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Sample records for differentially heated cavity

  1. Adjoint optimization of natural convection problems: differentially heated cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglietti, Clio; Schlatter, Philipp; Monokrousos, Antonios; Henningson, Dan S.

    2017-12-01

    Optimization of natural convection-driven flows may provide significant improvements to the performance of cooling devices, but a theoretical investigation of such flows has been rarely done. The present paper illustrates an efficient gradient-based optimization method for analyzing such systems. We consider numerically the natural convection-driven flow in a differentially heated cavity with three Prandtl numbers (Pr=0.15{-}7) at super-critical conditions. All results and implementations were done with the spectral element code Nek5000. The flow is analyzed using linear direct and adjoint computations about a nonlinear base flow, extracting in particular optimal initial conditions using power iteration and the solution of the full adjoint direct eigenproblem. The cost function for both temperature and velocity is based on the kinetic energy and the concept of entransy, which yields a quadratic functional. Results are presented as a function of Prandtl number, time horizons and weights between kinetic energy and entransy. In particular, it is shown that the maximum transient growth is achieved at time horizons on the order of 5 time units for all cases, whereas for larger time horizons the adjoint mode is recovered as optimal initial condition. For smaller time horizons, the influence of the weights leads either to a concentric temperature distribution or to an initial condition pattern that opposes the mean shear and grows according to the Orr mechanism. For specific cases, it could also been shown that the computation of optimal initial conditions leads to a degenerate problem, with a potential loss of symmetry. In these situations, it turns out that any initial condition lying in a specific span of the eigenfunctions will yield exactly the same transient amplification. As a consequence, the power iteration converges very slowly and fails to extract all possible optimal initial conditions. According to the authors' knowledge, this behavior is illustrated here for

  2. Quasi-periodicity and chaos in a differentially heated cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercader, Isabel; Batiste, Oriol [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Dep. Fisica Aplicada, Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz, Xavier [Univesitat Rovira i Virgili, Lab. Fisica Aplicada, Facultat de Ciencies Quimiques, Tarragona (Spain)

    2004-11-01

    Convective flows of a small Prandtl number fluid contained in a two-dimensional vertical cavity subject to a lateral thermal gradient are studied numerically. The chosen geometry and the values of the material parameters are relevant to semiconductor crystal growth experiments in the horizontal configuration of the Bridgman method. For increasing Rayleigh numbers we find a transition from a steady flow to periodic solutions through a supercritical Hopf bifurcation that maintains the centro-symmetry of the basic circulation. For a Rayleigh number of about ten times that of the Hopf bifurcation, the periodic solution loses stability in a subcritical Neimark-Sacker bifurcation, which gives rise to a branch of quasiperiodic states. In this branch, several intervals of frequency locking have been identified. Inside the resonance horns the stable limit cycles lose and gain stability via some typical scenarios in the bifurcation of periodic solutions. After a complicated bifurcation diagram of the stable limit cycle of the 1:10 resonance horn, a soft transition to chaos is obtained. (orig.)

  3. Large eddy simulation of particulate flow inside a differentially heated cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosshard, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.bosshard@a3.epfl.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, Laboratory for Thermalhydraulics (LTH), 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Dehbi, Abdelouahab, E-mail: abdel.dehbi@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, Laboratory for Thermalhydraulics (LTH), 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Deville, Michel, E-mail: michel.deville@epfl.ch [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, STI-DO, Station 12, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Leriche, Emmanuel, E-mail: emmanuel.leriche@univ-lille1.fr [Université de Lille I, Laboratoire de Mécanique de Lille, Avenue Paul Langevin, Cité Scientifique, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cédex (France); Soldati, Alfredo, E-mail: soldati@uniud.it [Dipartimento di Energetica e Macchine and Centro Interdipartimentale di Fluidodinamica e Idraulica, Universitá degli Studi di Udine, Udine (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Nuclear accident leads to airborne radioactive particles in containment atmosphere. • Large eddy simulation with particles in differentially heated cavity is carried out. • LES results show negligible differences with direct numerical simulation. • Four different particle sets with diameters from 10 μm to 35 μm are tracked. • Particle removal dominated by gravity settling and turbophoresis is negligible. - Abstract: In nuclear safety, some severe accident scenarios lead to the presence of fission products in aerosol form in the closed containment atmosphere. It is important to understand the particle depletion process to estimate the risk of a release of radioactivity to the environment should a containment break occur. As a model for the containment, we use the three-dimensional differentially heated cavity problem. The differentially heated cavity is a cubical box with a hot wall and a cold wall on vertical opposite sides. On the other walls of the cube we have adiabatic boundary conditions. For the velocity field the no-slip boundary condition is applied. The flow of the air in the cavity is described by the Boussinesq equations. The method used to simulate the turbulent flow is the large eddy simulation (LES) where the dynamics of the large eddies is resolved by the computational grid and the small eddies are modelled by the introduction of subgrid scale quantities using a filter function. Particle trajectories are computed using the Lagrangian particle tracking method, including the relevant forces (drag, gravity, thermophoresis). Four different sets with each set containing one million particles and diameters of 10 μm, 15 μm, 25 μm and 35 μm are simulated. Simulation results for the flow field and particle sizes from 15 μm to 35 μm are compared to previous results from direct numerical simulation (DNS). The integration time of the LES is three times longer and the smallest particles have been simulated only in the LES. Particle

  4. Enhancement in heat transfer of a ferrofluid in a differentially heated square cavity through the use of permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, J. C.; Sharifpur, M.; Solomon, A. Brusly; Meyer, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    The natural convection heat transfer of a magnetic nanofluid in a differentially heated cavity is investigated with and without an applied external magnetic field. The effects of volume fraction, magnetic field configuration, and magnetic field strength are investigated. Spherical Fe2O3 nanoparticles with a diameter of 15-20 nm are used in the nanofluids. Volume fractions ranging between 0.05% and 0.3% are tested for the case with no magnetic field, while only a volume fraction of 0.1% was tested in an externally applied magnetic field. The experiments were conducted for a range of Rayleigh numbers in 1.7 × 108 < Ra < 4.2 × 108. The viscosity of the nanofluid was determined experimentally. An empirical correlation for the viscosity was determined, and the stability of various nanofluids was investigated. Using heat transfer data obtained from the cavity, the average heat transfer coefficient and average Nusselt number for the nanofluids are determined. It was found that a volume fraction of 0.1% showed a maximum increase of 5.63% to the Nu at the maximum Ra. For the magnetic field study, it was found that the best-performing magnetic field enhanced the heat transfer behaviour by an additional 2.81% in Nu at Ra = 3.8 × 108.

  5. Differentiated heated lid driven cavity interacting with tube: A lattice Boltzmann study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennacer Rachid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The multiple-relaxation-time (MRT lattice-Boltzmann method is implemented to investigate combined natural and forced convection occurring in a two-dimensional square cavity. The top wall slides to the right at constant speed, while the other three remain stationary. The solution is performed for a left vertical wall at a constant temperature, which is higher than of the right wall. This yields a “cooperating” case, in which dynamic and buoyancy forces are added together. The enclosure is filled with air and contains a heat conducting circular cylinder, which is placed at various positions. The double distribution model used in lattice Boltzmann methods has been adopted to simulate the hydrodynamic and thermal fields, with the D2Q9 and D2Q5 lattices selected to perform the corresponding computations. Simulations have been conducted over a wide range of Rayleigh (Ra and Reynolds (Re numbers, and the features of dynamic and thermal fields are presented for the spectra of this mixed convection phenomenon. The flow and heat transfer characteristics of the cylinder position are described and analyzed in terms of the average Nusselt number (Nu. The computed results show the influence of the cylinder on the corresponding heat transfer in the enclosure. It has been found that the power (i.e. shear stress needed to lid the upper surface will depend on the governing parameters.

  6. Conduction and convection heat transfer characteristics of water-based au nanofluids in a square cavity with differentially heated side walls subjected to constant temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ternik Primož

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the natural convection in a square cavity filled with the water-based Au nanofluid. The cavity is heated on the vertical and cooled from the adjacent wall, while the other two horizontal walls are adiabatic. The governing differential equations have been solved by the standard finite volume method and the hydrodynamic and thermal fields were coupled together using the Boussinesq approximation. The main objective of this study is to investigate the influence of the nanoparticles’ volume fraction on the heat transfer characteristics of Au nanofluids at the given base fluid’s (i.e. water Rayleigh number. Accurate results are presented over a wide range of the base fluid Rayleigh number and the volume fraction of Au nanoparticles. It is shown that adding nanoparticles in a base fluid delays the onset of convection. Contrary to what is argued by many authors, we show by numerical simulations that the use of nanofluids can reduce the heat transfer rate instead of increasing it.

  7. Study of turbulent natural convection in a tall differentially heated cavity filled with either non-participating, participating grey and participating semigrey media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capdevila, R; Perez-Segarra, C D; Lehmkuhl, O; Colomer, G

    2012-01-01

    Turbulent natural convection in a tall differentially heated cavity of aspect ratio 5:1, filled with air under a Rayleigh number based on the height of 4.5·10 10 is studied numerically. Three different situations have been analysed. In the first one, the cavity is filled with a transparent medium. In the second one, the cavity is filled with a semigrey participating mixture of air and water vapour. In the last one the cavity contains a grey participating gas. The turbulent flow is described by means of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) using symmetry-preserving discretizations. Simulations are compared with experimental data available in the literature and with Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS). Surface and gas radiation have been simulated using the Discrete Ordinates Method (DOM). The influence of radiation on fluid flow behaviour has been analysed.

  8. Resolving the stratification discrepancy of turbulent natural convection in differentially heated air-filled cavities. Part III: A full convection–conduction–surface radiation coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin, Shihe; Salat, Jacques; Joubert, Patrice; Sergent, Anne; Penot, François; Quéré, Patrick Le

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Turbulent natural convection is studied numerically and experimentally. ► DNS of full conduction–convection–radiation coupling is performed. ► Spectral methods are combined with domain decomposition. ► Considering surface radiation improves strongly numerical results. ► Surface radiation is responsible for the weak stratification. -- Abstract: The present study concerns an air-filled differentially heated cavity of 1 m × 0.32 m × 1 m (width × depth × height) subject to a temperature difference of 15 K and is motivated by the need to understand the persistent discrepancy observed between numerical and experimental results on thermal stratification in the cavity core. An improved experiment with enhanced metrology was set up and experimental data have been obtained along with the characteristics of the surfaces and materials used. Experimental temperature distributions on the passive walls have been introduced in numerical simulations in order to provide a faithful prediction of experimental data. By means of DNS using spectral methods, heat conduction in the insulating material is first coupled with natural convection in the cavity. As heat conduction influences only the temperature distribution on the top and bottom surfaces and in the near wall regions, surface radiation is added to the coupling of natural convection with heat conduction. The temperature distribution in the cavity is strongly affected by the polycarbonate front and rear walls of the cavity, which are almost black surfaces for low temperature radiation, and also other low emissivity walls. The thermal stratification is considerably weakened by surface radiation. Good agreement between numerical simulations and experiments is observed on both time-averaged fields and turbulent statistics. Treating the full conduction–convection–radiation coupling allowed to confirm that experimental wall temperatures resulted from the coupled phenomena and this is another way to

  9. Turbulent natural convection in a differentially heated cavity of aspect ratio 5 filled with non-participating and participating grey media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capdevila, R; Trias, F X; Perez-Segarra, C D [Centre Tecnologic de Transferencia de Calor (CTTC), Lab.Termotecnia i Energetica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), C/Colom, 11, E08222 Terrassa, Barcelona (Spain); Lehmkuhl, O; Colomer, G, E-mail: cttc@cttc.upc.edu, E-mail: termofluids@termofluids.com [Termofluids, S. L., Magi Colet 8, E08204 Sabadell, Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-12-22

    In the present work, turbulent natural convection in a tall differentially heated cavity of aspect ratio 5:1, filled with air (Pr = 0.7) under a Rayleigh number based on the height of 4.5 {center_dot} 10{sup 10}, is studied numerically. Two different situations have been analysed. In the first one, the cavity is filled with a transparent medium. In the second one, the cavity contains a grey participating gas. The turbulent flow is described by means of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) using symmetry-preserving discretizations. Simulations are compared with experimental data available in the literature and with Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS). Surface and gas radiation have been simulated using the Discrete Ordinates Method (DOM). The influence of radiation on fluid flow behaviour has also been analysed.

  10. Turbulent natural convection in a differentially heated cavity of aspect ratio 5 filled with non-participating and participating grey media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capdevila, R; Trias, F X; Pérez-Segarra, C D; Lehmkuhl, O; Colomer, G

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, turbulent natural convection in a tall differentially heated cavity of aspect ratio 5:1, filled with air (Pr = 0.7) under a Rayleigh number based on the height of 4.5 · 10 10 , is studied numerically. Two different situations have been analysed. In the first one, the cavity is filled with a transparent medium. In the second one, the cavity contains a grey participating gas. The turbulent flow is described by means of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) using symmetry-preserving discretizations. Simulations are compared with experimental data available in the literature and with Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS). Surface and gas radiation have been simulated using the Discrete Ordinates Method (DOM). The influence of radiation on fluid flow behaviour has also been analysed.

  11. Compression Pad Cavity Heating Augmentation on Orion Heat Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Brian R.

    2011-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted to assess the effects of compression pad cavities on the aeroheating environment of the Project Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle heat shield. Testing was conducted in Mach 6 and 10 perfect-gas wind tunnels to obtain heating measurements in and around the compression pads cavities using global phosphor thermography. Data were obtained over a wide range of Reynolds numbers that produced laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow within and downstream of the cavities. The effects of cavity dimensions on boundary-layer transition and heating augmentation levels were studied. Correlations were developed for transition onset and for the average cavity-heating augmentation.

  12. Heat and mass transfer in porous cavity: Assisting flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badruddin, Irfan Anjum [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603 (Malaysia); Quadir, G. A. [School of Mechatronic Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2016-06-08

    In this paper, investigation of heat and mass transfer in a porous cavity is carried out. The governing partial differential equations are non-dimensionalised and solved using finite element method. The left vertical surface of the cavity is maintained at constant temperature and concentration which are higher than the ambient temperature and concentration applied at right vertical surface. The top and bottom walls of the cavity are adiabatic. Heat transfer is assumed to take place by natural convection and radiation. The investigation is carried out for assisting flow when buoyancy and gravity force act in same direction.

  13. AGN Heating Through Cavities and Shocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nulsen, P.E.J.; Jones, C.; Forman, W.R.; David, L.P.; McNamara, B.R.; Rafferty, D.A.; Bîrzan, L.; Wise, M.

    2007-01-01

    Three comments are made on AGN heating of cooling flows. A simple physical argument is used to show that the enthalpy of a buoyant radio lobe is converted to heat in its wake. Thus, a significant part of ``cavity'' enthalpy is likely to end up as heat. Second, the properties of the repeated weak

  14. Heat loss from an open cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, C.G. [California State Polytechnic Univ., Pomona, CA (United States). Coll. of Engineering

    1995-12-01

    Cavity type receivers are used extensively in concentrating solar thermal energy collecting systems. The Solar Total Energy Project (STEP) in Shenandoah, Georgia is a large scale field test for the collection of solar thermal energy. The STEP experiment consists of a large field array of solar collectors used to supplement the process steam, cooling and other electrical power requirements of an adjacent knitwear manufacturing facility. The purpose of the tests, conducted for this study, was to isolate and quantify the radiative, conductive, and convective components of total heat loss, and to determine the effects of operating temperature, receiver angle, and aperture size on cavity heat loss. An analytical model for radiative heat loss was developed and compared with two other methods used to determine radiative heat loss. A proposed convective heat loss correlation, including effects of aperture size, receiver operating temperature, and receiver angle is presented. The resulting data is a source to evaluate the STEP measurements.

  15. Predictions of laminar natural convection in heated cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, K.H.

    1982-06-01

    Several examples of laminar, natural convection in heated cavities are discussed with illustrative calculations. These include convection in a square cavity at high Rayleigh number; in a narrow cavity at moderate aspect ratio; in a rectangular cavity heated from below; in a trapezoidal cavity, and in a rectangular cavity containing a conducting obstruction. The steady equations for the velocity, pressure and temperature are solved in the Boussinesq approximation, using a standard Galerkin formulation of the finite-element method. (author)

  16. Heat or mass transfer from an open cavity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiken, H.K.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model for heat or mass transfer from an open cavity. It is assumed that the Péclet number, based on conditions at the cavity, and the Prandtl number are both large. The model assumes heat- or mass-transfer boundary layers at the rim of the cavity vortex flow. Heat

  17. Heat loss investigation from spherical cavity receiver of solar concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shewale, V. C. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, NDMVPS KBT College of Engineering, Nashik (India); Dongarwar, P. R. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, College of Military Engineering, Pune (India); Gawande, R. P. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, B.D.C.O.E. Wardha, Nagpur University, NagpurI (India)

    2016-11-15

    The heat losses are mainly affects on the performance of cavity receiver of solar concentrator. In this paper, the experimental and numerical study is carried out for different heat losses from spherical cavity receiver of 0.385 m cavity diameter and 0.154 m opening diameter. The total and convection losses are studied experimentally to no wind and wind conditions for the temperature range of 150 °C to 300 °C at 0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 90° inclination angle of cavity receiver. The experimental set up mainly consists of copper tube material cavity receiver wrapped with nichrome heating coil to heat the cavity and insulated with glasswool insulation. The numerical analysis was carried out with Fluent Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, to study connective heat losses for no wind condition only. The numerical results are compared with experimental results and found good agreement with maximum deviation of 12 %. The effect of inclination angle of cavity receiver on total losses and convection losses shows that as the inclination angle increases from 0o to 90o, both losses decreased due to decreased in convective zone into the cavity receiver. The effect of operating temperature of cavity shows that as the temperature of cavity receiver increases, the total and convective losses goes on increasing. The effect of external wind at 2 m/s and 4 m/s in two directions (side-on wind and head-on wind) is also studied experimentally for total and convective heat losses. The result shows that the heat losses are higher for head-on wind condition compared to side-on wind and no wind condition at all inclination angle of cavity receiver. The present results are also compared to the convective losses obtained from the correlations of Stine and Mcdonald and M. Prakash. The convective loss from these correlations shows nearest prediction to both experimental and numerical results.

  18. Heat loss investigation from spherical cavity receiver of solar concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shewale, V. C.; Dongarwar, P. R.; Gawande, R. P.

    2016-01-01

    The heat losses are mainly affects on the performance of cavity receiver of solar concentrator. In this paper, the experimental and numerical study is carried out for different heat losses from spherical cavity receiver of 0.385 m cavity diameter and 0.154 m opening diameter. The total and convection losses are studied experimentally to no wind and wind conditions for the temperature range of 150 °C to 300 °C at 0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 90° inclination angle of cavity receiver. The experimental set up mainly consists of copper tube material cavity receiver wrapped with nichrome heating coil to heat the cavity and insulated with glasswool insulation. The numerical analysis was carried out with Fluent Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, to study connective heat losses for no wind condition only. The numerical results are compared with experimental results and found good agreement with maximum deviation of 12 %. The effect of inclination angle of cavity receiver on total losses and convection losses shows that as the inclination angle increases from 0o to 90o, both losses decreased due to decreased in convective zone into the cavity receiver. The effect of operating temperature of cavity shows that as the temperature of cavity receiver increases, the total and convective losses goes on increasing. The effect of external wind at 2 m/s and 4 m/s in two directions (side-on wind and head-on wind) is also studied experimentally for total and convective heat losses. The result shows that the heat losses are higher for head-on wind condition compared to side-on wind and no wind condition at all inclination angle of cavity receiver. The present results are also compared to the convective losses obtained from the correlations of Stine and Mcdonald and M. Prakash. The convective loss from these correlations shows nearest prediction to both experimental and numerical results

  19. Heating Augmentation Due to Compression Pad Cavities on the Project Orion CEV Heat Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Brian R.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted to assess the effects of compression pad cavities on the aeroheating environment of the Project Orion CEV heat-shield. Testing was conducted in Mach 6 and Mach 10 perfect-gas wind tunnels to obtain heating measurements in and around the compression pads cavities using global phosphor thermography. Data were obtained over a wide range of Reynolds numbers that produced laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow within and downstream of the cavities. The effects of cavity dimensions on boundary-layer transition and heating augmentation levels were studied. Correlations were developed for transition onset and for the average cavity-heating augmentation.

  20. Design of a cavity heat pipe receiver experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michael G.; Brege, Mark H.; Greenlee, William J.

    1992-01-01

    A cavity heat pipe experiment has been designed to test the critical issues involved with incorporating thermal energy storage canisters into a heat pipe. The experiment is a replication of the operation of a heat receiver for a Brayton solar dynamic power cycle. The heat receiver is composed of a cylindrical receptor surface and an annular heat pipe with thermal energy storage canisters and gaseous working fluid heat exchanger tubes surrounding it. Hardware for the cavity heat pipe experiment will consist of a sector of the heat pipe, complete with gas tube and thermal energy storage canisters. Thermal cycling tests will be performed on the heat pipe sector to simulate the normal energy charge/discharge cycle of the receiver in a spacecraft application.

  1. Experimental study of pulsed heating of electromagnetic cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritzkau, D.P.; Menegat, A.; Siemann, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    An experiment to study the effects of pulsed heating in electromagnetic cavities will be performed. Pulsed heating is believed to be the limiting mechanism of high acceleration gradients at short wavelengths. A cylindrical cavity operated in the TE 011 mode at a frequency of 11.424 GHz will be used. A klystron will be used to supply a peak input power of 20 MW with a pulse length of 1.5 μs. The temperature response of the cavity will be measured by a second waveguide designed to excite a TE 012 mode in the cavity with a low-power CW signal at a frequency of 17.8 GHz. The relevant theory of pulsed heating will be discussed and the results from cold-testing the structure will be presented

  2. Negative differential resistance in Josephson junctions coupled to a cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Filatrella, G.; Pierro, V.

    2014-01-01

    or external – is often used. A cavity may also induce a negative differential resistance region at the lower side of the resonance frequency. We investigate the dynamics of Josephson junctions with a negative differential resistance in the quasi particle tunnel current, i.e. in the McCumber curve. We find...

  3. Heat transfer in window frames with internal cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsen, Arild

    2001-07-01

    Heat transfer in window frames with internal air cavities is studied in this thesis. Investigations focus on two- and three-dimensional natural convection effects inside air cavities, the dependence of the emissivity on the thermal transmittance, and the emissivity of anodized and untreated aluminium profiles. The investigations are mostly conducted on window frames which are the same size as real frames found in residential buildings. Numerical and experimental investigations were performed to study the effectiveness of one commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) program for simulating combined natural convection and heat transfer in simple three-dimensional window frames with internal air cavities. The accuracy of the conjugate CFD simulations was evaluated by comparing results for surface temperature on the warm side of the specimens to results from experiments that use infrared (IR) thermography to map surface temperatures during steady-state thermal tests. In general, there was good agreement between the simulations and experiments. Two-dimensional computational fluid dynamic and conduction simulations are performed to study the difference between treating air cavities as a fluid and as a solid when calculating the thermal transmittance of window frames. The simulations show that traditional software codes, simulating only conduction and using equivalent conductivities for the air cavities, give Uvalues that compare well with results from fluid flow simulations. The difference between the two models are mostly limited to the temperature distribution inside air cavities. It is also found that cavities with an interconnection less than about 7 mm can be treated as separate cavities. Three-dimensional natural convection effects in simple and custom-made PVC and thermally broken aluminum window frames with one open internal cavity were studied, with the use of CFD simulations and thermography experiments. Focus was put on corner effects and heat transfer

  4. Aero-Heating of Shallow Cavities in Hypersonic Freestream Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, Joel L.; Berger, Karen T.; Merski, N. R., Jr.; Woods, William A.; Hollingsworth, Kevin E.; Hyatt, Andrew; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of these experiments and analysis was to augment the heating database and tools used for assessment of impact-induced shallow-cavity damage to the thermal protection system of the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The effect of length and depth on the local heating disturbance of rectangular cavities tested at hypersonic freestream conditions has been globally assessed using the two-color phosphor thermography method. These rapid-response experiments were conducted in the Langley 31-Inch Mach 10 Tunnel and were initiated immediately prior to the launch of STS-114, the initial flight in the Space Shuttle Return-To-Flight Program, and continued during the first week of the mission. Previously-designed and numerically-characterized blunted-nose baseline flat plates were used as the test surfaces. Three-dimensional computational predictions of the entire model geometry were used as a check on the design process and the two-dimensional flow assumptions used for the data analysis. The experimental boundary layer state conditions were inferred using the measured heating distributions on a no-cavity test article. Two test plates were developed, each containing 4 equally-spaced spanwise-distributed cavities. The first test plate contained cavities with a constant length-to-depth ratio of 8 with design point depth-to-boundary-layer-thickness ratios of 0.1, 0.2, 0.35, and 0.5. The second test plate contained cavities with a constant design point depth-to-boundary-layer-thickness ratio of 0.35 with length-to-depth ratios of 8, 12, 16, and 20. Cavity design parameters and the test condition matrix were established using the computational predictions. Preliminary results indicate that the floor-averaged Bump Factor (local heating rate nondimensionalized by upstream reference) at the tested conditions is approximately 0.3 with a standard deviation of 0.04 for laminar-in/laminar-out conditions when the cavity length-to-boundary-layer thickness is between 2.5 and 10 and for

  5. Cavity Heating Experiments Supporting Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, Joel L.; Berger, Karen T.; Bey, Kim S.; Merski, N. Ronald; Wood, William A.

    2011-01-01

    The two-color thermographic phosphor method has been used to map the local heating augmentation of scaled idealized cavities at conditions simulating the windward surface of the Shuttle Orbiter Columbia during flight STS-107. Two experiments initiated in support of the Columbia Accident Investigation were conducted in the Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel. Generally, the first test series evaluated open (length-to-depth less than 10) rectangular cavity geometries proposed as possible damage scenarios resulting from foam and ice impact during launch at several discrete locations on the vehicle windward surface, though some closed (length-to-depth greater than 13) geometries were briefly examined. The second test series was designed to parametrically evaluate heating augmentation in closed rectangular cavities. The tests were conducted under laminar cavity entry conditions over a range of local boundary layer edge-flow parameters typical of re-entry. Cavity design parameters were developed using laminar computational predictions, while the experimental boundary layer state conditions were inferred from the heating measurements. An analysis of the aeroheating caused by cavities allowed exclusion of non-breeching damage from the possible loss scenarios being considered during the investigation.

  6. Orion EFT-1 Cavity Heating Tile Experiments and Environment Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Giovanni; Amar, Adam; Oliver, Brandon; Hyatt, Andrew; Rezin, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Developing aerothermodynamic environments for deep cavities, such as those produced by micrometeoroids and orbital debris impacts, poses a great challenge for engineers. In order to assess existing cavity heating models, two one-inch diameter cavities were flown on the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle during Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT1). These cavities were manufactured with depths of 1.0 in and 1.4 in, and they were both instrumented. Instrumentation included surface thermocouples upstream, downstream and within the cavities, and additional thermocouples at the TPS-structure interface. This paper will present the data obtained, and comparisons with computational predictions will be shown. Additionally, the development of a 3D material thermal model will be described, which will be used to account for the three-dimensionality of the problem when interpreting the data. Furthermore, using a multi-dimensional inverse heat conduction approach, a reconstruction of a time- and space-dependent flight heating distribution during EFT1 will be presented. Additional discussions will focus on instrumentation challenges and calibration techniques specific to these experiments. The analysis shown will highlight the accuracies and/or deficiencies of current computational techniques to model cavity flows during hypersonic re-entry.

  7. Experimental investigation of turbine disk cavity aerodynamics and heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, W. A.; Johnson, B. V.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental investigation of turbine disk cavity aerodynamics and heat transfer was conducted to provide an experimental data base that can guide the aerodynamic and thermal design of turbine disks and blade attachments for flow conditions and geometries simulating those of the space shuttle main engine (SSME) turbopump drive turbines. Experiments were conducted to define the nature of the aerodynamics and heat transfer of the flow within the disk cavities and blade attachments of a large scale model simulating the SSME turbopump drive turbines. These experiments include flow between the main gas path and the disk cavities, flow within the disk cavities, and leakage flows through the blade attachments and labyrinth seals. Air was used to simulate the combustion products in the gas path. Air and carbon dioxide were used to simulate the coolants injected at three locations in the disk cavities. Trace amounts of carbon dioxide were used to determine the source of the gas at selected locations on the rotors, the cavity walls, and the interstage seal. The measurements on the rotor and stationary walls in the forward and aft cavities showed that the coolant effectiveness was 90 percent or greater when the coolant flow rate was greater than the local free disk entrainment flow rate and when room temperature air was used as both coolant and gas path fluid. When a coolant-to-gas-path density ratio of 1.51 was used in the aft cavity, the coolant effectiveness on the rotor was also 90 percent or greater at the aforementioned condition. However, the coolant concentration on the stationary wall was 60 to 80 percent at the aforementioned condition indicating a more rapid mixing of the coolant and flow through the rotor shank passages. This increased mixing rate was attributed to the destabilizing effects of the adverse density gradients.

  8. Study on Induction Heating Coil for Uniform Mold Cavity Surface Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Ting Sung; Sheng-Jye Hwang; Huei-Huang Lee; Durn-Yuan Huang

    2014-01-01

    Recently, energy saving is one of the important issues for polymer processing industry. Electromagnetic induction heating has many advantages such as fast heating and low energy consumption. Previous studies using electromagnetic induction heating for rapid tool heating have indicated that the temperature uniformity on a cavity surface is not easy to be achieved. In this paper, two different coils were used for heating uniform 7 mm thick hot work tool steel (JIS SKD61) surface. One is a four-...

  9. Heat transfer in reactor cavity during core-concrete interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adroguer, B.; Cenerino, G.

    1989-08-01

    In the unlikely event of a severe accident in a nuclear power plant, the core may melt through the vessel and slump into the concrete reactor cavity. The hot mixture of the core material called corium interacts thermally with the concrete basemat. The WECHSL code, developed at K.f.K. Karlsruhe in Germany is used at the Protection and Nuclear Safety Institute (I.P.S.N.) of CEA to compute this molten corium concrete interaction (MCCI). Some uncertainties remain in the partition of heat from the corium between the basemat and the upper surrounding structures in the cavity where the thermal conditions are not computer. The CALTHER code, under development to perform a more mechanistic evaluation of the upward heat flux has been linked to WECHSL-MOD2 code. This new version enables the modelling of the feedback effects from the conditions in the cavity to the MCCI and the computation of the fraction of upward flux directly added to the cavity atmosphere. The present status is given in the paper. Preliminary calculations of the reactor case for silicate and limestone common sand (L.C.S.) concretes are presented. Significant effects are found on concrete erosion, gases release and temperature of the upper part of corium, particularly for L.C.S. concrete

  10. Heat transfer by natural convection into an horizontal cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arevalo J, P.

    1998-01-01

    At this thesis it is studied the heat transfer by natural convection in an horizontal cavity, it is involved a boiling's part that is described the regimes and correlations differences for boiling's curve. It is designed a horizontal cavity for realize the experimental part and it's mention from equipment or instrumentation to succeed in a experimentation that permits to realize the analysis of heat transfer, handling as water fluid at atmospheric pressure and where it's present process from natural convection involving part boiling's subcooled. The system consists of heater zone submerged in a horizontal cavity with water. Once part finished experimental with information to obtained it's proceeded to obtain a correlation, realized starting from analysis dimensionless such as: Jakob, Bond and Grasoft (Boiling) besides of knows in natural convection: Prandtl and Nusselt. The mathematical model explains the behavior for natural convection continued part boiling's subcooled. It is realize analysis graphics too where it's show comparing with Globe Dropkin and Catton equations by natural convection with bottom heating. (Author)

  11. Heat and damp transport in cavity bricks. Waerme- und Feuchtetransport in Hochlochziegeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, M

    1987-11-19

    The aim of this work is a systematic measurement of the structural effect of cavity bricks on the thermal insulation and thermal storage values depending on the material values of the bricks and the mortar. The arrangement and orientation of the hollow spaces and their dimensions should be varied. Brick shapes with socalled handle slots, which give more convenient handling, and with mortar pockets instead of mortar gaps, should be taken into account in the investigation. Special attention should be paid to the heat transport mechanism in the hollow spaces, where thermal conduction, thermal radiation and convection heat transport are superimposed on one another. The second main aim of the work is the calculation of the coupled heat and damp transport in hollow bricks. The heat and damp transport is described by a coupled system of differential equations, where the decisive transport coefficients should be shown as a function of the variables determining the transport processes. (orig./MM).

  12. An inductively heated hot cavity catcher laser ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Reponen, M; Pohjalainen, I; Rothe, S; Savonen, M; Sonnenschein, V; Voss, A

    2015-01-01

    An inductively heated hot cavity catcher has been constructed for the production of low-energy ion beams of exotic, neutron-deficient Agisotopes. A proof-of-principle experiment has been realized by implanting primary 107Ag21+ ions from a heavy-ion cyclotron into a graphite catcher. A variable-thickness nickel foil was used to degrade the energy of the primary beam in order to mimic the implantation depth expected from the heavy-ion fusion-evaporation recoils of N = Z94Ag. Following implantation, the silver atoms diffused out of the graphite and effused into the catcher cavity and transfer tube, where they were resonantly laser ionized using a three-step excitation and ionization scheme. Following mass separation, the ions were identified by scanning the frequency of the first resonant excitation step while recording the ion count rate. Ion release time profiles were measured for different implantation depths and cavity temperatures with the mean delay time varying from 10 to 600 ms. In addition, the diffusio...

  13. Integral transform solution of natural convection in a square cavity with volumetric heat generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. An

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The generalized integral transform technique (GITT is employed to obtain a hybrid numerical-analytical solution of natural convection in a cavity with volumetric heat generation. The hybrid nature of this approach allows for the establishment of benchmark results in the solution of non-linear partial differential equation systems, including the coupled set of heat and fluid flow equations that govern the steady natural convection problem under consideration. Through performing the GITT, the resulting transformed ODE system is then numerically solved by making use of the subroutine DBVPFD from the IMSL Library. Therefore, numerical results under user prescribed accuracy are obtained for different values of Rayleigh numbers, and the convergence behavior of the proposed eigenfunction expansions is illustrated. Critical comparisons against solutions produced by ANSYS CFX 12.0 are then conducted, which demonstrate excellent agreement. Several sets of reference results for natural convection with volumetric heat generation in a bi-dimensional square cavity are also provided for future verification of numerical results obtained by other researchers.

  14. Effect of cold cap boundary conditions on Joule-heating flow in the sloping bottom cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jiaju; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Tsuzuki, Nobuyoshi; Kikura, Hiroshige

    2015-01-01

    Flow behavior in a sloping bottom cavity is observed to study the effect of cavity shape on flow behavior for Joule-heating flow. In the former study, a simple cubic cavity is applied to study the chaotic flow behavior of Joule-heating convection due to simplification as the real melter case is complicated. In this study, a sloping bottom cavity of the dimension one-fifth of the actual melter is applied to study the detail flow behavior. Carbon electrodes and top cooling surface are placed to make Joule-heating and the chaotic flow behavior. The working fluid is 80%wt Glycerol-water solution with LiCl as electrolyte. To observe the chaotic flow behavior spatio-temporally, Ultrasonic Velocity Profiler (UVP) is applied in this experiment to obtain the one-dimensional continuous velocity profiles in the center line of cavity. Particle Image Velocity (PIV) method is also applied to observe the two-dimensional flow behavior and to examine the cross-check between UVP and PIV for the chaotic flow behavior with temperature distribution. The flow profiles of the former cubic cavity and the sloping bottom cavity are compared changing voltage magnitude and cooling temperature of the electrodes side to analyze the effect of cavity shape under Joule-heating condition. The flow behavior in the upper part of the sloping bottom cavity is similar to that in the cubic cavity in the experiment in whole cavity, the range down-flow achieved is larger than the cubic cavity. (author)

  15. Test results for a heat-treated 4-cell 805 MHz superconducting cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusnak, B.; Shapiro, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    Assessing superconducting technology for potential upgrades to existing proton accelerators as well as applications to future high-current machines necessitates developing expertise in the processing and handling of multicell cavities at useful frequencies. In order to address some of these technological issues, Los Alamos has purchased a 4-cell 805-MHz superconducting cavity from Siemens AG. The individual cavity cells were double-sided titanium heat-treated after equatorial welding, then the irises were welded to complete the cavity assembly. The resulting high RRR (residual resistance ratio) in the cells enables stable operation at higher cavity field levels than are possible with lower RRR material. Additionally, the high thermal conductivity of the material is conducive to rf and high peak power processing. The cavity was also cleaned at Los Alamos with high-pressure water rinsing. Results from the initial cavity tests, utilizing various processing techniques, are presented

  16. MHD natural convection in open inclined square cavity with a heated circular cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosain, Sheikh Anwar; Alim, M. A.; Saha, Satrajit Kumar

    2017-06-01

    MHD natural convection in open cavity becomes very important in many scientific and engineering problems, because of it's application in the design of electronic devices, solar thermal receivers, uncovered flat plate solar collectors having rows of vertical strips, geothermal reservoirs, etc. Several experiments and numerical investigations have been presented for describing the phenomenon of natural convection in open cavity for two decades. MHD natural convection and fluid flow in a two-dimensional open inclined square cavity with a heated circular cylinder was considered. The opposite wall to the opening side of the cavity was first kept to constant heat flux q, at the same time the surrounding fluid interacting with the aperture was maintained to an ambient temperature T∞. The top and bottom wall was kept to low and high temperature respectively. The fluid with different Prandtl numbers. The properties of the fluid are assumed to be constant. As a result a buoyancy force is created inside the cavity due to temperature difference and natural convection is formed inside the cavity. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code are used to discretize the solution domain and represent the numerical result to graphical form.. Triangular meshes are used to obtain the solution of the problem. The streamlines and isotherms are produced, heat transfer parameter Nu are obtained. The results are presented in graphical as well as tabular form. The results show that heat flux decreases for increasing inclination of the cavity and the heat flux is a increasing function of Prandtl number Pr and decreasing function of Hartmann number Ha. It is observed that fluid moves counterclockwise around the cylinder in the cavity. Various recirculations are formed around the cylinder. The almost all isotherm lines are concentrated at the right lower corner of the cavity. The object of this work is to develop a Mathematical model regarding the effect of MHD natural convection flow around

  17. Numerical investigation of double diffusive buoyancy forces induced natural convection in a cavity partially heated and cooled from sidewalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Nikbakhti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a numerical investigation of double-diffusive natural convective heat and mass transfer in a cavity filled with Newtonian fluid. The active parts of two vertical walls of the cavity are maintained at fixed but different temperatures and concentrations, while the other two walls, as well as inactive areas of the sidewalls, are considered to be adiabatic and impermeable to mass transfer. The length of the thermally active part equals half of the height. The non-dimensional forms of governing transport equations that describe double-diffusive natural convection for two-dimensional incompressible flow are functions of temperature or energy, concentration, vorticity, and stream-function. The coupled differential equations are discretized via FDM (Finite Difference Method. The Successive-Over-Relaxation (SOR method is used in the solution of the stream function equation. The analysis has been done for an enclosure with different aspect ratios ranging from 0.5 to 11 for three different combinations of partially active sections. The results are presented graphically in terms of streamlines, isotherms and isoconcentrations. In addition, the heat and mass transfer rate in the cavity is measured in terms of the average Nusselt and Sherwood numbers for various parameters including thermal Grashof number, Lewis number, buoyancy ratio and aspect ratio. It is revealed that the placement order of partially thermally active walls and the buoyancy ratio influence significantly the flow pattern and the corresponding heat and mass transfer performance in the cavity.

  18. Design and performance of a new induction furnace for heat treatment of superconducting radiofrequency niobium cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Rigby, Wayne; Wallace, John; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2012-06-01

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities made of high purity niobium (Nb) are the building blocks of many modern particle accelerators. The fabrication process includes several cycles of chemical and heat treatment at low (∼120 °C) and high (∼800 °C) temperatures. In this contribution, we describe the design and performance of an ultra-high-vacuum furnace which uses an induction heating system to heat treat SRF cavities. Cavities are heated by radiation from the Nb susceptor. By using an all-niobium hot zone, contamination of the Nb cavity by foreign elements during heat treatment is minimized and allows avoiding subsequent chemical etching. The furnace was operated up to 1400 °C with a maximum pressure of ∼1 × 10(-5) Torr and the maximum achievable temperature is estimated to be higher than 2000 °C. Initial results on the performance of a single cell 1.5 GHz cavity made of ingot Nb heat treated at 1200 °C using this new induction furnace and without subsequent chemical etching showed a reduction of the RF losses by a factor of ∼2 compared to cavities made of fine-grain Nb which underwent standard chemical and heat treatments.

  19. Simplified 3d CFD flow simulation of a turbojet disc cavity with conjugate heat transfer

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Snedden, Glen C

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of an actual disc cavity, complete with rotation and conjugate heat transfer, is presented. The model uses a commercially available code with geometrical accuracy including a labyrinth seal...

  20. Experimental and numerical analysis of convective heat losses from spherical cavity receiver of solar concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shewale Vinod C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spherical cavity receiver of solar concentrator is made up of Cu tubing material having cavity diameter 385 mm to analyze the different heat losses such as conduction, convection and radiation. As the convection loss plays major role in heat loss analysis of cavity receiver, the experimental analysis is carried out to study convective heat loss for the temperature range of 55-75°C at 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90° inclination angle of downward facing cavity receiver. The numerical analysis is carried out to study convective heat loss for the low temperature range (55-75°C as well as high temperature range (150-300 °C for no wind condition only. The experimental set-up mainly consists of spherical cavity receiver which is insulated with glass wool insulation to reduce the heat losses from outside surface. The numerical analysis is carried out by using CFD software and the results are compared with the experimental results and found good agreement. The result shows that the convective loss increases with decrease in cavity inclination angle and decreases with decrease in mean cavity receiver temperature. The maximum losses are obtained at 0° inclination angle and the minimum losses are obtained at 90° inclination angle of cavity due to increase in stagnation zone in to the cavity from 0° to 90° inclination. The Nusselt number correlation is developed for the low temperature range 55-75°C based on the experimental data. The analysis is also carried out to study the effect of wind speed and wind direction on convective heat losses. The convective heat losses are studied for two wind speeds (3 m/s and 5 m/s and four wind directions [α is 0° (Side-on wind, 30°, 60°, and 90° (head-on wind]. It is found that the convective heat losses for both wind speed are higher than the losses obtained by no wind test. The highest heat losses are found for wind direction α is 60° with respect to receiver stand and lowest heat losses are found

  1. Mixed convection heat transfer enhancement in a cubic lid-driven cavity containing a rotating cylinder through the introduction of artificial roughness on the heated wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareem, Ali Khaleel; Gao, Shian

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present numerical investigation is to comprehensively analyse and understand the heat transfer enhancement process using a roughened, heated bottom wall with two artificial rib types (R-s and R-c) due to unsteady mixed convection heat transfer in a 3D moving top wall enclosure that has a central rotating cylinder, and to compare these cases with the smooth bottom wall case. These different cases (roughened and smooth bottom walls) are considered at various clockwise and anticlockwise rotational speeds, -5 ≤ Ω ≤ 5, and Reynolds numbers of 5000 and 10 000. The top and bottom walls of the lid-driven cavity are differentially heated, whilst the remaining cavity walls are assumed to be stationary and adiabatic. A standard k-ɛ model for the Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations is used to deal with the turbulent flow. The heat transfer improvement is carefully considered and analysed through the detailed examinations of the flow and thermal fields, the turbulent kinetic energy, the mean velocity profiles, the wall shear stresses, and the local and average Nusselt numbers. It has been concluded that artificial roughness can strongly affect the thermal fields and fluid flow patterns. Ultimately, the heat transfer rate has been dramatically increased by involving the introduced artificial rips. Increasing the cylinder rotational speed or Reynolds number can enhance the heat transfer process, especially when the wall roughness exists.

  2. Transient heating and entropy generation of a fluid inside a large aspect ratio cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cajas, J.C.; Trevino, C.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the transient heating of a fluid inside a vertical cavity of large aspect ratio (height/length) was studied numerically by the use of the SIMPLE algorithm. The heat sources are two vertical plates localized in the side walls of the cavity near the bottom. Calculations were performed for a fixed value of the Prandtl number, Pr = 7, aspect ratio of 12 and six different Rayleigh numbers between 10 3 and 10 6 . The temperature and entropy production fields, the non-dimensional heat flux on the heated plates (given by the average Nusselt number) have been obtained. From a clear dependence on the Rayleigh number, different mechanisms of symmetry break and heat transfer in the cavity were found, where vortices dynamics play a very important role. A universal behavior of the mean values of the overall reduced entropy production rate was found, valid after a short initial transient. (authors)

  3. Numerical Studies on Natural Convection Heat Losses from Open Cubical Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural convection heat losses occurring from cubical open cavities are analysed in this paper. Open cubical cavities of sides 0.1 m, 0.2 m, 0.25 m, 0.5 m, and 1 m with constant temperature back wall boundary conditions and opening ratio of 1 are studied. The Fluent CFD software is used to analyse the three-dimensional (3D cavity models. The studies are carried out for cavities with back wall temperatures between 35°C and 100°C. The effect of cavity inclination on the convective loss is analysed for angles of 0° (cavity facing sideways, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90° (cavity facing vertically downwards. The Rayleigh numbers involved in this study range between 4.5 × 105 and 1.5 × 109. The natural convection loss is found to increase with an increase in back wall temperature. The natural convection loss is observed to decrease with an increase in cavity inclination; the highest convective loss being at 0° and the lowest at 90° inclination. This is observed for all cavities analysed here. Nusselt number correlations involving the effect of Rayleigh number and the cavity inclination angle have been developed from the current studies. These correlations can be used for engineering applications such as electronic cooling, low- and medium-temperature solar thermal systems, passive architecture, and also refrigeration systems.

  4. Cavity assisted measurements of heat and work in optical lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Villa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method to experimentally measure the internal energy of a system of ultracold atoms trapped in optical lattices by coupling them to the fields of two optical cavities. We show that the tunnelling and self-interaction terms of the one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian can be mapped to the field and photon number of each cavity, respectively. We compare the energy estimated using this method with numerical results obtained using the density matrix renormalisation group algorithm. Our method can be employed for the assessment of power and efficiency of thermal machines whose working substance is a strongly correlated many-body system.

  5. The flow distribution in the parallel tubes of the cavity receiver under variable heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Yun; Wang, Yueshe; Hu, Tian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An experimental loop is built to find the flow distribution in the parallel tubes. • With the concentration of heat flux, two-phase flow makes distribution more uneven. • The total flow rate is chosen appropriately for a wider heat flux distribution. • A suitable system pressure is essential for the optimization of flow distribution. - Abstract: As an optical component of tower solar thermal power station, the heliostat mirror reflects sunlight to one point of the heated surface in the solar cavity receiver, called as one-point focusing system. The radiation heat flux concentrated in the cavity receiver is always non-uniform temporally and spatially, which may lead to extremely local over-heat on the receiver evaporation panels. In this paper, an electrical heated evaporating experimental loop, including five parallel vertical tubes, is set up to evaluate the hydrodynamic characteristics of evaporation panels in a solar cavity receiver under various non-uniform heat flux. The influence of the heat flux concentration ratio, total flow rate, and system pressure on the flow distribution of parallel tubes is discussed. It is found that the flow distribution becomes significantly worse with the increase of heat flux and concentration ratio; and as the system pressure decreased, the flow distribution is improved. It is extremely important to obtain these interesting findings for the safe and stable operation of solar cavity receiver, and can also provide valuable references for the design and optimization of operating parameters solar tower power station system.

  6. Optimum thermal design of microchannel heat sink with triangular reentrant cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Guodong; Chai Lei; Wang Haiyan; Zhou Mingzheng; Cui Zhenzhen

    2011-01-01

    The effect of geometric parameters on water flow and heat transfer characteristics in microchannel heat sink with triangular reentrant cavities is numerically investigated. A three-dimensional laminar flow model, consisting of Navier-Stokes equations and energy conservation equation, with the conjugate heat transfer between the silicon base and water taken into consideration is solved numerically. In order to find the optimum geometric parameters, four variables, representing the distance and geometry of the triangular reentrant cavity, are designed. It is found that the vortices in the triangular reentrant cavities lead to chaotic advection and can greatly enhance the convective fluid mixing. The thermal and hydraulic boundary layers are interrupted and the repeated developing flow enhances heat transfer in the constant cross-section segment. Furthermore, the effects of the four design variables on heat transfer augmentation and pressure drop penalty are investigated depending on different Reynolds numbers by using the simulated annealing method. Based on the thermal enhancement factor performance maps, the optimal geometric parameters are obtained in principle. - Research highlights: → The microchannels with different triangular reentrant cavities are numerically investigated. → The heat transfer enhancement attributes to fluid mixing and redeveloped thermal boundary layers. → The optimal distance and geometry of the triangular reentrant cavity are obtained in principle.

  7. Nuclear reactor cavity floor passive heat removal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Tyler A.; Neeley, Gary W.; Inman, James B.

    2018-03-06

    A nuclear reactor includes a reactor core disposed in a reactor pressure vessel. A radiological containment contains the nuclear reactor and includes a concrete floor located underneath the nuclear reactor. An ex vessel corium retention system includes flow channels embedded in the concrete floor located underneath the nuclear reactor, an inlet in fluid communication with first ends of the flow channels, and an outlet in fluid communication with second ends of the flow channels. In some embodiments the inlet is in fluid communication with the interior of the radiological containment at a first elevation and the outlet is in fluid communication with the interior of the radiological containment at a second elevation higher than the first elevation. The radiological containment may include a reactor cavity containing a lower portion of the pressure vessel, wherein the concrete floor located underneath the nuclear reactor is the reactor cavity floor.

  8. Lattice Boltzmann analysis of effect of heating location and Rayleigh number on natural convection in partially heated open ended cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangawane, Krunal Madhukar; Bharti, Ram Prakash; Kumar, Surendra [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand (India)

    2015-08-15

    Natural convection characteristics of a partially heated open ended square cavity have been investigated numerically by using an in-house computational flow solver based on the passive scalar thermal lattice Boltzmann method (PS-TLBM) with D2Q9 (two-dimensional and nine-velocity link) lattice model. The partial part of left wall of the cavity is heated isothermally at either of the three different (bottom, middle and top) locations for the fixed heating length as half of characteristic length (H/2) while the right wall is open to the ambient conditions. The other parts of the cavity are thermally isolated. In particular, the influences of partial heating locations and Rayleigh number (103≤ Ra≤106) in the laminar zone on the local and global natural convection characteristics (such as streamline, vorticity and isotherm contours; centerline variations of velocity and temperature; and local and average Nusselt numbers) have been presented and discussed for the fixed value of the Prandtl number (Pr=0.71). The streamline patterns show qualitatively similar nature for all the three heating cases and Rayleigh numbers, except the change in the recirculation zone which is found to be largest for middle heating case. Isotherm patterns are shifted towards a partially heated wall on increasing Rayleigh number and/or shifting of heating location from bottom to top. Both the local and average Nusselt numbers, as anticipated, shown proportional increase with Rayleigh number. The cavity with middle heating location shown higher heat transfer rate than that for the top and bottom heating cases. Finally, the functional dependence of the average Nusselt number on flow governing parameters is also presented as a closure relationship for the best possible utilization in engineering practices and design.

  9. Heat transfer modelling in thermophotovoltaic cavities using glass media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, T.; Forbes, I.; Penlington, R.; Pearsall, N. [Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). School of Engineering and Technology

    2005-08-15

    Optimisation of heat transfer, and in particular radiative heat transfer in terms of the spectral, angular and spatial radiation distributions, is required to achieve high efficiencies and high electrical power densities for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) conversion. This work examines heat transfer from the radiator to the PV cell in an infinite plate arrangement using three different arrangements of participating dielectric media. The modelling applies the Discrete Ordinates method and assumes fused silica (quartz glass) as the dielectric medium. The arrangement radiator-glass-PV cell (also termed dielectric photon concentration) was found to be superior in terms of efficiency and power density. (author)

  10. Adiabatic partition effect on natural convection heat transfer inside a square cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmoudi Nezhad, Sajjad; Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; yousefi, Tooraj

    2018-01-01

    A steady state and two-dimensional laminar free convection heat transfer in a partitioned cavity with horizontal adiabatic and isothermal side walls is investigated using both experimental and numerical approaches. The experiments and numerical simulations are carried out using a Mach......-Zehnder interferometer and a finite volume code, respectively. A horizontal and adiabatic partition, with angle of θ is adjusted such that it separates the cavity into two identical parts. Effects of this angel as well as Rayleigh number on the heat transfer from the side-heated walls are investigated in this study...... partition angle, the results show that the average Nusselt number and consequently the heat transfer enhance as the Rayleigh number increases. However, for a given Rayleigh number the maximum and the minimum heat transfer occurs at θ = 45°and θ = 90°, respectively. Two responsible mechanisms...

  11. Thermal Protection System Cavity Heating for Simplified and Actual Geometries Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations with Unstructured Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloud, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    Thermal Protection System (TPS) Cavity Heating is predicted using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) on unstructured grids for both simplified cavities and actual cavity geometries. Validation was performed using comparisons to wind tunnel experimental results and CFD predictions using structured grids. Full-scale predictions were made for simplified and actual geometry configurations on the Space Shuttle Orbiter in a mission support timeframe.

  12. Detection of Cavities by Inverse Heat Conduction Boundary Element Method Using Minimal Energy Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, C. Y.

    1997-01-01

    A geometrical inverse heat conduction problem is solved for the infrared scanning cavity detection by the boundary element method using minimal energy technique. By minimizing the kinetic energy of temperature field, boundary element equations are converted to the quadratic programming problem. A hypothetical inner boundary is defined such that the actual cavity is located interior to the domain. Temperatures at hypothetical inner boundary are determined to meet the constraints of measurement error of surface temperature obtained by infrared scanning, and then boundary element analysis is performed for the position of an unknown boundary (cavity). Cavity detection algorithm is provided, and the effects of minimal energy technique on the inverse solution method are investigated by means of numerical analysis

  13. Peripheral ossifying fibroma of oral cavity: histopathologic differential diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral ossifying fibroma is a benign neoplasm that usuallydevelops from gingiva, presenting as an exophytic smooth surfaced pink or red nodular mass that is sessile or is less frequently seen on a pedicle. From the Indian perspective, it is usually noticed in 5th-6th decades of life with female predilection. Microscopically, the tumour shows stratified squamous epithelium and highly cellular fibrous stroma, sparse endothelial proliferation with fibroblasts and dystrophic calcifications. It has to be differentiated histopathologically from pyogenic granuloma, fibroma, peripheral giant cell granuloma, peripheral odontogenic fibroma and fibrous hyperplasia. A case of peripheral ossifying fibroma of maxillary gingiva in a 55-year-old Indian woman is reported.

  14. Spin-dependent heat and thermoelectric currents in a Rashba ring coupled to a photon cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nzar Rauf; Tang, Chi-Shung; Manolescu, Andrei; Gudmundsson, Vidar

    2018-01-01

    Spin-dependent heat and thermoelectric currents in a quantum ring with Rashba spin-orbit interaction placed in a photon cavity are theoretically calculated. The quantum ring is coupled to two external leads with different temperatures. In a resonant regime, with the ring structure in resonance with the photon field, the heat and the thermoelectric currents can be controlled by the Rashba spin-orbit interaction. The heat current is suppressed in the presence of the photon field due to contribution of the two-electron and photon replica states to the transport while the thermoelectric current is not sensitive to changes in parameters of the photon field. Our study opens a possibility to use the proposed interferometric device as a tunable heat current generator in the cavity photon field.

  15. Heat transfer of natural convection in a rectangular cavity with vertical walls of different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Nobuhiro; Fukusako, Shoichiro; Inaba, Hideo

    1978-01-01

    In the present study the behavior of heat transfer in a rectangular cavity with one isothermal vertical wall heated and the other cooled is investigated. Heat transfer coefficients on the vertical walls are measured for fluids with Prandtl number Pr of 3 to 40,000 in case of aspect-ratio H/W from 5 to 47.5 and their correlated results are presented for laminar, transition and turbulent regions, respectively. It is shown that the present arrangement (Nu sub(H) - Ra sub(H)) using the height of cavity as a representative length may significantly be useful in the various heat transfer modes accompanied with flow patterns of them. (auth.)

  16. Heat transfer augmentation of magnetohydrodynamics natural convection in L-shaped cavities utilizing nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourtiji Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study of natural convection heat transfer through an alumina-water nanofluid inside L-shaped cavities in the presence of an external magnetic field is performed. The study has been carried out for a wide range of important parame­ters such as Rayleigh number, Hartmann number, aspect ratio of the cavity and solid volume fraction of the nanofluid. The influence of the nanoparticle, buoyancy force and the magnetic field on the flow and temperature fields have been plotted and discussed. The results show that after a critical Rayleigh number depending on the aspect ratio, the heat transfer in the cavity rises abruptly due to some significant changes in flow field. It is also found that the heat transfer enhances in the presence of the nanoparticles and increases with solid volume fraction of the nanofluid. In addition, the performance of the nanofluid utilization is more effective at high Ray­leigh numbers. The influence of the magnetic field has been also studied and de­duced that it has a remarkable effect on the heat transfer and flow field in the cavity that as the Hartmann number increases the overall Nusselt number is significantly decreased specially at high Rayleigh numbers.

  17. Differential-algebraic solutions of the heat equation

    OpenAIRE

    Buchstaber, Victor M.; Netay, Elena Yu.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we introduce the notion of differential-algebraic ansatz for the heat equation and explicitly construct heat equation and Burgers equation solutions given a solution of a homogeneous non-linear ordinary differential equation of a special form. The ansatz for such solutions is called the $n$-ansatz, where $n+1$ is the order of the differential equation.

  18. Heat and mass transfer in the HYLIFE ICF reactor cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    A quasi-one dimensional method was developed for calculating transient, compressible, viscous flow across a complex array of tubes or jets. The method also accounts for the diffusion of radiation and for heat and mass exchange between the fluid and the jets. The application was to the impulsive crossflow of a lithium plasma through a close-packed annular arrangement of liquid lithium jets, a problem that arises in the design of inertial confinement fusion reactors. It was found that approximately 2/3 of the energy initially contained in the plasma will diffuse into the liquid jets, not including an additional 7-10% which will go towards jet surface vaporization. Nevertheless, the peak hoop stress in the first wall of the reactor appears to derive from direct impact of the plasma, rather than from the subsequent impact of the jets or fragments thereof. (orig.)

  19. Mixed convection in inclined lid driven cavity by Lattice Boltzmann Method and heat flux boundary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Orazio, A; Karimipour, A; Nezhad, A H; Shirani, E

    2014-01-01

    Laminar mixed convective heat transfer in two-dimensional rectangular inclined driven cavity is studied numerically by means of a double population thermal Lattice Boltzmann method. Through the top moving lid the heat flux enters the cavity whereas it leaves the system through the bottom wall; side walls are adiabatic. The counter-slip internal energy density boundary condition, able to simulate an imposed non zero heat flux at the wall, is applied, in order to demonstrate that it can be effectively used to simulate heat transfer phenomena also in case of moving walls. Results are analyzed over a range of the Richardson numbers and tilting angles of the enclosure, encompassing the dominating forced convection, mixed convection, and dominating natural convection flow regimes. As expected, heat transfer rate increases as increases the inclination angle, but this effect is significant for higher Richardson numbers, when buoyancy forces dominate the problem; for horizontal cavity, average Nusselt number decreases with the increase of Richardson number because of the stratified field configuration

  20. Simultaneous optimization of the cavity heat load and trip rates in linacs using a genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balša Terzić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a genetic algorithm-based optimization is used to simultaneously minimize two competing objectives guiding the operation of the Jefferson Lab’s Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility linacs: cavity heat load and radio frequency cavity trip rates. The results represent a significant improvement to the standard linac energy management tool and thereby could lead to a more efficient Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility configuration. This study also serves as a proof of principle of how a genetic algorithm can be used for optimizing other linac-based machines.

