sang [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyunjong; Cheon, Gi Jeong [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To investigate the prognostic value of intratumoral FDG uptake heterogeneity (IFH) derived from PET/CT in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We retrospectively reviewed patients with pathologically proven epithelial ovarian cancer who underwent preoperative {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans. PET/CT parameters such as maximum and average standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub avg}), sum of all metabolic tumour volume (MTV), cumulative total lesion glycolysis (TLG) and IFH were assessed. Regression analyses were used to identify clinicopathological and imaging variables associated with disease-free survival (DFS). Clinicopathological data were reviewed for 61 eligible patients. The median duration of DFS was 13 months (range, 6-26 months), and 18 (29.5 %) patients experienced recurrence. High IFH values were associated with tumour recurrence (P = 0.005, hazard ratio 4.504, 95 % CI 1.572-12.902). The Kaplan-Meier survival graphs showed that DFS significantly differed in groups categorized based on IFH (P = 0.002, log-rank test). Moreover, there were significant differences in DFS (P = 0.009) and IFH (P = 0.040) between patients with and without recurrence. Preoperative IFH measured by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT was significantly associated with EOC recurrence. FDG-based heterogeneity could be a useful and potential predicator of EOC recurrence before treatment. (orig.)

  5. Measuring intratumor heterogeneity by network entropy using RNA-seq data.

    Park, Youngjune; Lim, Sangsoo; Nam, Jin-Wu; Kim, Sun


    Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) is observed at different stages of tumor progression, metastasis and reouccurence, which can be important for clinical applications. We used RNA-sequencing data from tumor samples, and measured the level of ITH in terms of biological network states. To model complex relationships among genes, we used a protein interaction network to consider gene-gene dependency. ITH was measured by using an entropy-based distance metric between two networks, nJSD, with Jensen-Shannon Divergence (JSD). With nJSD, we defined transcriptome-based ITH (tITH). The effectiveness of tITH was extensively tested for the issues related with ITH using real biological data sets. Human cancer cell line data and single-cell sequencing data were investigated to verify our approach. Then, we analyzed TCGA pan-cancer 6,320 patients. Our result was in agreement with widely used genome-based ITH inference methods, while showed better performance at survival analysis. Analysis of mouse clonal evolution data further confirmed that our transcriptome-based ITH was consistent with genetic heterogeneity at different clonal evolution stages. Additionally, we found that cell cycle related pathways have significant contribution to increasing heterogeneity on the network during clonal evolution. We believe that the proposed transcriptome-based ITH is useful to characterize heterogeneity of a tumor sample at RNA level.

  6. Quantitative computed tomographic descriptors associate tumor shape complexity and intratumor heterogeneity with prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma.

    Olya Grove

    Full Text Available Two CT features were developed to quantitatively describe lung adenocarcinomas by scoring tumor shape complexity (feature 1: convexity and intratumor density variation (feature 2: entropy ratio in routinely obtained diagnostic CT scans. The developed quantitative features were analyzed in two independent cohorts (cohort 1: n = 61; cohort 2: n = 47 of patients diagnosed with primary lung adenocarcinoma, retrospectively curated to include imaging and clinical data. Preoperative chest CTs were segmented semi-automatically. Segmented tumor regions were further subdivided into core and boundary sub-regions, to quantify intensity variations across the tumor. Reproducibility of the features was evaluated in an independent test-retest dataset of 32 patients. The proposed metrics showed high degree of reproducibility in a repeated experiment (concordance, CCC≥0.897; dynamic range, DR≥0.92. Association with overall survival was evaluated by Cox proportional hazard regression, Kaplan-Meier survival curves, and the log-rank test. Both features were associated with overall survival (convexity: p = 0.008; entropy ratio: p = 0.04 in Cohort 1 but not in Cohort 2 (convexity: p = 0.7; entropy ratio: p = 0.8. In both cohorts, these features were found to be descriptive and demonstrated the link between imaging characteristics and patient survival in lung adenocarcinoma.

  7. A simple and effective approach for treatment of situs tumor and metastasis:to promote intratumor pus formation

    Hong Li


    Full Text Available Purpose: The recent emergence of the tumor microenvironment as the critical determinant in cancer outcome opens a new routes to fight cancer, however, the clinical results of targeting microenvironment for treating human cancer have not met expectations. Our purpose is to investigate how to target microenvironment for treatment of situs tumor and metastasis.Methods : We suppose that tumor is a robber from times of anarchy and disorder and can be eradicated in flourishing age. We also suppose that carcinogenesis is largely attributed to physically weak that cann’t get rid of ulcer by pus formation. In vivo,the subcutaneous implant model and pulmonary metastasis model of lewis lung cancer were established. Tumor bearing mice were taken water decoction of Astragalus mongholicus(huangqi and Spina Gleditsiae (zaojiaoci by intragastric administration b.i.d for ten weeks, and the influences of Astragalus mongholicus and Spina Gleditsiae  on tumor progression were evaluated by body temperature,blood oxygen saturation,red cell ATPase,blood  rheology,intratumor hypoxia,capillary permeability, matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs and intratumor pus formation.  Results:We found that both of Astragalus mongholicus and Spina Gleditsiae could keep body temperature,blood oxygen saturation,red cell ATPase and blood rheology,and improve intratumor hypoxia,capillary permeability and MMPs in tumor bearing mice,which led to slower tumor growth and less metastasis. Astragalus mongholicus could remove body poison and stimulate immune responses, and Spina Gleditsiae  could  promote pus formation and proteolytic enzymes. The combination of  Astragalus mongholicus and Spina Gleditsiae favored the restoration of tumor immune responses and proteolytic activity at the tumor site, which not only result to an increase in aseptic pus formation, but also to a decrease in necrotic tissue accumulation, and finally caused a complete intratumor pus

  8. MBA-induced differentiation of myeloid leukemic cell lines is associated with altered G1 cell cycle regulators and related genes

    王钦红; 谢毅; 范华骅


    @@The proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells can be regulated by a number of physiological agents including hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA). Clinically, HMBA has been used for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome.1 However, the mechanism of the effect of HMBA on the differentiation of myeloid leukemic cells is largely unkown. Up to now, related reports have not been found. We used HL-60 and U937 cell lines to study the effect of HMBA on the differentiation of myeloid leukemic cells and to explore the possible mechanism.

  9. Habitat Choice and Temporal Variation Alter the Balance between Adaptation by Genetic Differentiation, a Jack-of-All-Trades Strategy, and Phenotypic Plasticity.

    Scheiner, Samuel M


    Confronted with variable environments, species adapt in several ways, including genetic differentiation, a jack-of-all-trades strategy, or phenotypic plasticity. Adaptive habitat choice favors genetic differentiation and local adaptation over a generalist, jack-of-all-trades strategy. Models predict that, absent plasticity costs, variable environments generally favor phenotypic plasticity over genetic differentiation and being a jack-of-all-trades generalist. It is unknown how habitat choice might affect the evolution of plasticity. Using an individual-based simulation model, I explored the interaction of choice and plasticity. With only spatial variation, habitat choice promotes genetic differentiation over a jack-of-all-trades strategy or phenotypic plasticity. In the absence of plasticity, temporal variation favors a jack-of-all-trades strategy over choice-mediated genetic differentiation; when plasticity is an option, it is favored. This occurs because habitat choice creates a feedback between genetic differentiation and dispersal rates. As demes become better adapted to their local environments, the effective dispersal rate decreases, because more individuals have very high fitness and so choose not to disperse, reinforcing local stabilizing selection and negating selection for plasticity. Temporal variation breaks that feedback. These results point to a potential data paradox: systems with habitat choice may have the lowest actual movement rates. The potential for adaptive habitat choice may be very common, but its existence may reduce observed dispersal rates enough that we do not recognize systems where it may be present, warranting further exploration of likely systems.

  10. Impact of intratumoral expression levels of fluoropyrimidine-metabolizing enzymes on treatment outcomes of adjuvant S-1 therapy in gastric cancer.

    Ji-Yeon Kim

    Full Text Available We analyzed the expression levels of fluoropyrimidine-metabolizing enzymes (thymidylate synthase [TS], dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase [DPD], thymidine phosphorylase [TP] and orotate phosphoribosyltransferase [OPRT] to identify potential biomarkers related to treatment outcomes in gastric cancer (GC patients receiving adjuvant S-1 chemotherapy. In this study, 184 patients who received curative gastrectomy (D2 lymph node dissection and adjuvant S-1 were included. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were performed to measure the protein and mRNA levels of TS, DPD, TP, and OPRT in tumor tissue. In univariate analysis, low intratumoral DPD protein expression was related to poorer 5-year disease-free survival (DFS; 78% vs. 88%; P = 0.068. Low intratumoral DPD mRNA expression (1st [lowest] quartile was also related to poorer DFS (69% vs. 90%; P < 0.001 compared to high intratumoral DPD expression (2nd to 4th quartiles. In multivariate analyses, low intratumoral DPD protein or mRNA expression was related to worse DFS (P < 0.05, irrespective of other clinical variables. TS, TP, and OPRT expression levels were not related to treatment outcomes. Severe non-hematologic toxicities (grade ≥ 3 had a trend towards more frequent development in patients with low intratumoral DPD mRNA expression (29% vs. 16%; P = 0.068. In conclusion, GC patients with high intratumoral DPD expression did not have inferior outcome following adjuvant S-1 therapy compared with those with low DPD expression. Instead, low intratumoral DPD expression was related to poor DFS.

  11. Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound parametric maps to evaluate intratumoral vascularization.

    Pitre-Champagnat, Stephanie; Leguerney, Ingrid; Bosq, Jacques; Peronneau, Pierre; Kiessling, Fabian; Calmels, Lucie; Coulot, Jeremy; Lassau, Nathalie


    The purposes of this study were to assess the reliability of parametric maps from dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) to reflect the heterogeneous distribution of intratumoral vascularization and to predict the tissue features linked to vasculature. This study was designed to compare DCE-US parametric maps with histologic vascularity measurements. Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound was performed on 17 melanoma-bearing nude mice after a 0.1-mL bolus injection of SonoVue (Bracco SPA, Milan, Italy). The parametric maps were developed from raw linear data to extract pixelwise 2 semiquantitative parameters related to perfusion and blood volume, namely, area under the curve (AUC) and peak intensity (PI). The mathematical method to fit the time-intensity curve for each pixel was a polynomial model used in clinical routine and patented by the team. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn on DCE-US parametric maps for whole tumors and for several local areas of 15 mm within each tumor (iROI), the latter reflecting the heterogeneity of intratumoral blood volume. As the criterion standard correlation, microvessel densities (MVDs) were determined for both ROI categories. In detail, for all iROI of 15 mm, MVD and maturity were divided separately for vessels of 0 to 10 μm, 10 to 40 μm, and greater than 40 μm in diameter, and the results were correlated with the ultrasound findings. Among the 17 studied mice, a total of 64 iROIs were analyzed. For the whole-tumor ROI set, AUC and PI values significantly correlated with MVD (rAUC = 0.52 [P = 0.0408] and rPI = 0.70 [P = 0.0026]). In the case of multiple iROI, a strong linear correlation was observed between the DCE-US parameters and the density of vessels ranging in their diameter from 0 to 10 μm (rAUC = 0.68 [P rAUC = 0.98 [P = 0.0003]; rPI = 0.98 [P = 0.0004]), and greater than 40 μm (rAUC = 0.86 [P = 0.0120]; rPI = 0.92 [P = 0.0034]), respectively. However, the DCE-US parameter values of perfusion and blood volume

  12. Intratumoral injection of Propionibacterium acnes suppresses malignant melanoma by enhancing Th1 immune responses.

    Kenshiro Tsuda

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma (MM is an aggressive cutaneous malignancy associated with poor prognosis; many putatively therapeutic agents have been administered, but with mostly unsuccessful results. Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes is an aerotolerant anaerobic gram-positive bacteria that causes acne and inflammation. After being engulfed and processed by phagocytes, P. acnes induces a strong Th1-type cytokine immune response by producing cytokines such as IL-12, IFN-γ and TNF-α. The characteristic Th2-mediated allergic response can be counteracted by Th1 cytokines induced by P. acnes injection. This inflammatory response induced by P. acnes has been suggested to have antitumor activity, but its effect on MM has not been fully evaluated.We analyzed the anti-tumor activity of P. acnes vaccination in a mouse model of MM. Intratumoral administration of P. acnes successfully protected the host against melanoma progression in vivo by inducing both cutaneous and systemic Th1 type cytokine expression, including TNF-α and IFN-γ, which are associated with subcutaneous granuloma formation. P. acnes-treated tumor lesions were infiltrated with TNF-α and IFN-γ positive T cells. In the spleen, TNF-α as well as IFN-γ producing CD8(+T cells were increased, and interestingly, the number of monocytes was also increased following P. acnes administration. These observations suggest that P. acnes vaccination induces both systemic and local antitumor responses. In conclusion, this study shows that P. acnes vaccination may be a potent therapeutic alternative in MM.

  13. Intratumoral injection of taxol in vivo suppresses A549 tumor showing cytoplasmic vacuolization.

    Wang, Chaoyang; Chen, Tongsheng


    Based on our recent in vitro studies, this report was designed to explore the mechanism by which high concentration of taxol (70 µM) induced paraptosis-like cell death in human lung carcinoma (A549) cells, and to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of taxol using A549 tumor-bearing mice in vivo. Exposure of cells to taxol induced time-dependent cytotoxicity and cytoplasmic vacuolization without the involvement of Bax, Bak, Mcl-1, Bcl-XL, and caspase-3. Although taxol treatment induced activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) cleavage indicative of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, silencing ATF6 by shATF6 did not prevent taxol-induced both cytotoxcity and cytoplasmic vacuolization, suggesting that taxol-induced cytoplasmic vacuolization and cell death were not due to ER stress. Moreover, taxol-treated cells did not show DNA fragmentation and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the typical characteristics of apoptosis. In addition, taxol-induced cytoplasmic vacuolization did not show the cellular lysis, the characteristics of oncosis, and positive of β-galactosidase, the characteristic of senescence, indicating that taxol induced paraptosis-like cell death is neither oncosis nor senescence. Moreover, our in vivo data showed that intratumoral injection of taxol (50 mg/kg) in A549 tumor xenograft mice on day 1 and day 19 potently suppressed tumor growth showing significant ER vacuolization without toxicity. In conclusion, high concentration of taxol exhibits a significant anticancer activity by inducing paraptosis-like cell death in vitro and in vivo, without significant toxicity, suggesting a promising therapeutic strategy for apoptosis-resistance cancer by inducing ER vacuolization.

  14. Regional bias of intratumoral genetic heterogeneity of nucleotide repeats in colon cancers with microsatellite instability.

    Choi, Youn Jin; Kim, Min Sung; An, Chang Hyeok; Yoo, Nam Jin; Lee, Sug Hyung


    Intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) may produce regional biases in genotype and phenotype evaluation in a single tumor and may impede proper cancer diagnosis. To evaluate the extent of ITH in colorectal cancer (CRC) with microsatellite instability (MSI), we obtained 4-7 biopsies from 39 CRCs followed by MSI analysis either using the Bethesda MSI evaluation system or Promega system with 5 mononucleotide markers. We found decreased prevalence of MSI (+) by the Promega system compared to the Bethesda system. The overall discordance between the two systems was 54 %. In contrast to the previous studies that had shown discordance only in low MSI (MSI-L), our results showed the discordance not only in MSI-L, but also in high MSI (MSI-H) cases. Among the MSI (+) CRCs, ITH of MSI status was identified in 41.7 % of CRC by the Bethesda system and 22.2 % by the Promega system. In terms of MSI markers, the ITH originated from dinucleotide markers in most cases (69 %), but it originated from mononucleotide markers (31 %) as well. Pooling of DNA from a regional biopsy with MSI (+) with additional biopsies from stable MSI (MSS) showed that this approach was beneficial to increase the sensitivity of MSI detection. Our results indicate that ITH of MSI phenotype by the Bethesda system is more overestimated than previously identified. However, because there was considerable ITH of MSI subtypes and markers even by the Promega system, our data suggest that analysis of MSI status in multiple regional biopsies is needed for a better evaluation of MSI status in CRC.

  15. Increased radiosensitivity of colorectal tumors with intra-tumoral injection of low dose of gold nanoparticles

    Shi, Minghan; Paquette, Benoit; Thippayamontri, Thititip; Gendron, Louis; Guérin, Brigitte; Sanche, Léon


    The potential of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as radiosensitizers for the treatment of malignant tumors has been limited by the large quantities of GNPs that must be administered and the requirement for low-energy X-ray irradiation to optimize radiosensitization. In this study, we enhance the radiosensitivity of HCT116 human colorectal cells with tiopronin-coated GNPs (Tio-GNPs) combined with a low-energy X-ray (26 keV effective energy) source, similar to the Papillon 50 clinical irradiator used for topical irradiation of rectal tumors. Sensitizer enhancement ratios of 1.48 and 1.69 were measured in vitro, when the HCT116 cells were incubated with 0.1 mg/mL and 0.25 mg/mL of Tio-GNPs, respectively. In nude mice bearing the HCT116 tumor, intra-tumoral (IT) injection of Tio-GNPs allowed a 94 times higher quantity of Tio-GNPs to accumulate than was possible by intravenous injection and facilitated a significant tumor response. The time following irradiation, for tumors growing to four times their initial tumor volume (4Td) was 54 days for the IT injection of 366.3 μg of Tio-GNPs plus 10 Gy, compared to 37 days with radiation alone (P=0.0018). Conversely, no significant improvement was obtained when GNPs were injected intravenously before tumor irradiation (P=0.6547). In conclusion, IT injection of Tio-GNPs combined with low-energy X-rays can significantly reduce the growth of colorectal tumors.

  16. Clinical and histopathological effect of combined preoperative radiation and intratumoral injections in rectal cancer

    Sarashina, H.; Todoroki, T.; Orii, K.; Otsu, H.; Iwasaki, Y.


    Twenty-one surgical patients with carcinoma of the rectum (Group 3) were treated with preoperative radiotherapy and intratumoral injections of Pepleomycin and BUdR (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine). On the other hand, 25 patients (Group 1) were treated by surgery alone and 7 patients (Group 2) were treated with preoperative radiotherapy alone. The difference in the background factors of the patients for three groups was not significant. The total dose of preoperative radiation was 42.6 Gy., e.i., 30.6 Gy. (1.8 Gy./fr. x 5/wk) delivered to the entire pelvis plus an additional 12 Gy. (3.0 Gy./fr. x 4/wk) to the primary tumor. The reduction rates in tumor regression on roentgenogram for Groups 2 and 3 were 30.5 % and 46.5 %, respectively. The extent of cancer cell invasion in rectal wall of the surgical specimens was examined histopathologically. In the preoperative radiation group, especially in Group 3, it was indicated that the stage of the lesion had been reduced. The rates of patients with an ew of less than 2 mm were 64.0 % in Group 1, 28.6 % in Group 2 and 14.3 % in Group 3 (Group 1 - 3 : p = 0.02). The incidence of positive lymph nodes was higher in Group 1 than in Groups 2 and 3. In a histopathological investigation of the patients in Group 3, the degenerative changes were heavier than in Group 2. Scattered mucocele transformation from the submucosal layer through to the adventitial tissue was noted in Group 3. This study suggests that the clinical and pathological effect of this combination therapy is able to increase the local control and survival rate.

  17. Injectable polypeptide micelles that form radiation crosslinked hydrogels in situ for intratumoral radiotherapy.

    Schaal, Jeffrey L; Li, Xinghai; Mastria, Eric; Bhattacharyya, Jayanta; Zalutsky, Michael R; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Liu, Wenge


    Intratumoral radiation therapy - 'brachytherapy' - is a highly effective treatment for solid tumors, particularly prostate cancer. Current titanium seed implants, however, are permanent and are limited in clinical application to indolent malignancies of low- to intermediate-risk. Attempts to develop polymeric alternatives, however, have been plagued by poor retention and off-target toxicity due to degradation. Herein, we report on a new approach whereby thermally sensitive micelles composed of an elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) are labeled with the radionuclide (131)I to form an in situ hydrogel that is stabilized by two independent mechanisms: first, body heat triggers the radioactive ELP micelles to rapidly phase transition into an insoluble, viscous coacervate in under 2 min; second, the high energy β-emissions of (131)I further stabilize the depot by introducing crosslinks within the ELP depot over 24h. These injectable brachytherapy hydrogels were used to treat two aggressive orthotopic tumor models in athymic nude mice: a human PC-3 M-luc-C6 prostate tumor and a human BxPc3-luc2 pancreatic tumor model. The ELP depots retained greater than 52% and 70% of their radioactivity through 60 days in the prostate and pancreatic tumors with no appreciable radioactive accumulation (≤ 0.1% ID) in off-target tissues after 72h. The (131)I-ELP depots achieved >95% tumor regression in the prostate tumors (n=8); with a median survival of more than 60 days compared to 12 days for control mice. For the pancreatic tumors, ELP brachytherapy (n=6) induced significant growth inhibition (p=0.001, ANOVA) and enhanced median survival to 27 days over controls.

  18. Alterations in potassium channel gene expression in atria of patients with persistent and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation : Differential regulation of protein and mRNA levels for K+ channels

    Brundel, BJJM; Van Gelder, IC; Henning, RH; Tuinenburg, AE; Wietses, M; Grandjean, JG; Wilde, AAM; Van Gilst, WH; Crijns, HJGM


    OBJECTIVES Our purpose was to determine whether patients with persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) and patients with paroxysmal AF show alterations in potassium channel expression. BACKGROUND Persistent AF is associated with a sustained shortening of the atrial action potential duration and atrial re

  19. Genome-wide expression profiling of in vivo-derived bloodstream parasite stages and dynamic analysis of mRNA alterations during synchronous differentiation in Trypanosoma brucei

    Ghazal Peter


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trypanosomes undergo extensive developmental changes during their complex life cycle. Crucial among these is the transition between slender and stumpy bloodstream forms and, thereafter, the differentiation from stumpy to tsetse-midgut procyclic forms. These developmental events are highly regulated, temporally reproducible and accompanied by expression changes mediated almost exclusively at the post-transcriptional level. Results In this study we have examined, by whole-genome microarray analysis, the mRNA abundance of genes in slender and stumpy forms of T.brucei AnTat1.1 cells, and also during their synchronous differentiation to procyclic forms. In total, five biological replicates representing the differentiation of matched parasite populations derived from five individual mouse infections were assayed, with RNAs being derived at key biological time points during the time course of their synchronous differentiation to procyclic forms. Importantly, the biological context of these mRNA profiles was established by assaying the coincident cellular events in each population (surface antigen exchange, morphological restructuring, cell cycle re-entry, thereby linking the observed gene expression changes to the well-established framework of trypanosome differentiation. Conclusion Using stringent statistical analysis and validation of the derived profiles against experimentally-predicted gene expression and phenotypic changes, we have established the profile of regulated gene expression during these important life-cycle transitions. The highly synchronous nature of differentiation between stumpy and procyclic forms also means that these studies of mRNA profiles are directly relevant to the changes in mRNA abundance within individual cells during this well-characterised developmental transition.

  20. Mouse-induced pluripotent stem cells differentiate into odontoblast-like cells with induction of altered adhesive and migratory phenotype of integrin.

    Nobuaki Ozeki

    Full Text Available Methods for differentiating induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells into odontoblasts generally require epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Here, we sought to characterize the cells produced by a 'hanging drop' technique for differentiating mouse iPS cells into odontoblast-like cells that requires no such interaction. Cells were cultured by the hanging drop method on a collagen type-I (Col-I scaffold (CS combined with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-4 (CS/BMP-4 without an epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. We evaluated the expression of odontoblast-related mRNA and protein, and the proliferation rate of these cells using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence staining, and BrdU cell proliferation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The differentiated cells strongly expressed the mRNA for dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP and dentin matrix protein-1 (Dmp-1, which are markers of mature odontoblasts. Osteopontin and osteocalcin were not expressed in the differentiated cells, demonstrating that the differentiated iPS cells bore little resemblance to osteoblasts. Instead, they acquired odontoblast-specific properties, including the adoption of an odontoblastic phenotype, typified by high alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and calcification capacity. The cell-surface expression of proteins such as integrins α2, α6, αV and αVβ3 was rapidly up-regulated. Interestingly, antibodies and siRNAs against integrin α2 suppressed the expression of DSPP and Dmp-1, reduced the activity of ALP and blocked calcification, suggesting that integrin α2 in iPS cells mediates their differentiation into odontoblast-like cells. The adhesion of these cells to fibronectin and Col-I, and their migration on these substrata, was significantly increased following differentiation into odontoblast-like cells. Thus, we have demonstrated that integrin α2 is involved in the differentiation of mouse iPS cells into odontoblast-like cells

  1. Impact of intratumoral expression levels of fluoropyrimidine-metabolizing enzymes on treatment outcomes of adjuvant S-1 therapy in gastric cancer.

    Kim, Ji-Yeon; Shin, Eun; Kim, Jin Won; Lee, Hye Seung; Lee, Dae-Won; Kim, Se-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Kim, Yu Jung; Kim, Jee Hyun; Bang, Soo-Mee; Ahn, Sang-Hoon; Park, Do Joong; Lee, Jong Seok; Lee, Ju-Seog; Kim, Hyung-Ho; Lee, Keun-Wook


    We analyzed the expression levels of fluoropyrimidine-metabolizing enzymes (thymidylate synthase [TS], dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase [DPD], thymidine phosphorylase [TP] and orotate phosphoribosyltransferase [OPRT]) to identify potential biomarkers related to treatment outcomes in gastric cancer (GC) patients receiving adjuvant S-1 chemotherapy. In this study, 184 patients who received curative gastrectomy (D2 lymph node dissection) and adjuvant S-1 were included. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were performed to measure the protein and mRNA levels of TS, DPD, TP, and OPRT in tumor tissue. In univariate analysis, low intratumoral DPD protein expression was related to poorer 5-year disease-free survival (DFS; 78% vs. 88%; P = 0.068). Low intratumoral DPD mRNA expression (1st [lowest] quartile) was also related to poorer DFS (69% vs. 90%; P DPD expression (2nd to 4th quartiles). In multivariate analyses, low intratumoral DPD protein or mRNA expression was related to worse DFS (P DPD mRNA expression (29% vs. 16%; P = 0.068). In conclusion, GC patients with high intratumoral DPD expression did not have inferior outcome following adjuvant S-1 therapy compared with those with low DPD expression. Instead, low intratumoral DPD expression was related to poor DFS.


    We demonstrated recently that 6 days of exposure to nanomolar concentrations (3-10 nM) of methylmercury (MeHg) during nerve growth factor (NGF) induced PC12 cell differentiation reduced the amplitude and density of voltage-gated sodium and calcium currents. In the present study,...

  3. B cell differentiation in EBV-positive Burkitt Lymphoma is impaired at post-transcriptional level by miRNA altered expression

    Leucci, E; Onnis, A; Cocco, M


    . The appearance of a germinal center phenotype in EBV-positive cells might thus derive from a block in B cell differentiation. The exit from the germinal center involves a complex series of events which require the activation of BLIMP-1 and the consequent down-regulation of several target genes.Here, we...... investigated the expression of specific miRNAs predicted to be involved in B cell differentiation and we found that hsa-miR-127 is differentially expressed between EBV-positive and EBV-negative BLs. In particular, it was strongly up-regulated only in EBV-positive BL samples, whereas EBV-negative cases showed...... levels of expression similar to normal controls, including microdissected GC cells.In addition, we found evidence that hsa-miR-127 is involved in B cell differentiation process through post transcriptional regulation of BLIMP1 and XBP1. The over-expression of this miRNA may thus represent a key event...

  4. [Effects of intratumoral injection of microspheres containing cobra venom cytotoxin on transplanted human hepatoma in nude mice].

    Wang, Yan; Lin, Li-wu; Chen, Zhi-kui; Xue, En-sheng; Lin, Xiao-dong; Yu, Li-Yun; Lin, Zhen-hu


    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intratumoral injection of polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microspheres containing cobra venom cytotoxin in nude mice with transplanted human hepatoma. Cytotoxic activity of cytotoxin from cobra venom was determined by using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium method in vitro. Microspheres containing cobra venom cytotoxin were prepared with a double emulsion-solvent evaporation method. Forty BALB/c nude mice were inoculated subcutaneously in right flank with hepatoma BEL-7404 cells. Thirty-two mice whose tumor size reached about 1.0 cm in diameter, were randomly assigned into normal saline group, blank microsphers group, cytotoxin group and cytotoxin-PLGA group. Nude mice were intratumorally injected with normal saline, blank microspheres, cytotoxin or cytotoxin-PLGA microspheres respectively. Internal echo characteristics and blood flow of tumors were observed by high-frequency ultrasound every week after treatment. Twenty-six days after treatment, the tumors were removed to calculate the inhibition rate of tumor growth. The tumor, heart, liver and kidney tissues were obtained for histopathological examination. The cytotoxin separated and purified from crude cobra venom caused intense cytotoxic effects to the BEL-7404 cells in vitro. The diameter of PLGA microspheres containing cobra venom cytotoxin was about (34.45+/-9.85)microm. Encapsulation rate was up to (78.13+/-8.92)%, and cumulative amount of cobra venom cytotoxin released from the PLGA microspheres in vitro during 30 days was up to 84.3%. After intratumoral injection, tumor volumes and weights in the cytotoxin-PLGA group were lower than those in the normal saline group, with a tumor growth inhibition rate of 52.36%. Observed under a light microscope, most tumor tissues were necrotic. No obvious morphological change could be seen on the liver, kidney and heart tissues. The above findings indicate that intratumoral injection of cytotoxin-PLGA microspheres has strong

  5. Metaplastic thymoma with myasthenia gravis presumably caused by an accumulation of intratumoral immature T cells: a case report.

    Tajima, Shogo; Yanagiya, Masahiro; Sato, Masaaki; Nakajima, Jun; Fukayama, Masashi


    Among human neoplasms, thymomas are well known for their association with paraneoplastic autoimmune diseases such as myasthenia gravis. However, regarding rare metaplastic thymoma, only one case of an association with myasthenia gravis has been reported. Here, we present the second case of a 44-year-old woman with metaplastic thymoma associated with myasthenia gravis. In metaplastic thymoma, intratumoral terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-positive T-cells (immature T-cells) are generally scarce, while they were abundant in the present case. We believe that these immature T-cells could be related to the occurrence of myasthenia gravis.

  6. Melanogenesis stimulation in B16-F10 melanoma cells induces cell cycle alterations, increased ROS levels and a differential expression of proteins as revealed by proteomic analysis

    Cunha, Elizabeth S.; Kawahara, Rebeca [Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, Setor de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Parana, P.O. Box 19046, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Kadowaki, Marina K. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana, Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Amstalden, Hudson G.; Noleto, Guilhermina R.; Cadena, Silvia Maria S.C.; Winnischofer, Sheila M.B. [Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, Setor de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Parana, P.O. Box 19046, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Martinez, Glaucia R., E-mail: [Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, Setor de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Parana, P.O. Box 19046, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)


    Considering that stimulation of melanogenesis may lead to alterations of cellular responses, besides melanin production, our main goal was to study the cellular effects of melanogenesis stimulation of B16-F10 melanoma cells. Our results show increased levels of the reactive oxygen species after 15 h of melanogenesis stimulation. Following 48 h of melanogenesis stimulation, proliferation was inhibited (by induction of cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase) and the expression levels of p21 mRNA were increased. In addition, melanogenesis stimulation did not induce cellular senescence. Proteomic analysis demonstrated the involvement of proteins from other pathways besides those related to the cell cycle, including protein disulfide isomerase A3, heat-shock protein 70, and fructose biphosphate aldolase A (all up-regulated), and lactate dehydrogenase (down-regulated). In RT-qPCR experiments, the levels of pyruvate kinase M2 mRNA dropped, whereas the levels of ATP synthase (beta-F1) mRNA increased. These data indicate that melanogenesis stimulation of B16-F10 cells leads to alterations in metabolism and cell cycle progression that may contribute to an induction of cell quiescence, which may provide a mechanism of resistance against cellular injury promoted by melanin synthesis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Melanogenesis stimulation by L-tyrosine+NH{sub 4}Cl in B16-F10 melanoma cells increases ROS levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Melanogenesis inhibits cell proliferation, and induced cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proteomic analysis showed alterations in proteins of the cell cycle and glucose metabolism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RT-qPCR analysis confirmed alterations of metabolic targets after melanogenesis stimulation.

  7. The magnitude of HIV-1 resistance to the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc may impart a differential alteration in HIV-1 tropism for macrophages and T-cell subsets.

    Flynn, Jacqueline K; Paukovics, Geza; Moore, Miranda S; Ellett, Anne; Gray, Lachlan R; Duncan, Renee; Salimi, Hamid; Jubb, Becky; Westby, Mike; Purcell, Damian F J; Lewin, Sharon R; Lee, Benhur; Churchill, Melissa J; Gorry, Paul R; Roche, Michael


    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) resistance to CCR5 antagonists, including maraviroc (MVC), results from alterations in the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env) enabling recognition of antagonist-bound CCR5. Here, we characterized tropism alterations for CD4+ T-cell subsets and macrophages by Envs from two subjects who developed MVC resistance in vivo, which displayed either relatively efficient or inefficient recognition of MVC-bound CCR5. We show that MVC-resistant Env with efficient recognition of drug-bound CCR5 displays a tropism shift for CD4+ T-cell subsets associated with increased infection of central memory T-cells and reduced infection of effector memory and transitional memory T-cells, and no change in macrophage infectivity. In contrast, MVC-resistant Env with inefficient recognition of drug-bound CCR5 displays no change in tropism for CD4+ T-cell subsets, but exhibits a significant reduction in macrophage infectivity. The pattern of HIV-1 tropism alterations for susceptible cells may therefore be variable in subjects with MVC resistance.

