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Sample records for differentiated c2c12 myotubes

  1. β‐Taxilin participates in differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes

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    Sakane, Hiroshi; Makiyama, Tomohiko; Nogami, Satoru; Horii, Yukimi [Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Graduate school of Medicine, Dokkyo Medical University, 880 Kitakobayashi, Mibu-town, Tochigi 321-0293 (Japan); Akasaki, Kenji [Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuyama University, Fukuyama, Hiroshima 729-0292 (Japan); Shirataki, Hiromichi, E-mail: hiro-sh@dokkyomed.ac.jp [Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Graduate school of Medicine, Dokkyo Medical University, 880 Kitakobayashi, Mibu-town, Tochigi 321-0293 (Japan)

    2016-07-15

    Myogenesis is required for the development of skeletal muscle. Accumulating evidence indicates that the expression of several genes are upregulated during myogenesis and these genes play pivotal roles in myogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying myogenesis is not fully understood. In this study, we found that β-taxilin, which is specifically expressed in the skeletal muscle and heart tissues, was progressively expressed during differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes, prompting us to investigate the role of β-taxilin in myogenesis. In C2C12 cells, knockdown of β-taxilin impaired the fusion of myoblasts into myotubes, and decreased the diameter of myotubes. We also found that β-taxilin interacted with dysbindin, a coiled-coil-containing protein. Knockdown of dysbindin conversely promoted the fusion of myoblasts into myotubes and increased the diameter of myotubes in C2C12 cells. Furthermore, knockdown of dysbindin attenuated the inhibitory effect of β-taxilin depletion on myotube formation of C2C12 cells. These results demonstrate that β-taxilin participates in myogenesis through suppressing the function of dysbindin to inhibit the differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes. - Highlights: • β‐Taxilin is progressively expressed during differentiation of C2C12 cell. • Knockdown of β-taxilin impaired C2C12 myotube formation. • β‐Taxilin interacted with dysbindin. • Knockdown of dysbindin promoted C2C12 myotube formation. • The function of β-taxilin in C2C12 myotube formation depends on dysbindin.

  2. Apoptosis in differentiating C2C12 muscle cells selectively targets Bcl-2-deficient myotubes

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    Schoneich, Christian; Dremina, Elena; Galeva, Nadezhda; Sharov, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Muscle cell apoptosis accompanies normal muscle development and regeneration, as well as degenerative diseases and aging. C2C12 murine myoblast cells represent a common model to study muscle differentiation. Though it was already shown that myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells is accompanied by enhanced apoptosis in a fraction of cells, either the cell population sensitive to apoptosis or regulatory mechanisms for the apoptotic response are unclear so far. In the current study we characterize apoptotic phenotypes of different types of C2C12 cells at all stages of differentiation, and report here that myotubes of differentiated C2C12 cells with low levels of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression are particularly vulnerable to apoptosis even though they are displaying low levels of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, Bak and Bad. In contrast, reserve cells exhibit higher levels of Bcl-2 and high resistance to apoptosis. The transfection of proliferating myoblasts with Bcl-2 prior to differentiation did not protect against spontaneous apoptosis accompanying differentiation of C2C12 cell but led to Bcl-2 overexpression in myotubes and to significant protection from apoptotic cell loss caused by exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Overall, our data advocate for a Bcl-2-dependent mechanism of apoptosis in differentiated muscle cells. However, downstream processes for spontaneous and hydrogen peroxide induced apoptosis are not completely similar. Apoptosis in differentiating myoblasts and myotubes is regulated not through interaction of Bcl-2 with pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins such as Bax, Bak, and Bad. PMID:24129924

  3. C2C12 myotubes inhibit the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes by reducing the expression of glucocorticoid receptor gene

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    Chu, Weiwei; Wei, Wei; Yu, Shigang; Han, Haiyin; Shi, Xiaoli [College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Sun, Wenxing [College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); College of Public Health, Nantong University, Nantong 226019 (China); Gao, Ying [College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Zhang, Lifan [College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Chen, Jie, E-mail: jiechen@njau.edu.cn [College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2016-03-25

    Obesity is a well-established risk factor to health for its relationship with insulin resistance, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Myocyte-adipocyte crosstalk model plays a significant role in studying the interaction of muscle and adipose development. Previous related studies mainly focus on the effects of adipocytes on the myocytes activity, however, the influence of myotubes on the preadipocytes development remains unclear. The present study was carried out to settle this issue. Firstly, the co-culture experiment showed that the proliferation, cell cycle, and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were arrested, and the apoptosis was induced, by differentiated C2C12 myotubes. Next, the sensitivity of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes to glucocorticoids (GCs), which was well known as cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis factor, was decreased after co-cultured with C2C12 myotubes. What's more, our results showed that C2C12 myotubes suppressed the mRNA and protein expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, indicating the potential mechanism of GCs sensitivity reduction. Taken together, we conclude that C2C12 myotubes inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocytes proliferation and differentiation by reducing the expression of GR. These data suggest that decreasing GR by administration of myokines may be a promising therapy for treating patients with obesity or diabetes. - Highlights: • C2C12 myotubes inhibited proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. • C2C12 myotubes arrested cell cycle of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. • C2C12 myotubes induced apoptosis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. • C2C12 inhibit 3T3-L1 cells by reducing the expression of glucocorticoid receptor gene.

  4. Differential regulation of iPLA2beta splice variants by in vitro ischemia in C2C12 myotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, K. A.; Kolko, M.; Lambert, I. H.

    2006-01-01

    In this study we investigated the activity, expression and regulation of iPLA2 during ischemia in mouse C2C12 myotubes. Here, we show that in vitro ischemia, i.e. oxygen deprivation and glucose starvation, induces an iPLA2 activity that is totally reversed by siRNA knock down of iPLA2£], indicating...... preferential activation of iPLA2£]. The activity of the native iPLA2£] tetramer has in humans been proposed to be negatively regulated by interactions with catalytic inactive splice variants of the full-length protein. These variants, characterized by the presence exon 9a, have however not been identified...... of this transcript would be a C-terminally truncated î50 kDa protein lacking the catalytic site. qPCR indicated that, while the total iPLA2£] mRNA level in C2C12 myotubes increased weakly within 1-2 hours of in vitro ischemia, the transcript containing the mouse exon 9a was rapidly down regulated. In addition...

  5. Characterization of an acute muscle contraction model using cultured C2C12 myotubes.

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    Yasuko Manabe

    Full Text Available A cultured C2C12 myotube contraction system was examined for application as a model for acute contraction-induced phenotypes of skeletal muscle. C2C12 myotubes seeded into 4-well rectangular plates were placed in a contraction system equipped with a carbon electrode at each end. The myotubes were stimulated with electric pulses of 50 V at 1 Hz for 3 ms at 997-ms intervals. Approximately 80% of the myotubes were observed to contract microscopically, and the contractions lasted for at least 3 h with electrical stimulation. Calcium ion (Ca²⁺ transient evoked by the electric pulses was detected fluorescently with Fluo-8. Phosphorylation of protein kinase B/Akt (Akt, 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38, and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK1/2, which are intracellular signaling proteins typically activated in exercised/contracted skeletal muscle, was observed in the electrically stimulated C2C12 myotubes. The contractions induced by the electric pulses increased glucose uptake and depleted glycogen in the C2C12 myotubes. C2C12 myotubes that differentiated after exogenous gene transfection by a lipofection or an electroporation method retained their normal contractile ability by electrical stimulation. These findings show that our C2C12 cell contraction system reproduces the muscle phenotypes that arise invivo (exercise, in situ (hindlimb muscles in an anesthetized animal, and invitro (dissected muscle tissues in incubation buffer by acute muscle contraction, demonstrating that the system is applicable for the analysis of intracellular events evoked by acute muscle contraction.

  6. Effect of curcumin Extract on Ttranslocation of Glut 4 in C2C12 Myotubes

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    J Zavarreza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Curcumin is a major phenolic compound of Curcuma longa, which has long been used in traditional Indian medicine. Recently, curcumin has been reported to have antihyperglycemic activity in animal models. However, the molecular basis of this action has not been adequatedly described. In the present study the antihyperglycemic effect of curcumin was examined using C2C12 myoblast cells. Methods: The effects of curcumin were investigated in C2C12 myotubes by treating the cells with 40 µM of curcumin for 1.5 h. C2C12 myotubes were homogenized and the subcellular fractionation was prepared using ultracentrifugation; Then protein assay was performed using Bradford method and Glut4 determination was done using SDS-PAGE. Moreover, western immunoblotting techniques were exerted for semi-quantitative measurement. Data analysis was performed via gene tools software of Gel documentation and SPSS. An ANOVA test was used to compare three groups together. Results: Comparison of Glut4 levels in C2C12 myotubes showed that myotubes which were exposed to1.5 hours of 40 µM curcunin had higher Glut4 percentages in both cytosolic and membrane fractions and Glut4 percentages were significant with a confidence interval (CI of 95% ( P<0.05 . Conclusion: The study results showed that curcumin can strongly induce the increase of Glut4 translocation in differentiated C2C12 cells, indicating its possible regulatory role in the glucose metabolism of skeletal muscle cells

  7. Graphene-Based Patterning and Differentiation of C2C12 Myoblasts

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    Bajaj, Piyush; Rivera, Jose A; Marchwiany, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at generating highly aligned functional myotubes using graphene as the underlying scaffold. Graphene not only supports the growth of C2C12 muscle cells but also enhances its differentiation and leads to spontaneous patterning of myotubes....

  8. Regulation of nonmuscle myosin II during 3-methylcholanthrene induced dedifferentiation of C2C12 myotubes

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    Dey, Sumit K.; Saha, Shekhar; Das, Provas; Das, Mahua R.; Jana, Siddhartha S., E-mail: bcssj@iacs.res.in

    2014-08-01

    3-Methylcholanthrene (3MC) induces tumor formation at the site of injection in the hind leg of mice within 110 days. Recent reports reveal that the transformation of normal muscle cells to atypical cells is one of the causes for tumor formation, however the molecular mechanism behind this process is not well understood. Here, we show in an in vitro study that 3MC induces fragmentation of multinucleate myotubes into viable mononucleates. These mononucleates form colonies when they are seeded into soft agar, indicative of cellular transformation. Immunoblot analysis reveals that phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC{sub 20}) is 5.6±0.5 fold reduced in 3MC treated myotubes in comparison to vehicle treated myotubes during the fragmentation of myotubes. In contrast, levels of myogenic factors such as MyoD, Myogenin and cell cycle regulators such as Cyclin D, Cyclin E1 remain unchanged as assessed by real-time PCR array and reverse transcriptase PCR analysis, respectively. Interestingly, addition of the myosin light chain kinase inhibitor, ML-7, enhances the fragmentation, whereas phosphatase inhibitor perturbs the 3MC induced fragmentation of myotubes. These results suggest that decrease in RLC{sub 20} phosphorylation may be associated with the fragmentation step of dedifferentiation. - Highlights: • 3-Methylcholanthrene induces fragmentation of C2C12-myotubes. • Dedifferentiation can be divided into two steps – fragmentation and proliferation. • Fragmentation is associated with rearrangement of nonmuscle myosin II. • Genes associated with differentiation and proliferation are not altered during fragmentation. • Phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain is reduced during fragmentation.

  9. Functional aspects of dexamethasone upregulated nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in C2C12 myotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maestrone, E; Lagostena, L; Henning, RH; DenHertog, A; Nobile, M

    Three days of treatment with the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (1 nM-mu M) induced a concentration-dependent up-regulation of muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in C2C12 mouse myotubes (EC(50)=10+/-7.3 nM), as assessed by [H-3]alpha-BuTx binding. The maximum increase in binding amounted

  10. Cobalt triggers necrotic cell death and atrophy in skeletal C2C12 myotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovetta, Francesca; Stacchiotti, Alessandra; Faggi, Fiorella; Catalani, Simona; Apostoli, Pietro; Fanzani, Alessandro; Aleo, Maria Francesca

    2013-01-01

    Severe poisoning has recently been diagnosed in humans having hip implants composed of cobalt–chrome alloys due to the release of particulate wear debris on polyethylene and ceramic implants which stimulates macrophagic infiltration and destroys bone and soft tissue, leading to neurological, sensorial and muscular impairments. Consistent with this premise, in this study, we focused on the mechanisms underlying the toxicity of Co(II) ions on skeletal muscle using mouse skeletal C2C12 myotubes as an in vitro model. As detected using propidium iodide incorporation, increasing CoCl 2 doses (from 5 to 200 μM) affected the viability of C2C12 myotubes, mainly by cell necrosis, which was attenuated by necrostatin-1, an inhibitor of the necroptotic branch of the death domain receptor signaling pathway. On the other hand, apoptosis was hardly detectable as supported by the lack of caspase-3 and -8 activation, the latter resulting in only faint activation after exposure to higher CoCl 2 doses for prolonged time points. Furthermore, CoCl 2 treatment resulted in atrophy of the C2C12 myotubes which was characterized by the increased expression of HSP25 and GRP94 stress proteins and other typical 'pro-atrophic molecular hallmarks, such as early activation of the NF-kB pathway and down-regulation of AKT phosphorylation, followed by the activation of the proteasome and autophagy systems. Overall, these results suggested that cobalt may impact skeletal muscle homeostasis as an inducer of cell necrosis and myofiber atrophy. - Highlights: • The effects of cobalt on muscle myofibers in vitro were investigated. • Cobalt treatment mainly causes cell necrosis in skeletal C2C12 myotubes. • Cobalt impacts the PI3K/AKT and NFkB pathways and induces cell stress markers. • Cobalt induces atrophy of C2C12 myotubes through the activation of proteasome and autophagy systems. • Co treatment triggers NF-kB and PI3K/AKT pathways in C2C12 myotubes

  11. Cobalt triggers necrotic cell death and atrophy in skeletal C2C12 myotubes

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    Rovetta, Francesca [Unit of Biotechnologies, Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia I-25123 (Italy); Interuniversity Institute of Myology (IIM) (Italy); Stacchiotti, Alessandra [Institute of Human Anatomy, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, Brescia I-25123 (Italy); Faggi, Fiorella [Unit of Biotechnologies, Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia I-25123 (Italy); Interuniversity Institute of Myology (IIM) (Italy); Catalani, Simona; Apostoli, Pietro [Unit of Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, University of Brescia, Brescia I-25123 (Italy); Fanzani, Alessandro, E-mail: fanzani@med.unibs.it [Unit of Biotechnologies, Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia I-25123 (Italy); Interuniversity Institute of Myology (IIM) (Italy); Aleo, Maria Francesca, E-mail: aleo@med.unibs.it [Unit of Biotechnologies, Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia I-25123 (Italy); Interuniversity Institute of Myology (IIM) (Italy)

    2013-09-01

    Severe poisoning has recently been diagnosed in humans having hip implants composed of cobalt–chrome alloys due to the release of particulate wear debris on polyethylene and ceramic implants which stimulates macrophagic infiltration and destroys bone and soft tissue, leading to neurological, sensorial and muscular impairments. Consistent with this premise, in this study, we focused on the mechanisms underlying the toxicity of Co(II) ions on skeletal muscle using mouse skeletal C2C12 myotubes as an in vitro model. As detected using propidium iodide incorporation, increasing CoCl{sub 2} doses (from 5 to 200 μM) affected the viability of C2C12 myotubes, mainly by cell necrosis, which was attenuated by necrostatin-1, an inhibitor of the necroptotic branch of the death domain receptor signaling pathway. On the other hand, apoptosis was hardly detectable as supported by the lack of caspase-3 and -8 activation, the latter resulting in only faint activation after exposure to higher CoCl{sub 2} doses for prolonged time points. Furthermore, CoCl{sub 2} treatment resulted in atrophy of the C2C12 myotubes which was characterized by the increased expression of HSP25 and GRP94 stress proteins and other typical 'pro-atrophic molecular hallmarks, such as early activation of the NF-kB pathway and down-regulation of AKT phosphorylation, followed by the activation of the proteasome and autophagy systems. Overall, these results suggested that cobalt may impact skeletal muscle homeostasis as an inducer of cell necrosis and myofiber atrophy. - Highlights: • The effects of cobalt on muscle myofibers in vitro were investigated. • Cobalt treatment mainly causes cell necrosis in skeletal C2C12 myotubes. • Cobalt impacts the PI3K/AKT and NFkB pathways and induces cell stress markers. • Cobalt induces atrophy of C2C12 myotubes through the activation of proteasome and autophagy systems. • Co treatment triggers NF-kB and PI3K/AKT pathways in C2C12 myotubes.

  12. Cytoprotective Role of Nrf2 in Electrical Pulse Stimulated C2C12 Myotube.

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    Masaki Horie

    Full Text Available Regular physical exercise is central to a healthy lifestyle. However, exercise-related muscle contraction can induce reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS production in skeletal muscle. The nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2 transcription factor is a cellular sensor for oxidative stress. Regulation of nuclear Nrf2 signaling regulates antioxidant responses and protects organ structure and function. However, the role of Nrf2 in exercise- or contraction-induced ROS/RNS production in skeletal muscle is not clear. In this study, using differentiated C2C12 cells and electrical pulse stimulation (EPS of muscle contraction, we explored whether Nrf2 plays a role in the skeletal muscle response to muscle contraction-induced ROS/RNS. We found that EPS (40 V, 1 Hz, 2 ms stimulated ROS/RNS accumulation and Nrf2 activation. We also showed that expression of NQO1, HO-1 and GCLM increased after EPS-induced muscle contraction and was remarkably suppressed in cells with Nrf2 knockdown. We also found that the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC significantly attenuated Nrf2 activation after EPS, whereas the nitric oxide synthetase inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME did not. Furthermore, Nrf2 knockdown after EPS markedly decreased ROS/RNS redox potential and cell viability and increased expression of the apoptosis marker Annexin V in C2C12 myotubes. These results indicate that Nrf2 activation and expression of Nrf2 regulated-genes protected muscle against the increased ROS caused by EPS-induced muscle contraction. Thus, our findings suggest that Nrf2 may be a key factor for preservation of muscle function during muscle contraction.

  13. Leucine Modulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis and SIRT1-AMPK Signaling in C2C12 Myotubes

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    Chunzi Liang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies from this laboratory demonstrate that dietary leucine protects against high fat diet-induced mitochondrial impairments and stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis and energy partitioning from adipocytes to muscle cells through SIRT1-mediated mechanisms. Moreover, β-hydroxy-β-methyl butyrate (HMB, a metabolite of leucine, has been reported to activate AMPK synergistically with resveratrol in C2C12 myotubes. Therefore, we hypothesize that leucine-induced activation of SIRT1 and AMPK is the central event that links the upregulated mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. Thus, C2C12 myotubes were treated with leucine (0.5 mM, alanine (0.5 mM, valine (0.5 mM, EX527 (SIRT1 inhibitor, 25 μM, and Compound C (AMPK inhibitor, 25 μM alone or in combination to determine the roles of AMPK and SIRT1 in leucine-modulation of energy metabolism. Leucine significantly increased mitochondrial content, mitochondrial biogenesis-related genes expression, fatty acid oxidation, SIRT1 activity and gene expression, and AMPK phosphorylation in C2C12 myotubes compared to the controls, while EX527 and Compound C markedly attenuated these effects. Furthermore, leucine treatment for 24 hours resulted in time-dependent increases in cellular NAD+, SIRT1 activity, and p-AMPK level, with SIRT1 activation preceding that of AMPK, indicating that leucine activation of SIRT1, rather than AMPK, is the primary event.

  14. IGF-1 prevents simvastatin-induced myotoxicity in C2C12 myotubes.

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    Bonifacio, Annalisa; Sanvee, Gerda M; Brecht, Karin; Kratschmar, Denise V; Odermatt, Alex; Bouitbir, Jamal; Krähenbühl, Stephan

    2017-05-01

    Statins are generally well tolerated, but treatment with these drugs may be associated with myopathy. The mechanisms of statin-associated myopathy are not completely understood. Statins inhibit AKT phosphorylation by an unclear mechanism, whereas insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) activates the IGF-1/AKT signaling pathway and promotes muscle growth. The aims of the study were to investigate mechanisms of impaired AKT phosphorylation by simvastatin and to assess effects of IGF-1 on simvastatin-induced myotoxicity in C2C12 myotubes. C2C12 mouse myotubes were exposed to 10 μM simvastatin and/or 10 ng/mL IGF-1 for 18 h. Simvastatin inhibited the IGF-1/AKT signaling pathway, resulting in increased breakdown of myofibrillar proteins, impaired protein synthesis and increased apoptosis. Simvastatin inhibited AKT S473 phosphorylation, indicating reduced activity of mTORC2. In addition, simvastatin impaired stimulation of AKT T308 phosphorylation by IGF-1, indicating reduced activation of the IGF-1R/PI3K pathway by IGF-1. Nevertheless, simvastatin-induced myotoxicity could be at least partially prevented by IGF-1. The protective effects of IGF-1 were mediated by activation of the IGF-1R/AKT signaling cascade. Treatment with IGF-1 also suppressed muscle atrophy markers, restored protein synthesis and inhibited apoptosis. These results were confirmed by normalization of myotube morphology and protein content of C2C12 cells exposed to simvastatin and treated with IGF-1. In conclusion, impaired activity of AKT can be explained by reduced function of mTORC2 and of the IGF-1R/PI3K pathway. IGF-1 can prevent simvastatin-associated cytotoxicity and metabolic effects on C2C12 cells. The study gives insight into mechanisms of simvastatin-associated myotoxicity and provides potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

  15. Chromatin plasticity as a differentiation index during muscle differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts

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    Watanabe, Tomonobu M.; Higuchi, Sayaka; Kawauchi, Keiko; Tsukasaki, Yoshikazu; Ichimura, Taro; Fujita, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Change in the epigenetic landscape during myogenesis was optically investigated. ► Mobility of nuclear proteins was used to state the epigenetic status of the cell. ► Mobility of nuclear proteins decreased as myogenesis progressed in C2C12. ► Differentiation state diagram was developed using parameters obtained. -- Abstract: Skeletal muscle undergoes complicated differentiation steps that include cell-cycle arrest, cell fusion, and maturation, which are controlled through sequential expression of transcription factors. During muscle differentiation, remodeling of the epigenetic landscape is also known to take place on a large scale, determining cell fate. In an attempt to determine the extent of epigenetic remodeling during muscle differentiation, we characterized the plasticity of the chromatin structure using C2C12 myoblasts. Differentiation of C2C12 cells was induced by lowering the serum concentration after they had reached full confluence, resulting in the formation of multi-nucleated myotubes. Upon induction of differentiation, the nucleus size decreased whereas the aspect ratio increased, indicating the presence of force on the nucleus during differentiation. Movement of the nucleus was also suppressed when differentiation was induced, indicating that the plasticity of chromatin changed upon differentiation. To evaluate the histone dynamics during differentiation, FRAP experiment was performed, which showed an increase in the immobile fraction of histone proteins when differentiation was induced. To further evaluate the change in the histone dynamics during differentiation, FCS was performed, which showed a decrease in histone mobility on differentiation. We here show that the plasticity of chromatin decreases upon differentiation, which takes place in a stepwise manner, and that it can be used as an index for the differentiation stage during myogenesis using the state diagram developed with the parameters obtained in this study.

  16. Independent AMP and NAD signaling regulates C2C12 differentiation and metabolic adaptation.

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    Hsu, Chia George; Burkholder, Thomas J

    2016-12-01

    The balance of ATP production and consumption is reflected in adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) content and has been associated with phenotypic plasticity in striated muscle. Some studies have suggested that AMPK-dependent plasticity may be an indirect consequence of increased NAD synthesis and SIRT1 activity. The primary goal of this study was to assess the interaction of AMP- and NAD-dependent signaling in adaptation of C2C12 myotubes. Changes in myotube developmental and metabolic gene expression were compared following incubation with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) to activate AMPK- and NAD-related signaling. AICAR showed no effect on NAD pool or nampt expression but significantly reduced histone H3 acetylation and GLUT1, cytochrome C oxidase subunit 2 (COX2), and MYH3 expression. In contrast, NMN supplementation for 24 h increased NAD pool by 45 % but did not reduce histone H3 acetylation nor promote mitochondrial gene expression. The combination of AMP and NAD signaling did not induce further metabolic adaptation, but NMN ameliorated AICAR-induced myotube reduction. We interpret these results as indication that AMP and NAD contribute to C2C12 differentiation and metabolic adaptation independently.

  17. Acute high-caffeine exposure increases autophagic flux and reduces protein synthesis in C2C12 skeletal myotubes.

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    Hughes, M A; Downs, R M; Webb, G W; Crocker, C L; Kinsey, S T; Baumgarner, Bradley L

    2017-04-01

    Caffeine is a highly catabolic dietary stimulant. High caffeine concentrations (1-10 mM) have previously been shown to inhibit protein synthesis and increase protein degradation in various mammalian cell lines. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of short-term caffeine exposure on cell signaling pathways that regulate protein metabolism in mammalian skeletal muscle cells. Fully differentiated C2C12 skeletal myotubes either received vehicle (DMSO) or 5 mM caffeine for 6 h. Our analysis revealed that caffeine promoted a 40% increase in autolysosome formation and a 25% increase in autophagic flux. In contrast, caffeine treatment did not significantly increase the expression of the skeletal muscle specific ubiquitin ligases MAFbx and MuRF1 or 20S proteasome activity. Caffeine treatment significantly reduced mTORC1 signaling, total protein synthesis and myotube diameter in a CaMKKβ/AMPK-dependent manner. Further, caffeine promoted a CaMKII-dependent increase in myostatin mRNA expression that did not significantly contribute to the caffeine-dependent reduction in protein synthesis. Our results indicate that short-term caffeine exposure significantly reduced skeletal myotube diameter by increasing autophagic flux and promoting a CaMKKβ/AMPK-dependent reduction in protein synthesis.

  18. Proliferation and skeletal myotube formation capability of C2C12 and H9c2 cells on isotropic and anisotropic electrospun nanofibrous PHB scaffolds

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    Ricotti, Leonardo; Genchi, Giada G; Menciassi, Arianna; Polini, Alessandro; Iandolo, Donata; Pisignano, Dario; Ciofani, Gianni; Mattoli, Virgilio; Vazão, Helena; Ferreira, Lino

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the behavior in terms of the proliferation and skeletal muscle differentiation capability of two myoblastic cell lines, C2C12 and H9c2, on both isotropic and anisotropic electrospun nanofibrous poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) scaffolds, as well as on PHB films and polystyrene controls. After a careful characterization of the matrices in terms of surface morphology, surface roughness and mechanical properties, the proliferation rate and the capability of the two cell lines to form skeletal myotubes were evaluated. Genetic analyses were also performed in order to assess the differentiation level of the cells on the different substrates. We demonstrated that the aligned nanofibrous mesh decreases the proliferation activity and provides a higher differentiative stimulus. We also clarified how the nanofibrous substrate influences myotube formation, and quantified a series of myotube-related parameters for both C2C12 and H9c2 cells. (paper)

  19. Melatonin protects against uric acid-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and triglyceride accumulation in C2C12 myotubes.

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    Maarman, Gerald J; Andrew, Brittany M; Blackhurst, Dee M; Ojuka, Edward O

    2017-04-01

    Excess uric acid has been shown to induce oxidative stress, triglyceride accumulation, and mitochondrial dysfunction in the liver and is an independent predictor of type-2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle plays a dominant role in type 2 diabetes and presents a large surface area to plasma uric acid. However, the effects of uric acid on skeletal muscle are underinvestigated. Our aim was therefore to characterize the effects of excessive uric acid on oxidative stress, triglyceride content, and mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle C 2 C 12 myotubes and assess how these are modulated by the antioxidant molecule melatonin. Differentiated C 2 C 12 myotubes were exposed to 750 µM uric acid or uric acid + 10 nM melatonin for 72 h. Compared with control, uric acid increased triglyceride content by ~237%, oxidative stress by 32%, and antioxidant capacity by 135%. Uric acid also reduced endogenous ROUTINE respiration, complex II-linked oxidative phosphorylation, and electron transfer system capacities. Melatonin counteracted the effects of uric acid without further altering antioxidant capacity. Our data demonstrate that excess uric acid has adverse effects on skeletal muscle similar to those previously reported in hepatocytes and suggest that melatonin at a low physiological concentration of 10 nM may be a possible therapy against some adverse effects of excess uric acid. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Few studies have investigated the effects of uric acid on skeletal muscle. This study shows that hyperuricemia induces mitochondrial dysfunction and triglyceride accumulation in skeletal muscle. The findings may explain why hyperuricemia is an independent predictor of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. The effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid on protein synthesis and breakdown in murine C2C12 myotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamolrat, Torkamol; Gray, Stuart R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► EPA can enhance protein synthesis and retard protein breakdown in muscle cells. ► These effects were concurrent with increases in p70s6k and FOXO3a phosphorylation. ► EPA may be a useful tool in the treatment of muscle wasting conditions. -- Abstract: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been found to stimulate protein synthesis with little information regarding their effects on protein breakdown. Furthermore whether there are distinct effects of EPA and DHA remains to be established. The aim of the current study was to determine the distinct effects of EPA and DHA on protein synthesis, protein breakdown and signalling pathways in C2C12 myotubes. Fully differentiated C2C12 cells were incubated for 24 h with 0.1% ethanol (control), 50 μM EPA or 50 μM DHA prior to experimentation. After serum (4 h) and amino acid (1 h) starvation cells were stimulated with 2 mM L-leucine and protein synthesis measured using 3 H-labelled phenylalanine. Protein breakdown was measured using 3 H-labelled phenylalanine and signalling pathways (Akt, mTOR, p70S6k, 4EBP1, rps6 and FOXO3a) via Western blots. Data revealed that after incubation with EPA protein synthesis was 25% greater (P < 0.05) compared to control cells, with no effect of DHA. Protein breakdown was 22% (P < 0.05) lower, compared to control cells, after incubation with EPA, with no effect of DHA. Analysis of signalling pathways revealed that both EPA and DHA incubation increased (P < 0.05) p70s6k phosphorylation, EPA increased (P < 0.05) FOXO3a phosphorylation, with no alteration in other signalling proteins. The current study has demonstrated distinct effects of EPA and DHA on protein metabolism with EPA showing a greater ability to result in skeletal muscle protein accretion

  1. The effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid on protein synthesis and breakdown in murine C2C12 myotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamolrat, Torkamol [Musculoskeletal Research Programme, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom); Gray, Stuart R., E-mail: s.r.gray@abdn.ac.uk [Musculoskeletal Research Programme, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom)

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► EPA can enhance protein synthesis and retard protein breakdown in muscle cells. ► These effects were concurrent with increases in p70s6k and FOXO3a phosphorylation. ► EPA may be a useful tool in the treatment of muscle wasting conditions. -- Abstract: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been found to stimulate protein synthesis with little information regarding their effects on protein breakdown. Furthermore whether there are distinct effects of EPA and DHA remains to be established. The aim of the current study was to determine the distinct effects of EPA and DHA on protein synthesis, protein breakdown and signalling pathways in C2C12 myotubes. Fully differentiated C2C12 cells were incubated for 24 h with 0.1% ethanol (control), 50 μM EPA or 50 μM DHA prior to experimentation. After serum (4 h) and amino acid (1 h) starvation cells were stimulated with 2 mM L-leucine and protein synthesis measured using {sup 3}H-labelled phenylalanine. Protein breakdown was measured using {sup 3}H-labelled phenylalanine and signalling pathways (Akt, mTOR, p70S6k, 4EBP1, rps6 and FOXO3a) via Western blots. Data revealed that after incubation with EPA protein synthesis was 25% greater (P < 0.05) compared to control cells, with no effect of DHA. Protein breakdown was 22% (P < 0.05) lower, compared to control cells, after incubation with EPA, with no effect of DHA. Analysis of signalling pathways revealed that both EPA and DHA incubation increased (P < 0.05) p70s6k phosphorylation, EPA increased (P < 0.05) FOXO3a phosphorylation, with no alteration in other signalling proteins. The current study has demonstrated distinct effects of EPA and DHA on protein metabolism with EPA showing a greater ability to result in skeletal muscle protein accretion.

  2. Effective myotube formation in human adipose tissue-derived stem cells expressing dystrophin and myosin heavy chain by cellular fusion with mouse C2C12 myoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Young Woo [Cell Therapy and Tissue Engineering Center, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Institute, Lifeliver Co., Ltd., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Eun; Yang, Mal Sook; Jang, In Keun; Kim, Hyo Eun; Lee, Doo Hoon; Kim, Young Jin [Biomedical Research Institute, Lifeliver Co., Ltd., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won Jin [Dr. Park' s Aesthetic Clinic, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kong, Jee Hyun; Shim, Kwang Yong [Department of Hematology-Oncology, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong In, E-mail: oncochem@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Hematology-Oncology, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Soo, E-mail: khsmd@unitel.co.kr [Department of Hematology-Oncology, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} hASCs were differentiated into skeletal muscle cells by treatment with 5-azacytidine, FGF-2, and the supernatant of cultured hASCs. {yields} Dystrophin and MyHC were expressed in late differentiation step by treatment with the supernatant of cultured hASCs. {yields} hASCs expressing dystrophin and MyHC contributed to myotube formation during co-culture with mouse myoblast C2C12 cells. -- Abstract: Stem cell therapy for muscular dystrophies requires stem cells that are able to participate in the formation of new muscle fibers. However, the differentiation steps that are the most critical for this process are not clear. We investigated the myogenic phases of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASCs) step by step and the capability of myotube formation according to the differentiation phase by cellular fusion with mouse myoblast C2C12 cells. In hASCs treated with 5-azacytidine and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) for 1 day, the early differentiation step to express MyoD and myogenin was induced by FGF-2 treatment for 6 days. Dystrophin and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression was induced by hASC conditioned medium in the late differentiation step. Myotubes were observed only in hASCs undergoing the late differentiation step by cellular fusion with C2C12 cells. In contrast, hASCs that were normal or in the early stage were not involved in myotube formation. Our results indicate that stem cells expressing dystrophin and MyHC are more suitable for myotube formation by co-culture with myoblasts than normal or early differentiated stem cells expressing MyoD and myogenin.

  3. Effective myotube formation in human adipose tissue-derived stem cells expressing dystrophin and myosin heavy chain by cellular fusion with mouse C2C12 myoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Young Woo; Lee, Jong Eun; Yang, Mal Sook; Jang, In Keun; Kim, Hyo Eun; Lee, Doo Hoon; Kim, Young Jin; Park, Won Jin; Kong, Jee Hyun; Shim, Kwang Yong; Lee, Jong In; Kim, Hyun Soo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → hASCs were differentiated into skeletal muscle cells by treatment with 5-azacytidine, FGF-2, and the supernatant of cultured hASCs. → Dystrophin and MyHC were expressed in late differentiation step by treatment with the supernatant of cultured hASCs. → hASCs expressing dystrophin and MyHC contributed to myotube formation during co-culture with mouse myoblast C2C12 cells. -- Abstract: Stem cell therapy for muscular dystrophies requires stem cells that are able to participate in the formation of new muscle fibers. However, the differentiation steps that are the most critical for this process are not clear. We investigated the myogenic phases of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASCs) step by step and the capability of myotube formation according to the differentiation phase by cellular fusion with mouse myoblast C2C12 cells. In hASCs treated with 5-azacytidine and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) for 1 day, the early differentiation step to express MyoD and myogenin was induced by FGF-2 treatment for 6 days. Dystrophin and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression was induced by hASC conditioned medium in the late differentiation step. Myotubes were observed only in hASCs undergoing the late differentiation step by cellular fusion with C2C12 cells. In contrast, hASCs that were normal or in the early stage were not involved in myotube formation. Our results indicate that stem cells expressing dystrophin and MyHC are more suitable for myotube formation by co-culture with myoblasts than normal or early differentiated stem cells expressing MyoD and myogenin.

  4. Photobiomodulation Protects and Promotes Differentiation of C2C12 Myoblast Cells Exposed to Snake Venom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Miato Gonçalves Silva

    Full Text Available Snakebites is a neglected disease and in Brazil is considered a serious health problem, with the majority of the snakebites caused by the genus Bothrops. Antivenom therapy and other first-aid treatments do not reverse local myonecrose which is the main sequel caused by the envenomation. Several studies have shown the effectiveness of low level laser (LLL therapy in reducing local myonecrosis induced by Bothropic venoms, however the mechanism involved in this effect is unknown. In this in vitro study, we aimed to analyze the effect of LLL irradiation against cytotoxicity induced by Bothrops jararacussu venom on myoblast C2C12 cells.C2C12 were utilized as a model target and were incubated with B. jararacussu venom (12.5 μg/mL and immediately irradiated with LLL at wavelength of red 685 nm or infrared 830 nm with energy density of 2.0, 4.6 and 7.0 J/cm2. Effects of LLL on cellular responses of venom-induced cytotoxicity were examined, including cell viability, measurement of cell damage and intra and extracellular ATP levels, expression of myogenic regulatory factors, as well as cellular differentiation.In non-irradiated cells, the venom caused a decrease in cell viability and a massive release of LDH and CK levels indicating myonecrosis. Infrared and red laser at all energy densities were able to considerably decrease venom-induced cytotoxicity. Laser irradiation induced myoblasts to differentiate into myotubes and this effect was accompanied by up regulation of MyoD and specially myogenin. Moreover, LLL was able to reduce the extracellular while increased the intracellular ATP content after venom exposure. In addition, no difference in the intensity of cytotoxicity was shown by non-irradiated and irradiated venom.LLL irradiation caused a protective effect on C2C12 cells against the cytotoxicity caused by B. jararacussu venom and promotes differentiation of these cells by up regulation of myogenic factors. A modulatory effect of ATP synthesis may

  5. Ndrg2 is a PGC-1α/ERRα target gene that controls protein synthesis and expression of contractile-type genes in C2C12 myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foletta, Victoria C; Brown, Erin L; Cho, Yoshitake; Snow, Rod J; Kralli, Anastasia; Russell, Aaron P

    2013-12-01

    The stress-responsive, tumor suppressor N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (Ndrg2) is highly expressed in striated muscle. In response to anabolic and catabolic signals, Ndrg2 is suppressed and induced, respectively, in mouse C2C12 myotubes. However, little is known about the mechanisms regulating Ndrg2 expression in muscle, as well as the biological role for Ndrg2 in differentiated myotubes. Here, we show that Ndrg2 is a target of a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα) transcriptional program and is induced in response to endurance exercise, a physiological stress known also to increase PGC-1α/ERRα activity. Analyses of global gene and protein expression profiles in C2C12 myotubes with reduced levels of NDRG2, suggest that NDRG2 affects muscle growth, contractile properties, MAPK signaling, ion and vesicle transport and oxidative phosphorylation. Indeed, suppression of NDRG2 in myotubes increased protein synthesis and the expression of fast glycolytic myosin heavy chain isoforms, while reducing the expression of embryonic myosin Myh3, other contractile-associated genes and the MAPK p90 RSK1. Conversely, enhanced expression of NDRG2 reduced protein synthesis, and furthermore, partially blocked the increased protein synthesis rates elicited by a constitutively active form of ERRα. In contrast, suppressing or increasing levels of NDRG2 did not affect mRNA expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis that are regulated by PGC-1α or ERRα. This study shows that in C2C12 myotubes Ndrg2 is a novel PGC-1α/ERRα transcriptional target, which influences protein turnover and the regulation of genes involved in muscle contraction and function. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Metabolic profiling of heat or anoxic stress in mouse C2C12 myotubes using multinuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straadt, Ida K; Young, Jette F; Petersen, Bent O

    2010-01-01

    to anaerobic metabolism due to inhibition of the aerobic pathway in the mitochondria. Conversely, lower levels of unlabeled ((12)C) lactate were apparent at increasing severity of stress, which indicate that lactate is released from the myotubes to the medium. In conclusion, the metabolites identified......In the present study, the metabolic effects of heat and anoxic stress in myotubes from the mouse cell line C2C12 were investigated by using a combination of (13)C, (1)H, and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and enrichment with [(13)C]-glucose. Both the (13)C and the (1)H NMR...... spectra showed reduced levels of the amino acids alanine, glutamate, and aspartate after heat or anoxic stress. The decreases were smallest at 42 degrees C, larger at 45 degrees C, and most pronounced after anoxic conditions. In addition, in both the (1)H and the (31)P NMR spectra, decreases in the high...

  7. Dehydroepiandrosterone activates AMP kinase and regulates GLUT4 and PGC-1α expression in C2C12 myotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokokawa, Takumi [Laboratory of Sports and Exercise Medicine, Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Sato, Koji [Graduate School of Sport & Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga (Japan); Iwanaka, Nobumasa [The Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga (Japan); Honda, Hiroki [Graduate School of Sport & Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga (Japan); Higashida, Kazuhiko [Faculty of Sport Science, Waseda University, Saitama (Japan); Iemitsu, Motoyuki [Graduate School of Sport & Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga (Japan); Hayashi, Tatsuya [Laboratory of Sports and Exercise Medicine, Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Hashimoto, Takeshi, E-mail: thashimo@fc.ritsumei.ac.jp [Graduate School of Sport & Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga (Japan)

    2015-07-17

    Exercise and caloric restriction (CR) have been reported to have anti-ageing, anti-obesity, and health-promoting effects. Both interventions increase the level of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in muscle and blood, suggesting that DHEA might partially mediate these effects. In addition, it is thought that either 5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) mediates the beneficial effects of exercise and CR. However, the effects of DHEA on AMPK activity and PGC-1α expression remain unclear. Therefore, we explored whether DHEA in myotubes acts as an activator of AMPK and increases PGC-1α. DHEA exposure increased glucose uptake but not the phosphorylation levels of Akt and PKCζ/λ in C2C12 myotubes. In contrast, the phosphorylation levels of AMPK were elevated by DHEA exposure. Finally, we found that DHEA induced the expression of the genes PGC-1α and GLUT4. Our current results might reveal a previously unrecognized physiological role of DHEA; the activation of AMPK and the induction of PGC-1α by DHEA might mediate its anti-obesity and health-promoting effects in living organisms. - Highlights: • We assessed whether dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) activates AMPK and PGC-1α. • DHEA exposure increased glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes. • The phosphorylation levels of AMPK were elevated by DHEA exposure. • DHEA induced the expression of the genes PGC-1α and GLUT4. • AMPK might mediate the anti-obesity and health-promoting effects of DHEA.

  8. Dehydroepiandrosterone activates AMP kinase and regulates GLUT4 and PGC-1α expression in C2C12 myotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokokawa, Takumi; Sato, Koji; Iwanaka, Nobumasa; Honda, Hiroki; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Exercise and caloric restriction (CR) have been reported to have anti-ageing, anti-obesity, and health-promoting effects. Both interventions increase the level of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in muscle and blood, suggesting that DHEA might partially mediate these effects. In addition, it is thought that either 5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) mediates the beneficial effects of exercise and CR. However, the effects of DHEA on AMPK activity and PGC-1α expression remain unclear. Therefore, we explored whether DHEA in myotubes acts as an activator of AMPK and increases PGC-1α. DHEA exposure increased glucose uptake but not the phosphorylation levels of Akt and PKCζ/λ in C2C12 myotubes. In contrast, the phosphorylation levels of AMPK were elevated by DHEA exposure. Finally, we found that DHEA induced the expression of the genes PGC-1α and GLUT4. Our current results might reveal a previously unrecognized physiological role of DHEA; the activation of AMPK and the induction of PGC-1α by DHEA might mediate its anti-obesity and health-promoting effects in living organisms. - Highlights: • We assessed whether dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) activates AMPK and PGC-1α. • DHEA exposure increased glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes. • The phosphorylation levels of AMPK were elevated by DHEA exposure. • DHEA induced the expression of the genes PGC-1α and GLUT4. • AMPK might mediate the anti-obesity and health-promoting effects of DHEA

  9. BAMBI Promotes C2C12 Myogenic Differentiation by Enhancing Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiangling Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenic protein and activin membrane-bound inhibitor (BAMBI is regarded as an essential regulator of cell proliferation and differentiation that represses transforming growth factor-β and enhances Wnt/β-catenin signaling in various cell types. However, its role in skeletal muscle remains largely unknown. In the current study, we found that the expression level of BAMBI peaked in the early differentiation phase of the C2C12 rodent myoblast cell line. Knockdown of BAMBI via siRNA inhibited C2C12 differentiation, indicated by repressed MyoD, MyoG, and MyHC expression as well as reductions in the differentiation and fusion indices. BAMBI knockdown reduced the activity of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, as characterized by the decreased nuclear translocation of β-catenin and the lowered transcription of Axin2, which is a well-documented target gene of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Furthermore, treatment with LiCl, an activator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, rescued the reduction in C2C12 differentiation caused by BAMBI siRNA. Taken together, our data suggest that BAMBI is required for normal C2C12 differentiation, and that its role in myogenesis is mediated by the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

  10. Astragalus Polysaccharide Improves Palmitate-Induced Insulin Resistance by Inhibiting PTP1B and NF-κB in C2C12 Myotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS on palmitate-induced insulin resistance in C2C12 skeletal muscle myotubes. Palmitate-reduced glucose uptake was restored by APS. APS prevented palmitate-induced C2C12 myotubes from impaired insulin signaling by inhibiting Ser307 phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1 and increasing Ser473 phosphorylation of Akt. Moreover, the increases in protein-tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B protein level and NF-κB activation associated with palmitate treatment were also prevented by APS. However the treatment with APS didn’t change AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activation in palmitate-induced myotubes. The results of the present study suggest that Astragalus polysaccharide inhibits palmitate-induced insulin resistance in C2C12 myotubes by inhibiting expression of PTP1B and regulating NF-κB but not AMPK pathway.

  11. Hypomorphic Smn knockdown C2C12 myoblasts reveal intrinsic defects in myoblast fusion and myotube morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafey, Dina; Cote, Patrice D.; Kothary, Rashmi

    2005-01-01

    Dosage of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein has been directly correlated with the severity of disease in patients diagnosed with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). It is also clear that SMA is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the degeneration of the α-motor neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord and atrophy of the associated skeletal muscle. What is more controversial is whether it is neuronal and/or muscle-cell-autonomous defects that are responsible for the disease per se. Although motor neuron degeneration is generally accepted as the primary event in SMA, intrinsic muscle defects in this disease have not been ruled out. To gain a better understanding of the influence of SMN protein dosage in muscle, we have generated a hypomorphic series of myoblast (C2C12) stable cell lines with variable Smn knockdown. We show that depletion of Smn in these cells resulted in a decrease in the number of nuclear 'gems' (gemini of coiled bodies), reduced proliferation with no increase in cell death, defects in myoblast fusion, and malformed myotubes. Importantly, the severity of these abnormalities is directly correlated with the decrease in Smn dosage. Taken together, our work supports the view that there is an intrinsic defect in skeletal muscle cells of SMA patients and that this defect contributes to the overall pathogenesis in this devastating disease

  12. Classification of C2C12 cells at differentiation by convolutional neural network of deep learning using phase contrast images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niioka, Hirohiko; Asatani, Satoshi; Yoshimura, Aina; Ohigashi, Hironori; Tagawa, Seiichi; Miyake, Jun

    2018-01-01

    In the field of regenerative medicine, tremendous numbers of cells are necessary for tissue/organ regeneration. Today automatic cell-culturing system has been developed. The next step is constructing a non-invasive method to monitor the conditions of cells automatically. As an image analysis method, convolutional neural network (CNN), one of the deep learning method, is approaching human recognition level. We constructed and applied the CNN algorithm for automatic cellular differentiation recognition of myogenic C2C12 cell line. Phase-contrast images of cultured C2C12 are prepared as input dataset. In differentiation process from myoblasts to myotubes, cellular morphology changes from round shape to elongated tubular shape due to fusion of the cells. CNN abstract the features of the shape of the cells and classify the cells depending on the culturing days from when differentiation is induced. Changes in cellular shape depending on the number of days of culture (Day 0, Day 3, Day 6) are classified with 91.3% accuracy. Image analysis with CNN has a potential to realize regenerative medicine industry.

  13. Recombinant myostatin reduces highly expressed microRNAs in differentiating C2C12 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary A. Graham

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Myostatin is small glycopeptide that is produced and secreted by skeletal muscle. It is a potent negative regulator of muscle growth that has been associated with conditions of frailty. In C2C12 cells, myostatin limits cell differentiation. Myostatin acts through activin receptor IIB, activin receptor-like kinase (ALK and Smad transcription factors. microRNAs (miRNA are short, 22 base pair nucleotides that bind to the 3′ UTR of target mRNA to repress translation or reduce mRNA stability. In the present study, expression in differentiating C2C12 cells of the myomiRs miR-1 and 133a were down-regulated following treatment with 1 µg of recombinant myostatin at 1 d post-induction of differentiation while all myomiRs (miR-1, 133a/b and 206 were upregulated by SB431542, a potent ALK4/5/7 inhibitor which reduces Smad2 signaling, at 1 d and all, with the exception of miR-206, were upregulated by SB431542 at 3 d. The expression of the muscle-enriched miR-486 was greater following treatment with SB431542 but not altered by myostatin. Other highly expressed miRNAs in skeletal muscle, miR-23a/b and 145, were altered only at 1 d post-induction of differentiation. miR-27b responded differently to treatments at 1 d, where it was upregulated, as compared to 3 d, where it was downregulated. Neither myostatin nor SB431542 altered cell size or cell morphology. The data indicate that myostatin represses myomiR expression in differentiating C2C12 cells and that inhibition of Smad signaling with SB431542 can result in large changes in highly expressed miRNAs in differentiating myoblasts.

  14. BPN, a marine-derived PTP1B inhibitor, activates insulin signaling and improves insulin resistance in C2C12 myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi; Luo, Jiao; Wu, Ning; Zhang, Renshuai; Shi, Dayong

    2018-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a key feature of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is characterized by defects in insulin signaling. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a major negative regulator of insulin signaling cascade and has attracted intensive investigation in recent T2DM therapy study. BPN, a marine-derived bromophenol compound, was isolated from the red alga Rhodomela confervoides. This study investigated the effects of BPN on the insulin signaling pathway in insulin-resistant C2C12 myotubes by inhibiting PTP1B. Molecular docking study and analysis of small- molecule interaction with PTP1B all showed BPN inhibited PTP1B activity via binding to the catalytic site through hydrogen bonds. We then found that BPN permeated into C2C12 myotubes, on the one hand, activated insulin signaling in an insulin-independent manner in C2C12 cells; on the other hand, ameliorated palmitate-induced insulin resistance through augmenting insulin sensitivity. Moreover, our studies also showed that PTP1B inhibition by BPN increased glucose uptake in normal and insulin-resistant C2C12 myotubes through glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation. Taken together, BPN activates insulin signaling and alleviates insulin resistance and represents a potential candidate for further development as an antidiabetic agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Amino acids and insulin act additively to regulate components of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in C2C12 myotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomax Michael A

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ubiquitin-proteasome system is the predominant pathway for myofibrillar proteolysis but a previous study in C2C12 myotubes only observed alterations in lysosome-dependent proteolysis in response to complete starvation of amino acids or leucine from the media. Here, we determined the interaction between insulin and amino acids in the regulation of myotube proteolysis Results Incubation of C2C12 myotubes with 0.2 × physiological amino acids concentration (0.2 × PC AA, relative to 1.0 × PC AA, significantly increased total proteolysis and the expression of 14-kDa E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (p Conclusion In a C2C12 myotube model of myofibrillar protein turnover, amino acid limitation increases proteolysis in a ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent manner. Increasing amino acids or leucine alone, act additively with insulin to down regulate proteolysis and expression of components of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. The effects of amino acids on proteolysis but not insulin and leucine, are blocked by inhibition of the mTOR signalling pathway.

  16. Expressional studies of the aldehyde oxidase (AOX1) gene during myogenic differentiation in C2C12 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamli, Majid Rasool; Kim, Jihoe; Pokharel, Smritee; Jan, Arif Tasleem [School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Ju [School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Bovine Genome Resources Bank, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Inho, E-mail: inhochoi@ynu.ac.kr [School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Bovine Genome Resources Bank, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • AOX1 contributes to the formation of myotube. • Silencing of AOX1 reduces myotube formation. • AOX1 regulates MyoG gene expression. • AOX1 contributes to myogenesis via H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. - Abstract: Aldehyde oxidases (AOXs), which catalyze the hydroxylation of heterocycles and oxidation of a wide variety of aldehydic compounds, have been present throughout evolution from bacteria to humans. While humans have only a single functional aldehyde oxidase (AOX1) gene, rodents are endowed with four AOXs; AOX1 and three aldehyde oxidase homologs (AOH1, AOH2 and AOH3). In continuation of our previous study conducted to identify genes differentially expressed during myogenesis using a microarray approach, we investigated AOX1 with respect to its role in myogenesis to conceptualize how it is regulated in C2C12 cells. The results obtained were validated by silencing of the AOX1 gene. Analysis of their fusion index revealed that formation of myotubes showed a marked reduction of up to 40% in AOX1{sub kd} cells. Expression of myogenin (MYOG), one of the marker genes used to study myogenesis, was also found to be reduced in AOX1{sub kd} cells. AOX1 is an enzyme of pharmacological and toxicological importance that metabolizes numerous xenobiotics to their respective carboxylic acids. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) produced as a by-product in this reaction is considered to be involved as a part of the signaling mechanism during differentiation. An observed reduction in the level of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} among AOX1{sub kd} cells confirmed production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the reaction catalyzed by AOX1. Taken together, these findings suggest that AOX1 acts as a contributor to the process of myogenesis by influencing the level of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  17. Oxidative stress-induced metabolic changes in mouse C2C12 myotubes studied with high-resolution 13C, 1H, and 31P NMR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straadt, Ida K; Young, Jette F; Petersen, Bent O

    2010-01-01

    In this study, stress in relation to slaughter was investigated in a model system by the use of (13)C, (1)H, and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for elucidating changes in the metabolites in C2C12 myotubes exposed to H(2)O(2)-induced stress. Oxidative stress resulted in lower...... to lower levels of the unlabeled ((12)C) lactate were identified in the (1)H spectra after stress exposure. These data indicate an increase in de novo synthesis of alanine, concomitant with a release of lactate from the myotubes to the medium at oxidative stress conditions. The changes in the metabolite...

  18. Actin-associated protein palladin is required for migration behavior and differentiation potential of C2C12 myoblast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Uyen Nhi; Liang, Vincent Roderick; Wang, Hao-Ven, E-mail: hvwang@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • Palladin is involved in myogenesis in vitro. • Palladin knockdown by siRNA increases myoblast proliferation, viability and differentiation. • Palladin knockdown decreases C2C12 myoblast migration ability. - Abstract: The actin-associated protein palladin has been shown to be involved in differentiation processes in non-muscle tissues. However, but its function in skeletal muscle has rarely been studied. Palladin plays important roles in the regulation of diverse actin-related signaling in a number of cell types. Since intact actin-cytoskeletal remodeling is necessary for myogenesis, in the present study, we pursue to investigate the role of actin-associated palladin in skeletal muscle differentiation. Palladin in C2C12 myoblasts is knocked-down using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). The results show that down-regulation of palladin decreased migratory activity of mouse skeletal muscle C2C12 myoblasts. Furthermore, the depletion of palladin enhances C2C12 vitality and proliferation. Of note, the loss of palladin promotes C2C12 to express the myosin heavy chain, suggesting that palladin has a role in the modulation of C2C12 differentiation. It is thus proposed that palladin is required for normal C2C12 myogenesis in vitro.

  19. Actin-associated protein palladin is required for migration behavior and differentiation potential of C2C12 myoblast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Uyen Nhi; Liang, Vincent Roderick; Wang, Hao-Ven

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Palladin is involved in myogenesis in vitro. • Palladin knockdown by siRNA increases myoblast proliferation, viability and differentiation. • Palladin knockdown decreases C2C12 myoblast migration ability. - Abstract: The actin-associated protein palladin has been shown to be involved in differentiation processes in non-muscle tissues. However, but its function in skeletal muscle has rarely been studied. Palladin plays important roles in the regulation of diverse actin-related signaling in a number of cell types. Since intact actin-cytoskeletal remodeling is necessary for myogenesis, in the present study, we pursue to investigate the role of actin-associated palladin in skeletal muscle differentiation. Palladin in C2C12 myoblasts is knocked-down using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). The results show that down-regulation of palladin decreased migratory activity of mouse skeletal muscle C2C12 myoblasts. Furthermore, the depletion of palladin enhances C2C12 vitality and proliferation. Of note, the loss of palladin promotes C2C12 to express the myosin heavy chain, suggesting that palladin has a role in the modulation of C2C12 differentiation. It is thus proposed that palladin is required for normal C2C12 myogenesis in vitro

  20. MicroRNA, miR-374b, directly targets Myf6 and negatively regulates C2C12 myoblasts differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhiyuan; Sun, Xiaorui; Xu, Dequan; Xiong, Yuanzhu; Zuo, Bo, E-mail: zuobo@mail.hzau.edu.cn

    2015-11-27

    Myogenesis is a complex process including myoblast proliferation, differentiation and myotube formation and is controlled by myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs), MyoD, MyoG, Myf5 and Myf6 (also known as MRF4). MicroRNA is a kind of ∼22 nt-long non-coding small RNAs, and act as key transcriptional or post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Identification of miRNAs involved in the regulation of muscle genes could improve our understanding of myogenesis process. In this study, we investigated the regulation of Myf6 gene by miRNAs. We showed that miR-374b specifically bound to the 3'untranslated region (UTR) of Myf6 and down-regulated the expression of Myf6 gene at both mRNA and protein level. Furthermore, miR-374b is ubiquitously expressed in the tissues of adult C57BL6 mouse, and the mRNA abundance increases first and then decreases during C2C12 myoblasts differentiation. Over-expression of miR-374b impaired C2C12 cell differentiation, while inhibiting miR-374b expression by 2′-O-methyl antisense oligonucleotides promoted C2C12 cell differentiation. Taken together, our findings identified miR-374b directly targets Myf6 and negatively regulates myogenesis. - Highlights: • MiR-374b directly targets 3′UTR of Myf6. • MiR-374b negatively regulates Myf6 in C2C12 cells. • MiR-374b abundance significiently changes during C2C12 cells differentiation. • MiR-374b negatively regulates C2C12 cells differentiation.

  1. Hes6 is required for actin cytoskeletal organization in differentiating C2C12 myoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, Caroline M.P.; Domaschenz, Renae; Amagase, Yoko [MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research Centre, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0XZ (United Kingdom); Dunham, Ian [EMBL-European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI), Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD (United Kingdom); Murai, Kasumi [MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research Centre, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0XZ (United Kingdom); Jones, Philip H., E-mail: phj20@cam.ac.uk [MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research Centre, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0XZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    Hes6 is a member of the hairy-enhancer-of-split family of transcription factors that regulate proliferating cell fate in development and is known to be expressed in developing muscle. Here we investigate its function in myogenesis in vitro. We show that Hes6 is a direct transcriptional target of the myogenic transcription factors MyoD and Myf5, indicating that it is integral to the myogenic transcriptional program. The localization of Hes6 protein changes during differentiation, becoming predominantly nuclear. Knockdown of Hes6 mRNA levels by siRNA has no effect on cell cycle exit or induction of myosin heavy chain expression in differentiating C2C12 myoblasts, but F-actin filament formation is disrupted and both cell motility and myoblast fusion are reduced. The knockdown phenotype is rescued by expression of Hes6 cDNA resistant to siRNA. These results define a novel role for Hes6 in actin cytoskeletal dynamics in post mitotic myoblasts.

  2. Hes6 is required for actin cytoskeletal organization in differentiating C2C12 myoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, Caroline M.P.; Domaschenz, Renae; Amagase, Yoko; Dunham, Ian; Murai, Kasumi; Jones, Philip H.

    2011-01-01

    Hes6 is a member of the hairy-enhancer-of-split family of transcription factors that regulate proliferating cell fate in development and is known to be expressed in developing muscle. Here we investigate its function in myogenesis in vitro. We show that Hes6 is a direct transcriptional target of the myogenic transcription factors MyoD and Myf5, indicating that it is integral to the myogenic transcriptional program. The localization of Hes6 protein changes during differentiation, becoming predominantly nuclear. Knockdown of Hes6 mRNA levels by siRNA has no effect on cell cycle exit or induction of myosin heavy chain expression in differentiating C2C12 myoblasts, but F-actin filament formation is disrupted and both cell motility and myoblast fusion are reduced. The knockdown phenotype is rescued by expression of Hes6 cDNA resistant to siRNA. These results define a novel role for Hes6 in actin cytoskeletal dynamics in post mitotic myoblasts.

  3. Mitophagy is required for mitochondrial biogenesis and myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Jon; Andres, Allen M; Taylor, David J R; Weston, Thomas; Hiraumi, Yoshimi; Stotland, Aleksandr; Kim, Brandon J; Huang, Chengqun; Doran, Kelly S; Gottlieb, Roberta A

    2016-01-01

    Myogenesis is a crucial process governing skeletal muscle development and homeostasis. Differentiation of primitive myoblasts into mature myotubes requires a metabolic switch to support the increased energetic demand of contractile muscle. Skeletal myoblasts specifically shift from a highly glycolytic state to relying predominantly on oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) upon differentiation. We have found that this phenomenon requires dramatic remodeling of the mitochondrial network involving both mitochondrial clearance and biogenesis. During early myogenic differentiation, autophagy is robustly upregulated and this coincides with DNM1L/DRP1 (dynamin 1-like)-mediated fragmentation and subsequent removal of mitochondria via SQSTM1 (sequestosome 1)-mediated mitophagy. Mitochondria are then repopulated via PPARGC1A/PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha)-mediated biogenesis. Mitochondrial fusion protein OPA1 (optic atrophy 1 [autosomal dominant]) is then briskly upregulated, resulting in the reformation of mitochondrial networks. The final product is a myotube replete with new mitochondria. Respirometry reveals that the constituents of these newly established mitochondrial networks are better primed for OXPHOS and are more tightly coupled than those in myoblasts. Additionally, we have found that suppressing autophagy with various inhibitors during differentiation interferes with myogenic differentiation. Together these data highlight the integral role of autophagy and mitophagy in myogenic differentiation.

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF P2-PURINOCEPTOR MEDIATED CYCLIC-AMP FORMATION IN MOUSE C2C12 MYOTUBES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HENNING, RH; DUIN, M; DENHERTOG, A; NELEMANS, A

    1 The formation of adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) and inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3), induced by ATP and other nucleotides was investigated in mouse C2Cl2 myotubes. 2 ATP (100 muM) and ATPgammaS (100 muM) caused a sustained increase in cyclic AMP content of the cells,

  5. Investigation of interactions between poly-L-lysine-coated boron nitride nanotubes and C2C12 cells: up-take, cytocompatibility, and differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Ciofani

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available G Ciofani1, L Ricotti1, S Danti2,3, S Moscato4, C Nesti2, D D’Alessandro2,4, D Dinucci5, F Chiellini5, A Pietrabissa3, M Petrini2,3, A Menciassi1,61Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa, Italy; 2CUCCS-RRMR, Center for the Clinical Use of Stem Cells – Regional Network of Regenerative Medicine, 3Department of Oncology, Transplants and Advanced Technologies, 4Department of Human Morphology and Applied Biology, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; 5Laboratory of Bioactive Polymeric Materials for Biomedical and Environmental Applications (BIOlab, UdR INSTM, Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, University of Pisa, San Piero a Grado, Italy; 6Italian Institute of Technology, Genova, ItalyAbstract: Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs have generated considerable interest within the scientific community by virtue of their unique physical properties, which can be exploited in the biomedical field. In the present in vitro study, we investigated the interactions of poly-L-lysine-coated BNNTs with C2C12 cells, as a model of muscle cells, in terms of cytocompatibility and BNNT internalization. The latter was performed using both confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Finally, we investigated myoblast differentiation in the presence of BNNTs, evaluating the protein synthesis of differentiating cells, myotube formation, and expression of some constitutive myoblastic markers, such as MyoD and Cx43, by reverse transcription – polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. We demonstrated that BNNTs are highly internalized by C2C12 cells, with neither adversely affecting C2C12 myoblast viability nor significantly interfering with myotube formation.Keywords: boron nitride nanotubes, C2C12 cells, cytocompatibility, up-take, differentiation, MyoD, connexin 43

  6. Metabolic and morphological alterations induced by proteolysis-inducing factor from Walker tumour-bearing rats in C2C12 myotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Claudia L; Ventrucci, Gislaine; Field, William N; Tisdale, Michael J; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina C

    2008-01-01

    Patients with advanced cancer suffer from cachexia, which is characterised by a marked weight loss, and is invariably associated with the presence of tumoral and humoral factors which are mainly responsible for the depletion of fat stores and muscular tissue. In this work, we used cytotoxicity and enzymatic assays and morphological analysis to examine the effects of a proteolysis-inducing factor (PIF)-like molecule purified from ascitic fluid of Walker tumour-bearing rats (WF), which has been suggested to be responsible for muscle atrophy, on cultured C 2 C 12 muscle cells. WF decreased the viability of C 2 C 12 myotubes, especially at concentrations of 20–25 μg.mL -1 . There was an increase in the content of the pro-oxidant malondialdehyde, and a decrease in antioxidant enzyme activity. Myotubes protein synthesis decreased and protein degradation increased together with an enhanced in the chymotrypsin-like enzyme activity, a measure of functional proteasome activity, after treatment with WF. Morphological alterations such as cell retraction and the presence of numerous cells in suspension were observed, particularly at high WF concentrations. These results indicate that WF has similar effects to those of proteolysis-inducing factor, but is less potent than the latter. Further studies are required to determine the precise role of WF in this experimental model

  7. Metabolic and morphological alterations induced by proteolysis-inducing factor from Walker tumour-bearing rats in C2C12 myotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tisdale Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with advanced cancer suffer from cachexia, which is characterised by a marked weight loss, and is invariably associated with the presence of tumoral and humoral factors which are mainly responsible for the depletion of fat stores and muscular tissue. Methods In this work, we used cytotoxicity and enzymatic assays and morphological analysis to examine the effects of a proteolysis-inducing factor (PIF-like molecule purified from ascitic fluid of Walker tumour-bearing rats (WF, which has been suggested to be responsible for muscle atrophy, on cultured C2C12 muscle cells. Results WF decreased the viability of C2C12 myotubes, especially at concentrations of 20–25 μg.mL-1. There was an increase in the content of the pro-oxidant malondialdehyde, and a decrease in antioxidant enzyme activity. Myotubes protein synthesis decreased and protein degradation increased together with an enhanced in the chymotrypsin-like enzyme activity, a measure of functional proteasome activity, after treatment with WF. Morphological alterations such as cell retraction and the presence of numerous cells in suspension were observed, particularly at high WF concentrations. Conclusion These results indicate that WF has similar effects to those of proteolysis-inducing factor, but is less potent than the latter. Further studies are required to determine the precise role of WF in this experimental model.

  8. MiRNA-199a-3p Regulates C2C12 Myoblast Differentiation through IGF-1/AKT/mTOR Signal Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Jia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs constitute a class of ~22-nucleotide non-coding RNAs. They modulate gene expression by associating with the 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs of messenger RNAs (mRNAs. Although multiple miRNAs are known to be regulated during myoblast differentiation, their individual roles in muscle development are still not fully understood. In this study, we showed that miR-199a-3p was highly expressed in skeletal muscle and was induced during C2C12 myoblasts differentiation. We also identified and confirmed several genes of the IGF-1/AKT/mTOR signal pathway, including IGF-1, mTOR, and RPS6KA6, as important cellular targets of miR-199a-3p in myoblasts. Overexpression of miR-199a-3p partially blocked C2C12 myoblast differentiation and the activation of AKT/mTOR signal pathway, while interference of miR-199a-3p by antisense oligonucleotides promoted C2C12 differentiation and myotube hypertrophy. Thus, our studies have established miR-199a-3p as a potential regulator of myogenesis through the suppression of IGF-1/AKT/mTOR signal pathway.