  1. Thermal non-equilibrium heat transfer in a porous cavity in the presence of bio-chemical heat source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazari Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with thermal non-equilibrium natural convection in a square cavity filled with a porous medium in the presence of a biomass which is transported in the cavity. The biomass can consume a secondary moving substrate. The physics of the presented problem is related to the analysis of heat and mass transfer in a composting process that controlled by internal heat generation. The intensity of the bio-heat source generated in the cavity is equal to the rate of consumption of the substrate by the biomass. It is assumed that the porous medium is homogeneous and isotropic. A two-field model that represents the fluid and solid phase temperature fields separately is used for energy equation. A simplified Monod model is introduced along with the governing equations to describe the consumption of the substrate by the biomass. In other word, the transient biochemical heat source which is dependent on a solute concentration is considered in the energy equations. Investigation of the biomass activity and bio-chemical heat generation in the case of thermal non-equilibrium assumption has not been considered in the literature and they are open research topics. The effects of thermal non-equilibrium model on heat transfer, flow pattern and biomass transfer are investigated. The effective parameters which have a direct impact on the generated bio-chemical heat source are also presented. The influences of the non-dimensional parameters such as fluid-to-solid conductivity ratio on the temperature distribution are presented.

  2. Conjugate heat transfer in a porous cavity filled with nano-fluids and heated by a triangular thick wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamkha, Ali J.; Ismael, Muneer A.

    2013-01-01

    The conjugate natural convection-conduction heat transfer in a square domain composed of nano-fluids filled porous cavity heated by a triangular solid wall is studied under steady-state conditions. The vertical and horizontal walls of the triangular solid wall are kept isothermal and at the same hot temperature Th. The other boundaries surrounding the porous cavity are kept adiabatic except the right vertical wall where it is kept isothermally at the lower temperature T c . Equations governing the heat transfer in the triangular wall and heat and nano-fluid flow, based on the Darcy model, in the nano-fluid-saturated porous medium together with the derived relation of the interface temperature are solved numerically using the over-successive relaxation finite-difference method. A temperature independent nano-fluids properties model is adopted. Three nano-particle types dispersed in one base fluid (water) are investigated. The investigated parameters are the nano-particles volume fraction φ (0-0.2), Rayleigh number Ra (10-1000), solid wall to base-fluid saturated porous medium thermal conductivity ratio K ro (0.44, 1, 23.8), and the triangular wall thickness D (0.1-1). The results are presented in the conventional form; contours of streamlines and isotherms and the local and average Nusselt numbers. At a very low Rayleigh number Ra = 10, a significant enhancement in heat transfer within the porous cavity with φ is observed. Otherwise, the heat transfer may be enhanced or deteriorated with φ depending on the wall thickness D and the Rayleigh number Ra. At high Rayleigh numbers and low conductivity ratios, critical values of D, regardless of 4, are observed and accounted. (authors)

  3. A concentrated solar cavity absorber with direct heat transfer through recirculating metallic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, M. R. I., E-mail: islamrabiul@yahoo.com; Saha, Manabendra, E-mail: manabendra.saha@adelaide.edu.au, E-mail: manab04me@gmail.com; Beg, R. A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi-6204 (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    A recirculating flow solar particle cavity absorber (receiver) is modeled to investigate the flow behavior and heat transfer characteristics of a novel developing concept. It features a continuous recirculating flow of non-reacting metallic particles (black silicon carbide) with air which are used as a thermal enhancement medium. The aim of the present study is to numerically investigate the thermal behavior and flow characteristics of the proposed concept. The proposed solar particle receiver is modeled using two phase discrete particle model (DPM), RNG k-flow model and discrete ordinate (DO) radiation model. Numerical analysis is carried out considering a solar receiver with only air and the mixture of non-reacting particles and air as a heat transfer as well as heat carrying medium. The parametric investigation is conducted considering the incident solar flux on the receiver aperture and changing air flow rate and recirculation rate inside the receiver. A stand-alone feature of the recirculating flow solar particle receiver concept is that the particles are directly exposed to concentrated solar radiation monotonously through recirculating flow inside the receiver and results in efficient irradiation absorption and convective heat transfer to air that help to achieve high temperature air and consequently increase in thermal efficiency. This paper presents, results from the developed concept and highlights its flow behavior and potential to enhance the heat transfer from metallic particles to air by maximizing heat carrying capacity of the heat transfer medium. The imposed milestones for the present system will be helpful to understand the radiation absorption mechanism of the particles in a recirculating flow based receiver, the thermal transport between the particles, the air and the cavity, and the fluid dynamics of the air and particle in the cavity.

  4. Adiabatic partition effect on natural convection heat transfer inside a square cavity: experimental and numerical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudinezhad, S.; Rezania, A.; Yousefi, T.; Shadloo, M. S.; Rosendahl, L. A.

    2018-02-01

    A steady state and two-dimensional laminar free convection heat transfer in a partitioned cavity with horizontal adiabatic and isothermal side walls is investigated using both experimental and numerical approaches. The experiments and numerical simulations are carried out using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and a finite volume code, respectively. A horizontal and adiabatic partition, with angle of θ is adjusted such that it separates the cavity into two identical parts. Effects of this angel as well as Rayleigh number on the heat transfer from the side-heated walls are investigated in this study. The results are performed for the various Rayleigh numbers over the cavity side length, and partition angles ranging from 1.5 × 105 to 4.5 × 105, and 0° to 90°, respectively. The experimental verification of natural convective flow physics has been done by using FLUENT software. For a given adiabatic partition angle, the results show that the average Nusselt number and consequently the heat transfer enhance as the Rayleigh number increases. However, for a given Rayleigh number the maximum and the minimum heat transfer occurs at θ = 45°and θ = 90°, respectively. Two responsible mechanisms for this behavior, namely blockage ratio and partition orientation, are identified. These effects are explained by numerical velocity vectors and experimental temperatures contours. Based on the experimental data, a new correlation that fairly represents the average Nusselt number of the heated walls as functions of Rayleigh number and the angel of θ for the aforementioned ranges of data is proposed.

  5. Size limitations for microwave cavity to simulate heating of blanket material in fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, D.

    1987-01-01

    The power profile in the blanket material of a nuclear fusion reactor can be simulated by using microwaves at 200 MHz. Using these microwaves, ceramic breeder materials can be thermally tested to determine their acceptability as blanket materials without entering a nuclear fusion environment. A resonating cavity design is employed which can achieve uniform cross sectional heating in the plane transverse to the neutron flux. As the sample size increases in height and width, higher order modes, above the dominant mode, are propagated and destroy the approximation to the heating produced in a fusion reactor. The limits at which these modes develop are determined in the paper

  6. Wind effects on convective heat loss from a cavity receiver for a parabolic concentrating solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, R.Y. [California State Polytechnic Univ., Pomoma, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1993-09-01

    Tests were performed to determine the convective heat loss characteristics of a cavity receiver for a parabolid dish concentrating solar collector for various tilt angles and wind speeds of 0-24 mph. Natural (no wind) convective heat loss from the receiver is the highest for a horizontal receiver orientation and negligible with the reveler facing straight down. Convection from the receiver is substantially increased by the presence of side-on wind for all receiver tilt angles. For head-on wind, convective heat loss with the receiver facing straight down is approximately the same as that for side-on wind. Overall it was found that for wind speeds of 20--24 mph, convective heat loss from the receiver can be as much as three times that occurring without wind.

  7. Flow and heat transfer in gas turbine disk cavities subject to nonuniform external pressure field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, R.P.; Kim, Y.W.; Tong, T.W. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Injestion of hot gas from the main-stream gas path into turbine disk cavities, particularly the first-stage disk cavity, has become a serious concern for the next-generation industrial gas turbines featuring high rotor inlet temperature. Fluid temperature in the cavities increases further due to windage generated by fluid drag at the rotating and stationary surfaces. The resulting problem of rotor disk heat-up is exacerbated by the high disk rim temperature due to adverse (relatively flat) temperature profile of the mainstream gas in the annular flow passage of the turbine. A designer is concerned about the level of stresses in the turbine rotor disk and its durability, both of which are affected significantly by the disk temperature distribution. This distribution also plays a major role in the radial position of the blade tip and thus, in establishing the clearance between the tip and the shroud. To counteract mainstream gas ingestion as well as to cool the rotor and the stator disks, it is necessary to inject cooling air (bled from the compressor discharge) into the wheel space. Since this bleeding of compressor air imposes a penalty on the engine cycle performance, the designers of disk cavity cooling and sealing systems need to accomplish these tasks with the minimum possible amount of bleed air without risking disk failure. This requires detailed knowledge of the flow characteristics and convective heat transfer in the cavity. The flow in the wheel space between the rotor and stator disks is quite complex. It is usually turbulent and contains recirculation regions. Instabilities such as vortices oscillating in space have been observed in the flow. It becomes necessary to obtain both a qualitative understanding of the general pattern of the fluid motion as well as a quantitative map of the velocity and pressure fields.

  8. Numerical study of natural turbulent convection of nanofluids in a tall cavity heated from below

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mebrouk Ridha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper a numerical study of natural turbulent convection in a tall cavity filled with nanofluids. The cavity has a heat source embedded on its bottom wall, while the left, right and top walls of the cavity are maintained at a relatively low temperature. The working fluid is a water based nanofluid having three nanoparticle types: alumina, copper and copper oxid. The influence of pertinent parameters such as Rayleigh number, the type of nanofluid and solid volume fraction of nanoparticles on the cooling performance is studied. Steady forms of twodimensional Reynolds-Averaged-Navier-Stokes equations and conservation equations of mass and energy, coupled with the Boussinesq approximation, are solved by the control volume based discretisation method employing the SIMPLE algorithm for pressure-velocity coupling. Turbulence is modeled using the standard k-ε model. The Rayleigh number, Ra, is varied from 2.491009 to 2.491011. The volume fractions of nanoparticles were varied in the interval 0≤φ≤ 6% . Stream lines, isotherms, velocity profiles and Temperature profiles are presented for various combinations of Ra, the type of nanofluid and solid volume fraction of nanoparticles. The results are reported in the form of average Nusselt number on the heated wall. It is shown that for all values of Ra, the average heat transfer rate from the heat source increases almost linearly and monotonically as the solid volume fraction increases. Finally the average heat transfer rate takes on values that decrease according to the ordering Cu, CuO and Al2O3.

  9. Non-homogeneous model for a side heated square cavity filled with a nanofluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celli, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A side heated two dimensional square cavity filled with a nanofluid is studied. • A non-homogeneous model is taken into account. • The properties of the nanofluid are functions of the fraction of nanoparticles. • Low-Rayleigh numbers yield a non-homogeneous distribution of the nanoparticles. -- Abstract: A side heated two dimensional square cavity filled with a nanofluid is here studied. The side heating condition is obtained by imposing two different uniform temperatures at the vertical boundary walls. The horizontal walls are assumed to be adiabatic and all boundaries are assumed to be impermeable to the base fluid and to the nanoparticles. In order to study the behavior of the nanofluid, a non-homogeneous model is taken into account. The thermophysical properties of the nanofluid are assumed to be functions of the average volume fraction of nanoparticles dispersed inside the cavity. The definitions of the nondimensional governing parameters (Rayleigh number, Prandtl number and Lewis number) are exactly the same as for the clear fluids. The distribution of the nanoparticles shows a particular sensitivity to the low Rayleigh numbers. The average Nusselt number at the vertical walls is sensitive to the average volume fraction of the nanoparticles dispersed inside the cavity and it is also sensitive to the definition of the thermophysical properties of the nanofluid. Highly viscous base fluids lead to a critical behavior of the model when the simulation is performed in pure conduction regime. The solution of the problem is obtained numerically by means of a Galerkin finite element method

  10. Buoyancy Induced Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Inside a Prismatic Cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aich, Walid; Omri, Ahmed; Ben Nasrallah, Sassi

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with a numerical simulation of natural convection flows in a prismatic cavity. This configuration represents solar energy collectors, conventional attic spaces of greenhouses and buildings with pitched roofs. The third dimension of the cavity is considered long enough for the flow to be considered 2D. The base is submitted to a uniform heat flux, the two top inclined walls are symmetrically cooled and the two vertical walls are assumed to be perfect thermal insulators. The aim of the study is to examine the thermal exchange by natural convection and effects of buoyancy forces on flow structure. The study provides useful information on the flow structure sensitivity to the governing parameters, the Rayleigh number (Ra) and the aspect ratio of the cavity. The hydrodynamic and thermal fields, the local Nusselt number, the temperature profile at the bottom and at the center of the cavity are investigated for a large range of Ra. The effect of the aspect ratio is examined for different values of Ra. Based on the authors knowledge, no previous results on natural convection in this geometry exist

  11. Effects of cavity surface temperature on mechanical properties of specimens with and without a weld line in rapid heat cycle molding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guilong; Zhao, Guoqun; Wang, Xiaoxin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Higher cavity surface temperature reduces tensile strength of non-weldline part. ► Higher cavity surface temperature increases weldline tensile strength for PS and PP. ► Higher cavity surface temperature reduces weldline tensile strength for ABS, ABS/PMMA, ABS/PMMA/nano-C a CO 3 and FRPP. ► Tensile strength is reduced more by the weldline than impact strength. ► FRPP has the lowest weld line factor than other plastics without reinforced fibers. - Abstract: Rapid heat cycle molding (RHCM) is a recently developed injection molding technology to enhance surface esthetic of the parts. By rapid heating and cooling of mold cavity surfaces in molding process, it can greatly alleviate or even eliminate the surface defects such as flow mark, weld line, glass fiber rich surface, silver mark, jetting mark, and swirl mark, and also improve gloss finish and dimensional accuracy without prolonging the molding cycle. Besides surface esthetic, mechanical property is also a very import issue for the molded plastic part. The aim of this study is focusing on the effects of the cavity surface temperature just before filling, T cs , in RHCM on the mechanical strength of the specimen with and without weld line. Six kinds of typical plastics including polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene/polymethylmethacrylate (ABS/PMMA), ABS/PMMA/nano-C a CO 3 and glass fiber reinforced polypropylene (FRPP) are used in experiments. The specimens with and without a weld line are produced with the different T cs on the developed electric-heating RHCM system. Tensile tests and notched Izod impact tests are conducted to characterize the mechanical strength of the specimens molded with different cavity surface temperatures. Simulations, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical microscope are implemented to explain the impact mechanism of T cs on mechanical properties

  12. Optimization of the RF cavity heat load and trip rates for CEBAF at 12 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, He [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Roblin, Yves R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Freyberger, Arne P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Krafft, Geoffrey A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Terzic, Balsa P. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility at JLab has 200 RF cavities in the north linac and the south linac respectively after the 12 GeV upgrade. The purpose of this work is to simultaneously optimize the heat load and the trip rate for the cavities and to reconstruct the pareto-optimal front in a timely manner when some of the cavities are turned down. By choosing an efficient optimizer and strategically creating the initial gradients, the pareto-optimal front for no more than 15 cavities down can be re-established within 20 seconds.

  13. Numerical study of a heated cavity insulated by a horizontal laminar jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besbes, S.; Mhiri, H.; El Golli, S. [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir (Tunisia). Lab. de Mecanique des Fluides et Thermique; Le Palec, G.; Bournot, P. [Institut de Mecanique de Marseille (France)

    2001-08-01

    In this work, we present a numerical study of the thermal insulation of a heated two dimensional cavity limited on its superior part by a horizontal plane air jet. The lower horizontal wall is isothermal, while the two vertical walls are adiabatics. A finite difference method based on the stream function-vorticity formulation is developed to solve the dimensionless Navier-Stokes and energy equations resulting from some assumptions. The results allowed us to point out two flow configurations: if natural convection prevails, the hot jet issuing from the nozzle diffuses upwards, and consequently, the cavity cannot be insulated correctly. However, the use of an aspiration zone can then improve the insulation. When forced convection predominates, the hydrodynamic barrier is conserved, and the enclosure is also thermally well confined. (author)

  14. Enhanced heat transfer in partially open square cavities with thin fin by using electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasayapanand, N.; Kiatsiriroat, T.

    2009-01-01

    Numerical modeling of the electric field effect on the natural convection in the partially open square cavities with thin fin attached is investigated. The interactions among electric, flow, and temperature fields are analyzed by using a computational fluid dynamics technique. It is found that the flow and heat transfer enhancements are a decreasing function of the Rayleigh number. Moreover, the volume flow rate and heat transfer coefficient are substantially improved by electrohydrodynamic especially at low aperture size, high aperture position, and high inclined angle. Surprisingly, the maximum convective heat transfer is obtained at the minimum electrical energy consumption by placing electrodes at a suitable position. The optimum electrode arrangements for both single fin and multiple fins are also achieved

  15. Numerical study of turbulent heat transfer along a heated rod in an annular cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batta, A.; Class, A.; Daubner, M.; Gnieser, S.; Stieglitz, R.

    2008-01-01

    Fundamental knowledge on the turbulent convective heat transfer from a rod into liquid metal is of crucial importance for the design of advanced liquid metal operated nuclear systems since a single rod is the basic element of a fuel rod assembly. Therefore, a numerical investigation of the heated rod experiment at KALLA (KArlsruhe Liquid metal LAboratory) has been performed. This experiment investigates the turbulent heat transfer from a heated rod placed concentrically within in a cylindrical tube in a developing flow of a heavy liquid metal (HLM, here Pb 45 Bi 55 Eutectic) at reactor typical power levels and dimensions. It is set up with thermocouples (TCs), a traversable Pitot tube and three thermocouple rakes consisting of numerous thermocouples (TCs). The concentricity is ensured by means of mechanical spacers placed axially equidistant. This article concentrates on the numerical investigation of the impact of the experimental instrumentation on the developing flow pattern and temperature field. In particular, the influence of spacers which distort the velocity profile as well of a potential contact of the spacer with the heated rod changing the heat conduction regime are considered numerically in this paper using the STAR-CD code. The turbulent flow simulation assumes axis-symmetry and uses the SST turbulence model. The simulation results exhibit a flow pattern that is substantially altered by spacers. Hence, the flow can not be considered to be axis-symmetric. This in turn yields that the convective heat transfer from the heated rod towards the spacer region is reduced leading to a temperature rise in spacer region, which represents the maximum value in this domain. As a consequence the entire three-dimensional test section must be modelled in order to correctly represent the physics and to allow an adequate interpretation of the experimental data. (orig.)

  16. Calculating the heat transfer coefficient of frame profiles with internal cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noyé, Peter Anders; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2004-01-01

    . The heat transfer coefficient is determined by two-dimensional numerical calculations and by measurements. Calculations are performed in Therm (LBNL (2001)), which is developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA. The calculations are performed in accordance with the future European standards...... correspondence between measured and calculated values. Hence, when determining the heat transfer coefficient of frame profiles with internal cavities by calculations, it is necessary to apply a more detailed radiation exchange model than described in the prEN ISO 10077-2 standard. The ISO-standard offers......Determining the energy performance of windows requires detailed knowledge of the thermal properties of their different elements. A series of standards and guidelines exist in this area. The thermal properties of the frame can be determined either by detailed two-dimensional numerical methods...

  17. Numerical investigation on mixed convection flow in a trapezoidal cavity heated from below

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tmartnhad, Ilham; El Alami, Mustapha; Najam, Mostafa; Oubarra, Abdelaziz

    2008-01-01

    A numerical study of mixed convection from a trapezoidal cavity is carried out. Two openings are adjusted on the plates of the cavity. The inlet opening is horizontal or vertical, while the outlet one is placed horizontally on the bottom wall. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a control volume method and the SIMPLEC algorithm is used for the treatment of pressure-velocity coupling. Special emphasis is given to detail the effect of the Reynolds number on the heat transfer generated by mixed convection. The results are given for the parameters of control as, Rayleigh number (Ra = 10 5 ), Prandtl number (Pr = 0.72), the inlet and outlet opening width are respectively (C 1 = 0.38 and C 2 = 0.25), the inclination of the tilted wall (θ = 22 deg. ) and Reynolds number (10 ≤ Re ≤ 1000). The results show that the flow structure and the heat transfer depends significantly on the inlet opening site. Two principal kinds of the problem solution are raised

  18. Turbulent heavy liquid metal heat transfer along a heated rod in an annular cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefhalm, C.-H.; Tak, N.-I.; Piecha, H.; Stieglitz, R.

    2004-01-01

    Heavy liquid metals (HLM) are considered as coolant and spallation material in accelerator driven systems (ADS), because of their good molecular heat conductivity. This property leads to a separation of the spatial extension of thermal and viscous boundary layers. Commercially available computational fluid dynamic codes (CFD) assume an analogy of momentum and energy transfer, which is problematic for liquid metals flow. Therefore, benchmark experiments are required, in order to validate codes or modify existing models used therein. Within this article an experimental and numerical study of a thermally developing turbulent lead bismuth (PbBi) flow along a uniformly heated rod in a circular tube is presented. Local temperatures and velocity distributions are measured using thermocouples and Pitot tubes. The data are compared to simulation results computed with the CFX code package. The measured velocity profiles coincide nearly perfect with the simulation results. However, discrepancies up to 7% between the measured and computed temperatures appear. A minor part of the deviations can be explained by the imperfect experimental set-up. But, the measured shape of the thermal boundary is different to the calculated one, indicating the inadequateness of the presently used models describing the turbulent heat transport within the thermal boundary layer

  19. Spread of smoke and heat along narrow air cavity in double-skin façade fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chow Lun Cheuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A scenario on double-skin façade fire was identified earlier for hazard assessment. A flashover room fire occurred next to the façade, broke the interior glass pane and spread to the façade cavity. As observed in experiments, hot gas moved up as a vertical channel flow for narrow façade cavity. Heat and smoke spread along the narrow air cavity of a double-skin façade will be studied in this paper. A simple mathematical model is developed from basic heat transfer theory for studying the vertical air temperature profiles of the hot gas flowing along the cavity. Assuming one-dimensional flow for hot gas moving up the façade cavity, conservation equations on mass and enthalpy were solved. Experimental results on two double-skin façade rigs of height 6 m and 15 m with narrow cavity depth were used to justify the results. A total of 11 tests were carried out. Correlation expressions between cavity air temperature and the height above ceiling of the fire room were derived.

  20. Analysis of heat transfer regulation and modification employing intermittently emplaced porous cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vafai, K.; Huang, P.C.

    1994-01-01

    The present work forms a fundamental investigation on the effects of using intermittently porous cavities for regulating and modifying the flow and temperature fields and therefore changing the skin friction and heat transfer characteristics of an external surface. A general flow model that accounts for the effects of the impermeable boundary and inertial effects is used to describe the flow inside the porous region. Solutions of the problem have been carried out using a finite-difference method through the use of a stream function-vorticity transformation. Various interesting characteristics of the flow and temperature fields in the composite layer are analyzed and discussed in detail. The effects of various governing dimensionless parameters, such as the Darcy number, Reynolds number, Prandtl number, the inertia parameter as well as the effects of pertinent geometric parameters are thoroughly explored. Furthermore, the interactive effects of the embedded porous substrates on skin friction and heat transfer characteristics of an external surface are analyzed. The configuration analyzed in this work provides an innovative approach in altering the frictional and heat transfer characteristics of an external surface. 27 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  1. Computational simulation of turbulent natural convection in a volumetrically heated square cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Camila Braga; Su, Jian; Niceno, Bojan

    2012-01-01

    This work aims to analyze the turbulent natural convection in a volumetrically heated fluid with similar characteristics of an oxide layer of a molten core in the lower head of the pressure vessel. The simulations were carried out in a square cavity with isothermal walls, for Rayleigh numbers (Ra) ranging from 10 9 to 10 11 . Different turbulence models based on Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations were studied, such as the standard k - ε, low-Reynolds-k - ε, and Shear Stress Transport (SST), using the open-source Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code - Open FOAM (Open Field Operation and Manipulation). The results of the three turbulence models were compared versus the results of experimental correlations and other authors’ simulations, and the conclusion was that the most promising model proves to be the SST, due to its accuracy and robustness. (author)

  2. The pore of the leaf cavity of Azolla species: teat cell differentiation and cell wall projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veys, P; Lejeune, A; Van Hove, C

    2002-02-01

    The differentiation of the specialized secretory teat cells of the leaf cavity pore of Azolla species was investigated at the ultrastructural level with emphasis on their peculiar cell wall projections. The results indicated that the projections are formed as soon as the teat cells complete their differentiation and that their production is principally associated with changes in endoplasmic reticulum profiles. The number of projections increases with the teat cell age and is stimulated under salt and P deficiency stresses. Salt stress also promotes their emergence on Azolla species that under normal conditions do not produce projections. Cytochemical tests on different Azolla species showed that the projection composition is almost identical: proteins, acidic polysaccharides, and pectin are always detected. This study revealed that Azolla teat cell projections differ fundamentally from other types of hitherto described cell wall projections that are considered as remnant structures from cell separation. In contrast, in Azolla teat cells projections are actively produced and compounds are excreted by an exocytotic mechanism. The possible role of the projections in the symbiosis of Azolla spp. with Anabaena azollae is discussed.

  3. Thermal modeling of a greenhouse integrated to an aquifer coupled cavity flow heat exchanger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, V.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141 008, Punjab (India); Sharma, S.K. [Energy Research Centre, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 017, Punjab (India)

    2007-06-15

    A thermal model is developed for heating and cooling of an agricultural greenhouse integrated with an aquifer coupled cavity flow heat exchanger system (ACCFHES). The ACCFHES works on the principal of utilizing deep aquifer water available at the ground surface through an irrigation tube well already installed in every agricultural field at constant year-round temperature of 24 C. The analysis is based on the energy balance equations for different components of the greenhouse. Using the derived analytical expressions, a computer program is developed in C{sup ++} for computing the hourly greenhouse plant and room air temperature for various design and climatic parameters. Experimental validation of the developed model is carried out using the measured plant and room air temperature data of the greenhouse (in which capsicum is grown) for the winter and summer conditions of the year 2004-2005 at Chandigarh (31 N and 78 E), Punjab, India. It is observed that the predicted and measured values are in close agreement. Greenhouse room air and plant temperature is maintained 6-7 K and 5-6 K below ambient, respectively for an extreme summer day and 7-8 K and 5-6 K above ambient, respectively for an extreme winter night. Finally, parametric studies are conducted to observe the effect of various operating parameters such as mass of the plant, area of the plant, mass flow rate of the circulating air and area of the ACCFHES on the greenhouse room air and plant temperature. (author)

  4. Combined Natural Convection and Radiation Heat Transfer of Various Absorbing-Emitting-Scattering Media in a Square Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical model is developed to simulate combined natural convection and radiation heat transfer of various anisotropic absorbing-emitting-scattering media in a 2D square cavity based on the discrete ordinate (DO method and Boussinesq assumption. The effects of Rayleigh number, optical thickness, scattering ratio, scattering phase function, and aspect ratio of square cavity on the behaviors of heat transfer are studied. The results show that the heat transfer of absorbing-emitting-scattering media is the combined results of radiation and natural convection, which depends on the physical properties and the aspect ratio of the cavity. When the natural convection becomes significant, the convection heat transfer is enhanced, and the distributions of NuR and Nuc along the walls are obviously distorted. As the optical thickness increases, NuR along the hot wall decreases. As the scattering ratio decreases, the NuR along the walls decreases. At the higher aspect ratio, the more intensive thermal radiation and natural convection are formed, which increase the radiation and convection heat fluxes. This paper provides the theoretical research for the optimal thermal design and practical operation of the high temperature industrial equipments.

  5. Advanced Heat Transfer Studies in Superfluid Helium for Large-scale High-yield Production of Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Benedikt J; Schirm, Karl-Martin; Koettig, Torsten

    Oscillating Superleak Transducers (OSTs) can be used to localize quenches in superconducting radio frequency cavities. In the presented work the occurring thermal effects during such events are investigated both theoretically and experimentally. In the theoretical part the entire heat transfer process from the heat generation to the detection is covered. The experimental part focuses on the effects in superfluid helium. Previous publications observed the detection of an OST signal that was faster than the second sound velocity. This fast propagation could be verified in dedicated small scale experiments. Resistors were used to simulate the quench spots under controlled conditions. The three dimensional propagation of second sound was linked to OST signals for the first time, which improves the understanding of the OST signal and allows to gather information about the heating pulse. Additionally, OSTs were used as a tool for quench localisation on a real size cavity. Their sensitivity as well as the time resol...

  6. Preliminary experimental insights into differential heat impact among lithic artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Bustos-Pérez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of thermally altered and broken flint artifacts is common at archaeological sites. Most studies focus their attention on the effects of heat treatment on flint to improve knapping qualities, disregarding the effects of fire over flint under uncontrolled conditions. This paper aims to show how under uncontrolled heating processes flint artifacts develop different heat alterations (such as levels of breakage, presence of scales, etc. as a result of vertical distribution, volume or raw material and to establish a gradient of rock changes and behavior. Artifacts where macroscopically analyzed and a series of uncontrolled heating experiments through the distribution of flint blanks under two hearths were carried out, allowing a comparison of the before and after of the blanks. Preliminary results show how levels of breakage, surface alteration or development of heat alteration features can be differentiated according to artifact volume, vertical distribution and level of surface alteration. Results also show how two different raw materials react differently to similar thermal impact, and how surface alteration reacts at different rhythm in the case of recycled artifacts. We conclude that levels of thermal alteration can be differentiated through macroscopic analysis of flint surface.

  7. Influence of inclined Lorentz force on micropolar fluids in a square cavity with uniform and nonuniform heated thin plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Periyadurai, K. [Department of Mathematics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046, Tamil Nadu (India); Muthtamilselvan, M., E-mail: muthtamill@yahoo.co.in [Department of Mathematics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046, Tamil Nadu (India); Doh, Deog-Hee [Division of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering,Korea Maritime Ocean University, Busan 606781 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    In the present study, the effect of inclined magnetic field on natural convection of micro-polar fluid in a square cavity with uniform and nonuniform heated thin plate built in centrally is investigated numerically. The vertical walls are cooled while the top and bottom walls are insulated. The thin plate is assumed to be isothermal with a linearly varying temperature. The governing equations were solved by finite volume method using second order central difference scheme and upwind differencing scheme. The numerical investigation is carried out for different governing parameters namely, the Hartmann number, inclination angle of magnetic field, Rayleigh number, vortex viscosity and source non-uniformity parameters. The result shows that the heat transfer rate is decreased when increasing Hartmann number, inclination angle of magnetic field and vortex viscosity parameter. It is found that the non-uniformity parameter affects the fluid flow and temperature distribution especially for the high Rayleigh numbers. Finally, the overall heat transfer rate of micro-polar fluids is found to be smaller than that of Newtonian fluid. - Highlights: • We investigate the effect of inclined magnetic field on micropolar fluid in a cavity. • The effects of uniform and non-uniform heated plate are studied. • The present numerical results are compared with the experimental results. • The addition of vortex viscosity parameter declines the heat transfer performance. • The high heat transfer rate occurs in the vertical plate compared to the horizontal one.

  8. Heating uniformity and differential heating of insects in almonds associated with radio frequency energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radio frequency (RF) treatments have potential as alternatives to chemical fumigation for phytosanitary disinfestation treatments in the dried nut industry. To develop effective RF treatment protocols for almonds, it is desirable to determine heating uniformity and the occurrence of differential hea...

  9. Heat transfer by natural convection into an horizontal cavity; Transferencia de calor por conveccion natural en una cavidad horizontal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arevalo J, P

    1998-12-31

    At this thesis it is studied the heat transfer by natural convection in an horizontal cavity, it is involved a boiling`s part that is described the regimes and correlations differences for boiling`s curve. It is designed a horizontal cavity for realize the experimental part and it`s mention from equipment or instrumentation to succeed in a experimentation that permits to realize the analysis of heat transfer, handling as water fluid at atmospheric pressure and where it`s present process from natural convection involving part boiling`s subcooled. The system consists of heater zone submerged in a horizontal cavity with water. Once part finished experimental with information to obtained it`s proceeded to obtain a correlation, realized starting from analysis dimensionless such as: Jakob, Bond and Grasoft (Boiling) besides of knows in natural convection: Prandtl and Nusselt. The mathematical model explains the behavior for natural convection continued part boiling`s subcooled. It is realize analysis graphics too where it`s show comparing with Globe Dropkin and Catton equations by natural convection with bottom heating. (Author)

  10. Heat transfer by natural convection into an horizontal cavity; Transferencia de calor por conveccion natural en una cavidad horizontal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arevalo J, P

    1999-12-31

    At this thesis it is studied the heat transfer by natural convection in an horizontal cavity, it is involved a boiling`s part that is described the regimes and correlations differences for boiling`s curve. It is designed a horizontal cavity for realize the experimental part and it`s mention from equipment or instrumentation to succeed in a experimentation that permits to realize the analysis of heat transfer, handling as water fluid at atmospheric pressure and where it`s present process from natural convection involving part boiling`s subcooled. The system consists of heater zone submerged in a horizontal cavity with water. Once part finished experimental with information to obtained it`s proceeded to obtain a correlation, realized starting from analysis dimensionless such as: Jakob, Bond and Grasoft (Boiling) besides of knows in natural convection: Prandtl and Nusselt. The mathematical model explains the behavior for natural convection continued part boiling`s subcooled. It is realize analysis graphics too where it`s show comparing with Globe Dropkin and Catton equations by natural convection with bottom heating. (Author)

  11. Mixed convection in a nanofluid filled-cavity with partial slip subjected to constant heat flux and inclined magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismael, Muneer A. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Engineering College, University of Basrah, Basrah (Iraq); Mansour, M.A. [Department of Mathematics, Assuit University, Faculty of Science, Assuit (Egypt); Chamkha, Ali J. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Al-Khobar 31952 (Saudi Arabia); Prince Sultan Endowment for Energy and Environment, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Al-Khobar 31952 (Saudi Arabia); Rashad, A.M., E-mail: am_rashad@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Aswan University, Faculty of Science, Aswan 81528 (Egypt)

    2016-10-15

    Mixed convection in a lid-driven square cavity filled with Cu-water nanofluid and subjected to inclined magnetic field is investigated in this paper. Partial slip effect is considered along the lid driven horizontal walls. A constant heat flux source on the left wall is considered, meanwhile the right vertical wall is cooled isothermally. The remainder cavity walls are thermally insulted. A control finite volume method is used as a numerical appliance of the governing equations. Six pertinent parameters were studied these; the orientation of the magnetic field (Φ=0–360°), Richardson number (Ri=0.001–1000), Hartman number (Ha=0–100), the size and position of the heat source (B=0.2–0.8, D=0.3–0.7, respectively), nanoparticles volume fraction (ϕ=0.0–0.1), and the lid-direction of the horizontal walls (λ=±1) where the positive sign means lid-driven to the right while the negative sign means lid-driven to the left. The results show that the orientation and the strength of the magnetic field can play a significant role in controlling the convection under the effect of partial slip. It is also found that the natural convection decreases with increasing the length of the heat source for all ranges of the studied parameters, while it is do so due to the vertical distance up to Hartman number of 50, beyond this value the natural convection decreases with lifting the heat source narrower to the top wall. - Highlights: • Partial slip along moving walls of MHD cavity filled with nanofluid is considered. • The suppression exerted by the magnetic field decreases with its orientation. • Nusselt number is enhanced slightly with nanoparticles at shortest heat source. • Nusselt number is enhanced with nanoparticles at stronger magnetic field.

  12. Mixed convection in a nanofluid filled-cavity with partial slip subjected to constant heat flux and inclined magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismael, Muneer A.; Mansour, M.A.; Chamkha, Ali J.; Rashad, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Mixed convection in a lid-driven square cavity filled with Cu-water nanofluid and subjected to inclined magnetic field is investigated in this paper. Partial slip effect is considered along the lid driven horizontal walls. A constant heat flux source on the left wall is considered, meanwhile the right vertical wall is cooled isothermally. The remainder cavity walls are thermally insulted. A control finite volume method is used as a numerical appliance of the governing equations. Six pertinent parameters were studied these; the orientation of the magnetic field (Φ=0–360°), Richardson number (Ri=0.001–1000), Hartman number (Ha=0–100), the size and position of the heat source (B=0.2–0.8, D=0.3–0.7, respectively), nanoparticles volume fraction (ϕ=0.0–0.1), and the lid-direction of the horizontal walls (λ=±1) where the positive sign means lid-driven to the right while the negative sign means lid-driven to the left. The results show that the orientation and the strength of the magnetic field can play a significant role in controlling the convection under the effect of partial slip. It is also found that the natural convection decreases with increasing the length of the heat source for all ranges of the studied parameters, while it is do so due to the vertical distance up to Hartman number of 50, beyond this value the natural convection decreases with lifting the heat source narrower to the top wall. - Highlights: • Partial slip along moving walls of MHD cavity filled with nanofluid is considered. • The suppression exerted by the magnetic field decreases with its orientation. • Nusselt number is enhanced slightly with nanoparticles at shortest heat source. • Nusselt number is enhanced with nanoparticles at stronger magnetic field.

  13. Cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) system for measuring atmospheric mercury using differential absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, A.; Obrist, D.; Moosmuller, H.; Moore, C.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric elemental mercury (Hg0) is a globally pervasive element that can be transported and deposited to remote ecosystems where it poses — particularly in its methylated form — harm to many organisms including humans. Current techniques for measurement of atmospheric Hg0 require several liters of sample air and several minutes for each analysis. Fast-response (i.e., 1 second or faster) measurements would improve our ability to understand and track chemical cycling of mercury in the atmosphere, including high frequency Hg0 fluctuations, sources and sinks, and chemical transformation processes. We present theory, design, challenges, and current results of our new prototype sensor based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) for fast-response measurement of Hg0 mass concentrations. CRDS is a direct absorption technique that implements path-lengths of multiple kilometers in a compact absorption cell using high-reflectivity mirrors, thereby improving sensitivity and reducing sample volume compared to conventional absorption spectroscopy. Our sensor includes a frequency-doubled, dye-laser emitting laser pulses tunable from 215 to 280 nm, pumped by a Q-switched, frequency tripled Nd:YAG laser with a pulse repetition rate of 50 Hz. We present how we successfully perform automated wavelength locking and stabilization of the laser to the peak Hg0 absorption line at 253.65 nm using an external isotopically-enriched mercury (202Hg0) cell. An emphasis of this presentation will be on the implementation of differential absorption measurement whereby measurements are alternated between the peak Hg0 absorption wavelength and a nearby wavelength "off" the absorption line. This can be achieved using a piezo electric tuning element that allows for pulse-by-pulse tuning and detuning of the laser "online" and "offline" of the Hg absorption line, and thereby allows for continuous correction of baseline extinction losses. Unexpected challenges with this approach included

  14. radiofrequency cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1988-01-01

    The pulse of a particle accelerator. 128 of these radio frequency cavities were positioned around CERN's 27-kilometre LEP ring to accelerate electrons and positrons. The acceleration was produced by microwave electric oscillations at 352 MHz. The electrons and positrons were grouped into bunches, like beads on a string, and the copper sphere at the top stored the microwave energy between the passage of individual bunches. This made for valuable energy savings as it reduced the heat generated in the cavity.

  15. Asymptotic solution of natural convection problem in a square cavity heated from below

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grundmann, M; Mojtabi, A; vantHof, B

    Studies a two-dimensional natural convection in a porous, square cavity using a regular asymptotic development in powers of the Rayleigh number. Carries the approximation through to the 34th order. Analyses convergence of the resulting series for the Nusselt number in both monocellular and

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of syrinx cavity. Differentiation between syrinx with spinal cord tumor and without tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Teruo; Inoue, Yuichi; Nemoto, Yutaka

    1987-12-01

    Syrinx cavity may result from a number of intramedullary tumors or non-neoplastic conditions such as Chiari malformation, trauma and meningitis. The surgical procedure to repair the syrinx is quite different between the cases with spinal cord tumor and without tumor. Therefore, it is important to determine whether syrinx is associated with tumor or not before surgery. We reviewed MR images of 26 cases with syrinx cavity; 20 of which were not associated with tumor (12 Chiari malformation, 5 trauma, 1 meningitis, 1 hydrocephalus, 1 idiopathic) and 6 of which were associated with intramedullary tumor (3 ependymoma, 2 astrocytoma, 1 hemangioendothelioma). The syrinx showed low signal in all 26 cases on T1 weighted images (SE 600/40). All 6 cases with syrinx associated with intramedullary tumor showed high intensity on T2 weighted images (SE 2000/120). On the other hand, the syrinx of 19 of 20 cases with no tumor condition showed reduced intensity on T2 weighted images. Only one post-traumatic small syrinx showed high signal. This was quite different between the cases with spinal cord tumor and without tumor. Therefore, when the syrinx cavity shows high signal on T2 weighted images, an intramedullary tumor is strongly suggested.

  17. Natural convection of nanofluid in a wavy cavity in the presence of magnetic field on variable heat surface temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javaherdeh, Korosh; Moslemi, Mehdi; Shahbazi, Mona [University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    A numerical analysis has been performed to investigate the laminar natural convection heat characteristics in a wavy cavity filled with CuO/water nanofluid. One of the sinusoidal walls (BC) is at the volatile high temperature and the opposite wavy surface is at a stable low temperature and the two other walls are considered flat and insulated while the uniform magnetic field is considered. Performing the analysis, the governing equations are given in terms of the stream function-vorticity formulation. In order to solve the nondimensionalized equations, discretizing with second-order accurate central difference method is performed then the successive under relaxation method with appropriate boundary conditions is considered. To validate the numerical model, various comparisons with previously published studies have been conducted and the results are in a good agreement. The main objective is to survey the effects of the Rayleigh number, Hartmann number, and nanoparticles volume fraction on the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics. The results are illustrated in contours of stream function, constant temperature, and Nusselt number. The results show that the presence of the magnetic field the local Nusselt number decreases at the hot wall. Moreover, the enhancement in the heat transfer performance increases with an increasing nanoparticle concentration. However, for all values of Rayleigh number, the presence of nanoparticles leads to significant enhancement in heat transfer and the increase of Rayleigh number causes the heat transfer mechanism to change from conduction to convection.

  18. Heat performance resulting from combined effects of radiation and mixed convection in a rectangular cavity ventilated by injection or suction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzaraa, K.; Bahlaoui, A.; Arroub, I.; Raji, A.; Hasnaoui, M.; Naïmi, M.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we investigated numerically heat transfer by mixed convection coupled to thermal radiation in a vented rectangular enclosure uniformly heated from below with a constant heat flux. The fresh fluid is admitted into the cavity by injection or suction, by means of two openings located on the lower part of both right and left vertical sides. Another opening is placed on the middle of the top wall to ensure the ventilation. Air, a radiatively transparent medium, is considered to be the cooling fluid. The inner surfaces, in contact with the fluid, are assumed to be gray, diffuse emitters and reflectors of radiation with identical emissivities. The effects of some pertinent parameters such as the Reynolds number, 300 ≤ Re ≤ 5000, and the emissivity of the walls, 0 ≤ ɛ ≤ 0.85, on flow and temperature patterns as well as on the heat transfer rate within the enclosure are presented for the two ventilation modes (injection and suction). The results indicate that the flow and thermal structures are affected by the thermal radiation for the two modes of imposed flow. However, the suction mode is found to be more favorable to the heat transfer in comparison with the injection one.

  19. Performance test of a vertically-directed electric-field cavity resonator made for the rapid gelation apparatus with microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, Shigeru; Ogawa, Toru; Hasegawa, Atsushi.

    1996-06-01

    A cavity resonator with vertically-directed electric field was produced and attached to 'the rapid gelation apparatus with microwave heating' previously reported. Using the rapid gelation apparatus, drops of a simulated solution and of U-containing solutions for internal gelation were heated. The results indicated that the heating required for gelation of the U-containing solutions was possible. However, the electric field strength in the cavity resonator at that time was comparable to that causing the discharge due to the gaseous ammonia released from the heated drops. As a result, gel microspheres were not obtained in a stable state. The discussion suggests that the stable gelation would be realized by improving the cavity resonator shape and/or by modifying the power supply accompanied with using a power stabilizer. (author)

  20. Numerical modelling of heat transfer in a cavity due to liquid jet impingement for liquid supported stretch blow moulding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Trevor; Menary, Gary; Geron, Marco

    2018-05-01

    Impingement of a liquid jet in a polymer cavity has been modelled numerically in this study. Liquid supported stretch blow moulding is a nascent polymer forming process using liquid as the forming medium to produce plastic bottles. The process derives from the conventional stretch blow moulding process which uses compressed air to deform the preform. Heat transfer away from the preform greatly increases when a liquid instead of a gas is flowing over a solid; in the blow moulding process the temperature of the preform is tightly controlled to achieve optimum forming conditions. A model was developed with Computational Fluid Dynamics code ANSYS Fluent which allows the extent of heat transfer between the incoming liquid and the solid preform to be determined in the initial transient stage, where a liquid jet enters an air filled preform. With this data, an approximation of the extent of cooling through the preform wall can be determined.

  1. Entropy Generation Due to Natural Convection in a Partially Heated Cavity by Local RBF-DQ Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimani, S.; Qajarjazi, A.; Bararnia, H.

    2011-01-01

    The Local Radial Basis Function-Differential Quadrature (RBF-DQ) method is applied to twodimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in primitive form. Numerical results of heatlines and entropy generation due to heat transfer and fluid friction have been obtained for laminar natural...

  2. Natural convection in a cubical cavity with a coaxial heated cylinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aithal, S. M.

    2018-03-01

    High-resolution three-dimensional simulations were conducted to investigate the velocity and temperature fields in a cold cubical cavity due to natural convection induced by a centrally placed hot cylinder. Unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations were solved by using a spectral- element method for Rayleigh numbers ranging from 103 to 109. The effect of spanwise thermal boundary conditions, aspect ratio (radius of the cylinder to the side of the cavity), and spanwise temperature distribution of the inner cylinder on the velocity and thermal fields were investigated for each Rayleigh number. Results from two-dimensional calculations were compared with three-dimensional simulations. The 3D results indicate a complex flow structure in the vicinity of the spanwise walls. The results also show that the imposed thermal wall boundary condition impacts the flow and temperature fields strongly near the spanwise walls. The variation of the local Nusselt number on the cylinder surface and enclosure walls at various spanwise locations was also investigated. The local Nusselt number on the cylinder surface and enclosure walls at the cavity mid-plane (Z = 0) is close to 2D simulations for 103 ≤ Ra ≤ 108. Simulations also show a variation in the local Nusselt number, on both the cylinder surface and the enclosure walls, in the spanwise direction, for all Rayleigh numbers studied in this work. The results also indicate that if the enclosure walls are insulated in the spanwise direction (as opposed to a constant temperature), the peak Nusselt number on the enclosure surface occurs near the spanwise walls and is about 20% higher than the peak Nusselt number at the cavity mid-plane. The temporal characteristics of 3D flows are also different from 2D results for Ra > 108. These results suggest that 3D simulations would be more appropriate for flows with Ra > 108.

  3. Biomass pyrolysis and combustion integral and differential reaction heats with temperatures using thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiacheng; Igathinathane, C; Yu, Manlu; Pothula, Anand Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Integral reaction heats of switchgrass, big bluestem, and corn stalks were determined using thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC). Iso-conversion differential reaction heats using TGA/DSC pyrolysis and combustion of biomass were not available, despite reports available on heats required and released. A concept of iso-conversion differential reaction heats was used to determine the differential reaction heats of each thermal characteristics segment of these materials. Results showed that the integral reaction heats were endothermic from 30 to 700°C for pyrolysis of switchgrass and big bluestem, but they were exothermic for corn stalks prior to 587°C. However, the integral reaction heats for combustion of the materials followed an endothermic to exothermic transition. The differential reaction heats of switchgrass pyrolysis were predominantly endothermic in the fraction of mass loss (0.0536-0.975), and were exothermic for corn stalks (0.0885-0.850) and big bluestem (0.736-0.919). Study results provided better insight into biomass thermal mechanism. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Onset of Soret-driven convection of binary fluid in square cavity heated from above at different gravity levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubimova, Tatyana; Zubova, Nadezhda

    The instability of incompressible viscous binary fluid with the Soret effect in square cavity heated from above is studied for different gravity levels. The no slip and zero mass flux conditions are imposed on all the boundaries. The horizontal boundaries are perfectly conductive, they are maintained at constant different temperatures and vertical boundaries are adiabatic. The calculations are performed for water - isopropanol mixture 90:10. Initial conditions correspond to the motionless state with uniform distribution of components and uniform temperature gradient directed upward. For binary fluid under consideration the separation parameter is negative therefore the Soret effect leads to the accumulation of heavy component in the upper part of cavity, moreover, the rate of accumulation is independent of the gravity level. The linear stability of the unsteady motionless state is studied numerically by solving linearized equations for small perturbations. To determine the time t* for the onset of instability, the criterion suggested in [1] is used. The dependence of t* on the gravity level is obtained. The work was done under financial support of Government of Perm Region, Russia (Contract C-26/212). 1. Shliomis M.I., Souhar M. Europhysics Letters. 2000. Vol. 49 (1), pp. 55-61.

  5. EFFECT OF DISCRETE HEATER AT THE VERTICAL WALL OF THE CAVITY OVER THE HEAT TRANSFER AND ENTROPY GENERATION USING LBM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Farhadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM was employed for investigation the effect of the heater location on flow pattern, heat transfer and entropy generation in a cavity. A 2D thermal lattice Boltzmann model with 9 velocities, D2Q9, is used to solve the thermal flow problem. The simulations were performed for Rayleigh numbers from 103 to 106 at Pr = 0.71. The study was carried out for heater length of 0.4 side wall length which is located at the right side wall. Results are presented in the form of streamlines, temperature contours, Nusselt number and entropy generation curves. Results show that the location of heater has a great effect on the flow pattern and temperature fields in the enclosure and subsequently on entropy generation. The dimensionless entropy generation decreases at high Rayleigh number for all heater positions. The ratio of averaged Nusselt number and dimensionless entropy generation for heater located on vertical and horizontal walls was calculated. Results show that higher heat transfer was observed from the cold walls when the heater located on vertical wall. On the other hand, heat transfer increases from the heater surface when it located on the horizontal wall.

  6. A fundamental numerical analysis for noninvasive thermometry integrated in a heating applicator based on the reentrant cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohwada, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Yasutoshi

    2010-01-01

    To improve the efficacy of hyperthermia treatment, a novel method of noninvasive measurement of body temperature change is proposed. The proposed technology, thermometry, is based on changes in the electromagnetic field distribution inside the heating applicator with temperature changes and the temperature dependence of the dielectric constant. In addition, an image of the temperature change distribution inside a body is reconstructed by applying a computed tomography (CT) algorithm. The proposed thermometry method can serve as a possible noninvasive method to monitor the temperature change distribution inside the body without the use of enormous thermometers such as in the case of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Furthermore, this temperature monitoring method can be easily combined with a heating applicator based on a cavity resonator, and the novel integrated treatment system can possibly be used to treat cancer effectively while noninvasively monitoring the heating effect. In this paper, the phase change distributions of the electromagnetic field with temperature changes are simulated by numerical analysis using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. Moreover, to estimate the phase change distributions inside a target body, the phase change distributions with temperature changes are reconstructed by a filtered back-projection. In addition, the reconstruction accuracy of the converted temperature change distribution from the phase change is evaluated. (author)

  7. Differential Heating in the Indian Ocean Differentially Modulates Precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Shahriar Pervez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Indo-Pacific sea surface temperature dynamics play a prominent role in Asian summer monsoon variability. Two interactive climate modes of the Indo-Pacific—the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO and the Indian Ocean dipole mode—modulate the amount of precipitation over India, in addition to precipitation over Africa, Indonesia, and Australia. However, this modulation is not spatially uniform. The precipitation in southern India is strongly forced by the Indian Ocean dipole mode and ENSO. In contrast, across northern India, encompassing the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins, the climate mode influence on precipitation is much less. Understanding the forcing of precipitation in these river basins is vital for food security and ecosystem services for over half a billion people. Using 28 years of remote sensing observations, we demonstrate that (i the tropical west-east differential heating in the Indian Ocean influences the Ganges precipitation and (ii the north-south differential heating in the Indian Ocean influences the Brahmaputra precipitation. The El Niño phase induces warming in the warm pool of the Indian Ocean and exerts more influence on Ganges precipitation than Brahmaputra precipitation. The analyses indicate that both the magnitude and position of the sea surface temperature anomalies in the Indian Ocean are important drivers for precipitation dynamics that can be effectively summarized using two new indices, one tuned for each basin. These new indices have the potential to aid forecasting of drought and flooding, to contextualize land cover and land use change, and to assess the regional impacts of climate change.

  8. Differential heating in the Indian Ocean differentially modulates precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, Md Shahriar; Henebry, Geoffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Indo-Pacific sea surface temperature dynamics play a prominent role in Asian summer monsoon variability. Two interactive climate modes of the Indo-Pacific—the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean dipole mode—modulate the amount of precipitation over India, in addition to precipitation over Africa, Indonesia, and Australia. However, this modulation is not spatially uniform. The precipitation in southern India is strongly forced by the Indian Ocean dipole mode and ENSO. In contrast, across northern India, encompassing the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins, the climate mode influence on precipitation is much less. Understanding the forcing of precipitation in these river basins is vital for food security and ecosystem services for over half a billion people. Using 28 years of remote sensing observations, we demonstrate that (i) the tropical west-east differential heating in the Indian Ocean influences the Ganges precipitation and (ii) the north-south differential heating in the Indian Ocean influences the Brahmaputra precipitation. The El Niño phase induces warming in the warm pool of the Indian Ocean and exerts more influence on Ganges precipitation than Brahmaputra precipitation. The analyses indicate that both the magnitude and position of the sea surface temperature anomalies in the Indian Ocean are important drivers for precipitation dynamics that can be effectively summarized using two new indices, one tuned for each basin. These new indices have the potential to aid forecasting of drought and flooding, to contextualize land cover and land use change, and to assess the regional impacts of climate change.

  9. 3D magneto-convective heat transfer in CNT-nanofluid filled cavity under partially active magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rashed, Abdullah A. A. A.; Kolsi, Lioua; Oztop, Hakan F.; Aydi, Abdelkarim; Malekshah, Emad Hasani; Abu-Hamdeh, Nidal; Borjini, Mohamed Naceur

    2018-05-01

    A computational study has been performed to investigate the effects of partially active magnetic field on natural convection heat transfer in CNT-nanofluid filled and three-dimensional differentially heated closed space. Two cases are considered to see this effect as magnetic field is applied to upper half (Case I) and lower half (Case II) while remaining walls are insulated. The finite volume method is used to solve governing equations and results are obtained for different governing parameters as Hartmann number (0 ≤ Ha ≤ 100), nanoparticle volume fraction (0 ≤ φ ≤ 0.05) and height of the active zone (0 ≤ LB ≤ 1). It is found that location of magnetic field plays an important role even at the same Hartmann number. Thus, it can be a good parameter to control heat and fluid flow inside the closed space.

  10. Effects of heat exchange and nonlinearity on acoustic streaming in a vibrating cylindrical cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubaidullin, Amir A; Yakovenko, Anna V

    2015-06-01

    Acoustic streaming in a gas filled cylindrical cavity subjected to the vibration effect is investigated numerically. Both thermally insulated walls and constant temperature walls are considered. The range of vibration frequencies from low frequencies, at which the process can be described by an approximate analytical solution, to high frequencies giving rise to strong nonlinear effects is studied. Frequencies lower than the resonant one are chosen, and nonlinearity is achieved due to the large amplitude. The problem is solved in an axisymmetric statement. The dependence of acoustic streaming in narrow channels at vibration frequencies lower than the resonant one on the type of thermal boundary conditions is shown. The streaming vortices' directions of rotation in the case of constant temperature walls are found to be opposite to those in the case of thermally insulated walls. Different nonlinear effects, which increase with the frequency of vibration, are obtained. Nonlinear effects manifesting as the nonuniformity of average temperature, pressure, and density are in turn found to be influencing the streaming velocity and streaming structure.

  11. An analytic study on laminar film condensation along the interior surface of a cave-shaped cavity of a flat plate heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Sung; Kim, Tae Gyu; Park, Tae Sang; Kim, Choong Sik; Park, Chan Hoon

    2002-01-01

    An analytic approach has been employed to study condensate film thickness distribution inside cave-shaped cavity of a flat plate heat pipe. The results indicate that the condensate film thickness largely depends on mass flow rate and local velocity of condensate. The increasing rate of condensate film for circular region reveals about 50% higher value than that of vertical region. The physical properties of working fluid affect significantly the condensate film thickness, such as the condensate film thickness for the case of FC-40 are 5 times larger than that of water. In comparison with condensation on a vertical wall, the average heat transfer coefficient in the cave-shaped cavity presented 10∼15% lower values due to the fact that the average film thickness formed inside the cave-shaped cavity was larger than that of the vertical wall with an equivalent flow length. A correlation formula which is based on the condensate film analysis for the cave-shaped cavity to predict average heat transfer coefficient is presented. Also, the critical minimum fill charge ratio of working fluid based on condensate film analysis has been predicted, and the minimum fill charge ratios for FC-40 and water are about Ψ crit =3∼7%, Ψ crit =0.5∼1.3%, respectively, in the range of heat flux q = 5∼90kW/m 2

  12. Effect of high temperature heat treatments on the quality factor of a large-grain superconducting radio-frequency niobium cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dhakal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Large-grain Nb has become a viable alternative to fine-grain Nb for the fabrication of superconducting radio-frequency cavities. In this contribution we report the results from a heat treatment study of a large-grain 1.5 GHz single-cell cavity made of “medium purity” Nb. The baseline surface preparation prior to heat treatment consisted of standard buffered chemical polishing. The heat treatment in the range 800–1400°C was done in a newly designed vacuum induction furnace. Q_{0} values of the order of 2×10^{10} at 2.0 K and peak surface magnetic field (B_{p} of 90 mT were achieved reproducibly. A Q_{0} value of (5±1×10^{10} at 2.0 K and B_{p}=90  mT was obtained after heat treatment at 1400°C. This is the highest value ever reported at this temperature, frequency, and field. Samples heat treated with the cavity at 1400°C were analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive x ray, point-contact tunneling, and x-ray diffraction, and revealed a complex surface composition which includes titanium oxide, increased carbon, and nitrogen content but reduced hydrogen concentration compared to a non-heat-treated sample.

  13. Effect of high temperature heat treatments on the quality factor of a large-grain superconducting radio-frequency niobium cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, P.; Ciovati, G.; Myneni, G. R.; Gray, K. E.; Groll, N.; Maheshwari, P.; McRae, D. M.; Pike, R.; Proslier, T.; Stevie, F.; Walsh, R. P.; Yang, Q.; Zasadzinzki, J.

    2013-04-01

    Large-grain Nb has become a viable alternative to fine-grain Nb for the fabrication of superconducting radio-frequency cavities. In this contribution we report the results from a heat treatment study of a large-grain 1.5 GHz single-cell cavity made of “medium purity” Nb. The baseline surface preparation prior to heat treatment consisted of standard buffered chemical polishing. The heat treatment in the range 800-1400°C was done in a newly designed vacuum induction furnace. Q0 values of the order of 2×1010 at 2.0 K and peak surface magnetic field (Bp) of 90 mT were achieved reproducibly. A Q0 value of (5±1)×1010 at 2.0 K and Bp=90mT was obtained after heat treatment at 1400°C. This is the highest value ever reported at this temperature, frequency, and field. Samples heat treated with the cavity at 1400°C were analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive x ray, point-contact tunneling, and x-ray diffraction, and revealed a complex surface composition which includes titanium oxide, increased carbon, and nitrogen content but reduced hydrogen concentration compared to a non-heat-treated sample.

  14. Effect of high temperature heat treatments on the quality factor of a large-grain superconducting radio-frequency niobium cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhakal, P.; Ciovati, G.; Myneni, G. R.; Gray, K. E.; Groll, N.; Maheshwari, P.; McRae, D. M.; Pike, R.; Proslier, T.; Stevie, F.; Walsh, R. P.; Yang, Q.; Zasadzinzki, J.