  8. Peptide-based MRI contrast agent and near-infrared fluorescent probe for intratumoral legumain detection.

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Wu, Shou-Cheng; Chen, Chung-Yung; Tzou, Shey-Cherng; Cheng, Tian-Lu; Huang, Ying-Fang; Yuan, Shyng-Shiou; Wang, Yun-Ming


    Recent studies suggest that intratumoral legumain promotes tumorigenesis. To monitor legumain activity in tumors, we developed a new MRI contrast agent ([Gd-NBCB-TTDA-Leg(L)]) and a NIR fluorescence probe (CyTE777-Leg(L)-CyTE807). The MRI contrast agent was prepared by introduction of cyclobutyl and benzyl group residues to TTDA (3,6,10-tri(carboxymethyl)-3,6,10-triaza-dodecanedioic acid), followed by the attachment of a legumain-specific substrate peptide (Leg(L)). The NIR fluorescence probe was designed by conjugating two NIR fluorochromes (CyTE777 and CyTE807) with Leg(L). Peptide cleavage of the MRI contrast agent by legumain can increase its hydrophobicity and promote rotational correlation time (τ(R)). Peptide cleavage of the NIR probes by the legumain relieves the self quench of the probe. Peptide cleavage of the MRI contrast agent and the NIR fluorescence probe by legumain were confirmed by T1 relaxometric studies and by fluorescence studies, respectively. In vivo MR images showed that [Gd-NBCB-TTDA-Leg(L)] attained 55.3 fold (254.2% versus 4.6%, at 2.0 h post-injection) higher imaging enhancement, as compared with control contrast agent bearing a noncleaveable peptide ([Gd-NBCB-TTDA-Leg(D)], in the CT-26 (legumain(+)) tumors. Similarly, optical imaging probe CyTE777-Leg(L)-CyTE807 attained 15.2 fold (3.34 × 10(9) photons/min versus 0.22 × 10(9) photons/min, at 24.0 h post-injection) higher imaging enhancement in the CT-26 (legumain(+)) tumors, compared to a NIR control probe (CyTE777-Leg(D)-CyTE807). These data indicate that the [Gd-NBCB-TTDA-Leg(L)] and the CyTE777-Leg(L)-CyTE807 probes may be promising tools to image the legumain-expressing cancers for diagnoses and targeted treatments.

  9. Differentiation-Associated MicroRNA Alterations in Mouse Heart-Derived Sca-1+CD31− and Sca-1+CD31+ Cells

    Qiong Wu


    Full Text Available Cardiac resident stem/progenitor cells (CSC/CPCs are critical to the cellular and functional integrity of the heart because they maintain myocardial cell homeostasis. Several populations of CSC/CPCs have been identified based on expression of different stem cell-associated antigens. Sca-1+ cells in the cardiac tissue may be the most common CSC/CPCs. However, they are a heterogeneous cell population and, in transplants, clinicians might transplant more endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes, or other cells than stem cells. The purposes of this study were to (1 isolate CSC/CPCs with Lin−CD45−Sca-1+CD31− and Lin−CD45−Sca-1+CD31+ surface antigens using flow-activated cell sorting; (2 investigate their differentiation potential; and (3 determine the molecular basis for differences in stemness characteristics between cell subtypes. The results indicated that mouse heart-derived Sca-1+CD31− cells were multipotent and retained the ability to differentiate into different cardiac cell lineages, but Sca-1+CD31+ cells did not. Integrated analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression indicated that 20 microRNAs and 49 mRNAs were inversely associated with Sca-1+CD31− and Sca-1+CD31+ subtype stemness characteristics. In particular, mmu-miR-322-5p had more targeted and inversely associated genes and transcription factors and might have higher potential for CSC/CPCs differentiation.

  10. Intratumoral peripheral small papillary tufts: a diagnostic clue of renal tumors associated with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome.

    Kuroda, Naoto; Furuya, Mitsuko; Nagashima, Yoji; Gotohda, Hiroko; Moritani, Suzuko; Kawakami, Fumi; Imamura, Yoshiaki; Bando, Yoshimi; Takahashi, Masayuki; Kanayama, Hiro-omi; Ota, Satoshi; Michal, Michal; Hes, Ondrej; Nakatani, Yukio


    In this article, we searched for the common histologic characteristic of renal tumors in patients with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS). We selected 6 patients with histologically confirmed renal tumor in BHDS. Germline FLCN gene mutation has been identified in 5 patients. Multifocality and bilaterality of the renal tumors were pathologically or radiologically confirmed in 5 and 2 cases, respectively. Histologic subtypes of the dominant tumor included 3 previously described hybrid oncocytic tumors, one composite chromophobe/papillary/clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and one unclassified RCC resembling hybrid chromophobe/clear cell RCC. In one case, chromophobe RCC and clear cell RCC were separately observed. Small papillary lesions located in the peripheral area of the tumor, which we designated as intratumoral peripheral small papillary tufts, were identified in all patients. In conclusion, multifocality/bilaterality of renal tumors, discordance of histologic subtypes, and the presence of intratumoral peripheral small papillary tufts may be important clues to identify BHDS-associated renal tumors.

  11. Comparison of hyperthermia and adrenaline to enhance the intratumoral accumulation of cisplatin in a murin model of peritoneal carcinomatosis

    Tixier Hervé


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The best method to deliver intraperitoneal chemotherapy (IPC for peritoneal carcinomatosis from ovarian cancer is not well defined. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of hyperthermia and adrenaline to enhance the intratumoral accumulation of cisplatin in a rat model of peritoneal carcinomatosis. Methods Four groups of 5 BDIX rats with ovarian peritoneal carcinomatosis underwent IPC with 30 mg/l of cisplatin according to the following conditions: normothermia at 37° for 1 or 2 hours, hyperthermia at 42°C for 1 hour or normothermia at 37°C for 2 hours with 2 mg/l adrenaline. Tissue platinum content was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The effect of hyperthermia, adrenaline and the duration of exposure to the drug was measured in vivo (tissue concentration of platinum in tumor, abdominal and extra abdominal tissues and in vitro (cytotoxicity on human ovarian cancer cells. Results In vitro, hyperthermia and longer exposure enhanced the accumulation and the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin on cancer cells. In vivo, only the 2 hours treatment with adrenaline resulted in increased platinum concentrations. The rats treated with adrenaline showed significantly lower concentrations of cisplatin in extra peritoneal tissues than those treated with hyperthermia. Conclusion Adrenaline is more effective than hyperthermia in order to enhance the intratumoral concentration of cisplatin in rats with peritoneal carcinomatosis from ovarian origin. It may also decrease the systemic absorption of the drug.

  12. A novel doxorubicin-loaded in situ forming gel based high concentration of phospholipid for intratumoral drug delivery.

    Wu, Wenqi; Chen, Hui; Shan, Fengying; Zhou, Jing; Sun, Xun; Zhang, Ling; Gong, Tao


    The purpose of this study was to develop a safe and effective drug delivery system for local chemotherapy. A novel injectable in-situ-forming gel system was prepared using small molecule materials, including phospholipids, medium chain triglycerides (MCTs), and ethanol. Thus, this new sustained release system was named PME (first letter of phospholipids, MCT, and ethanol). PME has a well-defined molecule structure, a high degree of safety, and better biocompatible characteristics. It was in sol state with low viscosity in vitro and turned into a solid or semisolid gel in situ after injection. When loaded with doxorubicin (Dox), PME-D (doxorubicin-loaded PME) exhibited notably antitumor efficiency in S180 sarcoma tumors bearing mice after a single intratumoral injection. In vitro, PME-D had remarkable antiproliferative efficacies against MCF-7 breast cancer cells for over 5 days. Moreover, the initial burst effect can hardly be observed from PME system, which was different from many other in-situ-forming gels. The in vivo biodistribution study showed the high Dox concentration in tumors compared with other major organs after PME-D intratumoral administration. The strong signal in tumors was retained for more than 14 days after one single injection. The high concentration of Dox in tumor and long-term retention may explain the superior therapeutic efficacy and reduced side effects. The PME-D in-situ-forming gel system is a promising drug delivery system for local chemotherapy.

  13. Evaluation of Breast Cancer Stem Cells and Intratumor Stemness Heterogeneity in Triple-negative Breast Cancer as Prognostic Factors

    Yang, Fang; Cao, Lulu; Sun, Zijia; Jin, Juan; Fang, Hehui; Zhang, Wenwen; Guan, Xiaoxiang


    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a tumor subtype with aggressive behavior and poor clinical outcome for lacking effective therapies. Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) have been suggested to have tumor-initiating properties, but it remains unclear whether their presence contributes to the increased aggressiveness and poor prognosis of TNBC. Also, the breast cancers display frequent inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity, which adds the complexity in diagnosis and predicting prognosis. Here we investigated the clinical relevance and prognostic value of the BCSC markers, CD44+/CD24-, aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A1 (ALDH1A1) and CD133 in 88 TNBC cases. We found that a few patients displayed spatial heterogeneity of the BCSC markers in expression, which was defined as intratumor stemness heterogeneity (ITSH) below. There was no significant correlation between any BCSC marker alone or ITSH and progression-free survival (PFS). Interestingly, the combined BCSC phenotype by CD44+/CD24- and ALDH1A1 was significantly associated with worse PFS (P = 0.009). Further stratification analysis revealed that this combined BCSC phenotype was an independent prognostic factor for PFS in some subgroups. In conclusion, we demonstrated the existence of ITSH in TNBC and found that the ITSH as well as a single BCSC marker was not significantly associated with survival, whereas combing the analysis of BCSC markers could improve prognostic value. Our findings may lead to an improvement of prognostic indicators in TNBC. PMID:27994520

  14. Bone-derived mesenchymal stromal cells from HIV transgenic mice exhibit altered proliferation, differentiation capacity and paracrine functions along with impaired therapeutic potential in kidney injury

    Cheng, Kang; Rai, Partab; Lan, Xiqian; Plagov, Andrei; Malhotra, Ashwani [Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhassett, NY (United States); Gupta, Sanjeev [Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Marion Bessin Liver Research Center, Diabetes Center, Cancer Center, Ruth L. and David S. Gottesman Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research, Institute for Clinical and Translational Research, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Singhal, Pravin C., E-mail: [Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhassett, NY (United States)


    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete paracrine factors that could be cytoprotective and serve roles in immunoregulation during tissue injury. Although MSCs express HIV receptors, and co-receptors, and are susceptible to HIV infection, whether HIV-1 may affect biological properties of MSCs needs more study. We evaluated cellular proliferation, differentiation and paracrine functions of MSCs isolated from compact bones of healthy control mice and Tg26 HIV-1 transgenic mice. The ability of MSCs to protect against cisplatin toxicity was studied in cultured renal tubular cells as well as in intact mice. We successfully isolated MSCs from healthy mice and Tg26 HIV-1 transgenic mice and found the latter expressed viral Nef, Vpu, NL4-3 and Vif genes. The proliferation and differentiation of Tg26 HIV-1 MSCs was inferior to MSCs from healthy mice. Moreover, transplantation of Tg26 HIV-1 MSCs less effectively improved outcomes compared with healthy MSCs in mice with acute kidney injury. Also, Tg26 HIV-1 MSCs secreted multiple cytokines, but at significantly lower levels than healthy MSCs, which resulted in failure of conditioned medium from these MSCs to protect cultured renal tubular cells from cisplatin toxicity. Therefore, HIV-1 had adverse biological effects on MSCs extending to their proliferation, differentiation, function, and therapeutic potential. These findings will help in advancing mechanistical insight in renal injury and repair in the setting of HIV-1 infection. -- Highlights: •MSCs isolated from HIV mice displayed HIV genes. •MSCs isolated from HIV mice exhibited attenuated growth and paracrine functions. •AKI mice with transplanted HIV-MSC displayed poor outcome. •HIV-1 MSC secreted multiple cytokines but at a lower level.

  15. Green tea, black tea, and epigallocatechin modify body composition, improve glucose tolerance, and differentially alter metabolic gene expression in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Chen, Nora; Bezzina, Rebecca; Hinch, Edward; Lewandowski, Paul A; Cameron-Smith, David; Mathai, Michael L; Jois, Markandeya; Sinclair, Andrew J; Begg, Denovan P; Wark, John D; Weisinger, Harrison S; Weisinger, Richard S


    The mechanisms of how tea and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) lower body fat are not completely understood. This study investigated long-term administration of green tea (GT), black tea (BT), or isolated EGCG (1 mg/kg per day) on body composition, glucose tolerance, and gene expression related to energy metabolism and lipid homeostasis; it was hypothesized that all treatments would improve the indicators of metabolic syndrome. Rats were fed a 15% fat diet for 6 months from 4 weeks of age and were supplied GT, BT, EGCG, or water. GT and BT reduced body fat, whereas GT and EGCG increased lean mass. At 16 weeks GT, BT, and EGCG improved glucose tolerance. In the liver, GT and BT increased the expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis (SREBP-1c, FAS, MCD, ACC) and oxidation (PPAR-alpha, CPT-1, ACO); however, EGCG had no effect. In perirenal fat, genes that mediate adipocyte differentiation were suppressed by GT (Pref-1, C/EBP-beta, and PPAR-gamma) and BT (C/EBP-beta), while decreasing LPL, HSL, and UCP-2 expression; EGCG increased expression of UCP-2 and PPAR-gamma genes. Liver triacylglycerol content was unchanged. The results suggest that GT and BT suppressed adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid uptake into adipose tissue, while increasing fat synthesis and oxidation by the liver, without inducing hepatic fat accumulation. In contrast, EGCG increased markers of thermogenesis and differentiation in adipose tissue, while having no effect on liver or muscle tissues at this dose. These results show novel and separate mechanisms by which tea and EGCG may improve glucose tolerance and support a role for these compounds in obesity prevention.

  16. Altered DNA Methylation and Differential Expression of Genes Influencing Metabolism and Inflammation in Adipose Tissue From Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes

    Nilsson, Emma; Jansson, Per Anders; Perfilyev, Alexander


    Genetics, epigenetics, and environment may together affect the susceptibility for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our aim was to dissect molecular mechanisms underlying T2D using genome-wide expression and DNA methylation data in adipose tissue from monozygotic twin pairs discordant for T2D and independent...... genes included ELOVL6, GYS2, FADS1, SPP1 (OPN), CCL18, and IL1RN. We replicated these results in adipose tissue from an independent case-control cohort. Several candidate genes for obesity and T2D (e.g., IRS1 and VEGFA) were differentially expressed in discordant twins. We found a heritable contribution...... twin pairs discordant for T2D. Taken together, subjects with T2D exhibit multiple transcriptional and epigenetic changes in adipose tissue relevant to the development of the disease....

  17. Stress differentially alters mu opioid receptor density and trafficking in parvalbumin-containing interneurons in the female and male rat hippocampus.

    Milner, Teresa A; Burstein, Suzanne R; Marrone, Gina F; Khalid, Sana; Gonzalez, Andreina D; Williams, Tanya J; Schierberl, Kathryn C; Torres-Reveron, Annelyn; Gonzales, Keith L; McEwen, Bruce S; Waters, Elizabeth M


    Stress differentially affects hippocampal-dependent learning relevant to addiction and morphology in male and female rats. Mu opioid receptors (MORs), which are located in parvalbumin (PARV)-containing GABAergic interneurons and are trafficked in response to changes in the hormonal environment, play a critical role in promoting principal cell excitability and long-term potentiation. Here, we compared the effects of acute and chronic immobilization stress (AIS and CIS) on MOR trafficking in PARV-containing neurons in the hilus of the dentate gyrus in female and male rats using dual label immunoelectron microscopy. Following AIS, the density of MOR silver-intensified gold particles (SIGs) in the cytoplasm of PARV-labeled dendrites was significantly reduced in females (estrus stage). Conversely, AIS significantly increased the proportion of cytoplasmic MOR SIGs in PARV-labeled dendrites in male rats. CIS significantly reduced the number of PARV-labeled neurons in the dentate hilus of males but not females. However, MOR/PARV-labeled dendrites and terminals were significantly smaller in CIS females, but not males, compared with controls. Following CIS, the density of cytoplasmic MOR SIGs increased in PARV-labeled dendrites and terminals in females. Moreover, the proportion of near-plasmalemmal MOR SIGs relative to total decreased in large PARV-labeled dendrites in females. After CIS, no changes in the density or trafficking of MOR SIGs were seen in PARV-labeled dendrites or terminals in males. These data show that AIS and CIS differentially affect available MOR pools in PARV-containing interneurons in female and male rats. Furthermore, they suggest that CIS could affect principal cell excitability in a manner that maintains learning processes in females but not males.

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 101, PCB 153 and PCB 180) alter leptin signaling and lipid metabolism in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Ferrante, Maria C. [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, Federico II University of Naples, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples (Italy); Amero, Paola; Santoro, Anna [Department of Pharmacy, Federico II University of Naples, Via Montesano 49, 80131 Naples (Italy); Monnolo, Anna [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, Federico II University of Naples, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples (Italy); Simeoli, Raffaele; Di Guida, Francesca [Department of Pharmacy, Federico II University of Naples, Via Montesano 49, 80131 Naples (Italy); Mattace Raso, Giuseppina, E-mail: [Department of Pharmacy, Federico II University of Naples, Via Montesano 49, 80131 Naples (Italy); Meli, Rosaria, E-mail: [Department of Pharmacy, Federico II University of Naples, Via Montesano 49, 80131 Naples (Italy)


    Non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) are highly lipophilic environmental contaminants that accumulate in lipid-rich tissues, such as adipose tissue. Here, we reported the effects induced by PCBs 101, 153 and 180, three of the six NDL-PCBs defined as indicators, on mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We observed an increase in lipid content, in leptin gene expression and a reduction of leptin receptor expression and signaling, when cells were exposed to PCBs, alone or in combination. These modifications were consistent with the occurrence of “leptin-resistance” in adipose tissue, a typical metabolic alteration related to obesity. Therefore, we investigated how PCBs affect the expression of pivotal proteins involved in the signaling of leptin receptor. We evaluated the PCB effect on the intracellular pathway JAK/STAT, determining the phosphorylation of STAT3, a downstream activator of the transcription of leptin gene targets, and the expression of SOCS3 and PTP1B, two important regulators of leptin resistance. In particular, PCBs 153 and 180 or all PCB combinations induced a significant reduction in pSTAT3/STAT3 ratio and an increase in PTP1B and SOCS3, evidencing an additive effect. The impairment of leptin signaling was associated with the reduction of AMPK/ACC pathway activation, leading to the increase in lipid content. These pollutants were also able to increase the transcription of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNFα). It is worthy to note that the PCB concentrations used are comparable to levels detectable in human adipose tissue. Our data strongly support the hypothesis that NDL-PCBs may interfere with the lipid metabolism contributing to the development of obesity and related diseases. - Highlights: • NDL-PCBs alter lipid content and metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. • Impairment of leptin signaling was induced by NDL-PCBs. • NDL-PCBs reduce AMPK and ACC activation. • NDL-PCBs induce the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokine by

  19. Pilot study of intratumoral injection of recombinant heat shock protein 70 in the treatment of malignant brain tumors in children

    Shevtsov MA


    Full Text Available Maxim A Shevtsov,1,2 Alexander V Kim,2 Konstantin A Samochernych,2 Irina V Romanova,3 Boris A Margulis,1 Irina V Guzhova,1 Igor V Yakovenko,2 Alexander M Ischenko,4 William A Khachatryan2 1Institute of Cytology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2AL Polenov Russian Research Scientific Institute of Neurosurgery, 3IM Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 4Research Institute of Highly Pure Biopreparations, St Petersburg, Russian Federation Abstract: Intratumoral injections of recombinant heat shock protein (Hsp70 were explored for feasibility in patients with brain tumors. Patients aged 4.5–14 years with untreated newly diagnosed tumors (n=12 were enrolled. After tumor resection, five injections of recombinant Hsp70 (total 2.5 mg were administered into the resection cavity through a catheter. Before administration of Hsp70 and after the last injection, specific immune responses to the autologous tumor lysate were evaluated using the delayed-type hypersensitivity test. Further, peripheral blood was monitored to identify possible changes in lymphocyte subpopulations, cytokine levels, and the cytolytic activity of natural killer cells. The follow-up period in this trial was 12 months. Intratumoral injections of Hsp70 were well tolerated by patients. One patient had a complete clinical response documented by radiologic findings and one patient had a partial response. A positive delayed-type hypersensitivity test was observed in three patients. In peripheral blood, there was a shift from cytokines provided by Th2 cells toward cytokines of a Th1-cell-mediated response. These data corresponded to changes in lymphocyte subpopulations. Immunosuppressive T-regulatory cell levels were also reduced after injection of Hsp70, as well as production of interleukin-10. The cytolytic activity of natural killer cells was unchanged. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of intratumoral delivery

  20. A histological evaluation and in vivo assessment of intratumoral near infrared photothermal nanotherapy-induced tumor regression

    Green HN


    Full Text Available Hadiyah N Green,1,2 Stephanie D Crockett,3 Dmitry V Martyshkin,1 Karan P Singh,2,4 William E Grizzle,2,5 Eben L Rosenthal,2,6 Sergey B Mirov11Department of Physics, Center for Optical Sensors and Spectroscopies, 2Comprehensive Cancer Center, 3Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, 4Department of Medicine, Division of Preventive Medicine, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Shared Facility, 5Department of Pathology, 6Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAPurpose: Nanoparticle (NP-enabled near infrared (NIR photothermal therapy has realized limited success in in vivo studies as a potential localized cancer therapy. This is primarily due to a lack of successful methods that can prevent NP uptake by the reticuloendothelial system, especially the liver and kidney, and deliver sufficient quantities of intravenously injected NPs to the tumor site. Histological evaluation of photothermal therapy-induced tumor regression is also neglected in the current literature. This report demonstrates and histologically evaluates the in vivo potential of NIR photothermal therapy by circumventing the challenges of intravenous NP delivery and tumor targeting found in other photothermal therapy studies.Methods: Subcutaneous Cal 27 squamous cell carcinoma xenografts received photothermal nanotherapy treatments, radial injections of polyethylene glycol (PEG-ylated gold nanorods and one NIR 785 nm laser irradiation for 10 minutes at 9.5 W/cm2. Tumor response was measured for 10–15 days, gross changes in tumor size were evaluated, and the remaining tumors or scar tissues were excised and histologically analyzed.Results: The single treatment of intratumoral nanorod injections followed by a 10 minute NIR laser treatment also known as photothermal nanotherapy, resulted in ~100% tumor regression in ~90% of treated tumors, which was statistically significant in a

  1. Limited Role for Biliary Stent as Surrogate Fiducial Marker in Pancreatic Cancer: Stent and Intratumoral Fiducials Compared

    Horst, Astrid van der, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lens, Eelco; Wognum, Silvia; Jong, Rianne de [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hooft, Jeanin E. van [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Bel, Arjan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    Purpose: Because of low soft-tissue contrast of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), fiducial markers are often used for radiation therapy patient setup verification. For pancreatic cancer patients, biliary stents have been suggested as surrogate fiducials. Using intratumoral fiducials as standard for tumor position, this study aims to quantify the suitability of biliary stents for measuring interfractional and respiratory-induced position variations of pancreatic tumors. Methods and Materials: Eleven pancreatic cancer patients with intratumoral fiducials and a biliary stent were included in this study. Daily CBCT scans (243 in total) were registered with a reference CT scan, based on bony anatomy, on fiducial markers, and on the biliary stent, respectively. We analyzed the differences in tumor position (ie, markers center-of-mass position) among these 3 registrations. In addition, we measured for 9 patients the magnitude of respiratory-induced motion (MM) of the markers and of the stent on 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) and determined the difference between these 2 magnitudes (ΔMM). Results: The stent indicated tumor position better than bony anatomy in 67% of fractions; the absolute difference between the markers and stent registration was >5 mm in 46% of fractions and >10 mm in 20% of fractions. Large PTV margins (superior-inferior direction, >19 mm) would be needed to account for this interfractional position variability. On 4DCT, we found in superior-inferior direction a mean ΔMM of 0.5 mm (range, –2.6 to 4.2 mm). Conclusions: For respiratory-induced motion, the mean ΔMM is small, but for individual patients the absolute difference can be >4 mm. For interfractional position variations, a stent is, on average, a better surrogate fiducial than bony anatomy, but large PTV margins would still be required. Therefore, intratumoral fiducials are recommended for online setup verification for all pancreatic patients scheduled for radiation therapy, including

  2. Germinated Brown Rice Alters Aβ(1-42 Aggregation and Modulates Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Genes in Differentiated Human SH-SY5Y Cells

    Nur Hanisah Azmi


    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease involves complex etiological factors, of which the deposition of beta-amyloid (Aβ protein and oxidative stress have been strongly implicated. We explored the effects of H2O2, which is a precursor for highly reactive hydroxyl radicals, on neurotoxicity and genes related to AD on neuronal cells. Candidate bioactive compounds responsible for the effects were quantified using HPLC-DAD. Additionally, the effects of germinated brown rice (GBR on the morphology of Aβ(1-42 were assessed by Transmission Electron Microscopy and its regulatory effects on gene expressions were explored. The results showed that GBR extract had several phenolic compounds and γ-oryzanol and altered the structure of Aβ(1-42 suggesting an antiamyloidogenic effect. GBR was also able to attenuate the oxidative effects of H2O2 as implied by reduced LDH release and intracellular ROS generation. Furthermore, gene expression analyses showed that the neuroprotective effects of GBR were partly mediated through transcriptional regulation of multiple genes including Presenilins, APP, BACE1, BACE2, ADAM10, Neprilysin, and LRP1. Our findings showed that GBR exhibited neuroprotective properties via transcriptional regulation of APP metabolism with potential impact on Aβ aggregation. These findings can have important implications for the management of neurodegenerative diseases like AD and are worth exploring further.

  3. The experimental study on the radioimmunotherapy of the nasopharyngeal carcinoma overexpressing HER2/neu in nude mice model with intratumoral injection of {sup 188}Re-herceptin

    Li Guiping [Radiopharmaceutical Research Centre, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 201800 (China) and Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nanfang Hospital, First Military Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515 (China)]. E-mail:; Wang Yongxian [Radiopharmaceutical Research Centre, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 201800 (China)]. E-mail:; Huang Kai [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nanfang Hospital, First Military Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515 (China); Zhang Hui [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nanfang Hospital, First Military Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515 (China); Peng Wuhe [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nanfang Hospital, First Military Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515 (China); Zhang Chunfu [Radiopharmaceutical Research Centre, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 201800 (China)


    The therapeutic efficacy of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of {sup 188}Re-labeled herceptin, which is a humanized anti-p185-HER2/neu monoclonal antibody (mAb), was studied. The nude mice bearing nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) expressing HER2/neu protooncogene were injected with {sup 188}Re-herceptin intratumorally and intravenously. The biodistribution was observed on day 2 (n=3). The tumor growth inhibition rate (IR) was determined by measurement of tumor volume. In the intratumorally treated mice, tumor uptake of {sup 188}Re-herceptin was significantly greater than in the intravenously treated mice [11.53% injected dose (ID)/g vs. 2.79% ID/g at 48 h], and lower normal organ uptake was also seen. The intratumoral administration of {sup 188}Re-herceptin caused greater inhibition of tumor growth at the fourth week as compared to the intravenous administration. It is concluded that intratumoral administration of {sup 188}Re-herceptin makes high level of radioactivity retained in tumor with significantly lower radioactivity retained in normal tissues, and provides a more effective regional therapy for NPC overexpressing HER2/neu.

  4. Intratumoral Interleukin-21 Increases Antitumor Immunity, Tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T-cell Density and Activity, and Enlarges Draining Lymph Nodes

    Sondergaard, H.; Galsgaard, E.D.; Bartholomaeussen, M.


    Interleukin (IL)-21 is a novel cytokine in clinical development for the treatment of cancer. In this study, we have compared the efficacy of subcutaneous and intratumoral (IT) administration of IL-21 protein in two syngeneic mouse tumor models, RenCa renal cell carcinoma and B16 melanoma, and inv...

  5. Longitudinal immune monitoring of patients receiving intratumoral injection of a MART-1 T-cell receptor-transduced cell line (C-Cure 709)

    Køllgaard, Tania; Duval, Lone; Schmidt, Henrik;


    analyzed in peripheral blood by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) before and after intratumoral injection of C-Cure 709. RESULTS: No treatment-induced increase in Ag-specific T-cell frequencies was observed in peripheral blood, and the phenotype of MART-1-specific T cells was very stable during...

  6. Glycobiology Modifications in Intratumoral Hypoxia: The Breathless Side of Glycans Interaction

    Antônio F. Silva-filho


    Full Text Available Post-translational and co-translational enzymatic addition of glycans (glycosylation to proteins, lipids, and other carbohydrates, is a powerful regulator of the molecular machinery involved in cell cycle, adhesion, invasion, and signal transduction, and is usually seen in both in vivo and in vitro cancer models. Glycosyltransferases can alter the glycosylation pattern of normal cells, subsequently leading to the establishment and progression of several diseases, including cancer. Furthermore, a growing amount of research has shown that different oxygen tensions, mainly hypoxia, leads to a markedly altered glycosylation, resulting in altered glycan-receptor interactions. Alteration of intracellular glucose metabolism, from aerobic cellular respiration to anaerobic glycolysis, inhibition of integrin 3α1β translocation to the plasma membrane, decreased 1,2-fucosylation of cell-surface glycans, and galectin overexpression are some consequences of the hypoxic tumor microenvironment. Additionally, increased expression of gangliosides carrying N-glycolyl sialic acid can also be significantly affected by hypoxia. For all these reasons, it is possible to realize that hypoxia strongly alters glycobiologic events within tumors, leading to changes in their behavior. This review aims to analyze the complexity and importance of glycoconjugates and their molecular interaction network in the hypoxic context of many solid tumors.

  7. Alterations in bone morphogenetic protein 15, growth differentiation factor 9, and gene expression in granulosa cells in preovulatory follicles of dairy cows given porcine LH.

    Behrouzi, Amir; Colazo, Marcos Germán; Ambrose, Divakar Justus


    In a previous work, using porcine LH (pLH) in lieu of GnRH for synchronizing ovulation in dairy cows improved pregnancy rates without increasing plasma progesterone concentrations after ovulation. The LH profile is known to remain elevated above basal concentrations (≥1 ng/mL) for up to 20 hours in pLH-treated cows compared to less than 6 hours in GnRH-treated cows. Because LH triggers a cascade of signaling networks in the preovulatory follicle to promote final maturation and support oocyte competence, we hypothesized that dissimilar LH profiles will differentially regulate the intrafollicular factors and expression of downstream genes associated with improved oocyte competence. Specific objectives were to determine differences in the abundance of oocyte-secreted factors in the preovulatory follicular fluid and target genes in granulosa cells associated with oocyte competence, in response to exogenous porcine LH or GnRH-induced endogenous bovine LH exposure, in dairy cows. Follicular contents were aspirated by a transvaginal ultrasound-guided procedure from the preovulatory follicle of cyclic, nonlactating Holstein cows 21 ± 1 hour after administration of either pLH (25-mg) or GnRH (100-μg). Mature forms of bone morphogenetic protein 15, growth differentiation factor 9, and transforming growth factorβ1 were approximately 2-fold more abundant in pLH-treated cows which were exposed to an extended, low LH profile, than in GnRH-treated cows that had a short, high LH profile. The relative abundance of messenger RNA for cyclooxygenase-2, LH receptor, and progesterone receptor in granulosa cells, was about two-, eight-, and two-fold higher, respectively, in cows subjected to pLH than GnRH treatment. We infer that the improved pregnancy rate after pLH-induced ovulation reported previously, occurred through greater activation of intrafollicular transforming growth factor-β1 superfamily members, as these proteins promote cumulus expansion and oocyte competence.

  8. Obesity alters gene expression for GH/IGF-I axis in mouse mammary fat pads: differential role of cortistatin and somatostatin.

    Alicia Villa-Osaba

    Full Text Available Locally produced growth hormone (GH and IGF-I are key factors in the regulation of mammary gland (MG development and may be important in breast cancer development/progression. Somatostatin (SST and cortistatin (CORT regulate GH/IGF-I axis at various levels, but their role in regulating GH/IGF-I in MGs remains unknown. Since obesity alters the expression of these systems in different tissues and is associated to MG (patho physiology, we sought to investigate the role of SST/CORT in regulating GH/IGF-I system in the MGs of lean and obese mice. Therefore, we analyzed GH/IGF-I as well as SST/CORT and ghrelin systems expression in the mammary fat pads (MFPs of SST- or CORT-knockout (KO mice and their respective littermate-controls fed a low-fat (LF or a high-fat (HF diet for 16 wks. Our results demonstrate that the majority of the components of GH/IGF-I, SST/CORT and ghrelin systems are locally expressed in mouse MFP. Expression of elements of the GH/IGF-I axis was significantly increased in MFPs of HF-fed control mice while lack of endogenous SST partially suppressed, and lack of CORT completely blunted, the up-regulation observed in obese WT-controls. Since SST/CORT are known to exert an inhibitory role on the GH/IGFI axis, the increase in SST/CORT-receptor sst2 expression in MFPs of HF-fed CORT- and SST-KOs together with an elevation on circulating SST in CORT-KOs could explain the differences observed. These results offer new information on the factors (GH/IGF-I axis involved in the endocrine/metabolic dysregulation of MFPs in obesity, and suggest that CORT is not a mere SST sibling in regulating MG physiology.