  9. Wnt/β-catenin signaling changes C2C12 myoblast proliferation and differentiation by inducing Id3 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Long; Shi, Songting; Zhang, Juan; Zhou, Fangfang; Dijke, Peter ten

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Expression of Id3 but not Id1 is induced by Wnt3a stimulation in C2C12 cells. ► Wnt3a induces Id3 expression via canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway. ► Wnt3a-induced Id3 expression does not depend on BMP signaling activation. ► Induction of Id3 expression is critical determinant in Wnt3a-induced cell proliferation and differentiation. -- Abstract: Canonical Wnt signaling plays important roles in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we report that inhibitor of differentiation (Id)3 is a Wnt-inducible gene in mouse C2C12 myoblasts. Wnt3a induced Id3 expression in a β-catenin-dependent manner. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) also potently induced Id3 expression. However, Wnt-induced Id3 expression occurred independent of the BMP/Smad pathway. Functional studies showed that Id3 depletion in C2C12 cells impaired Wnt3a-induced cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity, an early marker of osteoblast cells. Id3 depletion elevated myogenin induction during myogenic differentiation and partially impaired Wnt3a suppressed myogenin expression in C2C12 cells. These results suggest that Id3 is an important Wnt/β-catenin induced gene in myoblast cell fate determination.

  10. Serum Amyloid A Induces Toll-Like Receptor 2-Dependent Inflammatory Cytokine Expression and Atrophy in C2C12 Skeletal Muscle Myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Samantha L; Bozinovski, Steven; Vlahos, Ross; Anderson, Gary P; Hansen, Michelle J

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle wasting is an important comorbidity of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and is strongly correlated with morbidity and mortality. Patients who experience frequent acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) have more severe muscle wasting and reduced recovery of muscle mass and function after each exacerbation. Serum levels of the pro-inflammatory acute phase protein Serum Amyloid A (SAA) can rise more than 1000-fold in AECOPD and are predictively correlated with exacerbation severity. The direct effects of SAA on skeletal muscle are poorly understood. Here we have examined SAA effects on pro-inflammatory cachectic cytokine expression (IL-6 and TNFα) and atrophy in C2C12 myotubes. SAA increased IL-6 (31-fold) and TNFα (6.5-fold) mRNA levels compared to control untreated cells after 3h of SAA treatment, and increased secreted IL-6 protein at 24h. OxPAPC, a dual TLR2 and TLR4 inhibitor, reduced the response to SAA by approximately 84% compared to SAA alone, and the TLR2 neutralising antibody T2.5 abolished SAA-induced expression of IL-6, indicating that SAA signalling in C2C12 myotubes is primarily via TLR2. SAA also reduced myotube width by 10-13% and induced a 2.5-fold increase in the expression of the muscle atrophy gene Atrogin-1, suggesting direct effects of SAA on muscle wasting. Blocking of TLR2 inhibited the SAA-induced decrease in myotube width and Atrogin-1 gene expression, indicating that SAA induces atrophy through TLR2. These data demonstrate that SAA stimulates a robust pro-inflammatory response in skeletal muscle myotubes via the TLR2-dependent release of IL-6 and TNFα. Furthermore, the observed atrophy effects indicate that SAA could also be directly contributing to the wasting and poor recovery of muscle mass. Therapeutic strategies targeting this SAA-TLR2 axis may therefore ameliorate muscle wasting in AECOPD and a range of other inflammatory conditions associated with loss of muscle mass.

  11. Conditions Inducing Excessive O-GlcNAcylation Inhibit BMP2-Induced Osteogenic Differentiation of C2C12 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hanna; Song, Mina; Boonanantanasarn, Kanitsak; Baek, Kyunghwa; Woo, Kyung Mi; Ryoo, Hyun-Mo; Baek, Jeong-Hwa

    2018-01-09

    Hyperglycemic conditions in diabetic patients can affect various cellular functions, including the modulation of osteogenic differentiation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which hyperglycemia affects osteogenic differentiation are yet to be clarified. This study aimed to investigate whether the aberrant increase in protein O -linked-β- N -acetylglucosamine glycosylation ( O -GlcNAcylation) contributes to the suppression of osteogenic differentiation due to hyperglycemia. To induce osteogenic differentiation, C2C12 cells were cultured in the presence of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2). Excessive protein O -GlcNAcylation was induced by treating C2C12 cells with high glucose, glucosamine, or N -acetylglucosamine concentrations or by O -GlcNAc transferase (OGT) overexpression. The effect of O -GlcNAcylation on osteoblast differentiation was then confirmed by examining the expression levels of osteogenic marker gene mRNAs, activity of alkaline phosphatase, and transcriptional activity of Runx2, a critical transcription factor for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Cell treatment with high glucose, glucosamine or N -acetylglucosamine increased O -GlcNAcylation of Runx2 and the total levels of O -GlcNAcylated proteins, which led to a decrease in the transcriptional activity of Runx2, expression levels of osteogenic marker genes (Runx2, osterix, alkaline phosphatase, and type I collagen), and activity of alkaline phosphatase. These inhibitory effects were rescued by lowering protein O -GlcNAcylation levels by adding STO45849, an OGT inhibitor, or by overexpressing β- N -acetylglucosaminidase. Our findings suggest that excessive protein O -GlcNAcylation contributes to high glucose-suppressed osteogenic differentiation.

  12. Cyclic stretch induced miR-146a upregulation delays C2C12 myogenic differentiation through inhibition of Numb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang Wei; Tan Jiali; Duan Yinzhong; Duan Jianmin; Wang Weijian; Jin Fang; Jin Zuolin; Yuan Xiao; Liu Yanpu

    2009-01-01

    Proliferation and differentiation of muscle stem cells must be tightly regulated by intrinsic and extrinsic signals for effective regeneration and adaptive response. MicroRNAs have been implicated as potent regulators in diverse biological processes at the level of posttranscriptional repression. In this study, we found that miR-146a was significantly upregulated upon a 48-h cyclic stretch of 5% elongation/10cycles/min. Importantly, miR-146 was predicted to base-pair with sequences in the 3' UTR of Numb, which promotes satellite cell differentiation towards muscle cells by inhibiting Notch signaling. Through reporter assay and exogenous expression experiment, we confirmed Numb was inhibited by miR-146a. Inhibition of miR-146a by antago-miR-146a rescued the expression of Numb and facilitated the differentiation of C2C12 at a cost of compromised proliferation. Thus, for the first time, we propose a role of miR-146a in skewing the balance of muscle differentiation and proliferation through inhibiting the expression of Numb.

  13. Orosomucoid binds insulin and IGF1 and reduces hormone stimulated protein synthesis and glucose metabolism in C2C12 myotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research has indicated that orosomuciod (ORM1) may enhance insulin response in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The present study was undertaken to determine if ORM1 can modify muscle metabolism by examining glucose oxidation and protein synthesis in the C2C12 muscle cell line. Cells were used for expe...

  14. Zein nanoparticle as a novel BMP6 derived peptide carrier for enhanced osteogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadavi, Mahvash; Hasannia, Sadegh; Faghihi, Shahab; Mashayekhi, Farhad; Homazadeh, Homayoun; Mostofi, Seyed Behrooz

    2018-01-26

    Zein nanoparticles as a carrier system for BMP6-derived peptide were prepared by liquid-liquid phase separation procedure and characterized with SEM, DLS, FTIR and thermogravimetric methods. After peptide encapsulation, nanoparticle size increased from 236.3 ± 92.2 nm to 379.4 ± 116.8 nm. The encapsulation efficiency of peptide was 72.6% and the release of peptide from Zein nanoparticles was partly sustained in trypsin containing phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4) for up to 14 days. Peptide-loaded nanoparticles showed similar cell viability compared with blank ones. ALP activity of C2C12 cells treated with peptide-loaded nanoparticles (500 µg/mL) was evaluated 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after culture. In peptide-loaded nanoparticles, ALP activity was significantly higher (p < .05) compared with other groups at day 14. Alizarin Red S staining showed, C2C12 cells behind peptide-loaded nanoparticles had significantly (p < .05) higher calcium deposition at day 21. The results of RT-qPCR show that the BMP-6 peptide activated expression of RUNX2 as a transcription factor. In turn, RUNX2 regulates SPP1 and BGLAP gene expression, as osteogenic marker genes. The results confirm that the peptide-loaded Zein nanoparticles, as osteoinductive material, may be used to repair small area of bone defects, with low load bearing.

  15. Retinoid acid-induced microRNA-27b-3p impairs C2C12 myoblast proliferation and differentiation by suppressing α-dystrobrevin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Nan; Tang, Yi; Liu, Bo; Cong, Wei; Liu, Chao, E-mail: liuchao_19760711@yahoo.com; Xiao, Jing, E-mail: xiaoj@dmu.edu.cn

    2017-01-15

    We previously reported that excess retinoic acid (RA) resulted in hypoplastic and derangement of myofilaments in embryonic tongue by inhibiting myogenic proliferation and differentiation through CamKIID pathway. Our further studies revealed that the expression of a series of miRNAs was altered by RA administration in embryonic tongue as well as in C2C12 cells. Thus, if excess RA impairs myogenic proliferation and differentiation through miRNAs is taken into account. In present study, miR-27b-3p was found up-regulated in RA-treated C2C12 cells as in embryonic tongue, and predicted to target the 3′UTR of α-dystrobrevin (DTNA). Luciferase reporter assays confirmed the direct interaction between miR-27b-3p and the 3′UTR of DTNA. MiR-27b-3p mimics recapitulated the RA repression on DTNA expression, C2C12 proliferation and differentiation, while the miR-27b-3p inhibitor circumvented these defects resulting from excess RA. As expected, the effects of siDTNA on C2C12 were coincided with those by RA treatment or miR-27b-3p mimics. Therefore, these findings indicated that excess RA inhibited the myoblast proliferation and differentiation by up-regulating miR-27b-3p to target DTNA, which implied a new mechanism in myogenic hypoplasia. - Highlights: • A mechanism that RA results in tongue deformity by disrupting the myogenesis. • A non-muscle specific miR mediating the RA suppression on tongue myogenesis. • A target gene of non-muscle specific miR involved in RA induced tongue deformity.

  16. Induction of group VIA phospholipase A2 activity during in vitro ischemia in C2C12 myotubes is associated with changes in the level of its splice variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, K A; Petersen, Stine Helene Falsig; Kolko, M

    2007-01-01

    to catalytically inactive 50-kDa iPLA(2)-VIA-ankyrin variants previously identified in humans. Both the mRNA and protein levels of this approximately 50-kDa variant were reduced significantly within 1 h following OGD. In C2C12 myoblasts, iPLA(2)-VIA seemed to predominantly reside at the endoplasmatic reticulum......The involvement of group VI Ca(2+)-independent PLA(2)s (iPLA(2)-VI) in in vitro ischemia [oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD)] in mouse C2C12 myotubes was investigated. OGD induced a time-dependent (0-6 h) increase in bromoenol lactone (BEL)-sensitive iPLA(2) activity, which was suppressed...... by specific short interfering (si)RNA knockdown of iPLA(2)-VIA. OGD was associated with an increase in iPLA(2)-VIA protein levels, whereas mRNA levels were unchanged. The levels of iPLA(2)-VIB mRNA and protein were not increased by OGD. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis identified a mouse iPLA(2)-VIA homolog...

  17. Mechanical stimuli on C2C12 myoblasts affect myoblast differentiation, focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation and galectin-1 expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto Blak; Lametsch, Rene; Karlsson, Anders H

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical forces are crucial in the regulation of cell morphology and function. At the cellular level, these forces influence myoblast differentiation and fusion. In this study we applied mechanical stimuli to embryonic muscle cells using magnetic microbeads, a method shown to apply stress...... by mechanical stimulation including Galectin-1, Annexin III, and RhoGDI. In this study we demonstrate how the combination of this method of mechanical stimuli and proteomic analysis can be a powerful tool to detect proteins that are potentially interacting in biochemical pathways or complex cellular mechanisms...... during the process of myoblast differentiation. We determined an increase in expression and changes in cellular localization of Galectin-1, in mechanically stimulated myoblasts. A potential involvement of Galectin-1 in myoblast differentiation is presented....

  18. NEU3 sialidase strictly modulates GM3 levels in skeletal myoblasts C2C12 thus favoring their differentiation and protecting them from apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasia, Luigi; Papini, Nadia; Colazzo, Francesca; Palazzolo, Giacomo; Tringali, Cristina; Dileo, Loredana; Piccoli, Marco; Conforti, Erika; Sitzia, Clementina; Monti, Eugenio; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Tettamanti, Guido; Venerando, Bruno

    2008-12-26

    Membrane-bound sialidase NEU3, often referred to as the "ganglioside sialidase," has a critical regulatory function on the sialoglycosphingolipid pattern of the cell membrane, with an anti-apoptotic function, especially in cancer cells. Although other sialidases have been shown to be involved in skeletal muscle differentiation, the role of NEU3 had yet to be disclosed. Herein we report that NEU3 plays a key role in skeletal muscle differentiation by strictly modulating the ganglioside content of adjacent cells, with special regard to GM3. Induced down-regulation of NEU3 in murine C2C12 myoblasts, even when partial, totally inhibits their capability to differentiate by increasing the GM3 level above a critical point, which causes epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition (and ultimately its down-regulation) and an higher responsiveness of myoblasts to the apoptotic stimuli.

  19. Inhibiting c-Jun N-terminal kinase partially attenuates caffeine-dependent cell death without alleviating the caffeine-induced reduction in mitochondrial respiration in C2C12 skeletal myotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downs, R.M.; Hughes, M.A.; Kinsey, S.T.; Johnson, M.C.; Baumgarner, B.L.

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine is a widely consumed stimulant that has previously been shown to promote cytotoxic stress and even cell death in numerous mammalian cell lines. Thus far there is little information available regarding the toxicity of caffeine in skeletal muscle cells. Our preliminary data revealed that treating C2C12 myotubes with 5 mM caffeine for 6 h increased nuclear fragmentation and reduced basal and maximal oxygen consumption rate (OCR) in skeletal myotubes. The purpose of this study was to further elucidate the pathways by which caffeine increased cell death and reduced mitochondrial respiration. We specifically examined the role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which has previously been shown to simultaneously increase caspase-dependent cell death and reduce mitochondrial respiration in other mammalian cell lines. We found that caffeine promoted a dose-dependent increase in cell death in multinucleated myotubes but did not in mononucleated myoblasts. The addition of 10 μM Z-DEVD-FMK, a specific inhibitor of executioner caspases, completely inhibited caffeine-dependent cell death. Further, the addition of 400 μM dantrolene, a specific ryanodine receptor (RYR) inhibitor, prevented the caffeine-dependent increase in cell death and the reduction in basal and maximal OCR. We also discovered that caffeine treatment significantly increased the phosphorylation of JNK and that the addition of 30 μM SP600125 (JNKi), a specific JNK inhibitor, partially attenuated caffeine-induced cell death without preventing the caffeine-dependent reduction in basal and maximal OCR. Our results suggest that JNK partially mediates the increase in caspase-dependent cell death but does not contribute to reduced mitochondrial respiration in caffeine-treated skeletal muscle cells. We conclude that caffeine increased cell death and reduced mitochondrial respiration in a calcium-dependent manner by activating the RYR and promoting reticular calcium release. - Highlights: • Caffeine

  20. Vitamin C-linker-conjugated tripeptide AHK stimulates BMP-2-induced osteogenic differentiation of mouse myoblast C2C12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jung-Il; Park, Kyeong-Yong; Lee, Yura; Park, Mira; Kim, Jiyeon

    2018-03-15

    Vitamin C-linker-conjugated Ala-His-Lys tripeptide (Vit C-AHK) is a derivative of Vitamin C-conjugated tripeptides, which were originally developed as a component of a product for collagen synthesis enhancement or human dermal fibroblast growth. Here, we investigated the effect of Vit C-AHK on bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2-induced osteoblast differentiation in a cell culture model. Vit C-AHK enhanced proliferation of C2C12 cells and induction of BMP-2-induced alkaline phosphatase, a typical marker of osteoblast differentiation. Vit C-AHK also stimulated the phosphorylation and translocation of Smad1/5/8 to the nucleus and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) including ERK1/2 and p38. In addition, Vit C-AHK enhanced the BMP-2-induced mRNA expression of osteoblast differentiation-related genes such as ALP, BMP-2, Osteocalcin, and Runx2. Our results suggest that Vit C-AHK exerts an enhancing effect on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation through activation of Smad1/5/8 and MAPK ERK1/2 and p38 signaling and without significant cytotoxicity. These results provide important data for the development of peptide-based bone-regenerative agents and treatment of bone-related disorders. Copyright © 2018 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Lipopolysaccharide inhibits myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts through the Toll-like receptor 4-nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway and myoblast-derived tumor necrosis factor-α.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Ono

    Full Text Available Circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS concentrations are often elevated in patients with sepsis or with various endogenous diseases that are associated with metabolic endotoxemia. Involuntary loss of skeletal muscle, termed muscle wasting, is commonly observed in these conditions, suggesting that circulating LPS might play an essential role in its development. Although impairment of muscle regeneration is an important determinant of skeletal muscle wasting, it is unclear whether LPS affects this process and, if so, by what mechanism. Here, we used the C2C12 myoblast cell line to investigate the effects of LPS on myogenesis.C2C12 myoblasts were grown to 80% confluence and induced to differentiate in the absence or presence of LPS (0.1 or 1 μg/mL; TAK-242 (1 μM, a specific inhibitor of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 signaling; and a tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α neutralizing antibody (5 μg/mL. Expression of a skeletal muscle differentiation marker (myosin heavy chain II, two essential myogenic regulatory factors (myogenin and MyoD, and a muscle negative regulatory factor (myostatin was analyzed by western blotting. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB DNA-binding activity was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.LPS dose-dependently and significantly decreased the formation of multinucleated myotubes and the expression of myosin heavy chain II, myogenin, and MyoD, and increased NF-κB DNA-binding activity and myostatin expression. The inhibitory effect of LPS on myogenic differentiation was reversible, suggesting that it was not caused by nonspecific toxicity. Both TAK-242 and anti-TNF-α reduced the LPS-induced increase in NF-κB DNA-binding activity, downregulation of myogenic regulatory factors, and upregulation of myostatin, thereby partially rescuing the impairment of myogenesis.Our data suggest that LPS inhibits myogenic differentiation via a TLR4-NF-κB-dependent pathway and an autocrine/paracrine TNF-α-induced pathway. These pathways

  2. Quinoline compound KM11073 enhances BMP-2-dependent osteogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells via activation of p38 signaling and exhibits in vivo bone forming activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-hwa Baek

    Full Text Available Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2 has been approved by the FDA for clinical application, but its use is limited due to high cost and a supra-physiological dose for therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, recent studies have focused on the generation of new therapeutic small molecules to induce bone formation or potentiate the osteogenic activity of BMP-2. Here, we show that [4-(7-chloroquinolin-4-yl piperazino][1-phenyl-5-(trifluoromethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl]methanone (KM11073 strongly enhances the BMP-2-stimulated induction of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, an early phase biomarker of osteoblast differentiation, in bi-potential mesenchymal progenitor C2C12 cells. The KM11073-mediated ALP induction was inhibited by the BMP antagonist noggin, suggesting that its osteogenic activity occurs via BMP signaling. In addition, a pharmacological inhibition study suggested the involvement of p38 activation in the osteogenic action of KM11073 accompanied by enhanced expression of BMP-2, -6, and -7 mRNA. Furthermore, the in vivo osteogenic activity of KM11073 was confirmed in zebrafish and mouse calvarial bone formation models, suggesting the possibility of its single use for bone formation. In conclusion, the combination of rhBMP-2 with osteogenic small molecules could reduce the use of expensive rhBMP-2, mitigating the undesirable side effects of its supra-physiological dose for therapeutic efficacy. Moreover, due to their inherent physical properties, small molecules could represent the next generation of regenerative medicine.

  3. A new cell-based assay to evaluate myogenesis in mouse myoblast C2C12 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodaka, Manami [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Yang, Zeyu [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Ultrasound, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Nakagawa, Kentaro; Maruyama, Junichi [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Xu, Xiaoyin [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Breast Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou (China); Sarkar, Aradhan; Ichimura, Ayana [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Nasu, Yusuke [Department of Breast Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou (China); Ozawa, Takeaki [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Iwasa, Hiroaki [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Ishigami-Yuasa, Mari [Chemical Biology Screening Center, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Ito, Shigeru [Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Kagechika, Hiroyuki [Chemical Biology Screening Center, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); and others

    2015-08-15

    The development of the efficient screening system of detecting compounds that promote myogenesis and prevent muscle atrophy is important. Mouse C2C12 cells are widely used to evaluate myogenesis but the procedures of the assay are not simple and the quantification is not easy. We established C2C12 cells expressing the N-terminal green fluorescence protein (GFP) and the C-terminal GFP (GFP1–10 and GFP11 cells). GFP1–10 and GFP11 cells do not exhibit GFP signals until they are fused. The signal intensity correlates with the expression of myogenic markers and myofusion. Myogenesis-promoting reagents, such as insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) and β-guanidinopropionic acid (GPA), enhance the signals, whereas the poly-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-FMK, suppresses it. GFP signals are observed when myotubes formed by GFP1–10 cells are fused with single nuclear GFP11 cells, and enhanced by IGF1, GPA, and IBS008738, a recently-reported myogenesis-promoting reagent. Fusion between myotubes formed by GFP1–10 and GFP11 cells is associated with the appearance of GFP signals. IGF1 and GPA augment these signals, whereas NSC23766, Rac inhibitor, decreases them. The conditioned medium of cancer cells suppresses GFP signals during myogenesis and reduces the width of GFP-positive myotubes after differentiation. Thus the novel split GFP-based assay will provide the useful method for the study of myogenesis, myofusion, and atrophy. - Highlights: • C2C12 cells expressing split GFP proteins show GFP signals when mix-cultured. • The GFP signals correlate with myogenesis and myofusion. • The GFP signals attenuate under the condition that muscle atrophy is induced.

  4. A new cell-based assay to evaluate myogenesis in mouse myoblast C2C12 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodaka, Manami; Yang, Zeyu; Nakagawa, Kentaro; Maruyama, Junichi; Xu, Xiaoyin; Sarkar, Aradhan; Ichimura, Ayana; Nasu, Yusuke; Ozawa, Takeaki; Iwasa, Hiroaki; Ishigami-Yuasa, Mari; Ito, Shigeru; Kagechika, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The development of the efficient screening system of detecting compounds that promote myogenesis and prevent muscle atrophy is important. Mouse C2C12 cells are widely used to evaluate myogenesis but the procedures of the assay are not simple and the quantification is not easy. We established C2C12 cells expressing the N-terminal green fluorescence protein (GFP) and the C-terminal GFP (GFP1–10 and GFP11 cells). GFP1–10 and GFP11 cells do not exhibit GFP signals until they are fused. The signal intensity correlates with the expression of myogenic markers and myofusion. Myogenesis-promoting reagents, such as insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) and β-guanidinopropionic acid (GPA), enhance the signals, whereas the poly-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-FMK, suppresses it. GFP signals are observed when myotubes formed by GFP1–10 cells are fused with single nuclear GFP11 cells, and enhanced by IGF1, GPA, and IBS008738, a recently-reported myogenesis-promoting reagent. Fusion between myotubes formed by GFP1–10 and GFP11 cells is associated with the appearance of GFP signals. IGF1 and GPA augment these signals, whereas NSC23766, Rac inhibitor, decreases them. The conditioned medium of cancer cells suppresses GFP signals during myogenesis and reduces the width of GFP-positive myotubes after differentiation. Thus the novel split GFP-based assay will provide the useful method for the study of myogenesis, myofusion, and atrophy. - Highlights: • C2C12 cells expressing split GFP proteins show GFP signals when mix-cultured. • The GFP signals correlate with myogenesis and myofusion. • The GFP signals attenuate under the condition that muscle atrophy is induced

  5. JAZF1 promotes proliferation of C2C12 cells, but retards their myogenic differentiation through transcriptional repression of MEF2C and MRF4—Implications for the role of Jazf1 variants in oncogenesis and type 2 diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuasa, Katsutoshi; Aoki, Natsumi; Hijikata, Takao, E-mail: hijikata@musashino-u.ac.jp

    2015-08-15

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have been identified in Jazf1, which is also involved in the oncogenesis of endometrial stromal tumors. To understand how Jazf1 variants confer a risk of tumorigenesis and T2D, we explored the functional roles of JAZF1 and searched for JAZF1 target genes in myogenic C2C12 cells. Consistent with an increase of Jazf1 transcripts during myoblast proliferation and their decrease during myogenic differentiation in regenerating skeletal muscle, JAZF1 overexpression promoted cell proliferation, whereas it retarded myogenic differentiation. Examination of myogenic genes revealed that JAZF1 overexpression transcriptionally repressed MEF2C and MRF4 and their downstream genes. AMP deaminase1 (AMPD1) was identified as a candidate for JAZF1 target by gene array analysis. However, promoter assays of Ampd1 demonstrated that mutation of the putative binding site for the TR4/JAZF1 complex did not alleviate the repressive effects of JAZF1 on promoter activity. Instead, JAZF1-mediated repression of Ampd1 occurred through the MEF2-binding site and E-box within the Ampd1 proximal regulatory elements. Consistently, MEF2C and MRF4 expression enhanced Ampd1 promoter activity. AMPD1 overexpression and JAZF1 downregulation impaired AMPK phosphorylation, while JAZF1 overexpression also reduced it. Collectively, these results suggest that aberrant JAZF1 expression contributes to the oncogenesis and T2D pathogenesis. - Highlights: • JAZF1 promotes cell cycle progression and proliferation of myoblasts. • JAZF1 retards myogenic differentiation and hypertrophy of myotubes. • JAZF1 transcriptionally represses Mef2C and Mrf4 expression. • JAZF1 has an impact on the phosphorylation of AMPK.

  6. Mechanical stimulation of C2C12 cells increases m-calpain expression and activity, focal adhesion plaque degradation and cell fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto; Karlsson, Anders Hans; Lawson, Moira A.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Mechanical Stimulation of C2C12 Cells Increases m-calpain Expression and Activity, Focal Adhesion Plaque Degradation and Cell Fusion A. Grossi, A. H. Karlsson, M. A. Lawson; Department of Dairy and Food Science, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Frederiksberg C, Denmark...... Myogenesis is a complex sequence of events, including the irreversible transition from the proliferation-competent myoblast stage into fused, multinucleated myotubes. During embryonic development, myogenic differentiation is regulated by positive and negative signals from surrounding tissues. Stimulation due...... to the activity of ubiquitous proteolytic enzymes known as calpains has been reported. Whether there is a link between stretch- or load induced signaling and calpain expression and activation is not known. Using a magnetic bead stimulation assay and C2C12 mouse myoblasts cell population, we have demonstrated...

  7. Differing Effects of Younger and Older Human Plasma on C2C12 Myocytes in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifigeneia Kalampouka

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ageing is associated with a general reduction of physiological function and a reduction of muscle mass and strength. Endocrine factors such as myostatin, activin A, growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF-11 and their inhibitory peptides influence muscle mass in health and disease. We hypothesised that myocytes cultured in plasma from older and younger individuals would show an ageing effect, with reduced proliferation and differentiation in older environments. C2C12 myoblasts were grown as standard and stimulated with media conditioned with 5% plasma from healthy male participants that were either younger (n = 6, 18–35 years of age or older (n = 6, >57 years of age. Concentration of plasma myostatin (total and free, follistatin-like binding protein (FLRG, GDF-11 and activin A were quantified by ELISA. Both FLRG and activin A were elevated in older individuals (109.6 and 35.1% increase, respectively, whilst myostatin (free and total and GDF-11 were not. Results indicated that plasma activin A and FLRG were increased in older vs. younger participants, GDF11 and myostatin did not differ. Myoblasts in vitro showed no difference in proliferation rate between ages, however scratch closure was greater in younger vs. older plasma stimulated myoblasts (78.2 vs. 87.2% of baseline scratch diameter, respectively. Myotube diameters were larger in cells stimulated with younger plasma than with older at 24 and 48 h, but not at 2 h. A significant negative correlation was noted between in vivo plasma FLRG concentration and in vitro myotube diameter 48 h following plasma stimulation (r2 = 0.392, p = 0.030. Here we show that myoblasts and myotubes cultured in media conditioned with plasma from younger or older individuals show an ageing effect, and further this effect moderately correlates with circulating FLRG concentration in vivo. The effect of ageing on muscle function may not be innate to the tissue, but involve a general cellular environment change

  8. DRAGON, a GPI-anchored membrane protein, inhibits BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanomata, Kazuhiro; Kokabu, Shoichiro; Nojima, Junya; Fukuda, Toru; Katagiri, Takenobu

    2009-06-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) induce osteoblastic differentiation of myoblasts via binding to cell surface receptors. Repulsive guidance molecules (RGMs) have been identified as BMP co-receptors. We report here that DRAGON/RGMb, a member of the RGM family, suppressed BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts via a novel mechanism. All RGMs were expressed in C2C12 cells that were differentiated into myocytes and osteoblastic cells, but RGMc was not detected in immature cells. In C2C12 cells, only DRAGON suppressed ALP and Id1 promoter activities induced by BMP-4 or by constitutively activated BMP type I receptors. This inhibition by DRAGON was dependent on the secretory form of the von Willbrand factor type D domain. DRAGON even suppressed BMP signaling induced by constitutively activated Smad1. Over-expression of neogenin did not alter the inhibitory capacity of DRAGON. Taken together, these findings indicate that DRAGON may be an inhibitor of BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts. We also suggest that a novel molecule(s) expressed on the cell membrane may mediate the signal transduction of DRAGON in order to suppress BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts.

  9. Differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts expressing lamin A mutated at a site responsible for Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy is improved by inhibition of the MEK-ERK pathway and stimulation of the PI3-kinase pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favreau, Catherine; Delbarre, Erwan; Courvalin, Jean-Claude; Buendia, Brigitte

    2008-01-01

    Mutation R453W in A-type lamins, that are major nuclear envelope proteins, generates Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. We previously showed that mouse myoblasts expressing R453W-lamin A incompletely exit the cell cycle and differentiate into myocytes with a low level of multinucleation. Here we attempted to improve differentiation by treating these cells with a mixture of PD98059, an extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (also known as mitogen-activated kinase, MEK) inhibitor, and insulin-like growth factor-II, an activator of phosphoinositide 3-kinase. We show that mouse myoblasts expressing R453W-lamin A were sensitive to the drug treatment as shown by (i) an increase in multinucleation, (ii) downregulation of proliferation markers (cyclin D1, hyperphosphorylated Rb), (iii) upregulation of myogenin, and (iv) sustained activation of p21 and cyclin D3. However, nuclear matrix anchorage of p21 and cyclin D3 in a complex with hypophosphorylated Rb that is critical to trigger cell cycle arrest and myogenin induction was deficient and incompletely restored by drug treatment. As the turn-over of R453W-lamin A at the nuclear envelope was greatly enhanced, we propose that R453W-lamin A impairs the capacity of the nuclear lamina to serve as scaffold for substrates of the MEK-ERK pathway and for MyoD-induced proteins that play a role in the differentiation process

  10. First intron of nestin gene regulates its expression during C2C12 myoblast ifferentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Zhong; Zhigang Jin; Yongfeng Chen; Ting Zhang; Wei Bian; Xing Cui; Naihe Jing

    2008-01-01

    Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China Nestin is an intermediate filament protein expressed in neural progenitor cells and in developing skeletal muscle. Nestin has been widely used as a neural progenitor cell marker. It is well established that the specific expression of the nestin gene in neural progenitor cells is conferred by the neural-specific enhancer located in the second intron of the nestin gene. However, the transcriptional mechanism of nestin expression in developing muscle is still unclear. In this study, we identified a muscle cell-specific enhancer in the first intron of mouse nestin gene in mouse myoblast C2C12 cells.We localized the core enhancer activity to the 291-661 region of the first intron, and showed that the two E-boxes in the core enhancer region were important for enhancer activity in differentiating C2C12 cells. We also showed that MyoD protein was involved in the regulation of nestin expression in the myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells.

  11. Bioenergetic Profile Experiment using C2C12 Myoblast Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, David G.; Darley-Usmar, Victor M.; Wu, Min; Jensen, Per Bo; Rogers, George W.; Ferrick, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to measure cellular metabolism and understand mitochondrial dysfunction, has enabled scientists worldwide to advance their research in understanding the role of mitochondrial function in obesity, diabetes, aging, cancer, cardiovascular function and safety toxicity. Cellular metabolism is the process of substrate uptake, such as oxygen, glucose, fatty acids, and glutamine, and subsequent energy conversion through a series of enzymatically controlled oxidation and reduction reactions. These intracellular biochemical reactions result in the production of ATP, the release of heat and chemical byproducts, such as lactate and CO2 into the extracellular environment. Valuable insight into the physiological state of cells, and the alteration of the state of those cells, can be gained through measuring the rate of oxygen consumed by the cells, an indicator of mitochondrial respiration - the Oxygen Consumption Rate - or OCR. Cells also generate ATP through glycolysis, i.e.: the conversion of glucose to lactate, independent of oxygen. In cultured wells, lactate is the primary source of protons. Measuring the lactic acid produced indirectly via protons released into the extracellular medium surrounding the cells, which causes acidification of the medium provides the Extra-Cellular Acidification Rate - or ECAR. In this experiment, C2C12 myoblast cells are seeded at a given density in Seahorse cell culture plates. The basal oxygen consumption (OCR) and extracellular acidification (ECAR) rates are measured to establish baseline rates. The cells are then metabolically perturbed by three additions of different compounds (in succession) that shift the bioenergetic profile of the cell. This assay is derived from a classic experiment to assess mitochondria and serves as a framework with which to build more complex experiments aimed at understanding both physiologic and pathophysiologic function of mitochondria and to predict the ability of cells to respond to stress and

  12. Sodium arsenite represses the expression of myogenin in C2C12 mouse myoblast cells through histone modifications and altered expression of Ezh2, Glp, and Igf-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Gia-Ming [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, Clemson University, 132 Long Hall, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Present address: The University of Chicago, Section of Hematology/Oncology, 900 E. 57th Street, Room 7134, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bain, Lisa J., E-mail: lbain@clemson.edu [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, Clemson University, 132 Long Hall, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Department of Biological Sciences, Clemson University, 132 Long Hall, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Arsenic is a toxicant commonly found in water systems and chronic exposure can result in adverse developmental effects including increased neonatal death, stillbirths, and miscarriages, low birth weight, and altered locomotor activity. Previous studies indicate that 20 nM sodium arsenite exposure to C2C12 mouse myocyte cells delayed myoblast differentiation due to reduced myogenin expression, the transcription factor that differentiates myoblasts into myotubes. In this study, several mechanisms by which arsenic could alter myogenin expression were examined. Exposing differentiating C2C12 cells to 20 nM arsenic increased H3K9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) and H3K9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) by 3-fold near the transcription start site of myogenin, which is indicative of increased repressive marks, and reduced H3K9 acetylation (H3K9Ac) by 0.5-fold, indicative of reduced permissive marks. Protein expression of Glp or Ehmt1, a H3-K9 methyltransferase, was also increased by 1.6-fold in arsenic-exposed cells. In addition to the altered histone remodeling status on the myogenin promoter, protein and mRNA levels of Igf-1, a myogenic growth factor, were significantly repressed by arsenic exposure. Moreover, a 2-fold induction of Ezh2 expression, and an increased recruitment of Ezh2 (3.3-fold) and Dnmt3a (∼ 2-fold) to the myogenin promoter at the transcription start site (− 40 to + 42), were detected in the arsenic-treated cells. Together, we conclude that the repressed myogenin expression in arsenic-exposed C2C12 cells was likely due to a combination of reduced expression of Igf-1, enhanced nuclear expression and promoter recruitment of Ezh2, and altered histone remodeling status on myogenin promoter (− 40 to + 42). -- Highlights: ► Igf-1 expression is decreased in C2C12 cells after 20 nM arsenite exposure. ► Arsenic exposure alters histone remodeling on the myogenin promoter. ► Glp expression, a H3–K9 methyltransferase, was increased in arsenic-exposed cells. ► Ezh2

  13. Hydroxylamine enhances glucose uptake in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells through the activation of insulin receptor substrate 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Taro; Kato, Eisuke; Machikawa, Tsukasa; Kimura, Shunsuke; Katayama, Shinji; Kawabata, Jun

    2014-02-28

    Diabetes mellitus is a global disease, and the number of patients with it is increasing. Of various agents for treatment, those that directly act on muscle are currently attracting attention because muscle is one of the main tissues in the human body, and its metabolism is decreased in type II diabetes. In this study, we found that hydroxylamine (HA) enhances glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes. Analysis of HA's mechanism revealed the involvement of IRS1, PI3K and Akt that is related to the insulin signaling pathway. Further investigation about the activation mechanism of insulin receptor or IRS1 by HA may provide a way to develop a novel anti-diabetic agent alternating to insulin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 4,4'-Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) inhibit myogenesis in C2C12 myoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jonggun; Park, Min Young; Kim, Yoo; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Clark, John Marshall; Park, Yeonhwa; Whang, Kwang-Youn

    2017-12-01

    Most countries have banned the use of 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). However, owing to its extremely high lipophilic characteristics, DDT and its metabolite 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) are ubiquitous in the environment and in many types of food. The positive correlation between exposure to insecticides, including DDT and DDE, and weight gain, resulting in impaired energy metabolism in offspring following perinatal DDT and DDE exposure, was previously reported. Therefore the influence of DDT and DDE on myogenesis using C2C12 myoblasts was investigated in this study. DDT and DDE decreased myotube formation dose- and time-dependently. Among myogenic regulatory factors, DDT and DDE mainly decreased MyoD1 and Myf5 expression. DDT and DDE treatment also altered Myostatin expression, phosphorylation of protein kinase B, p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase, forkhead box O protein 3 and mammalian target of rapamycin, resulting in attenuation of myotube formation. These results may have significant implications for understanding the effects of developmental exposure of DDT and DDE on myogenesis and development of obesity and type 2 diabetes later in life. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Mechanical stimuli activation of calpain is required for myoblast differentiation and occurs via an ERK/MAP kinase signaling pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto; Karlsson, Anders H; Lawson, Moira Ann

    2006-01-01

    a magnetic bead stimulation assay and C2C12 mouse myoblasts cell population, we have shown that mechanical signals transmitted through the C2C12 cells interaction with laminin cause an increase in cellular differentiation. This signaling results in an increase in the number of myotubes formed in the cultures...

  16. File list: InP.Myo.20.AllAg.C2C12 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Myo.20.AllAg.C2C12 mm9 Input control Muscle C2C12 SRX262224,SRX262225,SRX148229...695944 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Myo.20.AllAg.C2C12.bed ...

  17. Methylcobalamin promotes proliferation and migration and inhibits apoptosis of C2C12 cells via the Erk1/2 signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Michio [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tanaka, Hiroyuki, E-mail: tanahiro-osk@umin.ac.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Okada, Kiyoshi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kuroda, Yusuke [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kansai Rosai Hospital, 3-1-69 Inabaso, Amagasaki, Hyogo 660-8511 (Japan); Nishimoto, Shunsuke; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •Methylcobalamin activated the Erk1/2 signaling pathway in C2C12 cells. •Methylcobalamin promoted the proliferation and migration in C2C12 cells. •C2C12 cell apoptosis during differentiation was inhibited by methylcobalamin. -- Abstract: Methylcobalamin (MeCbl) is a vitamin B12 analog that has some positive effects on peripheral nervous disorders. Although some previous studies revealed the effects of MeCbl on neurons, its effect on the muscle, which is the final target of motoneuron axons, remains to be elucidated. This study aimed to determine the effect of MeCbl on the muscle. We found that MeCbl promoted the proliferation and migration of C2C12 myoblasts in vitro and that these effects are mediated by the Erk1/2 signaling pathway without affecting the activity of the Akt signaling pathway. We also demonstrated that MeCbl inhibits C2C12 cell apoptosis during differentiation. Our results suggest that MeCbl has beneficial effects on the muscle in vitro. MeCbl administration may provide a novel therapeutic approach for muscle injury or degenerating muscle after denervation.

  18. Leptin rapidly activates PPARs in C2C12 muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendinelli, Paola; Piccoletti, Roberta; Maroni, Paola

    2005-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that leptin operates on the tissues, including skeletal muscle, also by modulating gene expression. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we have shown that physiological doses of leptin promptly increase the binding of C2C12 cell nuclear extracts to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) response elements in oligonucleotide probes and that all three PPAR isoforms participate in DNA-binding complexes. We pre-treated C2C12 cells with AACOCF 3 , a specific inhibitor of cytosolic phospholipase A 2 (cPLA 2 ), an enzyme that supplies ligands to PPARs, and found that it abrogates leptin-induced PPAR DNA-binding activity. Leptin treatment significantly increased cPLA 2 activity, evaluated as the release of [ 3 H]arachidonic acid from pre-labelled C2C12 cells, as well as phosphorylation. Further, using MEK1 inhibitor PD-98059 we showed that leptin activates cPLA 2 through ERK induction. These results support a direct effect of leptin on skeletal muscle cells, and suggest that the hormone may modulate muscle transcription also by precocious activation of PPARs through ERK-cPLA 2 pathway

  19. A cellular modelsystem of differentiated human myotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Kristensen, S R; Beck-Nielsen, H

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to select an effective and stable protocol for the differentiation of human satellite cells (Sc) and to identify the optimal time period for the experimental use of differentiated human Sc-cultures. In order to identify the differentiation conditions which give a good su...

  20. Novel in vitro platform to investigate myotube atrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Oelkrug, Christopher; Horn, Katharina; Makert, Gustavo R.; Schubert, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The electrical current exclusion (ECE) principle provides an alternative to common methods of cell diameter measurement and especially in atrophy and cancer associated cachexia research. C2C12 myoblasts were differentiated into myotubes and treated with 100 μM dexamethasone to induce atrophy in vitro. Subsequently, they were incubated for 24 h with media containing different concentrations of curcumin and/or branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in order to counteract atrophy. After treatment wi...

  1. IGF-1 attenuates hypoxia-induced atrophy but inhibits myoglobin expression in C2C12 skeletal muscle myotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Eva L.; van der Linde, Sandra M.; Vogel, Ilse S.P.; Haroon, Mohammad; Offringa, Carla; de Wit, Gerard M.J.; Koolwijk, Pieter; van der Laarse, Willem J.; Jaspers, Richard T.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic hypoxia is associated with muscle wasting and decreased oxidative capacity. By contrast, training under hypoxia may enhance hypertrophy and increase oxidative capacity as well as oxygen transport to the mitochondria, by increasing myoglobin (Mb) expression. The latter may be a feasible

  2. Heavy ion irradiation induces autophagy in irradiated C2C12 myoblasts and their bystander cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Mizuki; Tajika, Yuki; Hamada, Nobuyuki

    2010-01-01

    Autophagy is one of the major processes involved in the degradation of intracellular materials. Here, we examined the potential impact of heavy ion irradiation on the induction of autophagy in irradiated C2C12 mouse myoblasts and their non-targeted bystander cells. In irradiated cells, ultrastructural analysis revealed the accumulation of autophagic structures at various stages of autophagy (id est (i.e.) phagophores, autophagosomes and autolysosomes) within 20 min after irradiation. Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and autolysosomes containing MVBs (amphisomes) were also observed. Heavy ion irradiation increased the staining of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 and LysoTracker Red (LTR). Such enhanced staining was suppressed by an autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. In addition to irradiated cells, bystander cells were also positive with LTR staining. Altogether, these results suggest that heavy ion irradiation induces autophagy not only in irradiated myoblasts but also in their bystander cells. (author)

  3. Characterization and Functional Analysis of Extracellular Vesicles and Muscle-Abundant miRNAs (miR-1, miR-133a, and miR-206 in C2C12 Myocytes and mdx Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunari Matsuzaka

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is a progressive neuromuscular disorder. Here, we show that the CD63 antigen, which is located on the surface of extracellular vesicles (EVs, is associated with increased levels of muscle-abundant miRNAs, namely myomiRs miR-1, miR-133a, and miR-206, in the sera of DMD patients and mdx mice. Furthermore, the release of EVs from the murine myoblast C2C12 cell line was found to be modulated by intracellular ceramide levels in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Next, to investigate the effects of EVs on cell survival, C2C12 myoblasts and myotubes were cultured with EVs from the sera of mdx mice or C2C12 cells overexpressing myomiRs in presence of cellular stresses. Both the exposure of C2C12 myoblasts and myotubes to EVs from the serum of mdx mice, and the overexpression of miR-133a in C2C12 cells in presence of cellular stress resulted in a significant decrease in cell death. Finally, to assess whether miRNAs regulate skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo, we intraperitoneally injected GW4869 (an inhibitor of exosome secretion into mdx mice for 5 and 10 days. Levels of miRNAs and creatine kinase in the serum of GW4869-treated mdx mice were significantly downregulated compared with those of controls. The tibialis anterior muscles of the GW4869-treated mdx mice showed a robust decrease in Evans blue dye uptake. Collectively, these results indicate that EVs and myomiRs might protect the skeletal muscle of mdx mice from degeneration.

  4. Cinnamon Extract Enhances Glucose Uptake in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and C2C12 Myocytes by Inducing LKB1-AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Honma, Natsumi; Kobayashi, Katsuya; Jia, Liu Nan; Hosono, Takashi; Shindo, Kazutoshi; Ariga, Toyohiko; Seki, Taiichiro

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that cinnamon extract (CE) ameliorates type 1 diabetes induced by streptozotocin in rats through the up-regulation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation in both muscle and adipose tissues. This present study was aimed at clarifying the detailed mechanism(s) with which CE increases the glucose uptake in vivo and in cell culture systems using 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes in vitro. Specific inhibitors of key enzymes in insulin signaling and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways, as well as small interference RNA, were used to examine the role of these kinases in the CE-induced glucose uptake. The results showed that CE stimulated the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. An AMPK inhibitor and LKB1 siRNA blocked the CE-induced glucose uptake. We also found for the first time that insulin suppressed AMPK activation in the adipocyte. To investigate the effect of CE on type 2 diabetes in vivo, we further performed oral glucose tolerance tests and insulin tolerance tests in type 2 diabetes model rats administered with CE. The CE improved glucose tolerance in oral glucose tolerance tests, but not insulin sensitivity in insulin tolerance test. In summary, these results indicate that CE ameliorates type 2 diabetes by inducing GLUT4 translocation via the AMPK signaling pathway. We also found insulin antagonistically regulates the activation of AMPK. PMID:24551069

  5. Activated Integrin-Linked Kinase Negatively Regulates Muscle Cell Enhancement Factor 2C in C2C12 Cells

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    Zhenguo Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous study reported that muscle cell enhancement factor 2C (MEF2C was fully activated after inhibition of the phosphorylation activity of integrin-linked kinase (ILK in the skeletal muscle cells of goats. It enhanced the binding of promoter or enhancer of transcription factor related to proliferation of muscle cells and then regulated the expression of these genes. In the present investigation, we explored whether ILK activation depended on PI3K to regulate the phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of MEF2C during C2C12 cell proliferation. We inhibited PI3K activity in C2C12 with LY294002 and then found that ILK phosphorylation levels and MEF2C phosphorylation were decreased and that MCK mRNA expression was suppressed significantly. After inhibiting ILK phosphorylation activity with Cpd22 and ILK-shRNA, we found MEF2C phosphorylation activity and MCK mRNA expression were increased extremely significantly. In the presence of Cpd22, PI3K activity inhibition increased MEF2C phosphorylation and MCK mRNA expression indistinctively. We conclude that ILK negatively and independently of PI3K regulated MEF2C phosphorylation activity and MCK mRNA expression in C2C12 cells. The results provide new ideas for the study of classical signaling pathway of PI3K-ILK-related proteins and transcription factors.

  6. Influence of the PDE5 inhibitor tadalafil on redox status and antioxidant defense system in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duranti, Guglielmo; Ceci, Roberta; Sgrò, Paolo; Sabatini, Stefania; Di Luigi, Luigi

    2017-05-01

    Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is), widely known for their beneficial effects onto male erectile dysfunction, seem to exert favorable effects onto metabolism as well. Tadalafil exposure increases oxidative metabolism of C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. A rise in fatty acid (FA) metabolism, requiring more oxygen, could induce a larger reactive oxygen species (ROS) release as a byproduct thus leading to a redox imbalance. The aim of this study was to determine how PDE5I tadalafil influences redox status in skeletal muscle cells to match the increasing oxidative metabolism. To this purpose, differentiated C2C12 skeletal muscle cells were treated with tadalafil and analyzed for total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and glutathione levels as marker of redox status; enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) engaged in antioxidant defense; and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and protein carbonyls (PrCar) as markers of oxidative damage. Tadalafil increased total intracellular glutathione (tGSH), CAT, SOD, and GPx enzymatic activities while no changes were found in TAC. A perturbation of redox status, as showed by the decrease in the ratio between reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), was observed. Nevertheless, it did not cause any change in TBARS and PrCar levels probably due to the enhancement in the antioxidant enzymatic network. Taken together, these data indicate that tadalafil, besides improving oxidative metabolism, may be beneficial to skeletal muscle cells by enhancing the enzymatic antioxidant system capacity.

  7. Caspase activity and apoptotic signaling in proliferating C2C12 cells following cisplatin or A23187 exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin Bloemberg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigating cell death signaling using cell culture is commonly performed to examine the effects of novel pharmaceuticals or to further characterize discrete cellular signaling pathways. Here, we provide data regarding the cell death response to either cisplatin or A23187 in sub-confluent C2C12 cells, by utilizing several concentrations and incubation times for each chemical. These data include an assessment of the activation of the proteolytic enzymes caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, calpain, and cathepsin B/L. Additionally, the expression of the apoptosis-regulating proteins Bax, Bcl2, and p53 are presented.

  8. Effect of Curcumin on Phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC in C2C12 Skeletal Muscle Cells

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    F Ghanbarzadeh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK as key regulators of cell metabolism, plays a major role in the activation of catabolic pathways, such as glucose transport and fatty acid oxidation. Thus, activation of this pathway can be used in the treatment of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Many studied proposed the effectiveness of the polyphenols present in rhizomes of turmeric (curcumin on diabetes and its related complications. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of curcumin as an activator of AMPK pathway in C2C12 muscle cells. Methods: This study was done on C2C12 skeletal muscle cell line. The cells were classified into two distinct groups: first group was treated with 40µM curcumin and the second one with 0.1% DMSO as a negative control. The phosphorylated (AMPK and phosphorylated acetyl COA carboxylase (ACC were evaluated and compared by Western blotting technique. Results: intracellular phosphorylated AMPK protein content in Curcumin-treated group was 132.6% and ACC protein phosphorylated was 366.47%. Conclusion: This study showed that the levels of phosphorylated AMPK and ACC protein in cells treated with curcumin are higher than the negative control. Thus curcumin can be regarded as an activator of AMPK activity in these cells and can assist as a potential target for making anti diabetic medecine that has a synergistic activity with insulin.

  9. 17β-Estradiol Protects Mitochondrial Functions through Extracellular-Signal-Regulated Kinase in C2C12 Muscle Cells

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    Ana C. Ronda

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: We have previously shown that exposure to 17β-estradiol (E2 prior to induction of apoptosis with H2O2 protects skeletal muscle cells against oxidative damage. However, the mechanism involved in the protective action of the hormone is poorly understood. In the present study, we focused on the mechanism by which ERK mediates this survival effect in connection with COXIV activity and mitochondrial membrane potential. Methods: Immunocytochemistry, Western blot, cytochrome c oxidase complex IV (COXIV activity, coimmunoprecipitation and JC-1 dye by flow cytometry were carried out using C2C12 myoblasts as experimental model. Results: E2 is able to activate ERK and then induces its translocation to mitochondria. Using the pharmacological inhibitor of ERK activation U0126 we show that E2, through ERK activation, is able to enhance COXIV activity. Moreover, the hormone increases the interaction between COXIV and ERK. Also, we found that hydrogen peroxide decreases COXIV activity and that preincubation of the cells with E2 prior to induction of apoptosis prevents this effect. In addition, we observe that the estrogen inhibits the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential induced by H2O2, involving ERK and COXIV. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that E2 promotes ERK activation and translocation to mitochondria preventing the decline in COXIV activity and in turn, alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential by oxidative stress, in C2C12 myoblasts.

  10. Black ginseng activates Akt signaling, thereby enhancing myoblast differentiation and myotube growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Yeon Lee

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: BG enhances myoblast differentiation and myotube hypertrophy by activating Akt/mTOR/p70S6k axis. Thus, our study demonstrates that BG has promising potential to treat or prevent muscle loss related to aging or other pathological conditions, such as diabetes.

  11. In vitro Differentiation of Functional Human Skeletal Myotubes in a Defined System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiufang; Greene, Keshel; Akanda, Nesar; Smith, Alec; Stancescu, Maria; Lambert, Stephen; Vandenburgh, Herman; Hickman, James

    2014-01-01

    In vitro human skeletal muscle systems are valuable tools for the study of human muscular development, disease and treatment. However, published in vitro human muscle systems have so far only demonstrated limited differentiation capacities. Advanced differentiation features such as cross-striations and contractility have only been observed in co-cultures with motoneurons. Furthermore, it is commonly regarded that cultured human myotubes do not spontaneously contract, and any contraction has been considered to originate from innervation. This study developed a serum-free culture system in which human skeletal myotubes demonstrated advanced differentiation. Characterization by immunocytochemistry, electrophysiology and analysis of contractile function revealed these major features: A) well defined sarcomeric development, as demonstrated by the presence of cross-striations. B) finely developed excitation-contraction coupling apparatus characterized by the close apposition of dihydropyridine receptors on T-tubules and Ryanodine receptors on sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes. C) spontaneous and electrically controlled contractility. This report not only demonstrates an improved level of differentiation of cultured human skeletal myotubes, but also provides the first published evidence that such myotubes are capable of spontaneous contraction. Use of this functional in vitro human skeletal muscle system would advance studies concerning human skeletal muscle development and physiology, as well as muscle-related disease and therapy.

  12. Mechanical stimulation of C2C12 cells increases m-calpain expression, focal adhesion plaque protein degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto; Karlsson, Anders H; Lawson, Moira Ann

    2008-01-01

    . Stimulation due to stretch- or load-induced signaling is now beginning to be understood as a factor which affects gene sequences, protein synthesis and an increase in Ca2+ influx in myocytes. Evidence of the involvement of Ca2+ -dependent activity in myoblast fusion, cell membrane and cytoskeleton component...... reorganization due to the activity of the ubiquitous proteolytic enzymes, calpains, has been reported. Whether there is a link between stretch- or load-induced signaling and calpain expression and activation is not known. Using a magnetic bead stimulation assay and C2C12 mouse myoblasts cell population, we have...... demonstrated that mechanical stimulation via laminin receptors leads to an increase in m-calpain expression, but no increase in the expression of other calpain isoforms. Our study revealed that after a short period of stimulation, m-calpain relocates into focal adhesion complexes and is followed by a breakdown...

  13. Novel in vitro platform to investigate myotube atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelkrug, Christopher; Horn, Katharina; Makert, Gustavo R; Schubert, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The electrical current exclusion (ECE) principle provides an alternative to common methods of cell diameter measurement and especially in atrophy and cancer associated cachexia research. C2C12 myoblasts were differentiated into myotubes and treated with 100 μM dexamethasone to induce atrophy in vitro. Subsequently, they were incubated for 24 h with media containing different concentrations of curcumin and/or branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in order to counteract atrophy. After treatment with curcumin, an increase in cell diameter was detectable; the highest increase with 13.9 ± 0.4% was seen with 10 μM curcumin. The combination of curcumin and BCAAs showed an increase of 13.4 ± 1.2 %. Cell diameter measurement via the ECE showed that curcumin, and curcumin in combination with BCAAs, were able to restore atrophic C2C12 myotubes. Therefore, the application of ECE in muscle atrophy and also cancer-associated cachexia research allows rapid screening of novel compounds in order to test their efficacy in vitro. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  14. Schisandrae fructus enhances myogenic differentiation and inhibits atrophy through protein synthesis in human myotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim CH

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cy Hyun Kim,1,2,* Jin-Hong Shin,1,3,* Sung Jun Hwang,1,2 Yung Hyun Choi,4 Dae-Seong Kim,1,3 Cheol Min Kim2,51Research Institute of Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan, 2Center for Anti-Aging Industry, Pusan National University, Busan, 3Department of Neurology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan, 4Department of Biochemistry, Dong-eui University College of Korean Medicine, Busan, 5Department of Biomedical Informatics, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan, Republic of Korea*These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Schisandrae fructus (SF has recently been reported to increase skeletal muscle mass and inhibit atrophy in mice. We investigated the effect of SF extract on human myotube differentiation and its acting pathway. Various concentrations (0.1–10 µg/mL of SF extract were applied on human skeletal muscle cells in vitro. Myotube area and fusion index were measured to quantify myotube differentiation. The maximum effect was observed at 0.5 µg/mL of SF extract, enhancing differentiation up to 1.4-fold in fusion index and 1.6-fold in myotube area at 8 days after induction of differentiation compared to control. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 and 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase, which initiate translation as downstream of mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, was upregulated in early phases of differentiation after SF treatment. SF also attenuated dexamethasone-induced atrophy. In conclusion, we show that SF augments myogenic differentiation and attenuates atrophy by increasing protein synthesis through mammalian target of rapamycin/70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 signaling pathway in human myotubes. SF can be a useful natural dietary supplement in increasing skeletal muscle mass, especially in the aged

  15. The immune system modulator a1-acid glycoprotein inhibits insulin and IGF1 induced protein synthesis in C2C12 myotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) has previously been demonstrated by our laboratory to be negatively correlated with growth rate in newborn piglets. However, a mechanism of action for AGP in growth has not been identified. Previous research has demonstrated that AGP can modify adipose tissue metabo...

  16. FOXO1 and GSK-3β Are Main Targets of Insulin-Mediated Myogenesis in C2C12 Muscle Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiniuk, Anna; Pijet, Barbara; Pijet-Kucicka, Maja; Gajewska, Małgorzata; Pająk, Beata; Orzechowski, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    Myogenesis and muscle hypertrophy account for muscle growth and adaptation to work overload, respectively. In adults, insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 stimulate muscle growth, although their links with cellular energy homeostasis are not fully explained. Insulin plays critical role in the control of mitochondrial activity in skeletal muscle cells, and mitochondria are essential for insulin action. The aim of this study was to elucidate molecular mechanism(s) involved in mitochondrial control of insulin-dependent myogenesis. The effects of several metabolic inhibitors (LY294002, PD98059, SB216763, LiCl, rotenone, oligomycin) on the differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts in culture were examined in the short-term (hours) and long-term (days) experiments. Muscle cell viability and mitogenicity were monitored and confronted with the activities of selected genes and proteins expression. These indices focus on the roles of insulin, glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β) and forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) on myogenesis using a combination of treatments and inhibitors. Long-term insulin (10 nM) treatment in "normoglycemic" conditions led to increased myogenin expression and accelerated myogenesis in C2C12 cells. Insulin-dependent myogenesis was accompanied by the rise of mtTFA, MtSSB, Mfn2, and mitochondrially encoded Cox-1 gene expressions and elevated levels of proteins which control functions of mitochondria (kinase--PKB/AKT, mitofusin 2 protein--Mfn-2). Insulin, via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/AKT-dependent pathway reduced transcription factor FOXO1 activity and altered GSK-3β phosphorylation status. Once FOXO1 and GSK-3β activities were inhibited the rise in Cox-1 gene action and nuclear encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COX IV) expressions were observed, even though some mRNA and protein results varied. In contrast to SB216763, LiCl markedly elevated Mfn2 and COX IV protein expression levels when given together with insulin. Thus

  17. FOXO1 and GSK-3β Are Main Targets of Insulin-Mediated Myogenesis in C2C12 Muscle Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Litwiniuk

    Full Text Available Myogenesis and muscle hypertrophy account for muscle growth and adaptation to work overload, respectively. In adults, insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 stimulate muscle growth, although their links with cellular energy homeostasis are not fully explained. Insulin plays critical role in the control of mitochondrial activity in skeletal muscle cells, and mitochondria are essential for insulin action. The aim of this study was to elucidate molecular mechanism(s involved in mitochondrial control of insulin-dependent myogenesis. The effects of several metabolic inhibitors (LY294002, PD98059, SB216763, LiCl, rotenone, oligomycin on the differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts in culture were examined in the short-term (hours and long-term (days experiments. Muscle cell viability and mitogenicity were monitored and confronted with the activities of selected genes and proteins expression. These indices focus on the roles of insulin, glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β and forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1 on myogenesis using a combination of treatments and inhibitors. Long-term insulin (10 nM treatment in "normoglycemic" conditions led to increased myogenin expression and accelerated myogenesis in C2C12 cells. Insulin-dependent myogenesis was accompanied by the rise of mtTFA, MtSSB, Mfn2, and mitochondrially encoded Cox-1 gene expressions and elevated levels of proteins which control functions of mitochondria (kinase--PKB/AKT, mitofusin 2 protein--Mfn-2. Insulin, via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K/AKT-dependent pathway reduced transcription factor FOXO1 activity and altered GSK-3β phosphorylation status. Once FOXO1 and GSK-3β activities were inhibited the rise in Cox-1 gene action and nuclear encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COX IV expressions were observed, even though some mRNA and protein results varied. In contrast to SB216763, LiCl markedly elevated Mfn2 and COX IV protein expression levels when given together with insulin

  18. Effect of alkyl glycerophosphate on the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and glucose uptake in C2C12 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukahara, Tamotsu, E-mail: ttamotsu@shinshu-u.ac.jp [Department of Integrative Physiology and Bio-System Control, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Haniu, Hisao [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Matsuda, Yoshikazu [Clinical Pharmacology Educational Center, Nihon Pharmaceutical University, Ina-machi, Saitama 362-0806 (Japan)

    2013-04-12

    Highlights: •Alkyl-LPA specifically interacts with PPARγ. •Alkyl-LPA treatments induces lipid accumulation in C2C12 cells. •Alkyl-LPA enhanced glucose uptake in C2C12 cells. •Alkyl-LPA-treated C2C12 cells express increased amounts of GLUT4 mRNA. •Alkyl-LPA is a novel therapeutic agent that can be used for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. -- Abstract: Studies on the effects of lipids on skeletal muscle cells rarely examine the effects of lysophospholipids. Through our recent studies, we identified select forms of phospholipids, such as alkyl-LPA, as ligands for the intracellular receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). PPARγ is a nuclear hormone receptor implicated in many human diseases, including diabetes and obesity. We previously showed that alkyl-LPA is a specific agonist of PPARγ. However, the mechanism by which the alkyl-LPA–PPARγ axis affects skeletal muscle cells is poorly defined. Our objective in the present study was to determine whether alkyl-LPA and PPARγ activation promotes glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells. Our findings indicate that PPARγ1 mRNA is more abundant than PPARγ2 mRNA in C2C12 cells. We showed that alkyl-LPA (3 μM) significantly activated PPARγ and increased intracellular glucose levels in skeletal muscle cells. We also showed that incubation of C2C12 cells with alkyl-LPA led to lipid accumulation in the cells. These findings suggest that alkyl-LPA activates PPARγ and stimulates glucose uptake in the absence of insulin in C2C12 cells. This may contribute to the plasma glucose-lowering effect in the treatment of insulin resistance.

  19. Effect of alkyl glycerophosphate on the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and glucose uptake in C2C12 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukahara, Tamotsu; Haniu, Hisao; Matsuda, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Alkyl-LPA specifically interacts with PPARγ. •Alkyl-LPA treatments induces lipid accumulation in C2C12 cells. •Alkyl-LPA enhanced glucose uptake in C2C12 cells. •Alkyl-LPA-treated C2C12 cells express increased amounts of GLUT4 mRNA. •Alkyl-LPA is a novel therapeutic agent that can be used for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. -- Abstract: Studies on the effects of lipids on skeletal muscle cells rarely examine the effects of lysophospholipids. Through our recent studies, we identified select forms of phospholipids, such as alkyl-LPA, as ligands for the intracellular receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). PPARγ is a nuclear hormone receptor implicated in many human diseases, including diabetes and obesity. We previously showed that alkyl-LPA is a specific agonist of PPARγ. However, the mechanism by which the alkyl-LPA–PPARγ axis affects skeletal muscle cells is poorly defined. Our objective in the present study was to determine whether alkyl-LPA and PPARγ activation promotes glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells. Our findings indicate that PPARγ1 mRNA is more abundant than PPARγ2 mRNA in C2C12 cells. We showed that alkyl-LPA (3 μM) significantly activated PPARγ and increased intracellular glucose levels in skeletal muscle cells. We also showed that incubation of C2C12 cells with alkyl-LPA led to lipid accumulation in the cells. These findings suggest that alkyl-LPA activates PPARγ and stimulates glucose uptake in the absence of insulin in C2C12 cells. This may contribute to the plasma glucose-lowering effect in the treatment of insulin resistance

  20. NF-κB mediates the transcription of mouse calsarcin-1 gene, but not calsarcin-2, in C2C12 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Yulian

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The calsarcins comprise a novel family of muscle-specific calcineurin-interaction proteins that play an important role in modulating both the function and substrate specificity of calcineurin in muscle cells. The expression of calsarcin-1 (CS-1 is restricted to slow-twitch skeletal muscle fibres, whereas that of both calsarcin-2 (CS-2 and calsarcin-3 (CS-3 is enriched in fast-twitch fibres. However, the transcriptional control of this selective expression has not been previously elucidated. Results Our real-time RT-PCR analyses suggest that the expression of CS-1 and CS-2 is increased during the myogenic differentiation of mouse C2C12 cells. Promoter deletion analysis further suggests that an NF-κB binding site within the CS-1 promoter is responsible for the up-regulation of CS-1 transcription, but no similar mechanism was evident for CS-2. These findings are further supported by the results of EMSA analysis, as well as by overexpression and inhibition experiments in which NF-κB function was blocked by treatment with its inhibitor, PDTC. In addition, the overexpression of NFATc4 induces both the CS-1 and CS-2 promoters, whereas MEF2C only activates CS-1. Conclusion Our present data suggest that NF-κB is required for the transcription of mouse CS-1 but not CS-2, and that the regulation of the calsarcins is mediated also by the NFAT and MEF2 transcription factors. These results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms governing transcription in specific muscle fibre cells. The calsarcins may also serve as a valuable mechanistic tool to better understand the regulation of calcineurin signalling during muscle differentiation.