    2013-04-01

    Large-grain Nb has become a viable alternative to fine-grain Nb for the fabrication of superconducting radio-frequency cavities. In this contribution we report the results from a heat treatment study of a large-grain 1.5 GHz single-cell cavity made of “medium purity” Nb. The baseline surface preparation prior to heat treatment consisted of standard buffered chemical polishing. The heat treatment in the range 800–1400°C was done in a newly designed vacuum induction furnace. Q{sub 0} values of the order of 2×10{sup 10} at 2.0 K and peak surface magnetic field (B{sub p}) of 90 mT were achieved reproducibly. A Q{sub 0} value of (5±1)×10{sup 10} at 2.0 K and B{sub p}=90mT was obtained after heat treatment at 1400°C. This is the highest value ever reported at this temperature, frequency, and field. Samples heat treated with the cavity at 1400°C were analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive x ray, point-contact tunneling, and x-ray diffraction, and revealed a complex surface composition which includes titanium oxide, increased carbon, and nitrogen content but reduced hydrogen concentration compared to a non-heat-treated sample.

  15. Preliminary experimental insights into differential heat impact among lithic artifacts

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Bustos-Pérez; Javier Baena Preysler

    2016-01-01

    The presence of thermally altered and broken flint artifacts is common at archaeological sites. Most studies focus their attention on the effects of heat treatment on flint to improve knapping qualities, disregarding the effects of fire over flint under uncontrolled conditions. This paper aims to show how under uncontrolled heating processes flint artifacts develop different heat alterations (such as levels of breakage, presence of scales, etc.) as a result of vertical distribution, volume or...

  16. Effects of anisotropy in permeability on the two-phase flow and heat transfer in a porous cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.L. [Dept. de Genie Mecanique, Univ. de Montreal, PQ (Canada); Hung Nguyen, T. [Dept. de Genie Mecanique, Univ. de Montreal, PQ (Canada); Kahawita, R. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1997-02-01

    This paper reports on the results of a numerical study of convection flow and heat transfer in a rectangular porous cavity filled with a phase change material under steady state conditions. The two vertical walls of the cavity are subject respectively to temperatures below and above the melting point of the PCM while adiabatic conditions are imposed on the horizontal walls. The porous medium is characterized by an anisotropic permeability tensor with the principal axes arbitrarily oriented with respect to the gravity vector. The problem is governed by the aspect ratioA, the Rayleigh numberRa, the anisotropy ratioR and the orientation angle {theta} of the permeability tensor. The method of solution is based on the control volume approach in conjunction with the Landau-transformation to map the irregular flow domain into a rectangular one. (orig.AKF) (orig.). With 10 figs. [Deutsch] In der Arbeit wird ueber die Ergebnisse einer numerischen Studie, betreffend die stationaere Konvektionsstroemung und den stationaeren Waermeuebergang in einer rechteckigen, mit einem poroesen, phasenveraenderlichen Medium (PCM) verfuellten Kavitaet, berichtet. Den zwei vertikalen Berandungen der Kavitaet sind zwei, den Schmelzpunkt des PCM einschliessende Temperaturen aufgepraegt, waehrend die beiden horizontalen Berandungen adiabat gehalten werden. Das poroese Medium ist durch einen anisotropen Permeabilitaetstensor charakterisiert, dessen Hauptachsen bezueglich des Gravitationsvektors beliebig orientiert sein koennen. Das Problem ist durch das Seitenverhaeltnis A, die Rayleigh-Zahl Ra, das Anisotropienverhaeltnis R und den Orientierungswinkel {Theta} des Permeabilitaetstensor bestimmt. Die Loesungsmethode basiert auf dem Kontrollvolumenprinzip in Verbindung mit der Landau-Transformation ueber welche das irregulaere Stroemungsgebiet in ein rechteckiges abgebildet wird. (orig./AKF) (orig.)

  17. Natural convection in square enclosures differentially heated at sides using alumina-water nanofluids with temperature-dependent physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cianfrini Marta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Laminar natural convection of Al2O3 + H2O nanofluids inside square cavities differentially heated at sides is studied numerically. A computational code based on the SIMPLE-C algorithm is used for the solution of the system of the mass, momentum and energy transfer governing equations. Assuming that the nanofluid behaves like a single-phase fluid, these equations are the same as those valid for a pure fluid, provided that the thermophysical properties appearing in them are the nanofluid effective properties. The thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity of the nanofluid are calculated by means of a couple of empirical equations based on a wide variety of experimental data reported in the literature. The other effective properties are evaluated by the conventional mixing theory. Simulations are performed for different values of the nanoparticle volume fraction in the range 0-0.06, the diameter of the suspended nanoparticles in the range 25-100 nm, the temperature of the cooled sidewall in the range 293-313 K, the temperature of the heated sidewall in the range 298-343 K, and the Rayleigh number of the base fluid in the range 103-107. All computations are executed in the hypothesis of temperature-dependent effective properties. The main result obtained is the existence of an optimal particle loading for maximum heat transfer, that is found to increase as the size of the suspended nanoparticles is decreased, and the nanofluid average temperature is increased.

  18. Usefulness of acute phase proteins in differentiating between feline infectious peritonitis and other diseases in cats with body cavity effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazuchova, Katarina; Held, Susanne; Neiger, Reto

    2017-08-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the measurement of acute phase proteins (APPs) as a diagnostic tool to differentiate between feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) and other diseases in cats with body cavity effusions. Methods Cats with pleural, abdominal or pericardial effusion were prospectively enrolled. Cats were classified as having or not having FIP based on immunohistochemistry (if available) or a sophisticated statistical method using machine learning methodology with concepts from game theory. Cats without FIP were further subdivided into three subgroups: cardiac disease, neoplasia and other diseases. Serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and α 1 -acid glycoprotein (AGP) were measured in serum and effusion, using assays previously validated in cats. Results Serum and effusion samples were available for the measurement of APPs from 88 and 67 cats, respectively. Concentrations of the APPs in serum and effusion were significantly different in cats with and without FIP ( P <0.001 for all three APPs). The best APP to distinguish between cats with and without FIP was AGP in the effusion; a cut-off value of 1550 µg/ml had a sensitivity and specificity of 93% each for diagnosing FIP. Conclusions and relevance AGP, particularly if measured in effusion, was found to be useful in differentiating between FIP and other diseases, while SAA and Hp were not. The concentration of all three APPs in some diseases (eg, septic processes, disseminated neoplasia) was as high as in cats with FIP; therefore, none of these can be recommended as a single diagnostic test for FIP.

  19. The non-differentiable solution for local fractional Laplace equation in steady heat-conduction problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jie-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the local fractional Laplace equation in the steady heat-conduction problem. The solutions involving the non-differentiable graph are obtained by using the characteristic equation method (CEM via local fractional derivative. The obtained results are given to present the accuracy of the technology to solve the steady heat-conduction in fractal media.

  20. Numerical simulations of the effect of an isotropic heat field on the entropy generation due to natural convection in a square cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Maghlany, Wael M.; Saqr, Khalid M.; Teamah, Mohamed A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Entropy generation in laminar natural convection in square cavity numerically studied. • The cavity subjected to an isotropic heat field with different intensities. • Study ranges 10 3 ⩽ Ra ⩽ 10 5 , 0 ⩽ ϕ ⩽ 10 and Pr = 0.7. • Entropy generation drastically affected by the superposition of an isotropic heat field. • CFD based empirical were derived for entropy generation as a function of Ra and φ. - Abstract: Entropy generation associated with laminar natural convection in an infinite square cavity, subjected to an isotropic heat field with different intensities; was numerically investigated for different values of Rayleigh number. The numerical work was carried out using, an in-house CFD code written in FORTRAN, which discretizes non-dimensional forms of the governing equations using the finite volume method and solves the resulting system of equations using Gauss-Seidal method utilizing a TDMA algorithm. Proper code validation was undertaken in order to establish the entropy generation calculations. It was found that the increase in the isotropic heat field intensity resulted in a corresponding exponential increase of the entropy augmentation number, and promoted high values of Bejan number within the flow. The entropy generation due to heat transfer was approximately one order of magnitude higher than the entropy generation due to fluid friction. The spatial uniformity of the Bejan number was more sensitive to the change in Rayleigh number than to the heat field intensity. The thermodynamic penalty of the isotropic heat field is shown by means of global integrals of the entropy source terms over the entire flow domain

  1. Periodic heat shock accelerated the chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in pellet culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is one of diseases that seriously affect elderly people's quality of life. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs offer a potential promise for the joint repair in OA patients. However, chondrogenic differentiation from hMSCs in vitro takes a long time (∼ 6 weeks and differentiated cells are still not as functionally mature as primary isolated chondrocytes, though chemical stimulations and mechanical loading have been intensively studied to enhance the hMSC differentiation. On the other hand, thermal stimulations of hMSC chondrogenesis have not been well explored. In this study, the direct effects of mild heat shock (HS on the differentiation of hMSCs into chondrocytes in 3D pellet culture were investigated. Periodic HS at 41 °C for 1 hr significantly increased sulfated glycosaminoglycan in 3D pellet culture at Day 10 of chondrogenesis. Immunohistochemical and Western Blot analyses revealed an increased expression of collagen type II and aggrecan in heat-shocked pellets than non heat-shocked pellets on Day 17 of chondrogenesis. In addition, HS also upregulated the expression of collagen type I and X as well as heat shock protein 70 on Day 17 and 24 of differentiation. These results demonstrate that HS accelerated the chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs and induced an early maturation of chondrocytes differentiated from hMSCs. The results of this study will guide the design of future protocols using thermal treatments to facilitate cartilage regeneration with human mesenchymal stem cells.

  2. The use of differential scanning calorimetry for the evaluation of dental materials. I. Cements, cavity lining materials and anterior restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, J F; Wilson, H J

    1980-03-01

    Thermal changes occurring during the setting of restorative materials have been measured accurately using a differential scanning calorimeter. The results were used to evaluate setting characteristics. The heat of reaction and rate of heat output may be significant in determining thermal damage to the pulp. The heat capacity is related to thermal insulation properties. These properties have been determined and their effect on the efficacy of restorative materials discussed.

  3. Introducing a novel method to estimate the total heat transfer coefficient inside irregular-shape cavities utilizing thermoelectric modules; Special application in solar engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asadi, Amin; Rahbar, Nader; Rezaniakolaei, Alireza

    The main objective of the present study is to introduce a novel method to measure the total heat transfer coefficient inside irregular-shape cavities, used in solar applications, utilizing thermoelectric modules. Applying mathematical and thermodynamics modeling, the governing equations related...... to the total heat transfer coefficient between thermoelectric and glass cover as a function of ambient temperature, glass temperature, and output voltage has been derived. Investigating the accuracy of the proposed equation, an experimental case study has been performed. The experimental setup consists...... of three parts; a heat sink, a thermoelectric module, and a glass cover. All the experiments have been performed on the typical winter day and under the real climatic conditions of Semnan (35° 33′ N, 53° 23′ E), Iran. The results showed that the proposed method has the ability to measure the total heat...

  4. A two-cavity reactor for solar chemical processes: heat transfer model and application to carbothermic reduction of ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieckert, Christian; Palumbo, Robert; Frommherz, Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    A 5 kW two-cavity beam down reactor for the solar thermal decomposition of ZnO with solid carbon has been developed and tested in a solar furnace. Initial exploratory experiments show that it operates with a solar to chemical energy conversion efficiency of about 15% when the solar flux entering the reactor is 1300 kW/m 2 , resulting in a reaction chamber temperature of about 1500 K. The solid products have a purity of nearly 100% Zn. Furthermore, the reactor has been described by a numerical model that combines radiant and conduction heat transfer with the decomposition kinetics of the ZnO-carbon reaction. The model is based on the radiosity exchange method. For a given solar input, the model estimates cavity temperatures, Zn production rates, and the solar to chemical energy conversion efficiency. The model currently makes use of two parameters which are determined from the experimental results: conduction heat transfer through the reactor walls enters the model as a lumped term that reflects the conduction loss during the experiments, and the rate of the chemical reaction includes an experimentally determined term that reflects the effective amount of ZnO and CO participating in the reactor. The model output matches well the experimentally determined cavity temperatures. It suggests that reactors built with this two-cavity concept already on this small scale can reach efficiencies exceeding 25%, if operated with a higher solar flux or if one can reduce conduction heat losses through better insulation and if one can maintain or improve the effective amount of ZnO and CO that participates in the reaction

  5. Differential expression of heat shock transcription factors and heat shock proteins after acute and chronic heat stress in laying chickens (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jingjing; Tang, Li; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Liyang; Xi, Lin; Liu, Hsiao-Ching; Odle, Jack; Luo, Xugang

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress due to high environmental temperature negatively influences animal performances. To better understand the biological impact of heat stress, laying broiler breeder chickens were subjected either to acute (step-wisely increasing temperature from 21 to 35°C within 24 hours) or chronic (32°C for 8 weeks) high temperature exposure. High temperature challenges significantly elevated body temperature of experimental birds (Pshock transcription factors (HSFs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs) 70 and 90 were differently affected by acute and chronic treatment. Tissue-specific responses to thermal challenge were also found among heart, liver and muscle. In the heart, acute heat challenge affected lipid oxidation (P = 0.05) and gene expression of all 4 HSF gene expression was upregulated (Pstress increased protein oxidation, but HSFs and HSPs gene expression remained unaltered. Only tendencies to increase were observed in HSP 70 (P = 0.052) and 90 (P = 0.054) gene expression after acute heat stress. The differential expressions of HSF and HSP genes in different tissues of laying broiler breeder chickens suggested that anti-heat stress mechanisms might be provoked more profoundly in the heart, by which the muscle was least protected during heat stress. In addition to HSP, HSFs gene expression could be used as a marker during acute heat stress.

  6. Heat transfer study for convection and radiation in an open cavity; Estudio de de la transferencia de calor por convencion y radiacion en una cavidad abierta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabanillas Lopez, Rafael E [Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Estrada Gasca, Claudio A [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Alvarez Garcia, Gabriela S [CENIDET, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Interaction of natural convection and radiation heat transfer in an open side square cavity has been simulated numerically. Previous studies have shown results of the simulation of heat transfer for convection on this geometry. This paper reports the effect of considering both the convection and the radiation mechanisms. Radiation was found to have a great influence on the total amount of heat lost by the cavity as well as on the pattern of flow and on the temperature field. Computations were performed within the domain of the cavity for two-dimensional laminar flow problem. The average of heat transfer coefficient was calculated for several values of the Grashof number for air (Pr = 0.7), with the bottom wall at 500 K (constant temperature) and the open side at 300 K. [Spanish] Se presenta el estudio de la interaccion conveccion natural-radiacion en una cavidad rectangular abierta. Algunos estudios anteriores han mostrado resultados sobre la transferencia de calor por el mecanismo de conveccion natural sobre cavidades abiertas. Aqui se presenta la influencia de considerar ambos mecanismos de transferencia de calor, la conveccion y la radiacion. Se demuestra que el intercambio radiactivo tiene una gran influencia tanto en la cantidad total de calor perdido por la cavidad al ambiente, como en el patron de flujo y de temperatura dentro de la cavidad. Se resuelven numericamente las ecuaciones gobernantes para flujo laminar en dos dimensiones y se calcula el coeficiente promedio de transferencia de calor para diferentes valores del Grashof en una cavidad llena de aire (Pr 0.7), teniendo la pared del fondo de la cavidad a 500 K y los alrededores a 300 K.

  7. Measurement and Model Validation of Nanofluid Specific Heat Capacity with Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry O'Hanley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanofluids are being considered for heat transfer applications; therefore it is important to know their thermophysical properties accurately. In this paper we focused on nanofluid specific heat capacity. Currently, there exist two models to predict a nanofluid specific heat capacity as a function of nanoparticle concentration and material. Model I is a straight volume-weighted average; Model II is based on the assumption of thermal equilibrium between the particles and the surrounding fluid. These two models give significantly different predictions for a given system. Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, a robust experimental methodology for measuring the heat capacity of fluids, the specific heat capacities of water-based silica, alumina, and copper oxide nanofluids were measured. Nanoparticle concentrations were varied between 5 wt% and 50 wt%. Test results were found to be in excellent agreement with Model II, while the predictions of Model I deviated very significantly from the data. Therefore, Model II is recommended for nanofluids.

  8. Time differentiated nuclear resonance spectroscopy coupled with pulsed laser heating in diamond anvil cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupenko, I., E-mail: kupenko@esrf.fr; Strohm, C. [Bayerisches Geoinstitut, Universität Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany); ESRF-The European Synchrotron, CS 40220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); McCammon, C.; Cerantola, V.; Petitgirard, S.; Dubrovinsky, L. [Bayerisches Geoinstitut, Universität Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Glazyrin, K. [Photon Science, DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Vasiukov, D.; Aprilis, G. [Laboratory of Crystallography, Material Physics and Technology at Extreme Conditions, Universität Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Chumakov, A. I.; Rüffer, R. [ESRF-The European Synchrotron, CS 40220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2015-11-15

    Developments in pulsed laser heating applied to nuclear resonance techniques are presented together with their applications to studies of geophysically relevant materials. Continuous laser heating in diamond anvil cells is a widely used method to generate extreme temperatures at static high pressure conditions in order to study the structure and properties of materials found in deep planetary interiors. The pulsed laser heating technique has advantages over continuous heating, including prevention of the spreading of heated sample and/or the pressure medium and, thus, a better stability of the heating process. Time differentiated data acquisition coupled with pulsed laser heating in diamond anvil cells was successfully tested at the Nuclear Resonance beamline (ID18) of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. We show examples applying the method to investigation of an assemblage containing ε-Fe, FeO, and Fe{sub 3}C using synchrotron Mössbauer source spectroscopy, FeCO{sub 3} using nuclear inelastic scattering, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} using nuclear forward scattering. These examples demonstrate the applicability of pulsed laser heating in diamond anvil cells to spectroscopic techniques with long data acquisition times, because it enables stable pulsed heating with data collection at specific time intervals that are synchronized with laser pulses.

  9. Oscillations in a Forward-Facing Cavity Measured Using Laser-Differential Interferometry in a Hypersonic Quiet Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-11

    Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel BFL Back Focal Length xvi CCA Constant Current Anemometer EFL Effective Focal Length FFC Forward Facing Cavity LDI Laser...step in the nozzle throat. This tunnel is currently used for teaching as well as for research. Some years ago, a group of students separated the

  10. The Number of Pathologically Positive Lymph Nodes and Pathological Tumor Depth Predicts Prognosis in Patients With Poorly Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Chung-Jan; Lin, Chien-Yu; Wang, Hung-Ming; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Ng, Shu-Hang; Lee, Li-Yu; Chen, I-How; Huang, Shiang-Fu

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this retrospective study was twofold: (1) to investigate prognostic factors for clinical outcomes in patients with poorly differentiated oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma and (2) to identify specific prognostic subgroups that may help to guide treatment decisions. Methods and Materials: We examined 102 patients with poorly differentiated oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. All patients were followed for at least 24 months after surgery or until death. The 5-year rates of local control, neck control, distant metastasis, disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival served as main outcome measures. Results: The 5-year rates were as follows: local control (79%), neck control (64%), distant metastases (27%), disease-free survival (48%), disease-specific survival (52%), and overall survival (42%). Multivariable analysis showed that the number of pathologically positive nodes (≥4 vs. ≤3) was a significant predictor of neck control, distant metastasis, and disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival rates. In addition, the presence of tumor depth of ≥11 mm (vs. <11 mm) was a significant predictor of distant metastasis, disease-specific survival, and overall survival rates. The combination of the two predictors (26.5%, 27/102) was independently associated with poorer neck control (p = 0.0319), distant metastasis (p < 0.0001), and disease-free (p < 0.0001), disease-specific (p < 0.0001), and overall survival (p < 0.0001) rates. Conclusions: In patients with poorly differentiated oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma, the presence of at least 4 pathologically positive lymph nodes and of a pathological tumor depth ≥11 mm identifies a subset of subjects with poor clinical outcomes. Patients carrying both risk factors are suitable candidates for the development of novel therapeutic approaches.

  11. The effect of water vapor in the reactor cavity in a MHTGR [Modular High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor] on the radiation heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappiello, M.W.

    1991-01-01

    Analyses have been completed to determine the effect of the presence of water vapor in the reactor cavity in a modular high temperature gas cooled reactor on the predicted radiation heat transfer from the vessel wall to the reactor cavity cooling system. The analysis involves the radiation heat transfer between two parallel plates with an absorbing and emitting medium present. Because the absorption in the water vapor is spectrally dependent, the solution is difficult even for simple geometries. A computer code was written to solve the problem using the Monte Carlo method. The code was validated against closed form solutions, and shows excellent agreement. In the analysis of the reactor problem, the results show that the reduction in heat transfer, and the consequent increase in the vessel wall temperature, can be significant. This effect can be cast in terms of a reduction in the wall surface emissivities from 0.8 to 0.59. Because of the insulating effect of the water vapor, increasing the gap distance between the vessel wall and the cooling system will cause the vessel wall temperature to increase further. Care should be taken in the design of the facility to minimize the gap distance and keep temperature increase within allowable limits. 3 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Differential Response to Heat Stress in Outer and Inner Onion Bulb Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galsurker, Ortal; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Teper-Bamnolker, Paula; Daus, Avinoam; Lers, Amnon; Eshel, Dani

    2018-05-18

    Brown protective skin formation in onion bulbs can be induced by rapid postharvest heat treatment. Onions that were peeled to different depths and were exposed to heat stress showed that only the outer scale formed dry brown skin, whereas the inner scales maintained high water content and did not change color. Our results reveal that browning of the outer scale during heat treatment is due to an enzymatic process that is associated with high levels of oxidation components, such as peroxidase and quercetin glucoside. De-novo transcriptome analysis revealed differential molecular responses of the outer and inner scales to the heat stress. Genes involved in lipid metabolism, oxidation pathways and cell-wall modification were highly expressed in the outer scale during heating. Defense-response-related genes such as those encoding heat-shock proteins, antioxidative stress defense or production of osmoprotectant metabolites were mostly induced in the inner scale in response to the heat exposure. These transcriptomic data led to a conceptual model that suggests sequential processes for browning development and desiccation of the outer scales versus processes associated with defense response and heat tolerance in the inner scale. Thus, the observed physiological differences between the outer and inner scales is supported by the identified molecular differences.

  13. Heat and mass transportation as factor of formation abnormally high stratum pressure (on the example of the east part of Dniper-Donets cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily Suyarko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available On the example of the eastern part of the Dnieper-Donets cavity (DDC considered the role of the heat and mass transportation in the Earth's crust as a factor of the formation of abnormally high stratum pressure (AHPS. Investigated the regularity of the spatial distribution geochemical and positive anomalies of thermal field as indicators of AHPS zones.Established restriction sites abnormally-high reservoir pressure to areas of deep faults activated and drawn schematic map of the distribution of abnormally high reservoir-ticks 

  14. Benchmarking in a differentially heated rotating annulus experiment: Multiple equilibria in the light of laboratory experiments and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincze, Miklos; Harlander, Uwe; Borchert, Sebastian; Achatz, Ulrich; Baumann, Martin; Egbers, Christoph; Fröhlich, Jochen; Hertel, Claudia; Heuveline, Vincent; Hickel, Stefan; von Larcher, Thomas; Remmler, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    In the framework of the German Science Foundation's (DFG) priority program 'MetStröm' various laboratory experiments have been carried out in a differentially heated rotating annulus configuration in order to test, validate and tune numerical methods to be used for modeling large-scale atmospheric processes. This classic experimental set-up is well known since the late 1940s and is a widely studied minimal model of the general mid-latitude atmospheric circulation. The two most relevant factors of cyclogenesis, namely rotation and meridional temperature gradient are quite well captured in this simple arrangement. The tabletop-size rotating tank is divided into three sections by coaxial cylindrical sidewalls. The innermost section is cooled whereas the outermost annular cavity is heated, therefore the working fluid (de-ionized water) in the middle annular section experiences differential heat flow, which imposes thermal (density) stratification on the fluid. At high enough rotation rates the isothermal surfaces tilt, leading to baroclinic instability. The extra potential energy stored in this unstable configuration is then converted into kinetic energy, exciting drifting wave patterns of temperature and momentum anomalies. The signatures of these baroclinic waves at the free water surface have been analysed via infrared thermography in a wide range of rotation rates (keeping the radial temperature difference constant) and under different initial conditions (namely, initial spin-up and "spin-down"). Paralelly to the laboratory simulations of BTU Cottbus-Senftenberg, five other groups from the MetStröm collaboration have conducted simulations in the same parameter regime using different numerical approaches and solvers, and applying different initial conditions and perturbations for stability analysis. The obtained baroclinic wave patterns have been evaluated via determining and comparing their Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs), drift rates and dominant wave

  15. Effects of Movable-Baffle on Heat Transfer and Entropy Generation in a Cavity Saturated by CNT Suspensions: Three-Dimensional Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A.A.A. Al-Rashed

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Convective heat transfer and entropy generation in a 3D closed cavity, equipped with adiabatic-driven baffle and filled with CNT (carbon nanotube-water nanofluid, are numerically investigated for a range of Rayleigh numbers from 103 to 105. This research is conducted for three configurations; fixed baffle (V = 0, rotating baffle clockwise (V+ and rotating baffle counterclockwise (V− and a range of CNT concentrations from 0 to 15%. Governing equations are formulated using potential vector vorticity formulation in its three-dimensional form, then solved by the finite volume method. The effects of motion direction of the inserted driven baffle and CNT concentration on heat transfer and entropy generation are studied. It was observed that for low Rayleigh numbers, the motion of the driven baffle enhances heat transfer regardless of its direction and the CNT concentration effect is negligible. However, with an increasing Rayleigh number, adding driven baffle increases the heat transfer only when it moves in the direction of the decreasing temperature gradient; elsewhere, convective heat transfer cannot be enhanced due to flow blockage at the corners of the baffle.

  16. Local fractional variational iteration algorithm II for non-homogeneous model associated with the non-differentiable heat flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we begin with the non-homogeneous model for the non-differentiable heat flow, which is described using the local fractional vector calculus, from the first law of thermodynamics in fractal media point view. We employ the local fractional variational iteration algorithm II to solve the fractal heat equations. The obtained results show the non-differentiable behaviors of temperature fields of fractal heat flow defined on Cantor sets.

  17. A study of performance parameters on drag and heat flux reduction efficiency of combinational novel cavity and opposing jet concept in hypersonic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xi-wan; Guo, Zhen-yun; Huang, Wei; Li, Shi-bin; Yan, Li

    2017-02-01

    The drag reduction and thermal protection system applied to hypersonic re-entry vehicles have attracted an increasing attention, and several novel concepts have been proposed by researchers. In the current study, the influences of performance parameters on drag and heat reduction efficiency of combinational novel cavity and opposing jet concept has been investigated numerically. The Reynolds-average Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations coupled with the SST k-ω turbulence model have been employed to calculate its surrounding flowfields, and the first-order spatially accurate upwind scheme appears to be more suitable for three-dimensional flowfields after grid independent analysis. Different cases of performance parameters, namely jet operating conditions, freestream angle of attack and physical dimensions, are simulated based on the verification of numerical method, and the effects on shock stand-off distance, drag force coefficient, surface pressure and heat flux distributions have been analyzed. This is the basic study for drag reduction and thermal protection by multi-objective optimization of the combinational novel cavity and opposing jet concept in hypersonic flows in the future.

  18. An efficient approach to characterizing and calculating carrier loss due to heating and barrier height variation in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian, Wu; Summers, H. D.

    2010-01-01

    It is important to determine quantitatively the internal carrier loss arising from heating and barrier height variation in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting quantum well laser (VCSEL). However, it is generally difficult to realize this goal using purely theoretical formulas due to difficulty in deriving the parameters relating to the quantum well structure. In this paper, we describe an efficient approach to characterizing and calculating the carrier loss due to the heating and the barrier height change in the VCSEL. In the method, the thermal carrier loss mechanism is combined with gain measurement and calculation. The carrier loss is re-characterized in a calculable form by constructing the threshold current and gain detuning-related loss current using the measured gain data and then substituting them for the quantum well-related parameters in the formula. The result can be expressed as a product of an exponential weight factor linked to the barrier height change and the difference between the threshold current and gain detuning-related loss current. The gain variation at cavity frequency due to thermal carrier loss and gain detuning processes is measured by using an AlInGaAs–AlGaAs VCSEL structure. This work provides a useful approach to analysing threshold and loss properties of the VCSEL, particularly, gain offset design for high temperature operation of VCSELs. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  19. Heat Transfer and Friction Studies in a Tilted and Rib-Roughened Trailing-Edge Cooling Cavity with and without the Trailing-Edge Cooling Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Taslim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Local and average heat transfer coefficients and friction factors were measured in a test section simulating the trailing-edge cooling cavity of a turbine airfoil. The test rig with a trapezoidal cross-sectional area was rib-roughened on two opposite sides of the trapezoid (airfoil pressure and suction sides with tapered ribs to conform to the cooling cavity shape and had a 22-degree tilt in the flow direction upstream of the ribs that affected the heat transfer coefficients on the two rib-roughened surfaces. The radial cooling flow traveled from the airfoil root to the tip while exiting through 22 cooling holes along the airfoil trailing-edge. Two rib geometries, with and without the presence of the trailing-edge cooling holes, were examined. The numerical model contained the entire trailing-edge channel, ribs, and trailing-edge cooling holes to simulate exactly the tested geometry. A pressure-correction based, multiblock, multigrid, unstructured/adaptive commercial software was used in this investigation. Realizable k-ε turbulence model in conjunction with enhanced wall treatment approach for the near wall regions was used for turbulence closure. The applied thermal boundary conditions to the CFD models matched the test boundary conditions. Comparisons are made between the experimental and numerical results.

  20. Anisotropic scattering in three dimensional differential approximation of radiation heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condiff, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    The differential approximation is extended to account for anisotropic scattering in invariant three dimensional form. A moment method using polyadic Legendre functions establishes that pressure cross sections should take precedence over extinction cross sections for treating radiation heat transfer in an absorbing, emitting, and scattering medium, and that use of these cross sections accounts for the extent of preferred forward or backwards scattering. The procedure and principle is extended to polyadic P-N approximations

  1. High Temperature Heat Exchanger Design and Fabrication for Systems with Large Pressure Differentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chordia, Lalit [Thar Energy, LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Portnoff, Marc A. [Thar Energy, LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Green, Ed [Thar Energy, LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-03-31

    The project’s main purpose was to design, build and test a compact heat exchanger for supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) power cycle recuperators. The compact recuperator is required to operate at high temperature and high pressure differentials, 169 bar (~2,500 psi), between streams of sCO2. Additional project tasks included building a hot air-to-sCO2 Heater heat exchanger (HX) and design, build and operate a test loop to characterize the recuperator and heater heat exchangers. A novel counter-current microtube recuperator was built to meet the high temperature high differential pressure criteria and tested. The compact HX design also incorporated a number of features that optimize material use, improved reliability and reduced cost. The air-to-sCO2 Heater HX utilized a cross flow, counter-current, micro-tubular design. This compact HX design was incorporated into the test loop and exceeded design expectations. The test loop design to characterize the prototype Brayton power cycle HXs was assembled, commissioned and operated during the program. Both the prototype recuperator and Heater HXs were characterized. Measured results for the recuperator confirmed the predictions of the heat transfer models developed during the project. Heater HX data analysis is ongoing.

  2. Free convective heat loss from cavity-type solar furnace; Solar receiver kara no shizen tairyu ni yoru netsusonshitsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, I; Ito, N [Meiji University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Free convective heat loss from solar heat receivers was studied, using three laboratory model receivers (different in depth L and aperture diameter d) heated by electric heaters. Most of the heat produced by heaters was transmitted to the air inside. The cylindrical vessel walls were fully insulated against heat. Heat loss being supposed to result mainly from transfer by free convection, the experiment results were edited by use of Nusselt number Nu and Rayley number Ra. Relations between Nu(D/d){sup m1} and Ra(L/D){sup m2} were plotted in a chart. Here, D is the receiver inner diameter, and m1 and m2 are constants that can be determined by computation. Tests points were provided approximately lineally, irrespective of D, L, or receiver inclination. Air currents were found to produce one or more swirls inside, thanks to the current visualization technique, when the receiver inclination was not sharper than 120{degree} (except 0{degree}). The number of swirls increased as the inner wall temperature rose. This kind of behavior of air currents directly affects the degree of heat loss. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Dental cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001055.htm Dental cavities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Dental cavities are holes (or structural damage) in the ...

  4. Beetle Exoskeleton May Facilitate Body Heat Acting Differentially across the Electromagnetic Spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascal, Luis M; Ruiz, Yolanda Jiménez; Lobo, Jorge M

    Exoskeletons of beetles and their associated morphological characteristics can serve many different functions, including thermoregulation. We study the thermal role of the exoskeleton in 13 Geotrupidae dung beetle species using heating experiments under controlled conditions. The main purpose was to measure the influence of heating sources (solar radiance vs. infrared), animal position (dorsal exposure vs. ventral exposure), species identity, and phylogenetic relationships on internal asymptotic temperatures and heating rates. The thermal response was significantly influenced by phylogenetic relatedness, although it was not affected by the apterous condition. The asymptotic internal temperature of specimens was not affected by the thoracic volume but was significantly higher under simulated sunlight conditions than under infrared radiation and when exposed dorsally as opposed to ventrally. There was thus a significant interaction between heating source and body position. Heating rate was negatively and significantly influenced by thoracic volume, and, although insignificantly slower under simulated sunlight, it was significantly affected by body position, being faster under dorsal exposure. The results constitute the first evidence supporting the hypothesis that the beetle exoskeleton acts differentially across the electromagnetic spectrum determining internal body temperatures. This interesting finding suggests the existence of a kind of passive physiology imposed by the exoskeleton and body size, where interspecific relationships play a minor role.

  5. Effects of heater location and heater size on the natural convection heat transfer in a square cavity using finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo, Ich Long; Byon, Chan [Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Finite element method was used to investigate the effects of heater location and heater size on the natural convection heat transfer in a 2D square cavity heated partially or fully from below and cooled from above. Rayleigh number (5 X 10{sup 2} ≤ Ra ≤ 5X10{sup 5}), heater size (0.1 ≤ D/L ≤ 1.0), and heater location (0.1 ≤ x{sub h}/L ≤ 0.5) were considered. Numerical results indicated that the average Nusselt number (Nu{sub m}) increases as the heater size decreases. In addition, when x{sub h}/L is less than 0.4, Nu{sub m} increases as x{sub h}/L increases, and Num decreases again for a larger value of x{sub h}/L. However, this trend changes when Ra is less than 10{sup 4}, suggesting that Nu{sub m} attains its maximum value at the region close to the bottom surface center. This study aims to gain insight into the behaviors of natural convection in order to potentially improve internal natural convection heat transfer.

  6. Local fractional variational iteration algorithm iii for the diffusion model associated with non-differentiable heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a new application of the local fractional variational iteration algorithm III to solve the local fractional diffusion equation defined on Cantor sets associated with non-differentiable heat transfer.

  7. Extending the hydrophobic cavity of β-cyclodextrin results in more negative heat capacity changes but reduced binding affinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönbeck, Christian; Holm, René; Westh, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The formation of inclusion complexes of hydroxypropylated β-cyclodextrins (CDs) with three bile salts are investigated to shed light on the role played by the hydroxypropyl (HP) substituents. The HP-chains are situated at the rim of the CD and may thus extend the hydrophobic cavity of the CD....... Calorimetric titrations in a broad temperature range and molecular dynamics simulations confirm previous speculations that the HP-chains cause an increase in dehydrated nonpolar surface area upon formation of the complexes. This additional burial of nonpolar surface area, 12–16 Å2 per HP-chain according...... CD (but depend on the type of bile salt). Interestingly, these convergence temperatures are close to what is observed for unfolding of proteins and may be a common feature of hydrophobic dehydration....

  8. Natural convection heat transfer in an anisotropic porous cavity heated from the side. 1st Report. Theory; Tosuiritsu ni ihosei wo yusuru howa takoshitsu sonai no sokuho kanetsu ni yoru shizen tairyu netsu dentatsu. 1. Riron kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, S [Kanazawa University, Ishikawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Okajima, A [Kanazawa University, Ishikawa (Japan)

    1998-02-25

    Natural convection heat transfer and flow structure in an anisotropic porous medium of square cavity saturated with Boussinesq fluid has been studied analytically and numerically. Based on asymptotic analysis three distinctive regimes are found depending upon the magnitude of permeability ratio K. In the vicinity of K=1 the average Nusselt number and fluid velocity are scaled with (KRa){sup 1/2} when either K or the Rayleigh number Ra is varied. In the limit of K {yields} 0 the heat transfer across the cavity approaches to the conductive state, and the convecting velocity, which is primarily in the vertical direction, is scaled with KRa. In the other end of spectrum, namely K {yields} {infinity}, the average Nusselt number and the convecting velocity are scaled with Ra and independent of K. The asymptotic results are verified with two-dimensional numerical calculations. The ranges of K of the respective regimes are also determined based on the numerical results. 12 refs., 12 figs.

  9. Low cost, microcontroller based heating device for multi-wavelength differential scanning fluorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeser, Jo; Gnandt, Emmanuel; Friedrich, Thorsten

    2018-01-23

    Differential scanning fluorimetry is a popular method to estimate the stability of a protein in distinct buffer conditions by determining its 'melting point'. The method requires a temperature controlled fluorescence spectrometer or a RT-PCR machine. Here, we introduce a low-budget version of a microcontroller based heating device implemented into a 96-well plate reader that is connected to a standard fluorescence spectrometer. We demonstrate its potential to determine the 'melting point' of soluble and membranous proteins at various buffer conditions.

  10. Differentiating between heat pain intensities: the combined effect of multiple autonomic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treister, Roi; Kliger, Mark; Zuckerman, Galit; Goor Aryeh, Itay; Eisenberg, Elon

    2012-09-01

    Although it is well known that pain induces changes in autonomic parameters, the extent to which these changes correlate with the experience of pain is under debate. The aim of the present study was to compare a combination of multiple autonomic parameters and each parameter alone in their ability to differentiate among 4 categories of pain intensity. Tonic heat stimuli (1minute) were individually adjusted to induce no pain, low, medium, and high pain in 45 healthy volunteers. Electrocardiogram, photoplethysmogram, and galvanic skin response were recorded, and the following parameters were calculated: heart rate; heart rate variability-high frequency (0.15 to 0.4Hz) spectral power; skin conductance level; number of skin conduction fluctuations; and photoplethysmographic pulse wave amplitude. A combination of parameters was created by fitting an ordinal cumulative logit model to the data and using linear coefficients of the model. Friedman test with post-hoc Wilcoxon test were used to compare between pain intensity categories for every parameter alone and for their linear combination. All of the parameters successfully differentiated between no pain and all other pain categories. However, none of the parameters differentiated between all 3 pain categories (i.e., low and medium; medium and high; low and high). In contrast, the linear combination of parameters significantly differentiated not only between pain and no pain, but also between all pain categories (Ppain assessment. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Conduction cooling systems for linear accelerator cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kephart, Robert

    2017-05-02

    A conduction cooling system for linear accelerator cavities. The system conducts heat from the cavities to a refrigeration unit using at least one cavity cooler interconnected with a cooling connector. The cavity cooler and cooling connector are both made from solid material having a very high thermal conductivity of approximately 1.times.10.sup.4 W m.sup.-1 K.sup.-1 at temperatures of approximately 4 degrees K. This allows for very simple and effective conduction of waste heat from the linear accelerator cavities to the cavity cooler, along the cooling connector, and thence to the refrigeration unit.

  12. Cryostat for TRISTAN superconducting cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsunobu, S.; Furuya, T.; Hara, K.

    1990-01-01

    Superconducting cavities generate rather high heat load of hundreds watts in one cryostat and have high sensitivity for pressure. We adopted usual pool-boiling type cooling for its stable pressure operation. Two 5-cell Nb cavities were installed in one flange type cryostat. Tuning mechanics actuated by a pulse-motor and a Piezo-electric element are set at outside of vacuum end flange. The design and performance of the cryostat for TRISTAN superconducting cavities are described. (author)

  13. Synchronous myeloproliferative and inflammatory disease of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses: an interesting differential diagnostic problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Iván; Gábor, Vass; Zsolt, Bella; László, Tiszlavicz; József, Jóri

    2009-09-01

    The authors present a case of synchronous manifestation of a myeloproliferative--extramedullary plasmocytoma--and a chronic inflammatory disease of the nose and the paranasal sinuses. They emphasise the importance of imaging techniques and immunohistochemistry in the differential diagnosis. They discuss on the basis of published articles the new classification, clinical manifestations, diagnostic and therapeutical approaches of this tumour belonging to the group of monoclonal gammopathies, which originates from an abnormal proliferation of mature B-lymphocytes, and is a rarity in the literature even nowadays.

  14. Differential metabolic responses of perennial grass Cynodon transvaalensis×Cynodon dactylon (C₄) and Poa Pratensis (C₃) to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongmei; Wang, Zhaolong; Yu, Wenjuan; Liu, Yimin; Huang, Bingru

    2011-03-01

    Differential metabolic responses to heat stress may be associated with variations in heat tolerance between cool-season (C₃) and warm-season (C₄) perennial grass species. The main objective of this study was to identify metabolites associated with differential heat tolerance between C₄ bermudagrass and C₃ Kentucky bluegrass by performing metabolite profile analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Plants of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa Pratensis'Midnight') and hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon transvaalensis x Cynodon dactylon'Tifdwarf') were grown under optimum temperature conditions (20/15 °C for Kentucky bluegrass and 30/25 °C for bermudagrass) or heat stress (35/30 °C for Kentucky bluegrass and 45/40 °C for bermudagrass). Physiological responses to heat stress were evaluated by visual rating of grass quality, measuring photochemical efficiency (variable fluorescence to maximal fluorescence) and electrolyte leakage. All of these parameters indicated that bermudagrass exhibited better heat tolerance than Kentucky bluegrass. The metabolite analysis of leaf polar extracts revealed 36 heat-responsive metabolites identified in both grass species, mainly consisting of organic acids, amino acids, sugars and sugar alcohols. Most metabolites showed higher accumulation in bermudagrass compared with Kentucky bluegrass, especially following long-term (18 days) heat stress. The differentially accumulated metabolites included seven sugars (sucrose, fructose, galactose, floridoside, melibiose, maltose and xylose), a sugar alcohol (inositol), six organic acids (malic acid, citric acid, threonic acid, galacturonic acid, isocitric acid and methyl malonic acid) and nine amino acids (Asn, Ala, Val, Thr, γ-aminobutyric acid, IIe, Gly, Lys and Met). The differential accumulation of those metabolites could be associated with the differential heat tolerance between C₃ Kentucky bluegrass and C₄ bermudagrass. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2010.

  15. Thermal analysis of a solar collector consisting of V cavities for water heating; Analise termica de um coletor solar composto de cavidades V para aquecimento de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Michel Fabio de Souza

    2009-03-15

    The solar water heating is carried through, in Brazil, by means of solar heaters compound for collectors flat plate of the type plate-and-pipes, devices that operate in stationary position and they do not require tracking of the sun. A compound collector for some formed V-trough concentrators can be an alternative to the conventional solar collectors flat plate. This compound collector for V-trough is considered, each one, for side-walls which are specularly reflecting surfaces associates in V (equivalent to a triangular gutter). Next to the vertex to each V-trough concentrators an absorber tube is fixed, for flow of the fluid to be heated. Interconnection of the absorbers tubes forms a similar tubular network existing in solar collectors of the type the plate and pipe. V-trough concentrators with the absorbers tubes are made use in series in the interior a prismatic box, which have one of its faces consisting by a glass covering and directed toward incidence of the solar radiation. An analysis of thermal performance of these devices operating stationary and without tracking of the sun is researched. A mathematical model for the computational simulation of the optical and thermal performance of these concentrative devices is elaborated, whose implementation was carried through software EES (Engineering Equation Solver). The efficiency optics of V-trough concentrators with cylindrical absorbers is calculated from the adaptation of the methodology used for Fraidenraich (1994), proposal for Hollands (1971) for V-trough cavities with plain absorbers. The thermal analysis of the considered collector was based on the applied methodology the CPC for Hsieh (1981) and Leao (1989). Relative results to the thermal performance of V-trough concentrators suggest that these configurations are not competitive, technique and economically, with the conventional plain collectors. Although some geometric configurations presented next thermal efficiencies to the conventional plain

  16. Nonlinear dynamics analysis of a low-temperature-differential kinematic Stirling heat engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumida, Yuki

    2018-03-01

    The low-temperature-differential (LTD) Stirling heat engine technology constitutes one of the important sustainable energy technologies. The basic question of how the rotational motion of the LTD Stirling heat engine is maintained or lost based on the temperature difference is thus a practically and physically important problem that needs to be clearly understood. Here, we approach this problem by proposing and investigating a minimal nonlinear dynamic model of an LTD kinematic Stirling heat engine. Our model is described as a driven nonlinear pendulum where the motive force is the temperature difference. The rotational state and the stationary state of the engine are described as a stable limit cycle and a stable fixed point of the dynamical equations, respectively. These two states coexist under a sufficient temperature difference, whereas the stable limit cycle does not exist under a temperature difference that is too small. Using a nonlinear bifurcation analysis, we show that the disappearance of the stable limit cycle occurs via a homoclinic bifurcation, with the temperature difference being the bifurcation parameter.

  17. A Multi-instrument and Multi-wavelength High Angular Resolution Study of MWC 614: Quantum Heated Particles Inside the Disk Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluska, Jacques; Kraus, Stefan; Davies, Claire L.; Harries, Tim; Willson, Matthew; Monnier, John D.; Aarnio, Alicia; Baron, Fabien; Millan-Gabet, Rafael; Ten Brummelaar, Theo; Che, Xiao; Hinkley, Sasha; Preibisch, Thomas; Sturmann, Judit; Sturmann, Laszlo; Touhami, Yamina

    2018-03-01

    High angular resolution observations of young stellar objects are required to study the inner astronomical units of protoplanetary disks in which the majority of planets form. As they evolve, gaps open up in the inner disk regions and the disks are fully dispersed within ∼10 Myr. MWC 614 is a pretransitional object with a ∼10 au radius gap. We present a set of high angular resolution observations of this object including SPHERE/ZIMPOL polarimetric and coronagraphic images in the visible, Keck/NIRC2 near-infrared (NIR) aperture masking observations, and Very Large Telescope Interferometer (AMBER, MIDI, and PIONIER) and Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy (CLASSIC and CLIMB) long-baseline interferometry at infrared wavelengths. We find that all the observations are compatible with an inclined disk (i ∼ 55° at a position angle of ∼20°–30°). The mid-infrared data set confirms that the disk inner rim is at 12.3 ± 0.4 au from the central star. We determined an upper mass limit of 0.34 M ⊙ for a companion inside the cavity. Within the cavity, the NIR emission, usually associated with the dust sublimation region, is unusually extended (∼10 au, 30 times larger than the theoretical sublimation radius) and indicates a high dust temperature (T ∼ 1800 K). As a possible result of companion-induced dust segregation, quantum heated dust grains could explain the extended NIR emission with this high temperature. Our observations confirm the peculiar state of this object where the inner disk has already been accreted onto the star, exposing small particles inside the cavity to direct stellar radiation. Based on observations made with the Keck observatory (NASA program ID N104N2) and with ESO telescopes at the Paranal Observatory (ESO program IDs 073.C-0720, 077.C-0226, 077.C-0521, 083.C-0984, 087.C-0498(A), 190.C-0963, 095.C-0883) and with the Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy observatory.

  18. Specific heat capacities of different clayey samples obtained by differential scanning calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The thermo-physical properties allow to calculate heat flows and to determine the thermal behaviour of the materials. Temperature influences the rates of the physical, chemical and biological reactions and processes in the soil or a material. Variations in temperature and water content in thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and geochemical processes affect the thermal properties such as density, specific heat, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity. Therefore, mathematical models that describe the dependence of the thermal properties on temperature and concentration are of interest to be used in computational programs applied to the modelling of coupled thermo-mechanical-hydraulic and chemical (THMC) processes. In this work, the specific heat capacity of different clayey international reference materials was determined. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used for such purpose. DSC is the main tool for determining the specific heat capacities of materials as a function of temperature. The specific heat capacity, c p (J/Kg.K), is a measurement of the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of a substance by one unit of temperature. A change in temperature, caused by a gain or a loss of heat from a material, depends on the specific heat capacity of the material. Thus, the specific heat capacity is a key and characteristic property of a material and/or substance, which should be determine accurately. The specific heat capacity is an intensive property and, unlike the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity, is independent of the dry density of the material. C p of the solid samples was determined by using a SETSYS Evolution 16 thermal analyser coupled to a differential scanning calorimeter (TG-DSC-DTA) from SETARAM Instrumentation. The thermal analyser system can use a heating rate from 0.01 to 100 C/min under a dynamic argon atmosphere and temperatures ranging from ambient to

  19. Finite element simulation of heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bergheau, Jean-Michel

    2010-01-01

    This book introduces the finite element method applied to the resolution of industrial heat transfer problems. Starting from steady conduction, the method is gradually extended to transient regimes, to traditional non-linearities, and to convective phenomena. Coupled problems involving heat transfer are then presented. Three types of couplings are discussed: coupling through boundary conditions (such as radiative heat transfer in cavities), addition of state variables (such as metallurgical phase change), and coupling through partial differential equations (such as electrical phenomena).? A re

  20. Optimization of microwave heating in an existing cubicle cavity by incorporating additional wave guide and control components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erle, R.R.; Eschen, V.G.; Sprenger, G.S.

    1995-04-01

    The use of microwave energy to thermally treat Low Level (LLW), Transuranic (TRU), and mixed waste has been under development at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) since 1986. During that time, the technology has progressed from bench-scale tests, through pilot-scale tests, and finally to a full-scale demonstration unit. Experimental operations have been conducted on a variety of non-radioactive surrogates and actual radioactive waste forms. Through these studies and development efforts, the Microwave Vitrification Engineering Team (MVET) at Rocky Flats has successfully proven the application of microwave energy for waste treatment operations. In the microwave solidification process, microwave energy is used to heat a mixture of waste and glass frit to produce a vitrified product that meets all the current acceptance criteria at the final disposal sites. All of the development to date has utilized a multi-mode microwave system to provide the energy to treat the materials. Currently, evaluations are underway on modifications to the full-scale demonstration system that provide a single-mode operation as a possible method to optimize the system. This poster presentation describes the modifications made to allow the single-mode operation

  1. Direct numerical simulation and modeling of turbulent natural convection in a vertical differentially heated slot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudjemadi, R.

    1996-03-01

    The main objectives of this thesis are the direct numerical simulation of natural convection in a vertical differentially heated slot and the improvements of second-order turbulence modelling. A three-dimensional direct numerical simulation code has been developed in order to gain a better understanding of turbulence properties in natural convection flows. This code has been validated in several physical configurations: non-stratified natural convection flows (conduction solution), stratified natural convection flows (double boundary layer solution), transitional and turbulent Poiseuille flows. For the conduction solution, the turbulent regime was reached at a Rayleigh number of 1*10 5 and 5.4*10 5 . A detailed analysis of these results has revealed the principal qualities of the available models but has also pointed our their shortcomings. This data base has been used in order to improve the triple correlations transport models and to select the turbulent time scales suitable for such flows. (author). 122 refs., figs., tabs., 4 appends

  2. accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    On the inside of the cavity there is a layer of niobium. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment.

  3. Differential expression of myocardial heat shock proteins in rats acutely exposed to fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneerselvam, Lakshmikanthan; Raghunath, Azhwar; Perumal, Ekambaram

    2017-09-01

    Acute fluoride (F - ) toxicity is known to cause severe cardiac complications and leads to sudden heart failure. Previously, we reported that increased myocardial oxidative damage, apoptosis, altered cytoskeleton and AMPK signaling proteins associated with energy deprivation in acute F - induced cardiac dysfunction. The present study was aimed to decipher the status of myocardial heat shock proteins (Hsps-Hsp27, Hsp32, Hsp40, Hsp60, Hsp70, Hsp90) and heat shock transcription factor 1 (Hsf1) in acute F - -intoxicated rats. In order to study the expression of myocardial Hsps, male Wistar rats were treated with single oral doses of 45 and 90 mg/kg F - for 24 h. The expression levels of myocardial Hsps were determined using RT-PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemical studies. Acute F - -intoxicated rats showed elevated levels of both the transcripts and protein expression of Hsf1, Hsp27, Hsp32, Hsp60, and Hsp70 when compared to control. In addition, the expression levels of Hsp40 and Hsp90 were significantly declined in a dose-dependent fashion in F - -treated animals. Our result suggests that differential expression of Hsps in the rat myocardium could serve as a balance between pro-survival and death signal during acute F - -induced heart failure.

  4. Current instabilities under HF electron gas heating in semiconductors with negative differential conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurevich, Yu. G.; Logvinov, G. N. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Laricheva, N. [Datmouth College, New Hampshire (United States); Mashkevich, O. L. [Kharkov University, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2001-10-01

    A nonlinear temperature dependence of the kinetic coefficients of semiconductor plasma can result in the appearance of regions of negative differential conductivity (NDC) in both the high-frequency (HF) and static current-voltage characteristics (CVC). In the present paper the formation of the static NDC under simultaneous electron gas heating by HF and static electric field is studied. As is shown below, in this case the heating electromagnetic wave has a pronounced effect on the appearance of NDC caused by the overheating mechanisms and the type of the static CVC as a whole. [Spanish] Una dependencia no lineal de la temperatura de los coeficientes cineticos del plasma del semiconductor puede llevar a la aparicion de regiones con conductividad diferencial negativa (CDN) en las caracteristicas corriente voltaje (CCV) de alta frecuencia (AF) y estatica. En este articulo se estudia la formacion de la CDN estatica bajo la accion simultanea del calentamiento del gas de electrones por AF y el campo electrico estatico. Como se muestra mas adelante, en este caso la onda electromagnetica que calienta a los electrones ejerce un fuerte efecto en la aparicion de la CDN; que se obtiene por mecanismos de sobrecalentamiento, y en el tipo de CCV estatica.

  5. Proposal of a fluid flow layout to improve the heat transfer in the active absorber surface of solar central cavity receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, M.J.; Rovira, A.; Martínez-Val, J.M.; Ramos, A.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of concentrated solar power is to increase the thermal energy of a fluid, for the fluid to be used, for example, in a power cycle to generate electricity. Such applications present the requirement of appropriately designing the receiver active absorber surface, as the incident radiation flux can be very high. Besides that, the solar image in the receiver is not uniform, so conventional boilers designs are not well suited for these purposes. That point is particularly critical in solar central receivers systems (CRS), where concentrated solar flux is usually above 500 kW/m 2 , causing thermal and mechanical stress in the absorber panels. This paper analyzes a new thermofluidynamic design of a solar central receiver, which optimizes the heat transfer in the absorber surface. This conceptual receiver presents the following characteristics: the fluid flow pattern is designed according to the radiation flux map symmetry, so more uniform fluid temperatures at the receiver outlet are achieved; the heat transfer irreversibilities are reduced by circulating the fluid from the lower temperature region to the higher temperature region of the absorber surface; the width of each pass is adjusted to the solar flux gradient, to get lower temperature differences between the side tubes of the same pass; and the cooling requirement is ensured by means of adjusting the fluid flow velocity per tube, taking into account the pressure drop. This conceptual scheme has been applied to the particular case of a molten salt single cavity receiver, although the configuration proposed is suitable for other receiver designs and working fluids. - Highlights: ► The solar receiver design proposed optimizes heat transfer in the absorber surface. ► The fluid flow pattern is designed according to the solar flux map symmetry at noon. ► The fluid circulates from the lower to the higher temperature regions. ► The width of each pass is adjusted to the solar flux gradient.

  6. Differential proteomic analysis reveals sequential heat stress-responsive regulatory network in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) taproot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ronghua; Mei, Yi; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Wang, Yan; Guo, Jun; Liu, Liwang

    2018-05-01

    Differential abundance protein species (DAPS) involved in reducing damage and enhancing thermotolerance in radish were firstly identified. Proteomic analysis and omics association analysis revealed a HS-responsive regulatory network in radish. Heat stress (HS) is a major destructive factor influencing radish production and supply in summer, for radish is a cool season vegetable crop being susceptible to high temperature. In this study, the proteome changes of radish taproots under 40 °C treatment at 0 h (Control), 12 h (Heat12) and 24 h (Heat24) were analyzed using iTRAQ (Isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantification) approach. In total, 2258 DAPS representing 1542 differentially accumulated uniprotein species which respond to HS were identified. A total of 604, 910 and 744 DAPS was detected in comparison of Control vs. Heat12, Control vs. Heat24, and Heat12 vs. Heat24, respectively. Gene ontology and pathway analysis showed that annexin, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, ATP synthase, heat shock protein (HSP) and other stress-related proteins were predominately enriched in signal transduction, stress and defense pathways, photosynthesis and energy metabolic pathways, working cooperatively to reduce stress-induced damage in radish. Based on iTRAQ combined with the transcriptomics analysis, a schematic model of a sequential HS-responsive regulatory network was proposed. The initial sensing of HS occurred at the plasma membrane, and then key components of stress signal transduction triggered heat-responsive genes in the plant protective metabolism to re-establish homeostasis and enhance thermotolerance. These results provide new insights into characteristics of HS-responsive DAPS and facilitate dissecting the molecular mechanisms underlying heat tolerance in radish and other root crops.

  7. Use of electronic tongue for differentiation of tomato taste by cultivar, harvest maturity, and chilling or heating exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate whether an electronic-tongue (etongue) could differentiate “taste” profiles of tomato fruit between different cultivars, harvest maturities, and postharvest chilling or heating exposure. The four cultivars included: two common commercial cultivars, ‘Tyg...

  8. Dimensional analysis to transform the differential equations in partial derivates in the theory of heat transmission into ordinary ones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Sanchidrian, C.

    1989-01-01

    The present paper applies dimensional analysis with spatial discrimination to transform the differential equations in partial derivatives developed in the theory of heat transmission into ordinary ones. The effectivity of the method is comparable to that methods based in transformations of uni or multiparametric groups, with the advantage of being more direct and simple. (Author)

  9. Application of the modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry technique for the determination of the specific heat of copper nanofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Robertis, E.; Cosme, E.H.H.; Neves, R.S.; Kuznetsov, A.Yu.; Campos, A.P.C.; Landi, S.M.; Achete, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the applicability of the modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry technique to measure specific heat of copper nanofluids by using the ASTM E2719 standard procedure, which is generally applied to thermally stable solids and liquids. The one-step method of preparation of copper nanofluid samples is described. The synthesized nanoparticles were separated from the base fluid and examined by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy in order to evaluate their structure, morphology and chemical nature. The presence of copper nanoparticles in the base fluid alters the characteristics of crystallization and melting processes and reduces the specific heat values of nanofluids in the whole studied temperature range. - Highlights: ► Copper nanofluids prepared by one-step method. ► Methodology of synthesis improved nanofluid stability. ► Specific heat determinations using modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry. ► Good agreement between theoretical and experimental values.

  10. Leaching materials from cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, T.D.; Jordan, T.W.J.

    1980-01-01

    A material is leached from a cavity by contacting the material with a liquid and subjecting the liquid to a number of pressure cycles, each pressure cycle involving a decrease in pressure to cause boiling of the liquid, followed by a rise in pressure to inhibit the boiling. The method may include the step of heating the liquid to a temperature near to its boiling point. The material may be nuclear fuel pellets or calcium carbonate pellets. (author)

  11. Effect of heating and cooling rate on the kinetics of allotropic phase changes in uranium: A differential scanning calorimetry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Arun Kumar; Raju, S.; Jeyaganesh, B.; Mohandas, E.; Sudha, R.; Ganesan, V.