  9. Levetiracetam differentially alters CD95 expression of neuronal cells and the mitochondrial membrane potential of immune and neuronal cells in vitro

    Susannah K Rogers


    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a neurological seizure disorder that affects over 100 million people worldwide. Levetiracetam, either alone, as monotherapy, or as adjunctive treatment, is widely used to control certain types of seizures. Despite its increasing popularity as a relatively safe and effective anti-convulsive treatment option, its mechanism(s of action are poorly understood. Studies have suggested neuronal, glial, and immune mechanisms of action. Understanding the precise mechanisms of action of Levetiracetam would be extremely beneficial in helping to understand the processes involved in seizure generation and epilepsy. Moreover, a full understanding of these mechanisms would help to create more efficacious treatments while minimizing side effects. The current study examined the effects of Levetiracetam on the mitochondrial membrane potential of neuronal and non-neuronal cells, in vitro, in order to determine if Levetiracetam influences metabolic processes in these cell types. In addition, this study sought to address possible immune-mediated mechanisms by determining if Levetiracetam alters the expression of immune receptor-ligand pairs. The results show that Levetiracetam induces expression of CD95 and CD178 on NGF-treated C17.2 neuronal cells. The results also show that Levetiracetam increases mitochondrial membrane potential on C17.2 neuronal cells in the presence of nerve growth factor. In contrast, Levetiracetam decreases the mitochondrial membrane potential of splenocytes and this effect was dependent on intact invariant chain, thus implicating immune cell interactions. These results suggest that both neuronal and non-neuronal anti-epileptic activities of Levetiracetam involve control over energy metabolism, more specifically, mΔΨ. Future studies are needed to further investigate this potential mechanism of action.

  10. Differential paired-pulse responses between the CA1 region and the dentate gyrus are related to altered CLC-2 immunoreactivity in the pilocarpine-induced rat epilepsy model.

    Kwak, Sung-Eun; Kim, Ji-Eun; Kim, Duk-Soo; Won, Moo Ho; Lee, Hong Jin; Choi, Soo-Young; Kwon, Oh-Shin; Kim, Jin-Sang; Kang, Tae-Cheon


    The epileptic hippocampus shows differential paired-pulse responses between the dentate gyrus and the CA1 region. However, little data are available to explain this phenomenon. In the present study, we identified the relationship between regional differences of paired-pulse response and voltage gated Cl(-) channel 2 (CLC-2)/vesicular GABA transport (VGAT) expression in a pilocarpine-induced rat model. During epileptogenic periods, paired-pulse inhibitions in the dentate gyrus and the CA1 region were markedly reduced. After recurrent seizure onset, paired-pulse inhibition in the dentate gyrus was markedly enhanced, while that in the CA1 region more reduced. Unlike VGAT, CLC-2 immunoreactivity was markedly reduced in the hippocampus during epileptogenic periods and was re-enhanced only in the dentate gyrus after recurrent seizure onset. Linear regression analysis showed an inverse proportional relationship between alterations in CLC-2 immunoreactivity and changes in normalized population spike amplitude ratio within the CA1 region and the dentate gyrus. Therefore, our findings suggest that the regionally specific alterations in CLC-2 immunoreactivity after SE may determine the properties of paired-pulse responses in the hippocampus of the pilocarpine-induced rat epilepsy model.

  11. Intratumoral de novo steroid synthesis activates androgen receptor in castration-resistant prostate cancer and is upregulated by treatment with CYP17A1 inhibitors.

    Cai, Changmeng; Chen, Sen; Ng, Patrick; Bubley, Glenn J; Nelson, Peter S; Mostaghel, Elahe A; Marck, Brett; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Simon, Nicholas I; Wang, Hongyun; Chen, Shaoyong; Balk, Steven P


    Relapse of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) that occurs after androgen deprivation therapy of primary prostate cancer can be mediated by reactivation of the androgen receptor (AR). One important mechanism mediating this AR reactivation is intratumoral conversion of the weak adrenal androgens DHEA and androstenedione into the AR ligands testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. DHEA and androstenedione are synthesized by the adrenals through the sequential actions of the cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP11A1 and CYP17A1, so that CYP17A1 inhibitors such as abiraterone are effective therapies for CRPC. However, the significance of intratumoral CYP17A1 and de novo androgen synthesis from cholesterol in CRPC, and the mechanisms contributing to CYP17A1 inhibitor resistance/relapse, remain to be determined. We report that AR activity in castration-resistant VCaP tumor xenografts can be restored through CYP17A1-dependent de novo androgen synthesis, and that abiraterone treatment of these xenografts imposes selective pressure for increased intratumoral expression of CYP17A1, thereby generating a mechanism for development of resistance to CYP17A1 inhibitors. Supporting the clinical relevance of this mechanism, we found that intratumoral expression of CYP17A1 was markedly increased in tumor biopsies from CRPC patients after CYP17A1 inhibitor therapy. We further show that CRPC cells expressing a progesterone responsive T877A mutant AR are not CYP17A1 dependent, but that AR activity in these cells is still steroid dependent and mediated by upstream CYP11A1-dependent intraturmoral pregnenolone/progesterone synthesis. Together, our results indicate that CRPCs resistant to CYP17A1 inhibition may remain steroid dependent and therefore responsive to therapies that can further suppress de novo intratumoral steroid synthesis.

  12. Intratumor chemotherapy in combination with a systemic antimetastatic drug in the treatment of Lewis-lung carcinoma.

    De-Oliveira, M M; Nakamura, I T; Joussef, A C; Giannotti Filho, O


    The effect of an antimetastatic agent plus intratumor chemotherapy was evaluated in mice bearing Lewis-lung carcinoma by measuring survival time and by histological examination. Polymeric flavan-3,4-diol (APF) from avocado seeds, Persea gratissima, administered alone directly into the tumor did not change survival time, although it partially destroyed the primary tumor. However, the drug administered in combination with an antimetastatic, 1,2-bis(3,5-dioxopiperazin-1-yl)ethane (ICRF-154), resulted in an increase in survival time. When 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) was used in place of polymeric flavanadiol as an intralesional drug, a significant increase in survival was also achieved. The effect of each drug alone and of their combination was evaluated by "responder analyses". Animals "cured" by the combination and rechallenged with 2 X 10(6) tumor cells showed that immunization could occur.

  13. Increased intratumoral FOXP3-positive regulatory immune cells during interleukin-2 treatment in metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    Jensen, Hanne Krogh; Donskov, Frede; Nordsmark, Marianne


    PURPOSE: The administration of interleukin-2 (IL-2) may increase the frequency of peripherally circulating FOXP3-positive regulatory immune cells, thus potentially compromising this treatment option for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. The impact of IL-2-based therapy on the accumul......PURPOSE: The administration of interleukin-2 (IL-2) may increase the frequency of peripherally circulating FOXP3-positive regulatory immune cells, thus potentially compromising this treatment option for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. The impact of IL-2-based therapy......-treatment FOXP3-positive cells (n = 31) had a 5-year survival rate of 19% (hazard ratio, 2.2; confidence interval, 1.03-4.5; P = 0.043). All long-term survivors were characterized by low-baseline FOXP3-positive cells and a modest absolute rise in FOXP3-positive cells. CONCLUSION: Intratumoral FOXP3-positive...


    N. A. Gorban


    Full Text Available Tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis are essential factors for tumor growth, progression, and metastasis.Objective: to assess the relationship between the values of proliferative activity and the morphometric parameters of intratumoral microvessels in metastatic and localized carcinomas of the kidney.Materials and methods. Surgical specimens taken from 54 patients (32 men and 22 women aged 26 to 69 years (mean age 55 ± 1.5 years with the verified diagnosis of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC were studied.Conclusion. Proliferative activity and angioarchitectonics are an important biological characteristic of a tumor of unequal clinical value in RCC. Metastatic carcinoma has a higher proliferative activity and a low tumor vascularization than those of localized carcinoma.

  15. Tribulus terrestris Alters the Expression of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in Rabbit Ovaries of Mothers and F1 Female Offspring.

    Desislava Abadjieva

    Full Text Available Although previous research has demonstrated the key role of the oocyte-derived factors, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP 15 and growth differentiation factor (GDF 9, in follicular development and ovulation, there is a lack of knowledge on the impact of external factors, which females are exposed to during folliculogenesis, on their expression. The present study investigated the effect of the aphrodisiac Tribulus terrestris on the GDF9 and BMP15 expression in the oocytes and cumulus cells at mRNA and protein levels during folliculogenesis in two generations of female rabbits. The experiment was conducted with 28 New Zealand rabbits. Only the diet of the experimental mothers group was supplemented with a dry extract of T. terrestris for the 45 days prior to insemination. The expression of BMP15 and GDF9 genes in the oocytes and cumulus cells of mothers and F1 female offspring was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. The localization of the GDF9 and BMP15 proteins in the ovary tissues was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. The BMP15 and GDF9 transcripts were detected in the oocytes and cumulus cells of rabbits from all groups. T. terrestris caused a decrease in the BMP15 mRNA level in the oocytes and an increase in the cumulus cells. The GDF9 mRNA level increased significantly in both oocytes and cumulus cells. The downregulated expression of BMP15 in the treated mothers' oocytes was inherited in the F1 female offspring born to treated mothers. BMP15 and GDF9 show a clearly expressed sensitivity to the bioactive compounds of T. terrestris.

  16. Acute and chronic cocaine differentially alter the subcellular distribution of AMPA GluR1 subunits in region-specific neurons within the mouse ventral tegmental area

    Lane, D.A.; Jaferi, A.; Kreek, M.J.; Pickel, V.M.


    Cocaine administration increases AMPA GluR1 expression and receptor-mediated activation of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Functionality is determined, however, by surface availability of these receptors in transmitter- and VTA-region-specific neurons, which may also be affected by cocaine. To test this hypothesis, we used electron microscopic immunolabeling of AMPA GluR1 subunits and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; the enzyme needed for dopamine synthesis), in the cortical-associated parabrachial (PB) and in the limbic-associated paranigral (PN) VTA of adult male C57BL/6 mice receiving either a single injection (acute) or repeated escalating-doses for 14 days (chronic) of cocaine. Acute cocaine resulted in opposing VTA-region-specific changes in TH-containing dopaminergic dendrites. TH-labeled dendrites within the PB VTA showed increased cytoplasmic GluR1 immunogold particle density consistent with decreased AMPA receptor-mediated glutamatergic transmission. Conversely, TH-labeled dendrites within the PN VTA showed greater surface expression of GluR1 with increases in both synaptic and plasmalemmal GluR1 immunogold density after a single injection of cocaine. These changes diminished in both VTA subregions after chronic cocaine administration. In contrast, non-TH-containing (presumably GABAergic) dendrites showed VTA-region-specific changes only after repeated cocaine administration such that synaptic GluR1 decreased in the PB, but increased in the PN VTA. Taken together, these findings provide ultrastructural evidence suggesting that chronic cocaine not only reverses the respective depression and facilitation of mesocortical (PB) and mesolimbic (PN) dopaminergic neurons elicited by acute cocaine, but also differentially affects synaptic availability of these receptors in non-dopaminergic neurons of each region. These adaptations may contribute to increased cocaine seeking/relapse and decreased reward that is reported with chronic cocaine use. PMID:20553819

  17. CD36- and GPR120-mediated Ca2+ Signaling in Human Taste Bud Cells Mediates Differential Responses to Fatty Acids and is Altered in Obese Mice

    Ozdener, Mehmet Hakan; Subramaniam, Selvakumar; Sundaresan, Sinju; Sery, Omar; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Asakawa, Yoshinori; Besnard, Philippe; Abumrad, Nada A.; Khan, Naim Akhtar


    Background & Aims It is important to increase our understanding of gustatory detection of dietary fat and its contribution to fat preference. We studied the roles of the fat taste receptors CD36 and GPR120 and their interactions via Ca2+ signaling in fungiform taste bud cells (TBC). Methods We measured Ca2+ signaling in human TBC, transfected with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against mRNAs encoding CD36 and GPR120 (or control siRNAs). We also studied Ca2+ signaling in TBC from CD36−/− mice and from wild-type lean and obese mice. Additional studies were conducted with mouse enteroendocrine cell line STC-1 that express GPR120 and stably transfected with human CD36. We measured release of serotonin and GLP-1 from human and mice TBC in response to CD36 and GPR120 activation. Results High concentrations of linoleic acid induced Ca2+ signaling via CD36 and GPR120 in human and mice TBC as well as in STC-1 cells, whereas low concentrations induced Ca2+ signaling via only CD36. Incubation of human and mice fungiform TBC with lineoleic acid downregulated CD36 and upregulated GPR120 in membrane lipid rafts. Obese mice had decreased spontaneous preference for fat. Fungiform TBC from obese mice had reduced Ca2+ and serotonin responses but increased release of GLP1, along with reduced levels of CD36 and increased levels of GPR120 in lipid rafts. Conclusions CD36 and GPR120 have non-overlapping roles in TBC signaling during oro-gustatory perception of dietary lipids; these are differentially regulated by obesity. PMID:24412488

  18. Tribulus terrestris Alters the Expression of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in Rabbit Ovaries of Mothers and F1 Female Offspring.

    Abadjieva, Desislava; Kistanova, Elena


    Although previous research has demonstrated the key role of the oocyte-derived factors, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 15 and growth differentiation factor (GDF) 9, in follicular development and ovulation, there is a lack of knowledge on the impact of external factors, which females are exposed to during folliculogenesis, on their expression. The present study investigated the effect of the aphrodisiac Tribulus terrestris on the GDF9 and BMP15 expression in the oocytes and cumulus cells at mRNA and protein levels during folliculogenesis in two generations of female rabbits. The experiment was conducted with 28 New Zealand rabbits. Only the diet of the experimental mothers group was supplemented with a dry extract of T. terrestris for the 45 days prior to insemination. The expression of BMP15 and GDF9 genes in the oocytes and cumulus cells of mothers and F1 female offspring was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The localization of the GDF9 and BMP15 proteins in the ovary tissues was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. The BMP15 and GDF9 transcripts were detected in the oocytes and cumulus cells of rabbits from all groups. T. terrestris caused a decrease in the BMP15 mRNA level in the oocytes and an increase in the cumulus cells. The GDF9 mRNA level increased significantly in both oocytes and cumulus cells. The downregulated expression of BMP15 in the treated mothers' oocytes was inherited in the F1 female offspring born to treated mothers. BMP15 and GDF9 show a clearly expressed sensitivity to the bioactive compounds of T. terrestris.

  19. Diabetic mice exhibited a peculiar alteration in body composition with exaggerated ectopic fat deposition after muscle injury due to anomalous cell differentiation.

    Mogi, Masaki; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Kan-No, Harumi; Tsukuda, Kana; Wang, Xiao-Li; Chisaka, Toshiyuki; Bai, Hui-Yu; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Kukida, Masayoshi; Iwanami, Jun; Miki, Tetsuro; Horiuchi, Masatsugu


    Sarcopenic obesity, age-related muscle loss, which is compensated by an increase in fat mass, impairs quality of life in elderly people. Although the increase in intramuscular fat is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity and increased metabolic risk factors, the origin of diabetes-associated intramuscular fat has not been elucidated. Here, we investigated intramuscular fat deposition using a muscle injury model in type 2 diabetic mice. Male 8-week-old C57BL/6 and 8-week-old and 26-week-old KKAy underwent intramuscular injection of cardiotoxin (Ctx) (100 μL/10 μM) into the tibialis anterior (TA) muscles. After 2 weeks, the muscles were removed and evaluated. KKAy exhibited impaired muscle regeneration and ectopic fat deposition. Such impairment was more marked in older KKAy. These changes were also observed in another diabetic mouse model, db/db and diet-induced obese mice but not in streptozocin-induced diabetic mice. Deposited fat was platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor alpha positive and its cytoskeleton was stained with Masson's trichrome, indicating it to be of fibro-adipocyte progenitor cell origin. Expression of a myogenic marker, myoD, was lower and that of PDGF receptor alpha and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (CEBP) alpha was higher in Ctx-injured TA of KKAy compared with that of C57BL/6. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) was highly expressed in fat-forming lesions in older KKAy. Treatment with all-trans retinoic acid prevented the formation of intramuscular fat; however, treatment with GW9662, a PPARγ antagonist, increased the fibrotic change in muscle. Diabetic mice showed impaired muscle regeneration with fat deposition, suggesting that diabetes may enhance sarcopenic obesity through a mechanism involving anomalous fibro-adipocyte progenitor cell differentiation.

  20. Multiregion sequencing reveals the intratumor heterogeneity of driver mutations in TP53-driven non-small cell lung cancer.

    Zhang, Le-Le; Kan, Mengyuan; Zhang, Man-Man; Yu, Sha-Sha; Xie, Hui-Jun; Gu, Zhao-Hui; Wang, Hai-Ning; Zhao, Shuang-Xia; Zhou, Guang-Biao; Song, Huai-Dong; Zheng, Cui-Xia


    Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may account for resistance after a period of targeted therapies because drugs destroy only a portion of tumor cells. The recognition of ITH helps identify high-risk patients to make effective treatment decisions. However, ITH studies are confounded by interpatient heterogeneity in NSCLC and a large amount of passenger mutations. To address these issues, we recruited NSCLC patients carrying TP53 mutations and selected driver mutations within recurrently mutated genes in NSCLC. A total of 12-paired normal-tumor tissues were subjected to whole-genome/whole-exome sequencing. From these, 367 non-silent mutations were selected as driver mutations and deeply sequenced in 61 intratumoral microdissections. We identified a universal prevalence of heterogeneity in all 12 tumors, indicating branched evolution. Although TP53 mutations were observed in single biopsy of all 12 tumors, most tumors consist of both TP53 mutated and non-mutated cells in separate regions within the same tumor. This suggests the late molecular timing of the acquisition of TP53 mutations; therefore, the detection of TP53 mutations in a single biopsy may simply not reflect the early malignant potential. In addition, we identified regions of loss of heterozygosity surrounding TP53 and CDKN2A mutations in tumor 711, which also exhibited heterogeneity in different regional samples. Because the ITH of driver mutations likely has clinical consequences, further efforts are needed to limit the impact of ITH and to improve therapeutic efficiency, which will benefit NSCLC patients receiving targeted treatments.

  1. Effect of intra-tumoral magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia and viral nanoparticle immunogenicity on primary and metastatic cancer

    Hoopes, P. Jack; Mazur, Courtney M.; Osterberg, Bjorn; Song, Ailin; Gladstone, David J.; Steinmetz, Nicole F.; Veliz, Frank A.; Bursey, Alicea A.; Wagner, Robert J.; Fiering, Steven N.


    Although there is long association of medical hyperthermia and immune stimulation, the relative lack of a quantifiable and reproducible effect has limited the utility and advancement of this relationship in preclinical/clinical cancer and non-cancer settings. Recent cancer-based immune findings (immune checkpoint modulators etc.) including improved mechanistic understanding and biological tools now make it possible to modify and exploit the immune system to benefit conventional cancer treatments such as radiation and hyperthermia. Based on the prior experience of our research group including; cancer-based heat therapy, magnetic nanoparticle (mNP) hyperthermia, radiation biology, cancer immunology and Cowpea Mosaic Virus that has been engineered to over express antigenic proteins without RNA or DNA (eCPMV/VLP). This research was designed to determine if and how the intra-tumoral delivery of mNP hyperthermia and VLP can work together to improve local and systemic tumor treatment efficacy. Using the C3H mouse/MTG-B mammary adenocarcinoma cell model and the C57-B6 mouse/B-16-F10 melanoma cancer cell model, our data suggests the appropriate combination of intra-tumoral mNP heat (e.g. 43°C /30-60 minutes) and VLP (100 μg/200 mm3 tumor) not only result in significant primary tumor regression but the creation a systemic immune reaction that has the potential to retard secondary tumor growth (abscopal effect) and resist tumor rechallenge. Molecular data from these experiments suggest treatment based cell damage and immune signals such as Heat Shock Protein (HSP) 70/90, calreticulin, MTA1 and CD47 are potential targets that can be exploited to enhance the local and systemic (abscopal effect) immune potential of hyperthermia cancer treatment

  2. PEG-rIL-10 treatment decreases FoxP3(+) Tregs despite upregulation of intratumoral IDO.

    Chan, Ivan H; Wu, Victoria; Bilardello, Melissa; Jorgenson, Brett; Bal, Harminder; McCauley, Scott; Van Vlasselaer, Peter; Mumm, John B


    IL-10 has been classically defined as a broad-spectrum immunosuppressant and is thought to facilitate the development of regulatory CD4(+) T cells. IL-10 is believed to represent one of the major suppressive factors secreted by IDO(+)FoxP3(+)CD4(+) Tregs. Contrary to this view, we have previously reported that PEGylated recombinant IL-10 (PEG-rIL-10) treatment of mice induces potent IFNγ and CD8(+) T-cell-dependent antitumor immunity. This hypothesis is currently being tested in clinical trials and we have reported that treatment of cancer patients with PEG-rHuIL-10 results in inhibition and regression of tumor growth as well as increased serum IFNγ. We have continued to assess PEG-rIL-10's pleiotropic effects and report that treatment of tumor-bearing mice and humans with PEG-rIL-10 increases intratumoral indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) in an IFNγ-dependent manner. This should result in an increase in Tregs, but paradoxically our data illustrate that PEG-rIL-10 treatment of mice reduces intratumoral FoxP3(+)CD4(+) T cells in an IDO-independent manner. Additional investigation indicates that PEG-rIL-10 inhibits TGFβ/IL-2-dependent in vitro polarization of FoxP3(+)CD4(+) Tregs and potentiates IFNγ(+)T-bet(+)CD4(+) T cells. These data suggest that rather than acting as an immunosuppressant, PEG-rIL-10 may counteract the FoxP3(+)CD4(+) Treg suppressive milieu in tumor-bearing mice and humans, thereby further facilitating PEG-rIL-10's potent antitumor immunity.

  3. Long-term nutrient addition differentially alters community composition and diversity of genes that control nitrous oxide flux from salt marsh sediments

    Kearns, Patrick J.; Angell, John H.; Feinman, Sarah G.; Bowen, Jennifer L.


    Enrichment of natural waters, soils, and sediments by inorganic nutrients, including nitrogen, is occurring at an increasing rate and has fundamentally altered global biogeochemical cycles. Salt marshes are critical for the removal of land-derived nitrogen before it enters coastal waters. This is accomplished via multiple microbially mediated pathways, including denitrification. Many of these pathways, however, are also a source of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). We used clone libraries and quantative PCR (qPCR) to examine the effect of fertilization on the diversity and abundance of two functional genes associated with denitrification and N2O production (norB and nosZ) in experimental plots at the Great Sippewissett Salt Marsh (Falmouth, MA, USA) that have been enriched with nutrients for over 40 years. Our data showed distinct nosZ and norB community structures at different nitrogen loads, especially at the highest level of fertilization. Furthermore, calculations of the Shannon Diversity Index and Chao1 Richness Estimator indicated that nosZ gene diversity and richness increased with increased nitrogen supply, however no such relationship existed with regard to richness and diversity of the norB gene. Results from qPCR demonstrated that nosZ gene abundance was an order of magnitude lower in the extra-highly fertilized plots compared to the other plots, but the abundance of norB was not affected by fertilization. The majority of sequences obtained from the marsh plots had no close cultured relatives and they were divergent from previously sequenced norB and nosZ fragments. Despite their divergence from any cultured representatives, most of the norB and nosZ sequences appeared to be from members of the Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria, suggesting that these classes are particularly important in salt marsh nitrogen cycling. Our results suggest that both norB and nosZ containing microbes are affected by fertilization and that the Great Sippewissett Marsh may

  4. Neutralization of MMP-2 and TNFR1 Regulates the Severity of S. aureus-Induced Septic Arthritis by Differential Alteration of Local and Systemic Proinflammatory Cytokines in Mice.

    Sultana, Sahin; Adhikary, Rana; Bishayi, Biswadev


    . aureus infection-induced septic arthritis by altering the levels of cytokines.

  5. The altered expression of inflammation-related microRNAs with microRNA-155 expression correlates with Th 17 differentiation in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Rui Yao; Hong Xiao; Yuhua Liao; Yulan Ma; Youyou Du; Mengyang Liao; Huanhuan Li; Wei Liang; Jing Yuan; Zhijun Ma; Xian Yu


    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a novel class of small,non-coding RNAs that play a significant role in both inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases.Immune cells,especially T helper (Th) cells,are critical in the development of atherosclerosis and the onset of acute coronary syndrome (ACS).To assess whether inflammation-related miRNAs (such as miR-155,146a,21,125a-5p,125b,31) are involved in the imbalance of Th cell subsets in patients with ACS,we measured the expression of related miRNAs in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI),unstable angina (UA),stable angina (SA) and chest pain syndrome (CPS);analyzed the relationship between miRNA expression and the frequency of Th cell subsets;and observed the co-expression of miR-155 and IL-17A in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with ACS.The results showed that the expression of miR-155 in the PBMCs of patients with ACS was decreased by approximately 60%,while the expression of both miR-21 and miR-146a was increased by approximately twofold.The expression patterns of miRNAs in plasma correlated with those in PBMCs,except for miR-21,which was increased by approximately sixfold in the AMI group and showed no significant difference between the UA group and the CPS group.We also found that the expression of miR-155 inversely correlated with the frequency of Th17 cells (r=-0.896,P<0.01) and that miR-155 was co-expressed with IL-17A in patients with ACS.In conclusion,our study revealed the expression patterns of inflammation-related miRNAs in patients with ACS and found that miR-155 may be associated with Th17 cell differentiation.

  6. Hypoxia-inducing factors as master regulators of stemness properties and altered metabolism of cancer- and metastasis-initiating cells

    Mimeault, Murielle; Batra, Surinder K


    Accumulating lines of experimental evidence have revealed that hypoxia-inducible factors, HIF-1α and HIF-2α, are key regulators of the adaptation of cancer- and metastasis-initiating cells and their differentiated progenies to oxygen and nutrient deprivation during cancer progression under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Particularly, the sustained stimulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R), stem cell factor (SCF) receptor KIT, transforming growth factor-β receptors (TGF-βRs) and Notch and their downstream signalling elements such as phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/molecular target of rapamycin (mTOR) may lead to an enhanced activity of HIFs. Moreover, the up-regulation of HIFs in cancer cells may also occur in the hypoxic intratumoral regions formed within primary and secondary neoplasms as well as in leukaemic cells and metastatic prostate and breast cancer cells homing in the hypoxic endosteal niche of bone marrow. The activated HIFs may induce the expression of numerous gene products such as induced pluripotency-associated transcription factors (Oct-3/4, Nanog and Sox-2), glycolysis- and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) programme-associated molecules, including CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), snail and twist, microRNAs and angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). These gene products in turn can play critical roles for high self-renewal ability, survival, altered energy metabolism, invasion and metastases of cancer cells, angiogenic switch and treatment resistance. Consequently, the targeting of HIF signalling network and altered metabolic pathways represents new promising strategies to eradicate the total mass of cancer cells and improve the efficacy of current therapies against aggressive and metastatic cancers and prevent disease relapse. PMID:23301832

  7. TU-CD-BRB-10: 18F-FDG PET Image-Derived Tumor Features Highlight Altered Pathways Identified by Trancriptomic Analysis in Head and Neck Cancer

    Tixier, F [CHU Miletrie, Poitiers (France); INSERM UMR1101 LaTIM, Brest (France); Cheze-Le-Rest, C; Dufour, X [CHU Miletrie, Poitiers (France); Hatt, M; Visvikis, D [INSERM UMR1101 LaTIM, Brest (France); Valette, G; Potard, G [CHRU Brest, Brest (France); Corcos, L [INSERM, UMR 1078, Brest (France)


    Purpose: Several quantitative features can be extracted from 18F-FDG PET images, such as standardized uptake values (SUVs), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), shape characterization (SC) or intra-tumor radiotracer heterogeneity quantification (HQ). Some of these features calculated from baseline 18F-FDG PET images have shown a prognostic and predictive clinical value. It has been hypothesized that these features highlight underlying tumor patho-physiological processes at smaller scales. The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of recovering alterations of signaling pathways from FDG PET image-derived features. Methods: 52 patients were prospectively recruited from two medical centers (Brest and Poitiers). All patients underwent an FDG PET scan for staging and biopsies of both healthy and primary tumor tissues. Biopsies went through a transcriptomic analysis performed in four spates on 4×44k chips (Agilent™). Primary tumors were delineated in the PET images using the Fuzzy Locally Adaptive Bayesian algorithm and characterized using 10 features including SUVs, SC and HQ. A module network algorithm followed by functional annotation was exploited in order to link PET features with signaling pathways alterations. Results: Several PET-derived features were found to discriminate differentially expressed genes between tumor and healthy tissue (fold-change >2, p<0.01) into 30 co-regulated groups (p<0.05). Functional annotations applied to these groups of genes highlighted associations with well-known pathways involved in cancer processes, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis, as well as with more specific ones such as unsaturated fatty acids. Conclusion: Quantitative features extracted from baseline 18F-FDG PET images usually exploited only for diagnosis and staging, were identified in this work as being related to specific altered pathways and may show promise as tools for personalizing treatment decisions.

  8. Overexpression of the Transcription Factors GmSHN1 and GmSHN9 Differentially Regulates Wax and Cutin Biosynthesis, Alters Cuticle Properties, and Changes Leaf Phenotypes in Arabidopsis.

    Xu, Yangyang; Wu, Hanying; Zhao, Mingming; Wu, Wang; Xu, Yinong; Gu, Dan


    SHINE (SHN/WIN) clade proteins, transcription factors of the plant-specific APETALA 2/ethylene-responsive element binding factor (AP2/ERF) family, have been proven to be involved in wax and cutin biosynthesis. Glycine max is an important economic crop, but its molecular mechanism of wax biosynthesis is rarely characterized. In this study, 10 homologs of Arabidopsis SHN genes were identified from soybean. These homologs were different in gene structures and organ expression patterns. Constitutive expression of each of the soybean SHN genes in Arabidopsis led to different leaf phenotypes, as well as different levels of glossiness on leaf surfaces. Overexpression of GmSHN1 and GmSHN9 in Arabidopsis exhibited 7.8-fold and 9.9-fold up-regulation of leaf cuticle wax productions, respectively. C31 and C29 alkanes contributed most to the increased wax contents. Total cutin contents of leaves were increased 11.4-fold in GmSHN1 overexpressors and 5.7-fold in GmSHN9 overexpressors, mainly through increasing C16:0 di-OH and dioic acids. GmSHN1 and GmSHN9 also altered leaf cuticle membrane ultrastructure and increased water loss rate in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Transcript levels of many wax and cutin biosynthesis and leaf development related genes were altered in GmSHN1 and GmSHN9 overexpressors. Overall, these results suggest that GmSHN1 and GmSHN9 may differentially regulate the leaf development process as well as wax and cutin biosynthesis.

  9. Overexpression of the Transcription Factors GmSHN1 and GmSHN9 Differentially Regulates Wax and Cutin Biosynthesis, Alters Cuticle Properties, and Changes Leaf Phenotypes in Arabidopsis

    Yangyang Xu


    Full Text Available SHINE (SHN/WIN clade proteins, transcription factors of the plant-specific APETALA 2/ethylene-responsive element binding factor (AP2/ERF family, have been proven to be involved in wax and cutin biosynthesis. Glycine max is an important economic crop, but its molecular mechanism of wax biosynthesis is rarely characterized. In this study, 10 homologs of Arabidopsis SHN genes were identified from soybean. These homologs were different in gene structures and organ expression patterns. Constitutive expression of each of the soybean SHN genes in Arabidopsis led to different leaf phenotypes, as well as different levels of glossiness on leaf surfaces. Overexpression of GmSHN1 and GmSHN9 in Arabidopsis exhibited 7.8-fold and 9.9-fold up-regulation of leaf cuticle wax productions, respectively. C31 and C29 alkanes contributed most to the increased wax contents. Total cutin contents of leaves were increased 11.4-fold in GmSHN1 overexpressors and 5.7-fold in GmSHN9 overexpressors, mainly through increasing C16:0 di-OH and dioic acids. GmSHN1 and GmSHN9 also altered leaf cuticle membrane ultrastructure and increased water loss rate in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Transcript levels of many wax and cutin biosynthesis and leaf development related genes were altered in GmSHN1 and GmSHN9 overexpressors. Overall, these results suggest that GmSHN1 and GmSHN9 may differentially regulate the leaf development process as well as wax and cutin biosynthesis.

  10. The value of diffusion tensor imaging in the differential diagnosis of subcortical ischemic vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease in patients with only mild white matter alterations on T2-weighted images

    Fu, Jian-Liang; Zhang, Ting (Dept. of Neurology, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ. Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai (China)); Chang, Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Li, Wen-Bin (Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ. Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai (China)), Email:


    Background: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a form of functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that allows examination of the microstructural integrity of white matter in the brain. Dementia is a neurodegenerative disease, and DTI can provide indirect insights of the microstructural characteristics of brains in individuals with different forms of dementia. Purpose: To evaluate the value of DTI in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of patients with subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Material and Methods: The study included 40 patients (20 AD patients and 20 SIVD patients) and 20 normal controls (NC). After routine MRI and DTI, fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were measured and compared in regions of interest (ROI). Results: Compared to NC and AD patients, SIVD patients had lower FA values and higher ADC values in the inferior-fronto-occipital fascicles (IFOF), genu of the corpus callosum (GCC), splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC), and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Compared to controls and SIVD patients, AD patients had lower FA values in the anterior frontal lobe, temporal lobe, hippocampus, IFOF, GCC, and CF; and higher ADC values in the temporal lobe and hippocampus. Conclusion: DTI can be used to estimate the white matter impairment in dementia patients. There were significant regional reductions of FA values and heightened ADC values in multiple regions in SIVD patients compared to AD patients. When compared with conventional MRI, DTI may provide a more objective method for the differential diagnosis of SIVD and AD disease patients who have only mild white matter alterations on T2-weighted imaging

  11. Intra-tumor heterogeneity of microRNA-92a, microRNA-375 and microRNA-424 in colorectal cancer

    Jepsen, Rikke Karlin; Novotny, Guy Wayne; Klarskov, Louise Laurberg


    UNLABELLED: Various microRNAs (miRNAs) have been investigated in order to improve diagnostics and risk assessment in colorectal cancer (CRC). To clarify the potential of miRNA profiling in CRC, knowledge of intra-tumor heterogeneity in expression levels is crucial. The study aim was to estimate...... the intra-tumor variance of three selected miRNAs: miR-92a, miR-375 and miR-424 in CRC tissue. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study on archived formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue from 9 patients with CRC. miRNA tissue expression levels were analyzed by qRT-PCR on tissue representing luminal...