  1. Pannexin channels mediate the acquisition of myogenic commitment in C2C12 reserve cells promoted by P2 receptor activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, Manuel A.; Cea, Luis A.; Vega, José L.; Puebla, Carlos; Vargas, Aníbal A.; Shoji, Kenji F.; Subiabre, Mario; Sáez, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    The acquisition of myoblast commitment to the myogenic linage requires rises in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). Putative cell membrane pathways involved in these [Ca2+]i increments are P2 receptors (P2Rs) as well as connexin (Cx) and/or pannexin (Panx) hemichannels and channels (Cx HChs and Panx Chs), respectively, which are known to permeate Ca2+. Reserve cells (RCs) are uncommitted myoblasts obtained from differentiated C2C12 cell cultures, which acquire commitment upon replating. Regarding these cells, we found that extracellular ATP increases the [Ca2+]i via P2Rs. Moreover, ATP increases the plasma membrane permeability to small molecules and a non-selective membrane current, both of which were inhibited by Cx HCh/Panx1Ch blockers. However, RCs exposed to divalent cation-free saline solution, which is known to activate Cx HChs (but not Panx Chs), did not enhance membrane permeability, thus ruling out the possible involvement of Cx HChs. Moreover, ATP-induced membrane permeability was inhibited with blockers of P2Rs that activate Panx Chs. In addition, exogenous ATP induced the expression of myogenic commitment and increased MyoD levels, which was prevented by the inhibition of P2Rs or knockdown of Panx1 Chs. Similarly, increases in MyoD levels induced by ATP released by RCs were inhibited by Panx Ch/Cx HCh blockers. Myogenic commitment acquisition thus requires a feed-forward mechanism mediated by extracellular ATP, P2Rs, and Panx Chs. PMID:26000275

  2. Thimerosal-induced apoptosis in mouse C2C12 myoblast cells occurs through suppression of the PI3K/Akt/survivin pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Xue Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thimerosal, a mercury-containing preservative, is one of the most widely used preservatives and found in a variety of biological products. Concerns over its possible toxicity have reemerged recently due to its use in vaccines. Thimerosal has also been reported to be markedly cytotoxic to neural tissue. However, little is known regarding thimerosal-induced toxicity in muscle tissue. Therefore, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of thimerosal and its possible mechanisms on mouse C2C12 myoblast cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study showed that C2C12 myoblast cells underwent inhibition of proliferation and apoptosis after exposure to thimerosal (125-500 nM for 24, 48 and 72 h. Thimerosal caused S phase arrest and induced apoptosis as assessed by flow cytometric analysis, Hoechst staining and immunoblotting. The data revealed that thimerosal could trigger the leakage of cytochrome c from mitochondria, followed by cleavage of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and that an inhibitor of caspase could suppress thimerosal-induced apoptosis. Thimerosal inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt(ser473 and survivin expression. Wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor, inhibited Akt activity and decreased survivin expression, resulting in increased thimerosal-induced apoptosis in C2C12 cells, while the activation of PI3K/Akt pathway by mIGF-I (50 ng/ml increased the expression of survivin and attenuated apoptosis. Furthermore, the inhibition of survivin expression by siRNA enhanced thimerosal-induced cell apoptosis, while overexpression of survivin prevented thimerosal-induced apoptosis. Taken together, the data show that the PI3K/Akt/survivin pathway plays an important role in the thimerosal-induced apoptosis in C2C12 cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that in C2C12 myoblast cells, thimerosal induces S phase arrest and finally causes apoptosis via inhibition of PI3K/Akt/survivin signaling followed by activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic

  3. Cartap-induced cytotoxicity in mouse C2C12 myoblast cell line and the roles of calcium ion and oxidative stress on the toxic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Kang, Jaw-Jou; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Chang, Shao-Kuang; Kuo, Ming-Jang; Wang, Shun-Cheng; Liu, Michael R S; Pang, Victor Fei

    2006-02-15

    Our previous study has demonstrated that instead of neuromuscular blockage cartap, an organonitrogen insecticide, could cause a marked irreversible Ca2+-dependent contracture in both isolated mouse and rabbit phrenic nerve-diaphragms. We further examined the potential of direct myocytotoxicity of cartap and the possible roles of calcium ion and oxidative stress on cartap-induced muscle cell injury using the mouse myoblast cell line, C2C12. Cartap exerted a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effect in C2C12 cells measured by MTT colorimetric assay and trypan blue dye exclusion. The extracellular activities of both creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were elevated in the cartap-treated groups at or greater than 100 microM. The isoenzymatic profiles showed that the elevations were mainly due to CK-3, LDH-3, and LDH-4. Following the addition of 0.5-2.5mM EGTA, a Ca2+ chelator, or 30-100 microM verapamil, an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, the cartap-induced reduction in MTT metabolic rate of C2C12 cells was significantly restored in a dose-dependent manner in both EGTA and verapamil-treated cells. Furthermore, EGTA could significantly reduce the cartap-induced elevation in the levels of total extracellular CK and LDH activities. Additionally, cartap significantly increased the level of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) in C2C12 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The cartap-induced ROS generation could be significantly inhibited by antioxidants, including Vitamins C and E, catalase, and superoxide dismutase, with catalase the most effective. EGTA could significantly inhibit cartap-induced ROS generation in a dose-dependent manner. The results suggested that cartap could induce ROS generation in C2C12 cells via a Ca2+-dependent mechanism resulting in subsequent cytotoxicity, at least partially, to C2C12 cells. It is speculated that both Ca2+ and Ca2+-induced ROS may also play the central role on the myogenic contracture and myofiber injury

  4. ANKRD1 modulates inflammatory responses in C2C12 myoblasts through feedback inhibition of NF-κB signaling activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xin-Hua [National Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peter VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Bauman, William A. [National Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peter VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Cardozo, Christopher, E-mail: chris.cardozo@va.gov [National Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peter VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Systems Therapeutics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States)

    2015-08-14

    Transcription factors of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) family play a pivotal role in inflammation, immunity and cell survival responses. Recent studies revealed that NF-κB also regulates the processes of muscle atrophy. NF-κB activity is regulated by various factors, including ankyrin repeat domain 2 (AnkrD2), which belongs to the muscle ankyrin repeat protein family. Another member of this family, AnkrD1 is also a transcriptional effector. The expression levels of AnkrD1 are highly upregulated in denervated skeletal muscle, suggesting an involvement of AnkrD1 in NF-κB mediated cellular responses to paralysis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the interactive role of AnkrD1 in NF-κB mediated cellular responses is not well understood. In the current study, we examined the effect of AnkrD1 on NF-κB activity and determined the interactions between AnkrD1 expression and NF-κB signaling induced by TNFα in differentiating C2C12 myoblasts. TNFα upregulated AnkrD1 mRNA and protein levels. AnkrD1-siRNA significantly increased TNFα-induced transcriptional activation of NF-κB, whereas overexpression of AnkrD1 inhibited TNFα-induced NF-κB activity. Co-immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that AnkrD1 was able to bind p50 subunit of NF-κB and vice versa. Finally, CHIP assays revealed that AnkrD1 bound chromatin at a NF-κB binding site in the AnrkD2 promoter and required NF-κB to do so. These results provide evidence of signaling integration between AnkrD1 and NF-κB pathways, and suggest a novel anti-inflammatory role of AnkrD1 through feedback inhibition of NF-κB transcriptional activity by which AnkrD1 modulates the balance between physiological and pathological inflammatory responses in skeletal muscle. - Highlights: • AnkrD1 is upregulated by TNFα and represses NF-κB-induced transcriptional activity. • AnkrD1 binds to p50 subunit of NF-κB and is recruited to NF-κB bound to chromatin. • AnkrD1 mediates a feed-back inhibitory loop

  5. Creatine-induced activation of antioxidative defence in myotube cultures revealed by explorative NMR-based metabonomics and proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Jette Feveile; Larsen, Lotte Bach; Malmendal, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Creatine is a key intermediate in energy metabolism and supplementation of creatine has been used for increasing muscle mass, strength and endurance. Creatine supplementation has also been reported to trigger the skeletal muscle expression of insulin like growth factor I, to increase the fat......-free mass and improve cognition in elderly, and more explorative approaches like transcriptomics has revealed additional information. The aim of the present study was to reveal additional insight into the biochemical effects of creatine supplementation at the protein and metabolite level by integrating...... the explorative techniques, proteomics and NMR metabonomics, in a systems biology approach. METHODS: Differentiated mouse myotube cultures (C2C12) were exposed to 5 mM creatine monohydrate (CMH) for 24 hours. For proteomics studies, lysed myotubes were analyzed in single 2-DGE gels where the first dimension...

  6. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signalling is responsible for the differential susceptibility of myoblasts and myotubes to menadione-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeong A; Woo, Joo Hong; Kim, Hye Sun

    2008-09-01

    In this study, it was found that undifferentiated myoblasts were more vulnerable to menadione-induced oxidative stress than differentiated myotubes. Cell death occurred with a relatively low concentration of menadione in myoblasts compared to myotubes. With the same concentration of menadione, the Bcl-2/Bax ratio decreased and nuclei containing condensed chromatin were observed in myoblasts to a greater extent than in myotubes. However, myotubes became increasingly susceptible to menadione when phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K) was blocked by pre-incubation with LY294002, a PI3-K inhibitor. Actually, PI3-K activity was reduced by menadione in myoblasts but not in myotubes. In addition, the phosphorylation of Akt, a downstream effector of PI3-K, was inhibited in myoblasts by menadione but increased in myotubes. Both LY294002 and API-2, an Akt inhibitor, decreased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio in menadione-exposed myotubes. These results suggest that the differential activity of PI3-K/Akt signalling is responsible for the differential susceptibility of myoblasts and myotubes to menadione-induced oxidative stress.

  7. Ductile electroactive biodegradable hyperbranched polylactide copolymers enhancing myoblast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Meihua; Wang, Ling; Guo, Baolin; Wang, Zhong; Chen, Y Eugene; Ma, Peter X

    2015-12-01

    Myotube formation is crucial to restoring muscular functions, and biomaterials that enhance the myoblast differentiation into myotubes are highly desirable for muscular repair. Here, we report the synthesis of electroactive, ductile, and degradable copolymers and their application in enhancing the differentiation of myoblasts to myotubes. A hyperbranched ductile polylactide (HPLA) was synthesized and then copolymerized with aniline tetramer (AT) to produce a series of electroactive, ductile and degradable copolymers (HPLAAT). The HPLA and HPLAAT showed excellent ductility with strain to failure from 158.9% to 42.7% and modulus from 265.2 to 758.2 MPa. The high electroactivity of the HPLAAT was confirmed by UV spectrometer and cyclic voltammogram measurements. These HPLAAT polymers also showed improved thermal stability and controlled biodegradation rate compared to HPLA. Importantly, when applying these polymers for myotube formation, the HPLAAT significantly improved the proliferation of C2C12 myoblasts in vitro compared to HPLA. Furthermore, these polymers greatly promoted myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells as measured by quantitative analysis of myotube number, length, diameter, maturation index, and gene expression of MyoD and TNNT. Together, our study shows that these electroactive, ductile and degradable HPLAAT copolymers represent significantly improved biomaterials for muscle tissue engineering compared to HPLA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A fractionation method to identify qauntitative changes in protein expression mediated by IGF-1 on the proteome of murine C2C12 myoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedmann Theodore

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although much is known about signal transduction downstream of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, relatively little is known about the global changes in protein expression induced by this hormone. In this study, the acute effects of IGF-1 on the proteome of murine C2C12 cells were examined. Cells were treated with IGF-1 for up to 24 hours, lysed, and fractionated into cytosolic, nuclear, and insoluble portions. Proteins from the cytosolic fraction were further separated using a new batch ion-exchange chromatography method to reduce sample complexity, followed by two-dimensional (2D electrophoresis, and identification of selected proteins by mass spectrometry. PDQuest software was utilized to identify and catalogue temporal changes in protein expression during IGF-1 stimulation. In response to IGF-1 stimulation, expression of 23 proteins increased at least three-fold and expression of 17 proteins decreased at least three-fold compared with control un-stimulated C2C12 cells. Changes in expression of selected proteins from each group, including Rho-GDI, cofillin, RAD50, enolase, IκB kinase b (IκBKb and Hsp70 were confirmed by Western blotting. Additionally, the position of 136 'landmark' proteins whose expression levels and physicochemical properties did not change appreciably or consistently during IGF-1 treatment were mapped and identified. This characterization of large-scale changes in protein expression in response to growth factor stimulation of C2C12 cells will further help to establish a comprehensive understanding of the networks and pathways involved in the action of IGF-1.

  9. Development of gas chromatography-flame ionization detection system with a single column and liquid nitrogen-free for measuring atmospheric C2-C12 hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengtang; Mu, Yujing; Zhang, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhibo; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Junfeng; Sheng, Jiujiang; Quan, Jiannong

    2016-01-04

    A liquid nitrogen-free GC-FID system equipped with a single column has been developed for measuring atmospheric C2-C12 hydrocarbons. The system is consisted of a cooling unit, a sampling unit and a separation unit. The cooling unit is used to meet the temperature needs of the sampling unit and the separation unit. The sampling unit includes a dehydration tube and an enrichment tube. No breakthrough of the hydrocarbons was detected when the temperature of the enrichment tube was kept at -90 °C and sampling volume was 400 mL. The separation unit is a small round oven attached on the cooling column. A single capillary column (OV-1, 30 m × 0.32 mm I.D.) was used to separate the hydrocarbons. An optimal program temperature (-60 ∼ 170 °C) of the oven was achieved to efficiently separate C2-C12 hydrocarbons. There were good linear correlations (R(2)=0.993-0.999) between the signals of the hydrocarbons and the enrichment amount of hydrocarbons, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was less than 5%, and the method detection limits (MDLs) for the hydrocarbons were in the range of 0.02-0.10 ppbv for sampling volume of 400 mL. Field measurements were also conducted and more than 50 hydrocarbons from C2 to C12 were detected in Beijing city. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. α-linolenic acid reduces TNF-induced apoptosis in C2C12 myoblasts by regulating expression of apoptotic proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Carotenuto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Impaired regeneration and consequent muscle wasting is a major feature of muscle degenerative diseases. Nutritional interventions as adjuvant strategy for preventing such conditions are recently gaining increasing attention. Ingestion of n3-polyunsaturated fatty acids has been suggested to have a positive impact on muscle diseases. We recently demonstrated that the dietary n3-fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, exerts potent beneficial effects in preserving skeletal muscle regeneration in models of muscle dystrophy. To better elucidate the underlying mechanism we investigate here on the expression level of the anti- and pro-apototic proteins, as well as caspase-3 activity, in C2C12 myoblasts challenged with pathological levels of TNF. The results demonstrated that ALA protective effect on C2C12 myoblasts was associated to an increased Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Indeed, the effect of ALA was directed to rescue Bcl-2 expression and decrease Bax expression both affected in an opposite way by TNF treatment. This effect was associated with a decrease in caspase-3 activity by ALA. TNF is a major pro-inflammatory cytokine that is expressed in damaged skeletal muscle, therefore, counteract inflammatory signals in the muscle microenvironment represents a critical strategy to ameliorate skeletal muscle pathologies

  11. MicroRNA-27a Is Induced by Leucine and Contributes to Leucine-Induced Proliferation Promotion in C2C12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangmang Liu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Leucine, a branched chain amino acid, is well known to stimulate protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. However, the role of leucine in myoblast proliferation remains unclear. In this study, we found that leucine could promote proliferation of C2C12 cells. Moreover, expressions of miR-27a and myostatin (a bona fide target of miR-27a were upregulated and downregulated, respectively, following leucine treatment. We also found that miR-27a loss-of-function by transfection of a miR-27a inhibitor suppressed the promotion of myoblast proliferation caused by leucine. Our results suggest that miR-27a is induced by leucine and contributes to leucine-induced proliferation promotion of myoblast.

  12. Leucine-induced activation of translational initiation is partly regulated by the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex in C2C12 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Naoya; Shimomura, Yoshiharu; Tamura, Tomohiro; Tamura, Noriko; Hamada, Koichiro; Kawano, Fuminori; Ohira, Yoshinobu

    2006-01-01

    Branched-chain amino acid leucine has been shown to activate the translational regulators through the mammalian target of rapamycin. However, the leucine's effects are self-limiting because leucine promotes its own disposal by an oxidative pathway. The irreversible and rate-limiting step in the leucine oxidation pathway is catalyzed by the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex. The complex contains E1 (α2β2), E2, and E3 subunits, and its activity is abolished by phosphorylation of the E1α subunit by BCKDH kinase. The relationship between the activity of BCKDH complex and leucine-mediated activation of the protein translation was investigated using the technique of RNA interference. The activity of BCKDH complex in C2C12 cell was modulated by transfection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) for BCKDH E2 subunit or BCKDH kinase. Transfection of siRNAs decreased the mRNA expression and protein amount of corresponding gene. Suppression of either E2 subunit or kinase produced opposite effects on the cell proliferation and the activation of translational regulators by leucine. Suppression of BCKDH kinase for 48 h resulted in decreasing cell proliferation. In contrast, E2 suppression led to increased amount of total cellular protein. The phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase by leucine was increased in E2-siRNA transfected C2C12 cells, whereas the leucine's effect was diminished in kinase-siRNA transfected cells. These results suggest that the activation of the translational regulators by leucine was partly regulated by the activity of BCKDH complex

  13. miR-25-3p, Positively Regulated by Transcription Factor AP-2α, Regulates the Metabolism of C2C12 Cells by Targeting Akt1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available miR-25, a member of the miR-106b-25 cluster, has been reported as playing an important role in many biological processes by numerous studies, while the role of miR-25 in metabolism and its transcriptional regulation mechanism remain unclear. In this study, gain-of-function and loss-of-function assays demonstrated that miR-25-3p positively regulated the metabolism of C2C12 cells by attenuating phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K gene expression and triglyceride (TG content, and enhancing the content of adenosine triphosphate (ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS. Furthermore, the results from bioinformatics analysis, dual luciferase assay, site-directed mutagenesis, qRT-PCR, and Western blotting demonstrated that miR-25-3p directly targeted the AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (Akt1 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR. The core promoter of miR-25-3p was identified, and the transcription factor activator protein-2α (AP-2α significantly increased the expression of mature miR-25-3p by binding to its core promoter in vivo, as indicated by the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assay, and AP-2α binding also downregulated the expression of Akt1. Taken together, our findings suggest that miR-25-3p, positively regulated by the transcription factor AP-2α, enhances C2C12 cell metabolism by targeting the Akt1 gene.

  14. L-Arginine Enhances Protein Synthesis by Phosphorylating mTOR (Thr 2446 in a Nitric Oxide-Dependent Manner in C2C12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxia Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle atrophy may arise from many factors such as inactivity, malnutrition, and inflammation. In the present study, we investigated the stimulatory effect of nitric oxide (NO on muscle protein synthesis. Primarily, C2C12 cells were supplied with extra L-arginine (L-Arg in the culture media. L-Arg supplementation increased the activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, the rate of protein synthesis, and the phosphorylation of mTOR (Thr 2446 and p70S6K (Thr 389. L-NAME, an NOS inhibitor, decreased NO concentrations within cells and abolished the stimulatory effect of L-Arg on protein synthesis and the phosphorylation of mTOR and p70S6K. In contrast, SNP (sodium nitroprusside, an NO donor, increased NO concentrations, enhanced protein synthesis, and upregulated mTOR and p70S6K phosphorylation, regardless of L-NAME treatment. Blocking mTOR with rapamycin abolished the stimulatory effect of both L-Arg and SNP on protein synthesis and p70S6K phosphorylation. These results indicate that L-Arg stimulates protein synthesis via the activation of the mTOR (Thr 2446/p70S6K signaling pathway in an NO-dependent manner.

  15. L-leucine, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyric acid (HMB) and creatine monohydrate prevent myostatin-induced Akirin-1/Mighty mRNA down-regulation and myotube atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Christopher Brooks; Fox, Carlton D; Ferguson, Brian S; Amin, Rajesh H; Dalbo, Vincent J; Baier, Shawn; Rathmacher, John A; Wilson, Jacob M; Roberts, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if L-leucine (Leu), β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB), or creatine monohydrate (Crea) prevented potential atrophic effects of myostatin (MSTN) on differentiated C2C12 myotubes. After four days of differentiation, myotubes were treated with MSTN (10 ng/ml) for two additional days and four treatment groups were studied: 1) 3x per day 10 mM Leu, 2) 3x per day 10 mM HMB, 3) 3x per day 10 mM Crea, 4) DM only. Myotubes treated with DM without MSTN were analyzed as the control condition (DM/CTL). Following treatment, cells were analyzed for total protein, DNA content, RNA content, muscle protein synthesis (MPS, SUnSET method), and fiber diameter. Separate batch treatments were analyzed for mRNA expression patterns of myostatin-related genes (Akirin-1/Mighty, Notch-1, Ski, MyoD) as well as atrogenes (MuRF-1, and MAFbx/Atrogin-1). MSTN decreased fiber diameter approximately 30% compared to DM/CTL myotubes (p HMB and Crea prevented MSTN-induced atrophy. MSTN did not decrease MPS levels compared to DM/CTL myotubes, but MSTN treatment decreased the mRNA expression of Akirin-1/Mighty by 27% (p HMB myotubes had similar Akirin-1/Mighty and MyoD mRNA levels compared to DM/CTL myotubes. Furthermore, MSTN + Crea myotubes exhibited a 36% (p HMB and Crea may reduce MSTN-induced muscle fiber atrophy by influencing Akirin-1/Mighty mRNA expression patterns. Future studies are needed to examine if Leu, HMB and Crea independently or synergistically affect Akirin-1/Mighty expression, and how Akirin-1/Mighty expression mechanistically relates to skeletal muscle hypertrophy in vivo.

  16. Dual roles of palladin protein in in vitro myogenesis: inhibition of early induction but promotion of myotube maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc-Uyen-Nhi Nguyen

    Full Text Available Palladin is a microfilament-associated phosphoprotein whose function in skeletal muscle has rarely been studied. Therefore, we investigate whether myogenesis is influenced by the depletion of palladin expression known to interfere with the actin cytoskeleton dynamic required for skeletal muscle differentiation. The inhibition of palladin in C2C12 myoblasts leads to precocious myogenic differentiation with a concomitant reduction in cell apoptosis. This premature myogenesis is caused, in part, by an accelerated induction of p21, myogenin, and myosin heavy chain, suggesting that palladin acts as a negative regulator in early differentiation phases. Paradoxically, palladin-knockdown myoblasts are unable to differentiate terminally, despite their ability to perform some initial steps of differentiation. Cells with attenuated palladin expression form thinner myotubes with fewer myonuclei compared to those of the control. It is noteworthy that a negative regulator of myogenesis, myostatin, is activated in palladin-deficient myotubes, suggesting the palladin-mediated impairment of late-stage myogenesis. Additionally, overexpression of 140-kDa palladin inhibits myoblast differentiation while 200-kDa and 90-kDa palladin-overexpressed cells display an enhanced differentiation rate. Together, our data suggest that palladin might have both positive and negative roles in maintaining the proper skeletal myogenic differentiation in vitro.

  17. Role of androgen receptor on cyclic mechanical stretch-regulated proliferation of C2C12 myoblasts and its upstream signals: IGF-1-mediated PI3K/Akt and MAPKs pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yiming; Fu, Shaoting; Lu, Lin; Wang, Xiaohui

    2017-07-15

    To detect the effects of androgen receptor (AR) on cyclic mechanical stretch-modulated proliferation of C2C12 myoblasts and its pathways: roles of IGF-1, PI3K and MAPK. C2C12 were randomly divided into five groups: un-stretched control, six or 8 h of fifteen percent stretch, and six or 8 h of twenty percent stretch. Cyclic mechanical stretch of C2C12 were completed using a computer-controlled FlexCell Strain Unit. Cell proliferation and IGF-1 concentration in medium were detected by CCK8 and ELISA, respectively. Expressions of AR and IGF-1R, and expressions and activities of PI3K, p38 and ERK1/2 in stretched C2C12 cells were determined by Western blot. ①The proliferation of C2C12 cells, IGF-1 concentration in medium, expressions of AR and IGF-1R, and activities of PI3K, p38 and ERK1/2 were increased by 6 h of fifteen percent stretch, while decreased by twenty percent stretch for six or 8 h ②The fifteen percent stretch-increased proliferation of C2C12 cells was reversed by AR inhibitor, Flutamide. ③The increases of AR expression, activities of PI3K, p38 and ERK1/2 resulted from fifteen percent stretch were attenuated by IGF-1 neutralizing antibody, while twenty percent stretch-induced decreases of the above indicators were enhanced by recombinant IGF-1. ④Specific inhibitors of p38, ERK1/2 and PI3K all decreased the expression of AR in fifteen percent and twenty percent of stretched C2C12 cells. Cyclic mechanical stretch modulated the proliferation of C2C12 cells, which may be attributed to the alterations of AR via IGF-1-PI3K/Akt and IGF-1-MAPK (p38, ERK1/2) pathways in C2C12 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Efeitos do ultra-som terapêutico contínuo sobre a proliferação e viabilidade de células musculares C2C12 Effects of continuous therapeutic ultrasound on proliferation and viability of C2C12 muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Pelegrineli Artilheiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O ultra-som terapêutico (US é um recurso bioestimulante utilizado para propiciar reparo muscular de melhor qualidade e menor duração, mas o potencial terapêutico do US contínuo não está totalmente estabelecido. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do US contínuo sobre a proliferação e viabilidade de células musculares precursoras (mioblastos C2C12. Mioblastos C2C12 foram cultivados em meio de cultura contendo 10% de soro fetal bovino e irradiados com US contínuo nas freqüências de 1 e 3 MHz nas intensidades de 0,2 e 0,5 W/cm2, durante 2 e 5 minutos. A viabilidade e proliferação celular foram avaliadas após 24, 48 e 72 h de incubação. Grupos não-irradiados serviram como controle. Foram realizados experimentos independentes em cada condição acima, e os dados obtidos submetidos à análise estatística. Os resultados mostram que não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa na proliferação e viabilidade celular entre os mioblastos tratados com US e as culturas controles após os diferentes períodos de incubação, em todos os parâmetros avaliados. Conclui-se que o US contínuo, nos parâmetros avaliados, não foi capaz de alterar a proliferação e viabilidade dos mioblastos.Therapeutic ultrasound (US is a biophysical stimulation resource widely used in order to promote better, faster muscle repair, but the effectiveness of continuous US in treating injuries is not fully established. The aim of the present in vitro study was to assess the effects of continuous ultrasound on viability and proliferation of skeletal muscle precursor cells (C2C12 myoblasts. C2C12 myoblasts were cultured in a medium containing 10% foetal bovine serum and irradiated with continuous ultrasound at 1 and 3 MHz frequencies, at intensities of 0.2 and 0.5 W/cm² for 2 and 5 minutes. Cell viability and proliferation were assessed after different incubation periods (24, 48 and 72 h. Non-irradiated groups served as control and data were

  19. The roles of supernatant of macrophage treated by excretory-secretory products from muscle larvae of Trichinella spiralis on the differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The excretory-secretory products (ESPs) released by the muscle-larvae (ML) stage of Trichinella spiralis have been suggested to be involved in nurse cell formation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which ML-ESPs modulate nurse cell formation remain unclear. Macrophages exert either beneficial or...

  20. Mitochondria mediate tumor necrosis factor-alpha/NF-kappaB signaling in skeletal muscle myotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. P.; Atkins, C. M.; Sweatt, J. D.; Reid, M. B.; Hamilton, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is implicated in muscle atrophy and weakness associated with a variety of chronic diseases. Recently, we reported that TNF-alpha directly induces muscle protein degradation in differentiated skeletal muscle myotubes, where it rapidly activates nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). We also have found that protein loss induced by TNF-alpha is NF-kappaB dependent. In the present study, we analyzed the signaling pathway by which TNF-alpha activates NF-kappaB in myotubes differentiated from C2C12 and rat primary myoblasts. We found that activation of NF-kappaB by TNF-alpha was blocked by rotenone or amytal, inhibitors of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. On the other hand, antimycin A, an inhibitor of complex III, enhanced TNF-alpha activation of NK-kappaB. These results suggest a key role of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mediating NF-kappaB activation in muscle. In addition, we found that TNF-alpha stimulated protein kinase C (PKC) activity. However, other signal transduction mediators including ceramide, Ca2+, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and nitric oxide (NO) do not appear to be involved in the activation of NF-kappaB.

  1. 17Beta-estradiol Stimulates Glucose Uptake Through Estrogen Receptor and AMP-activated Protein Kinase Activation in C2C12 Myotubes (Korean J Obes 2016;25:190-6)

    OpenAIRE

    Ki-Ho Lee; Kyung-Jin Jo; Ju-Young Kim; Haing-Woon Baik; Seong-Kyu Lee

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and obesity-related disease are becoming serious global issues. The incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes has increased in children and adolescents. Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease that is difficult to treat, and the accurate assessment of obesity in type 2 diabetes is becoming increasingly important. Obesity is the excessive accumulation of fat that causes insulin resistance, and body composition analyses can help physicians evaluate fat levels. Although previous studies have...

  2. 17Beta-estradiol Stimulates Glucose Uptake Through Estrogen Receptor and AMP-activated Protein Kinase Activation in C2C12 Myotubes (Korean J Obes 2016;25:190-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Bum Kwak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and obesity-related disease are becoming serious global issues. The incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes has increased in children and adolescents. Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease that is difficult to treat, and the accurate assessment of obesity in type 2 diabetes is becoming increasingly important. Obesity is the excessive accumulation of fat that causes insulin resistance, and body composition analyses can help physicians evaluate fat levels. Although previous studies have shown the achievement of complete remission of type 2 diabetes after focused improvement in lifestyle habits, there are few cases of complete remission of type 2 diabetes. Here we report on obese patients with type 2 diabetes who were able to achieve considerable fat loss and partial or complete remission of diabetes through lifestyle changes. This case report emphasizes once again that focused lifestyle intervention effectively treats childhood diabetes.

  3. A Novel Protocol for Directed Differentiation of C9orf72-Associated Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Into Contractile Skeletal Myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Elliot W; Baek, Jaeyun; Pribadi, Mochtar; Wojta, Kevin J; Almeida, Sandra; Karydas, Anna; Gao, Fen-Biao; Miller, Bruce L; Coppola, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    : Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer an unlimited resource of cells to be used for the study of underlying molecular biology of disease, therapeutic drug screening, and transplant-based regenerative medicine. However, methods for the directed differentiation of skeletal muscle for these purposes remain scarce and incomplete. Here, we present a novel, small molecule-based protocol for the generation of multinucleated skeletal myotubes using eight independent iPSC lines. Through combinatorial inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) with addition of bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), we report up to 64% conversion of iPSCs into the myogenic program by day 36 as indicated by MYOG + cell populations. These cells began to exhibit spontaneous contractions as early as 34 days in vitro in the presence of a serum-free medium formulation. We used this protocol to obtain iPSC-derived muscle cells from frontotemporal dementia (FTD) patients harboring C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansions (rGGGGCC), sporadic FTD, and unaffected controls. iPSCs derived from rGGGGCC carriers contained RNA foci but did not vary in differentiation efficiency when compared to unaffected controls nor display mislocalized TDP-43 after as many as 120 days in vitro. This study presents a rapid, efficient, and transgene-free method for generating multinucleated skeletal myotubes from iPSCs and a resource for further modeling the role of skeletal muscle in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other motor neuron diseases. Protocols to produce skeletal myotubes for disease modeling or therapy are scarce and incomplete. The present study efficiently generates functional skeletal myotubes from human induced pluripotent stem cells using a small molecule-based approach. Using this strategy, terminal myogenic induction of up to 64% in 36 days and spontaneously contractile myotubes within 34 days were achieved

  4. CD36 is required for myoblast fusion during myogenic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung-Yoon; Yun, Youngeun; Kim, In-San

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CD36 expression was induced during myogenic differentiation. ► CD36 expression was localized in multinucleated myotubes. ► The expression of myogenic markers is attenuated in CD36 knockdown C2C12 cells. ► Knockdown of CD36 significantly inhibited myotube formation during differentiation. -- Abstract: Recently, CD36 has been found to be involved in the cytokine-induced fusion of macrophage. Myoblast fusion to form multinucleated myotubes is required for myogenesis and muscle regeneration. Because a search of gene expression database revealed the attenuation of CD36 expression in the muscles of muscular dystrophy patients, the possibility that CD36 could be required for myoblast fusion was investigated. CD36 expression was markedly up-regulated during myoblast differentiation and localized in multinucleated myotubes. Knockdown of endogenous CD36 significantly decreased the expression of myogenic markers as well as myotube formation. These results support the notion that CD36 plays an important role in cell fusion during myogenic differentiation. Our finding will aid the elucidation of the common mechanism governing cell-to-cell fusion in various fusion models.

  5. CD36 is required for myoblast fusion during myogenic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung-Yoon [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Dongguk University and Medical Institute of Dongguk University, Gyeongju 780-714 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Youngeun [Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Cell and Matrix Research Institute, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In-San, E-mail: iskim@knu.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Cell and Matrix Research Institute, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Institute, Korea Institute Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CD36 expression was induced during myogenic differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CD36 expression was localized in multinucleated myotubes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The expression of myogenic markers is attenuated in CD36 knockdown C2C12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of CD36 significantly inhibited myotube formation during differentiation. -- Abstract: Recently, CD36 has been found to be involved in the cytokine-induced fusion of macrophage. Myoblast fusion to form multinucleated myotubes is required for myogenesis and muscle regeneration. Because a search of gene expression database revealed the attenuation of CD36 expression in the muscles of muscular dystrophy patients, the possibility that CD36 could be required for myoblast fusion was investigated. CD36 expression was markedly up-regulated during myoblast differentiation and localized in multinucleated myotubes. Knockdown of endogenous CD36 significantly decreased the expression of myogenic markers as well as myotube formation. These results support the notion that CD36 plays an important role in cell fusion during myogenic differentiation. Our finding will aid the elucidation of the common mechanism governing cell-to-cell fusion in various fusion models.

  6. Differentiation-Associated Downregulation of Poly(ADP-Ribose Polymerase-1 Expression in Myoblasts Serves to Increase Their Resistance to Oxidative Stress.

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    Gábor Oláh

    Full Text Available Poly(ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1, the major isoform of the poly (ADP-ribose polymerase family, is a constitutive nuclear and mitochondrial protein with well-recognized roles in various essential cellular functions such as DNA repair, signal transduction, apoptosis, as well as in a variety of pathophysiological conditions including sepsis, diabetes and cancer. Activation of PARP-1 in response to oxidative stress catalyzes the covalent attachment of the poly (ADP-ribose (PAR groups on itself and other acceptor proteins, utilizing NAD+ as a substrate. Overactivation of PARP-1 depletes intracellular NAD+ influencing mitochondrial electron transport, cellular ATP generation and, if persistent, can result in necrotic cell death. Due to their high metabolic activity, skeletal muscle cells are particularly exposed to constant oxidative stress insults. In this study, we investigated the role of PARP-1 in a well-defined model of murine skeletal muscle differentiation (C2C12 and compare the responses to oxidative stress of undifferentiated myoblasts and differentiated myotubes. We observed a marked reduction of PARP-1 expression as myoblasts differentiated into myotubes. This alteration correlated with an increased resistance to oxidative stress of the myotubes, as measured by MTT and LDH assays. Mitochondrial function, assessed by measuring mitochondrial membrane potential, was preserved under oxidative stress in myotubes compared to myoblasts. Moreover, basal respiration, ATP synthesis, and the maximal respiratory capacity of mitochondria were higher in myotubes than in myoblasts. Inhibition of the catalytic activity of PARP-1 by PJ34 (a phenanthridinone PARP inhibitor exerted greater protective effects in undifferentiated myoblasts than in differentiated myotubes. The above observations in C2C12 cells were also confirmed in a rat-derived skeletal muscle cell line (L6. Forced overexpression of PARP1 in C2C12 myotubes sensitized the cells to oxidant

  7. TGF-β's delay skeletal muscle progenitor cell differentiation in an isoform-independent manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabort, Elske J.; Merwe, Mathilde van der; Loos, Benjamin; Moore, Frances P.; Niesler, Carola U.

    2009-01-01

    Satellite cells are a quiescent heterogenous population of mononuclear stem and progenitor cells which, once activated, differentiate into myotubes and facilitate skeletal muscle repair or growth. The Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily members are elevated post-injury and their importance in the regulation of myogenesis and wound healing has been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. Most studies suggest a negative role for TGF-β on satellite cell differentiation. However, none have compared the effect of these three isoforms on myogenesis in vitro. This is despite known isoform-specific effects of TGF-β1, -β2 and -β3 on wound repair in other tissues. In the current study we compared the effect of TGF-β1, -β2 and -β3 on proliferation and differentiation of the C2C12 myoblast cell-line. We found that, irrespective of the isoform, TGF-β increased proliferation of C2C12 cells by changing the cellular localisation of PCNA to promote cell division and prevent cell cycle exit. Concomitantly, TGF-β1, -β2 and -β3 delayed myogenic commitment by increasing MyoD degradation and decreasing myogenin expression. Terminal differentiation, as measured by a decrease in myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression, was also delayed. These results demonstrate that TGF-β promotes proliferation and delays differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts in an isoform-independent manner

  8. INDUCTION OF NA+/K+-ATPASE ACTIVITY BY LONG-TERM STIMULATION OF NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE-RECEPTORS IN C2CL2 MYOTUBES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HENNING, RH; NELEMANS, SA; VANDENAKKER, J; DENHERTOG, A

    1 To investigate the role of long-term stimulation of nicotinic acety]choline receptors (AChRs) on the regulation of membrane potential, non-contracting C2C12 myotubes were stimulated for 1-4 days with carbachol (10 mu M) and membrane potentials were measured by the intracellular microelectrode

  9. Creatine-induced activation of antioxidative defence in myotube cultures revealed by explorative NMR-based metabonomics and proteomics

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    Nielsen Niels

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Creatine is a key intermediate in energy metabolism and supplementation of creatine has been used for increasing muscle mass, strength and endurance. Creatine supplementation has also been reported to trigger the skeletal muscle expression of insulin like growth factor I, to increase the fat-free mass and improve cognition in elderly, and more explorative approaches like transcriptomics has revealed additional information. The aim of the present study was to reveal additional insight into the biochemical effects of creatine supplementation at the protein and metabolite level by integrating the explorative techniques, proteomics and NMR metabonomics, in a systems biology approach. Methods Differentiated mouse myotube cultures (C2C12 were exposed to 5 mM creatine monohydrate (CMH for 24 hours. For proteomics studies, lysed myotubes were analyzed in single 2-DGE gels where the first dimension of protein separation was pI 5-8 and second dimension was a 12.5% Criterion gel. Differentially expressed protein spots of significance were excised from the gel, desalted and identified by peptide mass fingerprinting using MALDI-TOF MS. For NMR metabonomic studies, chloroform/methanol extractions of the myotubes were subjected to one-dimensional 1H NMR spectroscopy and the intracellular oxidative status of myotubes was assessed by intracellular DCFH2 oxidation after 24 h pre-incubation with CMH. Results The identified differentially expressed proteins included vimentin, malate dehydrogenase, peroxiredoxin, thioredoxin dependent peroxide reductase, and 75 kDa and 78 kDa glucose regulated protein precursors. After CMH exposure, up-regulated proteomic spots correlated positively with the NMR signals from creatine, while down-regulated proteomic spots were negatively correlated with these NMR signals. The identified differentially regulated proteins were related to energy metabolism, glucose regulated stress, cellular structure and the

  10. Effects of creatine and its analog, β-guanidinopropionic acid, on the differentiation of and nucleoli in myoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Yoshinobu; Matsuoka, Yoshikazu; Kawano, Fuminori; Ogura, Akihiko; Higo, Yoko; Ohira, Takashi; Terada, Masahiro; Oke, Yoshihiko; Nakai, Naoya

    2011-01-01

    The effects of supplementation with creatine (Cr) and its analog, β-guanidinopropionic acid (β-GPA), on the differentiation of myoblasts and the numbers of nucleoli were studied in C2C12 cells. The cells were cultured in differentiation medium for 4 d. Then Cr (1 mM) or β-GPA (1 mM) was added to the cells, and the mixture was cultured for an additional 2 d. Although the number of myotubes was not different among the groups, myotube diameters and nuclear numbers in myotubes were increased by Cr and β-GPA treatment respectively. The expression of differentiation marker proteins, myogenin, and the myosine heavy chain, was increased in the β-GPA group. Supplementation with β-GPA also increased the percentage of p21 (inhibitor for cell cycle progression)-positive myoblasts. Supplementation with Cr inhibited the decrease in nucleoli numbers, whereas β-GPA increased nucleolar sizes in the myotubes. These results suggest that β-GPA supplementation stimulated the differentiation of myoblasts into multi-nucleated myotubes through induction of p21 expression.

  11. Biomarker-free dielectrophoretic sorting of differentiating myoblast multipotent progenitor cells and their membrane analysis by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratore, Massimo; Srsen, Vlastimil; Waterfall, Martin; Downes, Andrew; Pethig, Ronald

    2012-09-01

    Myoblasts are muscle derived mesenchymal stem cell progenitors that have great potential for use in regenerative medicine, especially for cardiomyogenesis grafts and intracardiac cell transplantation. To utilise such cells for pre-clinical and clinical applications, and especially for personalized medicine, it is essential to generate a synchronised, homogenous, population of cells that display phenotypic and genotypic homogeneity within a population of cells. We demonstrate that the biomarker-free technique of dielectrophoresis (DEP) can be used to discriminate cells between stages of differentiation in the C2C12 myoblast multipotent mouse model. Terminally differentiated myotubes were separated from C2C12 myoblasts to better than 96% purity, a result validated by flow cytometry and Western blotting. To determine the extent to which cell membrane capacitance, rather than cell size, determined the DEP response of a cell, C2C12 myoblasts were co-cultured with GFP-expressing MRC-5 fibroblasts of comparable size distributions (mean diameter ∼10 μm). A DEP sorting efficiency greater than 98% was achieved for these two cell types, a result concluded to arise from the fibroblasts possessing a larger membrane capacitance than the myoblasts. It is currently assumed that differences in membrane capacitance primarily reflect differences in the extent of folding or surface features of the membrane. However, our finding by Raman spectroscopy that the fibroblast membranes contained a smaller proportion of saturated lipids than those of the myoblasts suggests that the membrane chemistry should also be taken into account.

  12. Lewis lung carcinoma regulation of mechanical stretch-induced protein synthesis in cultured myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Carson, James A

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical stretch can activate muscle and myotube protein synthesis through mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. While it has been established that tumor-derived cachectic factors can induce myotube wasting, the effect of this catabolic environment on myotube mechanical signaling has not been determined. We investigated whether media containing cachectic factors derived from Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) can regulate the stretch induction of myotube protein synthesis. C2C12 myotubes preincubated in control or LLC-derived media were chronically stretched. Protein synthesis regulation by anabolic and catabolic signaling was then examined. In the control condition, stretch increased mTORC1 activity and protein synthesis. The LLC treatment decreased basal mTORC1 activity and protein synthesis and attenuated the stretch induction of protein synthesis. LLC media increased STAT3 and AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in myotubes, independent of stretch. Both stretch and LLC independently increased ERK1/2, p38, and NF-κB phosphorylation. In LLC-treated myotubes, the inhibition of ERK1/2 and p38 rescued the stretch induction of protein synthesis. Interestingly, either leukemia inhibitory factor or glycoprotein 130 antibody administration caused further inhibition of mTORC1 signaling and protein synthesis in stretched myotubes. AMP-activated protein kinase inhibition increased basal mTORC1 signaling activity and protein synthesis in LLC-treated myotubes, but did not restore the stretch induction of protein synthesis. These results demonstrate that LLC-derived cachectic factors can dissociate stretch-induced signaling from protein synthesis through ERK1/2 and p38 signaling, and that glycoprotein 130 signaling is associated with the basal stretch response in myotubes. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Effect of Excess Gravitational Force on Cultured Myotubes in Vitro

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    Shigehiro Hashimoto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An effect of an excess gravitational force on cultured myoblasts has been studied in an experimental system with centrifugal force in vitro. Mouse myoblasts (C2C12 were seeded on a culture dish of 35 mm diameter, and cultured in the Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium until the sub-confluent condition. To apply the excess gravitational force on the cultured cells, the dish was set in a conventional centrifugal machine. Constant gravitational force was applied to the cultured cells for three hours. Variations were made on the gravitational force (6 G, 10 G, 100 G, 500 G, and 800 G with control of the rotational speed of the rotator in the centrifugal machine. Morphology of the cells was observed with a phasecontrast microscope for eight days. The experimental results show that the myotube thickens day by day after the exposure to the excess gravitational force field. The results also show that the higher excess gravitational force thickens myotubes. The microscopic study shows that myotubes thicken with fusion each other.

  14. Mechanical stimulation increases proliferation, differentiation and protein expression in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto; Yadav, Kavita; Lawson, Moira Ann

    2007-01-01

    Myogenesis is a complex sequence of events, including the irreversible transition from the proliferation-competent myoblast stage into fused, multinucleated myotubes. Myogenic differentiation is regulated by positive and negative signals from surrounding tissues. Stimulation due to stretch- or load...... to elucidate also the signaling pathway by which this mechanical stimulation can causes an increase in protein expression. When mechanically stimulated via laminin receptors on cell surface, C(2)C(12) cells showed an increase in cell proliferation and differentiation. Populations undergoing mechanical...... stimulation through laminin receptors show an increase in expression of Myo-D, myogenin and an increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Cells stimulated via fibronectin receptors show no significant increases in fusion competence. We conclude that load induced signalling through integrin containing laminin...

  15. Metabolic effects of physiological levels of caffeine in myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnuck, Jamie K; Gould, Lacey M; Parry, Hailey A; Johnson, Michele A; Gannon, Nicholas P; Sunderland, Kyle L; Vaughan, Roger A

    2018-02-01

    Caffeine has been shown to stimulate multiple major regulators of cell energetics including AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Additionally, caffeine induces peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) and mitochondrial biogenesis. While caffeine enhances oxidative metabolism, experimental concentrations often exceed physiologically attainable concentrations through diet. This work measured the effects of low-level caffeine on cellular metabolism and gene expression in myotubes, as well as the dependence of caffeine's effects on the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARβ/δ). C2C12 myotubes were treated with various doses of caffeine for up to 24 h. Gene and protein expression were measured via qRT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Cellular metabolism was determined via oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification rate. Caffeine significantly induced regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative metabolism. Mitochondrial staining was suppressed in PPARβ/δ-inhibited cells which was rescued by concurrent caffeine treatment. Caffeine-treated cells also displayed elevated peak oxidative metabolism which was partially abolished following PPARβ/δ inhibition. Similar to past observations, glucose uptake and GLUT4 content were elevated in caffeine-treated cells, however, glycolytic metabolism was unaltered following caffeine treatment. Physiological levels of caffeine appear to enhance cell metabolism through mechanisms partially dependent on PPARβ/δ.

  16. Living biointerfaces based on non-pathogenic bacteria to direct cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Navarro, Aleixandre; Rico, Patricia; Saadeddin, Anas; Garcia, Andres J.; Salmeron-Sanchez, Manuel

    2014-07-01

    Genetically modified Lactococcus lactis, non-pathogenic bacteria expressing the FNIII7-10 fibronectin fragment as a protein membrane have been used to create a living biointerface between synthetic materials and mammalian cells. This FNIII7-10 fragment comprises the RGD and PHSRN sequences of fibronectin to bind α5β1 integrins and triggers signalling for cell adhesion, spreading and differentiation. We used L. lactis strain to colonize material surfaces and produce stable biofilms presenting the FNIII7-10 fragment readily available to cells. Biofilm density is easily tunable and remains stable for several days. Murine C2C12 myoblasts seeded over mature biofilms undergo bipolar alignment and form differentiated myotubes, a process triggered by the FNIII7-10 fragment. This biointerface based on living bacteria can be further modified to express any desired biochemical signal, establishing a new paradigm in biomaterial surface functionalisation for biomedical applications.

  17. Calcium homeostasis in myogenic differentiation factor 1 (MyoD-transformed, virally-transduced, skin-derived equine myotubes.

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    Marta Fernandez-Fuente

    Full Text Available Dysfunctional skeletal muscle calcium homeostasis plays a central role in the pathophysiology of several human and animal skeletal muscle disorders, in particular, genetic disorders associated with ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1 mutations, such as malignant hyperthermia, central core disease, multiminicore disease and certain centronuclear myopathies. In addition, aberrant skeletal muscle calcium handling is believed to play a pivotal role in the highly prevalent disorder of Thoroughbred racehorses, known as Recurrent Exertional Rhabdomyolysis. Traditionally, such defects were studied in human and equine subjects by examining the contractile responses of biopsied muscle strips exposed to caffeine, a potent RYR1 agonist. However, this test is not widely available and, due to its invasive nature, is potentially less suitable for valuable animals in training or in the human paediatric setting. Furthermore, increasingly, RYR1 gene polymorphisms (of unknown pathogenicity and significance are being identified through next generation sequencing projects. Consequently, we have investigated a less invasive test that can be used to study calcium homeostasis in cultured, skin-derived fibroblasts that are converted to the muscle lineage by viral transduction with a MyoD (myogenic differentiation 1 transgene. Similar models have been utilised to examine calcium homeostasis in human patient cells, however, to date, there has been no detailed assessment of the cells' calcium homeostasis, and in particular, the responses to agonists and antagonists of RYR1. Here we describe experiments conducted to assess calcium handling of the cells and examine responses to treatment with dantrolene, a drug commonly used for prophylaxis of recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis in horses and malignant hyperthermia in humans.

  18. MAPK signaling pathways and HDAC3 activity are disrupted during differentiation of emerin-null myogenic progenitor cells

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    Carol M. Collins

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the gene encoding emerin cause Emery–Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD. Emerin is an integral inner nuclear membrane protein and a component of the nuclear lamina. EDMD is characterized by skeletal muscle wasting, cardiac conduction defects and tendon contractures. The failure to regenerate skeletal muscle is predicted to contribute to the skeletal muscle pathology of EDMD. We hypothesize that muscle regeneration defects are caused by impaired muscle stem cell differentiation. Myogenic progenitors derived from emerin-null mice were used to confirm their impaired differentiation and analyze selected myogenic molecular pathways. Emerin-null progenitors were delayed in their cell cycle exit, had decreased myosin heavy chain (MyHC expression and formed fewer myotubes. Emerin binds to and activates histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3. Here, we show that theophylline, an HDAC3-specific activator, improved myotube formation in emerin-null cells. Addition of the HDAC3-specific inhibitor RGFP966 blocked myotube formation and MyHC expression in wild-type and emerin-null myogenic progenitors, but did not affect cell cycle exit. Downregulation of emerin was previously shown to affect the p38 MAPK and ERK/MAPK pathways in C2C12 myoblast differentiation. Using a pure population of myogenic progenitors completely lacking emerin expression, we show that these pathways are also disrupted. ERK inhibition improved MyHC expression in emerin-null cells, but failed to rescue myotube formation or cell cycle exit. Inhibition of p38 MAPK prevented differentiation in both wild-type and emerin-null progenitors. These results show that each of these molecular pathways specifically regulates a particular stage of myogenic differentiation in an emerin-dependent manner. Thus, pharmacological targeting of multiple pathways acting at specific differentiation stages may be a better therapeutic approach in the future to rescue muscle regeneration in vivo.

  19. Expression profiling of insulin action in human myotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.; Gaster, Michael; Oakeley, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    Myotube cultures from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) represent an experimental in vitro model of T2DM that offers a possibility to perform gene expression studies under standardized conditions. During a time-course of insulin stimulation (1 microM) at 5.5 mM glucose for 0 (no insulin......, metabolic enzymes, and finally cell cycle regulating genes. One-hundred-forty-four genes were differentially expressed in myotubes from donors with type 2 diabetes compared with control subjects, including HSP70, apolipoprotein D/E, tropomyosin, myosin, and actin previously reported from in vivo studies...... of diabetic skeletal muscle. We conclude, (i) that insulin induces a time-dependent inflammatory and pro-angiogenic transcriptional response in cultured human myotubes, (ii) that myotubes in vitro retain a gene expression pattern specific for type 2 diabetes and sharing five genes with that of type 2 diabetic...

  20. Gene trapping in differentiating cell lines: regulation of the lysosomal protease cathepsin B in skeletal myoblast growth and fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogos, J A; Thompson, R; Lowry, W; Sloane, B F; Weintraub, H; Horwitz, M

    1996-08-01

    To identify genes regulated during skeletal muscle differentiation, we have infected mouse C2C12 myoblasts with retroviral gene trap vectors, containing a promoterless marker gene with a 5' splice acceptor signal. Integration of the vector adjacent to an actively transcribed gene places the marker under the transcriptional control of the endogenous gene, while the adjacent vector sequences facilitate cloning. The vector insertionally mutates the trapped locus and may also form fusion proteins with the endogenous gene product. We have screened several hundred clones, each containing a trapping vector integrated into a different endogenous gene. In agreement with previous estimates based on hybridization kinetics, we find that a large proportion of all genes expressed in myoblasts are regulated during differentiation. Many of these genes undergo unique temporal patterns of activation or repression during cell growth and myotube formation, and some show specific patterns of subcellular localization. The first gene we have identified with this strategy is the lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin B. Expression from the trapped allele is upregulated during early myoblast fusion and downregulated in myotubes. A direct role for cathepsin B in myoblast growth and fusion is suggested by the observation that the trapped cells deficient in cathepsin B activity have an unusual morphology and reduced survival in low-serum media and undergo differentiation with impaired cellular fusion. The phenotype is reproduced by antisense cathepsin B expression in parental C2C12 myoblasts. The cellular phenotype is similar to that observed in cultured myoblasts from patients with I cell disease, in which there is diminished accumulation of lysosomal enzymes. This suggests that a specific deficiency of cathepsin B could contribute to the myopathic component of this illness.

  1. Morphofunctional and Biochemical Approaches for Studying Mitochondrial Changes during Myoblasts Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Barbieri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes mitochondrial behaviour during the C2C12 myoblast differentiation program and proposes a proteomic approach to mitochondria integrated with classical morphofunctional and biochemical analyses. Mitochondrial ultrastructure variations were determined by transmission electron microscopy; mitochondrial mass and membrane potential were analysed by Mitotracker Green and JC-1 stains and by epifluorescence microscope. Expression of PGC1 , NRF1 , and Tfam genes controlling mitochondrial biogenesis was studied by real-time PCR. The mitochondrial functionality was tested by cytochrome c oxidase activity and COXII expression. Mitochondrial proteomic profile was also performed. These assays showed that mitochondrial biogenesis and activity significantly increase in differentiating myotubes. The proteomic profile identifies 32 differentially expressed proteins, mostly involved in oxidative metabolism, typical of myotubes formation. Other notable proteins, such as superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, a cell protection molecule, and voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein (VDAC1 involved in the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, were found to be regulated by the myogenic process. The integration of these approaches represents a helpful tool for studying mitochondrial dynamics, biogenesis, and functionality in comparative surveys on mitochondrial pathogenic or senescent satellite cells.

  2. FSHD myotubes with different phenotypes exhibit distinct proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassin, Alexandra; Leroy, Baptiste; Laoudj-Chenivesse, Dalila; Wauters, Armelle; Vanderplanck, Céline; Le Bihan, Marie-Catherine; Coppée, Frédérique; Wattiez, Ruddy; Belayew, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a progressive muscle disorder linked to a contraction of the D4Z4 repeat array in the 4q35 subtelomeric region. This deletion induces epigenetic modifications that affect the expression of several genes located in the vicinity. In each D4Z4 element, we identified the double homeobox 4 (DUX4) gene. DUX4 expresses a transcription factor that plays a major role in the development of FSHD through the initiation of a large gene dysregulation cascade that causes myogenic differentiation defects, atrophy and reduced response to oxidative stress. Because miRNAs variably affect mRNA expression, proteomic approaches are required to define the dysregulated pathways in FSHD. In this study, we optimized a differential isotope protein labeling (ICPL) method combined with shotgun proteomic analysis using a gel-free system (2DLC-MS/MS) to study FSHD myotubes. Primary CD56(+) FSHD myoblasts were found to fuse into myotubes presenting various proportions of an atrophic or a disorganized phenotype. To better understand the FSHD myogenic defect, our improved proteomic procedure was used to compare predominantly atrophic or disorganized myotubes to the same matching healthy control. FSHD atrophic myotubes presented decreased structural and contractile muscle components. This phenotype suggests the occurrence of atrophy-associated proteolysis that likely results from the DUX4-mediated gene dysregulation cascade. The skeletal muscle myosin isoforms were decreased while non-muscle myosin complexes were more abundant. In FSHD disorganized myotubes, myosin isoforms were not reduced, and increased proteins were mostly involved in microtubule network organization and myofibrillar remodeling. A common feature of both FSHD myotube phenotypes was the disturbance of several caveolar proteins, such as PTRF and MURC. Taken together, our data suggest changes in trafficking and in the membrane microdomains of FSHD myotubes. Finally, the adjustment of a

  3. FSHD myotubes with different phenotypes exhibit distinct proteomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Tassin

    Full Text Available Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD is a progressive muscle disorder linked to a contraction of the D4Z4 repeat array in the 4q35 subtelomeric region. This deletion induces epigenetic modifications that affect the expression of several genes located in the vicinity. In each D4Z4 element, we identified the double homeobox 4 (DUX4 gene. DUX4 expresses a transcription factor that plays a major role in the development of FSHD through the initiation of a large gene dysregulation cascade that causes myogenic differentiation defects, atrophy and reduced response to oxidative stress. Because miRNAs variably affect mRNA expression, proteomic approaches are required to define the dysregulated pathways in FSHD. In this study, we optimized a differential isotope protein labeling (ICPL method combined with shotgun proteomic analysis using a gel-free system (2DLC-MS/MS to study FSHD myotubes. Primary CD56(+ FSHD myoblasts were found to fuse into myotubes presenting various proportions of an atrophic or a disorganized phenotype. To better understand the FSHD myogenic defect, our improved proteomic procedure was used to compare predominantly atrophic or disorganized myotubes to the same matching healthy control. FSHD atrophic myotubes presented decreased structural and contractile muscle components. This phenotype suggests the occurrence of atrophy-associated proteolysis that likely results from the DUX4-mediated gene dysregulation cascade. The skeletal muscle myosin isoforms were decreased while non-muscle myosin complexes were more abundant. In FSHD disorganized myotubes, myosin isoforms were not reduced, and increased proteins were mostly involved in microtubule network organization and myofibrillar remodeling. A common feature of both FSHD myotube phenotypes was the disturbance of several caveolar proteins, such as PTRF and MURC. Taken together, our data suggest changes in trafficking and in the membrane microdomains of FSHD myotubes. Finally, the

  4. NOV/CCN3 impairs muscle cell commitment and differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calhabeu, Frederico; Lafont, Jerome; Le Dreau, Gwenvael; Laurent, Maryvonne; Kazazian, Chantal; Schaeffer, Laurent; Martinerie, Cecile; Dubois, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    NOV (nephroblastoma overexpressed) is a member of a family of proteins which encodes secreted matrix-associated proteins. NOV is expressed during development in dermomyotome and limb buds, but its functions are still poorly defined. In order to understand the role of NOV in myogenic differentiation, C2C12 cells overexpressing NOV (C2-NOV) were generated. These cells failed to engage into myogenic differentiation, whereas they retained the ability to differentiate into osteoblasts. In differentiating conditions, C2-NOV cells remained proliferative, failed to express differentiation markers and lost their ability to form myotubes. Inhibition of differentiation by NOV was also observed with human primary muscle cells. Further examination of C2-NOV cells revealed a strong downregulation of the myogenic determination genes MyoD and Myf5 and of IGF-II expression. MyoD forced expression in C2-NOV was sufficient to restore differentiation and IGF-II induction whereas 10 -6 M insulin treatment had no effects. NOV therefore acts upstream of MyoD and does not affect IGF-II induction and signaling. HES1, a target of Notch, previously proposed to mediate NOV action, was not implicated in the inhibition of differentiation. We propose that NOV is a specific cell fate regulator in the myogenic lineage, acting negatively on key myogenic genes thus controlling the transition from progenitor cells to myoblasts

  5. Acute myotube protein synthesis regulation by IL-6-related cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Durstine, J Larry; Koh, Ho-Jin; Carver, Wayne E; Frizzell, Norma; Carson, James A

    2017-11-01

    IL-6 and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), members of the IL-6 family of cytokines, play recognized paradoxical roles in skeletal muscle mass regulation, being associated with both growth and atrophy. Overload or muscle contractions can induce a transient increase in muscle IL-6 and LIF expression, which has a regulatory role in muscle hypertrophy. However, the cellular mechanisms involved in this regulation have not been completely identified. The induction of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)-dependent myofiber protein synthesis is an established regulator of muscle hypertrophy, but the involvement of the IL-6 family of cytokines in this process is poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the acute effects of IL-6 and LIF administration on mTORC1 signaling and protein synthesis in C2C12 myotubes. The role of glycoprotein 130 (gp130) receptor and downstream signaling pathways, including phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt-mTORC1 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), was investigated by administration of specific siRNA or pharmaceutical inhibitors. Acute administration of IL-6 and LIF induced protein synthesis, which was accompanied by STAT3 activation, Akt-mTORC1 activation, and increased SOCS3 expression. This induction of protein synthesis was blocked by both gp130 siRNA knockdown and Akt inhibition. Interestingly, STAT3 inhibition or Akt downstream mTORC1 signaling inhibition did not fully block the IL-6 or LIF induction of protein synthesis. SOCS3 siRNA knockdown increased basal protein synthesis and extended the duration of the protein synthesis induction by IL-6 and LIF. These results demonstrate that either IL-6 or LIF can activate gp130-Akt signaling axis, which induces protein synthesis via mTORC1-independent mechanisms in cultured myotubes. However, IL-6- or LIF-induced SOCS3 negatively regulates the activation of myotube protein synthesis. Copyright © 2017 the

  6. Effects of heat stimulation and l-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate supplementation on myogenic differentiation of artificial skeletal muscle tissue constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kazushi; Ito, Akira; Sato, Masanori; Kanno, Shota; Kawabe, Yoshinori; Kamihira, Masamichi

    2017-05-01

    Although skeletal muscle tissue engineering has been extensively studied, the physical forces produced by tissue-engineered skeletal muscles remain to be improved for potential clinical utility. In this study, we examined the effects of mild heat stimulation and supplementation of a l-ascorbic acid derivative, l-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AscP), on myoblast differentiation and physical force generation of tissue-engineered skeletal muscles. Compared with control cultures at 37°C, mouse C2C12 myoblast cells cultured at 39°C enhanced myotube diameter (skeletal muscle hypertrophy), whereas mild heat stimulation did not promote myotube formation (differentiation rate). Conversely, AscP supplementation resulted in an increased differentiation rate but did not induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Following combined treatment with mild heat stimulation and AscP supplementation, both skeletal muscle hypertrophy and differentiation rate were enhanced. Moreover, the active tension produced by the tissue-engineered skeletal muscles was improved following combined treatment. These findings indicate that tissue culture using mild heat stimulation and AscP supplementation is a promising approach to enhance the function of tissue-engineered skeletal muscles. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) activates promyogenic signaling pathways, thereby promoting myoblast differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Jin; Go, Ga-Yeon; Yoo, Miran; Kim, Yong Kee [Research Center for Cell Fate Control, College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Dong-Wan [College of Pharmacy, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jong-Sun [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Gyu-Un, E-mail: gbae@sookmyung.ac.kr [Research Center for Cell Fate Control, College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-29

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) regulates postnatal myogenesis by alleviating myostatin activity, but the molecular mechanisms by which it regulates myogenesis are not fully understood. In this study, we investigate molecular mechanisms of PPARβ/δ in myoblast differentiation. C2C12 myoblasts treated with a PPARβ/δ agonist, GW0742 exhibit enhanced myotube formation and muscle-specific gene expression. GW0742 treatment dramatically activates promyogenic kinases, p38MAPK and Akt, in a dose-dependent manner. GW0742-stimulated myoblast differentiation is mediated by p38MAPK and Akt, since it failed to restore myoblast differentiation repressed by inhibition of p38MAPK and Akt. In addition, GW0742 treatment enhances MyoD-reporter activities. Consistently, overexpression of PPARβ/δ enhances myoblast differentiation accompanied by elevated activation of p38MAPK and Akt. Collectively, these results suggest that PPARβ/δ enhances myoblast differentiation through activation of promyogenic signaling pathways. - Highlights: • A PPARβ/δ agonist, GW0742 promotes myoblast differentiation. • GW0742 activates both p38MAPK and Akt activation in myogenic differentiation. • GW0742 enhances MyoD activity for myogenic differentiation. • Overexpression of PPARβ/δ enhances myoblast differentiation via activating promyogenic signaling pathways. • This is the first finding for agonistic mechanism of PPARβ/δ in myogenesis.

  8. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) activates promyogenic signaling pathways, thereby promoting myoblast differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang-Jin; Go, Ga-Yeon; Yoo, Miran; Kim, Yong Kee; Seo, Dong-Wan; Kang, Jong-Sun; Bae, Gyu-Un

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) regulates postnatal myogenesis by alleviating myostatin activity, but the molecular mechanisms by which it regulates myogenesis are not fully understood. In this study, we investigate molecular mechanisms of PPARβ/δ in myoblast differentiation. C2C12 myoblasts treated with a PPARβ/δ agonist, GW0742 exhibit enhanced myotube formation and muscle-specific gene expression. GW0742 treatment dramatically activates promyogenic kinases, p38MAPK and Akt, in a dose-dependent manner. GW0742-stimulated myoblast differentiation is mediated by p38MAPK and Akt, since it failed to restore myoblast differentiation repressed by inhibition of p38MAPK and Akt. In addition, GW0742 treatment enhances MyoD-reporter activities. Consistently, overexpression of PPARβ/δ enhances myoblast differentiation accompanied by elevated activation of p38MAPK and Akt. Collectively, these results suggest that PPARβ/δ enhances myoblast differentiation through activation of promyogenic signaling pathways. - Highlights: • A PPARβ/δ agonist, GW0742 promotes myoblast differentiation. • GW0742 activates both p38MAPK and Akt activation in myogenic differentiation. • GW0742 enhances MyoD activity for myogenic differentiation. • Overexpression of PPARβ/δ enhances myoblast differentiation via activating promyogenic signaling pathways. • This is the first finding for agonistic mechanism of PPARβ/δ in myogenesis.

  9. Ectopic expression of Msx2 in mammalian myotubes recapitulates aspects of amphibian muscle dedifferentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilgan Yilmaz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to urodele amphibians and teleost fish, mammals lack the regenerative responses to replace large body parts. Amphibian and fish regeneration uses dedifferentiation, i.e., reversal of differentiated state, as a means to produce progenitor cells to eventually replace damaged tissues. Therefore, induced activation of dedifferentiation responses in mammalian tissues holds an immense promise for regenerative medicine. Here we demonstrate that ectopic expression of Msx2 in cultured mouse myotubes recapitulates several aspects of amphibian muscle dedifferentiation. We found that MSX2, but not MSX1, leads to cellularization of myotubes and downregulates the expression of myotube markers, such as MHC, MRF4 and myogenin. RNA sequencing of myotubes ectopically expressing Msx2 showed downregulation of over 500 myotube-enriched transcripts and upregulation of over 300 myoblast-enriched transcripts. MSX2 selectively downregulated expression of Ptgs2 and Ptger4, two members of the prostaglandin pathway with important roles in myoblast fusion during muscle differentiation. Ectopic expression of Msx2, as well as Msx1, induced partial cell cycle re-entry of myotubes by upregulating CyclinD1 expression but failed to initiate S-phase. Finally, MSX2-induced dedifferentiation in mouse myotubes could be recapitulated by a pharmacological treatment with trichostatin A (TSA, bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4 and fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1. Together, these observations indicate that MSX2 is a major driver of dedifferentiation in mammalian muscle cells.

  10. Borax-Loaded PLLA for Promotion of Myogenic Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Patricia; Rodrigo-Navarro, Aleixandre; Salmerón-Sánchez, Manuel

    2015-11-01

    Boron is an essential metalloid, which plays a key role in plant and animal metabolisms. It has been reported that boron is involved in bone mineralization, has some uses in synthetic chemistry, and its potential has been only recently exploited in medicinal chemistry. However, in the area of tissue engineering, the use of boron is limited to works involving certain bioactive glasses. In this study, we engineer poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) substrates with sustained release of boron. Then, we analyze for the first time the uniqueness effects of boron in cell differentiation using murine C2C12 myoblasts and discuss a potential mechanism of action in cooperation with Ca(2+). Our results demonstrate that borax-loaded materials strongly enhance myotube formation at initial steps of myogenesis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Ca(2+) plays an essential role in combination with borax as chelating or blocking Ca(2+) entry into the cell leads to a detrimental effect on myoblast differentiation observed on borax-loaded materials. This research identifies borax-loaded materials to trigger differentiation mechanisms and it establishes a new tool to engineer microenvironments with applications in regenerative medicine for muscular diseases.