    2009-01-01

    The kinetic aspects of allotropic phase changes in uranium are studied as a function of heating/cooling rate in the range 10 0 -10 2 K min -1 by isochronal differential scanning calorimetry. The transformation arrest temperatures revealed a remarkable degree of sensitivity to variations of heating and cooling rate, and this is especially more so for the transformation finish (T f ) temperatures. The results obtained for the α → β and β → γ transformations during heating confirm to the standard Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (KJMA) model for a nucleation and growth mediated process. The apparent activation energy Q eff for the overall transformation showed a mild increase with increasing heating rate. In fact, the heating rate normalised Arrhenius rate constant, k/β reveals a smooth power law decay with increasing heating rate (β). For the α → β phase change, the observed DSC peak profile for slower heating rates contained a distinct shoulder like feature, which however is absent in the corresponding profiles found for higher heating rates. The kinetics of γ → β phase change on the other hand, is best described by the two-parameter Koistinen-Marburger empirical relation for the martensitic transformation

  12. Advances on the time differential three-phase-lag heat conduction model and major open issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Apice, Ciro; Zampoli, Vittorio

    2017-07-01

    The main purpose of this short contribution is to summarize the recent achievements concerning the so-called time differential three-phase-lag heat conduction model, contextually focusing attention on some of the numerous open problems associated with such an attractive theory. After having briefly recalled the origin of the model at issue, the restrictions upon the delay times and the constitutive tensors able to make it thermodynamically consistent are recalled. Under these hypotheses, the investigation of the well-posedness issue has already provided important results in terms of uniqueness and continuous dependence of the solutions (even related to the thermoelastic case), as well as in terms of existence of a domain of influence of the assigned data in connection with the thermoelastic model. Finally, some of the main problems currently object of investigation are recalled, including the very challenging issues about the different possible choices of Taylor series expansion orders for the constitutive equation, the interaction of the model with energy processes that take place on the nanoscale, with multi-porous materials and with biological systems.

  13. Sobre a primeira lei da termodinâmica: as diferenciais do calor e do trabalho On the first law of thermodynamics: heat and work differentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Anacleto

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available We treat some subtleties concerning the First Law of Thermodynamics and discuss the inherent difficulties, namely the interpretation of the heat and the work differentials. By proposing a new differential equation for the First Law, which is written using both system and neighborhood variables, we overcome the mentioned difficulties and establish a criterion for the definition of heat and work.

  14. Method for achieving hydraulic balance in typical Chinese building heating systems by managing differential pressure and flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Xia, Jianjun; Thorsen, Jan Eric

    2017-01-01

    to a lack of pressure and flow control. This study investigated using pre-set radiator valves combined with differential pressure (DP) controllers to achieve hydraulic balance in building distribution systems, and consequently save energy and reduce the emissions. We considered a multi-storey building......Hydraulic unbalance is a common problem in Chinese district heating (DH) systems. Hydraulic unbalance has resulted in poor flow distribution among heating branches and overheating of apartments. Studies show that nearly 30% of the total heat supply is being wasted in Chinese DH systems due...... modelled in the IDA-ICE software, along with a self-developed mathematical hydraulic model to simulate its heat performance and hydraulic performance with various control scenarios. In contrast to the situation with no pressure or flow control, this solution achieves the required flow distribution...

  15. LEP Radio Frequency Copper Cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    The pulse of a particle accelerator. 128 of these radio frequency cavities were positioned around CERN's 27-kilometre LEP ring to accelerate electrons and positrons. The acceleration was produced by microwave electric oscillations at 352 MHz. The electrons and positrons were grouped into bunches, like beads on a string, and the copper sphere at the top stored the microwave energy between the passage of individual bunches. This made for valuable energy savings as it reduced the heat generated in the cavity.

  16. Acute heat stress induces differential gene expressions in the testes of a broiler-type strain of Taiwan country chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Han; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Lee, Yen-Pai; Huang, San-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The expression of testicular genes following acute heat stress has been reported in layer-type roosters, but few similar studies have been conducted on broilers. This study investigated the effect of acute heat stress on the gene expression in the testes of a broiler-type strain of Taiwan country chickens. Roosters were subjected to acute heat stress (38°C) for 4 h, and then exposed to 25°C, with testes collected 0, 2, and 6 h after the cessation of heat stress, using non-heat-stressed roosters as controls (n = 3 roosters per group). The body temperature and respiratory rate increased significantly (pstress. The numbers of apoptotic cells increased 2 h after the acute heat stress (79 ± 7 vs. 322 ± 192, control vs. heat stress; pstressed chickens from those of the controls, including genes involved in the response to stimulus, protein metabolism, signal transduction, cell adhesion, transcription, and apoptosis. The mRNA expressions of upregulated genes, including HSP25, HSP90AA1, HSPA2, and LPAR2, and of downregulated genes, including CDH5, CTNNA3, EHF, CIRBP, SLA, and NTF3, were confirmed through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Moreover, numerous transcripts in the testes exhibited distinct expressions between the heat-stressed broiler-type and layer-type chickens. We concluded that the transcriptional responses of testes to acute heat stress may differ between the broiler-type and layer-type roosters. Whether the differential expression patterns associate with the heat-tolerance in the strains require a further exploration.

  17. Cavity pressure history of contained nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapin, C E [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Knowledge of pressure in cavities created by contained nuclear explosions is useful for estimating the possibility of venting radioactive debris to the atmosphere. Measurements of cavity pressure, or temperature, would be helpful in evaluating the correctness of present code predictions of underground explosions. In instrumenting and interpreting such measurements it is necessary to have good theoretical estimates of cavity pressures. In this paper cavity pressure is estimated at the time when cavity growth is complete. Its subsequent decrease due to heat loss from the cavity to the surrounding media is also predicted. The starting pressure (the pressure at the end of cavity growth) is obtained by adiabatic expansion to the final cavity size of the vaporized rock gas sphere created by the explosion. Estimates of cavity size can be obtained by stress propagation computer codes, such as SOC and TENSOR. However, such estimates require considerable time and effort. In this paper, cavity size is estimated using a scheme involving simple hand calculations. The prediction is complicated by uncertainties in the knowledge of silica water system chemistry and a lack of information concerning possible blowoff of wall material during cavity growth. If wall material blows off, it can significantly change the water content in the cavity, compared to the water content in the ambient media. After cavity growth is complete, the pressure will change because of heat loss to the surrounding media. Heat transfer by convection, radiation and conduction is considered, and its effect on the pressure is calculated. Analysis of cavity heat transfer is made difficult by the complex nature of processes which occur at the wall where melting, vaporization and condensation of the gaseous rock can all occur. Furthermore, the melted wall material could be removed by flowing or dripping to the cavity floor. It could also be removed by expansion of the steam contained in the melt (blowoff) and by

  18. Effect of Perpendicular Magnetic Field on Free Convection in a Rectangular Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The steady free convective flow of a viscous incompressible and electrically conducting fluid in a two-dimensional cavity in the presence of a magnetic field applied normal to the plane of the cavity is investigated. The side vertical walls of the cavity are heated differentially while the horizontal walls are assumed to be insulated. The governing equations are re-formulated in terms of vorticity and stream function. The resulting boundary value problem is solved numerically using an alternating direction implicit (ADI method. A number of plots illustrating the influence of Hartmann number and Rayleigh number on the streamlines and isotherms as well as the velocity and temperature profiles are shown. Furthermore, results for the average Nusselt number and the maximum absolute stream function have been obtained, and these are compared with the corresponding results in the literature when the magnetic field is applied along the cavity in the horizontal direction.

  19. Differential gene expressions in testes of L2 strain Taiwan country chicken in response to acute heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Han; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Lee, Yen-Pai; Huang, San-Yuan

    2013-01-15

    Acute heat stress affects genes involved in spermatogenesis in mammals. However, there is apparently no elaborate research on the effects of acute heat stress on gene expression in avian testes. The purpose of this study was to investigate global gene expression in testes of the L2 strain of Taiwan country chicken after acute heat stress. Twelve roosters, 45 weeks old, were allocated into four groups, including control roosters kept at 25 °C, roosters subjected to 38 °C acute heat stress for 4 hours without recovery, with 2-hour recovery, and with 6-hour recovery, respectively. Testis samples were collected for RNA isolation and microarray analysis. Based on gene expression profiles, 169 genes were upregulated and 140 genes were downregulated after heat stress using a cutoff value of twofold or greater change. Based on gene ontology analysis, differentially expressed genes were mainly related to response to stress, transport, signal transduction, and metabolism. A functional network analysis displayed that heat shock protein genes and related chaperones were the major upregulated groups in chicken testes after acute heat stress. A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of mRNA expressions of HSP70, HSP90AA1, BAG3, SERPINB2, HSP25, DNAJA4, CYP3A80, CIRBP, and TAGLN confirmed the results of the microarray analysis. Because the HSP genes (HSP25, HSP70, and HSP90AA1) and the antiapoptotic BAG3 gene were dramatically altered in heat-stressed chicken testes, we concluded that these genes were important factors in the avian testes under acute heat stress. Whether these genes could be candidate genes for thermotolerance in roosters requires further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pressure-modulated differential scanning calorimetry. An approach to the continuous, simultaneous determination of heat capacities and expansion coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, K; Rösgen, J; Hinz, H-J

    2006-02-15

    A new method is described that permits the continuous and synchronous determination of heat capacity and expansibility data. We refer to it as pressure-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (PMDSC), as it involves a standard DSC temperature scan and superimposes on it a pressure modulation of preselected format. The power of the method is demonstrated using salt solutions for which the most accurate heat capacity and expansibility data exist in the literature. As the PMDSC measurements could reproduce the parameters with high accuracy and precision, we applied the method also to an aqueous suspension of multilamellar DSPC vesicles for which no expansibility data had been reported previously for the transition region. Excellent agreement was obtained between data from PMDSC and values from independent direct differential scanning densimetry measurements. The basic theoretical background of the method when using sawtooth-like pressure ramps is given under Supporting Information, and a complete statistical thermodynamic derivation of the general equations is presented in the accompanying paper.

  1. Tuner Design for PEFP Superconducting RF Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yazhe; An, Sun; Zhang, Liping; Cho, Yong Sub

    2009-01-01

    A superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity will be used to accelerate a proton beam after 100 MeV at 700 MHz in a linac of the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) and its extended project. In order to control the SRF cavity's operating frequency at a low temperature, a new tuner has been developed for the PEFP SRF cavities. Each PEFP superconducting RF cavity has one tuner to match the cavity resonance frequency with the desired accelerator operating frequency; or to detune a cavity frequency a few bandwidths away from a resonance, so that the beam will not excite the fundamental mode, when the cavity is not being used for an acceleration. The PEFP cavity tuning is achieved by varying the total length of the cavity. The length of the cavity is controlled differentially by tuner acting with respect to the cavity body. The PEFP tuner is attached to the helium vessel and drives the cavity Field Probe (FP) side to change the frequency of the cavity

  2. Detection of shock-heated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by off-axis cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OA-CEAS)

    KAUST Repository

    Alquaity, Awad

    2017-11-11

    Cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) is a promising technique for studying chemical reactions due to its desirable characteristics of high sensitivity and fast time-response by virtue of the increased path length and relatively short photon residence time inside the cavity. Off-axis CEAS (OA-CEAS) is particularly suited for the shock tube applications as it is insensitive to slight misalignments, and cavity noise is suppressed due to non-overlapping multiple reflections of the probe beam inside the cavity. Here, OA-CEAS is demonstrated in the mid-IR region at 1310.068 cm−1 to monitor trace concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This particular probe frequency was chosen to minimize interference from other species prevalent in combustion systems and in the atmosphere. The noise-equivalent detection limit is found to be 3.25 × 10−5 cm−1, and the gain factor of the cavity is 131. This corresponds to a detection limit of 74 ppm of H2O2 at typical high-temperature combustion conditions (1200 K and 1 atm) and 12 ppm of H2O2 at ambient conditions (296 K and 1 atm). To our knowledge, this is the first successful application of the OA-CEAS technique to detect H2O2 which is vital species in combustion and atmospheric science.

  3. Detection of shock-heated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by off-axis cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OA-CEAS)

    KAUST Repository

    Alquaity, Awad; KC, Utsav; Popov, Alber; Farooq, Aamir

    2017-01-01

    Cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) is a promising technique for studying chemical reactions due to its desirable characteristics of high sensitivity and fast time-response by virtue of the increased path length and relatively short photon residence time inside the cavity. Off-axis CEAS (OA-CEAS) is particularly suited for the shock tube applications as it is insensitive to slight misalignments, and cavity noise is suppressed due to non-overlapping multiple reflections of the probe beam inside the cavity. Here, OA-CEAS is demonstrated in the mid-IR region at 1310.068 cm−1 to monitor trace concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This particular probe frequency was chosen to minimize interference from other species prevalent in combustion systems and in the atmosphere. The noise-equivalent detection limit is found to be 3.25 × 10−5 cm−1, and the gain factor of the cavity is 131. This corresponds to a detection limit of 74 ppm of H2O2 at typical high-temperature combustion conditions (1200 K and 1 atm) and 12 ppm of H2O2 at ambient conditions (296 K and 1 atm). To our knowledge, this is the first successful application of the OA-CEAS technique to detect H2O2 which is vital species in combustion and atmospheric science.

  4. Modelling the heat dynamics of a monitored Test Reference Environment for Building Integrated Photovoltaic systems using stochastic differential equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodi, C.; Bacher, Peder; Cipriano, J.

    2012-01-01

    reduce the ventilation thermal losses of the building by pre-heating the fresh air. Furthermore, by decreasing PV module temperature, the ventilation air heat extraction can simultaneously increase electrical and thermal energy production of the building. A correct prediction of the PV module temperature...... and heat transfer coefficients is fundamental in order to improve the thermo-electrical production.The considered grey-box models are composed of a set of continuous time stochastic differential equations, holding the physical description of the system, combined with a set of discrete time measurement......This paper deals with grey-box modelling of the energy transfer of a double skin Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) system. Grey-box models are based on a combination of prior physical knowledge and statistics, which enable identification of the unknown parameters in the system and accurate...

  5. Experiments with laser heated cavity targets for the investigation of heavy ion-plasma interaction; Experimente mit lasergeheizten Hohlraeumen fuer die Untersuchung der Wechselwirkung von Schwerionen mit ionisierter Materie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaumann, G

    2007-07-01

    This dissertation research aims to develop a cavity as a converter for laser radiation into soft X-rays, and to characterise this thermal radiation. The concept of indirect heating allows for the production of a spatially homogenous plasma at solid state density. For the purpose of this research, the Nhelix laser system has been extended by a second oscillator with a shorter pulse length, and the optical system layout has been redesigned for both beams. This dissertation presents data on the energy loss of Ar-ions in plasma targets generated by direct heating of carbon foils with the Nhelix laser. Due to the use of a new ion detector, the energy resolution ({delta}E/E{approx}0.1%) and the signal-to-noise ratio of the measurements were improved. Measurements with thin carbon foil showed the maximum energy loss in the plasma to be 31% above the energy loss in comparison with the cold foil. The transparency of thin carbon foils for laser light has been investigated as a function of foil thickness and pulse length, which resulted in a maximum laser pulse length applicable for a certain foil thickness and laser intensity. an interferometer was developed and constructed, with which the electron density could be determined with spatial resolution, and for the first time also at different times during the experiment. This diagnostic provides images of the interference pattern with a time difference of 1.5 ns and allows determination of the free electron density up to a maximum density of 2 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}. In order to characterise the cavity radiation, a spectrometer with high time resolution was developed and calibrated in terms of absolute intensity units with a deuterium-lamp. While the laser heats the cavity, the rise in temperature was measured with a time resolution <1 ns up to a maximal radiation temperature of 73{+-}8 eV/k{sub B} (85 x 10{sup 4} C). For this particular cavity geometry, conversion efficiency (with time resolution) of laser energy to thermal

  6. Differential expression pattern of heat shock protein 70 gene in tissues and heat stress phenotypes in goats during peak heat stress period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, P K; Kaushik, R; Ramachandran, N

    2016-07-01

    It has been established that the synthesis of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is temperature-dependent. The Hsp70 response is considered as a cellular thermometer in response to heat stress and other stimuli. The variation in Hsp70 gene expression has been positively correlated with thermotolerance in Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, rodents and human. Goats have a wide range of ecological adaptability due to their anatomical and physiological characteristics; however, the productivity of the individual declines during thermal stress. The present study was carried out to analyze the expression of heat shock proteins in different tissues and to contrast heat stress phenotypes in response to chronic heat stress. The investigation has been carried out in Jamunapari, Barbari, Jakhrana and Sirohi goats. These breeds differ in size, coat colour and production performance. The heat stress assessment in goats was carried out at a temperature humidity index (THI) ranging from 85.36-89.80 over the period. Phenotyping for heat stress susceptibility was carried out by combining respiration rate (RR) and heart rate (HR). Based on the distribution of RR and HR over the breeds in the population, individual animals were recognized as heat stress-susceptible (HSS) and heat stress-tolerant (HST). Based on their physiological responses, the selected animals were slaughtered for tissue collection during peak heat stress periods. The tissue samples from different organs such as liver, spleen, heart, testis, brain and lungs were collected and stored at -70 °C for future use. Hsp70 concentrations were analyzed from tissue extract with ELISA. mRNA expression levels were evaluated using the SYBR green method. Kidney, liver and heart had 1.5-2.0-fold higher Hsp70 concentrations as compared to other organs in the tissue extracts. Similarly, the gene expression pattern of Hsp70 in different organs indicated that the liver, spleen, brain and kidney exhibited 5.94, 4.96, 5

  7. Numerical simulation for Jeffery-Hamel flow and heat transfer of micropolar fluid based on differential evolution algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Asmat; Khan, Najeeb Alam; Naz, Farah; Raja, Muhammad Asif Zahoor; Rubbab, Qammar

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the Jeffery-Hamel flow of an incompressible non-Newtonian fluid inside non-parallel walls and observes the influence of heat transfer in the flow field. The fluid is considered to be micropolar fluid that flows in a convergent/divergent channel. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) are converted to nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with the help of a suitable similarity transformation. The resulting nonlinear analysis is determined analytically with the utilization of the Taylor optimization method based on differential evolution (DE) algorithm. In order to understand the flow field, the effects of pertinent parameters such as the coupling parameter, spin gradient viscosity parameter and the Reynolds number have been examined on velocity and temperature profiles. It concedes that the good results can be attained by an implementation of the proposed method. Ultimately, the accuracy of the method is confirmed by comparing the present results with the results obtained by Runge-Kutta method.

  8. Heat capacity measurements on ThO2 by temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatakrishnan, R.; Nagarajan, K.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2001-01-01

    Heat capacity measurements were carried out on ThO 2 in the temperature range 330-820 K by using temperature modulated DSC. An underlying heating rate of 5 K. min -1 , a temperature modulation with an amplitude of 0.398K and a period of 150s were used for these measurements. The heat capacity values are within ± 2-4% of the literature data. (author)

  9. Radicicol, a heat shock protein 90 inhibitor, inhibits differentiation and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yonghan [Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Public Health College, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Road, Harbin 150081 (China); Aquatic and Crop Resource Development, Life Sciences Branch, National Research Council Canada, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 4P3 (Canada); State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223 (China); Li, Ying [Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Public Health College, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Road, Harbin 150081 (China); Zhang, Shuocheng [Aquatic and Crop Resource Development, Life Sciences Branch, National Research Council Canada, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 4P3 (Canada); Perry, Ben [Aquatic and Crop Resource Development, Life Sciences Branch, National Research Council Canada, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 4P3 (Canada); Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 4P3 (Canada); Zhao, Tiantian [Aquatic and Crop Resource Development, Life Sciences Branch, National Research Council Canada, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 4P3 (Canada); Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, ON, Canada M1C 1A4 (Canada); Wang, Yanwen, E-mail: yanwen.wang@nrc.ca [Aquatic and Crop Resource Development, Life Sciences Branch, National Research Council Canada, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 4P3 (Canada); Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 4P3 (Canada); Sun, Changhao, E-mail: sun2002changhao@yahoo.com [Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Public Health College, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Road, Harbin 150081 (China)

    2013-06-28

    Highlights: •Radicicol suppressed intracellular fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Radicicol inhibited the expression of FAS and FABP4. •Radicicol blocked cell cycle at the G1-S phase during cell differentiation. •Radicicol inhibited the PDK1/Akt pathway in adipocyte differentiation. -- Abstract: Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is involved in various cellular processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. As adipocyte differentiation plays a critical role in obesity development, the present study investigated the effect of an Hsp90 inhibitor radicicol on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and potential mechanisms. The cells were treated with different concentrations of radicicol during the first 8 days of cell differentiation. Adipogenesis, the expression of adipogenic transcriptional factors, differentiation makers and cell cycle were determined. It was found that radicicol dose-dependently decreased intracellular fat accumulation through down-regulating the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR{sub γ}) and CCAAT element binding protein α (C/EBP{sub α}), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4). Flow cytometry analysis revealed that radicicol blocked cell cycle at G1-S phase. Radicicol redcued the phosphorylation of Akt while showing no effect on β-catenin expression. Radicicol decreased the phosphorylation of phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1). The results suggest that radicicol inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation through affecting the PDK1/Akt pathway and subsequent inhibition of mitotic clonal expansion and the expression/activity of adipogenic transcriptional factors and their downstream adipogenic proteins.

  10. Radicicol, a heat shock protein 90 inhibitor, inhibits differentiation and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yonghan; Li, Ying; Zhang, Shuocheng; Perry, Ben; Zhao, Tiantian; Wang, Yanwen; Sun, Changhao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Radicicol suppressed intracellular fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Radicicol inhibited the expression of FAS and FABP4. •Radicicol blocked cell cycle at the G1-S phase during cell differentiation. •Radicicol inhibited the PDK1/Akt pathway in adipocyte differentiation. -- Abstract: Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is involved in various cellular processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. As adipocyte differentiation plays a critical role in obesity development, the present study investigated the effect of an Hsp90 inhibitor radicicol on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and potential mechanisms. The cells were treated with different concentrations of radicicol during the first 8 days of cell differentiation. Adipogenesis, the expression of adipogenic transcriptional factors, differentiation makers and cell cycle were determined. It was found that radicicol dose-dependently decreased intracellular fat accumulation through down-regulating the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ ) and CCAAT element binding protein α (C/EBP α ), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4). Flow cytometry analysis revealed that radicicol blocked cell cycle at G1-S phase. Radicicol redcued the phosphorylation of Akt while showing no effect on β-catenin expression. Radicicol decreased the phosphorylation of phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1). The results suggest that radicicol inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation through affecting the PDK1/Akt pathway and subsequent inhibition of mitotic clonal expansion and the expression/activity of adipogenic transcriptional factors and their downstream adipogenic proteins

  11. Differential response of Aspen and Birch trees to heat stress under elevated carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph N.T. Darbah; Thomas D. Sharkey; Carlo Calfapietra; David F. Karnosky

    2010-01-01

    The effect of high temperature on photosynthesis of isoprene-emitting (aspen) and non-isoprene-emitting (birch) trees were measured under elevated CO2 and ambient conditions. Aspen trees tolerated heat better than birch trees and elevated CO2 protected photosynthesis of both species against moderate heat stress. Elevated CO...

  12. Differential heat shock response of primary human cell cultures and established cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, W W; Issinger, O G

    1986-01-01

    degrees C treatment, whereas in immortalized cell lines usually 90% of the cells were found in suspension. Enhanced expression of the major heat shock protein (hsp 70) was found in all heat-treated cells. In contrast to the primary cell cultures, established and transformed cell lines synthesized...

  13. Heat stress and occupational health and safety – spatial and temporal differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażejczyk Krzysztof

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence of climatic health hazards on the general population has been discussed in many studies but limited focus is placed on developing a relationship between climate and its effects on occupational health. Long working hours with high physical activity can cause health problems for workers ranging from mild heat cramps to severe heat stroke leading to death. The paper presents the possible risk of heat hazard to outdoor workers, using the example of Warsaw. The heat stress hazard, defined by WBGT values above 26 and 28°C and UTCI above 32 and 38°C, is assessed from two perspectives: its spatial distribution on a local scale and its temporal changes during the 21st century due to climate change. City centre and industrial districts were identified as the places with the greatest heat stress hazard. The number of heat stress days in a year (as predicted for the 21st century is increasing, meaning that heat-related illnesses are more likely to have a direct impact on workers’ health.

  14. Differential transcript induction of parsley pathogenesis-related proteins and of a small heat shock protein by ozone and heat shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckey-Kaltenbach, H.; Kiefer, E.; Grosskopf, E.; Ernst, D.; Sandermann, H. Jr

    1997-01-01

    Parsley (Petroselinum (crispum L.) is known to respond to pathogen attack by the synthesis of furanocoumarins and to UV irradiation by the synthesis of flavone glycosides whereas ozone treatment results in the induction of both pathways. A cDNA library from parsley plants was differentially screened using labelled reverse-transcribed poly(A)+ RNA isolated from ozone-treated parsley plants. This resulted in the isolation of 13 independent cDNA clones representing ozone-induced genes and of 11 cDNA clones representing ozone-repressed genes. DNA sequencing of several clones resulted in the identification of pathogenesis-related protein 1-3 (PR1-3), of a new member of PR1 cDNAs (PRI-4) and of a small heat shock protein (sHSP). Northern blot analyses showed a transient induction of the three mRNA species after ozone fumigation. In contrast, heat shock treatment of parsley plants resulted in an increase of sHSP mRNA whereas no increase for transcripts of PR1-3 and PR1-4 could be observed. This is the first characterized sHSP cDNA clone for plants induced by heat shock, as well as by oxidative stress caused by ozone. (author)

  15. Automatic differentiation for gradient-based optimization of radiatively heated microelectronics manufacturing equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moen, C.D.; Spence, P.A.; Meza, J.C.; Plantenga, T.D.

    1996-12-31

    Automatic differentiation is applied to the optimal design of microelectronic manufacturing equipment. The performance of nonlinear, least-squares optimization methods is compared between numerical and analytical gradient approaches. The optimization calculations are performed by running large finite-element codes in an object-oriented optimization environment. The Adifor automatic differentiation tool is used to generate analytic derivatives for the finite-element codes. The performance results support previous observations that automatic differentiation becomes beneficial as the number of optimization parameters increases. The increase in speed, relative to numerical differences, has a limited value and results are reported for two different analysis codes.

  16. Quantitative determination of the specific heat and the glass transition of moist samples by temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubnell, M; Schawe, J E

    2001-04-17

    In differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), remnant moisture loss in samples often overlaps and distorts other thermal events, e.g. glass transitions. To separate such overlapping processes, temperature modulated DSC (TMDSC) has been widely used. In this contribution we discuss the quantitative determination of the heat capacity of a moist sample from TMDSC measurements. The sample was a spray-dried pharmaceutical compound run in different pans (hermetically-sealed pan, pierced lid pan [50 microm] and open pan). The apparent heat capacity was corrected for the remaining amount of moisture. Using this procedure we could clearly identify the glass transition of the dry and the moist sample. We found that a moisture content of about 6.2% shifts the glass transition by about 50 degrees C.

  17. Heat stress differentially modifies ethylene biosynthesis and signaling in pea floral and fruit tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savada, Raghavendra P; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Jayasinghege, Charitha P A; Waduthanthri, Kosala D; Reinecke, Dennis M

    2017-10-01

    Ethylene biosynthesis is regulated in reproductive tissues in response to heat stress in a manner to optimize resource allocation to pollinated fruits with developing seeds. High temperatures during reproductive development are particularly detrimental to crop fruit/seed production. Ethylene plays vital roles in plant development and abiotic stress responses; however, little is known about ethylene's role in reproductive tissues during development under heat stress. We assessed ethylene biosynthesis and signaling regulation within the reproductive and associated tissues of pea during the developmental phase that sets the stage for fruit-set and seed development under normal and heat-stress conditions. The transcript abundance profiles of PsACS [encode enzymes that convert S-adenosyl-L-methionine to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)] and PsACO (encode enzymes that convert ACC to ethylene), and ethylene evolution were developmentally, environmentally, and tissue-specifically regulated in the floral/fruit/pedicel tissues of pea. Higher transcript abundance of PsACS and PsACO in the ovaries, and PsACO in the pedicels was correlated with higher ethylene evolution and ovary senescence and pedicel abscission in fruits that were not pollinated under control temperature conditions. Under heat-stress conditions, up-regulation of ethylene biosynthesis gene expression in pre-pollinated ovaries was also associated with higher ethylene evolution and lower retention of these fruits. Following successful pollination and ovule fertilization, heat-stress modified PsACS and PsACO transcript profiles in a manner that suppressed ovary ethylene evolution. The normal ethylene burst in the stigma/style and petals following pollination was also suppressed by heat-stress. Transcript abundance profiles of ethylene receptor and signaling-related genes acted as qualitative markers of tissue ethylene signaling events. These data support the hypothesis that ethylene biosynthesis is

  18. Experimental and numerical investigation on heat transfer augmentation in a circular tube under forced convection with annular differential blockages/inserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghole, D. R.

    2018-01-01

    Investigation on heat transfer by generating turbulence in the fluid stream inside the circular tube is an innovative area of research for researchers. Hence, many techniques are been investigated and adopted for enhancement of heat transfer rate to reduce the size and the cost of the heat exchanger/circular tube. In the present study the effect of differential solid ring inserts /turbulators on heat transfer, friction factor of heat exchanger/circular tube was evaluated through experimentally and numerically. The experiments were conducted in range of 3000 ≤Re≤ 6500 and annular blockages 0 ≤ɸ≤50 %. The heat transfer rate was higher for differential combination of inserts as compared to tube fitted with uniform inserts. The maximum heat transfer was obtained by the use of differential metal circular ring inserts/blockages. From this study, Nusselt number, friction factor and enhancement factor are found as 2.5-3.5 times, 12% - 50.5% and 155% - 195%, respectively with water. Finally new possible correlations for predicting heat transfer and friction factor in the flow of water through the circular tube with differential blockages/inserts are proposed.

  19. Physiological and molecular evidence of differential short-term heat tolerance in Mediterranean seagrasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Guirao, Lazaro; Ruiz, Juan M; Dattolo, Emanuela; Garcia-Munoz, Rocio; Procaccini, Gabriele

    2016-06-27

    The increase in extreme heat events associated to global warming threatens seagrass ecosystems, likely by affecting key plant physiological processes such as photosynthesis and respiration. Understanding species' ability to acclimate to warming is crucial to better predict their future trends. Here, we study tolerance to warming in two key Mediterranean seagrasses, Posidonia oceanica and Cymodocea nodosa. Stress responses of shallow and deep plants were followed during and after short-term heat exposure in mesocosms by coupling photo-physiological measures with analysis of expression of photosynthesis and stress-related genes. Contrasting tolerance and capacity to heat acclimation were shown by shallow and deep P. oceanica ecotypes. While shallow plants acclimated through respiratory homeostasis and activation of photo-protective mechanisms, deep ones experienced photosynthetic injury and impaired carbon balance. This suggests that P. oceanica ecotypes are thermally adapted to local conditions and that Mediterranean warming will likely diversely affect deep and shallow meadow stands. On the other hand, contrasting mechanisms of heat-acclimation were adopted by the two species. P. oceanica regulates photosynthesis and respiration at the level of control plants while C. nodosa balances both processes at enhanced rates. These acclimation discrepancies are discussed in relation to inherent attributes of the two species.

  20. Physiological and molecular evidence of differential short-term heat tolerance in Mediterranean seagrasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Guirao, Lazaro; Ruiz, Juan M.; Dattolo, Emanuela; Garcia-Munoz, Rocio; Procaccini, Gabriele

    2016-06-01

    The increase in extreme heat events associated to global warming threatens seagrass ecosystems, likely by affecting key plant physiological processes such as photosynthesis and respiration. Understanding species’ ability to acclimate to warming is crucial to better predict their future trends. Here, we study tolerance to warming in two key Mediterranean seagrasses, Posidonia oceanica and Cymodocea nodosa. Stress responses of shallow and deep plants were followed during and after short-term heat exposure in mesocosms by coupling photo-physiological measures with analysis of expression of photosynthesis and stress-related genes. Contrasting tolerance and capacity to heat acclimation were shown by shallow and deep P. oceanica ecotypes. While shallow plants acclimated through respiratory homeostasis and activation of photo-protective mechanisms, deep ones experienced photosynthetic injury and impaired carbon balance. This suggests that P. oceanica ecotypes are thermally adapted to local conditions and that Mediterranean warming will likely diversely affect deep and shallow meadow stands. On the other hand, contrasting mechanisms of heat-acclimation were adopted by the two species. P. oceanica regulates photosynthesis and respiration at the level of control plants while C. nodosa balances both processes at enhanced rates. These acclimation discrepancies are discussed in relation to inherent attributes of the two species.

  1. Fast thermometry for superconducting rf cavity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orris, Darryl; Bellantoni, Leo; Carcagno, Ruben H.; Edwards, Helen; Harms, Elvin Robert; Khabiboulline, Timergali N.; Kotelnikov, Sergey; Makulski, Andrzej; Nehring, Roger; Pischalnikov, Yuriy; Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    Fast readout of strategically placed low heat capacity thermometry can provide valuable information of Superconducting RF (SRF) cavity performance. Such a system has proven very effective for the development and testing of new cavity designs. Recently, several resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) were installed in key regions of interest on a new 9 cell 3.9 GHz SRF cavity with integrated HOM design at FNAL. A data acquisition system was developed to read out these sensors with enough time and temperature resolution to measure temperature changes on the cavity due to heat generated from multipacting or quenching within power pulses. The design and performance of the fast thermometry system will be discussed along with results from tests of the 9 cell 3.9GHz SRF cavity

  2. Fast thermometry for superconducting rf cavity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orris, Darryl; Bellantoni, Leo; Carcagno, Ruben H.; Edwards, Helen; Harms, Elvin Robert; Khabiboulline, Timergali N.; Kotelnikov, Sergey; Makulski, Andrzej; Nehring, Roger; Pischalnikov, Yuriy; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Fast readout of strategically placed low heat capacity thermometry can provide valuable information of Superconducting RF (SRF) cavity performance. Such a system has proven very effective for the development and testing of new cavity designs. Recently, several resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) were installed in key regions of interest on a new 9 cell 3.9 GHz SRF cavity with integrated HOM design at FNAL. A data acquisition system was developed to read out these sensors with enough time and temperature resolution to measure temperature changes on the cavity due to heat generated from multipacting or quenching within power pulses. The design and performance of the fast thermometry system will be discussed along with results from tests of the 9 cell 3.9GHz SRF cavity.

  3. Modelling the heat dynamics of a building using stochastic differential equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Madsen, Henrik; Hansen, Lars Henrik

    2000-01-01

    estimation and model validation, while physical knowledge is used in forming the model structure. The suggested lumped parameter model is thus based on thermodynamics and formulated as a system of stochastic differential equations. Due to the continuous time formulation the parameters of the model...

  4. Development of superconducting cavities at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouchi, N.

    2001-01-01

    Development of superconducting (SC) cavities is continued for the high intensity proton accelerator in JAERI. In FY-1999, we carried out R and D work; (1) 2nd vertical test of β=0.886 single-cell cavity, (2) vertical test for observation of Q-disease without heat treatment after electropolishing, (3) vertical test of β=0.5 5-cell cavity, (4) pretuning, surface treatment and vertical test of β=0.886 5-cell cavity, (5) pulsed operation of β=0.886 single-cell cavity in the vertical test to confirm the validity of a new model calculation. This paper describes the present status of the R and D work for the SC cavities in JAERI. (author)

  5. Alfvenic resonant cavities in the solar atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollweg, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    We investigate the propagation of Alfven waves in a simple medium consisting of three uniform layers; each layer is characterized by a different value for the Alfven speed, νsub(A). We show how the central layer can act as a resonant cavity under quite general conditions. If the cavity is driven externally, by an incident wave in one of the outer layers, there result resonant transmission peaks, which allow large energy fluxes to enter the cavity from outside. The transmission peaks result from the destructive interference between a wave which leaks out of the cavity, and a directly reflected wave. We show that there are two types of resonances. The first type occurs when the cavity has the largest (or smallest) of the three Alfven speeds; this situation occurs on coronal loops. The second type occurs when the cavity Alfven speed is intermediate between the other two values of νsub(A); this situation may occur on solar spicules. Significant heating of the cavity can occur if the waves are damped. We show that if the energy lost to heat greatly exceeds the energy lost by leakage out of the cavity, then the cavity heating can be independent of the damping rate. This conclusion is shown to apply to coronal resonances and to the spicule resonances. This conclusion agrees with a point made by Ionson in connection with the coronal resonances. Except for a numerical factor of order unity, we recover Ionson's expression for the coronal heating rate. However, Ionson's qualities are much too large. For solar parameters, the maximum quality is of the order of 100, but the heating is independent of the damping rate only when dissipation reduces the quality to less than about 10. (WB)

  6. Differential response of aspen and birch trees to heat stress under elevated carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darbah, Joseph N.T., E-mail: darbah@ohio.ed [School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, 315 Porter Hall, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Sharkey, Thomas D. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Calfapietra, Carlo [Institute of Agro-Environmental and Forest Biology (IBAF), National Research Council (CNR), Via Salaria km 29300, 00016 Monterotondo Scalo, Roma (Italy); Karnosky, David F. [School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    The effect of high temperature on photosynthesis of isoprene-emitting (aspen) and non-isoprene-emitting (birch) trees were measured under elevated CO{sub 2} and ambient conditions. Aspen trees tolerated heat better than birch trees and elevated CO{sub 2} protected photosynthesis of both species against moderate heat stress. Elevated CO{sub 2} increased carboxylation capacity, photosynthetic electron transport capacity, and triose phosphate use in both birch and aspen trees. High temperature (36-39 deg. C) decreased all of these parameters in birch regardless of CO{sub 2} treatment, but only photosynthetic electron transport and triose phosphate use at ambient CO{sub 2} were reduced in aspen. Among the two aspen clones tested, 271 showed higher thermotolerance than 42E possibly because of the higher isoprene-emission, especially under elevated CO{sub 2}. Our results indicate that isoprene-emitting trees may have a competitive advantage over non-isoprene emitting ones as temperatures rise, indicating that biological diversity may be affected in some ecosystems because of heat tolerance mechanisms. - We report that elevated CO{sub 2} confers increased thermotolerance on both aspen and birch trees while isoprene production in aspen confers further thermotolerance in aspen.

  7. Massive expansion and differential evolution of small heat shock proteins with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) polyploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Wang, Ruochen; Ma, Chuang; Shi, Xue; Liu, Zhenshan; Wang, Zhonghua; Sun, Qixin; Cao, Jun; Xu, Shengbao

    2017-05-31

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum), one of the world's most important crops, is facing unprecedented challenges due to global warming. To evaluate the gene resources for heat adaptation in hexaploid wheat, small heat shock proteins (sHSPs), the key plant heat protection genes, were comprehensively analysed in wheat and related species. We found that the sHSPs of hexaploid wheat were massively expanded in A and B subgenomes with intrachromosomal duplications during polyploidization. These expanded sHSPs were under similar purifying selection and kept the expressional patterns with the original copies. Generally, a strong purifying selection acted on the α-crystallin domain (ACD) and theoretically constrain conserved function. Meanwhile, weaker purifying selection and strong positive selection acted on the N-terminal region, which conferred sHSP flexibility, allowing adjustments to a wider range of substrates in response to genomic and environmental changes. Notably, in CI, CV, ER, MI and MII subfamilies, gene duplications, expression variations and functional divergence occurred before wheat polyploidization. Our results indicate the massive expansion of active sHSPs in hexaploid wheat may also provide more raw materials for evolving functional novelties and generating genetic diversity to face future global climate changes, and highlight the expansion of stress response genes with wheat polyploidization.

  8. Differential response of aspen and birch trees to heat stress under elevated carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darbah, Joseph N.T.; Sharkey, Thomas D.; Calfapietra, Carlo; Karnosky, David F.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of high temperature on photosynthesis of isoprene-emitting (aspen) and non-isoprene-emitting (birch) trees were measured under elevated CO 2 and ambient conditions. Aspen trees tolerated heat better than birch trees and elevated CO 2 protected photosynthesis of both species against moderate heat stress. Elevated CO 2 increased carboxylation capacity, photosynthetic electron transport capacity, and triose phosphate use in both birch and aspen trees. High temperature (36-39 deg. C) decreased all of these parameters in birch regardless of CO 2 treatment, but only photosynthetic electron transport and triose phosphate use at ambient CO 2 were reduced in aspen. Among the two aspen clones tested, 271 showed higher thermotolerance than 42E possibly because of the higher isoprene-emission, especially under elevated CO 2 . Our results indicate that isoprene-emitting trees may have a competitive advantage over non-isoprene emitting ones as temperatures rise, indicating that biological diversity may be affected in some ecosystems because of heat tolerance mechanisms. - We report that elevated CO 2 confers increased thermotolerance on both aspen and birch trees while isoprene production in aspen confers further thermotolerance in aspen.

  9. Numerical simulation for Jeffery-Hamel flow and heat transfer of micropolar fluid based on differential evolution algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmat Ara

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the Jeffery-Hamel flow of an incompressible non-Newtonian fluid inside non-parallel walls and observes the influence of heat transfer in the flow field. The fluid is considered to be micropolar fluid that flows in a convergent/divergent channel. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs are converted to nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs with the help of a suitable similarity transformation. The resulting nonlinear analysis is determined analytically with the utilization of the Taylor optimization method based on differential evolution (DE algorithm. In order to understand the flow field, the effects of pertinent parameters such as the coupling parameter, spin gradient viscosity parameter and the Reynolds number have been examined on velocity and temperature profiles. It concedes that the good results can be attained by an implementation of the proposed method. Ultimately, the accuracy of the method is confirmed by comparing the present results with the results obtained by Runge-Kutta method.

  10. RF control studies for moderate beamtime coupling between SRF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doolittle, L.R.; Wang, D.X.

    1998-01-01

    When an SRF accelerator is designed, there is motivation to move the cavities close together on the beamline. Assuming the beamline apertures are not shrunk as well, this compaction (which will increase the overall accelerating gradient and/or lower the dynamic cryogenic heat load) increases the inter-cavity coupling. Within certain limits, the control system can compensate for this coupling by retuning each of the cavities. This paper describes constraints on the RF system, tuners, couplers, and control systems that are required to provide stable operation of cavities in the presence of inter-cavity coupling that exceeds the loaded bandwidth of an individual cavity

  11. Simulation and scaling for natural convection flow in a cavity with isothermal boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiracheewanun, S.; Armfield, S.W.; McBain, G.D.; Behnia, M.

    2005-01-01

    A numerical study of the transient two-dimensional natural convection flow within a differentially heated square cavity with iso-flux side walls and adiabatic top and bottom boundaries is presented. The governing equations are discretized using a non-staggered mesh and solved using a non-iterative fractional-step pressure correction method which provides second-order accuracy in both time and space. Results are obtained with the iso-flux boundary condition for Ra = 5.8 x 10 9 and Pr = 7.5. The results show that the transient flow features obtained for the iso-flux cavity are similar to the flow features for the isothermal case. However, the fully developed flow features of the iso-flux cavity are very different from the isothermal case. The scalings for the fully developed iso-flux boundary condition flow have been found to be different to those of the isothermal boundary condition flow. (authors)

  12. Identification of Genes Differentially Expressed During Heat Shock Treatment in Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Chan, C. W. Cheng, and R. S. Wu. 2003. Cloning of theHSP70 gene in barnacle larvae and its expression under hypoxic conditions. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 46...665Ð671. Chuang, K. H., S. H. Ho, and Y. L. Song. 2007. Cloning and expression analysis of heat shock cognate 70 gene pro- moter in tiger shrimp ...in larvae , but not adults, of a polar insect. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103: 14223Ð14227. Robich, R. M., J. P. Rinehart, L. J. Kitchen, and D. L

  13. Segmented trapped vortex cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.

  14. Differential-discrete mathematical model of two phase flow heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debeljkovic, D.Lj.; Zitek, Pavel; Simeunovic, G.; Inard, Christian

    2007-01-01

    A dynamic thermal-hydraulic mathematical model of evaporator dynamics of a once - through sub critical steam generator is derived and presented. This model allows the investigation of evaporator dynamics including its transients responses. The evaporator was considered as a part of three-section (economizer, evaporator and super-heater) model with time varying phase boundaries and is described by a set of linearized discrete - difference equations which, with some other algebraic equations, constitutes a closed system of equations possible for exact computer solution. This model has been derived upon the fundamental equations of mass, energy and momentum balance. For the first time, a discrete differential approach has been applied in order to investigate such complex, two phase processes. Namely, this approach allows one to escape from the model of this process usually described by a set of partial differential equations and enables one, using this method, to simulate evaporators dynamics in an extraordinarily simple way. In current literature this approach is sometimes called physical discretization. (author)

  15. Natural convection inside an irregular porous cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran, Jorge I. LLagostera; Trevisan, Osvair Vidal

    1990-01-01

    Natural convection flow induced by heating from below in a irregular porous cavity is investigated numerically. The influence of the modified Rayleigh number and geometric ratios on heat transfer and fluid flow is studied. Global and local Nusselt for Rayleigh numbers covering the range 0 - 1600 and for several geometric ratios. The fluid flow and the temperature field are illustrated by contour maps. (author)

  16. Downregulation of heat shock protein B8 decreases osteogenic differentiation potential of dental pulp stem cells during in vitro proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, M; Li, C; Dietrich, M A; Richard, M; Yao, S

    2018-04-01

    Tissue-derived stem cells, such as dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), reduce differentiation capability during in vitro culture. We found that cultured DPSCs reduce expression of heat shock protein B8 (HspB8) and GIPC PDZ domain containing family member 2 (Gipc2). Our objectives were to evaluate the changes in DPSC composition during in vitro proliferation and to determine whether HspB8 and Gipc2 have function in differentiation potential of DPSCs. Different passages of rat DPSCs were evaluated for changes in CD90+ and/or CD271+ stem cells and changes in osteogenic potential. Real-time RT-PCR and immunostaining were conducted to determine expression of HspB8 and Gipc2. Expression of the genes in DPSCs was knocked down by siRNA, followed by osteogenic induction to evaluate the function of the genes. About 90% of cells in the DPSC cultures were CD90+ and/or CD271+ cells without dramatic change during in vitro proliferation. The DPSCs at passages 3 to 5 (P3 to P5) possess strong osteogenic potential, but such potential was greatly reduced at later passages. Expression of HspB8 and Gipc2 was significantly reduced at P11 versus P3. Knock-down of HspB8 expression abolished osteogenic potential of the DPSCs, but knock-down of Gipc2 had no effect. CD90+ and CD271+ cells are the major components of DPSCs in in vitro culture. High-level expression of HspB8 was critical for maintaining differentiation potential of DPSCs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Placental heat shock proteins: no immunohistochemical evidence for a differential stress response in preterm labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divers, M J; Bulmer, J N; Miller, D; Lilford, R J

    1995-01-01

    The aetiology of idiopathic preterm labour remains obscure. The hypothesis that a stress response induced by low-grade bacterial infection in utero-placental tissues was investigated. Distribution of cognate and inducible isoforms of heat shock proteins (HSP) 70 kD, HSP 60 kD and HSP 90 kD were investigated in an immunohistochemical study of placental and decidual tissues before and after labour at varying gestations. Subjects were pregnant women undergoing singleton delivery after idiopathic preterm labour at less than 34 weeks' gestation (n = 23); spontaneous term labour at 37-42 weeks' gestation (n =24); preterm caesarean sections at less than 34 weeks' gestation for preeclampsia or intrauterine growth retardation (n=14); elective caesarean section at 37-42 weeks' gestation for cephalopelvic disproportion (n = 6). HSP expression was constant throughout the third trimester of pregnancy and did not change following the onset of labour, regardless of gestational age. A stress response in decidual tissues as determined by immunohistochemical analysis is apparently not associated with preterm labour.

  18. Profiling of differential gene expression in the hypothalamus of broiler-type Taiwan country chickens in response to acute heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wei-Lin; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Wang, Shih-Han; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Lee, Yen-Pai; Chen, Shuen-Ei; Huang, San-Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Acute heat stress severely impacts poultry production. The hypothalamus acts as a crucial center to regulate body temperature, detect temperature changes, and modulate the autonomic nervous system and endocrine loop for heat retention and dissipation. The purpose of this study was to investigate global gene expression in the hypothalamus of broiler-type B strain Taiwan country chickens after acute heat stress. Twelve 30-week-old hens were allocated to four groups. Three heat-stressed groups were subjected to acute heat stress at 38 °C for 2 hours without recovery (H2R0), with 2 hours of recovery (H2R2), and with 6 hours of recovery (H2R6). The control hens were maintained at 25 °C. At the end, hypothalamus samples were collected for gene expression analysis. The results showed that 24, 11, and 25 genes were upregulated and 41, 15, and 42 genes were downregulated in H2R0, H2R2, and H2R6 treatments, respectively. The expressions of gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GNRH1), heat shock 27-kDa protein 1 (HSPB1), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and heat shock protein 25 (HSP25) were upregulated at all recovery times after heat exposure. Conversely, the expression of TPH2 was downregulated at all recovery times. A gene ontology analysis showed that most of the differentially expressed genes were involved in biological processes including cellular processes, metabolic processes, localization, multicellular organismal processes, developmental processes, and biological regulation. A functional annotation analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes were related to the gene networks of responses to stress and reproductive functions. These differentially expressed genes might be essential and unique key factors in the heat stress response of the hypothalamus in chickens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Changes in numbers and types of mast cell colony-forming cells in the peritoneal cavity of mice after injection of distilled water: evidence that mast cells suppress differentiation of bone marrow-derived precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanakura, Y.; Kuriu, A.; Waki, N.; Nakano, T.; Asai, H.; Yonezawa, T.; Kitamura, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Two different types of cells in the peritoneal cavity of mice produce mast cell colonies in methylcellulose. Large mast cell colonies are produced by bone marrow-derived precursors resembling lymphoid cells by light microscopy (L-CFU-Mast), whereas medium and small mast cell colonies are produced by morphologically identifiable mast cells (M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast, respectively). In the present study we eradicated peritoneal mast cells by intraperitoneal (IP) injection of distilled water. The regeneration process was investigated to clarify the relationship between L-CFU-Mast, M-CFU-Mast, and S-CFU-Mast. After injection of distilled water, M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast disappeared, but L-CFU-Mast increased, and then M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast appeared, suggesting the presence of a hierarchic relationship. When purified peritoneal mast cells were injected two days after the water injection, the L-CFU-Mast did not increase. In the peritoneal cavity of WBB6F1-+/+ mice that had been lethally irradiated and rescued by bone marrow cells of C57BL/6-bgJ/bgJ (beige, Chediak-Higashi syndrome) mice, L-CFU-Mast were of bgJ/bgJ type, but M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast were of +/+ type. The injection of distilled water to the radiation chimeras resulted in the development of bgJ/bgJ-type M-CFU-Mast and then S-CFU-Mast. The presence of mast cells appeared to suppress the recruitment of L-CFU-Mast from the bloodstream and to inhibit the differentiation of L-CFU-Mast to M-CFU-Mast

  20. Effects of heat stimulation and l-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate supplementation on myogenic differentiation of artificial skeletal muscle tissue constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kazushi; Ito, Akira; Sato, Masanori; Kanno, Shota; Kawabe, Yoshinori; Kamihira, Masamichi

    2017-05-01

    Although skeletal muscle tissue engineering has been extensively studied, the physical forces produced by tissue-engineered skeletal muscles remain to be improved for potential clinical utility. In this study, we examined the effects of mild heat stimulation and supplementation of a l-ascorbic acid derivative, l-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AscP), on myoblast differentiation and physical force generation of tissue-engineered skeletal muscles. Compared with control cultures at 37°C, mouse C2C12 myoblast cells cultured at 39°C enhanced myotube diameter (skeletal muscle hypertrophy), whereas mild heat stimulation did not promote myotube formation (differentiation rate). Conversely, AscP supplementation resulted in an increased differentiation rate but did not induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Following combined treatment with mild heat stimulation and AscP supplementation, both skeletal muscle hypertrophy and differentiation rate were enhanced. Moreover, the active tension produced by the tissue-engineered skeletal muscles was improved following combined treatment. These findings indicate that tissue culture using mild heat stimulation and AscP supplementation is a promising approach to enhance the function of tissue-engineered skeletal muscles. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Excess heat capacity of the (Li1?xCax)F1+x liquid solution determined by differential scanning calorimetry and drop calorimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelli, E.; Benes, O.; Konings, R.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The work presents the measured heat capacity of the (Li1?xCax)F1+x liquid solution. Four samples with different compositions have been prepared and measured using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter. Since this technique was newly adopted for measuring encapsulated fluoride samples, some

  2. Differential response of cell-cycle and cell-expansion regulators to heat stress in apple (Malus domestica) fruitlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaishman, Moshe A; Peles, Yuval; Dahan, Yardena; Milo-Cochavi, Shira; Frieman, Aviad; Naor, Amos

    2015-04-01

    Temperature is one of the most significant factors affecting physiological and biochemical aspects of fruit development. Current and progressing global warming is expected to change climate in the traditional deciduous fruit tree cultivation regions. In this study, 'Golden Delicious' trees, grown in a controlled environment or commercial orchard, were exposed to different periods of heat treatment. Early fruitlet development was documented by evaluating cell number, cell size and fruit diameter for 5-70 days after full bloom. Normal activities of molecular developmental and growth processes in apple fruitlets were disrupted under daytime air temperatures of 29°C and higher as a result of significant temporary declines in cell-production and cell-expansion rates, respectively. Expression screening of selected cell cycle and cell expansion genes revealed the influence of high temperature on genetic regulation of apple fruitlet development. Several core cell-cycle and cell-expansion genes were differentially expressed under high temperatures. While expression levels of B-type cyclin-dependent kinases and A- and B-type cyclins declined moderately in response to elevated temperatures, expression of several cell-cycle inhibitors, such as Mdwee1, Mdrbr and Mdkrps was sharply enhanced as the temperature rose, blocking the cell-cycle cascade at the G1/S and G2/M transition points. Moreover, expression of several expansin genes was associated with high temperatures, making them potentially useful as molecular platforms to enhance cell-expansion processes under high-temperature regimes. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of heat tolerance associated with genes controlling cell cycle and cell expansion may lead to the development of novel strategies for improving apple fruit productivity under global warming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Improved reactor cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, L.R.; Demarchais, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    A reactor pressure vessel disposed in a cavity has coolant inlet or outlet pipes extending through passages in the cavity walls and welded to pressure nozzles. The cavity wall has means for directing fluid away from a break at a weld away from the pressure vessel, and means for inhibiting flow of fluid toward the vessel. (author)

  4. Double-diffusive convection and baroclinic instability in a differentially heated and initially stratified rotating system: the barostrat instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincze, Miklos; Borcia, Ion; Harlander, Uwe [Department of Aerodynamics and Fluid Mechanics, Brandenburg University of Technology (BTU) Cottbus-Senftenberg, Siemens-Halske-Ring 14, D-03046 Cottbus (Germany); Gal, Patrice Le, E-mail: vincze.m@lecso.elte.hu [Institut de Recherche sur les Phénomènes Hors Equilibre, CNRS—Aix-Marseille University—Ecole Centrale Marseille, 49 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13384 Marseille (France)

    2016-12-15

    A water-filled differentially heated rotating annulus with initially prepared stable vertical salinity profiles is studied in the laboratory. Based on two-dimensional horizontal particle image velocimetry data and infrared camera visualizations, we describe the appearance and the characteristics of the baroclinic instability in this original configuration. First, we show that when the salinity profile is linear and confined between two non-stratified layers at top and bottom, only two separate shallow fluid layers can be destabilized. These unstable layers appear nearby the top and the bottom of the tank with a stratified motionless zone between them. This laboratory arrangement is thus particularly interesting to model geophysical or astrophysical situations where stratified regions are often juxtaposed to convective ones. Then, for more general but stable initial density profiles, statistical measures are introduced to quantify the extent of the baroclinic instability at given depths and to analyze the connections between this depth-dependence and the vertical salinity profiles. We find that, although the presence of stable stratification generally hinders full-depth overturning, double-diffusive convection can lead to development of multicellular sideways convection in shallow layers and subsequently to a multilayered baroclinic instability. Therefore we conclude that by decreasing the characteristic vertical scale of the flow, stratification may even enhance the formation of cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies (and thus, mixing) in a local sense. (paper)

  5. Double-diffusive convection and baroclinic instability in a differentially heated and initially stratified rotating system: the barostrat instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincze, Miklos; Borcia, Ion; Harlander, Uwe; Gal, Patrice Le

    2016-01-01

    A water-filled differentially heated rotating annulus with initially prepared stable vertical salinity profiles is studied in the laboratory. Based on two-dimensional horizontal particle image velocimetry data and infrared camera visualizations, we describe the appearance and the characteristics of the baroclinic instability in this original configuration. First, we show that when the salinity profile is linear and confined between two non-stratified layers at top and bottom, only two separate shallow fluid layers can be destabilized. These unstable layers appear nearby the top and the bottom of the tank with a stratified motionless zone between them. This laboratory arrangement is thus particularly interesting to model geophysical or astrophysical situations where stratified regions are often juxtaposed to convective ones. Then, for more general but stable initial density profiles, statistical measures are introduced to quantify the extent of the baroclinic instability at given depths and to analyze the connections between this depth-dependence and the vertical salinity profiles. We find that, although the presence of stable stratification generally hinders full-depth overturning, double-diffusive convection can lead to development of multicellular sideways convection in shallow layers and subsequently to a multilayered baroclinic instability. Therefore we conclude that by decreasing the characteristic vertical scale of the flow, stratification may even enhance the formation of cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies (and thus, mixing) in a local sense. (paper)

  6. Metal-insulator transition upon heating and negative-differential-resistive-switching induced by self-heating in BaCo0.9Ni0.1S1.8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, B.; Genossar, J.; Chashka, K. B.; Patlagan, L.; Reisner, G. M.

    2014-01-01

    The layered compound BaCo 1−x Ni x S 2−y (0.05  1−x Ni x S 2−y (nominal x = 0.1 and y = 0.2). These were due to the steep metal to insulator transition upon heating followed by the activated behavior of the resistivity above the transition. The major role of Joule heating in switching is supported by the absence of nonlinearity in the current as function of voltage, I(V), obtained in pulsed measurements, in the range of electric fields relevant to d.c. measurements. The voltage-controlled negative differential resistance around the threshold for switching was explained by a simple model of self-heating. The main difficulty in modeling I(V) from the samples resistance as function of temperature R(T) was the progressive increase of R(T), and to a lesser extend the decrease of the resistance jumps at the transitions, caused by the damage induced by cycling through the transitions by heating or self-heating. This was dealt with by following systematically R(T) over many cycles and by using the data of R(T) in the heating cycle closest to that of the self-heating one

  7. Preparation and handling of superconducting RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Takaaki

    1990-01-01

    The present paper outlines the recent preparation methods for superconducting cavities used in various laboratories and universities, and reports the problems of the cavity fabrication at KEK as an example of mass production. Preparation and handling are first addressed, focusing on material, fabrication, surface treatment, rinsing, clean environment, and heat treatment. Cavity production at KEK is then described, centering on defects on the surface and clean environments. Field gradients of more than 20 MV/m have been obtained by 1.5-3 GHz single cavities, for multi-cell cavities Eacc of 10 MV/m are available at any frequency range. The successful construction of thirty-two cavities for TRISTAN at KEK is due to the careful checking of the surface and quality control of all processes against the surface defects and contaminations. Eacc of 5 MV/m has been achieved by 94 % of the TRISTAN cavities at the first cold test, but 6 % of them had to be reworked because of the surface defects. These defects could not be detected by an X-ray photograph or visual inspections during the fabrication processes. (N.K.)

