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Sample records for differentially affecting metal

  1. Dextromethorphan differentially affects opioid antinociception in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiou-Lan; Huang, Eagle Yi-Kung; Chow, Lok-Hi; Tao, Pao-Luh

    2005-01-01

    Opioid drugs such as morphine and meperidine are widely used in clinical pain management, although they can cause some adverse effects. A number of studies indicate that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors may play a role in the mechanism of morphine analgesia, tolerance and dependence. Being an antitussive with NMDA antagonist properties, dextromethorphan (DM) may have some therapeutic benefits when coadministered with morphine. In the present study, we investigated the effects of DM on the antinociceptive effects of different opioids. We also investigated the possible pharmacokinetic mechanisms involved. The antinociceptive effects of the μ-opioid receptor agonists morphine (5 mg kg−1, s.c.), meperidine (25 mg kg−1, s.c.) and codeine (25 mg kg−1, s.c.), and the κ-opioid agonists nalbuphine (8 mg kg−1, s.c.) and U-50,488H (20 mg kg−1, s.c.) were studied using the tail-flick test in male Sprague–Dawley rats. Coadministration of DM (20 mg kg−1, i.p.) with these opioids was also performed and investigated. The pharmacokinetic effects of DM on morphine and codeine were examined, and the free concentration of morphine or codeine in serum was determined by HPLC. It was found that DM potentiated the antinociceptive effects of some μ-opioid agonists but not codeine or κ-opioid agonists in rats. DM potentiated morphine's antinociceptive effect, and acutely increased the serum concentration of morphine. In contrast, DM attenuated the antinociceptive effect of codeine and decreased the serum concentration of its active metabolite (morphine). The pharmacokinetic interactions between DM and opioids may partially explain the differential effects of DM on the antinociception caused by opioids. PMID:15655510

  2. Measurement of the differential pressure of liquid metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, H.J.

    1975-09-01

    This patent relates to an improved means for measuring the differential pressure between any two points in a process liquid metal coolant loop, wherein the flow of liquid metal in a pipe is opposed by a permanent magnet liquid metal pump until there is almost zero flow shown by a magnetic type flowmeter. The pressure producing the liquid metal flow is inferred from the rate of rotation of the permanent magnet pump. In an alternate embodiment, a differential pressure transducer is coupled to a process pipeline by means of high-temperature bellows or diaphragm seals, and a permanent magnet liquid metal pump in the high-pressure transmission line to the pressure transducer can be utilized either for calibration of the transducer or for determining the process differential pressure as a function of the magnet pump speed. (auth)

  3. Measurement of the differential pressure of liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    This patent relates to an improved means for measuring the differential pressure between any two points in a process liquid metal coolant loop, wherein the flow of liquid metal in a pipe is opposed by a permanent magnet liquid metal pump until there is almost zero flow shown by a magnetic type flowmeter. The pressure producing the liquid metal flow is inferred from the rate of rotation of the permanent magnet pump. In an alternate embodiment, a differential pressure transducer is coupled to a process pipeline by means of high-temperature bellows or diaphragm seals, and a permanent magnet liquid metal pump in the high-pressure transmission line to the pressure transducer can be utilized either for calibration of the transducer or for determining the process differential pressure as a function of the magnet pump speed

  4. Metal/Metal Oxide Differential Electrode pH Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William; Buehler, Martin; Keymeulen, Didier

    2007-01-01

    Solid-state electrochemical sensors for measuring the degrees of acidity or alkalinity (in terms of pH values) of liquid solutions are being developed. These sensors are intended to supplant older electrochemical pH sensors that include glass electrode structures and reference solutions. The older sensors are fragile and subject to drift. The present developmental solid-state sensors are more rugged and are expected to be usable in harsh environments. The present sensors are based on a differential-electrode measurement principle. Each sensor includes two electrodes, made of different materials, in equilibrium with the solution of interest.

  5. Budesonide and fluticasone propionate differentially affect the airway epithelial barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijink, I. H.; Jonker, M.R.; Vries, de Maaike; van Oosterhout, A. J. M.; Telenga, E.; ten Hacken, N. H. T.; Postma, D. S.; van den Berge, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: COPD patients have a higher risk of pneumonia when treated with fluticasone propionate (FP) than with placebo, and a lower risk with budesonide (BUD). We hypothesized that BUD and FP differentially affect the mucosal barrier in response to viral infection and/or cigarette smoke. Methods:

  6. Battlefield-Acquired Immunogenicity to Metals Affects Orthopaedic Implant Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-10-2-0138 TITLE: Battlefield-Acquired Immunogenicity to Metals Affects Orthopaedic Implant Outcome PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Immunogenicity to Metals Affects Orthopaedic pla t Outcome 5b. GRANT NUMBER W91ZSQ0135N646 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Nadim James...DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEM ENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The effects of battlefield

  7. Metal ions to affect thyroid functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Mikio

    1994-01-01

    The mechanism of physiological action of the trace elements that exert effects to internal secretion organs has not much been specified. The reasons are presumed as the elements exert effects to many enzyme groups, change the structural constitution, or modify the permeability of matters. As the metallic elements that exert effects to thyroid, there are more than ten kinds including Li, Ca, Co, Br, I, Hg, Pb and Se. In this report, the knowledge that the authors observed about the effects of Mn, I and Li which are apt to accumulate on thyroid is introduced. Mn and I were quantitatively determined by activation analysis, and Li by atomic absorption spectrometry. There is the report that the excessive intake of Mn causes human thyroid tumor. By the shortage of Mn, the restriction of energy metabolism, growth delay, sterility, bone abnormality and motion disorder arise. The contents of Mn and I in the periphery of thyroid tumors were examined by activation analysis. When an antipsychotic Li is administered, the function of thyroid is often lowered. Those effects are explained. In the case of Mn excess and Mn shortage, the new problem that the hormone residue in globulin tended to increase arose. The similar phenomenon occurred also in the case of I. The reason is unknown at present. (K.I.)

  8. Substrate stiffness affects skeletal myoblast differentiation in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Romanazzo, Giancarlo Forte, Mitsuhiro Ebara, Koichiro Uto, Stefania Pagliari, Takao Aoyagi, Enrico Traversa and Akiyoshi Taniguchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To maximize the therapeutic efficacy of cardiac muscle constructs produced by stem cells and tissue engineering protocols, suitable scaffolds should be designed to recapitulate all the characteristics of native muscle and mimic the microenvironment encountered by cells in vivo. Moreover, so not to interfere with cardiac contractility, the scaffold should be deformable enough to withstand muscle contraction. Recently, it was suggested that the mechanical properties of scaffolds can interfere with stem/progenitor cell functions, and thus careful consideration is required when choosing polymers for targeted applications. In this study, cross-linked poly-ε-caprolactone membranes having similar chemical composition and controlled stiffness in a supra-physiological range were challenged with two sources of myoblasts to evaluate the suitability of substrates with different stiffness for cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, muscle-specific and non-related feeder layers were prepared on stiff surfaces to reveal the contribution of biological and mechanical cues to skeletal muscle progenitor differentiation. We demonstrated that substrate stiffness does affect myogenic differentiation, meaning that softer substrates can promote differentiation and that a muscle-specific feeder layer can improve the degree of maturation in skeletal muscle stem cells.

  9. Chewing gum differentially affects aspects of attention in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucha, Oliver; Mecklinger, Lara; Maier, Kerstin; Hammerl, Marianne; Lange, Klaus W

    2004-06-01

    In a study published previously in this journal (Wilkinson et al., 2002), the effect of chewing gum on cognitive functioning was examined. The results of this study indicated that chewing a piece of gum results in an improvement of working memory and of both immediate and delayed recall of words but not of attention. In the present study, memory and a variety of attentional functions of healthy adult participants were examined under four different conditions: no chewing, mimicking chewing movements, chewing a piece of tasteless chewing gum and chewing a piece of spearmint flavoured chewing gum. The sequence of conditions was randomised across participants. The results showed that the chewing of gum did not improve participants' memory functions. Furthermore, chewing may differentially affect specific aspects of attention. While sustained attention was improved by the chewing of gum, alertness and flexibility were adversely affected by chewing. In conclusion, claims that the chewing a gum improves cognition should be viewed with caution.

  10. De Haas-Van Alphen affect and helicons in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vol'skij, E.P.

    1975-01-01

    Specific features of helicon electrodynamics associated with the de Haas-van Alphen effect are considered for an uncompensated metal with the closed Fermi surface of arbitrary shape. The consideration is carried out entirely in the local limit, when the metal may be characterized by a static tensor for the magnetic resistance and by a static tensor for the differential magnetic permeability which describes the anisotropy of the de Haas-van Alphen effect. The amplitude of the effect is assumed to be of an arbitrary value, but in the limits determined by the thermodynamical stability of a uniformly magnetized state. It has been shown that in the general case the de Haas-van Alphen effect may strongly influence not only the phase velocity, but also the damping and polarization of a helicon. A significant effect of nondiagonal components of the differential magnetic permeability tensor that sometimes arise even at very small deviations of the magnetic field from the symmetric direction, is noted. The resonance excitation of waves in a plate is considered. The question of a possible relation between periodic diamagnetic structures in metals and helicons is discussed

  11. Heavy metals accumulation affects bone microarchitecture in osteoporotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimeca, Manuel; Feola, Maurizio; Romano, Lorenzo; Rao, Cecilia; Gasbarra, Elena; Bonanno, Elena; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Tarantino, Umberto

    2017-04-01

    Bone metabolism is affected by mechanical, genetic, and environmental factors and plays a major role in osteoporosis. Nevertheless, the influence of environmental pollution on the occurrence of osteoporosis is still unclear and controversial. In this context, heavy metals are the most important pollutants capable to affect bone mass. The aim of this study was to investigate whether heavy metals accumulation in bone tissues could be related to the altered bone metabolism and architecture of osteoporotic patients. To this end, we analyzed 25 bone head biopsies osteoporotic patients and 25 bone head biopsies of osteoarthritic patients. Moreover we enrolled 15 patients underwent hip arthroplasty for high-energy hip fracture or osteonecrosis of the femoral head as a control group. Bone head biopsies were studied by BioQuant-osteo software, scanning electron microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray microanalysis. We found a prevalence of lead, cadmium and chromium accumulation in osteoporotic patients. Noteworthy, high levels of sclerostin, detected by immunohistochemistry, correlate with the accumulation of heavy metal found in the bone of osteoporotic patients, suggesting a molecular link between heavy metal accumulation and bone metabolism impairment. In conclusion, the presence of heavy metals into bone shed new light on the comprehension of the pathogenesis of osteoporosis since these elements could play a non redundant role in the development of osteoporosis at cellular/molecular and epigenetic level. Nevertheless, in vivo and in vitro studies need to better elucidate the molecular mechanism in which heavy metals can participate to osteoporosis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1333-1342, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Methionine restriction alters bone morphology and affects osteoblast differentiation

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    Amadou Ouattara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Methionine restriction (MR extends the lifespan of a wide variety of species, including rodents, drosophila, nematodes, and yeasts. MR has also been demonstrated to affect the overall growth of mice and rats. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of MR on bone structure in young and aged male and female C57BL/6J mice. This study indicated that MR affected the growth rates of males and young females, but not aged females. MR reduced volumetric bone mass density (vBMD and bone mineral content (BMC, while bone microarchitecture parameters were decreased in males and young females, but not in aged females compared to control-fed (CF mice. However, when adjusted for bodyweight, the effect of MR in reducing vBMD, BMC and microarchitecture measurements was either attenuated or reversed suggesting that the smaller bones in MR mice is appropriate for its body size. In addition, CF and MR mice had similar intrinsic strength properties as measured by nanoindentation. Plasma biomarkers suggested that the low bone mass in MR mice could be due to increased collagen degradation, which may be influenced by leptin, IGF-1, adiponectin and FGF21 hormone levels. Mouse preosteoblast cell line cultured under low sulfur amino acid growth media attenuated gene expression levels of Col1al, Runx2, Bglap, Alpl and Spp1 suggesting delayed collagen formation and bone differentiation. Collectively, our studies revealed that MR altered bone morphology which could be mediated by delays in osteoblast differentiation. Keywords: Methionine restriction, Aged mice, Micro-computed tomography, Nanoindentation, MC3T3-E1 subclone 4

  13. DIFFERENTIAL PULSE ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMMETRY FOR DETERMINATION OF SOME HEAVY METALS IN URANIUM

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    Saryati Saryati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The direct determination of some metals impurity in uranium by using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV method at a hanging mercury drop electrode and in a carbonate buffer media was developed. It was found that the carbonate buffer show the strongest affinity for uranium and gives the best separation between the DPASV peaks of heavy metals impurities. The carbonate concentration markedly affects the oxidation and reduction the major and the minor constituents of the uranium samples. In 0.1 M carbonate buffer solution pH 10, copper, bismuth, thalium, lead, cadmium, zinc, could be determined without the removal of the uranium matrix. Recovery and relative standard deviation (RSD of this method was in the range of 174% - 85.2% for recovery and 36.8% - 1.2% for RSD. The larger error of analytical result was obtained for Zn at low concentration. In general, the analytic results error and RSD decreased with increasing metals concentration.   Keywords: heavy metal determination, differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry, uranium

  14. Application of spectral analysis for differentiation between metals using signals from eddy-current transducers

    OpenAIRE

    Abramovych, Anton; Poddubny, Volodymyr

    2017-01-01

    The authors theoretically and experimentally substantiated the use of the spectral method for processing a signal of the vortex-current metal detector for dichotomous differentiation between metals. Results of experimental research that prove the possibility of using spectral analysis for differentiation between metals were presented. The vortex-current method for detection of hidden metal objects was analyzed. It was indicated that amplitude of output VCD signal is determined by electric con...

  15. Factors affecting metal and radionuclide pollution in the Baltic sea

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    Martin Lodenius

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available External pollution load in the Baltic Sea originates from urban, agricultural and industrial sources. Emissions of heavy metals have decreased substantially in the catchment area but the temporal trends are not always significant and differ with sample, area and pollutant. The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Many factors affect the future development of pollutant concentrations including anthropogenic emissions, political decisions and changes in salinity, temperature and water currents, in eutrophication and oxygen status, in fisheries and in atmospheric deposition of pollutants. Large scale changes like eutrophication and climate change affect ecosystems in many ways, directly and indirectly, causing biological and abiotic effects. These factors are interrelated and difficult to predict. Measures aiming to enhance the ecological status of the Baltic Sea will certainly give positive results but this will take at least several decades.

  16. How differentiated do children experience affect? An investigation of the within- and between-person structure of children's affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Anja; Könen, Tanja; Dirk, Judith; Schmiedek, Florian

    2016-05-01

    Research on the structure of children's affect is limited. It is possible that children's perception of their own affect might be less differentiated than that of adults. Support for the 2-factor model of positive and negative affect and the pleasure-arousal model suggests that children in middle childhood can distinguish positive and negative affect as well as valence and arousal. Whether children are able to differentiate further aspects of affect, as proposed by the 3-dimensional model of affect (good-bad mood, alertness-tiredness, calmness-tension), is an unresolved issue. The aim of our study was the comparison of these 3 affect models to establish how differentiated children experience their affect and which model best describes affect in children. We examined affect structures on the between- and within-person level, acknowledging that affect varies across time and that no valid interpretation of either level is feasible if both are confounded. For this purpose, 214 children (age 8-11 years) answered affect items once a day for 5 consecutive days on smartphones. We tested all affect models by means of 2-level confirmatory factor analysis. Although all affect models had an acceptable fit, the 3-dimensional model best described affect in children on both the within- and between-person level. Thus, children in middle childhood can already describe affect in a differentiated way. Also, affect structures were similar on the within- and between-person level. We conclude that in order to acquire a thorough picture of children's affect, measures for children should include items of all 3 affect dimensions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Heavy metal leaching from mine tailings as affected by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, D.; Schwab, A.P.; Banks, M.K.

    1999-12-01

    A column experiment was conducted to determine the impact of soil cover and plants on heavy metal leaching from mine tailings and heavy metal contaminated soil. Columns made of PVC were constructed with 30 cm subsoil covered by 30 cm of mine tailings followed by 0, 30, or 60 cm subsoil covered by 30 cm of mine tailings followed by 0, 30, or 60 cm of clean topsoil. Two grasses, tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), were grown in the columns. The columns were leached at a slow rate for 1 yr with a 0.001 M CaCl{sub 2} solution under unsaturated conditions. The presence of both tall fescue and big bluestem increased Zn and Cd concentrations in the leachate. Lead concentrations in leachates were not affected by the presence of plants. Although plants generally reduced the total amount of water leached, total mass of Zn and Cd leached generally was not impacted by plants. Total mass of Pb leached was positively correlated with total leachate collected from each column. Covering the mine tailings with 60 cm of topsoil increased the mass of Zn and Cd leached relative to no topsoil. When the subsoil was absent, Zn and Cd leaching increased by as much as 20-fold, verifying the ability of soil to act as a sink for metals. Mine tailing remediation by establishing vegetation can reduce Pb movement but may enhance short-term Cd and Zn leaching. However, the changes were relatively small and do not outweigh the benefits of using vegetation in mine tailings reclamation.

  18. Osteocytes Specific GSK3 Inhibition Affects In Vitro Osteogenic Differentiation

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    Jessika Bertacchini

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Osteocytes, the most important regulators of bone processes, are producers of molecules (usually proteins that act as signals in order to communicate with nearby cells. These factors control cell division (proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Substantial evidence showed different signaling pathways activated by osteocytes and involved in osteoblast differentiation, in particular in the last decade, when the Wingless-related integration site (WNT pathway assumed a critical large importance. WNT activation by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3 causes bone anabolism, making GSK3 a potential therapeutic target for bone diseases. In our study, we hypothesized an important role of the osteocyte MLO-Y4 conditioned medium in controlling the differentiation process of osteoblast cell line 2T3. We found an effect of diminished differentiation capability of 2T3 upon conditioning with medium from murine long bone osteocyte-Y4 cells (MLO-Y4 pre-treated with GSK3 inhibitor CHIR2201. The novel observations of this study provide knowledge about the inhibition of GSK3 in MLO-Y4 cells. This strategy could be used as a plausible target in osteocytes in order to regulate bone resorption mediated by a loss of osteoblasts activity through a paracrine loop.

  19. [The clinico-psychopathological differentiation of schizoaffective psychoses with a predominance of affective disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, A N

    1994-01-01

    Basing on the clinico-psychopathological analysis of 43 patients with an affect-dominant form of schizoaffective psychosis, their typological division has been suggested. The interrelations of clinical types of delusional disturbances with affective disorders, their polarity, congruent and noncongruent delusions were shown. The discussion covers differential-diagnostic characteristics of affective states in schizoaffective and affective psychoses.

  20. The regulation of autophagy differentially affects Trypanosoma cruzi metacyclogenesis.

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    María Cristina Vanrell

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a cellular process required for the removal of aged organelles and cytosolic components through lysosomal degradation. All types of eukaryotic cells from yeasts to mammalian cells have the machinery to activate autophagy as a result of many physiological and pathological situations. The most frequent stimulus of autophagy is starvation and the result, in this case, is the fast generation of utilizable food (e.g. amino acids and basic nutrients to maintain the vital biological processes. In some organisms, starvation also triggers other associated processes such as differentiation. The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi undergoes a series of differentiation processes throughout its complex life cycle. Although not all autophagic genes have been identified in the T. cruzi genome, previous works have demonstrated the presence of essential autophagic-related proteins. Under starvation conditions, TcAtg8, which is the parasite homolog of Atg8/LC3 in other organisms, is located in autophagosome-like vesicles. In this work, we have characterized the autophagic pathway during T. cruzi differentiation from the epimastigote to metacyclic trypomastigote form, a process called metacyclogenesis. We demonstrated that autophagy is stimulated during metacyclogenesis and that the induction of autophagy promotes this process. Moreover, with exception of bafilomycin, other classical autophagy modulators have similar effects on T. cruzi autophagy. We also showed that spermidine and related polyamines can positively regulate parasite autophagy and differentiation. We concluded that both polyamine metabolism and autophagy are key processes during T. cruzi metacyclogenesis that could be exploited as drug targets to avoid the parasite cycle progression.

  1. Trait anxiety and attenuated negative affect differentiation: a vulnerability factor to consider?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, Lindsey M; Fresco, David M; Coifman, Karin G

    2016-11-01

    Describing emotional experiences using distinct terms, or affect differentiation, has been associated with emotion regulation and adaptive behavior under stress. There is little data, however, examining the association between differentiation and dispositional factors underlying psychopathology. The current study examines the association between differentiation and trait anxiety (TA) given prior evidence of cognitive biases in TA relevant to higher order processing of emotional experiences. We examined cross-sectionally, via lab-based repeated assessment, the association between differentiation of negative and positive experiences and TA. Two hundred twenty-two adults completed an emotion reactivity task including repeated assessments of affect. We hypothesized that individuals higher in trait anxiety (HTA) would have greater difficulty differentiating their experiences. HTA individuals exhibited lower levels of negative affect (NA) differentiation even when controlling for depression. Although negative emotion intensity was consistently associated with lower differentiation, this did not account for the influence of HTA on differentiation. These data suggest that HTA individuals have greater difficulty differentiating negative emotions, regardless of negative emotion intensity and depression. As HTA is common to many emotional disorders; this evidence suggests that poor differentiation may also be an important transdiagnostic consideration in models of risk and of affective disease.

  2. Brain Signal Variability Differentially Affects Cognitive Flexibility and Cognitive Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster-Genç, Diana J N; Ueltzhöffer, Kai; Fiebach, Christian J

    2016-04-06

    Recent research yielded the intriguing conclusion that, in healthy adults, higher levels of variability in neuronal processes are beneficial for cognitive functioning. Beneficial effects of variability in neuronal processing can also be inferred from neurocomputational theories of working memory, albeit this holds only for tasks requiring cognitive flexibility. However, cognitive stability, i.e., the ability to maintain a task goal in the face of irrelevant distractors, should suffer under high levels of brain signal variability. To directly test this prediction, we studied both behavioral and brain signal variability during cognitive flexibility (i.e., task switching) and cognitive stability (i.e., distractor inhibition) in a sample of healthy human subjects and developed an efficient and easy-to-implement analysis approach to assess BOLD-signal variability in event-related fMRI task paradigms. Results show a general positive effect of neural variability on task performance as assessed by accuracy measures. However, higher levels of BOLD-signal variability in the left inferior frontal junction area result in reduced error rate costs during task switching and thus facilitate cognitive flexibility. In contrast, variability in the same area has a detrimental effect on cognitive stability, as shown in a negative effect of variability on response time costs during distractor inhibition. This pattern was mirrored at the behavioral level, with higher behavioral variability predicting better task switching but worse distractor inhibition performance. Our data extend previous results on brain signal variability by showing a differential effect of brain signal variability that depends on task context, in line with predictions from computational theories. Recent neuroscientific research showed that the human brain signal is intrinsically variable and suggested that this variability improves performance. Computational models of prefrontal neural networks predict differential

  3. Differentially Fed Metal Frame Antenna With Common Mode Suppression for Biomedical Smartband Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Jie; Duan, Zhu

    2018-04-01

    This paper proposes a differentially fed metal frame antenna for biomedical smartband applications. It occupies a planar area of 40 × 20 mm, operating at 2.45-GHz industrial, scientific, and medical band. The proposed antenna is composed of an external metal frame and an internal metal box acting as ground for electronics. Through a differential feeding to two copper strips located between the metal frame and the metal box, a rectangular ring slot is excited with common mode suppression capability. The antenna prototype is designed in free space, and then adapted to on-body scenario for both repeater and transmitter cases. Additionally, the proposed differential feeding is modified to the traditional single port, demonstrating the half-size miniaturization technique. Finally, the simulated results are verified by measurement. The proposed antenna's simple structure and satisfactory performance makes it a perfect candidate for future medical smartband applications, monitoring the physiological parameters of humans for health-care purposes.

  4. Obesity Differentially Affects Phenotypes of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Carlos; Arriaga, Monica; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Moran, Segundo

    2012-01-01

    Obesity or overweight affect most of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Phenotypes are the clinical characteristics produced by the interaction of heredity and environment in a disease or syndrome. Phenotypes of PCOS have been described on the presence of clinical hyperandrogenism, oligoovulation and polycystic ovaries. The insulin resistance is present in the majority of patients with obesity and/or PCOS and it is more frequent and of greater magnitude in obese than in non obese...

  5. Selecting decision strategies: the differential role of affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibehenne, Benjamin; von Helversen, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Many theories on cognition assume that people adapt their decision strategies depending on the situation they face. To test if and how affect guides the selection of decision strategies, we conducted an online study (N = 166), where different mood states were induced through video clips. Results indicate that mood influenced the use of decision strategies. Negative mood, in particular anger, facilitated the use of non-compensatory strategies, whereas positive mood promoted compensatory decision rules. These results are in line with the idea that positive mood broadens the focus of attention and thus increases the use of compensatory decision strategies that take many pieces of information into account, whereas negative mood narrows the focus of attention and thus fosters non-compensatory strategies that rely on a selective use of information. The results further indicate that gaining a deeper theoretical understanding of the cognitive mechanisms that govern decision processes requires taking emotions into account.

  6. Levetiracetam Affects Differentially Presynaptic Proteins in Rat Cerebral Cortex

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    Daniele Marcotulli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Presynaptic proteins are potential therapeutic targets for epilepsy and other neurological diseases. We tested the hypothesis that chronic treatment with the SV2A ligand levetiracetam affects the expression of other presynaptic proteins. Results showed that in rat neocortex no significant difference was detected in SV2A protein levels in levetiracetam treated animals compared to controls, whereas levetiracetam post-transcriptionally decreased several vesicular proteins and increased LRRK2, without any change in mRNA levels. Analysis of SV2A interactome indicates that the presynaptic proteins regulation induced by levetiracetam reported here is mediated by this interactome, and suggests that LRRK2 plays a role in forging the pattern of effects.

  7. Differential diagnosis of inflammatory lung affections by x-ray in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faerber, D.

    1980-01-01

    As a consequence of the rise in neonatal infections by ..beta..-streptococci the clinical respiratory distress syndrome in neonates is becoming increasingly important for differential diagnosis. The present paper reports on special problems in differential X-ray diagnosis of ..beta..-streptococcus pneumonia as compared to inflammatory lung affections attributable to various causes.

  8. Obesity Differentially Affects Phenotypes of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Carlos; Arriaga, Monica; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Moran, Segundo

    2012-01-01

    Obesity or overweight affect most of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Phenotypes are the clinical characteristics produced by the interaction of heredity and environment in a disease or syndrome. Phenotypes of PCOS have been described on the presence of clinical hyperandrogenism, oligoovulation and polycystic ovaries. The insulin resistance is present in the majority of patients with obesity and/or PCOS and it is more frequent and of greater magnitude in obese than in non obese PCOS patients. Levels of sexual hormone binding globulin are decreased, and levels of free androgens are increased in obese PCOS patients. Weight loss treatment is important for overweight or obese PCOS patients, but not necessary for normal weight PCOS patients, who only need to avoid increasing their body weight. Obesity decreases or delays several infertility treatments. The differences in the hormonal and metabolic profile, as well as the different focus and response to treatment between obese and non obese PCOS patients suggest that obesity has to be considered as a characteristic for classification of PCOS phenotypes. PMID:22829818

  9. Obesity Differentially Affects Phenotypes of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Moran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity or overweight affect most of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Phenotypes are the clinical characteristics produced by the interaction of heredity and environment in a disease or syndrome. Phenotypes of PCOS have been described on the presence of clinical hyperandrogenism, oligoovulation and polycystic ovaries. The insulin resistance is present in the majority of patients with obesity and/or PCOS and it is more frequent and of greater magnitude in obese than in non obese PCOS patients. Levels of sexual hormone binding globulin are decreased, and levels of free androgens are increased in obese PCOS patients. Weight loss treatment is important for overweight or obese PCOS patients, but not necessary for normal weight PCOS patients, who only need to avoid increasing their body weight. Obesity decreases or delays several infertility treatments. The differences in the hormonal and metabolic profile, as well as the different focus and response to treatment between obese and non obese PCOS patients suggest that obesity has to be considered as a characteristic for classification of PCOS phenotypes.

  10. Affect and craving: positive and negative affect are differentially associated with approach and avoidance inclinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlauch, Robert C; Gwynn-Shapiro, Daniel; Stasiewicz, Paul R; Molnar, Danielle S; Lang, Alan R

    2013-04-01

    Research on reactivity to alcohol and drug cues has either ignored affective state altogether or has focused rather narrowly on the role of negative affect in craving. Moreover, until recently, the relevant analyses of affect and craving have rarely addressed the ambivalence often associated with craving itself. The current study investigated how both negative and positive affect moderate approach and avoidance inclinations associated with cue-elicited craving in a clinical sample diagnosed with substance use disorders. One hundred forty-four patients (age range of 18-65, mean 42.0; n=92 males) were recruited from an inpatient detoxification unit for substance abuse. Participants completed a baseline assessment of both positive and negative affect prior to completing a cue-reactivity paradigm for which they provided self-report ratings of inclinations to approach (use) and avoid (not use) alcohol, cigarettes, and non-psychoactive control substances (food and beverages). Participants with elevated negative affect reported significantly higher approach ratings for cigarette and alcohol cues, whereas those high in positive affect showed significantly higher levels of avoidance inclinations for both alcohol and cigarette cues and also significantly lower approach ratings for alcohol cues, all relative to control cues. Results for negative affect are consistent with previous cue reactivity research, whereas results for positive affect are unique and call attention to its clinical potential for attenuating approach inclinations to substance use cues. Further, positive affect was related to both approach and avoidance inclinations, underscoring the utility of a multidimensional conceptualization of craving in the analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Alexithymia Components Are Differentially Related to Explicit Negative Affect But Not Associated with Explicit Positive Affect or Implicit Affectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslow, Thomas; Donges, Uta-Susan

    2017-01-01

    Alexithymia represents a multifaceted personality construct defined by difficulties in recognizing and verbalizing emotions and externally oriented thinking. According to clinical observations, experience of negative affects is exacerbated and experience of positive affects is decreased in alexithymia. Findings from research based on self-report indicate that all alexithymia facets are negatively associated with the experience of positive affects, whereas difficulties identifying and describing feelings are related to heightened negative affect. Implicit affectivity, which can be measured using indirect assessment methods, relates to processes of the impulsive system. The aim of the present study was to examine, for the first time, the relations between alexithymia components and implicit and explicit positive and negative affectivity in healthy adults. The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) were administered to two hundred and forty-one healthy individuals along with measures of depression and trait anxiety. Difficulties identifying feelings were correlated with explicit negative trait affect, depressive mood and trait anxiety. Difficulties describing feelings showed smaller but also significant correlations with depressive mood and trait anxiety but were not correlated with explicit state or trait affect as assessed by the PANAS. Externally oriented thinking was not significantly correlated with any of the implicit and explicit affect measures. According to our findings, an externally oriented, concrete way of thinking appears to be generally unrelated to dispositions to develop positive or negative affects. Difficulties identifying feelings seem to be associated with increased conscious negative affects but not with a heightened disposition to develop negative affects at an automatic response level.

  12. Alexithymia Components Are Differentially Related to Explicit Negative Affect But Not Associated with Explicit Positive Affect or Implicit Affectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Suslow

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Alexithymia represents a multifaceted personality construct defined by difficulties in recognizing and verbalizing emotions and externally oriented thinking. According to clinical observations, experience of negative affects is exacerbated and experience of positive affects is decreased in alexithymia. Findings from research based on self-report indicate that all alexithymia facets are negatively associated with the experience of positive affects, whereas difficulties identifying and describing feelings are related to heightened negative affect. Implicit affectivity, which can be measured using indirect assessment methods, relates to processes of the impulsive system. The aim of the present study was to examine, for the first time, the relations between alexithymia components and implicit and explicit positive and negative affectivity in healthy adults. The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS were administered to two hundred and forty-one healthy individuals along with measures of depression and trait anxiety. Difficulties identifying feelings were correlated with explicit negative trait affect, depressive mood and trait anxiety. Difficulties describing feelings showed smaller but also significant correlations with depressive mood and trait anxiety but were not correlated with explicit state or trait affect as assessed by the PANAS. Externally oriented thinking was not significantly correlated with any of the implicit and explicit affect measures. According to our findings, an externally oriented, concrete way of thinking appears to be generally unrelated to dispositions to develop positive or negative affects. Difficulties identifying feelings seem to be associated with increased conscious negative affects but not with a heightened disposition to develop negative affects at an automatic response level.

  13. Factors Affecting the Binding of a Recombinant Heavy Metal-Binding Domain (CXXC motif Protein to Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamala Boonyodying

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of heavy metal-binding proteins have been used to study bioremediation. CXXC motif, a metal binding domain containing Cys-X-X-Cys motif, has been identified in various organisms. These proteins are capable of binding various types of heavy metals. In this study, heavy metal binding domain (CXXC motif recombinant protein encoded from mcsA gene of S. aureus were cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The factors involved in the metal-binding activity were determined in order to analyze the potential of recombinant protein for bioremediation. A recombinant protein can be bound to Cd2+, Co2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+. The thermal stability of a recombinant protein was tested, and the results showed that the metal binding activity to Cu2+ and Zn2+ still exist after treating the protein at 85ºC for 30 min. The temperature and pH that affected the metal binding activity was tested and the results showed that recombinant protein was still bound to Cu2+ at 65ºC, whereas a pH of 3-7 did not affect the metal binding E. coli harboring a pRset with a heavy metal-binding domain CXXC motif increased the resistance of heavy metals against CuCl2 and CdCl2. This study shows that metal binding domain (CXXC motif recombinant protein can be effectively bound to various types of heavy metals and may be used as a potential tool for studying bioremediation.

  14. Differentiation of Competence and Affect Self-Perceptions in Elementary School Students: Extending Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, A. Katrin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to address two underexplored research questions regarding support for the separation between competence and affect self-perceptions due to differential relations to outcome criteria. First, it is tested whether higher relations between affect self-perceptions and effort than between competence self-perceptions and effort can also…

  15. Battlefield-Acquired Immunogenicity to Metals Affects Orthopaedic Implant Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    bodies in soft tissue causing plumbism 36-38. There are no strict guidelines as to when patients with gunshot or other metal fragment wounds should...Immunological changes in patients with primary osteoarthritis of the hip after total joint rep lacement. J Bone Joint Surg Br 2003 Jul;85(5):758-64

  16. Battlefield Acquired Immunogenicity to Metals Affects Orthopaedic Implant Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    36-38 . There are no strict guidelines as to when patients with gunshot or other metal fragment wounds should be tested to determine serum lead...Immunological changes in patients with primary osteoarthritis of the hip after total joint replacement. J Bone Joint Surg Br 2003 Jul;85(5):758-64. (52

  17. Storage mediums affect metal concentration in woodlice (Isopoda)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickx, Frederik; Maelfait, J.-P.; Mayer, Ann de; Tack, F.M.G.; Verloo, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    Pitfall traps containing formaldehyde influence dry weights and consequently metal concentrations in woodlice. - Terrestrial invertebrates are becoming widely established as tools to assess heavy metal pollution at contaminated sites. A practical and time saving method to sample terrestrial invertebrates consist of pitfall traps, often filled with a 4% formaldehyde solution and some detergent. The reliability of metal concentrations based on organisms captured and stored in this solution might however be questioned and we therefore tested the effect of formaldehyde on Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb concentration experimentally in three isopod species. Our results showed that in many cases, significant decreases in Cu concentrations compared to animals stored in a freezer were observed that could be as high as 40%, while Zn, Cd and Pb concentrations increased. A regression analysis of individual dry weight on individual size revealed that formaldehyde decreases the dry weight substantially and in that way causes increased measurements of Zn, Cd and Pb concentrations. We conclude that pitfall traps with formaldehyde should better not be used to collect animals in which concentrations of heavy metals or other toxic substances will be determined

  18. Factors affecting heavy metal uptake in plant selection for phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, A.; Mathe-Gaspar, G. [Research Inst. for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)

    2005-04-01

    The heavy metal uptake of ten plant species was studied under different soil and climatic conditions. Effects of soil pH, temperature, plant species and phenophase on the heavy metal content of stems and leaves were determined in pot experiments. Plants and soil samples were collected from a lead/zinc mine ore (Gyoengyoesoroszi, Hungary) and characterised by high contents of Pb, Zn, As, Cd, Cu. The possibility of an adapted phytoremediation technology was indicated by different bioconcentration factors (BCF). The BCF depended markedly (10- to 100-fold) on plant species and environmental conditions. Based on our results a ''season-adapted'' phytoextraction technology with different plant species (utilising their different temperature requirements and/or harvest time) is suggested. (orig.)

  19. Do soft drinks affect metal ions release from orthodontic appliances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulewicz, Marcin; Wołowiec, Paulina; Loster, Bartłomiej W; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    The effect of orange juice and Coca Cola(®) on the release of metal ions from fixed orthodontic appliances. A continuous flow system designed for in vitro testing of orthodontic appliances was used. Orange juice/Coca Cola(®) was flowing through the system alternately with artificial saliva for 5.5 and 18.5h, respectively. The collected samples underwent a multielemental ICP-OES analysis in order to determine the metal ions release pattern in time. The total mass of ions released from the appliance into orange juice and Coca Cola(®) (respectively) during the experiment was calculated (μg): Ni (15.33; 37.75), Cr (3.604; 1.052), Fe (48.42; ≥ 156.1), Cu (57.87, 32.91), Mn (9.164; 41.16), Mo (9.999; 30.12), and Cd (0.5967; 2.173). It was found that orange juice did not intensify the release of metal ions from orthodontic appliances, whereas Coca Cola(®) caused increased release of Ni ions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Endocrine disrupting chemicals affect the adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in distinct ontogenetic windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biemann, Ronald, E-mail: ronald.biemann@medizin.uni-halle.de [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany); Navarrete Santos, Anne [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany); Navarrete Santos, Alexander [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany); Riemann, Dagmar [Department of Immunology, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany); Knelangen, Julia [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany); Blueher, Matthias [Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Koch, Holger [Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr-University Bochum (IPA), Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum (Germany); Fischer, Bernd [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany)

    2012-01-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endocrine disrupting chemicals affect adipogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adipogenic impact depends strongly on the window of exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bisphenol A reduces the potential of MSC to differentiate into adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DEHP and TBT trigger the adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BPA, DEHP and TBT did not affect adipogenesis in embryonic stem cells. -- Abstract: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) like bisphenol A (BPA), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and tributyltin (TBT) are ubiquitously present in the environment and in human tissues. They bind to nuclear hormone receptors and affect cellular and developmental processes. In this study, we show that BPA, DEHP and TBT affect the adipogenic differentiation of murine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC, C3H/10T1/2) in a concentration-, stage- and compound-specific manner. C3H/10T1/2 cells and embryonic stem cells (CGR8) were exposed to BPA, DEHP or TBT at different stages of cell determination and differentiation (undifferentiated growth, adipogenic induction and terminal adipogenic differentiation). The final amount of differentiated adipocytes, cellular triglyceride content and mRNA expression of adipogenic marker genes (adiponectin, FABP4, PPAR{gamma}2, LPL) were quantified and compared with corresponding unexposed cells. BPA (10 {mu}M) decreased subsequent adipogenic differentiation of MSC, when cells were exposed during undifferentiated growth. In contrast, DEHP (100 {mu}M) during the hormonal induction period, and TBT (100 nM) in all investigated stages, enhanced adipogenesis. Importantly, exposure of undifferentiated murine embryonic stem cells did not show any effect of the investigated EDC on subsequent adipogenic differentiation.

  1. Endocrine disrupting chemicals affect the adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in distinct ontogenetic windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biemann, Ronald; Navarrete Santos, Anne; Navarrete Santos, Alexander; Riemann, Dagmar; Knelangen, Julia; Blüher, Matthias; Koch, Holger; Fischer, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Endocrine disrupting chemicals affect adipogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). ► The adipogenic impact depends strongly on the window of exposure. ► Bisphenol A reduces the potential of MSC to differentiate into adipocytes. ► DEHP and TBT trigger the adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. ► BPA, DEHP and TBT did not affect adipogenesis in embryonic stem cells. -- Abstract: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) like bisphenol A (BPA), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and tributyltin (TBT) are ubiquitously present in the environment and in human tissues. They bind to nuclear hormone receptors and affect cellular and developmental processes. In this study, we show that BPA, DEHP and TBT affect the adipogenic differentiation of murine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC, C3H/10T1/2) in a concentration-, stage- and compound-specific manner. C3H/10T1/2 cells and embryonic stem cells (CGR8) were exposed to BPA, DEHP or TBT at different stages of cell determination and differentiation (undifferentiated growth, adipogenic induction and terminal adipogenic differentiation). The final amount of differentiated adipocytes, cellular triglyceride content and mRNA expression of adipogenic marker genes (adiponectin, FABP4, PPARγ2, LPL) were quantified and compared with corresponding unexposed cells. BPA (10 μM) decreased subsequent adipogenic differentiation of MSC, when cells were exposed during undifferentiated growth. In contrast, DEHP (100 μM) during the hormonal induction period, and TBT (100 nM) in all investigated stages, enhanced adipogenesis. Importantly, exposure of undifferentiated murine embryonic stem cells did not show any effect of the investigated EDC on subsequent adipogenic differentiation.

  2. Heavy metal accumulation by Mosses as affected by roadside pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Hasan Aziz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mosses sampling were collected from 10 sites within the Erbil governorate in October 2015 during dry condition. The samples were air dried and crushed to fine particulates using rotary, then after the heavy metals concentration were determined by XRF spectrophotometer (Sky Instrument Genius. Location Map of selected mosses distribution were made. The results revealed that the mean values of Pb was 52.25mg/kg, of Hg was 0.01mg/kg, of Mn was 162.8mg/kg, of Fe was 1.655%, Cu was 8.27mg/kg, Zn was 162mg/kg, Ti was 851.1mg/kg, Co was 6.28mg/kg, Ni was 57.57mg/kg, As was 6.84mg/kg, Se was 0.19mg/kg and Cr was 9.73mg/kg. The statistical results indicated that there were significant difference (P<0.05 between sites and mosses species. The data obtained in this study was compared with that of WHO standards, the results revealed that the concentration of studied heavy metals were less than of WHO standards.

  3. Differential reflectometry of thin film metal oxides on copper, tungsten, molybdenum and chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, F.K. III; Hummel, R.E.; Verink, E.D. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A differential reflectometry study was undertaken to investigate the characteristics of thin oxide films on metal substrates. The oxides were produced by heating pure metals of copper, tungsten, molybdenum and chromium in dry oxygen. A new 'halfpolishing' technique was applied to obtain specimens with a step in oxide thickness in order to make them suitable for differential reflectometry. It was found that oxides formed this way yielded the same differential reflectograms as by electrochemical oxidation. A mathematical model involving the interaction of light with a thin corrosion product on metal substrates was applied to generate computer calculated differential reflectograms utilizing various optical constants and thicknesses of the assumed film. Three different thickness ranges have been identified. (a) For large film thicknesses, the differential reflectograms are distinguished by a sequence of interference peaks. (b) If the product of thickness and refraction index of the films is smaller than about 40 nm, no interference peaks are present. Any experimentally observed peaks in differential reflectograms of these films are caused entirely by electron interband transitions. (c) In an intermediate thickness range, superposition of interference and interband peaks are observed. (author)

  4. Differential plasma protein binding to metal oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Zhou J; Mortimer, Gysell; Minchin, Rodney F; Schiller, Tara; Musumeci, Anthony; Martin, Darren

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticles rapidly interact with the proteins present in biological fluids, such as blood. The proteins that are adsorbed onto the surface potentially dictate the biokinetics of the nanomaterials and their fate in vivo. Using nanoparticles with different sizes and surface characteristics, studies have reported the effects of physicochemical properties on the composition of adsorbed plasma proteins. However, to date, few studies have been conducted focusing on the nanoparticles that are commonly exposed to the general public, such as the metal oxides. Using previously established ultracentrifugation approaches, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, the current study investigated the binding of human plasma proteins to commercially available titanium dioxide, silicon dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles. We found that, despite these particles having similar surface charges in buffer, they bound different plasma proteins. For TiO 2 , the shape of the nanoparticles was also an important determinant of protein binding. Agglomeration in water was observed for all of the nanoparticles and both TiO 2 and ZnO further agglomerated in biological media. This led to an increase in the amount and number of different proteins bound to these nanoparticles. Proteins with important biological functions were identified, including immunoglobulins, lipoproteins, acute-phase proteins and proteins involved in complement pathways and coagulation. These results provide important insights into which human plasma proteins bind to particular metal oxide nanoparticles. Because protein absorption to nanoparticles may determine their interaction with cells and tissues in vivo, understanding how and why plasma proteins are adsorbed to these particles may be important for understanding their biological responses.

  5. Structural Differentiation between Layered Single (Ni) and Double Metal Hydroxides (Ni–Al LDHs) Using Wavelet Transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebecker, Matthew G. [University of Delaware, Delaware Environmental Institute; Sparks, Donald L. [University of Delaware, Delaware Environmental Institute

    2017-09-07

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are anionic clays important in disciplines such as environmental chemistry, geochemistry, and materials science. Developments in signal processing of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data, such as wavelet transformation (WT), have been used to identify transition metals and Al present in the hydroxide sheets of LDHs. The WT plots of LDHs should be distinct from those of isostructural single metal hydroxides. However, no direct comparison of these minerals appears in the literature using WT. This work systematically analyzes a suite of Ni-rich mineral standards, including Ni–Al LDHs, single metal Ni hydroxides, and Ni-rich silicates using WT. The results illustrate that the WT plots for α-Ni(OH)2 and Ni–Al LDHs are often indistinguishable from each other, with similar two-component plots for the different mineral types. This demonstrates that the WT of the first metal shell often cannot be used to differentiate an LDH from a single metal hydroxide. Interlayer anions adsorbed to the hydroxide sheet of α-Ni(OH)2 affect the EXAFS spectra and are not visible in the FT but are clearly resolved and discrete in the WT.

  6. Deconstructing Positive Affect in Later Life: A Differential Functionalist Analysis of Joy and Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consedine, Nathan S.; Magai, Carol; King, Arlene R.

    2004-01-01

    Positive affect, an index of psychological well-being, is a known predictor of functionality and health in later life. Measures typically studied include joy, happiness, and subjective well-being, but less often interest--a positive emotion with functional properties that differ from joy or happiness. Following differential emotions theory, the…

  7. Quantification of Heavy Metals in Mining Affected Soil and Their Bioaccumulation in Native Plant Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawab, Javed; Khan, Sardar; Shah, Mohammad Tahir; Khan, Kifayatullah; Huang, Qing; Ali, Roshan

    2015-01-01

    Several anthropogenic and natural sources are considered as the primary sources of toxic metals in the environment. The current study investigates the level of heavy metals contamination in the flora associated with serpentine soil along the Mafic and Ultramafic rocks northern-Pakistan. Soil and wild native plant species were collected from chromites mining affected areas and analyzed for heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Fe, Mn, Co, Cu and Zn) using atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS-PEA-700). The heavy metal concentrations were significantly (p soil as compared to reference soil, however Cr and Ni exceeded maximum allowable limit (250 and 60 mg kg(-1), respectively) set by SEPA for soil. Inter-metal correlations between soil, roots and shoots showed that the sources of contamination of heavy metals were mainly associated with chromites mining. All the plant species accumulated significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals as compared to reference plant. The open dumping of mine wastes can create serious problems (food crops and drinking water contamination with heavy metals) for local community of the study area. The native wild plant species (Nepeta cataria, Impatiens bicolor royle, Tegetis minuta) growing on mining affected sites may be used for soil reclamation contaminated with heavy metals.

  8. Thinking versus feeling: differentiating between cognitive and affective components of perceived cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Eva; van Osch, Liesbeth; Lechner, Lilian; Candel, Math; de Vries, Hein

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increased recognition of affect in guiding probability estimates, perceived risk has been mainly operationalised in a cognitive way and the differentiation between rational and intuitive judgements is largely unexplored. This study investigated the validity of a measurement instrument differentiating cognitive and affective probability beliefs and examined whether behavioural decision making is mainly guided by cognition or affect. Data were obtained from four surveys focusing on smoking (N=268), fruit consumption (N=989), sunbed use (N=251) and sun protection (N=858). Correlational analyses showed that affective likelihood was more strongly correlated with worry compared to cognitive likelihood and confirmatory factor analysis provided support for a two-factor model of perceived likelihood instead of a one-factor model (i.e. cognition and affect combined). Furthermore, affective likelihood was significantly associated with the various outcome variables, whereas the association for cognitive likelihood was absent in three studies. The findings provide support for the construct validity of the measures used to assess cognitive and affective likelihood. Since affective likelihood might be a better predictor of health behaviour than the commonly used cognitive operationalisation, both dimensions should be considered in future research.

  9. Colchicine affects cell motility, pattern formation and stalk cell differentiation in Dictyostelium by altering calcium signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poloz, Yekaterina; O'Day, Danton H

    2012-04-01

    Previous work, verified here, showed that colchicine affects Dictyostelium pattern formation, disrupts morphogenesis, inhibits spore differentiation and induces terminal stalk cell differentiation. Here we show that colchicine specifically induces ecmB expression and enhances accumulation of ecmB-expressing cells at the posterior end of multicellular structures. Colchicine did not induce a nuclear translocation of DimB, a DIF-1 responsive transcription factor in vitro. It also induced terminal stalk cell differentiation in a mutant strain that does not produce DIF-1 (dmtA-) and after the treatment of cells with DIF-1 synthesis inhibitor cerulenin (100 μM). This suggests that colchicine induces the differentiation of ecmB-expressing cells independent of DIF-1 production and likely through a signaling pathway that is distinct from the one that is utilized by DIF-1. Depending on concentration, colchicine enhanced random cell motility, but not chemotaxis, by 3-5 fold (10-50 mM colchicine, respectively) through a Ca(2+)-mediated signaling pathway involving phospholipase C, calmodulin and heterotrimeric G proteins. Colchicine's effects were not due to microtubule depolymerization as other microtubule-depolymerizing agents did not have these effects. Finally normal morphogenesis and stalk and spore cell differentiation of cells treated with 10 mM colchicine were rescued through chelation of Ca2+ by BAPTA-AM and EDTA and calmodulin antagonism by W-7 but not PLC inhibition by U-73122. Morphogenesis or spore cell differentiation of cells treated with 50 mM colchicine could not be rescued by the above treatments but terminal stalk cell differentiation was inhibited by BAPTA-AM, EDTA and W-7, but not U-73122. Thus colchicine disrupts morphogenesis and induces stalk cell differentiation through a Ca(2+)-mediated signaling pathway involving specific changes in gene expression and cell motility. Copyright © 2011 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B

  10. Serpentine soils affect heavy metal tolerance but not genetic diversity in a common Mediterranean ant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frizzi, Filippo; Masoni, Alberto; Çelikkol, Mine; Palchetti, Enrico; Ciofi, Claudio; Chelazzi, Guido; Santini, Giacomo

    2017-08-01

    Natural habitats with serpentine soils are rich in heavy metal ions, which may significantly affect ecological communities. Exposure to metal pollutants results, for instance, in a reduction of population genetic diversity and a diffused higher tolerance towards heavy metals. In this study, we investigated whether chronic exposure to metals in serpentine soils affect accumulation patterns, tolerance towards metal pollutants, and genetic diversity in ants. In particular, we studied colonies of the common Mediterranean ant, Crematogaster scutellaris, along a contamination gradient consisting of two differently contaminated forests and a reference soil with no geogenic contamination. We first evaluated the metal content in both soil and ants' body. Then, we tested for tolerance towards metal pollutants by evaluating the mortality of ants fed with nickel (Ni) solutions of increasing concentrations. Finally, differences in genetic diversity among ants from different areas were assessed using eight microsatellite loci. Interestingly, a higher tolerance to nickel solutions was found in ants sampled in sites with intermediate levels of heavy metals. This may occur, because ants inhabiting strongly contaminated areas tend to accumulate higher amounts of contaminants. Additional ingestion of toxicants beyond the saturation threshold would lead to death. There was no difference in the genetic diversity among ant colonies sampled in different sites. This was probably the result of queen mediated gene flow during nuptial flights across uncontaminated and contaminated areas of limited geographical extent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Design and Characterization of a Fully Differential MEMS Accelerometer Fabricated Using MetalMUMPs Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Qu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fully differential single-axis accelerometer fabricated using the MetalMUMPs process. The unique structural configuration and common-centriod wiring of the metal electrodes enables a fully differential sensing scheme with robust metal sensing structures. CoventorWare is used in structural and electrical design and simulation of the fully differential accelerometer. The MUMPs foundry fabrication process of the sensor allows for high yield, good process consistency and provides 20 μm structural thickness of the sensing element, which makes the capacitive sensing eligible. In device characterization, surface profile of the fabricated device is measured using a Veeco surface profilometer; and mean and gradient residual stress in the nickel structure are calculated as approximately 94.7 MPa and −5.27 MPa/μm, respectively. Dynamic characterization of the sensor is performed using a vibration shaker with a high-end commercial calibrating accelerometer as reference. The sensitivity of the sensor is measured as 0.52 mV/g prior to off-chip amplification. Temperature dependence of the sensing capacitance is also characterized. A −0.021fF/°C is observed. The findings in the presented work will provide useful information for design of sensors and actuators such as accelerometers, gyroscopes and electrothermal actuators that are to be fabricated using MetalMUMPs technology.

  12. Design and characterization of a fully differential MEMS accelerometer fabricated using MetalMUMPs technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Peng; Qu, Hongwei

    2013-05-02

    This paper presents a fully differential single-axis accelerometer fabricated using the MetalMUMPs process. The unique structural configuration and common-centriod wiring of the metal electrodes enables a fully differential sensing scheme with robust metal sensing structures. CoventorWare is used in structural and electrical design and simulation of the fully differential accelerometer. The MUMPs foundry fabrication process of the sensor allows for high yield, good process consistency and provides 20 μm structural thickness of the sensing element, which makes the capacitive sensing eligible. In device characterization, surface profile of the fabricated device is measured using a Veeco surface profilometer; and mean and gradient residual stress in the nickel structure are calculated as approximately 94.7 MPa and -5.27 MPa/μm, respectively. Dynamic characterization of the sensor is performed using a vibration shaker with a high-end commercial calibrating accelerometer as reference. The sensitivity of the sensor is measured as 0.52 mV/g prior to off-chip amplification. Temperature dependence of the sensing capacitance is also characterized. A -0.021fF/°C is observed. The findings in the presented work will provide useful information for design of sensors and actuators such as accelerometers, gyroscopes and electrothermal actuators that are to be fabricated using MetalMUMPs technology.

  13. Divalent Metal Ions Induced Osteogenic Differentiation of MC3T3E1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshou; Su, Wenta; Chen, Pohung; Huang, Teyang

    2017-12-01

    Biomaterial scaffolds blended with biochemical signal molecules with adequate osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties have attracted significant interest in bone tissue engineering regeneration. The divalent metal ions can gradually release from the scaffold into the culture medium and then induced osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3E1. These MC3T3E1 cells expressed high activity of alkaline phosphatase, bone-related gene expression of collagen type I, Runx2, osteopontin, osteocalcin, and significantly enhanced deposited minerals on scaffold after 21 days of culture. This experiment provided a useful inducer for osteogenic differentiation in bone repair.

  14. Metal toxicity affects predatory stream invertebrates less than other functional feeding groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liess, Matthias; Gerner, Nadine V.; Kefford, Ben J.

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystem effects of heavy metals need to be identified for a retrospective risk assessment, and potential impacts need to be predicted for a prospective risk assessment. In this study, we established a strong correlation between the toxic pressure of dissolved metals and invertebrate species. We compiled available data from a wide geographical range of Australian streams that were contaminated with heavy metals [mainly copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn)] and the corresponding invertebrate communities. Heavy metal toxicity is positively related to the proportion of predators within the invertebrate community, represented by the predator ratio , with an effect threshold range of 2.6 μg/L - 26 μg/L for Cu and 62 μg/L - 617 μg/L for Zn. These effect concentrations are in the ranges of the concentrations identified in model ecosystems and other field investigations and are just above the existing guideline limits. Heavy metals also affects the taxa richness negatively. Other community measures, such as the evenness, number of EPT (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera) taxa, SPEcies At Risk (SPEAR) pesticides or SPEAR salinity were relatively poorly correlated with heavy metal toxicity in the streams. Therefore, we suggest applying the predator ratio within the community as a starting point for an indicator of the dissolved metal toxicity, the SPEAR metals . - Highlights: • Data on dissolved metals and invertebrates were compiled for a wide geographical range. • Heavy metal toxicity was strongly related to the predator ratio. • Ecologically relevant thresholds identified for Cu and Zn were above the guideline limits. - Increasing metal toxicity for Cu and Zn in streams could be related to an increasing predator ratio within the invertebrate community.

  15. Factors Affecting Differential Equation Problem Solving Ability of Students at Pre-University Level: A Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisha, Bibi; Zamri, Sharifa NorulAkmar Syed; Abdallah, Nabeel; Abedalaziz, Mohammad; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Satti, Umbreen

    2017-01-01

    In this study, different factors affecting students' differential equations (DEs) solving abilities were explored at pre university level. To explore main factors affecting students' differential equations problem solving ability, articles for a 19-year period, from 1996 to 2015, were critically reviewed and analyzed. It was revealed that…

  16. Mixtures of herbicides and metals affect the redox system of honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumarie, Catherine; Aras, Philippe; Boily, Monique

    2017-02-01

    The increasing loss of bee colonies in many countries has prompted a surge of studies on the factors affecting bee health. In North America, main crops such as maize and soybean are cultivated with extensive use of pesticides that may affect non-target organisms such as bees. Also, biosolids, used as a soil amendment, represent additional sources of metals in agroecosystems; however, there is no information about how these metals could affect the bees. In previous studies we investigated the effects of environmentally relevant doses of herbicides and metals, each individually, on caged honey bees. The present study aimed at investigating the effects of mixtures of herbicides (glyphosate and atrazine) and metals (cadmium and iron), as these mixtures represent more realistic exposure conditions. Levels of metal, vitamin E, carotenoids, retinaldehyde, at-retinol, retinoic acid isomers (9-cis RA, 13-cis RA, at-RA) and the metabolites 13-cis-4-oxo-RA and at-4-oxo-RA were measured in bees fed for 10 days with contaminated syrup. Mixtures of herbicides and cadmium that did not affect bee viability, lowered bee α- and β-carotenoid contents and increased 9-cis-RA as well as 13-cis-4-oxo-RA without modifying the levels of at-retinol. Bee treatment with either glyphosate, a combination of atrazine and cadmium, or mixtures of herbicides promoted lipid peroxidation. Iron was bioconcentrated in bees and led to high levels of lipid peroxidation. Metals also decreased zeaxanthin bee contents. These results show that mixtures of atrazine, glyphosate, cadmium and iron may affect different reactions occurring in the metabolic pathway of vitamin A in the honey bee. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Motivation and Affective Judgments Differentially Recruit Neurons in the Primate Dorsolateral Prefrontal and Anterior Cingulate Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemori, Ken-ichi; Amemori, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    The judgment of whether to accept or to reject an offer is determined by positive and negative affect related to the offer, but affect also induces motivational responses. Rewarding and aversive cues influence the firing rates of many neurons in primate prefrontal and cingulate neocortical regions, but it still is unclear whether neurons in these regions are related to affective judgment or to motivation. To address this issue, we recorded simultaneously the neuronal spike activities of single units in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of macaque monkeys as they performed approach–avoidance (Ap–Av) and approach–approach (Ap–Ap) decision-making tasks that can behaviorally dissociate affective judgment and motivation. Notably, neurons having activity correlated with motivational condition could be distinguished from neurons having activity related to affective judgment, especially in the Ap–Av task. Although many neurons in both regions exhibited similar, selective patterns of task-related activity, we found a larger proportion of neurons activated in low motivational conditions in the dlPFC than in the ACC, and the onset of this activity was significantly earlier in the dlPFC than in the ACC. Furthermore, the temporal onsets of affective judgment represented by neuronal activities were significantly slower in the low motivational conditions than in the other conditions. These findings suggest that motivation and affective judgment both recruit dlPFC and ACC neurons but with differential degrees of involvement and timing. PMID:25653353

  18. EDGA amendment of slightly heavy metal loaded soil affects heavy metal solubility, crop growth and microbivorous nematodes but not bacteria and herbivorous nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, L.A.; Bloem, J.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Japenga, J.