  11. Effect of nano- and micro-scale topological features on alignment of muscle cells and commitment of myogenic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, Soumen; Leung, Matthew; Zhang, Miqin; Chang, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle injury can lead to severe motor deficits that adversely affect movement and quality of life. Current surgical treatments for skeletal muscle are hindered by the poor formation of organized myotube bundles at the wound site. Tissue-engineered skeletal muscle constructs to date have been unable to generate high degrees of myotube density and alignment. Generating a suitable in vitro tissue-engineered skeletal muscle construct requires the design of a scaffold that recapitulates the structural combination of nanoscale collagen fibrils and aligned microscale basal lamina tracks present in the native extracellular matrix (ECM). We hypothesized that a 3D aligned tubular porous scaffold containing aligned nanofibers inside the pores can mimic the native muscle tissue environment. We constructed a laminar section of the hypothesized scaffold with aligned chitosan-PCL nanofibers arranged co-axially with the aligned microscale chitosan scaffold bands to mimic the required myogenic environment. A 6-day study of C2C12 mouse myoblast cells cultured on this hybrid scaffold indicated that the nanofibers and scaffold bands in the scaffold played a synergetic role in directing cell orientation, interaction, migration and organization. Our results showed that aligned nanofibers mediated cell alignment and the aligned scaffold bands induced the formation of a more compact assembly of myotube cells as compared to various control substrates including chitosan films, nanofibers, and chitosan bands. The expression levels of both early and late-stage myogenic differentiation genes associated with myogenin and myosin heavy chain, respectively, were higher on the hybrid substrate than on control substrates. Our study suggests that the combination of nano and microscale topological features in the ECM can direct myogenic differentiation, and the hybrid material has the potential to improve the outcome of skeletal tissue engineering. (papers)

  12. Hydrogen peroxide production is not primarily increased in human myotubes established from type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minet, A D; Gaster, M

    2011-09-01

    Increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been implicated in the development of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. To date, it is unknown whether increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes is primarily increased or a secondary adaptation to environmental, lifestyle, and hormonal factors. This study investigates whether ROS production is primarily increased in isolated diabetic myotubes. Mitochondrial membrane potential, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), superoxide, and mitochondrial mass were determined in human myotubes precultured under normophysiological conditions. Furthermore, the corresponding ATP synthesis was measured in isolated mitochondria. Muscle biopsies were taken from 10 lean subjects, 10 obese subjects, and 10 subjects with type 2 diabetes; satellite cells were isolated, cultured, and differentiated to myotubes. Mitochondrial mass, membrane potential/mitochondrial mass, and superoxide-production/mitochondrial mass were not different between groups. In contrast, H(2)O(2) production/mitochondrial mass and ATP production were significantly reduced in diabetic myotubes compared to lean controls (P production is not primarily increased in diabetic myotubes but rather is reduced. Moreover, the comparable ATP/H(2)O(2) ratios indicate that the reduced ROS production in diabetic myotubes parallels the reduced ATP production because ROS production in diabetic myotubes must be considered to be in a proportion comparable to lean. Thus, the increased ROS production seen in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic patients is an adaptation to the in vivo conditions.

  13. Efficient myogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells by the transduction of engineered MyoD protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Min Sun [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Biosystems and Bioengineering Program, University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Mun, Ji-Young [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Ohsuk [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Biosystems and Bioengineering Program, University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Ki-Sun [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Doo-Byoung, E-mail: dboh@kribb.re.kr [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Biosystems and Bioengineering Program, University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: •MyoD was engineered to contain protein transduction domain and endosome-disruptive INF7 peptide. •The engineered MyoD-IT showed efficient nuclear targeting through an endosomal escape by INF7 peptide. •By applying MyoD-IT, human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) were differentiated into myogenic cells. •hASCs differentiated by applying MyoD-IT fused to myotubes through co-culturing with mouse myoblasts. •Myogenic differentiation using MyoD-IT is a safe method without the concern of altering the genome. -- Abstract: Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) have great potential as cell sources for the treatment of muscle disorders. To provide a safe method for the myogenic differentiation of hASCs, we engineered the MyoD protein, a key transcription factor for myogenesis. The engineered MyoD (MyoD-IT) was designed to contain the TAT protein transduction domain for cell penetration and the membrane-disrupting INF7 peptide, which is an improved version of the HA2 peptide derived from influenza. MyoD-IT showed greatly improved nuclear targeting ability through an efficient endosomal escape induced by the pH-sensitive membrane disruption of the INF7 peptide. By applying MyoD-IT to a culture, hASCs were efficiently differentiated into long spindle-shaped myogenic cells expressing myosin heavy chains. Moreover, these cells differentiated by an application of MyoD-IT fused to myotubes with high efficiency through co-culturing with mouse C2C12 myoblasts. Because internalized proteins can be degraded in cells without altering the genome, the myogenic differentiation of hASCs using MyoD-IT would be a safe and clinically applicable method.

  14. Efficient myogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells by the transduction of engineered MyoD protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Min Sun; Mun, Ji-Young; Kwon, Ohsuk; Kwon, Ki-Sun; Oh, Doo-Byoung

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •MyoD was engineered to contain protein transduction domain and endosome-disruptive INF7 peptide. •The engineered MyoD-IT showed efficient nuclear targeting through an endosomal escape by INF7 peptide. •By applying MyoD-IT, human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) were differentiated into myogenic cells. •hASCs differentiated by applying MyoD-IT fused to myotubes through co-culturing with mouse myoblasts. •Myogenic differentiation using MyoD-IT is a safe method without the concern of altering the genome. -- Abstract: Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) have great potential as cell sources for the treatment of muscle disorders. To provide a safe method for the myogenic differentiation of hASCs, we engineered the MyoD protein, a key transcription factor for myogenesis. The engineered MyoD (MyoD-IT) was designed to contain the TAT protein transduction domain for cell penetration and the membrane-disrupting INF7 peptide, which is an improved version of the HA2 peptide derived from influenza. MyoD-IT showed greatly improved nuclear targeting ability through an efficient endosomal escape induced by the pH-sensitive membrane disruption of the INF7 peptide. By applying MyoD-IT to a culture, hASCs were efficiently differentiated into long spindle-shaped myogenic cells expressing myosin heavy chains. Moreover, these cells differentiated by an application of MyoD-IT fused to myotubes with high efficiency through co-culturing with mouse C2C12 myoblasts. Because internalized proteins can be degraded in cells without altering the genome, the myogenic differentiation of hASCs using MyoD-IT would be a safe and clinically applicable method

  15. Differentiation of mammalian skeletal muscle cells cultured on microcarrier beads in a rotating cell culture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgan, C. E.; Burge, S. S.; Collinsworth, A. M.; Truskey, G. A.; Kraus, W. E.

    2000-01-01

    The growth and repair of adult skeletal muscle are due in part to activation of muscle precursor cells, commonly known as satellite cells or myoblasts. These cells are responsive to a variety of environmental cues, including mechanical stimuli. The overall goal of the research is to examine the role of mechanical signalling mechanisms in muscle growth and plasticity through utilisation of cell culture systems where other potential signalling pathways (i.e. chemical and electrical stimuli) are controlled. To explore the effects of decreased mechanical loading on muscle differentiation, mammalian myoblasts are cultured in a bioreactor (rotating cell culture system), a model that has been utilised to simulate microgravity. C2C12 murine myoblasts are cultured on microcarrier beads in a bioreactor and followed throughout differentiation as they form a network of multinucleated myotubes. In comparison with three-dimensional control cultures that consist of myoblasts cultured on microcarrier beads in teflon bags, myoblasts cultured in the bioreactor exhibit an attenuation in differentiation. This is demonstrated by reduced immunohistochemical staining for myogenin and alpha-actinin. Western analysis shows a decrease, in bioreactor cultures compared with control cultures, in levels of the contractile proteins myosin (47% decrease, p < 0.01) and tropomyosin (63% decrease, p < 0.01). Hydrodynamic measurements indicate that the decrease in differentiation may be due, at least in part, to fluid stresses acting on the myotubes. In addition, constraints on aggregate size imposed by the action of fluid forces in the bioreactor affect differentiation. These results may have implications for muscle growth and repair during spaceflight.

  16. Effect of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on Myogenesis and Mitochondrial Biosynthesis during Murine Skeletal Muscle Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tun-Yun Hsueh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids are important nutrients for human health, especially omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, which have been found to play positive roles in the prevention of various diseases. However, previous studies have reported that excessive omega-3 fatty acids supplement during pregnancy caused side effects such as slower neural transmission times and postnatal growth restriction. In this study, we investigated the effect of EPA and DHA on mitochondrial function and gene expression in C2C12 myoblasts during skeletal muscle differentiation. C2C12 myoblasts were cultured to confluency and then treated with differentiation medium that contained fatty acids (50-µM EPA and DHA. After 72 h of myogenic differentiation, mRNA was collected, and gene expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. Microscopy was used to examine cell morphology following treatment with fatty acids. The effect of EPA and DHA on cellular oxygen consumption was measured using a Seahorse XF24 Analyzer. Cells treated with fatty acids had fewer myotubes formed (P ≤ 0.05 compared with control cells. The expression of the genes related to myogenesis was significantly lower (P ≤ 0.05 in cells treated with fatty acids, compared with control cells. Genes associated with adipogenesis had higher (P ≤ 0.05 expression after treatment with fatty acids. Also, the mitochondrial biogenesis decreased with lower (P ≤ 0.05 gene expression and lower (P ≤ 0.05 mtDNA/nDNA ratio in cells treated with fatty acids compared with control cells. However, the expression of genes related to peroxisome biosynthesis was higher (P ≤ 0.05 in cells treated with fatty acids. Moreover, fatty-acid treatment reduced (P ≤ 0.05 oxygen consumption rate under oligomycin-inhibited (reflecting proton leak and uncoupled conditions. Our data imply that fatty acids might reduce myogenesis and increase adipogenesis in myotube formation. Fatty acids

  17. Signals of Ezh2, Src, and Akt Involve in Myostatin-Pax7 Pathways Regulating the Myogenic Fate Determination during the Sheep Myoblast Proliferation and Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liu, Ruizao; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Fuping; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Xiaoning; Du, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Myostatin and Pax7 have been well documented individually, however, the mechanism by which Myostatin regulates Pax7 is seldom reported. Here, based on muscle transcriptome analysis in Texel (Myostatin mutant) and Ujumqin (wild type) sheep across the five fetal stages, we constructed and examined the Myostatin-Pax7 pathways in muscle. Then we validated the signals by RNAi in the proliferating and differentiating sheep myoblasts in vitro at mRNA, protein, and cell morphological levels. We reveal that Myostatin signals to Pax7 at least through Ezh2, Src, and Akt during the sheep myoblast proliferation and differentiation. Other signals such as p38MAPK, mTOR, Erk1/2, Wnt, Bmp2, Smad, Tgfb1, and p21 are most probably involved in the Myostatin-affected myogenic events. Myostatin knockdown significantly reduces the counts of nucleus and myotube, but not the fusion index of myoblasts during cell differentiation. In addition, findings also indicate that Myostatin is required for normal myogenic differentiation of the sheep myoblasts, which is different from the C2C12 myoblasts. We expand the regulatory network of Myostatin-Pax7 pathways and first illustrate that Myostatin as a global regulator participates in the epigenetic events involved in myogenesis, which contributes to understand the molecular mechanism of Myostatin in regulation of myogenesis. PMID:25811841

  18. Production and release of acylcarnitines by primary myotubes reflect the differences in fasting fat oxidation of the donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Magnus; Chen, Shili; Zhao, Xinjie; Scheler, Mika; Irmler, Martin; Staiger, Harald; Beckers, Johannes; de Angelis, Martin Hrabé; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Schleicher, Erwin D; Xu, Guowang; Lehmann, Rainer; Weigert, Cora

    2013-06-01

    Acylcarnitines are biomarkers of incomplete β-oxidation and mitochondrial lipid overload but indicate also high rates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. It is unknown whether the production of acylcarnitines in primary human myotubes obtained from lean, metabolically healthy subjects reflects the fat oxidation in vivo. Our objective was to quantify the acylcarnitine production in myotubes obtained from subjects with low and high fasting respiratory quotient (RQ). Fasting RQ was determined by indirect calorimetry. Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were taken from 6 subjects with low fasting RQ (mean 0.79 ± 0.03) and 6 with high fasting RQ (0.90 ± 0.03), and satellite cells were isolated, cultured, and differentiated to myotubes. Myotubes were cultivated with 125 μM (13)C-labeled palmitate for 30 minutes and 4 and 24 hours. Quantitative profiling of 42 intracellular and 31 extracellular acylcarnitines was performed by stable isotope dilution-based metabolomics analysis by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Myotubes from donors with high fasting RQ produced and released significant higher amounts of medium-chain acylcarnitines. High (13)C8 and (13)C10 acylcarnitine levels in the extracellular compartment correlated with high fasting RQ. The decreased expression of medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) in these myotubes can explain the higher rate of incomplete fatty acid oxidation. A lower intracellular [(13)C]acetylcarnitine to carnitine and lower intracellular (13)C16/(13)C18 acylcarnitine to carnitine ratio indicate reduced fatty acid oxidation capacity in these myotubes. Mitochondrial DNA content was not different. Acylcarnitine production and release from primary human myotubes of donors with high fasting RQ indicate a reduced fatty acid oxidation capacity and a higher rate of incomplete fatty acid oxidation. Thus, quantitative profiling of acylcarnitine production in human myotubes can be a suitable tool to

  19. Metabolic flexibility is conserved in diabetic myotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that metabolic inflexibility is an intrinsic defect. Glucose and lipid oxidation were studied in human myotubes established from healthy lean and obese subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In lean myotubes, glucose oxidation...... inflexibility described in obese and diabetic patients is not an intrinsic defect; rather, it is based on an extramuscular mechanism (i.e., the inability to vary extracellular fatty acid concentrations during insulin stimulation). Thus, skeletal muscles are metabolic-flexible per se....

  20. Isolation and maintenance-free culture of contractile myotubes from Manduca sexta embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L Baryshyan

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle tissue engineering has the potential to treat tissue loss and degenerative diseases. However, these systems are also applicable for a variety of devices where actuation is needed, such as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS and robotics. Most current efforts to generate muscle bioactuators are focused on using mammalian cells, which require exacting conditions for survival and function. In contrast, invertebrate cells are more environmentally robust, metabolically adaptable and relatively autonomous. Our hypothesis is that the use of invertebrate muscle cells will obviate many of the limitations encountered when mammalian cells are used for bioactuation. We focus on the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, due to its easy availability, large size and well-characterized muscle contractile properties. Using isolated embryonic cells, we have developed culture conditions to grow and characterize contractile M. sexta muscles. The insect hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone was used to induce differentiation in the system, resulting in cells that stained positive for myosin, contract spontaneously for the duration of the culture, and do not require media changes over periods of more than a month. These cells proliferate under normal conditions, but the application of juvenile hormone induced further proliferation and inhibited differentiation. Cellular metabolism under normal and low glucose conditions was compared for C2C12 mouse and M. sexta myoblast cells. While differentiated C2C12 cells consumed glucose and produced lactate over one week as expected, M. sexta muscle did not consume significant glucose, and lactate production exceeded mammalian muscle production on a per cell basis. Contractile properties were evaluated using index of movement analysis, which demonstrated the potential of these cells to perform mechanical work. The ability of cultured M. sexta muscle to continuously function at ambient conditions without medium replenishment

  1. Statins induce apoptosis in rat and human myotube cultures by inhibiting protein geranylgeranylation but not ubiquinone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Timothy E.; Zhang, Xiaohua; Bleicher, Kimberly B.; Dysart, Gary; Loughlin, Amy F.; Schaefer, William H.; Umbenhauer, Diane R.

    2004-01-01

    Statins are widely used to treat lipid disorders. These drugs are safe and well tolerated; however, in <1% of patients, myopathy and/or rhabdomyolysis can develop. To better understand the mechanism of statin-induced myopathy, we examined the ability of structurally distinct statins to induce apoptosis in an optimized rat myotube model. Compound A (a lactone) and Cerivastatin (an open acid) induced apoptosis, as measured by TUNEL and active caspase 3 staining, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. In contrast, an epimer of Compound A (Compound B) exhibited a much weaker apoptotic response. Statin-induced apoptosis was completely prevented by mevalonate or geranylgeraniol, but not by farnesol. Zaragozic acid A, a squalene synthase inhibitor, caused no apoptosis on its own and had no effect on Compound-A-induced myotoxicity, suggesting the apoptosis was not a result of cholesterol synthesis inhibition. The geranylgeranyl transferase inhibitors GGTI-2133 and GGTI-2147 caused apoptosis in myotubes; the farnesyl transferase inhibitor FTI-277 exhibited a much weaker effect. In addition, the prenylation of rap1a, a geranylgeranylated protein, was inhibited by Compound A in myotubes at concentrations that induced apoptosis. A similar statin-induced apoptosis profile was seen in human myotube cultures but primary rat hepatocytes were about 200-fold more resistant to statin-induced apoptosis. Although the statin-induced hepatotoxicity could be attenuated with mevalonate, no effect was found with either geranylgeraniol or farnesol. In studies assessing ubiquinone levels after statin treatment in rat and human myotubes, there was no correlation between ubiquinone levels and apoptosis. Taken together, these observations suggest that statins cause apoptosis in myotube cultures in part by inhibiting the geranylgeranylation of proteins, but not by suppressing ubiquinone concentration. Furthermore, the data from primary hepatocytes suggests a cell-type differential

  2. Park7 expression influences myotube size and myosin expression in muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Yu

    Full Text Available Callipyge sheep exhibit postnatal muscle hypertrophy due to the up-regulation of DLK1 and/or RTL1. The up-regulation of PARK7 was identified in hypertrophied muscles by microarray analysis and further validated by quantitative PCR. The expression of PARK7 in hypertrophied muscle of callipyge lambs was confirmed to be up-regulated at the protein level. PARK7 was previously identified to positively regulate PI3K/AKT pathway by suppressing the phosphatase activity of PTEN in mouse fibroblasts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of PARK7 in muscle growth and protein accretion in response to IGF1. Primary myoblasts isolated from Park7 (+/+ and Park7 (-/- mice were used to examine the effect of differential expression of Park7. The Park7 (+/+ myotubes had significantly larger diameters and more total sarcomeric myosin expression than Park7 (-/- myotubes. IGF1 treatment increased the mRNA abundance of Myh4, Myh7 and Myh8 between 20-40% in Park7 (+/+ myotubes relative to Park7 (-/-. The level of AKT phosphorylation was increased in Park7 (+/+ myotubes at all levels of IGF1 supplementation. After removal of IGF1, the Park7 (+/+ myotubes maintained higher AKT phosphorylation through 3 hours. PARK7 positively regulates the PI3K/AKT pathway by inhibition of PTEN phosphatase activity in skeletal muscle. The increased PARK7 expression can increase protein synthesis and result in myotube hypertrophy. These results support the hypothesis that elevated expression of PARK7 in callipyge muscle would increase levels of AKT activity to cause hypertrophy in response to the normal IGF1 signaling in rapidly growing lambs. Increasing expression of PARK7 could be a novel mechanism to increase protein accretion and muscle growth in livestock or help improve muscle mass with disease or aging.

  3. Development of a cell culture surface conversion technique using alginate thin film for evaluating effect upon cellular differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Y.; Tsusu, K.; Minami, K.; Nakanishi, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we sought to develop a cell culture surface conversion technique that would not damage living cells. An alginate thin film, formed on a glass plate by spin coating of sodium alginate solution and dipping into calcium chloride solution, was used to inhibit adhesion of cells. The film could be removed by ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) at any time during cell culture, permitting observation of cellular responses to conversion of the culture surface in real time. Additionally, we demonstrated the validity of the alginate thin film coating method and the performance of the film. The thickness of the alginate thin film was controlled by varying the rotation speed during spin coating. Moreover, the alginate thin film completely inhibited the adhesion of cultured cells to the culture surface, irrespective of the thickness of the film. When the alginate thin film was removed from the culture surface by EDTA, the cultured cells adhered to the culture surface, and their morphology changed. Finally, we achieved effective differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotube cells by cell culture on the convertible culture surface, demonstrating the utility of our novel technique

  4. Palmitate-induced ER stress and inhibition of protein synthesis in cultured myotubes does not require Toll-like receptor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Ben D; Rahnert, Jill A; Xie, Yang; Zheng, Bin; Woodworth-Hobbs, Myra E; Price, S Russ

    2018-01-01

    Saturated fatty acids, such as palmitate, are elevated in metabolically dysfunctional conditions like type 2 diabetes mellitus. Palmitate has been shown to impair insulin sensitivity and suppress protein synthesis while upregulating proteolytic systems in skeletal muscle. Increased sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and subsequent activation of the unfolded protein response may contribute to the palmitate-induced impairment of muscle protein synthesis. In some cell types, ER stress occurs through activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Given the link between ER stress and suppression of protein synthesis, we investigated whether palmitate induces markers of ER stress and protein synthesis by activating TLR4 in cultured mouse C2C12 myotubes. Myotubes were treated with vehicle, a TLR4-specific ligand (lipopolysaccharides), palmitate, or a combination of palmitate plus a TLR4-specific inhibitor (TAK-242). Inflammatory indicators of TLR4 activation (IL-6 and TNFα) and markers of ER stress were measured, and protein synthesis was assessed using puromycin incorporation. Palmitate substantially increased the levels of IL-6, TNF-α, CHOP, XBP1s, and ATF 4 mRNAs and augmented the levels of CHOP, XBP1s, phospho-PERK and phospho-eIF2α proteins. The TLR4 antagonist attenuated both acute palmitate and LPS-induced increases in IL-6 and TNFα, but did not reduce ER stress signaling with either 6 h or 24 h palmitate treatment. Similarly, treating myotubes with palmitate for 6 h caused a 43% decline in protein synthesis consistent with an increase in phospho-eIF2α, and the TLR4 antagonist did not alter these responses. These results suggest that palmitate does not induce ER stress through TLR4 in muscle, and that palmitate impairs protein synthesis in skeletal muscle in part by induction of ER stress.

  5. Palmitate-induced ER stress and inhibition of protein synthesis in cultured myotubes does not require Toll-like receptor 4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben D Perry

    Full Text Available Saturated fatty acids, such as palmitate, are elevated in metabolically dysfunctional conditions like type 2 diabetes mellitus. Palmitate has been shown to impair insulin sensitivity and suppress protein synthesis while upregulating proteolytic systems in skeletal muscle. Increased sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and subsequent activation of the unfolded protein response may contribute to the palmitate-induced impairment of muscle protein synthesis. In some cell types, ER stress occurs through activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4. Given the link between ER stress and suppression of protein synthesis, we investigated whether palmitate induces markers of ER stress and protein synthesis by activating TLR4 in cultured mouse C2C12 myotubes. Myotubes were treated with vehicle, a TLR4-specific ligand (lipopolysaccharides, palmitate, or a combination of palmitate plus a TLR4-specific inhibitor (TAK-242. Inflammatory indicators of TLR4 activation (IL-6 and TNFα and markers of ER stress were measured, and protein synthesis was assessed using puromycin incorporation. Palmitate substantially increased the levels of IL-6, TNF-α, CHOP, XBP1s, and ATF 4 mRNAs and augmented the levels of CHOP, XBP1s, phospho-PERK and phospho-eIF2α proteins. The TLR4 antagonist attenuated both acute palmitate and LPS-induced increases in IL-6 and TNFα, but did not reduce ER stress signaling with either 6 h or 24 h palmitate treatment. Similarly, treating myotubes with palmitate for 6 h caused a 43% decline in protein synthesis consistent with an increase in phospho-eIF2α, and the TLR4 antagonist did not alter these responses. These results suggest that palmitate does not induce ER stress through TLR4 in muscle, and that palmitate impairs protein synthesis in skeletal muscle in part by induction of ER stress.

  6. Benfotiamine increases glucose oxidation and downregulates NADPH oxidase 4 expression in cultured human myotubes exposed to both normal and high glucose concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser, D. A.; Hessvik, N. P.; Nikolić, N.; Aas, V.; Hanssen, K. F.; Bøhn, S. K.; Thoresen, G. H.; Rustan, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the effects of benfotiamine (S-benzoylthiamine O-monophosphate) on glucose and lipid metabolism and gene expression in differentiated human skeletal muscle cells (myotubes) incubated for 4 days under normal (5.5 mM glucose) and hyperglycemic (20 mM glucose) conditions. Myotubes established from lean, healthy volunteers were treated with benfotiamine for 4 days. Glucose and lipid metabolism were studied with labeled precursors. Gene expression was measu...

  7. Insulin resistance is not conserved in myotubes established from women with PCOS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Eriksen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder among premenopausal women, who often develop insulin resistance. We tested the hypothesis that insulin resistance in skeletal muscle of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is an intrinsic defect, by investigating the metabolic characteristics and gene expression of in vitro differentiated myotubes established from well characterized PCOS subjects.Using radiotracer techniques, RT-PCR and enzyme kinetic analysis we examined myotubes established from PCOS subjects with or without pioglitazone treatment, versus healthy control subjects who had been extensively metabolically characterized in vivo. Results. Myotubes established from PCOS and matched control subjects comprehensively expressed all insulin-sensitive biomarkers; glucose uptake and oxidation, glycogen synthesis and lipid uptake. There were no significant differences between groups either at baseline or during acute insulin stimulation, although in vivo skeletal muscle was insulin resistant. In particular, we found no evidence for defects in insulin-stimulated glycogen synthase activity between groups. Myotubes established from PCOS patients with or without pioglitazone treatment also showed no significant differences between groups, neither at baseline nor during acute insulin stimulation, although in vivo pioglitazone treatment significantly improved insulin sensitivity. Consistently, the myotube cultures failed to show differences in mRNA levels of genes previously demonstrated to differ in PCOS patients with or without pioglitazone treatment (PLEK, SLC22A16, and TTBK.These results suggest that the mechanisms governing insulin resistance in skeletal muscle of PCOS patients in vivo are not primary, but rather adaptive.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00145340.

  8. The effects of acetaldehyde and acrolein on muscle catabolism in C2 myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Oren; Kaisari, Sharon; Aizenbud, Dror; Reznick, Abraham Z

    2013-12-01

    The toxic aldehydes acetaldehyde and acrolein were previously suggested to damage skeletal muscle. Several conditions in which exposure to acetaldehyde and acrolein is increased were associated with muscle wasting and dysfunction. These include alcoholic myopathy, renal failure, oxidative stress, and inflammation. A main exogenous source of both acetaldehyde and acrolein is cigarette smoking, which was previously associated with increased muscle catabolism. Recently, we have shown that exposure of skeletal myotubes to cigarette smoke stimulated muscle catabolism via increased oxidative stress, activation of p38 MAPK, and upregulation of muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of acetaldehyde and acrolein on catabolism of skeletal muscle. Skeletal myotubes differentiated from the C2 myoblast cell line were exposed to acetaldehyde or acrolein and their effects on signaling pathways related to muscle catabolism were studied. Exposure of myotubes to acetaldehyde did not promote muscle catabolism. However, exposure to acrolein caused increased generation of free radicals, activation of p38 MAPK, upregulation of the muscle-specific E3 ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF1, degradation of myosin heavy chain, and atrophy of myotubes. Inhibition of p38 MAPK by SB203580 abolished acrolein-induced muscle catabolism. Our findings demonstrate that acrolein but not acetaldehyde activates a signaling cascade resulting in muscle catabolism in skeletal myotubes. Although within the limitations of an in vitro study, these findings indicate that acrolein may promote muscle wasting in conditions of increased exposure to this aldehyde. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A multiplexed chip-based assay system for investigating the functional development of human skeletal myotubes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A S T; Long, C J; Pirozzi, K; Najjar, S; McAleer, C; Vandenburgh, H H; Hickman, J J

    2014-09-20

    This report details the development of a non-invasive in vitro assay system for investigating the functional maturation and performance of human skeletal myotubes. Data is presented demonstrating the survival and differentiation of human myotubes on microscale silicon cantilevers in a defined, serum-free system. These cultures can be stimulated electrically and the resulting contraction quantified using modified atomic force microscopy technology. This system provides a higher degree of sensitivity for investigating contractile waveforms than video-based analysis, and represents the first system capable of measuring the contractile activity of individual human muscle myotubes in a reliable, high-throughput and non-invasive manner. The development of such a technique is critical for the advancement of body-on-a-chip platforms toward application in pre-clinical drug development screens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Reduced TCA Flux in Diabetic Myotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The diabetic phenotype is complex, requiring elucidation of key initiating defects. Diabetic myotubes express a primary reduced tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux but at present it is unclear in which part of the TCA cycle the defect is localised. In order to localise the defect we studied ATP p...... production of investigated substrate combinations was significantly reduced in mitochondria isolated from type 2 diabetic subjects compared to lean. However, when ATP synthesis rates at different substrate combinations were normalized to the corresponding individual pyruvate-malate rate...

  11. Ionizing radiation increases primary cilia incidence and induces multiciliation in C2C12 myoblasts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filipová, A.; Diaz-Garcia, D.; Bezrouk, A.; Čížková, D.; Havelek, R.; Vávrová, J.; Dayanithi, Govindan; Řezáčová, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 8 (2015), s. 943-953 ISSN 1065-6995 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : cell line * ionizing radiation * multiple cilia * myoblast * primary cilium * serum starvation stress Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines Impact factor: 1.663, year: 2015

  12. Prolonged activation of S6K1 does not suppress IRS or PI-3 kinase signaling during muscle cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacKenzie Matthew G

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myogenesis in C2C12 cells requires the activation of the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathways. Since mTOR signaling can feedback through S6K1 to inhibit the activation of PI3K, the aim of this work was to assess whether feedback from S6K1 played a role in myogenesis and determine whether siRNA mediated knockdown of S6K1 would lead to an increased rate of myotube formation. Results S6K1 activity increased in a linear fashion following plating and was more than 3-fold higher after Day 3 of differentiation (subconfluent = 11.09 ± 3.05, Day 3 = 29.34 ± 3.58. IRS-1 levels tended to increase upon serum withdrawal but decreased approximately 2-fold (subconfluent = 0.88 ± 0.10, Day 3 = 0.42 ± 0.06 3 days following differentiation whereas IRS-2 protein remained stable. IRS-1 associated p85 was significantly reduced upon serum withdrawal (subconfluent = 0.86 ± 0.07, Day 0 = 0.31 ± 0.05, remaining low through day 1. IRS-2 associated p85 decreased following serum withdrawal (subconfluent = 0.96 ± 0.05, Day 1 = 0.56 ± 0.08 and remained suppressed up to Day 3 following differentiation (0.56 ± 0.05. Phospho-tyrosine associated p85 increased significantly from subconfluent to Day 0 and remained elevated throughout differentiation. siRNA directed against S6K1 and S6K2 did not result in changes in IRS-1 levels after either 48 or 96 hrs. Furthermore, neither 48 nor 96 hrs of S6K1 knockdown caused a change in myotube formation. Conclusions Even though S6K1 activity increases throughout muscle cell differentiation and IRS-1 levels decrease over this period, siRNA suggests that S6K1 is not mediating the decrease in IRS-1. The decrease in IRS-1/2 associated p85 together with the increase in phospho-tyrosine associated p85 suggests that PI3K associates primarily with scaffolds other than IRS-1/2 during muscle cell differentiation.

  13. Human myotubes from myoblast cultures undergoing senescence exhibit defects in glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nehlin, Jan O; Just, Marlene; Rustan, Arild C

    2011-01-01

    Adult stem cells are known to have a finite replication potential. Muscle biopsy-derived human satellite cells (SCs) were grown at different passages and differentiated to human myotubes in culture to analyze the functional state of various carbohydrate and lipid metabolic pathways. As the prolif......Adult stem cells are known to have a finite replication potential. Muscle biopsy-derived human satellite cells (SCs) were grown at different passages and differentiated to human myotubes in culture to analyze the functional state of various carbohydrate and lipid metabolic pathways...... number and could be explained by reduced incorporation into diacyl- and triacylglycerols. The levels of long-chain acyl-CoA esters decreased with increased passage number. Late-passage, non-proliferating, myoblast cultures showed strong senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity indicating...... that the observed metabolic defects accompany the induction of a senescent state. The main function of SCs is regeneration and skeletal muscle-build up. Thus, the metabolic defects observed during aging of SC-derived myotubes could have a role in sarcopenia, the gradual age-related loss of muscle mass and strength....

  14. Lipid remodeling and an altered membrane-associated proteome may drive the differential effects of EPA and DHA treatment on skeletal muscle glucose uptake and protein accretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeromson, Stewart; Mackenzie, Ivor; Doherty, Mary K; Whitfield, Phillip D; Bell, Gordon; Dick, James; Shaw, Andy; Rao, Francesco V; Ashcroft, Stephen P; Philp, Andrew; Galloway, Stuart D R; Gallagher, Iain; Hamilton, D Lee

    2018-06-01

    In striated muscle, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have differential effects on the metabolism of glucose and differential effects on the metabolism of protein. We have shown that, despite similar incorporation, treatment of C 2 C 12 myotubes (CM) with EPA but not DHA improves glucose uptake and protein accretion. We hypothesized that these differential effects of EPA and DHA may be due to divergent shifts in lipidomic profiles leading to altered proteomic profiles. We therefore carried out an assessment of the impact of treating CM with EPA and DHA on lipidomic and proteomic profiles. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) analysis revealed that both EPA and DHA led to similar but substantials changes in fatty acid profiles with the exception of arachidonic acid, which was decreased only by DHA, and docosapentanoic acid (DPA), which was increased only by EPA treatment. Global lipidomic analysis showed that EPA and DHA induced large alterations in the cellular lipid profiles and in particular, the phospholipid classes. Subsequent targeted analysis confirmed that the most differentially regulated species were phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylethanolamines containing long-chain fatty acids with five (EPA treatment) or six (DHA treatment) double bonds. As these are typically membrane-associated lipid species we hypothesized that these treatments differentially altered the membrane-associated proteome. Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based proteomics of the membrane fraction revealed significant divergence in the effects of EPA and DHA on the membrane-associated proteome. We conclude that the EPA-specific increase in polyunsaturated long-chain fatty acids in the phospholipid fraction is associated with an altered membrane-associated proteome and these may be critical events in the metabolic remodeling induced by EPA treatment.

  15. Ubiquitinated CD36 sustains insulin-stimulated Akt activation by stabilizing insulin receptor substrate 1 in myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shishuo; Tan, Pengcheng; Huang, Xiaoheng; Zhang, Wei; Kong, Chen; Ren, Fangfang; Su, Xiong

    2018-02-16

    Both the magnitude and duration of insulin signaling are important in executing its cellular functions. Insulin-induced degradation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) represents a key negative feedback loop that restricts insulin signaling. Moreover, high concentrations of fatty acids (FAs) and glucose involved in the etiology of obesity-associated insulin resistance also contribute to the regulation of IRS1 degradation. The scavenger receptor CD36 binds many lipid ligands, and its contribution to insulin resistance has been extensively studied, but the exact regulation of insulin sensitivity by CD36 is highly controversial. Herein, we found that CD36 knockdown in C2C12 myotubes accelerated insulin-stimulated Akt activation, but the activated signaling was sustained for a much shorter period of time as compared with WT cells, leading to exacerbated insulin-induced insulin resistance. This was likely due to enhanced insulin-induced IRS1 degradation after CD36 knockdown. Overexpression of WT CD36, but not a ubiquitination-defective CD36 mutant, delayed IRS1 degradation. We also found that CD36 functioned through ubiquitination-dependent binding to IRS1 and inhibiting its interaction with cullin 7, a key component of the multisubunit cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Moreover, dissociation of the Src family kinase Fyn from CD36 by free FAs or Fyn knockdown/inhibition accelerated insulin-induced IRS1 degradation, likely due to disrupted IRS1 interaction with CD36 and thus enhanced binding to cullin 7. In summary, we identified a CD36-dependent FA-sensing pathway that plays an important role in negative feedback regulation of insulin activation and may open up strategies for preventing or managing type 2 diabetes mellitus. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Formation and characterisation of neuromuscular junctions between hiPSC derived motoneurons and myotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Demestre

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Striated skeletal muscle cells from humans represent a valuable source for in vitro studies of the motoric system as well as for pathophysiological investigations in the clinical settings. Myoblasts can readily be grown from human muscle tissue. However, if muscle tissue is unavailable, myogenic cells can be generated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs preferably without genetic engineering. Our study aimed to optimize the generation of hiPSCs derived myogenic cells by employing selection of CD34 positive cells and followed by distinct, stepwise culture conditions. Following the expansion of CD34 positive single cells under myogenic cell culture conditions, serum deprived myoblast-like cells finally fused and formed multinucleated striated myotubes that expressed a set of key markers for muscle differentiation. In addition, these myotubes contracted upon electrical stimulation, responded to acetylcholine (Ach and were able to generate action potentials. Finally, we co-cultured motoneurons and myotubes generated from identical hiPSCs cell lines. We could observe the early aggregation of acetylcholine receptors in muscle cells of immature co-cultures. At later stages, we identified and characterised mature neuromuscular junctions (NMJs. In summary, we describe here the successful generation of an iPS cell derived functional cellular system consisting of two distinct communicating cells types. This in vitro co-culture system could therefore contribute to research on diseases in which the motoneurons and the NMJ are predominantly affected, such as in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or spinal muscular atrophy.

  17. The influence of serum-free culture conditions on skeletal muscle differentiation in a tissue-engineered model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gawlitta, D.; Boonen, K.J.M.; Oomens, C.W.J.; Baaijens, F.P.T.; Bouten, C.V.C.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of differentiation medium (DM) components on C2C12 murine myoblast differentiation has only been studied in monolayer cultures. Serum-free formulations have been applied that omit the use of sera with unknown composition. The goal of the present study was to compare the influence of

  18. 6-Paradol and 6-Shogaol, the Pungent Compounds of Ginger, Promote Glucose Utilization in Adipocytes and Myotubes, and 6-Paradol Reduces Blood Glucose in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Kei Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-diabetic activity of ginger powder (Zingiber officinale has been recently promoted, with the recommendation to be included as one of the dietary supplements for diabetic patients. However, previous studies presented different results, which may be caused by degradation and metabolic changes of ginger components, gingerols, shogaols and paradols. Therefore, we prepared 10 ginger active components, namely 6-, 8-, 10-paradols, 6-, 8-, 10-shogaols, 6-, 8-, 10-gingerols and zingerone, and evaluated their anti-hyperglycemic activity. Among the tested compounds, 6-paradol and 6-shogaol showed potent activity in stimulating glucose utilization by 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes. The effects were attributed to the increase in 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. 6-Paradol, the major metabolite of 6-shogaol, was utilized in an in vivo assay and significantly reduced blood glucose, cholesterol and body weight in high-fat diet-fed mice.

  19. Skeletal muscle tissue engineering: methods to form skeletal myotubes and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovidov, Serge; Hosseini, Vahid; Ahadian, Samad; Fujie, Toshinori; Parthiban, Selvakumar Prakash; Ramalingam, Murugan; Bae, Hojae; Kaji, Hirokazu; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2014-10-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue engineering (SMTE) aims to repair or regenerate defective skeletal muscle tissue lost by traumatic injury, tumor ablation, or muscular disease. However, two decades after the introduction of SMTE, the engineering of functional skeletal muscle in the laboratory still remains a great challenge, and numerous techniques for growing functional muscle tissues are constantly being developed. This article reviews the recent findings regarding the methodology and various technical aspects of SMTE, including cell alignment and differentiation. We describe the structure and organization of muscle and discuss the methods for myoblast alignment cultured in vitro. To better understand muscle formation and to enhance the engineering of skeletal muscle, we also address the molecular basics of myogenesis and discuss different methods to induce myoblast differentiation into myotubes. We then provide an overview of different coculture systems involving skeletal muscle cells, and highlight major applications of engineered skeletal muscle tissues. Finally, potential challenges and future research directions for SMTE are outlined.

  20. Injectable Anisotropic Nanocomposite Hydrogels Direct in Situ Growth and Alignment of Myotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De France, Kevin J.; Yager, Kevin G.; Chan, Katelyn J. W.; Corbett, Brandon; Cranston, Emily D.; Hoare, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Here, while injectable in situ cross-linking hydrogels have attracted increasing attention as minimally invasive tissue scaffolds and controlled delivery systems, their inherently disorganized and isotropic network structure limits their utility in engineering oriented biological tissues. Traditional methods to prepare anisotropic hydrogels are not easily translatable to injectable systems given the need for external equipment to direct anisotropic gel fabrication and/or the required use of temperatures or solvents incompatible with biological systems. Herein, we report a new class of injectable nanocomposite hydrogels based on hydrazone cross-linked poly(oligoethylene glycol methacrylate) and magnetically aligned cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) capable of encapsulating skeletal muscle myoblasts and promoting their differentiation into highly oriented myotubes in situ. CNC alignment occurs on the same time scale as network gelation and remains fixed after the removal of the magnetic field, enabling concurrent CNC orientation and hydrogel injection. The aligned hydrogels show mechanical and swelling profiles that can be rationally modulated by the degree of CNC alignment and can direct myotube alignment both in two- and three-dimensions following coinjection of the myoblasts with the gel precursor components. As such, these hydrogels represent a critical advancement in anisotropic biomimetic scaffolds that can be generated noninvasively in vivo following simple injection.

  1. Reduced TCA Flux in Diabetic Myotubes: Determined by Single Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaster, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The diabetic phenotype is complex, requiring elucidation of key initiating defects. Diabetic myotubes express a primary reduced tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux but at present it is unclear in which part of the TCA cycle the defect is localised. In order to localise the defect we studied ATP production in isolated mitochondria from substrates entering the TCA cycle at various points. ATP production was measured by luminescence with or without concomitant ATP utilisation by hexokinase in mitochondria isolated from myotubes established from eight lean and eight type 2 diabetic subjects. The ATP production of investigated substrate combinations was significantly reduced in mitochondria isolated from type 2 diabetic subjects compared to lean. However, when ATP synthesis rates at different substrate combinations were normalized to the corresponding individual pyruvate-malate rate, there was no significant difference between groups. These results show that the primary reduced TCA cycle flux in diabetic myotubes is not explained by defects in specific part of the TCA cycle but rather results from a general downregulation of the TCA cycle.

  2. Physical activity is associated with retained muscle metabolism in human myotubes challenged with palmitate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, C J; Bunprajun, T; Pedersen, B K

    2013-01-01

    in satellite cells challenged with palmitate. Although the benefits of physical activity on whole body physiology have been well investigated, this paper presents novel findings that both diet and exercise impact satellite cells directly. Given the fact that satellite cells are important for muscle maintenance......  The aim of this study was to investigate whether physical activity is associated with preserved muscle metabolism in human myotubes challenged with saturated fatty acids. Human muscle satellite cells were isolated from sedentary or active individuals and differentiated into myocytes in culture...... and correlated positively to JNK phosphorylation. In conclusion, muscle satellite cells retain metabolic differences associated with physical activity. Physical activity partially protects myocytes from fatty acid-induced insulin resistance and inactivity is associated with dysregulation of metabolism...

  3. Advanced maturation by electrical stimulation : differences in response between C2C12 and primary muscle progenitor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langelaan, M.L.P.; Boonen, K.J.M.; Rosaria-Chak, K.Y.; Schaft, van der D.W.J.; Post, M.J.; Baaijens, F.P.T.

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue engineering still does not result in the desired functional properties and texture as preferred for regenerative medicine and meat production applications. Electrical stimulation has been appropriately used as a tool to advance muscle cell maturation in vitro, thereby

  4. Kinetics of lactate and pyruvate transport in cultured rat myotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Grumbckow, Lena; Elsner, Peter; Hellsten, Ylva

    1999-01-01

    , respectively. Furthermore, it was observed that the two monocarboxylate transporter isoforms present in mature skeletal muscles, MCT1 and MCT4 (formerly called MCT3 (M.C. Wilson, V.N. Jackson, C. Heddle, N.T. Price, H. Pilegaard, C. Juel, A. Bonen, I. Montgomery, O.F. Hutter, A.P. Halestrap, Lactic acid efflux...... from white skeletal muscle is catalyzed by the monocarboxylate transporter isoform MCT3, J. Biol. Chem. 273 (1998) 15920-15926)), were also expressed in primary culture of myotubes....

  5. Reduced lipid oxidation in myotubes established from obese and type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael

    2009-01-01

    To date, it is unknown whether reduced lipid oxidation of skeletal muscle of obese and obese type 2 diabetic (T2D) subjects partly is based on reduced oxidation of endogenous lipids. Palmitate (PA) accumulation, total oxidation and lipolysis were not different between myotubes established from lean...... both for endogenous and exogenous lipids. Thus myotubes established from obese and obese T2D subjects express a reduced complete oxidation of endogenous lipids. Two cardinal principles govern the reduced lipid oxidation in obese and diabetic myotubes; firstly, an impaired coupling between endogenous...... lipid and mitochondria in obese and obese diabetic myotubes and secondly, a mismatch between beta-oxidation and citric acid cycle in obese diabetic myotubes....

  6. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor activation enhances BMP-2-induced osteoblast differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Chieri [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan); Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: tsuyo-i@huhs.ac.jp [Division of Pharmacotherapy, Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Hyogo University of Health Sciences, 1-3-6 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8530 (Japan); Kitano, Sachie; Tsunemi, Sachi; Sano, Hajime [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan)

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the role of S1P signaling for osteoblast differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both S1P and FTY enhanced BMP-2-stimulated osteoblast differentiation by C2C12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P signaling enhanced BMP-2-stimulated Smad and ERK phosphorylation by C2C12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MEK/ERK signaling is a pathway underlying S1P signaling for osteoblast differentiation. -- Abstract: We previously demonstrated that sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor-mediated signaling induced proliferation and prostaglandin productions by synovial cells from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. In the present study we investigated the role of S1P receptor-mediated signaling for osteoblast differentiation. We investigated osteoblast differentiation using C2C12 myoblasts, a cell line derived from murine satellite cells. Osteoblast differentiation was induced by the treatment of bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-2 in the presence or absence of either S1P or FTY720 (FTY), a high-affinity agonist of S1P receptors. Osteoblast differentiation was determined by osteoblast-specific transcription factor, Runx2 mRNA expression, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin production by the cells. Smad1/5/8 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation was examined by Western blotting. Osteocalcin production by C2C12 cells were determined by ELISA. Runx2 expression and ALP activity by BMP-2-stimulated C2C12 cells were enhanced by addition of either S1P or FTY. Both S1P and FTY enhanced BMP-2-induced ERK1/2 and Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation. The effect of FTY was stronger than that of S1P. S1P receptor-mediated signaling on osteoblast differentiation was inhibited by addition of mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK) 1/2 inhibitor, indicating that the S1P receptor-mediated MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling pathway enhanced BMP-2-Smad signaling. These results indicate that S1P

  7. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor activation enhances BMP-2-induced osteoblast differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Chieri; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi; Kitano, Sachie; Tsunemi, Sachi; Sano, Hajime

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigated the role of S1P signaling for osteoblast differentiation. ► Both S1P and FTY enhanced BMP-2-stimulated osteoblast differentiation by C2C12 cells. ► S1P signaling enhanced BMP-2-stimulated Smad and ERK phosphorylation by C2C12 cells. ► MEK/ERK signaling is a pathway underlying S1P signaling for osteoblast differentiation. -- Abstract: We previously demonstrated that sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor-mediated signaling induced proliferation and prostaglandin productions by synovial cells from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. In the present study we investigated the role of S1P receptor-mediated signaling for osteoblast differentiation. We investigated osteoblast differentiation using C2C12 myoblasts, a cell line derived from murine satellite cells. Osteoblast differentiation was induced by the treatment of bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-2 in the presence or absence of either S1P or FTY720 (FTY), a high-affinity agonist of S1P receptors. Osteoblast differentiation was determined by osteoblast-specific transcription factor, Runx2 mRNA expression, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin production by the cells. Smad1/5/8 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation was examined by Western blotting. Osteocalcin production by C2C12 cells were determined by ELISA. Runx2 expression and ALP activity by BMP-2-stimulated C2C12 cells were enhanced by addition of either S1P or FTY. Both S1P and FTY enhanced BMP-2-induced ERK1/2 and Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation. The effect of FTY was stronger than that of S1P. S1P receptor-mediated signaling on osteoblast differentiation was inhibited by addition of mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK) 1/2 inhibitor, indicating that the S1P receptor-mediated MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling pathway enhanced BMP-2-Smad signaling. These results indicate that S1P receptor-mediated signaling plays a crucial role for osteoblast differentiation.

  8. Scoparia dulcis (SDF7) endowed with glucose uptake properties on L6 myotubes compared insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, Joo Ee; Latip, Jalifah; Abdullah, Mohd Puad; Ismail, Amin; Hamid, Muhajir

    2010-05-04

    Insulin stimulates glucose uptake and promotes the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (Glut 4) to the plasma membrane on L6 myotubes. The aim of this study is to investigate affect of Scoparia dulcis Linn water extracts on glucose uptake activity and the Glut 4 translocation components (i.e., IRS-1, PI 3-kinase, PKB/Akt2, PKC and TC 10) in L6 myotubes compared to insulin. Extract from TLC fraction-7 (SDF7) was used in this study. The L6 myotubes were treated by various concentrations of SDF7 (1 to 50 microg/ml) and insulin (1 to 100 nM). The glucose uptake activities of L6 myotubes were evaluated using 2-Deoxy-D-glucose uptake assay in with or without fatty acid-induced medium. The Glut 4 translocation components in SDF7-treated L6 myotubes were detected using immunoblotting and quantified by densitometry compared to insulin. Plasma membrane lawn assay and glycogen colorimetry assay were carried out in SDF7- and insulin-treated L6 myotubes in this study. Here, our data clearly shows that SDF7 possesses glucose uptake properties on L6 myotubes that are dose-dependent, time-dependent and plasma membrane Glut 4 expression-dependent. SDF7 successfully stimulates glucose uptake activity as potent as insulin at a maximum concentration of 50 microg/ml at 480 min on L6 myotubes. Furthermore, SDF7 stimulates increased Glut 4 expression and translocation to plasma membranes at equivalent times. Even in the insulin resistance stage (free fatty acids-induced), SDF7-treated L6 myotubes were found to be more capable at glucose transport than insulin treatment. Thus, we suggested that Scoparia dulcis has the potential to be categorized as a hypoglycemic medicinal plant based on its good glucose transport properties. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. FSHD myoblasts fail to downregulate intermediate filament protein vimentin during myogenic differentiation.

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    Lipinski M.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD is an autosomal dominant hereditary neuromuscular disorder. The clinical features of FSHD include weakness of the facial and shoulder girdle muscles followed by wasting of skeletal muscles of the pelvic girdle and lower extremities. Although FSHD myoblasts grown in vitro can be induced to differentiate into myotubes by serum starvation, the resulting FSHD myotubes have been shown previously to be morphologically abnormal. Aim. In order to find the cause of morphological anomalies of FSHD myotubes we compared in vitro myogenic differentiation of normal and FSHD myoblasts at the protein level. Methods. We induced myogenic differentiation of normal and FSHD myoblasts by serum starvation. We then compared protein extracts from proliferating myoblasts and differentiated myotubes using SDS-PAGE followed by mass spectrometry identification of differentially expressed proteins. Results. We demonstrated that the expression of vimentin was elevated at the protein and mRNA levels in FSHD myotubes as compared to normal myotubes. Conclusions. We demonstrate for the first time that in contrast to normal myoblasts, FSHD myoblasts fail to downregulate vimentin after induction of in vitro myogenic differentiation. We suggest that vimentin could be an easily detectable marker of FSHD myotubes

  10. The dynamic of lipid oxidation in human myotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Both endogenous and exogenous lipid levels may be regulators of total lipid oxidation in skeletal muscles. We studied the dynamics of lipid oxidation in human myotubes established from healthy, lean subjects exposed to acutely and chronically increased palmitate concentrations. The intramyocellular...... triacylglycerol content increased with chronic palmitate exposure. Both, ectopically increased intracellular and extracellular lipid levels were simultaneously oxidized and could partly suppress each other's oxidation. Overall, the highest acute palmitate treatments stimulated fatty acid oxidation whilst...... the highest chronic treatments decreased total lipid oxidation. Intracellular lipids showed a more complete oxidation than exogenous lipids. Endogenous lipids reduced insulin-mediated glucose oxidation. Thus, both endogenous and exogenous lipid concentrations regulated each other's oxidation and total lipid...

  11. Transciptional profiling of myotubes from patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, CM; Højlund, K; Hansen, L

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Microarray-based studies of skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes and high-risk individuals have demonstrated that insulin resistance and reduced mitochondrial biogenesis co-exist early in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes independently of hyperglycaemia and obesity....... It is unknown whether reduced mitochondrial biogenesis or other transcriptional alterations co-exist with impaired insulin responsiveness in primary human muscle cells from patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Using cDNA microarray technology and global pathway analysis with the Gene Map Annotator...... and Pathway Profiler (GenMapp 2.1) and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA 2.0.1), we examined transcript levels in myotubes established from obese patients with type 2 diabetes and matched obese healthy participants, who had been extensively metabolically characterised both in vivo and in vitro. We have...

  12. The actions of exogenous leucine on mTOR signalling and amino acid transporters in human myotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron-Smith David

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The branched-chain amino acid (BCAA leucine has been identified to be a key regulator of skeletal muscle anabolism. Activation of anabolic signalling occurs via the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR through an undefined mechanism. System A and L solute carriers transport essential amino acids across plasma membranes; however it remains unknown whether an exogenous supply of leucine regulates their gene expression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute and chronic leucine stimulation of anabolic signalling and specific amino acid transporters, using cultured primary human skeletal muscle cells. Results Human myotubes were treated with leucine, insulin or co-treated with leucine and insulin for 30 min, 3 h or 24 h. Activation of mTOR signalling kinases were examined, together with putative nutrient sensor human vacuolar protein sorting 34 (hVps34 and gene expression of selected amino acid transporters. Phosphorylation of mTOR and p70S6K was transiently increased following leucine exposure, independently to insulin. hVps34 protein expression was also significantly increased. However, genes encoding amino acid transporters were differentially regulated by insulin and not leucine. Conclusions mTOR signalling is transiently activated by leucine within human myotubes independently of insulin stimulation. While this occurred in the absence of changes in gene expression of amino acid transporters, protein expression of hVps34 increased.

  13. Melatonin modulates rat myotube-acetylcholine receptors by inhibiting calmodulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida-Paula, Lidiana Duarte; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia V; Silva Ferreira, Zulma; Monteiro, Amanda Elisa G; Isoldi, Mauro Cesar; Godinho, Rosely O; Markus, Regina P

    2005-11-21

    Melatonin, the pineal gland hormone, modulates alpha-bungarotoxin sensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in sympathetic nerve terminals, cerebellum and chick retina imposing a diurnal variation in functional responses [Markus, R.P., Zago, W.M., Carneiro, R.C., 1996. Melatonin modulation of presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the rat vas deferens. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 279, 18-22; Markus, R.P., Santos, J.M., Zago, W., Reno, L.A., 2003. Melatonin nocturnal surge modulates nicotinic receptors and nicotine-induced [3HI] glutamate release in rat cerebellum slices. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 305, 525-530; Sampaio, L.F.S., Hamassaki-Britto, D.E., Markus, R.P., 2005. Influence of melatonin on the development of functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in cultured chick retinal cells. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 38, 603-613]. Here we show that in rat myotubes forskolin and melatonin reduced the number of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in plasma membrane. In addition, these cells expressed melatonin MT1 receptors, which are known to be coupled to G(i)-protein. However, the pharmacological profile of melatonin analogs regarding the reduction in cyclic AMP accumulation and number of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors did not point to a mechanism mediated by activation of G(i)-protein coupled receptors. On the other hand, calmidazolium, a classical inhibitor of calmodulin, reduced in a similar manner both effects. Considering that one isoform of adenylyl cyclase present in rat myotubes is regulated by Ca2+/calmodulin, we propose that melatonin modulates the number of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors via reduction in cyclic AMP accumulation.

  14. Characterization of the Methylation Status of Pax7 and Myogenic Regulator Factors in Cell Myogenic Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Zhe; Zheng, Xin-Li; Sun, Rui-Ping; Liu, Hai-Long; Huang, Li-Li; Cao, Zong-Xi; Deng, Chang-Yan; Wang, Feng

    2016-07-01

    Epigenetic processes in the development of skeletal muscle have been appreciated for over a decade. DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification important for regulating gene expression and suppressing spurious transcription. Up to now, the importance of epigenetic marks in the regulation of Pax7 and myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) expression is far less explored. In the present study, semi-quantitative the real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses showed MyoD and Myf5 were expressed in activated and quiescent C2C12 cells. MyoG was expressed in a later stage of myogenesis. Pax7 was weakly expressed in differentiated C2C12 cells. To further understand the regulation of expression of these genes, the DNA methylation status of Pax7, MyoD, and Myf5 was determined by bisulfite sequencing PCR. During the C2C12 myoblasts fusion process, the changes of promoter and exon 1 methylation of Pax7, MyoD, and Myf5 genes were observed. In addition, an inverse relationship of low methylation and high expression was found. These results suggest that DNA methylation may be an important mechanism regulating Pax7 and MRFs transcription in cell myogenic differentiation.

  15. Angiopoietin-like 4 mediates PPAR delta effect on lipoprotein lipase-dependent fatty acid uptake but not on beta-oxidation in myotubes.

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    Marius R Robciuc

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR delta is an important regulator of fatty acid (FA metabolism. Angiopoietin-like 4 (Angptl4, a multifunctional protein, is one of the major targets of PPAR delta in skeletal muscle cells. Here we investigated the regulation of Angptl4 and its role in mediating PPAR delta functions using human, rat and mouse myotubes. Expression of Angptl4 was upregulated during myotubes differentiation and by oleic acid, insulin and PPAR delta agonist GW501516. Treatment with GW501516 or Angptl4 overexpression inhibited both lipoprotein lipase (LPL activity and LPL-dependent uptake of FAs whereas uptake of BSA-bound FAs was not affected by either treatment. Activation of retinoic X receptor (RXR, PPAR delta functional partner, using bexarotene upregulated Angptl4 expression and inhibited LPL activity in a PPAR delta dependent fashion. Silencing of Angptl4 blocked the effect of GW501516 and bexarotene on LPL activity. Treatment with GW501516 but not Angptl4 overexpression significantly increased palmitate oxidation. Furthermore, Angptl4 overexpression did not affect the capacity of GW501516 to increase palmitate oxidation. Basal and insulin stimulated glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis and glucose oxidation were not significantly modulated by Angptl4 overexpression. Our findings suggest that FAs-PPARdelta/RXR-Angptl4 axis controls the LPL-dependent uptake of FAs in myotubes, whereas the effect of PPAR delta activation on beta-oxidation is independent of Angptl4.

  16. Benfotiamine increases glucose oxidation and downregulates NADPH oxidase 4 expression in cultured human myotubes exposed to both normal and high glucose concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, D A; Hessvik, N P; Nikolić, N; Aas, V; Hanssen, K F; Bøhn, S K; Thoresen, G H; Rustan, A C

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the effects of benfotiamine (S-benzoylthiamine O-monophosphate) on glucose and lipid metabolism and gene expression in differentiated human skeletal muscle cells (myotubes) incubated for 4 days under normal (5.5 mM glucose) and hyperglycemic (20 mM glucose) conditions. Myotubes established from lean, healthy volunteers were treated with benfotiamine for 4 days. Glucose and lipid metabolism were studied with labeled precursors. Gene expression was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and microarray technology. Benfotiamine significantly increased glucose oxidation under normoglycemic (35 and 49% increase at 100 and 200 μM benfotiamine, respectively) as well as hyperglycemic conditions (70% increase at 200 μM benfotiamine). Benfotiamine also increased glucose uptake. In comparison, thiamine (200 μM) increased overall glucose metabolism but did not change glucose oxidation. In contrast to glucose, mitochondrial lipid oxidation and overall lipid metabolism were unchanged by benfotiamine. The expression of NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) was significantly downregulated by benfotiamine treatment under both normo- and hyperglycemic conditions. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) showed that befotiamine increased peroxisomal lipid oxidation and organelle (mitochondrial) membrane function. In conclusion, benfotiamine increases mitochondrial glucose oxidation in myotubes and downregulates NOX4 expression. These findings may be of relevance to type 2 diabetes where reversal of reduced glucose oxidation and mitochondrial capacity is a desirable goal.

  17. Effect of TCEA3 on the differentiation of bovine skeletal muscle satellite cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yue; Tong, Hui-Li; Li, Shu-Feng; Yan, Yun-Qin

    2017-01-01

    Bovine muscle-derived satellite cells (MDSCs) are important for animal growth. In this study, the effect of transcription elongation factor A3 (TCEA3) on bovine MDSC differentiation was investigated. Western blotting, immunofluorescence assays, and cytoplasmic and nuclear protein isolation and purification techniques were used to determine the expression pattern and protein localization of TCEA3 in bovine MDSCs during in vitro differentiation. TCEA3 expression was upregulated using the CRISPR/Cas9 technique to study its effects on MDSC differentiation in vitro. TCEA3 expression gradually increased during the in vitro differentiation of bovine MDSCs and peaked on the 5th day of differentiation. TCEA3 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm of bovine MDSCs, and its expression was not detected in the nucleus. The level of TCEA3 was relatively higher in myotubes at a higher degree of differentiation than during early differentiation. After transfection with a TCEA3-activating plasmid vector (TCEA3 overexpression) for 24 h, the myotube fusion rate, number of myotubes, and expression levels of the muscle differentiation-related loci myogenin (MYOG) and myosin heavy chain 3 (MYH3) increased significantly during the in vitro differentiation of bovine MDSCs. After transfection with a TCEA3-inhibiting plasmid vector for 24 h, the myotube fusion rate, number of myotubes, and expression levels of MYOG and MYH3 decreased significantly. Our results indicated, for the first time, that TCEA3 promotes the differentiation of bovine MDSCs and have implications for meat production and animal rearing. - Highlights: • Muscle-derived satellite cell differentiation is promoted by TCEA3. • TCEA3 protein was localized in the cytoplasm, but not nuclei of bovine MDSCs. • TCEA3 levels increased as myotube differentiation increased. • TCEA3 affected myotube fusion, myotube counts, and MYOG and MYH3 levels.

  18. Effect of Human Myotubes-Derived Media on Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L. Mizgier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasting to postprandial transition requires a tight adjustment of insulin secretion to its demand, so tissue (e.g., skeletal muscle glucose supply is assured while hypo-/hyperglycemia are prevented. High muscle glucose disposal after meals is pivotal for adapting to increased glycemia and might drive insulin secretion through muscle-released factors (e.g., myokines. We hypothesized that insulin influences myokine secretion and then increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS. In conditioned media from human myotubes incubated with/without insulin (100 nmol/L for 24 h, myokines were qualitatively and quantitatively characterized using an antibody-based array and ELISA-based technology, respectively. C57BL6/J mice islets and Wistar rat beta cells were incubated for 24 h with control and conditioned media from noninsulin- and insulin-treated myotubes prior to GSIS determination. Conditioned media from insulin-treated versus nontreated myotubes had higher RANTES but lower IL6, IL8, and MCP1 concentration. Qualitative analyses revealed that conditioned media from noninsulin- and insulin-treated myotubes expressed 32 and 23 out of 80 myokines, respectively. Islets incubated with conditioned media from noninsulin-treated myotubes had higher GSIS versus control islets (p<0.05. Meanwhile, conditioned media from insulin-treated myotubes did not influence GSIS. In beta cells, GSIS was similar across conditions. In conclusion, factors being present in noninsulin-stimulated muscle cell-derived media appear to influence GSIS in mice islets.

  19. Mononuclear Cells from Dedifferentiation of Mouse Myotubes display Remarkable Regenerative Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong; Liu, Qiang; Mannix, Robert J.; Xu, Xiaoyin; Li, Hongli; Ma, Zhiyuan; Ingber, Donald E.; Allen, Paul D.; Wang, Yaming

    2015-01-01

    Certain lower organisms achieve organ regeneration by reverting differentiated cells into tissue-specific progenitors that re-enter embryonic programs. During muscle regeneration in the urodele amphibian, post-mitotic multinucleated skeletal myofibers transform into mononucleated proliferating cells upon injury, and a transcription factor-msx1 plays a role in their reprograming. Whether this powerful regeneration strategy can be leveraged in mammals remains unknown, as it has not been demonstrated that the dedifferentiated progenitor cells arising from muscle cells overexpressing Msx1 are lineage-specific and possess the same potent regenerative capability as their amphibian counterparts. Here we show that ectopic expression of Msx1 reprograms post-mitotic, multinucleated, primary mouse myotubes to become proliferating mononuclear cells. These dedifferentiated cells reactivate genes expressed by embryonic muscle progenitor cells and generate only muscle tissue in vivo both in an ectopic location and inside existing muscle. More importantly, distinct from adult muscle satellite cells, these cells appear both to fuse with existing fibers and to regenerate myofibers in a robust and time-dependent manner. Upon transplantation into a degenerating muscle, these dedifferentiated cells generated a large number of myofibers that increased over time and replenished almost half of the cross-sectional area of the muscle in only 12 weeks. Our study demonstrates that mammals can harness a muscle regeneration strategy used by lower organisms when the same molecular pathway is activated. PMID:24916688

  20. Membrane glycoproteins of differentiating skeletal muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.R.; Remy, C.N.; Smith, P.B.

    1987-01-01

    The composition of N-linked glycoprotein oligosaccharides was studied in myoblasts and myotubes of the C2 muscle cell line. Oligosaccharides were radioactively labelled for 15 hr with [ 3 H] mannose and plasma membranes isolated. Ten glycopeptides were detected by SDS-PAGE and fluorography. The extent of labelling was 4-6 fold greater in myoblasts vs myotubes. A glycopeptide of Mr > 100,000 was found exclusively in myoblast membranes. Lectin chromatography revealed that the proportion of tri-, tetranntenary, biantennary and high mannose chains was similar throughout differentiation. The high mannose chain fraction was devoid of hybrid chains. The major high mannose chain contained nine mannose residues. The higher level of glycopeptide labelling in myoblasts vs myotubes corresponded to a 5-fold greater rate of protein synthesis. Pulse-chase experiments were used to follow the synthesis of the Dol-oligosaccharides. Myoblasts and myotubes labelled equivalently the glucosylated tetradecasaccharide but myoblasts labelled the smaller intermediates 3-4 greater than myotubes. Myoblasts also exhibited a 2-3 fold higher Dol-P dependent glycosyl transferase activity for chain elongation and Dol-sugar synthesis. Together these results show that the degree of protein synthesis and level of Dol-P are contributing factors in the higher capacity of myoblasts to produce N-glycoproteins compared to myotubes

  1. DNA methyltransferase inhibitor CDA-II inhibits myogenic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zirong; Jin, Guorong; Lin, Shuibin; Lin, Xiumei; Gu, Yumei; Zhu, Yujuan; Hu, Chengbin; Zhang, Qingjiong; Wu, Lizi; Shen, Huangxuan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CDA-II inhibits myogenic differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. ► CDA-II repressed expression of muscle transcription factors and structural proteins. ► CDA-II inhibited proliferation and migration of C2C12 myoblasts. -- Abstract: CDA-II (cell differentiation agent II), isolated from healthy human urine, is a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor. Previous studies indicated that CDA-II played important roles in the regulation of cell growth and certain differentiation processes. However, it has not been determined whether CDA-II affects skeletal myogenesis. In this study, we investigated effects of CDA-II treatment on skeletal muscle progenitor cell differentiation, migration and proliferation. We found that CDA-II blocked differentiation of murine myoblasts C2C12 in a dose-dependent manner. CDA-II repressed expression of muscle transcription factors, such as Myogenin and Mef2c, and structural proteins, such as myosin heavy chain (Myh3), light chain (Mylpf) and MCK. Moreover, CDA-II inhibited C1C12 cell migration and proliferation. Thus, our data provide the first evidence that CDA-II inhibits growth and differentiation of muscle progenitor cells, suggesting that the use of CDA-II might affect skeletal muscle functions.

  2. BMP-2 Induced Expression of Alx3 That Is a Positive Regulator of Osteoblast Differentiation.

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    Takashi Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs regulate many aspects of skeletal development, including osteoblast and chondrocyte differentiation, cartilage and bone formation, and cranial and limb development. Among them, BMP-2, one of the most potent osteogenic signaling molecules, stimulates osteoblast differentiation, while it inhibits myogenic differentiation in C2C12 cells. To evaluate genes involved in BMP-2-induced osteoblast differentiation, we performed cDNA microarray analyses to compare BMP-2-treated and -untreated C2C12 cells. We focused on Alx3 (aristaless-like homeobox 3 which was clearly induced during osteoblast differentiation. Alx3, a homeobox gene related to the Drosophilaaristaless gene, has been linked to developmental functions in craniofacial structures and limb development. However, little is known about its direct relationship with bone formation. In the present study, we focused on the mechanisms of Alx3 gene expression and function during osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. In C2C12 cells, BMP-2 induced increase of Alx3 gene expression in both time- and dose-dependent manners through the BMP receptors-mediated SMAD signaling pathway. In addition, silencing of Alx3 by siRNA inhibited osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2, as showed by the expressions of alkaline phosphatase (Alp, Osteocalcin, and Osterix, while over-expression of Alx3 enhanced osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. These results indicate that Alx3 expression is enhanced by BMP-2 via the BMP receptors mediated-Smad signaling and that Alx3 is a positive regulator of osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2.