  12. Evaluating dynamic contrast-enhanced and photoacoustic CT to assess intra-tumor heterogeneity in xenograft mouse models

    Stantz, Keith M.; Liu, Bo; Cao, Minsong; Reinecke, Dan; Dzemidzic, Mario; Liang, Yun; Kruger, Robert


    Purpose: To evaluate photoacoustic CT spectroscopy (PCT-S) and dynamic contrast-enhanced CT (DCE-CT) ability to measure parameters - oxygen saturation and vascular physiology - associated with the intra-tumor oxygenation status. Material and Methods: Breast (VEGF165 enhance MCF-7) and ovarian (SKOV3x) cancer cells were implanted into the fat pads and flanks of immune deficient mice and allowed to grow to a diameter of 8-15 mm. CT was used to determine physiological parameters by acquiring a sequence of scans over a 10 minute period after an i.v. injection of a radio-opaque contrast agent (Isovue). These time-dependent contrast-enhanced curves were fit to a two-compartmental model determining tumor perfusion, fractional plasma volume, permeability-surface area produce, and fractional interstitial volume on a voxel-by-voxel basis. After which, the tumors were imaged using photoacoustic CT (Optosonics, Inc., Indianapolis, IN 46202). The near infrared spectra (700-910 nm) within the vasculature was fit to linear combination of measured oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin blood samples to obtain oxygen saturation levels (SaO II). Results: The PCT-S scanner was first calibrated using different samples of oxygenated blood, from which a statistical error ranging from 2.5-6.5% was measured and a plot of the hemoglobin dissociation curve was consistent with empirical formula. In vivo determination of tumor vasculature SaO II levels were measurably tracked, and spatially correlated to the periphery of the tumor. Tumor depend variations in SaO II - 0.32 (ovarian) and 0.60 (breast) - and in vascular physiology - perfusion, 1.03 and 0.063 mL/min/mL, and fractional plasma volume, 0.20 and 0.07 - were observed. Conclusion: Combined, PCT-S and CED-CT has the potential to measure intra-tumor levels of tumor oxygen saturation and vascular physiology, key parameters associated with hypoxia.

  13. Phase I Trial of Intratumoral Administration of NIS Expressing Strain of Measles Virus in Unresectable or Recurrent Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor


    or Recurrent Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dusica Babovic-Vuksanovic, MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Mayo Clinic...20164. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Recurrent Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Phase I Trial of Intratumoral Administration of NIS...Expressing Strain of Measles Virus in Unresectable or Recurrent Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0115 5c. PROGRAM

  14. Prediction of microvascular invasion of hepatocellular carcinomas with gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging: Impact of intra-tumoral fat detected on chemical-shift images

    Min, Ji Hye [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Kon, E-mail: [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Sanghyeok [Department of Radiology, Guri Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Choi, Dongil; Lee, Won Jae [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • Intra-tumoral fat detected with MR imaging may suggest lower risk for MVI of HCC. • Alfa-fetoprotein, tumor size, and fat component were associated with MVI of HCC. • Chemical shift MRI should be considered for the evaluation of HCC. - Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the impact of intra-tumoral fat detected by chemical-shift MR imaging in predicting the MVI of HCC. Materials and methods: Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging of 365 surgically proven HCCs from 365 patients (306 men, 59 women; mean age, 55.6 years) were evaluated. HCCs were classified into two groups, fat-containing and non-fat-containing, based on the presence of fat on chemical-shift images. Fat-containing HCCs were subdivided into diffuse or focal fatty change groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify clinical and MR findings associated with MVI. Results: Based on MR imaging, 66 tumors were classified as fat-containing HCCs and 299 as non-fat-containing HCCs. Among the 66 fat-containing HCCs, 38 (57.6%) showed diffuse fatty changes and 28 (42.4%) showed focal fatty changes. MVI was present in 18 (27.3%) fat-containing HCCs and in 117 (39.1%) non-fat-containing HCCs (P = 0.07). Univariate analysis revealed that serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and tumor size were significantly associated with MVI (P < 0.001). A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that log AFP (odds ratio 1.178, P = 0.0016), tumor size (odds ratio 1.809, P < 0.001), and intra-tumoral fat (odds ratio 0.515, P = 0.0387) were independent variables associated with MVI. Conclusion: Intra-tumoral fat detected with MR imaging may suggest lower risk for MVI of HCC and, therefore, a possibly more favorable prognosis, but the clinical value of this finding is uncertain.

  15. Intratumoral hu14.18-IL-2 (IC) induces local and systemic antitumor effects that involve both activated T and NK cells as well as enhanced IC retention.

    Yang, Richard K; Kalogriopoulos, Nicholas A; Rakhmilevich, Alexander L; Ranheim, Erik A; Seo, Songwon; Kim, Kyungmann; Alderson, Kory L; Gan, Jacek; Reisfeld, Ralph A; Gillies, Stephen D; Hank, Jacquelyn A; Sondel, Paul M


    hu14.18-IL-2 (IC) is an immunocytokine consisting of human IL-2 linked to hu14.18 mAb, which recognizes the GD2 disialoganglioside. Phase 2 clinical trials of i.v. hu14.18-IL-2 (i.v.-IC) in neuroblastoma and melanoma are underway and have already demonstrated activity in neuroblastoma. We showed previously that intratumoral hu14.18-IL-2 (IT-IC) results in enhanced antitumor activity in mouse models compared with i.v.-IC. The studies presented in this article were designed to determine the mechanisms involved in this enhanced activity and to support the future clinical testing of intratumoral administration of immunocytokines. Improved survival and inhibition of growth of both local and distant tumors were observed in A/J mice bearing s.c. NXS2 neuroblastomas treated with IT-IC compared with those treated with i.v.-IC or control mice. The local and systemic antitumor effects of IT-IC were inhibited by depletion of NK cells or T cells. IT-IC resulted in increased NKG2D receptors on intratumoral NKG2A/C/E⁺ NKp46⁺ NK cells and NKG2A/C/E⁺ CD8⁺ T cells compared with control mice or mice treated with i.v.-IC. NKG2D levels were augmented more in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes compared with splenocytes, supporting the localized nature of the intratumoral changes induced by IT-IC treatment. Prolonged retention of IC at the tumor site was seen with IT-IC compared with i.v.-IC. Overall, IT-IC resulted in increased numbers of activated T and NK cells within tumors, better IC retention in the tumor, enhanced inhibition of tumor growth, and improved survival compared with i.v.-IC.

  16. Interleukin-33/ST2 axis promotes breast cancer growth and metastases by facilitating intratumoral accumulation of immunosuppressive and innate lymphoid cells.

    Jovanovic, Ivan P; Pejnovic, Nada N; Radosavljevic, Gordana D; Pantic, Jelena M; Milovanovic, Marija Z; Arsenijevic, Nebojsa N; Lukic, Miodrag L


    The role of IL-33/ST2 pathway in antitumor immunity is unclear. Using 4T1 breast cancer model we demonstrate time-dependent increase of endogenous IL-33 at both the mRNA and protein levels in primary tumors and metastatic lungs during cancer progression. Administration of IL-33 accelerated tumor growth and development of lung and liver metastases, which was associated with increased intratumoral accumulation of CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) TGF-β1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) that expressed IL-13α1R, IL-13-producing Lin(-) Sca-1(+) ST2(+) innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and CD4(+) Foxp3(+) ST2(+) IL-10(+) Tregs compared to untreated mice. Higher incidence of monocytic vs. granulocytic MDSCs and plasmocytoid vs. conventional dendritic cells (DCs) was present in mammary tumors of IL-33-treated mice. Intratumoral NKp46(+) NKG2D(+) and NKp46(+) FasL(+) cells were markedly reduced after IL-33 treatment, while phosphate-buffered saline-treated ST2-deficient mice had increased frequencies of these tumoricidal natural killer (NK) cells compared to untreated wild-type mice. IL-33 promoted intratumoral cell proliferation and neovascularization, which was attenuated in the absence of ST2. Tumor-bearing mice given IL-33 had increased percentages of splenic MDSCs, Lin(-) Sca-1(+) ILCs, IL-10-expressing CD11c(+) DCs and alternatively activated M2 macrophages and higher circulating levels of IL-10 and IL-13. A significantly reduced NK cell, but not CD8(+) T-cell cytotoxicity in IL-33-treated mice was observed and the mammary tumor progression was not affected when CD8(+) T cells were in vivo depleted. We show a previously unrecognized role for IL-33 in promoting breast cancer progression through increased intratumoral accumulation of immunosuppressive cells and by diminishing innate antitumor immunity. Therefore, IL-33 may be considered as an important mediator in the regulation of breast cancer progression. © 2013 UICC.

  17. Organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos and its metabolites alter the expression of biomarker genes of differentiation in D3 mouse embryonic stem cells in a comparable way to other model neurodevelopmental toxicants.

    Estevan, Carmen; Fuster, Encarnación; Del Río, Eva; Pamies, David; Vilanova, Eugenio; Sogorb, Miguel A


    There are discrepancies about whether chlorpyrifos is able to induce neurodevelopmental toxicity or not. We previously reported alterations in the pattern of expression of biomarker genes of differentiation in D3 mouse embryonic stem cells caused by chlorpyrifos and its metabolites chlorpyrifos-oxon and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol. Now, we reanalyze these data comparing the effects on these genes with those caused in the same genes by retinoic acid, valproic acid, and penicillin-G (model compounds considered as strong, weak, and non-neurodevelopmental toxicants, respectively). We also compare the effects of chlorpyrifos and its metabolites on the cell viability of D3 cells and 3T3 mouse fibroblasts with the effects caused in the same cells by the three model compounds. We conclude that chlorpyrifos and its metabolites act, regarding these end-points, as the weak neurodevelopmental toxicant valproic acid, and consequently, a principle of caution should be applied avoiding occupational exposures in pregnant women. A second independent experiment run with different cellular batches coming from the same clone obtained the same result as the first one.

  18. Antiangiogenic therapy using endostatin increases the number of ALDH+ lung cancer stem cells by generating intratumor hypoxia

    Yu, Yang; Wang, Yu-yi; Wang, Yi-qin; Wang, Xia; Liu, Yan-Yang; Wang, Jian-Tao; Du, Chi; Wang, Li; Li, Mei; Luo, Feng; Jiang, Ming


    Antiangiogenic therapy is becoming a promising option for cancer treatment. However, many investigations have recently indicated that these therapies may have limited efficacy, and the cancers in most patients eventually develop resistance to these therapies. There is considerable recently acquired evidence for an association of such resistance with cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs). Here, we used xenograft tumor murine models to further suggest that antiangiogenic agents actually increase the invasive and metastatic properties of lung cancer cells. In our experiments with murine lung cancer xenografts, we found that the antiangiogenic agent endostatin increased the population of ALDH+ cells, and did so by generating intratumoral hypoxia in the xenografts. We further showed endostatin to cause an increase in the CSLC population by accelerating the generation of tumor hypoxia and by recruiting TAMs, MDSCs and Treg cells, which are inflammatory and immunosuppressive cells and which can secrete cytokines and growth factors such as IL-6, EGF, and TGF-β into the tumor microenvironment. All these factors are related with increased CSLC population in tumors. These results imply that improving the clinical efficacy of antiangiogenic treatments will require the concurrent use of CSLC-targeting agents. PMID:27703219

  19. Monochromatic subdiffusive spatial frequency domain imaging provides in-situ sensitivity to intratumoral morphological heterogeneity in a murine model.

    McClatchy, David M; Hoopes, P Jack; Pogue, Brian W; Kanick, Stephen Chad


    For the first time, spatially resolved quantitative metrics of light scattering recovered with sub-diffusive spatial frequency domain imaging (sd-SFDI) are shown to be sensitive to changes in intratumoral morphology and viability by direct comparison to histopathological analysis. Two freshly excised subcutaneous murine tumor cross-sections were measured with sd-SFDI, and recovered optical scatter parameter maps were co-registered to whole mount histology. Unique clustering of the optical scatter parameters μs' vs. γ (i.e. diffuse scattering vs. relative backscattering) evaluated at a single wavelength showed complete separation between regions of viable tumor, aggresive tumor with stromal growth, varying levels of necrotic tumor, and also peritumor muscle. The results suggest that with further technical development, sd-SFDI may represent a non-destructive screening tool for analysis of excised tissue or a non-invasive approach to investigate suspicious lesions without the need for exogenous labels or spectrally resolved imaging. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Two-Step Delivery: Exploiting the Partition Coefficient Concept to Increase Intratumoral Paclitaxel Concentrations In vivo Using Responsive Nanoparticles.

    Colby, Aaron H; Liu, Rong; Schulz, Morgan D; Padera, Robert F; Colson, Yolonda L; Grinstaff, Mark W


    Drug dose, high local target tissue concentration, and prolonged duration of exposure are essential criteria in achieving optimal drug performance. However, systemically delivered drugs often fail to effectively address these factors with only fractions of the injected dose reaching the target tissue. This is especially evident in the treatment of peritoneal cancers, including mesothelioma, ovarian, and pancreatic cancer, which regularly employ regimens of intravenous and/or intraperitoneal chemotherapy (e.g., gemcitabine, cisplatin, pemetrexed, and paclitaxel) with limited results. Here, we show that a "two-step" nanoparticle (NP) delivery system may address this limitation. This two-step approach involves the separate administration of NP and drug where, first, the NP localizes to tumor. Second, subsequent administration of drug then rapidly concentrates into the NP already stationed within the target tissue. This two-step method results in a greater than 5-fold increase in intratumoral drug concentrations compared to conventional "drug-alone" administration. These results suggest that this unique two-step delivery may provide a novel method for increasing drug concentrations in target tissues.

  1. In Situ Conversion of Melanoma Lesions into Autologous Vaccine by Intratumoral Injections of α-gal Glycolipids

    Uri Galili


    Full Text Available Autologous melanoma associated antigens (MAA on murine melanoma cells can elicit a protective anti-tumor immune response following a variety of vaccine strategies. Most require effective uptake by antigen presenting cells (APC. APC transport and process internalized MAA for activation of anti-tumor T cells. One potential problem with clinical melanoma vaccines against autologous tumors may be that often tumor cells do not express surface markers that label them for uptake by APC. Effective uptake of melanoma cells by APC might be achieved by exploiting the natural anti-Gal antibody which constitutes ~1% of immunoglobulins in humans. This approach has been developed in a syngeneic mouse model using mice capable of producing anti-Gal. Anti-Gal binds specifically to α-gal epitopes (Galα1-3Galα1-4GlcNAc-R. Injection of glycolipids carrying α-gal epitopes (α-gal glycolipids into melanoma lesions results in glycolipid insertion into melanoma cell membranes, expression of α-gal epitopes on the tumor cells and binding of anti-Gal to these epitopes. Interaction between the Fc portions of bound anti-Gal and Fcγ receptors on APC induces effective uptake of tumor cells by APC. The resulting anti-MAA immune response can be potent enough to destroy distant micrometastases. A clinical trial is now open testing effects of intratumoral α-gal glycolipid injections in melanoma patients.

  2. Characterization of intratumoral follicular helper T cells in follicular lymphoma: role in the survival of malignant B cells

    Amé-Thomas, Patricia; Le Priol, Jérôme; Yssel, Hans; Caron, Gersende; Pangault, Céline; Jean, Rachel; Martin, Nadine; Marafioti, Teresa; Gaulard, Philippe; Lamy, Thierry; Fest, Thierry; Semana, Gilbert; Tarte, Karin


    Accumulating evidences indicate that the cellular and molecular microenvironment of follicular lymphoma (FL) plays a key role in both lymphomagenesis and patient outcome. Malignant FL B cells are found admixed to specific stromal and immune cell subsets, in particular CD4pos T cells displaying phenotypic features of follicular helper T cells (TFH). The goal of our study was to functionally characterize intratumoral CD4pos T cells. We showed that CXCR5hiICOShiCD4pos T cells sorted from FL biopsies comprise at least two separate cell populations with distinct genetic and functional features: i) CD25pos follicular regulatory T cells (TFR), and ii) CD25neg TFH displaying a FL-B cell supportive activity without regulatory functions. Furthermore, despite their strong similarities with tonsil-derived TFH, purified FL-derived TFH displayed a specific gene expression profile including an overexpression of several genes potentially involved directly or indirectly in lymphomagenesis, in particular TNF, LTA, IL4, or CD40LG. Interestingly, we further demonstrated that these two last signals efficiently rescued malignant B cells from spontaneous and Rituximab-induced apoptosis. Altogether, our study demonstrates that tumor-infiltrating CD4pos T cells are more heterogeneous than previously presumed, and underlines for the first time the crucial role of TFH in the complex set of cellular interactions within FL microenvironment. PMID:22015774

  3. MRI-monitored intra-tumoral injection of iron-oxide labeled Clostridium novyi-NT anaerobes in pancreatic carcinoma mouse model.

    Linfeng Zheng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To validate the feasibility of labeling Clostridium novyi-NT (C.novyi-NT anaerobes with iron-oxide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and demonstrate the potential to use MRI to visualize intra-tumoral delivery of these iron-oxide labeled C.novyi-NT during percutaneous injection procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All studies were approved by IACUC. C.novyi-NT were labeled with hybrid iron-oxide Texas red nanoparticles. Growth of labeled and control samples were evaluated with optical density. Labeling was confirmed with confocal fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. MRI were performed using a 7 Tesla scanner with T2*-weighted (T2*W sequence. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR measurements were performed for phantoms and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR measurements performed in C57BL/6 mice (n = 12 with Panc02 xenografts before and after percutaneous injection of iron-oxide labeled C.novyi-NT. MRI was repeated 3 and 7 days post-injection. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE, Prussian blue and Gram staining of tumor specimens were performed for confirmation of intra-tumoral delivery. RESULTS: Iron-oxide labeling had no influence upon C.novyi-NT growth. The signal intensity (SI within T2*W images was significantly decreased for iron-oxide labeled C.novyi-NT phantoms compared to unlabeled controls. Under confocal fluorescence microscopy, the iron-oxide labeled C.novyi-NT exhibited a uniform red fluorescence consistent with observed regions of DAPI staining and overall labeling efficiency was 100% (all DAPI stained C.novyi-NT exhibited red fluorescence. Within TEM images, a large number iron granules were observed within the iron-oxide labeled C.novyi-NT; these were not observed within unlabeled controls. Intra-procedural MRI measurements permitted in vivo visualization of the intra-tumoral distribution of iron-oxide labeled C.novyi-NT following percutaneous injection (depicted as punctate regions of SI reductions within T2

  4. Clonotypic Diversification of Intratumoral T Cells Following Sipuleucel-T Treatment in Prostate Cancer Subjects.

    Sheikh, Nadeem; Cham, Jason; Zhang, Li; DeVries, Todd; Letarte, Simon; Pufnock, Jeff; Hamm, David; Trager, James; Fong, Lawrence


    Sipuleucel-T is an autologous cellular therapy for asymptomatic, or minimally symptomatic, metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer, designed to stimulate an immune response against prostate cancer. In a recent clinical trial (NCT00715104), we found that neoadjuvant sipuleucel-T increased the number of activated T cells within the tumor microenvironment. The current analysis examined whether sipuleucel-T altered adaptive T-cell responses by expanding pre-existing T cells or by recruiting new T cells to prostate tissue. Next-generation sequencing of the T-cell receptor (TCR) genes from blood or prostate tissue was used to quantitate and track T-cell clonotypes in these treated subjects with prostate cancer. At baseline, there was a significantly greater diversity of circulating TCR sequences in subjects with prostate cancer compared with healthy donors. Among healthy donors, circulating TCR sequence diversity remained unchanged over the same time interval. In contrast, sipuleucel-T treatment reduced circulating TCR sequence diversity versus baseline as measured by the Shannon index. Interestingly, sipuleucel-T treatment resulted in greater TCR sequence diversity in resected prostate tissue in sipuleucel-T-treated subjects versus tissue of nonsipuleucel-T-treated subjects with prostate cancer. Furthermore, sipuleucel-T increased TCR sequence commonality between blood and resected prostate tissue in treated versus untreated subjects with prostate cancer. The broadening of the TCR repertoire within the prostate tissue supports the hypothesis that sipuleucel-T treatment facilitates the recruitment of T cells into the prostate. Our results highlight the importance of assessing T-cell response to immunotherapy both in the periphery and in tumor tissue. Cancer Res; 76(13); 3711-8. ©2016 AACR.

  5. Imaging of intratumoral inflammation during oncolytic virotherapy of tumors by 19F-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI.

    Stephanie Weibel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oncolytic virotherapy of tumors is an up-coming, promising therapeutic modality of cancer therapy. Unfortunately, non-invasive techniques to evaluate the inflammatory host response to treatment are rare. Here, we evaluate (19F magnetic resonance imaging (MRI which enables the non-invasive visualization of inflammatory processes in pathological conditions by the use of perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions (PFC for monitoring of oncolytic virotherapy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Vaccinia virus strain GLV-1h68 was used as an oncolytic agent for the treatment of different tumor models. Systemic application of PFC emulsions followed by (1H/(19F MRI of mock-infected and GLV-1h68-infected tumor-bearing mice revealed a significant accumulation of the (19F signal in the tumor rim of virus-treated mice. Histological examination of tumors confirmed a similar spatial distribution of the (19F signal hot spots and CD68(+-macrophages. Thereby, the CD68(+-macrophages encapsulate the GFP-positive viral infection foci. In multiple tumor models, we specifically visualized early inflammatory cell recruitment in Vaccinia virus colonized tumors. Furthermore, we documented that the (19F signal correlated with the extent of viral spreading within tumors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest (19F MRI as a non-invasive methodology to document the tumor-associated host immune response as well as the extent of intratumoral viral replication. Thus, (19F MRI represents a new platform to non-invasively investigate the role of the host immune response for therapeutic outcome of oncolytic virotherapy and individual patient response.

  6. Intratumoral delivery of CpG-conjugated anti-MUC1 antibody enhances NK cell anti-tumor activity.

    Schettini, Jorge; Kidiyoor, Amritha; Besmer, Dahlia M; Tinder, Teresa L; Roy, Lopamudra Das; Lustgarten, Joseph; Gendler, Sandra J; Mukherjee, Pinku


    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against tumor-associated antigens are useful anticancer agents. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is one of the major mechanisms responsible for initiating natural killer cell (NK)-mediated killing of tumors. However, the regulation of ADCC via NK cells is poorly understood. We have investigated the cytolytic activity of NK cells against pancreatic cancer cells that were coated with an antibody directed against the human tumor antigen, Mucin-1 designated HMFG-2, either alone or conjugated to CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN). Conjugated antibodies were tested for their ability to elicit ADCC in vitro and in vivo against pancreatic cancer cells. NK cells cultured in the presence of immobilized CpG ODN, HMFG-2 Ab, or CpG ODN-conjugated HMFG-2 Ab were able to up-regulate perforin similarly. Interestingly, a significant higher ADCC was observed when CpG ODN-conjugated HMFG-2-coated tumor cells were co-cultured with NK cells compared to unconjugated HMFG-2 Ab or CpG ODN alone. Moreover, MyD88-deficient NK cells can perform ADCC in vitro. Furthermore, intratumoral injections of CpG ODN-conjugated HMFG-2 induced a significant reduction in tumor burden in vivo in an established model of pancreatic tumor in nude mice compared to CpG ODN or the HMFG-2 alone. Depletion of macrophages or NK cells before treatment confirmed that both cells were required for the anti-tumor response in vivo. Results also suggest that CpG ODN and HMFG-2 Ab could be sensed by NK cells on the mAb-coated tumor cells triggering enhanced ADCC in vitro and in vivo.

  7. Combined Intralesional Neodymium-Doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet Laser and Intratumoral Ligation as Curative Treatment for Craniofacial Arteriovenous Malformations.

    Rojvachiranonda, Nond; Lerdlum, Sukalaya; Mahatumarat, Charan


    Craniofacial arteriovenous malformation (AVM), although very rare, has been a very difficult problem to treat especially when it is large and involves important structures. Surgical resection often results in unacceptable complications but still not curative. At our institution, treatment by combined intralesional neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser and intratumoral ligation has been successful in venous malformation. This minimally invasive technique was then applied to more challenging AVM on the head and neck. Disease control was studied using clinical parameters and magnetic resonance imaging.Four patients with moderate-to-severe (Schobinger 2-4) craniofacial AVM were treated by this technique from 2001 to 2011. Patient age ranged from 2 to 51 years (mean: 25 years). After 2 to 4 treatments and follow-up period of 1456 days, 3 (75%) were cured. One of them was infant with huge mass and secondary pulmonary hypertension. Clinical cure was achieved after 3 treatments without residual cardiovascular compromise. The other patient (25%) had cheek mass with intraorbital involvement. The authors did not treat periorbital lesion so as to avoid triggering intraorbital spreading. The rest of the cheek lesion was clinically and radiologically cured.Laser energy setting, ablative technique, and skin cooling are the main factors determining the success. Individualized laser settings and properly set endpoints can increase treatment effectiveness in shorter period. In conclusion, this minimally invasive technique was successful in curing AVM without complication. With more clinical study and development of soft tissue monitoring tools, it is possible that intralesional laser could become the treatment of choice for all cutaneous AVM.

  8. Intratumoral IL-12 Gene Therapy Results in the Crosspriming of Tc1 Cells Reactive Against Tumor-associated Stromal Antigens

    Zhao, Xi; Bose, Anamika; Komita, Hideo; Taylor, Jennifer L; Kawabe, Mayumi; Chi, Nina; Spokas, Laima; Lowe, Devin B; Goldbach, Christina; Alber, Sean; Watkins, Simon C; Butterfield, Lisa H; Kalinski, Pawel; Kirkwood, John M; Storkus, Walter J


    HLA-A2 transgenic mice bearing established HLA-A2neg B16 melanomas were effectively treated by intratumoral (i.t.) injection of syngeneic dendritic cells (DCs) transduced to express high levels of interleukin (IL)-12, resulting in CD8+ T cell-dependent antitumor protection. In this model, HLA-A2-restricted CD8+ T cells do not directly recognize tumor cells and therapeutic benefit was associated with the crosspriming of HLA-A2-restricted type-1 CD8+ T cells reactive against antigens expressed by stromal cells [i.e., pericytes and vascular endothelial cells (VEC)]. IL-12 gene therapy-induced CD8+ T cells directly recognized HLA-A2+ pericytes and VEC flow-sorted from B16 tumor lesions based on interferon (IFN)-γ secretion and translocation of the lytic granule-associated molecule CD107 to the T cell surface after coculture with these target cells. In contrast, these CD8+ T effector cells failed to recognize pericytes/VEC isolated from the kidneys of tumor-bearing HHD mice. The tumor-associated stromal antigen (TASA)-derived peptides studied are evolutionarily conserved and could be recognized by CD8+ T cells harvested from the blood of HLA-A2+ normal donors or melanoma patients after in vitro stimulation. These TASA and their derivative peptides may prove useful in vaccine formulations against solid cancers, as well as, in the immune monitoring of HLA-A2+ cancer patients receiving therapeutic interventions, such as IL-12 gene therapy. PMID:21189473

  9. Expansion of peripheral and intratumoral regulatory T-cells in hepatocellular carcinoma: A case-control study

    Sapna Thakur


    Full Text Available Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is notorious for poor prognosis with limited therapeutic options. A better understanding of the role of regulatory T-cells (Tregs in HCC is important for design of immunotherapy based clinical protocol. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the presence of Tregs in tumor microenvironment in patients with HCC compared to chronic hepatitis (CH. Materials and Methods: The frequency of CD4 + CD25 + Treg cells was evaluated from peripheral blood (PB of 28 patients of HCC and 30 controls including CH cases and healthy donors using flowcytometry. Intratumoral Treg were also analyzed in tissue samples from 17 HCC cases and 15 CH cases. In addition the expression of FOXP3 and CTLA-4 was also studied by RT-PCR. Results: Frequency of CD4 + CD25 + cells in the PBMCs of HCC cases was significantly higher than in HC (10.8 ± 7.64 vs 3.05 ± 1.30, P < 0.005 and CH patients (2.88 ± 1.92, P < 0.005. Also Treg population was significantly higher in HCC tumor microenvironment compared to CH biopsies (15.8 ± 5.32 vs 5.51 ± 3.40, P < 0.05. Expression of FOXP3 and CTLA-4 was also significantly higher in HCC patients ( P < 0.05 compared to CH group. Conclusions: We provide evidence of an increased population of Treg not only in the PB but also in tumor microenvironment of HCC patients, suggesting association of enhanced Treg activity with poor immune responses to tumor antigens. These findings may in future play a significant role in designing immunotherapeutic approaches in HCC.

  10. Co-encapsulation of magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles and doxorubicin into biodegradable PLGA nanocarriers for intratumoral drug delivery

    Jia Y


    Full Text Available Yanhui Jia1, Mei Yuan1, Huidong Yuan1, Xinglu Huang2, Xiang Sui1, Xuemei Cui1, Fangqiong Tang2, Jiang Peng1, Jiying Chen1, Shibi Lu1, Wenjing Xu1, Li Zhang1, Quanyi Guo11Institute of Orthopedics, General Hospital of the Chinese People's Liberation Army, Beijing, People's Republic of China; 2Laboratory of Controllable Preparation and Application of Nanomaterials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: In this study, the authors constructed a novel PLGA [poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid]-based polymeric nanocarrier co-encapsulated with doxorubicin (DOX and magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNPs using a single emulsion evaporation method. The DOX-MNPs showed high entrapment efficiency, and they supported a sustained and steady release of DOX. Moreover, the drug release was pH sensitive, with a faster release rate in an acidic environment than in a neutral environment. In vitro, the DOX-MNPs were easily internalized into murine Lewis lung carcinoma cells and they induced apoptosis. In vivo, the DOX-MNPs showed higher antitumor activity than free DOX solution. Furthermore, the antitumor activity of the DOX-MNPs was higher with than without an external magnetic field; they were also associated with smaller tumor volume and a lower metastases incidence rate. This work may provide a new modality for developing an effective drug delivery system.Keywords: antitumor activity, external magnetic field, intratumoral injection, apoptosis, Lewis lung carcinoma

  11. Combination of External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT) With Intratumoral Injection of Dendritic Cells as Neo-Adjuvant Treatment of High-Risk Soft Tissue Sarcoma Patients

    Finkelstein, Steven E., E-mail: [H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States); Iclozan, Cristina; Bui, Marilyn M.; Cotter, Matthew J.; Ramakrishnan, Rupal; Ahmed, Jamil; Noyes, David R.; Cheong, David; Gonzalez, Ricardo J.; Heysek, Randy V.; Berman, Claudia; Lenox, Brianna C.; Janssen, William; Zager, Jonathan S.; Sondak, Vernon K.; Letson, G. Douglas; Antonia, Scott J. [H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States); Gabrilovich, Dmitry I., E-mail: [H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States)


    Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine the effect of combination of intratumoral administration of dendritic cells (DC) and fractionated external beam radiation (EBRT) on tumor-specific immune responses in patients with soft-tissue sarcoma (STS). Methods and Material: Seventeen patients with large (>5 cm) high-grade STS were enrolled in the study. They were treated in the neoadjuvant setting with 5,040 cGy of EBRT, split into 28 fractions and delivered 5 days per week, combined with intratumoral injection of 10{sup 7} DCs followed by complete resection. DCs were injected on the second, third, and fourth Friday of the treatment cycle. Clinical evaluation and immunological assessments were performed. Results: The treatment was well tolerated. No patient had tumor-specific immune responses before combined EBRT/DC therapy; 9 patients (52.9%) developed tumor-specific immune responses, which lasted from 11 to 42 weeks. Twelve of 17 patients (70.6%) were progression free after 1 year. Treatment caused a dramatic accumulation of T cells in the tumor. The presence of CD4{sup +} T cells in the tumor positively correlated with tumor-specific immune responses that developed following combined therapy. Accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells but not regulatory T cells negatively correlated with the development of tumor-specific immune responses. Experiments with {sup 111}In labeled DCs demonstrated that these antigen presenting cells need at least 48 h to start migrating from tumor site. Conclusions: Combination of intratumoral DC administration with EBRT was safe and resulted in induction of antitumor immune responses. This suggests that this therapy is promising and needs further testing in clinical trials design to assess clinical efficacy.

  12. Immune-mediated regression of established B16F10 melanoma by intratumoral injection of attenuated Toxoplasma gondii protects against rechallenge.

    Baird, Jason R; Byrne, Katelyn T; Lizotte, Patrick H; Toraya-Brown, Seiko; Scarlett, Uciane K; Alexander, Matthew P; Sheen, Mee Rie; Fox, Barbara A; Bzik, David J; Bosenberg, Marcus; Mullins, David W; Turk, Mary Jo; Fiering, Steven


    Immune recognition of tumors can limit cancer development, but antitumor immune responses are often blocked by tumor-mediated immunosuppression. Because microbes or microbial constituents are powerful adjuvants to stimulate immune responses, we evaluated whether intratumoral administration of a highly immunogenic but attenuated parasite could induce rejection of an established poorly immunogenic tumor. We treated intradermal B16F10 murine melanoma by intratumoral injection of an attenuated strain of Toxoplasma gondii (cps) that cannot replicate in vivo and therefore is not infective. The cps treatment stimulated a strong CD8(+) T cell-mediated antitumor immune response in vivo that regressed established primary melanoma. The cps monotherapy rapidly modified the tumor microenvironment, halting tumor growth, and subsequently, as tumor-reactive T cells expanded, the tumors disappeared and rarely returned. The treatment required live cps that could invade cells and also required CD8(+) T cells and NK cells, but did not require CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that IL-12, IFN-γ, and the CXCR3-stimulating cytokines are required for full treatment efficacy. The treatment developed systemic antitumor immune activity as well as antitumor immune memory and therefore might have an impact against human metastatic disease. The approach is not specific for either B16F10 or melanoma. Direct intratumoral injection of cps has efficacy against an inducible genetic melanoma model and transplantable lung and ovarian tumors, demonstrating potential for broad clinical use. The combination of efficacy, systemic antitumor immune response, and complete attenuation with no observed host toxicity demonstrates the potential value of this novel cancer therapy.