    2005-01-01

    Phytoextraction of heavy metals is a promising technology to remediate slightly and moderately contaminated soils. To enhance crops' uptake of heavy metals, chelates such as EDGA are being tested as soil additives. Heavy metal loaded EDGA can affect soil organisms such as bacteria and nematodes in

  19. Heme oxygenase-1 affects generation and spontaneous cardiac differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepniewski, Jacek; Pacholczak, Tomasz; Skrzypczyk, Aniela; Ciesla, Maciej; Szade, Agata; Szade, Krzysztof; Bidanel, Romain; Langrzyk, Agnieszka; Grochowski, Radoslaw; Vandermeeren, Felix; Kachamakova-Trojanowska, Neli; Jez, Mateusz; Drabik, Grazyna; Nakanishi, Mahito; Jozkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Jozef

    2018-02-01

    Cellular stress can influence efficiency of iPSCs generation and their differentiation. However, the role of intracellular cytoprotective factors in these processes is still not well known. Therefore, we investigated the effect of HO-1 (Hmox1) or Nrf2 (Nfe2l2), two major cytoprotective genes. Hmox1 -/- fibroblasts demonstrated decreased reprogramming efficiency in comparison to Hmox1 +/+ cells. Reversely, pharmacological enhancement of HO-1 resulted in higher number of iPSCs colonies. Importantly, elevated level of both p53 and p53-regulated miR-34a and 14-3-3σ was observed in HO-1-deficient fibroblasts whereas downregulation of p53 in these cells markedly increased their reprogramming efficiency. In human fibroblasts HO-1 silencing also induced p53 expression and affected reprogramming outcome. Hmox1 +/+ and Hmox1 -/- iPSCs similarly differentiated in vitro to cells originating from three germ layers, however, lower number of contracting cells was observed during this process in HO-1-deficient cells indicating attenuated cardiac differentiation. Importantly, silencing of Hmox1 in murine ESC using CRISPR/Cas-9 editing also impaired their spontaneous cardiac differentiation. Decreased reprogramming efficiency was also observed in Nrf2-lacking fibroblasts. Reversely, sulforaphane, a Nrf2 activator, increased the number of iPSCs colonies. However, both Nfe2l2 +/+ and Nfe2l2 -/- iPSCs showed similar pluripotency and differentiation capacity. These results indicate that regulation of HO-1 expression can further optimize generation and cardiac differentiation of iPSCs. © 2018 IUBMB Life, 70(2):129-142, 2018. © 2018 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  20. Differential Contribution of Right and Left Amygdala to Affective Information Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans J. Markowitsch

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for a differential involvement of the human left and right amygdala in emotional and cognitive behaviour is reviewed, with a particular emphasis on functional imaging results and case reports on patients with amygdalar damage. The available evidence allows one to conclude that there is definitely a hemisphere specific processing difference between the left and right amygdala. However, between studies the direction of the asymmetry is partly incongruent. In spite of this, the following tentative proposals are made: the left amygdala is more closely related to affective information encoding with a higher affinity to language and to detailed feature extraction, and the right amygdala to affective information retrieval with a higher affinity to pictorial or image-related material. Furthermore, the right amygdala may be more strongly engaged than the left one in a fast, shallow or gross analysis of affect-related information.

  1. Transcription factors SOHLH1 and SOHLH2 coordinate oocyte differentiation without affecting meiosis I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Hyun; Ren, Yu; Suzuki, Hitomi; Golnoski, Kayla J; Ahn, Hyo Won; Mico, Vasil; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2017-06-01

    Following migration of primordial germ cells to the genital ridge, oogonia undergo several rounds of mitotic division and enter meiosis at approximately E13.5. Most oocytes arrest in the dictyate (diplotene) stage of meiosis circa E18.5. The genes necessary to drive oocyte differentiation in parallel with meiosis are unknown. Here, we have investigated whether expression of spermatogenesis and oogenesis bHLH transcription factor 1 (Sohlh1) and Sohlh2 coordinates oocyte differentiation within the embryonic ovary. We found that SOHLH2 protein was expressed in the mouse germline as early as E12.5 and preceded SOHLH1 protein expression, which occurred circa E15.5. SOHLH1 protein appearance at E15.5 correlated with SOHLH2 translocation from the cytoplasm into the nucleus and was dependent on SOHLH1 expression. NOBOX oogenesis homeobox (NOBOX) and LIM homeobox protein 8 (LHX8), two important regulators of postnatal oogenesis, were coexpressed with SOHLH1. Single deficiency of Sohlh1 or Sohlh2 disrupted the expression of LHX8 and NOBOX in the embryonic gonad without affecting meiosis. Sohlh1-KO infertility was rescued by conditional expression of the Sohlh1 transgene after the onset of meiosis. However, Sohlh1 or Sohlh2 transgene expression could not rescue Sohlh2-KO infertility due to a lack of Sohlh1 or Sohlh2 expression in rescued mice. Our results indicate that Sohlh1 and Sohlh2 are essential regulators of oocyte differentiation but do not affect meiosis I.

  2. Psoriatic T cells reduce epidermal turnover time and affect cell proliferation contributed from differential gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junqin; Li, Xinhua; Hou, Ruixia; Liu, Ruifeng; Zhao, Xincheng; Dong, Feng; Wang, Chunfang; Yin, Guohua; Zhang, Kaiming

    2015-09-01

    Psoriasis is mediated primarily by T cells, which reduce epidermal turnover time and affect keratinocyte proliferation. We aimed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEG) in T cells from normal, five pairs of monozygotic twins concordant or discordant for psoriasis, to determine whether these DEG may account for the influence to epidermal turnover time and keratinocyte proliferation. The impact of T cells on keratinocyte proliferation and epidermal turnover time were investigated separately by immunohistochemistry and cultured with (3) H-TdR. mRNA expression patterns were investigated by RNA sequencing and verified by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. After co-culture with psoriatic T cells, the expression of Ki-67, c-Myc and p53 increased, while expression of Bcl-2 and epidermal turnover time decreased. There were 14 DEG which were found to participate in the regulation of cell proliferation or differentiation. Psoriatic T cells exhibited the ability to decrease epidermal turnover time and affect keratinocyte proliferation because of the differential expression of PPIL1, HSPH1, SENP3, NUP54, FABP5, PLEKHG3, SLC9A9 and CHCHD4. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  3. Glomalin in a mediterranean ecosystem affected by mining activities and its contribution to heavy metals sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornejo, P.; Meier, F.; Borie, G.; Borie, F.

    2009-07-01

    Glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP), a glycoprotein produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and usually presents in high amounts in soil, may stabilize heavy metals such as Cu an Zn in soils affected by mining activities, as large areas of central Chile. (Author)

  4. Inhibition of chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans incorporation affected odontoblast differentiation in cultured embryonic mouse molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lipei; Chen, Weiting; Li, Lefeng; Xu, Fangfang; Jiang, Beizhan

    2017-12-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) is an important component of extracellular matrix (ECM), it is composed of a core protein and one or more chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan side chains (CS-GAGs). To investigate the roles of its CS-GAGs in dentinogenesis, the mouse mandibular first molar tooth germs at early bell stage were cultivated with or without β-xyloside. As expected, the CS-GAGs were inhibited on their incorporation to CSPGs by β-xyloside, accompanied by the change of morphology of the cultured tooth germs. The histological results and the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigation indicated that β-xyloside exhibited obvious inhibiting effects on odontoblasts differentiation compared with the control group. Meanwhile the results of immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR for type I collagen, dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein 1 and dentin sialophosphoprotein, the products of differentiated odontoblasts, further proved that odontoblasts differentiation was inhibited. Collagen fibers detected in TEM decreased and arranged in disorder as well. Thus we conclude that the inhibition of CS-GAGs incorporation to CSPGs can affect odontoblast differentiation in cultured embryonic mouse molars.

  5. Thermal Aging Effects on Heat Affected Zone of Alloy 600 in Dissimilar Metal Weld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Jun Hyuk; Choi, Kyoung Joon; Yoo, Seung Chang; Kim, Ji Hyun [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Dissimilar metal weld (DMW), consists of Alloy 600, Alloy 182, and A508 Gr.3, is now being widely used as the reactor pressure vessel penetration nozzle and the steam generator tubing material for pressurized water reactors (PWR) because of its mechanical property, thermal expansion coefficient, and corrosion resistance. The heat affected zone (HAZ) on Alloy 600 which is formed by welding process is critical to crack. According to G.A. Young et al. crack growth rates (CGR) in the Alloy 600 HAZ were about 30 times faster than those in the Alloy 600 base metal tested under the same conditions [3]. And according to Z.P. Lu et al. CGR in the Alloy 600 HAZ can be more than 20 times higher than that in its base metal. To predict the life time of components, there is a model which can calculate the effective degradation years (EDYs) of the material as a function of operating temperature. This study was conducted to investigate how thermal aging affects the hardness of dissimilar metal weld from the fusion boundary to Alloy 600 base metal and the residual strain at Alloy 600 heat affected zone. Following conclusions can be drawn from this study. The hardness, measured by Vickers hardness tester, peaked near the fusion boundary between Alloy 182 and Alloy 600, and it decreases as the picked point goes to Alloy 600 base metal. Even though the formation of precipitate such as Cr carbide, thermal aging doesn't affect the value and the tendency of hardness because of reduced residual stress. According to kernel average misorientation mapping, residual strain decreases when the material thermally aged. And finally, in 30 years simulated specimen, the high residual strain almost disappears. Therefore, the influence of residual strain on primary water stress corrosion cracking can be diminished when the material undergoes thermal aging.

  6. Non-neural androgen receptors affect sexual differentiation of brain and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, D A; Swift-Gallant, A

    2018-02-01

    Although gonadal testosterone is the principal endocrine factor that promotes masculine traits in mammals, the development of a male phenotype requires local production of both androgenic and oestrogenic signals within target tissues. Much of our knowledge concerning androgenic components of testosterone signalling in sexual differentiation comes from studies of androgen receptor (Ar) loss of function mutants. Here, we review these studies of loss of Ar function and of AR overexpression either globally or selectively in the nervous system of mice. Global and neural mutations affect socio-sexual behaviour and the neuroanatomy of these mice in a sexually differentiated manner. Some masculine traits are affected by both global and neural mutation, indicative of neural mediation, whereas other masculine traits are affected only by global mutation, indicative of an obligatory non-neural androgen target. These results support a model in which multiple sites of androgen action coordinate to produce masculine phenotypes. Furthermore, AR overexpression does not always have a phenotype opposite to that of loss of Ar function mutants, indicative of a nonlinear relationship between androgen dose and masculine phenotype in some cases. Potential mechanisms of Ar gene function in non-neural targets in producing masculine phenotypes are discussed. © 2017 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  7. Enrichment, risk assessment, and statistical apportionment of heavy metals in tannery-affected areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Z.; Malik, R. N.; Shinwari, Z. K.; Qadir, A.

    2015-01-01

    Tannery-affected surface soils from 72 sampling sites from industrial area of Sialkot district, Pakistan, were collected and analyzed for nine physicochemical parameters, nine heavy metals, and four macro-nutrients. Most of the soils were poor in organic matter (0.11–2.98 %), basic in nature with p H (7.1–10.6) and electrical conductivity (1.2–17.9 mS/ cm). Mean concentration of total dissolved solids, Cl 1 -, alkalinity, NO 1 -N, salinity, and PO 4 3- was 3,093 mg/L, 6,587, 3,929, 301.3, 10.3, and 1.7 mg/kg. The results showed that concentration of macro-nutrients was in the order: Na[Mg[K[Ca whereas heavy metals followed the order: Cr>Fe>Ni>Mn>Cu>Zn>Co>Pb>Cd. Factor analysis based on principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and correlation analysis identified contribution of metals from tannery effluents, agrochemicals, automobiles exhaust, and natural weathering processes. Tannery-affected soils were enriched with Cd followed by Cr, Pb, Ni, Cu, Co, Zn, and Mn. Geo-accumulation index classified the soil samples in unpolluted tomoderately polluted categories. Metal pollution index provided better estimation of heavy metal pollution as compared to pollution load index. Ecological risk index showed high potential ecological risk associated with Cd and Cr with mean concentrations above respective average shale/ background values. The results are useful for heavy metals source identification, enrichment, risk assessment, and management of tannery-affected soils and can contribute to monitoring programs at regional levels.

  8. The addition of organic carbon and nitrate affects reactive transport of heavy metals in sandy aquifers

    KAUST Repository

    Satyawali, Yamini

    2011-04-01

    Organic carbon introduction in the soil to initiate remedial measures, nitrate infiltration due to agricultural practices or sulphate intrusion owing to industrial usage can influence the redox conditions and pH, thus affecting the mobility of heavy metals in soil and groundwater. This study reports the fate of Zn and Cd in sandy aquifers under a variety of plausible in-situ redox conditions that were induced by introduction of carbon and various electron acceptors in column experiments. Up to 100% Zn and Cd removal (from the liquid phase) was observed in all the four columns, however the mechanisms were different. Metal removal in column K1 (containing sulphate), was attributed to biological sulphate reduction and subsequent metal precipitation (as sulphides). In the presence of both nitrate and sulphate (K2), the former dominated the process, precipitating the heavy metals as hydroxides and/or carbonates. In the presence of sulphate, nitrate and supplemental iron (Fe(OH)3) (K3), metal removal was also due to precipitation as hydroxides and/or carbonates. In abiotic column, K4, (with supplemental iron (Fe(OH)3), but no nitrate), cation exchange with soil led to metal removal. The results obtained were modeled using the reactive transport model PHREEQC-2 to elucidate governing processes and to evaluate scenarios of organic carbon, sulphate and nitrate inputs. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Hand proximity differentially affects visual working memory for color and orientation in a binding task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Shane P; Brockmole, James R

    2014-01-01

    Observers determined whether two sequentially presented arrays of six lines were the same or different. Differences, when present, involved either a swap in the color of two lines or a swap in the orientation of two lines. Thus, accurate change detection required the binding of color and orientation information for each line within visual working memory. Holding viewing distance constant, the proximity of the arrays to the hands was manipulated. Placing the hands near the to-be-remembered array decreased participants' ability to remember color information, but increased their ability to remember orientation information. This pair of results indicates that hand proximity differentially affects the processing of various types of visual information, a conclusion broadly consistent with functional and anatomical differences in the magnocellular and parvocellular pathways. It further indicates that hand proximity affects the likelihood that various object features will be encoded into integrated object files.

  10. Hand Proximity Differentially Affects Visual Working Memory for Color and Orientation in a Binding Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane P. Kelly

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Observers determined whether two sequentially presented arrays of six lines were the same or different. Differences, when present, involved either a swap in the color of two lines or a swap in the orientation of two lines. Thus, accurate change detection required the binding of color and orientation information for each line within visual working memory. Holding viewing distance constant, the proximity of the arrays to the hands was manipulated. Placing the hands near the to-be-remembered array decreased participants’ ability to remember color information, but increased their ability to remember orientation information. This pair of results indicates that hand proximity differentially affects the processing of various types of visual information, a conclusion broadly consistent with functional and anatomical differences in the magnocellular and parvocellular pathways. It further indicates that hand proximity affects the likelihood that various object features will be encoded into integrated object files.

  11. Factors affecting the shear bond strength of metal and ceramic brackets bonded to different ceramic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Alhaija, Elham S J; Abu AlReesh, Issam A; AlWahadni, Ahed M S

    2010-06-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of metal and ceramic brackets bonded to two different all-ceramic crowns, IPS Empress 2 and In-Ceram Alumina, to compare the SBS between hydrofluoric acid (HFA), phosphoric acid etched, and sandblasted, non-etched all-ceramic surfaces. Ninety-six all-ceramic crowns were fabricated resembling a maxillary left first premolar. The crowns were divided into eight groups: (1) metal brackets bonded to sandblasted 9.6 per cent HFA-etched IPS Empress 2 crowns; (2) metal brackets bonded to sandblasted 9.6 per cent HFA-etched In-Ceram crowns; (3) ceramic brackets bonded to sandblasted 9.6 per cent HFA-etched IPS Empress 2 crowns; (4) ceramic brackets bonded to sandblasted 9.6 per cent HFA-etched In-Ceram crowns; (5) metal brackets bonded to sandblasted 37 per cent phosphoric acid-etched IPS Empress 2 crowns; (6) metal brackets bonded to sandblasted 37 per cent phosphoric acid-etched In-Ceram crowns; (7) metal brackets bonded to sandblasted, non-etched IPS Empress 2 crowns; and (8) metal brackets bonded to sandblasted, non-etched In-Ceram crowns. Metal and ceramic orthodontic brackets were bonded using a conventional light polymerizing adhesive resin. An Instron universal testing machine was used to determine the SBS at a crosshead speed of 0.1 mm/minute. Comparison between groups was performed using a univariate general linear model and chi-squared tests. The highest mean SBS was found in group 3 (120.15 +/- 45.05 N) and the lowest in group 8 (57.86 +/- 26.20 N). Of all the variables studied, surface treatment was the only factor that significantly affected SBS (P Empress 2 and In-Ceram groups.

  12. New phenomenological and differential model for hot working of metallic polycrystalline materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellanos, J.; Munoz, J.; Gutierrez, V.; Rieiro, I.; Ruano, O. A.; Carsi, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new phenomenological and differential model (that use differential equations) to predict the flow stress of a metallic polycrystalline material under hot working. The model, called MCC, depends on six parameters and uses two internal variables to consider the strain hardening, dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallization processes that occur under hot working. The experimental validation of the MCC model has been carried out by means of stress-strain curves from torsion tests at high temperature (900 degree centigrade a 1200 degree centigrade) and moderate high strain rate (0.005 s-1 to 5 s-1) in a high nitrogen steel. The results reveal the very good agreement between experimental and predicted stresses. Furthermore, the Garofalo a-parameter and the strain to reach 50 % of recrystallized volume fraction have been employed as a control check being a first step to the physical interpretation of variables and parameters of the MCC model. (Author) 26 refs.

  13. Detection of heavy metal ions in drinking water using a high-resolution differential surface plasmon resonance sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzani, Erica S; Zhang, Haiqian; Chen, Wilfred; Tao, Nongjian

    2005-03-01

    We have built a high-resolution differential surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor for heavy metal ion detection. The sensor surface is divided into a reference and sensing areas, and the difference in the SPR angles from the two areas is detected with a quadrant cell photodetector as a differential signal. In the presence of metal ions, the differential signal changes due to specific binding of the metal ions onto the sensing area coated with properly selected peptides, which provides an accurate real-time measurement and quantification of the metal ions. Selective detection of Cu2+ and Ni2+ in the ppt-ppb range was achieved by coating the sensing surface with peptides NH2-Gly-Gly-His-COOH and NH2-(His)6-COOH. Cu2+ in drinking water was tested using this sensor.

  14. Right Fronto-Temporal EEG can Differentiate the Affective Responses to Award-Winning Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Regina W Y; Huarng, Shy-Peih; Chuang, Shang-Wen

    2018-04-01

    Affective engineering aims to improve service/product design by translating the customer's psychological feelings. Award-winning advertisements (AAs) were selected on the basis of the professional standards that consider creativity as a prerequisite. However, it is unknown if AA is related to satisfactory advertising performance among customers or only to the experts' viewpoints towards the advertisements. This issue in the field of affective engineering and design merits in-depth evaluation. We recruited 30 subjects and performed an electroencephalography (EEG) experiment while watching AAs and non-AAs (NAAs). The event-related potential (ERP) data showed that AAs evoked larger positive potentials 250-1400 [Formula: see text]ms after stimulus onset, particularly in the right fronto-temporal regions. The behavioral results were consistent with the professional recognition given to AAs by experts. The perceived levels of creativity and "product-like" quality were higher for the AAs than for the NAAs. Event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP) analysis further revealed statistically significant differences in the theta, alpha, beta, and gamma band activity in the right fronto-temporal regions between the AAs and NAAs. Our results confirm that EEG features from the time/frequency domains can differentiate affective responses to AAs at a neural circuit level, and provide scientific evidence to support the identification of AAs.

  15. Constraining cosmic scatter in the Galactic halo through a differential analysis of metal-poor stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reggiani, Henrique; Meléndez, Jorge; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Karakas, Amanda; Placco, Vinicius

    2017-12-01

    Context. The chemical abundances of metal-poor halo stars are important to understanding key aspects of Galactic formation and evolution. Aims: We aim to constrain Galactic chemical evolution with precise chemical abundances of metal-poor stars (-2.8 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ -1.5). Methods: Using high resolution and high S/N UVES spectra of 23 stars and employing the differential analysis technique we estimated stellar parameters and obtained precise LTE chemical abundances. Results: We present the abundances of Li, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, and Ba. The differential technique allowed us to obtain an unprecedented low level of scatter in our analysis, with standard deviations as low as 0.05 dex, and mean errors as low as 0.05 dex for [X/Fe]. Conclusions: By expanding our metallicity range with precise abundances from other works, we were able to precisely constrain Galactic chemical evolution models in a wide metallicity range (-3.6 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ -0.4). The agreements and discrepancies found are key for further improvement of both models and observations. We also show that the LTE analysis of Cr II is a much more reliable source of abundance for chromium, as Cr I has important NLTE effects. These effects can be clearly seen when we compare the observed abundances of Cr I and Cr II with GCE models. While Cr I has a clear disagreement between model and observations, Cr II is very well modeled. We confirm tight increasing trends of Co and Zn toward lower metallicities, and a tight flat evolution of Ni relative to Fe. Our results strongly suggest inhomogeneous enrichment from hypernovae. Our precise stellar parameters results in a low star-to-star scatter (0.04 dex) in the Li abundances of our sample, with a mean value about 0.4 dex lower than the prediction from standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis; we also study the relation between lithium depletion and stellar mass, but it is difficult to assess a correlation due to the limited mass range. We

  16. Donor age of human platelet lysate affects proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lohmann

    Full Text Available The regenerative potential declines upon aging. This might be due to cell-intrinsic changes in stem and progenitor cells or to influences by the microenvironment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC raise high hopes in regenerative medicine. They are usually culture expanded in media with fetal calf serum (FCS or other serum supplements such as human platelet lysate (HPL. In this study, we have analyzed the impact of HPL-donor age on culture expansion. 31 single donor derived HPLs (25 to 57 years old were simultaneously compared for culture of MSC. Proliferation of MSC did not reveal a clear association with platelet counts of HPL donors or growth factors concentrations (PDGF-AB, TGF-β1, bFGF, or IGF-1, but it was significantly higher with HPLs from younger donors (45 years. Furthermore, HPLs from older donors increased activity of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-βgal. HPL-donor age did not affect the fibroblastoid colony-forming unit (CFU-f frequency, immunophenotype or induction of adipogenic differentiation, whereas osteogenic differentiation was significantly lower with HPLs from older donors. Concentrations of various growth factors (PDGF-AB, TGF-β1, bFGF, IGF-1 or hormones (estradiol, parathormone, leptin, 1,25 vitamin D3 were not associated with HPL-donor age or MSC growth. Taken together, our data support the notion that aging is associated with systemic feedback mechanisms acting on stem and progenitor cells, and this is also relevant for serum supplements in cell culture: HPLs derived from younger donors facilitate enhanced expansion and more pronounced osteogenic differentiation.

  17. Donor Age of Human Platelet Lysate Affects Proliferation and Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Michael; Walenda, Gudrun; Hemeda, Hatim; Joussen, Sylvia; Drescher, Wolf; Jockenhoevel, Stefan; Hutschenreuter, Gabriele; Zenke, Martin; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The regenerative potential declines upon aging. This might be due to cell-intrinsic changes in stem and progenitor cells or to influences by the microenvironment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) raise high hopes in regenerative medicine. They are usually culture expanded in media with fetal calf serum (FCS) or other serum supplements such as human platelet lysate (HPL). In this study, we have analyzed the impact of HPL-donor age on culture expansion. 31 single donor derived HPLs (25 to 57 years old) were simultaneously compared for culture of MSC. Proliferation of MSC did not reveal a clear association with platelet counts of HPL donors or growth factors concentrations (PDGF-AB, TGF-β1, bFGF, or IGF-1), but it was significantly higher with HPLs from younger donors (45 years). Furthermore, HPLs from older donors increased activity of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-βgal). HPL-donor age did not affect the fibroblastoid colony-forming unit (CFU-f) frequency, immunophenotype or induction of adipogenic differentiation, whereas osteogenic differentiation was significantly lower with HPLs from older donors. Concentrations of various growth factors (PDGF-AB, TGF-β1, bFGF, IGF-1) or hormones (estradiol, parathormone, leptin, 1,25 vitamin D3) were not associated with HPL-donor age or MSC growth. Taken together, our data support the notion that aging is associated with systemic feedback mechanisms acting on stem and progenitor cells, and this is also relevant for serum supplements in cell culture: HPLs derived from younger donors facilitate enhanced expansion and more pronounced osteogenic differentiation. PMID:22662236

  18. Piper and Vismia species from Colombian Amazonia differentially affect cell proliferation of hepatocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizcano, Leandro J; Siles, Maite; Trepiana, Jenifer; Hernández, M Luisa; Navarro, Rosaura; Ruiz-Larrea, M Begoña; Ruiz-Sanz, José Ignacio

    2014-12-30

    There is an increasing interest to identify plant-derived natural products with antitumor activities. In this work, we have studied the effects of aqueous leaf extracts from Amazonian Vismia and Piper species on human hepatocarcinoma cell toxicity. Results showed that, depending on the cell type, the plants displayed differential effects; thus, Vismia baccifera induced the selective killing of HepG2, while increasing cell growth of PLC-PRF and SK-HEP-1. In contrast, these two last cell lines were sensitive to the toxicity by Piper krukoffii and Piper putumayoense, while the Piperaceae did not affect HepG2 growth. All the extracts induced cytotoxicity to rat hepatoma McA-RH7777, but were innocuous (V. baccifera at concentrations Piper genera with opposite effects as a model system to study the mechanisms of the antitumoral activity against different types of hepatocarcinoma.

  19. Neural mechanisms of attentional control differentiate trait and state negative affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura D. Crocker

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present research examined the hypothesis that cognitive processes are modulated differentially by trait and state negative affect (NA. Brain activation associated with trait and state NA was measured by fMRI during an attentional control task, the emotion-word Stroop. Performance on the task was disrupted only by state NA. Trait NA was associated with reduced activity in several regions, including a prefrontal area that has been shown to be involved in top-down, goal-directed attentional control. In contrast, state NA was associated with increased activity in several regions, including a prefrontal region that has been shown to be involved in stimulus-driven aspects of attentional control. Results suggest that NA has a significant impact on cognition, and that state and trait NA disrupt attentional control in distinct ways.

  20. Neural mechanisms of attentional control differentiate trait and state negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Laura D; Heller, Wendy; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Warren, Stacie L; Bredemeier, Keith; Sutton, Bradley P; Banich, Marie T; Miller, Gregory A

    2012-01-01

    The present research examined the hypothesis that cognitive processes are modulated differentially by trait and state negative affect (NA). Brain activation associated with trait and state NA was measured by fMRI during an attentional control task, the emotion-word Stroop. Performance on the task was disrupted only by state NA. Trait NA was associated with reduced activity in several regions, including a prefrontal area that has been shown to be involved in top-down, goal-directed attentional control. In contrast, state NA was associated with increased activity in several regions, including a prefrontal region that has been shown to be involved in stimulus-driven aspects of attentional control. Results suggest that NA has a significant impact on cognition, and that state and trait NA disrupt attentional control in distinct ways.

  1. Variation of Hydroxyapatite Content in Soft Gelatin Affects Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation

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    Fahsai Kantawong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin is a common material used in tissue engineering and hydroxyapatite (HA has a composition and structure similar to natural bone mineral. HA is also used to increase the adhesion ability of scaffolds. The physical and mechanical properties of gelatin, together with the chemical properties of HA, can affect cell differentiation. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the gene expression of human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs upon culturing on gelatin composite with HA. Low amounts of HA were introduced into the gelatin in order to modulate properties of gelatin. Three types of hydrogel were fabricated by glutaraldehyde crosslinking before lyophilization to produce the porous 3D structure: (1 pure gelatin, (2 0.5 mg/ml HA in gelatin, and (3 1 mg/ml HA in gelatin. The fabricated hydrogels were used as scaffolds to cultivate HMSCs for two periods - 24 hours and 3 weeks. The results showed that all types of fabricated hydrogels could be used to cultivate HMSCs. Changes of gene expressions indicated that the HMSCs cultured on the 1 mg/ml HA in gelatin showed neuronal lineage-specific differentiation.

  2. Ambient temperature and genotype differentially affect developmental and phenotypic plasticity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, Carla; Poeschl, Yvonne; Peterson, Tom; Bellstädt, Julia; Denk, Kathrin; Gogol-Döring, Andreas; Quint, Marcel; Delker, Carolin

    2017-07-06

    Global increase in ambient temperatures constitute a significant challenge to wild and cultivated plant species. Forward genetic analyses of individual temperature-responsive traits have resulted in the identification of several signaling and response components. However, a comprehensive knowledge about temperature sensitivity of different developmental stages and the contribution of natural variation is still scarce and fragmented at best. Here, we systematically analyze thermomorphogenesis throughout a complete life cycle in ten natural Arabidopsis thaliana accessions grown under long day conditions in four different temperatures ranging from 16 to 28 °C. We used Q 10 , GxE, phenotypic divergence and correlation analyses to assess temperature sensitivity and genotype effects of more than 30 morphometric and developmental traits representing five phenotype classes. We found that genotype and temperature differentially affected plant growth and development with variing strengths. Furthermore, overall correlations among phenotypic temperature responses was relatively low which seems to be caused by differential capacities for temperature adaptations of individual accessions. Genotype-specific temperature responses may be attractive targets for future forward genetic approaches and accession-specific thermomorphogenesis maps may aid the assessment of functional relevance of known and novel regulatory components.

  3. Interleukin-3 Does Not Affect the Differentiation of Mast Cells Derived from Human Bone Marrow Progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yuji; Matsumoto, Kenji; Okayama, Yoshimichi; Kentaro, Sakai; Maeno, Toshitaka; Suga, Tatsuo; Miura, Toru; Takai, Shinji; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Saito, Hirohisa

    2008-01-01

    Although IL-3 is commonly used for culture of human progenitor-derived mast cells together with Stem cell factor (SCF) and IL-6, the effect of IL-3 on human mast cell differentiation has not been well elucidated. Human bone marrow CD34+ progenitors were cultured for up to 12 weeks in the presence of rhSCF and rhIL-6 either with rhIL-3 (IL-3 (+)) or without rhIL-3 (IL-3 (−)) for the initial 1-week of culture. Total cell number increased at 2 weeks in IL-3 (+), as compared to IL-3 (−), but changes in the appearance of mast cells were delayed. When IL-3 was present for the initial 1-week culture, granules looked more mature with IL-3 than without IL-3. However, tryptase and chymase contents, and surface antigen expression (CD18, CD51, CD54, and CD117) were not altered by IL-3. Surface expression and mRNA level of FcεRIα and histamine release by crosslinking of FcεRIα did not differ from one preparation to the next. GeneChip analysis revealed that no significant differences were observed between IL-3 (+) and IL-3 (−) cells either when inactivated or activated by aggregation of FcεRIα. These findings indicate that initial incubation of human bone marrow CD34+ progenitors with IL-3 does not affect the differentiation of mast cells. PMID:18214796

  4. Metals other than uranium affected microbial community composition in a historical uranium-mining site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitte, Jana; Löffler, Sylvia; Burkhardt, Eva-Maria; Goldfarb, Katherine C; Büchel, Georg; Hazen, Terry C; Küsel, Kirsten

    2015-12-01

    To understand the links between the long-term impact of uranium and other metals on microbial community composition, ground- and surface water-influenced soils varying greatly in uranium and metal concentrations were investigated at the former uranium-mining district in Ronneburg, Germany. A soil-based 16S PhyloChip approach revealed 2358 bacterial and 35 archaeal operational taxonomic units (OTU) within diverse phylogenetic groups with higher OTU numbers than at other uranium-contaminated sites, e.g., at Oak Ridge. Iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria (FeRB and SRB), which have the potential to attenuate uranium and other metals by the enzymatic and/or abiotic reduction of metal ions, were found at all sites. Although soil concentrations of solid-phase uranium were high, ranging from 5 to 1569 μg·g (dry weight) soil(-1), redundancy analysis (RDA) and forward selection indicated that neither total nor bio-available uranium concentrations contributed significantly to the observed OTU distribution. Instead, microbial community composition appeared to be influenced more by redox potential. Bacterial communities were also influenced by bio-available manganese and total cobalt and cadmium concentrations. Bio-available cadmium impacted FeRB distribution while bio-available manganese and copper as well as solid-phase zinc concentrations in the soil affected SRB composition. Archaeal communities were influenced by the bio-available lead as well as total zinc and cobalt concentrations. These results suggest that (i) microbial richness was not impacted by heavy metals and radionuclides and that (ii) redox potential and secondary metal contaminants had the strongest effect on microbial community composition, as opposed to uranium, the primary source of contamination.

  5. Hypoxia and hydrogen sulfide differentially affect normal and tumor-derived vascular endothelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Bianco

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: endothelial cells play a key role in vessels formation both under physiological and pathological conditions. Their behavior is influenced by blood components including gasotransmitters (H2S, NO and CO. Tumor cells are subjected to a cyclic shift between pro-oxidative and hypoxic state and, in this scenario, H2S can be both cytoprotective and detrimental depending on its concentration. H2S effects on tumors onset and development is scarcely studied, particularly concerning tumor angiogenesis. We previously demonstrated that H2S is proangiogenic for tumoral but not for normal endothelium and this may represent a target for antiangiogenic therapeutical strategies. Methods: in this work, we investigate cell viability, migration and tubulogenesis on human EC derived from two different tumors, breast and renal carcinoma (BTEC and RTEC, compared to normal microvascular endothelium (HMEC under oxidative stress, hypoxia and treatment with exogenous H2S. Results: all EC types are similarly sensitive to oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide; chemical hypoxia differentially affects endothelial viability, that results unaltered by real hypoxia. H2S neither affects cell viability nor prevents hypoxia and H2O2-induced damage. Endothelial migration is enhanced by hypoxia, while tubulogenesis is inhibited for all EC types. H2S acts differentially on EC migration and tubulogenesis. Conclusions: these data provide evidence for a great variability of normal and altered endothelium in response to the environmental conditions. Keywords: Hydrogen sulfide, Human microvascular endothelial cells, Human breast carcinoma-derived EC, Human renal carcinoma-derived EC, Tumor angiogenesis

  6. The thiol compounds glutathione and homoglutathione differentially affect cell development in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, Taras; Asard, Han; Potters, Geert; Jansen, Marcel A K

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is an important scavenger of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), precursor of metal chelating phytochelatins, xenobiotic defence compound and regulator of cell proliferation. Homoglutathione (hGSH) is a GSH homologue that is present in several taxa in the family of Fabaceae. It is thought that hGSH performs many of the stress-defence roles typically ascribed to GSH, yet little is known about the potential involvement of hGSH in controlling cell proliferation. Here we show that hGSH/GSH ratios vary across organs and cells and that these changes in hGSH/GSH ratio occur during dedifferentiation and/or cell cycle activation events. The use of a GSH/hGSH biosynthesis inhibitor resulted in impaired cytokinesis in isolated protoplasts, showing the critical importance of these thiol-compounds for cell division. However, exposure of isolated protoplasts to exogenous GSH accelerated cytokinesis, while exogenous hGSH was found to inhibit the same process. We conclude that GSH and hGSH have distinct functional roles in cell cycle regulation in Medicago sativa L. GSH is associated with meristemic cells, and promotes cell cycle activation and induction of somatic embryogenesis, while hGSH is associated with differentiated cells and embryo proliferation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Radionuclides and heavy metal uptake by lolium italicum plant as affected by saline water irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.A.; Aly, A.I.; Helal, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    The use of saline waters to grow crops on increasingly metal polluted soils is becoming a common practice in the arid regions. Nevertheless, the effects of soil and water salinity on radionuclides and heavy metal fluxes in polluted areas are not well understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate in pot experiments the plant uptake of cesium-137, Co-60, Mn-54, Zinc, cadmium and copper from a polluted alluvial aridisol as affected by salt water irrigation. Fertilized soil material was planted in pots with L. Italicum for 18 weeks under greenhouse conditions. The plants were irrigated either with water or with salt solution of variable variable Na/Ca ratio and harvested every 5-7 weeks. In addition to elemental analysis of plants and soil extracts root length was determined by a gridline intersect method and the viable part of the roots was estimated by a root protein inex. Saline (Na) water irrigation increased cobalt-60, manganese-54 and heavy metal solubility in soil, reduced root viability and enhanced the uptake of Co-60, Mn-54, Cd, Cu, Zn and Na by L.italicum and reduced the uptake of Cs-137. Ca counteracted these effects partly. The presented results demonstrated a dual effect of salinity on radiouclides and heavy metal availability to plants and suggest a relationship between root mortality and the enhanced Co-60, Mn-54, and heavy metake ny salt stressed plants

  8. Heavy metal phytoextraction by Sedum alfredii is affected by continual clipping and phosphorus fertilization amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huagang; Li, Tingqiang; Gupta, D K; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiao-E; Ni, Bingnan; Li, Mao

    2012-01-01

    Improving the efficacy of phytoextraction is critical for its successful application in metal contaminated soils. Mineral nutrition affects plant growth and metal absorption and subsequently the accumulation of heavy metal through hyper-accumulator plants. This study assessed the effects of di-hydrogen phosphates (KH2PO4, Ca(H2PO4)2, NaH2PO4 and NH4H2PO4) application at three levels (22, 88 and 352 mg P/kg soil) on Sedum alfredii growth and metal uptake by three consecutive harvests on aged and Zn/Cd combined contaminated paddy soil. The addition of phosphates (P) significantly increased the amount of Zn taken up by S. alfredii due to increased shoot Zn concentration and dry matter yield (DMY) (P phytoextraction of Zn and Cd was observed in KH2PO4 and NH4H2PO4 treatment at 352 mg P/kg soil. The amount of Zn removed by phytoextraction increased in the order of 1st clipping < 2nd clipping < 3rd clipping, and for Cd extraction the order was 2nd clipping < 1st clipping < 3rd clipping. These results indicate that the application of P fertilizers coupled with multiple cuttings can enhance the removal of Zn and Cd from contaminated soils by S. alfredii, thus shortening the time needed for accomplishing remediation goals.

  9. Inhibition of Protein Farnesylation Arrests Adipogenesis and Affects PPARγ Expression and Activation in Differentiating Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Daniel; Akter, Rahima; Duque, Gustavo

    2007-01-01

    Protein farnesylation is required for the activation of multiple proteins involved in cell differentiation and function. In white adipose tissue protein, farnesylation has shown to be essential for the successful differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. We hypothesize that protein farnesylation is required for PPARγ2 expression and activation, and therefore for the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into adipocytes. MSCs were plated and induced to differentiate into adipocytes for three weeks. Differentiating cells were treated with either an inhibitor of farnesylation (FTI-277) or vehicle alone. The effect of inhibition of farnesylation in differentiating adipocytes was determined by oil red O staining. Cell survival was quantified using MTS Formazan. Additionally, nuclear extracts were obtained and prelamin A, chaperon protein HDJ-2, PPARγ, and SREBP-1 were determined by western blot. Finally, DNA binding PPARγ activity was determined using an ELISA-based PPARγ activation quantification method. Treatment with an inhibitor of farnesylation (FTI-277) arrests adipogenesis without affecting cell survival. This effect was concomitant with lower levels of PPARγ expression and activity. Finally, accumulation of prelamin A induced an increased proportion of mature SREBP-1 which is known to affect PPARγ activity. In summary, inhibition of protein farnesylation arrests the adipogenic differentiation of MSCs and affects PPARγ expression and activity. PMID:18274630

  10. Determination of uranium in plutonium--238 metal and oxide by differential pulse polarography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawcett, N.C.

    1976-01-01

    A differential pulse polarographic method was developed for the determination of total uranium in 238 Pu metal and oxides. A supporting electrolyte of 0.5 M ascorbic acid in 0.15 N H 2 SO 4 was found satisfactory for the determination of 500 ppM or more of uranium in 10 mg or less of plutonium. A relative standard deviation of 0.27 to 4.3 percent was obtained in the analysis of samples ranging in uranium content from 0.65 to 2.79 percent. The limit of detection was 0.18 μg ml -1 . Peak current was a linear function of uranium concentration up to at least 100 μg ml -1 . Amounts of neptunium equal to the uranium content were tolerated. The possible interference of a number of other cations and anions were investigated

  11. Factors affecting acceptability of radioactive metal recycling to the public and stakeholders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieves, L.A.; Burke, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    The perception of risk takes place within a cultural context that is affected by individual and societal values, risk information, personal experience, and the physical environment. Researchers have found that measures of open-quotes voluntariness of risk assumption,close quotes of open-quotes disaster potential,close quotes and of open-quotes benefitclose quotes are important in explaining risk acceptability. A review of cross-cultural studies of risk perception and risk acceptance, as well as an informal stakeholder survey, are used to assess the public acceptability of radioactive scrap metal recycling

  12. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes through Integrated Study of Alzheimer's Disease Affected Brain Regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Puthiyedth

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common form of dementia in older adults that damages the brain and results in impaired memory, thinking and behaviour. The identification of differentially expressed genes and related pathways among affected brain regions can provide more information on the mechanisms of AD. In the past decade, several studies have reported many genes that are associated with AD. This wealth of information has become difficult to follow and interpret as most of the results are conflicting. In that case, it is worth doing an integrated study of multiple datasets that helps to increase the total number of samples and the statistical power in detecting biomarkers. In this study, we present an integrated analysis of five different brain region datasets and introduce new genes that warrant further investigation.The aim of our study is to apply a novel combinatorial optimisation based meta-analysis approach to identify differentially expressed genes that are associated to AD across brain regions. In this study, microarray gene expression data from 161 samples (74 non-demented controls, 87 AD from the Entorhinal Cortex (EC, Hippocampus (HIP, Middle temporal gyrus (MTG, Posterior cingulate cortex (PC, Superior frontal gyrus (SFG and visual cortex (VCX brain regions were integrated and analysed using our method. The results are then compared to two popular meta-analysis methods, RankProd and GeneMeta, and to what can be obtained by analysing the individual datasets.We find genes related with AD that are consistent with existing studies, and new candidate genes not previously related with AD. Our study confirms the up-regualtion of INFAR2 and PTMA along with the down regulation of GPHN, RAB2A, PSMD14 and FGF. Novel genes PSMB2, WNK1, RPL15, SEMA4C, RWDD2A and LARGE are found to be differentially expressed across all brain regions. Further investigation on these genes may provide new insights into the development of AD. In addition, we

  13. Heavy metal pollution of coal mine-affected agricultural soils in the northern part of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Mohammad A H; Parvez, Lutfar; Islam, M A; Dampare, Samuel B; Suzuki, Shigeyuki

    2010-01-15

    Total concentrations of heavy metals in the soils of mine drainage and surrounding agricultural fields in the northern part of Bangladesh were determined to evaluate the level of contamination. The average concentrations of Ti, Mn, Zn, Pb, As, Fe, Rb, Sr, Nb and Zr exceeded the world normal averages and, in some cases, Mn, Zn, As and Pb exceeded the toxic limit of the respective metals. Soil pollution assessment was carried out using enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation index (I(geo)) and pollution load index (PLI). The soils show significant enrichment with Ti, Mn, Zn, Pb, As, Fe, Sr and Nb, indicating inputs from mining activities. The I(geo) values have revealed that Mn (1.24+/-0.38), Zn (1.49+/-0.58) and Pb (1.63+/-0.38) are significantly accumulated in the study area. The PLIs derived from contamination factors indicate that the distal part of the coal mine-affected area is the most polluted (PLI of 4.02). Multivariate statistical analyses, principal component and cluster analyses, suggest that Mn, Zn, Pb and Ti are derived from anthropogenic sources, particularly coal mining activities, and the extreme proximal and distal parts are heavily contaminated with maximum heavy metals.

  14. Longevity manipulations differentially affect serotonin/dopamine level and behavioral deterioration in aging Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jiang-An; Liu, Xi-Juan; Yuan, Jie; Jiang, Jing; Cai, Shi-Qing

    2014-03-12

    Aging is accompanied with behavioral and cognitive decline. Changes in the neurotransmitter level are associated with the age-related behavioral deterioration, but whether well-known longevity manipulations affect the function of neurotransmitter system in aging animals is largely unclear. Here we report that serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) level decrease with age in C. elegans. The reduction results in downregulation of the activity of neurons controlled by 5-HT/DA signaling, and deterioration of some important behaviors, including pharyngeal pumping, food-induced slowing responses, and male mating. Longevity manipulations differentially affect the age-related decline in neuronal level of 5-HT/DA. The reduction and resultant behavioral deterioration occur in long-lived worms with defective insulin signaling [daf-2(e1370), age-1(hx546)] or mitochondria function [isp-1(qm150), tpk-1(qm162)], but not in long-lived worms with dietary restriction eat-2(ad1116). A reduced expression level of dopa decarboxylase BAS-1, the shared enzyme for 5-HT/DA synthesis, is responsible for the decline in 5-HT/DA levels. RNAi assay revealed that the sustained 5-HT/DA level in neurons of aged eat-2(ad1116) worms requires PHA-4 and its effectors superoxide dismutases and catalases, suggesting the involvement of reactive oxygen species in the 5-HT/DA decline. Furthermore, we found that elevating 5-HT/DA ameliorates age-related deterioration of pharyngeal pumping, food-induced slowing responses, and male mating in both wild-type and daf-2(e1370) worms. Together, dietary restriction preserves healthy behaviors in aged worms at least partially by sustaining a high 5-HT/DA level, and elevating the 5-HT/DA level in wild-type and daf-2(e1370) worms improves their behaviors during aging.

  15. Fluoxetine Dose and Administration Method Differentially Affect Hippocampal Plasticity in Adult Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawluski, Jodi L.; van Donkelaar, Eva; Abrams, Zipporah; Steinbusch, Harry W. M.; Charlier, Thierry D.

    2014-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications are one of the most common treatments for mood disorders. In humans, these medications are taken orally, usually once per day. Unfortunately, administration of antidepressant medications in rodent models is often through injection, oral gavage, or minipump implant, all relatively stressful procedures. The aim of the present study was to investigate how administration of the commonly used SSRI, fluoxetine, via a wafer cookie, compares to fluoxetine administration using an osmotic minipump, with regards to serum drug levels and hippocampal plasticity. For this experiment, adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided over the two administration methods: (1) cookie and (2) osmotic minipump and three fluoxetine treatment doses: 0, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day. Results show that a fluoxetine dose of 5 mg/kg/day, but not 10 mg/kg/day, results in comparable serum levels of fluoxetine and its active metabolite norfluoxetine between the two administration methods. Furthermore, minipump administration of fluoxetine resulted in higher levels of cell proliferation in the granule cell layer (GCL) at a 5 mg dose compared to a 10 mg dose. Synaptophysin expression in the GCL, but not CA3, was significantly lower after fluoxetine treatment, regardless of administration method. These data suggest that the administration method and dose of fluoxetine can differentially affect hippocampal plasticity in the adult female rat. PMID:24757568

  16. Loss of Gnas imprinting differentially affects REM/NREM sleep and cognition in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Lassi

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that imprinted genes are important in the regulation of sleep. However, the fundamental question of whether genomic imprinting has a role in sleep has remained elusive up to now. In this work we show that REM and NREM sleep states are differentially modulated by the maternally expressed imprinted gene Gnas. In particular, in mice with loss of imprinting of Gnas, NREM and complex cognitive processes are enhanced while REM and REM-linked behaviors are inhibited. This is the first demonstration that a specific overexpression of an imprinted gene affects sleep states and related complex behavioral traits. Furthermore, in parallel to the Gnas overexpression, we have observed an overexpression of Ucp1 in interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT and a significant increase in thermoregulation that may account for the REM/NREM sleep phenotypes. We conclude that there must be significant evolutionary advantages in the monoallelic expression of Gnas for REM sleep and for the consolidation of REM-dependent memories. Conversely, biallelic expression of Gnas reinforces slow wave activity in NREM sleep, and this results in a reduction of uncertainty in temporal decision-making processes.

  17. Formaldehyde Crosses the Human Placenta and Affects Human Trophoblast Differentiation and Hormonal Functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Pidoux

    Full Text Available The chorionic villus of the human placenta is the source of specific endocrine functions and nutrient exchanges. These activities are ensured by the syncytiotrophobast (ST, which bathes in maternal blood. The ST arises and regenerates throughout pregnancy by fusion of underlying cytotrophoblasts (CT. Any anomaly of ST formation or regeneration can affect pregnancy outcome and fetal growth. Because of its direct interaction with maternal blood, the ST is sensitive to drugs, pollutants and xenohormones. Ex vivo assays of perfused cotyledon show that formaldehyde, a common pollutant present in furniture, paint and plastics, can accumulate in the human placenta and cross to the fetal compartment. By means of RT-qPCR, immunoblot and immunocytochemistry experiments, we demonstrate in vitro that formaldehyde exerts endocrine toxicity on human trophoblasts, including a decrease in the production of protein hormones of pregnancy. In addition, formaldehyde exposure triggered human trophoblast fusion by upregulating syncitin-1 receptor expression (ASC-type amino-acid transporter 2: ASCT2. Moreover, we show that formaldehyde-exposed trophoblasts present an altered redox status associated with oxidative stress, and an increase in ASCT2 expression intended to compensate for this stress. Finally, we demonstrate that the adverse effects of formaldehyde on trophoblast differentiation and fusion are reversed by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (Nac, an antioxidant.

  18. Fluoxetine Dose and Administration Method Differentially Affect Hippocampal Plasticity in Adult Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi L. Pawluski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications are one of the most common treatments for mood disorders. In humans, these medications are taken orally, usually once per day. Unfortunately, administration of antidepressant medications in rodent models is often through injection, oral gavage, or minipump implant, all relatively stressful procedures. The aim of the present study was to investigate how administration of the commonly used SSRI, fluoxetine, via a wafer cookie, compares to fluoxetine administration using an osmotic minipump, with regards to serum drug levels and hippocampal plasticity. For this experiment, adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided over the two administration methods: (1 cookie and (2 osmotic minipump and three fluoxetine treatment doses: 0, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day. Results show that a fluoxetine dose of 5 mg/kg/day, but not 10 mg/kg/day, results in comparable serum levels of fluoxetine and its active metabolite norfluoxetine between the two administration methods. Furthermore, minipump administration of fluoxetine resulted in higher levels of cell proliferation in the granule cell layer (GCL at a 5 mg dose compared to a 10 mg dose. Synaptophysin expression in the GCL, but not CA3, was significantly lower after fluoxetine treatment, regardless of administration method. These data suggest that the administration method and dose of fluoxetine can differentially affect hippocampal plasticity in the adult female rat.

  19. Surface coating affects behavior of metallic nanoparticles in a biological environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darija Domazet Jurašin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Silver (AgNPs and maghemite, i.e., superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs are promising candidates for new medical applications, which implies the need for strict information regarding their physicochemical characteristics and behavior in a biological environment. The currently developed AgNPs and SPIONs encompass a myriad of sizes and surface coatings, which affect NPs properties and may improve their biocompatibility. This study is aimed to evaluate the effects of surface coating on colloidal stability and behavior of AgNPs and SPIONs in modelled biological environments using dynamic and electrophoretic light scattering techniques, as well as transmission electron microscopy to visualize the behavior of the NP. Three dispersion media were investigated: ultrapure water (UW, biological cell culture medium without addition of protein (BM, and BM supplemented with common serum protein (BMP. The obtained results showed that different coating agents on AgNPs and SPIONs produced different stabilities in the same biological media. The combination of negative charge and high adsorption strength of coating agents proved to be important for achieving good stability of metallic NPs in electrolyte-rich fluids. Most importantly, the presence of proteins provided colloidal stabilization to metallic NPs in biological fluids regardless of their chemical composition, surface structure and surface charge. In addition, an assessment of AgNP and SPION behavior in real biological fluids, rat whole blood (WhBl and blood plasma (BlPl, revealed that the composition of a biological medium is crucial for the colloidal stability and type of metallic NP transformation. Our results highlight the importance of physicochemical characterization and stability evaluation of metallic NPs in a variety of biological systems including as many NP properties as possible.

  20. Assessment of heavy metal pollution risks in Yonki Reservoir environmental matrices affected by gold mining activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapia, Samuel; Rao, B K Rajashekhar; Sakulas, Harry

    2016-10-01

    This study reports the heavy metal (Hg, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb) contamination risks to and safety of two species of fresh water fish (tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus and carp, Cyprinus carpio) that are farmed in the Yonki Reservoir in the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea (PNG). The upper reaches of the reservoir are affected by alluvial and large-scale gold mining activities. We also assessed heavy metal levels in the surface waters and sediments and in selected aquatic plant species from the reservoir and streams that intersect the gold mining areas. The water quality was acceptable, except for the Cr concentration, which exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) standard for water contamination. The sediments were contaminated with Cd and Cu in most of the sampling stations along the upstream waters and the reservoir. The Cd concentration in the sediments exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency's Sediment Quality Guideline (SQG) values, and the geoaccumulation index (Igeo) values indicated heavy to extreme pollution. In addition, the Cd, Cu, and Pb concentrations in aquatic plants exceeded the WHO guidelines for these contaminants. Between the fish species, tilapia accumulated significantly higher (P < 0.05) Cu in their organ tissues than carp, confirming the bioaccumulation of some metals in the aquatic fauna. The edible muscles of the fish specimens had metal concentrations below the maximum permissible levels established by statutory guidelines. In addition, a human health risk assessment, performed using the estimated weekly intake (EWI) values, indicated that farmed fish from the Yonki Reservoir are safe for human consumption.

  1. Age affects not only metabolome but also metal toxicity in Scenedesmus quadricauda cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kováčik, Jozef, E-mail: jozkovacik@yahoo.com [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); CEITEC—Central European Institute of Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Klejdus, Bořivoj [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); CEITEC—Central European Institute of Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Babula, Petr [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Kamenice 753/5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Hedbavny, Josef [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2016-04-05

    Highlights: • Vitality was lower in old than in young culture and amount of sucrose differed. • Cd stimulated ROS more than Ni in both cultures but NO was not extensively affected. • Cd accumulated more than Ni but old culture contained more Cd and Ni than young. • Phytochelatin 2 strongly increased under Cd and ascorbic acid under Cd and high Ni. • Young culture contained more acids and mainly citrate differed under metal excess. - Abstract: Responses of Scenedesmus quadricauda grown in vitro and differing in age (old culture—13 months, young culture—1 month) to short-term cadmium (Cd) or nickel (Ni) excess (24 h) were compared. Higher age of the culture led to lower amount of chlorophylls, ascorbic acid and glutathione but higher signal of ROS. Surprisingly, sucrose was detected using DART-Orbitrap MS in both old and young culture and subsequent quantification confirmed its higher amount (ca. 3-times) in the old culture. Cd affected viability and ROS amount more negatively than Ni that could arise from excessive Cd uptake which was also higher in all treatments than in respective Ni counterparts. Surprisingly, nitric oxide was not extensively different in response to age or metals. Strong induction of phytochelatin 2 is certainly Cd-specific response while Ni also elevated ascorbate content. Krebs cycle acids were more accumulated in the young culture but they were rather elevated in the old culture (citric acid under Ni excess). We conclude that organic solid ‘Milieu Bristol’ medium we tested is suitable for long-term storage of unicellular green algae (also successfully tested for Coccomyxa sp. and Parachlorella sp.) and the impact of age on metal uptake may be useful for bioremediation purposes.

  2. Age affects not only metabolome but also metal toxicity in Scenedesmus quadricauda cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kováčik, Jozef; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Babula, Petr; Hedbavny, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Vitality was lower in old than in young culture and amount of sucrose differed. • Cd stimulated ROS more than Ni in both cultures but NO was not extensively affected. • Cd accumulated more than Ni but old culture contained more Cd and Ni than young. • Phytochelatin 2 strongly increased under Cd and ascorbic acid under Cd and high Ni. • Young culture contained more acids and mainly citrate differed under metal excess. - Abstract: Responses of Scenedesmus quadricauda grown in vitro and differing in age (old culture—13 months, young culture—1 month) to short-term cadmium (Cd) or nickel (Ni) excess (24 h) were compared. Higher age of the culture led to lower amount of chlorophylls, ascorbic acid and glutathione but higher signal of ROS. Surprisingly, sucrose was detected using DART-Orbitrap MS in both old and young culture and subsequent quantification confirmed its higher amount (ca. 3-times) in the old culture. Cd affected viability and ROS amount more negatively than Ni that could arise from excessive Cd uptake which was also higher in all treatments than in respective Ni counterparts. Surprisingly, nitric oxide was not extensively different in response to age or metals. Strong induction of phytochelatin 2 is certainly Cd-specific response while Ni also elevated ascorbate content. Krebs cycle acids were more accumulated in the young culture but they were rather elevated in the old culture (citric acid under Ni excess). We conclude that organic solid ‘Milieu Bristol’ medium we tested is suitable for long-term storage of unicellular green algae (also successfully tested for Coccomyxa sp. and Parachlorella sp.) and the impact of age on metal uptake may be useful for bioremediation purposes.

  3. Accumulation of distinct prelamin A variants in human diploid fibroblasts differentially affects cell homeostasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candelario, Jose; Borrego, Stacey; Reddy, Sita; Comai, Lucio

    2011-01-01

    Lamin A is a component of the nuclear lamina that plays a major role in the structural organization and function of the nucleus. Lamin A is synthesized as a prelamin A precursor which undergoes four sequential post-translational modifications to generate mature lamin A. Significantly, a large number of point mutations in the LMNA gene cause a range of distinct human disorders collectively known as laminopathies. The mechanisms by which mutations in lamin A affect cell function and cause disease are unclear. Interestingly, recent studies have suggested that alterations in the normal lamin A pathway can contribute to cellular dysfunction. Specifically, we and others have shown, at the cellular level, that in the absence of mutations or altered splicing events, increased expression of wild-type prelamin A results in a growth defective phenotype that resembles that of cells expressing the mutant form of lamin A, termed progerin, associated with Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome (HGPS). Remarkably, the phenotypes of cells expressing elevated levels of wild-type prelamin A can be reversed by either treatment with farnesyltransferase inhibitors or overexpression of ZMPSTE24, a critical prelamin A processing enzyme, suggesting that minor increases in the steady-state levels of one or more prelamin A intermediates is sufficient to induce cellular toxicity. Here, to investigate the molecular basis of the lamin A pathway toxicity, we characterized the phenotypic changes occurring in cells expressing distinct prelamin A variants mimicking specific prelamin A processing intermediates. This analysis demonstrates that distinct prelamin A variants differentially affect cell growth, nuclear membrane morphology, nuclear distribution of lamin A and the fundamental process of transcription. Expression of prelamin A variants that are constitutively farnesylated induced the formation of lamin A aggregates and dramatic changes in nuclear membrane morphology, which led to reduced

  4. Atmospheric Deposition of Heavy Metals in Soil Affected by Different Soil Uses of Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, J. A.; Faz, A.; Martínez-Martínez, S.; Bech, J.