  3. Delta-like 1/fetal antigen 1(DLK1/FA1) inhibits BMP2 induced osteoblast differentiation through modulation of NFκB signaling pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Weimin; Abdallah, Basem; Kassem, Moustapha

    DLK1/FA1 (delta-like 1/fetal antigen-1) is a negative regulator of bone mass that acts to inhibit osteoblast differentiation and stimulate osteoclast differentiation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are not known. Thus, we studied the effect of DLK1/FA1 on different...... osteogenic factors-induced osteoblast differentiation. We identified DLK1/FA1 as an inhibitor of BMP2-induced osteogenesis in mouse myoblast C2C12 cells. Stable overexpression of DLK1/FA1 in C2C12 cells or the addition of its soluble form protein FA1 significantly inhibited BMP2-induced osteogenesis...... as assessed by reduced Alp activity and osteogenic gene expression including Alp, Col1a1, Runx2 and Bglap. In addition, DLK1/FA1 inhibited BMP signaling as demonstrated by reduced gene expression of BMP-responsive genes: Junb and Id1, reduced BMP2 induced luciferase activity in C2C12 BMP luciferase reporter...

  4. Caveolae regulation of mechanosensitive channel function in myotubes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixia Huang

    Full Text Available Mutations that lead to muscular dystrophy often create deficiencies in cytoskeletal support of the muscle sarcolemma causing hyperactive mechanosensitive cation channel (MSC activity and elevated intracellular Ca(2+. Caveolae are cholesterol-rich microdomains that form mechanically deformable invaginations of the sarcolemma. Mutations to caveolin-3, the main scaffolding protein of caveolae in muscle, cause Limbe-Girdle muscular dystrophy. Using genetic and acute chemical perturbations of developing myotubes we investigated whether caveolae are functionally linked to MSCs. MSC sensitivity was assayed using suction application to patches and probe-induced indentation during whole-cell recordings. Membrane mechanical stress in patches was monitored using patch capacitance/impedance. Cholesterol depletion disrupted caveolae and caused a large increase in MSC current. It also decreased the membrane mechanical relaxation time, likely reflecting cytoskeleton dissociation from the bilayer. Reduction of Cav3 expression with miRNA also increased MSC current and decreased patch relaxation time. In contrast Cav3 overexpression produced a small decrease in MSC currents. To acutely and specifically inhibit Cav3 interactions, we made a chimeric peptide containing the antennapedia membrane translocation domain and the Cav3 scaffolding domain (A-CSD3. A-CSD3 action was time dependent initially producing a mild Ca(2+ leak and increased MSC current, while longer exposures decreased MSC currents coinciding with increased patch stiffening. Images of GFP labeled Cav3 in patches showed that Cav3 doesn't enter the pipette, showing patch composition differed from the cell surface. However, disruption via cholesterol depletion caused Cav3 to become uniformly distributed over the sarcolemma and Cav3 appearance in the patch dome. The whole-cell indentation currents elicited under the different caveolae modifying conditions mirror the patch response supporting the role of

  5. Myotube formation is affected by adipogenic lineage cells in a cell-to-cell contact-independent manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takegahara, Yuki; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Nakamura, Katsuyuki; Nakano, Shin-ichi; Nishihara, Masugi

    2014-01-01

    Intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) formation is observed in some pathological conditions such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and sarcopenia. Several studies have suggested that IMAT formation is not only negatively correlated with skeletal muscle mass but also causes decreased muscle contraction in sarcopenia. In the present study, we examined w hether adipocytes affect myogenesis. For this purpose, skeletal muscle progenitor cells were transfected with siRNA of PPARγ (siPPARγ) in an attempt to inhibit adipogenesis. Myosin heavy chain (MHC)-positive myotube formation was promoted in cells transfected with siPPARγ compared to that of cells transfected with control siRNA. To determine whether direct cell-to-cell contact between adipocytes and myoblasts is a prerequisite for adipocytes to affect myogenesis, skeletal muscle progenitor cells were cocultured with pre- or mature adipocytes in a Transwell coculture system. MHC-positive myotube formation was inhibited when skeletal muscle progenitor cells were cocultured with mature adipocytes, but was promoted when they were cocultured with preadipocytes. Similar effects were observed when pre- or mature adipocyte-conditioned medium was used. These results indicate that preadipocytes play an important role in maintaining skeletal muscle mass by promoting myogenesis; once differentiated, the resulting mature adipocytes negatively affect myogenesis, leading to the muscle deterioration observed in skeletal muscle pathologies. - Highlights: • We examined the effects of pre- and mature adipocytes on myogenesis in vitro. • Preadipocytes and mature adipocytes affect myoblast fusion. • Preadipocytes play an important role in maintaining skeletal muscle mass. • Mature adipocytes lead to muscle deterioration observed in skeletal muscle pathologies

  6. Myotube formation is affected by adipogenic lineage cells in a cell-to-cell contact-independent manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takegahara, Yuki; Yamanouchi, Keitaro, E-mail: akeita@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Nakamura, Katsuyuki; Nakano, Shin-ichi; Nishihara, Masugi

    2014-05-15

    Intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) formation is observed in some pathological conditions such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and sarcopenia. Several studies have suggested that IMAT formation is not only negatively correlated with skeletal muscle mass but also causes decreased muscle contraction in sarcopenia. In the present study, we examined w hether adipocytes affect myogenesis. For this purpose, skeletal muscle progenitor cells were transfected with siRNA of PPARγ (siPPARγ) in an attempt to inhibit adipogenesis. Myosin heavy chain (MHC)-positive myotube formation was promoted in cells transfected with siPPARγ compared to that of cells transfected with control siRNA. To determine whether direct cell-to-cell contact between adipocytes and myoblasts is a prerequisite for adipocytes to affect myogenesis, skeletal muscle progenitor cells were cocultured with pre- or mature adipocytes in a Transwell coculture system. MHC-positive myotube formation was inhibited when skeletal muscle progenitor cells were cocultured with mature adipocytes, but was promoted when they were cocultured with preadipocytes. Similar effects were observed when pre- or mature adipocyte-conditioned medium was used. These results indicate that preadipocytes play an important role in maintaining skeletal muscle mass by promoting myogenesis; once differentiated, the resulting mature adipocytes negatively affect myogenesis, leading to the muscle deterioration observed in skeletal muscle pathologies. - Highlights: • We examined the effects of pre- and mature adipocytes on myogenesis in vitro. • Preadipocytes and mature adipocytes affect myoblast fusion. • Preadipocytes play an important role in maintaining skeletal muscle mass. • Mature adipocytes lead to muscle deterioration observed in skeletal muscle pathologies.

  7. Insulin resistance and the mitochondrial link. Lessons from cultured human myotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In order to better understand the impact of reduced mitochondrial function for the development of insulin resistance and cellular metabolism, human myotubes were established from lean, obese, and T2D subjects and exposed to mitochondrial inhibitors, either affecting the electron transport chain...... lipid uptake. The metabolic phenotype during respiratory uncoupling resembled the above picture, except for an increase in glucose and palmitate oxidation. Antimycin A and oligomycin treatment induced insulin resistance at the level of glucose and palmitate uptake in all three study groups while......, at the level of glycogen synthesis, insulin resistance was only seen in lean myotubes. Primary insulin resistance in diabetic myotubes was significantly worsened at the level of glucose and lipid uptake. The present study is the first convincing data linking functional mitochondrial impairment per se...

  8. Effect of diisopropylfluorophosphate on synaptic transmission and acetylcholine sensitivity in neuroblastoma-myotube co-culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, M.; Chang, F.C.T.; Foster, R.E.; Glenn, J.F.; Mark, G.; Maxwell, D.

    1986-01-01

    The authors investigate the effects of the irreversible organophosphorous cholinesterase inhibitor, DFP, on clonal G8-1 myotubes co-cultured with ACh- secreting NG108-15 neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cells. The enzyme activity is shown, plotted as a function of time in culture. The enzyme activity remained low over four days. At the end of this time, the cultures were nearly confluent with myoblasts but contained less than 2% multinucleated myotubes. The AChE activity increased gradually after horse serum was added to the growth medium to promote myotube formation, reaching a maximum of 1.1 nmole. C 14 ACh/min/mg protein on the 15th day

  9. β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) prevents dexamethasone-induced myotube atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aversa, Zaira; Alamdari, Nima; Castillero, Estibaliz; Muscaritoli, Maurizio; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo; Hasselgren, Per-Olof

    2012-07-13

    High levels of glucocorticoids result in muscle wasting and weakness. β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) attenuates the loss of muscle mass in various catabolic conditions but the influence of HMB on glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy is not known. We tested the hypothesis that HMB prevents dexamethasone-induced atrophy in cultured myotubes. Treatment of cultured L6 myotubes with dexamethasone resulted in increased protein degradation and expression of atrogin-1 and MuRF1, decreased protein synthesis and reduced myotube size. All of these effects of dexamethasone were attenuated by HMB. Additional experiments provided evidence that the inhibitory effects of HMB on dexamethasone-induced increase in protein degradation and decrease in protein synthesis were regulated by p38/MAPK- and PI3K/Akt-dependent cell signaling, respectively. The present results suggest that glucocorticoid-induced muscle wasting can be prevented by HMB. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A dynamic ribosomal biogenesis response is not required for IGF-1-mediated hypertrophy of human primary myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossland, Hannah; Timmons, James A; Atherton, Philip J

    2017-12-01

    Increased ribosomal DNA transcription has been proposed to limit muscle protein synthesis, making ribosome biogenesis central to skeletal muscle hypertrophy. We examined the relationship between ribosomal RNA (rRNA) production and IGF-1-mediated myotube hypertrophy in vitro Primary skeletal myotubes were treated with IGF-1 (50 ng/ml) with or without 0.5 µM CX-5461 (CX), an inhibitor of RNA polymerase I. Myotube diameter, total protein, and RNA and DNA levels were measured along with markers of RNA polymerase I regulatory factors and regulators of protein synthesis. CX treatment reduced 45S pre-rRNA expression (-64 ± 5% vs. IGF-1; P IGF-1; P IGF-1-treated myotubes. IGF-1-mediated increases in myotube diameter (1.27 ± 0.09-fold, P IGF-1 treatment did not prevent early increases in AKT (+203 ± 39% vs. CX; P IGF-1, myotube diameter and protein accretion were sustained. Thus, while ribosome biogenesis represents a potential site for the regulation of skeletal muscle protein synthesis and muscle mass, it does not appear to be a prerequisite for IGF-1-induced myotube hypertrophy in vitro. -Crossland, H., Timmons, J. A., Atherton, P. J. A dynamic ribosomal biogenesis response is not required for IGF-1-mediated hypertrophy of human primary myotubes. © The Author(s).

  11. Mdm2 controls CREB-dependent transactivation and initiation of adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallenborg, Philip; Feddersen, Søren; Francoz, S.

    2012-01-01

    The role of the E3 ubiquitin ligase murine double minute 2 (Mdm2) in regulating the stability of the p53 tumor suppressor is well documented. By contrast, relatively little is known about p53-independent activities of Mdm2 and the role of Mdm2 in cellular differentiation. Here we report a novel r...... in the myoblast cell line C2C12, it is conceivable that Mdm2 acts as a switch in cell fate determination. Cell Death and Differentiation (2012) 19, 1381-1389; doi:10.1038/cdd.2012.15; published online 2 March 2012...

  12. An Assessment of Myotube Morphology, Matrix Deformation, and Myogenic mRNA Expression in Custom-Built and Commercially Available Engineered Muscle Chamber Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M. Jones

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available There are several three-dimensional (3D skeletal muscle (SkM tissue engineered models reported in the literature. 3D SkM tissue engineering (TE aims to recapitulate the structure and function of native (in vivo tissue, within an in vitro environment. This requires the differentiation of myoblasts into aligned multinucleated myotubes surrounded by a biologically representative extracellular matrix (ECM. In the present work, a new commercially available 3D SkM TE culture chamber manufactured from polyether ether ketone (PEEK that facilitates suitable development of these myotubes is presented. To assess the outcomes of the myotubes within these constructs, morphological, gene expression, and ECM remodeling parameters were compared against a previously published custom-built model. No significant differences were observed in the morphological and gene expression measures between the newly introduced and the established construct configuration, suggesting biological reproducibility irrespective of manufacturing process. However, TE SkM fabricated using the commercially available PEEK chambers displayed reduced variability in both construct attachment and matrix deformation, likely due to increased reproducibility within the manufacturing process. The mechanical differences between systems may also have contributed to such differences, however, investigation of these variables was beyond the scope of the investigation. Though more expensive than the custom-built models, these PEEK chambers are also suitable for multiple use after autoclaving. As such this would support its use over the previously published handmade culture chamber system, particularly when seeking to develop higher-throughput systems or when experimental cost is not a factor.

  13. Partly ordered synthesis and degradation of glycogen in cultured rat myotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsner, Peter; Quistorff, Bjørn; Hansen, Gert H

    2001-01-01

    The following questions concerning glycogen synthesis and degradation were examined in cultured rat myotubes. 1) Is synthesis and degradation of the individual glycogen molecule a strictly ordered process, with the last glucosyl unit incorporated into the molecule being the first to be released...

  14. In Vitro Palmitate Treatment of Myotubes from Postmenopausal Women Leads to Ceramide Accumulation, Inflammation and Affected Insulin Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Julie; Henstridge, Darren C; Pedersen, Anette Tønnes

    2014-01-01

    Menopause is associated with an increased incidence of insulin resistance and metabolic diseases. In a chronic palmitate treatment model, we investigated the role of skeletal muscle fatty acid exposure in relation to the metabolic deterioration observed with menopause. Human skeletal muscle......, post-myotubes showed a blunted insulin stimulated phosphorylation of AS160 in response to chronic palmitate treatment compared with pre-myotubes (p = 0.02). The increased intramyocellular ceramide content in the post-myotubes was associated with a significantly higher mRNA expression of Serine...... Palmitoyltransferase1 (SPT1) after one day of palmitate treatment (p = 0.03) in post-myotubes compared with pre-myotubes. Our findings indicate that post-myotubes are more prone to develop lipid accumulation and defective insulin signaling following chronic saturated fatty acid exposure as compared to pre-myotubes....

  15. Polyurethane acrylates as effective substrates for sustained in vitro culture of human myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriani, Yosephine; Chua, Jason Min-Wen; Chua, Benjamin Yan-Jiang; Phang, In Yee; Shyh-Chang, Ng; Tan, Wui Siew

    2017-07-15

    Muscular disease has debilitating effects with severe damage leading to death. Our knowledge of muscle biology, disease and treatment is largely derived from non-human cell models, even though non-human cells are known to differ from human cells in their biochemical responses. Attempts to develop highly sought after in vitro human cell models have been plagued by early cell delamination and difficulties in achieving human myotube culture in vitro. In this work, we developed polyurethane acrylate (PUA) materials to support long-term in vitro culture of human skeletal muscle tissue. Using a constant base with modulated crosslink density we were able to vary the material modulus while keeping surface chemistry and roughness constant. While previous studies have focused on materials that mimic soft muscle tissue with stiffness ca. 12kPa, we investigated materials with tendon-like surface moduli in the higher 150MPa to 2.4GPa range, which has remained unexplored. We found that PUA of an optimal modulus within this range can support human myoblast proliferation, terminal differentiation and sustenance beyond 35days, without use of any extracellular protein coating. Results show that PUA materials can serve as effective substrates for successful development of human skeletal muscle cell models and are suitable for long-term in vitro studies. We developed polyurethane acrylates (PUA) to modulate the human skeletal muscle cell growth and maturation in vitro by controlling surface chemistry, morphology and tuning material's stiffness. PUA was able to maintain muscle cell viability for over a month without any detectable signs of material degradation. The best performing PUA prevented premature cell detachment from the substrate which often hampered long-term muscle cell studies. It also supported muscle cell maturation up to the late stages of differentiation. The significance of these findings lies in the possibility to advance studies on muscle cell biology, disease and

  16. Opposite roles of MRF4 and MyoD in cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xun; Kim, Jong-Gun; Oh, Myung-Joo; Oh, Ho-Yeon; Sohn, Young-Woo; Pian, Xumin; Yin, Jin Long; Beck, Samuel; Lee, Namkyung; Son, Jeesoo; Kim, Hyunggee; Yan Changguo; Wang Jihui; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Whang, Kwang Youn

    2007-01-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix myogenic regulatory factors play critical roles in skeletal myogenesis. Among the myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs), MRF4 shows a biphasic expression pattern during the formation of myotomes, although its function remains unclear. In this study, we used BEF (spontaneously immortalized bovine embryonic fibroblast that shows myogenic differentiation by overexpression of MyoD) and C2C12 cells to investigate the function of MRF4. Ectopic expressions of MRF4 did not stimulate myogenic differentiation in the BEF and C2C12 cells, but did show a marked increase of cell proliferation, upregulation of cyclin E, and downregulation of p21 WAF1 . Furthermore, MRF4 was found to induce degradation of the MyoD protein, which acts as a transcriptional activator for p21 WAF1 , and thus indicates that MRF4 accelerates cell proliferation by suppressing MyoD-dependent p21 WAF1 expression. However, forced expression of MyoD in the MRF4-overexpressing cells inhibited cell proliferation and partially induced myogenic differentiation, which suggests that MyoD is a potential negative intercessor of MRF4 in the regulation of the cell cycle. Taken together, these results indicate that MRF4 and MyoD play competitive roles in myogenesis by stimulating cell proliferation and differentiation, respectively

  17. Mitochondrial mass is inversely correlated to complete lipid oxidation in human myotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Exercise increases while physical inactivity decrease mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity of skeletal muscles in vivo. It is unknown whether mitochondrial mass and substrate oxidation are related in non-contracting skeletal muscle. Mitochondrial mass, ATP, ADP, AMP, glucose and lipid......, basal glucose oxidation and incomplete lipid oxidation were significantly increased while complete lipid oxidation was lower. Mitochondrial mass was not correlated to glucose oxidation or incomplete lipid oxidation in human myotubes but inversely correlated to complete lipid oxidation. Thus within...... a stable energetic background, an increased mitochondrial mass in human myotubes was not positive correlated to an increased substrate oxidation as expected from skeletal muscles in vivo but surprisingly with a reduced complete lipid oxidation....

  18. Degree of Suppression of Mouse Myoblast Cell Line C₂C12 Differentiation Varies According to Chondroitin Sulfate Subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warita, Katsuhiko; Oshima, Nana; Takeda-Okuda, Naoko; Tamura, Jun-Ichi; Hosaka, Yoshinao Z

    2016-10-21

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS), a type of glycosaminoglycan (GAG), is a factor involved in the suppression of myogenic differentiation. CS comprises two repeating sugars and has different subtypes depending on the position and number of bonded sulfate groups. However, the effect of each subtype on myogenic differentiation remains unclear. In this study, we spiked cultures of C₂C 12 myoblasts, cells which are capable of undergoing skeletal muscle differentiation, with one of five types of CS (CS-A, -B, -C, -D, or -E) and induced differentiation over a fixed time. After immunostaining of the formed myotubes with an anti-MHC antibody, we counted the number of nuclei in the myotubes and then calculated the fusion index (FI) as a measure of myotube differentiation. The FI values of all the CS-treated groups were lower than the FI value of the control group, especially the group treated with CS-E, which displayed notable suppression of myotube formation. To confirm that the sugar chain in CS-E is important in the suppression of differentiation, chondroitinase ABC (ChABC), which catabolizes CS, was added to the media. The addition of ChABC led to the degradation of CS-E, and neutralized the suppression of myotube formation by CS-E. Collectively, it can be concluded that the degree of suppression of differentiation depends on the subtype of CS and that CS-E strongly suppresses myogenic differentiation. We conclude that the CS sugar chain has inhibitory action against myoblast cell fusion.

  19. Short (16-mer locked nucleic acid splice-switching oligonucleotides restore dystrophin production in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy myotubes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Borges Pires

    Full Text Available Splice-switching antisense oligonucleotides (SSOs offer great potential for RNA-targeting therapies, and two SSO drugs have been recently approved for treating Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD and Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA. Despite promising results, new developments are still needed for more efficient chemistries and delivery systems. Locked nucleic acid (LNA is a chemically modified nucleic acid that presents several attractive properties, such as high melting temperature when bound to RNA, potent biological activity, high stability and low toxicity in vivo. Here, we designed a series of LNA-based SSOs complementary to two sequences of the human dystrophin exon 51 that are most evolutionary conserved and evaluated their ability to induce exon skipping upon transfection into myoblasts derived from a DMD patient. We show that 16-mers with 60% of LNA modification efficiently induce exon skipping and restore synthesis of a truncated dystrophin isoform that localizes to the plasma membrane of patient-derived myotubes differentiated in culture. In sum, this study underscores the value of short LNA-modified SSOs for therapeutic applications.

  20. Dynamics of the Skeletal Muscle Secretome during Myoblast Differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Jeanette; Rigbolt, Kristoffer T G; Blagoev, Blagoy

    2010-01-01

    During recent years, increased efforts have focused on elucidating the secretory function of skeletal muscle. Through secreted molecules, skeletal muscle affects local muscle biology in an auto/paracrine manner as well as having systemic effects on other tissues. Here we used a quantitative...... proteomics platform to investigate the factors secreted during the differentiation of murine C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. Using triple encoding stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture, we compared the secretomes at three different time points of muscle differentiation and followed the dynamics...... of the skeletal muscle as a prominent secretory organ. In addition to previously reported molecules, we identified many secreted proteins that have not previously been shown to be released from skeletal muscle cells nor shown to be differentially released during the process of myogenesis. We found 188...

  1. Skeletal myocyte hypertrophy requires mTOR kinase activity and S6K1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, In-Hyun; Erbay, Ebru; Nuzzi, Paul; Chen Jie

    2005-01-01

    The protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of cell proliferation and growth, with the ribosomal subunit S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) as one of the key downstream signaling effectors. A critical role of mTOR signaling in skeletal muscle differentiation has been identified recently, and an unusual regulatory mechanism independent of mTOR kinase activity and S6K1 is revealed. An mTOR pathway has also been reported to regulate skeletal muscle hypertrophy, but the regulatory mechanism is not completely understood. Here, we report the investigation of mTOR's function in insulin growth factor I (IGF-I)-induced C2C12 myotube hypertrophy. Added at a later stage when rapamycin no longer had any effect on normal myocyte differentiation, rapamycin completely blocked myocyte hypertrophy as measured by myotube diameter. Importantly, a concerted increase of average myonuclei per myotube was observed in IGF-I-stimulated myotubes, which was also inhibited by rapamycin added at a time when it no longer affected normal differentiation. The mTOR protein level, its catalytic activity, its phosphorylation on Ser2448, and the activity of S6K1 were all found increased in IGF-I-stimulated myotubes compared to unstimulated myotubes. Using C2C12 cells stably expressing rapamycin-resistant forms of mTOR and S6K1, we provide genetic evidence for the requirement of mTOR and its downstream effector S6K1 in the regulation of myotube hypertrophy. Our results suggest distinct mTOR signaling mechanisms in different stages of skeletal muscle development: While mTOR regulates the initial myoblast differentiation in a kinase-independent and S6K1-independent manner, the hypertrophic function of mTOR requires its kinase activity and employs S6K1 as a downstream effector

  2. Nuclear translocation of the cytoskeleton-associated protein, smALP, upon induction of skeletal muscle differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambier, Linda; Pomies, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The cytoskeleton-associated protein, smALP, is expressed in differentiated skeletal muscle. → smALP is translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of C2C12 myoblasts upon induction of myogenesis. → The differentiation-dependent nuclear translocation of smALP occurs in parallel with the nuclear accumulation of myogenin. → The LIM domain of smALP is essential for the nuclear accumulation of the protein. → smALP might act in the nucleus to control some critical aspect of the muscle differentiation process. -- Abstract: The skALP isoform has been shown to play a critical role in actin organization and anchorage within the Z-discs of skeletal muscles, but no data is available on the function of the smALP isoform in skeletal muscle cells. Here, we show that upon induction of differentiation a nuclear translocation of smALP from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of C2C12 myoblasts, concomitant to an up-regulation of the protein expression, occurs in parallel with the nuclear accumulation of myogenin. Moreover, we demonstrate that the LIM domain of smALP is essential for the nuclear translocation of the protein.

  3. YB1/p32, a nuclear Y-box binding protein 1, is a novel regulator of myoblast differentiation that interacts with Msx1 homeoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Young Joon [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Science, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-Gu, Incheon, Korea, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hansol, E-mail: hlee@inha.ac.kr [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Science, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-Gu, Incheon, Korea, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Precisely controlled cellular differentiation is essential for the proper development of vertebrate embryo and deregulated differentiation is a major cause of many human congenital diseases as well as cancer. Msx1 is a member of the homeoprotein family implicated in these processes, which inhibits the differentiation of skeletal muscle and other cell types, presumably by regulating transcription of target genes through interaction with other cellular factors. We presently show that YB1/p32, a nuclear Y-box binding protein 1, interacts with Msx1 homeoprotein and functions as a regulator of C2C12 myoblast differentiation. We demonstrate that YB1/p32 functionally interacts with Msx1 through its N-terminal region and colocalizes with Msx1 at the nuclear periphery. Moreover, we find that YB1/p32 is competent for inhibition of C2C12 myoblast differentiation, which is correlated with its activity as a negative regulator of MyoD gene expression and binding to the MyoD core enhancer region (CER). Furthermore, YB1/p32 cooperates with Msx1 in transcriptional repression and knocking down the expression of endogenous YB1 attenuates the effects of Msx1. Taken together, our study has uncovered a new function of YB1/p32, a regulator of skeletal muscle differentiation.

  4. YB1/p32, a nuclear Y-box binding protein 1, is a novel regulator of myoblast differentiation that interacts with Msx1 homeoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Young Joon; Lee, Hansol

    2010-01-01

    Precisely controlled cellular differentiation is essential for the proper development of vertebrate embryo and deregulated differentiation is a major cause of many human congenital diseases as well as cancer. Msx1 is a member of the homeoprotein family implicated in these processes, which inhibits the differentiation of skeletal muscle and other cell types, presumably by regulating transcription of target genes through interaction with other cellular factors. We presently show that YB1/p32, a nuclear Y-box binding protein 1, interacts with Msx1 homeoprotein and functions as a regulator of C2C12 myoblast differentiation. We demonstrate that YB1/p32 functionally interacts with Msx1 through its N-terminal region and colocalizes with Msx1 at the nuclear periphery. Moreover, we find that YB1/p32 is competent for inhibition of C2C12 myoblast differentiation, which is correlated with its activity as a negative regulator of MyoD gene expression and binding to the MyoD core enhancer region (CER). Furthermore, YB1/p32 cooperates with Msx1 in transcriptional repression and knocking down the expression of endogenous YB1 attenuates the effects of Msx1. Taken together, our study has uncovered a new function of YB1/p32, a regulator of skeletal muscle differentiation.

  5. Interaction of Wnt Signaling with BMP/Smad Signaling during the Transition from Cell Proliferation to Myogenic Differentiation in Mouse Myoblast-Derived Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumiko Terada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Wnt signaling is involved in muscle formation through β-catenin-dependent or -independent pathways, but interactions with other signaling pathways including transforming growth factor β/Smad have not been precisely elucidated. Results. As Wnt4 stimulates myogenic differentiation by antagonizing myostatin (GDF8 activity, we examined the role of Wnt4 signaling during muscle differentiation in the C2C12 myoblast cell line. Among several extrinsic signaling molecules examined in a microarray analysis of C2C12 cells during the transition from cell proliferation to differentiation after mitogen deprivation, bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4 expression was prominently increased. Wnt4 overexpression had similar effects on BMP4 expression. BMP4 was able to inhibit muscle differentiation when added to the culture medium. BMP4 and noggin had no effects on the cellular localization of β-catenin induced by Wnt3a; however, the BMP4-induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 was enhanced by Wnt4, but not by Wnt3a. The BMP antagonist noggin effectively stimulated muscle differentiation through binding to endogenous BMPs, and the effect of noggin was enhanced by the presence of Wnt3a and Wnt4. Conclusion. These results suggest that BMP/Smad pathways are modified through Wnt signaling during the transition from progenitor cell proliferation to myogenic differentiation, although Wnt/β-catenin signaling is not modified with BMP/Smad signaling.

  6. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, Qingnian; Dearth, Christopher L.; Corbett, Jacob T.; Pierre, Philippe; Chadee, Deborah N.; Pizza, Francis X.

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by skeletal muscle cells after muscle overload contributes to ensuing regenerative and hypertrophic processes in skeletal muscle. The objective of the present study is to reveal mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augments regenerative and hypertrophic processes of myogenesis. This was accomplished by genetically engineering C2C12 myoblasts to stably express ICAM-1, and by inhibiting the adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 through the use of a neutralizing antibody or cell penetrating peptide, respectively. Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured skeletal muscle cells augmented myoblast–myoblast adhesion, myotube formation, myonuclear number, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size without influencing the ability of myoblasts to proliferate or differentiate. ICAM-1 augmented myotube formation, myonuclear accretion, and myotube alignment through a mechanism involving adhesion-induced activation of ICAM-1 signaling, as these dependent measures were reduced via antibody and peptide inhibition of ICAM-1. The adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 also facilitated myotube hypertrophy through a mechanism involving myotube–myotube fusion, protein synthesis, and Akt/p70s6k signaling. Our findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis, and establish a novel mechanism through which the inflammatory response facilitates growth processes in skeletal muscle. - Highlights: • We examined mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 facilitates events of in vitro myogenesis. • Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured myoblasts did not influence their ability to proliferate or differentiate. • Skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augmented myoblast fusion, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size. • ICAM-1 augmented myogenic processes through

  7. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, Qingnian; Dearth, Christopher L.; Corbett, Jacob T. [Department of Kinesiology, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Pierre, Philippe [Centre d’Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy U2M, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille (France); INSERM U631, Institut National de la Santé et Recherche Médicale, Marseille (France); CNRS UMR6102, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Marseille (France); Chadee, Deborah N. [Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Pizza, Francis X., E-mail: Francis.Pizza@utoledo.edu [Department of Kinesiology, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-02-15

    We previously demonstrated that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by skeletal muscle cells after muscle overload contributes to ensuing regenerative and hypertrophic processes in skeletal muscle. The objective of the present study is to reveal mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augments regenerative and hypertrophic processes of myogenesis. This was accomplished by genetically engineering C2C12 myoblasts to stably express ICAM-1, and by inhibiting the adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 through the use of a neutralizing antibody or cell penetrating peptide, respectively. Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured skeletal muscle cells augmented myoblast–myoblast adhesion, myotube formation, myonuclear number, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size without influencing the ability of myoblasts to proliferate or differentiate. ICAM-1 augmented myotube formation, myonuclear accretion, and myotube alignment through a mechanism involving adhesion-induced activation of ICAM-1 signaling, as these dependent measures were reduced via antibody and peptide inhibition of ICAM-1. The adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 also facilitated myotube hypertrophy through a mechanism involving myotube–myotube fusion, protein synthesis, and Akt/p70s6k signaling. Our findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis, and establish a novel mechanism through which the inflammatory response facilitates growth processes in skeletal muscle. - Highlights: • We examined mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 facilitates events of in vitro myogenesis. • Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured myoblasts did not influence their ability to proliferate or differentiate. • Skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augmented myoblast fusion, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size. • ICAM-1 augmented myogenic processes through

  8. Triacylglycerol Accumulation is not primarily affected in Myotubes established from Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation, glucose and fatty acid (FA) uptake, and glycogen synthesis (GS) in human myotubes from healthy, lean, and obese subjects with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D), exposed to increasing palmitate (PA) and oleate (OA...... uptake (P0.05). These results indicate that (1) TAG accumulation is not primarily affected in skeletal muscle tissue of obese and T2D; (2) induced inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation is followed by TAG accumulation...... in skeletal muscle of obese and T2D subjects is adaptive....

  9. Maintenance of DNA repair capacity in differentiating rat muscle cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval, T.M.; Kaufman, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    Unscheduled DNA synthesis was measured at several times during the differentiation of cultured rat skeletal muscle cells in response to exposures to 254 nm UV light. There was no change in the amount of repair DNA synthesis as the cells fuse and differentiate from postmitotic prefusion myoblasts to multinucleated contracting myotubes. (author)

  10. The primary defect in glycogen synthase activity is not based on increased glycogen synthase kinase-3a activity in diabetic myotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael; Brusgaard, Klaus; Handberg, Aa.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism responsible for the diminished activation of glycogen synthase (GS) in diabetic myotubes remains unclear, but may involve increased activity and/or expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3). In myotubes established from type 2 diabetic and healthy control subjects we determined...

  11. Long-chain Acyl-CoA is not increased in Myotubes established from Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, Malene; Faergeman, Nils J; Knudsen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Accumulation of intramuscular long-chain acyl-CoA esters (LCACoA) has previously in animal and human models been suggested to play an important role in lipid induced insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to examine whether myotubes established from type 2 diabetic (T2D) subjects and lean...... controls express differences in long-chain acyl-CoA esters (LCACoA) precultured under physiological conditions and during chronic exposure to palmitate (PA) and oleic acids (OA) with/without acute insulin stimulation. No significant differences were found between diabetic and control myotubes, neither...

  12. Regulation of the sodium-potassium pump in cultured rat skeletal myotubes by intracellular sodium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodie, C.; Sampson, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    The properties of the Na-K pump and some of the factors controlling its amount and function were studied in rat myotubes in culture. The number of Na-K pump sites was quantified by measuring the amount of [ 3 H]ouabain bound to whole-cell preparations. Activity of the pump was determined by measurement of ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb-uptake and component of membrane potential. Chronic treatment of myotubes with tetrodotoxin (TTX), which lowers [Na]i, decreased the number of Na-K pumps, the ouabain-sensitive 86Rb uptake, and the size of the electrogenic pump component of Em. In contrast, chronic treatment with either ouabain or veratridine, which increases [Na+]i, resulted in an elevated level of Na-K pump sites. This effect was blocked by inhibitors of protein synthesis. Neither rates of degradation nor affinity of pump sites in cells treated with TTX, veratridine, or ouabain differred from those in control cells. The number and activity of Na-K pump sites were unaffected by chronic elevation in [Ca]i or chronic depolarization. We conclude that alterations in the level in intracellular Na ions play the major role in regulation of Na-K pump synthesis in cultured mammalian skeletal muscle

  13. Reduced TCA flux in diabetic myotubes: A governing influence on the diabetic phenotype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaster, Michael

    2009-10-02

    The diabetic phenotype is complex, requiring elucidation of key initiating defects. It is unknown whether the reduced tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) flux in skeletal muscle of obese and obese type 2 diabetic (T2D) subjects is of primary origin. Acetate oxidation (measurement of TCA-flux) was significantly reduced in primary myotube cultures established from T2D versus lean subjects. Acetate oxidation was acutely stimulated by insulin and respiratory uncoupling. Inhibition of TCA flux in lean myotubes by malonate was followed by a measured decline in; acetate oxidation, complete palmitate oxidation, lipid uptake, glycogen synthesis, ATP content and increased glucose uptake, while glucose oxidation was unaffected. Acute TCA inhibition did not induce insulin resistance. Thus the reduced TCA cycle flux in T2D skeletal muscle may be of primary origin. The diabetic phenotype of increased basal glucose uptake and glucose oxidation, the reduced complete lipid oxidation and increased respiratory quotient, are likely to be adaptive responses to the reduced TCA cycle flux.

  14. ATP synthesis is impaired in isolated mitochondria from myotubes established from type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minet, Ariane D; Gaster, Michael

    2010-01-01

    To date, it is unknown whether mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle from subjects with type 2 diabetes is based on primarily reduced mitochondrial mass and/or a primarily decreased mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Mitochondrial mass were determined in myotubes established from eight lean, eight...... mass and the ATP synthesis rate, neither at baseline nor during acute insulin stimulation, were not different between groups. The ratio of ATP synthesis rate at hexokinase versus ATP synthesis rate at baseline was lower in diabetic mitochondria compared to lean mitochondria. Thus the lower content...... obese and eight subjects with type 2 diabetes precultured under normophysiological conditions. Furthermore, mitochondria were isolated and ATP production was measured by luminescence at baseline and during acute insulin stimulation with or without concomitant ATP utilization by hexokinase. Mitochondrial...

  15. Tetranectin is a novel marker for myogenesis during embryonic development, muscle regeneration, and muscle cell differentiation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Iba, K; Durkin, M E

    1998-01-01

    differentiation in vitro. We find that tetranectin expression coincides with muscle differentiation and maturation in the second half of gestation and further that tetranectin is enriched at the myotendinous and myofascial junctions. The tetranectin immunostaining declines after birth and no immunostaining...... cells in dystrophic mdx mice. Murine C2C12 myogenic cells and pluripotent embryonic stem cells can undergo muscle cell differentiation in vitro. Tetranectin is not expressed in the undifferentiated myogenic cells, but during the progression of muscle differentiation, tetranectin mRNA is induced...... that in some tissues, such as the limbs, tetranectin may function locally, whereas in other tissues, such as the lung, tetranectin production may be destined for body fluids. In summary, these results suggest that tetranectin is a matricellular protein and plays a role in myogenesis....

  16. Leucine elicits myotube hypertrophy and enhances maximal contractile force in tissue engineered skeletal muscle in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Neil R W; Turner, Mark C; Farrington, Robert; Player, Darren J; Lewis, Mark P

    2017-10-01

    The amino acid leucine is thought to be important for skeletal muscle growth by virtue of its ability to acutely activate mTORC1 and enhance muscle protein synthesis, yet little data exist regarding its impact on skeletal muscle size and its ability to produce force. We utilized a tissue engineering approach in order to test whether supplementing culture medium with leucine could enhance mTORC1 signaling, myotube growth, and muscle function. Phosphorylation of the mTORC1 target proteins 4EBP-1 and rpS6 and myotube hypertrophy appeared to occur in a dose dependent manner, with 5 and 20 mM of leucine inducing similar effects, which were greater than those seen with 1 mM. Maximal contractile force was also elevated with leucine supplementation; however, although this did not appear to be enhanced with increasing leucine doses, this effect was completely ablated by co-incubation with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, showing that the augmented force production in the presence of leucine was mTOR sensitive. Finally, by using electrical stimulation to induce chronic (24 hr) contraction of engineered skeletal muscle constructs, we were able to show that the effects of leucine and muscle contraction are additive, since the two stimuli had cumulative effects on maximal contractile force production. These results extend our current knowledge of the efficacy of leucine as an anabolic nutritional aid showing for the first time that leucine supplementation may augment skeletal muscle functional capacity, and furthermore validates the use of engineered skeletal muscle for highly-controlled investigations into nutritional regulation of muscle physiology. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by wiley periodicals, Inc.

  17. Activation of nuclear receptor NR5A2 increases Glut4 expression and glucose metabolism in muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolado-Carrancio, A. [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Cantabria, IDIVAL, Santander (Spain); Riancho, J.A. [Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital U.M. Valdecilla-IDIVAL, University of Cantabria, RETICEF, Santander (Spain); Sainz, J. [Institute of Biomedicine and Biotechnology of Cantabria (IBBTEC), CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Rodríguez-Rey, J.C., E-mail: rodriguj@unican.es [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Cantabria, IDIVAL, Santander (Spain)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • NR5A2 expression in C2C12 is associated with myotube differentiation. • DLPC induces an increase in GLUT4 levels and glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes. • In high glucose conditions the activation of NR5A2 inhibits fatty acids oxidation. - Abstract: NR5A2 is a nuclear receptor which regulates the expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism, pluripotency maintenance and cell differentiation. It has been recently shown that DLPC, a NR5A2 ligand, prevents liver steatosis and improves insulin sensitivity in mouse models of insulin resistance, an effect that has been associated with changes in glucose and fatty acids metabolism in liver. Because skeletal muscle is a major tissue in clearing glucose from blood, we studied the effect of the activation of NR5A2 on muscle metabolism by using cultures of C2C12, a mouse-derived cell line widely used as a model of skeletal muscle. Treatment of C2C12 with DLPC resulted in increased levels of expression of GLUT4 and also of several genes related to glycolysis and glycogen metabolism. These changes were accompanied by an increased glucose uptake. In addition, the activation of NR5A2 produced a reduction in the oxidation of fatty acids, an effect which disappeared in low-glucose conditions. Our results suggest that NR5A2, mostly by enhancing glucose uptake, switches muscle cells into a state of glucose preference. The increased use of glucose by muscle might constitute another mechanism by which NR5A2 improves blood glucose levels and restores insulin sensitivity.

  18. Activation of nuclear receptor NR5A2 increases Glut4 expression and glucose metabolism in muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolado-Carrancio, A.; Riancho, J.A.; Sainz, J.; Rodríguez-Rey, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • NR5A2 expression in C2C12 is associated with myotube differentiation. • DLPC induces an increase in GLUT4 levels and glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes. • In high glucose conditions the activation of NR5A2 inhibits fatty acids oxidation. - Abstract: NR5A2 is a nuclear receptor which regulates the expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism, pluripotency maintenance and cell differentiation. It has been recently shown that DLPC, a NR5A2 ligand, prevents liver steatosis and improves insulin sensitivity in mouse models of insulin resistance, an effect that has been associated with changes in glucose and fatty acids metabolism in liver. Because skeletal muscle is a major tissue in clearing glucose from blood, we studied the effect of the activation of NR5A2 on muscle metabolism by using cultures of C2C12, a mouse-derived cell line widely used as a model of skeletal muscle. Treatment of C2C12 with DLPC resulted in increased levels of expression of GLUT4 and also of several genes related to glycolysis and glycogen metabolism. These changes were accompanied by an increased glucose uptake. In addition, the activation of NR5A2 produced a reduction in the oxidation of fatty acids, an effect which disappeared in low-glucose conditions. Our results suggest that NR5A2, mostly by enhancing glucose uptake, switches muscle cells into a state of glucose preference. The increased use of glucose by muscle might constitute another mechanism by which NR5A2 improves blood glucose levels and restores insulin sensitivity

  19. Liver X receptor antagonist reduces lipid formation and increases glucose metabolism in myotubes from lean, obese and type 2 diabetic individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kase, E T; Thoresen, G H; Westerlund, S

    2007-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Liver X receptors (LXRs) play important roles in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate effects of the endogenous LXR agonist 22-R-hydroxycholesterol (22-R-HC) and its stereoisomer 22-S-hydroxycholesterol (22-S-HC), in comparison...... with the synthetic agonist T0901317 on lipid and glucose metabolism in human skeletal muscle cells (myotubes). METHODS: Myotubes established from lean and obese control volunteers and from obese type 2 diabetic volunteers were treated with LXR ligands for 4 days. Lipid and glucose metabolisms were studied...... with labelled precursors, and gene expression was analysed using real-time PCR. RESULTS: Treatment with T0901317 increased lipogenesis (de novo lipid synthesis) and lipid accumulation in myotubes, this increase being more pronounced in myotubes from type 2 diabetic volunteers than from lean volunteers...

  20. Electroactive polyurethane/siloxane derived from castor oil as a versatile cardiac patch, part I: Synthesis, characterization, and myoblast proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheiraei, Nafiseh; Gharibi, Reza; Yeganeh, Hamid; Miragoli, Michele; Salvarani, Nicolò; Di Pasquale, Elisa; Condorelli, Gianluigi

    2016-03-01

    Tissue-engineered cardiac patch aims at regenerating an infarcted heart by improving cardiac function and providing mechanical support to the diseased myocardium. In order to take advantages of electroactivity, a new synthetic method was developed for the introduction of an electroactive oligoaniline into the backbone of prepared patches. For this purpose, a series of electroactive polyurethane/siloxane films containing aniline tetramer (AT) was prepared through sol-gel reaction of trimethoxysilane functional intermediate polyurethane prepolymers made from castor oil and poly(ethylene glycol). Physicochemical, mechanical, and electrical conductivity of samples were evaluated and the recorded results were correlated to their structural characteristics. The optimized films were proved to be biodegradable and have tensile properties suitable for cardiac patch application. The embedded AT moieties in the backbone of the prepared samples preserved their electroactivity with the electrical conductivity in the range of 10 -4 S/cm. The prepared films were compatible with proliferation of C2C12 and had potential for enhancing myotube formation even without external electrical stimulation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 775-787, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. SPARC is up-regulated during skeletal muscle regeneration and inhibits myoblast differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Stine Juhl; Jørgensen, Louise Helskov; Andersen, Ditte C

    2013-01-01

    in muscle disease. SPARC overexpression almost completely abolished myogenic differentiation in these cultures as determined by substantially reduced levels of myogenic factors (Pax7, Myf5, Myod, Mef2B, Myogenin, and Myostatin) and a lack of multinucleated myotubes. These results demonstrate...

  2. MURC, a muscle-restricted coiled-coil protein, is involved in the regulation of skeletal myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, Masashi; Ueyama, Tomomi; Ogata, Takehiro; Takehara, Naofumi; Nakajima, Norio; Isodono, Koji; Asada, Satoshi; Takahashi, Tomosaburo; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Oh, Hidemasa

    2008-08-01

    Skeletal myogenesis is a multistep process by which multinucleated mature muscle fibers are formed from undifferentiated, mononucleated myoblasts. However, the molecular mechanisms of skeletal myogenesis have not been fully elucidated. Here, we identified muscle-restricted coiled-coil (MURC) protein as a positive regulator of myogenesis. In skeletal muscle, MURC was localized to the cytoplasm with accumulation in the Z-disc of the sarcomere. In C2C12 myoblasts, MURC expression occurred coincidentally with myogenin expression and preceded sarcomeric myosin expression during differentiation into myotubes. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of MURC impaired differentiation in C2C12 myoblasts, which was accompanied by impaired myogenin expression and ERK activation. Overexpression of MURC in C2C12 myoblasts resulted in the promotion of differentiation with enhanced myogenin expression and ERK activation during differentiation. During injury-induced muscle regeneration, MURC expression increased, and a higher abundance of MURC was observed in immature myofibers compared with mature myofibers. In addition, ERK was activated in regenerating tissue, and ERK activation was detected in MURC-expressing immature myofibers. These findings suggest that MURC is involved in the skeletal myogenesis that results from modulation of myogenin expression and ERK activation. MURC may play pivotal roles in the molecular mechanisms of skeletal myogenic differentiation.

  3. The basal kinetic parameters of glycogen synthase in human myotube cultures are not affected by chronic high insulin exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Schrøder, H D; Handberg, A

    2001-01-01

    results show that chronic exposure of human myotubes to high insulin with or without high glucose did not affect the basal kinetic parameters but abolished the reactivity of GS to acute insulin stimulation. We suggest that insulin induced insulin resistance of GS is caused by a failure of acute insulin......There is no consensus regarding the results from in vivo and in vitro studies on the impact of chronic high insulin and/or high glucose exposure on acute insulin stimulation of glycogen synthase (GS) kinetic parameters in human skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to evaluate the kinetic...... parameters of glycogen synthase activity in human myotube cultures at conditions of chronic high insulin combined or not with high glucose exposure, before and after a subsequent acute insulin stimulation. Acute insulin stimulation significantly increased the fractional activity (FV(0.1)) of GS, increased...

  4. Activation of estrogen response elements is mediated both via estrogen and muscle contractions in rat skeletal muscle myotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiik, A.; Hellsten, Ylva; Berthelson, P.

    2009-01-01

    is ER independent. The muscle contraction-induced transactivation of ERE and increase in ERbeta mRNA were instead found to be MAP kinase (MAPK) dependent. This study demonstrates for the first time that muscle contractions have a similar functional effect as estrogen in skeletal muscle myotubes, causing......The aim of the present study was to investigate the activation of estrogen response elements (EREs) by estrogen and muscle contractions in rat myotubes in culture and to assess whether the activation is dependent on the estrogen receptors (ERs). In addition, the effect of estrogen and contraction...... on the mRNA levels of ERalpha and ERbeta was studied to determine the functional consequence of the transactivation. Myoblasts were isolated from rat skeletal muscle and transfected with a vector consisting of sequences of EREs coupled to the gene for luciferase. The transfected myoblasts were...

  5. GLUT4 in cultured skeletal myotubes is segregated from the transferrin receptor and stored in vesicles associated with TGN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ralston, E; Ploug, Thorkil

    1996-01-01

    of the constitutive endosomal-lysosomal pathway. To address this question, we have investigated the localization of the endogenous GLUT4 in non-stimulated skeletal myotubes from the cell line C2, by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. We have used a panel of antibodies to markers of the Golgi complex...... and in vesicles just beyond, i.e. in the structures that constitute the trans-Golgi network (TGN). In myotubes treated with brefeldin A, the immunofluorescence pattern of GLUT4 is modified, but it differs from both Golgi complex markers and TGN38. Instead, it resembles the pattern of the transferrin receptor...... to the GLUT4-containing tubulo-vesicular elements. In brefeldin A-treated cells, a network of tubules of approximately 70 nm diameter, studded with varicosities, stains for both GLUT4 and transferrin receptor, suggesting that brefeldin A has caused fusion of the transferrin receptor and GLUT4-containing...

  6. NMR-Based Metabonomic Investigation of Heat Stress in Myotubes Reveals a Time-Dependent Change in the Metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straadt, Ida K; Young, Jette F; Bross, Peter

    2010-01-01

    NMR-based metabonomics was applied to elucidate the time-dependent stress responses in mouse myotubes after heat exposure of either 42 or 45 degrees C for 1 h. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the gradual time-dependent changes in metabolites contributing to the clustering...... and separation of the control samples from the different time points after heat stress primarily are in the metabolites glucose, leucine, lysine, phenylalanine, creatine, glutamine, and acetate. In addition, PC scores revealed a maximum change in metabolite composition 4 h after the stress exposure; thereafter......, samples returned toward control samples, however, without reaching the control samples even 10 h after stress. The results also indicate that the myotubes efficiently regulate the pH level by release of lactate to the culture medium at a heat stress level of 42 degrees C, which is a temperature level...

  7. Differentiation and sarcomere formation in skeletal myocytes directly prepared from human induced pluripotent stem cells using a sphere-based culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwlawat, Saowanee; Lynch, Eileen; Glaser, Jennifer; Smit-Oistad, Ivy; Jeffrey, Jeremy; Van Dyke, Jonathan M; Suzuki, Masatoshi

    Human induced-pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a promising resource for propagation of myogenic progenitors. Our group recently reported a unique protocol for the derivation of myogenic progenitors directly (without genetic modification) from human pluripotent cells using free-floating spherical culture. Here we expand our previous efforts and attempt to determine how differentiation duration, culture surface coatings, and nutrient supplements in the medium influence progenitor differentiation and formation of skeletal myotubes containing sarcomeric structures. A long differentiation period (over 6 weeks) promoted the differentiation of iPSC-derived myogenic progenitors and subsequent myotube formation. These iPSC-derived myotubes contained representative sarcomeric structures, consisting of organized myosin and actin filaments, and could spontaneously contract. We also found that a bioengineering approach using three-dimensional (3D) artificial muscle constructs could facilitate the formation of elongated myotubes. Lastly, we determined how culture surface coating matrices and different supplements would influence terminal differentiation. While both Matrigel and laminin coatings showed comparable effects on muscle differentiation, B27 serum-free supplement in the differentiation medium significantly enhanced myogenesis compared to horse serum. Our findings support the possibility to create an in vitro model of contractile sarcomeric myofibrils for disease modeling and drug screening to study neuromuscular diseases. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Network Analysis for the Identification of Differentially Expressed Hub Genes Using Myogenin Knock-down Muscle Satellite Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeel Malik

    Full Text Available Muscle, a multinucleate syncytium formed by the fusion of mononuclear myoblasts, arises from quiescent progenitors (satellite cells via activation of muscle-specific transcription factors (MyoD, Myf5, myogenin: MYOG, and MRF4. Subsequent to a decline in Pax7, induction in the expression of MYOG is a hallmark of myoblasts that have entered the differentiation phase following cell cycle withdrawal. It is evident that MYOG function cannot be compensated by any other myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs. Despite a plethora of information available regarding MYOG, the mechanism by which MYOG regulates muscle cell differentiation has not yet been identified. Using an RNA-Seq approach, analysis of MYOG knock-down muscle satellite cells (MSCs have shown that genes associated with cell cycle and division, DNA replication, and phosphate metabolism are differentially expressed. By constructing an interaction network of differentially expressed genes (DEGs using GeneMANIA, cadherin-associated protein (CTNNA2 was identified as the main hub gene in the network with highest node degree. Four functional clusters (modules or communities were identified in the network and the functional enrichment analysis revealed that genes included in these clusters significantly contribute to skeletal muscle development. To confirm this finding, in vitro studies revealed increased expression of CTNNA2 in MSCs on day 12 compared to day 10. Expression of CTNNA2 was decreased in MYOG knock-down cells. However, knocking down CTNNA2, which leads to increased expression of extracellular matrix (ECM genes (type I collagen α1 and type I collagen α2 along with myostatin (MSTN, was not found significantly affecting the expression of MYOG in C2C12 cells. We therefore propose that MYOG exerts its regulatory effects by acting upstream of CTNNA2, which in turn regulates the differentiation of C2C12 cells via interaction with ECM genes. Taken together, these findings highlight a new

  9. Metabolic profiles show specific mitochondrial toxicities in vitro in myotube cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Qiuwei; Vu, Heather; Liu Liping; Wang, Ting-Chuan; Schaefer, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial toxicity has been a serious concern, not only in preclinical drug development but also in clinical trials. In mitochondria, there are several distinct metabolic processes including fatty acid β-oxidation, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), and each process contains discrete but often intimately linked steps. Interruption in any one of those steps can cause mitochondrial dysfunction. Detection of inhibition to OXPHOS can be complicated in vivo because intermediate endogenous metabolites can be recycled in situ or circulated systemically for metabolism in other organs or tissues. Commonly used assays for evaluating mitochondrial function are often applied to ex vivo or in vitro samples; they include various enzymatic or protein assays, as well as functional assays such as measurement of oxygen consumption rate, membrane potential, or acidification rates. Metabolomics provides quantitative profiles of overall metabolic changes that can aid in the unraveling of explicit biochemical details of mitochondrial inhibition while providing a holistic view and heuristic understanding of cellular bioenergetics. In this paper, we showed the application of quantitative NMR metabolomics to in vitro myotube cells treated with mitochondrial toxicants, rotenone and antimycin A. The close coupling of the TCA cycle to the electron transfer chain (ETC) in OXPHOS enables specific diagnoses of inhibition to ETC complexes by discrete biochemical changes in the TCA cycle.

  10. Supplementation of pyruvate prevents palmitate-induced impairment of glucose uptake in C2 myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jong Gab; Choi, Sung-E; Hwang, Yoon-Jung; Lee, Sang-A; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Min-Seok; Han, Seung Jin; Kim, Hae Jin; Kim, Dae Jung; Kang, Yup; Lee, Kwan-Woo

    2011-10-15

    Elevated fatty acid levels have been thought to contribute to insulin resistance. Repression of the glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) gene as well as impaired GLUT4 translocation may be a mediator for fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. This study was initiated to determine whether palmitate treatment repressed GLUT4 expression, whether glucose/fatty acid metabolism influenced palmitate-induced GLUT4 gene repression (PIGR), and whether attempts to prevent PIGR restored palmitate-induced impairment of glucose uptake (PIIGU) in C2 myotubes. Not only stimulators of fatty acid oxidation, such as bezafibrate, AICAR, and TOFA, but also TCA cycle substrates, such as pyruvate, leucine/glutamine, and α-ketoisocaproate/monomethyl succinate, significantly prevented PIGR. In particular, supplementing with pyruvate through methyl pyruvate resulted in nearly complete prevention of PIIGU, whereas palmitate treatment reduced the intracellular pyruvate level. These results suggest that pyruvate depletion plays a critical role in PIGR and PIIGU; thus, pyruvate supplementation may help prevent obesity-induced insulin resistance in muscle cells. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Glycogen Reduction in Myotubes of Late-Onset Pompe Disease Patients Using Antisense Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goina, Elisa; Peruzzo, Paolo; Bembi, Bruno; Dardis, Andrea; Buratti, Emanuele

    2017-09-06

    Glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII) is a lysosomal disorder caused by the deficient activity of acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA) enzyme, leading to the accumulation of glycogen within the lysosomes. The disease has been classified in infantile and late-onset forms. Most late-onset patients share a splicing mutation c.-32-13T > G in intron 1 of the GAA gene that prevents efficient recognition of exon 2 by the spliceosome. In this study, we have mapped the splicing silencers of GAA exon 2 and developed antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (AMOs) to inhibit those regions and rescue normal splicing in the presence of the c.-32-13T > G mutation. Using a minigene approach and patient fibroblasts, we successfully increased inclusion of exon 2 in the mRNA and GAA enzyme production by targeting a specific silencer with a combination of AMOs. Most importantly, the use of these AMOs in patient myotubes results in a decreased accumulation of glycogen. To our knowledge, this is the only therapeutic approach resulting in a decrease of glycogen accumulation in patient tissues beside enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and TFEB overexpression. As a result, it may represent a highly novel and promising therapeutic line for GSDII. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. PKR is a novel functional direct player that coordinates skeletal muscle differentiation via p38MAPK/AKT pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisi, A; Spaziani, A; Anticoli, S; Ghidinelli, M; Balsano, C

    2008-03-01

    Myogenic differentiation is a highly orchestrated multistep process controlled by extracellular growth factors that modulate largely unknown signals into the cell affecting the muscle-transcription program. P38MAPK-dependent signalling, as well as PI3K/Akt pathway, has a key role in the control of muscle gene expression at different stages during the myogenic process. P38MAPK affects the activities of transcription factors, such as MyoD and myogenin, and contributes, together with PI3K/Akt pathway, to control the early and late steps of myogenic differentiation. The aim of our work was to better define the role of PKR, a dsRNA-activated protein kinase, as potential component in the differentiation program of C2C12 murine myogenic cells and to correlate its activity with p38MAPK and PI3K/Akt myogenic regulatory pathways. Here, we demonstrate that PKR is an essential component of the muscle development machinery and forms a functional complex with p38MAPK and/or Akt, contributing to muscle differentiation of committed myogenic cells in vitro. Inhibition of endogenous PKR activity by a specific (si)RNA and a PKR dominant-negative interferes with the myogenic program of C2C12 cells, causing a delay in activation of myogenic specific genes and inducing the formation of thinner myofibers. In addition, the construction of three PKR mutants allowed us to demonstrate that both N and C-terminal regions of PKR are critical for the interaction with p38MAPK and Akt. The novel discovered complex permits PKR to timely regulate the inhibition/activation of p38MAPK and Akt, controlling in this way the different steps characterizing skeletal muscle differentiation.

  13. Skeletal muscle myoblasts possess a stretch-responsive local angiotensin signalling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Adam P W; Baker, Jeff; De Lisio, Michael; Parise, Gianni

    2011-06-01

    A paucity of information exists regarding the presence of local renin-angiotensin systems (RASs) in skeletal muscle and associated muscle stem cells. Skeletal muscle and muscle stem cells were isolated from C57BL/6 mice and examined for the presence of a local RAS using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western blotting and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Furthermore, the effect of mechanical stimulation on RAS member gene expression was analysed. Whole skeletal muscle, primary myoblasts and C2C12 derived myoblasts and myotubes differentially expressed members of the RAS including angiotensinogen, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 (AT(1)) and type 2 (AT(2)). Renin transcripts were never detected, however, mRNA for the 'renin-like' enzyme cathepsin D was observed and Ang I and Ang II were identified in cell culture supernatants from proliferating myoblasts. AT(1) appeared to co-localise with polymerised actin filaments in proliferating myoblasts and was primarily found in the nucleus of terminally differentiated myotubes. Furthermore, mechanical stretch of proliferating and differentiating C2C12 cells differentially induced mRNA expression of angiotensinogen, AT(1) and AT(2). Proliferating and differentiated muscle stem cells possess a local stress-responsive RAS in vitro. The precise function of a local RAS in myoblasts remains unknown. However, evidence presented here suggests that Ang II may be a regulator of skeletal muscle myoblasts.

  14. The omega-3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, prevents the damaging effects of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha during murine skeletal muscle cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson Stephen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA is a ώ-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid with anti-inflammatory and anti-cachetic properties that may have potential benefits with regards to skeletal muscle atrophy conditions where inflammation is present. It is also reported that pathologic levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α are associated with muscle wasting, exerted through inhibition of myogenic differentiation and enhanced apoptosis. These findings led us to hypothesize that EPA may have a protective effect against skeletal muscle damage induced by the actions of TNF-α. Results The deleterious effects of TNF-α on C2C12 myogenesis were completely inhibited by co-treatment with EPA. Thus, EPA prevented the TNF-mediated loss of MyHC expression and significantly increased myogenic fusion (p p p p p p Conclusion In conclusion, EPA has a protective action against the damaging effects of TNF-α on C2C12 myogenesis. These findings support further investigations of EPA as a potential therapeutic agent during skeletal muscle regeneration following injury.

  15. Plasma membrane characterization, by scanning electron microscopy, of multipotent myoblasts-derived populations sorted using dielectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratore, Massimo; Mitchell, Steve; Waterfall, Martin

    2013-09-06

    Multipotent progenitor cells have shown promise for use in biomedical applications and regenerative medicine. The implementation of such cells for clinical application requires a synchronized, phenotypically and/or genotypically, homogenous cell population. Here we have demonstrated the implementation of a biological tag-free dielectrophoretic device used for discrimination of multipotent myoblastic C2C12 model. The multipotent capabilities in differentiation, for these cells, diminishes with higher passage number, so for cultures above 70 passages only a small percentage of cells is able to differentiate into terminal myotubes. In this work we demonstrated that we could recover, above 96% purity, specific cell types from a mixed population of cells at high passage number without any biological tag using dielectrophoresis. The purity of the samples was confirmed by cytometric analysis using the cell specific marker embryonic myosin. To further investigate the dielectric properties of the cell plasma membrane we co-culture C2C12 with similar size, when in suspension, GFP-positive fibroblast as feeder layer. The level of separation between the cell types was above 98% purity which was confirmed by flow cytometry. These levels of separation are assumed to account for cell size and for the plasma membrane morphological differences between C2C12 and fibroblast unrelated to the stages of the cell cycle which was assessed by immunofluorescence staining. Plasma membrane conformational differences were further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of thyroid hormone effects on Na-K pump and membrane potential of cultured rat skeletal myotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodie, C.; Sampson, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of thyroid hormone on the Na-K pump and resting membrane potential (EM) of rat skeletal myotubes in culture. Myotubes were obtained from fetal (19-21 day) or neonatal rats (1-2 day) by serial trypsinization and maintained in culture for up to 10 days. Cells were treated with T4 or T3 on day 6 or 7, and measurements were made of EM, [ 3 H]ouabain binding, and ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb uptake at various times thereafter. Hormone treatment increased the values of all three variables within 24 h, plateau levels being attained by 48-72 h. Cycloheximide and actinomycin D totally blocked the effects of thyroid hormone when added together to the cells, thus suggesting that protein synthesis is necessary for the effects of these hormones. Scatchard analysis showed that the new receptors have lower ouabain affinity than those in control. Blockade of spontaneously occurring action potentials with tetrodotoxin, which blocks voltage-dependent Na channels, or Na/H antiporter with amiloride, abolished the hormone effects seen after 24 h and significantly reduced those obtained after 48 h of hormone treatment. The results demonstrate that thyroid hormone-induced increased amount and activity of the electrogenic Na-K pump in cultured myotubes occurs, at least in part, in response to an initial effect to increase Na influx. Moreover, the findings are consistent with the concept that the Na-K pump plays an important role in regulation of EM in this preparation

  17. Characterization of human myotubes from type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic subjects using complementary quantitative mass spectrometric methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Tine E; Bak, Steffen; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2011-01-01

    2 diabetes. Several abnormalities have been identified in skeletal muscle from type 2 diabetic subjects, however, the exact molecular mechanisms leading to the diabetic phenotype has still not been found. Here we present a large-scale study in which we combine a quantitative proteomic discovery...... strategy using iTRAQ and a label-free study with a targeted quantitative proteomic approach using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) to identify, quantify and validate changes in protein abundance between human myotubes obtained from non-diabetic lean, non-diabetic obese and type 2 diabetic subjects...

  18. Prelamin A is involved in early steps of muscle differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capanni, Cristina; Del Coco, Rosalba; Squarzoni, Stefano; Columbaro, Marta; Mattioli, Elisabetta; Camozzi, Daria; Rocchi, Anna; Scotlandi, Katia; Maraldi, Nadir; Foisner, Roland; Lattanzi, Giovanna

    2008-01-01

    Lamin A is a nuclear lamina constituent implicated in a number of human disorders including Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. Since increasing evidence suggests a role of the lamin A precursor in nuclear functions, we investigated the processing of prelamin A during differentiation of C2C12 mouse myoblasts. We show that both protein levels and cellular localization of prelamin A are modulated during myoblast activation. Similar changes of lamin A-binding proteins emerin and LAP2α were observed. Furthermore, prelamin A was found in a complex with LAP2α in differentiating myoblasts. Prelamin A accumulation in cycling myoblasts by expressing unprocessable mutants affected LAP2α and PCNA amount and increased caveolin 3 mRNA and protein levels, while accumulation of prelamin A in differentiated muscle cells following treatment with a farnesyl transferase inhibitor appeared to inhibit caveolin 3 expression. Our data provide evidence for a critical role of the lamin A precursor in the early steps of muscle cell differentiation

  19. Skeletal muscle myotubes of the severely obese exhibit altered ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagic/lysosomal proteolytic flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, Lance M.; Powell, Jonathan J. S.; Houmard, Joseph A.; Witczak, Carol A.; Brault, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Whole-body protein metabolism is dysregulated with obesity. Our goal was to determine if activity and expression of major protein degradation pathways are compromised specifically in human skeletal muscle with obesity. Methods We utilized primary Human Skeletal Muscle cell (HSkM) cultures since cellular mechanisms can be studied absent of hormones and contractile activity that could independently influence metabolism. HSkM from 10 lean (BMI ≤ 26.0 kg/m2) and 8 severely obese (BMI ≥ 39.0) women were examined basally and when stimulated to atrophy (serum and amino acid starvation). Results HSkM from obese donors had a lower proportion of type I myosin heavy chain and slower flux through the autophagic/lysosomal pathway. During starvation, flux through the ubiquitin-proteasome system diverged according to obesity status, with a decrease in the lean and an increase in HSkM from obese subjects. HSkMC from the obese also displayed elevated proteasome activity despite no difference in proteasome content. Atrophy-related gene expression and myotube area were similar in myotubes derived from lean and obese individuals under basal and starved conditions. Conclusions Our data indicate that muscle cells of the lean and severely obese have innate differences in management of protein degradation, which may explain their metabolic differences. PMID:26010327

  20. Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IV Mediates IFN-γ-Induced Immune Behaviors in Skeletal Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RuiCai Gu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Whether calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV plays a role in regulating immunologic features of muscle cells in inflammatory environment, as it does for immune cells, remains mostly unknown. In this study, we investigated the influence of endogenous CaMKIV on the immunological characteristics of myoblasts and myotubes received IFN-γ stimulation. Methods: C2C12 and murine myogenic precursor cells (MPCs were cultured and differentiated in vitro, in the presence of pro-inflammatory IFN-γ. CaMKIV shRNA lentivirus transfection was performed to knockdown CaMKIV gene in C2C12 cells. pEGFP-N1-CaMKIV plasmid was delivered into knockout cells for recovering intracellular CaMKIV gene level. CREB1 antagonist KG-501 was used to block CREB signal. qPCR, immunoblot analysis, or immunofluorescence was used to detect mRNA and protein levels of CaMKIV, immuno-molecules, or pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Co-stimulatory molecules expression was assessed by FACS analysis. Results: IFN-γ induces the expression or up-regulation of MHC-I/II and TLR3, and the up-regulation of CaMKIV level in muscle cells. In contrast, CaMKIV knockdown in myoblasts and myotubes leads to expression inhibition of the above immuno-molecules. As well, CaMKIV knockdown selectively inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines, and co-stimulatory molecules expression in IFN-γ treated myoblasts and myotubes. Finally, CaMKIV knockdown abolishes IFN-γ induced CREB pathway molecules accumulation in differentiated myotubes. Conclusions: CaMKIV can be induced to up-regulate in muscle cells under inflammatory condition, and positively mediates intrinsic immune behaviors of muscle cells triggered by IFN-γ.