  8. Natural convection heat transfer in an anisotropic porous cavity heated from the side. 2nd Report. experiment by hele-shaw cell; Tosuiritsu ni ihosei wo yusuru howa takoshitsu sonai no sokuho kanetsu ni yoru shizen tairyu netsu dentatsu. 2. Hele shaw cell ni yoru jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, S; Okajima, A; Kiwata, T [Kanazawa University, Ishikawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    2000-11-25

    Natural convection heat transfer and flow structure in an anisotropic porous medium of square cavity saturated with Boussinesq fluid has been studied experimentally using a Hele-Shaw cell. The permeability ratio defined by K=K{sub y}/K{sub x} was put to three different values; 0.4, 1 and 2.5. The convection patterns at three different permeability ratios are visualized for several different Rayleigh numbers by the pH indicator method. When K is 0.25, the visualized flow is mainly in the vertical direction. On the contrary for K=4 the convecting flow is in the horizontal direction. The average heat transfer coefficients are also measured, and the corresponding Nusselt number are plotted as a function of K. It is found that the corresponding Nusselt numbers are scaled with (KRa){sup 1/2}. The experimental results of flow pattern and heat transfer are accord with those obtained by our previous theory. (author)

  9. Thermal effects on water exclusion from a cavity in unsaturated tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, W.; Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1992-01-01

    For an unsaturated, fractured porous medium subjected to uniform infiltration, we analyze thermal effects on water exclusion from cavities. This is of practical interest in a nuclear waste repository. A crucial question is: How much infiltration will lead to heated cavity-rock interface in tunnels and drifts being saturated so that water can enter a cavity. The combination of cavity size, dimensionless temperature difference, and infiltration rate that will lead to the critical condition at the cavity apex; this calculation considers the tuff matrix only. Here, the large projection area of the cavity intercepts large amounts of infiltration, requiring a lesser critical infiltration rate to saturate the cavity apex

  10. The LHC superconducting cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Boussard, Daniel; Häbel, E; Kindermann, H P; Losito, R; Marque, S; Rödel, V; Stirbet, M

    1999-01-01

    The LHC RF system, which must handle high intensity (0.5 A d.c.) beams, makes use of superconducting single-cell cavities, best suited to minimizing the effects of periodic transient beam loading. There will be eight cavities per beam, each capable of delivering 2 MV (5 MV/m accelerating field) at 400 MHz. The cavities themselves are now being manufactured by industry, using niobium-on-copper technology which gives full satisfaction at LEP. A cavity unit includes a helium tank (4.5 K operating temperature) built around a cavity cell, RF and HOM couplers and a mechanical tuner, all housed in a modular cryostat. Four-unit modules are ultimately foreseen for the LHC (two per beam), while at present a prototype version with two complete units is being extensively tested. In addition to a detailed description of the cavity and its ancillary equipment, the first test results of the prototype will be reported.

  11. LEP copper accelerating cavities

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    These copper cavities were used to generate the radio frequency electric field that was used to accelerate electrons and positrons around the 27-km Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider at CERN, which ran from 1989 to 2000. The copper cavities were gradually replaced from 1996 with new superconducting cavities allowing the collision energy to rise from 90 GeV to 200 GeV by mid-1999.

  12. Quality labels for retrofit cavity wall insulation : a comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovers, Twan Johannes Hendrikus; Entrop, Alexis Gerardus; Halman, Johannes I.M.

    2017-01-01

    Retrofit cavity wall insulation can be exerted to reduce the energy use for space heating and cooling of existing buildings. In multiple countries, quality labels have emerged for this insulation service. In this research project, an evaluation framework for cavity wall insulation is developed by

  13. Metal-insulator transition upon heating and negative-differential-resistive-switching induced by self-heating in BaCo{sub 0.9}Ni{sub 0.1}S{sub 1.8}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, B.; Genossar, J.; Chashka, K. B.; Patlagan, L.; Reisner, G. M. [Physics Department, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2014-04-14

    The layered compound BaCo{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}S{sub 2−y} (0.05 < x < 0.2 and 0.05 < y < 0.2) exhibits an unusual first-order structural and electronic phase transition from a low-T monoclinic paramagnetic metal to a high-T tetragonal antiferromagnetic insulator around 200 K with huge hysteresis (∼40 K) and large volume change (∼0.01). Here, we report on unusual voltage-controlled resistive switching followed by current-controlled resistive switching induced by self-heating in polycrystalline BaCo{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}S{sub 2−y} (nominal x = 0.1 and y = 0.2). These were due to the steep metal to insulator transition upon heating followed by the activated behavior of the resistivity above the transition. The major role of Joule heating in switching is supported by the absence of nonlinearity in the current as function of voltage, I(V), obtained in pulsed measurements, in the range of electric fields relevant to d.c. measurements. The voltage-controlled negative differential resistance around the threshold for switching was explained by a simple model of self-heating. The main difficulty in modeling I(V) from the samples resistance as function of temperature R(T) was the progressive increase of R(T), and to a lesser extend the decrease of the resistance jumps at the transitions, caused by the damage induced by cycling through the transitions by heating or self-heating. This was dealt with by following systematically R(T) over many cycles and by using the data of R(T) in the heating cycle closest to that of the self-heating one.

  14. Congenital malformation of inner ear, single cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Pazmino, Julio Cesar; Marrugo Pardo, Gilberto Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Congenital malformations of the inner ear are rare conditions, but their detection requires high diagnostic accuracy. In this report we describe the case of a patient with single or common cavity, discuss the corresponding radiological images, describe the treatment of this patient with a cochlear implant, and review the classification and differential diagnosis of the other anomalies of the inner ear.

  15. Cavity design programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    Numerous computer programs are available to help accelerator physicists and engineers model and design accelerator cavities and other microwave components. This article discusses the problems these programs solve and the principles upon which these programs are based. Some examples of how these programs are used in the design of accelerator cavities are also given

  16. Cavity quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walther, Herbert; Varcoe, Benjamin T H; Englert, Berthold-Georg; Becker, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the work on cavity quantum electrodynamics of free atoms. In recent years, cavity experiments have also been conducted on a variety of solid-state systems resulting in many interesting applications, of which microlasers, photon bandgap structures and quantum dot structures in cavities are outstanding examples. Although these phenomena and systems are very interesting, discussion is limited here to free atoms and mostly single atoms because these systems exhibit clean quantum phenomena and are not disturbed by a variety of other effects. At the centre of our review is the work on the one-atom maser, but we also give a survey of the entire field, using free atoms in order to show the large variety of problems dealt with. The cavity interaction can be separated into two main regimes: the weak coupling in cavity or cavity-like structures with low quality factors Q and the strong coupling when high-Q cavities are involved. The weak coupling leads to modification of spontaneous transitions and level shifts, whereas the strong coupling enables one to observe a periodic exchange of photons between atoms and the radiation field. In this case, atoms and photons are entangled, this being the basis for a variety of phenomena observed, some of them leading to interesting applications in quantum information processing. The cavity experiments with free atoms reached a new domain with the advent of experiments in the visible spectral region. A review on recent achievements in this area is also given

  17. Formation of coronal cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, C.H.; Suess, S.T.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Steinolfson, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    A theoretical study of the formation of a coronal cavity and its relation to a quiescent prominence is presented. It is argued that the formation of a cavity is initiated by the condensation of plasma which is trapped by the coronal magnetic field in a closed streamer and which then flows down to the chromosphere along the field lines due to lack of stable magnetic support against gravity. The existence of a coronal cavity depends on the coronal magnetic field strength; with low strength, the plasma density is not high enough for condensation to occur. Furthermore, we suggest that prominence and cavity material is supplied from the chromospheric level. Whether a coronal cavity and a prominence coexist depends on the magnetic field configuration; a prominence requires stable magnetic support

  18. Multi-Mode Cavity Accelerator Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yong; Hirshfield, Jay Leonard

    2016-01-01

    This project aimed to develop a prototype for a novel accelerator structure comprising coupled cavities that are tuned to support modes with harmonically-related eigenfrequencies, with the goal of reaching an acceleration gradient >200 MeV/m and a breakdown rate <10"-"7/pulse/meter. Phase I involved computations, design, and preliminary engineering of a prototype multi-harmonic cavity accelerator structure; plus tests of a bimodal cavity. A computational procedure was used to design an optimized profile for a bimodal cavity with high shunt impedance and low surface fields to maximize the reduction in temperature rise Δ T. This cavity supports the TM010 mode and its 2nd harmonic TM011 mode. Its fundamental frequency is at 12 GHz, to benchmark against the empirical criteria proposed within the worldwide High Gradient collaboration for X-band copper structures; namely, a surface electric field E_s_u_r"m"a"x< 260 MV/m and pulsed surface heating Δ T"m"a"x< 56 °K. With optimized geometry, amplitude and relative phase of the two modes, reductions are found in surface pulsed heating, modified Poynting vector, and total RF power - as compared with operation at the same acceleration gradient using only the fundamental mode.

  19. Multi-Mode Cavity Accelerator Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yong [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Hirshfield, Jay Leonard [Omega-P R& D, Inc., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2016-11-10

    This project aimed to develop a prototype for a novel accelerator structure comprising coupled cavities that are tuned to support modes with harmonically-related eigenfrequencies, with the goal of reaching an acceleration gradient >200 MeV/m and a breakdown rate <10-7/pulse/meter. Phase I involved computations, design, and preliminary engineering of a prototype multi-harmonic cavity accelerator structure; plus tests of a bimodal cavity. A computational procedure was used to design an optimized profile for a bimodal cavity with high shunt impedance and low surface fields to maximize the reduction in temperature rise ΔT. This cavity supports the TM010 mode and its 2nd harmonic TM011 mode. Its fundamental frequency is at 12 GHz, to benchmark against the empirical criteria proposed within the worldwide High Gradient collaboration for X-band copper structures; namely, a surface electric field Esurmax< 260 MV/m and pulsed surface heating ΔTmax< 56 °K. With optimized geometry, amplitude and relative phase of the two modes, reductions are found in surface pulsed heating, modified Poynting vector, and total RF power—as compared with operation at the same acceleration gradient using only the fundamental mode.

  20. Multi-Physics Analysis of the Fermilab Booster RF Cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awida, M.; Reid, J.; Yakovlev, V.; Lebedev, V.; Khabiboulline, T.; Champion, M.

    2012-01-01

    After about 40 years of operation the RF accelerating cavities in Fermilab Booster need an upgrade to improve their reliability and to increase the repetition rate in order to support a future experimental program. An increase in the repetition rate from 7 to 15 Hz entails increasing the power dissipation in the RF cavities, their ferrite loaded tuners, and HOM dampers. The increased duty factor requires careful modelling for the RF heating effects in the cavity. A multi-physic analysis investigating both the RF and thermal properties of Booster cavity under various operating conditions is presented in this paper.

  1. Differentiation of different mixed Listeria strains and also acid-injured, heat-injured, and repaired cells of Listeria monocytogenes using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarko, Esmond; Donnelly, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to differentiate mixed strains of Listeria monocytogenes and mixed strains of L. monocytogenes and Listeria innocua. FT-IR spectroscopy was also applied to investigate the hypothesis that heat-injured and acid-injured cells would return to their original physiological integrity following repair. Thin smears of cells on infrared slides were prepared from cultures for mixed strains of L. monocytogenes, mixed strains of L. monocytogenes and L. innocua, and each individual strain. Heat-injured and acid-injured cells were prepared by exposing harvested cells of L. monocytogenes strain R2-764 to a temperature of 56 ± 0.2°C for 10 min or lactic acid at pH 3 for 60 min, respectively. Cellular repair involved incubating aliquots of acid-injured and heat-injured cells separately in Trypticase soy broth supplemented with 0.6% yeast extract for 22 to 24 h; bacterial thin smears on infrared slides were prepared for each treatment. Spectral collection was done using 250 scans at a resolution of 4 cm(-1) in the mid-infrared wavelength region. Application of multivariate discriminant analysis to the wavelength region from 1,800 to 900 cm(-1) separated the individual L. monocytogenes strains. Mixed strains of L. monocytogenes and L. monocytogenes cocultured with L. innocua were successfully differentiated from the individual strains when the discriminant analysis was applied. Different mixed strains of L. monocytogenes were also successfully separated when the discriminant analysis was applied. A data set for injury and repair analysis resulted in the separation of acid-injured, heat-injured, and intact cells; repaired cells clustered closer to intact cells when the discriminant analysis (1,800 to 600 cm(-1)) was applied. FT-IR spectroscopy can be used for the rapid source tracking of L. monocytogenes strains because it can differentiate between different mixed strains and individual strains of the pathogen.

  2. Cavity Optomechanics at Millikelvin Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenehan, Sean Michael

    mechanical frequency of these systems allows for the possibility of using a dilution refrigerator to simultaneously achieve low thermal occupancy and long mechanical coherence time by passively cooling the device to the millikelvin regime. This thesis describes efforts to realize the measurement of OMC cavities inside a dilution refrigerator, including the development of fridge-compatible optical coupling schemes and the characterization of the heating dynamics of the mechanical resonator at sub-kelvin temperatures. We will begin by summarizing the theoretical framework used to describe cavity optomechanical systems, as well as a handful of the quantum applications envisioned for such devices. Then, we will present background on the design of the nanobeam OMC cavities used for this work, along with details of the design and characterization of tapered fiber couplers for optical coupling inside the fridge. Finally, we will present measurements of the devices at fridge base temperatures of Tf = 10 mK, using both heterodyne spectroscopy and time-resolved sideband photon counting, as well as detailed analysis of the prospects for future quantum applications based on the observed optically-induced heating.

  3. Urinary Metabolite Profiling Offers Potential for Differentiation of Liver-Kidney Yin Deficiency and Dampness-Heat Internal Smoldering Syndromes in Posthepatitis B Cirrhosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zheng is the basic theory and essence of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM in diagnosing diseases. However, there are no biological evidences to support TCM Zheng differentiation. In this study we elucidated the biological alteration of cirrhosis with TCM “Liver-Kidney Yin Deficiency (YX” or “Dampness-Heat Internal Smoldering (SR” Zheng and the potential of urine metabonomics in TCM Zheng differentiation. Differential metabolites contributing to the intergroup variation between healthy controls and liver cirrhosis patients were investigated, respectively, and mainly participated in energy metabolism, gut microbiota metabolism, oxidative stress, and bile acid metabolism. Three metabolites, aconitate, citrate, and 2-pentendioate, altered significantly in YX Zheng only, representing the abnormal energy metabolism. Contrarily, hippurate and 4-pyridinecarboxylate altered significantly in SR Zheng only, representing the abnormalities of gut microbiota metabolism. Moreover, there were significant differences between two TCM Zhengs in three metabolites, glycoursodeoxycholate, cortolone-3-glucuronide, and L-aspartyl-4-phosphate, among all differential metabolites. Metabonomic profiling, as a powerful approach, provides support to the understanding of biological mechanisms of TCM Zheng stratification. The altered urinary metabolites constitute a panel of reliable biological evidence for TCM Zheng differentiation in patients with posthepatitis B cirrhosis and may be used for the potential biomarkers of TCM Zheng stratification.

  4. SPS RF Accelerating Cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    This picture shows one of the 2 new cavities installed in 1978-1979. The main RF-system of the SPS comprises four cavities: two of 20 m length and two of 16.5 m length. They are all installed in one long straight section (LSS 3). These cavities are of the travelling-wave type operating at a centre frequency of 200.2 MHz. They are wideband, filling time about 700 ns and untuned. The power amplifiers, using tetrodes are installed in a surface building 200 m from the cavities. Initially only two cavities were installed, a third cavity was installed in 1978 and a forth one in 1979. The number of power amplifiers was also increased: to the first 2 MW plant a second 2 MW plant was added and by end 1979 there were 8 500 kW units combined in pairs to feed each of the 4 cavities with up to about 1 MW RF power, resulting in a total accelerating voltage of about 8 MV. See also 7412016X, 7412017X, 7411048X

  5. Superconducting TESLA cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Aune

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The conceptional design of the proposed linear electron-positron collider TESLA is based on 9-cell 1.3 GHz superconducting niobium cavities with an accelerating gradient of E_{acc}≥25 MV/m at a quality factor Q_{0}≥5×10^{9}. The design goal for the cavities of the TESLA Test Facility (TTF linac was set to the more moderate value of E_{acc}≥15 MV/m. In a first series of 27 industrially produced TTF cavities the average gradient at Q_{0}=5×10^{9} was measured to be 20.1±6.2 MV/m, excluding a few cavities suffering from serious fabrication or material defects. In the second production of 24 TTF cavities, additional quality control measures were introduced, in particular, an eddy-current scan to eliminate niobium sheets with foreign material inclusions and stringent prescriptions for carrying out the electron-beam welds. The average gradient of these cavities at Q_{0}=5×10^{9} amounts to 25.0±3.2 MV/m with the exception of one cavity suffering from a weld defect. Hence only a moderate improvement in production and preparation techniques will be needed to meet the ambitious TESLA goal with an adequate safety margin. In this paper we present a detailed description of the design, fabrication, and preparation of the TESLA Test Facility cavities and their associated components and report on cavity performance in test cryostats and with electron beam in the TTF linac. The ongoing research and development towards higher gradients is briefly addressed.

  6. Cavity-enhanced spectroscopies

    CERN Document Server

    van Zee, Roger

    2003-01-01

    ""Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopy"" discusses the use of optical resonators and lasers to make sensitive spectroscopic measurements. This volume is written by the researcchers who pioneered these methods. The book reviews both the theory and practice behind these spectroscopic tools and discusses the scientific discoveries uncovered by these techniques. It begins with a chapter on the use of optical resonators for frequency stabilization of lasers, which is followed by in-depth chapters discussing cavity ring-down spectroscopy, frequency-modulated, cavity-enhanced spectroscopy, intracavity spectr

  7. Tuned optical cavity magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okandan, Murat; Schwindt, Peter

    2010-11-02

    An atomic magnetometer is disclosed which utilizes an optical cavity formed from a grating and a mirror, with a vapor cell containing an alkali metal vapor located inside the optical cavity. Lasers are used to magnetically polarize the alkali metal vapor and to probe the vapor and generate a diffracted laser beam which can be used to sense a magnetic field. Electrostatic actuators can be used in the magnetometer for positioning of the mirror, or for modulation thereof. Another optical cavity can also be formed from the mirror and a second grating for sensing, adjusting, or stabilizing the position of the mirror.

  8. Hydroforming of elliptical cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, W.; Singer, X.; Jelezov, I.; Kneisel, P.

    2015-02-01

    Activities of the past several years in developing the technique of forming seamless (weldless) cavity cells by hydroforming are summarized. An overview of the technique developed at DESY for the fabrication of single cells and multicells of the TESLA cavity shape is given and the major rf results are presented. The forming is performed by expanding a seamless tube with internal water pressure while simultaneously swaging it axially. Prior to the expansion the tube is necked at the iris area and at the ends. Tube radii and axial displacements are computer controlled during the forming process in accordance with results of finite element method simulations for necking and expansion using the experimentally obtained strain-stress relationship of tube material. In cooperation with industry different methods of niobium seamless tube production have been explored. The most appropriate and successful method is a combination of spinning or deep drawing with flow forming. Several single-cell niobium cavities of the 1.3 GHz TESLA shape were produced by hydroforming. They reached accelerating gradients Eacc up to 35 MV /m after buffered chemical polishing (BCP) and up to 42 MV /m after electropolishing (EP). More recent work concentrated on fabrication and testing of multicell and nine-cell cavities. Several seamless two- and three-cell units were explored. Accelerating gradients Eacc of 30 - 35 MV /m were measured after BCP and Eacc up to 40 MV /m were reached after EP. Nine-cell niobium cavities combining three three-cell units were completed at the company E. Zanon. These cavities reached accelerating gradients of Eacc=30 - 35 MV /m . One cavity is successfully integrated in an XFEL cryomodule and is used in the operation of the FLASH linear accelerator at DESY. Additionally the fabrication of bimetallic single-cell and multicell NbCu cavities by hydroforming was successfully developed. Several NbCu clad single-cell and double-cell cavities of the TESLA shape have been

  9. Hydroforming of elliptical cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Singer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Activities of the past several years in developing the technique of forming seamless (weldless cavity cells by hydroforming are summarized. An overview of the technique developed at DESY for the fabrication of single cells and multicells of the TESLA cavity shape is given and the major rf results are presented. The forming is performed by expanding a seamless tube with internal water pressure while simultaneously swaging it axially. Prior to the expansion the tube is necked at the iris area and at the ends. Tube radii and axial displacements are computer controlled during the forming process in accordance with results of finite element method simulations for necking and expansion using the experimentally obtained strain-stress relationship of tube material. In cooperation with industry different methods of niobium seamless tube production have been explored. The most appropriate and successful method is a combination of spinning or deep drawing with flow forming. Several single-cell niobium cavities of the 1.3 GHz TESLA shape were produced by hydroforming. They reached accelerating gradients E_{acc} up to 35  MV/m after buffered chemical polishing (BCP and up to 42  MV/m after electropolishing (EP. More recent work concentrated on fabrication and testing of multicell and nine-cell cavities. Several seamless two- and three-cell units were explored. Accelerating gradients E_{acc} of 30–35  MV/m were measured after BCP and E_{acc} up to 40  MV/m were reached after EP. Nine-cell niobium cavities combining three three-cell units were completed at the company E. Zanon. These cavities reached accelerating gradients of E_{acc}=30–35  MV/m. One cavity is successfully integrated in an XFEL cryomodule and is used in the operation of the FLASH linear accelerator at DESY. Additionally the fabrication of bimetallic single-cell and multicell NbCu cavities by hydroforming was successfully developed. Several NbCu clad single-cell and

  10. The effect of broad-band Alfven-cyclotron waves spectra on the preferential heating and differential acceleration of He{sup ++} ions in the solar wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maneva, Y. G. [Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington DC, 20064 (United States) and Heliophysics Science Devision, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ofman, L. [Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States) and Heliophysics Science Devision, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Vinas, A. F. [Heliophysics Science Devision, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-06-13

    In anticipation of results from inner heliospheric missions such as the Solar Orbiter and the Solar Probe we present the results from 1.5D hybrid simulations to study the role of magnetic fluctuations for the heating and differential acceleration of He{sup ++} ions in the solar wind. We consider the effects of nonlinear Alfven-cyclotron waves at different frequency regimes. Monochromatic nonlinear Alfven-alpha-cyclotron waves are known to preferentially heat and accelerate He{sup ++} ions in collisionless low beta plasma. In this study we demonstrate that these effects are preserved when higherfrequency monochromatic and broad-band spectra of Alfven-proton-cyclotron waves are considered. Comparison between several nonlinear monochromatic waves shows that the ion temperatures, anisotropies and relative drift are quantitatively affected by the shift in frequency. Including a broad-band wave-spectrum results in a significant reduction of both the parallel and the perpendicular temperature components for the He{sup ++} ions, whereas the proton heating is barely influenced, with the parallel proton temperature only slightly enhanced. The differential streaming is strongly affected by the available wave power in the resonant daughter ion-acoustic waves. Therefore for the same initial wave energy, the relative drift is significantly reduced in the case of initial wave-spectra in comparison to the simulations with monochromatic waves.

  11. Pulpal responses to cavity preparation in aged rat molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawagishi, Eriko; Nakakura-Ohshima, Kuniko; Nomura, Shuichi; Ohshima, Hayato

    2006-10-01

    The dentin-pulp complex is capable of repair after tooth injuries including dental procedures. However, few data are available concerning aged changes in pulpal reactions to such injuries. The present study aimed to clarify the capability of defense in aged pulp by investigating the responses of odontoblasts and cells positive for class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) to cavity preparation in aged rat molars (300-360 days) and by comparing the results with those in young adult rats (100 days). In untreated control teeth, immunoreactivity for intense heat-shock protein (HSP)-25 and nestin was found in odontoblasts, whereas class-II-MHC-positive cells were densely distributed in the periphery of the pulp. Cavity preparation caused two types of pulpal reactions based on the different extent of damage in the aged rats. In the case of severe damage, destruction of the odontoblast layer was conspicuous at the affected site. By 12 h after cavity preparation, numerous class-II-MHC-positive cells appeared along the pulp-dentin border but subsequently disappeared together with HSP-25-immunopositive cells, and finally newly differentiated odontoblast-like cells took the place of the degenerated odontoblasts and acquired immunoreactivity for HSP-25 and nestin by postoperative day 3. In the case of mild damage, no remarkable changes occurred in odontoblasts after operation, and some survived through the experimental stages. These findings indicate that aged pulp tissue still possesses a defense capacity, and that a variety of reactions can occur depending on the difference in the status of dentinal tubules and/or odontoblast processes in individuals.

  12. SPS accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    The SPS started up with 2 accelerating cavities (each consisting of 5 tank sections) in LSS3. They have a 200 MHz travelling wave structure (see 7411032 and 7802190) and 750 kW of power is fed to each of the cavities from a 1 MW tetrode power amplifier, located in a surface building above, via a coaxial transmission line. Clemens Zettler, builder of the SPS RF system, is standing at the side of one of the cavities. In 1978 and 1979 another 2 cavities were added and entered service in 1980. These were part of the intensity improvement programme and served well for the new role of the SPS as proton-antiproton collider. See also 7411032, 8011289, 8104138, 8302397.

  13. Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities Effective protection for children Language: ... more use of sealants and reimbursement of services. Dental care providers can Apply sealants to children at ...

  14. Statistical electromagnetics: Complex cavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, H.W.L.

    2008-01-01

    A selection of the literature on the statistical description of electromagnetic fields and complex cavities is concisely reviewed. Some essential concepts, for example, the application of the central limit theorem and the maximum entropy principle, are scrutinized. Implicit assumptions, biased

  15. accelerating cavity from LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    This is an accelerating cavity from LEP, with a layer of niobium on the inside. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment. These challenging requirements pushed European industry to new achievements. 256 of these cavities are now used in LEP to double the energy of the particle beams.

  16. Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields on the Performance of a Superconducting Cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianluigi Ciovati; Peter Kneisel; Jacek Sekutowicz; Waldemar Singer

    2005-01-01

    A special two-cell cavity was designed to obtain surface field distributions suitable for investigation of electric and magnetic field effects on cavity performance. The cavity design and preliminary results were presented in a previous contribution. The bulk niobium cavity was heat-treated in a vacuum furnace at 1250 C to improve thermal conductivity. Three seamless hydroformed Nb/Cu cavities of the same design were fabricated to investigate the role of the electron beam welds located in high field areas. This paper will present RF test results at 2 K for the bulk niobium and one of the seamless cavities

  17. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  18. Annotation of Differential Gene Expression in Small Yellow Follicles of a Broiler-Type Strain of Taiwan Country Chickens in Response to Acute Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Tu, Wei-Lin; Wang, Shih-Han; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Lee, Yen-Pai; Chen, Shuen-Ei; Huang, San-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated global gene expression in the small yellow follicles (6-8 mm diameter) of broiler-type B strain Taiwan country chickens (TCCs) in response to acute heat stress. Twelve 30-wk-old TCC hens were divided into four groups: control hens maintained at 25°C and hens subjected to 38°C acute heat stress for 2 h without recovery (H2R0), with 2-h recovery (H2R2), and with 6-h recovery (H2R6). Small yellow follicles were collected for RNA isolation and microarray analysis at the end of each time point. Results showed that 69, 51, and 76 genes were upregulated and 58, 15, 56 genes were downregulated after heat treatment of H2R0, H2R2, and H2R6, respectively, using a cutoff value of two-fold or higher. Gene ontology analysis revealed that these differentially expressed genes are associated with the biological processes of cell communication, developmental process, protein metabolic process, immune system process, and response to stimuli. Upregulation of heat shock protein 25, interleukin 6, metallopeptidase 1, and metalloproteinase 13, and downregulation of type II alpha 1 collagen, discoidin domain receptor tyrosine kinase 2, and Kruppel-like factor 2 suggested that acute heat stress induces proteolytic disintegration of the structural matrix and inflamed damage and adaptive responses of gene expression in the follicle cells. These suggestions were validated through gene expression, using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Functional annotation clarified that interleukin 6-related pathways play a critical role in regulating acute heat stress responses in the small yellow follicles of TCC hens.

  19. PEP-II RF cavity revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimmer, R.A.; Koehler, G.; Li, D.; Hartman, N.; Folwell, N.; Hodgson, J.; Ko, K.; McCandless, B.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the results of numerical simulations of the PEP-II RF cavity performed after the completion of the construction phase of the project and comparisons are made to previous calculations and measured results. These analyses were performed to evaluate new calculation techniques for the HOM distribution and RF surface heating that were not available at the time of the original design. These include the use of a high frequency electromagnetic element in ANSYS and the new Omega 3P code to study wall losses, and the development of broadband time domain simulation methods in MAFIA for the HOM loading. The computed HOM spectrum is compared with cavity measurements and observed beam-induced signals. The cavity fabrication method is reviewed, with the benefit of hindsight, and simplifications are discussed

  20. The Superconducting TESLA Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Aune, B.; Bloess, D.; Bonin, B.; Bosotti, A.; Champion, M.; Crawford, C.; Deppe, G.; Dwersteg, B.; Edwards, D.A.; Edwards, H.T.; Ferrario, M.; Fouaidy, M.; Gall, P-D.; Gamp, A.; Gössel, A.; Graber, J.; Hubert, D.; Hüning, M.; Juillard, M.; Junquera, T.; Kaiser, H.; Kreps, G.; Kuchnir, M.; Lange, R.; Leenen, M.; Liepe, M.; Lilje, L.; Matheisen, A.; Möller, W-D.; Mosnier, A.; Padamsee, H.; Pagani, C.; Pekeler, M.; Peters, H-B.; Peters, O.; Proch, D.; Rehlich, K.; Reschke, D.; Safa, H.; Schilcher, T.; Schmüser, P.; Sekutowicz, J.; Simrock, S.; Singer, W.; Tigner, M.; Trines, D.; Twarowski, K.; Weichert, G.; Weisend, J.; Wojtkiewicz, J.; Wolff, S.; Zapfe, K.

    2000-01-01

    The conceptional design of the proposed linear electron-positron colliderTESLA is based on 9-cell 1.3 GHz superconducting niobium cavities with anaccelerating gradient of Eacc >= 25 MV/m at a quality factor Q0 > 5E+9. Thedesign goal for the cavities of the TESLA Test Facility (TTF) linac was set tothe more moderate value of Eacc >= 15 MV/m. In a first series of 27industrially produced TTF cavities the average gradient at Q0 = 5E+9 wasmeasured to be 20.1 +- 6.2 MV/m, excluding a few cavities suffering fromserious fabrication or material defects. In the second production of 24 TTFcavities additional quality control measures were introduced, in particular aneddy-current scan to eliminate niobium sheets with foreign material inclusionsand stringent prescriptions for carrying out the electron-beam welds. Theaverage gradient of these cavities at Q0 = 5E+9 amounts to 25.0 +- 3.2 MV/mwith the exception of one cavity suffering from a weld defect. Hence only amoderate improvement in production and preparation technique...

  1. Differential regulation by heat stress of novel cytochrome P450 genes from the dinoflagellate symbionts of reef-building corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosic, Nedeljka N; Pernice, Mathieu; Dunn, Simon; Dove, Sophie; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2010-05-01

    Exposure to heat stress has been recognized as one of the major factors leading to the breakdown of the coral-alga symbiosis and coral bleaching. Here, we describe the presence of three new cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes from the reef-building coral endosymbiont Symbiodinium (type C3) and changes in their expression during exposure to severe and moderate heat stress conditions. Sequence analysis of the CYP C-terminal region and two conserved domains, the "PERF" and "heme-binding" domains, confirmed the separate identities of the CYP genes analyzed. In order to explore the effects of different heat stress scenarios, samples of the scleractinian coral Acropora millepora were exposed to elevated temperatures incrementally over an 18-h period (rapid thermal stress) and over a 120-h period (gradual thermal stress). After 18 h of gradual heating and incubation at 26 degrees C, the Symbiodinium CYP mRNA pool was approximately 30% larger, while a further 6 degrees C increase to a temperature above the average sea temperature (29 degrees C after 72 h) resulted in a 2- to 4-fold increase in CYP expression. Both rapid heat stress and gradual heat stress at 32 degrees C resulted in 50% to 90% decreases in CYP gene transcript abundance. Consequently, the initial upregulation of expression of CYP genes at moderately elevated temperatures (26 degrees C and 29 degrees C) was followed by a decrease in expression under the greater thermal stress conditions at 32 degrees C. These findings indicate that in the coral-alga symbiosis under heat stress conditions there is production of chemical stressors and/or transcriptional factors that regulate the expression of genes, such as the genes encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, that are involved in the first line of an organism's chemical defense.

  2. Genome-wide characterization of differentially expressed genes provides insights into regulatory network of heat stress response in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ronghua; Mei, Yi; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Wang, Yan; Guo, Jun; Liu, Liwang

    2018-03-01

    Heat stress (HS) causes detrimental effects on plant morphology, physiology, and biochemistry that lead to drastic reduction in plant biomass production and economic yield worldwide. To date, little is known about HS-responsive genes involved in thermotolerance mechanism in radish. In this study, a total of 6600 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from the control and Heat24 cDNA libraries of radish were isolated by high-throughput sequencing. With Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, some genes including MAPK, DREB, ERF, AP2, GST, Hsf, and Hsp were predominantly assigned in signal transductions, metabolic pathways, and biosynthesis and abiotic stress-responsive pathways. These pathways played significant roles in reducing stress-induced damages and enhancing heat tolerance in radish. Expression patterns of 24 candidate genes were validated by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Based mainly on the analysis of DEGs combining with the previous miRNAs analysis, the schematic model of HS-responsive regulatory network was proposed. To counter the effects of HS, a rapid response of the plasma membrane leads to the opening of specific calcium channels and cytoskeletal reorganization, after which HS-responsive genes are activated to repair damaged proteins and ultimately facilitate further enhancement of thermotolerance in radish. These results could provide fundamental insight into the regulatory network underlying heat tolerance in radish and facilitate further genetic manipulation of thermotolerance in root vegetable crops.

  3. Characterization of six small HSP genes from Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae): Differential expression under conditions of normal growth and heat-induced stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Folgar, Raquel; de la Fuente, Mercedes; Morcillo, Gloria; Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis

    2015-10-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) comprise the most numerous, structurally diverse, and functionally uncharacterized family of heat shock proteins. Several Hsp genes (Hsp 90, 70, 40, and 27) from the insect Chironomus riparius are widely used in aquatic toxicology as biomarkers for environmental toxins. Here, we conducted a comparative study and characterized secondary structure of the six newly identified sHsp genes Hsp17, Hsp21, Hsp22, Hsp23, Hsp24, and Hsp34. A characteristic α-crystallin domain is predicted in all the new proteins. Phylogenetic analysis suggests a strong relation to other sHSPs from insects and interesting evidence regarding evolutionary origin and duplication events. Comparative analysis of transcription profiles for Hsp27, Hsp70, and the six newly identified genes revealed that Hsp17, Hsp21, and Hsp22 are constitutively expressed under normal conditions, while under two different heat shock conditions these genes are either not activated or are even repressed (Hsp22). In contrast, Hsp23, Hsp24, and Hsp34 are significantly activated along with Hsp27 and Hsp70 during heat stress. These results strongly suggest functional differentiation within the small HSP subfamily and provide new data to help understand the coping mechanisms induced by stressful environmental stimuli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prominence mass supply and the cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmit, Donald J.; Innes, D. [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Gibson, S. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States); Luna, M. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Karpen, J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    A prevalent but untested paradigm is often used to describe the prominence-cavity system: the cavity is under-dense because it is evacuated by supplying mass to the condensed prominence. The thermal non-equilibrium (TNE) model of prominence formation offers a theoretical framework to predict the thermodynamic evolution of the prominence and the surrounding corona. We examine the evidence for a prominence-cavity connection by comparing the TNE model with diagnostics of dynamic extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission surrounding the prominence, specifically prominence horns. Horns are correlated extensions of prominence plasma and coronal plasma which appear to connect the prominence and cavity. The TNE model predicts that large-scale brightenings will occur in the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly 171 Å bandpass near the prominence that are associated with the cooling phase of condensation formation. In our simulations, variations in the magnitude of footpoint heating lead to variations in the duration, spatial scale, and temporal offset between emission enhancements in the other EUV bandpasses. While these predictions match well a subset of the horn observations, the range of variations in the observed structures is not captured by the model. We discuss the implications of our one-dimensional loop simulations for the three-dimensional time-averaged equilibrium in the prominence and the cavity. Evidence suggests that horns are likely caused by condensing prominence plasma, but the larger question of whether this process produces a density-depleted cavity requires a more tightly constrained model of heating and better knowledge of the associated magnetic structure.

  5. Prominence Mass Supply and the Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, Donald J.; Gibson, S.; Luna, M.; Karpen, J.; Innes, D.

    2013-01-01

    A prevalent but untested paradigm is often used to describe the prominence-cavity system; the cavity is under-dense because it it evacuated by supplying mass to the condensed prominence. The thermal non-equilibrium (TNE) model of prominence formation offers a theoretical framework to predict the thermodynamic evolutin of the prominence and the surrounding corona. We examine the evidence for a prominence-cavity connection by comparing the TNE model and diagnostics of dynamic extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission surrounding the prominence, specifically prominence horns. Horns are correlated extensions of prminence plasma and coronal plasma which appear to connect the prominence and cavity. The TNE model predicts that large-scale brightenings will occur in the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly 171 A badpass near he prominence that are associated with the cooling phase of condensation formation. In our simulations, variations in the magnitude of footpoint heating lead to variations in the duration, spatial scale, and temporal offset between emission enhancements in the other EUV bandpasses. While these predictions match well a subset of the horn observations, the range of variations in the observed structures is not captured by the model. We discuss the implications of one-dimensional loop simulations for the three-dimensional time-averaged equilibrium in the prominence and the cavity. Evidence suggests that horns are likely caused by condensing prominence plasma, but the larger question of whether this process produces a density-depleted cavity requires a more tightly constrained model of heating and better knowledge of the associated magnetic structure.

  6. MR imaging of oropharynx and oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, T.; Markl, A.F.; Bruning, R.; Greves, G.; Kang, K.; Lissner, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of intravenously administered Gd-DTPA on signal intensity, in the oropharynx and oral cavity was analyzed, in comparison with plain imaging the examinations were carried out on 150 patients, with a 1.5-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging unit. During and after the application of Gd-DTPA, flash images with a repetition time of 30, an echo time of 12 msec, and a 20 0 flip angle were acquired over a period of 7 minutes. In 89 patients, malignant tumors were discovered, located primarily in the oropharynx and oral cavity. Plain MR imaging was equal to or better than computed tomograph in all patients except five. Marked contrast enhancement was observed in carcinomas, sarcomas, and inflammation. The enhancement of signal intensity versus time allowed a better differentiation of histologic features. MR imaging contributes substantially to the imaging of the oropharynx and oral cavity by improved soft-tissue contrast and the capacity for multiplanar imaging

  7. Differential effect of prior heat treatment on the thermal enhancement of radiation damage in the ear of the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, M.P.; Ahier, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of prior heat treatment on thermal enhancement of radiodermatitis was investigated in the ear of the mouse. Ears were heated by immersion in hot water. A priming treatment of 43.5 0 C for 30 min (H) was given at various times before a second combined treatment of hypethermia at 43.5 0 C (h) given immediately before (hX) or after (Xh) a dose of X rays (X). The effect of H was measured in two ways. The heating time h, required to cause a given enhancement of radiodermatitis was estimated by fixing X and varying the duration of h. The thermal enhancement ratio, defined as the dose of X rays alone divided by the dose of X rays with heat required to cause a given reaction, was measured by fixing h and varying X. The priming treatment H reduced the skin response to hX. This effect was such that at 24 to 96 hr after H, the heating time h, had to be increased to about 1.5 times that required without prior hyperthermia. In contrast, the priming treatment had no effect on the response to Xh

  8. Rapid differentiation of Listeria monocytogenes epidemic clones III and IV and their intact compared with heat-killed populations using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarko, Esmond B; Puzey, Kenneth A; Donnelly, Catherine W

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis (chemometrics) could be used to rapidly differentiate epidemic clones (ECs) of Listeria monocytogenes, as well as their intact compared with heat-killed populations. FT-IR spectra were collected from dried thin smears on infrared slides prepared from aliquots of 10 μL of each L. monocytogenes ECs (ECIII: J1-101 and R2-499; ECIV: J1-129 and J1-220), and also from intact and heat-killed cell populations of each EC strain using 250 scans at a resolution of 4 cm(-1) in the mid-infrared region in a reflectance mode. Chemometric analysis of spectra involved the application of the multivariate discriminant method for canonical variate analysis (CVA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). CVA of the spectra in the wavelength region 4000 to 600 cm(-1) separated the EC strains while LDA resulted in a 100% accurate classification of all spectra in the data set. Further, CVA separated intact and heat-killed cells of each EC strain and there was 100% accuracy in the classification of all spectra when LDA was applied. FT-IR spectral wavenumbers 1650 to 1390 cm(-1) were used to separate heat-killed and intact populations of L. monocytogenes. The FT-IR spectroscopy method allowed discrimination between strains that belong to the same EC. FT-IR is a highly discriminatory and reproducible method that can be used for the rapid subtyping of L. monocytogenes, as well as for the detection of live compared with dead populations of the organism. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis can be used for L. monocytogenes source tracking and for clinical case isolate comparison during epidemiological investigations since the method is capable of differentiating epidemic clones and it uses a library of well-characterized strains. The FT-IR method is potentially less expensive and more rapid compared to genetic

  9. Drought and Heat Differentially Affect XTH Expression and XET Activity and Action in 3-Day-Old Seedlings of Durum Wheat Cultivars with Different Stress Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurlaro, Andrea; De Caroli, Monica; Sabella, Erika; De Pascali, Mariarosaria; Rampino, Patrizia; De Bellis, Luigi; Perrotta, Carla; Dalessandro, Giuseppe; Piro, Gabriella; Fry, Stephen C; Lenucci, Marcello S

    2016-01-01

    Heat and drought stress have emerged as major constraints for durum wheat production. In the Mediterranean area, their negative effect on crop productivity is expected to be exacerbated by the occurring climate change. Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (XTHs) are chief enzymes in cell wall remodeling, whose relevance in cell expansion and morphogenesis suggests a central role in stress responses. In this work the potential role of XTHs in abiotic stress tolerance was investigated in durum wheat. The separate effects of dehydration and heat exposure on XTH expression and its endotransglucosylase (XET) in vitro activity and in vivo action have been monitored, up to 24 h, in the apical and sub-apical root regions and shoots excised from 3-day-old seedlings of durum wheat cultivars differing in stress susceptibility/tolerance. Dehydration and heat stress differentially influence the XTH expression profiles and the activity and action of XET in the wheat seedlings, depending on the degree of susceptibility/tolerance of the cultivars, the organ, the topological region of the root and, within the root, on the gradient of cell differentiation. The root apical region was the zone mainly affected by both treatments in all assayed cultivars, while no change in XET activity was observed at shoot level, irrespective of susceptibility/tolerance, confirming the pivotal role of the root in stress perception, signaling, and response. Conflicting effects were observed depending on stress type: dehydration evoked an overall increase, at least in the apical region of the root, of XET activity and action, while a significant inhibition was caused by heat treatment in most cultivars. The data suggest that differential changes in XET action in defined portions of the root of young durum wheat seedlings may have a role as a response to drought and heat stress, thus contributing to seedling survival and crop establishment. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying

  10. CT findings of malignant nasal cavity tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, Young Mi; Chun, Kyung Ah; Choi, Kyu Ho; Yu, Won Jong; Kim, Young Joo; Kim, Sung Hoon; Park, Seog Hee; Shinn, Kyung Sub

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the CT findings of malignant nasal cavity tumors. Retrospective analysis was performed on 20 patients with pathologically-proven malignant nasal cavity tumors. Using CT, we analysed their location, extent of bone destruction and of involvement of adjacent structures, and enhancing pattern. A total of 20 cases included nine squamous cell carcinomas, three olfactory neuroblastomas, three lymphomas, two polymorphic reticulosis, one adenoid cystic carcinoma, one undifferentiated carcinoma and one metastasis from renal cell carcinoma. All cases except one adenoid cystic carcinoma and one squamous cell carcinoma revealed bone destruction or erosion. Aggressive bone destruction and irregular enhancement were seen in eight cases of squamous cell carcinoma, seven cases of which showed involvement of the adjacent paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx, and orbit. Olfactory neuroblastomas were centered in the superior nasal cavity and the adjacent ethmoid sinus, and erosion or destruction of the cribriform plate had occurred. Lymphomas showed bilateral involvement, with uniform contrast enhancement. Polymorphic reticuloses showed perforation or erosion of the nasal septum, with bilateral involvement of the nasal cavity. The location, presence of bone destruction, involvement of adjacent structures, and enhancement pattern of tumor on CT can be helpful for the differential diagnosis of malignant nasal cavity tumors

  11. Characterization of heat shock cognate protein 70 gene and its differential expression in response to thermal stress between two wing morphs of Nilaparvata lugens (Stål).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Xia; Liu, Wenting; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated differences in thermotolerance between two wing morphs of Nilaparvata lugens, the most serious pest of rice across the Asia. To reveal the molecular regulatory mechanisms underlying the differential thermal resistance abilities between two wing morphs, a full-length of transcript encoding heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70) was cloned, and its expression patterns across temperature gradients were analyzed. The results showed that the expression levels of NlHsc70 in macropters increased dramatically after heat shock from 32 to 38°C, while NlHsc70 transcripts in brachypters remained constant under different temperature stress conditions. In addition, NlHsc70 expression in the macropters was significantly higher than that in brachypters at 1 and 2h recovery from 40°C heat shock. There was no significant difference in NlHsc70 mRNA expression between brachypters and macropters under cold shock conditions. Therefore, NlHsc70 was indeed a constitutively expressed member of the Hsp70 family in brachypters of N. lugens, while it was heat-inducible in macropters. Furthermore, the survival rates of both morphs injected with NlHsc70 dsRNA were significantly decreased following heat shock at 40°C or cold shock at 0°C for 1h. These results suggested that the up-regulation of NlHsc70 is possibly related to the thermal resistance, and the more effective inducement expression of NlHsc70 in macropters promotes a greater thermal tolerance under temperature stress conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Simulation of Thermomagnetic Convection in a Cavity Using the Lattice Boltzmann Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Hadavand

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermomagnetic convection in a differentially heated square cavity with an infinitely long third dimension is numerically simulated using the single relaxation time lattice Boltzmann method (LBM. This problem is of considerable interest when dealing with cooling of microelectronic devices, in situations where natural convection does not meet the cooling requirements, and forced convection is not viable due to the difficulties associated with pumping a ferrofluid. Therefore, circulation is achieved by imposing a magnetic field, which is created and controlled by placing a dipole at the bottom of the enclosure. The magnitude of the magnetic force is controlled by changing the electrical current through the dipole. In this study, the effects of combined natural convection and magnetic convection, which is commonly known as “thermomagnetic convection,” are analysed in terms of the flow modes and heat transfer characteristics of a magnetic fluid.

  13. Cavity Processing and Preparation of 650 MHz Elliptical Cell Cavities for PIP-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Allan [Fermilab; Chandrasekaran, Saravan Kumar [Fermilab; Grassellino, Anna [Fermilab; Melnychuk, Oleksandr [Fermilab; Merio, Margherita [Fermilab; Reid, Thomas [Argonne (main); Sergatskov, Dmitri [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    The PIP-II project at Fermilab requires fifteen 650 MHz SRF cryomodules as part of the 800 MeV LINAC that will provide a high intensity proton beam to the Fermilab neutrino program. A total of fifty-seven high-performance SRF cavities will populate the cryomodules and will operate in both pulsed and continuous wave modes. These cavities will be processed and prepared for performance testing utilizing adapted cavity processing infrastructure already in place at Fermilab and Argonne. The processing recipes implemented for these structures will incorporate state-of-the art processing and cleaning techniques developed for 1.3 GHz SRF cavities for the ILC, XFEL, and LCLS-II projects. This paper describes the details of the processing recipes and associated chemistry, heat treatment, and cleanroom processes at the Fermilab and Argonne cavity processing facilities. This paper also presents single and multi-cell cavity test results with quality factors above 5·10¹⁰ and accelerating gradients above 30 MV/m.

  14. Video Toroid Cavity Imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald, Rex E. II; Sanchez, Jairo; Rathke, Jerome W.

    2004-08-10

    A video toroid cavity imager for in situ measurement of electrochemical properties of an electrolytic material sample includes a cylindrical toroid cavity resonator containing the sample and employs NMR and video imaging for providing high-resolution spectral and visual information of molecular characteristics of the sample on a real-time basis. A large magnetic field is applied to the sample under controlled temperature and pressure conditions to simultaneously provide NMR spectroscopy and video imaging capabilities for investigating electrochemical transformations of materials or the evolution of long-range molecular aggregation during cooling of hydrocarbon melts. The video toroid cavity imager includes a miniature commercial video camera with an adjustable lens, a modified compression coin cell imager with a fiat circular principal detector element, and a sample mounted on a transparent circular glass disk, and provides NMR information as well as a video image of a sample, such as a polymer film, with micrometer resolution.

  15. Metasurface external cavity laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Luyao, E-mail: luyaoxu.ee@ucla.edu; Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chen, Qi-Sheng [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, California 90278 (United States)

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  16. Earth-ionosphere cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, A.; Polk, C.

    1976-01-01

    To analyze ELF wave propagation in the earth-ionosphere cavity, a flat earth approximation may be derived from the exact equations, which are applicable to the spherical cavity, by introducing a second-order or Debye approximation for the spherical Hankel functions. In the frequency range 3 to 30 Hz, however, the assumed conditions for the Debye approximation are not satisfied. For this reason an exact evaluation of the spherical Hankel functions is used to study the effects of the flat earth approximation on various propagation and resonance parameters. By comparing the resonance equation for a spherical cavity with its flat earth counterpart and by assuming that the surface impedance Z/sub i/ at the upper cavity boundary is known, the relation between the eigenvalue ν and S/sub v/, the sine of the complex angle of incidence at the lower ionosphere boundary, is established as ν(ν + 1) = (kaS/sub v/) 2 . It is also shown that the approximation ν(ν + 1) approximately equals (ν + 1/2) 2 which was used by some authors is not adequate below 30 Hz. Numerical results for both spherical and planar stratification show that (1) planar stratification is adequate for the computation of the lowest three ELF resonance frequencies to within 0.1 Hz; (2) planar stratification will lead to errors in cavity Q and wave attenuation which increase with frequency; (3) computation of resonance frequencies to within 0.1 Hz requires the extension of the lower boundary of the ionosphere to a height where the ratio of conduction current to displacement current, (sigma/ωepsilon 0 ), is less than 0.3; (4) atmospheric conductivity should be considered down to ground level in computing cavity Q and wave attenuation

  17. Materials for superconducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, B.

    1996-01-01

    The ideal material for superconducting cavities should exhibit a high critical temperature, a high critical field, and, above all, a low surface resistance. Unfortunately, these requirements can be conflicting and a compromise has to be found. To date, most superconducting cavities for accelerators are made of niobium. The reasons for this choice are discussed. Thin films of other materials such as NbN, Nb 3 Sn, or even YBCO compounds can also be envisaged and are presently investigated in various laboratories. It is shown that their success will depend critically on the crystalline perfection of these films. (author)

  18. Experimental investigation of cavity flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeland, Tore

    1999-12-31

    This thesis uses LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry), PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) and Laser Sheet flow Visualisation to study flow inside three different cavity configurations. For sloping cavities, the vortex structure inside the cavities is found to depend upon the flow direction past the cavity. The shape of the downstream corner is a key factor in destroying the boundary layer flow entering the cavity. The experimental results agree well with numerical simulations of the same geometrical configurations. The results of the investigations are used to find the influence of the cavity flow on the accuracy of the ultrasonic flowmeter. A method to compensate for the cavity velocities is suggested. It is found that the relative deviation caused by the cavity velocities depend linearly on the pipe flow. It appears that the flow inside the cavities should not be neglected as done in the draft for the ISO technical report on ultrasonic flowmeters. 58 refs., 147 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Experimental investigation of cavity flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeland, Tore

    1998-12-31

    This thesis uses LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry), PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) and Laser Sheet flow Visualisation to study flow inside three different cavity configurations. For sloping cavities, the vortex structure inside the cavities is found to depend upon the flow direction past the cavity. The shape of the downstream corner is a key factor in destroying the boundary layer flow entering the cavity. The experimental results agree well with numerical simulations of the same geometrical configurations. The results of the investigations are used to find the influence of the cavity flow on the accuracy of the ultrasonic flowmeter. A method to compensate for the cavity velocities is suggested. It is found that the relative deviation caused by the cavity velocities depend linearly on the pipe flow. It appears that the flow inside the cavities should not be neglected as done in the draft for the ISO technical report on ultrasonic flowmeters. 58 refs., 147 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Global Gene-Expression Analysis to Identify Differentially Expressed Genes Critical for the Heat Stress Response in Brassica rapa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangshu Dong

    Full Text Available Genome-wide dissection of the heat stress response (HSR is necessary to overcome problems in crop production caused by global warming. To identify HSR genes, we profiled gene expression in two Chinese cabbage inbred lines with different thermotolerances, Chiifu and Kenshin. Many genes exhibited >2-fold changes in expression upon exposure to 0.5- 4 h at 45°C (high temperature, HT: 5.2% (2,142 genes in Chiifu and 3.7% (1,535 genes in Kenshin. The most enriched GO (Gene Ontology items included 'response to heat', 'response to reactive oxygen species (ROS', 'response to temperature stimulus', 'response to abiotic stimulus', and 'MAPKKK cascade'. In both lines, the genes most highly induced by HT encoded small heat shock proteins (Hsps and heat shock factor (Hsf-like proteins such as HsfB2A (Bra029292, whereas high-molecular weight Hsps were constitutively expressed. Other upstream HSR components were also up-regulated: ROS-scavenging genes like glutathione peroxidase 2 (BrGPX2, Bra022853, protein kinases, and phosphatases. Among heat stress (HS marker genes in Arabidopsis, only exportin 1A (XPO1A (Bra008580, Bra006382 can be applied to B. rapa for basal thermotolerance (BT and short-term acquired thermotolerance (SAT gene. CYP707A3 (Bra025083, Bra021965, which is involved in the dehydration response in Arabidopsis, was associated with membrane leakage in both lines following HS. Although many transcription factors (TF genes, including DREB2A (Bra005852, were involved in HS tolerance in both lines, Bra024224 (MYB41 and Bra021735 (a bZIP/AIR1 [Anthocyanin-Impaired-Response-1] were specific to Kenshin. Several candidate TFs involved in thermotolerance were confirmed as HSR genes by real-time PCR, and these assignments were further supported by promoter analysis. Although some of our findings are similar to those obtained using other plant species, clear differences in Brassica rapa reveal a distinct HSR in this species. Our data could also provide a

  1. The use of microperforated plates to attenuate cavity resonances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenech, Benjamin; Keith, Graeme; Jacobsen, Finn

    2006-01-01

    The use of microperforated plates to introduce damping in a closed cavity is examined. By placing a microperforated plate well inside the cavity instead of near a wall as traditionally done in room acoustics, high attenuation can be obtained for specific acoustic modes, compared with the lower...... attenuation that can be obtained in a broad frequency range with the conventional position of the plate. An analytical method for predicting the attenuation is presented. The method involves finding complex eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for the modified cavity and makes it possible to predict Green......'s functions. The results, which are validated experimentally, show that a microperforated plate can provide substantial attenuation of modes in a cavity. One possible application of these findings is the treatment of boiler tones in heat-exchanger cavities....

  2. Researches on bake effect on RF superconducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Jiankui; Zhao Kui; Zhu Feng

    2005-01-01

    The Q-slope at high gradient affects the performance of superconducting cavity greatly. Recent researches show that low temperature (100-150) degree C heat treatment (bake) has positive effects on the performance of superconducting cavities. A lot of cavity tests are analyzed based on bake treatment. The average gradient E acc,max and E acc at Q=1 x 10 10 are increased by more than 3.5 MV/m. Q at E acc,max is increased and the Q-slope is improved. Analysis on bake temperature shows that higher bake temperature leads to higher Q value. Comparison of BCP and EP cavities shows that at least 60-80 μm EP is needed for BCP surface. More than 10-15 μm removal of the surface by BCP will degrade the performance of an EP cavity. Oxygen diffusion model is used to illustrate bake effect. (authors)

  3. Cavity formation by the impact of Leidenfrost spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy

    2012-05-01

    We report observations of cavity formation and subsequent collapse when a heated sphere impacts onto a liquid pool. When the sphere temperature is much greater than the boiling point of the liquid, we observe an inverted Leidenfrost effect where the sphere is encompassed by a vapour layer that prevents physical contact with the liquid. This creates the ultimate non-wetting scenario during sphere penetration through a free surface, producing very smooth cavity walls. In some cases during initial entry, however, the liquid contacts the sphere at the equator, leading to the formation of a dual cavity structure. For cold sphere impacts, where a contact line is observed, we reveal details of the contact line pinning, which initially forms a sawtooth pattern. We also observe surface waves on the cavity interface for cold spheres. We compare our experimental results to previous studies of cavity dynamics and, in particular, the influence of hydrophobicity on the entry of the sphere. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

  4. Numerical study of natural melt convection in cylindrical cavity with hot walls and cold bottom sink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmanache Abdennacer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical study of natural convection heat transfer and fluid flow in cylindrical cavity with hot walls and cold sink is conducted. Calculations are performed in terms of the cavity aspect ratio, the heat exchanger length and the thermo physical properties expressed via the Prandtl number and the Rayleigh number. Results are presented in the form of isotherms, streamlines, average Nusselt number and average bulk temperature for a range of Rayleigh number up to 106. It is observed that Rayleigh number and heat exchanger length influences fluid flow and heat transfer, whereas the cavity aspect ratio has no significant effects.

  5. Multipactors in klystron cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kazutaka; Iyeki, Hiroshi; Kikunaga, Toshiyuki.

    1993-01-01

    A multipactor phenomenon in a klystron causes gain shortage or instability problem. Some tests using a prototype klystron input cavity revealed the microwave discharges in vacuum with magnetic field. The test results and the methods to avoid multipactors are discussed in this paper. (author)

  6. What's a Cavity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and deeper over time. Cavities are also called dental caries (say: KARE-eez), and if you have a ... made up mostly of the germs that cause tooth decay. The bacteria in your mouth make acids and when plaque clings to your teeth, the acids can eat away at the outermost ...

  7. Vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides a vertical cavity laser comprising a grating layer comprising an in-plane grating, the grating layer having a first side and having a second side opposite the first side and comprising a contiguous core grating region having a grating structure, wherein an index...

  8. Oral cavity and jaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solntsev, A.M.; Koval', G.Yu.

    1984-01-01

    Radioanatome of oral cavity and jaw is described. Diseases of the teeth, jaw, large salivary glands, temporo-mandibular articulation are considered. Roentgenograms of oral cacity and jaw of healthy people are presented and analyzed as well as roentgenograms in the above-mentioned diseases

  9. Niobium superconducting cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    This 5-cell superconducting cavity, made from bulk-Nb, stems from the period of general studies, not all directed towards direct use at LEP. This one is dimensioned for 1.5 GHz, the frequency used at CEBAF and also studied at Saclay (LEP RF was 352.2 MHz). See also 7908227, 8007354, 8209255, 8210054, 8312339.

  10. Superconducting elliptical cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Sekutowicz, J K

    2011-01-01

    We give a brief overview of the history, state of the art, and future for elliptical superconducting cavities. Principles of the cell shape optimization, criteria for multi-cell structures design, HOM damping schemes and other features are discussed along with examples of superconducting structures for various applications.

  11. Additive Manufactured Superconducting Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Eric; Rosen, Yaniv; Woolleet, Nathan; Materise, Nicholas; Voisin, Thomas; Wang, Morris; Mireles, Jorge; Carosi, Gianpaolo; Dubois, Jonathan

    Superconducting radio frequency cavities provide an ultra-low dissipative environment, which has enabled fundamental investigations in quantum mechanics, materials properties, and the search for new particles in and beyond the standard model. However, resonator designs are constrained by limitations in conventional machining techniques. For example, current through a seam is a limiting factor in performance for many waveguide cavities. Development of highly reproducible methods for metallic parts through additive manufacturing, referred to colloquially as 3D printing\\x9D, opens the possibility for novel cavity designs which cannot be implemented through conventional methods. We present preliminary investigations of superconducting cavities made through a selective laser melting process, which compacts a granular powder via a high-power laser according to a digitally defined geometry. Initial work suggests that assuming a loss model and numerically optimizing a geometry to minimize dissipation results in modest improvements in device performance. Furthermore, a subset of titanium alloys, particularly, a titanium, aluminum, vanadium alloy (Ti - 6Al - 4V) exhibits properties indicative of a high kinetic inductance material. This work is supported by LDRD 16-SI-004.