  13. MRI-Monitored Intra-Tumoral Injection of Iron-Oxide Labeled Clostridium novyi-NT Anaerobes in Pancreatic Carcinoma Mouse Model

    Linfeng Zheng; Zhuoli Zhang; Khashayarsha Khazaie; Saurabh Saha; Lewandowski, Robert J.; Guixiang Zhang; Larson, Andrew C.


    OBJECTIVES: To validate the feasibility of labeling Clostridium novyi-NT (C.novyi-NT) anaerobes with iron-oxide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and demonstrate the potential to use MRI to visualize intra-tumoral delivery of these iron-oxide labeled C.novyi-NT during percutaneous injection procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All studies were approved by IACUC. C.novyi-NT were labeled with hybrid iron-oxide Texas red nanoparticles. Growth of labeled and control samples were ev...

  14. Intratumoral interleukin-21 increases antitumor immunity, tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T-cell density and activity, and enlarges draining lymph nodes

    Søndergaard, Henrik; Galsgaard, Elisabeth D; Bartholomaeussen, Monica


    Interleukin (IL)-21 is a novel cytokine in clinical development for the treatment of cancer. In this study, we have compared the efficacy of subcutaneous and intratumoral (IT) administration of IL-21 protein in two syngeneic mouse tumor models, RenCa renal cell carcinoma and B16 melanoma, and inv......Interleukin (IL)-21 is a novel cytokine in clinical development for the treatment of cancer. In this study, we have compared the efficacy of subcutaneous and intratumoral (IT) administration of IL-21 protein in two syngeneic mouse tumor models, RenCa renal cell carcinoma and B16 melanoma......, and investigated the mechanisms by which IL-21 enhances CD8 T-cell-mediated antitumor immunity. We found that in comparison to subcutaneous administration, IT administration of IL-21 more potently inhibited tumor growth and increased survival. This correlated with increased densities of tumor-infiltrating CD8...... microenvironment and activates tumor-draining LNs. Overall, our data suggest that IL-21 augments CD8 T-cell-mediated antitumor immunity through increased proliferation and effector function and acts both on tumor-infiltrating CD8 T cells as well as on the draining LNs. IT administration led to superior CD8 T...

  15. Intra-tumoral Heterogeneity of KRAS and BRAF Mutation Status in Patients with Advanced Colorectal Cancer (aCRC and Cost-Effectiveness of Multiple Sample Testing

    Susan D. Richman


    Full Text Available KRAS mutation status is established as a predictive biomarker of benefit from anti-EGFr therapies. Mutations are normally assessed using DNA extracted from one formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE tumor block. We assessed heterogeneity of KRAS and BRAF mutation status intra-tumorally (multiple blocks from the same primary tumor. We also investigated the utility and efficiency of genotyping a ‘DNA cocktail’ prepared from multiple blocks. We studied 68 consenting patients in two randomized clinical trials. DNA was extracted, from ≥2 primary tumor FFPE blocks per patient. DNA was genotyped by pyrosequencing for KRAS codons 12, 13 and 61 and BRAF codon 600. In patients with heterogeneous mutation status, DNA cocktails were prepared and genotyped. Among 69 primary tumors in 68 patients, 7 (10.1% showed intratumoral heterogeneity; 5 (7.2% at KRAS codons 12, 13 and 2 (2.9% at BRAF codon 600. In patients displaying heterogeneity, the relevant KRAS or BRAF mutation was also identified in ‘DNA cocktail’ samples when including DNA from mutant and wild-type blocks. Heterogeneity is uncommon but not insignificant. Testing DNA from a single block will wrongly assign wild-type status to 10% patients. Testing more than one block, or preferably preparation of a ‘DNA cocktail’ from two or more tumor blocks, improves mutation detection at minimal extra cost.

  16. Disparities in Intratumoral Steroidogenesis


    X 1 Height, weight, and waist circumference will be measured and collected 2 With tissue procurement for molecular assessments completed for this study: 1. Anthropometric measures: Height, weight, and waist circumference measurements and will be completed by the study

  17. Disparities in Intratumoral Steroidogenesis


    amount of calories/mouse. Our HFHC diet does not make mice obese , in fact they weigh the same as the mice fed the LFNC diet, does not...Southeast Asian migrants to New South Wales, Australia , 1975-1995. Br J Cancer. 1999;79(7-8):1277- 1282. 77. Pu YS, Chiang HS, Lin CC, Huang CY

  18. Quantitative evaluation of oxygen metabolism in the intratumoral hypoxia: (18)F-fluoromisonidazole and (15)O-labelled gases inhalation PET.

    Watabe, Tadashi; Kanai, Yasukazu; Ikeda, Hayato; Horitsugi, Genki; Matsunaga, Keiko; Kato, Hiroki; Isohashi, Kayako; Abe, Kohji; Shimosegawa, Eku; Hatazawa, Jun


    Intratumoral hypoxia is one of the resistant factors in radiotherapy and chemotherapy for cancer. Although it is detected by (18)F-fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) PET, the relationship between intratumoral hypoxia and oxygen metabolism has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intratumoral perfusion and oxygen metabolism in hypoxic regions using the rat xenograft model. Ten male Fischer rats with C6 glioma (body weight = 220 ± 15 g) were investigated with (18)F-FMISO PET and steady-state inhalation method of (15)O-labelled gases PET. The tumoral blood flow (TBF), tumoral metabolic rate of oxygen (TMRO2), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and tumoral blood volume (TBV) were measured under artificial ventilation with (15)O-CO2, (15)O-O2, and (15)O-CO gases. Multiple volumes of interest (1-mm diameter sphere) were placed on the co-registered (18)F-FMISO (3 h post injection) and functional (15)O-labelled gases PET images. The TBF, TMRO2, OEF, and TBV values were compared among the three groups classified by the (18)F-FMISO uptake as follows: group Low (L), less than 1.0; group Medium (M), between 1.0 and 2.0; and group High (H), more than 2.0 in the (18)F-FMISO standardized uptake value (SUV). There were moderate negative correlations between (18)F-FMISO SUV and TBF (r = -0.56 and p < 0.01), and weak negative correlations between (18)F-FMISO SUV and TMRO2 (r = -0.38 and p < 0.01) and (18)F-FMISO SUV and TBV (r = -0.38 and p < 0.01). Quantitative values were as follows: TBF, (L) 55 ± 30, (M) 32 ± 17, and (H) 30 ± 15 mL/100 mL/min; OEF, (L) 33 ± 14, (M) 36 ± 17, and (H) 41 ± 16%; TMRO2, (L) 2.8 ± 1.3, (M) 1.9 ± 1.0, and (H) 2.1 ± 1.1 mL/100 mL/min; and TBV, (L) 5.7 ± 2.1, (M) 4.3 ± 1.9, and (H) 3.9 ± 1.2 mL/100 mL, respectively. Intratumoral hypoxic regions (M and H) showed significantly lower TBF, TMRO2, and TBV values than non-hypoxic regions (L). OEF

  19. Altered mental status and endocrine diseases.

    Park, Elizabeth; Abraham, Michael K


    Although the altered mental status is a common presentation in the emergency department, altered mental status caused by endocrine emergencies is rare. The altered patient could have an endocrine cause that can quickly improve with appropriate diagnosis and interventions. When dealing with limited information and an obtunded patient, it is important to have a broad differential diagnosis, pick up on the physical examination findings, and evaluate laboratory abnormalities that could suggest an underlying endocrine emergency. This article outlines the findings and provides a description of altered patients with endocrine emergencies to facilitate the diagnosis and treatment in the emergency department.

  20. Experimental study on ultrasound-guided intratumoral injection of "Star-99" in treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma of nude mice

    Li-Wu Lin; Xiao-Dong Lin; Yi-Mi He; Shang-Da Gao; En-Sheng Xue


    AIM: To investigate the anti-cancer effect and the immunological mechanism of ultrasound-guided intratumoral injection of Chinese medicine "Star-99" in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) of nude mice.METHODS: Twenty-eight human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 transplanted nude mice, 14 of hypodermically implanted and 14 of orthotopic liver transplanted, were randomly divided into three groups of which 14 mice with Star-99, and 7 with ethanol and saline respectively. Ten days after the transplantation the medicines were injected into the tumors of all the nude mice once every 5 days.After 4 injections the nude mice were killed. The diameters of three dimension of the tumors were measured by high frequency ultrasound before and after the treatment and the tumor growth indexes* (TGI) were calculated.Radioimmunoassay was used to detect the serum levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha.The tumor tissues were sent for flow cytometry (FCM) DNA analysis. Apoptotic cells were visualized by TUNEL assay.All the experiments were carried out by double blind method. zRESULTS: The TGI of Star-99 group (0.076±0.024) was markedly lower than that of the saline group (4.654±1.283)(P<0.01). It also seemed to be lower than that of the ethanol group (0.082±0.028), but not significantly different (P>0.05).Serum levels of IL-2 and TNF-α were markedly higher than those of ethanol group and saline groups (P<0.05). The mean apoptotic index (AI: percentage of TUNEL signal positive cells)in Star-99 group (48.98±5.09 %) was significantly higher than that of the ethanol group (11.95±2.24 %) and the saline group (10.48±3.85 %) (P<0.01). FCM DNA analysis showed that the appearance rate of the apoptosis peak in Srar-99group was 92.9 %, markedly higher than that of the ethanol group (14.3 %) and the saline group (0.0 %) (P<0.01).Correlation (r=0.499, P<0.05) was found between AI and serum level of TNF-α.CONCLUSION: Star-99 has an effect on the

  1. A rare case of solitary brain Langerhans cell histiocytosis with intratumoral hemorrhage in a patient affected by Turner syndrome

    Francesca Granata


    Conclusions: The clinical, neuroradiological, and intraoperative findings are presented, along with a review of the literature. Although rare, LCH should be considered in the differential diagnosis when a scalp lesion occurs with a progressive growing.

  2. Repeated whole cigarette smoke exposure alters cell differentiation and augments secretion of inflammatory mediators in air-liquid interface three-dimensional co-culture model of human bronchial tissue.

    Ishikawa, Shinkichi; Ito, Shigeaki


    In vitro models of human bronchial epithelium are useful for toxicological testing because of their resemblance to in vivo tissue. We constructed a model of human bronchial tissue which has a fibroblast layer embedded in a collagen matrix directly below a fully-differentiated epithelial cell layer. The model was applied to whole cigarette smoke (CS) exposure repeatedly from an air-liquid interface culture while bronchial epithelial cells were differentiating. The effects of CS exposure on differentiation were determined by histological and gene expression analyses on culture day 21. We found a decrease in ciliated cells and perturbation of goblet cell differentiation. We also analyzed the effects of CS exposure on the inflammatory response, and observed a significant increase in secretion of IL-8, GRO-α, IL-1β, and GM-CSF. Interestingly, secretion of these mediators was augmented with repetition of whole CS exposure. Our data demonstrate the usefulness of our bronchial tissue model for in vitro testing and the importance of exposure repetition in perturbing the differentiation and inflammation processes.

  3. Computed Tomography Demonstration of the Production and Distribution of Oxygen Gas Following Intratumoral Injection of a New Radiosensitizer (KORTUC) for Patients with Breast Cancer-Is Intratumoral Injection Not an Ideal Approach to Solve the Major Problem of Tumor Hypoxia in Radiotherapy?

    Hayashi, Naoya; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Kubota, Kei; Okino, Kazuhiro; Akima, Ryo; Morita-Tokuhiro, Shiho; Tsuzuki, Akira; Yaogawa, Shin; Nishioka, Akihito; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko


    We previously developed a new enzyme-targeting radiosensitization treatment named Kochi Oxydol-Radiation Therapy for Unresectable Carcinomas, Type II (KORTUC II), which contains hydrogen peroxide and sodium hyaluronate for injection into various types of tumors. For breast cancer treatment, the radiosensitization agent was injected into the tumor tissue twice a week under ultrasonographic guidance, immediately prior to each administration of radiation therapy. At approximately three hours after the second or third injection, computed tomography (CT) was performed to confirm the production and distribution of oxygen gas generated from the KORTUC radiosensitization agent by catalysis of peroxidases contained mainly in tumor tissue. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that tumor hypoxia could be overcome by such a procedure and to evaluate the method of intratumoral injection in terms of confirming oxygen distribution in the target tumor tissue and around the tumor to be visualized on dedicated CT imaging. Three-dimensional reconstructed maximum intensity projection imaging of contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare the position of the tumor and that of the generated oxygen. Distributed oxygen gas was confirmed in the tumor tissue and around it in all 10 patients examined in the study. A region of oxygen gas was measured as an average value of -457.2 Hounsfield units (HU) as a region of interest. A slightly increased HU value compared to the density of air or oxygen was considered due to the presence of tumor tissue in the low-density area on 5-mm-thick reconstructed CT imaging. The results of this study showed that intratumoral oxygen was successfully produced by intratumoral KORTUC injection under ultrasonographic guidance, and that tumor hypoxia, which is considered a main cause of radioresistance in currently used Linac (linear accelerator) radiation therapy for malignant neoplasms, could be resolved by this method.

  4. Treatment of isolated mediastinal and hilar recurrence of lung cancer with bronchoscopic endobronchial ultrasound guided intratumoral injection of chemotherapy with cisplatin.

    Mehta, Hiren J; Begnaud, Abbie; Penley, Andrea M; Wynne, John; Malhotra, Paras; Fernandez-Bussy, Sebastian; Cope, Jessica M; Shuster, Jonathan J; Jantz, Michael A


    A common pattern of recurrence in lung cancer after receiving full dose external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) to targeted sites is isolated mediastinal and hilar recurrence (IMHR). Treatment options for these patients are limited to palliative radiation, chemotherapy, and/or best supportive care. We describe our experience with treating IMHR with bronchoscopic endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) guided intratumoral injection of cisplatin (ITC). Patients treated between Jan 2009-September 2014 with ITC for IMHR were included. Patient demographics, tumor histology, size, concurrent therapy, location, number of sites treated, treatment sessions, and encounters were abstracted. Responses were analyzed on follow-up scans 8-12 weeks after the last treatment session using RECIST 1.1 criteria. Locoregional recurrence, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival were measured. 50 sites were treated in 36 patients (19 males, 17 females) with mean age 61.9±8.5 years. Eight sites treated on subsequent encounters were excluded and one patient had an unevaluable response, leaving 35 patients and 41 sites for final analysis. 24/35 (69%) had complete or partial response (responders), whereas 11/35 (31%) had stable or progressive disease (non-responders). There were no significant differences in response based on histology, size, and concurrent therapy. Median survival for the group was 8 months (95% CI of 6-11 mo). Responders had significantly higher survival and PFS than non-responders. Two patients treated with concurrent EBRT, developed broncho-mediastinal fistula. EBUS guided intratumoral cisplatin for IMHR appears to be safe and effective, and may represent a new treatment paradigm for this patient population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Intra-tumor injection of H101, a recombinant adenovirus, in combination with chemotherapy in patients with advanced cancers:A pilot phase Ⅱ clinical trial

    Wei Lu; Shu Zheng; Xu-Feng Li; Jian-Jin Huang; Xiao Zheng; Zhen Li


    AIM: H101, an E1B 55 kD gene deleted adenovirus, has been shown to possess oncolysis activity experimentally and proved to be safe in preliminary phase Ⅰ study. The current study was designed to evaluate its anti-tumor activity and toxicity in combination with chemotherapy in patients with late stage cancers.METHODS: H101 5.0x1011 virus particles were given by intra-tumor injection daily for five consecutive days at every three-week cycle, combined with routine chemotherapy,to one of the tumor lesions of 50 patients with different malignant tumors. Tumor lesions without H101 injection in the same individuals were used as controls. The efficacy and toxicity were recorded.RESULTS: Forty-six patients were evaluable with a 30.4%response rate. H101 injection in combination with chemotherapy induced three complete response (CR) and 11 partial response (PR), giving an overall response rate of 28.0% (14/50) among intention-to-treat patients. The response rate for the control lesions was 13.0%, including one case with CR and five cases with PR, which was significantly lower than that for the injected lesions (P<0.05).Main side effects were fever (30.2%) and pain at the injected sites (26.9%). Grade 1 hepatic dysfunction was found in four patients, grade 2 in one patient, and grade 4 in one patient. Hematological toxicity (grade 4) was found in four patients.CONCLUSION: Intra-tumor injection of the genetically engineered adenovirus H101 exhibits potential anti-tumor activity to refractory malignant tumors in combination with chemotherapy. Low toxicity and good tolerance of patients to H101were observed.

  6. Predictive value of intratumoral heterogeneity of F-18 FDG uptake for characterization of thyroid nodules according to Bethesda categories of fine needle aspiration biopsy results.

    Kim, Seong-Jang; Chang, Samuel


    The current study was aimed to investigate the clinical value of intratumoral heterogeneity of F-18 FDG uptake for characterization of thyroid nodule (TN) with inconclusive fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) results. The current study enrolled 200 patients who showed F-18 FDG incidentaloma and were performed FNAB. The intratumoral heterogeneity of F-18 FDG uptake was represented as the heterogeneity factor (HF), defined as the derivative (dV/dT) of a volume-threshold function for a primary tumor. The diagnostic and predictive values of HF and F-18 FDG PET/CT parameters were evaluated for characterization of inconclusive FNAB results. Among F-18 FDG PET/CT parameters, SUVmax, MTV, and TLG of malignant group were statistically higher than those of Bethesda category of suspicious malignant group. However, HF values were not statistically different between the groups of Bethesda categories (Kruskal-Wallis statistics, 9.924; p = 0.0774). In ROC analysis, when HF > 2.751 was used as cut-off value, the sensitivity and specificity for prediction of malignant TN were 100 % (95 % CI 69.2-100 %) and 60 % (95 % CI 42.1-76.1 %), respectively. The AUC was 0.826 (95 % CI 0.684-0.922) and standard error was 0.0648 (p F-18 FDG uptake represented by HF could be a predictor for characterization of TN with inconclusive FNAB results. Additional large population-based prospective studies are needed to validate the diagnostic utility of HF of F-18 FDG PET/CT.

  7. Levels of the Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI) are altered in the prenatal restrain stress mouse model of schizophrenia and are differentially regulated by the mGlu2/3 receptor agonists, LY379268 and LY354740.

    Orlando, Rosamaria; Borro, Marina; Motolese, Marta; Molinaro, Gemma; Scaccianoce, Sergio; Caruso, Alessandra; di Nuzzo, Luigi; Caraci, Filippo; Matrisciano, Francesco; Pittaluga, Anna; Mairesse, Jerome; Simmaco, Maurizio; Nisticò, Robert; Monn, James A; Nicoletti, Ferdinando


    LY379268 and LY354740, two agonists of mGlu2/3 metabotropic glutamate receptors, display different potencies in mouse models of schizophrenia. This differential effect of the two drugs remains unexplained. We performed a proteomic analysis in cultured cortical neurons challenged with either LY379268 or LY354740. Among the few proteins that were differentially influenced by the two drugs, Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor-β (Rab GDIβ) was down-regulated by LY379268 and showed a trend to an up-regulation in response to LY354740. In cultured hippocampal neurons, LY379268 selectively down-regulated the α isoform of Rab GDI. Rab GDI inhibits the activity of the synaptic vesicle-associated protein, Rab3A, and is reduced in the brain of schizophrenic patients. We examined the expression of Rab GDI in mice exposed to prenatal stress ("PRS mice"), which have been described as a putative model of schizophrenia. Rab GDIα protein levels were increased in the hippocampus of PRS mice at postnatal days (PND)1 and 21, but not at PND60. At PND21, PRS mice also showed a reduced depolarization-evoked [(3)H]d-aspartate release in hippocampal synaptosomes. The increase in Rab GDIα levels in the hippocampus of PRS mice was reversed by a 7-days treatment with LY379268 (1 or 10 mg/kg, i.p.), but not by treatment with equal doses of LY354740. These data strengthen the validity of PRS mice as a model of schizophrenia, and show for the first time a pharmacodynamic difference between LY379268 and LY354740 which might be taken into account in an attempt to explain the differential effect of the two drugs across mouse models.

  8. Differential characters

    Bär, Christian


    Providing a systematic introduction to differential characters as introduced by Cheeger and Simons, this text describes important concepts such as fiber integration, higher dimensional holonomy, transgression, and the product structure in a geometric manner. Differential characters form a model of what is nowadays called differential cohomology, which is the mathematical structure behind the higher gauge theories in physics.  

  9. Differentiation between ovarian fibroma and subserosal leiomyoma by MR imaging

    Choi, Sang Yeol; Lee, Jun Woo; Kim, Chang Won; Kim, Yong Woo; Lee, Suck Hong [College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the findings and differential points of ovarian fibroma and subserosal leiomyoma, as seen on MR images. The MRimaging findings of 31 surgically confirmed cases of ovarian fibroma (n=3D6) and subserosal leiomyoma (n=3D25; 28) lesions were evaluated. Multiplanar T1-T2-weighted and postcontrast T1-weighted images were obtained using a 1.5T MR unit, and histologic examination was also performed. The MR findings were analyzed in terms of signal intensity, the presence and definition of margin, the histologic finding of hyperintense lesion on T2-weighted images, the presence of the bridging vessel sign, degree of enhancement, and the presence of ipsilateral ovary and ascites. Both fibromas and leiomyomas showed hypo- or isointensity compared with uterine myometrium on T1-weighted images and compared with skeletal muscle on T2-weighted images. The latter revealed intratumoral hyperintense lesions in most cases of ovarian fibroma and subserosal leiomyoma. Three of four ovarian fibromas had a well defined margin after cystic change, but in 24 of 26 subserosal leiomyomas the margin was ill defined. The 'bridging vessel sign' was visible only in subserosal leiomyomas (22/28), and in all cases the enhancement of ovarian fibromas were less than that of myomtetrium. Subserosal leiomyomas (12/28), seen on enhancement as isointense or hyperintense to myometrium, showed a greater degree of enhancement than ovarian fibromas (0/6). Ipsilateral ovary was rarely seen in ovarian fibromas (1/6), but commonly seen in subserosal leiomyomas (20/250. Ascites was present in one case of ovarian fibroma. A defined margin of an intratumoral hyperintense lesion, as seen on T2-weighted images, and the presence or absence of the 'bridging vessel sign' and ipsilateral ovary are useful signs when differentiating between ovarian fibromas and subserosal leiomyomas. (author)

  10. Comparative study of two routes of administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (oral and intratumoral via) and their effect on the accumulation of PpIX in tissues in murine model of breast cancer

    González-Agüero, G.; Ramón-Gallegos, E.


    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is a photosensitizer synthesized from 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) that has been used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a promising treatment for many types of cancer. In this work it was quantified the accumulation of PpIX in tumors and in different tissues of female mice (nu/nu) inoculated with breast cancer cells. Two routes of administration of ALA: gastric probe and intratumoral injection were used to find optimum time of accumulation and the via that induce the higher quantity of PpIX to improve the efficiency of PDT. The results show that the accumulation of PpIX using the intratumoral via is two times bigger than the oral via in tumors at 8 h of treatment. The concentrations obtained in the different tissues are not physiologically significant.

  11. [Altered states of consciousness].

    Gora, E P


    The review of modern ideas concerning the altered states of consciousness is presented in this article. Various methods of entry into the altered states of consciousness are looked over. It is shown that the altered states of consciousness are insufficiently known, but important aspects of human being existence. The role of investigation of the altered states of consciousness for the creation of integrative scientific conception base is discussed.

  12. Mutant Forkhead L2 (FOXL2) proteins associated with premature ovarian failure (POF) dimerize with wild-type FOXL2, leading to altered regulation of genes associated with granulosa cell differentiation.

    Kuo, Fang-Ting; Bentsi-Barnes, Ikuko K; Barlow, Gillian M; Pisarska, Margareta D


    Premature ovarian failure in the autosomal dominant disorder blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus is due to mutations in the gene encoding Forkhead L2 (FOXL2), producing putative truncated proteins. We previously demonstrated that FOXL2 is a transcriptional repressor of the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR), P450SCC (CYP11A), P450aromatase (CYP19), and cyclin D2 (CCND2) genes, markers of ovarian follicle proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, we found that mutations of FOXL2 may regulate wild-type FOXL2, leading to loss of transcriptional repression of CYP19, similar to StAR. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying these premature ovarian failure-associated mutations remain largely unknown. Therefore, we examined the effects of a FOXL2 mutant protein on the transcriptional repression of the CYP19 promoter by the full-length protein. We found that mutant FOXL2 exerts a dominant-negative effect on the repression of CYP19 by wild-type FOXL2. Both wild-type and mutant FOXL2 and can form homo- and heterodimers. We identified a minimal -57-bp human CYP19 promoter containing two potential FOXL2-binding regions and found that both wild-type and mutant FOXL2 can bind to either of these regions. Mutational analysis revealed that either site is sufficient for transcriptional repression by wild-type FOXL2, and the dominant-negative effect of mutant FOXL2, but these are eliminated when both sites are mutated. These findings confirm that mutant FOXL2 exerts a dominant-negative effect on wild-type FOXL2's activity as a transcriptional repressor of key genes in ovarian follicle differentiation and suggest that this is likely due to heterodimer formation and possibly also competition for DNA binding.

  13. Cocaine induces a differential dose-dependent alteration in the expression profile of immediate early genes, transcription factors, and caspases in PC12 cells: a possible mechanism of neurotoxic damage in cocaine addiction.

    Imam, Syed Z; Duhart, Helen M; Skinner, John T; Ali, Syed F


    Cocaine is a widely used drug of abuse and psychostimulant that acts on the central nervous system by blocking the dopamine reuptake sites. PC12 cells, a rat pheochromocytoma clonal line, in the presence of nerve growth factor (NGF), multiply and differentiate into competent neurons that can synthesize, store, and secrete the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA). In the present study, we evaluated the effect of increasing doses of cocaine on the expression of immediate early genes (IEGs), c-fos and c-jun, and closely related transcription factors, SP-1 and NF-kbeta, at 24 h after the exposure to cocaine (50, 100, 200, 500, 1000, 2500 microM) in NGF-differentiated PC12 cells. Cocaine (50-500 microM) resulted in significant induction of the expression of c-fos, c-jun, SP-1, and NF-kbeta. However, higher concentrations of cocaine (1000 and 2500 microM) resulted in the downregulation of these expressions after 24 h. To further understand the role of dose-dependent changes in the mechanisms of cell death, we evaluated the protein expression of apoptotic markers. A concentration-dependent increase in the expression of caspase-9 and -3 was observed up to 500 microM cocaine. However, the higher dose did not show any expression. We also evaluated the effect of increasing doses of cocaine on DA concentration and the expression of dopamine transporter (DAT). A significant dose-dependent decrease in the concentration of DA as well as the expression of DAT was observed 24 h after the exposure of PC12 cells to cocaine. Therefore, in the present study, we reported that cocaine has both upstream and downstream regulatory actions on some IEGs and transcription factors that can regulate the mechanism of cell death, and these effects on gene expression are independent of its action on the dopaminergic system.

  14. Absolute quantification of somatic DNA alterations in human cancer.

    Carter, Scott L; Cibulskis, Kristian; Helman, Elena; McKenna, Aaron; Shen, Hui; Zack, Travis; Laird, Peter W; Onofrio, Robert C; Winckler, Wendy; Weir, Barbara A; Beroukhim, Rameen; Pellman, David; Levine, Douglas A; Lander, Eric S; Meyerson, Matthew; Getz, Gad


    We describe a computational method that infers tumor purity and malignant cell ploidy directly from analysis of somatic DNA alterations. The method, named ABSOLUTE, can detect subclonal heterogeneity and somatic homozygosity, and it can calculate statistical sensitivity for detection of specific aberrations. We used ABSOLUTE to analyze exome sequencing data from 214 ovarian carcinoma tumor-normal pairs. This analysis identified both pervasive subclonal somatic point-mutations and a small subset of predominantly clonal and homozygous mutations, which were overrepresented in the tumor suppressor genes TP53 and NF1 and in a candidate tumor suppressor gene CDK12. We also used ABSOLUTE to infer absolute allelic copy-number profiles from 3,155 diverse cancer specimens, revealing that genome-doubling events are common in human cancer, likely occur in cells that are already aneuploid, and influence pathways of tumor progression (for example, with recessive inactivation of NF1 being less common after genome doubling). ABSOLUTE will facilitate the design of clinical sequencing studies and studies of cancer genome evolution and intra-tumor heterogeneity.

  15. A rare case of solitary brain Langerhans cell histiocytosis with intratumoral hemorrhage in a patient affected by Turner syndrome

    Granata, Francesca; Morabito, Rosa; Grasso, Giovanni; Alafaci, Elisabetta; Salpietro, Francesco M.; Alafaci, Concetta


    Background: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease involving clonal proliferation of cells with characteristics similar to bone marrow-derived Langerhans cells. The case of a young woman, affected by Turner syndrome and a solitary intraparenchymal LCH associated with an osteolytic lesion of the overlying skull, is presented. Case Description: The patient, with an insidious history of headache and a growing soft mass in the left frontal region, presented with a sudden generalized tonic-clonic epileptic seizure. Neuroradiological investigations showed an osteolytic lesion of the left frontal bone and an underlying brain lesion associated with recent signs of bleeding. The patient was operated on with a complete removal of the lesion. The postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusions: The clinical, neuroradiological, and intraoperative findings are presented, along with a review of the literature. Although rare, LCH should be considered in the differential diagnosis when a scalp lesion occurs with a progressive growing. PMID:27127696

  16. Intratumoral α-SMA enhances the prognostic potency of CD34 associated with maintenance of microvessel integrity in hepatocellular carcinoma and pancreatic cancer.

    Wang, Wen-Quan; Liu, Liang; Xu, Hua-Xiang; Luo, Guo-Pei; Chen, Tao; Wu, Chun-Tao; Xu, Yong-Feng; Xu, Jin; Liu, Chen; Zhang, Bo; Long, Jiang; Tang, Zhao-You; Yu, Xian-Jun


    Microvessel density (MVD) as an angiogenesis predictor is inefficient per se in cancer prognosis. We evaluated prognostic values of combining intratumoral alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)-positive stromal cell density and MVD after curative resection in hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hypovascular pancreatic cancer (PC). Tissue microarrays were constructed from tumors of 305 HCC and 57 PC patients who underwent curative resection and analyzed for α-SMA and CD34 expression by immunostaining. Prognostic values of these two proteins and other clinicopathological features were examined. Both low α-SMA density and high MVD-CD34 were associated in HCC with the presence of intrahepatic metastasis and microvascular invasion, and they were related to lymph node involvement and microvascular invasion in PC (pSMA, was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival and recurrence-free survival, the combination of low α-SMA and high CD34 was a predictor of worst prognosis for both types of tumors and had a better power to predict patient death and early recurrence (pSMA-positive cells and vascular endothelial cells overlap, showing major colocalization on vascular walls. Poor microvessel integrity, as indicated by high MVD, together with low perivascular α-SMA-positive cell coverage is associated with early recurrence, unfavorable metastasis, and short survival after tumor resection. This finding highlights the significance of vascular quality in tumor progression, which provides an optimized complement to vascular quantity in prognosis of postoperative patients.


    Sun Yanping; Cao Xuetao; Wang Quanxing; Wang Yuanhe; Shi Jinghua


    In order to investigate the antitumor effects of the in vivo G-CSF gene therapy mediated by liposome and its mechanisms, human G-CSF gene was encapsulated into liposome and was directly injected into tumor mass of C26 colon adenocarcinoma-bearing mice. After direct intratumoral injection of liposome encapsulated G-CSF DNA, the subcutaneous tumor growth was dramatically inhibited and the survival time was prolonged significantly. Tumor regression could be observed in about 30%of C-26-bearing mice. By the analysis of the antitumor mechanisms, we found that anti-G41s (600ug/ml) clone could be selected from the tumor cells freshly separated from the treated C-26 tumor mass, and secretion of GCSF in the supernatant could be detected. Northern-blot also confirmed the expression of hG-CSF by the tumor cells. Higher expressions of MHC class I(H-2kd) molecule and ICAM-1 on the tumor cells could be observed. The results demonstrated that liposome can effectively transfect G-CSF gene into tumor cellsin situ, and then increase the immunogenicity of the tumor cells which may contribute to the activation of the local antitumor immune responses effectively.

  18. 1810011o10 Rik Inhibits the Antitumor Effect of Intratumoral CD8+ T Cells through Suppression of Notch2 Pathway in a Murine Hepatocellular Carcinoma Model

    Dai, Kai; Huang, Ling; Huang, Ya-bing; Chen, Zu-bing; Yang, Li-hua; Jiang, Ying-an


    The mechanisms by which tumor-responsive CD8+ T cells are regulated are important for understanding the tumor immunity and for developing new therapeutic strategies. In current study, we identified the expression of 1810011o10 Rik, which is the homolog of human thyroid cancer 1, in intratumoral activated CD8+ T cells in a murine hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) implantation model. To investigate the role of 1810011o10 Rik in the regulation of antitumor activity of CD8+ T cells, normal CD8+ T cells were transduced with 1810011o10 Rik-expressing lentiviruses. Although 1810011o10 Rik overexpression did not influence agonistic antibody-induced CD8+ T cell activation in vitro, it inhibited the cytotoxic efficacy of CD8+ T cells on HCC cells in vivo. 1810011o10 Rik overexpression impeded CD8+ T cell-mediated HCC cell apoptosis and favored tumor cell growth in vivo. Further investigation revealed that 1810011o10 Rik blocked the nuclear translocation of Notch2 intracellular domain, which is crucial for CD8+ T cell activity. Furthermore, a brief in vitro experiment suggested that both antigen-presenting cells and TGF-β might be necessary for the upregulation of Rik expression in activated CD8+ T cells. In general, our study disclosed a novel mechanism underlying the negative regulation of antitumor CD8+ T cells during HCC progression.