  1. Long-Term Consumption of Platycodi Radix Ameliorates Obesity and Insulin Resistance via the Activation of AMPK Pathways

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    Chae Eun Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effects and mechanism of Platycodi radix, having white balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorum for. albiflorum (Honda H. Hara on obesity and insulin resistance. The extracts of Platycodi radix with white balloon flower were tested in cultured cells and administered into mice on a high-fat diet. The Platycodi radix activated the AMPK/ACC phosphorylation in C2C12 myotubes and also suppressed adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. In experimental animal, it suppressed the weight gain of obese mice and ameliorated obesity-induced insulin resistance. It also reduced the elevated circulating mediators, including triglyceride (TG, T-CHO, leptin, resistin, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1 in obesity. As shown in C2C12 myotubes, the administration of Platycodi radix extracts also recovered the AMPK/ACC phosphorylation in the muscle of obese mice. These results suggest that Platycodi radix with white balloon flower ameliorates obesity and insulin resistance in obese mice via the activation of AMPK/ACC pathways and reductions of adipocyte differentiation.

  2. Testosterone treatment increases androgen receptor and aromatase gene expression in myotubes from patients with PCOS and controls, but does not induce insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Mette Brandt; Glintborg, Dorte; Nielsen, Michael Friberg Bruun; Jakobsen, Marianne Antonius; Brusgaard, Klaus; Tan, Qihua; Gaster, Michael

    2014-09-05

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle is the major site of insulin mediated glucose disposal and the skeletal muscle tissue is capable to synthesize, convert and degrade androgens. Insulin sensitivity is conserved in cultured myotubes (in vitro) from patients with PCOS, but the effect of testosterone on this insulin sensitivity is unknown. We investigated the effect of 7days testosterone treatment (100nmol/l) on glucose transport and gene expression levels of hormone receptors and enzymes involved in the synthesis and conversion of testosterone (HSD17B1, HSD17B2, CYP19A1, SRD5A1-2, AR, ER-α, HSD17B6 and AKR1-3) in myotubes from ten patients with PCOS and ten matched controls. Testosterone treatment significantly increased aromatase and androgen receptor gene expression levels in patients and controls. Glucose transport in myotubes was comparable in patients with PCOS vs. controls and was unchanged by testosterone treatment (p=0.21 PCOS vs. controls). These results suggest that testosterone treatment of myotubes increases the aromatase and androgen receptor gene expression without affecting insulin sensitivity and if testosterone is implicated in muscular insulin resistance in PCOS, this is by and indirect mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Plasma membrane characterization, by scanning electron microscopy, of multipotent myoblasts-derived populations sorted using dielectrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muratore, Massimo, E-mail: M.Muratore@ed.ac.uk [Institute of Integrated Micro and Nano System, School of Engineering, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JF (United Kingdom); Mitchell, Steve [Institute of Molecular Plant Science, School of Biological Science, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JF (United Kingdom); Waterfall, Martin [Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, School of Biological Science, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Dielectrophoretic separation/sorting of multipotent cells. •Plasma membrane microvilli structure of C2C12 and fibroblasts by SEM microscopy. •Cell cycle determination by Ki-67 in DEP-sorted cells. •Plasma membrane differences responsible for changes in membrane capacitance. -- Abstract: Multipotent progenitor cells have shown promise for use in biomedical applications and regenerative medicine. The implementation of such cells for clinical application requires a synchronized, phenotypically and/or genotypically, homogenous cell population. Here we have demonstrated the implementation of a biological tag-free dielectrophoretic device used for discrimination of multipotent myoblastic C2C12 model. The multipotent capabilities in differentiation, for these cells, diminishes with higher passage number, so for cultures above 70 passages only a small percentage of cells is able to differentiate into terminal myotubes. In this work we demonstrated that we could recover, above 96% purity, specific cell types from a mixed population of cells at high passage number without any biological tag using dielectrophoresis. The purity of the samples was confirmed by cytometric analysis using the cell specific marker embryonic myosin. To further investigate the dielectric properties of the cell plasma membrane we co-culture C2C12 with similar size, when in suspension, GFP-positive fibroblast as feeder layer. The level of separation between the cell types was above 98% purity which was confirmed by flow cytometry. These levels of separation are assumed to account for cell size and for the plasma membrane morphological differences between C2C12 and fibroblast unrelated to the stages of the cell cycle which was assessed by immunofluorescence staining. Plasma membrane conformational differences were further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy.

  4. Plasma membrane characterization, by scanning electron microscopy, of multipotent myoblasts-derived populations sorted using dielectrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muratore, Massimo; Mitchell, Steve; Waterfall, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Dielectrophoretic separation/sorting of multipotent cells. •Plasma membrane microvilli structure of C2C12 and fibroblasts by SEM microscopy. •Cell cycle determination by Ki-67 in DEP-sorted cells. •Plasma membrane differences responsible for changes in membrane capacitance. -- Abstract: Multipotent progenitor cells have shown promise for use in biomedical applications and regenerative medicine. The implementation of such cells for clinical application requires a synchronized, phenotypically and/or genotypically, homogenous cell population. Here we have demonstrated the implementation of a biological tag-free dielectrophoretic device used for discrimination of multipotent myoblastic C2C12 model. The multipotent capabilities in differentiation, for these cells, diminishes with higher passage number, so for cultures above 70 passages only a small percentage of cells is able to differentiate into terminal myotubes. In this work we demonstrated that we could recover, above 96% purity, specific cell types from a mixed population of cells at high passage number without any biological tag using dielectrophoresis. The purity of the samples was confirmed by cytometric analysis using the cell specific marker embryonic myosin. To further investigate the dielectric properties of the cell plasma membrane we co-culture C2C12 with similar size, when in suspension, GFP-positive fibroblast as feeder layer. The level of separation between the cell types was above 98% purity which was confirmed by flow cytometry. These levels of separation are assumed to account for cell size and for the plasma membrane morphological differences between C2C12 and fibroblast unrelated to the stages of the cell cycle which was assessed by immunofluorescence staining. Plasma membrane conformational differences were further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy

  5. Halofuginone inhibits Smad3 phosphorylation via the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK pathways in muscle cells: Effect on myotube fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roffe, Suzy; Hagai, Yosey; Pines, Mark; Halevy, Orna

    2010-01-01

    Halofuginone, a novel inhibitor of Smad3 phosphorylation, has been shown to inhibit muscle fibrosis and to improve cardiac and skeletal muscle functions in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Here, we demonstrate that halofuginone promotes the phosphorylation of Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members in a C2 muscle cell line and in primary myoblasts derived from wild-type and mdx mice diaphragms. Halofuginone enhanced the association of phosphorylated Akt and MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) with the non-phosphorylated form of Smad3, accompanied by a reduction in Smad3 phosphorylation levels. This reduction was reversed by inhibitors of the phosphoinositide 3'-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) and MAPK/ERK pathways, suggesting their specific role in mediating halofuginone's inhibitory effect on Smad3 phosphorylation. Halofuginone enhanced Akt, MAPK/ERK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation and inhibited Smad3 phosphorylation in myotubes, all of which are crucial for myotube fusion. In addition, halofuginone increased the association Akt and MAPK/ERK with Smad3. As a consequence, halofuginone promoted myotube fusion, as reflected by an increased percentage of C2 and mdx myotubes containing high numbers of nuclei, and this was reversed by specific inhibitors of the PI3K and MAPK/ERK pathways. Together, the data suggest a role, either direct or via inhibition of Smad3 phosphorylation, for Akt or MAPK/ERK in halofuginone-enhanced myotube fusion, a feature which is crucial to improving muscle function in muscular dystrophies.

  6. Halofuginone inhibits Smad3 phosphorylation via the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK pathways in muscle cells: Effect on myotube fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roffe, Suzy [Department of Animal Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Hagai, Yosey [Department of Animal Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Institute of Animal Sciences, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan 50250 (Israel); Pines, Mark [Institute of Animal Sciences, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan 50250 (Israel); Halevy, Orna, E-mail: halevyo@agri.huji.ac.il [Department of Animal Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2010-04-01

    Halofuginone, a novel inhibitor of Smad3 phosphorylation, has been shown to inhibit muscle fibrosis and to improve cardiac and skeletal muscle functions in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Here, we demonstrate that halofuginone promotes the phosphorylation of Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members in a C2 muscle cell line and in primary myoblasts derived from wild-type and mdx mice diaphragms. Halofuginone enhanced the association of phosphorylated Akt and MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) with the non-phosphorylated form of Smad3, accompanied by a reduction in Smad3 phosphorylation levels. This reduction was reversed by inhibitors of the phosphoinositide 3'-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) and MAPK/ERK pathways, suggesting their specific role in mediating halofuginone's inhibitory effect on Smad3 phosphorylation. Halofuginone enhanced Akt, MAPK/ERK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation and inhibited Smad3 phosphorylation in myotubes, all of which are crucial for myotube fusion. In addition, halofuginone increased the association Akt and MAPK/ERK with Smad3. As a consequence, halofuginone promoted myotube fusion, as reflected by an increased percentage of C2 and mdx myotubes containing high numbers of nuclei, and this was reversed by specific inhibitors of the PI3K and MAPK/ERK pathways. Together, the data suggest a role, either direct or via inhibition of Smad3 phosphorylation, for Akt or MAPK/ERK in halofuginone-enhanced myotube fusion, a feature which is crucial to improving muscle function in muscular dystrophies.

  7. Effects of inhibition of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT and sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1 on palmitate induced insulin resistance in L6 myotubes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mikłosz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to examine the effects of short (2 h and prolonged (18 h inhibition of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT and sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1 on palmitate (PA induced insulin resistance in L6 myotubes. METHODS: L6 myotubes were treated simultaneously with either PA and myriocin (SPT inhibitor or PA and Ski II (SphK1inhibitor for different time periods (2 h and 18 h. Insulin stimulated glucose uptake was measured using radioactive isotope. Expression of insulin signaling proteins was determined using Western blot analyses. Intracellular sphingolipids content [sphinganine (SFA, ceramide (CER, sphingosine (SFO, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P] were estimated by HPLC. RESULTS: Our results revealed that both short and prolonged time of inhibition of SPT by myriocin was sufficient to prevent ceramide accumulation and simultaneously reverse palmitate induced inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose transport. In contrast, prolonged inhibition of SphK1 intensified the effect of PA on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and attenuated further the activity of insulin signaling proteins (pGSK3β/GSK3β ratio in L6 myotubes. These effects were related to the accumulation of sphingosine in palmitate treated myotubes. CONCLUSION: Myriocin is more effective in restoration of palmitate induced insulin resistance in L6 myocytes, despite of the time of SPT inhibition, comparing to SKII (a specific SphK1 inhibitor. Observed changes in insulin signaling proteins were related to the content of specific sphingolipids, namely to the reduction of ceramide. Interestingly, inactivation of SphK1 augmented the effect of PA induced insulin resistance in L6 myotubes, which was associated with further inhibition of insulin stimulated PKB and GSK3β phosphorylation, glucose uptake and the accumulation of sphingosine.

  8. Effect of Ultrasonic Vibration on Proliferation and Differentiation of Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Hino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of mechanical stimulation of vibration on proliferation and differentiation of cells has been studied in vitro. To apply the vibration on the cells, a piezoelectric element was attached on the outside surface of the bottom of the culture plate of six wells. The piezoelectric element was vibrated by sinusoidally alternating voltage at 1.0 MHz generated by a function generator. Five kinds of cells were used in the experiment: C2C12 (mouse myoblast cell, L929 (fibroblast connective tissue of mouse, Hepa1-6 (mouse hepatoma cell, HUVEC (human umbilical vein endothelial cell, and Neuro-2a (mouse neural crest-derived cell line. After the incubation for 24 hours, cells were exposed to the ultrasonic vibration intermittently for three days: for thirty minutes per day. At the end of the experiment, the number of cells was counted by colorimetric method with a microplate photometer. In the case of Neuro-2a, the total length of the neurite was calculated at the microscopic image. The experimental study shows following results. Cells are exfoliated by the strong vibration. Proliferation and differentiation of cells are accelerated with mild vibration. The optimum intensity of vibration depends on the kind of cells.

  9. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 functions as a negative regulator in the differentiation of myoblasts, but not as an inducer for the formations of cartilage and bone in mouse embryonic tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Erika

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vitro studies using the myogenic cell line C2C12 demonstrate that bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 converts the developmental pathway of C2C12 from a myogenic cell lineage to an osteoblastic cell lineage. Further, in vivo studies using null mutation mice demonstrate that BMPs inhibit the specification of the developmental fate of myogenic progenitor cells. However, the roles of BMPs in the phases of differentiation and maturation in skeletal muscles have yet to be determined. The present study attempts to define the function of BMP-2 in the final stage of differentiation of mouse tongue myoblast. Results Recombinant BMP-2 inhibited the expressions of markers for the differentiation of skeletal muscle cells, such as myogenin, muscle creatine kinase (MCK, and fast myosin heavy chain (fMyHC, whereas BMP-2 siRNA stimulated such markers. Neither the recombinant BMP-2 nor BMP-2 siRNA altered the expressions of markers for the formation of cartilage and bone, such as osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, collagen II, and collagen X. Further, no formation of cartilage and bone was observed in the recombinant BMP-2-treated tongues based on Alizarin red and Alcian blue stainings. Neither recombinant BMP-2 nor BMP-2 siRNA affected the expression of inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation 1 (Id1. The ratios of chondrogenic and osteogenic markers relative to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, a house keeping gene were approximately 1000-fold lower than those of myogenic markers in the cultured tongue. Conclusions BMP-2 functions as a negative regulator for the final differentiation of tongue myoblasts, but not as an inducer for the formation of cartilage and bone in cultured tongue, probably because the genes related to myogenesis are in an activation mode, while the genes related to chondrogenesis and osteogenesis are in a silencing mode.

  10. 3D tissue formation by stacking detachable cell sheets formed on nanofiber mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Sung; Lee, Byungjun; Kim, Hong Nam; Bang, Seokyoung; Yang, Hee Seok; Kang, Seong Min; Suh, Kahp-Yang; Park, Suk-Hee; Jeon, Noo Li

    2017-03-23

    We present a novel approach for assembling 3D tissue by layer-by-layer stacking of cell sheets formed on aligned nanofiber mesh. A rigid frame was used to repeatedly collect aligned electrospun PCL (polycaprolactone) nanofiber to form a mesh structure with average distance between fibers 6.4 µm. When human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), human foreskin dermal fibroblasts, and skeletal muscle cells (C2C12) were cultured on the nanofiber mesh, they formed confluent monolayers and could be handled as continuous cell sheets with areas 3 × 3 cm 2 or larger. Thicker 3D tissues have been formed by stacking multiple cell sheets collected on frames that can be nested (i.e. Matryoshka dolls) without any special tools. When cultured on the nanofiber mesh, skeletal muscle, C2C12 cells oriented along the direction of the nanofibers and differentiated into uniaxially aligned multinucleated myotube. Myotube cell sheets were stacked (upto 3 layers) in alternating or aligned directions to form thicker tissue with ∼50 µm thickness. Sandwiching HUVEC cell sheets with two dermal fibroblast cell sheets resulted in vascularized 3D tissue. HUVECs formed extensive networks and expressed CD31, a marker of endothelial cells. Cell sheets formed on nanofiber mesh have a number of advantages, including manipulation and stacking of multiple cell sheets for constructing 3D tissue and may find applications in a variety of tissue engineering applications.

  11. The dynamic equilibrium between ATP synthesis and ATP consumption is lower in isolated mitochondria from myotubes established from type 2 diabetic subjects compared to lean control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minet, Ariane D; Gaster, Michael

    2011-01-01

    compared to lean control. The ATP synthesis rate without ATP consumption was not different between groups and there were no significant gender differences. The mitochondrial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes in vivo is partly based on a primarily impaired ATP synthesis....... or not in the mitochondria of diabetic skeletal muscle from subjects with type 2 diabetes. ATP synthesis was measured on mitochondria isolated from cultured myotubes established from lean (11/9), obese (9/11) and subjects with type 2 diabetes (9/11) (female/male, n=20 in each group), precultured under normophysiological...... selects the mitochondria based on an antibody recognizing the mitochondrial outer membrane and not by size through gradient centrifugation. The dynamic equilibrium between ATP synthesis and ATP consumption is 35% lower in isolated mitochondria from myotubes established from type 2 diabetic subjects...

  12. Enhanced contractile force generation by artificial skeletal muscle tissues using IGF-I gene-engineered myoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masanori; Ito, Akira; Kawabe, Yoshinori; Nagamori, Eiji; Kamihira, Masamichi

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I gene delivery to myoblast cells promotes the contractile force generated by hydrogel-based tissue-engineered skeletal muscles in vitro. Two retroviral vectors allowing doxycycline (Dox)-inducible expression of the IGF-I gene were transduced into mouse myoblast C2C12 cells to evaluate the effects of IGF-I gene expression on these cells. IGF-I gene expression stimulated the proliferation of C2C12 cells, and a significant increase in the growth rate was observed for IGF-I-transduced C2C12 cells with Dox addition, designated C2C12/IGF (Dox+) cells. Quantitative morphometric analyses showed that the myotubes induced from C2C12/IGF (Dox+) cells had a larger area and a greater width than control myotubes induced from normal C2C12 cells. Artificial skeletal muscle tissues were prepared from the respective cells using hydrogels composed of type I collagen and Matrigel. Western blot analyses revealed that the C2C12/IGF (Dox+) tissue constructs showed activation of a skeletal muscle hypertrophy marker (Akt) and enhanced expression of muscle-specific markers (myogenin, myosin heavy chain and tropomyosin). Moreover, the creatine kinase activity was increased in the C2C12/IGF (Dox+) tissue constructs. The C2C12/IGF (Dox+) tissue constructs contracted in response to electrical pulses, and generated a significantly higher physical force than the control C2C12 tissue constructs. These findings indicate that IGF-I gene transfer has the potential to yield functional skeletal muscle substitutes that are capable of in vivo restoration of the load-bearing function of injured muscle or acting as in vitro electrically-controlled bio-actuators. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Group I Paks Promote Skeletal Myoblast Differentiation In Vivo and In Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joseph, Giselle A; Lu, Min; Radu, Maria

    2017-01-01

    fusion in Drosophila We report that both Pak1 and Pak2 are activated during mammalian myoblast differentiation. One pathway of activation is initiated by N-cadherin ligation and involves the cadherin coreceptor Cdo with its downstream effector, Cdc42. Individual genetic deletion of Pak1 and Pak2 in mice....... Furthermore, primary myoblasts lacking Pak1 and Pak2 display delayed expression of myogenic differentiation markers and myotube formation. These results identify Pak1 and Pak2 as redundant regulators of myoblast differentiation in vitro and in vivo and as components of the promyogenic Ncad/Cdo/Cdc42 signaling...

  14. Nuclear bodies reorganize during myogenesis in vitro and are differentially disrupted by expression of FSHD-associated DUX4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Homma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuclear bodies, such as nucleoli, PML bodies, and SC35 speckles, are dynamic sub-nuclear structures that regulate multiple genetic and epigenetic processes. Additional regulation is provided by RNA/DNA handling proteins, notably TDP-43 and FUS, which have been linked to ALS pathology. Previous work showed that mouse cell line myotubes have fewer but larger nucleoli than myoblasts, and we had found that nuclear aggregation of TDP-43 in human myotubes was induced by expression of DUX4-FL, a transcription factor that is aberrantly expressed and causes pathology in facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD. However, questions remained about nuclear bodies in human myogenesis and in muscle disease. Methods We examined nucleoli, PML bodies, SC35 speckles, TDP-43, and FUS in myoblasts and myotubes derived from healthy donors and from patients with FSHD, laminin-alpha-2-deficiency (MDC1A, and alpha-sarcoglycan-deficiency (LGMD2D. We further examined how these nuclear bodies and proteins were affected by DUX4-FL expression. Results We found that nucleoli, PML bodies, and SC35 speckles reorganized during differentiation in vitro, with all three becoming less abundant in myotube vs. myoblast nuclei. In addition, though PML bodies did not change in size, both nucleoli and SC35 speckles were larger in myotube than myoblast nuclei. Similar patterns of nuclear body reorganization occurred in healthy control, MDC1A, and LGMD2D cultures, as well as in the large fraction of nuclei that did not show DUX4-FL expression in FSHD cultures. In contrast, nuclei that expressed endogenous or exogenous DUX4-FL, though retaining normal nucleoli, showed disrupted morphology of some PML bodies and most SC35 speckles and also co-aggregation of FUS with TDP-43. Conclusions Nucleoli, PML bodies, and SC35 speckles reorganize during human myotube formation in vitro. These nuclear body reorganizations are likely needed to carry out the distinct gene transcription and

  15. Role of the water extract from Coccinia indica stem on the stimulation of glucose transport in L8 myotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaweewan Jansakul

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypoglycemic effect of Coccinia indica used for treatment of diabetes in traditional remedies has known to relate with increased transport of glucose into peripheral tissues. However, the cellular mechanisms for this effect remain unclear. This present study reports that the water extract (WE of C. indica stem exhibited a dose-dependent induction of 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG uptake in rat L8 myotubes. Maximal uptake was observed with approximately 3-fold increase in 2-DG transport in 16 h treatment compared with the control. Effect of WE was stronger than that of 1 mM metformin. The effects of insulin and WE were additive. WE-induced glucose uptake was significantly inhibited by cycloheximide and partially reversed by SB203580. GLUT1 protein was markedly increased in response to WE. Conversely, WE had no effect on GLUT4 protein level. Redistribution of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane was demonstrated. Triterpenoids and carbohydrates were detected in WE. In conclusion, new GLUT1 protein synthesis is necessary for WEstimulated glucose transport while p38-MAPK-dependent activation of transporter intrinsic activity partly contributes to WE action. These results may explain and support the use of C. indica for the prevention and treatment of diabetes.

  16. Zinc promotes proliferation and activation of myogenic cells via the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling cascade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, Kazuya, E-mail: asuno10k@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo (Japan); Nagata, Yosuke, E-mail: cynagata@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo (Japan); Wada, Eiji, E-mail: gacchu1@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo (Japan); Zammit, Peter S., E-mail: peter.zammit@kcl.ac.uk [Randall Division of Cell and Molecular Biophysics, King' s College London, London SE1 1UL (United Kingdom); Shiozuka, Masataka, E-mail: cmuscle@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo (Japan); Matsuda, Ryoichi, E-mail: cmatsuda@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    Skeletal muscle stem cells named muscle satellite cells are normally quiescent but are activated in response to various stimuli, such as injury and overload. Activated satellite cells enter the cell cycle and proliferate to produce a large number of myogenic progenitor cells, and these cells then differentiate and fuse to form myofibers. Zinc is one of the essential elements in the human body, and has multiple roles, including cell growth and DNA synthesis. However, the role of zinc in myogenic cells is not well understood, and is the focus of this study. We first examined the effects of zinc on differentiation of murine C2C12 myoblasts and found that zinc promoted proliferation, with an increased number of cells incorporating EdU, but inhibited differentiation with reduced myogenin expression and myotube formation. Furthermore, we used the C2C12 reserve cell model of myogenic quiescence to investigate the role of zinc on activation of myogenic cells. The number of reserve cells incorporating BrdU was increased by zinc in a dose dependent manner, with the number dramatically further increased using a combination of zinc and insulin. Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) are downstream of insulin signaling, and both were phosphorylated after zinc treatment. The zinc/insulin combination-induced activation involved the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and ERK cascade. We conclude that zinc promotes activation and proliferation of myogenic cells, and this activation requires phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt and ERK as part of the signaling cascade. - Highlights: • Zinc has roles for promoting proliferation and inhibition differentiation of C2C12. • Zinc promotes activation of reserve cells. • Insulin and zinc synergize activation of reserve cells. • PI3K/Akt and ERK cascade affect zinc/insulin-mediated activation of reserve cells.

  17. High-content phenotypic screening and triaging strategy to identify small molecules driving oligodendrocyte progenitor cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppard, Jane V; Rugg, Catherine A; Smicker, Matthew A; Powers, Elaine; Harnish, Erica; Prisco, Joy; Cirovic, Dragan; Wright, Paul S; August, Paul R; Chandross, Karen J

    2015-03-01

    Multiple Sclerosis is a demyelinating disease of the CNS and the primary cause of neurological disability in young adults. Loss of myelinating oligodendrocytes leads to neuronal dysfunction and death and is an important contributing factor to this disease. Endogenous oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), which on differentiation are responsible for replacing myelin, are present in the adult CNS. As such, therapeutic agents that can stimulate OPCs to differentiate and remyelinate demyelinated axons under pathologic conditions may improve neuronal function and clinical outcome. We describe the details of an automated, cell-based, morphometric-based, high-content screen that is used to identify small molecules eliciting the differentiation of OPCs after 3 days. Primary screening was performed using rat CG-4 cells maintained in culture conditions that normally support a progenitor cell-like state. From a library of 73,000 diverse small molecules within the Sanofi collection, 342 compounds were identified that increased OPC morphological complexity as an indicator of oligodendrocyte maturation. Subsequent to the primary high-content screen, a suite of cellular assays was established that identified 22 nontoxic compounds that selectively stimulated primary rat OPCs but not C2C12 muscle cell differentiation. This rigorous triaging yielded several chemical series for further expansion and bio- or cheminformatics studies, and their compelling biological activity merits further investigation. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  18. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase mediates insulin- and oxidative stress-induced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Dean L; McCammon, Karen M; Hinchee-Rodriguez, Kathryn S; Adamo, Martin L; Roman, Linda J

    2017-09-01

    Previously published studies strongly suggested that insulin- and exercise-induced skeletal muscle glucose uptake require nitric oxide (NO) production. However, the signal transduction mechanisms by which insulin and contraction regulated NO production and subsequent glucose transport are not known. In the present study, we utilized the myotube cell lines treated with insulin or hydrogen peroxide, the latter to mimic contraction-induced oxidative stress, to characterize these mechanisms. We found that insulin stimulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) phosphorylation, NO production, and GLUT4 translocation were all significantly reduced by inhibition of either nNOS or Akt2. Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) induced phosphorylation of nNOS at the same residue as did insulin, and also stimulated NO production and GLUT4 translocation. nNOS inhibition prevented H 2 O 2 -induced GLUT4 translocation. AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibition prevented H 2 O 2 activation and phosphorylation of nNOS, leading to reduced NO production and significantly attenuated GLUT4 translocation. We conclude that nNOS phosphorylation and subsequently increased NO production are required for both insulin- and H 2 O 2 -stimulated glucose transport. Although the two stimuli result in phosphorylation of the same residue on nNOS, they do so through distinct protein kinases. Thus, insulin and H 2 O 2 -activated signaling pathways converge on nNOS, which is a common mediator of glucose uptake in both pathways. However, the fact that different kinases are utilized provides a basis for the use of exercise to activate glucose transport in the face of insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Intramolecular ex vivo Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET of Dihydropyridine Receptor (DHPR β1a Subunit Reveals Conformational Change Induced by RYR1 in Mouse Skeletal Myotubes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Bhattacharya

    Full Text Available The dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR β1a subunit is essential for skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling, but the structural organization of β1a as part of the macromolecular DHPR-ryanodine receptor type I (RyR1 complex is still debatable. We used fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET to probe proximity relationships within the β1a subunit in cultured skeletal myotubes lacking or expressing RyR1. The fluorescein biarsenical reagent FlAsH was used as the FRET acceptor, which exhibits fluorescence upon binding to specific tetracysteine motifs, and enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (CFP was used as the FRET donor. Ten β1a reporter constructs were generated by inserting the CCPGCC FlAsH binding motif into five positions probing the five domains of β1a with either carboxyl or amino terminal fused CFP. FRET efficiency was largest when CCPGCC was positioned next to CFP, and significant intramolecular FRET was observed for all constructs suggesting that in situ the β1a subunit has a relatively compact conformation in which the carboxyl and amino termini are not extended. Comparison of the FRET efficiency in wild type to that in dyspedic (lacking RyR1 myotubes revealed that in only one construct (H458 CCPGCC β1a -CFP FRET efficiency was specifically altered by the presence of RyR1. The present study reveals that the C-terminal of the β1a subunit changes conformation in the presence of RyR1 consistent with an interaction between the C-terminal of β1a and RyR1 in resting myotubes.

  20. Biocompatible, Biodegradable, and Electroactive Polyurethane-Urea Elastomers with Tunable Hydrophilicity for Skeletal Muscle Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Dong, Ruonan; Ge, Juan; Guo, Baolin; Ma, Peter X

    2015-12-30

    It remains a challenge to develop electroactive and elastic biomaterials to mimic the elasticity of soft tissue and to regulate the cell behavior during tissue regeneration. We designed and synthesized a series of novel electroactive and biodegradable polyurethane-urea (PUU) copolymers with elastomeric property by combining the properties of polyurethanes and conducting polymers. The electroactive PUU copolymers were synthesized from amine capped aniline trimer (ACAT), dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA), polylactide, and hexamethylene diisocyanate. The electroactivity of the PUU copolymers were studied by UV-vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Elasticity and Young's modulus were tailored by the polylactide segment length and ACAT content. Hydrophilicity of the copolymer films was tuned by changing DMPA content and doping of the copolymer. Cytotoxicity of the PUU copolymers was evaluated by mouse C2C12 myoblast cells. The myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts on copolymer films was also studied by analyzing the morphology of myotubes and relative gene expression during myogenic differentiation. The chemical structure, thermal properties, surface morphology, and processability of the PUU copolymers were characterized by NMR, FT-IR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and solubility testing, respectively. Those biodegradable electroactive elastic PUU copolymers are promising materials for repair of soft tissues such as skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and nerve.

  1. Nutlin-3 down-regulates retinoblastoma protein expression and inhibits muscle cell differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Erica M. [Department of Biochemistry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Niu, MengMeng; Bergholz, Johann [Center of Growth, Metabolism and Aging, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610014 China (China); Jim Xiao, Zhi-Xiong, E-mail: jxiao@bu.edu [Department of Biochemistry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Center of Growth, Metabolism and Aging, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610014 China (China)

    2015-05-29

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene plays a critical role in regulation of proliferation, cell death and differentiation. The MDM2 oncoprotein is a major negative regulator for p53 by binding to and targeting p53 for proteasome-mediated degradation. The small molecule inhibitor, nutlin-3, disrupts MDM2-p53 interaction resulting in stabilization and activation of p53 protein. We have previously shown that nutlin-3 activates p53, leading to MDM2 accumulation as concomitant of reduced retinoblastoma (Rb) protein stability. It is well known that Rb is important in muscle development and myoblast differentiation and that rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), or cancer of the skeletal muscle, typically harbors MDM2 amplification. In this study, we show that nutlin-3 inhibited myoblast proliferation and effectively prevented myoblast differentiation, as evidenced by lack of expression of muscle differentiation markers including myogenin and myosin heavy chain (MyHC), as well as a failure to form multinucleated myotubes, which were associated with dramatic increases in MDM2 expression and decrease in Rb protein levels. These results indicate that nutlin-3 can effectively inhibit muscle cell differentiation. - Highlights: • Nutlin-3 inhibits myoblast proliferation and prevents differentiation into myotubes. • Nutlin-3 increases MDM2 expression and down-regulates Rb protein levels. • This study has implication in nutlin-3 treatment of rhabdomyosarcomas.

  2. Test of critical steps towards a combined cell and gene therapy approach for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kajhøj, Tine Qvistgaard; Duch, Mogens R.; Pedersen, Finn Skou

    2015-01-01

    Background: Therapies for muscular dystrophies remain a major challenge in spite of advanced strategies using either cell or gene therapy. We here propose a combined approach of cell and gene therapy. As gene delivery vehicles with specific homing potential we have chosen mesoangioblasts which...... for myogenic properties in coculture. Survival and in situ myogenic differentiation were studied upon injection into degenerating M. gastrocnemius of athymic mice. In situ participation in muscle regeneration was confirmed on cryo-sections using EGFP fluorescence as marker. The ability of mesoangioblasts...... to serve as retroviral packaging cells was tested using the murine cell line NIH 3T3 fibroblasts as recipients in vitro and evaluation of transduction by fluorescence microscopy. Results: EGFP-MA retained the ability to differentiate into skeletal muscle myotubes upon co-culture with C2C12 cells. In vivo...

  3. FA1 Induces Pro-Inflammatory and Anti-Adipogenic Pathways/Markers in Human Myotubes Established from Lean, Obese, and Type 2 Diabetic Subjects but Not Insulin Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Gaster, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Delta like 1/fetal antigen 1 (Dlk1/FA1) is a protein secreted by hormone producing cells in adult human and mice that is known to inhibit adipogenesis. Recent studies demonstrated the role of Dlk1/FA1 in inducing insulin resistance in mice. To investigate the involvement of circulating Dlk1....../FA1 in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in human subjects, we studied the effects of chronic FA1 on the intermediary metabolism in myotubes established from lean, obese, and type 2 diabetic (T2D) subjects. Methods: Myotube cultures were established from lean and obese control subjects......, and obese T2D subjects and treated with soluble FA1 for 4 days supplemented with/without palmitate (PA). Lipid- and glucose metabolism were studied with labeled precursors while quantitative expression of genes was analyzed using real-time PCR. Results: Diabetic myotubes express significantly reduced...

  4. Microfluidic-enhanced 3D bioprinting of aligned myoblast-laden hydrogels leads to functionally organized myofibers in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Marco; Testa, Stefano; Mozetic, Pamela; Barbetta, Andrea; Fuoco, Claudia; Fornetti, Ersilia; Tamiro, Francesco; Bernardini, Sergio; Jaroszewicz, Jakub; Święszkowski, Wojciech; Trombetta, Marcella; Castagnoli, Luisa; Seliktar, Dror; Garstecki, Piotr; Cesareni, Gianni; Cannata, Stefano; Rainer, Alberto; Gargioli, Cesare

    2017-07-01

    We present a new strategy for the fabrication of artificial skeletal muscle tissue with functional morphologies based on an innovative 3D bioprinting approach. The methodology is based on a microfluidic printing head coupled to a co-axial needle extruder for high-resolution 3D bioprinting of hydrogel fibers laden with muscle precursor cells (C2C12). To promote myogenic differentiation, we formulated a tailored bioink with a photocurable semi-synthetic biopolymer (PEG-Fibrinogen) encapsulating cells into 3D constructs composed of aligned hydrogel fibers. After 3-5 days of culture, the encapsulated myoblasts started migrating and fusing, forming multinucleated myotubes within the 3D bioprinted fibers. The obtained myotubes showed high degree of alignment along the direction of hydrogel fiber deposition, further revealing maturation, sarcomerogenesis, and functionality. Following subcutaneous implantation in the back of immunocompromised mice, bioprinted constructs generated organized artificial muscle tissue in vivo. Finally, we demonstrate that our microfluidic printing head allows to design three dimensional multi-cellular assemblies with an exquisite compartmentalization of the encapsulated cells. Our results demonstrate an enhanced myogenic differentiation with the formation of parallel aligned long-range myotubes. The approach that we report here represents a robust and valid candidate for the fabrication of macroscopic artificial muscle to scale up skeletal muscle tissue engineering for human clinical application. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Testosterone treatment increases androgen receptor and aromatase gene expression in myotubes from patients with PCOS and controls, but does not induce insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Mette Brandt; Glintborg, Dorte; Nielsen, Michael Friberg Bruun

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle is the major site of insulin mediated glucose disposal and the skeletal muscle tissue is capable to synthesize, convert and degrade androgens. Insulin sensitivity is conse......Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle is the major site of insulin mediated glucose disposal and the skeletal muscle tissue is capable to synthesize, convert and degrade androgens. Insulin sensitivity...... is conserved in cultured myotubes (in vitro) from patients with PCOS, but the effect of testosterone on this insulin sensitivity is unknown. We investigated the effect of 7days testosterone treatment (100nmol/l) on glucose transport and gene expression levels of hormone receptors and enzymes involved...... in the synthesis and conversion of testosterone (HSD17B1, HSD17B2, CYP19A1, SRD5A1-2, AR, ER-α, HSD17B6 and AKR1-3) in myotubes from ten patients with PCOS and ten matched controls. Testosterone treatment significantly increased aromatase and androgen receptor gene expression levels in patients and controls...

  6. Metabolic and morphological alterations induced by proteolysis-inducing factor from Walker tumour-bearing rats in C{sub 2}C{sub 12} myotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Claudia L; Ventrucci, Gislaine [Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), CP 6109, 13083-970, Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Field, William N; Tisdale, Michael J [Cancer Research Laboratory, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Institute, Aston University, Birmingham, B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina C [Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), CP 6109, 13083-970, Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2008-01-28

    Patients with advanced cancer suffer from cachexia, which is characterised by a marked weight loss, and is invariably associated with the presence of tumoral and humoral factors which are mainly responsible for the depletion of fat stores and muscular tissue. In this work, we used cytotoxicity and enzymatic assays and morphological analysis to examine the effects of a proteolysis-inducing factor (PIF)-like molecule purified from ascitic fluid of Walker tumour-bearing rats (WF), which has been suggested to be responsible for muscle atrophy, on cultured C{sub 2}C{sub 12} muscle cells. WF decreased the viability of C{sub 2}C{sub 12} myotubes, especially at concentrations of 20–25 μg.mL{sup -1}. There was an increase in the content of the pro-oxidant malondialdehyde, and a decrease in antioxidant enzyme activity. Myotubes protein synthesis decreased and protein degradation increased together with an enhanced in the chymotrypsin-like enzyme activity, a measure of functional proteasome activity, after treatment with WF. Morphological alterations such as cell retraction and the presence of numerous cells in suspension were observed, particularly at high WF concentrations. These results indicate that WF has similar effects to those of proteolysis-inducing factor, but is less potent than the latter. Further studies are required to determine the precise role of WF in this experimental model.

  7. Riluzole increases the rate of glucose transport in L6 myotubes and NSC-34 motor neuron-like cells via AMPK pathway activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Bareket; Green, Omer; Viskind, Olga; Gruzman, Arie

    2013-09-01

    Riluzole is the only approved ALS drug. Riluzole influences several cellular pathways, but its exact mechanism of action remains unclear. Our goal was to study the drug's influence on the glucose transport rate in two ALS relevant cell types, neurons and myotubes. Stably transfected wild-type or mutant G93A human SOD1 NSC-34 motor neuron-like cells and rat L6 myotubes were exposed to riluzole. The rate of glucose uptake, translocation of glucose transporters to the cell's plasma membrane and the main glucose transport regulatory proteins' phosphorylation levels were measured. We found that riluzole increases the glucose transport rate and up-regulates the translocation of glucose transporters to plasma membrane in both types of cells. Riluzole leads to AMPK phosphorylation and to the phosphorylation of its downstream target, AS-160. In conclusion, increasing the glucose transport rate in ALS affected cells might be one of the mechanisms of riluzole's therapeutic effect. These findings can be used to rationally design and synthesize novel anti-ALS drugs that modulate glucose transport in neurons and skeletal muscles.

  8. Centrosome proteins form an insoluble perinuclear matrix during muscle cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srsen Vlastimil

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle fibres are formed by elongation and fusion of myoblasts into myotubes. During this differentiation process, the cytoskeleton is reorganized, and proteins of the centrosome re-localize to the surface of the nucleus. The exact timing of this event, and the underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Results We performed studies on mouse myoblast cell lines that were induced to differentiate in culture, to characterize the early events of centrosome protein re-localization. We demonstrate that this re-localization occurs already at the single cell stage, prior to fusion into myotubes. Centrosome proteins that accumulate at the nuclear surface form an insoluble matrix that can be reversibly disassembled if isolated nuclei are exposed to mitotic cytoplasm from Xenopus egg extract. Our microscopy data suggest that this perinuclear matrix of centrosome proteins consists of a system of interconnected fibrils. Conclusion Our data provide new insights into the reorganization of centrosome proteins during muscular differentiation, at the structural and biochemical level. Because we observe that centrosome protein re-localization occurs early during differentiation, we believe that it is of functional importance for the reorganization of the cytoskeleton in the differentiation process.

  9. Distinct transcriptional networks in quiescent myoblasts: a role for Wnt signaling in reversible vs. irreversible arrest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhu Subramaniam

    Full Text Available Most cells in adult mammals are non-dividing: differentiated cells exit the cell cycle permanently, but stem cells exist in a state of reversible arrest called quiescence. In damaged skeletal muscle, quiescent satellite stem cells re-enter the cell cycle, proliferate and subsequently execute divergent programs to regenerate both post-mitotic myofibers and quiescent stem cells. The molecular basis for these alternative programs of arrest is poorly understood. In this study, we used an established myogenic culture model (C2C12 myoblasts to generate cells in alternative states of arrest and investigate their global transcriptional profiles. Using cDNA microarrays, we compared G0 myoblasts with post-mitotic myotubes. Our findings define the transcriptional program of quiescent myoblasts in culture and establish that distinct gene expression profiles, especially of tumour suppressor genes and inhibitors of differentiation characterize reversible arrest, distinguishing this state from irreversibly arrested myotubes. We also reveal the existence of a tissue-specific quiescence program by comparing G0 C2C12 myoblasts to isogenic G0 fibroblasts (10T1/2. Intriguingly, in myoblasts but not fibroblasts, quiescence is associated with a signature of Wnt pathway genes. We provide evidence that different levels of signaling via the canonical Wnt pathway characterize distinct cellular states (proliferation vs. quiescence vs. differentiation. Moderate induction of Wnt signaling in quiescence is associated with critical properties such as clonogenic self-renewal. Exogenous Wnt treatment subverts the quiescence program and negatively affects clonogenicity. Finally, we identify two new quiescence-induced regulators of canonical Wnt signaling, Rgs2 and Dkk3, whose induction in G0 is required for clonogenic self-renewal. These results support the concept that active signal-mediated regulation of quiescence contributes to stem cell properties, and have implications for

  10. Distinct transcriptional networks in quiescent myoblasts: a role for Wnt signaling in reversible vs. irreversible arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Sindhu; Sreenivas, Prethish; Cheedipudi, Sirisha; Reddy, Vatrapu Rami; Shashidhara, Lingadahalli Subrahmanya; Chilukoti, Ravi Kumar; Mylavarapu, Madhavi; Dhawan, Jyotsna

    2014-01-01

    Most cells in adult mammals are non-dividing: differentiated cells exit the cell cycle permanently, but stem cells exist in a state of reversible arrest called quiescence. In damaged skeletal muscle, quiescent satellite stem cells re-enter the cell cycle, proliferate and subsequently execute divergent programs to regenerate both post-mitotic myofibers and quiescent stem cells. The molecular basis for these alternative programs of arrest is poorly understood. In this study, we used an established myogenic culture model (C2C12 myoblasts) to generate cells in alternative states of arrest and investigate their global transcriptional profiles. Using cDNA microarrays, we compared G0 myoblasts with post-mitotic myotubes. Our findings define the transcriptional program of quiescent myoblasts in culture and establish that distinct gene expression profiles, especially of tumour suppressor genes and inhibitors of differentiation characterize reversible arrest, distinguishing this state from irreversibly arrested myotubes. We also reveal the existence of a tissue-specific quiescence program by comparing G0 C2C12 myoblasts to isogenic G0 fibroblasts (10T1/2). Intriguingly, in myoblasts but not fibroblasts, quiescence is associated with a signature of Wnt pathway genes. We provide evidence that different levels of signaling via the canonical Wnt pathway characterize distinct cellular states (proliferation vs. quiescence vs. differentiation). Moderate induction of Wnt signaling in quiescence is associated with critical properties such as clonogenic self-renewal. Exogenous Wnt treatment subverts the quiescence program and negatively affects clonogenicity. Finally, we identify two new quiescence-induced regulators of canonical Wnt signaling, Rgs2 and Dkk3, whose induction in G0 is required for clonogenic self-renewal. These results support the concept that active signal-mediated regulation of quiescence contributes to stem cell properties, and have implications for pathological

  11. Creatine supplementation with methylglyoxal: a potent therapy for cancer in experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Aparajita; Roy, Anirban; Ray, Manju

    2016-08-01

    The anti-cancer effect of methylglyoxal (MG) is now well established in the literature. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of creatine as a supplement in combination with MG both in vitro and in vivo. In case of the in vitro studies, two different cell lines, namely MCF-7 (human breast cancer cell line) and C2C12 (mouse myoblast cell line) were chosen. MG in combination with creatine showed enhanced apoptosis as well as higher cytotoxicity in the breast cancer MCF-7 cell line, compared to MG alone. Pre-treatment of well-differentiated C2C12 myotubes with cancerogenic 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) induced a dedifferentiation of these myotubes towards cancerous cells (that mimic the effect of 3MC observed in solid fibro-sarcoma animal models) and subsequent exposure of these induced cancer cells with MG proved to be cytotoxic. Thus, creatine plus ascorbic acid enhanced the anti-cancer effects of MG. In contrast, when normal C2C12 muscle cells or myotubes (mouse normal myoblast cell line) were treated with MG or MG plus creatine and ascorbic acid, no detrimental effects were seen. This indicated that cytotoxic effects of MG are specifically limited towards cancer cells and are further enhanced when MG is used in combination with creatine and ascorbic acid. For the in vivo studies, tumors were induced by injecting Sarcoma-180 cells (2 × 10(6) cells/mouse) in the left hind leg. After 7 days of tumor inoculation, treatments were started with MG (20 mg/kg body wt/day, via the intravenous route), with or without creatine (150 mg/kg body wt/day, fed orally) and ascorbic acid (50 mg/kg body wt/day, fed orally) and continued for 10 consecutive days. Significant regression of tumor size was observed when Sarcoma-180 tumor-bearing mice were treated with MG and even more so with the aforesaid combination. The creatine-supplemented group demonstrated better overall survival in comparison with tumor-bearing mice without creatine. In conclusion, it may be

  12. Promotion of Myogenic Maturation by Timely Application of Electric Field Along the Topographical Alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ung Hyun; Park, Sukhee; Bang, Hyunseung; Kim, Mina; Shin, Hyunjun; Shin, Jennifer H

    2018-05-01

    Engineered muscular substitutes can restore the impaired muscle functions when integrated properly into the host tissue. To generate functional muscles with sufficient contractility at the site of transplant, the in vitro construction of fully differentiated muscle fibers would be desired. Many previous reports have identified either topographical alignment or electrical stimulation as an effective tool to promote myogenic differentiation. However, optimization of spatial and temporal arrangement of these two physical cues for better differentiation and maturation of skeletal muscles has not been investigated. In this article, we introduce a novel cell culture system that allows simultaneous application of these two independent directional cues at both orthogonal and parallel arrangements. We then show that the parallel arrangement of the aligned topography and the electric field synergistically facilitates better differentiation and maturation of C2C12, generating myotubes with more fused nuclei. Addition of the electric stimulation at the late stage of myogenic differentiation is found to further improve cell fusion to form multinucleate myotubes through a phosphatidylinositol-3-OH-kinase-dependent pathway. As such, we successfully demonstrated that the combined stimulation of topographical and electrical cues could effectively enhance both myogenic differentiation and maturation in a temporal and orientation-dependent manner, providing the basis for therapeutic strategies for regenerative tissue engineering.

  13. Simple method for sub-diffraction resolution imaging of cellular structures on standard confocal microscopes by three-photon absorption of quantum dots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anje Sporbert

    Full Text Available This study describes a simple technique that improves a recently developed 3D sub-diffraction imaging method based on three-photon absorption of commercially available quantum dots. The method combines imaging of biological samples via tri-exciton generation in quantum dots with deconvolution and spectral multiplexing, resulting in a novel approach for multi-color imaging of even thick biological samples at a 1.4 to 1.9-fold better spatial resolution. This approach is realized on a conventional confocal microscope equipped with standard continuous-wave lasers. We demonstrate the potential of multi-color tri-exciton imaging of quantum dots combined with deconvolution on viral vesicles in lentivirally transduced cells as well as intermediate filaments in three-dimensional clusters of mouse-derived neural stem cells (neurospheres and dense microtubuli arrays in myotubes formed by stacks of differentiated C2C12 myoblasts.

  14. Syndecan-4 Regulates Muscle Differentiation and Is Internalized from the Plasma Membrane during Myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønning, Sissel B; Carlson, Cathrine R; Stang, Espen; Kolset, Svein O; Hollung, Kristin; Pedersen, Mona E

    2015-01-01

    The cell surface proteoglycan syndecan-4 has been reported to be crucial for muscle differentiation, but the molecular mechanisms still remain to be fully understood. During in vitro differentiation of bovine muscle cells immunocytochemical analyses showed strong labelling of syndecan-4 intracellularly, in close proximity with Golgi structures, in membranes of intracellular vesicles and finally, in the nuclear area including the nuclear envelope. Chase experiments showed that syndecan-4 was internalized from the plasma membrane during this process. Furthermore, when syndecan-4 was knocked down by siRNA more myotubes were formed, and the expression of myogenic transcription factors, β1-integrin and actin was influenced. However, when bovine muscle cells were treated with a cell-penetrating peptide containing the cytoplasmic region of syndecan-4, myoblast fusion and thus myotube formation was blocked, both in normal cells and in syndecan-4 knock down cells. Altogether this suggests that the cytoplasmic domain of syndecan-4 is important in regulation of myogenesis. The internalization of syndecan-4 from the plasma membrane during muscle differentiation and the nuclear localization of syndecan-4 in differentiated muscle cells may be part of this regulation, and is a novel aspect of syndecan biology which merits further studies.

  15. Syndecan-4 Regulates Muscle Differentiation and Is Internalized from the Plasma Membrane during Myogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sissel B Rønning

    Full Text Available The cell surface proteoglycan syndecan-4 has been reported to be crucial for muscle differentiation, but the molecular mechanisms still remain to be fully understood. During in vitro differentiation of bovine muscle cells immunocytochemical analyses showed strong labelling of syndecan-4 intracellularly, in close proximity with Golgi structures, in membranes of intracellular vesicles and finally, in the nuclear area including the nuclear envelope. Chase experiments showed that syndecan-4 was internalized from the plasma membrane during this process. Furthermore, when syndecan-4 was knocked down by siRNA more myotubes were formed, and the expression of myogenic transcription factors, β1-integrin and actin was influenced. However, when bovine muscle cells were treated with a cell-penetrating peptide containing the cytoplasmic region of syndecan-4, myoblast fusion and thus myotube formation was blocked, both in normal cells and in syndecan-4 knock down cells. Altogether this suggests that the cytoplasmic domain of syndecan-4 is important in regulation of myogenesis. The internalization of syndecan-4 from the plasma membrane during muscle differentiation and the nuclear localization of syndecan-4 in differentiated muscle cells may be part of this regulation, and is a novel aspect of syndecan biology which merits further studies.

  16. Glucose dependence of glycogen synthase activity regulation by GSK3 and MEK/ERK inhibitors and angiotensin-(1-7) action on these pathways in cultured human myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montori-Grau, Marta; Tarrats, Núria; Osorio-Conles, Oscar; Orozco, Anna; Serrano-Marco, Lucía; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel; Gómez-Foix, Anna M

    2013-05-01

    Glycogen synthase (GS) is activated by glucose/glycogen depletion in skeletal muscle cells, but the contributing signaling pathways, including the chief GS regulator GSK3, have not been fully defined. The MEK/ERK pathway is known to regulate GSK3 and respond to glucose. The aim of this study was to elucidate the GSK3 and MEK/ERK pathway contribution to GS activation by glucose deprivation in cultured human myotubes. Moreover, we tested the glucose-dependence of GSK3 and MEK/ERK effects on GS and angiotensin (1-7) actions on these pathways. We show that glucose deprivation activated GS, but did not change phospho-GS (Ser640/1), GSK3β activity or activity-activating phosphorylation of ERK1/2. We then treated glucose-replete and -depleted cells with SB415286, U0126, LY294 and rapamycin to inhibit GSK3, MEK1/2, PI3K and mTOR, respectively. SB415286 activated GS and decreased the relative phospho-GS (Ser640/1) level, more in glucose-depleted than -replete cells. U0126 activated GS and reduced the phospho-GS (Ser640/1) content significantly in glucose-depleted cells, while GSK3β activity tended to increase. LY294 inactivated GS in glucose-depleted cells only, without affecting relative phospho-GS (Ser640/1) level. Rapamycin had no effect on GS activation. Angiotensin-(1-7) raised phospho-ERK1/2 but not phospho-GSK3β (Ser9) content, while it inactivated GS and increased GS phosphorylation on Ser640/1, in glucose-replete cells. In glucose-depleted cells, angiotensin-(1-7) effects on ERK1/2 and GS were reverted, while relative phospho-GSK3β (Ser9) content decreased. In conclusion, activation of GS by glucose deprivation is not due to GS Ser640/1 dephosphorylation, GSK3β or ERK1/2 regulation in cultured myotubes. However, glucose depletion enhances GS activation/Ser640/1 dephosphorylation due to both GSK3 and MEK/ERK inhibition. Angiotensin-(1-7) inactivates GS in glucose-replete cells in association with ERK1/2 activation, not with GSK3 regulation, and glucose

  17. Muscle and neural isoforms of agrin increase utrophin expression in cultured myotubes via a transcriptional regulatory mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramolini, A O; Burton, E A; Tinsley, J M; Ferns, M J; Cartaud, A; Cartaud, J; Davies, K E; Lunde, J A; Jasmin, B J

    1998-01-09

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a prevalent X-linked neuromuscular disease for which there is currently no cure. Recently, it was demonstrated in a transgenic mouse model that utrophin could functionally compensate for the lack of dystrophin and alleviate the muscle pathology (Tinsley, J. M., Potter, A. C., Phelps, S. R., Fisher, R., Trickett, J. I., and Davies, K. E. (1996) Nature 384, 349-353). In this context, it thus becomes essential to determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms presiding over utrophin expression in attempts to overexpress the endogenous gene product throughout skeletal muscle fibers. In a recent study, we showed that the nerve exerts a profound influence on utrophin gene expression and postulated that nerve-derived trophic factors mediate the local transcriptional activation of the utrophin gene within nuclei located in the postsynaptic sarcoplasm (Gramolini, A. O., Dennis, C. L., Tinsley, J. M., Robertson, G. S., Davies, K. E, Cartaud, J., and Jasmin, B. J. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 8117-8120). In the present study, we have therefore focused on the effect of agrin on utrophin expression in cultured C2 myotubes. In response to Torpedo-, muscle-, or nerve-derived agrin, we observed a significant 2-fold increase in utrophin mRNAs. By contrast, CGRP treatment failed to affect expression of utrophin transcripts. Western blotting experiments also revealed that the increase in utrophin mRNAs was accompanied by an increase in the levels of utrophin. To determine whether these changes were caused by parallel increases in the transcriptional activity of the utrophin gene, we transfected muscle cells with a 1. 3-kilobase pair utrophin promoter-reporter (nlsLacZ) gene construct and treated them with agrin for 24-48 h. Under these conditions, both muscle- and nerve-derived agrin increased the activity of beta-galactosidase, indicating that agrin treatment led, directly or indirectly, to the transcriptional activation of the utrophin gene

  18. Estrogen receptor beta is involved in skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by the phytoecdysteroid ecdysterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Maria Kristina; Zhao, Piwen; Haupt, Oliver; Ngueu, Sandrine Tchoukouegno; Hengevoss, Jonas; Fritzemeier, Karl Heinrich; Piechotta, Marion; Schlörer, Nils; Muhn, Peter; Zheng, Wen-Ya; Xie, Ming-Yong; Diel, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    The phytoectysteroid ecdysterone (Ecdy) was reported to stimulate protein synthesis and enhance physical performance. The aim of this study was to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms particularly the role of ER beta (ERβ). In male rats, Ecdy treatment increased muscle fiber size, serum IGF-1 increased, and corticosteron and 17β-estradiol (E2) decreased. In differentiated C2C12 myoblastoma cells, treatment with Ecdy, dihydrotestosterone, IGF-1 but also E2 results in hypertrophy. Hypertrophy induced by E2 and Ecdy could be antagonized with an antiestrogen but not by an antiandrogen. In HEK293 cells transfected with ER alpha (ERα) or ERβ, Ecdy treatment transactivated a reporter gene. To elucidate the role of ERβ in Ecdy-mediated muscle hypertrophy, C2C12 myotubes were treated with ERα (ALPHA) and ERβ (BETA) selective ligands. Ecdy and BETA treatment but not ALPHA induced hypertrophy. The effect of Ecdy, E2, and BETA could be antagonized by an ERβ-selective antagonist (ANTIBETA). In summary, our results indicate that ERβ is involved in the mediation of the anabolic activity of the Ecdy. These findings provide new therapeutic perspectives for the treatment of muscle injuries, sarcopenia, and cachectic disease, but also imply that such a substance could be abused for doping purposes. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Validation of Skeletal Muscle cis-Regulatory Module Predictions Reveals Nucleotide Composition Bias in Functional Enhancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Andrew T.; Chou, Alice Yi; Arenillas, David J.; Wasserman, Wyeth W.

    2011-01-01

    We performed a genome-wide scan for muscle-specific cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) using three computational prediction programs. Based on the predictions, 339 candidate CRMs were tested in cell culture with NIH3T3 fibroblasts and C2C12 myoblasts for capacity to direct selective reporter gene expression to differentiated C2C12 myotubes. A subset of 19 CRMs validated as functional in the assay. The rate of predictive success reveals striking limitations of computational regulatory sequence analysis methods for CRM discovery. Motif-based methods performed no better than predictions based only on sequence conservation. Analysis of the properties of the functional sequences relative to inactive sequences identifies nucleotide sequence composition can be an important characteristic to incorporate in future methods for improved predictive specificity. Muscle-related TFBSs predicted within the functional sequences display greater sequence conservation than non-TFBS flanking regions. Comparison with recent MyoD and histone modification ChIP-Seq data supports the validity of the functional regions. PMID:22144875

  20. Validation of skeletal muscle cis-regulatory module predictions reveals nucleotide composition bias in functional enhancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T Kwon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We performed a genome-wide scan for muscle-specific cis-regulatory modules (CRMs using three computational prediction programs. Based on the predictions, 339 candidate CRMs were tested in cell culture with NIH3T3 fibroblasts and C2C12 myoblasts for capacity to direct selective reporter gene expression to differentiated C2C12 myotubes. A subset of 19 CRMs validated as functional in the assay. The rate of predictive success reveals striking limitations of computational regulatory sequence analysis methods for CRM discovery. Motif-based methods performed no better than predictions based only on sequence conservation. Analysis of the properties of the functional sequences relative to inactive sequences identifies nucleotide sequence composition can be an important characteristic to incorporate in future methods for improved predictive specificity. Muscle-related TFBSs predicted within the functional sequences display greater sequence conservation than non-TFBS flanking regions. Comparison with recent MyoD and histone modification ChIP-Seq data supports the validity of the functional regions.

  1. Skeletal muscle cell contraction reduces a novel myokine, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10): potential roles in exercise-regulated angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiuchi, Yuri; Sato, Hitoshi; Tsujimura, Kazuki; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Matsuwaki, Takashi; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Nishihara, Masugi; Nedachi, Taku

    2018-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that skeletal muscle secrets proteins referred to as myokines and that exercise contributes to their regulation. In this study, we propose that chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10) functions as a novel myokine. Initially, we stimulated differentiated C2C12 myotubes with or without electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) to identify novel myokines. Cytokine array analysis revealed that CXCL10 secretion was significantly reduced by EPS, which was further confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Treadmill experiments in mice identified significant reduction of Cxcl10 gene expression in the soleus muscle. Additionally, contraction-dependent p38 MAPK activation appeared to be involved in this reduction. Furthermore, C2C12 conditioned medium obtained after applying EPS could induce survival of MSS31, a vascular endothelial cell model, which was partially attenuated by the addition of recombinant CXCL10. Overall, our findings suggest CXCL10 as a novel exercise-reducible myokine, to control endothelial cell viability.

  2. Effects of Sunphenon and Polyphenon 60 on proteolytic pathways ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... The effect of Sunphenon and Polyphenon 60 in oxidative stress response, myogenic regulatory factors, inflammatory cytokines, apoptotic and proteolytic pathways on H2O2-induced myotube atrophy was addressed. Cellular responses of H2O2-induced C2C12cells were examined, including mRNA ...

  3. Effects of Sunphenon and Polyphenon 60 on proteolytic pathways ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-02-04

    Feb 4, 2015 ... inflammatory cytokines and myogenic markers in H2O2-treated. C2C12 cells ... reduce inflammatory events in muscle-associated diseases, such as myotube atrophy. [Sivakumar AS and ..... Nutrition 27 955–959. Powers SK ...

  4. Adaptive metabolic response to 4 weeks of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in healthy, lightly active individuals and chronic high glucose availability in primary human myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Francesco; Jackson, Matthew J; Squillace, Cesare; Shepherd, Anthony; Moore, Jonathan P; Ayer, Donald E; Kubis, Hans-Peter

    2013-04-01

    Chronic sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Hyperglycaemia contributes to metabolic alterations observed in T2DM, such as reduced oxidative capacity and elevated glycolytic and lipogenic enzyme expressions in skeletal muscle tissue. We aimed to investigate the metabolic alterations induced by SSB supplementation in healthy individuals and to compare these with the effects of chronic hyperglycaemia on primary muscle cell cultures. Lightly active, healthy, lean subjects (n = 11) with sporadic soft drink consumption underwent a 4-week SSB supplementation (140 ± 15 g/day, ~2 g glucose/kg body weight/day, glucose syrup). Before and after the intervention, body composition, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), insulin sensitivity, muscle metabolic gene and protein expression were assessed. Adaptive responses to hyperglycaemia (7 days, 15 mM) were tested in primary human myotubes. SSB supplementation increased fat mass (+1.0 kg, P < 0.05), fasting RER (+0.12, P < 0.05), fasting glucose (+0.3 mmol/L, P < 0.05) and muscle GAPDH mRNA expressions (+0.94 AU, P < 0.05). PGC1α mRNA was reduced (-0.20 AU, P < 0.05). Trends were found for insulin resistance (+0.16 mU/L, P = 0.09), and MondoA protein levels (+1.58 AU, P = 0.08). Primary myotubes showed elevations in GAPDH, ACC, MondoA and TXNIP protein expressions (P < 0.05). Four weeks of SSB supplementation in healthy individuals shifted substrate metabolism towards carbohydrates, increasing glycolytic and lipogenic gene expression and reducing mitochondrial markers. Glucose-sensing protein MondoA might contribute to this shift, although further in vivo evidence is needed to corroborate this.

  5. Reduction of a 4q35-encoded nuclear envelope protein in muscle differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostlund, Cecilia; Guan, Tinglu; Figlewicz, Denise A.; Hays, Arthur P.; Worman, Howard J.; Gerace, Larry; Schirmer, Eric C.

    2009-01-01

    Muscular dystrophy and peripheral neuropathy have been linked to mutations in genes encoding nuclear envelope proteins; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying these disorders remain unresolved. Nuclear envelope protein p19A is a protein of unknown function encoded by a gene at chromosome 4q35. p19A levels are significantly reduced in human muscle as cells differentiate from myoblasts to myotubes; however, its levels are not similarly reduced in all differentiation systems tested. Because 4q35 has been linked to facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) and some adjacent genes are reportedly misregulated in the disorder, levels of p19A were analyzed in muscle samples from patients with FSHD. Although p19A was increased in most cases, an absolute correlation was not observed. Nonetheless, p19A downregulation in normal muscle differentiation suggests that in the cases where its gene is inappropriately re-activated it could affect muscle differentiation and contribute to disease pathology.

  6. Reduction of a 4q35-encoded nuclear envelope protein in muscle differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostlund, Cecilia [Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Guan, Tinglu [Department of Cell Biology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Figlewicz, Denise A. [Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Hays, Arthur P. [Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Worman, Howard J. [Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Gerace, Larry [Department of Cell Biology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Schirmer, Eric C., E-mail: e.schirmer@ed.ac.uk [Department of Cell Biology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JR (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-13

    Muscular dystrophy and peripheral neuropathy have been linked to mutations in genes encoding nuclear envelope proteins; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying these disorders remain unresolved. Nuclear envelope protein p19A is a protein of unknown function encoded by a gene at chromosome 4q35. p19A levels are significantly reduced in human muscle as cells differentiate from myoblasts to myotubes; however, its levels are not similarly reduced in all differentiation systems tested. Because 4q35 has been linked to facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) and some adjacent genes are reportedly misregulated in the disorder, levels of p19A were analyzed in muscle samples from patients with FSHD. Although p19A was increased in most cases, an absolute correlation was not observed. Nonetheless, p19A downregulation in normal muscle differentiation suggests that in the cases where its gene is inappropriately re-activated it could affect muscle differentiation and contribute to disease pathology.

  7. Activation of type 2 cannabinoid receptors (CB2R) promotes fatty acid oxidation through the SIRT1/PGC-1α pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Xuqin [Department of Endocrinology, First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210029 (China); Sun, Tao [Department of Neurology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210002 (China); Wang, Xiaodong, E-mail: xdwang666@hotmail.com [Department of Endocrinology, First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210029 (China)

    2013-07-05

    Highlights: •TC, a CB2R specific agonist, stimulates SIRT1 activity by PKA/CREB pathway. •TC promotes PGC-1α transcriptional activity by increasing its deacetylation. •TC increases the expression of genes linked to FAO and promotes the rate of FAO. •The effects of TC in FAO are dependent on CB2R. •Suggesting CB2R as a target to treat diseases with lipid dysregulation. -- Abstract: Abnormal fatty acid oxidation has been associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. At the transcriptional level, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) has been reported to strongly increase the ability of hormone nuclear receptors PPARα and ERRα to drive transcription of fatty acid oxidation enzymes. In this study, we report that a specific agonist of the type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) can lead to fatty acid oxidation through the PGC-1α pathway. We have found that CB2R is expressed in differentiated C2C12 myotubes, and that use of the specific agonist trans-caryophyllene (TC) stimulates sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) deacetylase activity by increasing the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), thus leading to increased levels of PGC-1α deacetylation. This use of TC treatment increases the expression of genes linked to the fatty acid oxidation pathway in a SIRT1/PGC-1α-dependent mechanism and also drastically accelerates the rate of complete fatty acid oxidation in C2C12 myotubes, neither of which occur when CB2R mRNA is knocked down using siRNA. These results reveal that activation of CB2R by a selective agonist promotes lipid oxidation through a signaling/transcriptional pathway. Our findings imply that pharmacological manipulation of CB2R may provide therapeutic possibilities to treat metabolic diseases associated with lipid dysregulation.

  8. Injury and subsequent regeneration of muscles for activation of local innate immunity to facilitate the development and relapse of autoimmune myositis in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Naoki; Hirata, Shinya; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Kawahata, Kimito; Kohsaka, Hitoshi

    2015-04-01

    To determine whether injury and regeneration of the skeletal muscles induce an inflammatory milieu that facilitates the development and relapse of autoimmune myositis. The quadriceps of C57BL/6 mice were injured with bupivacaine hydrochloride (BPVC) and evaluated histologically. Macrophages and regenerating myofibers in the treated muscles and differentiating C2C12 myotubes were examined for cytokine expression. Mice were immunized with C protein fragments at the base of the tail and in the right hind footpads (day 0) to evoke systemic anti-C protein immunity and to induce local myositis in the right hind limbs. The contralateral quadriceps muscles were injured with BPVC or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) on day 7 or after spontaneous regression of myositis (day 42). The quadriceps muscle in nonimmunized mice was injured with BPVC on day 7. The muscles were examined histologically 14 days after treatment. The BPVC-injured muscles had macrophage infiltration most abundantly at 3 days after the injection, with emergence of regenerating fibers from day 5. The macrophages expressed inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β, and CCL2. Regenerating myofibers and C2C12 myotubes also expressed the cytokines. The BPVC-injected muscles from nonimmunized mice had regenerating myofibers with resolved cell infiltration 14 days after treatment. In mice preimmunized with C protein fragments, the muscles injected with BPVC on day 7 as well as on day 42, but not those injected with PBS, had myositis accompanied by CD8+ T cell infiltration. Injury and regeneration could set up an inflammatory milieu in the muscles and facilitate the development and relapse of autoimmune myositis. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  9. M19 modulates skeletal muscle differentiation and insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells through modulation of respiratory chain activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Cambier

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction due to nuclear or mitochondrial DNA alterations contributes to multiple diseases such as metabolic myopathies, neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes and cancer. Nevertheless, to date, only half of the estimated 1,500 mitochondrial proteins has been identified, and the function of most of these proteins remains to be determined. Here, we characterize the function of M19, a novel mitochondrial nucleoid protein, in muscle and pancreatic β-cells. We have identified a 13-long amino acid sequence located at the N-terminus of M19 that targets the protein to mitochondria. Furthermore, using RNA interference and over-expression strategies, we demonstrate that M19 modulates mitochondrial oxygen consumption and ATP production, and could therefore regulate the respiratory chain activity. In an effort to determine whether M19 could play a role in the regulation of various cell activities, we show that this nucleoid protein, probably through its modulation of mitochondrial ATP production, acts on late muscle differentiation in myogenic C2C12 cells, and plays a permissive role on insulin secretion under basal glucose conditions in INS-1 pancreatic β-cells. Our results are therefore establishing a functional link between a mitochondrial nucleoid protein and the modulation of respiratory chain activities leading to the regulation of major cellular processes such as myogenesis and insulin secretion.