  12. Cavity Nesting Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgil E. Scott; Keith E. Evans; David R. Patton; Charles P. Stone

    1977-01-01

    Many species of cavity-nesting birds have declined because of habitat reduction. In the eastern United States, where primeval forests are gone, purple martins depend almost entirely on man-made nesting structures (Allen and Nice 1952). The hole-nesting population of peregrine falcons disappeared with the felling of the giant trees upon which they depended (Hickey and...

  13. LEP superconducting cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1995-01-01

    Engineers work in a clean room on one of the superconducting cavities for the upgrade to the LEP accelerator, known as LEP-2. The use of superconductors allow higher electric fields to be produced so that higher beam energies can be reached.

  14. Open microwave cavities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šeba, Petr; Rotter, I.; Mueller, M.; Persson, C.; Pichugin, Konstantin N.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 9, - (2001), s. 484-487 ISSN 1386-9477 Institutional research plan: CEZ:A02/98:Z1-010-914 Keywords : microwave cavity * resonances Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.009, year: 2001

  15. Filling a Conical Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Kyle; Eslam-Panah, Azar

    2016-11-01

    Root canal treatment involves the removal of infected tissue inside the tooth's canal system and filling the space with a dense sealing agent to prevent further infection. A good root canal treatment happens when the canals are filled homogeneously and tightly down to the root apex. Such a tooth is able to provide valuable service for an entire lifetime. However, there are some examples of poorly performed root canals where the anterior and posterior routes are not filled completely. Small packets of air can be trapped in narrow access cavities when restoring with resin composites. Such teeth can cause trouble even after many years and lead the conditions like acute bone infection or abscesses. In this study, the filling of dead-end conical cavities with various liquids is reported. The first case studies included conical cavity models with different angles and lengths to visualize the filling process. In this investigation, the rate and completeness at which a variety of liquids fill the cavity were observed to find ideal conditions for the process. Then, a 3D printed model of the scaled representation of a molar with prepared post spaces was used to simulate the root canal treatment. The results of this study can be used to gain a better understanding of the restoration for endodontically treated teeth.

  16. Identification by a differential proteomic approach of heat shock protein 27 as a potential marker of atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Ventura, Jose Luis; Duran, Mari Carmen; Blanco-Colio, Luis Miguel

    2004-01-01

    -DE). Among the differently secreted proteins, we have identified heat shock protein-27 (HSP27). Surprisingly, compared with control arteries, HSP27 release was drastically decreased in atherosclerotic plaques and barely detectable in complicated plaque supernatants. HSP27 was expressed primarily...... by intact vascular cells of normal arteries and carotid plaques (immunohistochemistry). Plasma detection of soluble HSP27 showed that circulating HSP27 levels are significantly decreased in the blood of patients with carotid stenosis relative to healthy subjects (0.19 [0.1 to 1.95] versus 83 [71.8 to 87...

  17. Momentum diffusion for coupled atom-cavity oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murr, K.; Maunz, P.; Pinkse, P. W. H.; Puppe, T.; Schuster, I.; Rempe, G.; Vitali, D.

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that the momentum diffusion of free-space laser cooling has a natural correspondence in optical cavities when the internal state of the atom is treated as a harmonic oscillator. We derive a general expression for the momentum diffusion, which is valid for most configurations of interest: The atom or the cavity or both can be probed by lasers, with or without the presence of traps inducing local atomic frequency shifts. It is shown that, albeit the (possibly strong) coupling between atom and cavity, it is sufficient for deriving the momentum diffusion to consider that the atom couples to a mean cavity field, which gives a first contribution, and that the cavity mode couples to a mean atomic dipole, giving a second contribution. Both contributions have an intuitive form and present a clear symmetry. The total diffusion is the sum of these two contributions plus the diffusion originating from the fluctuations of the forces due to the coupling to the vacuum modes other than the cavity mode (the so-called spontaneous emission term). Examples are given that help to evaluate the heating rates induced by an optical cavity for experiments operating at low atomic saturation. We also point out intriguing situations where the atom is heated although it cannot scatter light

  18. Implosion of the small cavity and large cavity cannonball targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Katsunobu; Yamanaka, Chiyoe.

    1984-01-01

    Recent results of cannonball target implosion research are briefly reviewed with theoretical predictions for GEKKO XII experiments. The cannonball targets are classified into two types according to the cavity size ; small cavity and large cavity. The compression mechanisms of the two types are discussed. (author)

  19. Field dependent surface resistance of niobium on copper cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Junginger

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The surface resistance R_{S} of superconducting cavities prepared by sputter coating a niobium film on a copper substrate increases significantly stronger with the applied rf field compared to cavities of bulk material. A possible cause is that the thermal boundary resistance between the copper substrate and the niobium film induces heating of the inner cavity wall, resulting in a higher R_{S}. Introducing helium gas in the cavity, and measuring its pressure as a function of applied field allowed to conclude that the inner surface of the cavity is heated up by less than 120 mK when R_{S} increases with E_{acc} by 100  nΩ. This is more than one order of magnitude less than what one would expect from global heating. Additionally, the effects of cooldown speed and low temperature baking have been investigated in the framework of these experiments. It is shown that for the current state of the art niobium on copper cavities there is only a detrimental effect of low temperature baking. A fast cooldown results in a lowered R_{S}.

  20. A comparative Thermal Analysis of conventional parabolic receiver tube and Cavity model tube in a Solar Parabolic Concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, S.; Ramakrishna, P.; Sangavi, S.

    2018-02-01

    Improvements in heating technology with solar energy is gaining focus, especially solar parabolic collectors. Solar heating in conventional parabolic collectors is done with the help of radiation concentration on receiver tubes. Conventional receiver tubes are open to atmosphere and loose heat by ambient air currents. In order to reduce the convection losses and also to improve the aperture area, we designed a tube with cavity. This study is a comparative performance behaviour of conventional tube and cavity model tube. The performance formulae were derived for the cavity model based on conventional model. Reduction in overall heat loss coefficient was observed for cavity model, though collector heat removal factor and collector efficiency were nearly same for both models. Improvement in efficiency was also observed in the cavity model’s performance. The approach towards the design of a cavity model tube as the receiver tube in solar parabolic collectors gave improved results and proved as a good consideration.

  1. Shape Memory Alloys for Monitoring Minor Over-Heating/Cooling Based on the Temperature Memory Effect via Differential Scanning Calorimetry: A Review of Recent Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T. X.; Huang, W. M.

    2017-12-01

    The recent development in the temperature memory effect (TME) via differential scanning calorimetry in shape memory alloys is briefly discussed. This phenomenon was also called the thermal arrest memory effect in the literature. However, these names do not explicitly reveal the potential application of this phenomenon in temperature monitoring. On the other hand, the standard testing process of the TME has great limitation. Hence, it cannot be directly applied for temperature monitoring in most of the real engineering applications in which temperature fluctuation occurs mostly in a random manner within a certain range. However, as shown here, after proper modification, we are able to monitor the maximum or minimum temperature in either over-heating or over-cooling with reasonable accuracy.

  2. On the solution of the differential equation occurring in the problem of heat convection in laminar flow through a tube with slip—flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xanming Wang

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A technique is developed for evaluation of eigenvalues in solution of the differential equation d2y/dr2+(1/rdy/dr+λ2(β−r2y=0 which occurs in the problem of heat convection in laminar flow through a circular tube with silp-flow (β>1. A series solution requires the expansions of coeffecients involving extremely large numbers. No work has been reported in the case of β>1, because of its computational complexity in the evaluation of the eigenvalues. In this paper, a matrix was constructed and a computational algorithm was obtained to calculate the first four eigenvalues. Also, an asymptotic formula was developed to generate the full spectrum of eigenvalues. The computational results for various values of β were obtained.

  3. Cavity temperature and flow characteristics in a gas-core test reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putre, H. A.

    1973-01-01

    A test reactor concept for conducting basic studies on a fissioning uranium plasma and for testing various gas-core reactor concepts is analyzed. The test reactor consists of a conventional fuel-element region surrounding a 61-cm-(2-ft-) diameter cavity region which contains the plasma experiment. The fuel elements provide the neutron flux for the cavity region. The design operating conditions include 60-MW reactor power, 2.7-MW cavity power, 200-atm cavity pressure, and an average uranium plasma temperature of 15,000 K. The analytical results are given for cavity radiant heat transfer, hydrogen transpiration cooling, and uranium wire or powder injection.

  4. Preparation of well-distributed titania nanopillar arrays on Ti6Al4V surface by induction heating for enhancing osteogenic differentiation of stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning-Bo; Sun, Sheng-Jun; Bai, Han-Ying; Xiao, Gui-Yong; Xu, Wen-Hua; Zhao, Jun-Han; Chen, Xin; Lu, Yu-Peng; Zhang, Yi-Lin

    2018-01-01

    Great effort has recently been devoted to the preparation of nanoscale surfaces on titanium-based implants to achieve clinically fast osteoinduction and osseointegration, which relies on the unique characteristics of the nanostructure. In this work, we used induction heating treatment (IHT) as a rapid oxidation method to fabricate a porous nanoscale oxide layer on the Ti6Al4V surface for better medical application. Well-distributed vertical nanopillars were yielded by IHT for 20-35 s on the alloy surface. The composition of the oxides contained rutile/anatase TiO2 and a small amount of Al2O3 between the TiO2 grain boundaries (GBs). This technology resulted in a reduction and subsequent increase of surface roughness of 26-32 nm when upregulating the heating time, followed by the successive enhancement of the thickness, wettability and adhesion strength of the oxidation layer to the matrix. The surface hardness also distinctly rose to 554 HV in the IHT-35 s group compared with the 350 HV of bare Ti6Al4V. The massive small-angle GBs in the bare alloy promoted the formation of nanosized oxide crystallites. The grain refinement and deformation texture reduction further improved the mechanical properties of the matrix after IHT. Moreover, in vitro experiments on a mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) culture derived from human bone marrow for 1-7 days indicated that the nanoscale layers did not cause cytotoxicity, and facilitated cell differentiation in osteoblasts by enhancing the gene and osteogenesis-related protein expressions after 1-3 weeks of culturing. The increase of the IHT time slightly advanced the BMSC proliferation and differentiation, especially during long-term culture. Our findings provide strong evidence that IHT oxidation technology is a novel nanosurface modification technology, which is potentially promising for further clinical development.

  5. Hollow waveguide cavity ringdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Chris (Inventor); Mungas, Greg S. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Laser light is confined in a hollow waveguide between two highly reflective mirrors. This waveguide cavity is used to conduct Cavity Ringdown Absorption Spectroscopy of loss mechanisms in the cavity including absorption or scattering by gases, liquid, solids, and/or optical elements.

  6. Optimization of photonic crystal cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fengwen; Sigmund, Ole

    2017-01-01

    We present optimization of photonic crystal cavities. The optimization problem is formulated to maximize the Purcell factor of a photonic crystal cavity. Both topology optimization and air-hole-based shape optimization are utilized for the design process. Numerical results demonstrate...... that the Purcell factor of the photonic crystal cavity can be significantly improved through optimization....

  7. Nuclear reactor cavity streaming shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, R.J.; Stephen, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    The upper portion of a nuclear reactor vessel supported in a concrete reactor cavity has a structure mounted below the top of the vessel between the outer vessel wall and the reactor cavity wall which contains hydrogenous material which will attenuate radiation streaming upward between vessel and the reactor cavity wall while preventing pressure buildup during a loss of coolant accident

  8. Interaction of surface radiation and free convection in open and closed cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateshan, S.P.; Balaji, C.

    1996-01-01

    Research focussing on the interaction of all the modes of heat transfer in closed cavities, open cavities and L corners are scarce. Hence an earnest attempt to explore the interaction between the various modes of heat transfer in the above mentioned geometries to gain insight into the nature of interaction, and, develop useful correlations for computing the overall heat transfer are the main thrusts of the present study. 21 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs

  9. THERMAL REGIME OF MASSIVE CONCRETE DAMS WITH AIR CAVITIES IN THE SEVERE CLIMATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniskin Nikolay Alekseevich

    2012-12-01

    The thermal regime of the concrete dam with an air cavity can be adjustable by simple structural elements, including a heat-insulating wall and artificial heating of cavities. The required intensity and duration of heating are to be identified. Final conclusions about the most favorable thermal regime pattern will be made upon completion of fundamental calculations of the thermal stress state of the dam to be performed in the next phase of the research.

  10. Colloquium: cavity optomechanics

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Monday 14 November 2011, 17:00 Ecole de Physique, Auditoire Stueckelberg Université de Genève Cavity optomechanics: controlling micro mechanical oscillators with laser light Prof. Tobias Kippenberg EPFL, Lausanne Laser light can be used to cool and to control trapped ions, atoms and molecules at the quantum level. This has lead to spectacular advances such as the most precise atomic clocks. An outstanding frontier is the control with lasers of nano- and micro-mechancial systems. Recent advances in cavity optomechanics have allowed such elementary control for the first time, enabling mechanical systems to be ground state cooled leading to readout with quantum limited sensitivity and permitting to explore new device concepts resulting from radiation pressure.  

  11. Comparison of Body, Auricular, and Abdominal Acupuncture Treatments for Insomnia Differentiated as Internal Harassment of Phlegm-Heat Syndrome: An Orthogonal Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify the optimum treatment protocol for insomnia among auricular, body, and abdominal needling methods. Methods. A three-factor (3 needling protocols and three-level experimental scheme was designed based on orthogonal method. 54 patients of insomnia differentiated as internal harassment of phlegm-heat syndrome were given two courses of acupuncture treatment (each with 20 times of acupuncture. The therapeutic effects were evaluated by comparing the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI, Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD scores, and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA scores of patients before treatment, after one course of treatment, and after two courses of treatment as well as one month after treatment. Results. Body, auricular, and abdominal acupuncture treatments all alleviated symptoms of insomnia, depression, and anxiety, but body and auricular acupuncture had stronger therapeutic effects. Conclusions. Body acupuncture at basic points shall be given priority in protocol selection for insomnia. The second-best choice is auricular acupuncture with basic points combined with points based on Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM theories. Abdominal needling with very quick effect can be an alternative protocol with basic points combined with syndrome differentiation points.

  12. Superconducting cavities for HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwersteg, B.; Ebeling, W.; Moeller, W.D.; Renken, D.; Proch, D.; Sekutowicz, J.; Susta, J.; Tong, D.

    1988-01-01

    Superconducting 500 MHz cavities are developed to demonstrate the feasibility of upgrading the e-beam energy of the HERA storage ring. A prototype module with 2 x 4 cell resonators and appropriate fundamental and higher mode couplers has been designed at DESY and is being built by industrial firms. The design and results of RF and cryogenic measurements are reported in detail. 17 references, 10 figures, 2 tables

  13. IMPROVEMENT OF ACCURACY OF RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER DIFFERENTIAL APPROXIMATION METHOD FOR MULTI DIMENSIONAL SYSTEMS BY MEANS OF AUTO-ADAPTABLE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Dobrego

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Differential approximation is derived from radiation transfer equation by averaging over the solid angle. It is one of the more effective methods for engineering calculations of radia- tive heat transfer in complex three-dimensional thermal power systems with selective and scattering media. The new method for improvement of accuracy of the differential approximation based on using of auto-adaptable boundary conditions is introduced in the paper. The  efficiency  of  the  named  method  is  proved  for  the  test  2D-systems.  Self-consistent auto-adaptable boundary conditions taking into consideration the nonorthogonal component of the incident to the boundary radiation flux are formulated. It is demonstrated that taking in- to consideration of the non- orthogonal incident flux in multi-dimensional systems, such as furnaces, boilers, combustion chambers improves the accuracy of the radiant flux simulations and to more extend in the zones adjacent to the edges of the chamber.Test simulations utilizing the differential approximation method with traditional boundary conditions, new self-consistent boundary conditions and “precise” discrete ordinates method were performed. The mean square errors of the resulting radiative fluxes calculated along the boundary of rectangular and triangular test areas were decreased 1.5–2 times by using auto- adaptable boundary conditions. Radiation flux gaps in the corner points of non-symmetric sys- tems are revealed by using auto-adaptable boundary conditions which can not be obtained by using the conventional boundary conditions.

  14. A heat receiver design for solar dynamic space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Karl W.; Dustin, Miles O.; Crane, Roger

    1990-01-01

    An advanced heat pipe receiver designed for a solar dynamic space power system is described. The power system consists of a solar concentrator, solar heat receiver, Stirling heat engine, linear alternator and waste heat radiator. The solar concentrator focuses the sun's energy into a heat receiver. The engine and alternator convert a portion of this energy to electric power and the remaining heat is rejected by a waste heat radiator. Primary liquid metal heat pipes transport heat energy to the Stirling engine. Thermal energy storage allows this power system to operate during the shade portion of an orbit. Lithium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic is the thermal energy storage material. Thermal energy storage canisters are attached to the midsection of each heat pipe. The primary heat pipes pass through a secondary vapor cavity heat pipe near the engine and receiver interface. The secondary vapor cavity heat pipe serves three important functions. First, it smooths out hot spots in the solar cavity and provides even distribution of heat to the engine. Second, the event of a heat pipe failure, the secondary heat pipe cavity can efficiently transfer heat from other operating primary heat pipes to the engine heat exchanger of the defunct heat pipe. Third, the secondary heat pipe vapor cavity reduces temperature drops caused by heat flow into the engine. This unique design provides a high level of reliability and performance.

  15. Crab cavities for linear colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Burt, G; Carter, R; Dexter, A; Tahir, I; Beard, C; Dykes, M; Goudket, P; Kalinin, A; Ma, L; McIntosh, P; Shulte, D; Jones, Roger M; Bellantoni, L; Chase, B; Church, M; Khabouline, T; Latina, A; Adolphsen, C; Li, Z; Seryi, Andrei; Xiao, L

    2008-01-01

    Crab cavities have been proposed for a wide number of accelerators and interest in crab cavities has recently increased after the successful operation of a pair of crab cavities in KEK-B. In particular crab cavities are required for both the ILC and CLIC linear colliders for bunch alignment. Consideration of bunch structure and size constraints favour a 3.9 GHz superconducting, multi-cell cavity as the solution for ILC, whilst bunch structure and beam-loading considerations suggest an X-band copper travelling wave structure for CLIC. These two cavity solutions are very different in design but share complex design issues. Phase stabilisation, beam loading, wakefields and mode damping are fundamental issues for these crab cavities. Requirements and potential design solutions will be discussed for both colliders.

  16. CT findings of solitary tuberculoma with a cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Dong Erk; Goo, Hyun Woo; Song, Koun Sik; Lim, Tae Hwan; Kim, Won Dong [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-09-15

    Differential diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodule with cavity includes lung abscess, tuberculoma, bronchogenic carcinoma, metastasis and trauma, etc. We analyzed the CT appearance of tuberculoma presenting as a solitary pulmonary nodule with cavity and describe the findings which suggest tuberculoma in the differential diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodule with cavity. 25 patients with solitary pulmonary nodule(diameter less than 4 cm) without surrounding parenchymal consolidation on chest radiograph, who had a cavity within the nodule on CT, were included in our study. Density of the nodule, maximal wall thickness, the character of inner and outer wall margin, location of cavity within nodule, location of the nodule, presence or absence of satellite lesions and calcification were analyzed. Solitary tuberculoma with cavity showed maximal wall thickness more than 15 m in 40%(10/25) and 5-14 mm in 56%(14/25), eccentric cavitation in 84%(21/25) and concentric cavitation in 16%(4/25), spiculated outer wall margin in 56%(14/15) and lobulated margin in 32%(8/25), smooth inner wall margin in 60%(15/25) and nodular margin in 40%(10/25). CT density of the cavity wall compared wth the chest wall muscle was low in 84%(21/25) and isodense in 16%(4/25). Accompanying satellite lesions were seen in 84%(21/25) and calcification was visible in 28%(7/25). The CT findings of solitary tuberculoma with cavity are relative peripheral location, eccentric cavitation, finely spiculated outer wall margin, and mean maximal wall thickness of 13.2 mm, which are also the common features of malignant nodule. However, relative low density of the nodule compared to the chest wall muscle and surrounding satellite lesions can be additional clues favouring solitary tuberculoma with cavity on CT.

  17. Differential response of heat shock proteins to uphill and downhill exercise in heart, skeletal muscle, lung and kidney tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollo, Pablo C B; Moura, Carolina S; Morato, Priscila N; Amaya-Farfan, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Running on a horizontal plane is known to increase the concentration of the stress biomarker heat-shock protein (HSP), but no comparison of the expression of HSP70 has yet been established between the uphill (predominantly concentric) and downhill (predominantly eccentric) muscle contractions exercise. The objective of the study was to investigate the relationships between eccentric and concentric contractions on the HSP70 response of the lung, kidney, gastrocnemius, soleus and heart. Twenty-four male Wistar weanling rats were divided into four groups: non-exercised and three different grades of treadmill exercise groups: horizontal, uphill (+7%) and downhill (-7% of inclination). At the optimal time-point of six hours after the exercise, serum uric acid, creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined by standard methods and HSP70 by the Western blot analysis. HSP70 responds differently to different types of running. For kidney, heart, soleus and gastrocnemius, the HSP70 expression increased, 230, 180, 150 and 120% respectively of the reference (horizontal). When the contraction was concentric (uphill) and compared to downhill the increase in response of HSP70 was greater in 80% for kidney, 75% for gastrocnemius, 60% for soleus and 280% for the heart. Uric acid was about 50% higher (0.64 ± 0.03 mg·dL(-1)) in the uphill group as compared to the horizontal or downhill groups. Similarly, the activities of serum CK and LDH were both 100% greater for both the uphill and downhill groups as compared to the horizontal group (2383 ± 253 and 647.00 ± 73 U/L, respectively). The responsiveness of HSP70 appeared to be quite different depending on the type of tissue, suggesting that the impact of exercise was not restricted to the muscles, but extended to the kidney tissue. The uphill exercise increases HSP70 beyond the eccentric type and the horizontal running was a lower HSP70 responsive stimulus. Key PointsExercise can induce increases in HSP70 in

  18. DIFFERENTIAL RESPONSE OF HEAT SHOCK PROTEINS TO UPHILL AND DOWNHILL EXERCISE IN HEART, SKELETAL MUSCLE, LUNG AND KIDNEY TISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo C. B. Lollo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Running on a horizontal plane is known to increase the concentration of the stress biomarker heat-shock protein (HSP, but no comparison of the expression of HSP70 has yet been established between the uphill (predominantly concentric and downhill (predominantly eccentric muscle contractions exercise. The objective of the study was to investigate the relationships between eccentric and concentric contractions on the HSP70 response of the lung, kidney, gastrocnemius, soleus and heart. Twenty-four male Wistar weanling rats were divided into four groups: non-exercised and three different grades of treadmill exercise groups: horizontal, uphill (+7% and downhill (-7% of inclination. At the optimal time-point of six hours after the exercise, serum uric acid, creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were determined by standard methods and HSP70 by the Western blot analysis. HSP70 responds differently to different types of running. For kidney, heart, soleus and gastrocnemius, the HSP70 expression increased, 230, 180, 150 and 120% respectively of the reference (horizontal. When the contraction was concentric (uphill and compared to downhill the increase in response of HSP70 was greater in 80% for kidney, 75% for gastrocnemius, 60% for soleus and 280% for the heart. Uric acid was about 50% higher (0.64 ± 0.03 mg·dL-1 in the uphill group as compared to the horizontal or downhill groups. Similarly, the activities of serum CK and LDH were both 100% greater for both the uphill and downhill groups as compared to the horizontal group (2383 ± 253 and 647.00 ± 73 U/L, respectively. The responsiveness of HSP70 appeared to be quite different depending on the type of tissue, suggesting that the impact of exercise was not restricted to the muscles, but extended to the kidney tissue. The uphill exercise increases HSP70 beyond the eccentric type and the horizontal running was a lower HSP70 responsive stimulus

  19. Numerical and experimental analysis for exhaust heat exchangers in automobile thermoelectric generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengqiang Bai

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ideal heat exchangers recover as much heat as possible from an engine exhaust at the cost of an acceptable pressure drop. They provide primary heat for a thermoelectric generator (TEG, and their capacity and efficiency is dependent on the material, shape, and type of the heat exchanger. Six different exhaust heat exchangers were designed within the same shell, and their computational fluid dynamics (CFD models were developed to compare heat transfer and pressure drop in typical driving cycles for a vehicle with a 1.2 L gasoline engine. The result showed that the serial plate structure enhanced heat transfer by 7 baffles and transferred the maximum heat of 1737 W. It also produced a maximum pressure drop of 9.7 kPa in a suburban driving cycle. The numerical results for the pipe structure and an empty cavity were verified by experiments. Under the maximum power output condition, only the inclined plate and empty cavity structure undergoes a pressure drop less than 80 kPa, and the largest pressure drop exceeds 190 kPa. In this case, a mechanism with a differential pressure switch is essential to bypass part of the exhaust.

  20. ISR RF cavities

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    In each ISR ring the radiofrequency cavities were installed in one 9 m long straight section. The RF system of the ISR had the main purpose to stack buckets of particles (most of the time protons)coming from the CPS and also to accelerate the stacked beam. The installed RF power per ring was 18 kW giving a peak accelerating voltage of 20 kV. The system had a very fine regulation feature allowing to lower the voltage down to 75 V in a smooth and well controlled fashion.

  1. Low energy booster radio frequency cavity structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.

    1994-01-01

    The structural design of the Superconducting Super Collider Low Energy Booster (LEB) Radio Frequency (RF) Cavity is very unique. The cavity is made of three different materials which all contribute to its structural strength while at the same time providing a good medium for magnetic properties. Its outer conductor is made of thin walled stainless steel which is later copper plated to reduce the electrical losses. Its tuner housing is made of a fiber reinforced composite laminate, similar to G10, glued to stainless steel plating. The stainless steel of the tuner is slotted to significantly diminish the magnetically-induced eddy currents. The composite laminate is bonded to the stainless steel to restore the structural strength that was lost in slotting. The composite laminate is also a barrier against leakage of the pressurized internal ferrite coolant fluid. The cavity's inner conductor, made of copper and stainless steel, is subjected to high heat loads and must be liquid cooled. The requirements of the Cavity are very stringent and driven primarily by deflection, natural frequency and temperature. Therefore, very intricate finite element analysis was used to complement conventional hand analysis in the design of the cavity. Structural testing of the assembled prototype cavity is planned to demonstrate the compliance of the cavity design to all of its requirements

  2. Low energy booster radio frequency cavity structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.

    1993-04-01

    The structural design of the Superconducting Super Collider Low Energy Booster (LEB) Radio Frequency (RF) Cavity is very unique. The cavity is made of three different materials which all contribute to its structural strength while at the same time providing a good medium for magnetic properties. Its outer conductor is made of thin walled stainless steel which is later copper plated to reduce the electrical losses. Its tuner housing is made of a fiber reinforced composite laminate, similar to G10, glued to stainless steel plating. The stainless steel of the tuner is slotted to significantly diminish the magnetically-induced eddy currents. The composite laminate is bonded to the stainless steel to restore the structural strength that was lost in slotting. The composite laminate is also a barrier against leakage of the pressurized internal ferrite coolant fluid. The cavity's inner conductor, made of copper and stainless steel, is subjected to high heat loads and must be liquid cooled. The requirements of the Cavity are very stringent and driven primarily by deflection, natural frequency and temperature. Therefore, very intricate finite element analysis was used to complement conventional hand analysis in the design of the cavity. Structural testing of the assembled prototype cavity is planned to demonstrate the compliance of the cavity design to all of its requirements

  3. Oral cavity eumycetoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Alborghetti Nai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycetoma is a pathological process in which eumycotic (fungal or actinomycotic causative agents from exogenous source produce grains. It is a localized chronic and deforming infectious disease of subcutaneous tissue, skin and bones. We report the first case of eumycetoma of the oral cavity in world literature. CASE REPORT: A 43-year-old male patient, complaining of swelling and fistula in the hard palate. On examination, swelling of the anterior and middle hard palate, with fistula draining a dark liquid was observed. The panoramic radiograph showed extensive radiolucent area involving the region of teeth 21-26 and the computerized tomography showed communication with the nasal cavity, suggesting the diagnosis of periapical cyst. Surgery was performed to remove the lesion. Histopathological examination revealed purulent material with characteristic grain. Gram staining for bacteria was negative and Grocott-Gomori staining for the detection of fungi was positive, concluding the diagnosis of eumycetoma. The patient was treated with ketoconazole for nine months, and was considered cured at the end of treatment. CONCLUSION: Histopathological examination, using histochemical staining, and direct microscopic grains examination can provide the distinction between eumycetoma and actinomycetoma accurately.

  4. Superconducting Radio-Frequency Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padamsee, Hasan S.

    2014-10-01

    Superconducting cavities have been operating routinely in a variety of accelerators with a range of demanding applications. With the success of completed projects, niobium cavities have become an enabling technology, offering upgrade paths for existing facilities and pushing frontier accelerators for nuclear physics, high-energy physics, materials science, and the life sciences. With continued progress in basic understanding of radio-frequency superconductivity, the performance of cavities has steadily improved to approach theoretical capabilities.

  5. CEBAF: Accelerating cavities look good

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-09-15

    The first assembled pairs of superconducting accelerating cavities from German supplier Interatom for the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia, have exceeded performance specifications.

  6. CEBAF: Accelerating cavities look good

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The first assembled pairs of superconducting accelerating cavities from German supplier Interatom for the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia, have exceeded performance specifications

  7. Heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The tubes of a heat exchanger tube bank have a portion thereof formed in the shape of a helix, of effective radius equal to the tube radius and the space between two adjacent tubes, to tangentially contact the straight sections of the tubes immediately adjacent thereto and thereby provide support, maintain the spacing and account for differential thermal expansion thereof

  8. Glial heterotopia of the oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhames E. Lizardo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report an unusual case of a glial heterotopia arising from the oral cavity of an African neonate. The patient presented with an external pedunculated oral mass which was connected to the anterior hard palate by a firm, rubbery stalk of mucosal tissue. While the mass appeared painless, it interfered with the infant's feeding and was disturbing to the parents. After a computed tomography scan excluded an intracranial connection, the mass was excised at its base and sent for biopsy. Histopathology examination confirmed glial heterotopia. Glial heterotopias should be included in the differential diagnosis of congenital masses in the oral region.

  9. Double-diffusive mixed convection in a lid-driven cavity with non ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S SIVASANKARAN

    2017-11-11

    Nov 11, 2017 ... transfer are solved using the finite-volume method. The numerical ... Keywords. Mixed convection; double diffusion; non-uniform heating; lid-driven cavity. 1. ... exhaustive research due to its importance in various engi- neering ...

  10. RF Pulsed Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritzkau, David P.

    2002-01-03

    RF pulsed heating is a process by which a metal is heated from magnetic fields on its surface due to high-power pulsed RF. When the thermal stresses induced are larger than the elastic limit, microcracks and surface roughening will occur due to cyclic fatigue. Pulsed heating limits the maximum magnetic field on the surface and through it the maximum achievable accelerating gradient in a normal conducting accelerator structure. An experiment using circularly cylindrical cavities operating in the TE{sub 011} mode at a resonant frequency of 11.424 GHz is designed to study pulsed heating on OFE copper, a material commonly used in normal conducting accelerator structures. The high-power pulsed RF is supplied by an X-band klystron capable of outputting 50 MW, 1.5 {micro}s pulses. The test pieces of the cavity are designed to be removable to allow testing of different materials with different surface preparations. A diagnostic tool is developed to measure the temperature rise in the cavity utilizing the dynamic Q change of the resonant mode due to heating. The diagnostic consists of simultaneously exciting a TE{sub 012} mode to steady-state in the cavity at 18 GHz and measuring the change in reflected power as the cavity is heated from high-power pulsed RF. Two experimental runs were completed. One run was executed at a calculated temperature rise of 120 K for 56 x 10{sup 6} pulses. The second run was executed at a calculated temperature rise of 82 K for 86 x 10{sup 6} pulses. Scanning electron microscope pictures show extensive damage occurring in the region of maximum temperature rise on the surface of the test pieces.

  11. Photoproduction of axions in a resonant electromagnetic cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Van Soa; Hoang Ngoc Long; Ha Huy Bang; Nguyen Mai Hung

    2000-09-01

    Photon-axion conversions in a resonant electromagnetic cavity with frequency equal to the axion mass are considered in detail by the Feynman diagram methods. The differential cross sections are presented and numerical evaluations are given. It is shown that there is a resonant conversion for the considered process. From our results, some estimates for experimental conditions are given. (author)

  12. Heat transport and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despois, J.

    1977-01-01

    Recalling the close connections existing between heat transport and storage, some general considerations on the problem of heat distribution and transport are presented 'in order to set out the problem' of storage in concrete form. This problem is considered in its overall plane, then studied under the angle of the different technical choices it involves. The two alternatives currently in consideration are described i.e.: storage in a mined cavity and underground storage as captive sheet [fr

  13. Single and Coupled Nanobeam Cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivinskaya, Aliaksandra; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Shyroki, Dzmitry M.

    2013-01-01

    for analysis and design of photonic crystal devices, such as 2D ring resonators for filters, single and coupled nanobeam cavities, birefringence in photonic crystal cavities, threshold analysis in photonic crystal lasers, gap solitons in photonic crystals, novel photonic atolls, dynamic characteristics...

  14. Technical tasks in superconducting cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Kenji [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    The feature of superconducting rf cavities is an extremely small surface resistance on the wall. It brings a large energy saving in the operation, even those are cooled with liquid helium. That also makes possible to operate themselves in a higher field gradient comparing to normal conducting cavities, and brings to make accelerators compact. These merits are very important for the future accelerator engineering which is planed at JAERI for the neutron material science and nuclear waste transmutation. This machine is a high intensity proton linac and uses sc cavities in the medium and high {beta} sections. In this paper, starting R and D of proton superconducting cavities, several important technical points which come from the small surface resistance of sc cavities, are present to succeed it and also differences between the medium and high - {beta} structures are discussed. (author)

  15. Pacer processing: cavity inventory relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, R.J.; Gritzo, L.A.

    1975-09-01

    The pacer cavity and its associated primary power loop comprise a recirculating system in which materials are introduced by a series of thermonuclear explosions while debris is continuously removed by radioactive decay, sorption phenomena, and deliberate processing. Safe, reliable, and economical realization of the Pacer concept depends on the removal and control of both noxious and valuable by-products of the fusion reaction. Mathematical relationships are developed that describe the quantities of materials that are introduced into the Pacer cavity by a series of discrete events and are removed continuously by processing and decay. An iterative computer program based on these relationships is developed that allows both the total cavity inventory and the amounts of important individual species to be determined at any time during the lifetime of the cavity in order to establish the effects of the thermonuclear event, the cavity, the flow, and various processing parameters on Pacer design requirements

  16. Breaking and Moving Hotspots in a Large Grain Nb Cavity with a Laser Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciovati, G.; Cheng, G.; Flood, R. J.; Jordan, K.; Kneisel, P.; Morrone, M. L.; Turlington, L.; Wilson, K. M.; Zhang, S.; Anlage, S. M.; Gurevich, A. V.; Nemes, G.; Baldwin, C.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic vortices pinned near the inner surface of SRF Nb cavities are a possible source of RF hotspots, frequently observed by temperature mapping of the cavities outer surface at RF surface magnetic fields of about 100 mT. Theoretically, we expect that the thermal gradient provided by a 10 W green laser shining on the inner cavity surface at the RF hotspot locations can move pinned vortices to different pinning locations. The experimental apparatus to send the beam onto the inner surface of a photoinjector-type large-grain Nb cavity is described. Preliminary results on the changes in thermal maps observed after applying the laser heating are also reported

  17. Design study of 'HIBLIC-I' reactor cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiie, Y.

    1984-01-01

    A preliminary conceptual design of a reactor cavity for HIBLIC-1, a heavy ion fusion reactor system, was carried out. Design efforts have been concentrated mainly on the feasibility study of the physical scenario adopted and also on the system integration of the structures and components into a compact reactor cavity. The design features of the reactor are a compact reactor cavity, maximum coolant temperature up to 500 deg C, the protection of the sacrificial wall and cavity wall from radiation, the protection of the sacrificial wall from the pressure transient due to rapid heating, the selection of a ferritic steel HT-9 as the structural material and impurity control, and tritium breeding and recovery. The purpose of this paper is to describe the outline of the reactor cavity design of HIBLIC-1. The objectives of the preliminary conceptual design were to propose the idea and concept in order to constitute the physical scenario without contradiction and to find out the critical and fundamental problems to be studied in future. The cavity configuration and dynamics, tritium breeding and radiation damage, the behavior of a structural material in liquid lithium and tritium recovery are reported. (Kako, I.)

  18. A Study on the Flow Characterization in the Reactor Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho Jung; Ko, Kwang Jeok; Kim, Sung Hwan; Kim, Min Gyu; Cho, Yeon Ho; Kim, Hyun Min [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this study, the flow characterization of the cooling air in reactor cavity nearby RCPSA has been analyzed by using a 3 dimensional model and the ANSYS CFX software in order to predict the Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient (CHTC) of the RCPSA. The Reactor Cavity is the annular space by the concrete structure, the Reactor Cavity Pool Seal Assembly (RCPSA), which consists of the welded steel and is designed to be installed between the RV and the refueling pool floor, and the Reactor Vessel (RV). For such reason, the RCPSA should be designed to provide the cooling air passage for ventilation to circulate high temperature air passing by the RV during the reactor operation. It means that the RCPSA is influenced by the convection of cooling air and the thermal expansion of the RV. Therefore, the flow characterization at the reactor cavity is one of the factors of the RCPSA design during the reactor operation. The flow distribution of the cooling air in reactor cavity nearby RCPSA has been analyzed using ANSYS CFX software to obtain the CHTC at surface of the RCPSA. 1) The temperature from the RV and the insulation is one of the critical factors for the thermal gradient of the cooling air and the CHTC in the reactor cavity. 2) The rapid change of the CHTC in inner region nearby inner and outer flexure is related to the geometry shape of the RCPSA and velocity of cooling air.

  19. Study of liquid metal mixed convection in cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadie, Philippe.

    1979-10-01

    This study has enabled some results to be obtained on the flow of liquid metals in cavities. The effects of different adimensional parameters characteristic of mixed convection flows were experimentally demonstrated. In the case of a roof heated cavity, three zones were distinguished: the mixing zone at the channel exit, a quasi constant temperature recirculation zone and a stratified zone at the top of the cavity. The thickness of this last region depends on natural convection effects: it disappears completely in a pure forced convection regime. A simple model using a critical Richardson number concept was developed in order to be able to predict the thickness of this region. Heat transfer correlation formulas were established both for the heated roof and forward direction heated wall cases. Some data was also obtained on temperature fluctuations for both cases. The different topics investigated are useful for defining heat transfers in certain regions of fast neutron sodium cooled reactors. A more extensive program is currently being developed in order to be able to investigate a wider range of variations in the above mentioned parameters and to more closely approximate reactor vessels [fr

  20. Radiotherapy for Oral Cavity Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Jae Won

    1993-01-01

    Eighty five patients of oral cavity cancer, treated with radiation at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, during the period from March 1985 to September 1990 were analyzed retrospectively. Among 85 patients, 37 patients were treated with radiation only and 48 patients were treated with radiation following surgery And 70 patients received external irradiation only by 60 Co with or without electron, the others were 7 patients for external irradiation plus interstitial implantation and 8 patients for external irradiation plus oral cone electron therapy. Primary sites were mobile tongue for 40 patients, mouth floor for 17 patients, palate for 12 patients, gingiva including retromolar trigone for 10 patients, buccal mucosa for 5 patients, and lip for 1 patient. According to pathologic classification, squamous cell carcinoma was the most common (77 patients). According to AJC TNM stage, stage I + II were 28 patients and stage III + IV were 57 patients. Acturial overall survival rate at 3 years was 43.9%, 3 year survival rates were 60.9% for stage I + II, and 23.1% for stage III + IV, respectively. As a prognostic factor, primary T stage was a significant factor (p<0.01). The others, age, location, lymph node metastasis, surgery, radiation dose, and cell differentiation were not statistically significant. Among those factors, radiation plus surgery was more effective than radiation only in T3 + T4 or in any N stage although it was not statistically sufficient(p<0.1). From those results, it was conclusive that definitive radiotherapy was more effective than surgery especially in the view of pertaining of anatomical integrity and function in early stage, and radiation plus surgery was considered to be better therapeutic tool in advanced stage

  1. State of the art of multicell SC cavities and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter Kneisel

    2002-01-01

    Superconducting cavity technology has made major progresses in the last decade with the introduction of high purity niobium on an industrial scale and, at the same time, by an improved understanding of the limiting processes in cavity performance, such as multipacting, field emission loading and thermal break-down. Multicell niobium cavities for beta = 1 particle acceleration, e.g. for the TESLA project, are routinely exceeding gradients of Eacc = 20 MV/m after the application of surface preparation techniques such as buffered chemical polishing or electropolishing, high pressure ultrapure water rinsing, UHV heat treatment and clean room assembly. The successes of the technology for beta = 1 accelerators has triggered a whole set of possible future applications for beta < 1 particle acceleration such as spallation neutron sources (SNS, ESS), transmutation of nuclear waste (TRASCO, ASH) or rare isotopes (RIA). The most advanced of these projects is SNS now under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This paper will review the technical solutions adopted to advance SRF technology and their impact on cavity performance, based on the SNS prototyping efforts. 2K at these high gradients are no longer out of reach. For the accelerator builder the challenge remains to come up with a good and reasonable design, which takes into account the status of the technology and does not over-estimate the achievable cavity performances in a large assembly such as, e.g., a multi-cavity cryo-module. In the following the criteria for multi-cell sc cavity design are reviewed and it is attempted to give a snapshot of the present status of multi-cell cavity performances

  2. Temperature distribution induced by electron beam in a closed cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molhem, A.G.; Soulayman, S.Sh.

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate heat transfer phenomena induced by EB in a closed cavity an experimental arrangement, which allows generating and focusing an electron beam in to closed cavity within 1 mm in diameter and measuring temperature all over any perpendicular section to the EB, is used for this purpose. Experimental data show that the radial distribution of current density and temperature is normal with pressure and location dependent parameters. Moreover, there is two distinguishable regions in the EB: one is central while the other surrounds the first one. (orig.)

  3. Coupling to fast MHD eigenmodes in a toroidal cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paoloni, F.J.

    1975-05-01

    The coupling to fast MHD waves in toroidal-like geometry is calculated when eigenmodes exist in the plasma. The torus is considered to be a resonant cavity into which energy is coupled by a half turn loop. The cavity Q is calculated for the minority heating process, for cyclotron harmonic damping, electron transit-time magnetic pumping, wall loading, and Coulomb collisional damping. The problem of sustaining the eigenmode as the plasma conditions change with time is also discussed. One method that seems to be practical is a feedback scheme that varies the plasma major radius by a small amount as the conditions change. (U.S.)

  4. Frequency-feedback cavity enhanced spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovde, David Christian; Gomez, Anthony

    2015-08-18

    A spectrometer comprising an optical cavity, a light source capable of producing light at one or more wavelengths transmitted by the cavity and with the light directed at the cavity, a detector and optics positioned to collect light transmitted by the cavity, feedback electronics causing oscillation of amplitude of the optical signal on the detector at a frequency that depends on cavity losses, and a sensor measuring the oscillation frequency to determine the cavity losses.

  5. Comparative population structure of cavity-nesting sea ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, John M.; Eadie, John M.; Savard, Jean-Pierre L.; Christensen, Thomas K.; Berdeen, James; Taylor, Eric J.; Boyd, Sean; Einarsson, Árni

    2014-01-01

    A growing collection of mtDNA genetic information from waterfowl species across North America suggests that larger-bodied cavity-nesting species exhibit greater levels of population differentiation than smaller-bodied congeners. Although little is known about nest-cavity availability for these species, one hypothesis to explain differences in population structure is reduced dispersal tendency of larger-bodied cavity-nesting species due to limited abundance of large cavities. To investigate this hypothesis, we examined population structure of three cavity-nesting waterfowl species distributed across much of North America: Barrow's Goldeneye (Bucephala islandica), Common Goldeneye (B. clangula), and Bufflehead (B. albeola). We compared patterns of population structure using both variation in mtDNA control-region sequences and band-recovery data for the same species and geographic regions. Results were highly congruent between data types, showing structured population patterns for Barrow's and Common Goldeneye but not for Bufflehead. Consistent with our prediction, the smallest cavity-nesting species, the Bufflehead, exhibited the lowest level of population differentiation due to increased dispersal and gene flow. Results provide evidence for discrete Old and New World populations of Common Goldeneye and for differentiation of regional groups of both goldeneye species in Alaska, the Pacific Northwest, and the eastern coast of North America. Results presented here will aid management objectives that require an understanding of population delineation and migratory connectivity between breeding and wintering areas. Comparative studies such as this one highlight factors that may drive patterns of genetic diversity and population trends.

  6. Nonlocal Intracranial Cavity Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjón, José V.; Eskildsen, Simon F.; Coupé, Pierrick; Romero, José E.; Collins, D. Louis; Robles, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Automatic and accurate methods to estimate normalized regional brain volumes from MRI data are valuable tools which may help to obtain an objective diagnosis and followup of many neurological diseases. To estimate such regional brain volumes, the intracranial cavity volume (ICV) is often used for normalization. However, the high variability of brain shape and size due to normal intersubject variability, normal changes occurring over the lifespan, and abnormal changes due to disease makes the ICV estimation problem challenging. In this paper, we present a new approach to perform ICV extraction based on the use of a library of prelabeled brain images to capture the large variability of brain shapes. To this end, an improved nonlocal label fusion scheme based on BEaST technique is proposed to increase the accuracy of the ICV estimation. The proposed method is compared with recent state-of-the-art methods and the results demonstrate an improved performance both in terms of accuracy and reproducibility while maintaining a reduced computational burden. PMID:25328511

  7. Nonlocal Intracranial Cavity Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José V. Manjón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic and accurate methods to estimate normalized regional brain volumes from MRI data are valuable tools which may help to obtain an objective diagnosis and followup of many neurological diseases. To estimate such regional brain volumes, the intracranial cavity volume (ICV is often used for normalization. However, the high variability of brain shape and size due to normal intersubject variability, normal changes occurring over the lifespan, and abnormal changes due to disease makes the ICV estimation problem challenging. In this paper, we present a new approach to perform ICV extraction based on the use of a library of prelabeled brain images to capture the large variability of brain shapes. To this end, an improved nonlocal label fusion scheme based on BEaST technique is proposed to increase the accuracy of the ICV estimation. The proposed method is compared with recent state-of-the-art methods and the results demonstrate an improved performance both in terms of accuracy and reproducibility while maintaining a reduced computational burden.

  8. An analysis of system pressure and temperature distribution in self-pressurizer of SMART considering thermal stratification at intermediate cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yeon Moon; Lee, Doo Jeong; Yoon, Ju Hyun; Kim, Hwan Yeol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    Because the pressurizer is in reactor vessel, the heat transfer from primary water would increase the temperatures of fluids in pressurizer to same temperature of hotleg, if no cooling equipment were supplied. Thus, heat exchanger and thermal insulator are needed to minimize heat transferred from primary water and to remove heat in pressurizer. The temperatures in cavities of pressurizer for normal operation are 70 deg C and 74 deg C for intermediate and end cavity, respectively, which considers the solubility of nitrogen gas in water. Natural convection is the mechanism of heat balance in pressurizer of SMART. In SMART, the heat exchanger in pressurizer is placed in lower part of intermediate cavity, so the heat in upper part of intermediate cavity can't be removed adequately and it can cause thermal stratification. If thermal stratification occurred, it increases heat transfers to nitrogen gas and system pressure increases as the result. Thus, proper evaluation of those effects on system pressure and ways to mitigate thermal stratification should be established. This report estimates the system pressure and temperatures in cavities of pressurizer with considering thermal stratification in intermediate cavity. The system pressure and temperatures for each cavities considered size of wet thermal insulator, temperature of upper plate of reactor vessel, parameters of heat exchanger in intermediate cavity such as flow rate and temperature of cooling water, heat transfer area, effective tube height, and location of cooling tube. In addition to the consideration of thermal stratification thermal mixing of all water in intermediate cavity also considered and compared in this report. (author). 6 refs., 60 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Telescope-based cavity for negative ion beam neutralization in future fusion reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Donatella; Hreibi, Ali; Chaibi, Walid

    2018-03-01

    In future fusion reactors, heating system efficiency is of the utmost importance. Photo-neutralization substantially increases the neutral beam injector (NBI) efficiency with respect to the foreseen system in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) based on a gaseous target. In this paper, we propose a telescope-based configuration to be used in the NBI photo-neutralizer cavity of the demonstration power plant (DEMO) project. This configuration greatly reduces the total length of the cavity, which likely solves overcrowding issues in a fusion reactor environment. Brought to a tabletop experiment, this cavity configuration is tested: a 4 mm beam width is obtained within a ≃1.5  m length cavity. The equivalent cavity g factor is measured to be 0.038(3), thus confirming the cavity stability.

  10. Photons in a spherical cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu-Pallas, N.; Vlad, V.I.

    1999-01-01

    The spectrum of black body radiation at the absolute temperature T, in an ideal spherical cavity of radius R, is studied. The departures from the classical predictions of Planck's theory, due to the discrete energies of the radiation quanta confined inside the cavity, depend on the adiabatic invariant RT and are significant for RT≤ 1 cm K. Special attention was paid to evidence sudden changes in the spectrum intensities, forbidden bands of frequency, as well as major modifications of the total energy for RT≤ 1 cm K. Similar effects were present in case of a cubic cavity too. (authors)

  11. Cavity and goaf control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stassen, P

    1978-01-01

    A summary of stowing, including a definition, calculation of stowing material requirements and settling of packs is given. A) Stowing using dirt found locally - the dirt bands in the seam - the use of ripping dirt brought down by the scraper loader and used for packing purposes and the construction of dummy roads. B) Control of cavities by leaving short, thick props and timber chocks in place. C) Stowing methods involving imported firt: packing by hand, use of scraper loaders, slinger stowing and control led-gravity stowing. D) Pneumatic stowing: describes the various types of machine and their scope; pipelines, their installation and cost price; pneumatic stowing in conjunc tion with powered supports; the use of crusher-stowers for stowing ripping dirt; construction of anhydrite packs by means of a pneumatic stower. E) Hydraulic stowing: how it works, the materials involved, utilization conditions, the surface storage post, pipes, stoppings with stowed material, water removal, rates of hydraulic stowing, results of theoretical studies, and the use of hydraulic stowing in the metal-mines. F) Pumped packs: how they work, how the packs are installed, the strength of the packs and their various uses. G) Caving: describes the principle of caving, support patterns, caving with packs and makes a comparison between caving and stowing. H) Comparison between the various methods of stowing compares pneumatic with hydraulic stowing methods; compares packing by hand and mechanical stowing compares surface subsidence in terms of the method of goaf used underground. An appendix gives details of equipment used. (15 refs.) (In French)

  12. Loggerhead oral cavity morphometry study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard external morphometrics and internal oral cavity morphometrics data were collected on wild and captive reared loggerhead sea turtles in size classes ranging...

  13. Niobium LEP 2 accelerating cavities

    CERN Multimedia

    An accelerating cavity from LEP. This could be cut open to show the layer of niobium on the inside. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment. These challenging requirements pushed European industry to new achievements. 256 of these cavities were used in an upgrade of the LEP accelerator to double the energy of the particle beams.

  14. Bistability of Cavity Magnon Polaritons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Pu; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Dengke; Li, Tie-Fu; Hu, C.-M.; You, J. Q.

    2018-01-01

    We report the first observation of the magnon-polariton bistability in a cavity magnonics system consisting of cavity photons strongly interacting with the magnons in a small yttrium iron garnet (YIG) sphere. The bistable behaviors emerged as sharp frequency switchings of the cavity magnon polaritons (CMPs) and related to the transition between states with large and small numbers of polaritons. In our experiment, we align, respectively, the [100] and [110] crystallographic axes of the YIG sphere parallel to the static magnetic field and find very different bistable behaviors (e.g., clockwise and counter-clockwise hysteresis loops) in these two cases. The experimental results are well fitted and explained as being due to the Kerr nonlinearity with either a positive or negative coefficient. Moreover, when the magnetic field is tuned away from the anticrossing point of CMPs, we observe simultaneous bistability of both magnons and cavity photons by applying a drive field on the lower branch.

  15. Design of rf conditioner cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govil, R.; Rimmer, R.A.; Sessler, A.; Kirk, H.G.

    1992-06-01

    Theoretical studies are made of radio frequency structures which can be used to condition electron beams so as to greatly reduce the stringent emittance requirements for successful lasing in a free-electron laser. The basic strategy of conditioning calls for modulating an electron beam in the transverse dimension, by a periodic focusing channel, while it traverses a series of rf cavities, each operating in a TM 210 mode. In this paper, we analyze the cavities both analytically and numerically (using MAFIA simulations). We find that when cylindrical symmetry is broken the coupling impedance can be greatly enhanced. We present results showing various performance characteristics as a function of cavity parameters, as well as possible designs for conditioning cavities

  16. SRF Cavity Fabrication and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Singer, W

    2014-07-17

    The technological and metallurgical requirements of material for highgradient superconducting cavities are described. High-purity niobium, as the preferred metal for the fabrication of superconducting accelerating cavities, should meet exact specifications. The content of interstitial impurities such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon must be below 10μg/g. The hydrogen content should be kept below 2μg/g to prevent degradation of the Q-value under certain cool-down conditions. The material should be free of flaws (foreign material inclusions or cracks and laminations) that can initiate a thermal breakdown. Defects may be detected by quality control methods such as eddy current scanning and identified by a number of special methods. Conventional and alternative cavity fabrication methods are reviewed. Conventionally, niobium cavities are fabricated from sheet niobium by the formation of half-cells by deep drawing, followed by trim machining and Electron-Beam Welding (EBW). The welding of half-cells is a delicate...

  17. Free convection performance of circular cavities having two active curved vertical sides and two inactive curved horizontal sides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridouane, El Hassan; Campo, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    A detailed review of the archival reveals that the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of circular cavities have not been investigated so far and of course their physical features are not understood. A prominent application of these cavities arises in the miniaturized packaging of electronic components that are subject to strict constraints. This paper addresses primarily steady-state laminar natural convection of air in a circular cavity of diameter H inscribed in a square cavity of side H where the corresponding sides are in contact at four points. A third cavity, an arc-square cavity whose shape lies between the square and circular cavity shapes is included in the analysis. The finite volume method is used to perform the numerical simulations. The methodology takes into account the second-order-accurate QUICK scheme for the discretization of the convective term, whereas the pressure-velocity coupling is handled with the SIMPLE scheme. Since the air is not assumed a Boussinesq gas, it was decided to take all thermophysical properties as temperature-dependent. In the end, it has been demonstrated that the circular cavity possesses a superior balance between heat transfer enhancement and size in cross-section area in comparison with the standard square cavity. The side of the square cavity is similar to the diameter of the circular cavity

  18. PEP-II RF Cavity Revisited (LCC-0032)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimmer, R.

    2004-03-23

    This report describes the results of numerical simulations of the PEP-II RF cavity performed after the completion of the construction phase of the project and comparisons are made to previous calculations and measured results. These analyses were performed to evaluate new calculation techniques for the HOM distribution and RF surface heating that were not available at the time of the original design. These include the use of a high frequency electromagnetic element in ANSYS and the new Omega 3P code to study wall losses, and the development of broadband time domain simulation methods in MAFIA for the HOM loading. The computed HOM spectrum is compared with cavity measurements and observed beam-induced signals. The cavity fabrication method is reviewed, with the benefit of hindsight, and simplifications are discussed.

  19. TESLA superconducting RF cavity development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koepke, K.

    1995-01-01

    The TESLA collaboration has made steady progress since its first official meeting at Cornell in 1990. The infrastructure necessary to assemble and test superconducting rf cavities has been installed at the TESLA Test Facility (TTF) at DESY. 5-cell, 1.3 GHz cavities have been fabricated and have reached accelerating fields of 25 MV/m. Full sized 9-cell copper cavities of TESLA geometry have been measured to verify the higher order modes present and to evaluate HOM coupling designs. The design of the TESLA 9-cell cavity has been finalized and industry has started delivery. Two prototype 9-cell niobium cavities in their first tests have reached accelerating fields of 10 MV/m and 15 MV/m in a vertical dewar after high peak power (HPP) conditioning. The first 12 m TESLA cryomodule that will house 8 9-cell cavities is scheduled to be delivered in Spring 1995. A design report for the TTF is in progress. The TTF test linac is scheduled to be commissioned in 1996/1997. (orig.)

  20. Improved-Delayed-Detached-Eddy Simulation of cavity-induced transition in hypersonic boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Lianghua; Xiao, Zhixiang; Duan, Zhiwei; Fu, Song

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This work is about hypersonic cavity-induced transition with IDDES approach. • The length-to-width-to-depth ratio of the cavity is 19.9:3.57:1 at AoA −10° and −15°. • Flow remains laminar at −10°, transition occurs at −15° and cavity changed from open to close type. • Streamwise vortices, impingement shock, traveling shocks and exit shock are observed. • Breakdown of these vortices triggering rapid flow transition. - Abstract: Hypersonic flow transition from laminar to turbulent due to the surface irregularities, like local cavities, can greatly affect the surface heating and skin friction. In this work, the hypersonic flows over a three-dimensional rectangular cavity with length-to-width-to-depth ratio, L:W:D, of 19.9:3.57:1 at two angles of attack (AoA) were numerically studied with Improved-Delayed-Detached-Eddy Simulation (IDDES) method to highlight the mechanism of transition triggered by the cavity. The present approach was firstly applied to the transonic flow over M219 rectangular cavity. The results, including the fluctuating pressure and frequency, agreed with experiment well. In the hypersonic case at Mach number about 9.6 the cavity is seen as “open” at AoA of −10° but “closed” at AoA of −15° unconventional to the two-dimensional cavity case where the flow always exhibits closed cavity feature when the length-to-depth ratio L/D is larger than 14. For the open cavity flow, the shear layer is basically steady and the flow maintains laminar. For the closed cavity case, the external flow goes into the cavity and impinges on the bottom floor. High intensity streamwise vortices, impingement shock and exit shock are observed causing breakdown of these vortices triggering rapid flow transition

  1. 21 CFR 872.3260 - Cavity varnish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cavity varnish. 872.3260 Section 872.3260 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3260 Cavity varnish. (a) Identification. Cavity varnish is a device that consists of a compound intended to coat a prepared cavity of a tooth before insertion of...

  2. Investigation of the heat generation of a commercial 2032 (LiCoO2) coin cell with a novel differential scanning battery calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giel, Hans; Henriques, David; Bourne, George; Markus, Torsten

    2018-06-01

    Research on the thermal behavior of Li-ion batteries fosters the understanding of heat generating effects and the dimensioning of battery thermal management systems (TMS). First comprehensive studies with a new DSC-like calorimeter for coin-cells are performed to determine thermal properties of a LiCoO2-graphite cell. The high precision and accuracy of the measurements are obtained by calibrating the signals using melting point standards in properly prepared coin-cell cases. The heat flow is measured during cycling with different C-rates between 0.23 C and 0.9 C under isothermal conditions at temperatures between 30 °C and 50 °C in steps of 5 K. Chemical and physical changes are identified in the measured heat flow signal and are discussed taking into account phase diagram information. Energetic efficiencies are calculated in dependence of temperature and C-rates by integrating the measured electrical power and heat values. The influence of cell aging on heat generation and usable capacity under operating conditions is shown. Considering the measured heat generation in a wide temperature range at different C-rates will make a valuable contribution to the understanding of material properties. This fundamental data is essential to improve thermal models to simulate spatially resolved heat dissipation in the electrodes to prevent over-heating.