    2009-04-01

    Heavy metals are a natural constituent of rocks, sediments and soils. However, the heavy metal content of top soils is also dependent on other sources than weathering of the indigenous minerals; input from atmospheric deposition seems to be an important pathway. Atmospheric deposition is defined as the process by which atmospheric pollutants are transferred to terrestrial and aquatic surfaces and is commonly classified as either dry or wet. The interest in atmospheric deposition has increased over the past decade due to concerns about the effects of deposited materials on the environment. Dry deposition provides a significant mechanism for the removal of particles from the atmosphere and is an important pathway for the loading of heavy metals into the soil ecosystem. Within the last decade, an intensive effort has been made to determine the atmospheric heavy metal deposition in both urban and rural areas. The main objective of this study was to identification of atmospheric heavy metals deposition in soil affected by different soil uses. Study area is located in Murcia Province (southeast of Spain), in the surroundings of Murcia City. The climate is typically semiarid Mediterranean with an annual average temperature of 18°C and precipitation of 350 mm. In order to determine heavy metals atmospheric deposition a sampling at different depths (0-1 cm, 1-5 cm, 5-15 cm and 15-30 cm) was carried out in 7 sites including agricultural soils, two industrial areas and natural sites. The samples were taken to the laboratory where, dried, passed through a 2 mm sieve, and grinded. For the determination of the moisture the samples were weighed and oven dried at 105 °C for 24 h. The total amounts of metals (Pb, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn, Ni and Cr) were determined by digesting the samples with nitric/perchoric acids and measuring with ICP-MS. Results showed that zinc contamination in some samples of industrial areas was detected, even this contamination reaches 30 cm depth; thus it is

  5. Aging differentially affects male and female neural stem cell neurogenic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Waldron

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Jay Waldron1, Althea McCourty1, Laurent Lecanu1,21The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Canada; 2Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, CanadaPurpose: Neural stem cell transplantation as a brain repair strategy is a very promising technology. However, despite many attempts, the clinical success remains very deceiving. Despite clear evidence that sexual dimorphism rules many aspects of human biology, the occurrence of a sex difference in neural stem cell biology is largely understudied. Herein, we propose to determine whether gender is a dimension that drives the fate of neural stem cells through aging. Should it occur, we believe that neural stem cell sexual dimorphism and its variation during aging should be taken into account to refine clinical approaches of brain repair strategies.Methods: Neural stem cells were isolated from the subventricular zone of three- and 20-month-old male and female Long-Evans rats. Expression of the estrogen receptors, ERα and ERβ, progesterone receptor, androgen receptor, and glucocorticoid receptor was analyzed and quantified by Western blotting on undifferentiated neural stem cells. A second set of neural stem cells was treated with retinoic acid to trigger differentiation, and the expression of neuronal, astroglial, and oligodendroglial markers was determined using Western blotting.Conclusion: We provided in vitro evidence that the fate of neural stem cells is affected by sex and aging. Indeed, young male neural stem cells mainly expressed markers of neuronal and oligodendroglial fate, whereas young female neural stem cells underwent differentiation towards an astroglial phenotype. Aging resulted in a lessened capacity to express neuron and astrocyte markers. Undifferentiated neural stem cells displayed sexual dimorphism in the expression of steroid receptors, in particular ERα and ERβ, and the expression level of several steroid receptors increased

  6. Factors Affecting the Levels of Heavy Metals in Juices Processed with Filter Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengfang; Jackson, Lauren S; Jablonski, Joseph E

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated factors that may contribute to the presence of arsenic and other heavy metals in apple and grape juices processed with filter aids. Different types and grades of filter aids were analyzed for arsenic, lead, and cadmium with inductively coupled plasma-tandem mass spectrometry. Potential factors affecting the transfer of heavy metals to juices during filtration treatments were evaluated. Effects of washing treatments on removal of heavy metals from filter aids were also determined. Results showed that diatomaceous earth (DE) generally contained a higher level of arsenic than perlite, whereas perlite had a higher lead content than DE. Cellulose contained the lowest level of arsenic among the surveyed filter aids. All samples of food-grade filter aids contained arsenic and lead levels that were below the U.S. Pharmacopeia and National Formulary limits of 10 ppm of total leachable arsenic and lead for food-grade DE filter aids. Two samples of arsenic-rich (>3 ppm) food-grade filter aids raised the level of arsenic in apple and grape juices during laboratory-scale filtration treatments, whereas three samples of low-arsenic (filter aids did not affect arsenic levels in filtered juices. Filtration tests with simulated juices (pH 2.9 to 4.1, Brix [°Bx] 8.2 to 18.1, total suspended solids [TSS] 0.1 to 0.5%) showed that pH or sugar content had no effect on arsenic levels of filtered juices, whereas arsenic content of filtered juice was elevated when higher amounts of filter aid were used for filtration. Authentic unfiltered apple juice (pH 3.6, °Bx 12.9, TSS 0.4%) and grape juice (pH 3.3, °Bx 16.2, TSS 0.05%) were used to verify results obtained with simulated juices. However, body feed ratio did not affect the arsenic content of filtered authentic juices. Washing treatments were effective at reducing arsenic, but not cadmium or lead, concentrations in a DE filter aid. This study identified ways to reduce the amount of arsenic transferred to juices

  7. Nanosecond electric pulses differentially affect inward and outward currents in patch clamped adrenal chromaffin cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisha Yang

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of 5 ns electric pulses on macroscopic ionic currents in whole-cell voltage-clamped adrenal chromaffin cells. Current-voltage (I-V relationships first established that the early peak inward current was primarily composed of a fast voltage-dependent Na+ current (INa, whereas the late outward current was composed of at least three ionic currents: a voltage-gated Ca2+ current (ICa, a Ca2+-activated K+ current (IK(Ca, and a sustained voltage-dependent delayed rectifier K+ current (IKV. A constant-voltage step protocol was next used to monitor peak inward and late outward currents before and after cell exposure to a 5 ns pulse. A single pulse applied at an electric (E-field amplitude of 5 MV/m resulted in an instantaneous decrease of ~4% in peak INa that then declined exponentially to a level that was ~85% of the initial level after 10 min. Increasing the E-field amplitude to 8 or 10 MV/m caused a twofold greater inhibitory effect on peak INa. The decrease in INa was not due to a change in either the steady-state inactivation or activation of the Na+ channel but instead was associated with a decrease in maximal Na+ conductance. Late outward current was not affected by a pulse applied at 5 MV/m. However, for a pulse applied at the higher E-field amplitudes of 8 and 10 MV/m, late outward current in some cells underwent a progressive ~22% decline over the course of the first 20 s following pulse exposure, with no further decline. The effect was most likely concentrated on ICa and IK(Ca as IKV was not affected. The results of this study indicate that in whole-cell patch clamped adrenal chromaffin cells, a 5 ns pulse differentially inhibits specific voltage-gated ionic currents in a manner that can be manipulated by tuning E-field amplitude.

  8. Mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and mineralization but not osteogenic differentiation are strongly affected by extracellular pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliefel, Riham; Popov, Cvetan; Tröltzsch, Matthias; Kühnisch, Jan; Ehrenfeld, Michael; Otto, Sven

    2016-06-01

    Osteomyelitis is a serious complication in oral and maxillofacial surgery affecting bone healing. Bone remodeling is not only controlled by cellular components but also by ionic and molecular composition of the extracellular fluids in which calcium phosphate salts are precipitated in a pH dependent manner. To determine the effect of pH on self-renewal, osteogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We selected three different pH values; acidic (6.3, 6.7), physiological (7.0-8.0) and severe alkaline (8.5). MSCs were cultured at different pH ranges, cell viability measured by WST-1, apoptosis detected by JC-1, senescence was analyzed by β-galactosidase whereas mineralization was detected by Alizarin Red and osteogenic differentiation analyzed by Real-time PCR. Self-renewal was affected by pH as well as matrix mineralization in which pH other than physiologic inhibited the deposition of extracellular matrix but did not affect MSCs differentiation as osteoblast markers were upregulated. The expression of osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase activity was upregulated whereas osteopontin was downregulated under acidic pH. pH affected MSCs self-renewal and mineralization without influencing osteogenic differentiation. Thus, future therapies, based on shifting acid-base balance toward the alkaline direction might be beneficial for prevention or treatment of osteomyelitis. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Age affects not only metabolome but also metal toxicity in Scenedesmus quadricauda cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováčik, Jozef; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Babula, Petr; Hedbavny, Josef

    2016-04-05

    Responses of Scenedesmus quadricauda grown in vitro and differing in age (old culture-13 months, young culture-1 month) to short-term cadmium (Cd) or nickel (Ni) excess (24h) were compared. Higher age of the culture led to lower amount of chlorophylls, ascorbic acid and glutathione but higher signal of ROS. Surprisingly, sucrose was detected using DART-Orbitrap MS in both old and young culture and subsequent quantification confirmed its higher amount (ca. 3-times) in the old culture. Cd affected viability and ROS amount more negatively than Ni that could arise from excessive Cd uptake which was also higher in all treatments than in respective Ni counterparts. Surprisingly, nitric oxide was not extensively different in response to age or metals. Strong induction of phytochelatin 2 is certainly Cd-specific response while Ni also elevated ascorbate content. Krebs cycle acids were more accumulated in the young culture but they were rather elevated in the old culture (citric acid under Ni excess). We conclude that organic solid 'Milieu Bristol' medium we tested is suitable for long-term storage of unicellular green algae (also successfully tested for Coccomyxa sp. and Parachlorella sp.) and the impact of age on metal uptake may be useful for bioremediation purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Metal cycling during sediment early diagenesis in a water reservoir affected by acid mine drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, Ester; Ayora, Carlos; Canovas, C. R.

    2013-01-01

    The discharge of acid mine drainage (AMD) into a reservoir may seriously affect the water quality. To investigate the metal transfer between the water and the sediment, three cores were collected from the Sancho Reservoir (Iberian Pyrite Belt, SW Spain) during different seasons: turnover event......; oxic, stratified period; anoxic and under shallow perennially oxic conditions. The cores were sliced in an oxygen-free atmosphere, after which pore water was extracted by centrifugation and analyzed. A sequential extraction was then applied to the sediments to extract the water-soluble, monosulfide......, low crystallinity Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide, crystalline Fe(III)-oxide, organic, pyrite and residual phases. The results showed that, despite the acidic chemistry of the water column (pH

  11. Urban legacies and soil management affect the concentration and speciation of trace metals in Los Angeles community garden soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Lorraine Weller; Jenerette, G. Darrel; Bain, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals in urban soils can compromise human health, especially in urban gardens, where gardeners may ingest contaminated dust or crops. To identify patterns of urban garden metal contamination, we measured concentrations and bioavailability of Pb, As, and Cd in soils associated with twelve community gardens in Los Angeles County, CA. This included sequential extractions to partition metals among exchangeable, reducible, organic, or residual fractions. Proximity to road increased all metal concentrations, suggesting vehicle emissions sources. Reducible Pb increased with neighborhood age, suggesting leaded paint as a likely pollutant source. Exchangeable Cd and As both increased with road proximity. Only cultivated soils showed an increase in exchangeable As with road proximity, potentially due to reducing humic acid interactions while Cd bioavailability was mitigated by organic matter. Understanding the geochemical phases and metal bioavailability allows incorporation of contamination patterns into urban planning. - Highlights: • Road proximity, legacies, and management affect garden soil metal concentrations. • Soil near old houses had high reducible Pb, likely due to lead paint. • Pb, As, and Cd all increased with proximity to road. • As and Cd reacted with organic matter to become more or less bioavailable to crops. - Road proximity, legacies, and management affect garden soil metal concentrations. Soil near old houses had high reducible Pb due to lead paint, while all metals increased near the road

  12. Dietary lipids differentially affect membranes from different areas of rooster sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongalhardo, D C; Leeson, S; Buhr, M M

    2009-05-01

    The present work aimed to compare the effect of dietary flax with other oil sources on rooster sperm membranes and on semen characteristics. White Leghorn roosters (16 per diet) were fed 1 of 4 treatments: control diet (CON), or a diet containing corn oil (CORN), fish oil (FISH), or flax seed (FLAX) as the lipid source. Semen from 4 birds (30 wk old) of each treatment was pooled, the sperm head (HM) and body membranes (BM) were isolated, and lipids were extracted and analyzed. Aspects of lipid composition tested were as follows: percentage of individual fatty acids (C14:0 to C24:1) in total fatty acids, percentage of fatty acid categories [saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated (PUFA), n-3 and n-6 PUFA, and n-6:n-3 ratio] within total fatty acids, and percentage of phospholipids [phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, and sphingomyelin] in total phospholipids. Sperm characteristics evaluated were as follows: volume, concentration, viability, percentage of motile cells, average path velocity, track speed, progressive velocity, lateral head displacement, straightness, and linearity. Diet did not affect membrane phospholipid ratios in either membrane but modified major fatty acids within certain phospholipids. Birds fed FISH and CORN showed, respectively, the highest and the lowest n-3 in sperm, causing reciprocal significant changes in n-6:n-3 ratio. Feeding FLAX caused intermediate effects in n-3, with values significantly lower than FISH but higher than CORN in HM (PC, PE, and phosphatidylinositol) and PC in BM (P < 0.05). In the PE phospholipids, FISH, followed by FLAX, increased n-3 in BM and decreased n-6 PUFA in HM. Sperm concentration was specifically correlated with the amount of 20:4n-6 in FLAX and 22:4n-6 in CON. In FLAX diets, straightness correlated with C18:0, n-3, and n-6:n-3 ratio. Diets containing distinct lipid sources differentially modify the lipid contents of HM and BM, with minor

  13. Maternal and paternal genomes differentially affect myofibre characteristics and muscle weights of bovine fetuses at midgestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruidong Xiang

    Full Text Available Postnatal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass are largely determined during fetal development and may be significantly affected by epigenetic parent-of-origin effects. However, data on such effects in prenatal muscle development that could help understand unexplained variation in postnatal muscle traits are lacking. In a bovine model we studied effects of distinct maternal and paternal genomes, fetal sex, and non-genetic maternal effects on fetal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass. Data from 73 fetuses (Day153, 54% term of four genetic groups with purebred and reciprocal cross Angus and Brahman genetics were analyzed using general linear models. Parental genomes explained the greatest proportion of variation in myofibre size of Musculus semitendinosus (80-96% and in absolute and relative weights of M. supraspinatus, M. longissimus dorsi, M. quadriceps femoris and M. semimembranosus (82-89% and 56-93%, respectively. Paternal genome in interaction with maternal genome (P<0.05 explained most genetic variation in cross sectional area (CSA of fast myotubes (68%, while maternal genome alone explained most genetic variation in CSA of fast myofibres (93%, P<0.01. Furthermore, maternal genome independently (M. semimembranosus, 88%, P<0.0001 or in combination (M. supraspinatus, 82%; M. longissimus dorsi, 93%; M. quadriceps femoris, 86% with nested maternal weight effect (5-6%, P<0.05, was the predominant source of variation for absolute muscle weights. Effects of paternal genome on muscle mass decreased from thoracic to pelvic limb and accounted for all (M. supraspinatus, 97%, P<0.0001 or most (M. longissimus dorsi, 69%, P<0.0001; M. quadriceps femoris, 54%, P<0.001 genetic variation in relative weights. An interaction between maternal and paternal genomes (P<0.01 and effects of maternal weight (P<0.05 on expression of H19, a master regulator of an imprinted gene network, and negative correlations between H19 expression and fetal muscle mass (P

  14. Perturbing phosphoinositide homeostasis oppositely affects vascular differentiation in Arabidopsis thaliana roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gujas, Bojan; Cruz, Tiago M D; Kastanaki, Elizabeth; Vermeer, Joop E M; Munnik, Teun; Rodriguez-Villalon, Antia

    2017-01-01

    The plant vascular network consists of specialized phloem and xylem elements that undergo two distinct morphogenetic developmental programs to become transport-functional units. Whereas vacuolar rupture is a determinant step in protoxylem differentiation, protophloem elements never form a big

  15. Evaluation of remediation techniques in soils affected by residual contamination with heavy metals and arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Carmona, M; Romero-Freire, A; Sierra Aragón, M; Martínez Garzón, F J; Martín Peinado, F J

    2017-04-15

    Residual soil pollution from the Aznalcóllar mine spill is still a problem in some parts of the affected area, today converted in the Guadiamar Green Corridor. Dispersed spots of polluted soils, identified by the absence of vegetation, are characterized by soil acid pH and high concentrations of As, Pb, Cu and Zn. Ex situ remediation techniques were performed with unrecovered soil samples. Landfarming, Composting and Biopiles techniques were tested in order to immobilize pollutants, to improve soil properties and to promote vegetation recovery. The effectiveness of these techniques was assessed by toxicity bioassays: Lactuca sativa L. root elongation test, Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence reduction test, soil induced respiration test, and Eisenia andrei survival and metal bioaccumulation tests. Landfarming and Composting were not effective techniques, mainly due to the poor improvement of soil properties which maintained high soluble concentrations of Zn and Cu after treatments. Biopile technique, using adjacent recovered soils in the area, was the most effective action in the reduction of soil toxicity; the improvement of soil properties and the reduction in pollutants solubility were key to improve the response of the tested organisms. Therefore, the mixture of recovered soils with polluted soils in the areas affected by residual contamination is considered a more suitable technique to reduce the residual pollution and to promote the complete soil recovery in the Guadiamar Green Corridor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. How do leader-member exchange quality and differentiation affect performance in teams? An integrated multilevel dual process model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Alex Ning; Liao, Hui

    2014-09-01

    Integrating leader-member exchange (LMX) research with role engagement theory (Kahn, 1990) and role system theory (Katz & Kahn, 1978), we propose a multilevel, dual process model to understand the mechanisms through which LMX quality at the individual level and LMX differentiation at the team level simultaneously affect individual and team performance. With regard to LMX differentiation, we introduce a new configural approach focusing on the pattern of LMX differentiation to complement the traditional approach focusing on the degree of LMX differentiation. Results based on multiphase, multisource data from 375 employees of 82 teams revealed that, at the individual level, LMX quality positively contributed to customer-rated employee performance through enhancing employee role engagement. At the team level, LMX differentiation exerted negative influence on teams' financial performance through disrupting team coordination. In particular, teams with the bimodal form of LMX configuration (i.e., teams that split into 2 LMX-based subgroups with comparable size) suffered most in team performance because they experienced greatest difficulty in coordinating members' activities. Furthermore, LMX differentiation strengthened the relationship between LMX quality and role engagement, and team coordination strengthened the relationship between role engagement and employee performance. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Rhizosphere Microbial Community Composition Affects Cadmium and Zinc Uptake by the Metal-Hyperaccumulating Plant Arabidopsis halleri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehe, E. Marie; Weigold, Pascal; Adaktylou, Irini J.; Planer-Friedrich, Britta; Kraemer, Ute; Kappler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The remediation of metal-contaminated soils by phytoextraction depends on plant growth and plant metal accessibility. Soil microorganisms can affect the accumulation of metals by plants either by directly or indirectly stimulating plant growth and activity or by (im)mobilizing and/or complexing metals. Understanding the intricate interplay of metal-accumulating plants with their rhizosphere microbiome is an important step toward the application and optimization of phytoremediation. We compared the effects of a “native” and a strongly disturbed (gamma-irradiated) soil microbial communities on cadmium and zinc accumulation by the plant Arabidopsis halleri in soil microcosm experiments. A. halleri accumulated 100% more cadmium and 15% more zinc when grown on the untreated than on the gamma-irradiated soil. Gamma irradiation affected neither plant growth nor the 1 M HCl-extractable metal content of the soil. However, it strongly altered the soil microbial community composition and overall cell numbers. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons of DNA extracted from rhizosphere samples of A. halleri identified microbial taxa (Lysobacter, Streptomyces, Agromyces, Nitrospira, “Candidatus Chloracidobacterium”) of higher relative sequence abundance in the rhizospheres of A. halleri plants grown on untreated than on gamma-irradiated soil, leading to hypotheses on their potential effect on plant metal uptake. However, further experimental evidence is required, and wherefore we discuss different mechanisms of interaction of A. halleri with its rhizosphere microbiome that might have directly or indirectly affected plant metal accumulation. Deciphering the complex interactions between A. halleri and individual microbial taxa will help to further develop soil metal phytoextraction as an efficient and sustainable remediation strategy. PMID:25595759

  18. Short-term acute hypercapnia affects cellular responses to trace metals in the hard clams Mercenaria mercenaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanina, Anna V.; Beniash, Elia; Etzkorn, Markus; Meyers, Tiffany B.; Ringwood, Amy H.; Sokolova, Inna M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •P CO 2 alters accumulation of Cd and Cu in clam cells. •Accumulation of Cd induces release of free Zn 2+ . •Accumulation of Cu induces an increase in free Cu 2+ and Fe 2+ . •Metal-induced oxidative stress is alleviated at high P CO 2 . •Toxicity of Cu in likely enhanced while that of Cd alleviated by high P CO 2 . -- Abstract: Estuarine and coastal habitats experience large fluctuations of environmental factors such as temperature, salinity, partial pressure of CO 2 (P CO 2 ) and pH; they also serve as the natural sinks for trace metals. Benthic filter-feeding organisms such as bivalves are exposed to the elevated concentrations of metals in estuarine water and sediments that can strongly affect their physiology. The effects of metals on estuarine organisms may be exacerbated by other environmental factors. Thus, a decrease in pH caused by high P CO 2 (hypercapnia) can modulate the effects of trace metals by affecting metal bioavailability, accumulation or binding. To better understand the cellular mechanisms of interactions between P CO 2 and trace metals in marine bivalves, we exposed isolated mantle cells of the hard clams (Mercenaria mercenaria) to different levels of P CO 2 (0.05, 1.52 and 3.01 kPa) and two major trace metal pollutants – cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu). Elevated P CO 2 resulted in a decrease in intracellular pH (pH i ) of the isolated mantle cells from 7.8 to 7.4. Elevated P CO 2 significantly but differently affected the trace metal accumulation by the cells. Cd uptake was suppressed at elevated P CO 2 levels while Cu accumulation has greatly accelerated under hypercapnic conditions. Interestingly, at higher extracellular Cd levels, labile intracellular Cd 2+ concentration remained the same, while intracellular levels of free Zn 2+ increased suggesting that Cd 2+ substitutes bound Zn 2+ in these cells. In contrast, Cu exposure did not affect intracellular Zn 2+ but led to a profound increase in the intracellular levels

  19. Differentiation Affects the Release of Exosomes from Colon Cancer Cells and Their Ability to Modulate the Behavior of Recipient Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Donatella; Calapà, Federica; Palmieri, Valentina; Fanali, Caterina; Carbone, Federica; Papa, Alfredo; De Maria, Ruggero; De Spirito, Marco; Sgambato, Alessandro

    2017-07-01

    Exosomes are involved in intercellular communication. We previously reported that sodium butyrate-induced differentiation of HT29 colon cancer cells is associated with a reduced CD133 expression. Herein, we analyzed the role of exosomes in the differentiation of HT29 cells. Exosomes were prepared using ultracentrifugation. Gene expression levels were evaluated by real-time PCR. The cell proliferation rate was assessed by MTT assay and with the electric cell-substrate impedance sensing system, whereas cell motility was assessed using the scratch test and confocal microscopy. Sodium butyrate-induced differentiation of HT29 and Caco-2 cells increased the levels of released exosomes and their expression of CD133. Cell differentiation and the decrease of cellular CD133 expression levels were prevented by blocking multivesicular body maturation. Exosomes released by HT29 differentiating cells carried increased levels of miRNAs, induced an increased proliferation and motility of both colon cancer cells and normal fibroblasts, increased the colony-forming efficiency of cancer cells, and reduced the sodium butyrate-induced differentiation of HT29 cells. Such effects were associated with an increased phosphorylation level of both Src and extracellular signal regulated kinase proteins and with an increased expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-related genes. Release of exosomes is affected by differentiation of colon cancer cells; exosomes might be used by differentiating cells to get rid of components that are no longer necessary but might continue to exert their effects on recipient cells. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Caddisflies as biomonitors identifying thresholds of toxic metal bioavailability that affect the stream benthos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainbow, Philip S.; Hildrew, Alan G.; Smith, Brian D.; Geatches, Tim; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that bioaccumulated concentrations of toxic metals in tolerant biomonitors be used as indicators of metal bioavailability that could be calibrated against the ecological response to metals of sensitive biotic assemblages. Our hypothesis was that metal concentrations in caddisfly larvae Hydropsyche siltalai and Plectrocnemia conspersa, as tolerant biomonitors, indicate metal bioavailability in contaminated streams, and can be calibrated against metal-specific ecological responses of mayflies. Bioaccumulated concentrations of Cu, As, Zn and Pb in H. siltalai from SW English streams were related to the mayfly assemblage. Mayflies were always sparse where bioavailabilities were high and were abundant and diverse where bioavailabilities of all metals were low, a pattern particularly evident when the combined abundance of heptageniid and ephemerellid mayflies was the response variable. The results offer promise that bioaccumulated concentrations of metals in tolerant biomonitors can be used to diagnose ecological impacts on stream benthos from metal stressors. - Highlights: ► Metal concentrations in caddisfly larvae can be calibrated against mayfly ecological responses. ► Cu, As, Zn and Pb concentrations in Hydropsyche siltalai were related to stream mayfly assemblages. ► Mayflies were sparse in high metal bioavailabilities, and abundant in low bioavailabilities. ► Joint heptageniid and ephemerellid mayfly abundance was the most sensitive response variable. ► Copper, arsenic and, in one catchment, lead were the primary stressors limiting mayfly abundance. - Accumulated metal concentrations in tolerant biomonitors can be used to detect and diagnose ecological impacts on freshwater stream benthos from metal stressors.

  1. The filter feeder Dreissena polymorpha affects nutrient, silicon, and metal(loid) mobilization from freshwater sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Jörg; Planer-Friedrich, Britta

    2017-05-01

    Organic sediments in aquatic ecosystems are well known sinks for nutrients, silicon, and metal(loid)s. Organic matter-consuming organisms like invertebrate shredders, grazers, and bioturbators significantly affect element fixation or remobilization by changing redox conditions or binding properties of organic sediments. Little is known about the effect of filter feeders, like the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha, an invasive organism in North American and European freshwater ecosystems. A laboratory batch experiment exposing D. polymorpha (∼1200 organisms per m 2 ) to organic sediment from a site contaminated with arsenic, copper, lead, and uranium revealed a significant uptake and accumulation of arsenic, copper, iron, and especially uranium both into the soft body tissues and the seashell. This is in line with previous observations of metal(loid) accumulation from biomonitoring studies. Regarding its environmental impact, D. polymorpha significantly contributed to mobilization of silicon, iron, phosphorus, arsenic, and copper and to immobilization of uranium (p < 0.001), probably driven by redox conditions, microbial activity within the gut system, or active control of element homeostasis. No net mobilization or immobilization was observed for zinc and lead, because of their low mobility at the prevailing pH of 7.5-8.5. The present results suggest that D. polymorpha can both ameliorate (nutrient mobilization, immobilization of toxicants mobile under oxic conditions) or aggravate negative effects (mobilization of toxicants mobile under reducing conditions) in ecosystems. Relating the results of the present study to observed population densities in natural freshwater ecosystems suggests a significant influence of D. polymorpha on element cycling and needs to be considered in future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Free Vibration Analysis of Fiber Metal Laminate Annular Plate by State-Space Based Differential Quadrature Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. Rahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional elasticity theory by means of a state-space based differential quadrature method is presented for free vibration analysis of fiber metal laminate annular plate. The kinds of composite material and metal layers are considered to be S2-glass and aluminum, respectively. A semianalytical approach which uses state-space in the thickness and differential quadrature in the radial direction is implemented for evaluating the nondimensional natural frequencies of the annular plates. The influences of changes in boundary condition, plate thickness, and lay-up direction on the natural frequencies are studied. A comparison is also made with the numerical results reported by ABAQUS software which shows an excellent agreement.

  3. Short-term acute hypercapnia affects cellular responses to trace metals in the hard clams Mercenaria mercenaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanina, Anna V; Beniash, Elia; Etzkorn, Markus; Meyers, Tiffany B; Ringwood, Amy H; Sokolova, Inna M

    2013-09-15

    Estuarine and coastal habitats experience large fluctuations of environmental factors such as temperature, salinity, partial pressure of CO2 ( [Formula: see text] ) and pH; they also serve as the natural sinks for trace metals. Benthic filter-feeding organisms such as bivalves are exposed to the elevated concentrations of metals in estuarine water and sediments that can strongly affect their physiology. The effects of metals on estuarine organisms may be exacerbated by other environmental factors. Thus, a decrease in pH caused by high [Formula: see text] (hypercapnia) can modulate the effects of trace metals by affecting metal bioavailability, accumulation or binding. To better understand the cellular mechanisms of interactions between [Formula: see text] and trace metals in marine bivalves, we exposed isolated mantle cells of the hard clams (Mercenaria mercenaria) to different levels of [Formula: see text] (0.05, 1.52 and 3.01 kPa) and two major trace metal pollutants - cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu). Elevated [Formula: see text] resulted in a decrease in intracellular pH (pHi) of the isolated mantle cells from 7.8 to 7.4. Elevated [Formula: see text] significantly but differently affected the trace metal accumulation by the cells. Cd uptake was suppressed at elevated [Formula: see text] levels while Cu accumulation has greatly accelerated under hypercapnic conditions. Interestingly, at higher extracellular Cd levels, labile intracellular Cd(2+) concentration remained the same, while intracellular levels of free Zn(2+) increased suggesting that Cd(2+) substitutes bound Zn(2+) in these cells. In contrast, Cu exposure did not affect intracellular Zn(2+) but led to a profound increase in the intracellular levels of labile Cu(2+) and Fe(2+). An increase in the extracellular concentrations of Cd and Cu led to the elevated production of reactive oxygen species under the normocapnic conditions (0.05 kPa [Formula: see text] ); surprisingly, this effect was mitigated in

  4. Spermatogenesis, sperm DNA integrity, and testicular hormonal function are differentially affected following cytotoxic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constine, L.S.; Schwartz, C.; Hobbie, W.; Evenson, D.; Hinkle, A.; Palisca, M.; Smudzin, T.; Centola, G.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Males treated with irradiation (RT) or certain chemotherapeutic (CT) agents are at risk for testicular damage in the form of germ cell injury and hormonal dysfunction. Sperm DNA structural defects or immaturity may affect reproductive potential both in terms of the likelihood for conception and early fetal loss. Preclinical data provoked our hypothesis that patients with subnormal sperm counts due to cytotoxic therapy could be demonstrated to have defective sperm chromatin; we also questioned whether structural abnormalities might be found in the sperm of patients with normal counts. Although the RT dose threshold for ablation of spermatogenesis is known to be below that for hormonal dysfunction, the relative effects of CT are unclear, which suggested the second component of our investigation. Methods: Eligibility criteria included treatment with CT including an alkylating agent, and/or RT with scattered dose to the testes for a cancer not involving the testes, and remission duration of at least 3 years. Of the 15 study patients, 12 received CT (including cyclophosphamide in 7) and 12 received RT (with peripheral testicular doses of 0-169 cGy, and including 4 also treated to the whole brain with doses below that associated with impaired gonadotropin secretion). Sperm number, motility, morphology and pattern of movement were assessed by computer-assisted spermanalysis, and for chromatin structural integrity and maturation using dual parameter flow cytometric (FC) analysis of acid-induced DNA denaturation. The mean age at tumor diagnosis was 14.4 yrs (range 6.5-36; 12 patients were ≤ 19 years old), and at testing was 25.5 yrs (range 18-46), with a mean interval of 9.7 yrs (range 3-21). Results: Only 3 patients (20%) had normal sperm counts (> 20 million/ml), 2 of whom had not received an alkylating agent but had scattered RT testes doses of 41 cGy and 169 cGy, respectively. These 2 patients had impaired sperm motility (13% and 32%, respectively), and the

  5. Does Gender-Specific Differential Item Functioning Affect the Structure in Vocational Interest Inventories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinicke, Andrea; Pässler, Katja; Hell, Benedikt

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates consequences of eliminating items showing gender-specific differential item functioning (DIF) on the psychometric structure of a standard RIASEC interest inventory. Holland's hexagonal model was tested for structural invariance using a confirmatory methodological approach (confirmatory factor analysis and randomization…

  6. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi differentially affect the response to high zinc concentrations of two registered poplar clones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingua, Guido; Franchin, Cinzia; Todeschini, Valeria; Castiglione, Stefano; Biondi, Stefania; Burlando, Bruno; Parravicini, Valerio; Torrigiani, Patrizia; Berta, Graziella

    2008-01-01

    The effects of a high concentration of zinc on two registered clones of poplar (Populus alba Villafranca and Populus nigra Jean Pourtet), inoculated or not with two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus mosseae or Glomus intraradices) before transplanting them into polluted soil, were investigated, with special regard to the extent of root colonization by the fungi, plant growth, metal accumulation in the different plant organs, and leaf polyamine concentration. Zinc accumulation was lower in Jean Pourtet than in Villafranca poplars, and it was mainly translocated to the leaves; the metal inhibited mycorrhizal colonization, compromised plant growth, and, in Villafranca, altered the putrescine profile in the leaves. Most of these effects were reversed or reduced in plants pre-inoculated with G. mosseae. Results indicate that poplars are suitable for phytoremediation purposes, confirming that mycorrhizal fungi can be useful for phytoremediation, and underscore the importance of appropriate combinations of plant genotypes and fungal symbionts. - Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can improve poplar tolerance to heavy metals in phytoremediation programmes

  7. Affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cetinic, M.; Diamanti, J.; Szeman, I.; Blacker, S.; Sully, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter historicizes four divergent but historically contemporaneous genres of affect theory – romantic, realist, speculative, and materialist. While critics credited with the turn to affect in the 1990s wrote largely in the wake of poststructuralism from the perspective of gender and queer

  8. Sampling season affects conclusions on soil arthropod community structure responses to metal pollution in Mediterranean urban soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santorufo, L.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Maisto, G.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess if the period of sampling affected conclusions on the responses of arthropod community structure to metal pollution in urban soils in the Mediterranean area. Higher temperature and lower precipitation were detected in autumn than in spring. In both samplings, the most

  9. Demographic changes and marker properties affect detection of human population differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanichwankul Kittipong

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiating genetically between populations is valuable for admixture and population stratification detection and in understanding population history. This is easy to achieve for major continental populations, but not for closely related populations. It has been claimed that a large marker panel is necessary to reliably distinguish populations within a continent. We investigated whether empirical genetic differentiation could be accomplished efficiently among three Asian populations (Hmong, Thai, and Chinese using a small set of highly variable markers (15 tetranucleotide and 17 dinucleotide repeats. Results Hmong could be differentiated from Thai and Chinese based on multi-locus genotypes, but Thai and Chinese were indistinguishable from each other. We found significant evidence for a recent population bottleneck followed by expansion in the Hmong that was not present in the Thai or Chinese. Tetranucleotide repeats were less useful than dinucleotide repeat markers in distinguishing between major continental populations (Asian, European, and African while both successfully distinguished Hmong from Thai and Chinese. Conclusion Demographic history contributes significantly to robust detection of intracontinental population structure. Populations having experienced a rapid size reduction may be reliably distinguished as a result of a genetic drift -driven redistribution of population allele frequencies. Tetranucleotide markers, which differ from dinucleotide markers in mutation mechanism and rate, are similar in information content to dinucleotide markers in this situation. These factors should be considered when identifying populations suitable for gene mapping studies and when interpreting interpopulation relationships based on microsatellite markers.

  10. Shaping mechanisms of metal specificity in a family of metazoan metallothioneins: evolutionary differentiation of mollusc metallothioneins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atrian Sílvia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The degree of metal binding specificity in metalloproteins such as metallothioneins (MTs can be crucial for their functional accuracy. Unlike most other animal species, pulmonate molluscs possess homometallic MT isoforms loaded with Cu+ or Cd2+. They have, so far, been obtained as native metal-MT complexes from snail tissues, where they are involved in the metabolism of the metal ion species bound to the respective isoform. However, it has not as yet been discerned if their specific metal occupation is the result of a rigid control of metal availability, or isoform expression programming in the hosting tissues or of structural differences of the respective peptides determining the coordinative options for the different metal ions. In this study, the Roman snail (Helix pomatia Cu-loaded and Cd-loaded isoforms (HpCuMT and HpCdMT were used as model molecules in order to elucidate the biochemical and evolutionary mechanisms permitting pulmonate MTs to achieve specificity for their cognate metal ion. Results HpCuMT and HpCdMT were recombinantly synthesized in the presence of Cd2+, Zn2+ or Cu2+ and corresponding metal complexes analysed by electrospray mass spectrometry and circular dichroism (CD and ultra violet-visible (UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Both MT isoforms were only able to form unique, homometallic and stable complexes (Cd6-HpCdMT and Cu12-HpCuMT with their cognate metal ions. Yeast complementation assays demonstrated that the two isoforms assumed metal-specific functions, in agreement with their binding preferences, in heterologous eukaryotic environments. In the snail organism, the functional metal specificity of HpCdMT and HpCuMT was contributed by metal-specific transcription programming and cell-specific expression. Sequence elucidation and phylogenetic analysis of MT isoforms from a number of snail species revealed that they possess an unspecific and two metal-specific MT isoforms, whose metal specificity was

  11. The Differential Effects of Mindfulness and Distraction on Affect and Body Satisfaction Following Food Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Tsai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether engaging in mindfulness following food consumption produced changes in affect and body satisfaction, as compared to a control distraction task. The moderating effects of eating pathology and neuroticism were also examined. A total of 110 female university students consumed food and water before engaging in either a mindfulness induction or a control distraction task. Participants completed trait measures of eating pathology and neuroticism at baseline, and measures of state affect and body satisfaction before and after food consumption, and after the induction. Results revealed that consuming food and water reduced positive affect. Unexpectedly, both the mindfulness group and distraction control group experienced similar improvements in negative affect and body satisfaction following the induction. Eating pathology and neuroticism did not moderate the observed changes. These findings suggest that both mindfulness and distraction may contribute to the effectiveness of treatments for disordered eating that incorporate both of these techniques, such as Dialectical Behavior Therapy.

  12. The Differential Effects of Mindfulness and Distraction on Affect and Body Satisfaction Following Food Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Alice; Hughes, Elizabeth K; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Buck, Kimberly; Krug, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether engaging in mindfulness following food consumption produced changes in affect and body satisfaction, as compared to a control distraction task. The moderating effects of eating pathology and neuroticism were also examined. A total of 110 female university students consumed food and water before engaging in either a mindfulness induction or a control distraction task. Participants completed trait measures of eating pathology and neuroticism at baseline, and measures of state affect and body satisfaction before and after food consumption, and after the induction. Results revealed that consuming food and water reduced positive affect. Unexpectedly, both the mindfulness group and distraction control group experienced similar improvements in negative affect and body satisfaction following the induction. Eating pathology and neuroticism did not moderate the observed changes. These findings suggest that both mindfulness and distraction may contribute to the effectiveness of treatments for disordered eating that incorporate both of these techniques, such as Dialectical Behavior Therapy.

  13. A stochastic differential equations approach for the description of helium bubble size distributions in irradiated metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif, Dariush; Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    2014-12-01

    A rate theory model based on the theory of nonlinear stochastic differential equations (SDEs) is developed to estimate the time-dependent size distribution of helium bubbles in metals under irradiation. Using approaches derived from Itô's calculus, rate equations for the first five moments of the size distribution in helium-vacancy space are derived, accounting for the stochastic nature of the atomic processes involved. In the first iteration of the model, the distribution is represented as a bivariate Gaussian distribution. The spread of the distribution about the mean is obtained by white-noise terms in the second-order moments, driven by fluctuations in the general absorption and emission of point defects by bubbles, and fluctuations stemming from collision cascades. This statistical model for the reconstruction of the distribution by its moments is coupled to a previously developed reduced-set, mean-field, rate theory model. As an illustrative case study, the model is applied to a tungsten plasma facing component under irradiation. Our findings highlight the important role of stochastic atomic fluctuations on the evolution of helium-vacancy cluster size distributions. It is found that when the average bubble size is small (at low dpa levels), the relative spread of the distribution is large and average bubble pressures may be very large. As bubbles begin to grow in size, average bubble pressures decrease, and stochastic fluctuations have a lessened effect. The distribution becomes tighter as it evolves in time, corresponding to a more uniform bubble population. The model is formulated in a general way, capable of including point defect drift due to internal temperature and/or stress gradients. These arise during pulsed irradiation, and also during steady irradiation as a result of externally applied or internally generated non-homogeneous stress fields. Discussion is given into how the model can be extended to include full spatial resolution and how the

  14. A stochastic differential equations approach for the description of helium bubble size distributions in irradiated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seif, Dariush; Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    2014-01-01

    A rate theory model based on the theory of nonlinear stochastic differential equations (SDEs) is developed to estimate the time-dependent size distribution of helium bubbles in metals under irradiation. Using approaches derived from Itô’s calculus, rate equations for the first five moments of the size distribution in helium–vacancy space are derived, accounting for the stochastic nature of the atomic processes involved. In the first iteration of the model, the distribution is represented as a bivariate Gaussian distribution. The spread of the distribution about the mean is obtained by white-noise terms in the second-order moments, driven by fluctuations in the general absorption and emission of point defects by bubbles, and fluctuations stemming from collision cascades. This statistical model for the reconstruction of the distribution by its moments is coupled to a previously developed reduced-set, mean-field, rate theory model. As an illustrative case study, the model is applied to a tungsten plasma facing component under irradiation. Our findings highlight the important role of stochastic atomic fluctuations on the evolution of helium–vacancy cluster size distributions. It is found that when the average bubble size is small (at low dpa levels), the relative spread of the distribution is large and average bubble pressures may be very large. As bubbles begin to grow in size, average bubble pressures decrease, and stochastic fluctuations have a lessened effect. The distribution becomes tighter as it evolves in time, corresponding to a more uniform bubble population. The model is formulated in a general way, capable of including point defect drift due to internal temperature and/or stress gradients. These arise during pulsed irradiation, and also during steady irradiation as a result of externally applied or internally generated non-homogeneous stress fields. Discussion is given into how the model can be extended to include full spatial resolution and how the

  15. A stochastic differential equations approach for the description of helium bubble size distributions in irradiated metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seif, Dariush, E-mail: dariush.seif@iwm-extern.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institut für Werkstoffmechanik, Freiburg 79108 (Germany); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1597 (United States); Ghoniem, Nasr M. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1597 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    A rate theory model based on the theory of nonlinear stochastic differential equations (SDEs) is developed to estimate the time-dependent size distribution of helium bubbles in metals under irradiation. Using approaches derived from Itô’s calculus, rate equations for the first five moments of the size distribution in helium–vacancy space are derived, accounting for the stochastic nature of the atomic processes involved. In the first iteration of the model, the distribution is represented as a bivariate Gaussian distribution. The spread of the distribution about the mean is obtained by white-noise terms in the second-order moments, driven by fluctuations in the general absorption and emission of point defects by bubbles, and fluctuations stemming from collision cascades. This statistical model for the reconstruction of the distribution by its moments is coupled to a previously developed reduced-set, mean-field, rate theory model. As an illustrative case study, the model is applied to a tungsten plasma facing component under irradiation. Our findings highlight the important role of stochastic atomic fluctuations on the evolution of helium–vacancy cluster size distributions. It is found that when the average bubble size is small (at low dpa levels), the relative spread of the distribution is large and average bubble pressures may be very large. As bubbles begin to grow in size, average bubble pressures decrease, and stochastic fluctuations have a lessened effect. The distribution becomes tighter as it evolves in time, corresponding to a more uniform bubble population. The model is formulated in a general way, capable of including point defect drift due to internal temperature and/or stress gradients. These arise during pulsed irradiation, and also during steady irradiation as a result of externally applied or internally generated non-homogeneous stress fields. Discussion is given into how the model can be extended to include full spatial resolution and how the

  16. Statistical aspects of fatigue crack growth life of base metal, weld metal and heat affected zone in FSWed 7075-T651aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Hye Jeong; Haryadi, Gunawan Dwi; Kim, Seon Jin

    2014-01-01

    The statistical aspects of fatigue crack growth life of base metal (BM), weld metal (WM) and heat affected zone (HAZ) in friction stir welded (FSWed) 7075-T651 aluminum alloy has been studied by Weibull statistical analysis. The fatigue crack growth tests were performed at room temperature on ASTM standard CT specimens under three different constant stress intensity factor range controls. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of statistical aspects of fatigue crack growth life on stress intensity factor ranges and material properties, namely BM, WM and HAZ specimens. In this work, the Weibull distribution was employed to estimate the statistical aspects of fatigue crack growth life. The shape parameter of Weibull distribution for fatigue crack growth life was significantly affected by material properties and the stress intensity factor range. The scale parameter of WM specimen exhibited the lowest value at all stress intensity factor ranges.

  17. Study of Plant Cell Wall Polymers Affected by Metal Accumulation Using Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Shi-You [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-03-02

    This project aims to employ newly-developed chemical imaging techniques to measure, in real-time, the concentration, dynamics and spatial distribution of plant cell wall polymers during biomass growth with inoculation of transgenic symbiotic fungi, and to explore a new pathway of delivering detoxified metal to plant apoplast using transgenic symbiotic fungi, which will enhance metal accumulation from soil, and potentially these metals may in turn be used as catalysts to improve the efficiency of biomass conversion to biofuels. The proposed new pathway of biomass production will: 1) benefit metal and radionuclide contaminant mobility in subsurface environments, and 2) potentially improve biomass production and process for bioenergy

  18. Detection of differentially expressed genes in broiler pectoralis major muscle affected by White Striping - Wooden Breast myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambonelli, Paolo; Zappaterra, Martina; Soglia, Francesca; Petracci, Massimiliano; Sirri, Federico; Cavani, Claudio; Davoli, Roberta

    2016-12-01

    White Striping and Wooden Breast (WS/WB) are abnormalities increasingly occurring in the fillets of high breast yield and growth rate chicken hybrids. These defects lead to consistent economic losses for poultry meat industry, as affected broiler fillets present an impaired visual appearance that negatively affects consumers' acceptability. Previous studies have highlighted in affected fillets a severely damaged muscle, showing profound inflammation, fibrosis, and lipidosis. The present study investigated the differentially expressed genes and pathways linked to the compositional changes observed in WS/WB breast muscles, in order to outline a more complete framework of the gene networks related to the occurrence of this complex pathological picture. The biochemical composition was performed on 20 pectoralis major samples obtained from high breast yield and growth rate broilers (10 affected vs. 10 normal) and 12 out of the 20 samples were used for the microarray gene expression profiling (6 affected vs. 6 normal). The obtained results indicate strong changes in muscle mineral composition, coupled to an increased deposition of fat. In addition, 204 differentially expressed genes (DEG) were found: 102 up-regulated and 102 down-regulated in affected breasts. The gene expression pathways found more altered in WS/WB muscles are those related to muscle development, polysaccharide metabolic processes, proteoglycans synthesis, inflammation, and calcium signaling pathway. On the whole, the findings suggest that a multifactorial and complex etiology is associated with the occurrence of WS/WB muscle abnormalities, contributing to further defining the transcription patterns associated with these myopathies. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Mineralogical characteristics of sediments and heavy metal mobilization along a river watershed affected by acid mine drainage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Xie

    Full Text Available Trace-element concentrations in acid mine drainage (AMD are primarily controlled by the mineralogy at the sediment-water interface. Results are presented for a combined geochemical and mineralogical survey of Dabaoshan Mine, South China. Developed sequential extraction experiments with the analysis of the main mineralogical phases by semi-quantitative XRD, differential X-ray diffraction (DXRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were conducted to identify the quantitative relationship between iron minerals and heavy metals. Results showed that schwertmannite, jarosite, goethite and ferrihydrite were the dominant Fe-oxyhydroxide minerals which were detected alternately in the surface sediment with the increasing pH from 2.50 to 6.93 along the Hengshi River. Decreasing contents of schwertmannite ranging from 35 wt % to 6.5 wt % were detected along the Hengshi River, which was corresponding to the decreasing metal contents. The easily reducible fractions exert higher affinity of metals while compared with reducible and relatively stable minerals. A qualitative analysis of heavy metals extracted from the sediments indicated that the retention ability varied: Pb > Mn > Zn > As ≈ Cu > Cr > Cd ≈ Ni. Results in this study are avail for understanding the fate and transport of heavy metals associated with iron minerals and establishing the remediation strategies of AMD systems.

  20. Mineralogical characteristics of sediments and heavy metal mobilization along a river watershed affected by acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yingying; Lu, Guining; Yang, Chengfang; Qu, Lu; Chen, Meiqin; Guo, Chuling; Dang, Zhi

    2018-01-01

    Trace-element concentrations in acid mine drainage (AMD) are primarily controlled by the mineralogy at the sediment-water interface. Results are presented for a combined geochemical and mineralogical survey of Dabaoshan Mine, South China. Developed sequential extraction experiments with the analysis of the main mineralogical phases by semi-quantitative XRD, differential X-ray diffraction (DXRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were conducted to identify the quantitative relationship between iron minerals and heavy metals. Results showed that schwertmannite, jarosite, goethite and ferrihydrite were the dominant Fe-oxyhydroxide minerals which were detected alternately in the surface sediment with the increasing pH from 2.50 to 6.93 along the Hengshi River. Decreasing contents of schwertmannite ranging from 35 wt % to 6.5 wt % were detected along the Hengshi River, which was corresponding to the decreasing metal contents. The easily reducible fractions exert higher affinity of metals while compared with reducible and relatively stable minerals. A qualitative analysis of heavy metals extracted from the sediments indicated that the retention ability varied: Pb > Mn > Zn > As ≈ Cu > Cr > Cd ≈ Ni. Results in this study are avail for understanding the fate and transport of heavy metals associated with iron minerals and establishing the remediation strategies of AMD systems.

  1. Dying for a smoke: how much does differential mortality of smokers affect estimated life-course smoking prevalence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulou, Rebekka; Han, Jeffrey; Jaber, Ahmed; Lillard, Dean R

    2011-01-01

    An extensive literature uses reconstructed historical smoking rates by birth-cohort to inform anti-smoking policies. This paper examines whether and how these rates change when one adjusts for differential mortality of smokers and non-smokers. Using retrospectively reported data from the US (Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 1986, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2005), the UK (British Household Panel Survey, 1999, 2002), and Russia (Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Study, 2000), we generate life-course smoking prevalence rates by age-cohort. With cause-specific death rates from secondary sources and an improved method, we correct for differential mortality, and we test whether adjusted and unadjusted rates statistically differ. With US data (National Health Interview Survey, 1967-2004), we also compare contemporaneously measured smoking prevalence rates with the equivalent rates from retrospective data. We find that differential mortality matters only for men. For Russian men over age 70 and US and UK men over age 80 unadjusted smoking prevalence understates the true prevalence. The results using retrospective and contemporaneous data are similar. Differential mortality bias affects our understanding of smoking habits of old cohorts and, therefore, of inter-generational patterns of smoking. Unless one focuses on the young, policy recommendations based on unadjusted smoking rates may be misleading. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of essential amino acids on enteroids: Methionine deprivation suppresses proliferation and affects differentiation in enteroid stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Yuki; Iwatsuki, Ken; Hanyu, Hikaru; Maruyama, Natsuki; Aihara, Eitaro; Tadaishi, Miki; Shimizu, Makoto; Kobayashi-Hattori, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of essential amino acids on intestinal stem cell proliferation and differentiation using murine small intestinal organoids (enteroids) from the jejunum. By selectively removing individual essential amino acids from culture medium, we found that 24 h of methionine (Met) deprivation markedly suppressed cell proliferation in enteroids. This effect was rescued when enteroids cultured in Met deprivation media for 12 h were transferred to complete medium, suggesting that Met plays an important role in enteroid cell proliferation. In addition, mRNA levels of the stem cell marker leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) decreased in enteroids grown in Met deprivation conditions. Consistent with this observation, Met deprivation also attenuated Lgr5-EGFP fluorescence intensity in enteroids. In contrast, Met deprivation enhanced mRNA levels of the enteroendocrine cell marker chromogranin A (ChgA) and markers of K cells, enterochromaffin cells, goblet cells, and Paneth cells. Immunofluorescence experiments demonstrated that Met deprivation led to an increase in the number of ChgA-positive cells. These results suggest that Met deprivation suppresses stem cell proliferation, thereby promoting differentiation. In conclusion, Met is an important nutrient in the maintenance of intestinal stem cells and Met deprivation potentially affects cell differentiation. - Highlights: • Met influences the proliferation of enteroids. • Met plays a crucial role in the maintenance of stem cells. • Met deprivation potentially promotes differentiation into secretory cells.

  3. An infection of human adenovirus 31 affects the differentiation of preadipocytes into fat cells, its metabolic profile and fat accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bil-Lula, Iwona; Krzywonos-Zawadzka, Anna; Sawicki, Grzegorz; Woźniak, Mieczysław

    2016-03-01

    The primary issue undertaken in this study was to test the hypothesis that preadipocytes would have intrinsically elevated propensity to differentiate into mature adipocytes due to HAdV31 infection. To prove that, the metabolic and molecular mechanisms responsible for HAdV31-induced adipogenesis were examined. 3T3L1 cells (mouse embryonic fibroblast, adipose like cell line) were used as a surrogate model to analyze an increased proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of preadipocytes infected with human adenovirus. An expression of E4orf1, C/EBP-β, PPAR-γ, GAPDH, aP2, LEP, and fatty acid synthase genes, intracellular lipid accumulation as well as cytokine release from the fat cells were assessed. Data showed that HAdV31 increased an expression of C/EBP-β and PPAR-γ genes leading to an enhanced differentiation of preadipocytes into fat cells. Besides, overexpression of GAPDH and fatty acid synthase, and decreased expression of leptin caused an increased accumulation of intracellular lipids. Secretion of TNF-α and IL-6 from HAdV31-infected cells was strongly decreased, leading to unlimited virus replication. The results obtained from this study provided the evidences that HAdV31, likewise previously documented HAdV36, is a subsequent human adenovirus affecting the differentiation and lipid accumulation of 3T3L1 cells. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Habitat Fragmentation Differentially Affects Genetic Variation, Phenotypic Plasticity and Survival in Populations of a Gypsum Endemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Matesanz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation, i.e., fragment size and isolation, can differentially alter patterns of neutral and quantitative genetic variation, fitness and phenotypic plasticity of plant populations, but their effects have rarely been tested simultaneously. We assessed the combined effects of size and connectivity on these aspects of genetic and phenotypic variation in populations of Centaurea hyssopifolia, a narrow endemic gypsophile that previously showed performance differences associated with fragmentation. We grew 111 maternal families sampled from 10 populations that differed in their fragment size and connectivity in a common garden, and characterized quantitative genetic variation, phenotypic plasticity to drought for key functional traits, and plant survival, as a measure of population fitness. We also assessed neutral genetic variation within and among populations using eight microsatellite markers. Although C. hyssopifolia is a narrow endemic gypsophile, we found substantial neutral genetic variation and quantitative variation for key functional traits. The partition of genetic variance indicated that a higher proportion of variation was found within populations, which is also consistent with low population differentiation in molecular markers, functional traits and their plasticity. This, combined with the generally small effect of habitat fragmentation suggests that gene flow among populations is not restricted, despite large differences in fragment size and isolation. Importantly, population’s similarities in genetic variation and plasticity did not reflect the lower survival observed in isolated populations. Overall, our results indicate that, although the species consists of genetically variable populations able to express functional plasticity, such aspects of adaptive potential may not always reflect populations’ survival. Given the differential effects of habitat connectivity on functional traits, genetic variation and fitness

  5. GENDER DIFFERENTIALS IN FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE OF SMALL-SCALE ENTERPRISES IN LAGOS STATE – NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuff Olabisi Sherifat

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of empirical data segregation on factors affecting gender as the variable of interest. However, previous research had indicated several factors that affect business performances among small-scale enterprise owners. Using feminist theory and a descriptive survey research design, data were collected from fifty (50 small-scale enterprise owners that were purposively chosen across the study area. The findings show that the factors that were significant for female were significantly different from male. For female small scale enterprise owners, marital status (64% Age of Children (68%, Role Model/ advisors (58% were significant factors that affect their business performance. For male small-scale enterprise owners, Friends (70%, a lack of Government support (80%, inability to display innovativeness (78% and Risk-Taking (84% were significant for male. Lack of availability of capital and finances were significant for the two. Other factors that affect performance include friends, inadequate training and business location. Adequate knowledge of factors that affect gender enterprise performance will go a long way in alleviating these problems. Small-scale enterprises should be supported for poverty alleviation, especially among women and for the nation’s economic development

  6. Geochemical behavior of metals and metalloids in an estuary affected by acid mine drainage (AMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hierro, A; Olías, M; Ketterer, M E; Vaca, F; Borrego, J; Cánovas, C R; Bolivar, J P

    2014-02-01

    The Tinto and Odiel rivers in southwest Spain drain the world's largest sulfide mineral formation: the Iberian Pyrite Belt which has been worked since 2,500 BC. The Tinto and Odiel estuarine zones include both an extensive area of salt marsh and an intensively industrialized urban area. As a consequence of pyrite oxidation, the Tinto and Odiel rivers are strongly acidic (pH major and trace elements were determined in the acid mine drainage affected estuary of the Ría de Huelva. During estuarine mixing, ore-derived metal concentrations exhibit excellent correlations with pH as the main controlling parameter. As pH increases, concentrations of dissolved ore-associated elements are attenuated, and this process is enhanced during the summer months. The decrease in Fe and Al concentrations ranged from 80 to 100 % as these elements are converted from dissolved to sediment-associated forms in the estuary. Coprecipitation/adsorption processes also removed between 60 and 90 % of the originally dissolved Co, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn, and Th; however, Cd and Ni exhibited a greater propensity to remain in solution, with an average removal of approximately 60 %. On the other hand, As and U exhibited a different behavior; it is likely that these elements remain in dissolved forms because of the formation of U carbonates and soluble As species. Concentrations of As remain at elevated levels in the outer estuary (average = 48 μg L(-1)) which exceeds concentrations present in the Tinto River. Nevertheless, the estuary has recently witnessed improvements in water quality, as compared to results of several previous studies reported in the 1990s.

  7. Innate and adaptive immune traits are differentially affected by genetic and environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangino, Massimo; Roederer, Mario; Beddall, Margaret H.; Nestle, Frank O.; Spector, Tim D.

    2017-01-01

    The diversity and activity of leukocytes is controlled by genetic and environmental influences to maintain balanced immune responses. However, the relative contribution of environmental compared with genetic factors that affect variations in immune traits is unknown. Here we analyse 23,394 immune phenotypes in 497 adult female twins. 76% of these traits show a predominantly heritable influence, whereas 24% are mostly influenced by environment. These data highlight the importance of shared childhood environmental influences such as diet, infections or microbes in shaping immune homeostasis for monocytes, B1 cells, γδ T cells and NKT cells, whereas dendritic cells, B2 cells, CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells are more influenced by genetics. Although leukocyte subsets are influenced by genetics and environment, adaptive immune traits are more affected by genetics, whereas innate immune traits are more affected by environment. PMID:28054551

  8. Migration and speciation of heavy metal in salinized mine tailings affected by iron mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Yang, Huanhuan; Cui, Zhaojie

    2017-10-01

    The negative effects of heavy metals have aroused much attention due to their high toxicity to human beings. Migration and transformation trend of heavy metals have a close relationship with soil safety. Researching on migration and transformation of heavy metals in tailings can provide a reliable basis for pollution management and ecosystem restoration. Heavy metal speciation plays an important role in risk assessment. We chose Anshan tailings for our study, including field investigations and laboratory research. Four typical heavy metal elements of mine tailings {Fe (373.89 g/kg), Mn (2,303.80 mg/kg), Pb (40.99 mg/kg) and Cr (199.92 mg/kg)} were studied via Tessier test in vertical and horizontal direction. The main speciation of heavy metals in Anshan tailings was the residual. However, heavy metals have a strong ability for migration and transformation in vertical and horizontal directions. Its tendency to change from stable to unstable speciation results in increasing bioavailability and potential bioavailability. Fe, Mn, Pb and Cr showed different ability in the migration and transformation process (Mn > Pb > Fe > Cr) depending on the characteristics of heavy metals and physicochemical properties of the environment.