  10. Small-molecule fluorophores to detect cell-state switching in the context of high-throughput screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Bridget K; Carrinski, Hyman A; Ahn, Young-Hoon; Kim, Yun Kyung; Gilbert, Tamara J; Fomina, Dina A; Schreiber, Stuart L; Chang, Young-Tae; Clemons, Paul A

    2008-04-02

    A small molecule capable of distinguishing the distinct states resulting from cellular differentiation would be of enormous value, for example, in efforts aimed at regenerative medicine. We screened a collection of fluorescent small molecules for the ability to distinguish the differentiated state of a mouse skeletal muscle cell line. High-throughput fluorescence-based screening of C2C12 myoblasts and myotubes resulted in the identification of six compounds with the desired selectivity, which was confirmed by high-content screening in the same cell states. The compound that resulted in the greatest fluorescence intensity difference between the cell states was used as the screening agent in a pilot screen of 84 kinase inhibitors, each present in four doses, for inhibition of myogenesis. Of the kinase inhibitors, 17 resulted in reduction of fluorescence at one or more concentrations; among the "hits" included known inhibitors of myogenesis, confirming that this compound is capable of detecting the differentiated myotube state. We suggest that the strategy of screening for screening agents reported here may be extended more broadly in the future.

  11. In vitro myogenesis induced by human recombinant elastin-like proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Paola; Scaini, Denis; Ulloa Severino, Luisa; Borelli, Violetta; Passamonti, Sabina; Lorenzon, Paola; Bandiera, Antonella

    2015-10-01

    Mammalian adult skeletal muscle has a limited ability to regenerate after injury, usage or trauma. A promising strategy for successful regenerative technology is the engineering of bio interfaces that mimic the characteristics of the extracellular matrix. Human elastin-like polypeptides (HELPs) have been synthesized as biomimetic materials that maintain some peculiar properties of the native protein. We developed a novel Human Elastin Like Polypeptide obtained by fusing the elastin-like backbone to a domain present in the α2 chain of type IV collagen, containing two RGD motives. We employed this peptide as adhesion substrate for C2C12 myoblasts and compared its effects to those induced by two other polypeptides of the HELP series. Myoblast adhered to all HELPs coatings, where they assumed morphology and cytoarchitecture that depended on the polypeptide structure. Adhesion to HELPs stimulated at a different extent cell proliferation and differentiation, the expression of Myosin Heavy Chain and the fusion of aligned fibers into multinucleated myotubes. Adhesion substrates significantly altered myotubes stiffness, measured by Atomic Force Microscopy, and differently affected the cells Ca(2+) handling capacity and the maturation of excitation-contraction coupling machinery, evaluated by Ca(2+) imaging. Overall, our findings indicate that the properties of HELP biopolymers can be exploited for dissecting the molecular connections underlying myogenic differentiation and for designing novel substrates for skeletal muscle regeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Myostatin acts as an autocrine/paracrine negative regulator in myoblast differentiation from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Fei; Kishida, Tsunao; Ejima, Akika [Department of Immunology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Gojo, Satoshi [Department of Cardiac Support, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Mazda, Osam, E-mail: mazda@koto.kpu-m.ac.jp [Department of Immunology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)

    2013-02-08

    Highlights: ► iPS-derived cells express myostatin and its receptor upon myoblast differentiation. ► Myostatin inhibits myoblast differentiation by inhibiting MyoD and Myo5a induction. ► Silencing of myostatin promotes differentiation of human iPS cells into myoblasts. -- Abstract: Myostatin, also known as growth differentiation factor (GDF-8), regulates proliferation of muscle satellite cells, and suppresses differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes via down-regulation of key myogenic differentiation factors including MyoD. Recent advances in stem cell biology have enabled generation of myoblasts from pluripotent stem cells, but it remains to be clarified whether myostatin is also involved in regulation of artificial differentiation of myoblasts from pluripotent stem cells. Here we show that the human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cells that were induced to differentiate into myoblasts expressed myostatin and its receptor during the differentiation. An addition of recombinant human myostatin (rhMyostatin) suppressed induction of MyoD and Myo5a, resulting in significant suppression of myoblast differentiation. The rhMyostatin treatment also inhibited proliferation of the cells at a later phase of differentiation. RNAi-mediated silencing of myostatin promoted differentiation of human iPS-derived embryoid body (EB) cells into myoblasts. These results strongly suggest that myostatin plays an important role in regulation of myoblast differentiation from iPS cells of human origin. The present findings also have significant implications for potential regenerative medicine for muscular diseases.

  13. Myostatin acts as an autocrine/paracrine negative regulator in myoblast differentiation from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Fei; Kishida, Tsunao; Ejima, Akika; Gojo, Satoshi; Mazda, Osam

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► iPS-derived cells express myostatin and its receptor upon myoblast differentiation. ► Myostatin inhibits myoblast differentiation by inhibiting MyoD and Myo5a induction. ► Silencing of myostatin promotes differentiation of human iPS cells into myoblasts. -- Abstract: Myostatin, also known as growth differentiation factor (GDF-8), regulates proliferation of muscle satellite cells, and suppresses differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes via down-regulation of key myogenic differentiation factors including MyoD. Recent advances in stem cell biology have enabled generation of myoblasts from pluripotent stem cells, but it remains to be clarified whether myostatin is also involved in regulation of artificial differentiation of myoblasts from pluripotent stem cells. Here we show that the human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cells that were induced to differentiate into myoblasts expressed myostatin and its receptor during the differentiation. An addition of recombinant human myostatin (rhMyostatin) suppressed induction of MyoD and Myo5a, resulting in significant suppression of myoblast differentiation. The rhMyostatin treatment also inhibited proliferation of the cells at a later phase of differentiation. RNAi-mediated silencing of myostatin promoted differentiation of human iPS-derived embryoid body (EB) cells into myoblasts. These results strongly suggest that myostatin plays an important role in regulation of myoblast differentiation from iPS cells of human origin. The present findings also have significant implications for potential regenerative medicine for muscular diseases

  14. ZBED6, a novel transcription factor derived from a domesticated DNA transposon regulates IGF2 expression and muscle growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markljung, Ellen; Jiang, Lin; Jaffe, Jacob D

    2009-01-01

    and find that the protein, named ZBED6, is previously unknown, specific for placental mammals, and derived from an exapted DNA transposon. Silencing of Zbed6 in mouse C2C12 myoblasts affected Igf2 expression, cell proliferation, wound healing, and myotube formation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (Ch......, including development and transcriptional regulation. The phenotypic effects in mutant pigs and ZBED6-silenced C2C12 myoblasts, the extreme sequence conservation, its nucleolar localization, the broad tissue distribution, and the many target genes with essential biological functions suggest that ZBED6...... is an important transcription factor in placental mammals, affecting development, cell proliferation, and growth....

  15. Clone-derived human AF-amniotic fluid stem cells are capable of skeletal myogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaorong; Zhang, Shengli; Zhou, Junmei; Chen, Baisong; Shang, Yafeng; Gao, Tongbing; Wang, Xue; Xie, Hua; Chen, Fang

    2012-08-01

    Stem cell-based therapy may be the most promising method to cure skeletal muscle degenerative diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and trauma in the future. Human amniotic fluid is enriched with early-stage stem cells from developing fetuses and these cells have cardiomyogenic potential both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the characteristics of human amniotic fluid-derived AF-type stem (HAF-AFS) cells by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence staining, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation analysis. After confirming the stemness of HAF-AFS cells, we tested whether HAF-AFS cells could differentiate into skeletal myogenic cells in vitro and incorporate into regenerating skeletal muscle in vivo. By temporary exposure to the DNA demethylation agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza dC) or co-cultured with C2C12 myoblasts, HAF-AFS cells differentiated into skeletal myogenic cells, expressing skeletal myogenic cell-specific markers such as Desmin, Troponin I (Tn I) and α-Actinin. Four weeks after transplantation into cardiotoxin-injured and X-ray-irradiated tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of NOD/SCID mice, HAF-AFS cells survived, differentiated into myogenic precursor cells and fused with host myofibres. The findings that HAF-AFS cells differentiate into myogenic cells in vitro and incorporate in skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo hold the promise of HAF-AFS cell-based therapy for skeletal muscle degenerative diseases. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Development and evaluation of a removable tissue-engineered muscle with artificial tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tomohiro; Takagi, Shunya; Kamon, Takafumi; Yamasaki, Ken-Ichi; Fujisato, Toshia

    2017-02-01

    Tissue-engineered skeletal muscles were potentially useful as physiological and biochemical in vitro models. Currently, most of the similar models were constructed without tendons. In this study, we aimed to develop a simple, highly versatile tissue-engineered muscle with artificial tendons, and to evaluate the contractile, histological and molecular dynamics during differentiation. C2C12 cells were embedded in a cold type-І collagen gel and placed between two artificial tendons on a silicone sheet. The construct shrank and tightly attached to the artificial tendons with differentiation, finally detaching from the silicone sheet within 1 week of culture onset. We successfully developed a tissue-engineered skeletal muscle with two artificial tendons from C2C12 myoblasts embedded in type-І collagen gel. The isometric twitch contractile force (TCF) significantly increased during differentiation. Time to Peak Tension (TPT) and Half-Relaxation Time (1/2RT) were significantly shortened during differentiation. Myogenic regulatory factors were maximally expressed at 2 weeks, and subsequently decreased at 3 weeks of culture. Histological analysis indicated that myotube formation increased markedly from 2 weeks and well-ordered sarcomere structures were observed on the surface of the 3D engineered muscle at 3 weeks of culture. These results suggested that robust muscle structure occurred by 3 weeks in the tissue-engineered skeletal muscle. Moreover, during the developmental process, the artificial tendons might contribute to well-ordered sarcomere formation. Our results indicated that this simple culture system could be used to evaluate the effects of various pharmacological and mechanical cues on muscle contractility in a variety of research areas. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Topologically Micropatterned Collagen and Poly(ε-caprolactone) Struts Fabricated Using the Poly(vinyl alcohol) Fibrillation/Leaching Process To Develop Efficiently Engineered Skeletal Muscle Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minseong; Kim, WonJin; Kim, GeunHyung

    2017-12-20

    Optimally designed three-dimensional (3D) biomedical scaffolds for skeletal muscle tissue regeneration pose significant research challenges. Currently, most studies on scaffolds focus on the two-dimensional (2D) surface structures that are patterned in the micro-/nanoscales with various repeating sizes and shapes to induce the alignment of myoblasts and myotube formation. The 2D patterned surface clearly provides effective analytical results of pattern size and shape of the myoblast alignment and differentiation. However, it is inconvenient in terms of the direct application for clinical usage due to the limited thickness and 3D shapeability. Hence, the present study suggests an innovative hydrogel or synthetic structure that consists of uniaxially surface-patterned cylindrical struts for skeleton muscle regeneration. The alignment of the pattern on the hydrogel (collagen) and poly(ε-caprolactone) struts was attained with the fibrillation of poly(vinyl alcohol) and the leaching process. Various cell culture results indicate that the C2C12 cells on the micropatterned collagen structure were fully aligned, and that a significantly high level of myotube formation was achieved when compared to the collagen structures that were not treated with the micropatterning process.

  18. Insulin stimulates phospholipase D-dependent phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis, Rho translocation, de novo phospholipid synthesis, and diacylglycerol/protein kinase C signaling in L6 myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standaert, M L; Bandyopadhyay, G; Zhou, X; Galloway, L; Farese, R V

    1996-07-01

    Previous studies have provided conflicting findings on whether insulin activates certain, potentially important, phospholipid signaling systems in skeletal muscle preparations. In particular, insulin effects on the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and subsequent activation of protein kinase C (PKC) have not been apparent in some studies. Presently, we examined insulin effects on phospholipid signaling systems, diacylglycerol (DAG) production, and PKC translocation/activation in L6 myotubes. We found that insulin provoked rapid increases in phospholipase D (PLD)-dependent hydrolysis of PC, as evidenced by increases in choline release and phosphatidylethanol production in cells incubated in the presence of ethanol. In association with PC-PLD activation, Rho, a small G protein that is known to activate PC-PLD activation, translocated from the cytosol to the membrane fraction in response to insulin treatment. PC-PLD activation was also accompanied by increases in total DAG production and increases in the translocation of both PKC enzyme activity and DAG-sensitive PKC-alpha, -beta, -delta, and -epsilon from the cytosol to the membrane fraction. A potential role for PKC or a related protein kinase in insulin action was suggested by the finding that RO 31-8220 inhibited both PKC enzyme activity and insulin-stimulated [3H]2-deoxyglucose uptake. Our findings provide the first evidence that insulin stimulates Rho translocation and activates PC-PLD in L6 skeletal muscle cells. Moreover, this signaling system appears to lead to increases in DAG/PKC signaling, which, along with other related signaling factors, may regulate certain metabolic processes, such as glucose transport, in these cells.

  19. Pacific ciguatoxin-1b effect over Na+ and K+ currents, inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate content and intracellular Ca2+ signals in cultured rat myotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Jorge; Liberona, José Luis; Molgó, Jordi; Jaimovich, Enrique

    2002-01-01

    The action of the main ciguatoxin involved in ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific region (P-CTX-1b) was studied in myotubes originated from rat skeletal muscle cells kept in primary culture. The effect of P-CTX-1b on sodium currents at short times of exposure (up to 1 min) showed a moderate increase in peak Na+ current. During prolonged exposures, P-CTX-1b decreased the peak Na+ current. This action was always accompanied by an increase of leakage currents, tail currents and outward Na+ currents, resulting in an intracellular Na+ accumulation. This effect is blocked by prior exposure to tetrodotoxin (TTX) and becomes evident only after washout of TTX. Low to moderate concentrations of P-CTX-1b (2–5 nM) partially blocked potassium currents in a manner that was dependent on the membrane potential. P-CTX-1b (2–12 nM) caused a small membrane depolarization (3–5 mV) and an increase in the frequency of spontaneous action potential discharges that reached in general low frequencies (0.1–0.5 Hz). P-CTX-1b (10 nM) caused a transient increase of intracellular inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) mass levels, which was blocked by TTX. In the presence of P-CTX-1b (10 nM) and in the absence of external Ca2+, the intracellular Ca2+ levels show a transient increase in the cytoplasm as well as in the nuclei. The time course of this effect may reflect the action of IP3 over internal stores activated by P-CTX-1b-induced membrane depolarization. PMID:12429578

  20. Myostatin Activates the Ubiquitin-Proteasome and Autophagy-Lysosome Systems Contributing to Muscle Wasting in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Tao; Yang, Ya-Jun; Huang, Ren-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Lin, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Our evidence demonstrated that CKD upregulated the expression of myostatin, TNF-α, and p-IkBa and downregulated the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, and FoxO3a, which were also associated with protein degradation and muscle atrophy. The autophagosome formation and protein expression of autophagy-related genes were increased in muscle of CKD rats. The mRNA level and protein expression of MAFbx and MuRF-1 were also upregulated in CKD rats, as well as proteasome activity of 26S. Moreover, activation of myostatin elicited by TNF-α induces C2C12 myotube atrophy via upregulating the expression of autophagy-related genes, including MAFbx and MuRF1 and proteasome subunits. Inactivation of FoxO3a triggered by PI3K inhibitor LY294002 prevented the myostatin-induced increase of expression of MuRF1, MAFbx, and LC3-II protein in C2C12 myotubes. The findings were further consolidated by using siRNA interference and overexpression of myostatin. Additionally, expression of myostatin was activated by TNF-α via a NF-κB dependent pathway in C2C12 myotubes, while inhibition of NF-κB activity suppressed myostatin and improved myotube atrophy. Collectively, myostatin mediated CKD-induced muscle catabolism via coordinate activation of the autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome systems. PMID:26448817

  1. TGF-β receptors, in a Smad-independent manner, are required for terminal skeletal muscle differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droguett, Rebeca; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio; Santander, Cristian; Brandan, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    Skeletal muscle differentiation is strongly inhibited by transforming growth factor type β (TGF-β), although muscle formation as well as regeneration normally occurs in an environment rich in this growth factor. In this study, we evaluated the role of intracellular regulatory Smads proteins as well as TGF-β-receptors (TGF-β-Rs) during skeletal muscle differentiation. We found a decrease of TGF-β signaling during differentiation. This phenomenon is explained by a decline in the levels of the regulatory proteins Smad-2, -3, and -4, a decrease in the phosphorylation of Smad-2 and lost of nuclear translocation of Smad-3 and -4 in response to TGF-β. No change in the levels and inhibitory function of Smad-7 was observed. In contrast, we found that TGF-β-R type I (TGF-β-RI) and type II (TGF-β-RII) increased on the cell surface during skeletal muscle differentiation. To analyze the direct role of the serine/threonine kinase activities of TGF-β-Rs, we used the specific inhibitor SB 431542 and the dominant-negative form of TGF-β-RII lacking the cytoplasmic domain. The TGF-β-Rs were important for successful muscle formation, determined by the induction of myogenin, creatine kinase activity, and myosin. Silencing of Smad-2/3 expression by specific siRNA treatments accelerated myogenin, myosin expression, and myotube formation; although when SB 431542 was present inhibition in myosin induction and myotube formation was observed, suggesting that these last steps of skeletal muscle differentiation require active TGF-β-Rs. These results suggest that both down-regulation of Smad regulatory proteins and cell signaling through the TGF-β receptors independent of Smad proteins are essential for skeletal muscle differentiation.

  2. TGF-{beta} receptors, in a Smad-independent manner, are required for terminal skeletal muscle differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droguett, Rebeca; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio; Santander, Cristian [Centro de Regulacion Celular y Patologia, Centro de Regeneracion y Envejecimiento (CARE), Departamento de Biologia Celular y Molecular, MIFAB, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Brandan, Enrique, E-mail: ebrandan@bio.puc.cl [Centro de Regulacion Celular y Patologia, Centro de Regeneracion y Envejecimiento (CARE), Departamento de Biologia Celular y Molecular, MIFAB, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2010-09-10

    Skeletal muscle differentiation is strongly inhibited by transforming growth factor type {beta} (TGF-{beta}), although muscle formation as well as regeneration normally occurs in an environment rich in this growth factor. In this study, we evaluated the role of intracellular regulatory Smads proteins as well as TGF-{beta}-receptors (TGF-{beta}-Rs) during skeletal muscle differentiation. We found a decrease of TGF-{beta} signaling during differentiation. This phenomenon is explained by a decline in the levels of the regulatory proteins Smad-2, -3, and -4, a decrease in the phosphorylation of Smad-2 and lost of nuclear translocation of Smad-3 and -4 in response to TGF-{beta}. No change in the levels and inhibitory function of Smad-7 was observed. In contrast, we found that TGF-{beta}-R type I (TGF-{beta}-RI) and type II (TGF-{beta}-RII) increased on the cell surface during skeletal muscle differentiation. To analyze the direct role of the serine/threonine kinase activities of TGF-{beta}-Rs, we used the specific inhibitor SB 431542 and the dominant-negative form of TGF-{beta}-RII lacking the cytoplasmic domain. The TGF-{beta}-Rs were important for successful muscle formation, determined by the induction of myogenin, creatine kinase activity, and myosin. Silencing of Smad-2/3 expression by specific siRNA treatments accelerated myogenin, myosin expression, and myotube formation; although when SB 431542 was present inhibition in myosin induction and myotube formation was observed, suggesting that these last steps of skeletal muscle differentiation require active TGF-{beta}-Rs. These results suggest that both down-regulation of Smad regulatory proteins and cell signaling through the TGF-{beta} receptors independent of Smad proteins are essential for skeletal muscle differentiation.

  3. Myostatin acts as an autocrine/paracrine negative regulator in myoblast differentiation from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Kishida, Tsunao; Ejima, Akika; Gojo, Satoshi; Mazda, Osam

    2013-02-08

    Myostatin, also known as growth differentiation factor (GDF-8), regulates proliferation of muscle satellite cells, and suppresses differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes via down-regulation of key myogenic differentiation factors including MyoD. Recent advances in stem cell biology have enabled generation of myoblasts from pluripotent stem cells, but it remains to be clarified whether myostatin is also involved in regulation of artificial differentiation of myoblasts from pluripotent stem cells. Here we show that the human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cells that were induced to differentiate into myoblasts expressed myostatin and its receptor during the differentiation. An addition of recombinant human myostatin (rhMyostatin) suppressed induction of MyoD and Myo5a, resulting in significant suppression of myoblast differentiation. The rhMyostatin treatment also inhibited proliferation of the cells at a later phase of differentiation. RNAi-mediated silencing of myostatin promoted differentiation of human iPS-derived embryoid body (EB) cells into myoblasts. These results strongly suggest that myostatin plays an important role in regulation of myoblast differentiation from iPS cells of human origin. The present findings also have significant implications for potential regenerative medicine for muscular diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Differential muscle regulatory factor gene expression between larval and adult myogenesis in the frog Xenopus laevis: adult myogenic cell-specific myf5 upregulation and its relation to the notochord suppression of adult muscle differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Hitomi; Nishikawa, Akio

    2013-08-01

    During Xenopus laevis metamorphosis, larval-to-adult muscle conversion depends on the differential responses of adult and larval myogenic cells to thyroid hormone. Essential differences in cell growth, differentiation, and hormone-dependent life-or-death fate have been reported between cultured larval (tail) and adult (hindlimb) myogenic cells. A previous study revealed that tail notochord cells suppress terminal differentiation in adult (but not larval) myogenic cells. However, little is known about the differences in expression patterns of myogenic regulatory factors (MRF) and the satellite cell marker Pax7 between adult and larval myogenic cells. In the present study, we compared mRNA expression of these factors between the two types. At first, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of hindlimb buds showed sequential upregulation of myf5, myogenin, myod, and mrf4 during stages 50-54, when limb buds elongate and muscles begin to form. By contrast, in the tail, there was no such increase during the same period. Secondary, these results were duplicated in vitro: adult myogenic cells upregulated myf5, myod, and pax7 in the early culture period, followed by myogenin upregulation and myotube differentiation, while larval myogenic cells did not upregulate these genes and precociously started myotube differentiation. Thirdly, myf5 upregulation and early-phase proliferation in adult myogenic cells were potently inhibited by the presence of notochord cells, suggesting that notochord cells suppress adult myogenesis through inhibiting the transition from Myf5(-) stem cells to Myf5(+) committed myoblasts. All of the data presented here suggest that myf5 upregulation can be a good criterion for the activation of adult myogenesis during X. laevis metamorphosis.

  5. Constraint Differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Basin, David; Viganò, Luca

    2010-01-01

    We introduce constraint differentiation, a powerful technique for reducing search when model-checking security protocols using constraint-based methods. Constraint differentiation works by eliminating certain kinds of redundancies that arise in the search space when using constraints to represent...... results show that constraint differentiation substantially reduces search and considerably improves the performance of OFMC, enabling its application to a wider class of problems....

  6. Interactions between Skeletal Muscle Myoblasts and their Extracellular Matrix Revealed by a Serum Free Culture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Vishal; Dye, Danielle E; Kinnear, Beverley F; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Grounds, Miranda D; Coombe, Deirdre R

    2015-01-01

    Decellularisation of skeletal muscle provides a system to study the interactions of myoblasts with muscle extracellular matrix (ECM). This study describes the efficient decellularisation of quadriceps muscle with the retention of matrix components and the use of this matrix for myoblast proliferation and differentiation under serum free culture conditions. Three decellularisation approaches were examined; the most effective was phospholipase A2 treatment, which removed cellular material while maximizing the retention of ECM components. Decellularised muscle matrices were then solubilized and used as substrates for C2C12 mouse myoblast serum free cultures. The muscle matrix supported myoblast proliferation and differentiation equally as well as collagen and fibronectin. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed that myoblasts seeded on muscle matrix and fibronectin differentiated to form long, well-aligned myotubes, while myoblasts seeded on collagen were less organized. qPCR analyses showed a time dependent increase in genes involved in skeletal muscle differentiation and suggested that muscle-derived matrix may stimulate an increased rate of differentiation compared to collagen and fibronectin. Decellularized whole muscle three-dimensional scaffolds also supported cell adhesion and spreading, with myoblasts aligning along specific tracts of matrix proteins within the scaffolds. Thus, under serum free conditions, intact acellular muscle matrices provided cues to direct myoblast adhesion and migration. In addition, myoblasts were shown to rapidly secrete and organise their own matrix glycoproteins to create a localized ECM microenvironment. This serum free culture system has revealed that the correct muscle ECM facilitates more rapid cell organisation and differentiation than single matrix glycoprotein substrates.

  7. Differential manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Kosinski, Antoni A

    2007-01-01

    The concepts of differential topology form the center of many mathematical disciplines such as differential geometry and Lie group theory. Differential Manifolds presents to advanced undergraduates and graduate students the systematic study of the topological structure of smooth manifolds. Author Antoni A. Kosinski, Professor Emeritus of Mathematics at Rutgers University, offers an accessible approach to both the h-cobordism theorem and the classification of differential structures on spheres.""How useful it is,"" noted the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, ""to have a single, sho

  8. Differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Barbu, Viorel

    2016-01-01

    This textbook is a comprehensive treatment of ordinary differential equations, concisely presenting basic and essential results in a rigorous manner. Including various examples from physics, mechanics, natural sciences, engineering and automatic theory, Differential Equations is a bridge between the abstract theory of differential equations and applied systems theory. Particular attention is given to the existence and uniqueness of the Cauchy problem, linear differential systems, stability theory and applications to first-order partial differential equations. Upper undergraduate students and researchers in applied mathematics and systems theory with a background in advanced calculus will find this book particularly useful. Supplementary topics are covered in an appendix enabling the book to be completely self-contained.

  9. α-Syntrophin stabilizes catalase to reduce endogenous reactive oxygen species levels during myoblast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jae Yun; Choi, Su Jin; Heo, Cheol Ho; Kim, Hwan Myung; Kim, Hye Sun

    2017-07-01

    α-Syntrophin is a component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex that interacts with various intracellular signaling proteins in muscle cells. The α-syntrophin knock-down C2 cell line (SNKD), established by infecting lentivirus particles with α-syntrophin shRNA, is characterized by a defect in terminal differentiation and increase in cell death. Since myoblast differentiation is accompanied by intensive mitochondrial biogenesis, the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) is also increased during myogenesis. Two-photon microscopy imaging showed that excessive intracellular ROS accumulated during the differentiation of SNKD cells as compared with control cells. The formation of 4-hydroxynonenal adduct, a byproduct of lipid peroxidation during oxidative stress, significantly increased in differentiated SNKD myotubes and was dramatically reduced by epigallocatechin-3-gallate, a well-known ROS scavenger. Among antioxidant enzymes, catalase was significantly decreased during differentiation of SNKD cells without changes at the mRNA level. Of interest was the finding that the degradation of catalase was rescued by MG132, a proteasome inhibitor, in the SNKD cells. This study demonstrates a novel function of α-syntrophin. This protein plays an important role in the regulation of oxidative stress from endogenously generated ROS during myoblast differentiation by modulating the protein stability of catalase. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  10. Skeletal muscle Kv7 (KCNQ) channels in myoblast differentiation and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roura-Ferrer, Meritxell; Sole, Laura; Martinez-Marmol, Ramon; Villalonga, Nuria; Felipe, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Voltage-dependent K + channels (Kv) are involved in myocyte proliferation and differentiation by triggering changes in membrane potential and regulating cell volume. Since Kv7 channels may participate in these events, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether skeletal muscle Kv7.1 and Kv7.5 were involved during proliferation and myogenesis. Here we report that, while myotube formation did not regulate Kv7 channels, Kv7.5 was up-regulated during cell cycle progression. Although, Kv7.1 mRNA also increased during the G 1 -phase, pharmacological evidence mainly involves Kv7.5 in myoblast growth. Our results indicate that the cell cycle-dependent expression of Kv7.5 is involved in skeletal muscle cell proliferation

  11. Delta-like 1 homolog (dlk1): a marker for rhabdomyosarcomas implicated in skeletal muscle regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise Helskov; Sellathurai, Jeeva; Davis, Erica E

    2013-01-01

    of the myosin light chain promotor, and detected an early, enhanced formation of myotubes in Dlk1 transgenic mice. We then stably transfected the mouse myoblast cell line, C2C12, with full-length Dlk1 (soluble A variant) and detected an inhibition of myotube formation, which could be reversed by adding Dlk1...... antibody to the culture supernatant. These results suggest that Dlk1 is involved in controlling the myogenic programme and that the various splice forms may exert different effects. Interestingly, both in the Dlk1 transgenic mice and the DLK1-C2C12 cells, we detected reduced myostatin expression......, suggesting that the effect of Dlk1 on the myogenic programme might involve the myostatin signaling pathway. In support of a relationship between Dlk1 and myostatin we detected reciprocal expression of these two transcripts during different cell cycle stages of human myoblasts. Together our results suggest...

  12. Differential games

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2006-01-01

    This volume lays the mathematical foundations for the theory of differential games, developing a rigorous mathematical framework with existence theorems. It begins with a precise definition of a differential game and advances to considerations of games of fixed duration, games of pursuit and evasion, the computation of saddle points, games of survival, and games with restricted phase coordinates. Final chapters cover selected topics (including capturability and games with delayed information) and N-person games.Geared toward graduate students, Differential Games will be of particular interest

  13. Short-term starvation is a strategy to unravel the cellular capacity of oxidizing specific exogenous/endogenous substrates in mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler, Julianna D; Fernandes-Siqueira, Lorena O; Carvalho, Ana S; Cararo-Lopes, Eduardo; Dias, Matheus H; Ketzer, Luisa A; Galina, Antonio; Da Poian, Andrea T

    2017-08-25

    Mitochondrial oxidation of nutrients is tightly regulated in response to the cellular environment and changes in energy demands. In vitro studies evaluating the mitochondrial capacity of oxidizing different substrates are important for understanding metabolic shifts in physiological adaptations and pathological conditions, but may be influenced by the nutrients present in the culture medium or by the utilization of endogenous stores. One such influence is exemplified by the Crabtree effect (the glucose-mediated inhibition of mitochondrial respiration) as most in vitro experiments are performed in glucose-containing media. Here, using high-resolution respirometry, we evaluated the oxidation of endogenous or exogenous substrates by cell lines harboring different metabolic profiles. We found that a 1-h deprivation of the main energetic nutrients is an appropriate strategy to abolish interference of endogenous or undesirable exogenous substrates with the cellular capacity of oxidizing specific substrates, namely glutamine, pyruvate, glucose, or palmitate, in mitochondria. This approach primed mitochondria to immediately increase their oxygen consumption after the addition of the exogenous nutrients. All starved cells could oxidize exogenous glutamine, whereas the capacity for oxidizing palmitate was limited to human hepatocarcinoma Huh7 cells and to C2C12 mouse myoblasts that differentiated into myotubes. In the presence of exogenous glucose, starvation decreased the Crabtree effect in Huh7 and C2C12 cells and abrogated it in mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells. Interestingly, the fact that the Crabtree effect was observed only for mitochondrial basal respiration but not for the maximum respiratory capacity suggests it is not caused by a direct effect on the electron transport system. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Differential Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Stoker, J J

    2011-01-01

    This classic work is now available in an unabridged paperback edition. Stoker makes this fertile branch of mathematics accessible to the nonspecialist by the use of three different notations: vector algebra and calculus, tensor calculus, and the notation devised by Cartan, which employs invariant differential forms as elements in an algebra due to Grassman, combined with an operation called exterior differentiation. Assumed are a passing acquaintance with linear algebra and the basic elements of analysis.

  15. Antidiabetic effect of gomisin N via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Hoyoung; Jung, Myeong Ho

    2017-12-16

    Gomisin N (GN) is a lignan derived from Schisandra chinensis. AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) has gained attention as a therapeutic target for the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Previously, we reported that GN activated the AMPK pathway and ameliorated high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis. In this study, we investigated the anti-diabetic effects of GN in C2C12 myotubes and HFD obese mice. GN enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK/acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and Akt. In addition, GN promoted glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes, which was accompanied by the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to the plasma membrane. Treatment with compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, suppressed GN-mediated stimulation of glucose uptake. Furthermore, GN increased the expression of mitochondria biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation genes in C2C12 myotubes. In the in vivo study, administration of GN to HFD mice decreased the levels of fasting blood glucose and insulin, and improved glucose tolerance in HFD obese mice. GN administration rescued the decreased phosphorylation of AMPK and Akt and stimulated the expression of mitochondria biogenesis genes in the skeletal muscle of HFD mice. These findings suggested that GN exerted anti-hyperglycemic effects through AMPK activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Functional analysis of SH3 domain containing ring finger 2 during the myogenic differentiation of quail myoblast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Won Kim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective Owing to the public availability of complete genome sequences, including avian species, massive bioinformatics analyses may be conducted for computational gene prediction and the identification of gene regulatory networks through various informatics tools. However, to evaluate the biofunctional activity of a predicted target gene, in vivo and in vitro functional genomic analyses should be a prerequisite. Methods Due to a lack of quail genomic sequence information, we first identified the partial genomic structure and sequences of the quail SH3 domain containing ring finger 2 (SH3RF2 gene. Subsequently, SH3RF2 was knocked out using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas9 technology and single cell-derived SH3RF2 mutant sublines were established to study the biofunctional activity of SH3RF2 in quail myoblast (QM7 cells during muscle differentiation. Results Through a T7 endonuclease I assay and genotyping analysis, we established an SH3RF2 knockout (KO QM7#4 subline with 61 and 155 nucleotide deletion mutations in SH3RF2. After the induction of myotube differentiation, the expression profiles were analyzed and compared between regular QM7 and SH3RF2 KO QM7#4 cells by global RNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. Conclusion We did not detect any statistically significant role of SH3RF2 during myotube differentiation in QM7 myoblast cells. However, additional experiments are necessary to examine the biofunctional activity of SH3RF2 in cell proliferation and muscle growth.

  17. Adapted physical exercise enhances activation and differentiation potential of satellite cells in the skeletal muscle of old mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisterna, Barbara; Giagnacovo, Marzia; Costanzo, Manuela; Fattoretti, Patrizia; Zancanaro, Carlo; Pellicciari, Carlo; Malatesta, Manuela

    2016-05-01

    During ageing, a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and a decrease in muscle strength and endurance take place, in the condition termed sarcopenia. The mechanisms of sarcopenia are complex and still unclear; however, it is known that muscle atrophy is associated with a decline in the number and/or efficiency of satellite cells, the main contributors to muscle regeneration. Physical exercise proved beneficial in sarcopenia; however, knowledge of the effect of adapted physical exercise on the myogenic properties of satellite cells in aged muscles is limited. In this study the amount and activation state of satellite cells as well as their proliferation and differentiation potential were assessed in situ by morphology, morphometry and immunocytochemistry at light and transmission electron microscopy on 28-month-old mice submitted to adapted aerobic physical exercise on a treadmill. Sedentary age-matched mice served as controls, and sedentary adult mice were used as a reference for an unperturbed control at an age when the capability of muscle regeneration is still high. The effect of physical exercise in aged muscles was further analysed by comparing the myogenic potential of satellite cells isolated from old running and old sedentary mice using an in vitro system that allows observation of the differentiation process under controlled experimental conditions. The results of this ex vivo and in vitro study demonstrated that adapted physical exercise increases the number and activation of satellite cells as well as their capability to differentiate into structurally and functionally correct myotubes (even though the age-related impairment in myotube formation is not fully reversed): this evidence further supports adapted physical exercise as a powerful, non-pharmacological approach to counteract sarcopenia and the age-related deterioration of satellite cell capabilities even at very advanced age. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  18. Overexpression of Glucocorticoid Receptor β Enhances Myogenesis and Reduces Catabolic Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry D. Hinds

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα, GR β (GRβ has a truncated ligand-binding domain that prevents glucocorticoid binding, implicating GRα as the mediator of glucocorticoid-induced skeletal muscle loss. Because GRβ causes glucocorticoid resistance, targeting GRβ may be beneficial in impairing muscle loss as a result of GRα activity. The purpose of this study was to determine how the overexpression of GRβ affects myotube formation and dexamethasone (Dex responsiveness. We measured GR isoform expression in C2C12 muscle cells in response to Dex and insulin, and through four days of myotube formation. Next, lentiviral-mediated overexpression of GRβ in C2C12 was performed, and these cells were characterized for cell fusion and myotube formation, as well as sensitivity to Dex via the expression of ubiquitin ligases. GRβ overexpression increased mRNA levels of muscle regulatory factors and enhanced proliferation in myoblasts. GRβ overexpressing myotubes had an increased fusion index. Myotubes overexpressing GRβ had lower forkhead box O3 (Foxo3a mRNA levels and a blunted muscle atrophy F-box/Atrogen-1 (MAFbx and muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1 response to Dex. We showed that GRβ may serve as a pharmacological target for skeletal muscle growth and protection from glucocorticoid-induced catabolic signaling. Increasing GRβ levels in skeletal muscle may cause a state of glucocorticoid resistance, stabilizing muscle mass during exposure to high doses of glucocorticoids.

  19. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β attenuates glucocorticoid-induced suppression of myogenic differentiation in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Ma

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids are the only therapy that has been demonstrated to alter the progress of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, the most common muscular dystrophy in children. However, glucocorticoids disturb skeletal muscle metabolism and hamper myogenesis and muscle regeneration. The mechanisms involved in the glucocorticoid-mediated suppression of myogenic differentiation are not fully understood. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β is considered to play a central role as a negative regulator in myogenic differentiation. Here, we showed that glucocorticoid treatment during the first 48 h in differentiation medium decreased the level of phosphorylated Ser9-GSK-3β, an inactive form of GSK-3β, suggesting that glucocorticoids affect GSK-3β activity. We then investigated whether GSK-3β inhibition could regulate glucocorticoid-mediated suppression of myogenic differentiation in vitro. Two methods were employed to inhibit GSK-3β: pharmacological inhibition with LiCl and GSK-3β gene knockdown. We found that both methods resulted in enhanced myotube formation and increased levels of muscle regulatory factors and muscle-specific protein expression. Importantly, GSK-3β inhibition attenuated glucocorticoid-induced suppression of myogenic differentiation. Collectively, these data suggest the involvement of GSK-3β in the glucocorticoid-mediated impairment of myogenic differentiation. Therefore, the inhibition of GSK-3β may be a strategy for preventing glucocorticoid-induced muscle degeneration.

  20. Differential discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukhanov, V.I.; Mazurov, I.B.

    1981-01-01

    A principal flowsheet of a differential discriminator intended for operation in a spectrometric circuit with statistical time distribution of pulses is described. The differential discriminator includes four integrated discriminators and a channel of piled-up signal rejection. The presence of the rejection channel enables the discriminator to operate effectively at loads of 14x10 3 pulse/s. The temperature instability of the discrimination thresholds equals 250 μV/ 0 C. The discrimination level changes within 0.1-5 V, the level shift constitutes 0.5% for the filling ratio of 1:10. The rejection coefficient is not less than 90%. Alpha spectrum of the 228 Th source is presented to evaluate the discriminator operation with the rejector. The rejector provides 50 ns time resolution

  1. Differential topology

    CERN Document Server

    Margalef-Roig, J

    1992-01-01

    ...there are reasons enough to warrant a coherent treatment of the main body of differential topology in the realm of Banach manifolds, which is at the same time correct and complete. This book fills the gap: whenever possible the manifolds treated are Banach manifolds with corners. Corners add to the complications and the authors have carefully fathomed the validity of all main results at corners. Even in finite dimensions some results at corners are more complete and better thought out here than elsewhere in the literature. The proofs are correct and with all details. I see this book as a reliable monograph of a well-defined subject; the possibility to fall back to it adds to the feeling of security when climbing in the more dangerous realms of infinite dimensional differential geometry. Peter W. Michor

  2. Differential belongings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oldrup, Helene

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores suburban middle-class residents’ narratives about housing choice, everyday life and belonging in residential areas of Greater Copenhagen, Denmark, to understand how residential processes of social differentiation are constituted. Using Savage et al.’s concepts of discursive...... and not only to the area itself. In addition, rather than seeing suburban residential areas as homogenous, greater attention should be paid to differences within such areas....

  3. Combined use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) and platelet rich plasma (PRP) stimulates proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts in vitro: new therapeutic perspectives for skeletal muscle repair/regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassoli, Chiara; Vallone, Larissa; Tani, Alessia; Chellini, Flaminia; Nosi, Daniele; Zecchi-Orlandini, Sandra

    2018-02-05

    Satellite cell-mediated skeletal muscle repair/regeneration is compromised in cases of extended damage. Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) hold promise for muscle healing but some criticisms hamper their clinical application, including the need to avoid animal serum contamination for expansion and the scarce survival after transplant. In this context, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) could offer advantages. Here, we compare the effects of PRP or standard culture media on C2C12 myoblast, satellite cell and BM-MSC viability, survival, proliferation and myogenic differentiation and evaluate PRP/BM-MSC combination effects in promoting myogenic differentiation. PRP induced an increase of mitochondrial activity and Ki67 expression comparable or even greater than that elicited by standard media and promoted AKT signaling activation in myoblasts and BM-MSCs and Notch-1 pathway activation in BM-MSCs. It stimulated MyoD, myogenin, α-sarcomeric actin and MMP-2 expression in myoblasts and satellite cell activation. Notably, PRP/BM-MSC combination was more effective than PRP alone. We found that BM-MSCs influenced myoblast responses through a paracrine activation of AKT signaling, contributing to shed light on BM-MSC action mechanisms. Our results suggest that PRP represents a good serum substitute for BM-MSC manipulation in vitro and could be beneficial towards transplanted cells in vivo. Moreover, it might influence muscle resident progenitors' fate, thus favoring the endogenous repair/regeneration mechanisms. Finally, within the limitations of an in vitro experimentation, this study provides an experimental background for considering the PRP/BM-MSC combination as a potential therapeutic tool for skeletal muscle damage, combining the beneficial effects of BM-MSCs and PRP on muscle tissue, while potentiating BM-MSC functionality.

  4. Differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ciarlet, Philippe G

    2007-01-01

    This book gives the basic notions of differential geometry, such as the metric tensor, the Riemann curvature tensor, the fundamental forms of a surface, covariant derivatives, and the fundamental theorem of surface theory in a selfcontained and accessible manner. Although the field is often considered a classical one, it has recently been rejuvenated, thanks to the manifold applications where it plays an essential role. The book presents some important applications to shells, such as the theory of linearly and nonlinearly elastic shells, the implementation of numerical methods for shells, and

  5. Differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Tricomi, FG

    2013-01-01

    Based on his extensive experience as an educator, F. G. Tricomi wrote this practical and concise teaching text to offer a clear idea of the problems and methods of the theory of differential equations. The treatment is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students and addresses only questions that can be resolved with rigor and simplicity.Starting with a consideration of the existence and uniqueness theorem, the text advances to the behavior of the characteristics of a first-order equation, boundary problems for second-order linear equations, asymptotic methods, and diff

  6. Differential topology

    CERN Document Server

    Guillemin, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Differential Topology provides an elementary and intuitive introduction to the study of smooth manifolds. In the years since its first publication, Guillemin and Pollack's book has become a standard text on the subject. It is a jewel of mathematical exposition, judiciously picking exactly the right mixture of detail and generality to display the richness within. The text is mostly self-contained, requiring only undergraduate analysis and linear algebra. By relying on a unifying idea-transversality-the authors are able to avoid the use of big machinery or ad hoc techniques to establish the main

  7. L6E9 Myoblasts Are Deficient of Myostatin and Additional TGF- Members Are Candidates to Developmentally Control Their Fiber Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Rossi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work provides evidence that the robust myoblast differentiation observed in L6E9 cells is causally linked to deficiency of myostatin, which, conversely, has been found to be expressed in C2C12 cells. However, despite the absence of endogenous myostatin, L6E9 myoblasts expressed functional Activin receptors type II (ActRIIs and follistatin as well as the highly related TGF- members Activins and GDF11, suggesting that in this cell line the regulation of fiber size might be under the control of multiple regulators regardless of myostatin. In line with this hypothesis, delivery of a dominant-negative ActRIIb form or the increase of follistatin, as obtained via Trichostatin treatment or stable transfection of a short human follistatin form, enhanced the L6E9 cell differentiation and further increased the size of myotubes, suggesting that L6E9 myoblasts provide a spontaneous myostatin knock-out in vitro model to study TGF- ligands involved in developmental regulation of fiber size.

  8. MicroRNA-128 targets myostatin at coding domain sequence to regulate myoblasts in skeletal muscle development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Zhou, Bo; Li, Pinghua; Schinckel, Allan P; Liang, Tingting; Wang, Han; Li, Huizhi; Fu, Lingling; Chu, Qingpo; Huang, Ruihua

    2015-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) play a critical role in skeletal muscle development. In a previous study we observed that miR-128 was highly expressed in skeletal muscle. However, its function in regulating skeletal muscle development is not clear. Our hypothesis was that miR-128 is involved in the regulation of the proliferation and differentiation of skeletal myoblasts. In this study, through bioinformatics analyses, we demonstrate that miR-128 specifically targeted mRNA of myostatin (MSTN), a critical inhibitor of skeletal myogenesis, at coding domain sequence (CDS) region, resulting in down-regulating of myostatin post-transcription. Overexpression of miR-128 inhibited proliferation of mouse C2C12 myoblast cells but promoted myotube formation; whereas knockdown of miR-128 had completely opposite effects. In addition, ectopic miR-128 regulated the expression of myogenic factor 5 (Myf5), myogenin (MyoG), paired box (Pax) 3 and 7. Furthermore, an inverse relationship was found between the expression of miR-128 and MSTN protein expression in vivo and in vitro. Taken together, these results reveal that there is a novel pathway in skeletal muscle development in which miR-128 regulates myostatin at CDS region to inhibit proliferation but promote differentiation of myoblast cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Conversion of leucine to β‐hydroxy‐β‐methylbutyrate by α‐keto isocaproate dioxygenase is required for a potent stimulation of protein synthesis in L6 rat myotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vílchez, José D.; Salto, Rafael; Manzano, Manuel; Sevillano, Natalia; Campos, Nefertiti; Argilés, Josep M.; Rueda, Ricardo; López‐Pedrosa, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background L‐Leu and its metabolite β‐hydroxy‐β‐methylbutyrate (HMB) stimulate muscle protein synthesis enhancing the phosphorylation of proteins that regulate anabolic signalling pathways. Alterations in these pathways are observed in many catabolic diseases, and HMB and L‐Leu have proven their anabolic effects in in vivo and in vitro models. The aim of this study was to compare the anabolic effects of L‐Leu and HMB in myotubes grown in the absence of any catabolic stimuli. Methods Studies were conducted in vitro using rat L6 myotubes under normal growth conditions (non‐involving L‐Leu‐deprived conditions). Protein synthesis and mechanistic target of rapamycin signalling pathway were determined. Results Only HMB was able to increase protein synthesis through a mechanism that involves the phosphorylation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin as well as its downstream elements, pS6 kinase, 4E binding protein‐1, and eIF4E. HMB was significantly more effective than L‐Leu in promoting these effects through an activation of protein kinase B/Akt. Because the conversion of L‐Leu to HMB is limited in muscle, L6 cells were transfected with a plasmid that codes for α‐keto isocaproate dioxygenase, the key enzyme involved in the catabolic conversion of α‐keto isocaproate into HMB. In these transfected cells, L‐Leu was able to promote protein synthesis and mechanistic target of rapamycin regulated pathway activation equally to HMB. Additionally, these effects of leucine were reverted to a normal state by mesotrione, a specific inhibitor of α‐keto isocaproate dioxygenase. Conclusion Our results suggest that HMB is an active L‐Leu metabolite able to maximize protein synthesis in skeletal muscle under conditions, in which no amino acid deprivation occurred. It may be proposed that supplementation with HMB may be very useful to stimulate protein synthesis in wasting conditions associated with chronic diseases, such as cancer or

  10. Passage-restricted differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem cells into cardiomyocyte-like cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fabao; Li Li; Fang Bo; Zhu Dingliang; Yang Huangtian; Gao Pingjin

    2005-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have limited ability to differentiate into cardiomyocytes and the factors affect this process are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the passage (P)-related transdifferentiation potential of MSCs into cardiomyocyte-like cells and its relationship to the proliferation ability. After 5-azacytidine treatment, only P4 but not P1 and P8 rat bone marrow MSCs (rMSCs) showed formation of myotube and expressed cardiomyocyte-associated markers. The growth property analysis showed P4 rMSCs had a growth-arrest appearance, while P1 and P8 rMSCs displayed an exponential growth pattern. When the rapid proliferation of P1 and P8 rMSCs was inhibited by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine, a mitosis inhibitor, only P1, not P8 rMSCs, differentiated into cardiomyocyte-like cells after 5-azacytidine treatment. These results demonstrate that the differentiation ability of rMSCs into cardiomyocytes is in proliferation ability-dependent and passage-restricted patterns. These findings reveal a novel regulation on the transdifferentiation of MSCs and provide useful information for exploiting the clinical therapeutic potential of MSCs

  11. Sphingosine kinase/sphingosine 1-phosphate axis: a new player for insulin-like growth factor-1-induced myoblast differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernacchioni Caterina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 is the most important physiological regulator of skeletal muscle progenitor cells, which are responsible for adult skeletal muscle regeneration. The ability of IGF-1 to affect multiple aspects of skeletal muscle cell biology such as proliferation, differentiation, survival and motility is well recognized, although the molecular mechanisms implicated in its complex biological action are not fully defined. Since sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P has recently emerged as a key player in skeletal muscle regeneration, we investigated the possible involvement of the sphingosine kinase (SK/S1P receptor axis on the biological effects of IGF-1 in murine myoblasts. Methods RNA interference, chemical inhibition and immunofluorescence approaches were used to assess the role of the SK/S1P axis on the myogenic and mitogenic effects of IGF-1 in C2C12 myoblasts. Results We show that IGF-1 increases SK activity in mouse myoblasts. The effect of the growth factor does not involve transcriptional regulation of SK1 or SK2, since the protein content of both isoforms is not affected; rather, IGF-1 enhances the fraction of the active form of SK. Moreover, transactivation of the S1P2 receptor induced by IGF-1 via SK activation appears to be involved in the myogenic effect of the growth factor. Indeed, the pro-differentiating effect of IGF-1 in myoblasts is impaired when SK activity is pharmacologically inhibited, or SK1 or SK2 are specifically silenced, or the S1P2 receptor is downregulated. Furthermore, in this study we show that IGF-1 transactivates S1P1/S1P3 receptors via SK activation and that this molecular event negatively regulates the mitogenic effect elicited by the growth factor, since the specific silencing of S1P1 or S1P3 receptors increases cell proliferation induced by IGF-1. Conclusions We demonstrate a dual role of the SK/S1P axis in response to myoblast challenge with IGF-1, that likely is important to

  12. The regulation of mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) expression during skeletal muscle cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collu-Marchese, Melania; Shuen, Michael; Pauly, Marion; Saleem, Ayesha; Hood, David A

    2015-05-19

    The ATP demand required for muscle development is accommodated by elevations in mitochondrial biogenesis, through the co-ordinated activities of the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. The most important transcriptional activator of the mitochondrial genome is mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam); however, the regulation of Tfam expression during muscle differentiation is not known. Thus, we measured Tfam mRNA levels, mRNA stability, protein expression and localization and Tfam transcription during the progression of muscle differentiation. Parallel 2-fold increases in Tfam protein and mRNA were observed, corresponding with 2-3-fold increases in mitochondrial content. Transcriptional activity of a 2051 bp promoter increased during this differentiation period and this was accompanied by a 3-fold greater Tfam mRNA stabilization. Interestingly, truncations of the promoter at 1706 bp, 978 bp and 393 bp promoter all exhibited 2-3-fold higher transcriptional activity than the 2051 bp construct, indicating the presence of negative regulatory elements within the distal 350 bp of the promoter. Activation of AMP kinase augmented Tfam transcription within the proximal promoter, suggesting the presence of binding sites for transcription factors that are responsive to cellular energy state. During differentiation, the accumulating Tfam protein was progressively distributed to the mitochondrial matrix where it augmented the expression of mtDNA and COX (cytochrome c oxidase) subunit I, an mtDNA gene product. Our data suggest that, during muscle differentiation, Tfam protein levels are regulated by the availability of Tfam mRNA, which is controlled by both transcription and mRNA stability. Changes in energy state and Tfam localization also affect Tfam expression and action in differentiating myotubes. © 2015 Authors.

  13. Msx1-modulated muscle satellite cells retain a primitive state and exhibit an enhanced capacity for osteogenic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Ke; Liu, Wen-ying; Zeng, Qiang; Hou, Fang; Xu, Jian-zhong; Yang, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Multipotent muscle satellite cells (MuSCs) have been identified as potential seed cells for bone tissue engineering. However, MuSCs exhibit a rapid loss of stemness after in vitro culturing, thereby compromising their therapeutic efficiency. Muscle segment homeobox gene 1 (msx1) has been found to induce the dedifferentiation of committed progenitor cells, as well as terminally differentiated myotubes. In this study, a Tet-off retroviral gene delivery system was used to modulate msx1 expression. After ten passages, MuSCs that did not express msx-1 (e.g., the non-msx1 group) were compared with MuSCs with induced msx-1 expression (e.g., the msx1 group). The latter group exhibited a more juvenile morphology, it contained a significantly lower percentage of senescent cells characterized by positive β-galactosidase staining, and it exhibited increased proliferation and a higher proliferation index. Immunocytochemical stainings further detected a more primitive gene expression profile for the msx1 group, while osteogenic differentiation assays and ectopic bone formation assays demonstrated an improved capacity for the msx1 group to undergo osteogenic differentiation. These results suggest that transient expression of msx1 in MuSCs can retain a primitive state, thereby enhancing their capacity for osteogenic differentiation and restoring the potential for MuSCs to serve as seed cells for bone tissue engineering.

  14. Msx1-modulated muscle satellite cells retain a primitive state and exhibit an enhanced capacity for osteogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ke; Liu, Wen-Ying; Zeng, Qiang; Hou, Fang; Xu, Jian-Zhong; Yang, Zhong

    2017-03-01

    Multipotent muscle satellite cells (MuSCs) have been identified as potential seed cells for bone tissue engineering. However, MuSCs exhibit a rapid loss of stemness after in vitro culturing, thereby compromising their therapeutic efficiency. Muscle segment homeobox gene 1 (msx1) has been found to induce the dedifferentiation of committed progenitor cells, as well as terminally differentiated myotubes. In this study, a Tet-off retroviral gene delivery system was used to modulate msx1 expression. After ten passages, MuSCs that did not express msx-1 (e.g., the non-msx1 group) were compared with MuSCs with induced msx-1 expression (e.g., the msx1 group). The latter group exhibited a more juvenile morphology, it contained a significantly lower percentage of senescent cells characterized by positive β-galactosidase staining, and it exhibited increased proliferation and a higher proliferation index. Immunocytochemical stainings further detected a more primitive gene expression profile for the msx1 group, while osteogenic differentiation assays and ectopic bone formation assays demonstrated an improved capacity for the msx1 group to undergo osteogenic differentiation. These results suggest that transient expression of msx1 in MuSCs can retain a primitive state, thereby enhancing their capacity for osteogenic differentiation and restoring the potential for MuSCs to serve as seed cells for bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Msx1-modulated muscle satellite cells retain a primitive state and exhibit an enhanced capacity for osteogenic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Ke, E-mail: dingke@med.uestc.edu.cn [Department of Pediatric Surgery, School of medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610072 (China); Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People' s Hospital, Chengdu 610072 (China); Department of Orthopaedics, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Liu, Wen-ying; Zeng, Qiang; Hou, Fang [Department of Pediatric Surgery, School of medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610072 (China); Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People' s Hospital, Chengdu 610072 (China); Xu, Jian-zhong, E-mail: xjzspine@163.com [Department of Orthopaedics, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Yang, Zhong, E-mail: zyang1999@163.com [Department of Clinical Hematology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2017-03-01

    Multipotent muscle satellite cells (MuSCs) have been identified as potential seed cells for bone tissue engineering. However, MuSCs exhibit a rapid loss of stemness after in vitro culturing, thereby compromising their therapeutic efficiency. Muscle segment homeobox gene 1 (msx1) has been found to induce the dedifferentiation of committed progenitor cells, as well as terminally differentiated myotubes. In this study, a Tet-off retroviral gene delivery system was used to modulate msx1 expression. After ten passages, MuSCs that did not express msx-1 (e.g., the non-msx1 group) were compared with MuSCs with induced msx-1 expression (e.g., the msx1 group). The latter group exhibited a more juvenile morphology, it contained a significantly lower percentage of senescent cells characterized by positive β-galactosidase staining, and it exhibited increased proliferation and a higher proliferation index. Immunocytochemical stainings further detected a more primitive gene expression profile for the msx1 group, while osteogenic differentiation assays and ectopic bone formation assays demonstrated an improved capacity for the msx1 group to undergo osteogenic differentiation. These results suggest that transient expression of msx1 in MuSCs can retain a primitive state, thereby enhancing their capacity for osteogenic differentiation and restoring the potential for MuSCs to serve as seed cells for bone tissue engineering.

  16. Enhancement of contractile force generation of artificial skeletal muscle tissues by mild and transient heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masanori; Ikeda, Kazushi; Kanno, Shota; Ito, Akira; Kawabe, Yoshinori; Kamihira, Masamichi

    2014-01-01

    Artificial skeletal muscle tissues composed of cells are expected to be used for applications of regenerative medicine and drug screening. Generally, however, the physical forces generated by tissue-engineered skeletal muscle are lower than those of skeletal muscle tissues found in the body. Local hyperthermia is used for many diseases including muscle injuries. It was recently reported that mild heat treatment improved skeletal muscle functions. In this study, we investigated the effects of mild heat treatment on the tissue-engineered skeletal muscle tissues in vitro. We used magnetite cationic liposomes to label C2C12 myoblast cells magnetically, and constructed densely packed artificial skeletal muscle tissues by using magnetic force. Cell culture at 39°C promoted the differentiation of myoblast cells into myotubes. Moreover, the mild and transient heat treatment improved the contractile properties of artificial skeletal muscle tissue constructs. These findings indicate that the culture method using heat treatment is a useful approach to enhance functions of artificial skeletal muscle tissue.

  17. Functional evaluation of artificial skeletal muscle tissue constructs fabricated by a magnetic force-based tissue engineering technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yasunori; Ito, Akira; Fujita, Hideaki; Nagamori, Eiji; Kawabe, Yoshinori; Kamihira, Masamichi

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue engineering is currently applied in a variety of research fields, including regenerative medicine, drug screening, and bioactuator development, all of which require the fabrication of biomimic and functional skeletal muscle tissues. In the present study, magnetite cationic liposomes were used to magnetically label C2C12 myoblast cells for the construction of three-dimensional artificial skeletal muscle tissues by an applied magnetic force. Skeletal muscle functions, such as biochemical and contractile properties, were evaluated for the artificial tissue constructs. Histological studies revealed that elongated and multinucleated myotubes were observed within the tissue. Expression of muscle-specific markers, such as myogenin, myosin heavy chain and tropomyosin, were detected in the tissue constructs by western blot analysis. Further, creatine kinase activity increased during differentiation. In response to electric pulses, the artificial tissue constructs contracted to generate a physical force (the maximum twitch force, 33.2 μN [1.06 mN/mm2]). Rheobase and chronaxie of the tissue were determined as 4.45 V and 0.72 ms, respectively. These results indicate that the artificial skeletal muscle tissue constructs fabricated in this study were physiologically functional and the data obtained for the evaluation of their functional properties may provide useful information for future skeletal muscle tissue engineering studies.

  18. TNF inhibits Notch-1 in skeletal muscle cells by Ezh2 and DNA methylation mediated repression: implications in duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarnali Acharyya

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Classical NF-kappaB signaling functions as a negative regulator of skeletal myogenesis through potentially multiple mechanisms. The inhibitory actions of TNFalpha on skeletal muscle differentiation are mediated in part through sustained NF-kappaB activity. In dystrophic muscles, NF-kappaB activity is compartmentalized to myofibers to inhibit regeneration by limiting the number of myogenic progenitor cells. This regulation coincides with elevated levels of muscle derived TNFalpha that is also under IKKbeta and NF-kappaB control.Based on these findings we speculated that in DMD, TNFalpha secreted from myotubes inhibits regeneration by directly acting on satellite cells. Analysis of several satellite cell regulators revealed that TNFalpha is capable of inhibiting Notch-1 in satellite cells and C2C12 myoblasts, which was also found to be dependent on NF-kappaB. Notch-1 inhibition occurred at the mRNA level suggesting a transcriptional repression mechanism. Unlike its classical mode of action, TNFalpha stimulated the recruitment of Ezh2 and Dnmt-3b to coordinate histone and DNA methylation, respectively. Dnmt-3b recruitment was dependent on Ezh2.We propose that in dystrophic muscles, elevated levels of TNFalpha and NF-kappaB inhibit the regenerative potential of satellite cells via epigenetic silencing of the Notch-1 gene.

  19. TNF Inhibits Notch-1 in Skeletal Muscle Cells by Ezh2 and DNA Methylation Mediated Repression: Implications in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharyya, Swarnali; Sharma, Sudarshana M.; Cheng, Alfred S.; Ladner, Katherine J.; He, Wei; Kline, William; Wang, Huating; Ostrowski, Michael C.; Huang, Tim H.; Guttridge, Denis C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Classical NF-κB signaling functions as a negative regulator of skeletal myogenesis through potentially multiple mechanisms. The inhibitory actions of TNFα on skeletal muscle differentiation are mediated in part through sustained NF-κB activity. In dystrophic muscles, NF-κB activity is compartmentalized to myofibers to inhibit regeneration by limiting the number of myogenic progenitor cells. This regulation coincides with elevated levels of muscle derived TNFα that is also under IKKβ and NF-κB control. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on these findings we speculated that in DMD, TNFα secreted from myotubes inhibits regeneration by directly acting on satellite cells. Analysis of several satellite cell regulators revealed that TNFα is capable of inhibiting Notch-1 in satellite cells and C2C12 myoblasts, which was also found to be dependent on NF-κB. Notch-1 inhibition occurred at the mRNA level suggesting a transcriptional repression mechanism. Unlike its classical mode of action, TNFα stimulated the recruitment of Ezh2 and Dnmt-3b to coordinate histone and DNA methylation, respectively. Dnmt-3b recruitment was dependent on Ezh2. Conclusions/Significance We propose that in dystrophic muscles, elevated levels of TNFα and NF-κB inhibit the regenerative potential of satellite cells via epigenetic silencing of the Notch-1 gene. PMID:20814569

  20. Muscle wasting and impaired myogenesis in tumor bearing mice are prevented by ERK inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Penna

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The onset of cachexia is a frequent feature in cancer patients. Prominent characteristic of this syndrome is the loss of body and muscle weight, this latter being mainly supported by increased protein breakdown rates. While the signaling pathways dependent on IGF-1 or myostatin were causally involved in muscle atrophy, the role of the Mitogen-Activated-Protein-Kinases is still largely debated. The present study investigated this point on mice bearing the C26 colon adenocarcinoma. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: C26-bearing mice display a marked loss of body weight and muscle mass, this latter associated with increased phosphorylated (p-ERK. Administration of the ERK inhibitor PD98059 to tumor bearers attenuates muscle depletion and weakness, while restoring normal atrogin-1 expression. In C26 hosts, muscle wasting is also associated with increased Pax7 expression and reduced myogenin levels. Such pattern, suggestive of impaired myogenesis, is reversed by PD98059. Increased p-ERK and reduced myosin heavy chain content can be observed in TNFα-treated C2C12 myotubes, while decreased myogenin and MyoD levels occur in differentiating myoblasts exposed to the cytokine. All these changes are prevented by PD98059. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate that ERK is involved in the pathogenesis of muscle wasting in cancer cachexia and could thus be proposed as a therapeutic target.

  1. Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate (PDTC Attenuates Cancer Cachexia by Affecting Muscle Atrophy and Fat Lipolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Miao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cachexia is a kind of whole body metabolic disorder syndrome accompanied with severe wasting of muscle and adipose tissue. NF-κB signaling plays an important role during skeletal muscle atrophy and fat lipolysis. As an inhibitor of NF-κB signaling, Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC was reported to relieve cancer cachexia; however, its mechanism remains largely unknown. In our study, we showed that PDTC attenuated cancer cachexia symptom in C26 tumor bearing mice models in vivo without influencing tumor volume. What’s more, PDTC inhibited muscle atrophy and lipolysis in cells models in vitro induced by TNFα and C26 tumor medium. PDTC suppressed atrophy of myotubes differentiated from C2C12 by reducing MyoD and upregulating MuRF1, and preserving the expression of perilipin as well as blocking the activation of HSL in 3T3-L1 mature adipocytes. Meaningfully, we observed that PDTC also inhibited p38 MAPK signaling besides the NF-κB signaling in cancer cachexia in vitro models. In addition, PDTC also influenced the protein synthesis of skeletal muscle by activating AKT signaling and regulated fat energy metabolism by inhibiting AMPK signaling. Therefore, PDTC primarily influenced different pathways in different tissues. The study not only established a simple and reliable screening drugs model of cancer cachexia in vitro but also provided new theoretical basis for future treatment of cancer cachexia.

  2. Statins and PPARα agonists induce myotoxicity in differentiated rat skeletal muscle cultures but do not exhibit synergy with co-treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Timothy E.; Zhang, Xiaohua; Shi, Shu; Umbenhauer, Diane R.

    2005-01-01

    Statins and fibrates (weak PPARα agonists) are prescribed for the treatment of lipid disorders. Both drugs cause myopathy, but with a low incidence, 0.1-0.5%. However, combined statin and fibrate therapy can enhance myopathy risk. We tested the myotoxic potential of PPAR subtype selective agonists alone and in combination with statins in a differentiated rat myotube model. A pharmacologically potent experimental PPARα agonist, Compound A, induced myotoxicity as assessed by TUNEL staining at a minimum concentration of 1 nM, while other weaker PPARα compounds, for example, WY-14643, Gemfibrozil and Bezafibrate increased the percentage of TUNEL-positive nuclei at micromolar concentrations. In contrast, the PPARγ agonist Rosiglitazone caused little or no cell death at up to 10 μM and the PPARδ ligand GW-501516 exhibited comparatively less myotoxicity than that seen with Compound A. An experimental statin (Compound B) and Atorvastatin also increased the percentage of TUNEL-positive nuclei and co-treatment with WY-14643, Gemfibrozil or Bezafibrate had less than a full additive effect on statin-induced cell killing. The mechanism of PPARα agonist-induced cell death was different from that of statins. Unlike statins, Compound A and WY-14643 did not activate caspase 3/7. In addition, mevalonate and geranylgeraniol reversed the toxicity caused by statins, but did not prevent the cell killing induced by WY-14643. Furthermore, unlike statins, Compound A did not inhibit the isoprenylation of rab4 or rap1a. Interestingly, Compound A and Compound B had differential effects on ATP levels. Taken together, these observations support the hypothesis that in rat myotube cultures, PPARα agonism mediates in part the toxicity response to PPARα compounds. Furthermore, PPARα agonists and statins cause myotoxicity through distinct and independent pathways

  3. Statins and PPAR{alpha} agonists induce myotoxicity in differentiated rat skeletal muscle cultures but do not exhibit synergy with co-treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Timothy E [Department of Safety Assessment, Merck Research Laboratories, WP45-319, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Zhang, Xiaohua [Department of Biometrics Research, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Shi, Shu [Department of Safety Assessment, Merck Research Laboratories, WP45-319, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Umbenhauer, Diane R [Department of Safety Assessment, Merck Research Laboratories, WP45-319, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States)

    2005-11-01

    Statins and fibrates (weak PPAR{alpha} agonists) are prescribed for the treatment of lipid disorders. Both drugs cause myopathy, but with a low incidence, 0.1-0.5%. However, combined statin and fibrate therapy can enhance myopathy risk. We tested the myotoxic potential of PPAR subtype selective agonists alone and in combination with statins in a differentiated rat myotube model. A pharmacologically potent experimental PPAR{alpha} agonist, Compound A, induced myotoxicity as assessed by TUNEL staining at a minimum concentration of 1 nM, while other weaker PPAR{alpha} compounds, for example, WY-14643, Gemfibrozil and Bezafibrate increased the percentage of TUNEL-positive nuclei at micromolar concentrations. In contrast, the PPAR{gamma} agonist Rosiglitazone caused little or no cell death at up to 10 {mu}M and the PPAR{delta} ligand GW-501516 exhibited comparatively less myotoxicity than that seen with Compound A. An experimental statin (Compound B) and Atorvastatin also increased the percentage of TUNEL-positive nuclei and co-treatment with WY-14643, Gemfibrozil or Bezafibrate had less than a full additive effect on statin-induced cell killing. The mechanism of PPAR{alpha} agonist-induced cell death was different from that of statins. Unlike statins, Compound A and WY-14643 did not activate caspase 3/7. In addition, mevalonate and geranylgeraniol reversed the toxicity caused by statins, but did not prevent the cell killing induced by WY-14643. Furthermore, unlike statins, Compound A did not inhibit the isoprenylation of rab4 or rap1a. Interestingly, Compound A and Compound B had differential effects on ATP levels. Taken together, these observations support the hypothesis that in rat myotube cultures, PPAR{alpha} agonism mediates in part the toxicity response to PPAR{alpha} compounds. Furthermore, PPAR{alpha} agonists and statins cause myotoxicity through distinct and independent pathways.