  3. TEM observations of crack tip: cavity interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, J.A.; Ohr, S.M.; Jesser, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Crack tip-cavity interactions have been studied by performing room temperature deformation experiments in a transmission electron microscope on ion-irradiated type 316 stainless steel with small helium containing cavities. Slip dislocations emitted from a crack tip cut, sheared, and thereby elongated cavities without a volume enlargement. As the crack tip approached, a cavity volume enlargement occurred. Instead of the cavities continuing to enlarge until they touch, the walls between the cavities fractured. Fracture surface dimples do not correlate in size or density with these enlarged cavities

  4. Fabrication of elliptical SRF cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, W.

    2017-03-01

    The technological and metallurgical requirements of material for high-gradient superconducting cavities are described. High-purity niobium, as the preferred metal for the fabrication of superconducting accelerating cavities, should meet exact specifications. The content of interstitial impurities such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon must be below 10 μg g-1. The hydrogen content should be kept below 2 μg g-1 to prevent degradation of the quality factor (Q-value) under certain cool-down conditions. The material should be free of flaws (foreign material inclusions or cracks and laminations) that can initiate a thermal breakdown. Traditional and alternative cavity mechanical fabrication methods are reviewed. Conventionally, niobium cavities are fabricated from sheet niobium by the formation of half-cells by deep drawing, followed by trim machining and electron beam welding. The welding of half-cells is a delicate procedure, requiring intermediate cleaning steps and a careful choice of weld parameters to achieve full penetration of the joints. A challenge for a welded construction is the tight mechanical and electrical tolerances. These can be maintained by a combination of mechanical and radio-frequency measurements on half-cells and by careful tracking of weld shrinkage. The main aspects of quality assurance and quality management are mentioned. The experiences of 800 cavities produced for the European XFEL are presented. Another cavity fabrication approach is slicing discs from the ingot and producing cavities by deep drawing and electron beam welding. Accelerating gradients at the level of 35-45 MV m-1 can be achieved by applying electrochemical polishing treatment. The single-crystal option (grain boundary free) is discussed. It seems that in this case, high performance can be achieved by a simplified treatment procedure. Fabrication of the elliptical resonators from a seamless pipe as an alternative is briefly described. This technology has yielded good

  5. Hydroforming of superconducting TESLA cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, W.; Kaiser, H.; Singer, X.

    2003-01-01

    Seamless fabrication of single-cell and multi-cell TESLA shape cavities by hydroforming has been developed at DESY. The forming takes place by expanding the seamless tube with internal water pressure while simultaneously swaging it axially. Tube radius and axial displacement are being computer controlled in accordance with results of FEM simulations and the experimentally obtained strain-stress curve of tube material. Several Nb single cell cavities have been produced. A first bulk Nb double cell cavity has been fabricated. The Nb seamless tubes have been produced by spinning and deep drawing. Surface treatment such as buffered chemical polishing, (BCP), electropolishing (EP), high pressure ultra pure water rinsing (HPR), annealing at 800degC and baking at ca. 150degC have been applied. The best single cell bulk Nb cavity has reached an accelerating gradient of Eacc > 42 MV/m after ca. 250 μm BCP and 100 μm EP. Several bimetallic NbCu single cell cavities of TESLA shape have been fabricated. The seamless tubes have been produced by explosive bonding and subsequent flow forming. The thicknesses of Nb and Cu layers in the tube wall are about 1 mm and 3 mm respectively. The RF performance of NbCu clad cavities is similar to that of bulk Nb cavities. The highest accelerating gradient achieved was 40 MV/m after ca. 180 μm BCP, annealing at 800degC and baking at 140degC for 30 hours. The degradation of the quality factor Qo after repeated quenching is moderate, after ca. 150 quenches it reaches the saturation point of Qo=1.4x10 10 at low field. This indicates that on the basis of RF performance and material costs the combination of hydroforming with tube cladding is a very promising option. (author)

  6. Partial Cavity Flows at High Reynolds Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makiharju, Simo; Elbing, Brian; Wiggins, Andrew; Dowling, David; Perlin, Marc; Ceccio, Steven

    2009-11-01

    Partial cavity flows created for friction drag reduction were examined on a large-scale. Partial cavities were investigated at Reynolds numbers up to 120 million, and stable cavities with frictional drag reduction of more than 95% were attained at optimal conditions. The model used was a 3 m wide and 12 m long flat plate with a plenum on the bottom. To create the partial cavity, air was injected at the base of an 18 cm backwards-facing step 2.1 m from the leading edge. The geometry at the cavity closure was varied for different flow speeds to optimize the closure of the cavity. Cavity gas flux, thickness, frictional loads, and cavity pressures were measured over a range of flow speeds and air injection fluxes. High-speed video was used extensively to investigate the unsteady three dimensional cavity closure, the overall cavity shape and oscillations.

  7. Normal Conducting RF Cavity for MICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; DeMello, A.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Summers, D.

    2010-01-01

    Normal conducting RF cavities must be used for the cooling section of the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), currently under construction at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK. Eight 201-MHz cavities are needed for the MICE cooling section; fabrication of the first five cavities is complete. We report the cavity fabrication status including cavity design, fabrication techniques and preliminary low power RF measurements.

  8. Material studies for CLIC RF cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Taborelli, M

    2004-01-01

    Following the EST/SM suggestion of replacing copper by molybdenum or tungsten for the construction of the RF cavity irises, different CLIC main beam accelerating structures were produced, extensively operated and disassembled for iris surface inspection. The observed surface modifications were found to be very similar to those obtained by sparking in a dedicated laboratory set-up, showing the superior behaviour of both Mo and W with respect to Cu, in terms of surface erosion and conditioning. The iris thermomechanical fatigue due to RF heating was simulated by high power pulsed laser irradiation. A CuZr alloy was found to be much more resistant than pure Cu. Measurements at higher pulse number will be performed on CuZr in order to extrapolate its fatigue behaviour up to the nominal CLIC duration. Finally a possible future development of a hybrid probe beam acceleration structure will be presented.

  9. Numerical simulation of forced convection over a periodic series of rectangular cavities at low Prandtl number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stalio, E.; Angeli, D.; Barozzi, G.S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We investigate laminar convective heat transfer in channels with periodic cavities. → Heat transfer rates are lower than for the flat channel. → This is ascribed to the steady circulating motion within the cavities. → Diffusion in a low Prandtl number fluid can locally overcome the heat transfer decrease due to advection only for isothermal boundary conditions. - Abstract: Convective heat transfer in laminar conditions is studied numerically for a Prandtl number Pr = 0.025, representative of liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE). The geometry investigated is a channel with a periodic series of shallow cavities. Finite-volume simulations are carried out on structured orthogonal curvilinear grids, for ten values of the Reynolds number based on the hydraulic diameter between Re m = 24.9 and Re m = 2260. Flow separation and reattachment are observed also at very low Reynolds numbers and wall friction is found to be remarkably unequal at the two walls. In almost all cases investigated, heat transfer rates are smaller than the corresponding flat channel values. Low-Prandtl number heat transfer rates, investigated by comparison with Pr = 0.71 results, are large only for uniform wall temperature and very low Re. Influence of flow separation on local heat transfer rates is discussed, together with the effect of different thermal boundary conditions. Dependency of heat transfer performance on the cavity geometry is also considered.

  10. Natural convection in square cavity filled with ferrofluid saturated porous medium in the presence of uniform magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javed, Tariq [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, FBAS, International Islamic University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Mehmood, Z., E-mail: rajaziafat@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, FBAS, International Islamic University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Abbas, Z. [Department of Mathematics, The Islamia University, Bahawalpur (Pakistan)

    2017-02-01

    This article contains numerical results for free convection through square enclosure enclosing ferrofluid saturated porous medium when uniform magnetic field is applied upon the flow along x-axis. Heat is provided through bottom wall and a square blockage placed near left or right bottom corner of enclosure as a heat source. Left and right vertical boundaries of the cavity are considered insulated while upper wall is taken cold. The problem is modelled in terms of system of nonlinear partial differential equations. Finite element method has been adopted to compute numerical simulations of mathematical problem for wide range of pertinent flow parameters including Rayleigh number, Hartman number, Darcy number and Prandtl number. Analysis of results reveals that the strength of streamline circulation is an increasing function of Darcy and Prandtl number where convection heat transfer is dominant for large values of these parameters whereas increase in Hartman number has opposite effects on isotherms and streamline circulations. Thermal conductivity and hence local heat transfer rate of fluid gets increased when ferroparticles are introduced in the fluid. Average Nusselt number increases with increase in Darcy and Rayleigh numbers while it is decreases when Hartman number is increased.

  11. Natural convection in square cavity filled with ferrofluid saturated porous medium in the presence of uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, Tariq; Mehmood, Z.; Abbas, Z.

    2017-01-01

    This article contains numerical results for free convection through square enclosure enclosing ferrofluid saturated porous medium when uniform magnetic field is applied upon the flow along x-axis. Heat is provided through bottom wall and a square blockage placed near left or right bottom corner of enclosure as a heat source. Left and right vertical boundaries of the cavity are considered insulated while upper wall is taken cold. The problem is modelled in terms of system of nonlinear partial differential equations. Finite element method has been adopted to compute numerical simulations of mathematical problem for wide range of pertinent flow parameters including Rayleigh number, Hartman number, Darcy number and Prandtl number. Analysis of results reveals that the strength of streamline circulation is an increasing function of Darcy and Prandtl number where convection heat transfer is dominant for large values of these parameters whereas increase in Hartman number has opposite effects on isotherms and streamline circulations. Thermal conductivity and hence local heat transfer rate of fluid gets increased when ferroparticles are introduced in the fluid. Average Nusselt number increases with increase in Darcy and Rayleigh numbers while it is decreases when Hartman number is increased.

  12. Thermal conditions within tree cavities in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests: potential implications for cavity users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierling, Kerri T.; Lorenz, Teresa J.; Cunningham, Patrick; Potterf, Kelsi

    2017-11-01

    Tree cavities provide critical roosting and breeding sites for multiple species, and thermal environments in these cavities are important to understand. Our objectives were to (1) describe thermal characteristics in cavities between June 3 and August 9, 2014, and (2) investigate the environmental factors that influence cavity temperatures. We placed iButtons in 84 different cavities in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests in central Washington, and took hourly measurements for at least 8 days in each cavity. Temperatures above 40 °C are generally lethal to developing avian embryos, and 18% of the cavities had internal temperatures of ≥ 40 °C for at least 1 h of each day. We modeled daily maximum cavity temperature, the amplitude of daily cavity temperatures, and the difference between the mean internal cavity and mean ambient temperatures as a function of several environmental variables. These variables included canopy cover, tree diameter at cavity height, cavity volume, entrance area, the hardness of the cavity body, the hardness of the cavity sill (which is the wood below the cavity entrance which forms the barrier between the cavity and the external environment), and sill width. Ambient temperature had the largest effect size for maximum cavity temperature and amplitude. Larger trees with harder sills may provide more thermally stable cavity environments, and decayed sills were positively associated with maximum cavity temperatures. Summer temperatures are projected to increase in this region, and additional research is needed to determine how the thermal environments of cavities will influence species occupancy, breeding, and survival.

  13. Red-cockaded woodpecker nest-cavity selection: relationships with cavity age and resin production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph; William G. Ross; David L. Kulhavy

    1998-01-01

    The authors evaluated selection of nest sites by male red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) in Texas relative to the age of the cavity when only cavities excavated by the woodpeckers were available and when both naturally excavated cavities and artificial cavities were available. They also evaluated nest-cavity selection relative to the ability of naturally...

  14. CEBAF's SRF cavity manufacturing experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benesch, J.F.; Reece, C.E.

    1994-01-01

    Construction of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) recirculating linac represents the largest scale application of superconducting rf (SRF) technology to date. The accelerating structures in CEBAF are 169 pairs of 1.5 GHz superconducting rf cavities -- 9 pairs in an injector and 80 pairs each in two linacs. The beam is to be recirculated up to five passes through each linac. Data is presented on mechanical tolerances achieved by the industrial fabricator of the rf cavities (Siemens). Liquid helium leak rates integrated over 22 vacuum seals have been measured on over 110 cavity pairs. A roughly normal distribution of the log 10 (leak rate) is seen, centered about a rate of 10 -10.4 torr-l/s. Over 140 pairs of the cavities have been assembled and have completed rf testing at 2.0 K. Among these, 54% demonstrated usable accelerating gradients greater than 10 MV/m. Although the rf performance characteristics well exceed the CEBAF baseline requirements of 5 MV/m at Q 0 = 2.4x10 9 , the usual limiting phenomena are encountered: field emission, quenching, and occasional multipacting. A discussion of the occurrence conditions and severity of these phenomena during production cavity testing is presented. The frequency with which performance is limited by quenching suggests that additional material advances may be required for applications which require the reliable achievement of accelerating gradients of more than 15 MV/m

  15. Coupling of an overdriven cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbin, H.D.

    1993-01-01

    It is well known that when a nuclear test is conducted in a sufficiently large cavity, the resulting seismic signal is sharply reduced when compared to a normal tamped event. Cavity explosions are of interest in the seismic verification community because of this possibility of reducing the seismic energy generated which can lower signal amplitudes and make detection difficult. Reduced amplitudes would also lower seismic yield estimates which has implications in a Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT). In the past several years, there have been a number of nuclear tests at NTS (Nevada Test Site) inside hemispherical cavities. Two such tests were MILL YARD and MISTY ECHO which had instrumentation at the surface and in the free-field. These two tests differ in one important aspect. MILL YARD was completely decoupled i.e., the cavity wall behaved in an elastic manner. It was estimated that MILL YARD's ground motion was reduced by a factor of at least 70. In contrast, MISTY ECHO was detonated in a hemispherical cavity with the same dimensions as MILL YARD, but with a much larger device yield. This caused an inelastic behavior on the wall and the explosion was not fully decoupled

  16. Development of Side Coupled Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conto, J.M. de; Carretta, J.M.; Gomez-Martinez, Y.; Micoud, R.

    2008-01-01

    Side coupled Cavities are good candidates for proton accelerations in the 90-180 MeV range, as it has been first proposed for the CERN LINAC4 project. A side coupled Linac is made of a lump chain of resonant cavities, alternatively accelerating and coupling. A side coupled cavity has been designed in a CERN-LPSC collaboration to achieve LINAC4 requirements. After RF studies, a complete thermal study has been done, showing that 10-15% is the absolute maximum duty-cycle achievable by such a cavity. Error studies have been developed. They have shown that a tuning ring is mandatory and that a K equals 3% coupling factor is a good choice. A prototype has been built and each cell has been measured and tuned. A simple and accurate method has been used to get both the resonant frequency and the coupling factor, with a movable tuner and a linear fit. A similar method has been used to get the second order coupling factor. A large dispersion is observed on K. This is mainly due to the shape of the coupling apertures, which are very sensitive to mechanical errors. A future and realistic design must be very careful to guarantee a constant aperture (the important parameter is more the dispersion of k than its exact value). Finally, we analyse how to tune the cavity. This has to checked carefully and probably improved or corrected. Results are expected for mid-2008

  17. Mixed convection of ferrofluids in a lid driven cavity with two rotating cylinders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Selimefendigil

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mixed convection of ferrofluid filled lid driven cavity in the presence of two rotating cylinders were numerically investigated by using the finite element method. The cavity is heated from below, cooled from driven wall and rotating cylinder surfaces and side vertical walls of the cavity are assumed to be adiabatic. A magnetic dipole source is placed below the bottom wall of the cavity. The study is performed for various values of Reynolds numbers (100 ≤ Re ≤ 1000, angular rotational speed of the cylinders (−400 ≤ Ω ≤ 400, magnetic dipole strengths (0 ≤ γ ≤ 500, angular velocity ratios of the cylinders (0.25≤Ωi/Ωj≤4 and diameter ratios of the cylinders (0.5≤Di/Dj≤2. It is observed that flow patterns and thermal transport within the cavity are affected by variation in Reynolds number and magnetic dipole strength. The results of this investigation revealed that cylinder angular velocities, ratio of the angular velocities and diameter ratios have profound effect on heat transfer enhancement within the cavity. Averaged heat transfer enhancements of 181.5 % is achieved for clockwise rotation of the cylinder at Ω = −400 compared to motionless cylinder case. Increasing the angular velocity ratio from Ω2/Ω1=0.25 to Ω2/Ω1=4 brings about 91.7 % of heat transfer enhancement.

  18. A SURVEY OF CORONAL CAVITY DENSITY PROFILES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, J.; Gibson, S. E.

    2009-01-01

    Coronal cavities are common features of the solar corona that appear as darkened regions at the base of coronal helmet streamers in coronagraph images. Their darkened appearance indicates that they are regions of lowered density embedded within the comparatively higher density helmet streamer. Despite interfering projection effects of the surrounding helmet streamer (which we refer to as the cavity rim), Fuller et al. have shown that under certain conditions it is possible to use a Van de Hulst inversion of white-light polarized brightness (pB) data to calculate the electron density of both the cavity and cavity rim plasma. In this article, we apply minor modifications to the methods of Fuller et al. in order to improve the accuracy and versatility of the inversion process, and use the new methods to calculate density profiles for both the cavity and cavity rim in 24 cavity systems. We also examine trends in cavity morphology and how departures from the model geometry affect our density calculations. The density calculations reveal that in all 24 cases the cavity plasma has a flatter density profile than the plasma of the cavity rim, meaning that the cavity has a larger density depletion at low altitudes than it does at high altitudes. We find that the mean cavity density is over four times greater than that of a coronal hole at an altitude of 1.2 R sun and that every cavity in the sample is over twice as dense as a coronal hole at this altitude. Furthermore, we find that different cavity systems near solar maximum span a greater range in density at 1.2 R sun than do cavity systems near solar minimum, with a slight trend toward higher densities for systems nearer to solar maximum. Finally, we found no significant correlation of cavity density properties with cavity height-indeed, cavities show remarkably similar density depletions-except for the two smallest cavities that show significantly greater depletion.

  19. Review of cavity optomechanical cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong-Chun; Hu Yu-Wen; Xiao Yun-Feng; Wong Chee Wei

    2013-01-01

    Quantum manipulation of macroscopic mechanical systems is of great interest in both fundamental physics and applications ranging from high-precision metrology to quantum information processing. For these purposes, a crucial step is to cool the mechanical system to its quantum ground state. In this review, we focus on the cavity optomechanical cooling, which exploits the cavity enhanced interaction between optical field and mechanical motion to reduce the thermal noise. Recent remarkable theoretical and experimental efforts in this field have taken a major step forward in preparing the motional quantum ground state of mesoscopic mechanical systems. This review first describes the quantum theory of cavity optomechanical cooling, including quantum noise approach and covariance approach; then, the up-to-date experimental progresses are introduced. Finally, new cooling approaches are discussed along the directions of cooling in the strong coupling regime and cooling beyond the resolved sideband limit. (topical review - quantum information)

  20. On niobium sputter coated cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnolds-Mayer, G.; Kaufmann, U.; Downar, H.

    1988-01-01

    To coat copper cavities with a thin film of niobium, facilities for electropolishing and sputter deposition have been installed at Dornier. Experiments have been performed on samples to optimize electropolishing and deposition parameters. In this paper, characteristics concerning surface properties, adhesion of the niobium film to the copper substrate, and film properties were studied on planar samples. A 1.5 GHz single cell cavity made from oxygen free high conductivity (OFHC) copper was sputter coated twice. First rf measurements were performed in the temperature range from 300 K to 2 K

  1. Formation of silicides in a cavity applicator microwave system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.C.; Kim, H.C.; Alford, T.L.; Mayer, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Metal silicides of nickel and cobalt are formed in a cavity applicator microwave system with a magnetron power of 1200 W and a frequency of 2.45 GHz. X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and four-point-probe measurements are used to identify the silicide phase present and layer thicknesses. Additional processing confirmed that the products attained from heating by microwaves do not differ appreciably from those attained in heating by thermal processes. Materials properties are used to explain microwave power absorption and demonstrate how to tailor a robust process in which thin film reactions can be attained and specific products isolated

  2. Numerical investigation of the onset of centrifugal buoyancy in a rotating cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitz, Diogo B.; Marxen, Olaf; Chew, John

    2016-11-01

    Buoyancy-induced flows in a differentially heated rotating annulus present a multitude of dynamics when control parameters such as rotation rate, temperature difference and Prandtl number are varied. Whilst most of the work in this area has been motivated by applications involving geophysics, the problem of buoyancy-induced convection in rotating systems is also relevant in industrial applications such as the flow between rotating disks of turbomachinery internal air systems, in which buoyancy plays a major role and poses a challenge to accurately predict temperature distributions and heat transfer rates. In such applications the rotational speeds involved are very large, so that the centrifugal accelerations induced are much higher than gravity. In this work we perform direct numerical simulations and linear stability analysis of flow induced by centrifugal buoyancy in a sealed rotating annulus of finite gap with flat end-walls, using a canonical setup representative of an internal air system rotating cavity. The analysis focuses on the behaviour of small-amplitude disturbances added to the base flow, and how those affect the onset of Rossby waves and, ultimately, the transition to a fully turbulent state where convection columns no longer have a well-defined structure. Diogo B. Pitz acknowledges the financial support from the Capes foundation through the Science without Borders program.

  3. Dual-resonances approach to broadband cavity-assisted optical signal processing beyond the carrier relaxation rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuck, Mikkel; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mørk, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We propose and analyze a differential control scheme for cavity-enhanced optical signal processing devices based on carrier nonlinearities. The scheme relies on two optical cavities to increase the bandwidth beyond the limit given by the slowest carrier relaxation rate of the medium. Practical...

  4. Analysis of the Magnetic Field Effect on Entropy Generation at Thermosolutal Convection in a Square Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Ben Brahim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Thermosolutal convection in a square cavity filled with air and submitted to an inclined magnetic field is investigated numerically. The cavity is heated and cooled along the active walls with a mass gradient whereas the two other walls of the cavity are adiabatic and insulated. Entropy generation due to heat and mass transfer, fluid friction and magnetic effect has been determined in transient state for laminar flow by solving numerically the continuity, momentum energy and mass balance equations, using a Control Volume Finite—Element Method. The structure of the studied flows depends on four dimensionless parameters which are the Grashof number, the buoyancy ratio, the Hartman number and the inclination angle. The results show that the magnetic field parameter has a retarding effect on the flow in the cavity and this lead to a decrease of entropy generation, Temperature and concentration decrease with increasing value of the magnetic field parameter.

  5. Development of fundamental power coupler for C-ADS superconducting elliptical cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Kui-Xiang; Bing, Feng; Pan, Wei-Min; Huang, Tong-Ming; Ma, Qiang; Meng, Fan-Bo

    2017-06-01

    5-cell elliptical cavities have been selected for the main linac of the China Accelerator Driven sub-critical System (C-ADS) in the medium energy section. According to the design, each cavity should be driven with radio frequency (RF) energy up to 150 kW by a fundamental power coupler (FPC). As the cavities work with high quality factor and high accelerating gradient, the coupler should keep the cavity from contamination in the assembly procedure. To fulfil the requirements, a single-window coaxial type coupler was designed with the capabilities of handling high RF power, class 10 clean room assembly, and heat load control. This paper presents the coupler design and gives details of RF design, heat load optimization and thermal analysis as well as multipacting simulations. In addition, a primary high power test has been performed and is described in this paper. Supported by China ADS Project (XDA03020000) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11475203)

  6. Spectral tuning of optical coupling between air-mode nanobeam cavities and individual carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiya, Hidenori; Uda, Takushi; Ishii, Akihiro; Kato, Yuichiro K.

    Air-mode nanobeam cavities allow for high efficiency coupling to air-suspended carbon nanotubes due to their unique mode profile that has large electric fields in air. Here we utilize heating-induced energy shift of carbon nanotube emission to investigate the cavity quantum electrodynamics effects. In particular, we use laser-induced heating which causes a large blue-shift of the nanotube photoluminescence as the excitation power is increased. Combined with a slight red-shift of the cavity mode at high powers, detuning of nanotube emission from the cavity can be controlled. We estimate the spontaneous emission coupling factor β at different spectral overlaps and find an increase of β factor at small detunings, which is consistent with Purcell enhancement of nanotube emission. Work supported by JSPS (KAKENHI JP26610080, JP16K13613), Asahi Glass Foundation, Canon Foundation, and MEXT (Photon Frontier Network Program, Nanotechnology Platform).

  7. Differential effect of gamma-irradiated and heat-treated lymphocytes on T cell activation, and interleukin-2 and interleukin-3 release in the human mixed lymphocyte reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loertscher, R.; Abbud-Filho, M.; Leichtman, A.B.; Ythier, A.A.; Williams, J.M.; Carpenter, C.B.; Strom, T.B.

    1987-01-01

    Heat-inactivated (45 degrees C/1 hr) lymphocytes selectively activate suppressor T cells in the mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR), while no significant proliferation and cytotoxic T lymphocyte activation can be detected. It is not well understood why hyperthermic treatment abolishes the stimulatory capacity of lymphocytes since HLA-DR molecules remain detectable immediately following heat exposure. In order to further characterize the requirements for Ts activation we studied the effects of hyperthermic treatment on cellular protein and DNA synthesis and cell surface protein expression in proliferating T and B cells; interleukin (IL)-1, IL-2, and IL-3 release following allogeneic stimulation with heat treated cells (HMLR); and IL-2 receptor expression as an indicator of T cell activation in the HMLR. Hyperthermic treatment reduced cellular protein synthesis as estimated by 14 C-leucine uptake to about 15%, and DNA synthesis ( 3 H-thymidine incorporation) to about 5% of untreated control cells. In contrast to y-irradiated cells, viability of heated cells rapidly declined within the first 24 hr. Hyperthermic treatment doubled binding of mouse immunoglobulin paralleled by an increased expression of IL-2 and transferrin receptors, while expression of HLA-DR and 4F2 proteins appeared unchanged. Stimulation with heated cells triggered the release of IL-1- and an IL-3-like bioactivity but did not induce IL-2 synthesis and/or release, thus explaining the lack of proliferation in the HMLR. Addition of exogenous IL-2 but not IL-1 restored HMLR proliferation. A comparison of allostimulation with y-irradiated and heat-treated cells revealed that significantly fewer T cells were induced to express IL-2 receptors at day 3 (14% vs. 8%, P less than 0.001) and at day 6 (42% vs. 21%, P less than 0.05) with heat-inactivated stimulators

  8. Fundamental Study of a Combined Hyperthermia System with RF Capacitive Heating and Interstitial Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Saitoh, Yoshiaki; Hori, Junichi; 斉藤, 義明; 堀, 潤一

    2001-01-01

    Interstitial RF heating with an inserted electrode allows the heating position selection in a subject, but the narrow heating region is problematic. This study elucidates development of new interstitial RF heating methods, combining with external RF heating using paired electrodes, heating the subject broadly in advance in order to selectively extend the heating region. Two kinds of heating system were developed by controlling a differential mode and a common mode of RF currents. Heating expe...

  9. Faithful state transfer between two-level systems via an actively cooled finite-temperature cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sárkány, Lőrinc; Fortágh, József; Petrosyan, David

    2018-03-01

    We consider state transfer between two qubits—effective two-level systems represented by Rydberg atoms—via a common mode of a microwave cavity at finite temperature. We find that when both qubits have the same coupling strength to the cavity field, at large enough detuning from the cavity mode frequency, quantum interference between the transition paths makes the swap of the excitation between the qubits largely insensitive to the number of thermal photons in the cavity. When, however, the coupling strengths are different, the photon-number-dependent differential Stark shift of the transition frequencies precludes efficient transfer. Nevertheless, using an auxiliary cooling system to continuously extract the cavity photons, we can still achieve a high-fidelity state transfer between the qubits.

  10. Primary mesenteric extraskeletal osteosarcoma in the pelvic cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudur, H.N.; Munk, P.L.; Ryan, A.G.M.J.; Nielson, T.O.

    2005-01-01

    A middle-aged man was being investigated for constipation. Abdominal radiographs incidentally revealed a large, densely calcified, rounded mass within the pelvic cavity. A CT scan was performed followed by surgical excision with a differential diagnosis of calcified hematoma and an enlarged calcified lymph nodal mass. Histopathological investigation revealed a primary mesenteric extraskeletal osteosarcoma. To the best of our knowledge, a primary extraskeletal osteosarcoma arising from the mesentery has not been described previously in the English literature. The radiological features and differential diagnosis are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Primary mesenteric extraskeletal osteosarcoma in the pelvic cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudur, H.N.; Munk, P.L.; Ryan, A.G.M.J. [Vancouver General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Nielson, T.O. [Vancouver General Hospital, Department of Pathology, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2005-10-01

    A middle-aged man was being investigated for constipation. Abdominal radiographs incidentally revealed a large, densely calcified, rounded mass within the pelvic cavity. A CT scan was performed followed by surgical excision with a differential diagnosis of calcified hematoma and an enlarged calcified lymph nodal mass. Histopathological investigation revealed a primary mesenteric extraskeletal osteosarcoma. To the best of our knowledge, a primary extraskeletal osteosarcoma arising from the mesentery has not been described previously in the English literature. The radiological features and differential diagnosis are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Sterility of the uterine cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Birger R.; Kristiansen, Frank V.; Thorsen, Poul

    1995-01-01

    from the same sites. Nearly a quarter of all the patients harbored one or more microorganisms in the uterus, mostly Gardnerella vaginalis, Enterobacter and Streptococcus agalactiae. We found that in a significant number of cases, the uterine cavity is colonized with potentially pathogenic organisms...

  13. Flux trapping in superconducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallet, C.; Bolore, M.; Bonin, B.; Charrier, J.P.; Daillant, B.; Gratadour, J.; Koechlin, F.; Safa, H.

    1992-01-01

    The flux trapped in various field cooled Nb and Pb samples has been measured. For ambient fields smaller than 3 Gauss, 100% of the flux is trapped. The consequences of this result on the behavior of superconducting RF cavities are discussed. (author) 12 refs.; 2 figs

  14. Field emission in RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, B.

    1996-01-01

    Electron field emission limits the accelerating gradient in superconducting cavities. It is shown how and why it is an important problem. The phenomenology of field emission is then described, both in DC and RF regimes. Merits of a few plausible 'remedies' to field emission are discussed. (author)

  15. Superconducting cavity development at RRCAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore pursuing a program on 'R and D Activities for High Energy Proton Linac based Spallation Neutron Source'. Spallation neutron source (SNS) facility will provide high flux pulse neutrons for research in the areas of condensed matter physics, materials science, chemistry, biology and engineering. This will complement the existing synchrotron light source facility, INDUS-2 at RRCAT and reactor based neutron facilities at BARC. RRCAT is also participating in approved mega project on 'Physics and Advanced Technology for High Intensity Proton Accelerator' to support activities of Indian Institutions - Fermilab Collaboration (IIFC). The SNS facility will have a 1 GeV superconducting proton injector linac and 1 GeV accumulator ring. The linac will comprise of large number of superconducting radio-frequency (SCRF) cavities operating at different RF frequencies housed in suitable cryomodules. Thus, an extensive SCRF cavity infrastructure setup is being established. In addition, a scientific and technical expertise are also being developed for fabrication, processing and testing of the SCRF cavities for series production. The paper presents the status of superconducting cavity development at RRCAT

  16. Thoracic cavity after thoracic operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabkin, I.Kh.

    1983-01-01

    The problems of roentgenologic method application to detect postoperative c omplications in pulmonary tissue, bronchi, pleural cavity, mediastinum, have been considered. It is shown, that the use of the above mentioned method permit s to judge on the rates and degrees of the lungs straightening, anatomic structures shift, the change in air- and blood-filling, accumulation of liquid a nd air in pleuritic

  17. "Grinding" cavities in polyurethane foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, J. R.; Davey, R. E.; Dixon, W. F.; Robb, P. H.; Zebus, P. P.

    1980-01-01

    Grinding tool installed on conventional milling machine cuts precise cavities in foam blocks. Method is well suited for prototype or midsize production runs and can be adapted to computer control for mass production. Method saves time and materials compared to bonding or hot wire techniques.

  18. Droplet based cavities and lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Kristian; Kristensen, Anders; Mortensen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    The self-organized and molecularly smooth surface on liquid microdroplets makes them attractive as optical cavities with very high quality factors. This chapter describes the basic theory of optical modes in spherical droplets. The mechanical properties including vibrational excitation are also d...

  19. Superconducting cavities for beauty factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengeler, H.

    1992-01-01

    The possibilities and merits of superconducting accelerating cavities for Beauty-factories are considered. There exist already large sc systems of size and frequency comparable to the ones needed for Beauty-factories. Their status and operation experience is discussed. A comparison of normal conducting and superconducting systems is done for two typical Beauty-factory rings

  20. SRF Cavity Fabrication and Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, W [DESY (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The technological and metallurgical requirements of material for highgradient superconducting cavities are described. High-purity niobium, as the preferred metal for the fabrication of superconducting accelerating cavities, should meet exact specifications. The content of interstitial impurities such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon must be below 10μg/g. The hydrogen content should be kept below 2μg/g to prevent degradation of the Q-value under certain cool-down conditions. The material should be free of flaws (foreign material inclusions or cracks and laminations) that can initiate a thermal breakdown. Defects may be detected by quality control methods such as eddy current scanning and identified by a number of special methods. Conventional and alternative cavity fabrication methods are reviewed. Conventionally, niobium cavities are fabricated from sheet niobium by the formation of half-cells by deep drawing, followed by trim machining and Electron-Beam Welding (EBW). The welding of half-cells is a delicate procedure, requiring intermediate cleaning steps and a careful choice of weld parameters to achieve full penetration of the joints. The equator welds are particularly critical. A challenge for a welded construction is the tight mechanical and electrical tolerances. These can be maintained by a combination of mechanical and radio-frequency measurements on halfcells and by careful tracking of weld shrinkage. The established procedure is suitable for large series production. The main aspects of quality assurance management are mentioned. Another cavity fabrication approach is slicing discs from the ingot and producing cavities by deep drawing and EBW. Accelerating gradients at the level of 35–45 MV·m–1 can be achieved by applying Electropolishing (EP) treatment. Furthermore, the single-crystal option (grain boundary free) is promising. It seems that in this case, high performance can be achieved by a simplified treatment procedure. Fabrication of the

  1. Design of rf-cavities in the funnel of accelerators for transmutation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krawczyk, F.L.; Bultman, N.K.; Chan, K.D.C.; Martineau, R.L.; Nath, S.; Young, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    Funnels are a key component of accelerator structures proposed for transmutation technologies. In addition to conventional accelerator elements, specialized rf-cavities are needed for these structures. Simulations were done to obtain their electromagnetic field distribution and to minimize the rf-induced heat loads. Using these results a structural and thermal analysis of these cavities was performed to insure their reliability at high average power and to determine their cooling requirements. For one cavity the thermal expansion data in return was used to estimate the thermal detuning

  2. High-power RF cavity R ampersand D for the PEP-II B Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimmer, R.; Lambertson, G.; Hodgson, J.

    1994-06-01

    We describe the development of a high-power test model of the 476 MHz RF cavity for the PEP-II B Factory. This cavity is designed to demonstrate the feasibility of a high-power design with higher-order mode (HOM) damping waveguides and the fabrication technologies involved, and it can also be used to evaluate aperture or loop couplers and various RF windows. Changes to the RF design to reduce peak surface heating are discussed and results of finite-element analyses of temperature and stress are presented. Fabrication methods for the prototype and subsequent production cavities are discussed

  3. Reducing field emission in the superconducting rf cavities for the next generation of particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Q.S.; Hartung, W.; Leibovich, A.; Kirchgessner, J.; Moffat, D.; Padamsee, H.; Rubin, D.; Sears, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on field emission, which is an obstacle to reaching the higher fields called for in future applications of superconducting radio frequency cavities to particle accelerators. The authors used heat treatment up to 1500 degrees C in an ultra-high vacuum furnace, along with processing of cavities and temperature mapping, to suppress field emission and analyze emitter properties. In 27 tests of 1-cell 1500 MHz fired accelerating cavities, on the average the accelerating field E acc increased to 24 MV/m (H pk = 1250 Oe) from 13 MV/m with chemical treatment alone; the highest E acc reached was 30.5 MV/m

  4. Thermal resistances of air in cavity walls and their effect upon the thermal insulation performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekkouche, S.M.A.; Cherier, M.K.; Hamdani, M.; Benamrane, N. [Application of Renewable Energies in Arid and Semi Arid Environments /Applied Research Unit on Renewable Energies/ EPST Development Center of Renewable Energies, URAER and B.P. 88, ZI, Gart Taam Ghardaia (Algeria); Benouaz, T. [University of Tlemcen, BP. 119, Tlemcen R.p. 13000 (Algeria); Yaiche, M.R. [Development Center of Renewable Energies, CDER and B.P 62, 16340, Route de l' Observatoire, Bouzareah, Algiers (Algeria)

    2013-07-01

    The optimum thickness in cavity walls in buildings is determined under steady conditions; the heat transfer has been calculated according to ISO 15099:2003. Two forms of masonry units are investigated to conclude the advantage of high thermal emissivity. The paper presents also some results from a study of the thermal insulation performance of air cavities bounded by thin reflective material layer 'eta = 0.05'. The results show that the most economical cavity configuration depends on the thermal emissivity and the insulation material used.

  5. Temperature characteristics of winter roost-sites for birds and mammals: tree cavities and anthropogenic alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüebler, Martin U.; Widmer, Silv; Korner-Nievergelt, Fränzi; Naef-Daenzer, Beat

    2014-07-01

    The microclimate of potential roost-sites is likely to be a crucial determinant in the optimal roost-site selection of endotherms, in particular during the winter season of temperate zones. Available roost-sites for birds and mammals in European high trunk orchards are mainly tree cavities, wood stacks and artificial nest boxes. However, little is known about the microclimatic patterns inside cavities and thermal advantages of using these winter roost-sites. Here, we simultaneously investigate the thermal patterns of winter roost-sites in relation to winter ambient temperature and their insulation capacity. While tree cavities and wood stacks strongly buffered the daily cycle of temperature changes, nest boxes showed low buffering capacity. The buffering effect of tree cavities was stronger at extreme ambient temperatures compared to temperatures around zero. Heat sources inside roosts amplified Δ T (i.e., the difference between inside and outside temperatures), particularly in the closed roosts of nest boxes and tree cavities, and less in the open wood stacks with stronger circulation of air. Positive Δ T due to the installation of a heat source increased in cold ambient temperatures. These results suggest that orchard habitats in winter show a spatiotemporal mosaic of sites providing different thermal benefits varying over time and in relation to ambient temperatures. At cold temperatures tree cavities provide significantly higher thermal benefits than nest boxes or wood stacks. Thus, in winter ecology of hole-using endotherms, the availability of tree cavities may be an important characteristic of winter habitat quality.

  6. Analysis of cavity effect on space- and time-dependent fast and thermal neutron energy spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Katsuhisa; Narita, Masakuni; Ozawa, Yasutomo.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of the presence of a central cavity on the space- and time-dependent neutron energy spectra in both thermal and fast neutron systems are analyzed theoretically with use made of the multi-group one-dimensional time-dependent Ssub(n) method. The thermal neutron field is also analyzed for the case of a fundamental time eigenvalue problem with the time-dependent P 1 approximation. The cavity radius is variable, and the system radius for graphite is 120 cm and for the other materials 7 cm. From the analysis of the time-dependent Ssub(n) calculations in the non-multiplying systems of polythene, light water and graphite, cavity heating is the dominant effect for the slowing-down spectrum in the initial period following fast neutron burst, and when the slowing-down spectrum comes into the thermal energy region, cavity heating shifts to cavity cooling. In the multiplying system of 235 U, cavity cooling also takes place as the spectrum approaches equilibrium after the fast neutron burst is injected. The mechanism of cavity cooling is explained analytically for the case of thermal neutron field to illustrate its physical aspects, using the time-dependent P 1 approximation. An example is given for the case of light water. (auth.)

  7. On the field dependent surface resistance of niobium on copper cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Junginger, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The surface resistance Rs of superconducting cavities prepared by sputter coating a thin niobium film on a copper substrate increases significantly stronger with the applied RF field compared to cavities of bulk material. A possible cause is that due to the thermal boundary resistance between the copper substrate and the niobium film Rs is enhanced due to global heating of the inner cavity wall. Introducing helium gas in the cavity and measuring its pressure as a function of applied field allowed to conclude that the inner surface of the cavity is heated up by only 60+/-60 mK when Rs increases with Eacc by 100 nOhm. This is more than one order of magnitude less than what one would expect from global heating. Additionally the effect of cooldown speed and low temperature baking have been investigated in the framework of these experiments. It is shown that for current state of the art niobium on copper cavities there is only a detrimental effect of low temperature baking. A fast cooldown results in a lowered Rs.

  8. Simulation of IVR-ERVC and estimation method of coolant inflow to the cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyunjin; Namgung, Ihn [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    In this study, the temperature distribution outside of RV wall and evaporation rate due to heat from core will be investigated. Using the universal analysis program ANSYS Fluent, the natural convection in the cavity for IVR-ERVC conditions were modelled and performed for heat transfer analysis. The aim of this study is to calculate the appropriate coolant flow so that coolant level in the cavity can be maintained at prescribed level and vessel wall temperature distribution, including RV outside wall temperature are also investigated. Reactor vessel and cavity in case of ex-vessel cooling for severe accident condition were modeled with and without insulators. The heat load into reactor vessel from corium inside of reactor lower head were obtained from MELCORE analysis and used as input B.C of CFD analysis. The Temperature gradient of reactor outer surface and evaporation rate of cooling eater was obtained from the analysis. These results can be used for further analysis of reactor vessel creep behavior and the estimate the coolant flow rate into the reactor cavity.. and The result can be used to verify the natural convection phenomena in the cavity and also to set the design parameters of cavity and coolant flow rate. The vessel outer surface temperature gradient can be also used to more accurate investigation of vessel creep behavior during severe accident condition, The result can also be used set up a strategy for severe accident managements.

  9. Optimal Control Method of Parabolic Partial Differential Equations and Its Application to Heat Transfer Model in Continuous Cast Secondary Cooling Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our work is devoted to a class of optimal control problems of parabolic partial differential equations. Because of the partial differential equations constraints, it is rather difficult to solve the optimization problem. The gradient of the cost function can be found by the adjoint problem approach. Based on the adjoint problem approach, the gradient of cost function is proved to be Lipschitz continuous. An improved conjugate method is applied to solve this optimization problem and this algorithm is proved to be convergent. This method is applied to set-point values in continuous cast secondary cooling zone. Based on the real data in a plant, the simulation experiments show that the method can ensure the steel billet quality. From these experiment results, it is concluded that the improved conjugate gradient algorithm is convergent and the method is effective in optimal control problem of partial differential equations.

  10. Convective heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Kakac, Sadik; Pramuanjaroenkij, Anchasa

    2014-01-01

    Intended for readers who have taken a basic heat transfer course and have a basic knowledge of thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and differential equations, Convective Heat Transfer, Third Edition provides an overview of phenomenological convective heat transfer. This book combines applications of engineering with the basic concepts of convection. It offers a clear and balanced presentation of essential topics using both traditional and numerical methods. The text addresses emerging science and technology matters, and highlights biomedical applications and energy technologies. What’s New in the Third Edition: Includes updated chapters and two new chapters on heat transfer in microchannels and heat transfer with nanofluids Expands problem sets and introduces new correlations and solved examples Provides more coverage of numerical/computer methods The third edition details the new research areas of heat transfer in microchannels and the enhancement of convective heat transfer with nanofluids....

  11. Differential turbidity measurements at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laulainen, N.S.; Bates, J.A.; Kleckner, E.W.; Michalsky, J.J.; Schrotke, P.M.; Thorp, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    An experiment to exmine differential turbidity effects on measured insolation between the Rattlesnake Observatory and the Hanford Meteorological Station was conducted during summer 1977. Several types of solar radiation instruments were used, including pyranometers, multiwavelength sunphotometers, and an active cavity radiometer. Preliminary results show dramatic temporal variability of aerosol loading at HMS and significant insolation and turbidity differences between the Observatory and HMS

  12. Bursae and abscess cavities communicating with the hip: diagnosis using arthrography and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbach, L.S.; Schneider, R.; Goldman, A.B.; Kazam, E.; Ranawat, C.S.; Ghelman, B.

    1985-01-01

    Bursae or abscess cavities communicating with the hip joint were demonstrated by hip arthrography or by computed tomography (CT) in 40 cases. The bursae or abscess cavities were associated with underlying abnormalities in the hip, including painful hip prostheses, infection, and inflammatory or degenerative arthritis. Symptoms may be produced directly as a result of infection or indirectly as a result of inflammation or pressure on adjacent structures. Hip arthrography can confirm a diagnosis of bursae and abscess cavities communicating with the hip joint in patients with hip pain or soft-tissue masses around the groin. Differentiation of enlarged bursae from other abnormalities is important to avoid unnecessary or incorrect surgery

  13. Waveguide based external cavity semiconductor lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbeuving, Ruud; Klein, E.J.; Offerhaus, Herman L.; Lee, Christopher James; Verhaegen, M.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2012-01-01

    We report on progress of the project waveguide based external cavity semiconductor laser (WECSL) arrays. Here we present the latest results on our efforts to mode lock an array of tunable, external cavity semiconductor lasers.

  14. Optical cavity furnace for semiconductor wafer processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    2014-08-05

    An optical cavity furnace 10 having multiple optical energy sources 12 associated with an optical cavity 18 of the furnace. The multiple optical energy sources 12 may be lamps or other devices suitable for producing an appropriate level of optical energy. The optical cavity furnace 10 may also include one or more reflectors 14 and one or more walls 16 associated with the optical energy sources 12 such that the reflectors 14 and walls 16 define the optical cavity 18. The walls 16 may have any desired configuration or shape to enhance operation of the furnace as an optical cavity 18. The optical energy sources 12 may be positioned at any location with respect to the reflectors 14 and walls defining the optical cavity. The optical cavity furnace 10 may further include a semiconductor wafer transport system 22 for transporting one or more semiconductor wafers 20 through the optical cavity.

  15. Self-determined shapes and velocities of giant near-zero drag gas cavities

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2017-09-09

    Minimizing the retarding force on a solid moving in liquid is the canonical problem in the quest for energy saving by friction and drag reduction. For an ideal object that cannot sustain any shear stress on its surface, theory predicts that drag force will fall to zero as its speed becomes large. However, experimental verification of this prediction has been challenging. We report the construction of a class of self-determined streamlined structures with this free-slip surface, made up of a teardrop-shaped giant gas cavity that completely encloses a metal sphere. This stable gas cavity is formed around the sphere as it plunges at a sufficiently high speed into the liquid in a deep tank, provided that the sphere is either heated initially to above the Leidenfrost temperature of the liquid or rendered superhydrophobic in water at room temperature. These sphere-in-cavity structures have residual drag coefficients that are typically less than Embedded Image those of solid objects of the same dimensions, which indicates that they experienced very small drag forces. The self-determined shapes of the gas cavities are shown to be consistent with the Bernoulli equation of potential flow applied on the cavity surface. The cavity fall velocity is not arbitrary but is uniquely predicted by the sphere density and cavity volume, so larger cavities have higher characteristic velocities.

  16. High power RF test of an 805 MHz RF cavity for a muon cooling channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Derun; Corlett, J.; MacGill, R.; Rimmer, R.; Wallig, J.; Zisman, M.; Moretti, A.; Qian, Z.; Wu, V.; Summers, D.; Norem, J.

    2002-01-01

    We present recent high power RF test results on an 805 MHz cavity for a muon cooling experiment at Lab G in Fermilab. In order to achieve high accelerating gradient for large transverse emittance muon beams, the cavity design has adopted a pillbox like shape with 16 cm diameter beam iris covered by thin Be windows, which are demountable to allow for RF tests of different windows. The cavity body is made from copper with stiff stainless steel rings brazed to the cavity body for window attachments. View ports and RF probes are available for visual inspections of the surface of windows and cavity and measurement of the field gradient. Maximum of three thermo-couples can be attached to the windows for monitoring the temperature gradient on the windows caused by RF heating. The cavity was measured to have Q 0 of about 15,000 with copper windows and coupling constant of 1.3 before final assembling. A 12 MW peak power klystron is available at Lab G in Fermilab for the high power test. The cavity and coupler designs were performed using the MAFIA code in the frequency and the time domain. Numerical simulation results and cold test measurements on the cavity and coupler will be presented for comparisons

  17. Role of thermal resistance on the performance of superconducting radio frequency cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2017-03-01

    Thermal stability is an important parameter for the operation of the superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities used in particle accelerators. The rf power dissipated on the inner surface of the cavities is conducted to the helium bath cooling the outer cavity surface and the equilibrium temperature of the inner surface depends on the thermal resistance. In this manuscript, we present the results of direct measurements of thermal resistance on 1.3 GHz single cell SRF cavities made from high purity large-grain and fine-grain niobium as well as their rf performance for different treatments applied to outer cavity surface in order to investigate the role of the Kapitza resistance to the overall thermal resistance and to the SRF cavity performance. The results show no significant impact of the thermal resistance to the SRF cavity performance after chemical polishing, mechanical polishing or anodization of the outer cavity surface. Temperature maps taken during the rf test show nonuniform heating of the surface at medium rf fields. Calculations of Q0(Bp) curves using the thermal feedback model show good agreement with experimental data at 2 and 1.8 K when a pair-braking term is included in the calculation of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer surface resistance. These results indicate local intrinsic nonlinearities of the surface resistance, rather than purely thermal effects, to be the main cause for the observed field dependence of Q0(Bp) .

  18. THERMAL PROPERTIES OF A SOLAR CORONAL CAVITY OBSERVED WITH THE X-RAY TELESCOPE ON HINODE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Katharine K. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St. MS 58, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gibson, Sarah E. [HAO/NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Kucera, Therese A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Hudson, Hugh S. [Space Sciences Laboratories, University of California, Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kano, Ryouhei, E-mail: kreeves@cfa.harvard.edu [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2012-02-20

    Coronal cavities are voids in coronal emission often observed above high latitude filament channels. Sometimes, these cavities have areas of bright X-ray emission in their centers. In this study, we use data from the X-ray Telescope (XRT) on the Hinode satellite to examine the thermal emission properties of a cavity observed during 2008 July that contains bright X-ray emission in its center. Using ratios of XRT filters, we find evidence for elevated temperatures in the cavity center. The area of elevated temperature evolves from a ring-shaped structure at the beginning of the observation, to an elongated structure two days later, finally appearing as a compact round source four days after the initial observation. We use a morphological model to fit the cavity emission, and find that a uniform structure running through the cavity does not fit the observations well. Instead, the observations are reproduced by modeling several short cylindrical cavity 'cores' with different parameters on different days. These changing core parameters may be due to some observed activity heating different parts of the cavity core at different times. We find that core temperatures of 1.75 MK, 1.7 MK, and 2.0 MK (for July 19, July 21, and July 23, respectively) in the model lead to structures that are consistent with the data, and that line-of-sight effects serve to lower the effective temperature derived from the filter ratio.

  19. Role of thermal resistance on the performance of superconducting radio frequency cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashupati Dhakal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermal stability is an important parameter for the operation of the superconducting radio frequency (SRF cavities used in particle accelerators. The rf power dissipated on the inner surface of the cavities is conducted to the helium bath cooling the outer cavity surface and the equilibrium temperature of the inner surface depends on the thermal resistance. In this manuscript, we present the results of direct measurements of thermal resistance on 1.3 GHz single cell SRF cavities made from high purity large-grain and fine-grain niobium as well as their rf performance for different treatments applied to outer cavity surface in order to investigate the role of the Kapitza resistance to the overall thermal resistance and to the SRF cavity performance. The results show no significant impact of the thermal resistance to the SRF cavity performance after chemical polishing, mechanical polishing or anodization of the outer cavity surface. Temperature maps taken during the rf test show nonuniform heating of the surface at medium rf fields. Calculations of Q_{0}(B_{p} curves using the thermal feedback model show good agreement with experimental data at 2 and 1.8 K when a pair-braking term is included in the calculation of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer surface resistance. These results indicate local intrinsic nonlinearities of the surface resistance, rather than purely thermal effects, to be the main cause for the observed field dependence of Q_{0}(B_{p}.

  20. Cavity QED experiments with ion Coulomb crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskind, Peter Fønss; Dantan, Aurélien; Marler, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Cavity QED experimental results demonstrating collective strong coupling between ensembles of atomic ions cooled into Coulomb crystals and optical cavity fields have been achieved. Collective Zeeman coherence times of milliseconds have furthermore been obtained.......Cavity QED experimental results demonstrating collective strong coupling between ensembles of atomic ions cooled into Coulomb crystals and optical cavity fields have been achieved. Collective Zeeman coherence times of milliseconds have furthermore been obtained....

  1. An economical wireless cavity-nest viewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel P. Huebner; Sarah R. Hurteau

    2007-01-01

    Inspection of cavity nests and nest boxes is often required during studies of cavity-nesting birds, and fiberscopes and pole-mounted video cameras are sometimes used for such inspection. However, the cost of these systems may be prohibitive for some potential users. We describe a user-built, wireless cavity viewer that can be used to access cavities as high as 15 m and...

  2. Microencapsulation of silicon cavities using a pulsed excimer laser

    KAUST Repository

    Sedky, Sherif M.

    2012-06-07

    This work presents a novel low thermal-budget technique for sealing micromachined cavities in silicon. Cavities are sealed without deposition, similar to the silicon surface-migration sealing process. In contrast to the 1100°C furnace anneal required for the migration process, the proposed technique uses short excimer laser pulses (24ns), focused onto an area of 23mm 2, to locally heat the top few microns of the substrate, while the bulk substrate remains near ambient temperature. The treatment can be applied to selected regions of the substrate, without the need for special surface treatments or a controlled environment. This work investigates the effect of varying the laser pulse energy from 400 mJ cm 2to 800 mJ cm 2, the pulse rate from 1Hz to 50Hz and the pulse count from 200 to 3000 pulses on sealing microfabricated cavities in silicon. An analytical model for the effect of holes on the surface temperature distribution is derived, which shows that much higher temperatures can be achieved by increasing the hole density. A mechanism for sealing the cavities is proposed, which indicates how complete sealing is feasible. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  3. Differential acclimation of enzymatic antioxidant metabolism and photosystem II photochemistry in tall fescue under drought and heat and the combined stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoyue eBi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Quality inferiority in cool-season turfgrass due to drought, heat and a combination of both stresses is predicted to be more prevalent in the future. Understanding the various response to heat and drought stress will assist in the selection and breeding of tolerant grass varieties. The objective of this study was to investigate the behavior of antioxidant metabolism and photosystem II (PSII photochemistry in two tall fescue genotypes (PI 234881 and PI 578718 with various thermotolerance capacities. Wide variations were found between heat-tolerant PI 578718 and heat-sensitive PI 234881 for leaf relative water content, malondialdehyde and electrolyte leakage under drought, high-temperature or a combination of both stresses. The sensitivity of PI 234881 exposed to combined stresses was associated with lower superoxide dismutase activity and higher H2O2 accumulation than that in PI 578718. Various antioxidant enzymes displayed positive correlation with chlorophyll content, but negative with membrane injury index at most of the stages in both tall fescue genotypes. The JIP-test analysis in PI 578718 indicated a significant improvement in ABS/RC, TR0/RC, RE0/RC, RE0/ABS values as compared to the control regime, which indicated that PI 578718 had a high potential to protect the PSII system under drought and high temperature stress. And the PS II photochemistry in PI 234881 was damaged significantly compared with PI578718. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR revealed that heat and drought stresses deduced the gene expression of psbB and psbC, but induced the expression of psbA. These findings to some extent confirmed that the various adaptations of physiological traits may contribute to breeding in cold-season turfgrass in response to drought, high-temperature and a combination of both stresses.

  4. Nanometer cavities studied by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogensen, O.E.

    1992-01-01

    Positronium (Ps) is trapped in cavities in insulating solids, and the lifetime of ortho Ps is determined by the size of the cavity. The information on the properties of the cavities obtained by use of the standard slow positron beam and the 'normal' positron annihilation techniques is compared for several selected cases. (author)

  5. Computer codes for RF cavity design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, K.

    1992-08-01

    In RF cavity design, numerical modeling is assuming an increasingly important role with the help of sophisticated computer codes and powerful yet affordable computers. A description of the cavity codes in use in the accelerator community has been given previously. The present paper will address the latest developments and discuss their applications to cavity toning and matching problems

  6. Diagram of a LEP superconducting cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    This diagram gives a schematic representation of the superconducting radio-frequency cavities at LEP. Liquid helium is used to cool the cavity to 4.5 degrees above absolute zero so that very high electric fields can be produced, increasing the operating energy of the accelerator. Superconducting cavities were used only in the LEP-2 phase of the accelerator, from 1996 to 2000.

  7. Computer codes for RF cavity design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, K.

    1992-01-01

    In RF cavity design, numerical modeling is assuming an increasingly important role with the help of sophisticated computer codes and powerful yet affordable computers. A description of the cavity codes in use in the accelerator community has been given previously. The present paper will address the latest developments and discuss their applications to cavity tuning and matching problems. (Author) 8 refs., 10 figs

  8. Differential Targeting of Hsp70 Heat Shock Proteins HSPA6 and HSPA1A with Components of a Protein Disaggregation/Refolding Machine in Differentiated Human Neuronal Cells following Thermal Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R. Brown

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (Hsps co-operate in multi-protein machines that counter protein misfolding and aggregation and involve DNAJ (Hsp40, HSPA (Hsp70, and HSPH (Hsp105α. The HSPA family is a multigene family composed of inducible and constitutively expressed members. Inducible HSPA6 (Hsp70B' is found in the human genome but not in the genomes of mouse and rat. To advance knowledge of this little studied HSPA member, the targeting of HSPA6 to stress-sensitive neuronal sites with components of a disaggregation/refolding machine was investigated following thermal stress. HSPA6 targeted the periphery of nuclear speckles (perispeckles that have been characterized as sites of transcription. However, HSPA6 did not co-localize at perispeckles with DNAJB1 (Hsp40-1 or HSPH1 (Hsp105α. At 3 h after heat shock, HSPA6 co-localized with these members of the disaggregation/refolding machine at the granular component (GC of the nucleolus. Inducible HSPA1A (Hsp70-1 and constitutively expressed HSPA8 (Hsc70 co-localized at nuclear speckles with components of the machine immediately after heat shock, and at the GC layer of the nucleolus at 1 h with DNAJA1 and BAG-1. These results suggest that HSPA6 exhibits targeting features that are not apparent for HSPA1A and HSPA8.

  9. Transient mixed convection in a channel with an open cavity filled with porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonomo, B; Cresci, G; Manca, O; Mesolella, P; Nardini, S

    2012-01-01

    In this work transient mixed convection in a porous medium in a horizontal channel with a open cavity below is studied numerically. The cavity presents a heated wall at uniform heat flux and the other walls of the cavity and the channel are assumed adiabatic. Air flows through the horizontal channel. The heated wall of the cavity experiences a uniform heat flux in such a way that the forced flow is perpendicular to the motion due to natural convection. The study is carried out employing Brinkman-Forchheimer-extended Darcy model and two energy equations due to the local thermal non-equilibrium assumption. The flow in the channel is assumed to be two-dimensional, laminar, incompressible. Boussinesq approximation is considered. The thermophysical properties of the fluid are evaluated at the ambient temperature. The results for stream function and temperature distribution given at different times are obtained. Wall temperature value are given and also, the velocity and temperature profiles in several sections of the cavity are presented. In addition, the Nusselt number, both local and average, is presented along with the temporal variations of the average Nusselt number.

  10. A Many-Atom Cavity QED System with Homogeneous Atom-Cavity Coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jongmin; Vrijsen, Geert; Teper, Igor; Hosten, Onur; Kasevich, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a many-atom-cavity system with a high-finesse dual-wavelength standing wave cavity in which all participating rubidium atoms are nearly identically coupled to a 780-nm cavity mode. This homogeneous coupling is enforced by a one-dimensional optical lattice formed by the field of a 1560-nm cavity mode.

  11. Gastrophysics of the Oral Cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouritsen, Ole G

    2016-01-01

    Gastrophysics is the science that pertains to the physical and physico-chemical description of the empirical world of gastronomy, with focus on sensory perception in the oral cavity and how it is related to the materials properties of food and cooking processes. Flavor (taste and smell), mouthfeel, chemesthesis, and astringency are all related to the chemical properties and the texture of the food and how the food is transformed in the oral cavity. The present topical review will primarily focus attention on the somatosensory perception of food (mouthfeel or texture) and how it interacts with basic tastes (sour, bitter, sweet, salty, and umami) and chemesthetic action. Issues regarding diet, nutrition, and health will be put into an evolutionary perspective, and some mention will be made of umami and its importance for (oral) health.