  9. Parameters affecting the determination of paraquat at silver rotating electrodes using differential pulse voltammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Farahi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical determination of aqueous paraquat PQ(II by differential pulse voltammetry at a solid rotating silver electrode (RSE is described. The aim of this work is to optimize all factors that can influence this determination. Potential wave forms, potential scan parameters and deposition time were examined for their effect on the paraquat peak shape and intensity. The best responses were obtained with differential pulse voltammetry in 0.1 mol L−1 Na2SO4 as supporting electrolyte using amplitude 50 mV, scan increment 5 mV, deposition time 120 s, frequency 50 s−1 and step amplitude 0.05 V. Electrochemical and mechanical surface cleaning, aimed at removing the amount of paraquat deposited onto the silver surface, were necessary for obtaining a good performance of the electrode. Response linearity, repeatability, accuracy and detection limit were also evaluated. The obtained detection limits were 7.1 × 10−9 mol L−1 and 2.8 × 10−9 mol L−1 for peak 1 and peak 2 respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD was found to be 1.19% in 1.0 × 10−4 mol L−1 paraquat. The applicability of the RSE for PQ(II determination in milk samples, without any sample pretreatment, was successfully demonstrated.

  10. Biogas production as affected by heavy metals in the anaerobic digestion of sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein I. Abdel-Shafy

    2014-12-01

    The sewage sludge samples were separated from the sewage water of the pilot plant at the National Research Centre, TDC site. The effect of heavy metals on the biogas production of the anaerobic digester was studied. The inhibitory effect on the biogas production and toxic level of metals was determined in this study. The general ranking of heavy metal toxicity appears to be Hg > Cd > Cr (III. The present investigation reveals that heavy metals in addition to the anaerobic digester decreased the biogas production as an indication of efficiency of the process. A significant decrease in gas production and volatile organic matter removal was obtained. It was also noted that an accumulation of organic acid intermediates was obtained as a result of methanogenic bacterial inhibition. This accumulation was limited during the pulse feed of metals. This is due to the rapid poisoning of the active bacterial forms in the digester.

  11. Mismatch in working hours and affective commitment : Differential relationships for distinct employee groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerik, I.J. Hetty van; Sanders, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – This study examined the relationship between two types of mismatch (i.e. non-correspondence between preferred and actual number of hours), and affective commitment. It was argued that specific groups of employees, i.e. women and part-time working employees, attach more importance to their

  12. Oceanographic and climatic factors differentially affect reproduction performance of Antarctic skuas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahn, S.M.; Reinhardt, K.; Ritz, M.S.; Janicke, T.; Montalti, D.; Peter, H.-U.

    2007-01-01

    We studied how environmental conditions affect reproduction in sympatric skua species that differ in their reliance on marine resources: the exclusively marine foraging south polar skua Catharacta maccormicki, the terrestrially foraging brown skua C. antarctica lonnbergi and mixed species pairs with

  13. Contrasting macrobenthic activities differentially affect nematode density and diversity in a shallow subtidal marine sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braeckman, U.; van Colen, C.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; Vincx, M.; Vanaverbeke, J.

    2011-01-01

    By bioturbating and bio-irrigating the sea floor, macrobenthic organisms transport organic matter and oxygen from the surface to deeper layers, thereby extending the habitat suitable for smaller infauna. Next to these engineering activities, competition, disturbance and predation may also affect the

  14. The Differential Effects of Labelling: How Do "Dyslexia" and "Reading Difficulties" Affect Teachers' Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Simon; Elliott, Julian

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a survey of primary school teachers' beliefs about working with poor readers. The primary research question was "does the way difficulties with reading are labelled affect the teachers' beliefs about their ability to intervene effectively?" An opportunity sample of teachers was surveyed using 2 questionnaires. One…

  15. Demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors affecting fertility differentials in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhikari Ramesh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally Nepalese society favors high fertility. Children are a symbol of well-being both socially and economically. Although fertility has been decreasing in Nepal since 1981, it is still high compared to many other developing countries. This paper is an attempt to examine the demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors for fertility differentials in Nepal. Methods This paper has used data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2006. The analysis is confined to ever married women of reproductive age (8,644. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses have been performed to describe the fertility differentials. The bivariate analysis (one-way ANOVA was applied to examine the association between children ever born and women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural characteristics. Besides bivariate analysis, the net effect of each independent variable on the dependent variable after controlling for the effect of other predictors has also been measured through multivariate analysis (multiple linear regressions. Results The mean numbers of children ever born (CEB among married Nepali women of reproductive age and among women aged 40-49 were three and five children, respectively. There are considerable differentials in the average number of children ever born according to women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural settings. Regression analysis revealed that age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, place of residence, literacy status, religion, mass media exposure, use of family planning methods, household headship, and experience of child death were the most important variables that explained the variance in fertility. Women who considered a higher number of children as ideal (β = 0.03; p Conclusion The average number of children ever born is high among women in Nepal. There are many contributing factors for the high fertility, among which are age at first marriage, perceived ideal

  16. Demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors affecting fertility differentials in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Ramesh

    2010-04-28

    Traditionally Nepalese society favors high fertility. Children are a symbol of well-being both socially and economically. Although fertility has been decreasing in Nepal since 1981, it is still high compared to many other developing countries. This paper is an attempt to examine the demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors for fertility differentials in Nepal. This paper has used data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2006). The analysis is confined to ever married women of reproductive age (8,644). Both bivariate and multivariate analyses have been performed to describe the fertility differentials. The bivariate analysis (one-way ANOVA) was applied to examine the association between children ever born and women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural characteristics. Besides bivariate analysis, the net effect of each independent variable on the dependent variable after controlling for the effect of other predictors has also been measured through multivariate analysis (multiple linear regressions). The mean numbers of children ever born (CEB) among married Nepali women of reproductive age and among women aged 40-49 were three and five children, respectively. There are considerable differentials in the average number of children ever born according to women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural settings. Regression analysis revealed that age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, place of residence, literacy status, religion, mass media exposure, use of family planning methods, household headship, and experience of child death were the most important variables that explained the variance in fertility. Women who considered a higher number of children as ideal (beta = 0.03; p Muslim women (beta = 0.07; p media (beta = -0.05; p women in Nepal. There are many contributing factors for the high fertility, among which are age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, literacy status, mass media exposure

  17. Current Status of Trace Metal Pollution in Soils Affected by Industrial Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ehsanul; Ray, Sharmila; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yoon, Hye-On; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Kim, Yoon Shin; Cho, Yong-Sung; Yun, Seong-Taek; Brown, Richard J. C.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing public concern over the potential accumulation of heavy metals in soil, owing to rapid industrial development. In an effort to describe the status of the pollutions of soil by industrial activities, relevant data sets reported by many studies were surveyed and reviewed. The results of our analysis indicate that soils were polluted most significantly by metals such as lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium. If the dominant species are evaluated by the highest mean concentration observed for different industry types, the results were grouped into Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu, Fe, and As in smelting and metal production industries, Mn and Cd in the textile industry, and Cr in the leather industry. In most cases, metal levels in the studied areas were found to exceed the common regulation guideline levels enforced by many countries. The geoaccumulation index (I geo), calculated to estimate the enrichment of metal concentrations in soil, showed that the level of metal pollution in most surveyed areas is significant, especially for Pb and Cd. It is thus important to keep systematic and continuous monitoring of heavy metals and their derivatives to manage and suppress such pollution. PMID:22645468

  18. Current Status of Trace Metal Pollution in Soils Affected by Industrial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsanul Kabir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing public concern over the potential accumulation of heavy metals in soil, owing to rapid industrial development. In an effort to describe the status of the pollutions of soil by industrial activities, relevant data sets reported by many studies were surveyed and reviewed. The results of our analysis indicate that soils were polluted most significantly by metals such as lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium. If the dominant species are evaluated by the highest mean concentration observed for different industry types, the results were grouped into Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu, Fe, and As in smelting and metal production industries, Mn and Cd in the textile industry, and Cr in the leather industry. In most cases, metal levels in the studied areas were found to exceed the common regulation guideline levels enforced by many countries. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo, calculated to estimate the enrichment of metal concentrations in soil, showed that the level of metal pollution in most surveyed areas is significant, especially for Pb and Cd. It is thus important to keep systematic and continuous monitoring of heavy metals and their derivatives to manage and suppress such pollution.

  19. DNMT1 mutations found in HSANIE patients affect interaction with UHRF1 and neuronal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smets, Martha; Link, Stephanie; Wolf, Patricia; Schneider, Katrin; Solis, Veronica; Ryan, Joel; Meilinger, Daniela; Qin, Weihua; Leonhardt, Heinrich

    2017-04-15

    DNMT1 is recruited to substrate sites by PCNA and UHRF1 to maintain DNA methylation after replication. The cell cycle dependent recruitment of DNMT1 is mediated by the PCNA-binding domain (PBD) and the targeting sequence (TS) within the N-terminal regulatory domain. The TS domain was found to be mutated in patients suffering from hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies with dementia and hearing loss (HSANIE) and autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia deafness and narcolepsy (ADCA-DN) and is associated with global hypomethylation and site specific hypermethylation. With functional complementation assays in mouse embryonic stem cells, we showed that DNMT1 mutations P496Y and Y500C identified in HSANIE patients not only impair DNMT1 heterochromatin association, but also UHRF1 interaction resulting in hypomethylation. Similar DNA methylation defects were observed when DNMT1 interacting domains in UHRF1, the UBL and the SRA domain, were deleted. With cell-based assays, we could show that HSANIE associated mutations perturb DNMT1 heterochromatin association and catalytic complex formation at methylation sites and decrease protein stability in late S and G2 phase. To investigate the neuronal phenotype of HSANIE mutations, we performed DNMT1 rescue assays and could show that cells expressing mutated DNMT1 were prone to apoptosis and failed to differentiate into neuronal lineage. Our results provide insights into the molecular basis of DNMT1 dysfunction in HSANIE patients and emphasize the importance of the TS domain in the regulation of DNA methylation in pluripotent and differentiating cells. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Differential Muscle Involvement in Mice and Humans Affected by McArdle Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Thomas O; Pinós, Tomàs; Nielsen, Tue L

    2016-01-01

    McArdle disease (muscle glycogenosis type V) is caused by myophosphorylase deficiency, which leads to impaired glycogen breakdown. We investigated how myophosphorylase deficiency affects muscle physiology, morphology, and glucose metabolism in 20-week-old McArdle mice and compared the findings...... to those in McArdle disease patients. Muscle contractions in the McArdle mice were affected by structural degeneration due to glycogen accumulation, and glycolytic muscles fatigued prematurely, as occurs in the muscles of McArdle disease patients. Homozygous McArdle mice showed muscle fiber disarray...... no substitution for the missing muscle isoform. In the mice, the tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were invariably more damaged than the quadriceps muscles. This may relate to a 7-fold higher level of myophosphorylase in TA compared to quadriceps in wild-type mice and suggests higher glucose turnover in the TA. Thus...

  1. Differential glucose metabolism in mice and humans affected by McArdle disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Thomas O; Pinós, Tomàs; Nielsen, Tue L

    2016-01-01

    McArdle disease (muscle glycogenosis type V) is a disease caused by myophosphorylase deficiency leading to "blocked" glycogen breakdown. A significant but varying glycogen accumulation in especially distal hind limb muscles of mice affected by McArdle disease has recently been demonstrated......, which could lead to lower glycogen accumulation. In comparison, tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, and soleus had massive glycogen accumulation, but few, if any, changes or adaptations in glucose metabolism compared with wild-type mice. The findings suggest plasticity in glycogen metabolism....... In this study, we investigated how myophosphorylase deficiency affects glucose metabolism in hind limb muscle of 20-wk-old McArdle mice and vastus lateralis muscles from patients with McArdle disease. Western blot analysis and activity assay demonstrated that glycogen synthase was inhibited in glycolytic muscle...

  2. Surface interactions affect the toxicity of engineered metal oxide nanoparticles toward Paramecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kungang; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Wen; Pu, Zhichao; Jiang, Lin; Chen, Yongsheng

    2012-08-20

    To better understand the potential impacts of engineered metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) in the ecosystem, we investigated the acute toxicity of seven different types of engineered metal oxide NPs against Paramecium multimicronucleatum, a ciliated protozoan, using the 48 h LC(50) (lethal concentration, 50%) test. Our results showed that the 48 h LC(50) values of these NPs to Paramecium ranged from 0.81 (Fe(2)O(3) NPs) to 9269 mg/L (Al(2)O(3) NPs); their toxicity to Paramecium increased as follows: Al(2)O(3) Paramecium; this implies that metal oxide NPs with strong association with the cell surface might induce more severe cytotoxicity in unicellular organisms.

  3. Studies of metal binding by the iron transport protein transferrin using time differential perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Then, G.M.

    1987-01-01

    The binding of the transition metal hafnium to transferrin was studied under various chemical conditions using time differential perturbed γγ angular correlation spectroscopy (TDPAC). Observing the electric quadrupole interaction of the 181 Hf probe nuclei size and symmetry of the electric field gradient induced by the ligands of the metal ions can be determined. The experimental data suggest how homogeneous the binding conditions are and to which extend relaxation phenomena are involved. Due to the excellent time resolution obtained with new BaF 2 detectors the quadrupole coupling parameters of 181 Hf-transferrin could be determined very accurately. Under nearly physiological conditions different binding configurations were quantitatively characterized by spectroscopic means and distinguished with high specificity. (orig./PW) [de

  4. Negative differential resistance effect induced by metal ion implantation in SiO2 film for multilevel RRAM application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Facai; Si, Shuyao; Shi, Tuo; Zhao, Xiaolong; Liu, Qi; Liao, Lei; Lv, Hangbing; Long, Shibing; Liu, Ming

    2018-02-01

    Pt/SiO2:metal nanoparticles/Pt sandwich structure is fabricated with the method of metal ion (Ag) implantation. The device exhibits multilevel storage with appropriate R off/R on ratio, good endurance and retention properties. Based on transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer analysis, we confirm that Pt nanoparticles are spurted into SiO2 film from Pt bottom electrode by Ag implantation; during electroforming, the local electric field can be enhanced by these Pt nanoparticles, meanwhile the Ag nanoparticles constantly migrate toward the Pt nanoparticles. The implantation induced nanoparticles act as trap sites in the resistive switching layer and play critical roles in the multilevel storage, which is evidenced by the negative differential resistance effect in the current-voltage (I-V) measurements.

  5. How dietary arachidonic- and docosahexaenoic- acid rich oils differentially affect the murine hepatic transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Matthew A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Herein, we expand our previous work on the effects of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA on the murine hepatic transcriptome using novel statistical and bioinformatic approaches for evaluating microarray data. The analyses focuses on key differences in the transcriptomic response that will influence metabolism following consumption of FUNG (rich in 20:4n6, FISH (rich in 20:5n3, 22:5n3, and 22:6n3 and COMB, the combination of the two. Results Using a variance-stabilized F-statistic, 371 probe sets (out of 13 K probe sets in the Affymetrix Mu11K chip set were changed by dietary treatment (P Conclusion Distinct transcriptomic, signaling cascades, and predicted affects on murine liver metabolism have been elucidated for 20:4n6-rich dietary oils, 22:6n3-rich oils, and a surprisingly distinct set of genes were affected by the combination of the two. Our results emphasize that the balance of dietary n6 and n3 LC-PUFA provided for infants and in nutritional and neutraceutical applications could have profoundly different affects on metabolism and cell signaling, beyond that previously recognized.

  6. Differential sensitivity of pigmented and non-pigmented marine bacteria to metals and antibiotics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    . Appl. em'ir. Microbiol. 33, 975-976. Nelson J. D. Jr and Colwell R. R. (1975) The ecology of mercury resistant bacteria in Chesapeake bay. Microbioi. Ecol. 1, 191-218. Oison B. H. and Thornton I. (1982) The resistance patterns to metals... to metals em- ploying epifluorescent microscopy. J. microbiol. Met& 7, 143-155. Zemelman R., Silva J. and Herriques, M. (1980) Antibiotic resistant bacteria in seawater from Concepcion Bay. Archs Biol. Exp. 13, 121. ...

  7. Structural plasticity of the social brain: Differential change after socio-affective and cognitive mental training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valk, Sofie L; Bernhardt, Boris C; Trautwein, Fynn-Mathis; Böckler, Anne; Kanske, Philipp; Guizard, Nicolas; Collins, D Louis; Singer, Tania

    2017-10-01

    Although neuroscientific research has revealed experience-dependent brain changes across the life span in sensory, motor, and cognitive domains, plasticity relating to social capacities remains largely unknown. To investigate whether the targeted mental training of different cognitive and social skills can induce specific changes in brain morphology, we collected longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data throughout a 9-month mental training intervention from a large sample of adults between 20 and 55 years of age. By means of various daily mental exercises and weekly instructed group sessions, training protocols specifically addressed three functional domains: (i) mindfulness-based attention and interoception, (ii) socio-affective skills (compassion, dealing with difficult emotions, and prosocial motivation), and (iii) socio-cognitive skills (cognitive perspective-taking on self and others and metacognition). MRI-based cortical thickness analyses, contrasting the different training modules against each other, indicated spatially diverging changes in cortical morphology. Training of present-moment focused attention mostly led to increases in cortical thickness in prefrontal regions, socio-affective training induced plasticity in frontoinsular regions, and socio-cognitive training included change in inferior frontal and lateral temporal cortices. Module-specific structural brain changes correlated with training-induced behavioral improvements in the same individuals in domain-specific measures of attention, compassion, and cognitive perspective-taking, respectively, and overlapped with task-relevant functional networks. Our longitudinal findings indicate structural plasticity in well-known socio-affective and socio-cognitive brain networks in healthy adults based on targeted short daily mental practices. These findings could promote the development of evidence-based mental training interventions in clinical, educational, and corporate settings aimed at

  8. High-fat diet feeding differentially affects the development of inflammation in the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Guillemot-Legris, Owein; Masquelier, Julien; Everard, Amandine; Cani, Patrice D.; Al Houayek, Mireille; Muccioli, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity and its associated disorders are becoming a major health issue in many countries. The resulting low-grade inflammation not only affects the periphery but also the central nervous system. We set out to study, in a time-dependent manner, the effects of a high-fat diet on different regions of the central nervous system with regard to the inflammatory tone. Methods We used a diet-induced obesity model and compared at several time-points (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 16?weeks) a group of ...

  9. Noggin inactivation affects the number and differentiation potential of muscle progenitor cells in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costamagna, Domiziana; Mommaerts, Hendrik; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Tylzanowski, Przemko

    2016-01-01

    Inactivation of Noggin, a secreted antagonist of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs), in mice leads, among others, to severe malformations of the appendicular skeleton and defective skeletal muscle fibers. To determine the molecular basis of the phenotype, we carried out a histomorphological and molecular analysis of developing muscles Noggin−/− mice. We show that in 18.5 dpc embryos there is a marked reduction in muscle fiber size and a failure of nuclei migration towards the cell membrane. Molecularly, the absence of Noggin results in an increased BMP signaling in muscle tissue as shown by the increase in SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation, concomitant with the induction of BMP target genes such as Id1, 2, 3 as well as Msx1. Finally, upon removal of Noggin, the number of mesenchymal Pax7+ muscle precursor cells is reduced and they are more prone to differentiate into adipocytes in vitro. Thus, our results highlight the importance of Noggin/BMP balance for myogenic commitment of early fetal progenitor cells. PMID:27573479

  10. Physical activity interventions differentially affect exercise task and barrier self-efficacy: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Torrance J; Middleton, Kathryn R; Winner, Larry; Janelle, Christopher M

    2014-08-01

    Researchers have yet to establish how interventions to increase physical activity influence specific self-efficacy beliefs. The current study sought to quantify the effect of interventions to increase physical activity among healthy adults on exercise task (EXSE) and barrier self-efficacy (BSE) via meta-analysis. Intervention characteristics associated with self-efficacy and physical activity changes were also identified. A systematic database search and manual searches through reference lists of related publications were conducted for articles on randomized, controlled physical activity interventions. Published intervention studies reporting changes in physical activity behavior and either EXSE or BSE in healthy adults were eligible for inclusion. Of the 1,080 studies identified, 20 were included in the meta-analyses. Interventions had a significant effect of g = 0.208, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.027, 0.388], p exercise sessions effectively increased EXSE and physical activity, whereas long interventions improved BSE. Interventions that did not provide support increased BSE and physical activity levels. Further, interventions that did not require the use of daily exercise logs improved EXSE and physical activity behavior. Interventions designed to increase physical activity differentially influenced EXSE and BSE. EXSE appeared to play a more significant role during exercise adoption, whereas BSE was involved in the maintenance of exercise behavior. Recommendations are offered for the design of future interventions.

  11. Joint angle affects volitional and magnetically-evoked neuromuscular performance differentially.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshull, C; Rees, D; Gleeson, N P

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the volitional and magnetically-evoked neuromuscular performance of the quadriceps femoris at functional knee joint angles adjacent to full extension. Indices of volitional and magnetically-evoked neuromuscular performance (N=15 healthy males, 23.5 ± 2.9 years, 71.5 ± 5.4 kg, 176.5 ± 5.5 cm) were obtained at 25°, 35° and 45° of knee flexion. Results showed that volitional and magnetically-evoked peak force (PF(V) and P(T)F(E), respectively) and electromechanical delay (EMD(V) and EMD(E), respectively) were enhanced by increased knee flexion. However, greater relative improvements in volitional compared to evoked indices of neuromuscular performance were observed with increasing flexion from 25° to 45° (e.g. EMD(V), EMD(E): 36% vs. 11% improvement, respectively; F([2,14])=6.8, pjoint positions. These findings suggest that the extent of the relative differential between volitional and evoked neuromuscular performance capabilities is joint angle-specific and not correlated with performance capabilities at adjacent angles, but tends to be smaller with increased flexion. As such, effective prediction of volitional from evoked performance capabilities at both analogous and adjacent knee joint positions would lack robustness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Age effects in emotional prospective memory: cue valence differentially affects the prospective and retrospective component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzspahn, Katharina M; Horn, Sebastian S; Bayen, Ute J; Kliegel, Matthias

    2012-06-01

    While first studies suggested that emotional task material may enhance prospective memory performance in young and older adults, the extent and mechanisms of this effect are under debate. The authors explored possible differential effects of cue valence on the prospective and retrospective component of prospective memory in young and older adults. Forty-five young and 41 older adults performed a prospective memory task in which emotional valence of the prospective memory cue was manipulated (positive, negative, neutral). The multinomial model of event-based prospective memory was used to analyze effects of valence and age on the two prospective memory components separately. Results revealed an interaction indicating that age differences were smaller in both emotional valence conditions. For older adults positive cues improved the prospective component, while negative cues improved the retrospective component. No main effect of valence was found for younger adults on an overt accuracy measure, but model-based analyses showed that the retrospective component was enhanced in the positive compared with the negative cue condition. The study extends the literature in demonstrating that processes underlying emotional effects on prospective memory may differ depending on valence and age. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Physical activity interventions differentially affect exercise task and barrier self-efficacy: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Torrance J.; Middleton, Kathryn R.; Winner, Larry; Janelle, Christopher M.; Middleton, Kathryn R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Researchers have yet to establish how interventions to increase physical activity influence specific self-efficacy beliefs. The current study sought to quantify the effect of interventions to increase physical activity among healthy adults on exercise task (EXSE) and barrier self-efficacy (BSE) via meta-analysis. Intervention characteristics associated with self-efficacy and physical activity changes were also identified. Methods A systematic database search and manual searches through reference lists of related publications were conducted for articles on randomized, controlled physical activity interventions. Published intervention studies reporting changes in physical activity behavior and either EXSE or BSE in healthy adults were eligible for inclusion. Results Of the 1,080 studies identified, 20 were included in the meta-analyses. Interventions had a significant effect of g = 0.208, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.027, 0.388], p physical activity. Moderator analyses indicated shorter interventions that did not include structured exercise sessions effectively increased EXSE and physical activity, whereas long interventions improved BSE. Interventions that did not provide support increased BSE and physical activity levels. Further, interventions that did not require the use of daily exercise logs improved EXSE and physical activity behavior. Conclusion Interventions designed to increase physical activity differentially influenced EXSE and BSE. EXSE appeared to play a more significant role during exercise adoption, whereas BSE was involved in the maintenance of exercise behavior. Recommendations are offered for the design of future interventions. PMID:23957904

  14. Platinum-Based Drugs Differentially Affect the Ultrastructure of Breast Cancer Cell Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadia Al-Bahlani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer (BC is the most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Although platinum-based drugs (PBDs are effective anticancer agents, responsive patients eventually become resistant. While resistance of some cancers to PBDs has been explored, the cellular responses of BC cells are not studied yet. Therefore, we aim to assess the differential effects of PBDs on BC ultrastructure. Three representative cells were treated with different concentrations and timing of Cisplatin, Carboplatin, and Oxaliplatin. Changes on cell surface and ultrastructure were detected by scanning (SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM. In SEM, control cells were semiflattened containing microvilli with extending lamellipodia while treated ones were round with irregular surface and several pores, indicating drug entry. Prolonged treatment resembled distinct apoptotic features such as shrinkage, membrane blebs, and narrowing of lamellipodia with blunt microvilli. TEM detected PBDs’ deposits that scattered among cellular organelles inducing structural distortion, lumen swelling, chromatin condensation, and nuclear fragmentation. Deposits were attracted to fat droplets, explained by drug hydrophobic properties, while later they were located close to cell membrane, suggesting drug efflux. Phagosomes with destructed organelles and deposits were detected as defending mechanism. Understanding BC cells response to PBDs might provide new insight for an effective treatment.

  15. Personality differentially affects individual mate choice decisions in female and male Western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo-Jian; Liu, Kai; Zhou, Lin-Jun; Gomes-Silva, Guilherme; Sommer-Trembo, Carolin; Plath, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Consistent individual differences in behavioral tendencies (animal personality) can affect individual mate choice decisions. We asked whether personality traits affect male and female mate choice decisions similarly and whether potential personality effects are consistent across different mate choice situations. Using western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) as our study organism, we characterized focal individuals (males and females) twice for boldness, activity, and sociability/shoaling and found high and significant behavioral repeatability. Additionally, each focal individual was tested in two different dichotomous mate choice tests in which it could choose between computer-animated stimulus fish of the opposite sex that differed in body size and activity levels, respectively. Personality had different effects on female and male mate choice: females that were larger than average showed stronger preferences for large-bodied males with increasing levels of boldness/activity (i.e., towards more proactive personality types). Males that were larger than average and had higher shoaling tendencies showed stronger preferences for actively swimming females. Size-dependent effects of personality on the strength of preferences for distinct phenotypes of potential mating partners may reflect effects of age/experience (especially in females) and social dominance (especially in males). Previous studies found evidence for assortative mate choice based on personality types or hypothesized the existence of behavioral syndromes of individuals' choosiness across mate choice criteria, possibly including other personality traits. Our present study exemplifies that far more complex patterns of personality-dependent mate choice can emerge in natural systems.

  16. Does fragmentation of Urtica habitats affect phytophagous and predatory insects differentially?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabel, Jörg; Tscharntke, Teja

    1998-09-01

    Effects of habitat fragmentation on the insect community of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) were studied, using 32 natural nettle patches of different area and degree of isolation in an agricultural landscape. Habitat fragmentation reduced the species richness of Heteroptera, Auchenorrhyncha, and Coleoptera, and the abundance of populations. Habitat isolation and area reduction did not affect all insect species equally. Monophagous herbivores had a higher probability of absence from small patches than all (monophagous and polyphagous) herbivore species, and the percentage of monophagous herbivores increased with habitat area. Abundance and population variability of species were negatively correlated and could both be used as a predictor of the percentage of occupied habitats. Species richness of herbivores correlated (positively) with habitat area, while species richness of predators correlated (negatively) with habitat isolation. In logistic regressions, the probability of absence of monophagous herbivores from habitat patches could only be explained by habitat area (in 4 out of 10 species) and predator absence probability only by habitat isolation (in 3 out of 14 species). Presumably because of the instability of higher-trophic-level populations and dispersal limitation, predators were more affected by habitat isolation than herbivores, while they did not differ from herbivore populations with respect to abundance or variability. Thus increasing habitat connectivity in the agricultural landscape should primarily promote predator populations.

  17. Human resources management and firm performance: The differential role of managerial affective and continuance commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yaping; Law, Kenneth S; Chang, Song; Xin, Katherine R

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors developed a dual-concern (i.e., maintenance and performance) model of human resources (HR) management. The authors identified commonly examined HR practices that apply to the middle manager level and classified them into the maintenance- and performance-oriented HR subsystems. The authors found support for the 2-factor model on the basis of responses from 2,148 managers from 463 firms operating in China. Regression results indicate that the performance-oriented HR subsystems had a positive relationship with firm performance and that the relationship was mediated by middle managers' affective commitment to the firm. The maintenance-oriented HR subsystems had a positive relationship with middle managers' continuance commitment but not with their affective commitment and firm performance. This study contributes to the understanding of how HR practices relate to firm performance and offers an improved test of the argument that valuable and firm-specific HR provide a source of competitive advantage. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. APP substitutions V715F and L720P alter PS1 conformation and differentially affect Abeta and AICD generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesco, Giuseppina; Ginestroni, Andrea; Hiltunen, Mikko; Kim, Minji; Dolios, Georgia; Hyman, Bradley T; Wang, Rong; Berezovska, Oksana; Tanzi, Rudolph E

    2005-10-01

    The 37-43 amino acid Abeta peptide is the principal component of beta-amyloid deposits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, and is derived by serial proteolysis of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by beta- and gamma-secretase. gamma-Secretase also cleaves APP at Val50 in the Abeta numbering (epsilon cleavage), resulting in the release of a fragment called APP intracellular domain (AICD). The aim of this study was to determine whether amino acid substitutions in the APP transmembrane domain differentially affect Abeta and AICD generation. We found that the APPV715F substitution, which has been previously shown to dramatically decrease Abeta40 and Abeta42 while increasing Abeta38 levels, does not affect in vitro generation of AICD. Furthermore, we found that the APPL720P substitution, which has been previously shown to prevent in vitro generation of AICD, completely prevents Abeta generation. Using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) method, we next found that both the APPV715F and APPL720P substitutions significantly increase the distance between the N- and C-terminus of presenilin 1 (PS1), which has been proposed to contain the catalytic site of gamma-secretase. In conclusion, both APPV715F and APPL720P change PS1 conformation with differential effects on Abeta and AICD production.

  19. The importance of biological factors affecting trace metal concentration as revealed from accumulation patterns in co-occurring terrestrial invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickx, Frederik; Maelfait, Jean-Pierre; Bogaert, Nicolas; Tojal, Catarina; Du Laing, Gijs; Tack, Filip M.G.; Verloo, Marc G

    2004-02-01

    As physicochemical properties of the soil highly influence the bioavailable fraction of a particular trace metal, measured metal body burdens in a particular species are often assumed to be more reliable estimators of the contamination of the biota. To test this we compared the Cd, Cu and Zn content of three spiders (generalist predators) and two amphipods (detritivores), co-occurring in seven tidal marshes along the river Schelde, between each other and with the total metal concentrations and the concentrations of four sequential extractions of the soils. Correlations were significant in only one case and significant sitexspecies interactions for all metals demonstrate that factors affecting metal concentration were species and site specific and not solely determined by site specific characteristics. These results emphasize that site and species specific biological factors might be of the utmost importance in determining the contamination of the biota, at least for higher trophic levels. A hypothetical example clarifies these findings. - Site and species specific biological factors are important in determining contamination of biota.

  20. Integrating and differentiating aspects of self-regulation: effortful control, executive functioning, and links to negative affectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgett, David J; Oddi, Kate B; Laake, Lauren M; Murdock, Kyle W; Bachmann, Melissa N

    2013-02-01

    Subdisciplines within psychology frequently examine self-regulation from different frameworks despite conceptually similar definitions of constructs. In the current study, similarities and differences between effortful control, based on the psychobiological model of temperament (Rothbart, Derryberry, & Posner, 1994), and executive functioning are examined and empirically tested in three studies (n = 509). Structural equation modeling indicated that effortful control and executive functioning are strongly associated and overlapping constructs (Study 1). Additionally, results indicated that effortful control is related to the executive function of updating/monitoring information in working memory, but not inhibition (Studies 2 and 3). Study 3 also demonstrates that better updating/monitoring information in working memory and better effortful control were uniquely linked to lower dispositional negative affect, whereas the executive function of low/poor inhibition was uniquely associated with an increased tendency to express negative affect. Furthermore, dispositional negative affect mediated the links between effortful control and, separately, the executive function of updating/monitoring information in working memory and the tendency to express negative affect. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed, and a potential framework for guiding future work directed at integrating and differentiating aspects of self-regulation is suggested. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Municipal wastewater affects adipose deposition in male mice and increases 3T3-L1 cell differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biasiotto, Giorgio; Zanella, Isabella; Masserdotti, Alice; Pedrazzani, Roberta; Papa, Matteo; Caimi, Luigi; Di Lorenzo, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Trace concentration of EDs (endocrine disrupting compounds) in water bodies caused by wastewater treatment plant effluents is a recognized problem for the health of aquatic organisms and their potential to affect human health. In this paper we show that continuous exposure of male mice from early development to the adult life (140 days) to unrestricted drinking of wastewater collected from a municipal sewage treatment plant, is associated with an increased adipose deposition and weight gain during adulthood because of altered body homeostasis. In parallel, bisphenol A (BPA) at the administration dose of 5 μg/kg/body weight, shows an increasing effect on total body weight and fat mass. In vitro, a solid phase extract (SPE) of the wastewater (eTW), caused stimulation of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation at dilutions of 0.4 and 1 % in the final culture medium which contained a concentration of BPA of 40 nM and 90 nM respectively. Pure BPA also promoted adipocytes differentiation at the concentration of 50 and 80 μM. BPA effect in 3T3-L1 cells was associated to the specific activation of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in undifferentiated cells and the estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) in differentiated cells. BPA also activated the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor gamma (PPARγ) upregulating a minimal 3XPPARE luciferase reporter and the PPARγ-target promoter of the aP2 gene in adipose cells, while it was not effective in preadipocytes. The pure estrogen receptor agonist diethylstilbestrol (DES) played an opposite action to that of BPA inhibiting PPARγ activity in adipocytes, preventing cell differentiation, activating ERα in preadipocytes and inhibiting ERα and ERβ regulation in adipocytes. The results of this work show that the drinking of chemically-contaminated wastewater promotes fat deposition in male mice and that EDs present in sewage are likely responsible for this effect through a nuclear receptor-mediated mechanism. - Highlights: • Sewage

  2. Municipal wastewater affects adipose deposition in male mice and increases 3T3-L1 cell differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biasiotto, Giorgio; Zanella, Isabella [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Civic Hospital of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Masserdotti, Alice [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Civic Hospital of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Pedrazzani, Roberta [DIMI Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Brescia, via Branze 38, I-25123 Brescia (Italy); Papa, Matteo [DICATAM Department of Civil, Environmental, Architectural Engineering and Mathematics, University of Brescia, via Branze 43, I-25123 Brescia (Italy); Caimi, Luigi [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Civic Hospital of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Di Lorenzo, Diego, E-mail: diego.dilorenzo@yahoo.it [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Civic Hospital of Brescia, Brescia (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    Trace concentration of EDs (endocrine disrupting compounds) in water bodies caused by wastewater treatment plant effluents is a recognized problem for the health of aquatic organisms and their potential to affect human health. In this paper we show that continuous exposure of male mice from early development to the adult life (140 days) to unrestricted drinking of wastewater collected from a municipal sewage treatment plant, is associated with an increased adipose deposition and weight gain during adulthood because of altered body homeostasis. In parallel, bisphenol A (BPA) at the administration dose of 5 μg/kg/body weight, shows an increasing effect on total body weight and fat mass. In vitro, a solid phase extract (SPE) of the wastewater (eTW), caused stimulation of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation at dilutions of 0.4 and 1 % in the final culture medium which contained a concentration of BPA of 40 nM and 90 nM respectively. Pure BPA also promoted adipocytes differentiation at the concentration of 50 and 80 μM. BPA effect in 3T3-L1 cells was associated to the specific activation of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in undifferentiated cells and the estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) in differentiated cells. BPA also activated the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor gamma (PPARγ) upregulating a minimal 3XPPARE luciferase reporter and the PPARγ-target promoter of the aP2 gene in adipose cells, while it was not effective in preadipocytes. The pure estrogen receptor agonist diethylstilbestrol (DES) played an opposite action to that of BPA inhibiting PPARγ activity in adipocytes, preventing cell differentiation, activating ERα in preadipocytes and inhibiting ERα and ERβ regulation in adipocytes. The results of this work show that the drinking of chemically-contaminated wastewater promotes fat deposition in male mice and that EDs present in sewage are likely responsible for this effect through a nuclear receptor-mediated mechanism. - Highlights: • Sewage

  3. Liquid and Solid Meal Replacement Products Differentially Affect Postprandial Appetite and Food Intake in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, April J.; Apolzan, John W.; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E.; Iglay, Heidi B.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2008-01-01

    Liquid and solid foods are documented to elicit differential appetitive and food intake responses. This study was designed to assess the influences of liquid vs solid meal replacement products on postprandial appetite ratings and subsequent food intake in healthy older adults. This study used a randomized and crossover design with two 1-day trials (1 week between trials), and 24 adults (12 men and 12 women) aged 50 to 80 years with body mass index (calculated as kg/m2) between 22 and 30 participated. After an overnight fast, the subjects consumed meal replacement products as either a beverage (liquid) or a bar (solid). The meal replacement products provided 25% of each subject's daily estimated energy needs with comparable macro-nutrient compositions. Subjects rated their appetite on a 100 mm quasilogarithmic visual analog scale before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes after consuming the meal replacement product. At minute 120, each subject consumed cooked oatmeal ad libitum to a “comfortable level of fullness.” Postprandial composite (area under the curve from minute 15 to minute 120) hunger was higher (P=0.04) for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products and desire to eat (P=0.15), preoccupation with thoughts of food (P=0.07), and fullness (P=0.25) did not differ for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products. On average, the subjects consumed 13.4% more oatmeal after the liquid vs solid (P=0.006) meal replacement product. These results indicate that meal replacement products in liquid and solid form do not elicit comparable appetitive and ingestive behavior responses and that meal replacement products in liquid form blunt the postprandial decline in hunger and increase subsequent food intake in older adults. PMID:18589034

  4. Combined static and perfusion scintigraphy for differential diagnosis of focal and diffuse affections of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakovleva, L.Ya.; Volkov, A.A.; Granov, A.M.; Borisov, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    Combined application of dynamic and static scintigraphy is recommended by use of /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate, /sup 113m/In-chloride, /sup 99m/Tc-sulphur colloid, /sup 119m/In-colloid, and 67 Ga-citrate, respectively, to detect diffuse and focal affections of the liver. In patients with abscesses, echinococcus, or a cyst of the liver the blood supply in the tumor decreased tremendously or was not perceivable at all. In primary or secondary tumors the blood supply was decreased in focus, the half-life period of the preparation storage was extended, and the reception speed was decreased by 50% at most. The alteration of quantitative blood supply values by 150 - 200% and the prevalence of arterial components in liver blood supply for all segments can be considered a sign of cirrhotic liver damage. (author)

  5. Naturally occurring variants of human Α9 nicotinic receptor differentially affect bronchial cell proliferation and transformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Chikova

    Full Text Available Isolation of polyadenilated mRNA from human immortalized bronchial epithelial cell line BEP2D revealed the presence of multiple isoforms of RNA coded by the CHRNA9 gene for α9 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR. BEP2D cells were homozygous for the rs10009228 polymorphism encoding for N442S amino acid substitution, and also contained mRNA coding for several truncated isoforms of α9 protein. To elucidate the biologic significance of the naturally occurring variants of α9 nAChR, we compared the biologic effects of overexpression of full-length α9 N442 and S442 proteins, and the truncated α9 variant occurring due to a loss of the exon 4 sequence that causes frame shift and early termination of the translation. These as well as control vector were overexpressed in the BEP2D cells that were used in the assays of proliferation rate, spontaneous vs. tobacco nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK-induced cellular transformation, and tumorigenicity in cell culture and mice. Overexpression of the S442 variant significantly increased cellular proliferation, and spontaneous and NNK-induced transformation. The N442 variant significantly decreased cellular transformation, without affecting proliferation rate. Overexpression of the truncated α9 significantly decreased proliferation and suppressed cellular transformation. These results suggested that α9 nAChR plays important roles in regulation of bronchial cell growth by endogenous acetylcholine and exogenous nicotine, and susceptibility to NNK-induced carcinogenic transformation. The biologic activities of α9 nAChR may be regulated at the splicing level, and genetic polymorphisms in CHRNA9 affecting protein levels, amino acid sequence and RNA splicing may influence the risk for lung cancer.

  6. Ozone Differentially Affects Perception of Plant Volatiles in Western Honey Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dötterl, Stefan; Vater, Marina; Rupp, Thomas; Held, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Floral scents play a key role in mediating plant-pollinator interactions. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by flowers are used by flower visitors as olfactory cues to locate flowers, both from a distance and at close range. More recently it has been demonstrated that reactive molecules such as ozone can modify or degrade VOCs, and this may impair the communication between plants and their pollinators. However, it is not known whether such reactive molecules also may affect the olfactory system of pollinators, and thus not only influence signal transmission but perception of the signal. In this study, we used electroantennographic measurements to determine the effect of increased levels of ozone on antennal responses in western honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). Linalool and 2-phenylethanol, both known to be involved in location of flowers by the bees, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, a widespread green leaf volatile also detected by bees, were used. The results showed that ozone affected antennal responses to the different substances differently. Ozone decreased antennal responses to (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, whereas responses to linalool and 2-phenylethanol were not influenced by ozone. Overall, the study does not provide evidence that pollination by honey bees is impaired by damage in the olfactory system of the bees caused by increased levels of ozone, at least when linalool and 2-phenylethanol are the attractive signals. However, the results also suggest that ozone can change the overall perception of an odor blend. This might have negative effects in pollination systems and other organismic interactions mediated by specific ratios of compounds.

  7. Differential pulmonary and cardiac effects of pulmonary exposure to a panel of particulate matter-associated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallenborn, J. Grace; Schladweiler, Mette J.; Richards, Judy H.; Kodavanti, Urmila P.

    2009-01-01

    Biological mechanisms underlying the association between particulate matter (PM) exposure and increased cardiovascular health effects are under investigation. Water-soluble metals reaching systemic circulation following pulmonary exposure are likely exerting a direct effect. However, it is unclear whether specific PM-associated metals may be driving this. We hypothesized that exposure to equimolar amounts of five individual PM-associated metals would cause differential pulmonary and cardiac effects. We exposed male WKY rats (14 weeks old) via a single intratracheal instillation (IT) to saline or 1 μmol/kg body weight of zinc, nickel, vanadium, copper, or iron in sulfate form. Responses were analyzed 4, 24, 48, or 96 h after exposure. Pulmonary effects were assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid levels of total cells, macrophages, neutrophils, protein, albumin, and activities of lactate dehydrogenase, γ-glutamyl transferase, and n-acetyl glucosaminidase. Copper induced earlier pulmonary injury/inflammation, while zinc and nickel produced later effects. Vanadium or iron exposure induced minimal pulmonary injury/inflammation. Zinc, nickel, or copper increased serum cholesterol, red blood cells, and white blood cells at different time points. IT of nickel and copper increased expression of metallothionein-1 (MT-1) in the lung. Zinc, nickel, vanadium, and iron increased hepatic MT-1 expression. No significant changes in zinc transporter-1 (ZnT-1) expression were noted in the lung or liver; however, zinc increased cardiac ZnT-1 at 24 h, indicating a possible zinc-specific cardiac effect. Nickel exposure induced an increase in cardiac ferritin 96 h after IT. This data set demonstrating metal-specific cardiotoxicity is important in linking metal-enriched anthropogenic PM sources with adverse health effects.

  8. Does heavy metal exposure affect the condition of Whitethroat (Sylvia communis) nestlings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turzańska-Pietras, Katarzyna; Chachulska, Justyna; Polechońska, Ludmiła; Borowiec, Marta

    2018-03-01

    Anthropogenic pollution results in high concentrations of heavy metals in the environment. Due to their persistence and a high potential for bioaccumulation, metals are a real threat for birds breeding in industrial areas. The aim of the present study has been to explore the contents of heavy metals (arsenic As, cadmium Cd, chromium Cr, copper Cu, iron Fe, nickel Ni, lead Pb and zinc Zn) in the excreta of Whitethroat (Sylvia communis) nestlings living in polluted environment and to investigate the relationship between these contents and the nestlings' condition. Excrement samples contained all the studied elements. The contents of arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc in the excreta of nestlings from nests located close to a slag dump were several times higher than in the soil near the dump, which suggested accumulation in food consumed by the birds. Condition parameters (body mass and haemoglobin concentration) were not related to heavy metal concentrations in the nestlings' excreta, except of Zn. It is possible that Whitethroats are able to detoxicate heavy metals to a certain extent. Detailed, multi-element analysis of the environment, food and bird tissues or excreta should be performed to explore relations between different chemicals and bird condition.

  9. Dietary pomegranate extract and inulin affect gut microbiome differentially in mice fed an obesogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song; Yang, Jieping; Henning, Susanne M; Lee, Rupo; Hsu, Mark; Grojean, Emma; Pisegna, Rita; Ly, Austin; Heber, David; Li, Zhaoping

    2017-12-01

    infectious disease-related pathway associated with increase of serum LPS and MCP-1. No changes in gene expression of ileal proinflammatory cytokine and tight junction genes were observed in mice treated with PomX and inulin. Our results demonstrated that the gut microbiota and their biological pathways were differentially effected by dietary PomX and inulin fed combined or alone. It is therefore very important to consider the interaction among bioactive components of food when evaluating potential prebiotic effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Metal transport and remobilisation in a basin affected by acid mine drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Consani, Sirio; Carbone, Cristina; Dinelli, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Metal-polluted mine waters represent a major threat to the quality of waters and sediments in a downstream basin. At the confluence between acidic mine waters and the unpolluted waters of the Gromolo Torrent (Liguria, North-West Italy), the massive formation of an ochreous amorphous precipitate...... takes place. This precipitate forms a soft blanket that covers the torrent bed and can be observed down to its mouth in the sea. The aim of this work is to evaluate the dispersion of metals in the Gromolo Torrent basin from the abandoned Cu-Fe sulphide mine of Libiola to the Ligurian Sea and to assess...... the metal remobilisation from the amorphous precipitates. The mineralogy of the superficial sediments collected in the torrent bed and the concentrations of different elements of environmental concern (Cu, Zn, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, As, and Sb) were therefore analysed. The results showed...

  11. High-fat diet feeding differentially affects the development of inflammation in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot-Legris, Owein; Masquelier, Julien; Everard, Amandine; Cani, Patrice D; Alhouayek, Mireille; Muccioli, Giulio G

    2016-08-26

    Obesity and its associated disorders are becoming a major health issue in many countries. The resulting low-grade inflammation not only affects the periphery but also the central nervous system. We set out to study, in a time-dependent manner, the effects of a high-fat diet on different regions of the central nervous system with regard to the inflammatory tone. We used a diet-induced obesity model and compared at several time-points (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 16 weeks) a group of mice fed a high-fat diet with its respective control group fed a standard diet. We also performed a large-scale analysis of lipids in the central nervous system using HPLC-MS, and we then tested the lipids of interest on a primary co-culture of astrocytes and microglial cells. We measured an increase in the inflammatory tone in the cerebellum at the different time-points. However, at week 16, we evidenced that the inflammatory tone displayed significant differences in two different regions of the central nervous system, specifically an increase in the cerebellum and no modification in the cortex for high-fat diet mice when compared with chow-fed mice. Our results clearly suggest region-dependent as well as time-dependent adaptations of the central nervous system to the high-fat diet. The differences in inflammatory tone between the two regions considered seem to involve astrocytes but not microglial cells. Furthermore, a large-scale lipid screening coupled to ex vivo testing enabled us to identify three classes of lipids-phosphatidylinositols, phosphatidylethanolamines, and lysophosphatidylcholines-as well as palmitoylethanolamide, as potentially responsible for the difference in inflammatory tone. This study demonstrates that the inflammatory tone induced by a high-fat diet does not similarly affect distinct regions of the central nervous system. Moreover, the lipids identified and tested ex vivo showed interesting anti-inflammatory properties and could be further studied to better characterize

  12. Haloperidol differentially affects reinforcement and motivational processes in rats running an alley for intravenous heroin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, K; Ettenberg, A

    1995-12-01

    The role of drug-paired environmental stimuli in opiate self-administration was investigated by exposing animals to discrete cues that were predictive of the availability or unavailability of heroin reinforcement. Rats were trained to traverse a straight arm runway for a reinforcement consisting of a single 0.1 mg/kg intravenous infusion of heroin delivered upon entrance to the goal box. On each trial, one of two discriminative olfactory stimuli (orange and almond) was used: one which signaled the availability of heroin in the goal box (S+), and one which signaled its absence (S-). The effect of dopamine (DA) receptor antagonism on reinforcement and motivational processes was investigated by pretreating subjects with 0.0, 0.15 or 0.30 mg/kg of the DA receptor antagonist drug, haloperidol. Haloperidol had no effect on operant runway performance (i.e. goal time) in any condition. However, 24 h later, on the first post-treatment trial, those haloperidol animals that received heroin in the goal box on the previous trial (i.e. the S+ condition) ran reliably more slowly than subjects that received vehicle on the previous S+ trial. These results suggest that haloperidol does not affect the motivational properties of stimuli which predict the availability of heroin, while it does diminish the reinforcing effects of actually receiving heroin.

  13. Rewiring carbohydrate catabolism differentially affects survival of pancreatic cancer cell lines with diverse metabolic profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tataranni, Tiziana; Agriesti, Francesca; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Simeon, Vittorio; Laurenzana, Ilaria; Scrima, Rosella; Pazienza, Valerio; Capitanio, Nazzareno; Piccoli, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence suggests that targeting cellular metabolism represents a promising effective approach to treat pancreatic cancer, overcome chemoresistance and ameliorate patient's prognosis and survival. In this study, following whole-genome expression analysis, we selected two pancreatic cancer cell lines, PANC-1 and BXPC-3, hallmarked by distinct metabolic profiles with specific concern to carbohydrate metabolism. Functional comparative analysis showed that BXPC-3 displayed a marked deficit of the mitochondrial respiratory and oxidative phosphorylation activity and a higher production of reactive oxygen species and a reduced NAD+/NADH ratio, indicating their bioenergetic reliance on glycolysis and a different redox homeostasis as compared to PANC-1. Both cell lines were challenged to rewire their metabolism by substituting glucose with galactose as carbon source, a condition inhibiting the glycolytic flux and fostering full oxidation of the sugar carbons. The obtained data strikingly show that the mitochondrial respiration-impaired-BXPC-3 cell line was unable to sustain the metabolic adaptation required by glucose deprivation/substitution, thereby resulting in a G2\\M cell cycle shift, unbalance of the redox homeostasis, apoptosis induction. Conversely, the mitochondrial respiration-competent-PANC-1 cell line did not show clear evidence of cell sufferance. Our findings provide a strong rationale to candidate metabolism as a promising target for cancer therapy. Defining the metabolic features at time of pancreatic cancer diagnosis and likely of other tumors, appears to be crucial to predict the responsiveness to therapeutic approaches or coadjuvant interventions affecting metabolism. PMID:28476035

  14. Vanillin Differentially Affects Azoxymethane-Injected Rat Colon Carcinogenesis and Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ket Li; Chong, Pei Pei; Yazan, Latifah Saiful

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Vanillin is the substance responsible for the flavor and smell of vanilla, a widely used flavoring agent. Previous studies reported that vanillin is a good antimutagen and anticarcinogen. However, there are also some contradicting findings showing that vanillin was a comutagen and cocarcinogen. This study investigated whether vanillin is an anticarcinogen or a cocarcinogen in rats induced with azoxymethane (AOM). Rats induced with AOM will develop aberrant crypt foci (ACF). AOM-challenged rats were treated with vanillin orally and intraperitoneally at low and high concentrations and ACF density, multiplicity, and distribution were observed. The gene expression of 14 colorectal cancer-related genes was also studied. Results showed that vanillin consumed orally had no effect on ACF. However, high concentrations (300 mg/kg body weight) of vanillin administered through intraperitoneal injection could increase ACF density and ACF multiplicity. ACF were mainly found in the distal colon rather than in the mid-section and proximal colon. The expression of colorectal cancer biomarkers, protooncogenes, recombinational repair, mismatch repair, and cell cycle arrest, and tumor suppressor gene expression were also affected by vanillin. Vanillin was not cocarcinogenic when consumed orally. However, it was cocarcinogenic when being administered intraperitoneally at high concentration. Hence, the use of vanillin in food should be safe but might have cocarcinogenic potential when it is used in high concentration for therapeutic purposes. PMID:23216109

  15. Ageing differentially affects neural processing of different conflict types – an fMRI study

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    Margarethe eKorsch

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Interference control and conflict resolution is affected by ageing. There is increasing evidence that ageing does not compromise interference control in general but rather shows distinctive effects on different components of interference control. Different conflict types, (e.g. stimulus-stimulus (S-S or stimulus-response (S-R conflicts trigger different cognitive processes and thus activate different neural networks. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, we used a combined Flanker and Stimulus Response Conflict (SRC task to investigate the effect of ageing on S-S and S-R conflicts. Behavioral data analysis revealed larger SRC effects in elderly. fMRI Results show that both age groups recruited similar regions (caudate nucleus, cingulate gyrus and middle occipital gyrus during Flanker conflict processing. Furthermore, elderly show an additional activation pattern in parietal and frontal areas. In contrast, no common activation of both age groups was found in response to the SRC. These data suggest that ageing has distinctive effects on S-S and S-R conflicts.

  16. Ageing differentially affects neural processing of different conflict types-an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsch, Margarethe; Frühholz, Sascha; Herrmann, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Interference control and conflict resolution is affected by ageing. There is increasing evidence that ageing does not compromise interference control in general but rather shows distinctive effects on different components of interference control. Different conflict types, [e.g., stimulus-stimulus (S-S) or stimulus-response (S-R) conflicts] trigger different cognitive processes and thus activate different neural networks. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we used a combined Flanker and Stimulus Response Conflict (SRC) task to investigate the effect of ageing on S-S and S-R conflicts. Behavioral data analysis revealed larger SRC effects in elderly. fMRI Results show that both age groups recruited similar regions [caudate nucleus, cingulate gyrus and middle occipital gyrus (MOG)] during Flanker conflict processing. Furthermore, elderly show an additional activation pattern in parietal and frontal areas. In contrast, no common activation of both age groups was found in response to the SRC. These data suggest that ageing has distinctive effects on S-S and S-R conflicts.

  17. Grapevine tissues and phenology differentially affect soluble carbohydrates determination by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Daniela; Berli, Federico; Bottini, Rubén; Piccoli, Patricia N; Silva, María F

    2017-09-01

    Soluble carbohydrates distribution depends on plant physiology and, among other important factors, determines fruit yield and quality. In plant biology, the analysis of sugars is useful for many purposes, including metabolic studies. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) proved to be a powerful green separation technique with minimal sample preparation, even in complex plant tissues, that can provide high-resolution efficiency. Matrix effect refers to alterations in the analytical response caused by components of a sample other than the analyte of interest. Thus, the assessment and reduction of the matrix factor is fundamental for metabolic studies in different matrices. The present study evaluated the source and levels of matrix effects in the determination of most abundant sugars in grapevine tissues (mature and young leaves, berries and roots) at two phenological growth stages. Sucrose was the sugar that showed the least matrix effects, while fructose was the most affected analyte. Based on plant tissues, young leaves presented the smaller matrix effects, irrespectively of the phenology. These changes may be attributed to considerable differences at chemical composition of grapevine tissues with plant development. Therefore, matrix effect should be an important concern for plant metabolomics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Field establishment and grain yield of maize affected by hydro-priming of differentially aged seeds

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    Kazem Ghassemi-Golezani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A sub-sample of maize seeds (cv. SC-AR68 with a 100% germination was kept as control, and two other sub-samples were artificially deteriorated at 40 °C for 2 and 3 days, reducing normal germination to 98% and 93%, respectively. Consequently, three seed lots of maize with different levels of vigor were provided. Each seed lot was then divided into four sub-samples, one unprimed and the other three lots were primed in distilled water at 15 °C for 7, 14 and 21 hours, and then dried back to initial moisture content (about 20% at a room temperature of 20–22 °C for 24 hours. The field experiment was arranged as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Although germination percentage of seed lots was not significantly affected by hydro-priming, germination rate and seedling dry weight were considerably enhanced as a result of seed priming. Hydro-priming for 21 hours enhanced seedling emergence rate of all seed lots with different levels of vigor. This hydro-priming duration also increased grain yield of maize by about 32%, although this superiority was not statistically significant. This advantage in grain yield of plants from primed seeds was related with rapid germination and seedling growth and early emergence in the field.

  19. Glu- and Lys-forms of plasminogen differentially affect phosphatidylserine exposure on the platelet surface

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    D. D. Zhernossekov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Plasminogen/plasmin system is known for its ability to support hemostatic balance of blood. However, plasminogen may be considered as an adhesive ligand and in this way could affect the functioning of blood cells. We showed that exogenous Lys-plasminogen, but not its Glu-form, inhibited platelet aggregation and suppressed platelet α-granule secretion. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of Glu- and Lys-form of plasminogen on the formation of platelet procoagulant surface using phosphatidylserine exposure as a marker. Human platelets were obtained from human platelet-rich plasma (donors were healthy volunteers, men aged 30-40 years by gel-filtration on Sepharose 2B. Phosphatidylserine exposure on the platelet surface was evaluated by flow cytometry with FITC-conjugated annexin A5. Glu- and Lys-plasminogen have different impact on the platelet functioning. Exogenous Lys-plasminogen has no significant effect on phosphatidylserine exposure, while Glu-plasminogen increases phosphatidylserine exposure on the surface of thrombin- and collagen-activated human platelets. Glu-plasminogen can be considered as a co-stimulator of agonist-induced platelet secretion and procoagulant surface formation. Meanwhile effects of Lys-plasminogen are probably directed at platelet-platelet interactions and not related to agonist-stimulated pro-apoptotic changes. The observed different effects of Glu- and Lys-plasminogen on phosphatidylserine exposure can be explained by their structural peculiarities.

  20. Incidental learning of probability information is differentially affected by the type of visual working memory representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lamsweerde, Amanda E; Beck, Melissa R

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the ability to learn probability information is affected by the type of representation held in visual working memory. Across 4 experiments, participants detected changes to displays of coloured shapes. While participants detected changes in 1 dimension (e.g., colour), a feature from a second, nonchanging dimension (e.g., shape) predicted which object was most likely to change. In Experiments 1 and 3, items could be grouped by similarity in the changing dimension across items (e.g., colours and shapes were repeated in the display), while in Experiments 2 and 4 items could not be grouped by similarity (all features were unique). Probability information from the predictive dimension was learned and used to increase performance, but only when all of the features within a display were unique (Experiments 2 and 4). When it was possible to group by feature similarity in the changing dimension (e.g., 2 blue objects appeared within an array), participants were unable to learn probability information and use it to improve performance (Experiments 1 and 3). The results suggest that probability information can be learned in a dimension that is not explicitly task-relevant, but only when the probability information is represented with the changing dimension in visual working memory. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 neurodegeneration differentially affects error-based and strategic-based visuomotor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaca-Palomares, Israel; Díaz, Rosalinda; Rodríguez-Labrada, Roberto; Medrano-Montero, Jacqeline; Vázquez-Mojena, Yaimé; Velázquez-Pérez, Luis; Fernandez-Ruiz, Juan

    2013-12-01

    There are different types of visuomotor learning. Among the most studied is motor error-based learning where the sign and magnitude of the error are used to update motor commands. However, there are other instances where individuals show visuomotor learning even if the sign or magnitude of the error is precluded. Studies with patients suggest that the former learning is impaired after cerebellar lesions, while basal ganglia lesions disrupt the latter. Nevertheless, the cerebellar role is not restricted only to error-based learning, but it also contributes to several cognitive processes. Therefore, here, we tested if cerebellar ataxia patients are affected in two tasks, one that depends on error-based learning and the other that prevents the use of error-based learning. Our results showed that cerebellar patients have deficits in both visuomotor tasks; however, while error-based learning tasks deficits correlated with the motor impairments, the motor error-dependent task did not correlate with any motor measure.