  4. Concentrated Differential Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Dwork, Cynthia; Rothblum, Guy N.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Concentrated Differential Privacy, a relaxation of Differential Privacy enjoying better accuracy than both pure differential privacy and its popular "(epsilon,delta)" relaxation without compromising on cumulative privacy loss over multiple computations.

  5. Syncytin-1 in differentiating human myoblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregard, Bolette; Ziomkiewicz, Iwona; Schulz, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Myoblasts fuse to form myotubes, which mature into skeletal muscle fibres. Recent studies indicate that an endogenous retroviral fusion gene, syncytin-1, is important for myoblast fusions in man. We have now expanded these data by examining the immunolocalization of syncytin in human myoblasts...... fusions. Thus, syncytin is involved in human myoblast fusions and is localized in areas of contact between fusing cells. Moreover, syncytin and caveolin-3 might interact at the level of the sarcolemma....

  6. Efficient and reproducible myogenic differentiation from human iPS cells: prospects for modeling Miyoshi Myopathy in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihito Tanaka

    Full Text Available The establishment of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs has enabled the production of in vitro, patient-specific cell models of human disease. In vitro recreation of disease pathology from patient-derived hiPSCs depends on efficient differentiation protocols producing relevant adult cell types. However, myogenic differentiation of hiPSCs has faced obstacles, namely, low efficiency and/or poor reproducibility. Here, we report the rapid, efficient, and reproducible differentiation of hiPSCs into mature myocytes. We demonstrated that inducible expression of myogenic differentiation1 (MYOD1 in immature hiPSCs for at least 5 days drives cells along the myogenic lineage, with efficiencies reaching 70-90%. Myogenic differentiation driven by MYOD1 occurred even in immature, almost completely undifferentiated hiPSCs, without mesodermal transition. Myocytes induced in this manner reach maturity within 2 weeks of differentiation as assessed by marker gene expression and functional properties, including in vitro and in vivo cell fusion and twitching in response to electrical stimulation. Miyoshi Myopathy (MM is a congenital distal myopathy caused by defective muscle membrane repair due to mutations in DYSFERLIN. Using our induced differentiation technique, we successfully recreated the pathological condition of MM in vitro, demonstrating defective membrane repair in hiPSC-derived myotubes from an MM patient and phenotypic rescue by expression of full-length DYSFERLIN (DYSF. These findings not only facilitate the pathological investigation of MM, but could potentially be applied in modeling of other human muscular diseases by using patient-derived hiPSCs.

  7. Efficient and Reproducible Myogenic Differentiation from Human iPS Cells: Prospects for Modeling Miyoshi Myopathy In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akihito; Woltjen, Knut; Miyake, Katsuya; Hotta, Akitsu; Ikeya, Makoto; Yamamoto, Takuya; Nishino, Tokiko; Shoji, Emi; Sehara-Fujisawa, Atsuko; Manabe, Yasuko; Fujii, Nobuharu; Hanaoka, Kazunori; Era, Takumi; Yamashita, Satoshi; Isobe, Ken-ichi; Kimura, En; Sakurai, Hidetoshi

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) has enabled the production of in vitro, patient-specific cell models of human disease. In vitro recreation of disease pathology from patient-derived hiPSCs depends on efficient differentiation protocols producing relevant adult cell types. However, myogenic differentiation of hiPSCs has faced obstacles, namely, low efficiency and/or poor reproducibility. Here, we report the rapid, efficient, and reproducible differentiation of hiPSCs into mature myocytes. We demonstrated that inducible expression of myogenic differentiation1 (MYOD1) in immature hiPSCs for at least 5 days drives cells along the myogenic lineage, with efficiencies reaching 70–90%. Myogenic differentiation driven by MYOD1 occurred even in immature, almost completely undifferentiated hiPSCs, without mesodermal transition. Myocytes induced in this manner reach maturity within 2 weeks of differentiation as assessed by marker gene expression and functional properties, including in vitro and in vivo cell fusion and twitching in response to electrical stimulation. Miyoshi Myopathy (MM) is a congenital distal myopathy caused by defective muscle membrane repair due to mutations in DYSFERLIN. Using our induced differentiation technique, we successfully recreated the pathological condition of MM in vitro, demonstrating defective membrane repair in hiPSC-derived myotubes from an MM patient and phenotypic rescue by expression of full-length DYSFERLIN (DYSF). These findings not only facilitate the pathological investigation of MM, but could potentially be applied in modeling of other human muscular diseases by using patient-derived hiPSCs. PMID:23626698

  8. Stem cells from umbilical cord blood do have myogenic potential, with and without differentiation induction in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gollop Thomaz R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The dystrophin gene, located at Xp21, codifies dystrophin, which is part of a protein complex responsible for the membrane stability of muscle cells. Its absence on muscle causes Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD, a severe disorder, while a defect of muscle dystrophin causes Becker Muscular Dystrophy (DMB, a milder disease. The replacement of the defective muscle through stem cells transplantation is a possible future treatment for these patients. Our objective was to analyze the potential of CD34+ stem cells from umbilical cord blood to differentiate in muscle cells and express dystrophin, in vitro. Protein expression was analyzed by Immunofluorescence, Western Blotting (WB and Reverse Transcriptase – Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR. CD34+ stem cells and myoblasts from a DMD affected patient started to fuse with muscle cells immediately after co-cultures establishment. Differentiation in mature myotubes was observed after 15 days and dystrophin-positive regions were detected through Immunofluorescence analysis. However, WB or RT-PCR analysis did not detect the presence of normal dystrophin in co-cultures of CD34+ and DMD or DMB affected patients' muscle cells. In contrast, some CD34+ stem cells differentiated in dystrophin producers' muscle cells, what was observed by WB, reinforcing that this progenitor cell has the potential to originate muscle dystrophin in vitro, and not just in vivo like reported before.

  9. Clonal characterization of rat muscle satellite cells: proliferation, metabolism and differentiation define an intrinsic heterogeneity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo A Rossi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite cells (SCs represent a distinct lineage of myogenic progenitors responsible for the postnatal growth, repair and maintenance of skeletal muscle. Distinguished on the basis of their unique position in mature skeletal muscle, SCs were considered unipotent stem cells with the ability of generating a unique specialized phenotype. Subsequently, it was demonstrated in mice that opposite differentiation towards osteogenic and adipogenic pathways was also possible. Even though the pool of SCs is accepted as the major, and possibly the only, source of myonuclei in postnatal muscle, it is likely that SCs are not all multipotent stem cells and evidences for diversities within the myogenic compartment have been described both in vitro and in vivo. Here, by isolating single fibers from rat flexor digitorum brevis (FDB muscle we were able to identify and clonally characterize two main subpopulations of SCs: the low proliferative clones (LPC present in major proportion (approximately 75% and the high proliferative clones (HPC, present instead in minor amount (approximately 25%. LPC spontaneously generate myotubes whilst HPC differentiate into adipocytes even though they may skip the adipogenic program if co-cultured with LPC. LPC and HPC differ also for mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m, ATP balance and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS generation underlying diversities in metabolism that precede differentiation. Notably, SCs heterogeneity is retained in vivo. SCs may therefore be comprised of two distinct, though not irreversibly committed, populations of cells distinguishable for prominent differences in basal biological features such as proliferation, metabolism and differentiation. By these means, novel insights on SCs heterogeneity are provided and evidences for biological readouts potentially relevant for diagnostic purposes described.

  10. Symposium on Differential Geometry and Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Marcel; Bryant, Robert

    1987-01-01

    The DD6 Symposium was, like its predecessors DD1 to DD5 both a research symposium and a summer seminar and concentrated on differential geometry. This volume contains a selection of the invited papers and some additional contributions. They cover recent advances and principal trends in current research in differential geometry.

  11. Automatic differentiation bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, G.F. [comp.

    1992-07-01

    This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

  12. Response of Turkey Muscle Satellite Cells to Thermal Challenge. II. Transcriptome Effects in Differentiating Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent M. Reed

    2017-11-01

    satellite cells were among the genes with the greatest down regulation consistent with slower differentiation and smaller myotubes. Fewer expression differences were observed in the differentiating cells than previously observed for proliferating cells. This suggests the impact of temperature on satellite cells occurs primarily at early points in satellite cell activation.

  13. Stochastic cellular automata model of cell migration, proliferation and differentiation: validation with in vitro cultures of muscle satellite cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garijo, N; Manzano, R; Osta, R; Perez, M A

    2012-12-07

    Cell migration and proliferation has been modelled in the literature as a process similar to diffusion. However, using diffusion models to simulate the proliferation and migration of cells tends to create a homogeneous distribution in the cell density that does not correlate to empirical observations. In fact, the mechanism of cell dispersal is not diffusion. Cells disperse by crawling or proliferation, or are transported in a moving fluid. The use of cellular automata, particle models or cell-based models can overcome this limitation. This paper presents a stochastic cellular automata model to simulate the proliferation, migration and differentiation of cells. These processes are considered as completely stochastic as well as discrete. The model developed was applied to predict the behaviour of in vitro cell cultures performed with adult muscle satellite cells. Moreover, non homogeneous distribution of cells has been observed inside the culture well and, using the above mentioned stochastic cellular automata model, we have been able to predict this heterogeneous cell distribution and compute accurate quantitative results. Differentiation was also incorporated into the computational simulation. The results predicted the myotube formation that typically occurs with adult muscle satellite cells. In conclusion, we have shown how a stochastic cellular automata model can be implemented and is capable of reproducing the in vitro behaviour of adult muscle satellite cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rotator cuff tear state modulates self-renewal and differentiation capacity of human skeletal muscle progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kelsey A; Gibbons, Michael C; Lane, John G; Singh, Anshuman; Ward, Samuel R; Engler, Adam J

    2017-08-01

    Full thickness rotator cuff tendon (RCT) tears have long-term effects on RC muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration, with lasting damage even after surgical tendon repair. Skeletal muscle progenitor cells (SMPs) are critical for muscle repair in response to injury, but the inability of RC muscles to recover from chronic RCT tear indicates possible deficits in repair mechanisms. Here we investigated if muscle injury state was a crucial factor during human SMP expansion and differentiation ex vivo. SMPs were isolated from muscles in patients with no, partial-thickness (PT), or full-thickness (FT) RCT tears. Despite using growth factors, physiological niche stiffness, and muscle-mimetic extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, we found that SMPs isolated from human RC muscle with RCT tears proliferated slower but fused into myosin heavy chain (MHC)-positive myotubes at higher rates than SMPs from untorn RCTs. Proteomic analysis of RC muscle tissue revealed shifts in muscle composition with pathology, as muscle from massive RCT tears had increased ECM deposition compared with no tear RC muscle. Together these data imply that the remodeled niche in a torn RCT primes SMPs not for expansion but for differentiation, thus limiting longer-term self-renewal necessary for regeneration after surgical repair. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1816-1823, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The production of fluorescent transgenic trout to study in vitro myogenic cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rescan Pierre-Yves

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fish skeletal muscle growth involves the activation of a resident myogenic stem cell population, referred to as satellite cells, that can fuse with pre-existing muscle fibers or among themselves to generate a new fiber. In order to monitor the regulation of myogenic cell differentiation and fusion by various extrinsic factors, we generated transgenic trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss carrying a construct containing the green fluorescent protein reporter gene driven by a fast myosin light chain 2 (MlC2f promoter, and cultivated genetically modified myogenic cells derived from these fish. Results In transgenic trout, green fluorescence appeared in fast muscle fibers as early as the somitogenesis stage and persisted throughout life. Using an in vitro myogenesis system we observed that satellite cells isolated from the myotomal muscle of transgenic trout expressed GFP about 5 days post-plating as they started to fuse. GFP fluorescence persisted subsequently in myosatellite cell-derived myotubes. Using this in vitro myogenesis system, we showed that the rate of muscle cell differentiation was strongly dependent on temperature, one of the most important environmental factors in the muscle growth of poikilotherms. Conclusions We produced MLC2f-gfp transgenic trout that exhibited fluorescence in their fast muscle fibers. The culture of muscle cells extracted from these trout enabled the real-time monitoring of myogenic differentiation. This in vitro myogenesis system could have numerous applications in fish physiology to evaluate the myogenic activity of circulating growth factors, to test interfering RNA and to assess the myogenic potential of fish mesenchymal stem cells. In ecotoxicology, this system could be useful to assess the impact of environmental factors and marine pollutants on fish muscle growth.

  16. Reduced Dnmt3a increases Gdf5 expression with suppressed satellite cell differentiation and impaired skeletal muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatazawa, Yukino; Ono, Yusuke; Hirose, Yuma; Kanai, Sayaka; Fujii, Nobuharu L; Machida, Shuichi; Nishino, Ichizo; Shimizu, Takahiko; Okano, Masaki; Kamei, Yasutomi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2018-03-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism regulating gene expression. In this study, we observed that DNA methyltransferase 3a (Dnmt3a) expression is decreased after muscle atrophy. We made skeletal muscle-specific Dnmt3a-knockout (Dnmt3a-KO) mice. The regeneration capacity after muscle injury was markedly decreased in Dnmt3a-KO mice. Diminished mRNA and protein expression of Dnmt3a were observed in skeletal muscles as well as in satellite cells, which are important for muscle regeneration, in Dnmt3a-KO mice. Dnmt3a-KO satellite cell showed smaller in size (length/area), suggesting suppressed myotube differentiation. Microarray analysis of satellite cells showed that expression of growth differentiation factor 5 (Gdf5) mRNA was markedly increased in Dnmt3a-KO mice. The DNA methylation level of the Gdf5 promoter was markedly decreased in Dnmt3a-KO satellite cells. In addition, DNA methylation inhibitor azacytidine treatment increased Gdf5 expression in wild-type satellite cells, suggesting Gdf5 expression is regulated by DNA methylation. Also, we observed increased inhibitor of differentiation (a target of Gdf5) mRNA expression in Dnmt3a-KO satellite cells. Thus, Dnmt3a appears to regulate satellite cell differentiation via DNA methylation. This mechanism may play a role in the decreased regeneration capacity during atrophy such as in aged sarcopenia.-Hatazawa, Y., Ono, Y., Hirose, Y., Kanai, S., Fujii, N. L., Machida, S., Nishino, I., Shimizu, T., Okano, M., Kamei, Y., Ogawa, Y. Reduced Dnmt3a increases Gdf5 expression with suppressed satellite cell differentiation and impaired skeletal muscle regeneration.

  17. Partial Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    The volume contains a selection of papers presented at the 7th Symposium on differential geometry and differential equations (DD7) held at the Nankai Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin, China, in 1986. Most of the contributions are original research papers on topics including elliptic equations, hyperbolic equations, evolution equations, non-linear equations from differential geometry and mechanics, micro-local analysis.

  18. Solving Linear Differential Equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, K.A.; Put, M. van der

    2010-01-01

    The theme of this paper is to 'solve' an absolutely irreducible differential module explicitly in terms of modules of lower dimension and finite extensions of the differential field K. Representations of semi-simple Lie algebras and differential Galo is theory are the main tools. The results extend

  19. N-myristoylated ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b inhibitor prevents on glucocorticoid-induced atrophy in mouse skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Arisa; Abe, Tomoki; Nakao, Reiko; Yamamoto, Yoriko; Kitahata, Kanako; Takagi, Marina; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Ohno, Ayako; Teshima-Kondo, Shigetada; Taesik, Gwag; Choi, Inho; Kawamura, Tomoyuki; Nemoto, Hisao; Mukai, Rie; Terao, Junji; Nikawa, Takeshi

    2015-03-15

    A DGpYMP peptide mimetic of tyrosine(608)-phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), named Cblin, was previously shown to significantly inhibit Cbl-b-mediated IRS-1 ubiquitination. In the present study, we developed N-myristoylated Cblin and investigated whether it was effective in preventing glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy. Using HEK293 cells overexpressing Cbl-b, IRS-1 and ubiquitin, we showed that the 50% inhibitory concentrations of Cbl-b-mediated IRS-1 ubiquitination by N-myristoylated Cblin and Cblin were 30 and 120 μM, respectively. Regarding the DEX-induced atrophy of C2C12 myotubes, N-myristoylated Cblin was more effective than Cblin for inhibiting the DEX-induced decreases in C2C12 myotube diameter and IRS-1 degradation. The inhibitory efficacy of N-myristoylated Cblin on IRS-1 ubiquitination in C2C12 myotubes was approximately fourfold larger than that of Cblin. Furthermore, N-myristoylation increased the incorporation of Cblin into HEK293 cells approximately 10-folds. Finally, we demonstrated that N-myristoylated Cblin prevented the wet weight loss, IRS-1 degradation, and MAFbx/atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 expression in gastrocnemius muscle of DEX-treated mice approximately fourfold more effectively than Cblin. Taken together, these results suggest that N-myristoylated Cblin prevents DEX-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in vitro and in vivo, and that N-myristoylated Cblin more effectively prevents muscle atrophy than unmodified Cblin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fundamentals of differential beamforming

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob; Pan, Chao

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a systematic study of the fundamental theory and methods of beamforming with differential microphone arrays (DMAs), or differential beamforming in short. It begins with a brief overview of differential beamforming and some popularly used DMA beampatterns such as the dipole, cardioid, hypercardioid, and supercardioid, before providing essential background knowledge on orthogonal functions and orthogonal polynomials, which form the basis of differential beamforming. From a physical perspective, a DMA of a given order is defined as an array that measures the differential acoustic pressure field of that order; such an array has a beampattern in the form of a polynomial whose degree is equal to the DMA order. Therefore, the fundamental and core problem of differential beamforming boils down to the design of beampatterns with orthogonal polynomials. But certain constraints also have to be considered so that the resulting beamformer does not seriously amplify the sensors’ self noise and the mism...

  1. Highly Efficient Differentiation and Enrichment of Spinal Motor Neurons Derived from Human and Monkey Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Tamaki; Honda, Makoto; Minami, Itsunari; Tooi, Norie; Amagai, Yuji; Nakatsuji, Norio; Aiba, Kazuhiro

    2009-01-01

    Background There are no cures or efficacious treatments for severe motor neuron diseases. It is extremely difficult to obtain naïve spinal motor neurons (sMNs) from human tissues for research due to both technical and ethical reasons. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are alternative sources. Several methods for MN differentiation have been reported. However, efficient production of naïve sMNs and culture cost were not taken into consideration in most of the methods. Methods/Principal Findings We aimed to establish protocols for efficient production and enrichment of sMNs derived from pluripotent stem cells. Nestin+ neural stem cell (NSC) clusters were induced by Noggin or a small molecule inhibitor of BMP signaling. After dissociation of NSC clusters, neurospheres were formed in a floating culture containing FGF2. The number of NSCs in neurospheres could be expanded more than 30-fold via several passages. More than 33% of HB9+ sMN progenitor cells were observed after differentiation of dissociated neurospheres by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and a Shh agonist for another week on monolayer culture. HB9+ sMN progenitor cells were enriched by gradient centrifugation up to 80% purity. These HB9+ cells differentiated into electrophysiologically functional cells and formed synapses with myotubes during a few weeks after ATRA/SAG treatment. Conclusions and Significance The series of procedures we established here, namely neural induction, NSC expansion, sMN differentiation and sMN purification, can provide large quantities of naïve sMNs derived from human and monkey pluripotent stem cells. Using small molecule reagents, reduction of culture cost could be achieved. PMID:19701462

  2. Vector Differential Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    HITZER, Eckhard MS

    2002-01-01

    This paper treats the fundamentals of the vector differential calculus part of universal geometric calculus. Geometric calculus simplifies and unifies the structure and notation of mathematics for all of science and engineering, and for technological applications. In order to make the treatment self-contained, I first compile all important geometric algebra relationships,which are necesssary for vector differential calculus. Then differentiation by vectors is introduced and a host of major ve...

  3. Differential models in ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barco Gomez, Carlos; Barco Gomez, German

    2002-01-01

    The models mathematical writings with differential equations are used to describe the populational behavior through the time of the animal species. These models can be lineal or no lineal. The differential models for unique specie include the exponential pattern of Malthus and the logistical pattern of Verlhust. The lineal differential models to describe the interaction between two species include the competition relationships, predation and symbiosis

  4. Singular stochastic differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Cherny, Alexander S

    2005-01-01

    The authors introduce, in this research monograph on stochastic differential equations, a class of points termed isolated singular points. Stochastic differential equations possessing such points (called singular stochastic differential equations here) arise often in theory and in applications. However, known conditions for the existence and uniqueness of a solution typically fail for such equations. The book concentrates on the study of the existence, the uniqueness, and, what is most important, on the qualitative behaviour of solutions of singular stochastic differential equations. This is done by providing a qualitative classification of isolated singular points, into 48 possible types.

  5. Introduction to differentiable manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Auslander, Louis

    2009-01-01

    The first book to treat manifold theory at an introductory level, this text surveys basic concepts in the modern approach to differential geometry. The first six chapters define and illustrate differentiable manifolds, and the final four chapters investigate the roles of differential structures in a variety of situations.Starting with an introduction to differentiable manifolds and their tangent spaces, the text examines Euclidean spaces, their submanifolds, and abstract manifolds. Succeeding chapters explore the tangent bundle and vector fields and discuss their association with ordinary diff

  6. Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Namrata; Barletta, Justine A

    2014-12-01

    Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) has been recognized for the past 30 years as an entity showing intermediate differentiation and clinical behavior between well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas (ie, papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma) and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma; however, there has been considerable controversy around the definition of PDTC. In this review, the evolution in the definition of PDTC, current diagnostic criteria, differential diagnoses, potentially helpful immunohistochemical studies, and molecular alterations are discussed with the aim of highlighting where the diagnosis of PDTC currently stands. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Skew differential fields, differential and difference equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, M

    2004-01-01

    The central question is: Let a differential or difference equation over a field K be isomorphic to all its Galois twists w.r.t. the group Gal(K/k). Does the equation descend to k? For a number of categories of equations an answer is given.

  8. Osteoblastic cells: differentiation and trans-differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Abdallah, Basem; Saeed, Hamid

    2008-01-01

    The osteoblast is the bone forming cell and is derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) present among the bone marrow stroma. MSC are capable of multi-lineage differentiation into mesoderm-type cells such as osteoblasts and adipocytes. Understanding the mechanisms underlying osteoblast different...

  9. Genome-wide mapping of Sox6 binding sites in skeletal muscle reveals both direct and indirect regulation of muscle terminal differentiation by Sox6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Chung-Il

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sox6 is a multi-faceted transcription factor involved in the terminal differentiation of many different cell types in vertebrates. It has been suggested that in mice as well as in zebrafish Sox6 plays a role in the terminal differentiation of skeletal muscle by suppressing transcription of slow fiber specific genes. In order to understand how Sox6 coordinately regulates the transcription of multiple fiber type specific genes during muscle development, we have performed ChIP-seq analyses to identify Sox6 target genes in mouse fetal myotubes and generated muscle-specific Sox6 knockout (KO mice to determine the Sox6 null muscle phenotype in adult mice. Results We have identified 1,066 Sox6 binding sites using mouse fetal myotubes. The Sox6 binding sites were found to be associated with slow fiber-specific, cardiac, and embryonic isoform genes that are expressed in the sarcomere as well as transcription factor genes known to play roles in muscle development. The concurrently performed RNA polymerase II (Pol II ChIP-seq analysis revealed that 84% of the Sox6 peak-associated genes exhibited little to no binding of Pol II, suggesting that the majority of the Sox6 target genes are transcriptionally inactive. These results indicate that Sox6 directly regulates terminal differentiation of muscle by affecting the expression of sarcomere protein genes as well as indirectly through influencing the expression of transcription factors relevant to muscle development. Gene expression profiling of Sox6 KO skeletal and cardiac muscle revealed a significant increase in the expression of the genes associated with Sox6 binding. In the absence of the Sox6 gene, there was dramatic upregulation of slow fiber-specific, cardiac, and embryonic isoform gene expression in Sox6 KO skeletal muscle and fetal isoform gene expression in Sox6 KO cardiac muscle, thus confirming the role Sox6 plays as a transcriptional suppressor in muscle development

  10. Lifting the Differentiation Embargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Anne-Louise; Holyoake, Tessa L

    2016-09-22

    Effective differentiation therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been restricted to a small subset of patients with one defined genetic abnormality. Using an unbiased small molecule screen, Sykes et al. now identify a mechanism of de-repression of differentiation in several models of AML driven by distinct genetic drivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Lifting the differentiation embargo

    OpenAIRE

    Latif, Anne-Louise; Holyoake, Tessa

    2016-01-01

    Effective differentiation therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been restricted to a small subset of patients with one defined genetic abnormality. Using an unbiased small molecule screen, Sykes et al. now identify a mechanism of de-repression of differentiation in several models of AML driven by distinct genetic drivers.

  12. Calculus & ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Pearson, David

    1995-01-01

    Professor Pearson's book starts with an introduction to the area and an explanation of the most commonly used functions. It then moves on through differentiation, special functions, derivatives, integrals and onto full differential equations. As with other books in the series the emphasis is on using worked examples and tutorial-based problem solving to gain the confidence of students.

  13. Nonlinear differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresner, L.

    1988-01-01

    This report is the text of a graduate course on nonlinear differential equations given by the author at the University of Wisconsin-Madison during the summer of 1987. The topics covered are: direction fields of first-order differential equations; the Lie (group) theory of ordinary differential equations; similarity solutions of second-order partial differential equations; maximum principles and differential inequalities; monotone operators and iteration; complementary variational principles; and stability of numerical methods. The report should be of interest to graduate students, faculty, and practicing scientists and engineers. No prior knowledge is required beyond a good working knowledge of the calculus. The emphasis is on practical results. Most of the illustrative examples are taken from the fields of nonlinear diffusion, heat and mass transfer, applied superconductivity, and helium cryogenics.

  14. Differential equations for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Holzner, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The fun and easy way to understand and solve complex equations Many of the fundamental laws of physics, chemistry, biology, and economics can be formulated as differential equations. This plain-English guide explores the many applications of this mathematical tool and shows how differential equations can help us understand the world around us. Differential Equations For Dummies is the perfect companion for a college differential equations course and is an ideal supplemental resource for other calculus classes as well as science and engineering courses. It offers step-by-step techniques, practical tips, numerous exercises, and clear, concise examples to help readers improve their differential equation-solving skills and boost their test scores.

  15. Nonlinear differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, L.

    1988-01-01

    This report is the text of a graduate course on nonlinear differential equations given by the author at the University of Wisconsin-Madison during the summer of 1987. The topics covered are: direction fields of first-order differential equations; the Lie (group) theory of ordinary differential equations; similarity solutions of second-order partial differential equations; maximum principles and differential inequalities; monotone operators and iteration; complementary variational principles; and stability of numerical methods. The report should be of interest to graduate students, faculty, and practicing scientists and engineers. No prior knowledge is required beyond a good working knowledge of the calculus. The emphasis is on practical results. Most of the illustrative examples are taken from the fields of nonlinear diffusion, heat and mass transfer, applied superconductivity, and helium cryogenics

  16. Linking Diversity and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Rolf Gregorius

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Generally speaking, the term differentiation refers to differences between collections for the distribution of specified traits of their members, while diversity deals with (effective numbers of trait states (types. Counting numbers of types implies discrete traits such as alleles and genotypes in population genetics or species and taxa in ecology. Comparisons between the concepts of differentiation and diversity therefore primarily refer to discrete traits. Diversity is related to differentiation through the idea that the total diversity of a subdivided collection should be composed of the diversity within the subcollections and a complement called “diversity between subcollections”. The idea goes back to the perception that the mixing of differentiated collections increases diversity. Several existing concepts of “diversity between subcollections” are based on this idea. Among them, β-diversity and fixation (inadvertently called differentiation are the most prominent in ecology and in population genetics, respectively. The pertaining measures are shown to quantify the effect of differentiation in terms of diversity components, though from a dual perspective: the classical perspective of differentiation between collections for their type compositions, and the reverse perspective of differentiation between types for their collection affiliations. A series of measures of diversity-oriented differentiation is presented that consider this dual perspective at two levels of diversity partitioning: the overall type or subcollection diversity and the joint type-subcollection diversity. It turns out that, in contrast with common notions, the measures of fixation (such as FST or GST refer to the perspective of type rather than subcollection differentiation. This unexpected observation strongly suggests that the popular interpretations of fixation measures must be reconsidered.

  17. Hyperbolic partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Matthew

    1986-01-01

    Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations III is a refereed journal issue that explores the applications, theory, and/or applied methods related to hyperbolic partial differential equations, or problems arising out of hyperbolic partial differential equations, in any area of research. This journal issue is interested in all types of articles in terms of review, mini-monograph, standard study, or short communication. Some studies presented in this journal include discretization of ideal fluid dynamics in the Eulerian representation; a Riemann problem in gas dynamics with bifurcation; periodic M

  18. Differential equations problem solver

    CERN Document Server

    Arterburn, David R

    2012-01-01

    REA's Problem Solvers is a series of useful, practical, and informative study guides. Each title in the series is complete step-by-step solution guide. The Differential Equations Problem Solver enables students to solve difficult problems by showing them step-by-step solutions to Differential Equations problems. The Problem Solvers cover material ranging from the elementary to the advanced and make excellent review books and textbook companions. They're perfect for undergraduate and graduate studies.The Differential Equations Problem Solver is the perfect resource for any class, any exam, and

  19. Differential Equations as Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    We extend a conventional action system with a primitive action consisting of a differential equation and an evolution invariant. The semantics is given by a predicate transformer. The weakest liberal precondition is chosen, because it is not always desirable that steps corresponding to differential...... actions shall terminate. It is shown that the proposed differential action has a semantics which corresponds to a discrete approximation when the discrete step size goes to zero. The extension gives action systems the power to model real-time clocks and continuous evolutions within hybrid systems....

  20. Beginning partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Peter V

    2011-01-01

    A rigorous, yet accessible, introduction to partial differential equations-updated in a valuable new edition Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Second Edition provides a comprehensive introduction to partial differential equations (PDEs) with a special focus on the significance of characteristics, solutions by Fourier series, integrals and transforms, properties and physical interpretations of solutions, and a transition to the modern function space approach to PDEs. With its breadth of coverage, this new edition continues to present a broad introduction to the field, while also addres

  1. Ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Richard K

    1982-01-01

    Ordinary Differential Equations is an outgrowth of courses taught for a number of years at Iowa State University in the mathematics and the electrical engineering departments. It is intended as a text for a first graduate course in differential equations for students in mathematics, engineering, and the sciences. Although differential equations is an old, traditional, and well-established subject, the diverse backgrounds and interests of the students in a typical modern-day course cause problems in the selection and method of presentation of material. In order to compensate for this diversity,

  2. Uncertain differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces readers to the basic concepts of and latest findings in the area of differential equations with uncertain factors. It covers the analytic method and numerical method for solving uncertain differential equations, as well as their applications in the field of finance. Furthermore, the book provides a number of new potential research directions for uncertain differential equation. It will be of interest to researchers, engineers and students in the fields of mathematics, information science, operations research, industrial engineering, computer science, artificial intelligence, automation, economics, and management science.

  3. Lipofection of cultured mouse muscle cells: a direct comparison of Lipofectamine and DOSPER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, E; Dunckley, M G; Naujoks, K; Michaelis, U; Dickson, G

    1998-04-01

    Cationic lipid-DNA complexes (lipoplexes) have been widely used as gene transfer vectors which avoid the adverse immunogenicity and potential for viraemia of viral vectors. With the long-term aim of gene transfer into skeletal muscle in vivo, we describe a direct in vitro comparison of two commercially available cationic lipid formulations, Lipofectamine and DOSPER. Optimisation of transfection was performed in the C2C12 mouse muscle cell line, before further studies in primary mouse myoblasts and C2C12 myotubes. Reporter gene constructs expressing either E. coli beta-galactosidase or green fluorescent protein (GFP) were used in order to evaluate transfection efficiency by histochemical staining or FACS analysis, respectively. Both lipid formulations were able to promote efficient, reproducible gene transfer in C2C12 cells, and to transfect primary mouse myoblast cultures successfully. However, DOSPER exhibited the important advantage of being able to transfect cells in the presence of serum of both bovine and murine origin. This feature allowed increased cell survival during in vitro transfections, and may be advantageous for direct in vivo gene transfer efficacy.

  4. Problems in differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Brenner, J L

    2013-01-01

    More than 900 problems and answers explore applications of differential equations to vibrations, electrical engineering, mechanics, and physics. Problem types include both routine and nonroutine, and stars indicate advanced problems. 1963 edition.

  5. Criticality in cell differentiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indrani Bose

    2017-11-09

    Nov 9, 2017 ... Differentiation is mostly based on binary decisions with the progenitor cells ..... accounts for the dominant part of the remaining variation ... significant loss in information. ..... making in vitro: emerging concepts and novel tools.

  6. Differentiation of subdural effusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterling, T.; Rama, B.

    1989-01-01

    Although X-ray computerized tomography facilitates the diagnosis of intracranial disorders, differentiation of the lesions like extracerebral effusions is often unsatisfactory. Epidural and acute subdural haematoma shown as hyperdensity in CT requires an emergency neurosurgical operation, so that differentiation of these hyperdense effusions may not be required. But the discrimination of the effusions shown as hypodensity in CT (chronic subdural haematoma, subdural hygroma, subdural empyema as well as arachnoid cysts) is urgent because of the different treatment of these effusions. The clinical differentiation is hampered by unspecific neurologic symptoms and the lack of adequate laboratory tests. Some aspects facilitating the diagnostic decision are presented. Recent magnetic resonance (MR) studies promise further progress in differentiating between subdural effusions. (orig.) [de

  7. On paragrassmann differential calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, A.T.; Isaev, A.P.; Kurdikov, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    The paper significantly extends and generalizes our previous paper. Here we discuss explicit general constructions for paragrassmann calculus with one and many variables. For one variable nondegenerate differentiation algebras are identified and shown to be equivalent to the algebra of (p+1)x(p+1) complex matrices. For many variables we give a general construction of the differentiation algebras. Some particular examples are related to the multiparametric quantum deformations of the harmonic oscillators. 18 refs

  8. Differential forms of supermanifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresin, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    The theory of differential and pseUdo-differential forms on supermanifolds is constructed. The definition and notations of superanalogy of the Pontryagin and Chern characteristic classes are given. The theory considered is purely local. The scheme suggested here generalizes the so-called Weil homomorphism for superspace which lays on the basis of the Chern and Potryagin characteristic class theory. The theory can be extended to the global supermanifolds

  9. Solving Ordinary Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, F. T.

    1987-01-01

    Initial-value ordinary differential equation solution via variable order Adams method (SIVA/DIVA) package is collection of subroutines for solution of nonstiff ordinary differential equations. There are versions for single-precision and double-precision arithmetic. Requires fewer evaluations of derivatives than other variable-order Adams predictor/ corrector methods. Option for direct integration of second-order equations makes integration of trajectory problems significantly more efficient. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  10. Ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Features a balance between theory, proofs, and examples and provides applications across diverse fields of study Ordinary Differential Equations presents a thorough discussion of first-order differential equations and progresses to equations of higher order. The book transitions smoothly from first-order to higher-order equations, allowing readers to develop a complete understanding of the related theory. Featuring diverse and interesting applications from engineering, bioengineering, ecology, and biology, the book anticipates potential difficulties in understanding the various solution steps

  11. Beginning partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    A broad introduction to PDEs with an emphasis on specialized topics and applications occurring in a variety of fields Featuring a thoroughly revised presentation of topics, Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Third Edition provides a challenging, yet accessible,combination of techniques, applications, and introductory theory on the subjectof partial differential equations. The new edition offers nonstandard coverageon material including Burger's equation, the telegraph equation, damped wavemotion, and the use of characteristics to solve nonhomogeneous problems. The Third Edition is or

  12. Promoting effect of small molecules in cardiomyogenic and neurogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanabdali R

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ramin Khanabdali,1 Anbarieh Saadat,1 Maizatul Fazilah,1 Khairul Fidaa’ Khairul Bazli,1 Rida-e-Maria Qazi,2 Ramla Sana Khalid,2 Durriyyah Sharifah Hasan Adli,1 Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi,1 Nadia Naeem,2 Irfan Khan,2 Asmat Salim,2 ShamsulAzlin Ahmad Shamsuddin,1 Gokula Mohan1 1Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Dr Panjwani Center for Molecular Medicine and Drug Research, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan Abstract: Small molecules, growth factors, and cytokines have been used to induce differentiation of stem cells into different lineages. Similarly, demethylating agents can trigger differentiation in adult stem cells. Here, we investigated the in vitro differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs into cardiomyocytes by a demethylating agent, zebularine, as well as neuronal-like cells by β-mercaptoethanol in a growth factor or cytokines-free media. Isolated bone marrow-derived MSCs cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology. These cells expressed positive markers for CD29, CD44, and CD117 and were negative for CD34 and CD45. After treatment with 1 µM zebularine for 24 hours, the MSCs formed myotube-like structures after 10 days in culture. Expression of cardiac-specific genes showed that treated MSCs expressed significantly higher levels of cardiac troponin-T, Nkx2.5, and GATA-4 compared with untreated cells. Immunocytochemical analysis showed that differentiated cells also expressed cardiac proteins, GATA-4, Nkx 2.5, and cardiac troponin-T. For neuronal differentiation, MSCs were treated with 1 and 10 mM β-mercaptoethanol overnight for 3 hours in complete and serum-free Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium, respectively. Following overnight treatment, neuron-like cells with axonal and dendritic-like projections originating from the

  13. The Differential Hormonal Milieu of Morning versus Evening May Have an Impact on Muscle Hypertrophic Potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon D Burley

    Full Text Available Substantial gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy are clearly associated with the routine performance of resistance training. What is less evident is the optimal timing of the resistance training stimulus to elicit these significant functional and structural skeletal muscle changes. Therefore, this investigation determined the impact of a single bout of resistance training performed either in the morning or evening upon acute anabolic signalling (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3, myogenic index and differentiation and catabolic processes (cortisol. Twenty-four male participants (age 21.4±1.9yrs, mass 83.7±13.7kg with no sustained resistance training experience were allocated to a resistance exercise group (REP. Sixteen of the 24 participants were randomly selected to perform an additional non-exercising control group (CP protocol. REP performed two bouts of resistance exercise (80% 1RM in the morning (AM: 0800 hrs and evening (PM: 1800 hrs, with the sessions separated by a minimum of 72 hours. Venous blood was collected immediately prior to, and 5 min after, each resistance exercise and control sessions. Serum cortisol and IGFBP-3 levels, myogenic index, myotube width, were determined at each sampling period. All data are reported as mean ± SEM, statistical significance was set at P≤0.05. As expected a significant reduction in evening cortisol concentration was observed at pre (AM: 98.4±10.5, PM: 49.8±4.4 ng/ml, P0.05. Timing of resistance training regimen in the evening appears to augment some markers of hypertrophic potential, with elevated IGFBP-3, suppressed cortisol and a superior cellular environment. Further investigation, to further elucidate the time course of peak anabolic signalling in morning vs evening training conditions, are timely.

  14. The Differential Hormonal Milieu of Morning versus Evening May Have an Impact on Muscle Hypertrophic Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Simon D; Whittingham-Dowd, Jayde; Allen, Jeremy; Grosset, Jean-Francois; Onambele-Pearson, Gladys L

    2016-01-01

    Substantial gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy are clearly associated with the routine performance of resistance training. What is less evident is the optimal timing of the resistance training stimulus to elicit these significant functional and structural skeletal muscle changes. Therefore, this investigation determined the impact of a single bout of resistance training performed either in the morning or evening upon acute anabolic signalling (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), myogenic index and differentiation) and catabolic processes (cortisol). Twenty-four male participants (age 21.4±1.9yrs, mass 83.7±13.7kg) with no sustained resistance training experience were allocated to a resistance exercise group (REP). Sixteen of the 24 participants were randomly selected to perform an additional non-exercising control group (CP) protocol. REP performed two bouts of resistance exercise (80% 1RM) in the morning (AM: 0800 hrs) and evening (PM: 1800 hrs), with the sessions separated by a minimum of 72 hours. Venous blood was collected immediately prior to, and 5 min after, each resistance exercise and control sessions. Serum cortisol and IGFBP-3 levels, myogenic index, myotube width, were determined at each sampling period. All data are reported as mean ± SEM, statistical significance was set at P≤0.05. As expected a significant reduction in evening cortisol concentration was observed at pre (AM: 98.4±10.5, PM: 49.8±4.4 ng/ml, P0.05). Timing of resistance training regimen in the evening appears to augment some markers of hypertrophic potential, with elevated IGFBP-3, suppressed cortisol and a superior cellular environment. Further investigation, to further elucidate the time course of peak anabolic signalling in morning vs evening training conditions, are timely.

  15. Lectures on differential Galois theory

    CERN Document Server

    Magid, Andy R

    1994-01-01

    Differential Galois theory studies solutions of differential equations over a differential base field. In much the same way that ordinary Galois theory is the theory of field extensions generated by solutions of (one variable) polynomial equations, differential Galois theory looks at the nature of the differential field extension generated by the solutions of differential equations. An additional feature is that the corresponding differential Galois groups (of automorphisms of the extension fixing the base and commuting with the derivation) are algebraic groups. This book deals with the differential Galois theory of linear homogeneous differential equations, whose differential Galois groups are algebraic matrix groups. In addition to providing a convenient path to Galois theory, this approach also leads to the constructive solution of the inverse problem of differential Galois theory for various classes of algebraic groups. Providing a self-contained development and many explicit examples, this book provides ...

  16. Valproic acid attenuates skeletal muscle wasting by inhibiting C/EBPβ-regulated atrogin1 expression in cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rulin; Zhang, Santao; Hu, Wenjun; Lu, Xing; Lou, Ning; Yang, Zhende; Chen, Shaoyong; Zhang, Xiaoping; Yang, Hongmei

    2016-07-01

    Muscle wasting is the hallmark of cancer cachexia and is associated with poor quality of life and increased mortality. Valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, has important biological effects in the treatment of muscular dystrophy. To verify whether VPA could ameliorate muscle wasting induced by cancer cachexia, we explored the role of VPA in two cancer cachectic mouse models [induced by colon-26 (C26) adenocarcinoma or Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC)] and atrophied C2C12 myotubes [induced by C26 cell conditioned medium (CCM) or LLC cell conditioned medium (LCM)]. Our data demonstrated that treatment with VPA increased the mass and cross-sectional area of skeletal muscles in tumor-bearing mice. Furthermore, treatment with VPA also increased the diameter of myotubes cultured in conditioned medium. The skeletal muscles in cachectic mice or atrophied myotubes treated with VPA exhibited reduced levels of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPβ), resulting in atrogin1 downregulation and the eventual alleviation of muscle wasting and myotube atrophy. Moreover, atrogin1 promoter activity in myotubes was stimulated by CCM via activating the C/EBPβ-responsive cis-element and subsequently inhibited by VPA. In contrast to the effect of VPA on the levels of C/EBPβ, the levels of inactivating forkhead box O3 (FoxO3a) were unaffected. In summary, VPA attenuated muscle wasting and myotube atrophy and reduced C/EBPβ binding to atrogin1 promoter locus in the myotubes. Our discoveries indicate that HDAC inhibition by VPA might be a promising new approach for the preservation of skeletal muscle in cancer cachexia. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lawrence C

    2010-01-01

    This text gives a comprehensive survey of modern techniques in the theoretical study of partial differential equations (PDEs) with particular emphasis on nonlinear equations. The exposition is divided into three parts: representation formulas for solutions; theory for linear partial differential equations; and theory for nonlinear partial differential equations. Included are complete treatments of the method of characteristics; energy methods within Sobolev spaces; regularity for second-order elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic equations; maximum principles; the multidimensional calculus of variations; viscosity solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi equations; shock waves and entropy criteria for conservation laws; and, much more.The author summarizes the relevant mathematics required to understand current research in PDEs, especially nonlinear PDEs. While he has reworked and simplified much of the classical theory (particularly the method of characteristics), he primarily emphasizes the modern interplay between funct...

  18. Advanced differential quadrature methods

    CERN Document Server

    Zong, Zhi

    2009-01-01

    Modern Tools to Perform Numerical DifferentiationThe original direct differential quadrature (DQ) method has been known to fail for problems with strong nonlinearity and material discontinuity as well as for problems involving singularity, irregularity, and multiple scales. But now researchers in applied mathematics, computational mechanics, and engineering have developed a range of innovative DQ-based methods to overcome these shortcomings. Advanced Differential Quadrature Methods explores new DQ methods and uses these methods to solve problems beyond the capabilities of the direct DQ method.After a basic introduction to the direct DQ method, the book presents a number of DQ methods, including complex DQ, triangular DQ, multi-scale DQ, variable order DQ, multi-domain DQ, and localized DQ. It also provides a mathematical compendium that summarizes Gauss elimination, the Runge-Kutta method, complex analysis, and more. The final chapter contains three codes written in the FORTRAN language, enabling readers to q...

  19. Differentiation of real functions

    CERN Document Server

    Bruckner, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    Topics related to the differentiation of real functions have received considerable attention during the last few decades. This book provides an efficient account of the present state of the subject. Bruckner addresses in detail the problems that arise when dealing with the class \\Delta ' of derivatives, a class that is difficult to handle for a number of reasons. Several generalized forms of differentiation have assumed importance in the solution of various problems. Some generalized derivatives are excellent substitutes for the ordinary derivative when the latter is not known to exist; others are not. Bruckner studies generalized derivatives and indicates "geometric" conditions that determine whether or not a generalized derivative will be a good substitute for the ordinary derivative. There are a number of classes of functions closely linked to differentiation theory, and these are examined in some detail. The book unifies many important results from the literature as well as some results not previously pub...

  20. Complex differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Fangyang

    2002-01-01

    The theory of complex manifolds overlaps with several branches of mathematics, including differential geometry, algebraic geometry, several complex variables, global analysis, topology, algebraic number theory, and mathematical physics. Complex manifolds provide a rich class of geometric objects, for example the (common) zero locus of any generic set of complex polynomials is always a complex manifold. Yet complex manifolds behave differently than generic smooth manifolds; they are more coherent and fragile. The rich yet restrictive character of complex manifolds makes them a special and interesting object of study. This book is a self-contained graduate textbook that discusses the differential geometric aspects of complex manifolds. The first part contains standard materials from general topology, differentiable manifolds, and basic Riemannian geometry. The second part discusses complex manifolds and analytic varieties, sheaves and holomorphic vector bundles, and gives a brief account of the surface classifi...

  1. Identification of CCL5/RANTES as a novel contraction-reducible myokine in mouse skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiuchi, Yuri; Sato, Hitoshi; Komatsu, Narumi; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Matsuwaki, Takashi; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Nishihara, Masugi; Nedachi, Taku

    2018-03-17

    Skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ that secretes several proteins, which are collectively termed myokines. Although many studies suggest that exercise regulates myokine secretion, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear and all the exercise-dependent myokines have not yet been identified. Therefore, in this study, we attempted to identify novel exercise-dependent myokines by using our recently developed in vitro contractile model. Differentiated C2C12 myotubes were cultured with or without electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) for 24 h to induce cell contraction, and the myokines secreted in conditioned medium were analyzed using a cytokine array. Although most myokine secretions were not affected by EPS, the secretion of Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES)) was significantly reduced by EPS. This was further confirmed by ELISA and quantitative PCR. Contraction-dependent calcium transients and activation of 5'-AMP activating protein kinase (AMPK) appears to be involved in this decrease, as the chelating Ca 2+ by EGTA blocked contraction-dependent CCL5 reduction, whereas the pharmacological activation of AMPK significantly reduced it. However, Ccl5 gene expression was increased by AMPK activation, suggesting that AMPK-dependent CCL5 decrease occurred via post-transcriptional regulation. Finally, mouse experiments revealed that voluntary wheel-running exercise reduced serum CCL5 levels and Ccl5 gene expression in the fast-twitch muscles. Overall, our study provides the first evidence of an exercise-reducible myokine, CCL5, in the mouse skeletal muscle. Although further studies are required to understand the precise roles of the skeletal muscle cell contraction-induced decrease in CCL5, this decrease may explain some exercise-dependent physiological changes such as those in immune responses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Arithmetic differential equations on $GL_n$, I: differential cocycles

    OpenAIRE

    Buium, Alexandru; Dupuy, Taylor

    2013-01-01

    The theory of differential equations has an arithmetic analogue in which derivatives are replaced by Fermat quotients. One can then ask what is the arithmetic analogue of a linear differential equation. The study of usual linear differential equations is the same as the study of the differential cocycle from $GL_n$ into its Lie algebra given by the logarithmic derivative. However we prove here that there are no such cocycles in the context of arithmetic differential equations. In sequels of t...

  3. Introduction to differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Michael E

    2011-01-01

    The mathematical formulations of problems in physics, economics, biology, and other sciences are usually embodied in differential equations. The analysis of the resulting equations then provides new insight into the original problems. This book describes the tools for performing that analysis. The first chapter treats single differential equations, emphasizing linear and nonlinear first order equations, linear second order equations, and a class of nonlinear second order equations arising from Newton's laws. The first order linear theory starts with a self-contained presentation of the exponen

  4. Numerical differential protection

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegler, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Differential protection is a fast and selective method of protection against short-circuits. It is applied in many variants for electrical machines, trans?formers, busbars, and electric lines.Initially this book covers the theory and fundamentals of analog and numerical differential protection. Current transformers are treated in detail including transient behaviour, impact on protection performance, and practical dimensioning. An extended chapter is dedicated to signal transmission for line protection, in particular, modern digital communication and GPS timing.The emphasis is then pla

  5. Ecdysteroids: A novel class of anabolic agents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MK Parr

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing numbers of dietary supplements with ecdysteroids are marketed as “natural anabolic agents”. Results of recent studies suggested that their anabolic effect is mediated by estrogen receptor (ER binding. Within this study the anabolic potency of ecdysterone was compared to well characterized anabolic substances. Effects on the fiber sizes of the soleus muscle in rats as well the diameter of C2C12 derived myotubes were used as biological readouts. Ecdysterone exhibited a strong hypertrophic effect on the fiber size of rat soleus muscle that was found even stronger compared to the test compounds metandienone (dianabol, estradienedione (trenbolox, and SARM S 1, all administered in the same dose (5 mg/kg body weight, for 21 days. In C2C12 myotubes ecdysterone (1 μM induced a significant increase of the diameter comparable to dihydrotestosterone (1 μM and IGF 1 (1.3 nM. Molecular docking experiments supported the ERβ mediated action of ecdysterone. To clarify its status in sports, ecdysterone should be considered to be included in the class “S1.2 Other Anabolic Agents” of the list of prohibited substances of the World Anti-Doping Agency.

  6. Berberine promotes glucose consumption independently of AMP-activated protein kinase activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Xu

    Full Text Available Berberine is a plant alkaloid with anti-diabetic action. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK pathway has been proposed as mechanism for berberine's action. This study aimed to examine whether AMPK activation was necessary for berberine's glucose-lowering effect. We found that in HepG2 hepatocytes and C2C12 myotubes, berberine significantly increased glucose consumption and lactate release in a dose-dependent manner. AMPK and acetyl coenzyme A synthetase (ACC phosphorylation were stimulated by 20 µmol/L berberine. Nevertheless, berberine was still effective on stimulating glucose utilization and lactate production, when the AMPK activation was blocked by (1 inhibition of AMPK activity by Compound C, (2 suppression of AMPKα expression by siRNA, and (3 blockade of AMPK pathway by adenoviruses containing dominant-negative forms of AMPKα1/α2. To test the effect of berberine on oxygen consumption, extracellular flux analysis was performed in Seahorse XF24 analyzer. The activity of respiratory chain complex I was almost fully blocked in C2C12 myotubes by berberine. Metformin, as a positive control, showed similar effects as berberine. These results suggest that berberine and metformin promote glucose metabolism by stimulating glycolysis, which probably results from inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I, independent of AMPK activation.

  7. Differential SPR immunosensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, Charles E.H.; Berger, C.E.H.; Greve, Jan

    2000-01-01

    In this work we describe a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor with a differential detection of the SPR angle, and demonstrate it. The angle of incidence is modulated by a simple piezo-electric actuator, and the reflectance signal is measured with a lockin-amplifier. When the conditions for SPR

  8. Analyticity without Differentiability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillova, Evgenia; Spindler, Karlheinz

    2008-01-01

    In this article we derive all salient properties of analytic functions, including the analytic version of the inverse function theorem, using only the most elementary convergence properties of series. Not even the notion of differentiability is required to do so. Instead, analytical arguments are replaced by combinatorial arguments exhibiting…

  9. Inequalities for Differential Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Ravi P

    2009-01-01

    Presents a series of local and global estimates and inequalities for differential forms, in particular the ones that satisfy the A-harmonic equations. This work focuses on the Hardy-Littlewood, Poincare, Cacciooli, imbedded and reverse Holder inequalities. It is for researchers, instructors and graduate students

  10. Paragrassmann differential calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, A.T.; Isaev, A.P.; Kurdikov, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    This paper significantly extends and generalizes the paragrassmann calculus previous paper. Explicit general constructions for paragrassmann calculus with one and many vaiables are discussed. A general construction of many-variable differentiation algebras is given. Some particular examples are related to multi-parametric quantum deformation of the harmonic oscillators

  11. Surveillance for Secure Differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamilton, William B; Brickman, Joshua M

    2017-01-01

    The precise place and time where embryonic differentiation begins is regulated by regionalized signaling. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Wang et al. (2017) investigate how converging Wnt and Nodal signals promote mesendoderm through a p53, Wnt3 feed-forward loop, pointing to a mechanism by which...

  12. Differential Equation of Equilibrium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ABSTRACT. Analysis of underground circular cylindrical shell is carried out in this work. The forth order differential equation of equilibrium, comparable to that of beam on elastic foundation, was derived from static principles on the assumptions of P. L Pasternak. Laplace transformation was used to solve the governing ...

  13. Differentiated Duopoly Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Onozaki, Tamotsu

    2012-01-01

    The present paper explores what happens in the analytical results of a duopoly model with product differentiation when heterogeneity of production cost is introduced. It is shown that there is a possibility that the price strategy is dominant over the quantity strategy even if goods are substitutes.

  14. Molecular Typing and Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this chapter, general background and bench protocols are provided for a number of molecular typing techniques in common use today. Methods for the molecular typing and differentiation of microorganisms began to be widely adopted following the development of the polymerase chai...

  15. Klasseledelse, inklusion og differentiering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christina; Mottelson, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Kapitlet behandler forholdet mellem de tre begreber klasseledelse, inklusion og differentiering og ser på, hvordan de folder sig ud i folkeskolens praksis. Der tages afsæt i en definition af klasseledelse som alle de redskaber, læreren tager i anvendelse med henblik på at få timen til tage form p...

  16. Differentiation in Classroom Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mottelson, Martha

    Differentiation in School Practice is an ongoing research project currently being carried out in UCC’s research department by myself and my coworker Christina Jørgensen. The project includes a field study of everyday life in a Danish 5th grade classroom with the aim to observe, describe and analyze...

  17. Invariant differential operators

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrev, Vladimir K

    2016-01-01

    With applications in quantum field theory, elementary particle physics and general relativity, this two-volume work studies invariance of differential operators under Lie algebras, quantum groups, superalgebras including infinite-dimensional cases, Schrödinger algebras, applications to holography. This first volume covers the general aspects of Lie algebras and group theory.

  18. Invariant differential operators

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrev, Vladimir K

    With applications in quantum field theory, elementary particle physics and general relativity, this two-volume work studies invariance of differential operators under Lie algebras, quantum groups, superalgebras including infinite-dimensional cases, Schrödinger algebras, applications to holography. This first volume covers the general aspects of Lie algebras and group theory.

  19. Automatic differentiation of functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, S.R.

    1990-06-01

    Automatic differentiation is a method of computing derivatives of functions to any order in any number of variables. The functions must be expressible as combinations of elementary functions. When evaluated at specific numerical points, the derivatives have no truncation error and are automatically found. The method is illustrated by simple examples. Source code in FORTRAN is provided

  20. Perceptual dimensions differentiate emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Lisa A; MacInnis, Deborah J; Weiss, Allen M

    2015-08-26

    Individuals often describe objects in their world in terms of perceptual dimensions that span a variety of modalities; the visual (e.g., brightness: dark-bright), the auditory (e.g., loudness: quiet-loud), the gustatory (e.g., taste: sour-sweet), the tactile (e.g., hardness: soft vs. hard) and the kinaesthetic (e.g., speed: slow-fast). We ask whether individuals use perceptual dimensions to differentiate emotions from one another. Participants in two studies (one where respondents reported on abstract emotion concepts and a second where they reported on specific emotion episodes) rated the extent to which features anchoring 29 perceptual dimensions (e.g., temperature, texture and taste) are associated with 8 emotions (anger, fear, sadness, guilt, contentment, gratitude, pride and excitement). Results revealed that in both studies perceptual dimensions differentiate positive from negative emotions and high arousal from low arousal emotions. They also differentiate among emotions that are similar in arousal and valence (e.g., high arousal negative emotions such as anger and fear). Specific features that anchor particular perceptual dimensions (e.g., hot vs. cold) are also differentially associated with emotions.

  1. Hypoxia induces adipogenic differentitation of myoblastic cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoigawa, Yoshiaki [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kishimoto, Koshi N., E-mail: kishimoto@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Okuno, Hiroshi; Sano, Hirotaka [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Kaneko, Kazuo [Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Itoi, Eiji [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} C2C12 and G8 myogenic cell lines treated by hypoxia differentiate into adipocytes. {yields} The expression of C/EBP{beta}, {alpha} and PPAR{gamma} were increased under hypoxia. {yields} Myogenic differentiation of C2C12 was inhibited under hypoxia. -- Abstract: Muscle atrophy usually accompanies fat accumulation in the muscle. In such atrophic conditions as back muscles of kyphotic spine and the rotator cuff muscles with torn tendons, blood flow might be diminished. It is known that hypoxia causes trans-differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow into adipocytes. However, it has not been elucidated yet if hypoxia turned myoblasts into adipocytes. We investigated adipogenesis in C2C12 and G8 murine myogenic cell line treated by hypoxia. Cells were also treated with the cocktail of insulin, dexamethasone and IBMX (MDI), which has been known to inhibit Wnt signaling and promote adipogenesis. Adipogenic differentiation was seen in both hypoxia and MDI. Adipogenic marker gene expression was assessed in C2C12. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) {beta}, {alpha} and peroxisome proliferator activating receptor (PPAR) {gamma} were increased by both hypoxia and MDI. The expression profile of Wnt10b was different between hypoxia and MDI. The mechanism for adipogenesis of myoblasts in hypoxia might be regulated by different mechanism than the modification of Wnt signaling.

  2. Possible role of TIEG1 as a feedback regulator of myostatin and TGF-{beta} in myoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Masato; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Iwasaki, Shunsuke; Chao, Guozheng; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Kouichi; Ohwada, Shyuichi; Aso, Hisashi [Laboratory of Functional Morphology, Department of Animal Biology, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, 1-1 Tsutsumidori-Amamiyamachi, Aoba-Ku, Sendai 981-8555 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Takahiro, E-mail: ty1010@bios.tohoku.ac.jp [Laboratory of Functional Morphology, Department of Animal Biology, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, 1-1 Tsutsumidori-Amamiyamachi, Aoba-Ku, Sendai 981-8555 (Japan)

    2010-03-19

    Myostatin and TGF-{beta} negatively regulate skeletal muscle development and growth. Both factors signal through the Smad2/3 pathway. However, the regulatory mechanism of myostatin and TGF-{beta} signaling remains unclear. TGF-{beta} inducible early gene (TIEG) 1 is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and has been implicated in the modulation of TGF-{beta} signaling. These findings prompted us to investigate the effect of TIEG1 on myostatin and TGF-{beta} signaling using C2C12 myoblasts. Myostatin and TGF-{beta} induced the expression of TIEG1 and Smad7 mRNAs, but not TIEG2 mRNA, in proliferating C2C12 cells. When differentiating C2C12 myoblasts were stimulated by myostatin, TIEG1 mRNA was up-regulated at a late stage of differentiation. In contrast, TGF-{beta} enhanced TIEG1 expression at an early stage. Overexpression of TIEG1 prevented the transcriptional activation of Smad by myostatin and TGF-{beta} in both proliferating or differentiating C2C12 cells, but the expression of Smad2 and Smad7 mRNAs was not affected. Forced expression of TIEG1 inhibited myogenic differentiation but did not cause more inhibition than the empty vector in the presence of myostatin or TGF-{beta}. These results demonstrate that TIEG1 is one possible feedback regulator of myostatin and TGF-{beta} that prevents excess action in myoblasts.

  3. Possible role of TIEG1 as a feedback regulator of myostatin and TGF-β in myoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Masato; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Iwasaki, Shunsuke; Chao, Guozheng; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Kouichi; Ohwada, Shyuichi; Aso, Hisashi; Yamaguchi, Takahiro

    2010-01-01

    Myostatin and TGF-β negatively regulate skeletal muscle development and growth. Both factors signal through the Smad2/3 pathway. However, the regulatory mechanism of myostatin and TGF-β signaling remains unclear. TGF-β inducible early gene (TIEG) 1 is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and has been implicated in the modulation of TGF-β signaling. These findings prompted us to investigate the effect of TIEG1 on myostatin and TGF-β signaling using C2C12 myoblasts. Myostatin and TGF-β induced the expression of TIEG1 and Smad7 mRNAs, but not TIEG2 mRNA, in proliferating C2C12 cells. When differentiating C2C12 myoblasts were stimulated by myostatin, TIEG1 mRNA was up-regulated at a late stage of differentiation. In contrast, TGF-β enhanced TIEG1 expression at an early stage. Overexpression of TIEG1 prevented the transcriptional activation of Smad by myostatin and TGF-β in both proliferating or differentiating C2C12 cells, but the expression of Smad2 and Smad7 mRNAs was not affected. Forced expression of TIEG1 inhibited myogenic differentiation but did not cause more inhibition than the empty vector in the presence of myostatin or TGF-β. These results demonstrate that TIEG1 is one possible feedback regulator of myostatin and TGF-β that prevents excess action in myoblasts.

  4. Transcription factor ZBED6 mediates IGF2 gene expression by regulating promoter activity and DNA methylation in myoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinc finger, BED-type containing 6 (ZBED6) is an important transcription factor in placental mammals, affecting development, cell proliferation and growth. In this study, we found that the expression of the ZBED6 and IGF2 were up regulated during C2C12 differentiation. The IGF2 expression levels wer...

  5. Scaffold protein enigma homolog 1 overcomes the repression of myogenesis activation by inhibitor of DNA binding 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatani, Miyuki [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Nagoya, 464-8106 (Japan); Ito, Jumpei [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Nagoya, 464-8106 (Japan); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, 102-0083 (Japan); Koyama, Riko [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Nagoya, 464-8106 (Japan); Iijima, Masumi; Yoshimoto, Nobuo [The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka, 567-0047 (Japan); Niimi, Tomoaki [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Nagoya, 464-8106 (Japan); Kuroda, Shun' ichi [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Nagoya, 464-8106 (Japan); The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka, 567-0047 (Japan); Maturana, Andrés D., E-mail: maturana@agr.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Nagoya, 464-8106 (Japan)

    2016-05-27

    Enigma Homolog 1 (ENH1) is a scaffold protein for signaling proteins and transcription factors. Previously, we reported that ENH1 overexpression promotes the differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the role of ENH1 in the C2C12 cells differentiation remains elusive. ENH1 was shown to inhibit the proliferation of neuroblastoma cells by sequestering Inhibitor of DNA binding protein 2 (Id2) in the cytosol. Id2 is a repressor of basic Helix-Loop-Helix transcription factors activity and prevents myogenesis. Here, we found that ENH1 overcome the Id2 repression of C2C12 cells myogenic differentiation and that ENH1 overexpression promotes mice satellite cells activation, the first step toward myogenic differentiation. In addition, we show that ENH1 interacted with Id2 in C2C12 cells and mice satellite cells. Collectively, our results suggest that ENH1 plays an important role in the activation of myogenesis through the repression of Id2 activity. -- Highlights: •Enigma Homolog 1 (ENH1) is a scaffold protein. •ENH1 binds to inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (Id2) in myoblasts. •ENH1 overexpression overcomes the Id2's repression of myogenesis. •The Id2-ENH1 complex play an important role in the activation of myogenesis.

  6. SPARC is up-regulated during skeletal muscle regeneration and inhibits myoblast differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Stine Juhl; Jørgensen, Louise Helskov; Andersen, Ditte C.

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle repair is mediated primarily by the muscle stem cell, the satellite cell. Several factors, including extracellular matrix, are known to regulate satellite cell function and regeneration. One factor, the matricellular Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC) is highly up......-regulated during skeletal muscle disease, but its function remains elusive. In the present study, we demonstrate a prominent yet transient increase in SPARC mRNA and protein content during skeletal muscle regeneration that correlates with the expression profile of specific muscle factors like MyoD, Myf5, Myf6......, Myogenin, NCAM, CD34, and M-Cadherin, all known to be implicated in satellite cell activation/proliferation following muscle damage. This up regulation was detected in more cell types. Ectopic expression of SPARC in the muscle progenitor cell line C2C12 was performed to mimic the high levels of SPARC seen...

  7. Pseudo-differentiation syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Khalaf

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A patient with relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML (M2 FAB classification developed a differentiating syndrome upon receiving Decitabine therapy given with palliative intent. The patient presented with high grade fever, constitutional symptoms and severe chest symptoms with no underlying lung condition. Chest x-ray (CXR showed diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. Septic work up followed by intravenous broad spectrum antimicrobials did not improve his condition. Pan cultures’ results were repeatedly negative. Treatment with high dose Dexamethasone (DXM resulted in marked clinical and radiological improvement. Our patient initially presented with relapsed AML (M2 Fab classification with t (8; 21; negative FMS-like tyrosine kinase -internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD which are all good prognostic factors, yet the patient had an atypical clinical course with early frequent relapses, differentiation syndrome associated with Decitabine therapy and late in his disease, he developed a granulocytic sarcoma.

  8. Leadership and Gender Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina RADU; Marian NASTASE

    2011-01-01

    Leadership is clearly one of the main factors that influence organizational competitiveness. It means both science and art, both born and learned skills. Leadership and gender differentiation is a subject that leads to at least two main questions: (1) Do significant differences exist between men and women in terms of leadership styles? (2) What are the real determinants of differences between men and women especially looking at who assumes leadership positions and what is leadership behavior ...

  9. Differential equations with Mathematica

    CERN Document Server

    Abell, Martha L

    2004-01-01

    The Third Edition of the Differential Equations with Mathematica integrates new applications from a variety of fields,especially biology, physics, and engineering. The new handbook is also completely compatible with recent versions of Mathematica and is a perfect introduction for Mathematica beginners.* Focuses on the most often used features of Mathematica for the beginning Mathematica user* Ne