  12. Cavity Voltage Phase Modulation MD

    CERN Document Server

    Mastoridis, Themistoklis; Molendijk, John; Timko, Helga; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The LHC RF/LLRF system is currently configured for extremely stable RF voltage to minimize transient beam loading effects. The present scheme cannot be extended beyond nominal beam current since the demanded power would exceed the peak klystron power and lead to saturation. A new scheme has therefore been proposed: for beam currents above nominal (and possibly earlier), the cavity phase modulation by the beam will not be corrected (transient beam loading), but the strong RF feedback and One-Turn Delay feedback will still be active for loop and beam stability in physics. To achieve this, the voltage set point will be adapted for each bunch. The goal of this MD was to test a new algorithm that would adjust the voltage set point to achieve the cavity phase modulation that would minimize klystron forward power.

  13. Cooling the APS storage ring radio-frequency accelerating cavities: Thermal/stress/fatigue analysis and cavity cooling configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primdahl, K.; Kustom, R.

    1995-01-01

    The 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source positron storage ring requires sixteen separate 352-MHz radio-frequency (rf) accelerating cavities. Cavities are installed as groups of four, in straight sections used elsewhere for insertion devices. They occupy the first such straight section after injection, along with the last three just before injection. Cooling is provided by a subsystem of the sitewide deionized water system. Pumping equipment is located in a building directly adjacent to the accelerator enclosure. A prototype cavity was fabricated and tested where cooling was via twelve 19-mm-diameter [3/4 in] brazed-on tubes in a series-parallel flow configuration. Unfortunately, the thermal contact to some tubes was poor due to inadequate braze filler. Here, heat transfer studies, including finite-element analysis and test results, of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring 352-MHz rf accelerating cavities are described. Stress and fatigue life of the copper are discussed. Configuration of water cooling is presented

  14. Improvement of cavity performance in the Saclay/Cornell/DESY's SC cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kako, E.; Noguchi, S.; Ono, M.

    2000-01-01

    Development of 1.3 GHz Nb superconducting cavities for TESLA (TeV Energy Superconducting Linear Collider) has been carried out with international collaboration. Three Saclay single-cell cavities, one Cornell two-cell cavity and one DESY nine-cell cavity were sent to KEK in order to compare the cavity performance. These cavities were tested at KEK after the following surface treatment: 1) high pressure rinsing, HPR, 2) chemical polishing and HPR, 3) electropolishing and HPR. The test results, especially, improvement of the cavity performance due to electropolishing are reported in this paper. (author)

  15. Superconducting versus normal conducting cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Podlech, Holger

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important issues of high-power hadron linacs is the choice of technology with respect to superconducting or room-temperature operation. The favour for a specific technology depends on several parameters such as the beam energy, beam current, beam power and duty factor. This contribution gives an overview of the comparison between superconducting and normal conducting cavities. This includes basic radiofrequency (RF) parameters, design criteria, limitations, required RF and plug power as well as case studies.

  16. Grinding Inside A Toroidal Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Walter; Adams, James F.; Burley, Richard K.

    1987-01-01

    Weld lines ground smooth within about 0.001 in. Grinding tool for smoothing longitudinal weld lines inside toroidal cavity includes curved tunnel jig to guide grinding "mouse" along weld line. Curvature of tunnel jig matched to shape of toroid so grinding ball in mouse follows circular arc of correct radius as mouse is pushed along tunnel. Tool enables precise control of grindout shape, yet easy to use.

  17. Heat Stress in the Urban and Suburban Landscape and its Spatial Differentiation Through the Example of a Medium-Sized City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Vysoudil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of heat stress in a Central European city and its surroundings was examined. We evaluated the length of time for which the threshold values of Humidex and air temperatures were exceeded at individual stations. The longest interval of temperature discomfort was detected at the border of open mid-rise development and open spaces. The shortest intervals were found in compact mid-rise development and near a forest. There are spatial differences between locations with long periods of high temperatures and locations with long intervals of high Humidex values. However, when the heat stress is being assessed in relation to the mortality rate, Humidex does not show better results than the air temperature.

  18. Optomechanic interactions in phoxonic cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Djafari-Rouhani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phoxonic crystals are periodic structures exhibiting simultaneous phononic and photonic band gaps, thus allowing the confinement of both excitations in the same cavity. The phonon-photon interaction can be enhanced due to the overlap of both waves in the cavity. In this paper, we discuss some of our recent theoretical works on the strength of the optomechanic coupling, based on both photoelastic and moving interfaces mechanisms, in different (2D, slabs, strips phoxonic crystals cavities. The cases of two-dimensional infinite and slab structures will enable us to mention the important role of the symmetry and degeneracy of the modes, as well as the role of the materials whose photoelastic constants can be wavelength dependent. Depending on the phonon-photon pair, the photoelastic and moving interface mechanisms can contribute in phase or out-of-phase. Then, the main part of the paper will be devoted to the optomechanic interaction in a corrugated nanobeam waveguide exhibiting dual phononic/photonic band gaps. Such structures can provide photonic modes with very high quality factor, high frequency phononic modes of a few GHz inside a gap and optomechanical coupling rate reaching a few MHz.

  19. Solar power conversion system with directionally- and spectrally-selective properties based on a reflective cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriskina, Svetlana; Kraemer, Daniel; McEnaney, Kenneth; Weinstein, Lee A.; Chen, Gang

    2018-03-13

    Solar power conversion system. The system includes a cavity formed within an enclosure having highly specularly reflecting in the IR spectrum inside walls, the enclosure having an opening to receive solar radiation. An absorber is positioned within the cavity for receiving the solar radiation resulting in heating of the absorber structure. In a preferred embodiment, the system further contains an energy conversion and storage devices thermally-linked to the absorber by heat conduction, convection, far-field or near-field thermal radiation.

  20. Improving the yield of 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose using a microwave cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M D; Roberts, A D; Nickles, R J

    1996-07-01

    We have investigated the use of a microwave cavity (Labwell AB, Sweden) to improve the radiochemical yield of 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (2-[18F]FDG). After characterizing the heating properties of the cavity, three steps of the Hamacher 2-[18F]FDG synthesis which require heating--azeotropic distillation of the target water, nucleophilic substitution, and hydrolysis of the product--were investigated separately. The average radiochemical yield of 2-[18F]FDG for the microwave synthesis, using the phase transfer reagent tetrabutylammonium bicarbonate, was 62 +/- 4% (72 +/- 5%, decay corrected, synthesis time = 31 min).

  1. Improving the yield of 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose using a microwave cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M.D.; Roberts, A.D.; Nickles, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated the use of a microwave cavity (Labwell AB, Sweden) to improve the radiochemical yield of 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (2-[ 18 F]FDG). After characterizing the heating properties of the cavity, three steps of the Hamacher 2-[ 18 F]FDG synthesis which require heating--azeotropic distillation of the target water, nucleophilic substitution, and hydrolysis of the product--were investigated separately. The average radiochemical yield of 2-[ 18 F]FDG for the microwave synthesis, using the phase transfer reagent tetrabutylammonium bicarbonate, was 62 ± 4% (72 ± 5%, decay corrected, synthesis time = 31 min)

  2. Investigation of superconducting niobium 1170 MHz cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anashin, V.V.; Bibko, S.I.; Fadeyev, E.I.

    1988-01-01

    The design, fabrication and experiments with superconducting L-band single cell cavities are described. These cavities model a cell of an accelerating RF structure. The cavities have been fabricated from technical grade and higher purity grade sheet niobium using deep-drawing, electron beam welding and chemical polishing. They have spherical geometry and are excited in the TM 010 mode. A computerized set-up was used for cavity tests. Qo=1.5 x 10 9 and E acc = 4.3 MV/m were obtained in the cavity made of higher purity grade niobium. 6 references, 8 figures, 3 tables

  3. LHC crab-cavity aspects and strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calaga, R.; Tomas, R.; Zimmermann, F.

    2010-01-01

    The 3rd LHC Crab Cavity workshop (LHC-CC09) took place at CERN in October 2009. It reviewed the current status and identified a clear strategy towards a future crab-cavity implementation. Following the success of crab cavities in KEK-B and the strong potential for luminosity gain and leveling, CERN will pursue crab crossing for the LHC upgrade. We present a summary and outcome of the variousworkshop sessions which have led to the LHC crab-cavity strategy, covering topics like layout, cavity design, integration, machine protection, and a potential validation test in the SPS.

  4. Image transmission through a stable paraxial cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigan, Sylvain; Lopez, Laurent; Treps, Nicolas; Maitre, Agnes; Fabre, Claude

    2005-01-01

    We study the transmission of a monochromatic 'image' through a paraxial cavity. Using the formalism of self-transform functions, we show that a transverse degenerate cavity transmits the self-transform part of the image, with respect to the field transformation over one round-trip of the cavity. This formalism gives insight into the understanding of the behavior of a transverse degenerate cavity, complementary to the transverse mode picture. An experiment of image transmission through a hemiconfocal cavity shows the interest of this approach

  5. High temperature dielectric properties of spent adsorbent with zinc sulfate by cavity perturbation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Guo [State Key Laboratory of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clean Utilization, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); Key Laboratory of Unconventional Metallurgy, Ministry of Education, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); Liu, Chenhui [State Key Laboratory of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clean Utilization, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); Key Laboratory of Unconventional Metallurgy, Ministry of Education, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); Faculty of Chemistry and Environment, Yunnan Minzu University, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); Zhang, Libo, E-mail: libozhang77@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clean Utilization, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); Key Laboratory of Unconventional Metallurgy, Ministry of Education, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); and others

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Cavity perturbation technique is employed to measure the dielectric properties. • Microwave absorption capability of ZnO is poor from 20 °C to 850 °C. • Dielectric properties of spent absorbent and zinc sulfate are influenced by temperature especially in high temperature stage. • Penetration depths and heating curve indicate spent adsorbent and ZnO·2ZnSO{sub 4}, ZnSO{sub 4} are excellent microwave absorber. • The pore structures of spent adsorbent are improved significantly by microwave-regeneration directly. - Abstract: Dielectric properties of spent adsorbent with zinc sulfate are investigated by cavity perturbation technique at 2450 MHz from 20 °C to approximately 1000 °C. Two weight loss stages are observed for spent adsorbent by thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimeter (TG-DSC) analysis, and zinc sulfate is decomposed to ZnO·2ZnSO{sub 4} and ZnO at about 750 °C and 860 °C. Microwave absorption capability of ZnSO{sub 4} increases with increasing temperature and declines after ZnO generation on account of the poor dielectric properties. Dielectric properties of spent adsorbent are dependent on apparent density and noticed an interestingly linearly relationship at room temperature. The three parameters increase gently from 20 °C to 400 °C, but a sharp increase both in real part and imaginary part are found subsequently due to the volatiles release and regeneration of carbon. And material conductivity is improved, which contributes to the π-electron conduction appearance. Relationship between penetration depth and temperature further elaborate spent adsorbent is an excellent microwave absorber and the microwave absorption capability order of zinc compounds is ZnO·2ZnSO{sub 4}, ZnSO{sub 4} and ZnO. Heating characteristics suggest that heating rate is related with dielectric properties of materials. The pore structures of spent adsorbent are improved significantly and the surface is smoother after microwave-regeneration.

  6. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SUPERCONDUCTING ACCELERATOR CAVITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrage, D.

    2000-01-01

    The static and dynamic structural behavior of superconducting cavities for various projects was determined by finite element structural analysis. The β = 0.61 cavity shape for the Neutron Science Project was studied in detail and found to meet all design requirements if fabricated from five millimeter thick material with a single annular stiffener. This 600 MHz cavity will have a Lorentz coefficient of minus1.8 Hz/(Mv/meter) 2 and a lowest structural resonance of more than 100 Hz. Cavities at β = 0.48, 0.61, and 0.77 were analyzed for a Neutron Science Project concept which would incorporate 7-cell cavities. The medium and high beta cavities were found to meet all criteria but it was not possible to generate a β = 0.48 cavity with a Lorentz coefficient of less than minus3 Hz/(Mv/meter) 2

  7. HOM Coupler Optimisation for the Superconducting RF Cavities in ESS

    CERN Document Server

    Ainsworth, R; Calaga, R

    2012-01-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) will be the world’s most powerful next generation neutron source. It consists of a linear accelerator, target, and instruments for neutron experiments. The linac is designed to accelerate protons to a final energy of 2.5 GeV, with an average design beam power of 5 MW, for collision with a target used to produce a high neutron flux. A section of the linac will contain Superconducting RF (SCRF) cavities designed at 704 MHz. Beam induced HOMs in these cavities may drive the beam unstable and increase the cryogenic load, therefore HOM couplers are installed to provide sufficient damping. Previous studies have shown that these couplers are susceptible to multipacting, a resonant process which can absorb RF power and lead to heating effects. This paper will show how a coupler suffering from multipacting has been redesigned to limit this effect. Optimisation of the RF damping is also discussed.

  8. Natural convection and wall radiation in tall cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balaji, C [Regional Engineering College, Tiruchirapalli (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Venkateshan, S P [Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-12-01

    The problem of combined natural convection and wall radiation in tall cavities has been taken up for a detailed numerical investigation. The governing equations for fluid flow have been solved by a finite volume method and the radiation has been treated by the radiosity-irradiation method. The analysis has been specifically made for the case where the emissivity of the hot left wall is different from that of the cold right wall. For this case it was found that decoupling radiation from free convection can lead to considerable error. Correlations have been suggested for predicting both the convective as well as the radiative heat transfer rates across the cavity. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Natural convection and wall radiation in tall cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaji, C.; Venkateshan, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    The problem of combined natural convection and wall radiation in tall cavities has been taken up for a detailed numerical investigation. The governing equations for fluid flow have been solved by a finite volume method and the radiation has been treated by the radiosity-irradiation method. The analysis has been specifically made for the case where the emissivity of the hot left wall is different from that of the cold right wall. For this case it was found that decoupling radiation from free convection can lead to considerable error. Correlations have been suggested for predicting both the convective as well as the radiative heat transfer rates across the cavity. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Surface Characterization of Impurities in Superconducting Niobium for Radio Frequency (RF) Cavities used in Particle Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Prateek

    Niobium (Nb) is the material of choice for Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Cavities used in particle accelerators owing to its high critical temperature (Tc = 9.2 K) and critical magnetic field (≈ 200mT). However, niobium tends to harbor interstitial impurities such as H, C, O and N, which are detrimental to cavity performance. Since the magnetic field penetration depth (lambda) of niobium is 40nm, it is important to characterize these impurities using surface characterization techniques. Also, it is known that certain heat treatments improve cavity efficiency via interstitial impurity removal from the surface of niobium. Thus, a systematic study on the effect of these heat treatments on the surface impurity levels is needed. In this work, surface analysis of both heat treated and non heat treated (120°C-1400°C) large grain (single crystal) bulk niobium samples was performed using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Impurity levels were compared on the surface using SIMS after various types of heat treatments expected to improve cavity performance, and the effect of these heat treatments on the surface impurities were examined. SIMS characterization of ion implanted standards of C, N, O, D showed that quantification of C, N and O impurities in Nb is achievable and indicated that H is very mobile in Nb. It was hence determined that quantification of H in Nb is not possible using SIMS due to its high diffusivity in Nb. However, a comparative study of the high temperature heat treated (600°C-1400°C) and non heat treated (control) samples revealed that hydrogen levels decreased by upto a factor of 100. This is attributed to the dissociation of the niobium surface oxide layer, which acts as a passivating film on the surface, and subsequent desorption of hydrogen. Reformation of this oxide layer on cool down disallows any re-absorption of hydrogen, indicating that the oxide acts as a surface barrier for

  11. Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in protein, vitamins, and minerals, such as meats, poultry, grains, and fresh fruits and vegetables, tend to ... treat dry socket? Antibiotics taken by mouth A dressing soaked with an anesthetic Codeine Ear drops to ...

  12. Heat pumps: heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pielke, R

    1976-01-01

    The author firstly explains in a general manner the functioning of the heat pump. Following a brief look at the future heat demand and the possibilities of covering it, the various methods of obtaining energy (making use of solar energy, ground heat, and others) and the practical applications (office heating, swimming pool heating etc.) are explained. The author still sees considerable difficulties in using the heat pump at present on a large scale. Firstly there is not enough maintenance personnel available, secondly the electricity supply undertakings cannot provide the necessary electricity on a wide basis without considerable investments. Other possibilities to save energy or to use waste energy are at present easier and more economical to realize. Recuperative and regenerative systems are described.

  13. Temperature Structure of a Coronal Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, T. A.; Gibson, S. E.; Schmit, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    we analyze the temperature structure of a coronal cavity observed in Aug. 2007. coronal cavities are long, low-density structures located over filament neutral lines and are often seen as dark elliptical features at the solar limb in white light, EUV and x-rays. when these structures erupt they form the cavity portions of CMEs. It is important to establish the temperature structure of cavities in order to understand the thermodynamics of cavities in relation to their three-dimensional magnetic structure. To analyze the temperature we compare temperature ratios of a series of iron lines observed by the Hinode/EUv Imaging spectrometer (EIS). We also use those lines to constrain a forward model of the emission from the cavity and streamer. The model assumes a coronal streamer with a tunnel-like cavity with elliptical cross-section and a Gaussian variation of height along the tunnel lenth. Temperature and density can be varied as a function of altitude both in the cavity and streamer. The general cavity morphology and the cavity and streamer density have already been modeled using data from STEREO's SECCHI/EUVI and Hinode/EIS (Gibson et al 2010 and Schmit & Gibson 2011).

  14. Numerical simulation of magnetic convection ferrofluid flow in a permanent magnet-inserted cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashouri, Majid; Behshad Shafii, Mohammad

    2017-11-01

    The magnetic convection heat transfer in an obstructed two-dimensional square cavity is investigated numerically. The walls of the cavity are heated with different constant temperatures at two sides, and isolated at two other sides. The cavity is filled with a high Prandtl number ferrofluid. The convective force is induced by a magnetic field gradient of a thermally insulated square permanent magnet located at the center of the cavity. The results are presented in the forms of streamlines, isotherms, and Nusselt number for various values of magnetic Rayleigh numbers and permanent magnet size. Two major circulations are generated in the cavity, clockwise flow in the upper half and counterclockwise in the lower half. In addition, strong circulations are observed around the edges of the permanent magnet surface. The strength of the circulations increase monotonically with the magnetic Rayleigh number. The circulations also increase with the permanent magnet size, but eventually, are suppressed for larger sizes. It is found that there is an optimum size for the permanent magnet due to the contrary effects of the increase in magnetic force and the increase in flow resistance by increasing the size. By increasing the magnetic Rayleigh number or isothermal walls temperature ratio, the heat transfer rate increases.

  15. Hybrid Vertical-Cavity Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides a light source (2) for light circuits on a silicon platform (3). A vertical laser cavity is formed by a gain region (101) arranged between a top mirror (4) and a bottom grating-mirror (12) in a grating region (11) in a silicon layer (10) on a substrate. A waveguide...... (18, 19) for receiving light from the grating region (11) is formed within or to be connected to the grating region, and functions as an 5 output coupler for the VCL. Thereby, vertical lasing modes (16) are coupled to lateral in-plane modes (17, 20) of the in-plane waveguide formed in the silicon...

  16. Cancer of the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Pablo H; Patel, Snehal G

    2015-07-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Although early diagnosis is relatively easy, presentation with advanced disease is not uncommon. The standard of care is primary surgical resection with or without postoperative adjuvant therapy. Improvements in surgical techniques combined with the routine use of postoperative radiation or chemoradiation therapy have resulted in improved survival. Successful treatment is predicated on multidisciplinary treatment strategies to maximize oncologic control and minimize impact of therapy on form and function. Prevention of oral cancer requires better education about lifestyle-related risk factors, and improved awareness and tools for early diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. RF cavity R and D at LBNL for the NLC Damping Rings, FY2000/2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimmer, R.A.; Atkinson, D.; Corlett, J.N.; Koehler, G.; Li, D.; Hartman, N.; Rasson, J.; Saleh, T.; Weidenbach, W.

    2001-01-01

    This report contains a summary of the R and D activities at LBNL on RF cavities for the NLC damping rings during fiscal years 2000/2001. This work is a continuation of the NLC RF system R and D of the previous year [1]. These activities include the further optimization and fine tuning of the RF cavity design for both efficiency and damping of higher-order modes (HOMs). The cavity wall surface heating and stresses were reduced at the same time as the HOM damping was improved over previous designs. Final frequency tuning was performed using the high frequency electromagnetic analysis capability in ANSYS. The mechanical design and fabrication methods have been developed with the goals of lower stresses, fewer parts and simpler assembly compared to previous designs. This should result in substantial cost savings. The cavity ancillary components including the RF window, coupling box, HOM loads, and tuners have been studied in more detail. Other cavity options are discussed which might be desirable to either further lower the HOM impedance or increase the stored energy for reduced transient response. Superconducting designs and the use of external ''energy storage'' cavities are discussed. A section is included in which the calculation method is summarized and its accuracy assessed by comparisons with the laboratory measurements of the PEP-II cavity, including errors, and with the beam-sampled spectrum

  18. Physical and mechanical metallurgy of high purity Nb for accelerator cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieler, T.R.; Wright, N.T.; Pourboghrat, F.; Compton, C.; Hartwig, K.T.; Baars, D.; Zamiri, A.; Chandrasekaran, S.; Darbandi, P.; Jiang, H.; Skoug, E.; Balachandran, S.; Ice, G.E.; Liu, W.

    2010-01-01

    In the past decade, high Q values have been achieved in high purity Nb superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. Fundamental understanding of the physical metallurgy of Nb that enables these achievements is beginning to reveal what challenges remain to establish reproducible and cost-effective production of high performance SRF cavities. Recent studies of dislocation substructure development and effects of recrystallization arising from welding and heat treatments and their correlations with cavity performance are considered. With better fundamental understanding of the effects of dislocation substructure evolution and recrystallization on electron and phonon conduction, as well as the interior and surface states, it will be possible to design optimal processing paths for cost-effective performance using approaches such as hydroforming, which minimizes or eliminates welds in a cavity.

  19. Physical and mechanical metallurgy of high purity Nb for accelerator cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Bieler

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, high Q values have been achieved in high purity Nb superconducting radio frequency (SRF cavities. Fundamental understanding of the physical metallurgy of Nb that enables these achievements is beginning to reveal what challenges remain to establish reproducible and cost-effective production of high performance SRF cavities. Recent studies of dislocation substructure development and effects of recrystallization arising from welding and heat treatments and their correlations with cavity performance are considered. With better fundamental understanding of the effects of dislocation substructure evolution and recrystallization on electron and phonon conduction, as well as the interior and surface states, it will be possible to design optimal processing paths for cost-effective performance using approaches such as hydroforming, which minimizes or eliminates welds in a cavity.

  20. Deactivation of nuclear explosions cavities in the salt domes by freezing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyashov, D.N.; Mokhov, V.A.; Murzadilov, T.D.

    1998-01-01

    I. There is a lot of negative consequences of underground nuclear explosions, conducted for creating some cavities of the gas condensate saving at the Azgir site and Karachaganak deposit. Some of them are radioactivity escape, ground pollution, underground water pollution, as result of depressurization and irrigation of cavities. Besides that there are dissolution of infected salt, displacement of brine from the cavities. Existing prolonged exchanges of rock-salt, brines and water can be accompanied by accumulation and throw outing of free chlorine and hydrogen with hydrochloric acid formation, ('white fog' of Azgir site). These questions demand supplementary researches. 2. It is known that more dangerous fission fragments are 9 0S r and 1 31C s, with half life periods equaled 27.7 and 30.3. Duration of their existence determines a period of an object danger. Radionuclide migration come with rock dispersion or with their concentration on the different physical, chemical, including sorptive, barriers on the way of radioactive water displacement. 3. The task of prevention of negative consequences is to save the forms and sizes of cavities, to immobilize the radioactive fluid's in the cavities and closed zone for the half-life time of the main nuclide mass. 4. Solving the task by laying of empty space with hard materials (concrete, rock) demand of big expenses because of cavities size, occurrence depth (850-900 m), high value of materials, their processing and transportation. The problem to render harmless and to utilize of displacing radioactive brines is not solved yet. 5, Freezing of flooding cavities appears to be an alternative, which allows to fill the space by hard ice and to less the moving of radioactive brines into the rocks around the cavities, and, what is more important, along the bore-holes above the cavities, blocking the radionuclides moving into the fractured rocks. This process divides onto 2 stages: (1) freezing with organizing of intensive heat

  1. Heat pipe heat storage performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, A; Pasquetti, R [Univ. de Provence, Marseille (FR). Inst. Universitaire des Systemes; Grakovich, L P; Vasiliev, L L [A.V. Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Inst. of the BSSR, Academy of Sciences, Minsk (BY)

    1989-01-01

    Heat storage offers essential thermal energy saving for heating. A ground heat store equipped with heat pipes connecting it with a heat source and to the user is considered in this paper. It has been shown that such a heat exchanging system along with a batch energy source meets, to a considerable extent, house heating requirements. (author).

  2. Assessment of thermal loads in the CERN SPS crab cavities cryomodule1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carra, F.; Apeland, J.; Calaga, R.; Capatina, O.; Capelli, T.; Verdú-Andrés, S.; Zanoni, C.

    2017-07-01

    As a part of the HL-LHC upgrade, a cryomodule is designed to host two crab cavities for a first test with protons in the SPS machine. The evaluation of the cryomodule heat loads is essential to dimension the cryogenic infrastructure of the system. The current design features two cryogenic circuits. The first circuit adopts superfluid helium at 2 K to maintain the cavities in the superconducting state. The second circuit, based on helium gas at a temperature between 50 K and 70 K, is connected to the thermal screen, also serving as heat intercept for all the interfaces between the cold mass and the external environment. An overview of the heat loads to both circuits, and the combined numerical and analytical estimations, is presented. The heat load of each element is detailed for the static and dynamic scenarios, with considerations on the design choices for the thermal optimization of the most critical components.

  3. Cantilever piezoelectric energy harvester with multiple cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S Srinivasulu Raju; M Umapathy; G Uma

    2015-01-01

    Energy harvesting employing piezoelectric materials in mechanical structures such as cantilever beams, plates, diaphragms, etc, has been an emerging area of research in recent years. The research in this area is also focused on structural tailoring to improve the harvested power from the energy harvesters. Towards this aim, this paper presents a method for improving the harvested power from a cantilever piezoelectric energy harvester by introducing multiple rectangular cavities. A generalized model for a piezoelectric energy harvester with multiple rectangular cavities at a single section and two sections is developed. A method is suggested to optimize the thickness of the cavities and the number of cavities required to generate a higher output voltage for a given cantilever beam structure. The performance of the optimized energy harvesters is evaluated analytically and through experimentation. The simulation and experimental results show that the performance of the energy harvester can be increased with multiple cavities compared to the harvester with a single cavity. (paper)

  4. Mounting system for optical frequency reference cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notcutt, Mark (Inventor); Hall, John L. (Inventor); Ma, Long-Sheng (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A technique for reducing the vibration sensitivity of laser-stabilizing optical reference cavities is based upon an improved design and mounting method for the cavity, wherein the cavity is mounted vertically. It is suspended at one plane, around the spacer cylinder, equidistant from the mirror ends of the cavity. The suspension element is a collar of an extremely low thermal expansion coefficient material, which surrounds the spacer cylinder and contacts it uniformly. Once the collar has been properly located, it is cemented in place so that the spacer cylinder is uniformly supported and does not have to be squeezed at all. The collar also includes a number of cavities partially bored into its lower flat surface, around the axial bore. These cavities are support points, into which mounting base pins will be inserted. Hence the collar is supported at a minimum of three points.

  5. Esthesioneuroblastoma of the nasal cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollen, Tyler R; Morris, Christopher G; Kirwan, Jessica M; Amdur, Robert J; Werning, John W; Vaysberg, Mikhail; Mendenhall, William M

    2015-06-01

    Esthesioneuroblastoma is an uncommon cancer of the nasal cavity. We describe the outcomes for 26 patients treated with curative intent with photon radiotherapy (RT) at the University of Florida. Between May 1972 and June 2007, 26 patients received RT for previously untreated esthesioneuroblastoma of the nasal cavity. Sixteen patients were males and 10 were females with a median age of 55 years (range, 3 to 82 y). The modified Kadish stage distribution was: B, 7 patients; C, 17 patients; and D, 2 patients. Treatment modalities included the following: definitive RT, 5 patients; preoperative RT, 2 patients; and postoperative RT after resection, 19 patients. Elective neck irradiation (ENI) was performed in 17 (71%) of 24 N0 patients. Rates of local control, cause-specific survival, and absolute overall survival at 5 years were 79%, 72%, and 69%, respectively. Overall survival among patients treated with definitive RT was 20% at 5 years, compared with 81% among those who underwent surgery and adjuvant RT (P=0.01). One (6%) of 17 patients who received ENI developed a recurrence in the neck and was successfully salvaged. Ultimate neck control was 100% at 5 years for patients who received ENI versus 69% among those not receiving ENI (P=0.0173). Resection combined with adjuvant RT is more effective than surgery or RT alone in the treatment of esthesioneuroblastoma. ENI reduces the risk of regional relapse in patients with Kadish stage B and C cancers.

  6. Ice-water convection in an inclined rectangular cavity filled with a porous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X. (Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal (Canada)); Kahawita, R. (Dept. of Civil Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal (Canada))

    1994-10-01

    This paper reports on the results of a numerical study on the equilibrium state of the convection of water in the presence of ice in an inclined rectangular cavity filled with a porous medium. One side of the cavity is maintained at a temperature higher than the fusion temperature while the opposite side is cooled to a temperature lower than the fusion temperature. The two remaining sides are insulated. Results are analysed in terms of the density inversion parameter, the tilt angle, and the cooling temperature. It appears that the phenomenon of density inversion plays an important role in the equilibrium of an ice-water system when the heating temperature is below 20 . In a vertical cavity, the density inversion causes the formation of two counter-rotating vortices leading to a water volume which is wider at the bottom than at the top. When the cavity is inclined, there exist two branches of solutions which exhibit the bottom heating and the side heating characteristics, respectively (the Benard and side heating branches). Due to the inversion of density, the solution on the Benard branch may fail to converge to a steady state at small tilt angles and exhibits an oscillating behavior. On the side heating branch, a maximum heat transfer rate is obtained at a tilt angle of about 70 but the water volume was found to depend very weakly on the inclination of the cavity. Under the effect of subcooling, the interplay between conduction in the solid phase and convection in the liquid leads to an equilibrium ice-water interface which is most distorted at some intermediate cooling temperature. (orig.)

  7. Computation of coupled surface radiation and natural convection in an inclined form cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amraqui, Samir; Mezrhab, Ahmed; Abid, Cherifa

    2011-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with computation of the radiation-natural convection interactions in an inclined form cavity. The cavity contains two symmetrically identical isothermal blocks and is vented by two opening located in a vertical median axis at the top and the bottom parts of the cavity. Calculations are made by using a finite volume method and an efficient numerical procedure is introduced for calculating the view factors, with shadow effects included. Effects of Rayleigh number Ra and inclination angle φ are investigated for Pr = 0.71 in presence and in absence of the radiation exchange. Results are reported in terms of isotherms, streamlines, local and average Nusselt numbers and mass flow rate. In light of the obtained results, we can conclude that the heat transfer decreases with increasing φ. In addition, the increase of Ra and the taking into account of the radiation exchange produce a considerable increase in the heat transfer.

  8. Mini-cavity plasma core reactors for dual-mode space nuclear power/propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, S.

    1976-01-01

    A mini-cavity plasma core reactor is investigated for potential use in a dual-mode space power and propulsion system. In the propulsive mode, hydrogen propellant is injected radially inward through the reactor solid regions and into the cavity. The propellant is heated by both solid driver fuel elements surrounding the cavity and uranium plasma before it is exhausted out the nozzle. The propellant only removes a fraction of the driver power, the remainder is transferred by a coolant fluid to a power conversion system, which incorporates a radiator for heat rejection. In the power generation mode, the plasma and propellant flows are shut off, and the driver elements supply thermal power to the power conversion system, which generates electricity for primary electric propulsion purposes

  9. Thermal Stress of Surface of Mold Cavities and Parting Line of Silicone Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajčičák Martin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the study of thermal stress of surface of mold cavities and parting line of silicone molds after pouring. The silicone mold White SD - THT was thermally stressed by pouring of ZnAl4Cu3 zinc alloy with pouring cycle 20, 30 and 40 seconds. The most thermally stressed part of surface at each pouring cycle is gating system and mold cavities. It could be further concluded that linear increase of the pouring cycle time leads to the exponential increasing of the maximum temperature of mold surface after its cooling. The elongated pouring cycle increases the temperature accumulated on the surface of cavities and the ability of silicone mold to conduct the heat on its surface decreases, because the low thermal conductivity of silicone molds enables the conduction of larger amount of heat into ambient environment.

  10. Modeling and simulation of a molten salt cavity receiver with Dymola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Li, Xin; Wang, Zhifeng; Zhang, Jinbai; El-Hefni, Baligh; Xu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Molten salt receivers play an important role in converting solar energy to thermal energy in concentrating solar power plants. This paper describes a dynamic mathematical model of the molten salt cavity receiver that couples the conduction, convection and radiation heat transfer processes in the receiver. The temperature dependence of the material properties is also considered. The radiosity method is used to calculate the radiation heat transfer inside the cavity. The outlet temperature of the receiver is calculated for 11 sets of transient working conditions. The simulation results compare well with experimental data, thus the model can be further used in system simulations of entire power plants. - Highlights: • A detailed model for molten salt cavity receiver is presented. • The model couples the conduction, convection and thermal radiation. • The simulation results compare well with experimental data. • The model can be further used for many purposes.

  11. Heat transfer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Heat transfer. Heat conduction in solid slab. Convective heat transfer. Non-linear temperature. variation due to flow. HEAT FLUX AT SURFACE. conduction/diffusion.

  12. Heat Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and spasms due ... that the body is having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - ...

  13. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  14. Design of 325 MHz spoke cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha Peng; Huang Hong; Dai Jianping; Zu Guoquan; Li Han

    2012-01-01

    Spoke cavity can be used in the low-energy section of the proton accelerator. It has many significant advantages: compact structure, high value of R/Q, etc. The ADS (Accelerator Driven System) project will adopt many spoke cavities with different β values. Therefore, IHEP has began the research of β=0.14, 325 MHz spoke cavity. In this pa per, the dimensions, RF performances and mechanical properties of it are studied. (authors)

  15. A superconducting test cavity for DORIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, W.; Brandelik, A.; Lekmann, W.; Szecsi, L.

    1978-03-01

    A summary of experimental goals, technical requirements and possible solutions for the construction of a superconducting accelerating cavity to be tested at DORIS is given. The aim of the experiment is to prove the applicability of superconducting cavities in storage rings and to study the problems typical for this application. The paper collects design considerations about cavity geometry and fabrication, input coupling, output coupling for higher modes, tuner, cryostat and controls. (orig.) [de

  16. Dither Cavity Length Controller with Iodine Locking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawson Marty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A cavity length controller for a seeded Q-switched frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser is constructed. The cavity length controller uses a piezo-mirror dither voltage to find the optimum length for the seeded cavity. The piezo-mirror dither also dithers the optical frequency of the output pulse. [1]. This dither in optical frequency is then used to lock to an Iodine absorption line.

  17. Optical microfiber-based photonic crystal cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yang; Sun, Yi-zhi; Li, Zhi-yuan; Ding, Wei; Andrews, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Using a focused ion beam milling technique, we fabricate broad stop band (∼10% wide) photonic crystal (PhC) cavities in adiabatically-tapered silica fibers. Abrupt structural design of PhC mirrors efficiently reduces radiation loss, increasing the cavity finesse to ∼7.5. Further experiments and simulations verify that the remaining loss is mainly due to Ga ion implantation. Such a microfiber PhC cavity probably has potentials in many light-matter interaction applications. (paper)

  18. Dendritic cells pulsed with Pythium insidiosum (1,3)(1,6)-β-glucan, Heat-inactivated zoospores and immunotherapy prime naïve T cells to Th1 differentiation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledur, Pauline C; Tondolo, Juliana S M; Jesus, Francielli P K; Verdi, Camila M; Loreto, Érico S; Alves, Sydney H; Santurio, Janio M

    2018-03-01

    Pythiosis is a life-threatening disease caused by the fungus-like microorganism Pythium insidiosum that can lead to death if not treated. Since P. insidiosum has particular cell wall characteristics, pythiosis is difficult to treat, as it does not respond well to traditional antifungal drugs. In our study, we investigated a new immunotherapeutic approach with potential use in treatment and in the acquisition of immunity against pythiosis. Dendritic cells from both human and mouse, pulsed with P. insidiosum heat-inactivated zoospore, (1,3)(1,6)-β-glucan and the immunotherapeutic PitiumVac ® efficiently induced naïve T cell differentiation in a Th1 phenotype by the activation of specific Th1 cytokine production in vitro. Heat-inactivated zoospores showed the greatest Th1 response among the tested groups, with a significant increase in IL-6 and IFN-γ production in human cells. In mice cells, we also observed a Th17 pathway induction, with an increase on the IL-17A levels in lymphocytes cultured with β-glucan pulsed DCs. These results suggest a potential use of DCs pulsed with P. insidiosum antigens as a new therapeutic strategy in the treatment and acquisition of immunity against pythiosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Analytical and numerical study of New field emitter processing for superconducting cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Vladimir; Petrov, Victor

    2018-02-01

    In this article a scientific prove for a new technology to maximize the accelerating gradient in superconducting cavities by processing on higher order mode frequencies is presented. As dominant energy source the heating of field emitters by an induced rf current (rf-heating) is considered. The field emitter structure is assumed to be a chain of conductive particles, which are formed by attractive forces.

  20. Superconducting cavity driving with FPGA controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarski, Tomasz; Koprek, Waldemar; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Simrock, Stefan; Brandt, Alexander; Chase, Brian; Carcagno, Ruben; Cancelo, Gustavo; Koeth, Timothy W.

    2006-01-01

    A digital control of superconducting cavities for a linear accelerator is presented. FPGA-based controller, supported by Matlab system, was applied. Electrical model of a resonator was used for design of a control system. Calibration of the signal path is considered. Identification of cavity parameters has been carried out for adaptive control algorithm. Feed-forward and feedback modes were applied in operating the cavities. Required performance has been achieved; i.e. driving on resonance during filling and field stabilization during flattop time, while keeping reasonable level of the power consumption. Representative results of the experiments are presented for different levels of the cavity field gradient

  1. Optically coupled cavities for wavelength switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costazo-Caso, Pablo A; Granieri, Sergio; Siahmakoun, Azad, E-mail: pcostanzo@ing.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: granieri@rose-hulman.edu, E-mail: siahmako@rose-hulman.edu [Department of Physics and Optical Engineering, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, 5500 Wabash Avenue, Terre Haute, IN 47803 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    An optical bistable device which presents hysteresis behavior is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The system finds applications in wavelength switching, pulse reshaping and optical bistability. It is based on two optically coupled cavities named master and slave. Each cavity includes a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA), acting as the gain medium of the laser, and two pair of fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) which define the lasing wavelength (being different in each cavity). Finally, a variable optical coupler (VOC) is employed to couple both cavities. Experimental characterization of the system performance is made analyzing the effects of the coupling coefficient between the two cavities and the driving current in each SOA. The properties of the hysteretic bistable curve and switching can be controlled by adjusting these parameters and the loss in the cavities. By selecting the output wavelength ({lambda}{sub 1} or {lambda}{sub 2}) with an external filter it is possible to choose either the invert or non-invert switched signal. Experiments were developed employing both optical discrete components and a photonic integrated circuit. They show that for 8 m-long cavities the maximum switching frequency is about 500 KHz, and for 4 m-long cavities a minimum rise-time about 21 ns was measured. The switching time can be reduced by shortening the cavity lengths and using photonic integrated circuits.

  2. LARGE-SCALE FLOWS IN PROMINENCE CAVITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmit, D. J.; Gibson, S. E.; Tomczyk, S.; Reeves, K. K.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Brooks, D. H.; Williams, D. R.; Tripathi, D.

    2009-01-01

    Regions of rarefied density often form cavities above quiescent prominences. We observed two different cavities with the Coronal Multichannel Polarimeter on 2005 April 21 and with Hinode/EIS on 2008 November 8. Inside both of these cavities, we find coherent velocity structures based on spectral Doppler shifts. These flows have speeds of 5-10 km s -1 , occur over length scales of tens of megameters, and persist for at least 1 hr. Flows in cavities are an example of the nonstatic nature of quiescent structures in the solar atmosphere.

  3. Fluid Density and Impact Cavity Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ga-Chun Lin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of the impact cavity formed when a steel ball is dropped into aqueous solutions of densities ranging from 0.98 g·cm-3 to 1.63 g·cm-3 were investigated. A high-speed camera was used to record the formation and collapse of the cavity. The results showed cavity diameter, volume, and pinch-off time are independent of fluid density, on average. There was an unexplained reduction in cavity formation for densities of 1.34 g·cm-3 and 1.45 g·cm-3.

  4. Analysis of fluid-solid interaction in MHD natural convection in a square cavity equally partitioned by a vertical flexible membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehryan, S.A.M.; Ghalambaz, Mohammad; Ismael, Muneer A.; Chamkha, Ali J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates numerically the problem of unsteady natural convection inside a square cavity partitioned by a flexible impermeable membrane. The finite element method with the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) technique has been used to model the interaction of the fluid and the membrane. The horizontal walls of the cavity are kept adiabatic while the vertical walls are kept isothermal at different temperatures. A uniform magnetic field is applied onto the cavity with different orientations. The cavity has been provided by two eyelets to compensate volume changes due the movement of the flexible membrane. A parametric study is carried out for the pertinent parameters, which are the Rayleigh number (10"5–10"8), Hartmann number (0–200) and the orientation of the magnetic field (0–180°). The change in the Hartmann number affects the shape of the membrane and the heat transfer in the cavity. The angle of the magnetic field orientation also significantly affects the shape of the membrane and the heat transfer in the cavity. - Highlights: • Magnetohydrodynamics heat transfer in a partitioned cavity is studied. • There is a flexible membrane in the cavity. • The membrane is modeled using fluid-solid structure interaction. • A moving grid formulation based on ALE is adopted. • The effect of the magnetic field on the natural convection heat transfer is examined.

  5. Analysis of fluid-solid interaction in MHD natural convection in a square cavity equally partitioned by a vertical flexible membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehryan, S.A.M., E-mail: a.mansuri1366@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dezful Branch, Islamic Azad University, Dezful (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghalambaz, Mohammad, E-mail: m.ghalambaz@iaud.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dezful Branch, Islamic Azad University, Dezful (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ismael, Muneer A., E-mail: muneerismael@yahoo.com [Mechanical Engineering Department, Engineering College, University of Basrah, Basrah (Iraq); Chamkha, Ali J., E-mail: achamkha@pmu.edu.sa [Mechanical Engineering Department, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Al-Khobar 31952 (Saudi Arabia); Prince Sultan Endowment for Energy and Environment, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Al-Khobar 31952 (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-02-15

    This paper investigates numerically the problem of unsteady natural convection inside a square cavity partitioned by a flexible impermeable membrane. The finite element method with the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) technique has been used to model the interaction of the fluid and the membrane. The horizontal walls of the cavity are kept adiabatic while the vertical walls are kept isothermal at different temperatures. A uniform magnetic field is applied onto the cavity with different orientations. The cavity has been provided by two eyelets to compensate volume changes due the movement of the flexible membrane. A parametric study is carried out for the pertinent parameters, which are the Rayleigh number (10{sup 5}–10{sup 8}), Hartmann number (0–200) and the orientation of the magnetic field (0–180°). The change in the Hartmann number affects the shape of the membrane and the heat transfer in the cavity. The angle of the magnetic field orientation also significantly affects the shape of the membrane and the heat transfer in the cavity. - Highlights: • Magnetohydrodynamics heat transfer in a partitioned cavity is studied. • There is a flexible membrane in the cavity. • The membrane is modeled using fluid-solid structure interaction. • A moving grid formulation based on ALE is adopted. • The effect of the magnetic field on the natural convection heat transfer is examined.

  6. Lipid droplet detection by the cavity perturbation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakey, R T; Mason, A; Al-Shamma' a, A I [School of Built Environment, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Rolph, C E [School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Bond, G, E-mail: r.t.blakey@2010.ljmu.ac.uk [School of Forensic and Investigative Sciences, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-17

    There are currently no point-of-care diagnosis strategies available to indicate the presence of neoplasmic growth. This research aims to develop a novel diagnostic strategy based on detecting TAG accumulation in cells. This element of the research is a preliminary experiment to prove the concept of detecting TAG lipid droplets in YEPD media. It was found that a change in mono-unsaturated concentration can be detected by the frequency shift in a resonant cavity. The dielectric constant of TAG vegetable oils was calculated at 2.34-2.39. It was also found that concentrations of lipid droplet can be differentiated up to 5% (v/v).

  7. Numerical investigations on the performance of external-cavity mode-locked semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulet, Josep; Mørk, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    The performance of an external-cavity mode-locked semiconductor laser is analyzed theoretically and numerically. Passive mode-locking is described using a fully-distributed time-domain model including fast effects, spectral hole burning and carrier heating. We provide optimization rules in order ...

  8. Thermal tuning of a silicon photonic crystal cavity infilled with an elastomer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erdamar, A.K.; Van Leest, M.M.; Picken, S.J.; Caro, J.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal tuning of the transmission of an elastomer infilled photonic crystal cavity is studied. An elastomer has a thermal expansion-induced negative thermo-optic coefficient that leads to a strong decrease of the refractive index upon heating. This property makes elastomer highly suitable for

  9. Cavity Control and Panel Control Strategies in Double-Panel Structures for Transmitted Noise Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.; Kalverboer, J.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2012-01-01

    Investigation and comparisons of the cavity control and the panel control in a double-panel structure are presented in this paper. The double-panel structure, which comprises two panels with air in the gap, provides the advantages of low sound-transmission at high frequency, low heat-transmission

  10. Proteomic analysis reveals differential accumulation of small heat shock proteins and late embryogenesis abundant proteins between ABA-deficient mutant vp5 seeds and wild-type Vp5 seeds in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin eWu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABA is a major plant hormone that plays important roles during many phases of plant life cycle, including seed development, maturity and dormancy, and especially the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. Understanding of the molecular basis of ABA-mediated plant response to stress is of interest not only in basic research on plant adaptation but also in applied research on plant productivity. Maize mutant viviparous-5 (vp5, deficient in ABA biosynthesis in seeds, is a useful material for studying ABA-mediated response in maize. Due to carotenoid deficiency, vp5 endosperm is white, compared to yellow Vp5 endosperm. However, the background difference at proteome level between vp5 and Vp5 seeds is unclear. This study aimed to characterize proteome alterations of maize vp5 seeds and to identify ABA-dependent proteins during seed maturation. We compared the embryo and endosperm proteomes of vp5 and Vp5 seeds by gel-based proteomics. Up to 46 protein spots, most in embryos, were found to be differentially accumulated between vp5 and Vp5. The identified proteins included small heat shock proteins (sHSPs, late embryogenesis abundant (LEA proteins, stress proteins, storage proteins and enzymes among others. However, EMB564, the most abundant LEA protein in maize embryo, accumulated in comparable levels between vp5 and Vp5 embryos, which contrasted to previously characterized, greatly lowered expression of emb564 mRNA in vp5 embryos. Moreover, LEA proteins and sHSPs displayed differential accumulations in vp5 embryos: six out of eight identified LEA proteins decreased while nine sHSPs increased in abundance. Finally, we discussed the possible causes of global proteome alterations, especially the observed differential accumulation of identified LEA proteins and sHSPs in vp5 embryos. The data derived from this study provides new insight into ABA-dependent proteins and ABA-mediated response during maize seed maturation.

  11. Second Sound for Heat Source Localization

    CERN Document Server

    Vennekate, Hannes; Uhrmacher, Michael; Quadt, Arnulf; Grosse-Knetter, Joern

    2011-01-01

    Defects on the surface of superconducting cavities can limit their accelerating gradient by localized heating. This results in a phase transition to the normal conduction state | a quench. A new application, involving Oscillating Superleak Transducers (OST) to locate such quench inducing heat spots on the surface of the cavities, has been developed by D. Hartill et al. at Cornell University in 2008. The OSTs enable the detection of heat transfer via second sound in super uid helium. This thesis presents new results on the analysis of their signal. Its behavior has been studied for dierent circumstances at setups at the University of Gottingen and at CERN. New approaches for an automated signal processing have been developed. Furthermore, a rst test setup for a single-cell Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) cavity has been prepared. Recommendations of a better signal retrieving for its operation are presented.

  12. Electromagnetic and mechanical design of gridded radio-frequency cavity windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsharo' a, Mohammad M. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Electromagnetic, thermal and structural analyses of radio-frequency (RF) cavities were performed as part of a developmental RF cavity program for muon cooling. RF cavities are necessary to provide longitudinal focusing of the muons and to compensate for their energy loss. Closing the cavity ends by electrically conducting windows reduces the power requirement and increases the on-axis electric field for a given maximum surface electric field. Many factors must be considered in the design of RF cavity windows. RF heating can cause the windows to deform in the axial direction of the cavity. The resulting thermal stresses in the window must be maintained below the yield stress of the window material. The out-of-plane deflection must be small enough so that the consequent frequency shift is tolerable. For example, for an 805 MHz cavity, the out-of-plane deflection must be kept below 25 microns to prevent the frequency of the cavity from shifting more than 10 kHz. In addition, the window design should yield smooth electric and magnetic fields, terminate field leakage beyond the window, and minimize beam scattering. In the present thesis, gridded-tube window designs were considered because of their high structural integrity. As a starting point in the analysis, a cylindrical pillbox cavity was considered as a benchmark problem. Analytical and finite element solutions were obtained for the electric and magnetic fields, power loss density, and temperature profile. Excellent agreement was obtained between the analytical and finite element results. The finite element method was then used to study a variety of gridded-tube windows. It was found that cooling of the gridded-tube windows by passing helium gas inside the tubes significantly reduces the out-of-plane deflection and the thermal stresses. Certain tube geometries and grid patterns were found to satisfy all of the design requirements.

  13. Development of a cryostat for the 4-cell 352 MHz sc accelerating cavities at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stierlin, R.

    1988-01-01

    The upgrading of LEP by s.c. cavities will require installation and operation of a few hundred 350 MHz, 4-cell cavities in the accelerator tunnel. It is at present anticipated to install eight cavities per rf-cell which have a length of ∼ 24 m. A tunnel slope of up to 1.5% and a tunnel diameter of 4.4 m have to be accommodated. For the design of adequate cryostats the following guiding lines were considered: up to eight cavities with their He tank could be housed in a common insulation vacuum. Cryostats should be modular and allow installation of individual cavities or groups of two cavities (with a total length not exceeding 6 m thus enabling normal transport inside the access pits and machine tunnel). A high accessibility to all critical parts like couplers, tuners and beam tube connections should be guaranteed. This requirement dictates a lateral access through the vacuum tank and thermal radiation shield which should also permit the removal and replacement of any one 4-cell cavity without disturbing the neighboring units. Cavity connections to the beam vacuum system as well as repairs should be possible under reasonably clean and dust-free conditions, particularly when keeping cavities under a slight overpressure of dry, dust-free protective gas. A test program was launched and a 1/5 scale model vacuum tank was constructed and tested. The main feature of this model was a frame and sealing skin design which offers complete accessibility to the inside of the vessel. The results obtained prompted the design and construction of a full size model which was completed in 1985 and proved the feasibility of the new concepts. A thin copper radiation shield mechanically clamped to the piping carrying the refrigerant and thus easily removable to meet the requirement of accessibility also proved adequate to intercept and evacuate the heat radiated by the vacuum tank. 4 references, 6 figures

  14. Optothermal transport behavior in whispering gallery mode optical cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltani, Soheil [Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering-Electrophysics, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Armani, Andrea M., E-mail: armani@usc.edu [Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering-Electrophysics, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

    2014-08-04

    Over the past century, whispering gallery mode optical cavities have enabled numerous advances in science and engineering, such as discoveries in quantum mechanics and non-linear optics, as well as the development of optical gyroscopes and add drop filters. One reason for their widespread appeal is their ability to confine light for long periods of time, resulting in high circulating intensities. However, when sufficiently large amounts of optical power are coupled into these cavities, they begin to experience optothermal or photothermal behavior, in which the optical energy is converted into heat. Above the optothermal threshold, the resonance behavior is no longer solely defined by electromagnetics. Previous work has primarily focused on the role of the optothermal coefficient of the material in this instability. However, the physics of this optothermal behavior is significantly more complex. In the present work, we develop a predictive theory based on a generalizable analytical expression in combination with a geometry-specific COMSOL Multiphysics finite element method model. The simulation couples the optical and thermal physics components, accounting for geometry variations as well as the temporal and spatial profile of the optical field. To experimentally verify our theoretical model, the optothermal thresholds of a series of silica toroidal resonant cavities are characterized at different wavelengths (visible through near-infrared) and using different device geometries. The silica toroid offers a particularly rigorous case study for the developed optothermal model because of its complex geometrical structure which provides multiple thermal transport paths.

  15. Hydrodynamic Drag on Streamlined Projectiles and Cavities

    KAUST Repository

    Jetly, Aditya

    2016-04-19

    The air cavity formation resulting from the water-entry of solid objects has been the subject of extensive research due to its application in various fields such as biology, marine vehicles, sports and oil and gas industries. Recently we demonstrated that at certain conditions following the closing of the air cavity formed by the initial impact of a superhydrophobic sphere on a free water surface a stable streamlined shape air cavity can remain attached to the sphere. The formation of superhydrophobic sphere and attached air cavity reaches a steady state during the free fall. In this thesis we further explore this novel phenomenon to quantify the drag on streamlined shape cavities. The drag on the sphere-cavity formation is then compared with the drag on solid projectile which were designed to have self-similar shape to that of the cavity. The solid projectiles of adjustable weight were produced using 3D printing technique. In a set of experiments on the free fall of projectile we determined the variation of projectiles drag coefficient as a function of the projectiles length to diameter ratio and the projectiles specific weight, covering a range of intermediate Reynolds number, Re ~ 104 – 105 which are characteristic for our streamlined cavity experiments. Parallel free fall experiment with sphere attached streamlined air cavity and projectile of the same shape and effective weight clearly demonstrated the drag reduction effect due to the stress-free boundary condition at cavity liquid interface. The streamlined cavity experiments can be used as the upper bound estimate of the drag reduction by air layers naturally sustained on superhydrophobic surfaces in contact with water. In the final part of the thesis we design an experiment to test the drag reduction capacity of robust superhydrophobic coatings deposited on the surface of various model vessels.

  16. Superconducting cavities developments efforts at RRCAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puntambekar, A.; Bagre, M.; Dwivedi, J.; Shrivastava, P.; Mundra, G.; Joshi, S.C.; Potukuchi, P.N.

    2011-01-01

    Superconducting RE cavities are the work-horse for many existing and proposed linear accelerators. Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) has initiated a comprehensive R and D program for development of Superconducting RF cavities suitable for high energy accelerator application like SNS and ADS. For the initial phase of technology demonstration several prototype 1.3 GHz single cell-cavities have been developed. The work began with development of prototype single cell cavities in aluminum and copper. This helped in development of cavity manufacturing process, proving various tooling and learning on various mechanical and RF qualification processes. The parts manufacturing was done at RRCAT and Electron beam welding was carried out at Indian industry. These cavities further served during commissioning trials for various cavity processing infrastructure being developed at RRCAT and are also a potential candidate for Niobium thin film deposition R and D. Based on the above experience, few single cell cavities were developed in fine grain niobium. The critical technology of forming and machining of niobium and the intermediate RF qualification were developed at RRCAT. The EB welding of bulk niobium cavities was carried out in collaboration with IUAC, New Delhi at their facility. As a next logical step efforts are now on for development of multicell cavities. The prototype dumbbells and end group made of aluminium, comprising of RF and HOM couplers ports have also been developed, with their LB welding done at Indian industry. In this paper we shall present the development efforts towards manufacturing of 1.3 GHz single cell cavities and their initial processing and qualification. (author)

  17. Auxiliary-cavity-assisted ground-state cooling of an optically levitated nanosphere in the unresolved-sideband regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jin-Shan; Tan, Lei; Gu, Huai-Qiang; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2017-12-01

    We theoretically analyze the ground-state cooling of an optically levitated nanosphere in the unresolved-sideband regime by introducing a coupled high-quality-factor cavity. On account of the quantum interference stemming from the presence of the coupled cavity, the spectral density of the optical force exerting on the nanosphere gets changed and then the symmetry between the heating and the cooling processes is broken. Through adjusting the detuning of a strong-dissipative cavity mode, one obtains an enhanced net cooling rate for the nanosphere. It is illustrated that the ground-state cooling can be realized in the unresolved sideband regime even if the effective optomechanical coupling is weaker than the frequency of the nanosphere, which can be understood by the picture that the effective interplay of the nanosphere and the auxiliary cavity mode brings the system back to an effective resolved regime. Besides, the coupled cavity refines the dynamical stability of the system.

  18. Modeling the Rapid Boil-Off of a Cryogenic Liquid When Injected into a Low Pressure Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Many launch vehicle cryogenic applications require the modeling of injecting a cryogenic liquid into a low pressure cavity. The difficulty of such analyses lies in accurately predicting the heat transfer coefficient between the cold liquid and a warm wall in a low pressure environment. The heat transfer coefficient and the behavior of the liquid is highly dependent on the mass flow rate into the cavity, the cavity wall temperature and the cavity volume. Testing was performed to correlate the modeling performed using Thermal Desktop and Sinda Fluint Thermal and Fluids Analysis Software. This presentation shall describe a methodology to model the cryogenic process using Sinda Fluint, a description of the cryogenic test set up, a description of the test procedure and how the model was correlated to match the test results.

  19. Geophysical observations at cavity collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousset, Philippe; Bazargan-Sabet, Behrooz; Lebert, François; Bernardie, Séverine; Gourry, Jean-Christophe

    2010-05-01

    In Lorraine region (France) salt layers at about 200 meters depth are exploited by Solvay using solution mining methodology which consists in extracting the salt by dissolution, collapsing the cavern overburden during the exploitation phase and finally reclaiming the landscape by creating a water area. In this process, one of the main challenges for the exploiting company is to control the initial 120-m diameter collapse so as to minimize possible damages. In order to detect potential precursors and understand processes associated with such collapses, a wide series of monitoring techniques including micro seismics, broad-band seismology, hydro-acoustic, electromagnetism, gas probing, automatic leveling, continuous GPS, continuous gravity and borehole extensometry was set-up in the frame of an in-situ study carried out by the "Research Group for the Impact and Safety of Underground Works" (GISOS, France). Equipments were set-up well before the final collapse, giving a unique opportunity to analyze a great deal of information prior to and during the collapse process which has been successfully achieved on February the 13th, 2009 by controlling the cavity internal pressure. In this work, we present the results of data recorded by a network of 3 broadband seismometers, 2 accelerometers, 2 tilt-meters and a continuously gravity meter. We relate the variations of the brine pumping rate with the evolutions of the induced geophysical signals and finally we propose a first mechanical model for describing the controlled collapse. Beyond the studied case, extrapolation of the results obtained might contribute to the understanding of uncontrolled cavity collapses, such as pit-craters or calderas at volcanoes.

  20. Nonlinear differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresner, L.

    1988-01-01

    This report is the text of a graduate course on nonlinear differential equations given by the author at the University of Wisconsin-Madison during the summer of 1987. The topics covered are: direction fields of first-order differential equations; the Lie (group) theory of ordinary differential equations; similarity solutions of second-order partial differential equations; maximum principles and differential inequalities; monotone operators and iteration; complementary variational principles; and stability of numerical methods. The report should be of interest to graduate students, faculty, and practicing scientists and engineers. No prior knowledge is required beyond a good working knowledge of the calculus. The emphasis is on practical results. Most of the illustrative examples are taken from the fields of nonlinear diffusion, heat and mass transfer, applied superconductivity, and helium cryogenics.