  2. Motivational state, reward value, and Pavlovian cues differentially affect skilled forelimb grasping in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Clauser, Larissa; Kasper, Hansjörg; Schwab, Martin E.

    2016-01-01

    Motor skills represent high-precision movements performed at optimal speed and accuracy. Such motor skills are learned with practice over time. Besides practice, effects of motivation have also been shown to influence speed and accuracy of movements, suggesting that fast movements are performed to maximize gained reward over time as noted in previous studies. In rodents, skilled motor performance has been successfully modeled with the skilled grasping task, in which animals use their forepaw to grasp for sugar pellet rewards through a narrow window. Using sugar pellets, the skilled grasping task is inherently tied to motivation processes. In the present study, we performed three experiments modulating animals’ motivation during skilled grasping by changing the motivational state, presenting different reward value ratios, and displaying Pavlovian stimuli. We found in all three studies that motivation affected the speed of skilled grasping movements, with the strongest effects seen due to motivational state and reward value. Furthermore, accuracy of the movement, measured in success rate, showed a strong dependence on motivational state as well. Pavlovian cues had only minor effects on skilled grasping, but results indicate an inverse Pavlovian-instrumental transfer effect on movement speed. These findings have broad implications considering the increasing use of skilled grasping in studies of motor system structure, function, and recovery after injuries. PMID:27194796

  3. Maternal and paternal genomes differentially affect myofibre characteristics and muscle weights of bovine fetuses at midgestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ruidong; Ghanipoor-Samami, Mani; Johns, William H; Eindorf, Tanja; Rutley, David L; Kruk, Zbigniew A; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn J; Thomsen, Dana A; Roberts, Claire T; Burns, Brian M; Anderson, Gail I; Greenwood, Paul L; Hiendleder, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Postnatal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass are largely determined during fetal development and may be significantly affected by epigenetic parent-of-origin effects. However, data on such effects in prenatal muscle development that could help understand unexplained variation in postnatal muscle traits are lacking. In a bovine model we studied effects of distinct maternal and paternal genomes, fetal sex, and non-genetic maternal effects on fetal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass. Data from 73 fetuses (Day153, 54% term) of four genetic groups with purebred and reciprocal cross Angus and Brahman genetics were analyzed using general linear models. Parental genomes explained the greatest proportion of variation in myofibre size of Musculus semitendinosus (80-96%) and in absolute and relative weights of M. supraspinatus, M. longissimus dorsi, M. quadriceps femoris and M. semimembranosus (82-89% and 56-93%, respectively). Paternal genome in interaction with maternal genome (Pmaternal genome alone explained most genetic variation in CSA of fast myofibres (93%, Pmaternal genome independently (M. semimembranosus, 88%, Pmaternal weight effect (5-6%, Ppaternal genome on muscle mass decreased from thoracic to pelvic limb and accounted for all (M. supraspinatus, 97%, Pinteraction between maternal and paternal genomes (Pmaternal weight (Pmaternal and paternal genomes on fetal muscle.

  4. Occupational accidents and affecting factors of metal industry in a factory in Ankara

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    Buket Gulhan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective:According to the statistics of the Social Security Institution, 18672 occupational accidents occurred in the metal industry in 2008 in Turkey. Whereas 78 of these accidents resulted in death, 252 people became permanently incapable of working. In 2008, 369677 working days were lost as a result of occupational accidents. Evaluating the reasons for and the results of accidents in the metal industry and contributing to the development of recommendations for prevention in accordance with the information obtained. Method: The study was conducted with 201 of 210 workers working in heavy metal manufacturing and construction in the building company between April 2008 and June 2008. Results: The frequency of occupational accidents among the metal workers was 22% between January 2007 and June 2008. The reasons for the workers’ accidents are listed as; insufficient use of personal protective equipment (44%, carelessness (37%, and personal reasons, not to be taken of security measures at machines and looms/ unsuitable machines (both 17%.Conclusion: The study demonstrates that the accidents mostly occur because of failure to use of personal protective equipment, insufficient vocational training. Key Words: Occupational, accident, metal industry, preventionAnkara’da bir metal sanayi fabrikasında iş kazaları ve etkileyen faktörler Özet Amaç: 2008 yılında Sosyal Güvenlik Kurumu’nun verilerine göre metal sanayisinde 18672 iş kazası meydana gelmiş ve 369677 işgünü kaybı olmuştur.  Bu kazalardan 78 tanesi ölümle sonuçlanırken, 252 kişi kalıcı olarak işgöremez hale gelmiştir. Metal sanayisinde meydana gelen kazaların sebep ve sonuçlarını inceleyerek, elde edilen bilgiler doğrultusunda kazaların önlenmesine yönelik tavsiyelerin geliştirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Yöntem: Araştırma, Ankara’da faaliyet gösteren ağır metal imalat, konstrüksiyon ve inşaat sanayi şirketinde 2008 Nisan-2008 Haziran d

  5. Postural threat differentially affects the feedforward and feedback components of the vestibular-evoked balance response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Callum J; Tersteeg, M C A; Reynolds, Raymond F; Loram, Ian D

    2013-10-01

    Circumstances may render the consequence of falling quite severe, thus maximising the motivation to control postural sway. This commonly occurs when exposed to height and may result from the interaction of many factors, including fear, arousal, sensory information and perception. Here, we examined human vestibular-evoked balance responses during exposure to a highly threatening postural context. Nine subjects stood with eyes closed on a narrow walkway elevated 3.85 m above ground level. This evoked an altered psycho-physiological state, demonstrated by a twofold increase in skin conductance. Balance responses were then evoked by galvanic vestibular stimulation. The sway response, which comprised a whole-body lean in the direction of the edge of the walkway, was significantly and substantially attenuated after ~800 ms. This demonstrates that a strong reason to modify the balance control strategy was created and subjects were highly motivated to minimise sway. Despite this, the initial response remained unchanged. This suggests little effect on the feedforward settings of the nervous system responsible for coupling pure vestibular input to functional motor output. The much stronger, later effect can be attributed to an integration of balance-relevant sensory feedback once the body was in motion. These results demonstrate that the feedforward and feedback components of a vestibular-evoked balance response are differently affected by postural threat. Although a fear of falling has previously been linked with instability and even falling itself, our findings suggest that this relationship is not attributable to changes in the feedforward vestibular control of balance. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Plant protein and animal proteins: do they differentially affect cardiovascular disease risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Chesney K; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Champagne, Catherine M; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2015-11-01

    Proteins from plant-based compared with animal-based food sources may have different effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Numerous epidemiologic and intervention studies have evaluated their respective health benefits; however, it is difficult to isolate the role of plant or animal protein on CVD risk. This review evaluates the current evidence from observational and intervention studies, focusing on the specific protein-providing foods and populations studied. Dietary protein is derived from many food sources, and each provides a different composite of nonprotein compounds that can also affect CVD risk factors. Increasing the consumption of protein-rich foods also typically results in lower intakes of other nutrients, which may simultaneously influence outcomes. Given these complexities, blanket statements about plant or animal protein may be too general, and greater consideration of the specific protein food sources and the background diet is required. The potential mechanisms responsible for any specific effects of plant and animal protein are similarly multifaceted and include the amino acid content of particular foods, contributions from other nonprotein compounds provided concomitantly by the whole food, and interactions with the gut microbiome. Evidence to date is inconclusive, and additional studies are needed to further advance our understanding of the complexity of plant protein vs. animal protein comparisons. Nonetheless, current evidence supports the idea that CVD risk can be reduced by a dietary pattern that provides more plant sources of protein compared with the typical American diet and also includes animal-based protein foods that are unprocessed and low in saturated fat. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Chronic sleep deprivation differentially affects short and long-term operant memory in Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Harini C; Noakes, Eric J; Lyons, Lisa C

    2016-10-01

    The induction, formation and maintenance of memory represent dynamic processes modulated by multiple factors including the circadian clock and sleep. Chronic sleep restriction has become common in modern society due to occupational and social demands. Given the impact of cognitive impairments associated with sleep deprivation, there is a vital need for a simple animal model in which to study the interactions between chronic sleep deprivation and memory. We used the marine mollusk Aplysia californica, with its simple nervous system, nocturnal sleep pattern and well-characterized learning paradigms, to assess the effects of two chronic sleep restriction paradigms on short-term (STM) and long-term (LTM) associative memory. The effects of sleep deprivation on memory were evaluated using the operant learning paradigm, learning that food is inedible, in which the animal associates a specific netted seaweed with failed swallowing attempts. We found that two nights of 6h sleep deprivation occurring during the first or last half of the night inhibited both STM and LTM. Moreover, the impairment in STM persisted for more than 24h. A milder, prolonged sleep deprivation paradigm consisting of 3 consecutive nights of 4h sleep deprivation also blocked STM, but had no effect on LTM. These experiments highlight differences in the sensitivity of STM and LTM to chronic sleep deprivation. Moreover, these results establish Aplysia as a valid model for studying the interactions between chronic sleep deprivation and associative memory paving the way for future studies delineating the mechanisms through which sleep restriction affects memory formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Methamphetamine differentially affects BDNF and cell death factors in anatomically defined regions of the hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinato, Melissa H.; Orio, Laura; Mandyam, Chitra D.

    2014-01-01

    hippocampal subregions that may contribute to the altered synaptic activity in the hippocampus, which may underlie enhanced negative affective symptoms and perpetuation of the addiction cycle. PMID:25463524

  9. Ibuprofen Differentially Affects Supraspinatus Muscle and Tendon Adaptations to Exercise in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Sarah Ilkhanipour; Baskin, Rachel; Torino, Daniel J; Vafa, Rameen P; Khandekar, Pooja S; Kuntz, Andrew F; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that ibuprofen is detrimental to tissue healing after acute injury; however, the effects of ibuprofen when combined with noninjurious exercise are debated. Administration of ibuprofen to rats undergoing a noninjurious treadmill exercise protocol will abolish the beneficial adaptations found with exercise but will have no effect on sedentary muscle and tendon properties. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 167 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into exercise or cage activity (sedentary) groups and acute (a single bout of exercise followed by 24 hours of rest) and chronic (2 or 8 weeks of repeated exercise) response times. Half of the rats were administered ibuprofen to investigate the effects of this drug over time when combined with different activity levels (exercise and sedentary). Supraspinatus tendons were used for mechanical testing and histologic assessment (organization, cell shape, cellularity), and supraspinatus muscles were used for morphologic (fiber cross-sectional area, centrally nucleated fibers) and fiber type analysis. Chronic intake of ibuprofen did not impair supraspinatus tendon organization or mechanical adaptations (stiffness, modulus, maximum load, maximum stress, dynamic modulus, or viscoelastic properties) to exercise. Tendon mechanical properties were not diminished and in some instances increased with ibuprofen. In contrast, total supraspinatus muscle fiber cross-sectional area decreased with ibuprofen at chronic response times, and some fiber type-specific changes were detected. Chronic administration of ibuprofen does not impair supraspinatus tendon mechanical properties in a rat model of exercise but does decrease supraspinatus muscle fiber cross-sectional area. This fundamental study adds to the growing literature on the effects of ibuprofen on musculoskeletal tissues and provides a solid foundation on which future work can build. The study findings suggest that ibuprofen does not detrimentally affect

  10. Members of Glycosyl-Hydrolase Family 17 of A. fumigatus Differentially Affect Morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Millet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell wall biosynthesis and remodeling are essential for fungal growth and development. In the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, the β(1,3glucan is the major cell wall polysaccharide. This polymer is synthesized at the plasma membrane by a transmembrane complex, then released into the parietal space to be remodeled by enzymes, and finally incorporated into the pre-existing cell wall. In the Glycosyl-Hydrolases family 17 (GH17 of A. fumigatus, two β(1,3glucanosyltransferases, Bgt1p and Bgt2p, have been previously characterized. Disruption of BGT1 and BGT2 did not result in a phenotype, but sequence comparison and hydrophobic cluster analysis showed that three other genes in A. fumigatus belong to the GH17 family, SCW4, SCW11, and BGT3. In constrast to Δbgt1bgt2 mutants, single and multiple deletion of SCW4, SCW11, and BGT3 showed a decrease in conidiation associated with a higher conidial mortality and an abnormal conidial shape. Moreover, mycelium was also affected with a slower growth, stronger sensitivity to cell wall disturbing agents, and altered cell wall composition. Finally, the synthetic interactions between Bgt1p, Bgt2p, and the three other members, which support a functional cooperation in cell-wall assembly, were analyzed. Our data suggest that Scw4p, Scw11p, and Bgt3p are essential for cell wall integrity and might have antagonistic and distinct functions to Bgt1p and Bgt2p.

  11. Members of Glycosyl-Hydrolase Family 17 of A. fumigatus Differentially Affect Morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Nicolas; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Mouyna, Isabelle

    2018-01-01

    Cell wall biosynthesis and remodeling are essential for fungal growth and development. In the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, the β(1,3)glucan is the major cell wall polysaccharide. This polymer is synthesized at the plasma membrane by a transmembrane complex, then released into the parietal space to be remodeled by enzymes, and finally incorporated into the pre-existing cell wall. In the Glycosyl-Hydrolases family 17 (GH17) of A. fumigatus, two β(1,3)glucanosyltransferases, Bgt1p and Bgt2p, have been previously characterized. Disruption of BGT1 and BGT2 did not result in a phenotype, but sequence comparison and hydrophobic cluster analysis showed that three other genes in A. fumigatus belong to the GH17 family, SCW4, SCW11, and BGT3. In constrast to Δbgt1bgt2 mutants, single and multiple deletion of SCW4, SCW11, and BGT3 showed a decrease in conidiation associated with a higher conidial mortality and an abnormal conidial shape. Moreover, mycelium was also affected with a slower growth, stronger sensitivity to cell wall disturbing agents, and altered cell wall composition. Finally, the synthetic interactions between Bgt1p, Bgt2p, and the three other members, which support a functional cooperation in cell-wall assembly, were analyzed. Our data suggest that Scw4p, Scw11p, and Bgt3p are essential for cell wall integrity and might have antagonistic and distinct functions to Bgt1p and Bgt2p. PMID:29385695

  12. Cognitive-affective depression and somatic symptoms clusters are differentially associated with maternal parenting and coparenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamela, Diogo; Jongenelen, Inês; Morais, Ana; Figueiredo, Bárbara

    2017-09-01

    Both depressive and somatic symptoms are significant predictors of parenting and coparenting problems. However, despite clear evidence of their co-occurrence, no study to date has examined the association between depressive-somatic symptoms clusters and parenting and coparenting. The current research sought to identify and cross-validate clusters of cognitive-affective depressive symptoms and nonspecific somatic symptoms, as well as to test whether clusters would differ on parenting and coparenting problems across three independent samples of mothers. Participants in Studies 1 and 3 consisted of 409 and 652 community mothers, respectively. Participants in Study 2 consisted of 162 mothers exposed to intimate partner violence. All participants prospectively completed self-report measures of depressive and nonspecific somatic symptoms and parenting (Studies 1 and 2) or coparenting (Study 3). Across studies, three depression-somatic symptoms clusters were identified: no symptoms, high depression and low nonspecific somatic symptoms, and high depression and nonspecific somatic symptoms. The high depression-somatic symptoms cluster was associated with the highest levels of child physical maltreatment risk (Study 1) and overt-conflict coparenting (Study 3). No differences in perceived maternal competence (Study 2) and cooperative and undermining coparenting (Study 3) were found between the high depression and low somatic symptoms cluster and the high depression-somatic symptoms cluster. The results provide novel evidence for the strong associations between clusters of depression and nonspecific somatic symptoms and specific parenting and coparenting problems. Cluster stability across three independent samples suggest that they may be generalizable. The results inform preventive approaches and evidence-based psychotherapeutic treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Differential effects of acute and regular physical exercise on cognition and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, M E; Davis, F C; Vantieghem, M R; Whalen, P J; Bucci, D J

    2012-07-26

    The effects of regular exercise versus a single bout of exercise on cognition, anxiety, and mood were systematically examined in healthy, sedentary young adults who were genotyped to determine brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) allelic status (i.e., Val-Val or Val66Met polymorphism). Participants were evaluated on novel object recognition (NOR) memory and a battery of mental health surveys before and after engaging in either (a) a 4-week exercise program, with exercise on the final test day, (b) a 4-week exercise program, without exercise on the final test day, (c) a single bout of exercise on the final test day, or (d) remaining sedentary between test days. Exercise enhanced object recognition memory and produced a beneficial decrease in perceived stress, but only in participants who exercised for 4 weeks including the final day of testing. In contrast, a single bout of exercise did not affect recognition memory and resulted in increased perceived stress levels. An additional novel finding was that the improvements on the NOR task were observed exclusively in participants who were homozygous for the BDNF Val allele, indicating that altered activity-dependent release of BDNF in Met allele carriers may attenuate the cognitive benefits of exercise. Importantly, exercise-induced changes in cognition were not correlated with changes in mood/anxiety, suggesting that separate neural systems mediate these effects. These data in humans mirror recent data from our group in rodents. Taken together, these current findings provide new insights into the behavioral and neural mechanisms that mediate the effects of physical exercise on memory and mental health in humans. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Differential Effects of Acute and Regular Physical Exercise on Cognition and Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Michael E.; Davis, F. Caroline; VanTieghem, Michelle R.; Whalen, Paul J.; Bucci, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of regular exercise versus a single bout of exercise on cognition, anxiety, and mood were systematically examined in healthy, sedentary young adults who were genotyped to determine brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) allelic status (i.e., Val-Val or Val66Met polymorphism). Participants were evaluated on novel object recognition (NOR) memory and a battery of mental health surveys before and after engaging in either a) a four-week exercise program, with exercise on the final test day, b) a four-week exercise program, without exercise on the final test day, c) a single bout of exercise on the final test day, or d) remaining sedentary between test days. Exercise enhanced object recognition memory and produced a beneficial decrease in perceived stress, but only in participants who exercised for four weeks including the final day of testing. In contrast, a single bout of exercise did not affect recognition memory and resulted in increased perceived stress levels. An additional novel finding was that the improvements on the NOR task were observed exclusively in participants who were homozygous for the BDNF Val allele, indicating that altered activity-dependent release of BDNF in Met allele carriers may attenuate the cognitive benefits of exercise. Importantly, exercise-induced changes in cognition were not correlated with changes in mood/anxiety, suggesting that separate neural systems mediate these effects. These data in humans mirror recent data from our group in rodents. Taken together, these current findings provide new insights into the behavioral and neural mechanisms that mediate the effects of physical exercise on memory and mental health in humans. PMID:22554780

  15. Metal ions released from fixed orthodontic appliance affect hair mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulewicz, Marcin; Wołowiec, Paulina; Loster, Bartłomiej; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate metal ion accumulation in hair of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances in time. The patients (N = 47) participated in a questionnaire survey. Hair sampling was performed at the beginning and in the 4th, 8th, and 12th month of the treatment. The content of metals (Cr, Ni, Fe) in hair was analyzed by ICP-OES equipped with USN nebulizer. The peak release of Cr and Fe occurred after 4 months of the treatment, and the peak release of Ni gradually increased throughout the whole year of the therapy. During 1 year treatment, an average accumulation of metals in hair tissue was 7.42 ± 14.19 μg of Ni, 8.94 ± 13.1 μg of Cr, and 131 ± 279 μg of Fe. The mean content of Cr was higher than the 90th percentile value for this element. The upper limit of literature reference ranges for Cr, Ni, and Fe in hair was not exceeded. The value of exposure (kinetics and dose) of orthodontic patients to metal ions released from orthodontic appliances can be assessed by hair mineral analysis. The content of Cr was statistically significantly higher during the treatment than before the beginning of therapy.

  16. Enhanced PCBs sorption on biochars as affected by environmental factors: Humic acid and metal cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yu; Wang Lei; Fang Guodong; Herath, H.M.S.K.; Wang Yujun; Cang Long; Xie Zubin; Zhou Dongmei

    2013-01-01

    Biochar plays an important role in the behaviors of organic pollutants in the soil environment. The role of humic acid (HA) and metal cations on the adsorption affinity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to the biochars in an aqueous medium and an extracted solution from a PCBs-contaminated soil was studied using batch experiments. Biochars were produced with pine needles and wheat straw at 350 °C and 550 °C under anaerobic condition. The results showed that the biochars had high adsorption affinity for PCBs. Pine needle chars adsorbed less nonplanar PCBs than planar ones due to dispersive interactions and separation. Coexistence of HA and metal cations increased PCBs sorption on the biochars accounted for HA adsorption and cation complexation. The results will aid in a better understanding of biochar sorption mechanism of contaminants in the environment. - Highlights: ► Application of the biochars for PCBs sorption was a new and effective way. ► The biochars had higher adsorption affinity for PCBs in the soil extracted solution. ► Pine needle chars adsorbed less nonplanar PCBs than planar ones. ► Coexisting humic acid or metal cations increased PCBs sorption on the biochars. - The biochars had higher adsorption affinity for PCBs in the extracted soil solution because coexisting humic acid and metal cations increased their sorption.

  17. Processes affecting the distribution and speciation of heavy metals in the Rhine/Meuse estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paalman, M.A.A.

    1997-01-01

    When rivers drain areas with a high population density the sediments are often contaminated with heavy metals, such as chromium, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, mercury and lead. The extent and seriousness of sediment contamination is most pronounced in the lower reaches of rivers, where

  18. Heavy metals in sediments of a large, turbid tropical lake affected by anthropogenic discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales-Hoz, L.; Carranza-Edwards, A.; Lopez-Hernandez, M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia

    2000-01-01

    Bottom-water data and trace metal concentration of Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Co, Zn, and organic matter in surficial sediment samples from 13 sampling stations of Lake Chapala in Mexico were studied. The lake is turbid with a great amount of flocculated sediments as a result of wind mixing, sediment re-suspension, and Lerma River discharges. Al distribution pattern in sediments was used as an indicator of the Lerma River discharges into Lake Chapala. The highest values of Cu (33.27 ppm), Cr (81.94 ppm), Pb (99.8 ppm), and Zn (149.7 ppm) were detected in sediments near the lake outlet. The bioavailable metal fraction is low for all metals except Pb, which shows 65-93% of the total metal concentration in bioavailable form. The minimum energy zone in the lake was related to organic matter concentration and was located in the SE part of the lake. An analysis of the studied parameters shows two zones: eastern zone (fluvio-deltaic) and central-western zone (lacustrine). (orig.)

  19. Mining-caused changes to habitat structure affect amphibian and reptile population ecology more than metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kiyoshi; Lesbarrères, David; Watson, Glen; Litzgus, Jacqueline

    2015-12-01

    Emissions from smelting not only contaminate water and soil with metals, but also induce extensive forest dieback and changes in resource availability and microclimate. The relative effects of such co-occurring stressors are often unknown, but this information is imperative in developing targeted restoration strategies. We assessed the role and relative effects of structural alterations of terrestrial habitat and metal pollution caused by century-long smelting operations on amphibian and reptile communities by collecting environmental and time- and area-standardized multivariate abundance data along three spatially replicated impact gradients. Overall, species richness, diversity, and abundance declined progressively with increasing levels of metals (As, Cu, and Ni) and soil temperature (T(s)) and decreasing canopy cover, amount of coarse woody debris (CWD), and relative humidity (RH). The composite habitat variable (which included canopy cover, CWD, T(s), and RH) was more strongly associated with most response metrics than the composite metal variable (As, Cu, and Ni), and canopy cover alone explained 19-74% of the variance. Moreover, species that use terrestrial habitat for specific behaviors (e.g., hibernation, dispersal), especially forest-dependent species, were more severely affected than largely aquatic species. These results suggest that structural alterations of terrestrial habitat and concomitant changes in the resource availability and microclimate have stronger effects than metal pollution per se. Furthermore, much of the variation in response metrics was explained by the joint action of several environmental variables, implying synergistic effects (e.g., exacerbation of metal toxicity by elevated temperatures in sites with reduced canopy cover). We thus argue that the restoration of terrestrial habitat conditions is a key to successful recovery of herpetofauna communities in smelting-altered landscapes.

  20. Postlearning stress differentially affects memory for emotional gist and detail in naturally cycling women and women on hormonal contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Shawn E; Ahmed, Imran; Cahill, Larry

    2014-08-01

    Sex differences in emotional memory have received increasing interest over the past decade. However, to date, no work has explored how a postlearning stressor might modulate the influence of sex hormone status on memory for gist and peripheral detail in an emotional versus neutral context. Here, we tested 3 predictions. First, compared with naturally cycling (NC) women in the luteal phase, women on hormonal contraception (HC) would have significantly blunted hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal reactivity to physical stress. Second, postlearning stress would enhance detail and gist memory from an emotional story in NC women, and finally, postlearning stress would not affect emotional memory for details or gist in HC women. Healthy NC and HC women viewed a brief, narrated story containing neutral or emotionally arousing elements. Immediately after, cold pressor stress (CPS) or a control procedure was administered. One week later, participants received a surprise free recall test for story elements. NC women exhibited significantly greater cortisol increases to CPS compared with HC women. NC women who viewed the emotional story and were administered CPS recalled the most peripheral details overall and more gist from the emotional compared with the neutral story. In HC women, however, the postlearning cortisol release did not affect memory for gist or peripheral details from the emotional or neutral story in any way. Additionally, NC and HC women performed similarly on measures of attention and arousal. These findings suggest that in women, postlearning stress differentially affects memory for emotional information depending on their hormonal contraceptive status.

  1. Trace metal partitioning over a tidal cycle in an estuary affected by acid mine drainage (Tinto estuary, SW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hierro, A. [Department of Physics, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Department of Applied Physics, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar CEIMAR, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Olías, M., E-mail: manuel.olias@dgyp.uhu.es [Department of Geodynamics and Paleontology, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar CEIMAR, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Cánovas, C.R. [Department of Geodynamics and Paleontology, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar CEIMAR, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Martín, J.E.; Bolivar, J.P. [Department of Applied Physics, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar CEIMAR, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    The Tinto River estuary is highly polluted with the acid lixiviates from old sulphide mines. In this work the behaviour of dissolved and particulate trace metals under strong chemical gradients during a tidal cycle is studied. The pH values range from 4.4 with low tide to 6.9 with high tide. Precipitation of Fe and Al is intense during rising tides and As and Pb are almost exclusively found in the particulate matter (PM). Sorption processes are very important in controlling the mobility (and hence bioavailability) of some metals and particularly affect Cu below pH 6. Above pH ∼ 6 Cu is desorbed, probably by the formation of Cu(I)–chloride complexes. Although less pronounced than Cu, also Zn desorption above pH 6.5 seems to occur. Mn and Co are affected by sorption processes at pH higher than ca. 6. Cd behaves conservatively and Ni is slightly affected by sorption processes. - Highlights: • The Tinto estuary shows strong pH gradients and high trace elements concentrations. • PM has a hysteretic relationship with tides and high contents of Fe, Al, As and Pb. • Co and Mn are controlled by river and sea water mixing and sorption processes. • Sorption processes strongly affect Cu below pH 6, above this value Cu is desorpted. • Cadmium behaves conservatively along the pH range studied (4.4–6.9)

  2. Evaluation of Metal Toxicity in Streams Affected by Abandoned Mine Lands, Upper Animas River Watershed, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M.; Allert, Ann L.; Hardesty, Douglas K.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; May, Thomas W.; Wang, Ning; Leib, Kenneth J.

    2001-01-01

    Acid drainage from abandoned mines and from naturally-acidic rocks and soil in the upper Animas River watershed of Colorado generates elevated concentrations of acidity and dissolved metals in stream waters and deposition of metal-contaminated particulates in streambed sediments, resulting in both toxicity and habitat degradation for stream biota. High concentrations of iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) occur in acid streams draining headwaters of the upper Animas River watershed, and high concentrations of some metals, especially Zn, persist in circumneutral reaches of the Animas River and Mineral Creek, downstream of mixing zones of acid tributaries. Seasonal variation of metal concentrations is reflected in variation in toxicity of stream water. Loadings of dissolved metals to the upper Animas River and tributaries are greatest during summer, during periods of high stream discharge from snowmelt and monsoonal rains, but adverse effects on stream biota may be greater during winter low-flow periods, when stream flows are dominated by inputs of groundwater and contain greatest concentrations of dissolved metals. Fine stream-bed sediments of the upper Animas River watershed also contain elevated concentrations of potentially toxic metals. Greatest sediment metal concentrations occur in the Animas River upstream from Silverton, where there are extensive deposits of mine and mill tailings, and in mixing zones in the Animas River and lower Mineral Creek, where precipitates of Fe and Al oxides also contain high concentrations of other metals. This report summarizes the findings of a series of toxicity studies in streams of the upper Animas River watershed, conducted on-site and in the laboratory between 1998 and 2000. The objectives of these studies were: (1) to determine the relative toxicity of stream water and fine stream-bed sediments to fish and invertebrates; (2) to determine the seasonal range of toxicity in stream

  3. Differential Effects of Low-Molecular-Weight Organic Acids on the Mobilization of Soil-Borne Arsenic and Trace Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nworie, Obinna Elijah; Qin, Junhao; Lin, Chuxia

    2017-08-21

    A batch experiment was conducted to examine the effects of six low-molecular-weight organic acids on the mobilization of arsenic and trace metals from a range of contaminated soils. The results showed that the organic acids behaved differently when reacting with soil-borne As and trace metals. Oxalic acid and acetic acid had the strongest and weakest capacity to mobilize the investigated elements, respectively. The solubilisation of iron oxides by the organic acids appears to play a critical role in mobilizing other trace metals and As. Apart from acidification and complexation, reductive dissolution played a dominant role in the dissolution of iron oxides in the presence of oxalic acid, while acidification tended to be more important for dissolving iron oxides in the presence of other organic acids. The unique capacity of oxalic acid to solubilize iron oxides tended to affect the mobilization of other elements in different ways. For Cu, Mn, and Zn, acidification-driven mobilization was likely to be dominant while complexation might play a major role in Pb mobilization. The formation of soluble Fe and Pb oxalate complexes could effectively prevent arsenate or arsenite from combining with these metals to form solid phases of Fe or Pb arsenate or arsenite.

  4. Ibuprofen Differentially Affects Supraspinatus Muscle and Tendon Adaptations to Exercise in a Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Sarah Ilkhanipour; Baskin, Rachel; Torino, Daniel J.; Vafa, Rameen P.; Khandekar, Pooja S.; Kuntz, Andrew F.; Soslowsky, Louis J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that ibuprofen is detrimental to tissue healing following acute injury; however, the effects of ibuprofen when combined with non-injurious exercise are debated. Hypothesis We hypothesized that administration of ibuprofen to rats undergoing a non-injurious treadmill exercise protocol would abolish the beneficial adaptations found with exercise but have no effect on sedentary muscle and tendon properties. Study Design Controlled laboratory study Methods Rats were divided into exercise or cage activity (sedentary) groups and acute (a single bout of exercise followed by 24 hours of rest) and chronic (2 or 8 weeks of repeated exercise) time points. Half of the rats received ibuprofen to investigate the effects of this drug over time when combined with different activity levels (exercise and sedentary). Supraspinatus tendons were used for mechanical testing and histology (organization, cell shape, cellularity), and supraspinatus muscles were used for morphological (fiber CSA, centrally nucleated fibers) and fiber type analysis. Results Chronic intake of ibuprofen did not impair supraspinatus tendon organization or mechanical adaptations (stiffness, modulus, max load, max stress, dynamic modulus, or viscoelastic properties) to exercise. Tendon mechanical properties were not diminished and in some instances increased with ibuprofen. In contrast, total supraspinatus muscle fiber cross-sectional area decreased with ibuprofen at chronic time points, and some fiber type-specific changes were detected. Conclusions Chronic administration of ibuprofen does not impair supraspinatus tendon mechanical properties in a rat model of exercise but does decrease supraspinatus muscle fiber cross-sectional area. Clinically, these findings suggest that ibuprofen does not detrimentally affect regulation of supraspinatus tendon adaptions to exercise but does decrease muscle growth. Individuals should be advised on the risk of decreased muscle hypertrophy

  5. Fluconazole affects the alkali-metal-cation homeostasis and susceptibility to cationic toxic compounds of Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elicharova, Hana; Sychrova, Hana

    2014-08-01

    Candida glabrata is a salt-tolerant and fluconazole (FLC)-resistant yeast species. Here, we analyse the contribution of plasma-membrane alkali-metal-cation exporters, a cation/proton antiporter and a cation ATPase to cation homeostasis and the maintenance of membrane potential (ΔΨ). Using a series of single and double mutants lacking CNH1 and/or ENA1 genes we show that the inability to export potassium and toxic alkali-metal cations leads to a slight hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane of C. glabrata cells; this hyperpolarization drives more cations into the cells and affects cation homeostasis. Surprisingly, a much higher hyperpolarization of C. glabrata plasma membrane was produced by incubating cells with subinhibitory concentrations of FLC. FLC treatment resulted in a substantially increased sensitivity of cells to various cationic drugs and toxic cations that are driven into the cell by negative-inside plasma-membrane potential. The effect of the combination of FLC plus cationic drug treatment was enhanced by the malfunction of alkali-metal-cation transporters that contribute to the regulation of membrane potential and cation homeostasis. In summary, we show that the combination of subinhibitory concentrations of FLC and cationic drugs strongly affects the growth of C. glabrata cells. © 2014 The Authors.

  6. Does Choice of Head Size and Neck Geometry Affect Stem Migration in Modular Large-Diameter Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty? A Preliminary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Cs; Evangelou, Kg; Theodorou, Eg; Provatidis, Cg; Megas, Pd

    2012-01-01

    Due to their theoretical advantages, hip systems combining modular necks and large diameter femoral heads have gradually gained popularity. However, among others, concerns regarding changes in the load transfer patterns were raised. Recent stress analyses have indeed shown that the use of modular necks and big femoral heads causes significant changes in the strain distribution along the femur. Our original hypothesis was that these changes may affect early distal migration of a modular stem. We examined the effect of head diameter and neck geometry on migration at two years of follow-up in a case series of 116 patients (125 hips), who have undergone primary Metal-on-Metal total hip arthroplasty with the modular grit-blasted Profemur®E stem combined with large-diameter heads (>36 mm). We found that choice of neck geometry and head diameter has no effect on stem migration. A multivariate regression analysis including the potential confounding variables of the body mass index, bone quality, canal fill and stem positioning revealed only a negative correlation between subsidence and canal fill in midstem area. Statistical analysis, despite its limitations, did not confirm our hypothesis that choice of neck geometry and/or head diameter affects early distal migration of a modular stem. However, the importance of correct stem sizing was revealed.

  7. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Chironomidae showed differential activity towards metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Isaac K W; Ho, Wing S

    2013-09-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is known to interact with different biomolecules and was implicated in many novel cellular activities including programmed cell death, nuclear RNA transport unrelated to the commonly known carbohydrate metabolism. We reported here the purification of GAPDH from Chironomidae larvae (Insecta, Diptera) that showed different biologic activity towards heavy metals. It was inhibited by copper, cobalt nickel, iron and lead but was activated by zinc. The GAPDH was purified by ammonium sulphate fractionation and Chelating Sepharose CL-6B chromatography followed by Blue Sepharose CL-6B chromatography. The 150-kDa tetrameric GAPDH showed optimal activity at pH 8.5 and 37°C. The multiple alignment of sequence of the Chironomidae GAPDH with other known species showed 78 - 88% identity to the conserved regions of the GADPH. Bioinformatic analysis unveils substantial N-terminal sequence similarity of GAPDH of Chironomidae larvae to mammalian GADPHs. However, the GADPH of Chironomidae larvae showed different biologic activities and cytotoxicity towards heavy metals. The GAPDH enzyme would undergo adaptive molecular changes through binding at the active site leading to higher tolerance to heavy metals.

  8. Interleukin 22 early affects keratinocyte differentiation, but not proliferation, in a three-dimensional model of normal human skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donetti, Elena, E-mail: elena.donetti@unimi.it [Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20133 Milan (Italy); Cornaghi, Laura; Arnaboldi, Francesca; Landoni, Federica [Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20133 Milan (Italy); Romagnoli, Paolo [Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 50125 Florence (Italy); Mastroianni, Nicolino [Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20133 Milan (Italy); Pescitelli, Leonardo [Department of Surgery and Translational Medicine, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 50125 Florence (Italy); Baruffaldi Preis, Franz W. [I.R.C.C.S. Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, 20161 Milan (Italy); Prignano, Francesca [Department of Surgery and Translational Medicine, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 50125 Florence (Italy)

    2016-07-15

    Interleukin (IL)-22 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine driving the progression of the psoriatic lesion with other cytokines, as Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-alpha and IL-17. Our study was aimed at evaluating the early effect of IL-22 alone or in combination with TNF-alpha and IL-17 by immunofluorescence on i) keratinocyte (KC) proliferation, ii) terminal differentiation biomarkers as keratin (K) 10 and 17 expression, iii) intercellular junctions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis was performed. A model of human skin culture reproducing a psoriatic microenvironment was used. Plastic surgery explants were obtained from healthy young women (n=7) after informed consent. Fragments were divided before adding IL-22 or a combination of the three cytokines, and harvested 24 (T24), 48 (T48), and 72 (T72) h later. From T24, in IL-22 samples we detected a progressive decrease in K10 immunostaining in the spinous layer paralleled by K17 induction. By TEM, after IL-22 incubation, keratin aggregates were evident in the perinuclear area. Occludin immunostaining was not homogeneously distributed. Conversely, KC proliferation was not inhibited by IL-22 alone, but only by the combination of cytokines. Our results suggest that IL-22 affects keratinocyte terminal differentiation, whereas, in order to induce a proliferation impairment, a more complex psoriatic-like microenvironment is needed.

  9. Interleukin 22 early affects keratinocyte differentiation, but not proliferation, in a three-dimensional model of normal human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donetti, Elena; Cornaghi, Laura; Arnaboldi, Francesca; Landoni, Federica; Romagnoli, Paolo; Mastroianni, Nicolino; Pescitelli, Leonardo; Baruffaldi Preis, Franz W.; Prignano, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-22 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine driving the progression of the psoriatic lesion with other cytokines, as Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-alpha and IL-17. Our study was aimed at evaluating the early effect of IL-22 alone or in combination with TNF-alpha and IL-17 by immunofluorescence on i) keratinocyte (KC) proliferation, ii) terminal differentiation biomarkers as keratin (K) 10 and 17 expression, iii) intercellular junctions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis was performed. A model of human skin culture reproducing a psoriatic microenvironment was used. Plastic surgery explants were obtained from healthy young women (n=7) after informed consent. Fragments were divided before adding IL-22 or a combination of the three cytokines, and harvested 24 (T24), 48 (T48), and 72 (T72) h later. From T24, in IL-22 samples we detected a progressive decrease in K10 immunostaining in the spinous layer paralleled by K17 induction. By TEM, after IL-22 incubation, keratin aggregates were evident in the perinuclear area. Occludin immunostaining was not homogeneously distributed. Conversely, KC proliferation was not inhibited by IL-22 alone, but only by the combination of cytokines. Our results suggest that IL-22 affects keratinocyte terminal differentiation, whereas, in order to induce a proliferation impairment, a more complex psoriatic-like microenvironment is needed.

  10. On Parameters Affecting Metal Flow and Friction in the Double Cup Extrusion Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Xincai; Bay, Niels; Zhang, Wenqi

    1998-01-01

    in numerical simulations often involve strain hardening because friction is expressed as a function of the flow stress or the flow shear stress. The double cup extrusion test is considered to be one of the process tests for determination of friction. In this test, varying heights of the upper and lower cups...... model with constant absolute value excluding the influence of strain hardening on friction was adopted in FEM simulations, in order to more clearly study the individual influence of strain hardening and friction on the metal flow (upper and lower cup height ratio) without interference between the two...... parameters. The predicted results show a good agreement with the experimental data. The influence of material strain hardening. friction and tool geometry on the metal flow in the test has been investigated. By comparisons of the cup height ratio as a function of the punch travel estimated by experiments...

  11. The addition of organic carbon and nitrate affects reactive transport of heavy metals in sandy aquifers

    KAUST Repository

    Satyawali, Yamini; Seuntjens, Piet; Van Roy, Sandra; Joris, Ingeborg; Vangeel, Silvia; Dejonghe, Winnie; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien

    2011-01-01

    Organic carbon introduction in the soil to initiate remedial measures, nitrate infiltration due to agricultural practices or sulphate intrusion owing to industrial usage can influence the redox conditions and pH, thus affecting the mobility of heavy

  12. A French Translation of the Pleasure Arousal Dominance (PAD Semantic Differential Scale for the Measure of Affect and Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Detandt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate studies have repeatedly confirmed that three basic dimensions of human emotional behavior, called 'pleasure' (P, 'arousal' (A and 'dominance '(D are persistent in organizing human judgments for a wide range of perceptual and symbolic stimuli. The Mehrabian and Russell’s PAD semantic differential scale is a well-established tool to measure these categories, but no standardized French translation is available for research. The aim of this study was to validate a French version of the PAD. For this purpose, (1 Mehrabian and Russell’s PAD was trans- lated through a process of translations and back-translations and (2 this French PAD was tested in a population of 111 French-speaking adults on 21 images of the International Affective Picture System (IAPS. A confirmatory factor analysis revealed the expected three-factor structure; the French PAD also distributed the images in the affective space according to the expected boomerang-shape. The present version of PAD is thus a valid French translation of Mehrabian and Russell’s original PAD.

  13. Fructose intake during gestation and lactation differentially affects the expression of hippocampal neurosteroidogenic enzymes in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Genki; Munetsuna, Eiji; Yamada, Hiroya; Ando, Yoshitaka; Yamazaki, Mirai; Murase, Yuri; Kondo, Kanako; Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Teradaira, Ryoji; Suzuki, Koji; Ohashi, Koji

    2017-02-01

    Neurosteroids, steroidal hormones synthesized de novo from cholesterol within the brain, stimulate hippocampal functions such as neuron protection and synapse formation. Previously, we examined the effect of maternal fructose on the transcriptional regulation of neurosteroidogenic enzymes. We found that the mRNA expression level of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), cytochrome P450(11β), 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD), and 17β-HSD was altered. However, we could not determine whether maternal fructose intake played a role in the gestation or lactation period because the dam rats were fed fructose solution during both periods. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the hippocampi of the offspring of dams fed fructose during the gestation or lactation period. Maternal fructose consumption during either the gestation or lactation period did not affect the mRNA levels of StAR, P450(17α), 11β-HSD-2, and 17β-HSD-1. PBR expression was down-regulated, even when rats consumed fructose during the lactation period only, while fructose consumption during gestation tended to activate the expression of P450(11β)-2. We found that maternal fructose intake during gestation and lactation differentially affected the expression of hippocampal neurosteroidogenic enzymes in the offspring.

  14. Heavy Metal Leaching as Affected by Long-Time Organic Waste Fertilizer Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Holm, Peter E; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Magid, Jakob

    2017-07-01

    The recycling of urban waste products as fertilizers in agriculture may introduce contaminants such as heavy metals into soil that may leach and contaminate groundwater. In the present study, we investigated the leaching of heavy metals from intact soil cores collected in the long-term agricultural field trial CRUCIAL. At the time of sampling, the equivalent of >100 yr of urban waste fertilizers following Danish legislation had been applied. The leaching of Cu was significantly increased in the treatments receiving organic waste products compared with the unfertilized control but remained below the permissible level following Danish drinking water guidelines. The leaching of Cu was controlled primarily by the topsoil Cu content and by the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) but at the same time significantly correlated with leaching of colloids in soils that had not received fertilizer or had received an organic fertilizer with a low concentration of Cu. The leaching of Zn, Cd, and Co was not significantly increased in urban waste-fertilized treatments. The leaching of Mo was elevated in accelerated waste treatments (both agricultural and urban), and the leaching of Mo was linked to the leaching of DOC. Since leaching of Cr and Pb was strongly linked to the level of colloid leaching, leaching of these metals was reduced in the urban waste treatments. Overall, the results presented should not raise concern regarding the agricultural use of urban waste products in agriculture as long as the relevant guidelines are followed. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  15. Effects of Different Metals on Photosynthesis: Cadmium and Zinc Affect Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Durum Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momchil Paunov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the effects of exposure to high Cd2+ (50 µM and excess Zn2+ (600 µM on photosynthetic performance of hydroponically-grown durum wheat seedlings was performed. At day 8, Cd and Zn were added to the nutrient solution. After 7-days exposure, the chosen concentrations of both metals resulted in similar relative growth rate (RGR inhibitions of about 50% and comparable retardations of the CO2 assimilation rates (about 30% in the second developed leaf of wheat seedlings. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence indicated that both metals disturbed photosynthetic electron transport processes which led to a 4- to 5-fold suppression of the efficiency of energy transformation in Photosystem II. Non-specific toxic effects of Cd and Zn, which prevailed, were an inactivation of part of Photosystem II reaction centres and their transformation into excitation quenching forms as well as disturbed electron transport in the oxygen-evolving complex. The specificity of the Cd and Zn modes of action was mainly expressed in the intensity of the toxicity effects: despite the similar inhibitions of the CO2 assimilation rates, the wheat photochemistry showed much more sensitivity to Cd than to Zn exposure.

  16. Comparing differential tolerance of native and non-indigenous marine species to metal pollution using novel assay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piola, Richard F.; Johnston, Emma L.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests anthropogenic disturbance may disproportionately advantage non-indigenous species (NIS), aiding their establishment within impacted environments. This study used novel laboratory- and field-based toxicity testing to determine whether non-indigenous and native bryozoans (common within marine epibenthic communities worldwide) displayed differential tolerance to the common marine pollutant copper (Cu). In laboratory assays on adult colonies, NIS showed remarkable tolerance to Cu, with strong post-exposure recovery and growth. In contrast, native species displayed negative growth and reduced feeding efficiency across most exposure levels. Field transplant experiments supported laboratory findings, with NIS growing faster under Cu conditions. In field-based larval assays, NIS showed strong recruitment and growth in the presence of Cu relative to the native species. We suggest that strong selective pressures exerted by the toxic antifouling paints used on transport vectors (vessels), combined with metal contamination in estuarine environments, may result in metal tolerant NIS advantaged by anthropogenically modified selection regimes. - Greater tolerance to pollutants in marine NIS may increase the risk of invasion in port and harbours worldwide by providing a competitive advantage over native taxa.

  17. Thermal Analysis of Pure Uranium Metal, UMo and UMoSi Alloys Using a Differential Thermal Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanlinastuti; Sutri Indaryati; Rahmiati

    2010-01-01

    Thermal analysis of pure uranium metal, U-7%Mo and U-7%Mo-1%Si alloys have been done using a Differential Thermal Analyzer (DTA). The experiments are conducted in order to measure the thermal stability, thermochemical properties of elevated temperature and enthalpy of the specimens. From the analysis results it is showed that uranium metal will transform from α to β phases at temperature of 667.16°C and enthalpy of 2.3034 cal/g and from β to γ phases at temperature of 773.05 °C and enthalpy of 2.8725 cal/g and start melting at temperature of 1125.26 °C and enthalpy of 2.1316 cal/g. The U-7%Mo shows its thermal stability up to temperature of 650 °C and its thermal changes at temperature of 673.75 °C indicated by the formation of an endothermic peak and enthalpy of 0.0257 cal/g. The U-7%Mo-1%Si alloys shows its thermal stability up to temperature of 550 °C and its thermal changes at temperature of 574.18 °C indicated by the formation of an endothermic peak and enthalpy of 0.613 cal/g. From the three specimens it is showed that they have a good thermal stability at temperature up to 550 °C. (author)

  18. Functional and compositional responses in soil microbial communities along two metal pollution gradients: does the level of historical pollution affect resistance against secondary stress?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azarbad, H.; Niklinska, M.; Nikiel, K.; van Straalen, N.M.; Röling, W.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    We examined how the exposure to secondary stressors affected the functional and compositional responses of microbial communities along two metal pollution gradients in Polish forests and whether responses were influenced by the level of metal pollution. Basal respiration rate and community

  19. Natural variation in the VELVET gene bcvel1 affects virulence and light-dependent differentiation in Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Julia; Pradier, Jean-Marc; Simon, Adeline; Traeger, Stefanie; Moraga, Javier; Collado, Isidro González; Viaud, Muriel; Tudzynski, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea is an aggressive plant pathogen causing gray mold disease on various plant species. In this study, we identified the genetic origin for significantly differing phenotypes of the two sequenced B. cinerea isolates, B05.10 and T4, with regard to light-dependent differentiation, oxalic acid (OA) formation and virulence. By conducting a map-based cloning approach we identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in an open reading frame encoding a VELVET gene (bcvel1). The SNP in isolate T4 results in a truncated protein that is predominantly found in the cytosol in contrast to the full-length protein of isolate B05.10 that accumulates in the nuclei. Deletion of the full-length gene in B05.10 resulted in the T4 phenotype, namely light-independent conidiation, loss of sclerotial development and oxalic acid production, and reduced virulence on several host plants. These findings indicate that the identified SNP represents a loss-of-function mutation of bcvel1. In accordance, the expression of the B05.10 copy in T4 rescued the wild-type/B05.10 phenotype. BcVEL1 is crucial for full virulence as deletion mutants are significantly hampered in killing and decomposing plant tissues. However, the production of the two best known secondary metabolites, the phytotoxins botcinic acid and botrydial, are not affected by the deletion of bcvel1 indicating that other factors are responsible for reduced virulence. Genome-wide expression analyses of B05.10- and Δbcvel1-infected plant material revealed a number of genes differentially expressed in the mutant: while several protease- encoding genes are under-expressed in Δbcvel1 compared to the wild type, the group of over-expressed genes is enriched for genes encoding sugar, amino acid and ammonium transporters and glycoside hydrolases reflecting the response of Δbcvel1 mutants to nutrient starvation conditions.

  20. Assessment of contamination and origin of metals in mining affected river sediments: A case study of the Aries catchment, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levei Erika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the current status of contamination with metals (Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni, Zn, As and their anthropogenic or natural origin in the sediments of the Aries river basin, Romania, affected by mining activities. The results indicated an enrichment of metals in sediments. Different contamination levels were identified on the Aries river and its tributaries. According to sediment quality guidelines and contamination indices, sediments from the Aries river were found to be highly contaminated with Cd, Cu, As, considerably with Zn and moderately with Pb and Ni. The right-bank tributaries were found to be more contaminated than the left-bank affluents, where only a contamination with As of geogenic origin was identified. The Principal Component Analysis allowed to identify five latent factors (86 % total variability reflecting the anthropogenic and natural origins of metals. Arsenic, Cd and partially Pb were found to have a common anthropogenic origin, different from that of Cu. The statistical approach indicated also the geogenic origin of Pb due to its association with Ca, K, Na, Sr. Chromium and Ni were attributed to natural source following their association with Mn, Fe, Al and Mg, respectively.

  1. An alternative approach for modeling strength differential effect in sheet metals with symmetric yield functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurukuri, Srihari; Worswick, Michael J.

    2013-12-01

    An alternative approach is proposed to utilize symmetric yield functions for modeling the tension-compression asymmetry commonly observed in hcp materials. In this work, the strength differential (SD) effect is modeled by choosing separate symmetric plane stress yield functions (for example, Barlat Yld 2000-2d) for the tension i.e., in the first quadrant of principal stress space, and compression i.e., third quadrant of principal stress space. In the second and fourth quadrants, the yield locus is constructed by adopting interpolating functions between uniaxial tensile and compressive stress states. In this work, different interpolating functions are chosen and the predictive capability of each approach is discussed. The main advantage of this proposed approach is that the yield locus parameters are deterministic and relatively easy to identify when compared to the Cazacu family of yield functions commonly used for modeling SD effect observed in hcp materials.

  2. XPS and Auger investigation of mechanisms affecting corrosion inhibition of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.M.; Surman, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    Atmospheric corrosion of metal surfaces need not be extremely obvious to cause extensive damage to many products. Very small corrosion pits and spots can cause defects in critical copper sources, often resulting in the catastrophic failure of complete electronic assemblies. Microscopic corrosion in steel can lead to the complete failure of subsequently added coatings or furnishings, the automotive industry has become aware. In addition, corrosion at its earliest stages can initiate other corrosion at a later date, resulting in inferior finishings or coatings. A major interest in atmospheric corrosion is in the mechanism by which the initial corrosion initiated and propagated. The initial phase involves the attack of the very other surface layers, hence it is difficult to observe with conventional techniques such as SEM/EDX. This paper presents some of the results obtained by both Auger electron spectroscopy and x- ray photoelectron spectroscopy, of steel and copper samples exposed to corrosive materials under controlled conditions

  3. Differential effects of cadmium and chromium on growth, photosynthetic activity, and metal uptake of Linum usitatissimum in association with Glomus intraradices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amna; Ali, Naeem; Masood, Sajid; Mukhtar, Tehmeena; Kamran, Muhammad Aqeel; Rafique, Mazhar; Munis, M Farooq Hussain; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2015-06-01

    The current study was aimed at analyzing the differential effects of heavy metals (cadmium and chromium) and mycorrhizal fungus; Glomus intraradices on growth, chlorophyll content, proline production, and metal accumulation in flax plant (Linum usitatissimum L.). Heavy metal accumulation rate in flax varied from 90 to 95 % for Cd and 61-84 % for Cr at a concentration range of 250 to 500 ppm for both metals in 24 days of experiment. Growth and photosynthetic activity of flax reduced to an average of 21 and 45 %, respectively. However, inoculation of G. intraradices significantly increased the plant biomass even under metal stressed conditions. Additionally, mycorrhizal association also assists the Cd and Cr increased uptake by 23 and 33 %, respectively. Due to metal stress, chlorophyll contents were decreased by 27 and 45 %, while 84 and 71 % increased proline content was observed under Cd and Cr stress, respectively. The present results clearly signify the differential response and potential of flax plant towards heavy metal tolerance and accumulation that can further increase with mycorrhizal fungus.

  4. PRENATAL HYPOXIA IN DIFFERENT PERIODS OF EMBRYOGENESIS DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECTS CELL MIGRATION, NEURONAL PLASTICITY AND RAT BEHAVIOR IN POSTNATAL ONTOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrii S Vasilev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-term effects of prenatal hypoxia on embryonic days E14 or E18 on the number, type and localization of cortical neurons, density of labile synaptopodin-positive dendritic spines and parietal cortex-dependent behavioral tasks were examined in the postnatal ontogenesis of rats. An injection of 5’ethynyl-2’deoxyuridine to pregnant rats was used to label neurons generated on E14 or E18 in the fetuses. In control rat pups a majority of cells labeled on E14 were localized in the lower cortical layers V-VI while the cells labeled on E18 were mainly found in the superficial cortical layers II-III. It was shown that hypoxia both on E14 and E18 results in disruption of neuroblast generation and migration but affects different cell populations. In rat pups subjected to hypoxia on E14, the total number of labeled cells in the parietal cortex was decreased while the number of labeled neurons scattered within the superficial cortical layers was increased. In rat pups subjected to hypoxia on E18, the total number of labeled cells in the parietal cortex was also decreased but the number of scattered labeled neurons was higher in the lower cortical layers. It can be suggested that prenatal hypoxia both on E14 and E18 causes a disruption in neuroblast migration but with a different outcome. Only in rats subjected to hypoxia on E14 did we observe a reduction in the total number of pyramidal cortical neurons and the density of labile synaptopodin-positive dendritic spines in the molecular cortical layer during the first month after birth which affected development of the cortical functions. As a result, rats subjected to hypoxia on E14, but not on E18, had impaired development of the whisker-placing reaction and reduced ability to learn reaching by a forepaw. The data obtained suggest that hypoxia on E14 in the period of generation of the cells, which later differentiate into the pyramidal cortical neurons of the V-VI layers and form cortical minicolumns

  5. Metal transport and remobilisation in a basin affected by acid mine drainage: the role of ochreous amorphous precipitates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consani, Sirio; Carbone, Cristina; Dinelli, Enrico; Balić-Žunić, Tonci; Cutroneo, Laura; Capello, Marco; Salviulo, Gabriella; Lucchetti, Gabriella

    2017-06-01

    Metal-polluted mine waters represent a major threat to the quality of waters and sediments in a downstream basin. At the confluence between acidic mine waters and the unpolluted waters of the Gromolo Torrent (Liguria, North-West Italy), the massive formation of an ochreous amorphous precipitate takes place. This precipitate forms a soft blanket that covers the torrent bed and can be observed down to its mouth in the sea. The aim of this work is to evaluate the dispersion of metals in the Gromolo Torrent basin from the abandoned Cu-Fe sulphide mine of Libiola to the Ligurian Sea and to assess the metal remobilisation from the amorphous precipitates. The mineralogy of the superficial sediments collected in the torrent bed and the concentrations of different elements of environmental concern (Cu, Zn, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, As, and Sb) were therefore analysed. The results showed that the precipitates contain high concentration of Fe, Al, Cu, and Zn, significantly modifying the bulk chemistry of the Gromolo Torrent sediments. In order to evaluate the possible remobilisation of ecotoxic elements from the amorphous precipitates, bulk leaching tests were performed with both deionised and seawater. Bulk leaching tests with deionised water mobilised primarily high Pb amounts, but also relatively high concentrations of Fe, Al, Cu, and Zn are released in the leachate. In seawater tests, Fe, Al, Cu, and Zn were released in smaller amounts, while other elements like Mn, Cd, Co, and Ni increased in the released fraction. Pb was still strongly released as in deionised water experiments. The results show that the interaction of precipitates and seawater can remobilise high concentrations of metals, thus affecting the surrounding environment.

  6. Xenobiotics that affect oxidative phosphorylation alter differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells at concentrations that are found in human blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Llobet

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Adipogenesis is accompanied by differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells to adipocytes. As part of this differentiation, biogenesis of the oxidative phosphorylation system occurs. Many chemical compounds used in medicine, agriculture or other human activities affect oxidative phosphorylation function. Therefore, these xenobiotics could alter adipogenesis. We have analyzed the effects on adipocyte differentiation of some xenobiotics that act on the oxidative phosphorylation system. The tested concentrations have been previously reported in human blood. Our results show that pharmaceutical drugs that decrease mitochondrial DNA replication, such as nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, or inhibitors of mitochondrial protein synthesis, such as ribosomal antibiotics, diminish adipocyte differentiation and leptin secretion. By contrast, the environmental chemical pollutant tributyltin chloride, which inhibits the ATP synthase of the oxidative phosphorylation system, can promote adipocyte differentiation and leptin secretion, leading to obesity and metabolic syndrome as postulated by the obesogen hypothesis.