  19. Combined treatment with ipilimumab and intratumoral interleukin-2 in pretreated patients with stage IV melanoma-safety and efficacy in a phase II study.

    Weide, Benjamin; Martens, Alexander; Wistuba-Hamprecht, Kilian; Zelba, Henning; Maier, Ludwig; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Klumpp, Bernhard D; Soffel, Daniel; Eigentler, Thomas K; Garbe, Claus


    Treatment of advanced melanoma patients with ipilimumab results in improved survival. However, only about 20% of treated patients experience long-term benefit. Combining treatment of ipilimumab with other drugs may improve immune activation and potentially enhance clinical efficacy. The aims of the phase II clinical trial reported here were to investigate tolerability and efficacy of a combined immunotherapeutic strategy comprising standard systemic ipilimumab at 3 mg/kg four times at 3-week intervals and intratumorally injected IL-2 at 9 MIU daily twice weekly for four weeks in pretreated melanoma patients with distant metastasis. The primary endpoint was the disease control rate according to immune-related response criteria at week 12; tolerability according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events criteria was secondary endpoint. No objective responses were observed in the 15 enrolled patients. Three patients had stable disease 12 weeks after starting treatment, yielding a disease control rate of 20%. Tolerability of this combination treatment was acceptable. Observed adverse events were those expected from the respective monotherapies. Autoimmune colitis was observed in two patients. Grade III/IV adverse events were observed in 40% of patients, and no treatment-related deaths occurred. Thus, this combined immunotherapy is associated with adverse events similar to those associated with the respective monotherapies. However, this study does not provide any evidence of improved efficacy of the combination over ipilimumab alone.

  20. Downstream mediators of the intratumoral interferon response suppress antitumor immunity, induce gemcitabine resistance and associate with poor survival in human pancreatic cancer.

    Delitto, Daniel; Perez, Chelsey; Han, Song; Gonzalo, David H; Pham, Kien; Knowlton, Andrea E; Graves, Christina L; Behrns, Kevin E; Moldawer, Lyle L; Thomas, Ryan M; Liu, Chen; George, Thomas J; Trevino, Jose G; Wallet, Shannon M; Hughes, Steven J


    The cancer microenvironment allows tumor cells to evade immune surveillance through a variety of mechanisms. While interferon-γ (IFNγ) is central to effective antitumor immunity, its effects on the microenvironment are not as clear and have in some cancers been shown to induce immune checkpoint ligands. The heterogeneity of these responses to IFNγ remains poorly characterized in desmoplastic malignancies with minimal inflammatory cell infiltration, such as pancreatic cancer (PC). Thus, the IFNγ response within and on key cells of the PC microenvironment was evaluated. IFNγ induced expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and II on PC cell lines, primary pancreatic cancer epithelial cells (PPCE) and patient-derived tumor-associated stroma, concomitant with an upregulation of PDL1 in the absence of CD80 and CD86 expression. As expected, IFNγ also induced high levels of CXCL10 from all cell types. In addition, significantly higher levels of CXCL10 were observed in PC specimens compared to those from chronic pancreatitis, whereby intratumoral CXCL10 concentration was an independent predictor of poor survival. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a subset of CXCR3-positive cancer cells in over 90 % of PC specimens, as well as on a subset of cultured PC cell lines and PPCE, whereby exposure to CXCL10 induced resistance to the chemotherapeutic gemcitabine. These findings suggest that IFNγ has multiple effects on many cell types within the PC microenvironment that may lead to immune evasion, chemoresistance and shortened survival.

  1. Synthesis of Poly[APMA]-DOTA-64Cu Conjugates for Interventional Radionuclide Therapy of Prostate Cancer: Assessment of Intratumoral Retention by Micro–Positron Emission Tomography

    Jianchao Yuan


    Full Text Available To develop new radiopharmaceuticals for interventional radionuclide therapy of locally recurrent prostate cancer, poly[N-(3-aminopropylmethacrylamide] [poly(APMA] polymers were synthesized by free radical precipitation polymerization in acetonedimethylsulfoxide using N,N‘-azobis(isobutyronitrile as the initiator. The polymers were characterized with nuclear magnetic resonance, size exclusion chromatography, and dynamic light scattering (Mn 5 2.40 × 104, Mw/Mn = 1.87. Subsequently, poly[APMA] was coupled with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA using 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride as an activator, followed by conjugation with 64Cu radionuclide. Prolonged retention of poly[APMA]-DOTA-64Cu conjugates within the tumor tissues was demonstrated by micro–positron emission tomography at 24 hours following intra-tumoral injection of the conjugates to human prostate xenografts in mice. The data suggest that the poly[APMA]-DOTA-64Cu conjugates might be useful for interventional radionuclide therapy of locally recurrent prostate cancer in humans.

  2. Differential manifolds

    Kosinski, Antoni A


    The concepts of differential topology form the center of many mathematical disciplines such as differential geometry and Lie group theory. Differential Manifolds presents to advanced undergraduates and graduate students the systematic study of the topological structure of smooth manifolds. Author Antoni A. Kosinski, Professor Emeritus of Mathematics at Rutgers University, offers an accessible approach to both the h-cobordism theorem and the classification of differential structures on spheres.""How useful it is,"" noted the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, ""to have a single, sho

  3. Melanoma Differentiation-associated Gene 7/IL-24 Exerts Cytotoxic Effects by Altering the Alternative Splicing of Bcl-x Pre-mRNA via the SRC/PKCδ Signaling Axis.

    Shapiro, Brian A; Vu, Ngoc T; Shultz, Michael D; Shultz, Jacqueline C; Mietla, Jennifer A; Gouda, Mazen M; Yacoub, Adly; Dent, Paul; Fisher, Paul B; Park, Margaret A; Chalfant, Charles E


    Melanoma differentiation-associated gene 7 (MDA-7/IL-24) exhibits cytotoxic effects on tumor cells while sparing untransformed cells, and Bcl-x(L) is reported to efficiently block the induction of cell death by MDA-7/IL-24. The expression of Bcl-x(L) is regulated at the level of RNA splicing via alternative 5' splice site selection within exon 2 to produce either the pro-apoptotic Bcl-x(s) or the anti-apoptotic Bcl-x(L). Our laboratory previously reported that Bcl-x RNA splicing is dysregulated in a large percentage of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors. Therefore, we investigated whether the alternative RNA splicing of Bcl-x pre-mRNA was modulated by MDA-7/IL-24, which would suggest that specific NSCLC tumors are valid targets for this cytokine therapy. Adenovirus-delivered MDA-7/IL-24 (Ad.mda-7) reduced the viability of NSCLC cells of varying oncogenotypes, which was preceded by a decrease in the ratio of Bcl-x(L)/Bcl-x(s) mRNA and Bcl-x(L) protein expression. Importantly, both the expression of Bcl-x(L) and the loss of cell viability were "rescued" in Ad.mda-7-treated cells incubated with Bcl-x(s) siRNA. In addition, NSCLC cells ectopically expressing Bcl-x(s) exhibited significantly reduced Bcl-x(L) expression, which was again restored by Bcl-x(s) siRNA, suggesting the existence of a novel mechanism by which Bcl-x(s) mRNA restrains the expression of Bcl-x(L). In additional mechanistic studies, inhibition of SRC and PKCδ completely ablated the ability of MDA-7/IL-24 to reduce the Bcl-x(L)/(s) mRNA ratio and cell viability. These findings show that Bcl-x(s) expression is an important mediator of MDA-7/IL-24-induced cytotoxicity requiring the SRC/PKCδ signaling axis in NSCLC cells.

  4. Differential meadows

    J.A. Bergstra; A. Ponse


    A meadow is a zero totalised field (0^{-1}=0), and a cancellation meadow is a meadow without proper zero divisors. In this paper we consider differential meadows, i.e., meadows equipped with differentiation operators. We give an equational axiomatization of these operators and thus obtain a finite b

  5. Differential equations

    Barbu, Viorel


    This textbook is a comprehensive treatment of ordinary differential equations, concisely presenting basic and essential results in a rigorous manner. Including various examples from physics, mechanics, natural sciences, engineering and automatic theory, Differential Equations is a bridge between the abstract theory of differential equations and applied systems theory. Particular attention is given to the existence and uniqueness of the Cauchy problem, linear differential systems, stability theory and applications to first-order partial differential equations. Upper undergraduate students and researchers in applied mathematics and systems theory with a background in advanced calculus will find this book particularly useful. Supplementary topics are covered in an appendix enabling the book to be completely self-contained.

  6. A low carbohydrate, high protein diet suppresses intratumoral androgen synthesis and slows castration-resistant prostate tumor growth in mice.

    Fokidis, H Bobby; Yieng Chin, Mei; Ho, Victor W; Adomat, Hans H; Soma, Kiran K; Fazli, Ladan; Nip, Ka Mun; Cox, Michael; Krystal, Gerald; Zoubeidi, Amina; Tomlinson Guns, Emma S


    Dietary factors continue to preside as dominant influences in prostate cancer prevalence and progression-free survival following primary treatment. We investigated the influence of a low carbohydrate diet, compared to a typical Western diet, on prostate cancer (PCa) tumor growth in vivo. LNCaP xenograft tumor growth was studied in both intact and castrated mice, representing a more advanced castration resistant PCa (CRPC). No differences in LNCaP tumor progression (total tumor volume) with diet was observed for intact mice (P = 0.471) however, castrated mice on the Low Carb diet saw a statistically significant reduction in tumor growth rate compared with Western diet fed mice (P = 0.017). No correlation with serum PSA was observed. Steroid profiles, alongside serum cholesterol and cholesteryl ester levels, were significantly altered by both diet and castration. Specifically, DHT concentration with the Low Carb diet was 58% that of the CRPC-bearing mice on the Western diet. Enzymes in the steroidogenesis pathway were directly impacted and tumors isolated from intact mice on the Low Carb diet had higher AKR1C3 protein levels and lower HSD17B2 protein levels than intact mice on the Western diet (ARK1C3: P = 0.074; HSD17B2: P = 0.091, with α = 0.1). In contrast, CRPC tumors from mice on Low Carb diets had higher concentrations of both HSD17B2 (P = 0.016) and SRD5A1 (P = 0.058 with α = 0.1) enzymes. There was no correlation between tumor growth in castrated mice for Low Carb diet versus Western diet and (a) serum insulin (b) GH serum levels (c) insulin receptor (IR) or (d) IGF-1R in tumor tissue. Intact mice fed Western diet had higher serum insulin which was associated with significantly higher blood glucose and tumor tissue IR. We conclude that both diet and castration have a significant impact on the endocrinology of mice bearing LNCaP xenograft tumors. The observed effects of diet on cholesterol and steroid regulation impact tumor tissue DHT specifically and are

  7. Castration induces up-regulation of intratumoral androgen biosynthesis and androgen receptor expression in an orthotopic VCaP human prostate cancer xenograft model.

    Knuuttila, Matias; Yatkin, Emrah; Kallio, Jenny; Savolainen, Saija; Laajala, Teemu D; Aittokallio, Tero; Oksala, Riikka; Häkkinen, Merja; Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Auriola, Seppo; Poutanen, Matti; Mäkelä, Sari


    Androgens are key factors involved in the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa), and PCa growth can be suppressed by androgen deprivation therapy. In a considerable proportion of men receiving androgen deprivation therapy, however, PCa progresses to castration-resistant PCa (CRPC), making the development of efficient therapies challenging. We used an orthotopic VCaP human PCa xenograft model to study cellular and molecular changes in tumors after androgen deprivation therapy (castration). Tumor growth was monitored through weekly serum prostate-specific antigen measurements, and mice with recurrent tumors after castration were randomized to treatment groups. Serum prostate-specific antigen concentrations showed significant correlation with tumor volume. Castration-resistant tumors retained concentrations of intratumoral androgen (androstenedione, testosterone, and 5α-dihydrotestosterone) at levels similar to tumors growing in intact hosts. Accordingly, castration induced up-regulation of enzymes involved in androgen synthesis (CYP17A1, AKR1C3, and HSD17B6), as well as expression of full-length androgen receptor (AR) and AR splice variants (AR-V1 and AR-V7). Furthermore, AR target gene expression was maintained in castration-resistant xenografts. The AR antagonists enzalutamide (MDV3100) and ARN-509 suppressed PSA production of castration-resistant tumors, confirming the androgen dependency of these tumors. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that our VCaP xenograft model exhibits the key characteristics of clinical CRPC and thus provides a valuable tool for identifying druggable targets and for testing therapeutic strategies targeting AR signaling in CRPC.

  8. Differential games

    Friedman, Avner


    This volume lays the mathematical foundations for the theory of differential games, developing a rigorous mathematical framework with existence theorems. It begins with a precise definition of a differential game and advances to considerations of games of fixed duration, games of pursuit and evasion, the computation of saddle points, games of survival, and games with restricted phase coordinates. Final chapters cover selected topics (including capturability and games with delayed information) and N-person games.Geared toward graduate students, Differential Games will be of particular interest

  9. Genetically Engineered Multilineage-Differentiating Stress-Enduring Cells as Cellular Vehicles against Malignant Gliomas

    Tomohiro Yamasaki


    Full Text Available Malignant glioma, the most common malignant brain tumor in adults, is difficult to treat due to its aggressive invasive nature. Enzyme/prodrug suicide gene therapy based on the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk/ganciclovir (GCV system is an efficient strategy for treating malignant gliomas. In the present study, we evaluated treatment with multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse cells, which are endogenous non-tumorigenic pluripotent-like stem cells that are easily collectable from the bone marrow as SSEA-3+ cells, as carriers of the HSVtk gene. Human Muse cells showed potent migratory activity toward glioma cells both in vitro and in vivo. HSVtk gene-transduced Muse cells (Muse-tk cells at a cell number of only 1/32 that of U87 human glioma cells completely eradicated U87 gliomas in nude mouse brains, showing a robust in vivo bystander effect. Pre-existing intracranial U87 gliomas in nude mouse brains injected intratumorally with Muse-tk cells followed by intraperitoneal GCV administration were significantly reduced in size within 2 weeks, and 4 of 10 treated mice survived over 200 days. These findings suggest that intratumoral Muse-tk cell injection followed by systemic GCV administration is safe and effective and that allogeneic Muse-tk cell-medicated suicide gene therapy for malignant glioma is clinically feasible.

  10. Differential topology

    Mukherjee, Amiya


    This book presents a systematic and comprehensive account of the theory of differentiable manifolds and provides the necessary background for the use of fundamental differential topology tools. The text includes, in particular, the earlier works of Stephen Smale, for which he was awarded the Fields Medal. Explicitly, the topics covered are Thom transversality, Morse theory, theory of handle presentation, h-cobordism theorem, and the generalised Poincaré conjecture. The material is the outcome of lectures and seminars on various aspects of differentiable manifolds and differential topology given over the years at the Indian Statistical Institute in Calcutta, and at other universities throughout India. The book will appeal to graduate students and researchers interested in these topics. An elementary knowledge of linear algebra, general topology, multivariate calculus, analysis, and algebraic topology is recommended.

  11. Differential Geometry

    Stoker, J J


    This classic work is now available in an unabridged paperback edition. Stoker makes this fertile branch of mathematics accessible to the nonspecialist by the use of three different notations: vector algebra and calculus, tensor calculus, and the notation devised by Cartan, which employs invariant differential forms as elements in an algebra due to Grassman, combined with an operation called exterior differentiation. Assumed are a passing acquaintance with linear algebra and the basic elements of analysis.

  12. Differential Krull dimension in differential polynomial extensions

    Smirnov, Ilya


    We investigate the differential Krull dimension of differential polynomials over a differential ring. We prove a differential analogue of Jaffard's Special Chain Theorem and show that differential polynomial extensions of certain classes of differential rings have no anomaly of differential Krull dimension.

  13. Upregulation of RNA Processing Factors in Poorly Differentiated Lung Cancer Cells.

    Geles, Kenneth G; Zhong, Wenyan; O'Brien, Siobhan K; Baxter, Michelle; Loreth, Christine; Pallares, Diego; Damelin, Marc


    Intratumoral heterogeneity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been appreciated at the histological and cellular levels, but the association of less differentiated pathology with poor clinical outcome is not understood at the molecular level. Gene expression profiling of intact human tumors fails to reveal the molecular nature of functionally distinct epithelial cell subpopulations, in particular the tumor cells that fuel tumor growth, metastasis, and disease relapse. We generated primary serum-free cultures of NSCLC and then exposed them to conditions known to promote differentiation: the air-liquid interface (ALI) and serum. The transcriptional network of the primary cultures was associated with stem cells, indicating a poorly differentiated state, and worse overall survival of NSCLC patients. Strikingly, the overexpression of RNA splicing and processing factors was a prominent feature of the poorly differentiated cells and was also observed in clinical datasets. A genome-wide analysis of splice isoform expression revealed many alternative splicing events that were specific to the differentiation state of the cells, including an unexpectedly high frequency of events on chromosome 19. The poorly differentiated cells exhibited alternative splicing in many genes associated with tumor progression, as exemplified by the preferential expression of the short isoform of telomeric repeat-binding factor 1 (TERF1), also known as Pin2. Our findings demonstrate the utility of the ALI method for probing the molecular mechanisms that underlie NSCLC pathogenesis and provide novel insight into posttranscriptional mechanisms in poorly differentiated lung cancer cells.

  14. Upregulation of RNA Processing Factors in Poorly Differentiated Lung Cancer Cells

    Kenneth G. Geles


    Full Text Available Intratumoral heterogeneity in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC has been appreciated at the histological and cellular levels, but the association of less differentiated pathology with poor clinical outcome is not understood at the molecular level. Gene expression profiling of intact human tumors fails to reveal the molecular nature of functionally distinct epithelial cell subpopulations, in particular the tumor cells that fuel tumor growth, metastasis, and disease relapse. We generated primary serum-free cultures of NSCLC and then exposed them to conditions known to promote differentiation: the air-liquid interface (ALI and serum. The transcriptional network of the primary cultures was associated with stem cells, indicating a poorly differentiated state, and worse overall survival of NSCLC patients. Strikingly, the overexpression of RNA splicing and processing factors was a prominent feature of the poorly differentiated cells and was also observed in clinical datasets. A genome-wide analysis of splice isoform expression revealed many alternative splicing events that were specific to the differentiation state of the cells, including an unexpectedly high frequency of events on chromosome 19. The poorly differentiated cells exhibited alternative splicing in many genes associated with tumor progression, as exemplified by the preferential expression of the short isoform of telomeric repeat-binding factor 1 (TERF1, also known as Pin2. Our findings demonstrate the utility of the ALI method for probing the molecular mechanisms that underlie NSCLC pathogenesis and provide novel insight into posttranscriptional mechanisms in poorly differentiated lung cancer cells.

  15. Intrinsic differentiation potential of adolescent human tendon tissue: an in-vitro cell differentiation study

    M. de Mos (Marieke); J.L.M. Koevoet (Wendy); H. Jahr (Holger); M.M.A. Verstegen (Monique); M.P. Heijboer (Rien); N. Kops (Nicole); J.P.T.M. van Leeuwen (Hans); H.H. Weinans (Harrie); G.J.V.M. van Osch (Gerjo); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan)


    textabstractTendinosis lesions show an increase of glycosaminoglycan amount, calcifications, and lipid accumulation. Therefore, altered cellular differentiation might play a role in the etiology of tendinosis. This study investigates whether adolescent human tendon tissue contains a population of

  16. Alteration of plant meristem function by manipulation of the Retinoblastoma-like plant RRB gene

    Durfee, Tim; Feiler, Heidi; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Jenkins, Susan; Roe, Judith; Zambryski, Patricia


    This invention provides methods and compositions for altering the growth, organization, and differentiation of plant tissues. The invention is based on the discovery that, in plants, genetically altering the levels of Retinoblastoma-related gene (RRB) activity produces dramatic effects on the growth, proliferation, organization, and differentiation of plant meristem.

  17. Alteration of plant meristem function by manipulation of the Retinoblastoma-like plant RRB gene

    Durfee, Tim (Madison, WI); Feiler, Heidi (Albany, CA); Gruissem, Wilhelm (Forch, CH); Jenkins, Susan (Martinez, CA); Roe, Judith (Manhattan, KS); Zambryski, Patricia (Berkeley, CA)


    This invention provides methods and compositions for altering the growth, organization, and differentiation of plant tissues. The invention is based on the discovery that, in plants, genetically altering the levels of Retinoblastoma-related gene (RRB) activity produces dramatic effects on the growth, proliferation, organization, and differentiation of plant meristem.

  18. Constraint Differentiation

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Basin, David; Viganò, Luca


    , under the assumption that the original constraint-based approach has these properties. Practically, as a concrete case study, we have integrated this technique into OFMC, a state-of-the-art model-checker for security protocol analysis, and demonstrated its effectiveness by extensive experimentation. Our......We introduce constraint differentiation, a powerful technique for reducing search when model-checking security protocols using constraint-based methods. Constraint differentiation works by eliminating certain kinds of redundancies that arise in the search space when using constraints to represent...

  19. Differential geometry

    Guggenheimer, Heinrich W


    This is a text of local differential geometry considered as an application of advanced calculus and linear algebra. The discussion is designed for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate study, and presumes of readers only a fair knowledge of matrix algebra and of advanced calculus of functions of several real variables. The author, who is a Professor of Mathematics at the Polytechnic Institute of New York, begins with a discussion of plane geometry and then treats the local theory of Lie groups and transformation groups, solid differential geometry, and Riemannian geometry, leading to a

  20. Differential geometry

    Graustein, William C


    This first course in differential geometry presents the fundamentals of the metric differential geometry of curves and surfaces in a Euclidean space of three dimensions. Written by an outstanding teacher and mathematician, it explains the material in the most effective way, using vector notation and technique. It also provides an introduction to the study of Riemannian geometry.Suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students, the text presupposes a knowledge of calculus. The first nine chapters focus on the theory, treating the basic properties of curves and surfaces, the mapping of

  1. FDG uptake heterogeneity evaluated by fractal analysis improves the differential diagnosis of pulmonary nodules

    Miwa, Kenta, E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Division of Medical Quantum Science, Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Inubushi, Masayuki, E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kawasaki Medical School, 577 Matsushima Kurashiki, Okayama 701-0192 (Japan); Wagatsuma, Kei, E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Nagao, Michinobu, E-mail: [Department of Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Murata, Taisuke, E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Koyama, Masamichi, E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Koizumi, Mitsuru, E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Sasaki, Masayuki, E-mail: [Division of Medical Quantum Science, Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)


    Purpose: The present study aimed to determine whether fractal analysis of morphological complexity and intratumoral heterogeneity of FDG uptake can help to differentiate malignant from benign pulmonary nodules. Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from 54 patients with suspected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who were examined by FDG PET/CT. Pathological assessments of biopsy specimens confirmed 35 and 19 nodules as NSCLC and inflammatory lesions, respectively. The morphological fractal dimension (m-FD), maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) and density fractal dimension (d-FD) of target nodules were calculated from CT and PET images. Fractal dimension is a quantitative index of morphological complexity and tracer uptake heterogeneity; higher values indicate increased complexity and heterogeneity. Results: The m-FD, SUV{sub max} and d-FD significantly differed between malignant and benign pulmonary nodules (p < 0.05). Although the diagnostic ability was better for d-FD than m-FD and SUV{sub max}, the difference did not reach statistical significance. Tumor size correlated significantly with SUV{sub max} (r = 0.51, p < 0.05), but not with either m-FD or d-FD. Furthermore, m-FD combined with either SUV{sub max} or d-FD improved diagnostic accuracy to 92.6% and 94.4%, respectively. Conclusion: The d-FD of intratumoral heterogeneity of FDG uptake can help to differentially diagnose malignant and benign pulmonary nodules. The SUV{sub max} and d-FD obtained from FDG-PET images provide different types of information that are equally useful for differential diagnoses. Furthermore, the morphological complexity determined by CT combined with heterogeneous FDG uptake determined by PET improved diagnostic accuracy.

  2. Intratumoral Metabolic Heterogeneity for Prediction of Disease Progression After Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy in Patients with Inoperable Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Kang, Saeryung; Song, Hochun; Byun, Byung Hyun and others


    We evaluated the value of variable {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT parameters for the prediction of disease progression after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in patients with inoperable stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). One hundred sixteen pretreatment FDG PET/CT scans of inoperable stage III NSCLC were retrospectively reviewed (stage IIIA: 51; stage IIIB: 65). The volume of interest was automatically drawn for each primary lung tumor, and PET parameters were assessed as follows: maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}), metabolic tumor volume (MTV) using the boundaries presenting SUV intensity exceeding 3.0, and the area under the curve of the cumulative SUV-volume histograms (AUC-CSH), which is known to reflect the tumor heterogeneity. Progression-free survival (PFS), locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) were compared with each PET and clinical parameters by univariate and multivariate survival analysis.In the ROC analysis, the optimal cutoff values of SUV{sub max}, MTV (cm{sup 3}), and AUC-CSH for prediction of PFS were determined as 21.5, 27.7, and 4,800, respectively. In univariate analysis, PFS was statistically significantly reduced in those with AUC-CSH<4,800 (p =0.004). In multivariate analysis, AUC-CSH and SUV{sub max} were statistically significant independent prognostic factors (HR 3.35, 95 % CI, p <0.001; HR 0.25, 95% CI, p =0.008, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that AUC-CSH was the most significant independent prognostic factor for LRFS and DMFS (HR 3.27, 95 % CI, p =0.002; HR 2.79, 95 % CI, p =0.003). Intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity of primary lung tumor in {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT can predict disease progression after CCRT in inoperable stage III NSCLC.

  3. Electro-gene therapy in a human oral tongue cancer cell by intratumoral injection of pcDNA3.1-p27Kip1 wt

    Supriatno Supriatno


    Full Text Available Oral tongue cancers are characterized by a high degree of local invasion and a high rate of metastases to the cervical lymph nodes. Also, treatment options for this cancer are limited. However, a new strategy for refractory cancer, gene therapy is watched with keen interest. Recently, a novel method for high-efficiency and region-controlled in vivo gene transfer was developed by combining in vivo electro-gene therapy and intratumoral plasmid DNA injection. In the present study, a nonviral gene transfer system, in vivo electrogene therapy in human oral tongue cancer cell, SP-C1 xenograft was examined. The aim of the study is to examine the efficiency of transfection of exogenous p27Kip1 gene by electroporation and the antitumor activity of p27Kip1 gene therapy in human oral tongue cancer xenografts using pcDNA3.1-p27Kip1 wild type (wt and pcDNA3.1 empty vector with the local application of electric pulses. To evaluate this in vivo gene transfer method, the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP gene was transfected into xenografts by electroporation. The efficiency of transfection of exogenous p27Kip1 gene by electroporation was confirmed by Western blotting analysis. To estimate the reduction of oral tongue cancer xenografts by this method, the size of SP-C1 xenografts in nude mice after electroporation with wild type p27Kip1 gene was measured. The growth of tumors was markedly suppressed by wild type p27Kip1 gene transfection by electroporation compared with transfection of empty vector only. Moreover, histological specimens revealed apoptotic cell death was increased in wild type p27Kip1-transfected tumors than empty vector. These results suggest that it is possible to transfer wild type p27Kip1 into human oral tongue cancer xenografts using electroporation. Wild type p27Kip1 has a high-potencially to suppress the growth of tumors. Finally, combination system of pcDNA3.1-p27Kip1 wt-injected tumor and electroporationmight be used for human

  4. SU-C-210-04: Considerable Pancreatic Tumor Motion During Breath-Hold Measured Using Intratumoral Fiducials On Fluoroscopic Movies

    Lens, E; Horst, A van der; Versteijne, E; Tienhoven, G van; Bel, A [Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    Purpose: Using a breath hold (BH) technique during radiotherapy of pancreatic tumors is expected to reduce intra-fractional motion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tumor motion during BH. Methods: In this pilot study, we included 8 consecutive pancreatic cancer patients. All had 2– 4 intratumoral gold fiducials. Patients were asked to perform 3 consecutive 30-second end-inhale BHs on day 5, 10 and 15 of their three-week treatment. During BH, airflow through a mouthpiece was measured using a spirometer. Any inadvertent flow of air during BH was monitored for all patients. We measured tumor motion on lateral fluoroscopic movies (57 in total) made during BH. In each movie the fiducials as a group were tracked over time in superior-inferior (SI) and anterior-posterior (AP) direction using 2-D image correlation between consecutive frames. We determined for each patient the range of intra-BH motion over all movies; we also determined the absolute means and standard deviations (SDs) for the entire patient group. Additionally, we investigated the relation between inadvertent airflow during BH and the intra-BH motion. Results: We found intra-BH tumor motion of up to 12.5 mm (range, 1.0–12.5 mm) in SI direction and up to 8.0 mm (range, 1.0–8.0 mm) in AP direction. The absolute mean motion over the patient population was 4.7 (SD: 3.0) mm and 2.8 (SD: 1.2) mm in the SI and AP direction, respectively. Patients were able to perform stable consecutive BHs; during only 20% of the movies we found very small airflows (≤ 65 ml). These were mostly stepwise in nature and could not explain the continuous tumor motions we observed. Conclusion: We found substantial (up to 12.5 mm) pancreatic tumor motion during BHs. We found minimal inadvertent airflow, seen only during a minority of BHs, and this did not explain the obtained results. This work was supported by the foundation Bergh in het Zadel through the Dutch Cancer Society (KWF Kankerbestrijding) project No. UVA 2011-5271.

  5. Assessment of intratumor non-antibody directed iron oxide nanoparticle hyperthermia cancer therapy and antibody directed IONP uptake in murine and human cells

    Hoopes, P. J.; Tate, J. A.; Ogden, J. A.; Strawbridge, R. R.; Fiering, S. N.; Petryk, A. A.; Cassim, S. M.; Giustini, A. J.; Demidenko, E.; Ivkov, R.; Barry, S.; Chinn, P.; Foreman, A.


    Hyperthermia, as an independent modality or in combination with standard cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation, has been established in vitro and in vivo as an effective cancer treatment. However, despite efforts over the past 25 years, such therapies have never been optimized or widelyaccepted clinically. Although methods continue to improve, conventionally-delivered heat (RF, ultrasound, microwave etc) can not be delivered in a tumor selective manner. The development of antibody-targeted, or even nontargeted, biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) now allows delivery of cytotoxic heat to individual cancer cells. Using a murine mouse mammary adenocarcinoma (MTGB) and human colon carcinoma (HT29) cells, we studied the biology and treatment of IONP hyperthermia tumor treatment. Methods: Cancer cells (1 x 106) with or without iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) were studied in culture or in vivo via implanted subcutaneously in female C3H mice, Tumors were grown to a treatment size of 150 mm3 and tumors volumes were measured using standard 3-D caliper measurement techniques. Mouse tumors were heated via delivery of an alternating magnetic field, which activated the nanoparticles, using a cooled 36 mm diameter square copper tube induction coil which provided optimal heating in 1.5 cm wide region of the coil. The IONPs were dextran coated and had a hydrodynamic radius of approximately 100 nm. For the in vivo studies, intra-tumor, peritumor and rectal (core body) temperatures were continually measured throughout the treatment period. Results: Although some eddy current heating was generated in non-target tissues at the higher field strengths, our preliminary IONP hyperthermia studies show that whole mouse AMF exposure @160 KHz and 400 or 550 Oe, for a 20 minutes (heat-up and protocol heating), provides a safe and efficacious tumor treatment. Initial electron and light microscopic studies (in vitro and in vivo) showed the 100 nm used in our studies are

  6. Music and Alterity Processes

    Josep Martí


    Full Text Available The concept of alterity constitutes an important issue in anthropological research and, therefore, in the study of musical practices, as well. Without it, we could hardly understand other kinds of music situated in different spaces and time from the observer. In order to effectively approach these musical practices, we have to develop strategies to help us reduce as much as possible that which distorts the vision of the other. However, beyond the strictly epistemological and methodological issues, the study of music cannot ignore the ethical question related to the manner in which Western thought has understood and treated the other: through a hierarchical and stereotypical type of thinking based on the condition of otherness. Throughout the article, different alterity procedures are presented and discussed, such as synecdochization, exoticization, undervaluation, overvaluation, misunderstanding and exclusion. Taking these different alterity strategies into account may help us to better understand how the musical other is constructed, used and ultimately instrumentalized.

  7. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A


    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another.

  8. Holmium microparticles for intratumoral radioablation

    Bult, W.


    The aim of this dissertation is to describe the preparation and characterization of a holmium-loaded radioablation device: holmium acetylacetonate microspheres (HoAcAcMS). This device is to be injected directly into unresectable, chemorefractory, solid tumors, a technique referred to as (interstitia

  9. Sarcomatoid differentiation in renal cell carcinoma: prognostic implications

    Marcos F. Dall'Oglio


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid differentiation is a tumor with aggressive behavior that is poorly responsive to immunotherapy. The objective of this study is to report our experience in the treatment of 15 patients with this tumor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 15 consecutive cases of renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid differentiation diagnosed between 1991 and 2003. The clinical presentation and the pathological stage were assessed, as were the tumor's pathological features, use of adjuvant immunotherapy and survival. The study's primary end-point was to assess survival of these individuals. RESULTS: The sample included 8 women and 7 men with mean age of 63 years (44 - 80; follow-up ranged from 1 to 100 months (mean 34. Upon presentation, 87% were symptomatic and 4 individuals had metastatic disease. Mean tumor size was 9.5 cm (4 - 24 with the following pathological stages: 7% pT1, 7% pT2, 33% pT3, and 53% pT4. The pathological features showed high-grade tumors with tumoral necrosis in 87% of the lesions and 80% of intratumoral microvascular invasion. Disease-free and cancer-specific survival rates were 40 and 46% respectively, with 2 cases responding to adjuvant immunotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with sarcomatoid tumors of the kidney have a low life expectancy, and sometimes surgical resection associated with immunotherapy can lead to a long-lasting therapeutic response.