  7. Isoflurane and ketamine:xylazine differentially affect intraocular pressure-associated scotopic threshold responses in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choh, Vivian; Gurdita, Akshay; Tan, Bingyao; Feng, Yunwei; Bizheva, Kostadinka; McCulloch, Daphne L; Joos, Karen M

    2017-10-01

    Amplitudes of electroretinograms (ERG) are enhanced during acute, moderate elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) in rats anaesthetised with isoflurane. As anaesthetics alone are known to affect ERG amplitudes, the present study compares the effects of inhalant isoflurane and injected ketamine:xylazine on the scotopic threshold response (STR) in rats with moderate IOP elevation. Isoflurane-anaesthetised (n = 9) and ketamine:xylazine-anaesthetised (n = 6) rats underwent acute unilateral IOP elevation using a vascular loop anterior to the equator of the right eye. STRs to a luminance series (subthreshold to -3.04 log scotopic cd s/m 2 ) were recorded from each eye of Sprague-Dawley rats before, during, and after IOP elevation. Positive STR (pSTR) amplitudes for all conditions were significantly smaller (p = 0.0001) for isoflurane- than for ketamine:xylazine-anaesthetised rats. In addition, ketamine:xylazine was associated with a progressive increase in pSTR amplitudes over time (p = 0.0028). IOP elevation was associated with an increase in pSTR amplitude (both anaesthetics p ketamine:xylazine and isoflurane were similar (66.3 ± 35.5 vs. 54.2 ± 24.1 µV, respectively). However, the fold increase in amplitude during IOP elevation was significantly higher in the isoflurane- than in the ketamine:xylazine-anaesthetised rats (16.8 ± 29.7x vs. 2.1 ± 2.7x, respectively, p = 0.0004). The anaesthetics differentially affect the STRs in the rat model with markedly reduced amplitudes with isoflurane compared to ketamine:xylazine. However, the IOP-associated enhancement is of similar absolute magnitude for the two anaesthetics, suggesting that IOP stress and anaesthetic effects operate on separate retinal mechanisms.

  8. True or false? Memory is differentially affected by stress-induced cortisol elevations and sympathetic activity at consolidation and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Tom; Otgaar, Henry; Candel, Ingrid; Wolf, Oliver T

    2008-11-01

    Adrenal stress hormones released in response to acute stress may yield memory-enhancing effects when released post-learning and impairing effects at memory retrieval, especially for emotional memory material. However, so far these differential effects of stress hormones on the various memory phases for neutral and emotional memory material have not been demonstrated within one experiment. This study investigated whether, in line with their effects on true memory, stress and stress-induced adrenal stress hormones affect the encoding, consolidation, and retrieval of emotional and neutral false memories. Participants (N=90) were exposed to a stressor before encoding, during consolidation, before retrieval, or were not stressed and then were subjected to neutral and emotional versions of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott word list learning paradigm. Twenty-four hours later, recall of presented words (true recall) and non-presented critical lure words (false recall) was assessed. Results show that stress exposure resulted in superior true memory performance in the consolidation stress group and reduced true memory performance in the retrieval stress group compared to the other groups, predominantly for emotional words. These memory-enhancing and memory-impairing effects were strongly related to stress-induced cortisol and sympathetic activity measured via salivary alpha-amylase levels. Neutral and emotional false recall, on the other hand, was neither affected by stress exposure, nor related to cortisol and sympathetic activity following stress. These results demonstrate the importance of stress-induced hormone-related activity in enhancing memory consolidation and in impairing memory retrieval, in particular for emotional memory material.

  9. Social chromosome variants differentially affect queen determination and the survival of workers in the fire ant Solenopsis invicta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechel, Séverine D; Wurm, Yanick; Keller, Laurent

    2014-10-01

    Intraspecific variation in social organization is common, yet the underlying causes are rarely known. An exception is the fire ant Solenopsis invicta in which the existence of two distinct forms of social colony organization is under the control of the two variants of a pair of social chromosomes, SB and Sb. Colonies containing exclusively SB/SB workers accept only one single queen and she must be SB/SB. By contrast, when colonies contain more than 10% of SB/Sb workers, they accept several queens but only SB/Sb queens. The variants of the social chromosome are associated with several additional important phenotypic differences, including the size, fecundity and dispersal strategies of queens, aggressiveness of workers, and sperm count in males. However, little is known about whether social chromosome variants affect fitness in other life stages. Here, we perform experiments to determine whether differential selection occurs during development and in adult workers. We find evidence that the Sb variant of the social chromosome increases the likelihood of female brood to develop into queens and that adult SB/Sb workers, the workers that cull SB/SB queens, are overrepresented in comparison to SB/SB workers. This demonstrates that supergenes such as the social chromosome can have complex effects on phenotypes at various stages of development. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Bipolar affective disorder and borderline personality disorder: Differentiation based on the history of early life stress and psychoneuroendocrine measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer, Angela Kaline; Cleare, Anthony J; Young, Allan H; Juruena, Mario F

    2018-04-24

    Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and Bipolar Affective Disorder (BD) have clinical characteristics in common which often make their differential diagnosis difficult. The history of early life stress (ELS) may be a differentiating factor between BPD and BD, as well as its association with clinical manifestations and specific neuroendocrine responses in each of these diagnoses. Assessing and comparing patients with BD and BPD for factors related to symptomatology, etiopathogenesis and neuroendocrine markers. The study sample consisted of 51 women, divided into 3 groups: patients with a clinical diagnosis of BPD (n = 20) and BD (n = 16) and healthy controls (HC, n = 15). Standardized instruments were used for the clinical evaluation, while the history of ELS was quantified with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and classified according to the subtypes: emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect and physical neglect. The functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was evaluated by measuring a single plasma cortisol sample. Patients with BPD presented with more severe psychiatric symptoms of: anxiety, impulsivity, depression, hopelessness and suicidal ideation than those with BD. The history of ELS was identified as significantly more prevalent and more severe in patients (BPD and BP) than in HC. Emotional abuse, emotional neglect and physical neglect also showed differences and were higher in BPD than BD patients. BPD patients had greater severity of ELS overall and in the subtypes of emotional abuse, emotional neglect and physical neglect than BD patients. The presence of ELS in patients with BPD and BP showed significant difference with lower cortisol levels when compared to HC. The endocrine evaluation showed no significant differences between the diagnoses of BPD and BD. Cortisol measured in patients with BPD was significantly lower compared to HC in the presence of emotional neglect and physical

  11. Heavy metal deposition fluxes affecting an Atlantic coastal area in the southwest of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Sonia; de la Rosa, Jesús D.; Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M.; González-Castanedo, Yolanda; Fernández-Camacho, Rocío

    2013-10-01

    The present study seeks to estimate the impact of industrial emissions and harbour activities on total atmospheric deposition in an Atlantic coastal area in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula. Three large industrial estates and a busy harbour have a notable influence on air quality in the city of Huelva and the surrounding area. The study is based on a geochemical characterization of trace elements deposited (soluble and insoluble fractions) in samples collected at a rate of 15 days/sample from June 2008 to May 2011 in three sampling sites, one in the principal industrial belt, another in the city of Huelva, and the last, 56 km outside Huelva city in an area of high ecological interest. The industrial emissions emitted by the Huelva industrial belt exert a notable influence on atmospheric deposition. Major deposition fluxes were registered for Fe, Cu, V, Ni, P, Pb, As, Sn, Sb, Se and Bi, principally in the insoluble fraction, derived from industrial funnel emissions and from harbour activities. Metals such as Mn, Ni, Cu and Zn, and elements such as P also have a significant presence in the soluble fraction converting them into potentially bio-available nutrients for the living organism in the ocean. A principal component analysis certifies three common emissions sources in the area: 1) a mineral factor composed mainly of elements derived from silicate minerals mixed with certain anthropogenic species (Mg, K, Sr, Na, Al, Ba, LREE, Li, Mn, HREE, Ti, Fe, Se, V, SO-, Ni, Ca and P); 2) an industrial factor composed of the same trace elements in the three areas (Sb, Mo, Bi, As, Pb, Sn and Cd) thus confirming the impact of the emissions from the Huelva industrial belt on remote areas; and 3) a marine factor composed of Na, Cl, Mg and SO.

  12. Natural variation in the VELVET gene bcvel1 affects virulence and light-dependent differentiation in Botrytis cinerea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Schumacher

    Full Text Available Botrytis cinerea is an aggressive plant pathogen causing gray mold disease on various plant species. In this study, we identified the genetic origin for significantly differing phenotypes of the two sequenced B. cinerea isolates, B05.10 and T4, with regard to light-dependent differentiation, oxalic acid (OA formation and virulence. By conducting a map-based cloning approach we identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in an open reading frame encoding a VELVET gene (bcvel1. The SNP in isolate T4 results in a truncated protein that is predominantly found in the cytosol in contrast to the full-length protein of isolate B05.10 that accumulates in the nuclei. Deletion of the full-length gene in B05.10 resulted in the T4 phenotype, namely light-independent conidiation, loss of sclerotial development and oxalic acid production, and reduced virulence on several host plants. These findings indicate that the identified SNP represents a loss-of-function mutation of bcvel1. In accordance, the expression of the B05.10 copy in T4 rescued the wild-type/B05.10 phenotype. BcVEL1 is crucial for full virulence as deletion mutants are significantly hampered in killing and decomposing plant tissues. However, the production of the two best known secondary metabolites, the phytotoxins botcinic acid and botrydial, are not affected by the deletion of bcvel1 indicating that other factors are responsible for reduced virulence. Genome-wide expression analyses of B05.10- and Δbcvel1-infected plant material revealed a number of genes differentially expressed in the mutant: while several protease- encoding genes are under-expressed in Δbcvel1 compared to the wild type, the group of over-expressed genes is enriched for genes encoding sugar, amino acid and ammonium transporters and glycoside hydrolases reflecting the response of Δbcvel1 mutants to nutrient starvation conditions.

  13. Normalizing effect on fatigue crack propagation at the heat-affected zone of AISI 4140 steel shielded metal arc weldings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Vargas-Arista

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fractography and mechanical behaviour of fatigue crack propagation in the heat-affected zone (HAZ of AISI 4140 steel welded using the shielded metal arc process was analysed. Different austenitic grain size was obtained by normalizing performed at 1200 °C for 5 and 10 hours after welding. Three point bending fatigue tests on pre-cracked specimens along the HAZ revealed that coarse grains promoted an increase in fatigue crack growth rate, hence causing a reduction in both fracture toughness and critical crack length, and a transgranular brittle final fracture with an area fraction of dimple zones connecting cleavage facets. A fractographic analysis proved that as the normalizing time increased the crack length decreased. The increase in the river patterns on the fatigue crack propagation in zone II was also evidenced and final brittle fracture because of transgranular quasicleavage was observed. Larger grains induced a deterioration of the fatigue resistance of the HAZ.

  14. Mutations within the LINC-HELLP non-coding RNA differentially bind ribosomal and RNA splicing complexes and negatively affect trophoblast differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, M.; Visser, A.; Buabeng, K.M.L.; Poutsma, A.; van der Schors, R.C.; Oudejans, C.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    LINC-HELLP, showing chromosomal linkage with the pregnancy-specific HELLP syndrome in Dutch families, reduces differentiation from a proliferative to an invasive phenotype of first-trimester extravillous trophoblasts. Here we show that mutations in LINC-HELLP identified in HELLP families negatively

  15. Respiratory and metabolic acidosis differentially affect the respiratory neuronal network in the ventral medulla of neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yasumasa; Masumiya, Haruko; Tamura, Yoshiyasu; Oku, Yoshitaka

    2007-11-01

    Two respiratory-related areas, the para-facial respiratory group/retrotrapezoid nucleus (pFRG/RTN) and the pre-Bötzinger complex/ventral respiratory group (preBötC/VRG), are thought to play key roles in respiratory rhythm. Because respiratory output patterns in response to respiratory and metabolic acidosis differ, we hypothesized that the responses of the medullary respiratory neuronal network to respiratory and metabolic acidosis are different. To test these hypotheses, we analysed respiratory-related activity in the pFRG/RTN and preBötC/VRG of the neonatal rat brainstem-spinal cord in vitro by optical imaging using a voltage-sensitive dye, and compared the effects of respiratory and metabolic acidosis on these two populations. We found that the spatiotemporal responses of respiratory-related regional activities to respiratory and metabolic acidosis are fundamentally different, although both acidosis similarly augmented respiratory output by increasing respiratory frequency. PreBötC/VRG activity, which is mainly inspiratory, was augmented by respiratory acidosis. Respiratory-modulated pixels increased in the preBötC/VRG area in response to respiratory acidosis. Metabolic acidosis shifted the respiratory phase in the pFRG/RTN; the pre-inspiratory dominant pattern shifted to inspiratory dominant. The responses of the pFRG/RTN activity to respiratory and metabolic acidosis are complex, and involve either augmentation or reduction in the size of respiratory-related areas. Furthermore, the activation pattern in the pFRG/RTN switched bi-directionally between pre-inspiratory/inspiratory and post-inspiratory. Electrophysiological study supported the results of our optical imaging study. We conclude that respiratory and metabolic acidosis differentially affect activities of the pFRG/RTN and preBötC/VRG, inducing switching and shifts of the respiratory phase. We suggest that they differently influence the coupling states between the pFRG/RTN and preBötC/VRG.

  16. Interstitial pO2 in ischemic penumbra and core are differentially affected following transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shimin; Shi, Honglian; Liu, Wenlan; Furuichi, Takamitsu; Timmins, Graham S; Liu, Ke Jian

    2004-03-01

    Stroke causes heterogeneous changes in tissue oxygenation, with a region of decreased blood flow, the penumbra, surrounding a severely damaged ischemic core. Treatment of acute ischemic stroke aims to save this penumbra before its irreversible damage by continued ischemia. However, effective treatment remains elusive due to incomplete understanding of processes leading to penumbral death. While oxygenation is central in ischemic neuronal death, it is unclear exactly what actual changes occur in interstitial oxygen tension (pO2) in ischemic regions during stroke, particularly the penumbra. Using the unique capability of in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry to measure localized interstitial pO2, we measured both absolute values, and temporal changes of pO2 in ischemic penumbra and core during ischemia and reperfusion in a rat model. Ischemia rapidly decreased interstitial pO2 to 32% +/- 7.6% and 4% +/- 0.6% of pre-ischemic values in penumbra and core, respectively 1 hour after ischemia. Importantly, whilst reperfusion restored core pO2 close to its pre-ischemic value, penumbral pO2 only partially recovered. Hyperoxic treatment significantly increased penumbral pO2 during ischemia, but not in the core, and also increased penumbral pO2 during reperfusion. These divergent, important changes in pO2 in penumbra and core were explained by combined differences in cellular oxygen consumption rates and microcirculation conditions. We therefore demonstrate that interstitial pO2 in penumbra and core is differentially affected during ischemia and reperfusion, providing new insights to the pathophysiology of stroke. The results support normobaric hyperoxia as a potential early intervention to save penumbral tissue in acute ischemic stroke.

  17. Drosophila insulin-producing cells are differentially modulated by serotonin and octopamine receptors and affect social behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangnan Luo

    Full Text Available A set of 14 insulin-producing cells (IPCs in the Drosophila brain produces three insulin-like peptides (DILP2, 3 and 5. Activity in IPCs and release of DILPs is nutrient dependent and controlled by multiple factors such as fat body-derived proteins, neurotransmitters, and neuropeptides. Two monoamine receptors, the octopamine receptor OAMB and the serotonin receptor 5-HT1A, are expressed by the IPCs. These receptors may act antagonistically on adenylate cyclase. Here we investigate the action of the two receptors on activity in and output from the IPCs. Knockdown of OAMB by targeted RNAi led to elevated Dilp3 transcript levels in the brain, whereas 5-HT1A knockdown resulted in increases of Dilp2 and 5. OAMB-RNAi in IPCs leads to extended survival of starved flies and increased food intake, whereas 5-HT1A-RNAi produces the opposite phenotypes. However, knockdown of either OAMB or 5-HT1A in IPCs both lead to increased resistance to oxidative stress. In assays of carbohydrate levels we found that 5-HT1A knockdown in IPCs resulted in elevated hemolymph glucose, body glycogen and body trehalose levels, while no effects were seen after OAMB knockdown. We also found that manipulations of the two receptors in IPCs affected male aggressive behavior in different ways and 5-HT1A-RNAi reduced courtship latency. Our observations suggest that activation of 5-HT1A and OAMB signaling in IPCs generates differential effects on Dilp transcription, fly physiology, metabolism and social interactions. However the findings do not support an antagonistic action of the two monoamines and their receptors in this particular system.

  18. Drosophila insulin-producing cells are differentially modulated by serotonin and octopamine receptors and affect social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiangnan; Lushchak, Oleh V; Goergen, Philip; Williams, Michael J; Nässel, Dick R

    2014-01-01

    A set of 14 insulin-producing cells (IPCs) in the Drosophila brain produces three insulin-like peptides (DILP2, 3 and 5). Activity in IPCs and release of DILPs is nutrient dependent and controlled by multiple factors such as fat body-derived proteins, neurotransmitters, and neuropeptides. Two monoamine receptors, the octopamine receptor OAMB and the serotonin receptor 5-HT1A, are expressed by the IPCs. These receptors may act antagonistically on adenylate cyclase. Here we investigate the action of the two receptors on activity in and output from the IPCs. Knockdown of OAMB by targeted RNAi led to elevated Dilp3 transcript levels in the brain, whereas 5-HT1A knockdown resulted in increases of Dilp2 and 5. OAMB-RNAi in IPCs leads to extended survival of starved flies and increased food intake, whereas 5-HT1A-RNAi produces the opposite phenotypes. However, knockdown of either OAMB or 5-HT1A in IPCs both lead to increased resistance to oxidative stress. In assays of carbohydrate levels we found that 5-HT1A knockdown in IPCs resulted in elevated hemolymph glucose, body glycogen and body trehalose levels, while no effects were seen after OAMB knockdown. We also found that manipulations of the two receptors in IPCs affected male aggressive behavior in different ways and 5-HT1A-RNAi reduced courtship latency. Our observations suggest that activation of 5-HT1A and OAMB signaling in IPCs generates differential effects on Dilp transcription, fly physiology, metabolism and social interactions. However the findings do not support an antagonistic action of the two monoamines and their receptors in this particular system.

  19. Toxicity and deficiency of copper in Elsholtzia splendens affect photosynthesis biophysics, pigments and metal accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hongyun; Kroneck, Peter M H; Küpper, Hendrik

    2013-06-18

    Elsholtzia splendens is a copper-tolerant plant species growing on copper deposits in China. Spatially and spectrally resolved kinetics of in vivo absorbance and chlorophyll fluorescence in mesophyll of E. splendens were used to investigate the copper-induced stress from deficiency and toxicity as well as the acclimation to excess copper stress. The plants were cultivated in nutrient solutions containing either Fe(III)-EDTA or Fe(III)-EDDHA. Copper toxicity affected light-acclimated electron flow much stronger than nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) or dark-acclimated photochemical efficiency of PSIIRC (Fv/Fm). It also changed spectrally resolved Chl fluorescence kinetics, in particular by strengthening the short-wavelength (<700 nm) part of NPQ altering light harvesting complex II (LHCII) aggregation. Copper toxicity reduced iron accumulation, decreased Chls and carotenoids in leaves. During acclimation to copper toxicity, leaf copper decreased but leaf iron increased, with photosynthetic activity and pigments recovering to normal levels. Copper tolerance in E. splendens was inducible; acclimation seems be related to homeostasis of copper and iron in E. splendens. Copper deficiency appeared at 10 mg copper per kg leaf DW, leading to reduced growth and decreased photosynthetic parameters (F0, Fv/Fm, ΦPSII). The importance of these results for evaluating responses of phytoremediation plants to stress in their environment is discussed.

  20. Caregiving and Developmental Factors Differentiating Young At-Risk Urban Children Showing Resilient Versus Stress-Affected Outcomes: A Replication and Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Peter A.; And Others

    1999-01-01

    Tested hypotheses from an organizational-developmental model for childhood resilience among 7- to 9-year olds. Found that caregiving factors and early development differentiated children with resilient and stress-affected adaptations. Variables reflecting emotionally responsive, competent parenting were direct, proximal predictors of resilience…

  1. A differential scanning calorimetric study of the effects of metal ions, substrate/product, substrate analogues and chaotropic anions on the thermal denaturation of yeast enolase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, J M; Wampler, J E

    2001-03-14

    The thermal denaturation of yeast enolase 1 was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) under conditions of subunit association/dissociation, enzymatic activity or substrate binding without turnover and substrate analogue binding. Subunit association stabilizes the enzyme, that is, the enzyme dissociates before denaturing. The conformational change produced by conformational metal ion binding increases thermal stability by reducing subunit dissociation. 'Substrate' or analogue binding additionally stabilizes the enzyme, irrespective of whether turnover is occurring, perhaps in part by the same mechanism. More strongly bound metal ions also stabilize the enzyme more, which we interpret as consistent with metal ion loss before denaturation, though possibly the denaturation pathway is different in the absence of metal ion. We suggest that some of the stabilization by 'substrate' and analogue binding is owing to the closure of moveable polypeptide loops about the active site, producing a more 'closed' and hence thermostable conformation.

  2. Do high levels of diffuse and chronic metal pollution in sediments of Rhine and Meuse floodplains affect structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozema, Jelte; Notten, Martje J.M.; Aerts, Rien; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van; Hobbelen, Peter H.F.; Hamers, Timo H.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper (re)considers the question if chronic and diffuse heavy metal pollution (cadmium, copper, lead and zinc) affects the structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems of Biesbosch National Park, the floodplain area of rivers Meuse and Rhine. To reach this aim, we integrated the results of three projects on: 1. the origin, transfer and effects of heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain; 2. the impact of bioavailability on effects of heavy metals on the structure and functioning of detritivorous communities; 3. the risk assessment of heavy metals for an herbivorous and a carnivorous small mammal food chain. Metal pollution levels of the Biesbosch floodplain soils are high. The bioavailability of metals in the soils is low, causing low metal levels in plant leaves. Despite this, metal concentrations in soil dwelling detritivores and in land snails at polluted locations are elevated in comparison to animals from 'non-polluted' reference sites. However, no adverse effects on ecosystem structure (species richness, density, biomass) and functioning (litter decomposition, leaf consumption, reproduction) have been found. Sediment metal pollution may pose a risk to the carnivorous small mammal food chain, in which earthworms with elevated metal concentrations are eaten by the common shrew. Additional measurements near an active metal smelter, however, show reduced leaf consumption rates and reduced reproduction by terrestrial snails, reflecting elevated metal bioavailability at this site. Since future management may also comprise reintroduction of tidal action in the Biesbosch area, changes in metal bioavailability, and as a consequence future ecosystem effects, cannot be excluded

  3. A multiplex reverse transcription PCR and automated electronic microarray assay for detection and differentiation of seven viruses affecting swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, A; Fisher, M; Furukawa-Stoffer, T; Ambagala, A; Hodko, D; Pasick, J; King, D P; Nfon, C; Ortega Polo, R; Lung, O

    2018-04-01

    Microarray technology can be useful for pathogen detection as it allows simultaneous interrogation of the presence or absence of a large number of genetic signatures. However, most microarray assays are labour-intensive and time-consuming to perform. This study describes the development and initial evaluation of a multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and novel accompanying automated electronic microarray assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of seven important viruses that affect swine (foot-and-mouth disease virus [FMDV], swine vesicular disease virus [SVDV], vesicular exanthema of swine virus [VESV], African swine fever virus [ASFV], classical swine fever virus [CSFV], porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus [PRRSV] and porcine circovirus type 2 [PCV2]). The novel electronic microarray assay utilizes a single, user-friendly instrument that integrates and automates capture probe printing, hybridization, washing and reporting on a disposable electronic microarray cartridge with 400 features. This assay accurately detected and identified a total of 68 isolates of the seven targeted virus species including 23 samples of FMDV, representing all seven serotypes, and 10 CSFV strains, representing all three genotypes. The assay successfully detected viruses in clinical samples from the field, experimentally infected animals (as early as 1 day post-infection (dpi) for FMDV and SVDV, 4 dpi for ASFV, 5 dpi for CSFV), as well as in biological material that were spiked with target viruses. The limit of detection was 10 copies/μl for ASFV, PCV2 and PRRSV, 100 copies/μl for SVDV, CSFV, VESV and 1,000 copies/μl for FMDV. The electronic microarray component had reduced analytical sensitivity for several of the target viruses when compared with the multiplex RT-PCR. The integration of capture probe printing allows custom onsite array printing as needed, while electrophoretically driven hybridization generates results faster than conventional

  4. Primary root protophloem differentiation requires balanced phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate levels and systemically affects root branching.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez-Villalon, A.; Gujas, B.; van Wijk, R.; Munnik, T.; Hardtke, C.S.

    2015-01-01

    Protophloem is a specialized vascular tissue in growing plant organs, such as root meristems. In Arabidopsis mutants with impaired primary root protophloem differentiation, brevis radix (brx) and octopus (ops), meristematic activity and consequently overall root growth are strongly reduced. Second

  5. Both exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism and short-term overt hypothyroidism affect myocardial strain in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdulrahman, Randa M.; Delgado, Victoria; Hoftijzer, Hendrieke C.; Ng, Arnold C. T.; Ewe, See Hooi; Marsan, Nina Ajmone; Holman, Eduard R.; Hovens, Guido C.; Corssmit, Eleonora P.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Bax, Jeroen J.; Smit, Johannes W. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The cardiovascular effects of transitions from exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism to short-term overt hypothyroidism in patients treated for differentiated thyroid carcinoma remain unclear. The present study aims at evaluating the changes in multidirectional myocardial strain using

  6. The use of differential scintigraphy in the clinical diagnosis of osseous and soft tissue changes affecting the diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, H.J.; Jacobs, A.M.; Oloff, L.; Drago, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    Prompt recognition of cellulitis, osteomyelitis, diabetic osteolysis, Charcot neuroarthropathy, septic synovitis, and deep plantar abscesses in the diabetic foot is essential because the therapy is drastically different. Differential diagnosis has been greatly facilitated by recently developed scanning techniques

  7. Metal contamination of soils and crops affected by the Chenzhou lead/zinc mine spill (Hunan, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Probst, Anne; Liao, Bohan

    2005-03-01

    , and rice and capsicum had high Cd concentration in the edible parts. However, the toxic element concentrations in maize, sorghum, Adzuki bean, soybean and mung bean remained lower than the threshold levels. The bio-accumulation factors (BAFs) of crops were in the order: Cd>Zn>Cu>Pb>As. BAF was typically lower in the edible seeds or fruits than in stems and leaves. The accumulation effect strongly depends on the crop's physiological properties, the mobility, of the metals, and the availability of metals in soils but not entirely on the total element concentrations in the soils. Even so, the estimated daily intake amount of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb from the crops grown in the affected three sites and arsenic at SZY and GYB exceeded the RDA (Recommended dietary allowance) levels. Subsequently, the crops grown in Chenzhou Pb/Zn mine waste affected area might have a hazardous effect on the consumer's health. This area still needs effective measures to cure the As, Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu contamination.

  8. Adhesion profile and differentiation capacity of human adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells grown on metal ion (Zn, Ag and Cu) doped hydroxyapatite nano-coated surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostancioglu, R Beklem; Gurbuz, Mevlut; Akyurekli, Ayse Gul; Dogan, Aydin; Koparal, A Savas; Koparal, A Tansu

    2017-07-01

    Accelerated Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) condensation and robust MSC-matrix and MSC-MSC interactions on nano-surfaces may provide critical factors contributing to such events, likely through the orchestrated signal cascades and cellular events modulated by the extracellular matrix. In this study, human adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC)', were grown on metal ion (Zn, Ag and Cu) doped hydroxyapatite (HAP) nano-coated surfaces. These metal ions are known to have different chemical and surface properties; therefore we investigated their respective contributions to cell viability, cellular behavior, osteogenic differentiation capacity and substrate-cell interaction. Nano-powders were produced using a wet chemical process. Air spray deposition was used to accumulate the metal ion doped HAP films on a glass substrate. Cell viability was determined by MTT, LDH and DNA quantitation methods Osteogenic differentiation capacity of hMSCs was analyzed with Alizarin Red Staining and Alkaline Phosphatase Specific Activity. Adhesion of the hMSCs and the effect of cell adhesion on biomaterial biocompatibility were explored through cell adhesion assay, immunofluorescence staining for vinculin and f-actin cytoskeleton components, SEM and microarray including 84 known extracellular matrix proteins and cell adhesion pathway genes, since, adhesion is the first step for good biocompability. The results demonstrate that the viability and osteogenic differentiation of the hMSCs (in growth media without osteogenic stimulation) and cell adhesion capability are higher on nanocoated surfaces that include Zn, Ag and/or Cu metal ions than commercial HAP. These results reveal that Zn, Ag and Cu metal ions contribute to the biocompatibility of exogenous material. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. ERK2 protein regulates the proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells without affecting their mobilization and differentiation potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcamo-Orive, Ivan; Tejados, Naiara; Delgado, Jesus; Gaztelumendi, Ainhoa; Otaegui, David; Lang, Valerie; Trigueros, Cesar

    2008-01-01

    Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSC), derived mainly from adult bone marrow, are valuable models for the study of processes involved in stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. As the Extracellular signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK) signalling pathway is a major contributor to cellular growth, differentiation and survival, we have studied the functions of this kinase in hMSC activity. Ablation of ERK2 gene expression (but not ERK1) by RNA interference significantly reduced proliferation of hMSC. This reduction was due to a defect in Cyclin D1 expression and subsequent arrest in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. hMSC growth is enhanced through culture medium supplementation with growth factors (GFs) such as Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) or Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF). However, these supplements could not rescue the defect observed after ERK2 knockdown, suggesting a common signalling pathway used by these GFs for proliferation. In contrast, ERK1/2 may be dissociated from chemotactic signalling induced by the same GFs. Additionally, hMSCs were capable of differentiating into adipocytes even in the absence of either ERK1 or ERK2 proteins. Our data show that hMSCs do not require cell division to enter the adipogenic differentiation process, indicating that clonal amplification of these cells is not a critical step. However, cell-cell contact seems to be an essential requirement to be able to differentiate into mature adipocytes

  10. Mechanical stimuli on C2C12 myoblasts affect myoblast differentiation, focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation and galectin-1 expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto Blak; Lametsch, Rene; Karlsson, Anders H

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical forces are crucial in the regulation of cell morphology and function. At the cellular level, these forces influence myoblast differentiation and fusion. In this study we applied mechanical stimuli to embryonic muscle cells using magnetic microbeads, a method shown to apply stress...... by mechanical stimulation including Galectin-1, Annexin III, and RhoGDI. In this study we demonstrate how the combination of this method of mechanical stimuli and proteomic analysis can be a powerful tool to detect proteins that are potentially interacting in biochemical pathways or complex cellular mechanisms...... during the process of myoblast differentiation. We determined an increase in expression and changes in cellular localization of Galectin-1, in mechanically stimulated myoblasts. A potential involvement of Galectin-1 in myoblast differentiation is presented....

  11. Differentiated Staffing and Non-Teamed Organizational Structures as They Affect Elementary School Teacher-Pupil Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Thomas A.; And Others

    A study was conducted of the differences in the frequency of selected student-teacher interaction in differentiated staffs and in non-teamed schools. The interaction processes studied were synthesized from Erikson's four stages of childhood: student behaviors--information processing, choice-making, reflection, problem solving, and procedures or…

  12. Primary root protophloem differentiation requires balanced phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate levels and systemically affects root branching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Villalon, Antia; Gujas, Bojan; van Wijk, Ringo; Munnik, Teun; Hardtke, Christian S

    2015-04-15

    Protophloem is a specialized vascular tissue in growing plant organs, such as root meristems. In Arabidopsis mutants with impaired primary root protophloem differentiation, brevis radix (brx) and octopus (ops), meristematic activity and consequently overall root growth are strongly reduced. Second site mutation in the protophloem-specific presumed phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase cotyledon vascular pattern 2 (CVP2), but not in its homolog CVP2-like 1 (CVL1), partially rescues brx defects. Consistent with this finding, CVP2 hyperactivity in a wild-type background recreates a brx phenotype. Paradoxically, however, while cvp2 or cvl1 single mutants display no apparent root defects, the root phenotype of cvp2 cvl1 double mutants is similar to brx or ops, although, as expected, cvp2 cvl1 seedlings contain more phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate. Thus, tightly balanced phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate levels appear essential for proper protophloem differentiation. Genetically, OPS acts downstream of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate levels, as cvp2 mutation cannot rescue ops defects, whereas increased OPS dose rescues cvp2 cvl1 defects. Finally, all three mutants display higher density and accelerated emergence of lateral roots, which correlates with increased auxin response in the root differentiation zone. This phenotype is also created by application of peptides that suppress protophloem differentiation, clavata3/embryo surrounding region 26 (CLE26) and CLE45. Thus, local changes in the primary root protophloem systemically shape overall root system architecture. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Different patterns of amygdala priming differentially affect dentate gyrus plasticity and corticosterone, but not CA1 plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose-Marie eVouimba

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress-induced activation of the amygdala is involved in the modulation of memory processes in the hippocampus. However, stress effects on amygdala and memory remain complex. The activation of the basolateral amygdala (BLA was found to modulate plasticity in other brain areas, including the hippocampus. We previously demonstrated a differential effect of BLA priming on LTP in the CA1 and the dentate gyrus (DG. While BLA priming suppressed long term potentiation (LTP in CA1, it was found to enhance it in the DG. However, since the amygdala itself is amenable to experience-induced plasticity it is thus conceivable that when activity within the amygdala is modified this will have impact on the way the amygdala modulates activity and plasticity in other brain areas. In the current study we examined the effects of different patterns of BLA activation on the modulation of LTP in the DG and CA1, as well as on serum corticosterone (CORT. In CA1, BLA priming impaired LTP induction as was reported before. In contrast, in the DG, varying BLA stimulation intensity and frequency resulted in differential effects on LTP, ranging from no effect to strong impairment or enhancement. Varying BLA stimulation patterns resulted in also differential alterations in Serum CORT, leading to higher CORT levels being positively correlated with LTP magnitude in DG but not in CA1.The results support the notion of a differential role for the DG in aspects of memory, and add to this view the possibility that DG-associated aspects of memory will be enhanced under more emotional or stressful conditions. It is interesting to think of BLA patterns of activation and the differential levels of circulating CORT as two arms of the emotional and stress response that attempt to synchronize brain activity to best meet the challenge. It is foreseeable to think of abnormal such synchronization under extreme conditions, which would lead to the development of maladaptive behavior.

  14. TRPV4 Regulates Tight Junctions and Affects Differentiation in a Cell Culture Model of the Corneal Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rendón, Jacqueline; Sánchez-Guzmán, Erika; Rueda, Angélica; González, James; Gulias-Cañizo, Rosario; Aquino-Jarquín, Guillermo; Castro-Muñozledo, Federico; García-Villegas, Refugio

    2017-07-01

    TRPV4 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 4) is a cation channel activated by hypotonicity, moderate heat, or shear stress. We describe the expression of TRPV4 during the differentiation of a corneal epithelial cell model, RCE1(5T5) cells. TRPV4 is a late differentiation feature that is concentrated in the apical membrane of the outmost cell layer of the stratified epithelia. Ca 2+ imaging experiments showed that TRPV4 activation with GSK1016790A produced an influx of calcium that was blunted by the specific TRPV4 blocker RN-1734. We analyzed the involvement of TRPV4 in RCE1(5T5) epithelial differentiation by measuring the development of transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) as an indicator of the tight junction (TJ) assembly. We showed that TRPV4 activity was necessary to establish the TJ. In differentiated epithelia, activation of TRPV4 increases the TER and the accumulation of claudin-4 in cell-cell contacts. Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) up-regulates the TER of corneal epithelial cultures, and we show here that TRPV4 activation mimicked this EGF effect. Conversely, TRPV4 inhibition or knock down by specific shRNA prevented the increase in TER. Moreover, TRPP2, an EGF-activated channel that forms heteromeric complexes with TRPV4, is also concentrated in the outmost cell layer of differentiated RCE1(5T5) sheets. This suggests that the EGF regulation of the TJ may involve a heterotetrameric TRPV4-TRPP2 channel. These results demonstrated TRPV4 activity was necessary for the correct establishment of TJ in corneal epithelia and as well as the regulation of both the barrier function of TJ and its ability to respond to EGF. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1794-1807, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. HIV-1 and recombinant gp120 affect the survival and differentiation of human vessel wall-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquinelli Gianandrea

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV infection elicits the onset of a progressive immunodeficiency and also damages several other organs and tissues such as the CNS, kidney, heart, blood vessels, adipose tissue and bone. In particular, HIV infection has been related to an increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases and derangement in the structure of blood vessels in the absence of classical risk factors. The recent characterization of multipotent mesenchymal cells in the vascular wall, involved in regulating cellular homeostasis, suggests that these cells may be considered a target of HIV pathogenesis. This paper investigated the interaction between HIV-1 and vascular wall resident human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Results MSCs were challenged with classical R5 and X4 HIV-1 laboratory strains demonstrating that these strains are able to enter and integrate their retro-transcribed proviral DNA in the host cell genome. Subsequent experiments indicated that HIV-1 strains and recombinant gp120 elicited a reliable increase in apoptosis in sub-confluent MSCs. Since vascular wall MSCs are multipotent cells that may be differentiated towards several cell lineages, we challenged HIV-1 strains and gp120 on MSCs differentiated to adipogenesis and endotheliogenesis. Our experiments showed that the adipogenesis is increased especially by upregulated PPARγ activity whereas the endothelial differentiation induced by VEGF treatment was impaired with a downregulation of endothelial markers such as vWF, Flt-1 and KDR expression. These viral effects in MSC survival and adipogenic or endothelial differentiation were tackled by CD4 blockade suggesting an important role of CD4/gp120 interaction in this context. Conclusions The HIV-related derangement of MSC survival and differentiation may suggest a direct role of HIV infection and gp120 in impaired vessel homeostasis and in genesis of vessel damage observed in HIV-infected patients.

  16. Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Marine Sediments of East Coast of Tamil Nadu Affected by Different Pollution Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikrishnan, N; Ravisankar, R; Chandrasekaran, A; Suresh Gandhi, M; Kanagasabapathy, K V; Prasad, M V R; Satapathy, K K

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of heavy metals in the sediments of Periyakalapet to Parangipettai coast, east coast of Tamil Nadu, by using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. The average heavy metal concentrations in the sediment samples were found in the order Al>Fe>Ca>Ti>K>Mg>Mn>Ba>V>Cr>Zn>La>Ni>Pb>Co>Cd>Cu. The average heavy metal concentrations were below the world crustal average. The degree of contamination by heavy metals was evaluated using pollution indices. The results of pollution indices revealed that titanium (Ti) and cadmium (Cd) were significantly enriched in sediments. Pearson correlation analysis was performed among heavy metal concentrations to know the existing relationship between them. Multivariate statistical technique was employed to identify the heavy metal pollution sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. OBSERVATIONS OF BINARY STARS WITH THE DIFFERENTIAL SPECKLE SURVEY INSTRUMENT. V. TOWARD AN EMPIRICAL METAL-POOR MASS–LUMINOSITY RELATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horch, Elliott P.; Van Altena, William F.; Demarque, Pierre; Howell, Steve B.; Everett, Mark E.; Ciardi, David R.; Teske, Johanna K.; Henry, Todd J.; Winters, Jennifer G.

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the details of the stellar structure and evolution of metal-poor stars, the Gemini North telescope was used on two occasions to take speckle imaging data of a sample of known spectroscopic binary stars and other nearby stars in order to search for and resolve close companions. The observations were obtained using the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument, which takes data in two filters simultaneously. The results presented here are of 90 observations of 23 systems in which one or more companions was detected, and six stars where no companion was detected to the limit of the camera capabilities at Gemini. In the case of the binary and multiple stars, these results are then further analyzed to make first orbit determinations in five cases, and orbit refinements in four other cases. The mass information is derived, and since the systems span a range in metallicity, a study is presented that compares our results with the expected trend in total mass as derived from the most recent Yale isochrones as a function of metal abundance. These data suggest that metal-poor main-sequence stars are less massive at a given color than their solar-metallicity analogues in a manner consistent with that predicted from the theory

  18. Creep deformation behavior of weld metal and heat affected zone on 316FR steel thick plate welded joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongo, Hiromichi; Yamazaki, Masayoshi; Watanabe, Takashi; Kinugawa, Junichi; Tanabe, Tatsuhiko; Monma, Yoshio; Nakazawa, Takanori

    1999-01-01

    Using hot-rolled 316FR stainless plate (50 mm thick) and 16Cr-8Ni-2Mo filler wire, a narrow-gap welded joint was prepared by GTAW (gas tungsten arc welding) process. In addition to conventional round bar specimens of base metals and weld metal, full-thickness joint specimens were prepared for creep test. Creep tests were conducted at 550degC in order to examine creep deformation and rupture behavior in the weld metal of the welded joint. Creep strain distribution on the surface of the joint specimen was measured by moire interferometry. In the welded joint, creep strength of the weld metal zone apart from the surface was larger than that in the vicinity of the surface due to repeating heat cycles during welding. Creep strain and creep rate within the HAZ adjacent to the weld metal zone were smaller than those within the base metal zone. Creep rate of the weld metal zone in the welded joint was smaller than that of the weld metal specimen due to the restraint of the hardened HAZ adjacent to the zone. The full-thickness welded joint specimens showed longer lives than weld metal specimens, though the lives of the latter was shorter than those of the base metal (undermatching). In the full-thickness welded joint specimen, crack started from the last pass layer of the weld metal zone and fracture occurred at the zone. From the results mentioned above, in order to evaluate the creep properties of the welded joint correctly, it is necessary to conduct the creep test using the full-thickness welded joint specimen which includes the weakest zones of the weld metal, the front and back sides of the plate. (author)

  19. Fluid fractionation of tungsten during granite-pegmatite differentiation and the metal source of peribatholitic W quartz veins: Evidence from the Karagwe-Ankole Belt (Rwanda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsbosch, Niels; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Dewaele, Stijn; Muchez, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    The identification of a magmatic source for granite-associated rare metal (W, Nb, Ta and Sn) mineralisation in metasediment-hosted quartz veins is often obscured by intense fluid-rock interactions which metamorphically overprinted most source signatures in the vein system. In order to address this recurrent metal sourcing problem, we have studied the metasediment-hosted tungsten-bearing quartz veins of the Nyakabingo deposit of the Karagwe-Ankole belt in Central Rwanda. The vein system (992 ± 2 Ma) is spatiotemporal related to the well-characterised B-rich, F-poor G4 leucogranite-pegmatite suite (986 ± 10 Ma to 975 ± 8 Ma) of the Gatumba-Gitarama area which culminated in Nb-Ta-Sn mineralisation. Muscovite in the Nyakabingo veins is significantly enriched in granitophile elements (Rb, Cs, W and Sn) and show alkali metal signatures equivalent to muscovite of less-differentiated pegmatite zones of the Gatumba-Gitarama area. Pegmatitic muscovite records a decrease in W content with increasing differentiation proxies (Rb and Cs), in contrast to the continuous enrichment of other high field strength elements (Nb and Ta) and Sn. This is an indication of a selective redistribution for W by fluid exsolution and fluid fractionation. Primary fluid inclusions in tourmaline of these less-differentiated pegmatites demonstrate the presence of medium to low saline, H2O-NaCl-KCl-MgCl2-complex salt (e.g. Rb, Cs) fluids which started to exsolve at the G4 granite-pegmatite transition stage. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry shows significant tungsten enrichment in these fluid phases (∼5-500 ppm). Fractional crystallisation has been identified previously as the driving mechanism for the transition from G4 granites, less-differentiated biotite, biotite-muscovite towards muscovite pegmatites and eventually columbite-tantalite mineralised pegmatites. The general absence of tungsten mineralisation in this magmatic suite, including the most differentiated

  20. Heavy metal fractions and ecological risk assessment in sediments from urban, rural and reclamation-affected rivers of the Pearl River Estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangliang; Bai, Junhong; Xiao, Rong; Zhao, Qingqing; Jia, Jia; Cui, Baoshan; Liu, Xinhui

    2017-10-01

    Rapid urbanization and reclamation processes in coastal areas have resulted in serious pollution to the aquatic environment. Less is known on the geochemical fractions and ecological risks in river sediment under various human activities pressures, which is essential for addressing the connections between heavy metal pollution and anthropogenic influences. River sediments were collected from different landscapes (i.e., urban, rural and reclamation areas) to investigate the impacts of urbanization and reclamation on the metallic pollution levels and ecological risks in the Pear River Estuary of China. Results showed that Cd, Zn and Cu with high total contents and geoaccumulation index (I geo ) were the primary metals in the Peal River sediments. Generally, urban river sediments, especially the surface sediment layer (0-10 cm), exhibited higher metallic pollution levels. As for geochemical fractions, reducible and residual fractions were the dominant forms for six determined metals. And the percentage of heavy metals bound to Fe-Mn oxides decreased with increasing soil depth but the reverse tendency was observed for residual fractions. Compared with rural river sediments, heavy metals were highly associated with the exchangeable and carbonate fractions in both urban and reclamation-affected river sediments, suggesting that anthropogenic activities mainly increased the active forms of metals. Approximately 80% of Cd existed in the non-residual fraction and posed medium to high ecological risk according to the risk assessment code (RAC) values. The redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that both urbanization and reclamation processes would cause similar metallic characteristics, and sediment organic matter (SOC) might be the prominent influencing factor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Alcohol and cannabinoids differentially affect HIV infection and function of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisela eAgudelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, alcohol has been known to induce inflammation while cannabinoids have been shown to have an anti-inflammatory role. For instance cannabinoids have been shown to reduce susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and attenuate HIV replication in macrophages. Recently, we demonstrated that alcohol induces cannabinoid receptors and regulates cytokine production by monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC. However, the ability of alcohol and cannabinoids to alter MDDC function during HIV infection has not been clearly elucidated yet. In order to study the potential impact of alcohol and cannabinoids on differentiated MDDC infected with HIV, monocytes were cultured for 7 days with GM-CSF and IL-4, differentiated MDDC were infected with HIV-1Ba-L and treated with EtOH (0.1 and 0.2%, THC (5 and 10 uM, or JWH-015 (5 and 10 uM for 4-7 days. HIV infection of MDDC was confirmed by p24 and Long Terminal Repeats (LTR estimation. MDDC endocytosis assay and cytokine array profiles were measured to investigate the effects of HIV and substances of abuse on MDDC function. Our results show the HIV+EtOH treated MDDC had the highest levels of p24 production and expression when compared with the HIV positive controls and the cannabinoid treated cells. Although both cannabinoids, THC and JWH-015 had lower levels of p24 production and expression, the HIV+JWH-015 treated MDDC had the lowest levels of p24 when compared to the HIV+THC treated cells. In addition, MDDC endocytic function and cytokine production were also differentially altered after alcohol and cannabinoid treatments. Our results show a differential effect of alcohol and cannabinoids, which may provide insights into the divergent inflammatory role of alcohol and cannabinoids to modulate MDDC function in the context of HIV infection.

  2. Primary root protophloem differentiation requires balanced phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate levels and systemically affects root branching.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Villalon Antia; Gujas Bojan; van Wijk Ringo; Munnik Teun; Hardtke Christian S

    2015-01-01

    Protophloem is a specialized vascular tissue in growing plant organs, such as root meristems. In Arabidopsis mutants with impaired primary root protophloem differentiation, brevis radix (brx) and octopus (ops), meristematic activity and consequently overall root growth are strongly reduced. Second site mutation in the protophloem-specific presumed phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase cotyledon vascular pattern 2 (CVP2), but not in its homolog CVP2-like 1 (CVL1), partially rescues brx defects. Consi...

  3. Stroke promotes survival of nearby transplanted neural stem cells by decreasing their activation of caspase 3 while not affecting their differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosi, Nina; Alić, Ivan; Salamon, Iva; Mitrečić, Dinko

    2018-02-14

    Although transplantation of stem cells improves recovery of the nervous tissue, little is known about the influence of different brain regions on transplanted cells. After we confirmed that cells with uniform differentiation potential can be generated in independent experiments, one million of neural stem cells isolated from B6.Cg-Tg(Thy1-YFP)16Jrs/J mouse embryos were transplanted into the brain 24 h after induction of stroke. The lateral ventricles, the corpus callosum and the striatum were tested. Two and four weeks after the transplantation, the cells transplanted in all three regions have been attracted to the ischemic core. The largest number of attracted cells has been observed after transplantation into the striatum. Their differentiation pattern and expression of neuroligin 1, SynCAM 1, postsynaptic density protein 95 and synapsin 1 followed the same pattern observed during in vitro cultivation and it did not differ among the tested regions. Differentiation pattern of the cells transplanted in the stroke-affected and healthy animals was the same. On the other hand, neural stem cells transplanted in the striatum of the animals affected by stroke exhibited significantly increased survival rates reaching 260 ± 19%, when compared to cells transplanted in their wild type controls. Surprisingly, improved survival two and four weeks after transplantation was not due to increased proliferation of the grafted cells and it was accompanied by decreased levels of activity of Casp3 (19.56 ± 3.1% in the stroke-affected vs. 30.14 ± 2.4% in healthy animals after four weeks). We assume that the decreased levels of Casp3 in cells transplanted near the ischemic region was linked to increased vasculogenesis, synaptogenesis, astrocytosis and axonogenesis detected in the host tissue affected by ischemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Urban legacies and soil management affect the concentration and speciation of trace metals in Los Angeles community garden soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Lorraine Weller; Jenerette, G Darrel; Bain, Daniel J

    2015-02-01

    Heavy metals in urban soils can compromise human health, especially in urban gardens, where gardeners may ingest contaminated dust or crops. To identify patterns of urban garden metal contamination, we measured concentrations and bioavailability of Pb, As, and Cd in soils associated with twelve community gardens in Los Angeles County, CA. This included sequential extractions to partition metals among exchangeable, reducible, organic, or residual fractions. Proximity to road increased all metal concentrations, suggesting vehicle emissions sources. Reducible Pb increased with neighborhood age, suggesting leaded paint as a likely pollutant source. Exchangeable Cd and As both increased with road proximity. Only cultivated soils showed an increase in exchangeable As with road proximity, potentially due to reducing humic acid interactions while Cd bioavailability was mitigated by organic matter. Understanding the geochemical phases and metal bioavailability allows incorporation of contamination patterns into urban planning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hematopoietic stem cell capture and directional differentiation into vascular endothelial cells for metal stent-coated chitosan/hyaluronic acid loading CD133 antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shixuan; Zhang, Fan; Feng, Bo; Fan, Qingyu; Yang, Feng; Shang, Debin; Sui, Jinghan; Zhao, Hong

    2015-03-01

    A series of metal stents coated with chitosan/hyaluronic acid (CS/HA) loading antibodies by electrostatic self-assembled method were prepared, and the types of cells captured by antibodies and their differentiation in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) evaluated by molecular biology and scanning electron microscope. The results showed that CD133 stent can selectively capture hematopoietic stem cells (HSC),which directionally differentiate into vascular ECs in peripheral blood by (CS/HA) induction, and simultaneously inhibit migration and proliferation of immune cells and vascular smooth muscle cells (MCs). CD34 stent can capture HSC, hematopoietic progenitor cells that differentiate into vascular ECs and immune cells, promoting smooth MCs growth, leading to thrombosis, inflammation, and rejection. CD133 stent can be implanted into miniature pig heart coronary and can repair vascular damage by capturing own HSC, thus contributing to the rapid natural vascular repair, avoiding inflammation and rejection, thrombosis and restenosis. These studies demonstrated that CD133 stent of HSC capture will be an ideal coated metal stent providing a new therapeutic approach for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease.

  6. Methyl jasmonate differentially affects tocopherol content and tyrosine amino transferase activity in cultured cells of Amaranthus caudatus and Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antognoni, F; Faudale, M; Poli, F; Biondi, S

    2009-03-01

    Tocopherols are lipid-soluble compounds synthesised exclusively by photosynthetic organisms. In this study, in vitro callus cultures were established from two plants that are naturally rich in tocopherols, Amaranthus caudatus and Chenopodium quinoa, in order to examine whether callus cultures were able to produce these compounds at levels comparable to those observed in planta. In both species, cotyledon explants produced the best callus induction and, once established, callus cultures were grown under two different hormonal treatments to check for effects of growth and to induce chloroplast differentiation in the cells. A rapid differentiation of chloroplasts occurred only in C. quinoa cell aggregates grown in the presence of benzyladenine, leading to the production of a homogeneous green callus. In both species, only alpha-tocopherol was produced by callus cultures, although levels were much lower than in planta, and the production was not influenced by the hormonal conditions. Interestingly, cell cultures of the two species responded in different ways to methyl jasmonate (MJ). In A. caudatus cultures, treatment with 100 mum MJ increased the production of alpha-tocopherol up to fivefold, and the inductive effect was influenced by the hormonal composition of the medium. This increase in alpha-tocopherol was associated with a proportional increase in tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) activity, one of the key enzymes involved in tocopherol biosynthesis. By contrast, in C. quinoa cultures, elicitation with MJ did not have any effect, neither on tocopherol production, nor on TAT activity. These results are discussed in relation to chloroplast differentiation and the interplay between jasmonates and phytohormones.

  7. Stroke and TIA survivors’ cognitive beliefs and affective responses regarding treatment and future stroke risk differentially predict medication adherence and categorised stroke risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, L. Alison; Diefenbach, Michael A.; Abrams, Jessica; Horowitz, Carol R.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive beliefs and affective responses to illness and treatment are known to independently predict health behaviours. The purpose of the current study is to assess the relative importance of four psychological domains – specifically, affective illness, cognitive illness, affective treatment and cognitive treatment – for predicting stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) survivors’ adherence to stroke prevention medications as well as their objective, categorised stroke risk. We assessed these domains among stroke/TIA survivors (n = 600), and conducted correlation and regression analyses with concurrent and prospective outcomes to determine the relative importance of each cognitive and affective domain for adherence and stroke risk. As hypothesised, patients’ affective treatment responses explained the greatest unique variance in baseline and six-month adherence reports (8 and 5%, respectively, of the variance in adherence, compared to 1–3% explained by other domains). Counter to hypotheses, patients’ cognitive illness beliefs explained the greatest unique variance in baseline and six-month objective categorised stroke risk (3 and 2%, respectively, compared to 0–1% explained by other domains). Results indicate that domain type (i.e. cognitive and affective) and domain referent (illness and treatment) may be differentially important for providers to assess when treating patients for stroke/TIA. More research is required to further distinguish between these domains and their relative importance for stroke prevention. PMID:25220292

  8. Stroke and TIA survivors' cognitive beliefs and affective responses regarding treatment and future stroke risk differentially predict medication adherence and categorised stroke risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, L Alison; Diefenbach, Michael A; Abrams, Jessica; Horowitz, Carol R

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive beliefs and affective responses to illness and treatment are known to independently predict health behaviours. The purpose of the current study is to assess the relative importance of four psychological domains - specifically, affective illness, cognitive illness, affective treatment and cognitive treatment - for predicting stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) survivors' adherence to stroke prevention medications as well as their objective, categorised stroke risk. We assessed these domains among stroke/TIA survivors (n = 600), and conducted correlation and regression analyses with concurrent and prospective outcomes to determine the relative importance of each cognitive and affective domain for adherence and stroke risk. As hypothesised, patients' affective treatment responses explained the greatest unique variance in baseline and six-month adherence reports (8 and 5%, respectively, of the variance in adherence, compared to 1-3% explained by other domains). Counter to hypotheses, patients' cognitive illness beliefs explained the greatest unique variance in baseline and six-month objective categorised stroke risk (3 and 2%, respectively, compared to 0-1% explained by other domains). Results indicate that domain type (i.e. cognitive and affective) and domain referent (illness and treatment) may be differentially important for providers to assess when treating patients for stroke/TIA. More research is required to further distinguish between these domains and their relative importance for stroke prevention.

  9. Heavy metals effects on forage crops yields and estimation of elements accumulation in plants as affected by soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grytsyuk, N.; Arapis, G.; Perepelyatnikova, L.; Ivanova, T.; Vynograds'ka, V.

    2006-01-01

    Heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn) effect on the productivity of forage crops (clover and perennial cereal grasses) and their accumulation in plants, depending on the concentration of these elements in a soil, has been studied in micro-field experiments on three types of soil. The principle objective was to determine regularities of heavy metals migration in a soil-plant system aiming the estimation of permissible levels of heavy metals content in soils with the following elaboration of methods, which regulate the toxicants transfer to plants. Methods of field experiments, agrochemical and atomic absorption analysis were used. Results were statistically treated by Statistica 6.0, S-Plus 6. Experimental results have shown that the intensity of heavy metals accumulation in plants depends on the type of the soil, the species of plants, the physicochemical properties of heavy metals and their content in the soil. Logarithmic interdependency of heavy metals concentration in soils and their accumulation in plants is suggested. However, the strong correlation between the different heavy metals concentrations in the various soils and the yield of crops was not observed. Toxicants accumulation in crops decreased in time

  10. Heavy metal contamination of agricultural soils affected by mining activities around the Ganxi River in Chenzhou, Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Sun, Jing; Yang, Zhaoguang; Wang, Lin

    2015-12-01

    Heavy metal contamination attracted a wide spread attention due to their strong toxicity and persistence. The Ganxi River, located in Chenzhou City, Southern China, has been severely polluted by lead/zinc ore mining activities. This work investigated the heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils around the Ganxi River. The total concentrations of heavy metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The potential risk associated with the heavy metals in soil was assessed by Nemerow comprehensive index and potential ecological risk index. In both methods, the study area was rated as very high risk. Multivariate statistical methods including Pearson's correlation analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and principal component analysis were employed to evaluate the relationships between heavy metals, as well as the correlation between heavy metals and pH, to identify the metal sources. Three distinct clusters have been observed by hierarchical cluster analysis. In principal component analysis, a total of two components were extracted to explain over 90% of the total variance, both of which were associated with anthropogenic sources.

  11. Heavy metals effects on forage crops yields and estimation of elements accumulation in plants as affected by soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grytsyuk, N; Arapis, G; Perepelyatnikova, L; Ivanova, T; Vynograds'ka, V

    2006-02-01

    Heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn) effect on the productivity of forage crops (clover and perennial cereal grasses) and their accumulation in plants, depending on the concentration of these elements in a soil, has been studied in micro-field experiments on three types of soil. The principle objective was to determine regularities of heavy metals migration in a soil-plant system aiming the estimation of permissible levels of heavy metals content in soils with the following elaboration of methods, which regulate the toxicants transfer to plants. Methods of field experiments, agrochemical and atomic absorption analysis were used. Results were statistically treated by Statistica 6.0, S-Plus 6. Experimental results have shown that the intensity of heavy metals accumulation in plants depends on the type of the soil, the species of plants, the physicochemical properties of heavy metals and their content in the soil. Logarithmic interdependency of heavy metals concentration in soils and their accumulation in plants is suggested. However, the strong correlation between the different heavy metals concentrations in the various soils and the yield of crops was not observed. Toxicants accumulation in crops decreased in time.

  12. Health Risk Assessment of Trace Metals in Various Environmental Media, Crops and Human Hair from a Mining Affected Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wushuang Xie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Long term exposure to trace metals in various media is of great concern for people living in known pollution sources, such as mining and industrial activities. Health risk assessment and human hair analysis can provide important information for local environmental management. Information on distribution characteristics of trace metals in soil, water, sediment, air, local crops, and human hair from a typical mining area in southern China was collected. Results show there exists severely trace metal contamination in soil, sediment, and air. Arsenic and Pb contents in the local children’s hair are higher than the upper reference values, and the accumulation of residents’ hair trace metals shows great correlation with the ingestion and inhalation pathways. Arsenic contributes 52.27% and 58.51% to the total non-cancer risk of adults and children, respectively. The cancer risk of Cd in adults and children are 4.66 and 3.22 times higher than the safe level, respectively. Ingestion exposure pathway of trace metals largely contributes to the total non-cancer and cancer effect. The metals As, Cd, and Pb are major risk sources and pollutants that should be given priority for management, and ingestion pathway exposure to trace metals through soil and crops should be controlled.

  13. Lipogems Product Treatment Increases the Proliferation Rate of Human Tendon Stem Cells without Affecting Their Stemness and Differentiation Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randelli, Pietro; Menon, Alessandra; Ragone, Vincenza; Creo, Pasquale; Bergante, Sonia; Randelli, Filippo; De Girolamo, Laura; Alfieri Montrasio, Umberto; Banfi, Giuseppe; Cabitza, Paolo; Tettamanti, Guido; Anastasia, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the success rate of rotator cuff healing remains tremendous challenge. Among many approaches, the possibility of activating resident stem cells in situ, without the need to isolate them from biopsies, could represent valuable therapeutic strategy. Along this line, it has been recently demonstrated that lipoaspirate product, Lipogems, contains and produces growth-factors that may activate resident stem cells. In this study, human tendon stem cells (hTSCs) from the rotator cuff were cocultured in a transwell system with the Lipogems lipoaspirate product and compared to control untreated cells in terms of cell proliferation, morphology, stem cell marker and VEGF expression, and differentiation and migration capabilities. Results showed that the Lipogems product significantly increases the proliferation rate of hTSCs without altering their stemness and differentiation capability. Moreover, treated cells increase the expression of VEGF, which is crucial for the neovascularization of the tissue during the healing process. Overall, this study supports that directly activating hTSCs with the Lipogems lipoaspirate could represent a new practical therapeutic approach. In fact, obtaining a lipoaspirate is easier, safer, and more cost-effective than harvesting cells from tendon or bone marrow biopsies, expanding them in GMP facility and then reinjecting them in the patient.

  14. Lipogems Product Treatment Increases the Proliferation Rate of Human Tendon Stem Cells without Affecting Their Stemness and Differentiation Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Randelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the success rate of rotator cuff healing remains tremendous challenge. Among many approaches, the possibility of activating resident stem cells in situ, without the need to isolate them from biopsies, could represent valuable therapeutic strategy. Along this line, it has been recently demonstrated that lipoaspirate product, Lipogems, contains and produces growth-factors that may activate resident stem cells. In this study, human tendon stem cells (hTSCs from the rotator cuff were cocultured in a transwell system with the Lipogems lipoaspirate product and compared to control untreated cells in terms of cell proliferation, morphology, stem cell marker and VEGF expression, and differentiation and migration capabilities. Results showed that the Lipogems product significantly increases the proliferation rate of hTSCs without altering their stemness and differentiation capability. Moreover, treated cells increase the expression of VEGF, which is crucial for the neovascularization of the tissue during the healing process. Overall, this study supports that directly activating hTSCs with the Lipogems lipoaspirate could represent a new practical therapeutic approach. In fact, obtaining a lipoaspirate is easier, safer, and more cost-effective than harvesting cells from tendon or bone marrow biopsies, expanding them in GMP facility and then reinjecting them in the patient.

  15. Do sex reversal procedures differentially affect agonistic behaviors and sex steroid levels depending on the sexual genotype in Nile tilapia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennotte, Vincent; Akonkwa, Balagizi; Mélard, Charles; Denoël, Mathieu; Cornil, Charlotte A; Rougeot, Carole

    2017-04-01

    In Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, phenotypic males and females with different sexual genotypes (XX, XY, YY) have particular behavioral and physiological traits. Compared to natural XX females and XY males, XY and YY females and XX males expressed higher level of aggressiveness that could be related to higher levels of 17β-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone, respectively. Our results suggest that the presence of a Y chromosome increases aggressiveness in females. However, since the same relationship between aggressiveness and the Y chromosome is not observed in males, we can hypothesize that the differences in aggressiveness are not directly dependent on the genotype but on the sex reversal procedures applied on young fry during their sexual differentiation to produce these breeders. These hormonal treatments could have permanently modified the development of the brain and consequently influenced the behavior of adults independently of their genotype. In both hypotheses (genotype or sex reversal influence), the causes of behavioral modifications have to be searched in an early modification of the brain sexual differentiation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Repeated short climatic change affects the epidermal differentiation program and leads to matrix remodeling in a human organotypic skin model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutrand, Laetitia-Barbollat; Thépot, Amélie; Muther, Charlotte; Boher, Aurélie; Robic, Julie; Guéré, Christelle; Vié, Katell; Damour, Odile; Lamartine, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    Human skin is subject to frequent changes in ambient temperature and humidity and needs to cope with these environmental modifications. To decipher the molecular response of human skin to repeated climatic change, a versatile model of skin equivalent subject to "hot-wet" (40°C, 80% relative humidity [RH]) or "cold-dry" (10°C, 40% RH) climatic stress repeated daily was used. To obtain an exhaustive view of the molecular mechanisms elicited by climatic change, large-scale gene expression DNA microarray analysis was performed and modulated function was determined by bioinformatic annotation. This analysis revealed several functions, including epidermal differentiation and extracellular matrix, impacted by repeated variations in climatic conditions. Some of these molecular changes were confirmed by histological examination and protein expression. Both treatments (hot-wet and cold-dry) reduced the expression of genes encoding collagens, laminin, and proteoglycans, suggesting a profound remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Strong induction of the entire family of late cornified envelope genes after cold-dry exposure, confirmed at protein level, was also observed. These changes correlated with an increase in epidermal differentiation markers such as corneodesmosin and a thickening of the stratum corneum, indicating possible implementation of defense mechanisms against dehydration. This study for the first time reveals the complex pattern of molecular response allowing adaption of human skin to repeated change in its climatic environment.

  17. Consumption of caloric and non-caloric versions of a soft drink differentially affects brain activation during tasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.; Weijzen, P.L.G.; Graaf, de C.; Viergever, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Sensory-specific satiety, which is defined as a relative decrease in pleasantness, is increased by greater oro-sensory stimulation. Both sensory-specific satiety and pleasantness affect taste activation in the orbitofrontal cortex. In contrast, metabolic satiety, which results from energy intake, is

  18. Dietary folate and choline status differentially affect lipid metabolism and behavior-mediated neurotransmitters in young rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between choline and folate metabolisms is an important issue due to the essential role of these nutrients in brain plasticity and cognitive functions. Present study was designed to investigate whether modification of the dietary folate-choline status in young rats would affect brain...

  19. Timing of caloric intake during weight loss differentially affects striatal dopamine transporter and thalamic serotonin transporter binding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, Ruth I.; Schrantee, Anouk; Adriaanse, Sofie M.; Unmehopa, Unga A.; Booij, Jan; Reneman, Liesbeth; Fliers, Eric; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Serlie, Mireille J.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that meal timing throughout the day contributes to maintaining or regaining weight after hypocaloric diets. Although brain serotonin and dopamine are well known to be involved in regulating feeding, it is unknown whether meal timing during energy restriction affects these

  20. Nutrient enrichment differentially affects body sizes of primary consumers and predators in a detritus-based stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Davis; Amy D. Rosemond; Sue L. Eggert; Wyatt F. Cross; J. Bruce. Wallace

    2010-01-01

    We assessed how a 5-yr nutrient enrichment affected the responses of different size classes of primary consumers and predators in a detritus-based headwater stream. We hypothesized that alterations in detritus availability because of enrichment would decrease the abundance and biomass of large-bodied consumers. In contrast, we found that 2 yr of enrichment increased...

  1. Differential accumulation of heavy metals in the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima as a function of symbiotic state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchelmore, Carys L.; Alan Verde, E.; Ringwood, Amy H.; Weis, Virginia M.

    2003-01-01

    The accumulation of metals by the North American Pacific Coast temperate sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima, and its dinoflagellate-algal symbiont Symbiodinium muscatinei was examined following laboratory metal exposures. Both, naturally occurring symbiotic and symbiont-free (aposymbiotic) anemones were used in this study to investigate differences in metal uptake due to the symbiotic state of the animal. The effects of metal exposures on the anemone-algal symbiosis were determined using measures of algal cell density and mitotic index (MI). Anemones were exposed to either cadmium, copper, nickel or zinc chloride (0, 10, 100 μg l -1 for Cd, Cu and Ni; 0, 100, 1000 μg l -1 for Zn) for 42 days followed by a 42-day recovery period in ambient seawater. Anemones were analyzed for metal content using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) at various time points during the study. Symbiotic anemones accumulated Cd, Ni and Zn to a greater extent than aposymbiotic anemones. A dramatically different pattern of Cu accumulation was observed, with aposymbiotic anemones accumulating higher levels than symbiotic anemones. Following recovery in ambient seawater, all tissue metal levels were reduced to near pre-exposure control levels in most cases. No changes in algal cell density or MI were observed in symbiotic anemone tentacle clips at any dose or time point in the Cd and Cu exposures. However, significant reductions in algal cell densities were observed in the Ni-exposed and some Zn-exposed animals, although levels returned to control values following recovery. There were no changes in mitotic index (MI) following Ni or Zn exposures. These results demonstrate that the extent of heavy metal accumulation depends upon cnidarian symbiotic state and the heavy metal in question

  2. How can we take advantage of halophyte properties to cope with heavy metal toxicity in salt-affected areas?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lutts, S.; Lefevre, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 3 (2015), s. 509-528 ISSN 0305-7364 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Antioxidants * glycinebetaine * metal distribution * osmoprotectants Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.982, year: 2015

  3. Violent and nonviolent video games differentially affect physical aggression for individuals high vs. low in dispositional anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Christopher R; Bartholow, Bruce D; Saults, J Scott

    2011-01-01

    Although numerous experiments have shown that exposure to violent video games (VVG) causes increases in aggression, relatively few studies have investigated the extent to which this effect differs as a function of theoretically relevant individual difference factors. This study investigated whether video game content differentially influences aggression as a function of individual differences in trait anger. Participants were randomly assigned to play a violent or nonviolent video game before completing a task in which they could behave aggressively. Results showed that participants high in trait anger were the most aggressive, but only if they first played a VVG. This relationship held while statistically controlling for dimensions other than violent content on which game conditions differed (e.g. frustration, arousal). Implications of these findings for models explaining the effects of video games on behavior are discussed. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Experimental parameters differentially affect the humoral response of the cholera-toxin-based murine model of food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroghsbo, S.; Christensen, Hanne Risager; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have developed a murine model of IgE-mediated food allergy based on oral coadministration of antigen and cholera toxin (CT) to establish a maximal response for studying immunopathogenic mechanisms and immunotherapeutic strategies. However, for studying subtle...... interested in characterizing the individual effects of the parameters in the CT-based model: CT dose, antigen type and dose, and number of immunizations. Methods: BALB/c mice were orally sensitized weekly for 3 or 7 weeks with graded doses of CT and various food antigens (soy-trypsin inhibitor, ovalbumin...... of the antibody response depended on the type of antigen and number of immunizations. Conclusions: The critical parameters of the CT-based murine allergy model differentially control the intensity and kinetics of the developing immune response. Adjustment of these parameters could be a key tool for tailoring...

  5. Drift, selection, or migration? Processes affecting genetic differentiation and variation along a latitudinal gradient in an amphibian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortázar-Chinarro, Maria; Lattenkamp, Ella Z; Meyer-Lucht, Yvonne; Luquet, Emilien; Laurila, Anssi; Höglund, Jacob

    2017-08-14

    Past events like fluctuations in population size and post-glacial colonization processes may influence the relative importance of genetic drift, migration and selection when determining the present day patterns of genetic variation. We disentangle how drift, selection and migration shape neutral and adaptive genetic variation in 12 moor frog populations along a 1700 km latitudinal gradient. We studied genetic differentiation and variation at a MHC exon II locus and a set of 18 microsatellites. Using outlier analyses, we identified the MHC II exon 2 (corresponding to the β-2 domain) locus and one microsatellite locus (RCO8640) to be subject to diversifying selection, while five microsatellite loci showed signals of stabilizing selection among populations. STRUCTURE and DAPC analyses on the neutral microsatellites assigned populations to a northern and a southern cluster, reflecting two different post-glacial colonization routes found in previous studies. Genetic variation overall was lower in the northern cluster. The signature of selection on MHC exon II was weaker in the northern cluster, possibly as a consequence of smaller and more fragmented populations. Our results show that historical demographic processes combined with selection and drift have led to a complex pattern of differentiation along the gradient where some loci are more divergent among populations than predicted from drift expectations due to diversifying selection, while other loci are more uniform among populations due to stabilizing selection. Importantly, both overall and MHC genetic variation are lower at northern latitudes. Due to lower evolutionary potential, the low genetic variation in northern populations may increase the risk of extinction when confronted with emerging pathogens and climate change.

  6. Does Lesion Size Affect the Value of Shear Wave Elastography for Differentiating Between Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fen; Chang, Cai; Chen, Min; Gao, Yi; Chen, Ya-Ling; Zhou, Shi-Chong; Li, Jia-Wei; Zhi, Wen-Xiang

    2018-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the diagnostic performance of shear wave elastography (SWE) combined with conventional ultrasonography (US) for differentiating between benign and malignant thyroid nodules of different sizes. A total of 445 thyroid nodules from 445 patients were divided into 3 groups based on diameter (group 1, ≤ 10 mm; group 2, 10-20 mm; and group 3, > 20 mm). The mean elasticity index of the whole lesion was automatically calculated, and the threshold for differentiation between benign and malignant nodules was constructed by a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Diagnostic performances of conventional US and SWE were compared by using pathologic results as reference standards. The mean elasticity was significantly higher in malignant versus benign nodules for all size groups. The differences in mean elasticity in the size groups were not statistically significant for malignant or benign nodules. The specificity of US combined with SWE for group 1 was significantly higher than that for groups 2 and 3 (77.8% versus 62.9% and 53.3%; P < .05), and compared with group 1, the sensitivity was significantly higher for groups 2 and 3 (92.4% and 94.3% versus 80.7%; P < .05). When SWE was added, the specificity increased and the sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy decreased for group 1, and the sensitivity increased and the specificity decreased for groups 2 and 3; however, the differences were not significant. Combined with SWE, US yielded higher specificity for nodules of 10 mm and smaller and higher sensitivity for nodules larger than 10 mm. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  7. Gamma radiation and osmotic potential of the nutrient solution differentially affect macronutrient concentrations, pH and EC in chilhuacle pepper fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor Garcia-Gaytan, Libia Iris Trejo-Tellez; Olga Tejeda-Sartorius; Maribel Ramirez-Martinez; Julian Delgadillo-Martinez; Fernando Carlos Gomez-Merino; Soledad Garcia-Morales

    2018-01-01

    Chilhuacle pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds were exposed to gamma radiation (GR) doses (0, 10, 80 and 120 Gy), and plants were grown in hydroponics with different osmotic potentials (OP) (- 0.036, - 0.072, - 0.092, and - 0.108 MPa) in the nutrient solution. We measured the nutrient concentrations, pH and electrical conductivity (EC) in fruits at different time points after transplanting (70, 90 and 130 dat), and found the GR, nutrient solution OP and their interactions differentially affected N, P, K, Ca, and Mg concentrations, as well as pH and EC in chilhuacle peppers. (author)

  8. Remediation of an acidic mine spoil: Miscanthus biochar and lime amendment affects metal availability, plant growth, and soil enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Jeffrey M; Ippolito, James A; Ducey, Thomas F; Watts, Donald W; Spokas, Kurt A; Trippe, Kristin M; Sigua, Gilbert C; Johnson, Mark G

    2018-08-01

    Biochar may be a tool for mine spoil remediation; however, its mechanisms for achieving this goal remain unclear. In this study, Miscanthus (Miscanthus giganteus) biochar was evaluated for its ability to reclaim acidic mine spoils (pH lime/no lime and fertilizer additions. Blue Wildrye (Elymus glaucus cv. 'Elkton') was planted and later the shoots and roots were collected and metal concentrations determined. Afterwards, each pot was leached with deionized water, and the leachate analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and soluble metal concentrations. After drying, the spoil was extracted with 0.01 M CaCl 2 and Mehlich 3 (M3) to determine extractable Al, Cu, and Zn concentrations. Additionally, microbial activity was measured using a fluorescent β-glucosidase and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase assay. Spoil treated with lime and biochar had significantly greater pH and EC values. Significantly greater β-glucosidase activity occurred only in the 5% biochar plus lime treatment, while N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase activities were not altered. Metal concentrations in rye shoot and roots were mixed. Lime additions significantly reduced extractable metal concentrations. Increasing biochar rates alone significantly reduced leachate DOC concentrations, and subsequently reduced leachable metal concentrations. Surprisingly, miscanthus biochar, by itself, was limited at mitigation, but when combined with lime, the combination was capable of further reducing extractable metal concentrations and improving β-glucosidase enzyme activity. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Differentiating Motivational from Affective Influence of Performance-contingent Reward on Cognitive Control: The Wanting Component Enhances Both Proactive and Reactive Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillou, Anne-Clémence; Giersch, Anne; Hoonakker, Marc; Capa, Rémi L; Bonnefond, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Positive affect strongly modulates goal-directed behaviors and cognitive control mechanisms. It often results from the presence of a pleasant stimulus in the environment, whether that stimulus appears unpredictably or as a consequence of a particular behavior. The influence of positive affect linked to a random pleasant stimulus differs from the influence of positive affect resulting from performance-contingent pleasant stimuli. However, the mechanisms by which the performance contingency of pleasant stimuli modulates the influence of positive affect on cognitive control mechanisms have not been elucidated. Here, we tested the hypothesis that these differentiated effects are the consequence of the activation of the motivational "wanting" component specifically under performance contingency conditions. To that end, we directly compared the effects on cognitive control of pleasant stimuli (a monetary reward) attributed in a performance contingent manner, and of random pleasant stimuli (positive picture) not related to performance, during an AX-CPT task. Both proactive and reactive modes of control were increased specifically by performance contingency, as reflected by faster reaction times and larger amplitude of the CNV and P3a components. Our findings advance our understanding of the respective effects of affect and motivation, which is of special interest regarding alterations of emotion-motivation interaction found in several psychopathological disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Temperature and metal exposure affect membrane fatty acid composition and transcription of desaturases and elongases in fathead minnow muscle and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadhlaoui, Mariem; Pierron, Fabien; Couture, Patrice

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that metal exposure affected the normal thermal response of cell membrane FA composition and of elongase and desaturase gene transcription levels. To this end, muscle and brain membrane FA composition and FA desaturase (fads2, degs2 and scd2) and elongase (elovl2, elovl5 and elovl6) gene transcription levels were analyzed in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) acclimated for eight weeks to 15, 25 or 30°C exposed or not to cadmium (Cd, 6μg/l) or nickel (Ni, 450 6μg/l). The response of membrane FA composition to temperature variations or metal exposure differed between muscle and brain. In muscle, an increase of temperature induced a decrease of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) and an increase of saturated FA (SFA) in agreement with the current paradigm. Although a similar response was observed in brain between 15 and 25°C, at 30°C, brain membrane unsaturation was higher than predicted. In both tissues, metal exposure affected the normal thermal response of membrane FA composition. The transcription of desaturases and elongases was higher in the brain and varied with acclimation temperature and metal exposure but these variations did not generally reflect changes in membrane FA composition. The mismatch between gene transcription and membrane composition highlights that several levels of control other than gene transcription are involved in adjusting membrane FA composition, including post-transcriptional regulation of elongases and desaturases and de novo phospholipid biosynthesis. Our study also reveals that metal exposure affects the mechanisms involved in adjusting cell membrane FA composition in ectotherms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors affecting the simultaneous determination of copper, lead, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in human head hair using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandiga, S.O.; Jumba, I.O.

    1982-01-01

    Conditions of analysis of copper, lead, cadmium and zinc content in human hair using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) and hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) have been established. Sample digestion using using the mixture HCI; H 2 O 2 ;HNO 3 in the ratio 2:1:40 by volume gave the best wet-ashing procedure. The peak currents and peak potentials of zinc, cadmium and lead, copper were maximum at pH 6-7 and 1-3 respectively, when excess H 2 O 2 was eliminated with subsequent addition of hydroxyamine hydrochloride. Matrix concentration effects were minimized by digesting weights not exceeding 50 mg per sample. The effect of selenium (IV) was negligible and was ignored. The detection limit of 0.0036 ng/cm 3 for Cd + 2 was obtained while the values for zinc, lead and copper were 0.0230, 0.0287 and 0.0269 ng/cm 3 respectively at the 95% confidence limit. The observed DPASV condition of analysis of these metals are useful for routine determination of the metals in human hair and should complement the conventional flame absorption spectrophotometry method. (author)

  12. Field reconnaissance and estimation of petroleum hydrocarbon and heavy metal contents of soils affected by the Ebocha-8 oil spillage in Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Leo C; Onojake, Chukunedum M

    2006-04-01

    Field reconnaissance of the Ebocha-8 oil spill-affected site at Obiobi/Obrikom in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria was carried out to assess the extent of damage to the terrestrial ecosystem and delimit the epicenter of oil spillage. Following three successive reconnaissance surveys, the area to be sampled was delimited (200 x 200 m2), and soil samples were collected using the grid method from three replicate quadrats at two depths, surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm). A geographically similar area located 50 m adjacent to the oil-polluted area was used as a reference (control) site. Total hydrocarbon content (THC) and heavy metal concentrations were later determined in the laboratory by extraction and spetrophotemetric techniques. Generally, the THC of soils at surface and subsurface depths of the oil-polluted plots was 2.06 x 10(4) +/- 4.97 x 10(3) mg/kg and 1.67 x 10(3) +/- 3.61 x 10(2) mg/kg soil, respectively, (no overlap in standard errors at 95% confidence limit) while concentrations of heavy metals(Pb, Cd, V, Cu and Ni) were enhanced, especially at the surface. The high levels of THC and heavy metals may predispose the site, which hitherto served as arable agricultural land, to impaired fertility and possible conflagration. When concentrations of heavy metals reach the levels obtained in this study, they may become toxic to plants or possibly bio-accumulate, thus leading to toxic reactions along the food chain. While the spilled-oil may have contributed to the enhanced levels of the metals in the affected soils, physico-chemical properties of the soils, mobility of metals, and the intense rainfall and flooding that preceded the period of study may have also contributed in part to their enhanced concentrations. The presence of high hydrocarbon content may cause oxygen deprivation, which may result in the death of soil fauna by asphyxiation. There is, therefore, an urgent need to clear the affected site of these excess hydrocarbon deposits so as to

  13. Long-term dispersal of heavy metals in a catchment affected by historic lead and zinc mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciszewski, Dariusz; Kubsik, Urszula; Aleksander-Kwaterczak, Urszula [AGH Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland)

    2012-10-15

    The Matylda catchment, in southern Poland, was polluted by the discharge of mine waters from a lead and zinc mine that inundated parts of a valley floor and caused the accumulation of metal-polluted sediments. After a partial reclamation of the mine site in the early 1980s, polluted sediments continue to accumulate on downstream floodplains and in fishponds. The aim of this study was to reconstruct the changes in metal dispersal during 100 years of mining and during the 40-year post-mining period and to propose a strategy for pollution mitigation in the area. Analyses of Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Mn, Ca, Mg and Fe concentrations, speciation of heavy metals and mineralogical analyses were undertaken on overbank sediment cores and in stream sediments. Concentrations of the same elements and macro-ions soluble in stream waters were also determined. Concentrations of Zn, Cd and Pb in the sediment profiles vary between 40,000 and 55,000, 300 and 600 and 30,000 and 50,000 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively. Changes of metal concentrations and the stratigraphy of sediments from the floodplains, stream channels and fishponds suggest rapid changes of metal loads migrating downstream during both the mining and post-mining periods. Since the time of mine closure, fine-grained, mine-derived sediments (ca. 12 cm thick) have been the main source of pollution of post-mining sediments and surface waters. Closure of the mine was followed by a relatively short period of rapid redistribution of sediment-associated heavy metals in the stream channel. Since the 1980s, the floodplain and fishponds have received a constant supply of metals. It contrasts with the slow sediment accretion rate and a rapid decrease of metal concentrations in floodplain pools due to dilution by decomposed leaf litter. A fivefold increase of Cd content in waters over the 4.6 km reach of the Matylda stream indicates continuous leaching of this element from the contaminated valley floor. Unsuccessful mine site rehabilitation is

  14. Differential ultrasonic indices of separation distress in the presence and absence of maternal cues in infant rats bred for high and low positive social affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobucci, Paolo; Colonnello, Valentina; Fuchs, Thomas; D'Antuono, Laura; Panksepp, Jaak

    2013-10-01

    Preclinical models of human mood disorders commonly focus on the study of negative affectivity, without comparably stressing the role of positive affects and their ability to promote resilient coping styles. We evaluated the role of background constitutional affect of rats by studying the separation and reunion responses of infants from low and high positive affect genetic lines (i.e., differentially selected for High and Low 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalisations (USVs). Infants from Low and High 50 kHz USV breeding lines were isolated from mothers and exposed to either social (familiar or unfamiliar bedding) or neutral (clean bedding) odour cues between two short isolation periods, and tested in homeothermic and hypothermic ambient temperatures. Negative affect was estimated by monitoring separation distress calls (35-45 kHz USVs). Low Line pups called at higher rates than High Line, and their rates were stable regardless of odour cue. In contrast, High Line pups increased vocalisations during the second compared with the first isolation periods and during exposure to both familiar and unfamiliar odour cues, but not to neutral odour. Furthermore, the greatest increase in USV emission was seen in the second isolation period following exposure to the unfamiliar odour. However, both lines showed comparable elevated distress USVs to the thermal stressor. High Line animals, selected for a positive affective phenotype (50 kHz USVs), exhibited reduced separation anxiety responses in infancy, making this a promising animal model for the role of constitutional affective states in emotional responsivity and potential resilience against emotional disorders.

  15. Hormonal status and age differentially affect tolerance to the disruptive effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC on learning in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Winsauer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of hormone status and age on the development of tolerance to D9-THC were assessed in sham-operated (intact or ovariectomized (OVX female rats that received either intraperitoneal saline or 5.6 mg/kg of D9-THC daily from postnatal day (PD 75 to 180 (early adulthood onward or PD 35 to 140 (adolescence onward. During this time, the 4 groups for each age (i.e., intact/saline, intact/THC, OVX/saline, and OVX/THC were trained in a learning and performance procedure and dose-effect curves were established for D9-THC (0.56-56 mg/kg and the cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1R antagonist rimonabant (0.32-10 mg/kg. Despite the persistence of small rate-decreasing and error-increasing effects in intact and OVX females from both ages during chronic D9-THC, all of the D9-THC groups developed tolerance. However, the magnitude of tolerance, as well as the effect of hormone status, varied with the age at which chronic D9-THC was initiated. There was no evidence of dependence in any of the groups. Hippocampal protein expression of CB1R, AHA1 (a co-chaperone of CB1R and HSP90β (a molecular chaperone modulated by AHA-1 was affected more by OVX than chronic D9-THC; striatal protein expression was not consistently affected by either manipulation. Hippocampal BDNF expression varied with age, hormone status, and chronic treatment. Thus, hormonal status differentially affects the development of tolerance to the disruptive effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (D9-THC on learning and performance behavior in adolescent, but not adult, female rats. These factors and their interactions also differentially affect cannabinoid signaling proteins in the hippocampus and striatum, and ultimately, neural plasticity.

  16. Estradiol differentially affects auditory recognition and learning according to photoperiodic state in the adult male songbird, European starling (Sturnus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Calisi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in hormones can affect many types of learning in vertebrates. Adults experience fluctuations in a multitude of hormones over a temporal scale, from local, rapid action to more long-term, seasonal changes. Endocrine changes during development can affect behavioral outcomes in adulthood, but how learning is affected in adults by hormone fluctuations experienced during adulthood is less understood. Previous reports have implicated the sex steroid hormone estradiol (E2 in both male and female vertebrate cognitive functioning. Here, we examined the effects of E2 on auditory recognition and learning in male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris. European starlings are photoperiodic, seasonally breeding songbirds that undergo different periods of reproductive activity according to annual changes in day length. We simulated these reproductive periods, specifically 1. photosensitivity, 2. photostimulation, and 3. photorefractoriness in captive birds by altering day length. During each period, we manipulated circulating E2 and examined multiple measures of learning. To manipulate circulating E2, we used subcutaneous implants containing either 17-β E2 and/or fadrozole (FAD, a highly specific aromatase inhibitor that suppresses E2 production in the body and the brain, and measured the latency for birds to learn and respond to short, male conspecific song segments (motifs. We report that photostimulated birds given E2 had higher response rates and responded with better accuracy than those given saline controls or FAD. Conversely, photosensitive, animals treated with E2 responded with less accuracy than those given FAD. These results demonstrate how circulating E2 and photoperiod can interact to shape auditory recognition and learning in adults, driving it in opposite directions in different states.

  17. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluc, Laurent G; Quilici, David R; Decendit, Alain; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Schlauch, Karen A; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2009-01-01

    Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1) transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation. Chardonnay berries, which lack any

  18. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deluc Laurent G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1 transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation

  19. How can we take advantage of halophyte properties to cope with heavy metal toxicity in salt-affected areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutts, Stanley; Lefèvre, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Background Many areas throughout the world are simultaneously contaminated by high concentrations of soluble salts and by high concentrations of heavy metals that constitute a serious threat to human health. The use of plants to extract or stabilize pollutants is an interesting alternative to classical expensive decontamination procedures. However, suitable plant species still need to be identified for reclamation of substrates presenting a high electrical conductivity. Scope Halophytic plant species are able to cope with several abiotic constraints occurring simultaneously in their natural environment. This review considers their putative interest for remediation of polluted soil in relation to their ability to sequester absorbed toxic ions in trichomes or vacuoles, to perform efficient osmotic adjustment and to limit the deleterious impact of oxidative stress. These physiological adaptations are considered in relation to the impact of salt on heavy metal bioavailabilty in two types of ecosystem: (1) salt marshes and mangroves, and (2) mine tailings in semi-arid areas. Conclusions Numerous halophytes exhibit a high level of heavy metal accumulation and external NaCl may directly influence heavy metal speciation and absorption rate. Maintenance of biomass production and plant water status makes some halophytes promising candidates for further management of heavy-metal-polluted areas in both saline and non-saline environments. PMID:25672360

  20. Bioavailability and phytotoxicity of heavy metals in soils affected by nickel-processing industry in northern Fennoscandia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koptsik, G.; Koptsik, S.; Aamlid, D.

    2007-01-01

    Long-term effects of air pollution have caused strong soil contamination and severe damage to trees and ground vegetation in forest ecosystems in Russia and Norway, in areas near the Pechenganikel smelter, one of the largest emitters of sulfur dioxide in Europe. This paper presented the results of a study that analysed the effects of soil pollution, in particular of nickel and copper pollutants on forest vegetation in surroundings of the smelter. The paper discussed the objects and methods for the study which involved collection of plant and soil samples from almost 100 monitoring plots. Results were discussed in terms of heavy metals in trees and ground vegetation, heavy metals in soils, and plant-soil relationships. Phytotoxicological risk of excess metal input and remediation approaches were also discussed. It was concluded that all of the plant species that were tested exhibited high concentrations of heavy metals, especially nickel and copper and that changes in composition of plant tissues could be explained by changes in element concentrations in soil organic layers where the low pH kept the metals in a bioavailable form. 28 refs., 1 tab, 6 figs

  1. Point mutations in EBV gH that abrogate or differentially affect B cell and epithelial cell fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Liguo; Hutt-Fletcher, Lindsey M.

    2007-01-01

    Cell fusion mediated by Epstein-Barr virus requires three conserved glycoproteins, gB and gHgL, but activation is cell type specific. B cell fusion requires interaction between MHC class II and a fourth virus glycoprotein, gp42, which complexes non-covalently with gHgL. Epithelial cell fusion requires interaction between gHgL and a novel epithelial cell coreceptor and is blocked by excess gp42. We show here that gp42 interacts directly with gH and that point mutations in the region of gH recognized by an antibody that differentially inhibits epithelial and B cell fusion significantly impact both the core fusion machinery and cell-specific events. Substitution of alanine for glycine at residue 594 completely abrogates fusion with either B cells or epithelial cells. Substitution of alanine for glutamic acid at residue 595 reduces fusion with epithelial cells, greatly enhances fusion with B cells and allows low levels of B cell fusion even in the absence of gL

  2. Microtubule Destabilizer KIF2A Undergoes Distinct Site-Specific Phosphorylation Cascades that Differentially Affect Neuronal Morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadayuki Ogawa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurons exhibit dynamic structural changes in response to extracellular stimuli. Microtubules (MTs provide rapid and dramatic cytoskeletal changes within the structural framework. However, the molecular mechanisms and signaling networks underlying MT dynamics remain unknown. Here, we have applied a comprehensive and quantitative phospho-analysis of the MT destabilizer KIF2A to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of MT dynamics within neurons in response to extracellular signals. Interestingly, we identified two different sets of KIF2A phosphorylation profiles that accelerate (A-type and brake (B-type the MT depolymerization activity of KIF2A. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF stimulates PAK1 and CDK5 kinases, which decrease the MT depolymerizing activity of KIF2A through B-type phosphorylation, resulting in enhanced outgrowth of neural processes. In contrast, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA induces ROCK2 kinase, which suppresses neurite outgrowth from round cells via A-type phosphorylation. We propose that these two mutually exclusive forms of KIF2A phosphorylation differentially regulate neuronal morphogenesis during development.

  3. Cholesterol affects the interaction between an ionic liquid and phospholipid vesicles. A study by differential scanning calorimetry and nanoplasmonic sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Giacomo; Witos, Joanna; Rantamäki, Antti H; Wiedmer, Susanne K

    2017-12-01

    The present work aims at studying the interactions between cholesterol-rich phosphatidylcholine-based lipid vesicles and trioctylmethylphosphonium acetate ([P 8881 ][OAc]), a biomass dissolving ionic liquid (IL). The effect of cholesterol was assayed by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and nanoplasmonic sensing (NPS) measurement techniques. Cholesterol-enriched dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine vesicles were exposed to different concentrations of the IL, and the derived membrane perturbation was monitored by DSC. The calorimetric data could suggest that the binding and infiltration of the IL are delayed in the vesicles containing cholesterol. To clarify our findings, NPS was applied to quantitatively follow the resistance of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine incorporating 0, 10, and 50mol% of cholesterol toward the IL exposure over time. The membrane perturbation induced by different concentrations of IL was found to be a concentration dependent process on cholesterol-free lipid vesicles. Moreover, our results showed that lipid depletion in cholesterol-enriched lipid vesicles is inversely proportional to the increasing amount of cholesterol in the vesicles. These findings support that cholesterol-rich lipid bilayers are less susceptible toward membrane disrupting agents as compared to membranes that do not incorporate any sterols. This probably occurs because cholesterol tightens the phospholipid acyl chain packing of the plasma membranes, increasing their resistance and reducing their permeability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. In ovo exposure to o,p -DDE affects sexual development but not sexual differentiation in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulias, D.M.; Villalobos, Sergio A.; Meadows, J.; Noltie, Douglas B.; Giesy, J.P.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    Despite being banned in many countries, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) continue to be found in fish tissues at concentrations of concern. Like o,p -DDT, o,p -DDE is estrogenic and is believed to exert its effects through binding to the estrogen receptor. The limited toxicologic data for o,p -DDE suggest that it decreases fecundity and fertility of fishes. We conducted an egg injection study using the d-rR strain of medaka and environmentally relevant concentrations of o,p -DDE to examine its effects on sexual differentiation and development. The gonads of exposed fish showed no evidence of sex reversal or intersex. However, other gonad abnormalities occurred in exposed individuals. Females exhibited few vitellogenic oocytes and increased atresia. Male testes appeared morphologically normal but were very small. Gonadosomatic index values for both sexes were lower for exposed fish. Our observations of abnormal female and very small male gonads after in ovo o,p -DDE exposure may be indicative of effects on early endocrine processes important for normal ovarian and testicular development.

  5. Intensive chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia differentially affects circulating TC1, TH1, TH17 and TREG cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjertsen Bjørn

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several observations suggest that immunological events early after chemotherapy, possibly during the period of severe treatment-induced cytopenia, are important for antileukemic immune reactivity in acute myeloid leukemia (AML. We therefore investigated the frequencies of various T cell subsets (TC1, TH1, TH17 and CD25+ FoxP3+ TREG cells in AML patients with untreated disease and following intensive chemotherapy. Results Relative levels of circulating TC1 and TH1 cells were decreased in patients with severe chemotherapy-induced cytopenia, whereas TH17 levels did not differ from healthy controls. Increased levels of regulatory CD25+ FoxP3+ T cells were detected in AML patients with untreated disease, during chemotherapy-induced cytopenia and during regeneration after treatment. TH17 and TH1 levels were significantly higher in healthy males than females, but this gender difference was not detected during chemotherapy-induced cytopenia. Finally, exogenous IL17-A usually had no or only minor effects on proliferation of primary human AML cells. Conclusions We conclude that the effect of intensive AML chemotherapy differ between circulating T cell subsets, relative frequencies of TH17 cells are not affected by chemotherapy and this subset may affect AML cells indirectly through their immunoregulatory effects but probably not through direct effects of IL17-A.

  6. The whole is not the sum of its parts: Specific types of positive affect influence sleep differentially.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Sarah D; Jenkins, Brooke N; Kraft-Feil, Tara L; Rasmussen, Heather; Scheier, Michael F

    2017-08-01

    Given the known detrimental effects of poor sleep on an array of psychological and physical health processes, it is critical to understand the factors that protect sleep, especially during times of stress when sleep particularly suffers. Positive affect (PA) arises as a variable of interest given its known associations with health and health behaviors and its ability to buffer stress. In 2 studies, we examined which types of PA (distinguished by arousal level and trait/state measurement) were most beneficial for sleep and whether these associations varied depending on the stress context. In Study 1, college students (N = 99) reported on their PA and sleep during the week of a major exam. In Study 2, 2 weeks of daily PA and sleep data were collected during a period with no examinations in a similar sample of students (N = 83). Results indicated that high trait vigor was tied to better sleep efficiency and quality, especially during high stress. Trait calm was generally unhelpful to sleep, and was related negatively to sleep duration. State calm, on the other hand, interacted with stress in Study 2 to predict more efficient day-to-day sleep on days with higher average stress. These findings illustrate the importance of considering arousal level, affect duration, and the stress context in studies of PA and health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Energy losses produced by differential currents in the metallic ducts of electric installations; Perdidas de energia producidas por corrientes diferenciales en la tuberia metalica de instalaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campero L, Eduardo; Bratu S, Neagu; Marquez M, Luis; Caballero R, Rafael [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    In this article it is explained what is known as differential currents and the conditions in which they appear in the electrical installations. A short outline is made on the magnetic induction phenomenon that appears in metallic conduits, due to the circulation of differential currents along the inside of the tube and that in turn produces energy losses in the form of heat, that is dissipated in the tube surrounding environment. The results of the measurements performed in the laboratory are shown in order to quantify the energy losses in the metallic conduit. It was found that for certain conditions these losses are significant. [Espanol] En este articulo se explica lo que se entiende por corrientes diferenciales y se describen las condiciones en las que estas aparecen en las instalaciones electricas. Se plantea brevemente el fenomeno de induccion magnetica que aparece en las tuberias metalicas, debido a la circulacion de corrientes diferenciales por el interior del tubo y que a su vez produce perdidas de energia en forma de calor, que se disipa en el ambiente que rodea al tubo. Se muestran los resultados de las mediciones que se llevaron a cabo en laboratorio para poder cuantificar las perdidas en tuberia metalica conduit. Se encontro que para ciertas condiciones estas perdidas son significativas.

  8. Topographical cues of direct metal laser sintering titanium surfaces facilitate osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells through epigenetic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guoying; Guan, Binbin; Hu, Penghui; Qi, Xingying; Wang, Pingting; Kong, Yu; Liu, Zihao; Gao, Ping; Li, Rui; Zhang, Xu; Wu, Xudong; Sui, Lei

    2018-04-27

    To investigate the role of hierarchical micro/nanoscale topography of direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) titanium surfaces in osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), as well as the possible underlying epigenetic mechanism. Three groups of titanium specimens were prepared, including DMLS group, sandblasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA) group and smooth titanium (Ti) group. BMSCs were cultured on discs followed by surface characterization. Cell adhesion and proliferation were examined by SEM and CCK-8 assay, while osteogenic-related gene expression was detected by real-time RT-PCR. Immunofluorescence, western blotting and in vivo study were also performed to evaluate the potential for osteogenic induction of materials. In addition, to investigate the underlying epigenetic mechanisms, immunofluorescence and western blotting were performed to evaluate the global level of H3K4me3 during osteogenesis. The H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 levels at the promoter area of the osteogenic gene Runx2 were detected by ChIP assay. The DMLS surface exhibits greater protein adsorption ability and shows better cell adhesion performance than SLA and Ti surfaces. Moreover, both in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that the DMLS surface is more favourable for the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs than SLA and Ti surfaces. Accordingly, osteogenesis-associated gene expression in BMSCs is efficiently induced by a rapid H3K27 demethylation and increase in H3K4me3 levels at gene promoters upon osteogenic differentiation on DMLS titanium surface. Topographical cues of DMLS surfaces have greater potential for the induction of osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs than SLA and Ti surfaces both in vitro and in vivo. A potential epigenetic mechanism is that the appropriate topography allows rapid H3K27 demethylation and an increased H3K4me3 level at the promoter region of osteogenesis-associated genes during the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. © 2018 John Wiley

  9. On the mechanisms of the harmful heavy metal transport in Yangtze Estuary. I. Transport pattern and the factors affecting it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Y

    1978-07-01

    In recent years, the content of heavy metal in the Yangtze River astuarine water was fundamentally unvaried, whereas there was an increase in the amount of sediments. The estuarine sediments are composed of various phases of water-soluble, ion-exchangable, acid soluble and crystalline solid. From the distribution ratio of heavy metal in each phase, it was found that the main transporting process of the Hg, Cr, Cu dissolved in Yangtze estuarine water was caused by the adsorption of inorganic and organic colloidal substances, not by the ion exchange.

  10. How Biotic Differentiation of Human Impacted Nutrient Poor Deciduous Forests Can Affect the Preservation Status of Mountain Forest Vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Durak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A significant loss of biodiversity resulting from human activity has caused biotic homogenisation to become the dominant process shaping forest communities. In this paper, we present a rare case of biotic differentiation in European temperate deciduous forest herb layer vegetation. The process is occurring in nutrient poor oak-hornbeam forests in mountain areas (Polish Eastern Carpathians, Central Europe where non-timber use was converted into conventional forest management practice. This change contributed to increases in the nitrogen content and pH reaction of the soil that, contrary to predominant beliefs on the negative impact of habitat eutrophication on diversity, did not result in a decrease in the latter. We discuss possible reasons for this phenomenon that indicate the important role of tree stand composition (an increasing admixture of beech worsening the trophic properties of the soil. The second issue considered involves the effect of the changes in herb species composition of oak-hornbeam forest on its distinctiveness from the beech forest predominating in the Polish Eastern Carpathians. Unfortunately, despite the increase in the species compositional dissimilarity of oak-hornbeam forest, a reduction in their distinctiveness in relation to the herb species composition of beech forest was found. Such a phenomenon is an effect of the major fragmentation of oak-hornbeam forests, a spread of beech forest-type species, and forest management that gives preference to beech trees. Consequently, it can be expected that changes occurring in oak-hornbeam forest vegetation will contribute to a decrease in the forest vegetation variability at the regional scale.

  11. Differential production cross sections for charged particles produced by 590 MeV proton bombardment of thin metal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, S.D.; Cierjacks, S.; Hino, Y.; Raupp, F.; Rainbow, M.T.; Swinhoe, M.T.; Buth, L.

    1981-01-01

    Differential production cross sections have been measured for the reactions (p,p), (p,d), (p,t) and (p,π+-) using the 590 MeV proton beam at SIN. Here we report measurements made on thin targets of aluminium, niobium, lead, and uranium at laboratory angles of 90 0 and 157 0 . The data were taken over a proton energy range of about 50 MeV to 590 MeV. Differential cross sections are reported along with predictions by the intranuclear-cascade/evaporation model as computed by HETC. (orig.)

  12. Divalent metal ion differentially regulates the sequential nicking reactions of the GIY-YIG homing endonuclease I-BmoI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin P Kleinstiver

    Full Text Available Homing endonucleases are site-specific DNA endonucleases that function as mobile genetic elements by introducing double-strand breaks or nicks at defined locations. Of the major families of homing endonucleases, the modular GIY-YIG endonucleases are least understood in terms of mechanism. The GIY-YIG homing endonuclease I-BmoI generates a double-strand break by sequential nicking reactions during which the single active site of the GIY-YIG nuclease domain must undergo a substantial reorganization. Here, we show that divalent metal ion plays a significant role in regulating the two independent nicking reactions by I-BmoI. Rate constant determination for each nicking reaction revealed that limiting divalent metal ion has a greater impact on the second strand than the first strand nicking reaction. We also show that substrate mutations within the I-BmoI cleavage site can modulate the first strand nicking reaction over a 314-fold range. Additionally, in-gel DNA footprinting with mutant substrates and modeling of an I-BmoI-substrate complex suggest that amino acid contacts to a critical GC-2 base pair are required to induce a bottom-strand distortion that likely directs conformational changes for reaction progress. Collectively, our data implies mechanistic roles for divalent metal ion and substrate bases, suggesting that divalent metal ion facilitates the re-positioning of the GIY-YIG nuclease domain between sequential nicking reactions.

  13. Sequencing and transcriptional analysis of the Streptococcus thermophilus histamine biosynthesis gene cluster: factors that affect differential hdcA expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calles-Enríquez, Marina; Hjort, Benjamin Benn; Andersen, Pia Skov

    2010-01-01

    to produce histamine. The hdc clusters of S. thermophilus CHCC1524 and CHCC6483 were sequenced, and the factors that affect histamine biosynthesis and histidine-decarboxylating gene (hdcA) expression were studied. The hdc cluster began with the hdcA gene, was followed by a transporter (hdcP), and ended...... with the hdcB gene, which is of unknown function. The three genes were orientated in the same direction. The genetic organization of the hdc cluster showed a unique organization among the lactic acid bacterial group and resembled those of Staphylococcus and Clostridium species, thus indicating possible...... acquisition through a horizontal transfer mechanism. Transcriptional analysis of the hdc cluster revealed the existence of a polycistronic mRNA covering the three genes. The histidine-decarboxylating gene (hdcA) of S. thermophilus demonstrated maximum expression during the stationary growth phase, with high...

  14. Bosutinib, dasatinib, imatinib, nilotinib, and ponatinib differentially affect the vascular molecular pathways and functionality of human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover-Proaktor, Ayala; Granot, Galit; Pasmanik-Chor, Metsada; Pasvolsky, Oren; Shapira, Saar; Raz, Oshrat; Raanani, Pia; Leader, Avi

    2018-05-09

    The tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), nilotinib, ponatinib, and dasatinib (but not bosutinib or imatinib), are associated with vascular adverse events (VAEs) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Though the mechanism is inadequately understood, an effect on vascular cells has been suggested. We investigated the effect of imatinib, nilotinib, dasatinib, bosutinib, and ponatinib on tube formation, cell viability, and gene expression of human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). We found a distinct genetic profile in HUVECs treated with dasatinib, ponatinib, and nilotinib compared to bosutinib and imatinib, who resembled untreated samples. However, unique gene expression and molecular pathway alterations were detected between dasatinib, ponatinib, and nilotinib. Angiogenesis/blood vessel-related pathways and HUVEC function (tube formation/viability) were adversely affected by dasatinib, ponatinib, and nilotinib but not by imatinib or bosutinib. These results correspond to the differences in VAE profiles of these TKIs, support a direct effect on vascular cells, and provide direction for future research.

  15. Corals and Their Microbiomes Are Differentially Affected by Exposure to Elevated Nutrients and a Natural Thermal Anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient pollution can increase the prevalence and severity of coral disease and bleaching in ambient temperature conditions or during experimental thermal challenge. However, there have been few opportunities to study the effects of nutrient pollution during natural thermal anomalies. Here we present results from an experiment conducted during the 2014 bleaching event in the Florida Keys, USA, that exposed Agaricia sp. (Undaria and Siderastrea siderea corals to 3 types of elevated nutrients: nitrogen alone, phosphorous alone, and the combination of nitrogen and phosphorus. Overall, bleaching prevalence and severity was high regardless of treatment, but nitrogen enrichment alone both prolonged bleaching and increased coral mortality in Agaricia corals. At the same time, the elevated temperatures increased the prevalence of Dark Spot Syndrome (DSS, a disease typically associated with cold temperatures in Siderastrea siderea corals. However, nutrient exposure alone did not increase the prevalence or severity of disease, suggesting that thermal stress overwhelms the effects of nutrient pollution on this disease during such an extreme thermal event. Analysis of 78 Siderastrea siderea microbial metagenomes also showed that the thermal event was correlated with significant shifts in the composition and function of the associated microbiomes, and corals with DSS had microbiomes distinct from apparently healthy corals. In particular, we identified shifts in viral, archaeal, and fungal families. These shifts were likely driven by the extreme temperatures or other environmental co-variates occurring during the 2014 bleaching event. However, no microbial taxa were correlated with signs of DSS. Furthermore, although nutrient exposure did not affect microbial alpha diversity, it did significantly affect microbiome beta-diversity, an effect that was independent of time. These results suggest that strong thermal anomalies and local nutrient pollution both

  16. αII-spectrin and βII-spectrin do not affect TGFβ1-induced myofibroblast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersma, Bram; Wouters, Olaf Y; Bank, Ruud A

    2018-05-03

    Mechanosensing of fibroblasts plays a key role in the development of fibrosis. So far, no effective treatments are available to treat this devastating disorder. Spectrins regulate cell morphology and are potential mechanosensors in a variety of non-erythroid cells, but little is known about the role of spectrins in fibroblasts. We investigate whether αII- and βII-spectrin are required for the phenotypic properties of adult human dermal (myo)fibroblasts. Knockdown of αII- or βII-spectrin in fibroblasts did not affect cell adhesion, cell size and YAP nuclear/cytosolic localization. We further investigated whether αII- and βII-spectrin play a role in the phenotypical switch from fibroblasts to myofibroblasts under the influence of the pro-fibrotic cytokine TGFβ1. Knockdown of spectrins did not affect myofibroblast formation, nor did we observe changes in the organization of αSMA stress fibers. Focal adhesion assembly was unaffected by spectrin deficiency, as was collagen type I mRNA expression and protein deposition. Wound closure was unaffected as well, showing that important functional properties of myofibroblasts are unchanged without αII- or βII-spectrin. In fact, fibroblasts stimulated with TGFβ1 demonstrated significantly lower endogenous mRNA levels of αII- and βII-spectrin. Taken together, despite the diverse roles of spectrins in a variety of other cells, αII- and βII-spectrin do not regulate cell adhesion, cell size and YAP localization in human dermal fibroblasts and are not required for the dermal myofibroblast phenotypical switch.

  17. Organic acid compounds in root exudation of Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) and its bioactivity as affected by heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junren; Shafi, Mohammad; Wang, Ying; Wu, Jiasen; Ye, Zhengqian; Liu, Chen; Zhong, Bin; Guo, Hua; He, Lizhi; Liu, Dan

    2016-10-01

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) has great potential as phytoremediation material in soil contaminated by heavy metals. A hydroponics experiment was conducted to determine organic acid compounds of root exudates of lead- (Pb), zinc- (Zn), copper- (Cu), and cadmium (Cd)-tolerant of Moso bamboo. Plants were grown in nutrients solution which included Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd applied as Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (200 μM), ZnSO 4 ·7H 2 O (100 μM), CuSO 4 ·5H 2 O (25 μM), and CdCl 2 (10 μM), respectively. Oxalic acid and malic acid were detected in all treatments. Lactic acid was observed in Cu, Cd, and control treatments. The oxalic was the main organic acid exudated by Moso bamboo. In the sand culture experiment, the Moso bamboo significantly activated carbonate heavy metals under activation of roots. The concentration of water-soluble metals (except Pb) in sand were significantly increased as compared with control. Organic acids (1 mM mixed) were used due to its effect on the soil adsorption of heavy metals. After adding mixed organic acids, the Cu and Zn sorption capacity in soils was decreased markedly compared with enhanced Pb and Cd sorption capacity in soils. The sorption was analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich equations with R 2 values that ranged from 0.956 to 0.999 and 0.919 to 0.997, respectively.

  18. Heavy metal pollution affects consumption and reproduction of the landsnail Cepaea Nemoralis fed on naturally polluted Urtica dioica leaves.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, M.J.M.; Oosthoek, A.; Rozema, J.; Aerts, R.

    2006-01-01

    This study is one of the very first that investigates the effects of heavy metal pollution on food consumption and reproduction of terrestrial snails under semi-realistic field conditions. Two experiments were carried out using snails (Cepaea nemoralis) and food (Urtica dioica leaves) from different

  19. Geochemical distribution and mobility of heavy metals in sediments of urban streams affected by combined sewer overflows

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hnaťuková, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2011), s. 85-94 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : sediments * heavy metals * urban streams * sequential extraction * combined sewer overflows Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.340, year: 2011

  20. Potential downstream target genes of aberrant ETS transcription factors are differentially affected in Ewing's sarcoma and prostate carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J Camões

    Full Text Available FLI1 and ERG, the major ETS transcription factors involved in rearrangements in the Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT and in prostate carcinomas (PCa, respectively, belong to the same subfamily, having 98% sequence identity in the DNA binding domain. We therefore decided to investigate whether the aberrant transcription factors in both malignancies have some common downstream targets. We crossed a publicly available list of all putative EWSR1-FLI1 target genes in ESFT with our microarray expression data on 24 PCa and 6 non-malignant prostate tissues (NPT and choose four genes among the top-most differentially expressed between PCa with (PCa ERG+ and without (PCa ETS- ETS fusion genes (HIST1H4L, KCNN2, ECRG4 and LDOC1, as well as four well-validated direct targets of the EWSR1-FLI1 chimeric protein in ESFT (NR0B1, CAV1, IGFBP3 and TGFBR2. Using quantitative expression analysis in 16 ESFT and seven alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas (ARMS, we were able to validate the four genes previously described as direct targets of the EWSR1-FLI1 oncoprotein, showing overexpression of CAV1 and NR0B1 and underexpression of IGFBP3 and TGFBR2 in ESFT as compared to ARMS. Although none of these four genes showed significant expression differences between PCa ERG+ and PCa ETS-, CAV1, IGFBP3 and TGFBR2 were less expressed in PCa in an independent series of 56 PCa and 15 NPT, as also observed for ECRG4 and LDOC1, suggesting a role in prostate carcinogenesis in general. On the other hand, we demonstrate for the first time that both HIST1H4L and KCNN2 are significantly overexpressed in PCa ERG+ and that ERG binds to the promoter of these genes. Conversely, KCNN2 was found underexpressed in ESFT relative to ARMS, suggesting that the EWSR1-ETS oncoprotein may have the opposite effect of ERG rearrangements in PCa. We conclude that aberrant ETS transcription factors modulate target genes differently in ESFT and PCa.

  1. Three-dimensional culture conditions differentially affect astrocyte modulation of brain endothelial barrier function in response to transforming growth factor β1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Brian T; Grego, Sonia; Sellgren, Katelyn L

    2015-05-22

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) function is regulated by dynamic interactions among cell types within the neurovascular unit, including astrocytes and endothelial cells. Co-culture models of the BBB typically involve astrocytes seeded on two-dimensional (2D) surfaces, which recent studies indicate cause astrocytes to express a phenotype similar to that of reactive astrocytes in situ. We hypothesized that the culture conditions of astrocytes would differentially affect their ability to modulate BBB function in vitro. Brain endothelial cells were grown alone or in co-culture with astrocytes. Astrocytes were grown either as conventional (2D) monolayers, or in a collagen-based gel which allows them to grow in a three-dimensional (3D) construct. Astrocytes were viable in 3D conditions, and displayed a marked reduction in their expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), suggesting reduced activation. Stimulation of astrocytes with transforming growth factor (TGF)β1 decreased transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and reduced expression of claudin-5 in co-cultures, whereas treatment of endothelial cells in the absence of astrocytes was without effect. The effect of TGFβ1 on TEER was significantly more pronounced in endothelial cells cultured with 3D astrocytes compared to 2D astrocytes. These results demonstrate that astrocyte culture conditions differentially affect their ability to modulate brain endothelial barrier function, and suggest a direct relationship between reactive gliosis and BBB permeability. Moreover, these studies demonstrate the potential importance of physiologically relevant culture conditions to in vitro modeling of disease processes that affect the neurovascular unit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Electro-migration of heavy metals in an aged electroplating contaminated soil affected by the coexisting hexavalent chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihua; Zhuang, Luwen; Tong, Lizhi; Lo, Irene M C; Qiu, Rongliang

    2012-02-01

    Cr(VI) was often reported to oxidize soil organic matter at acidic environments due to its high ORP, probably thus changing cationic metal species bound to soil organic matter, and influencing their electro-migration patterns. However, such an effect on the electro-migration was not confirmed in most previous studies. Therefore, this study applied a fixed voltage direct current field on an aged electroplating contaminated clayed soil, with a special interest in the direct or indirect influence of Cr(VI) on the electro-migration of other coexisting metals. After 353 h electrokinetic process, 81% of Zn, 53% of Ni and 22% of Cu in the original soil were electro-migrated into the electrolyte, and most of the remaining concentrated near the cathode. The Cr(VI) oxidized some soil organic matter along its migration pathway, with a pronounced reaction occurred near the anode at low pHs. The resulting Cr(III) reversed its original movement, and migrated towards the cathode, leading to the occurrence of a second Cr concentration peak in the soil. Metal species analyses showed that the amount of metals bound to soil organic matter significantly decreased, while a substantial increase in the Cr species bound to Fe/Mn (hydro-)oxides was observed, suggesting an enhancement of cationic metal electro-migration by the reduction of Cr(VI) into Cr(III). However, the Cr(VI) may form some stable lead chromate precipitates, and in turn demobilize Pb in the soil, as the results showed a low Pb removal and an increase in its acid-extractable and residual fractions after electrokinetic remediation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cultural factors affecting the differential performance of Israeli and Palestinian children on the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josman, Naomi; Abdallah, Taisir M; Engel-Yeger, Batya

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive performance is essential for children's functioning and may also predict school readiness. The suitability of Western standardized assessments for cognitive performance among children from different cultures needs to be elaborated. This study referred to the existence of differences in cognitive performance between and within children from the middle-east-Israeli and Palestinian on the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA), by elucidating cultural effects on the construct validity of the LOTCA using factor analysis. Participants included 101 Israeli and 125 Palestinian children from kindergarten, first and second grade who underwent the LOTCA. Factor analysis revealed four factors underlying items on the LOTCA, explaining the differences found between Israeli and Palestinian children in most of LOTCA subtests. Culture may affect the construct validity of the LOTCA and may explain the difference in performance between both cultural groups. LOTCA's validity as well as the validity of other instruments on which norms and decisions regarding the child's development and performance are made should be further evaluated among children from different cultural backgrounds. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Grapevine rootstocks differentially affect the rate of ripening and modulate auxin-related genes in Cabernet Sauvignon berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano eCorso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigour. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behaviour of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh.

  5. Grapevine Rootstocks Differentially Affect the Rate of Ripening and Modulate Auxin-Related Genes in Cabernet Sauvignon Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Massimiliano; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Ziliotto, Fiorenza; Zouine, Mohamed; Maza, Elie; Nicolato, Tommaso; Vitulo, Nicola; Meggio, Franco; Valle, Giorgio; Bouzayen, Mondher; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Lucchin, Margherita; Bonghi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison) is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid, and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigor. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA) represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behavior of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover, the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh.