  10. Differential topology

    Margalef-Roig, J


    ...there are reasons enough to warrant a coherent treatment of the main body of differential topology in the realm of Banach manifolds, which is at the same time correct and complete. This book fills the gap: whenever possible the manifolds treated are Banach manifolds with corners. Corners add to the complications and the authors have carefully fathomed the validity of all main results at corners. Even in finite dimensions some results at corners are more complete and better thought out here than elsewhere in the literature. The proofs are correct and with all details. I see this book as a reliable monograph of a well-defined subject; the possibility to fall back to it adds to the feeling of security when climbing in the more dangerous realms of infinite dimensional differential geometry. Peter W. Michor

  11. Differential geometry

    Kreyszig, Erwin


    An introductory textbook on the differential geometry of curves and surfaces in three-dimensional Euclidean space, presented in its simplest, most essential form, but with many explanatory details, figures and examples, and in a manner that conveys the theoretical and practical importance of the different concepts, methods and results involved. With problems at the end of each section, and solutions listed at the end of the book. Includes 99 illustrations.

  12. Differential geometry

    Ciarlet, Philippe G


    This book gives the basic notions of differential geometry, such as the metric tensor, the Riemann curvature tensor, the fundamental forms of a surface, covariant derivatives, and the fundamental theorem of surface theory in a selfcontained and accessible manner. Although the field is often considered a classical one, it has recently been rejuvenated, thanks to the manifold applications where it plays an essential role. The book presents some important applications to shells, such as the theory of linearly and nonlinearly elastic shells, the implementation of numerical methods for shells, and

  13. Differential topology

    Guillemin, Victor


    Differential Topology provides an elementary and intuitive introduction to the study of smooth manifolds. In the years since its first publication, Guillemin and Pollack's book has become a standard text on the subject. It is a jewel of mathematical exposition, judiciously picking exactly the right mixture of detail and generality to display the richness within. The text is mostly self-contained, requiring only undergraduate analysis and linear algebra. By relying on a unifying idea-transversality-the authors are able to avoid the use of big machinery or ad hoc techniques to establish the main

  14. Differential equations

    Tricomi, FG


    Based on his extensive experience as an educator, F. G. Tricomi wrote this practical and concise teaching text to offer a clear idea of the problems and methods of the theory of differential equations. The treatment is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students and addresses only questions that can be resolved with rigor and simplicity.Starting with a consideration of the existence and uniqueness theorem, the text advances to the behavior of the characteristics of a first-order equation, boundary problems for second-order linear equations, asymptotic methods, and diff

  15. Ressourcenorientierte Diagnostik im Alter

    Forstmeier, Simon; Maercker, Andreas


    Trotz der im Alter zunehmenden körperlichen, kognitiven und sozialen Verlusten bleibt das subjektive Wohlbefinden relativ stabil. Dies weist auf die vielen Ressourcen älterer Menschen hin. Dieser Artikel stellt für die klinische Ressourcendiagnostik relevante Verfahren vor und erläutert die zugrunde liegenden Konzepte. Berücksichtigt werden Aktivitäten und Erlebnisse als Ressourcen, emotionale Ressourcen (positiver Affekt, Lebenszufriedenheit, Selbstwerterleben, Lebensqualität), motivationale...

  16. Discordant assessment of tumor biomarkers by histopathological and molecular assays in the EORTC randomized controlled 10041/BIG 03-04 MINDACT trial breast cancer : Intratumoral heterogeneity and DCIS or normal tissue components are unlikely to be the cause of discordance.

    Viale, Giuseppe; Slaets, Leen; de Snoo, Femke A; Bogaerts, Jan; Russo, Leila; van't Veer, Laura; Rutgers, Emiel J T; Piccart-Gebhart, Martine J; Stork-Sloots, Lisette; Dell'Orto, Patrizia; Glas, Annuska M; Cardoso, Fatima


    Accurate identification of breast cancer patients most likely to benefit from adjuvant systemic therapies is crucial. Better understanding of differences between methods can lead to an improved ER, PgR, and HER-2 assessment. The purpose of this preplanned translational research is to investigate the correlation of central IHC/FISH assessments with microarray mRNA readouts of ER, PgR, and HER-2 status in the MINDACT trial and to determine if any discordance could be attributed to intratumoral heterogeneity or the DCIS and normal tissue components in the specimens. MINDACT is an international, prospective, randomized, phase III trial investigating the clinical utility of MammaPrint in selecting patients with early breast cancer for adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 6694 patients). Gene-expression data were obtained by TargetPrint; IHC and/or FISH were assessed centrally (n = 5788; 86 %). Macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of centrally submitted FFPE blocks identified 1427 cases for which the very same sample was submitted for gene-expression analysis. TargetPrint ER had a positive agreement of 98 %, and a negative agreement of 95 % with central pathology. Corresponding figures for PgR were 85 and 94 % and for HER-2 72 and 99 %. Agreement of mRNA versus central protein was not different when the same or a different portion of the tumor tissue was analyzed or when DCIS and/or normal tissue was included in the sample subjected to mRNA assays. This is the first large analysis to assess the discordance rate between protein and mRNA analysis of breast cancer markers, and to look into intratumoral heterogeneity, DCIS, or normal tissue components as a potential cause of discordance. The observed difference between mRNA and protein assessment for PgR and HER-2 needs further research; the present analysis does not support intratumoral heterogeneity or the DCIS and normal tissue components being likely causes of the discordance.

  17. Observation and nursing care of Locally advanced non small cell lung cancer treated with intratumoral bruceajavanica oil injection%鸦胆子油乳瘤内注射治疗LANSCLC疗效观察与护理

    陈华; 刘敏


    目的:探讨鸦胆子油乳瘤内注射治疗不可手术切除局部晚期非小细胞肺癌的疗效及护理.方法:对284例不可手术切除局部晚期非小细胞肺癌患者采用瘤内注射鸦胆子油乳,并配合有效护理,观察疗效及不良反应.结果:完全缓解(CR)20例,部分缓解(PR)126例,好转(MR)76例,稳定(SD)46例,进展(PD)16例,有效率51.4%.无进展生存期(PFS)11.31月.结论:加强鸦胆子油乳瘤内注射治疗不可手术切除局部晚期非小细胞肺癌注射前后的健康指导和护理,可显著提高疗效.%Objective:To investigate the intratumoral injection of Brucea javanica oil in the treatment of no operation resection for locally advanced non small cell lung cancer and nursing care. Methods:284 cases of no operation resection of locally advanced non small cell lung cancer with intratumoral injection of Brucea javanica oil, combined with effective nursing, observation curative effect and adverse reaction. Results:The complete response ( CR ) in 20 cases, partial remission ( PR ) in 126 cases,76 cases improved ( MR ), stability ( SD ) in 46 cases, progress (PD) in 16 cases, with an efficiency of 51.4%. Progression free survival ( PFS ) in 11.31months. Conclusion:Strengthening of Brucea Javanica Oil intratumor injection for treatment of no operation resection of locally advanced non small cell lung cancer before and after injection of health guidance and care, can significantly improve the efficacy.

  18. Alteration of diaspore by thermal treatment

    杨华明; 胡岳华; 杨武国; 敖伟琴; 邱冠周


    Diaspore (α-AlOOH) was heated at various temperatures from 300 to 1000 ℃ for 2 h. The alteration of diaspore by thermal treatment was investigated by differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction. The mechanism of thermal decomposition of diaspore was discussed according to the Coats-Redfern equation. It is found that after thermal treatment at 500 ℃, diaspore is transformed entirely to corundum (α-Al2O3). Combined with the mass loss ratio obtained from the thermogravimetric analysis data, the activation energies for the thermal treatment of diaspore are calculated as Ea=10.4 kJ/mol below 400 ℃ and Eb=47.5 kJ/mol above 400 ℃, respectively, which is directly related to the structural alteration of diaspore during the thermal treatment. The results indicate that the thermal decomposition of diaspore is conducted primarily by means of an interfacial reaction.

  19. Stem cells go soft: pliant substrate surfaces enhance motor neuron differentiation

    Wang, Ning


    .... Recently in Nature Materials, Sun et al. (2014) report that differentiating human pluripotent stem cells on soft substrates increases the efficiency of mature motor neuron differentiation by altering cytoskeletal mechanotransduction through...

  20. Etiopathogenesis of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinomas

    Tanja Makazlieva


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Thyroid malignomas are a heterogeneous group of neoplasm consisting of most frequent differentiated encountered carcinomas, papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma, then medullary thyroid carcinoma originating from neuroendocrine calcitonin-producing C-cells and rare forms of thyroid lymphomas arising from intrathyroidal lymphatic tissue, thyroid sarcomas and poorly differentiated anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. There are increasing numbers of epidemiological studies and publications that have suggested increased incidence rate of thyroid carcinomas. We have read, analysed and compare available reviews and original articles investigating different etiological factors in the development of thyroid carcinomas through Google Scholar and PubMed Database. DISCUSSION: Aetiology involved in the development of thyroid carcinomas is multifactorial and includes external influences, as well as constitutional predispositions and genetic etiological factors. The actual effect of environmental and constitutional factors is on promoting genetic and epigenetic alterations which result in cell proliferation and oncogenesis. Until now are identified numerous genetic alterations, assumed to have an important role in oncogenesis, with MAPK and PI3K-AKT as crucial signalling networks regulating growth, proliferation, differentiation and cell survival/apoptosis. CONCLUSION: This new molecular insight could have a crucial impact on diagnosis and also on improving and selecting an appropriate treatment to the patients with thyroid malignancies.



    Objective: To determine the role of microsatellite alterations incarcinogenesis of colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Methods: Alterations of 10 microsatellite loci from 5 different chromosomes were detected in 92 colorectal cancers and their paired normal mucosa by PCR, denatured polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining. Associations of microsatellite alterations with clinopathologic parameters were statistically clarified.Results: Alterations of microsatellite were classified into microsatellite instability type I, type II and loss of heterozygosity (LOH). The carcinoma with ≥30% loci microsatellite alterations was defined as replication error(RER) positive tumors. Of 92 cases, 14 were RER+. Microsatellite alterations of P53(1) and D18S363 loci (64.29% ) was most commonly identified in the RER+ tumors. RER+ were more commonly seen in poorly differentiated carcinomas and tended to occur in mucoid carcinomas. The type of microsatellite alterations varied in different histological types of CRC. Conclusions: Microsatellite alteration is a common molecular event in CRC. Different microsatellite loci showed various biologic significance. P53(1) and D18S363 should be essentially detected loci that can show the RER status of tumors.

  2. On differential characteristic classes

    Ho, Man-Ho


    In this paper we give explicit formulas of differential characteristic classes of principal $G$-bundles with connections and prove their expected properties. In particular, we obtain explicit formulas for differential Chern classes, differential Pontryagin classes and differential Euler class. Furthermore, we show that the differential Chern class is the unique natural transformation from (Simons-Sullivan) differential $K$-theory to (Cheeger-Simons) differential characters that is compatible ...

  3. Genetic Alterations in Glioma

    Bralten, Linda B. C.; French, Pim J., E-mail: [Department of Neurology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Dr Molewaterplein 50, 3000 CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands)


    Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumor and have a dismal prognosis. Understanding the genetic alterations that drive glioma formation and progression may help improve patient prognosis by identification of novel treatment targets. Recently, two major studies have performed in-depth mutation analysis of glioblastomas (the most common and aggressive subtype of glioma). This systematic approach revealed three major pathways that are affected in glioblastomas: The receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathway, the TP53 pathway and the pRB pathway. Apart from frequent mutations in the IDH1/2 gene, much less is known about the causal genetic changes of grade II and III (anaplastic) gliomas. Exceptions include TP53 mutations and fusion genes involving the BRAF gene in astrocytic and pilocytic glioma subtypes, respectively. In this review, we provide an update on all common events involved in the initiation and/or progression across the different subtypes of glioma and provide future directions for research into the genetic changes.

  4. Music alters visual perception.

    Jacob Jolij

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e.g., memory and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the perception of emotional stimuli is influenced by the emotional state of the observer. In other words, how we perceive the world does not only depend on what we know of the world, but also by how we feel. In this study, we further investigated the relation between mood and perception. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We let observers do a difficult stimulus detection task, in which they had to detect schematic happy and sad faces embedded in noise. Mood was manipulated by means of music. We found that observers were more accurate in detecting faces congruent with their mood, corroborating earlier research. However, in trials in which no actual face was presented, observers made a significant number of false alarms. The content of these false alarms, or illusory percepts, was strongly influenced by the observers' mood. CONCLUSIONS: As illusory percepts are believed to reflect the content of internal representations that are employed by the brain during top-down processing of visual input, we conclude that top-down modulation of visual processing is not purely predictive in nature: mood, in this case manipulated by music, may also directly alter the way we perceive the world.

  5. Altered Perspectives: Immersive Environments

    Shipman, J. S.; Webley, P. W.


    Immersive environments provide an exciting experiential technology to visualize the natural world. Given the increasing accessibility of 360o cameras and virtual reality headsets we are now able to visualize artistic principles and scientific concepts in a fully immersive environment. The technology has become popular for photographers as well as designers, industry, educational groups, and museums. Here we show a sci-art perspective on the use of optics and light in the capture and manipulation of 360o images and video of geologic phenomena and cultural heritage sites in Alaska, England, and France. Additionally, we will generate intentionally altered perspectives to lend a surrealistic quality to the landscapes. Locations include the Catacombs of Paris, the Palace of Versailles, and the Northern Lights over Fairbanks, Alaska. Some 360o view cameras now use small portable dual lens technology extending beyond the 180o fish eye lens previously used, providing better coverage and image quality. Virtual reality headsets range in level of sophistication and cost, with the most affordable versions using smart phones and Google Cardboard viewers. The equipment used in this presentation includes a Ricoh Theta S spherical imaging camera. Here we will demonstrate the use of 360o imaging with attendees being able to be part of the immersive environment and experience our locations as if they were visiting themselves.

  6. [Communication disorders: differential diagnosis].

    Campos-Castelló, J; Briceño-Cuadros, S

    To evaluate components of clinical semiology in the differential diagnosis of communication disorders (TC) and their possible biological markers. We consider two groups, according to the communication disorders themselves and their effects on social interaction. In the first case both aspects are affected in parallel and in the second it is predominantly social interaction which is affected. In the first groups we studied dyslalias, dyrhrythmias, acquired aphasias, TC relation to epilepsy, types of seizures and EEG discharges. The dysphasia of development and epilepsy may be associated by chance, as a result of the same cause or the epilepsy be responsible for the TC, either because of seizures or continuously (acquired epileptic aphasia, SLK). Based on personal data and the literature we studied the semiology, possible biological markers and differential diagnosis. We consider disorders of neurone migration and metabolic alterations of initial neuropsychological semiology and cerebellar anomalies involved in cognitive functions. In the second group we assessed autism, generalized disorders of development and particular syndromes with semantic pragmatic TC. The development of language cannot be separated from other aspects of neurological maturation. One cannot affirm that there is a direct relationship between epilepsy and TC, although this does occur in some cases. We accept the hypothesis that SLK, POCSL and atypical EPB are clinical forms of the same syndrome of epilepsy. Recognition of the cognitive affective cerebellar syndrome by its involvement in social executive function, language and personality characterizes certain conditions (Williams, Asperger, fragile X, autism). A progressive rational battery of complementary studies on clinical data is essential to determine biological markers in syndromes which still lack them.

  7. Differential growth of wrinkled biofilms

    Espeso, D R; Einarsson, B


    Biofilms are antibiotic-resistant bacterial aggregates that grow on moist surfaces and can trigger hospital-acquired infections. They provide a classical example in biology where the dynamics of cellular communities may be observed and studied. Gene expression regulates cell division and differentiation, which affect the biofilm architecture. Mechanical and chemical processes shape the resulting structure. We gain insight into the interplay between cellular and mechanical processes during biofilm development on air-agar interfaces by means of a hybrid model. Cellular behavior is governed by stochastic rules informed by a cascade of concentration fields for nutrients, waste and autoinducers. Cellular differentiation and death alter the structure and the mechanical properties of the biofilm, which is deformed according to Foppl-Von Karman equations informed by cellular processes and the interaction with the substratum. Stiffness gradients due to growth and swelling produce wrinkle branching. We are able to repr...

  8. Dystroglycan depletion inhibits the functions of differentiated HL-60 cells.

    Martínez-Zárate, Alma Delia; Martínez-Vieyra, Ivette; Alonso-Rangel, Lea; Cisneros, Bulmaro; Winder, Steve J; Cerecedo, Doris


    Dystroglycan has recently been characterized in blood tissue cells, as part of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex but to date nothing is known of its role in the differentiation process of neutrophils. We have investigated the role of dystroglycan in the human promyelocytic leukemic cell line HL-60 differentiated to neutrophils. Depletion of dystroglycan by RNAi resulted in altered morphology and reduced properties of differentiated HL-60 cells, including chemotaxis, respiratory burst, phagocytic activities and expression of markers of differentiation. These findings strongly implicate dystroglycan as a key membrane adhesion protein involved in the differentiation process in HL-60 cells.

  9. Concentrated Differential Privacy

    Dwork, Cynthia; Rothblum, Guy N.


    We introduce Concentrated Differential Privacy, a relaxation of Differential Privacy enjoying better accuracy than both pure differential privacy and its popular "(epsilon,delta)" relaxation without compromising on cumulative privacy loss over multiple computations.

  10. Bone tumors with an associated pathologic fracture: Differentiation between benign and malignant status using radiologic findings

    Bae, Ji Hyun; Lee, In Sook; Song, You Seon [Pusan National University School of Medicine, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeung Il [Dept. of Radiology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Yeungnam University Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Moon Sung [Dept. of Radiology, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Hwan [Dept. of Radiology, Catholic University of Daegu College of Medicine, Daegu Catholic University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jong Woon [Dept. of Radiology, Inje University College of Medicine, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    To determine whether benign and malignant bone tumors with associated pathologic fractures can be differentiated using radiologic findings. Seventy-eight patients (47 men and 31 women, age range: 1-93 years) with a bone tumor and an associated pathologic fracture from 2004 to 2013 constituted the retrospective study cohort. The tumor size, margin, and enhancement patterns; the presence of sclerotic margin, the peritumoral bone marrow, soft tissue edema, extra-osseous soft tissue mass, intratumoral cystic/hemorrhagic/necrotic regions, mineralization/sclerotic regions, periosteal reaction and its appearance; and cortical change and its appearance were evaluated on all images. Differences between the imaging characteristics of malignant and benign pathologic fractures were compared using Pearson's chi-square test and the 2-sample t-test. There were 22 benign and 56 malignant bone tumors. Some factors were found to significantly differentiate between benign and malignant tumors; specifically, ill-defined tumor margin, the presence of sclerotic tumor margin and an extra-osseous soft tissue mass, the absence of cystic/necrotic/hemorrhagic portions in a mass, the homogeneous enhancement pattern, and the presence of a displaced fracture and of underlying cortical change were suggestive of malignant pathologic fractures. Some imaging findings were helpful for differentiating between benign and malignant pathologic fractures.

  11. Perioperative dynamic alterations in peripheral regulatory T and B cells in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Chen Tianxiang


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intratumoral and circulating regulatory T cells (Tregs have been shown to be critical in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. However there is limited knowledge on the alterations of regulatory B cells (Bregs. We here investigated perioperative dynamic alterations of peripheral circulating Tregs and Bregs in HCC patients to reveal the relationship between regulatory lymphocytes and its clinical implications. Methods 36 patients with HCC, 6 with chronic hepatitis B infection and 10 healthy donors were enrolled for this study. Frequencies of peripheral Tregs and Bregs were measured by flow cytometry with antibodies against CD4, CD25, CD127, CD19 and IL-10 before, and after radical surgery. Then, clinical informatics of HCC patients was achieved through Digital Evaluation Score System (DESS for the assessment of disease severity. Finally, we analysed correlations between digitalized clinical features and kinetics of circulating regulatory lymphocytes. Results Level of circulating CD4+CD25+CD127- Tregs in HCC patients was significantly lower than that in healthy donors and patients with chronic hepatitis B infection before surgery, but was increased after surgery. Preoperative level of CD19+ IL-10+ Bregs in HCC patients was also significantly lower than the other groups. However it dramatically was elevated right after surgery and remained elevated compared to controls (about 7 days after surgery, P = 0.04. Frequency of circulating Tregs was correlated with circulating leukocytes, ferritin, and clinical features suggesting tumor aggressiveness including portal vein thrombosis, hepatic vein involvement and advanced clinical stages. Frequency of circulating Bregs was associated with Hepatitis B e Antigen (HBeAg and Hepatitis B virus (HBV DNA copy number. In addition, DESS was significantly and positively correlated with other staging systems. Conclusion Frequencies of peripheral Tregs and Bregs in HCC patients

  12. Osteoblastic cells: differentiation and trans-differentiation

    Kassem, Moustapha; Abdallah, Basem; Saeed, Hamid


    The osteoblast is the bone forming cell and is derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) present among the bone marrow stroma. MSC are capable of multi-lineage differentiation into mesoderm-type cells such as osteoblasts and adipocytes. Understanding the mechanisms underlying osteoblast...... differentiation from MSC is a central topic in bone biology that can provide insight into mechanisms of bone maintenance and also novel pharmacological targets to increase osteoblast differentiation and consequently bone formation....

  13. Genetic alteration in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Kim, Yoo Chul; Kang, Tae Woong; Lee, Jin Oh [Korea Cancer Center Hospital of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Cancer of stomach, colon and liver are a group of the most common cancer in Korea. However, results with current therapeutic modalities are still unsatisfactory. The intensive efforts have been made to understand basic pathogenesis and to find better therapeutic tools for the treatment of this miserable disease. We studied the alteration of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes in hepatocellular carcinoma in Korea. We found that alteration of Rb gene, APC were 33 %, 13 % respectively. But alterations of oncogenes such as myc, ras and mdm2 were rarely found. Our results suggests that HBV may act as oncogenic role in hepatocarcinogenesis instead of oncogenes. 6 figs, 2 tabs. (Author).

  14. Epigenetic alterations in gastric carcinogenesis

    In-Seon CHOI; Tsung-Teh WU


    Gastric cancer is believed to result in part from the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations leading to oncogene overexpression and tumor suppressor loss. Epigenetic alterations as a distinct and crucial mechanism to silence a variety of methylated tissue-specific and imprinted genes, have been extensively studied in gastric carcinoma and play important roles in gastric carcinogenesis. This review will briefly discuss the basic aspects of DNA methylation and CpG island methylation, in particular the epigenetic alterations of certain critical genes implicated in gastric carcinogenesis and its relevance of clinical implications.

  15. Altered states of consciousness are related to higher sexual responsiveness.

    Costa, Rui M; Pestana, José; Costa, David; Wittmann, Marc


    Altered states of consciousness lead to profound changes in the sense of self, time and space. We assessed how these changes were related to sexual responsiveness during sex. 116 subjects reported (a) intensity of awareness concerning body, space and time, and (b) satisfaction, desire, arousal, and orgasm occurrence. We differentiated vaginal intercourse orgasm from noncoital orgasm. Female vaginal intercourse orgasm was further differentiated as with or without concurrent clitoral masturbation. Overall, sexual responsiveness was related to greater body awareness and lesser time and space awareness. Satisfaction, desire, and arousal were especially associated with less time awareness in women. Female orgasms during vaginal intercourse were related to greater body awareness and lesser time awareness, but noncoital orgasms were unrelated. Our findings provide empirical support for the hypotheses that altered states of consciousness with attentional absorption are strongly related to sexual responsiveness in women, and to a lesser extent in men.

  16. The Differential Dimension Polynomial for Characterizable Differential Ideals

    Lange-Hegermann, Markus


    We generalize the differential dimension polynomial from prime differential ideals to characterizable differential ideals. Its computation is algorithmic, its degree and leading coefficient remain differential birational invariants, and it decides equality of characterizable differential ideals contained in each other.

  17. [Hepatic alterations in patients with dengue].

    Larreal, Yraima; Valero, Nereida; Estévez, Jesús; Reyes, Ivette; Maldonado, Mery; Espina, Luz Marina; Arias, Julia; Meleán, Eddy; Añez, German; Atencio, Ricardo


    Clinical features of Dengue are very variable due to multiple alterations induced by the virus in the organism. Increased levels of transaminases similar to those produced by the Hepatitis virus have been reported in patients with Dengue from hiperendemic zones in Asia. The objectives of this study were to determine alterations in the liver tests in patients with Dengue and to relate them to the disease, clinically and serologically. Clinical history, hemathological tests serum transaminases (ALT y AST) and bilirubin assays were performed in 62 patients with clinical and serological diagnosis of Dengue. According to clinical features 38.7% of the patients with classical (CD) and hemorrhagic (DHF) forms of Dengue reffered abdominal pain and 2 patients with DHF had ictericia and hepatomegaly. Laboratory test findings showed leucopenia in 72.5% in both forms of Dengue and of patients with DHF severe thrombocytopenia (< 50.000 platelets x mm3), long PT and PPT in 70.9%, 23.0% and 42.3%, respectively. Transaminase values five fold higher than the normal values (p < 0.005) were observed in 36.8% and 74.4% of patients with CD and DHF respectively; AST was predominant in both groups. Our results suggest liver damage during the course of Dengue. A differential diagnosis has to be done between the hepatic involvement of Dengue cases and others viral diseases with hepatic disfunctions.

  18. Plant cells in vitro under altered gravity.

    Klymchuk, D O


    Establishing the role of gravity in plant requires information about how gravity regulates the metabolism of individual cells. Plant cells and tissues in vitro are valuable models for such purpose. Disrupted intercellular relations in such models have allowed to elucidate both the gravity role in non-specialised to gravity plant cells and the correlative relation role of an intact plant organism. The data obtained from non-numerous space and clinostat experiments with plant cells in vitro have demonstrated that their metabolism is sensitive to g-environment. The most experiments have shown a decrease in the biomass production and cell proliferation of spaceflight samples compared with ground controls, although there is study reporting of increased biomass production in an anise suspension culture and D. carota crown gall tissue culture. At the same time, results of experiments with single carrot cells and tomato callus culture demonstrated similarities in differentiation process in microgravity and in ground controls. Noted ultrastructural arrangement in cells, especially mitochondria and plastids, have been related to altered energy load and functions of organelles in microgravity, as well as changes in the lipid peroxidation and the content of malonic dyaldehyde in a haplopappus tissue culture under altered gravity supposed with modification of membrane structural-functional state. This article focuses on growth aspects of the cultured cells in microgravity and under clinostat conditions and considers those aspects that require further analysis.

  19. Estadios precoces de cancer oral: pronóstico en relación con gradación histológica, linfagiogénesis intratumoral y expresión de factor de crecimiento endotelial vascular Tipo-C (VEGF-C Early stage oral cancer: prognosis with regard to histological grading, intratumoral lymphangiogenesis, and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C

    M.F. Muñoz-Guerra


    Full Text Available Objetivos. Los sistemas de gradación histológica se han usado clásicamente como factor pronóstico y marcadores de comportamiento clínico en el carcinoma epidermoide intra-oral (CEI. Sin embargo, su utilidad pronóstica permanece controvertida. Nuestro objetivo ha sido evaluar la presencia de linfangiogénesis intratumoral (LI, un nuevo hallazgo morfológico, en un análisis retrospectivo de muestras de tejido en parafina dentro de un grupo de estadios precoces de CEI, relacionándolo con clásicos sistemas de gradación histológica y teniendo en cuenta su importancia pronóstica. Asimismo, pretendemos determinar si la expresión del factor de crecimiento endotelial vascular -C (VEGF-C se correlaciona con la evolución de la enfermedad. Diseño. Realizamos un estudio retrospectivo basado en 96 casos de CEI. Todos los pacientes presentaban tumores intraorales T1-T2 y fueron tratados primariamente mediante resección local asociada con disección cervical electiva, la cual mostró ausencia de afectación ganglionar regional. En el grupo de 96 muestras analizamos la LI utilizando el marcador específico del endotelio linfático PA2.26. Adicionalmente, estudiamos la expresión del VEGF-C. Todos los casos fueron clasificados de acuerdo con los sistemas de gradación histológica descritos por Broders, Anneroth y Bryne. El estudio estadístico se fundamentó en el análisis univariante de supervivencia causa-específica y supervivencia libre de recidiva según el método de Kaplan-Meier. Resultados. El grupo de pacientes con ausencia de LI mostró mejor pronóstico en cuanto a supervivencia y periodo libre de enfermedad, aunque la diferencia no mostró valores estadísticamente significativos. El estudio no mostró una relación entre la expresión de VEGF-C y la presencia de LI. Sin embargo, no observamos recidivas entre el grupo con ausencia de expresión de VEGF-C. El análisis comparativo de los sistemas de gradación histológica mostró una

  20. Radiation induces acute alterations in neuronal function.

    Peter H Wu

    Full Text Available Every year, nearly 200,000 patients undergo radiation for brain tumors. For both patients and caregivers the most distressing adverse effect is impaired cognition. Efforts to protect against this debilitating effect have suffered from inadequate understanding of the cellular mechanisms of radiation damage. In the past it was accepted that radiation-induced normal tissue injury resulted from a progressive reduction in the survival of clonogenic cells. Moreover, because radiation-induced brain dysfunction is believed to evolve over months to years, most studies have focused on late changes in brain parenchyma. However, clinically, acute changes in cognition are also observed. Because neurons are fully differentiated post-mitotic cells, little information exists on the acute effects of radiation on synaptic function. The purpose of our study was to assess the potential acute effects of radiation on neuronal function utilizing ex vivo hippocampal brain slices. The cellular localization and functional status of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors was identified by immunoblotting. Electrophysiological recordings were obtained both for populations of neuronal cells and individual neurons. In the dentate gyrus region of isolated ex vivo slices, radiation led to early decreases in tyrosine phosphorylation and removal of excitatory N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs from the cell surface while simultaneously increasing the surface expression of inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABA(ARs. These alterations in cellular localization corresponded with altered synaptic responses and inhibition of long-term potentiation. The non-competitive NMDAR antagonist memantine blocked these radiation-induced alterations in cellular distribution. These findings demonstrate acute effects of radiation on neuronal cells within isolated brain slices and open new avenues for study.

  1. Symposium on Differential Geometry and Differential Equations

    Berger, Marcel; Bryant, Robert


    The DD6 Symposium was, like its predecessors DD1 to DD5 both a research symposium and a summer seminar and concentrated on differential geometry. This volume contains a selection of the invited papers and some additional contributions. They cover recent advances and principal trends in current research in differential geometry.

  2. Axiomatic differential geometry II-2 - differential forms

    Nishimura, Hirokazu


    We refurbish our axiomatics of differential geometry introduced in [Mathematics for Applications,, 1 (2012), 171-182]. Then the notion of Euclideaness can naturally be formulated. The principal objective in this paper is to present an adaptation of our theory of differential forms developed in [International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, 64 (2010), 85-102] to our present axiomatic framework.

  3. Axiomatic Differential Geometry Ⅱ-2: Differential Forms

    Nishimura, Hirokazu


    We refurbish our axiomatics of differential geometry introduced in [arXiv 1203.3911]. Then the notion of Euclideaness can naturally be formulated. The principal objective in this paper is to present an adaptation of our theory of differential forms developed in [International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, 64 (2010), 85-102] to our present axiomatic framework.

  4. Complement Activation Alters Platelet Function


    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0523 TITLE: Complement Activation Alters Platelet Function PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: George Tsokos, M.D. CONTRACTING...Activation Alters Platelet Function 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0523 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) George Tsokos, M.D...a decreased level of disease. Further studies will expand upon these observations better outlining the function of platelets in the injury associated

  5. Foxp3 expression is associated with aggressiveness in differentiated thyroid carcinomas

    Lucas Leite Cunha


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Forkhead box P3 (FoxP3 expression has been observed in human cancer cells but has not yet been reported in thyroid cells. We investigated the prognostic significance of both FoxP3 expression and intratumoral FoxP3+ lymphocyte infiltration in differentiated thyroid carcinoma cells. METHODS: We constructed a tissue microarray with 385 thyroid tissues, including 266 malignant tissues (from 253 papillary thyroid carcinomas and 13 follicular carcinomas, 114 benign lesions, and 5 normal thyroid tissues. RESULTS: We determined the expression of FoxP3 in both tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes using immunohistochemical techniques. Cellular expression of FoxP3 was evident in 71% of benign and 91.9% of malignant tissues. The nuclear and cytoplasmic expression patterns were quantified separately. A multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that cytoplasmic FoxP3 expression is an independent risk factor for thyroid malignancy. Cytoplasmic FoxP3 staining was inversely correlated with patient age. Nuclear FoxP3 staining was more intense in younger patients and in tumors presenting with metastasis at diagnosis. FoxP3+ lymphocytes were more frequent in tumors smaller than 2 cm, those without extrathyroidal invasion, and in patients with concurrent chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated FoxP3 expression in differentiated thyroid carcinoma cells and found evidence that this expression may exert an important influence on several features of tumor aggressiveness.

  6. Automatic differentiation bibliography

    Corliss, G.F. (comp.)


    This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

  7. Interleukin-8 in non-small cell lung carcinoma: relation with angiogenic pattern and p53 alterations.

    Boldrini, Laura; Gisfredi, Silvia; Ursino, Silvia; Lucchi, Marco; Mussi, Alfredo; Basolo, Fulvio; Pingitore, Raffaele; Fontanini, Gabriella


    Progression of solid tumors, including NSCLC, is associated with increase in MVC (microvessel count), as a measure of tumor angiogenesis resulting from an imbalance between angiogenic factors and inhibitors. However, since tumor angiogenesis is a multi-step process under the control of various molecules, the mechanism of angiogenesis has not been fully clarified. Interleukin (IL)-8 has been shown to have a potential angiogenic effect in vitro and in vivo, and is overexpressed in several human solid cancers. Among the various angiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been shown to correlate with a high MVC and with adverse prognosis in several human cancers, including NSCLC. Alterations of p53 suppressor gene are the most common genetic changes found in malignant tumors; several studies examined the link between aberrant p53 and angiogenesis in lung cancer, but only a few studies report data regarding a relation between p53 mutations and IL-8 expression. In this study we observed a correlation between IL-8 mRNA expression, intratumoral MVC and VEGF mRNA expression levels; furthermore, an aberrant p53 status was related to IL-8 expression. However, in our samples IL-8 levels did not significantly affect prognosis of NSCLC; more studies are required to elucidate the precise role of IL-8 in a large series of patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma.

  8. Fast Differential Adder

    Arditti, Mort A.; Silva, Rosemary


    Differential adding circuit (or, equivalently, subtracting circuit) faster and consumes less power because it contains only one differential amplifier. Suitable for use in high-frequency-switching, high power-regulating circuit.

  9. Partial Differential Equations


    The volume contains a selection of papers presented at the 7th Symposium on differential geometry and differential equations (DD7) held at the Nankai Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin, China, in 1986. Most of the contributions are original research papers on topics including elliptic equations, hyperbolic equations, evolution equations, non-linear equations from differential geometry and mechanics, micro-local analysis.

  10. functional-differential inequalities

    Ludwik Byszewski


    Full Text Available A theorem about a system of strong impulsive degenerate nonlinear parabolic functional-differential inequalities in an arbitrary parabolic set is proved. As a consequence of the theorem, some theorems about impulsive degenerate nonlinear parabolic differential inequalities and the uniqueness of a classical solution of an impulsive degenerate nonlinear parabolic differential problem are established.

  11. Using Differentials to Differentiate Trigonometric and Exponential Functions

    Dray, Tevian


    Starting from geometric definitions, we show how differentials can be used to differentiate trigonometric and exponential functions without limits, numerical estimates, solutions of differential equations, or integration.

  12. Using Differentials to Differentiate Trigonometric and Exponential Functions

    Dray, Tevian


    Starting from geometric definitions, we show how differentials can be used to differentiate trigonometric and exponential functions without limits, numerical estimates, solutions of differential equations, or integration.

  13. ZNF750 is expressed in differentiated keratinocytes and regulates epidermal late differentiation genes.

    Idan Cohen

    Full Text Available Disrupted skin barrier due to altered keratinocyte differentiation is common in pathologic conditions such as atopic dermatitis, ichthyosis and psoriasis. However, the molecular cascades governing keratinocyte terminal differentiation are poorly understood. We have previously demonstrated that a dominant mutation in ZNF750 leads to a clinical phenotype reminiscent of psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis. Here we show that ZNF750 is a nuclear protein bearing a functional C-terminal nuclear localization signal. ZNF750 was specifically expressed in the epidermal suprabasal layers and its expression was augmented during differentiation, both in human skin and in-vitro, peaking in the granular layer. Silencing of ZNF750 in Ca2+-induced HaCaT keratinocytes led to morphologically apparent arrest in the progression of late differentiation, as well as diminished apoptosis and sustained proliferation. ZNF750 knockdown cells presented with markedly reduced expression of epidermal late differentiation markers, including gene subsets of epidermal differentiation complex and skin barrier formation such as FLG, LOR, SPINK5, ALOX12B and DSG1, known to be mutated in various human skin diseases. Furthermore, overexpression of ZNF750 in undifferentiated cells induced terminal differentiation genes. Thus, ZNF750 is a regulator of keratinocyte terminal differentiation and with its downstream targets can serve in future elucidation of therapeutics for common diseases of skin barrier.

  14. [Neurocutaneous syndrome with hair alterations].

    Camacho-Martínez, F


    There are multiple neurocutaneous syndromes that may show hair alterations such as the interglabellar peak or 'widow's peak', which is an alteration of the hair implantation, in addition to the genohypotrichosis, hypertrichosis and hair shaft dysplasias. In this chapter we will focus on the latter. Out of the unspecific hair shaft dysplasias the only ones showing neurological alterations are trichorrhexis invaginata, observed in the syndrome of Netherton. Among the specific dysplasias we would like to point out monilethrix, and very especially the moniliform hair syndrome, the trichorrhexis nodosa, the pili torti and trichotiodystrophy. The latter is actually a group of syndromes which associates a series of diverse symptoms that have in common hair brittleness, fertility problems and physical and mental retardation, and they constitute the basic syndrome know as 'BIDS syndrome.

  15. Dystroglycan Depletion Impairs Actin-Dependent Functions of Differentiated Kasumi-1 Cells.

    Escárcega-Tame, Marco Antonio; Martínez-Vieyra, Ivette; Alonso-Rangel, Lea; Cisneros, Bulmaro; Winder, Steve J; Cerecedo, Doris


    Dystroglycan has recently been characterised in blood tissue cells, as part of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex involved in the differentiation process of neutrophils. In the present study we have investigated the role of dystroglycan in the human promyelocytic leukemic cell line Kasumi-1 differentiated to macrophage-like cells. We characterised the pattern expression and subcellular distribution of dystroglycans in non-differentiated and differentiated Kasumi-1 cells. Our results demonstrated by WB and flow cytometer assays that during the differentiation process to macrophages, dystroglycans were down-regulated; these results were confirmed with qRT-PCR assays. Additionally, depletion of dystroglycan by RNAi resulted in altered morphology and reduced properties of differentiated Kasumi-1 cells, including morphology, migration and phagocytic activities although secretion of IL-1β and expression of markers of differentiation are not altered. Our findings strongly implicate dystroglycan as a key membrane adhesion protein involved in actin-based structures during the differentiation process in Kasumi-1 cells.

  16. Altered DNA methylation in leukocytes with trisomy 21.

    Kristi Kerkel


    Full Text Available The primary abnormality in Down syndrome (DS, trisomy 21, is well known; but how this chromosomal gain produces the complex DS phenotype, including immune system defects, is not well understood. We profiled DNA methylation in total peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL and T-lymphocytes from adults with DS and normal controls and found gene-specific abnormalities of CpG methylation in DS, with many of the differentially methylated genes having known or predicted roles in lymphocyte development and function. Validation of the microarray data by bisulfite sequencing and methylation-sensitive Pyrosequencing (MS-Pyroseq confirmed strong differences in methylation (p<0.0001 for each of 8 genes tested: TMEM131, TCF7, CD3Z/CD247, SH3BP2, EIF4E, PLD6, SUMO3, and CPT1B, in DS versus control PBL. In addition, we validated differential methylation of NOD2/CARD15 by bisulfite sequencing in DS versus control T-cells. The differentially methylated genes were found on various autosomes, with no enrichment on chromosome 21. Differences in methylation were generally stable in a given individual, remained significant after adjusting for age, and were not due to altered cell counts. Some but not all of the differentially methylated genes showed different mean mRNA expression in DS versus control PBL; and the altered expression of 5 of these genes, TMEM131, TCF7, CD3Z, NOD2, and NPDC1, was recapitulated by exposing normal lymphocytes to the demethylating drug 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine (5aza-dC plus mitogens. We conclude that altered gene-specific DNA methylation is a recurrent and functionally relevant downstream response to trisomy 21 in human cells.

  17. Art as Alterity in Education

    Zhao, Guoping


    In education, art has often been perceived as entertainment and decoration and is the first subject to go when there are budget cuts or test-score pressures. Drawing on Emmanuel Lévinas's idea of the primacy of radical alterity that breaks the totality of our being, enables self-transformation and ethics, and ensures community as a totality…

  18. Modelling glass alteration in an altered argillaceous environment

    Bildstein, O.; Trotignon, L.; Pozo, C.; Jullien, M.


    The long term behaviour of materials such as glass, steel and clay has been investigated in the context of deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. The interactions between vitrified wastes, canister corrosion products (CPs) and clay are studied using a modified version of the reaction-transport code Crunch, especially looking at pH changes and possible cementation at the interface with the clayey materials. These perturbations may indeed affect the lifetime of glass matrix in deep repositories, e.g., high pH enhances the rate of glass alteration. This work focuses on the argillite of Bure. The calculations were performed at 323 K with a glass alteration rate switching from a high initial rate to a residual rate according to the sorption capacity of CPs. The time at which this sorption capacity is saturated is crucial to the system in terms of wastes package lifetime. The results show that the glass alteration imposes a high pH value at the interface with CPs and clay: up to a value of 9.2, compared to 7.3 which is the initial pH value in the argillite. Experimental data show that the rate of glass alteration is much higher in such pH conditions. For a R7T7-type glass, the rate is about five times higher at pH 9 than at pH 7. This pH perturbation migrates through the clayey domain as a result of the migration of mobile elements such as boron and sodium, and despite the existence of strong pH buffers in the argillite. The cementation of porosity at the interface between glass and clay is predicted by the model due to the massive precipitation of iron corrosion products and glass alteration products. At this point of the evolution of the system, the pH starts to decrease and the alteration rate of the glass could be significantly reduced. This porosity clogging effect is difficult to confirm by experiments especially since existing data on short term experiments tend to show a pervasive precipitation of silica in the domain instead of a localized precipitation

  19. Caffeine exposure alters cardiac gene expression in embryonic cardiomyocytes

    Fang, Xiefan; Mei, Wenbin; Barbazuk, William B.; Rivkees, Scott A.


    Previous studies demonstrated that in utero caffeine treatment at embryonic day (E) 8.5 alters DNA methylation patterns, gene expression, and cardiac function in adult mice. To provide insight into the mechanisms, we examined cardiac gene and microRNA (miRNA) expression in cardiomyocytes shortly after exposure to physiologically relevant doses of caffeine. In HL-1 and primary embryonic cardiomyocytes, caffeine treatment for 48 h significantly altered the expression of cardiac structural genes (Myh6, Myh7, Myh7b, Tnni3), hormonal genes (Anp and BnP), cardiac transcription factors (Gata4, Mef2c, Mef2d, Nfatc1), and microRNAs (miRNAs; miR208a, miR208b, miR499). In addition, expressions of these genes were significantly altered in embryonic hearts exposed to in utero caffeine. For in utero experiments, pregnant CD-1 dams were treated with 20–60 mg/kg of caffeine, which resulted in maternal circulation levels of 37.3–65.3 μM 2 h after treatment. RNA sequencing was performed on embryonic ventricles treated with vehicle or 20 mg/kg of caffeine daily from E6.5-9.5. Differential expression (DE) analysis revealed that 124 genes and 849 transcripts were significantly altered, and differential exon usage (DEU) analysis identified 597 exons that were changed in response to prenatal caffeine exposure. Among the DE genes identified by RNA sequencing were several cardiac structural genes and genes that control DNA methylation and histone modification. Pathway analysis revealed that pathways related to cardiovascular development and diseases were significantly affected by caffeine. In addition, global cardiac DNA methylation was reduced in caffeine-treated cardiomyocytes. Collectively, these data demonstrate that caffeine exposure alters gene expression and DNA methylation in embryonic cardiomyocytes. PMID:25354728

  20. Erythropoietin and the effect of oxygen during proliferation and differentiation of human neural progenitor cells

    Frech Moritz J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia plays a critical role in various cellular mechanisms, including proliferation and differentiation of neural stem and progenitor cells. In the present study, we explored the impact of lowered oxygen on the differentiation potential of human neural progenitor cells, and the role of erythropoietin in the differentiation process. Results In this study we demonstrate that differentiation of human fetal neural progenitor cells under hypoxic conditions results in an increased neurogenesis. In addition, expansion and proliferation under lowered oxygen conditions also increased neuronal differentiation, although proliferation rates were not altered compared to normoxic conditions. Erythropoietin partially mimicked these hypoxic effects, as shown by an increase of the metabolic activity during differentiation and protection of differentiated cells from apoptosis. Conclusion These results provide evidence that hypoxia promotes the differentiation of human fetal neural progenitor cells, and identifies the involvement of erythropoietin during differentiation as well as different cellular mechanisms underlying the induction of differentiation mediated by lowered oxygen levels.

  1. Fundamentals of differential beamforming

    Benesty, Jacob; Pan, Chao


    This book provides a systematic study of the fundamental theory and methods of beamforming with differential microphone arrays (DMAs), or differential beamforming in short. It begins with a brief overview of differential beamforming and some popularly used DMA beampatterns such as the dipole, cardioid, hypercardioid, and supercardioid, before providing essential background knowledge on orthogonal functions and orthogonal polynomials, which form the basis of differential beamforming. From a physical perspective, a DMA of a given order is defined as an array that measures the differential acoustic pressure field of that order; such an array has a beampattern in the form of a polynomial whose degree is equal to the DMA order. Therefore, the fundamental and core problem of differential beamforming boils down to the design of beampatterns with orthogonal polynomials. But certain constraints also have to be considered so that the resulting beamformer does not seriously amplify the sensors’ self noise and the mism...

  2. Vismodegib, an antagonist of hedgehog signaling, directly alters taste molecular signaling in taste buds

    Yang, Hyekyung; Cong, Wei-Na; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Egan, Josephine M.


    Vismodegib, a highly selective inhibitor of hedgehog (Hh) pathway, is an approved treatment for basal-cell carcinoma. Patients on treatment with vismodegib often report profound alterations in taste sensation. The cellular mechanisms underlying the alterations have not been studied. Sonic Hh (Shh) signaling is required for cell growth and differentiation. In taste buds, Shh is exclusively expressed in type IV taste cells, which are undifferentiated basal cells and the precursors of the three ...

  3. Iron deficiency alters megakaryopoiesis and platelet phenotype independent of thrombopoietin.

    Evstatiev, Rayko; Bukaty, Adam; Jimenez, Kristine; Kulnigg-Dabsch, Stefanie; Surman, Lidia; Schmid, Werner; Eferl, Robert; Lippert, Kathrin; Scheiber-Mojdehkar, Barbara; Kvasnicka, Hans Michael; Khare, Vineeta; Gasche, Christoph


    Iron deficiency is a common cause of reactive thrombocytosis, however, the exact pathways have not been revealed. Here we aimed to study the mechanisms behind iron deficiency-induced thrombocytosis. Within few weeks, iron-depleted diet caused iron deficiency in young Sprague-Dawley rats, as reflected by a drop in hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, hepatic iron content and hepcidin mRNA in the liver. Thrombocytosis established in parallel. Moreover, platelets produced in iron deficient animals displayed a higher mean platelet volume and increased aggregation. Bone marrow studies revealed subtle alterations that are suggestive of expansion of megakaryocyte progenitors, an increase in megakaryocyte ploidy and accelerated megakaryocyte differentiation. Iron deficiency did not alter the production of hematopoietic growth factors such as thrombopoietin, interleukin 6 or interleukin 11. Megakaryocytic cell lines grown in iron-depleted conditions exhibited reduced proliferation but increased ploidy and cell size. Our data suggest that iron deficiency increases megakaryopoietic differentiation and alters platelet phenotype without changes in megakaryocyte growth factors, specifically TPO. Iron deficiency-induced thrombocytosis may have evolved to maintain or increase the coagulation capacity in conditions with chronic bleeding.

  4. Developmental Partial Differential Equations

    Duteil, Nastassia Pouradier; Rossi, Francesco; Boscain, Ugo; Piccoli, Benedetto


    In this paper, we introduce the concept of Developmental Partial Differential Equation (DPDE), which consists of a Partial Differential Equation (PDE) on a time-varying manifold with complete coupling between the PDE and the manifold's evolution. In other words, the manifold's evolution depends on the solution to the PDE, and vice versa the differential operator of the PDE depends on the manifold's geometry. DPDE is used to study a diffusion equation with source on a growing surface whose gro...

  5. High resolution differential thermometer

    Gotra Z. Yu.


    Full Text Available Main schematic solutions of differential thermometers with measurement resolution about 0.001°C are considered. Differential temperature primary transducer realized on a transistor differential circuit in microampere mode. Analytic calculation and schematic mathematic simulation of primary transducer are fulfilled. Signal transducer is realized on a high precision Zero-Drift Single-Supply Rail-to-Rail operation amplifier AD8552 and 24-Bit S-D microconverter ADuC834.

  6. Mueller matrix differential decomposition.

    Ortega-Quijano, Noé; Arce-Diego, José Luis


    We present a Mueller matrix decomposition based on the differential formulation of the Mueller calculus. The differential Mueller matrix is obtained from the macroscopic matrix through an eigenanalysis. It is subsequently resolved into the complete set of 16 differential matrices that correspond to the basic types of optical behavior for depolarizing anisotropic media. The method is successfully applied to the polarimetric analysis of several samples. The differential parameters enable one to perform an exhaustive characterization of anisotropy and depolarization. This decomposition is particularly appropriate for studying media in which several polarization effects take place simultaneously. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  7. Singular stochastic differential equations

    Cherny, Alexander S


    The authors introduce, in this research monograph on stochastic differential equations, a class of points termed isolated singular points. Stochastic differential equations possessing such points (called singular stochastic differential equations here) arise often in theory and in applications. However, known conditions for the existence and uniqueness of a solution typically fail for such equations. The book concentrates on the study of the existence, the uniqueness, and, what is most important, on the qualitative behaviour of solutions of singular stochastic differential equations. This is done by providing a qualitative classification of isolated singular points, into 48 possible types.

  8. [Factors that alter taste perception].

    Maffeis, E R; Silva-Netto, C R


    Dysfunction of taste perception is a significant problem for many individuals. Taste anomalies may affect health not only by directly affecting liquid and solid food intake, but also by creating a state of depression due to the loss of an important source of pleasure. Many factors alter taste perception, such as lesions of the oral mucosa, cigarette smoking, radiation, chemotherapy, renal disease, hepatitis, leprosy, hormones, nutrition, use of dentures, medications, and aging. Gum or ice chewing may temporarily help loss of taste. Patients should be encouraged to chew their food thoroughly, alternating the sides of the mouth, or alternating different foods. Unfortunately, in many cases there is no cure for this alteration, and patience is then the only possibility.

  9. Fantastic alterities and The Sandman


    This article explores the ways in which the comics medium enhances our understanding of literary models of the Fantastic. It examines the presence and depiction of multiple worlds in Neil Gaiman’s The Sandman, with specific reference to the role of the comics medium and its denial of mimesis when creating such alterities. \\ud \\ud It initially uses literature review to establish a contemporary working model of the Fantastic, taking as its basis the framework devised by Tzvetan Todorov, and inc...

  10. Buccal alterations in diabetes mellitus

    Negrato Carlos


    Full Text Available Abstract Long standing hyperglycaemia besides damaging the kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, heart, can also impair the function of the salivary glands leading to a reduction in the salivary flow. When salivary flow decreases, as a consequence of an acute hyperglycaemia, many buccal or oral alterations can occur such as: a increased concentration of mucin and glucose; b impaired production and/or action of many antimicrobial factors; c absence of a metalloprotein called gustin, that contains zinc and is responsible for the constant maturation of taste papillae; d bad taste; e oral candidiasis f increased cells exfoliation after contact, because of poor lubrication; g increased proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms; h coated tongue; i halitosis; and many others may occur as a consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia: a tongue alterations, generally a burning mouth; b periodontal disease; c white spots due to demineralization in the teeth; d caries; e delayed healing of wounds; f greater tendency to infections; g lichen planus; h mucosa ulcerations. Buccal alterations found in diabetic patients, although not specific of this disease, have its incidence and progression increased when an inadequate glycaemic control is present.

  11. Oral alterations among chemical dependents

    Estela Vanessa COLODEL


    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been daily observed a significant increase ofchemical dependent individuals, as well as the lack of depth on thisissue in the dentistry area. Nevertheless many times the dentalclinicians are the first professionals to diagnose possible alterations,which appear due to the consumption of tobacco, alcohol and other illicit drugs. Objectives: To make a literature review of oral alterations and to identify them on a specific group of persons, which are addicted to different types of drugs. Material and methods: The clinical history of the selected individuals was added to the answers of a questionnaire,comprising the data of the present research. Results: Besides other minor soft tissue alterations, a high prevalence of caries and periodontal diseases were found in the studied population. Conclusion: It was concluded that the role of the dental clinician is very important to the health rehabilitation of drug addicts, individuals with physical and mental disorders that need specific oral care, which sometimes is neglected.

  12. Design of a phase I clinical trial to evaluate intratumoral delivery of ErbB-targeted chimeric antigen receptor T-cells in locally advanced or recurrent head and neck cancer.

    van Schalkwyk, May C I; Papa, Sophie E; Jeannon, Jean-Pierre; Guerrero Urbano, Teresa; Spicer, James F; Maher, John


    Despite several advances, 5-year survival in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains unchanged at only 50%. The commonest cause of death is locally advanced/recurrent disease. Consequently, there is an unmet need for new approaches to improve local control in HNSCC. T4 immunotherapy is an autologous cell therapy in which peripheral blood T-cells are genetically engineered using a retroviral vector to coexpress two chimeric receptors: (i) T1E28z is a chimeric antigen receptor that engages multiple ErbB dimers that are commonly upregulated in HNSCC; (ii) 4αβ is a chimeric cytokine receptor that converts the weak mitogenic stimulus provided by interleukin (IL)-4 into a strong and selective growth signal, allowing preferential expansion and enrichment of T4(+) T-cells ex vivo. T4 immunotherapy exerts antitumor activity against HNSCC cell lines and tumors in vivo, without significant toxicity. Human T4(+) T-cells also engage mouse ErbB receptors, permitting safety testing in SCID Beige mice. Severe toxicity caused by cytokine release syndrome ensues when human T4(+) T-cells are administered at high doses to mice, particularly with advanced tumor burdens. However, such toxicity is not required for efficacy and is never seen if T-cells are administered by the intratumoral route. To exploit this, we have designed a first-in-man clinical trial in which T4(+) T-cells are administered to patients with locally advanced/recurrent HNSCC. Cells will be administered at a single sitting to multiple sites around the viable tumor circumference. A 3+3 dose escalation design will be used, starting at 10(7) cells (cohort 1), escalating to 10(9) cells (cohort 5). If maximum tolerated dose remains undefined, cohorts 6/7 will receive either low- or high-dose cyclophosphamide before 10(9) T4(+) T-cells. A panel of routine/in-house assays and imaging techniques will be used to monitor safety, efficacy, perturbation of endogenous antitumor immunity

  13. Calculus & ordinary differential equations

    Pearson, David


    Professor Pearson's book starts with an introduction to the area and an explanation of the most commonly used functions. It then moves on through differentiation, special functions, derivatives, integrals and onto full differential equations. As with other books in the series the emphasis is on using worked examples and tutorial-based problem solving to gain the confidence of students.

  14. Equivalence of Differential System

    Zheng-xin Zhou


    Using refiecting function of Mironenko we construct some differential systems which are equivalent to the given differential system.This gives us an opportunity to find out the monodromic matrix of these periodi csystems which are not integrable in finite terms.

  15. Lifting the Differentiation Embargo.

    Latif, Anne-Louise; Holyoake, Tessa L


    Effective differentiation therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been restricted to a small subset of patients with one defined genetic abnormality. Using an unbiased small molecule screen, Sykes et al. now identify a mechanism of de-repression of differentiation in several models of AML driven by distinct genetic drivers.

  16. Differentiering - Hvorfor & hvordan?

    Pedersen, Michael Svendsen

    Rapporten indeholder en introduktion til differentiering i undervisningen i dansk som andetsprog, hvor der lægges vægt på at differentiering ikke kan reduceres til nogle "teknikker" eller "værktøjer", men er en generel tilgang til undervisning der har deltagernes ressourcer og ligeværd som udgang...

  17. On Quadratic Differential Forms

    Willems, J.C.; Trentelman, H.L.


    This paper develops a theory around the notion of quadratic differential forms in the context of linear differential systems. In many applications, we need to not only understand the behavior of the system variables but also the behavior of certain functionals of these variables. The obvious cases w

  18. "Nowhere" differentiable horizons

    Chrúsciel, P T


    It is folklore knowledge amongst general relativists that horizons are well behaved, continuously differentiable hypersurfaces except perhaps on a negligible subset one needs not to bother with. We show that this is not the case, by constructing a Cauchy horizon, as well as a black hole event horizon, which contain no open subset on which they are differentiable.

  19. Automatic Differentiation Package


    Sacado is an automatic differentiation package for C++ codes using operator overloading and C++ templating. Sacado provide forward, reverse, and Taylor polynomial automatic differentiation classes and utilities for incorporating these classes into C++ codes. Users can compute derivatives of computations arising in engineering and scientific applications, including nonlinear equation solving, time integration, sensitivity analysis, stability analysis, optimization and uncertainity quantification.

  20. Surveillance for Secure Differentiation

    Hamilton, William B; Brickman, Joshua M


    The precise place and time where embryonic differentiation begins is regulated by regionalized signaling. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Wang et al. (2017) investigate how converging Wnt and Nodal signals promote mesendoderm through a p53, Wnt3 feed-forward loop, pointing to a mechanism by which...... cells gauge time and fitness during differentiation....

  1. Differential equations for dummies

    Holzner, Steven


    The fun and easy way to understand and solve complex equations Many of the fundamental laws of physics, chemistry, biology, and economics can be formulated as differential equations. This plain-English guide explores the many applications of this mathematical tool and shows how differential equations can help us understand the world around us. Differential Equations For Dummies is the perfect companion for a college differential equations course and is an ideal supplemental resource for other calculus classes as well as science and engineering courses. It offers step-by-step techniques, practical tips, numerous exercises, and clear, concise examples to help readers improve their differential equation-solving skills and boost their test scores.

  2. Randomness and Differentiability

    Brattka, Vasco; Nies, André


    We characterize some major algorithmic randomness notions via differentiability of effective functions. (1) We show that a real number z in [0,1] is computably random if and only if every nondecreasing computable function [0,1]->R is differentiable at z. (2) A real number z in [0,1] is weakly 2-random if and only if every almost everywhere differentiable computable function [0,1]->R is differentiable at z. (3) Recasting results of the constructivist Demuth (1975) in classical language, we show that a real z is ML random if and only if every computable function of bounded variation is differentiable at z, and similarly for absolutely continuous functions. We also use the analytic methods to show that computable randomness of a real is base invariant, and to derive preservation results for randomness notions.

  3. Linking Diversity and Differentiation

    Hans-Rolf Gregorius


    Full Text Available Generally speaking, the term differentiation refers to differences between collections for the distribution of specified traits of their members, while diversity deals with (effective numbers of trait states (types. Counting numbers of types implies discrete traits such as alleles and genotypes in population genetics or species and taxa in ecology. Comparisons between the concepts of differentiation and diversity therefore primarily refer to discrete traits. Diversity is related to differentiation through the idea that the total diversity of a subdivided collection should be composed of the diversity within the subcollections and a complement called “diversity between subcollections”. The idea goes back to the perception that the mixing of differentiated collections increases diversity. Several existing concepts of “diversity between subcollections” are based on this idea. Among them, β-diversity and fixation (inadvertently called differentiation are the most prominent in ecology and in population genetics, respectively. The pertaining measures are shown to quantify the effect of differentiation in terms of diversity components, though from a dual perspective: the classical perspective of differentiation between collections for their type compositions, and the reverse perspective of differentiation between types for their collection affiliations. A series of measures of diversity-oriented differentiation is presented that consider this dual perspective at two levels of diversity partitioning: the overall type or subcollection diversity and the joint type-subcollection diversity. It turns out that, in contrast with common notions, the measures of fixation (such as FST or GST refer to the perspective of type rather than subcollection differentiation. This unexpected observation strongly suggests that the popular interpretations of fixation measures must be reconsidered.

  4. The mineralogical characteristics of the hydrothermal types alteration from Nistru ore deposit, Baia Mare metallogenetic district

    Floarea Damian


    Full Text Available The hydrothermal alteration types, which have affected intrusive and volcanic rocks from Nistru ore deposit, are related to fluids composition varied in their evolution within hydrothermal systems. The early stage of the hydrothermal activity has produced extensive propylitisation and potassic alteration (orthoclase, biotite, sericite associated with the central part of the quartz-micromonzodioritic porphyry stock. The late stage of the fluids differentiation is determined by the hydrogen-ion metasomatism (phyllic alteration, argillic alteration, characterized by a large vertical variation. The hydrogen-ion metasomatism is associated with the bor metasomatism, generated by acid solutions and at a high temperature. The vertical and lateral zoning character of the hydrothermal alterations is related to differences in rock composition and variation in physical-chemical conditions during the periods of subvolcanic intrusion and mineralization.

  5. Stem cell differentiation: Post-degradation forces kick in

    Vincent, Ludovic G.; Engler, Adam J.


    Stem cells alter their morphology and differentiate to particular lineages in response to biophysical cues from the surrounding matrix. When the matrix is degradable, however, cell fate is morphology-independent and is directed by the traction forces that the cells actively apply after they have degraded the matrix.

  6. Percutaneous intratumoral injection of compound Chinese medicine in inducing the apoptosis of the hepatic cancer cell%复方中药经皮瘤内注射诱导肝癌细胞凋亡的实验研究

    林礼务; 杨金燕; 何以敉; 高上达; 杨发端; 薛恩生


    背景:超声引导下经皮瘤内注入无水乙醇治疗肝癌等局部疗法已在l临床得到广泛应用,但仍存在易复发等局限性.目的:探讨复方中药99克星经皮瘤内注射诱导肝癌细胞凋亡的生物效应.设计:随机对照实验研究.地点和对象:实验在福建省超声医学研究所完成,BALB/CA裸鼠,由厦门大学抗癌中心医学实验动物室提供.干预:建立人肝癌SMMC-7721细胞皮下移植与肝内原位移植动物模型各14只.随机分为99克星治疗组14只,无水乙醇与生理盐水各7只,各组中皮下与肝内肿瘤各占50%,每隔5 d分别向肿瘤内注入各组治疗药物共4次,20 d后处死.主要观察指标:肿瘤中心组织形态,DNA异倍体峰与凋亡峰的出现率.结果:盐水组治疗后肝癌细胞超微结构无明显改变;乙醇组出现以凝固性坏死为主的变化;克星组有92.9%(13/14)见到凋亡细胞或/和凋亡小体.FCM DNA分析结果克星组竟有高达92.9%(13/14)出现肿瘤程序性坏死的凋亡峰,而盐水组却有57.1%(4/7)出现异倍体峰.结论:复方中药99克星具有较强的诱导与促进细胞自发凋亡的作用,似有唤起"自杀基因"的功能.%BACKGROUND: At present, some local therapies such as intratumoral injection of alcohol guided by ultrasound to treat hepatic cancer have been widely used in the clinic, but there are still some limitations such as the inclination of recurring.OBJECTIVE: To probe the biological effect of percutaneous intratumoral injection of Chinese traditional medicine Star-99 to induce the apoptosis of the hepatic cancer cell.DESIGN: A double-blinded, randomized controlled trial was conducted.SETTING and PARTICIPANTS: The experiment was completed in Fujian Provincial Ultrasonic Medicine Institute. The BALB/CA nude mice for this experiment was provided by Medical Experimental Animal Center of Anti-cancer of Xiamen University, China.INTERVENTIONS: Twenty-eight BALB/CA nude nice were randonly divided into three

  7. MR imaging of transient synovitis: differentiation from septic arthritis

    Yang, W.J.; Im, S.A.; Lim, G.Y.; Chun, H.J.; Jung, N.Y.; Sung, M.S.; Choi, B.G. [Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea). Dept. of Radiology


    Transient synovitis is the most common cause of acute hip pain in children. However, MR imaging findings in transient synovitis and the role of MR imaging in differentiating transient synovitis from septic arthritis have not been fully reported. To describe the MR findings of transient synovitis and to determine whether the MR characteristics can differentiate this disease entity from septic arthritis. Clinical findings and MR images of 49 patients with transient synovitis (male/female 36/13, mean age 6.1 years) and 18 patients with septic arthritis (male/female 10/8, mean age 4.9 years) were retrospectively reviewed. MR findings of transient synovitis were symptomatic joint effusion, synovial enhancement, contralateral joint effusion, synovial thickening, and signal intensity (SI) alterations and enhancement in surrounding soft tissue. Among these, SI alterations and enhancement in bone marrow and soft tissue, contralateral joint effusion, and synovial thickening were statistically significant MR findings in differentiating transient synovitis from septic arthritis. The statistically significant MR findings in transient synovitis are contralateral (asymptomatic) joint effusions and the absence of SI abnormalities of the bone marrow. It is less common to have SI alterations and contrast enhancement of the soft tissues. The statistically significant MR findings in septic arthritis are SI alterations of the bone marrow, and SI alterations and contrast enhancement of the soft tissue. Ipsilateral effusion and synovial thickening and enhancement are present in both diseases.

  8. Assessing the hydrologic alteration of the Yangtze River using the histogram matching approach

    Huang, F.; Zhang, N.; Guo, L. D.; Xia, Z. Q.


    Hydrologic changes of the Yangtze River, an important river with abundant water resources in China, were investigated using the Histogram Matching Approach. Daily streamflow data spanning the time interval from 1955 to 2013 was collected from Yichang and Datong stations, which monitor the hydrologic processes of the upper and lower reach of the Yangtze River, respectively. The Gezhouba Dam, the first dam constructed at the main stream of the Yangtze River, started operations in 1981. 1981 was used to differentiate the pre-dam (1955-1980) and post-dam (1981-2013) hydrologic regimes. The hydrologic regime was quantified by the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration. The overall alteration degree of the upper Yangtze River was 31% and the alteration degree of every hydrologic indicator ranged from 10% to 81%. Only 1, 5 and 26 hydrologic indicators were altered at high, moderate and low degrees, respectively. The overall alteration degree of the lower Yangtze River was 30%, and the alteration degree of every hydrologic indicator ranged from 8% to 49%. No high alteration degree was detected at the Datong station. Ten hydrologic indicators were altered at moderate degrees and 22 hydrologic indicators were altered at low degrees. Significant increases could be observed for the low-flow relevant indicators, including the monthly flow from January-March, the annual minimum 1, 3, 7, 30 and 90-