  6. Three regulators of G protein signaling differentially affect mating, morphology and virulence in the smut fungus Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Marino; Wang, Lei; Grognet, Pierre; Lanver, Daniel; Link, Hannes; Kahmann, Regine

    2017-09-01

    Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins modulate heterotrimeric G protein signaling negatively. To broaden an understanding of the roles of RGS proteins in fungal pathogens, we functionally characterized the three RGS protein-encoding genes (rgs1, rgs2 and rgs3) in the phytopathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis. It was found that RGS proteins played distinct roles in the regulation of development and virulence. rgs1 had a minor role in virulence when deleted in a solopathogenic strain. In crosses, rgs1 was dispensable for mating and filamentation, but was required for teliospore production. Haploid rgs2 mutants were affected in cell morphology, growth, mating and were unable to cause disease symptoms in crosses. However, virulence was unaffected when rgs2 was deleted in a solopathogenic strain, suggesting an exclusive involvement in pre-fusion events. These rgs2 phenotypes are likely connected to elevated intracellular cAMP levels. rgs3 mutants were severely attenuated in mating, in their response to pheromone, virulence and formation of mature teliospores. The mating defect could be traced back to reduced expression of the transcription factor rop1. It was speculated that the distinct roles of the three U. maydis RGS proteins were achieved by direct modulation of the Gα subunit-activated signaling pathways as well as through Gα-independent functions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Viruses are Differentially Affected by Parasitoids Depending on the Mode of Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Viñuela

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between agents in multitrophic systems are complex and very specific. Insect-transmitted plant viruses are completely dependent on the behaviour and distribution patterns of their vectors. The presence of natural enemies may directly affect aphid behaviour and spread of plant viruses, as the escape response of aphids might cause a potential risk for virus dispersal. The spatio-temporal dynamics of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV, transmitted by Aphis gossypii in a non-persistent and persistent manner, respectively, were evaluated at short and long term in the presence and absence of the aphid parasitoid, Aphidius colemani. SADIE methodology was used to study the distribution patterns of both the virus and its vector, and their degree of association. Results suggested that parasitoids promoted aphid dispersion at short term, which enhanced CMV spread, though consequences of parasitism suggest potential benefits for disease control at long term. Furthermore, A. colemani significantly limited the spread and incidence of the persistent virus CABYV at long term. The impact of aphid parasitoids on the dispersal of plant viruses with different transmission modes is discussed.

  8. [Accumulation Characteristics and Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Soil-Crop System Affected by Wastewater Irrigation Around a Chemical Factory in Shenmu County].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yan-bing; Chu, Wan-lin; Pu, Jie; Liu, Meng-yun; Chang, Qing-rui

    2015-04-01

    Soil heavy metals Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd, are regarded as "chemical time bombs" because of their propensity for accumulation in the soil and uptake by crops. This ultimately causes human toxicity in both the short and long-term, making farmland ecosystems dangerous to health. In this paper, accumulation and spatial variability of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in soil-crop system affected by wastewater irrigation around a chemical factor in northern Shaanxi province were analyzed. Results showed that wastewater irrigation around the chemical factory induced significant accumulation in soils compared with control areas. The average concentrations of available Cu and total Cu were 4.32 mg x kg(-1) and 38.4 mg x kg(-1), which were twice and 1.35 times higher than those of the control area, respectively. Soil Zn and Pb were slightly accumulated. Whereas soil Cd was significantly accumulated and was higher than the critical level of soil environmental quality (II), the available and total Cd concentrations were 0.248 mg x kg(-1) and 1.21 mg x kg(-1), which were 10 and 6.1 times higher than those of the control areas. No significant correlations were found between available and total heavy metals except between available Cd and total Cd. All the heavy metals were mainly accumulated in the top layer (0-10 cm). Spatially, soils and plants high in heavy metal concentration were distributed within the radius of about 100 m from the waste water outlet for Cu, Zn and Cd and about 200 m for Pb, and decreased exponentially with the distance from the factory. Affected by wastewater irrigation, contents of Cu, Pb and Cd in maize were 4.74, 0.129 and 0.036 mg x kg(-1) which were slightly higher than those in the control area. The content of Zn was similar to that in the control area. Affected by the vehicle exhaust, the over standard rate of Pb was 5.7% in maize. All the heavy metals did not show significant correlation between soil and crop, except Cd. The square correlation coefficients were 0

  9. Elevated CO2 levels affects the concentrations of copper and cadmium in crops grown in soil contaminated with heavy metals under fully open-air field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongyan; Zhu, Jianguo; Zhou, Hui; Sun, Yuanyuan; Yin, Ying; Pei, Daping; Ji, Rong; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Xiaorong

    2011-08-15

    Elevated CO(2) levels and the increase in heavy metals in soils through pollution are serious problems worldwide. Whether elevated CO(2) levels will affect plants grown in heavy-metal-polluted soil and thereby influence food quality and safety is not clear. Using a free-air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) system, we investigated the impacts of elevated atmospheric CO(2) on the concentrations of copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd) in rice and wheat grown in soil with different concentrations of the metals in the soil. In the two-year study, elevated CO(2) levels led to lower Cu concentrations and higher Cd concentrations in shoots and grain of both rice and wheat grown in the respective contaminated soil. Elevated CO(2) levels slightly but significantly lowered the pH of the soil and led to changes in Cu and Cd fractionation in the soil. Our study indicates that elevated CO(2) alters the distribution of contaminant elements in soil and plants, thereby probably affecting food quality and safety.

  10. Differential S1P Receptor Profiles on M1- and M2-Polarized Macrophages Affect Macrophage Cytokine Production and Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jan; von Bernstorff, Wolfram; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter; Schulze, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Introduction . Macrophages are key players in complex biological processes. In response to environmental signals, macrophages undergo polarization towards a proinflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotype. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lysophospholipid that acts via 5 G-protein coupled receptors (S1P 1-5 ) in order to influence a broad spectrum of biological processes. This study assesses S1P receptor expression on macrophages before and after M1 and M2 polarization and performs a comparative analysis of S1P signalling in the two activational states of macrophages. Methods . Bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) from C57 BL/6 mice were cultured under either M1- or M2-polarizing conditions. S1P-receptor expression was determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Influence of S1P on macrophage activation, migration, phagocytosis, and cytokine secretion was assessed in vitro. Results . All 5 S1P receptor subclasses were expressed in macrophages. Culture under both M1- and M2-polarizing conditions led to significant downregulation of S1P 1 . In contrast, M1-polarized macrophages significantly downregulated S1P 4 . The expression of the remaining three S1P receptors did not change. S1P increased expression of iNOS under M2-polarizing conditions. Furthermore, S1P induced chemotaxis in M1 macrophages and changed cytokine production in M2 macrophages. Phagocytosis was not affected by S1P-signalling. Discussion . The expression of different specific S1P receptor profiles may provide a possibility to selectively influence M1- or M2-polarized macrophages.

  11. Low-dose aspartame consumption differentially affects gut microbiota-host metabolic interactions in the diet-induced obese rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie S A Palmnäs

    Full Text Available Aspartame consumption is implicated in the development of obesity and metabolic disease despite the intention of limiting caloric intake. The mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear, but may involve circulating metabolites and the gut microbiota. Aims were to examine the impact of chronic low-dose aspartame consumption on anthropometric, metabolic and microbial parameters in a diet-induced obese model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a standard chow diet (CH, 12% kcal fat or high fat (HF, 60% kcal fat and further into ad libitum water control (W or low-dose aspartame (A, 5-7 mg/kg/d in drinking water treatments for 8 week (n = 10-12 animals/treatment. Animals on aspartame consumed fewer calories, gained less weight and had a more favorable body composition when challenged with HF compared to animals consuming water. Despite this, aspartame elevated fasting glucose levels and an insulin tolerance test showed aspartame to impair insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both CH and HF, independently of body composition. Fecal analysis of gut bacterial composition showed aspartame to increase total bacteria, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium leptum. An interaction between HF and aspartame was also observed for Roseburia ssp wherein HF-A was higher than HF-W (P<0.05. Within HF, aspartame attenuated the typical HF-induced increase in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Serum metabolomics analysis revealed aspartame to be rapidly metabolized and to be associated with elevations in the short chain fatty acid propionate, a bacterial end product and highly gluconeogenic substrate, potentially explaining its negative affects on insulin tolerance. How aspartame influences gut microbial composition and the implications of these changes on the development of metabolic disease require further investigation.

  12. Low-dose aspartame consumption differentially affects gut microbiota-host metabolic interactions in the diet-induced obese rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmnäs, Marie S A; Cowan, Theresa E; Bomhof, Marc R; Su, Juliet; Reimer, Raylene A; Vogel, Hans J; Hittel, Dustin S; Shearer, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Aspartame consumption is implicated in the development of obesity and metabolic disease despite the intention of limiting caloric intake. The mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear, but may involve circulating metabolites and the gut microbiota. Aims were to examine the impact of chronic low-dose aspartame consumption on anthropometric, metabolic and microbial parameters in a diet-induced obese model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a standard chow diet (CH, 12% kcal fat) or high fat (HF, 60% kcal fat) and further into ad libitum water control (W) or low-dose aspartame (A, 5-7 mg/kg/d in drinking water) treatments for 8 week (n = 10-12 animals/treatment). Animals on aspartame consumed fewer calories, gained less weight and had a more favorable body composition when challenged with HF compared to animals consuming water. Despite this, aspartame elevated fasting glucose levels and an insulin tolerance test showed aspartame to impair insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both CH and HF, independently of body composition. Fecal analysis of gut bacterial composition showed aspartame to increase total bacteria, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium leptum. An interaction between HF and aspartame was also observed for Roseburia ssp wherein HF-A was higher than HF-W (Paspartame attenuated the typical HF-induced increase in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Serum metabolomics analysis revealed aspartame to be rapidly metabolized and to be associated with elevations in the short chain fatty acid propionate, a bacterial end product and highly gluconeogenic substrate, potentially explaining its negative affects on insulin tolerance. How aspartame influences gut microbial composition and the implications of these changes on the development of metabolic disease require further investigation.

  13. Spatiotemporal variability and differentiation between anthropogenic and natural contamination of heavy metals of surface water: a case study in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guittard, A.; Baraer, M.; McKenzie, J. M.; Mark, B. G.; Fernandez, A.; Walsh, E.; Santos Perez, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Rio Santa, Peru, drains the western slopes of the glacierized Cordillera Blanca and provides water resources at almost all levels of the watershed. As it flows away from the valleys of the Cordillera Blanca, the Rio Santa takes out pollution from numerous sources, including acid mine drainage and natural sulfide oxidation by-products. The Rio Santa dry season discharge decline that is projected to be a consequence of glaciers retreat will probably have implications for the evolution of water pollution. This threat makes the characterization of the actual contamination mechanisms of primary importance. The present study focuses, first, on the spatiotemporal variability of heavy metal contamination across the entire Rio Santa Watershed and secondly on differentiating anthropogenic and natural contaminated sites. First, a macroscale sampling has been done during the summer 2013 to provide an overview of the contamination by trace metal, in water, suspended sediments and riverbed sediments. In addition, 30 water samples were taken from a point next to the city of Huaraz at a frequency of once every 2 weeks and analyzed for trace metals. Secondly, in order to identify hydrochemical contaminant origin dependant signatures in the Rio Santa watershed, 5 areas of known contamination origins were sampled during the summer 2014.Spatially speaking, we observed that most pollution is located in the south of the watershed, and that a large part of the arsenic that reaches the Santa in an aqueous phase does not make it to the outlet but remains trapped in the riverbed. Annual variation in water shows a very unusual fluctuation in Mn compare to other trace metal which are relatively stable. By differencing anthropogenic and natural sites and by considering glaciers melt and decrease water in future what would be the impact of the part of natural contaminated sites versus anthropogenic, mining and cities, on the water quality? Preliminary results show that anthropogenic sites

  14. Emotional versus cognitive rumination: are they differentially affecting long-term psychological health? The impact of stressors and personality in dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamesch, Ulla; Cropley, Mark; Lang, Jessica

    2014-08-01

    In the process of recovery from work, rumination is considered as an important mediating variable in the relationship between work demands and psychological health outcomes. Past research differentiated affective rumination from problem-solving pondering. The aim of the present study was to test a moderated mediation model for these two distinct ruminative states and to show how personality (i.e. neuroticism and conscientiousness) can alter the mediating effect. The present study is based on 119 surveys from dental students with a time lag of 6 months. Participants filled out questionnaires assessing specific study-relevant performance demands, rumination and personality and a screening measure for psychological health status. Neuroticism was found to moderate the demand-affective rumination association, but conscientiousness did not moderate the demand-problem-solving pondering association. Moderated mediation analysis revealed that affective rumination mediates the impact of demands on psychological health only for individuals low in neuroticism. Findings are discussed regarding potential interventions for dental students to prevent negative psychological health outcomes due to increased work-related demands in the long term. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Memantine, an antagonist of the NMDA glutamate receptor, affects cell proliferation, differentiation and the intracellular cycle and induces apoptosis in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Silva Damasceno

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chagas' disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and affects approximately 10 million people in endemic areas of Mexico and Central and South America. Currently available chemotherapies are limited to two compounds: Nifurtimox and Benznidazole. Both drugs reduce the symptoms of the disease and mortality among infected individuals when used during the acute phase, but their efficacy during the chronic phase (during which the majority of cases are diagnosed remains controversial. Moreover, these drugs have several side effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Memantine, an antagonist of the glutamate receptor in the CNS of mammals, on the life cycle of T. cruzi. Memantine exhibited a trypanocidal effect, inhibiting the proliferation of epimastigotes (IC50 172.6 µM. Furthermore, this compound interfered with metacyclogenesis (approximately 30% reduction and affected the energy metabolism of the parasite. In addition, Memantine triggered mechanisms that led to the apoptosis-like cell death of epimastigotes, with extracellular exposure of phosphatidylserine, increased production of reactive oxygen species, decreased ATP levels, increased intracellular Ca(2+ and morphological changes. Moreover, Memantine interfered with the intracellular cycle of the parasite, specifically the amastigote stage (IC50 31 µM. Interestingly, the stages of the parasite life cycle that require more energy (epimastigote and amastigote were more affected as were the processes of differentiation and cell invasion.

  16. Ecological factors differentially affect mercury levels in two species of sympatric marine birds of the North Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hipfner, J.M.; Hobson, K.A.; Elliott, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    In 2003 and 2004, we measured mercury concentrations and δ 15 N and δ 13 C values in the whole blood of adults of two species of seabirds, Cassin's auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) and rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata), during their prelaying, incubation, and provisioning periods. We also collected whole blood from the offspring of both seabirds. Among prey items, δ 15 N values were higher in fish than in crustaceans, while δ 13 C did not vary systematically between prey types. Mercury concentrations in prey showed little relationship with either stable isotope. In the zooplanktivorous Cassin's auklet, year, reproductive stage, and δ 15 N and δ 13 C stable isotope values explained only 14% of the variation in mercury concentrations in adult blood, and none of these variables had a statistically significant effect. In contrast, these same variables explained 41% of the variation in mercury levels in the more piscivorous rhinoceros auklet, and all but δ 15 N values had statistically significant effects. Mercury concentrations in adult rhinoceros auklets were higher in 2003 than in 2004; higher prior to laying than during the incubation or provisioning periods; and increased with δ 13 C values - but in just one of two years. In both species, mercury concentrations were substantially higher in adults than in nestlings. Our results accord with previous studies in showing that mercury concentrations can vary among years, species and age classes, while the marked variation with reproductive stage is noteworthy because it is so rarely considered. Our results may help to explain the disparate conclusions of previous studies: while many factors influence mercury concentrations in marine predators, they apparently do so in a manner that defies easy characterization. We believe that there is a need for more studies that consider a range of physiological, ecological and behavioral factors that might affect mercury burdens in marine predators. - Research

  17. Metal availability in technosols prepared with composted sewage sludge and limestone outcrop affected by the presence of barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Alejandro; Navarro-Pedreño, José; Belén Almendro-Candel, María; Gómez, Ignacio; Jordán, Manuel M.; Bech, Jaume

    2017-04-01

    The use of composted sewage sludge (SSC), and limestone outcrop residue (LOR), is a common practice in soil and land rehabilitation, technosol making, and quarry restoration (Jordán et al. 2008). Both wastes are used to improve the physical, chemical, and biological properties of impoverished soils (Karaca 2004; Jordão et al. 2006; Lovieno et al. 2009). However, the use of compost may have some negative effects on the environment (Navarro-Pedreño et al. 2004; Elridge et al. 2009). Moreover, plants cultivated in technosols can produced changes on the availability of essential and harmful metals and, for this reason, is necessary to made studies to evaluate the availability of metals and the effect of plants in their mobility and toxicity. In this experiment, it has been analyzed the effect of barley in metals availability in four technosols prepared mixing volumes of LOR (100, 98, 95 and 90 %) and SSC (0, 2, 5 and 10%). To determine the solubility and availability, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were measured by Lindsay-Norvell extraction procedure. For each technosoil, tree pots with barley (three plants) and three without barley were checked after 3 months A of them were irrigated with 1.5 L/week of tap water. At the end of this time, the metal solubility and availability were higher in soils with the presence of barley than the others. This was especially notorious for Fe and Zn. The presence of root exudates and the reduction of lixiviation due to plant transpiration can explain the highest presence of metals. This result may be considered in rhizosphere related to possible metal toxicity. Keywords: compost, limestone outcrop residues, heavy metals, barley. References: Eldridge SM, Chan KY, Barchia I, Pengelly PK, Katupitiya S, Davis JM (2009) A comparison of surface applied granulated biosolids and poultry litter in terms of risk to runoff water quality on turf farms in Western Sydney, Australia. Agr Ecosyst Environ doi:10.1016/j.agee.2009.07.007 Iovieno

  18. Assessments of chromium (and other metals) in vegetables and potential bio-accumulations in humans living in areas affected by tannery wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hualin; Arocena, Joselito M; Li, Jianbing; Thring, Ronald W; Zhou, Jiangmin

    2014-10-01

    Chromium (Cr) commonly enters the food chain through uptake by vegetables. However, accurate prediction of plant uptake of Cr (and other metals) still remains a challenge. In this study, we evaluated 5 indices of availability for Cr (and other metals) to identify reliable predictors of metal transfer from soils to garlic, onion, bokchoy, radish and celery grown in soils impacted by tannery wastes. The potential bio-accumulation of Cr in humans was calculated from the Cr content of vegetable predicted by the best bio-availability index, amounts of vegetable consumed and recommended daily doses for Cr. Our results show that soil total Cr is the best predictor of Cr transfer from soils to onion (Cr in onion=8.51+0.005 Total Cr) while Cr extractable by Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure at pH 5 correlates very well with Cr uptake by bokchoy (Cr bokchoy=5.86+7.32 SPLP-5 Cr) and garlic (Cr garlic=7.63+2.36 SPLP-5 Cr). The uptake of Cr by radish and celery could not be reliably estimated by any of the 5 indices of availability tested in this study. Potential bio-accumulation of Cr in humans (BA-Cr) increases from soils with low Cr (BA-Cr=11.5) to soil with high total Cr (BA-Cr=31.3). Due to numerous soil factors affecting the behavior of Cr in soils and the physiological differences among vegetables, we suggest that the prediction of the transfer of Cr (and other metals) from soils to plants should be specific to site, metal and vegetable. Potential bio-accumulation of Cr in humans can be derived from a transfer function of Cr from soils to plants and the human consumption of vegetables. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Maternal postpartum corticosterone and fluoxetine differentially affect adult male and female offspring on anxiety-like behavior, stress reactivity, and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobinath, Aarthi R; Workman, Joanna L; Chow, Carmen; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-02-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) affects approximately 15% of mothers, disrupts maternal care, and can represent a form of early life adversity for the developing offspring. Intriguingly, male and female offspring are differentially vulnerable to the effects of PPD. Antidepressants, such as fluoxetine, are commonly prescribed for treating PPD. However, fluoxetine can reach offspring via breast milk, raising serious concerns regarding the long-term consequences of infant exposure to fluoxetine. The goal of this study was to examine the long-term effects of maternal postpartum corticosterone (CORT, a model of postpartum stress/depression) and concurrent maternal postpartum fluoxetine on behavioral, endocrine, and neural measures in adult male and female offspring. Female Sprague-Dawley dams were treated daily with either CORT or oil and fluoxetine or saline from postnatal days 2-23, and offspring were weaned and left undisturbed until adulthood. Here we show that maternal postpartum fluoxetine increased anxiety-like behavior and impaired hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis negative feedback in adult male, but not female, offspring. Furthermore, maternal postpartum fluoxetine increased the density of immature neurons (doublecortin-expressing) in the hippocampus of adult male offspring but decreased the density of immature neurons in adult female offspring. Maternal postpartum CORT blunted HPA axis negative feedback in males and tended to increase density of immature neurons in males but decreased it in females. These results indicate that maternal postpartum CORT and fluoxetine can have long-lasting effects on anxiety-like behavior, HPA axis negative feedback, and adult hippocampal neurogenesis and that adult male and female offspring are differentially affected by these maternal manipulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Metamorphosis Affects Metal Concentrations and Isotopic Signatures in a Mayfly (Baetis tricaudatus): Implications for the Aquatic-Terrestrial Transfer of Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesner, Jeff S; Walters, David M; Schmidt, Travis S; Kraus, Johanna M; Stricker, Craig A; Clements, William H; Wolf, Ruth E

    2017-02-21

    Insect metamorphosis often results in substantial chemical changes that can alter contaminant concentrations and fractionate isotopes. We exposed larval mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus) and their food (periphyton) to an aqueous zinc gradient (3-340 μg Zn/l) and measured zinc concentrations at different stages of metamorphosis: larval, subimago, and imago. We also measured changes in stable isotopes (δ 15 N and δ 13 C) in unexposed mayflies. Larval zinc concentrations were positively related to aqueous zinc, increasing 9-fold across the exposure gradient. Adult zinc concentrations were also positively related to aqueous zinc, but were 7-fold lower than larvae. This relationship varied according to adult substage and sex. Tissue concentrations in female imagoes were not related to exposure concentrations, but the converse was true for all other stage-by-sex combinations. Metamorphosis also increased δ 15 N by ∼0.8‰, but not δ 13 C. Thus, the main effects of metamorphosis on insect chemistry were large declines in zinc concentrations coupled with increased δ 15 N signatures. For zinc, this change was largely consistent across the aqueous exposure gradient. However, differences among sexes and stages suggest that caution is warranted when using nitrogen isotopes or metal concentrations measured in one insect stage (e.g., larvae) to assess risk to wildlife that feed on subsequent life stages (e.g., adults).

  1. Parameters affecting the production of Al-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ metal matrix particulate composite, (MMPC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.; Jaber, F.

    2003-01-01

    Aluminum-ceramic composites were made by powder metallurgy up to early 80's. Since then several attempts Metal have been made to produce these composites by liquid metallurgy method. Different techniques have been reported to produce these composites by this method and many difficulties have been encountered in wetting the particles by the molten metal due to the difference in densities which caused non uniform distribution of the particles in the matrix resulting in poor mechanical strength. In this paper, the production of aluminum-aluminum oxide (Al-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) metal matrix composite by different techniques is investigated. These include injection, centrifugal vortex, compocasting and a newly suggested method, modified vortex technique. The effect of the process parameters are investigated and discussed and the optimum process conditions were determined. It was found that preheating of the alumina powder for one hour at 1050 deg. before introducing it to the aluminum melt is vital to be accepted by the melt. Incorporation of the alumina particles by injecting them below the surface of the melt resulted in better wettability of the particles but no more than 10% volume fraction was achieved. Similarly, in the centrifuged casting technique, the same volume fraction of the Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ particles was obtained and in both techniques existence of porosity was observed. The vortex technique, when its parameters were optimized resulted in higher volume fraction, as 25% of alumina particles was achieved with better particle distribution than those obtained by the injection and centrifuged casting methods. Comparison among the different techniques is made based on volume fraction, particle distribution, soundness and micro segregation. A new method, based on modifying the vortex technique is given and discussed. The mechanical strength and hardness of Al-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ MMPC produced by this method were determined. It was found that an increase of 100% in

  2. Tunable differentiation of tertiary C-H bonds in intramolecular transition metal-catalyzed nitrene transfer reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Joshua R; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2017-04-13

    Metal-catalyzed nitrene transfer reactions are an appealing and efficient strategy for accessing tetrasubstituted amines through the direct amination of tertiary C-H bonds. Traditional catalysts for these reactions rely on substrate control to achieve site-selectivity in the C-H amination event; thus, tunability is challenging when competing C-H bonds have similar steric or electronic features. One consequence of this fact is that the impact of catalyst identity on the selectivity in the competitive amination of tertiary C-H bonds has not been well-explored, despite the potential for progress towards predictable and catalyst-controlled C-N bond formation. In this communication, we report investigations into tunable and site-selective nitrene transfers between tertiary C(sp 3 )-H bonds using a combination of transition metal catalysts, including complexes based on Ag, Mn, Rh and Ru. Particularly striking was the ability to reverse the selectivity of nitrene transfer by a simple change in the identity of the N-donor ligand supporting the Ag(i) complex. The combination of our Ag(i) catalysts with known Rh 2 (ii) complexes expands the scope of successful catalyst-controlled intramolecular nitrene transfer and represents a promising springboard for the future development of intermolecular C-H N-group transfer methods.

  3. Scaffold composition affects cytoskeleton organization, cell-matrix interaction and the cellular fate of human mesenchymal stem cells upon chondrogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuk Yin; Choy, Tze Hang; Ho, Fu Chak; Chan, Pui Barbara

    2015-06-01

    The stem cell niche, or microenvironment, consists of soluble, matrix, cell and mechanical factors that together determine the cellular fates and/or differentiation patterns of stem cells. Collagen and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are important scaffolding materials that can mimic the natural matrix niche. Here, we hypothesize that imposing changes in the scaffold composition or, more specifically, incorporating GAGs into the collagen meshwork, will affect the morphology, cytoskeletal organization and integrin expression profiles, and hence the fate of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) upon the induction of differentiation. Using chondrogenesis as an example, we microencapsulated MSCs in three scaffold systems that had varying matrix compositions: collagen alone (C), aminated collagen (AC) and aminated collagen with GAGs (ACG). We then induced the MSCs to differentiate toward a chondrogenic lineage, after which, we characterized the cell viability and morphology, as well as the level of cytoskeletal organization and the integrin expression profile. We also studied the fate of the MSCs by evaluating the major chondrogenic markers at both the gene and protein level. In C, MSC chondrogenesis was successfully induced and MSCs that spread in the scaffolds had a clear actin cytoskeleton; they expressed integrin α2β1, α5 and αv; promoted sox9 nuclear localization transcription activation; and upregulated the expression of chondrogenic matrix markers. In AC, MSC chondrogenesis was completely inhibited but the scaffold still supported cell survival. The MSCs did not spread and they had no actin cytoskeleton; did not express integrin α2 or αv; they failed to differentiate into chondrogenic lineage cells even on chemical induction; and there was little colocalization or functional interaction between integrin α5 and fibronectin. In ACG, although the MSCs did not express integrin α2, they did express integrin αv and there was strong co-localization and hence functional

  4. Colloid formation and metal transport through two mixing zones affected by acid mine drainage near Silverton, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemel, L.E.; Kimball, B.A.; Bencala, K.E.

    2000-01-01

    Stream discharges and concentrations of dissolved and colloidal metals (Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Pb, and Zn), SO4, and dissolved silica were measured to identify chemical transformations and determine mass transports through two mixing zones in the Animas River that receive the inflows from Cement and Mineral Creeks. The creeks were the dominant sources of Al, Cu, Fe, and Pb, whereas the upstream Animas River supplied about half of the Zn. With the exception of Fe, which was present in dissolved and colloidal forms, the metals were dissolved in the acidic, high-SO4 waters of Cement Creek (pH 3.8). Mixing of Cement Creek with the Animas River increased pH to near-neutral values and transformed Al and some additional Fe into colloids which also contained Cu and Pb. Aluminium and Fe colloids had already formed in the mildly acidic conditions in Mineral Creek (pH 6.6) upstream of the confluence with the Animas River. Colloidal Fe continued to form downstream of both mixing zones. The Fe- and Al-rich colloids were important for transport of Cu, Pb, and Zn, which appeared to have sorbed to them. Partitioning of Zn between dissolved and colloidal phases was dependent on pH and colloid concentration. Mass balances showed conservative transports for Ca, Mg, Mn, SO4, and dissolved silica through the two mixing zones and small losses (water column.

  5. The differential involvement of the prelimbic and infralimbic cortices in response conflict affects behavioral flexibility in rats trained in a new automated strategy-switching task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oualian, Catherine; Gisquet-Verrier, Pascale

    2010-12-01

    To assess the role of the prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) cortices in mediating strategy switching, rats were trained in a new automated task in a Y-maze allowing a careful analysis of rats' behavior. In this situation, rats can only use two egocentric (Right, Left) and two visual (Light, Dark) strategies. In the first experiment, rats with PL, IL, or PL/IL lesions were compared with sham-operated rats when trained to reach a criterion of 10 consecutive correct responses with a light strategy before being trained with a response strategy (rule shifting), and finally with the reversed response strategy (reversal). In the second experiment, sham-operated and PL-lesioned rats had their first two strategy switches in the reverse order, which was followed by a second rule shifting and reversal. The results indicate that lesions did not affect initial acquisition, but impaired the first rule shifting and reversal. Thorough analyses of rats' performance indicate that lesioned rats were still able to demonstrate some behavioral flexibility but have difficulties in solving response conflicts, which in turn may affect behavioral flexibility. Both areas were differentially involved in the resolution of response conflict, with the IL involved in the choice of strategy previously known to be nonvalid, and the PL in the selection and maintenance of that strategy.

  6. Intracellular calcium chelation and pharmacological SERCA inhibition of Ca2+ pump in the insular cortex differentially affect taste aversive memory formation and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, María Isabel; González-Cedillo, Francisco J; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio

    2011-09-01

    Variation in intracellular calcium concentration regulates the induction of long-term synaptic plasticity and is associated with a variety of memory/retrieval and learning paradigms. Accordingly, impaired calcium mobilization from internal deposits affects synaptic plasticity and cognition in the aged brain. During taste memory formation several proteins are modulated directly or indirectly by calcium, and recent evidence suggests the importance of calcium buffering and the role of intracellular calcium deposits during cognitive processes. Thus, the main goal of this research was to study the consequence of hampering changes in cytoplasmic calcium and inhibiting SERCA activity by BAPTA-AM and thapsigargin treatments, respectively, in the insular cortex during different stages of taste memory formation. Using conditioned taste aversion (CTA), we found differential effects of BAPTA-AM and thapsigargin infusions before and after gustatory stimulation, as well as during taste aversive memory consolidation; BAPTA-AM, but not thapsigargin, attenuates acquisition and/or consolidation of CTA, but neither compound affects taste aversive memory retrieval. These results point to the importance of intracellular calcium dynamics in the insular cortex during different stages of taste aversive memory formation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF val66met polymorphism differentially affects performance on subscales of the Wechsler memory scale – third edition (WMS-III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette Nicole Lamb

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene and the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene influence brain structure and function, as well as cognitive abilities. They are most influential in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC, respectively. Recall and recognition are forms of memory proposed to have different neural substrates, with recall having a greater dependence on the PFC and hippocampus. This study aimed to determine whether the BDNF val66met or COMT val158met polymorphisms differentially affect recall and recognition, and whether these polymorphisms interact. A sample of 100 healthy adults was assessed on recall and familiarity-based recognition using the Faces and Family Pictures subscales of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III. COMT genotype did not affect performance on either task. The BDNF polymorphism (i.e. met carriers relative to val homozygotes was associated with poorer recall ability, while not influencing recognition. Combining subscale scores in memory tests such as the WMS might obscure gene effects. Our results demonstrate the importance of distinguishing between recall and familiarity-based recognition in neurogenetics research.

  8. Morphology and cardiac physiology are differentially affected by temperature in developing larvae of the marine fish mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prescilla Perrichon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular performance is altered by temperature in larval fishes, but how acute versus chronic temperature exposures independently affect cardiac morphology and physiology in the growing larva is poorly understood. Consequently, we investigated the influence of water temperature on cardiac plasticity in developing mahi-mahi. Morphological (e.g. standard length, heart angle and physiological cardiac variables (e.g. heart rate fH, stroke volume, cardiac output were recorded under two conditions by imaging: (i under acute temperature exposure where embryos were reared at 25°C up to 128 h post-fertilization (hpf and then acutely exposed to 25 (rearing temperature, 27 and 30°C; and (ii at two rearing (chronic temperatures of 26 and 30°C and performed at 32 and 56 hpf. Chronic elevated temperature improved developmental time in mahi-mahi. Heart rates were 1.2–1.4-fold higher under exposure of elevated acute temperatures across development (Q10≥2.0. Q10 for heart rate in acute exposure was 1.8-fold higher compared to chronic exposure at 56 hpf. At same stage, stroke volume was temperature independent (Q10∼1.0. However, larvae displayed higher stroke volume later in stage. Cardiac output in developing mahi-mahi is mainly dictated by chronotropic rather than inotropic modulation, is differentially affected by temperature during development and is not linked to metabolic changes.

  9. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics and fragility of (Cu46Zr47Al7)97Ti3 bulk metallic glass investigated by differential scanning calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Man; Li, Junjie; Yao, Lijuan; Jian, Zengyun; Chang, Fang’e; Yang, Gencang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of (Cu 46 Zr 47 Al 7 ) 97 Ti 3 BMGs was studied. • Two-stage of crystallization process is confirmed by DSC. • The nucleation process is difficult than growth process during crystallization. • The second crystallization process is the most sensitive to heating rate. • Kinetic fragility index is evaluated suggesting it is an intermediate glass. - Abstract: In this paper, bulk metallic glasses with the composition of (Cu 46 Zr 47 Al 7 ) 97 Ti 3 were prepared by copper mold casting technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to investigate its structure and non-isothermal crystallization kinetics. DSC traces revealed that it undergoes two-stage crystallization. The activation energies corresponding to the characteristic temperatures have been calculated, and the results reveal that the as-cast alloys have a good thermal stability in thermodynamics. Based on Kissinger equation, the activation energies for glass transition, the first and second crystallization processes were obtained as 485 ± 16 kJ/mol, 331 ± 7 kJ/mol and 210 ± 3 kJ/mol, respectively, suggesting that the nucleation process is more difficult than the grain growth process. The fitting curves using Lasocka's empirical relation show that the influence of the heating rate for crystallization is larger than glass transition. Furthermore, the kinetic fragility for (Cu 46 Zr 47 Al 7 ) 97 Ti 3 bulk metallic glasses is evaluated. Depending on the fragility index, (Cu 46 Zr 47 Al 7 ) 97 Ti 3 bulk metallic glasses should be considered as “intermediate glasses”

  10. Adsorption of acid-extractable organics from oil sands process-affected water onto biomass-based biochar: Metal content matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Tazul I; Tak, Jin K; Sessarego, Sebastian; Harfield, Don; Hill, Josephine M

    2017-02-01

    The impact of biochar properties on acid-extractable organics (AEO) adsorption from oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) was studied. Biochar from wheat straw with the highest ash content (14%) had the highest adsorption capacity (0.59 mg/g) followed by biochar from pulp mill sludge, switchgrass, mountain pine, hemp shives, and aspen wood. The adsorption capacity had no obvious trend with surface area, total pore volume, bulk polarity and aromaticity. The large impact of metal content was consistent with the carboxylates (i.e., naphthenate species) in the OSPW binding to the metals (mainly Al and Fe) on the carbon substrate. Although the capacity of biochar is still approximately two orders of magnitude lower than that of a commercial activated carbon, confirming the property (i.e., metal content) that most influenced AEO adsorption, may allow biochar to become competitive with activated carbon after normalizing for cost, especially if this cost includes environmental impacts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Benthic metal fluxes and sediment diagenesis in a water reservoir affected by acid mine drainage: A laboratory experiment and reactive transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, E.; Ayora, C.; Jiménez-Arias, J. L.; García-Robledo, E.; Papaspyrou, S.; Corzo, A.

    2014-08-01

    Reservoirs are one of the primary water supply sources. Knowledge of the metal fluxes at the water-sediment interfaces of reservoirs is essential for predicting their ecological quality. Redox oscillations in the water column are promoted by stratification; turnover events may significantly alter metal cycling, especially in reservoirs impacted by acid mine drainage (AMD). To study this phenomenon, an experiment was performed under controlled laboratory conditions. Sediment cores from an AMD-affected reservoir were maintained in a tank with reservoir water for approximately two months and subjected to alternating oxic-hypoxic conditions. A detailed metal speciation in solid phases of the sediment was initially performed by sequential extraction, and pore water was analyzed at the end of each redox period. Tank water metals concentrations were systematically monitored throughout the experiment. The experimental results were then used to calibrate a diffusion-reaction model and quantify the reaction rates and sediment-water fluxes. Under oxic conditions, pH, Fe and As concentrations decreased in the tank due to schwertmannite precipitation, whereas the concentrations of Al, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Co increased due to Al(OH)3 and sulfide dissolution. The reverse trends occurred under hypoxic conditions. Under oxic conditions, the fluxes calculated by applying Fick’s first law to experimental concentration gradients contradicted the fluxes expected based on the evolution of the tank water. According to the reactive transport calculations, this discrepancy can be attributed to the coarse resolution of sediment sampling. The one-cm-thick slices failed to capture effectively the notably narrow (1-2 mm) concentration peaks of several elements in the shallow pore water resulting from sulfide and Al(OH)3 dissolution. The diffusion-reaction model, extended to the complete year, computed that between 25% and 50% of the trace metals and less than 10% of the Al that precipitated under

  12. Post-learning stress differentially affects memory for emotional gist and detail in naturally cycling women and women on hormonal contraceptives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Shawn E.; Ahmed, Imran; Cahill, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Sex differences in emotional memory have received increasing interest over the past decade. However, to date, no work has explored how a post-learning stressor might modulate the influence of sex hormone status on memory for gist and peripheral detail in an emotional versus neutral context. Here, we tested three predictions. First, compared to naturally cycling women (NC women) in the luteal phase, women on hormonal contraception (HC women) would have significantly blunted HPA reactivity to physical stress. Second, post-learning stress would enhance detail and gist memory from an emotional story in NC women, and finally, post-learning stress would not affect emotional memory for details or gist in HC women. Healthy NC and HC women viewed a brief, narrated story containing neutral or emotionally arousing elements. Immediately after, Cold Pressor Stress (CPS) or a control procedure was administered. One week later, participants received a surprise free recall test for story elements. NC women exhibited significantly greater cortisol increases to CPS compared to HC women. NC women who viewed the emotional story and were administered CPS recalled the most peripheral details overall and more gist from the emotional compared to the neutral story. In HC women, however, the post-learning cortisol release did not affect memory for gist or peripheral details from the emotional or neutral story in any way. Additionally, NC and HC women performed similarly on measures of attention and arousal. These findings suggest that in women, post-learning stress differentially affects memory for emotional information depending on their hormonal contraceptive status. PMID:24841741

  13. Differential potentiometric titration: development of a methodology for determining the point of zero charge of metal (hydr)oxides by one titration curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourikas, Kyriakos; Kordulis, Christos; Lycourghiotis, Alexis

    2005-06-01

    A new methodology is presented, called differential potentiometric titration (DPT), which allows the determination of the point of zero charge (pzc) of metal (hydr)oxides using only one potentiometric curve. By performing extensive simulations of potentiometric titrations for various model (hydr)oxides, we found that an inflection point in a H+(cons,surf) versus pH potentiometric curve (H+(cons,surf): hydrogen ions consumed on the surface of the (hydr)oxide) and a peak in the corresponding differential curve, dH+(cons,surf)/dpH versus pH, appear at a pH equal to the pzc assumed for a model (hydr)oxide. This distinguishable peak appears at the same position irrespective of the surface ionization and the interfacial model adopted as well as the assumed ionic strength. It was found that the aforementioned peak also appears in the high-resolution differential potentiometric curves experimentally determined for four oxides (SiO2, TiO2, gamma-Al2O3, and MgO) that are widely used in various environmental and other technological applications. The application of DPT to the above-mentioned oxides provided practically the same pzc values as the corresponding ones achieved by using four different techniques as well as the corresponding isoelectric point (iep) values determined by microelectrophoresis. Differences between the pzc and iep values determined using various techniques in the case of MgO were attributed to the increasing dissolution of this oxide as pH decreases and the adsorption of cations (Mg2+, Na+) on the MgO/electrolytic solution interface.

  14. Photosynthetic and Ultrastructure Parameters of Maize Plants are Affected During the Phyto-Rhizoremediation Process of Degraded Metal Working Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalbo, Lucía; Gutierrez Mañero, Francisco Javier; Fernandez-Pascual, Mercedes; Lucas, Jose Antonio

    2015-01-01

    A phyto-rhizoremediation system using corn and esparto fiber as rooting support to remediate degraded metal working fluids (dMWFs) has been developed in the present study. In order to improve the process, plants were inoculated at the root level with bacteria either individually, and with a consortium of strains. All strains used were able to grow with MWFs. The results show that this system significantly lowers the Chemical Oxygen Demand below legal limits within 5 days. However, results were only improved with the bacterial consortium. Despite the effectiveness of the phyto-rhizoremediation process, plants are damaged at the photosynthetic level according to the photosynthetic parameters measured, as well as at the ultrastructure of the vascular cylinder and the Bundle Sheath Cells. Interestingly, the bacterial inoculation protects against this damage. Therefore, it seems that that the inoculation with bacteria can protect the plants against these harmful effects.

  15. Assessment of toxic metals in groundwater and saliva in an arsenic affected area of West Bengal, India: A pilot scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Subhamoy; Kundu, Amit Kumar; Adhikari, Jishnu; Chatterjee, Debankur; Iglesias, Monica; Nriagu, Jerome; Guha Mazumder, Debendra Nath; Shomar, Basem; Chatterjee, Debashis

    2015-10-01

    Communities in many parts of the world are unintentionally exposed to arsenic (As) and other toxic metals through ingestion of local drinking water and foods. The concentrations of individual toxic metals often exceed their guidelines in drinking water but the health risks associated with such multiple-metal exposures have yet to receive much attention. This study examines the co-occurrence of toxic metals in groundwater samples collected from As-rich areas of Nadia district, West Bengal, India. Arsenic in groundwater (range: 12-1064 µg L(-1); mean ± S.D: 329±294 µg L(-1)) was the most important contaminant with concentrations well above the WHO guideline of 10 µg L(-1). Another important toxic metal in the study area was manganese (Mn) with average concentration of 202±153 µg L(-1), range of 18-604 µg L(-1). The average concentrations (µg L(-1)) of other elements in groundwater were: Cr (5.6±5.9), Mo (3.5±2.1), Ni (8.3±8.7), Pb (2.9±1.3), Ba (119±43), Zn (56±40), Se (0.60±0.33), U (0.50±0.74). Saliva collected from the male participants of the area had mean concentrations of 6.3±7.0 µg As L(-1) (0.70-29 µg L(-1)), 5.4±5.5 µg Mn L(-1) (0.69-22 µg L(-1)), 2.6±3.1 µg Ni L(-1) (0.15-13 µg L(-1)), 0.78±1.0µg Cr L(-1) (groundwater. The clustering of salivary As and Mn in principal component analysis further indicated influence of the common exposure source. Zinc and selenium comprised a separate component presumably reflecting the local deficiencies in intakes of these essential elements from drinking water and foodstuff. Thus the study reveals that the concentration of other metals beside As must be monitored in drinking water before implementation of any policies to provide safe water to the affected communities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Drought and Heat Differentially Affect XTH Expression and XET Activity and Action in 3-Day-Old Seedlings of Durum Wheat Cultivars with Different Stress Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurlaro, Andrea; De Caroli, Monica; Sabella, Erika; De Pascali, Mariarosaria; Rampino, Patrizia; De Bellis, Luigi; Perrotta, Carla; Dalessandro, Giuseppe; Piro, Gabriella; Fry, Stephen C; Lenucci, Marcello S

    2016-01-01

    Heat and drought stress have emerged as major constraints for durum wheat production. In the Mediterranean area, their negative effect on crop productivity is expected to be exacerbated by the occurring climate change. Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (XTHs) are chief enzymes in cell wall remodeling, whose relevance in cell expansion and morphogenesis suggests a central role in stress responses. In this work the potential role of XTHs in abiotic stress tolerance was investigated in durum wheat. The separate effects of dehydration and heat exposure on XTH expression and its endotransglucosylase (XET) in vitro activity and in vivo action have been monitored, up to 24 h, in the apical and sub-apical root regions and shoots excised from 3-day-old seedlings of durum wheat cultivars differing in stress susceptibility/tolerance. Dehydration and heat stress differentially influence the XTH expression profiles and the activity and action of XET in the wheat seedlings, depending on the degree of susceptibility/tolerance of the cultivars, the organ, the topological region of the root and, within the root, on the gradient of cell differentiation. The root apical region was the zone mainly affected by both treatments in all assayed cultivars, while no change in XET activity was observed at shoot level, irrespective of susceptibility/tolerance, confirming the pivotal role of the root in stress perception, signaling, and response. Conflicting effects were observed depending on stress type: dehydration evoked an overall increase, at least in the apical region of the root, of XET activity and action, while a significant inhibition was caused by heat treatment in most cultivars. The data suggest that differential changes in XET action in defined portions of the root of young durum wheat seedlings may have a role as a response to drought and heat stress, thus contributing to seedling survival and crop establishment. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying

  17. The Fractionation of Some Heavy Metals in Calcareous Soils Affected by Land Uses of Central Area of Zanjan Provine (Northwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Afshari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy metals are found to be one of the major environmental hazardous contaminants, for human health, animal life, air quality and other components of environment. They can affect geochemical cycles and accumulate in animal tissues since physical processes are not able to remove them, so they are consistent in long term. The analysis of the total concentration of heavy metals in soil may provide information about soils enrichment but in general, it is widely used to determine the potential mobility of heavy metals in environmental behavior under chemical forms of metals in soils. Heavy metals existat several phases including water-soluble, exchangeable, bounded to organic matter, bounded to carbonates, bounded to Fe-Mn oxides, secondary clay minerals and residual fraction within primary minerals network. There is a dynamic equilibrium between different fractions of elements in soil. The main objectives of the present study were a The analysis of the total concentration of heavy metals such as Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr, Co, Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu and b The fractionations of heavy metals and identification of controlling factors to distribution and behavior of heavy metals in soils at different land uses. Materials and Methods: The study was performed at central area of Zanjan province (Iran. The study area was over 2000 km2 in coordinates 20´ 36° to 41´ 36° E and 19´ 48° to 53´ 48° N. The average altitudes were over 1500 meters above sea level. The major land uses of the study area included agriculture (AG, rangeland (RA and urban (UR. Sample collection was done based on the random grid method in August 2011. Surface soil samples (0-10 cm depth were taken from grid centers included 137, 77 and 27 samples from AG, RA and UR land uses, respectively. The samples were digested in Nitric acid 5 normal (Sposito et al., 1982 and total concentration of Pb, Zn, Ni, Mn, Cu, Cr, Fe and Co were measured by Perkin-Elmer: AA 200 atomic absorption

  18. Supplementation with RRR- or all-rac-α-Tocopherol Differentially Affects the α-Tocopherol Stereoisomer Profile in the Milk and Plasma of Lactating Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Shashank; Kuchan, Matthew J; Lai, Chron-Si; Jensen, Soren K; Sherry, Christina L

    2017-07-01

    Background: The naturally occurring α-tocopherol stereoisomer RRR- α-tocopherol is known to be more bioactive than synthetic α-tocopherol ( all-rac -α-tocopherol). However, the influence of this difference on the α-tocopherol stereoisomer profile of human milk is not understood. Objective: We investigated whether supplemental RRR- α-tocopherol or all-rac -α-tocopherol differentially affected the distribution of α-tocopherol stereoisomers in milk and plasma from lactating women. Methods: Eighty-nine lactating women aged 19-40 y and with a body mass index (in kg/m 2 ) ≤30 were randomly assigned at 4-6 wk postpartum to receive a daily supplement containing 45.5 mg all-rac -α-tocopherol acetate (ARAC), 22.8 mg all-rac -α-tocopherol acetate + 20.1 mg RRR -α-tocopherol (MIX), or 40.2 mg RRR- α-tocopherol (RRR). Milk and plasma were analyzed for α-tocopherol structural isomers and α-tocopherol stereoisomers at baseline and after 6 wk supplementation with the use of chiral HPLC. Results: There were no significant treatment group or time-dependent changes in milk or plasma α, γ, or δ-tocopherol. RRR- α-tocopherol was the most abundant stereoisomer in both milk and plasma in each group. Supplementation changed both milk and plasma percentage RRR- α-tocopherol (RRR > MIX > ARAC) ( P tocopherol (ARAC > MIX > RRR) ( P tocopherol increased in milk (mean ± SEM: 78% ± 2.3% compared with 82% ± 1.7%) ( P tocopherol decreased in the MIX and ARAC groups (MIX, P tocopherol stereoisomers increased (MIX, P tocopherol stereoisomers ( P tocopherol was positively correlated at baseline ( r = 0.67; P tocopherol supplementation strategy differentially affected the α-tocopherol milk and plasma stereoisomer profile in lactating women. RRR- α-tocopherol increased milk and plasma percentage RRR- α-tocopherol, whereas all-rac -α-tocopherol acetate reduced these percentages. Because RRR- α-tocopherol is the most bioactive stereoisomer, investigating the impact of

  19. Geochemistry of trace metals in shelf sediments affected by seasonal and permanent low oxygen conditions off central Chile, SE Pacific (˜36°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Praxedes; Dezileau, Laurent; Cardenas, Lissette; Sellanes, Javier; Lange, Carina B.; Inostroza, Jorge; Muratli, Jesse; Salamanca, Marco A.

    2012-02-01

    Trace metals (Cd, U, Co, Ni, Cu, Ba, Fe, Mn), total organic carbon (TOC) and C and N stable isotope signatures (δ 13C and δ 15N) were determined in short sediments cores from the inner and outer shelf off Concepción, Chile (˜36°S). The objectives were to establish the effect of environmental conditions on trace metal distributions at two shelf sites, one affected by seasonal oxygenation and the other by permanent low oxygen conditions due to the presence of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). We evaluate trace metals as proxies of past changes in primary productivity and the bottom water oxygen regime. Concentrations of pore water sulfides and NH4+ were also measured as indicators of the main diagenetic pathways at each site. Our results for the inner shelf (seasonal suboxia) suggest that the oxidative state of the sediments responds to seasonal pulses of organic matter and that seasonal oxygenation develops during high and low primary productivity in the water column. Here, positive fluxes (to the water column) estimated from pore water concentrations of several elements were observed (Ba, Co, Ni, Fe and Mn). The less reduced environment at this site produces authigenic enrichment of Cu associated with the formation of oxides in the oxic surface sediment layer, and the reduction of U within deeper sediment sections occur consistently with negative estimated pore water fluxes. In the outer shelf sediments (permanent suboxia, OMZ site), negative fluxes (to the sediment) were estimated for all elements, but these sediments showed authigenic enrichments only for Cd, Cu and U. The short oxygenation period during the winter season did not affect the accumulation of these metals on the shelf. The distribution of Cu, Cd and U have been preserved within the sediments and the authigenic accumulation rates estimated showed a decrease from the deep sections of the core to the surface sediments. This could be explained by a gradual decrease in the strength of the OMZ in the

  20. The ThPOK transcription factor differentially affects the development and function of self-specific CD8(+) T cells and regulatory CD4(+) T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twu, Yuh-Ching; Teh, Hung-Sia

    2014-03-01

    The zinc finger transcription factor ThPOK plays a crucial role in CD4 T-cell development and CD4/CD8 lineage decision. In ThPOK-deficient mice, developing T cells expressing MHC class II-restricted T-cell receptors are redirected into the CD8 T-cell lineage. In this study, we investigated whether the ThPOK transgene affected the development and function of two additional types of T cells, namely self-specific CD8 T cells and CD4(+) FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells. Self-specific CD8 T cells are characterized by high expression of CD44, CD122, Ly6C, 1B11 and proliferation in response to either IL-2 or IL-15. The ThPOK transgene converted these self-specific CD8 T cells into CD4 T cells. The converted CD4(+) T cells are no longer self-reactive, lose the characteristics of self-specific CD8 T cells, acquire the properties of conventional CD4 T cells and survive poorly in peripheral lymphoid organs. By contrast, the ThPOK transgene promoted the development of CD4(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells resulting in an increased recovery of CD4(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells that expressed higher transforming growth factor-β-dependent suppressor activity. These studies indicate that the ThPOK transcription factor differentially affects the development and function of self-specific CD8 T cells and CD4(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Assessment of metal loads in watersheds affected by acid mine drainage by using tracer injection and synoptic sampling: Cement Creek, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, B.A.; Runkel, R.L.; Walton-Day, K.; Bencala, K.E.

    2002-01-01

    for the watershed to support remediation decisions, and quantifies processes affecting metal transport. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  2. Heavy metal uranium affects the brain cholinergic system in rat following sub-chronic and chronic exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensoussan, Helene; Grancolas, Line; Dhieux-Lestaevel, Bernadette; Delissen, Olivia; Vacher, Claire-Marie; Dublineau, Isabelle; Voisin, Philippe; Gourmelon, Patrick; Taouis, Mohammed; Lestaevel, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Uranium is a heavy metal naturally present in the environment that may be chronically ingested by the population. Previous studies have shown that uranium is present in the brain and alters behaviour, notably locomotor activity, sensorimotor ability, sleep/wake cycle and the memory process, but also metabolism of neurotransmitters. The cholinergic system mediates many cognitive systems, including those disturbed after chronic exposure to uranium i.e., spatial memory, sleep/wake cycle and locomotor activity. The objective of this study was to assess whether these disorders follow uranium-induced alteration of the cholinergic system. In comparison with 40 control rats, 40 rats drank 40 mg/L uranyl nitrate for 1.5 or 9 months. Cortex and hippocampus were removed and gene expression and protein level were analysed to determine potential changes in cholinergic receptors and acetylcholine levels. The expression of genes showed various alterations in the two brain areas after short- and long-term exposure. Nevertheless, protein levels of the choline acetyltransferase enzyme (ChAT), the vesicular transporter of acetylcholine (VAChT) and the nicotinic receptor β2 sub-unit (nAChRβ2) were unmodified in all cases of the experiment and muscarinic receptor type 1 (m1AChR) protein level was disturbed only after 9 months of exposure in the cortex (-30%). Acetylcholine levels were unchanged in the hippocampus after 1.5 and 9 months, but were decreased in the cortex after 1.5 months only (-22%). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was also unchanged in the hippocampus but decreased in the cortex after 1.5 and 9 months (-16% and -18%, respectively). Taken together, these data indicate that the cholinergic system is a target of uranium exposure in a structure-dependent and time-dependent manner. These cholinergic alterations could participate in behavioural impairments.

  3. Alternate cadmium exposure differentially affects the content of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine within the hypothalamus, median eminence, striatum and prefrontal cortex of male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquifino, A.I. [Dept. de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular III, Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Seara, R.; Fernandez-Rey, E.; Lafuente, A. [Lab. de Toxicologia, Universidad de Vigo, Orense (Spain)

    2001-05-01

    This work examines changes of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine contents in the hypothalamus, striatum and prefrontal cortex of the rat after an alternate schedule of cadmium administration. Age-associated changes were also evaluated, of those before puberty and after adult age. In control rats GABA content decreased with age in the median eminence and in anterior, mediobasal and posterior hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex and the striatum. Taurine content showed similar results with the exception of mediobasal hypothalamus and striatum, where no changes were detected. In pubertal rats treated with cadmium from 30 to 60 days of life, GABA content significantly decreased in all brain regions except in the striatum. When cadmium was administered from day 60 to 90 of life, GABA content was significantly changed in prefrontal cortex only compared with the age matched controls. Taurine content showed similar results in pubertal rats, with the exception of the median eminence and the mediobasal hypothalamus, neither of which showed a change. However, when cadmium was administered to rats from day 60 to 90 of life, taurine content only changed in prefrontal cortex compared with the age matched controls. These results suggest that cadmium differentially affects GABA and taurine contents within the hypothalamus, median eminence, striatum and prefrontal cortex as a function of age. (orig.)

  4. Cell culture-adaptive mutations of NS5A affect replication of hepatitis C virus differentially depending on the viral genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Aeri; Jin, Bora; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Kim, Seungtaek

    2017-01-01

    Most of HCV RNAs require cell culture-adaptive mutations for efficient replication in cell culture and a number of such mutations have been described including a well-known S2204I substitution mutation in NS5A protein. In contrast, the replication of genotype 2a JFH1 RNA in cell culture does not require any cell culture-adaptive mutation. Rather, the presence of S2204I mutation impaired the JFH1 RNA replication. In this study, we examined the effect of reversions and substitutions of NS5A cell culture-adaptive mutations on virus replication in different genotypic backgrounds after either placing genotype 1a NS5A in the genotype 2a JFH1 or vice versa. The results from this investigation suggest that the S2204I mutation affects HCV RNA replication differentially depending on the viral genotypes but that the effect was not simply explained by the genotypic background. Perhaps, the effect of the S2204I mutation on HCV replication reflects both intra- and intergenic interactions of NS5A protein. J. Med. Virol. 89:146-152, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Alternate cadmium exposure differentially affects the content of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine within the hypothalamus, median eminence, striatum and prefrontal cortex of male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquifino, A.I.; Seara, R.; Fernandez-Rey, E.; Lafuente, A.

    2001-01-01

    This work examines changes of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine contents in the hypothalamus, striatum and prefrontal cortex of the rat after an alternate schedule of cadmium administration. Age-associated changes were also evaluated, of those before puberty and after adult age. In control rats GABA content decreased with age in the median eminence and in anterior, mediobasal and posterior hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex and the striatum. Taurine content showed similar results with the exception of mediobasal hypothalamus and striatum, where no changes were detected. In pubertal rats treated with cadmium from 30 to 60 days of life, GABA content significantly decreased in all brain regions except in the striatum. When cadmium was administered from day 60 to 90 of life, GABA content was significantly changed in prefrontal cortex only compared with the age matched controls. Taurine content showed similar results in pubertal rats, with the exception of the median eminence and the mediobasal hypothalamus, neither of which showed a change. However, when cadmium was administered to rats from day 60 to 90 of life, taurine content only changed in prefrontal cortex compared with the age matched controls. These results suggest that cadmium differentially affects GABA and taurine contents within the hypothalamus, median eminence, striatum and prefrontal cortex as a function of age. (orig.)

  6. Pharmacological interference with metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 7 but not subtype 5 differentially affects within- and between-session extinction of Pavlovian conditioned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Iulia; Dietz, Monika; Peterlik, Daniel; Huber, Sabine E; Fendt, Markus; Neumann, Inga D; Flor, Peter J; Slattery, David A

    2012-03-01

    Fear extinction is defined as the attenuation of a conditioned-fear memory by re-exposing animals to the conditioned stimulus without the aversive stimulus. This process is known to be effectively enhanced via administration of D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial NMDA-receptor agonist. However, other glutamatergic mechanisms, such as interference with metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) subtypes 5 and 7 in the extinction of aversive memories are insufficiently understood. Using the allosteric mGluR5 receptor antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP), the mGluR7 allosteric agonist N,N'-dibenzyhydryl-ethane-1,2-diamine dihydrochloride (AMN082), and DCS for comparison, we aimed to study how pharmacological blockade of mGluR5 and activation of mGluR7 influenced within- and between-session conditioned-fear extinction training and extinction retention in rats. We show that when injected before extinction training, mGluR7 activation with AMN082 enhanced freezing and thereby attenuated within-session fear extinction, whereas both DCS and the mGluR5 receptor antagonist MPEP had no effect on this process. However, these differential drug effects were not long lasting, as no difference in extinction retention were observed 24 h later. Therefore, we assessed whether the compounds affect 24 h consolidation of extinction training following incomplete extinction training (between-session extinction). Similar to DCS, AMN082- but not MPEP-treated rats showed facilitated extinction retention, as exhibited by decreased freezing. Finally, using fluoxetine, we provide evidence that the effect of AMN082 on between-session extinction retention is most likely not via increasing 5-HT transmission. These findings demonstrate that mGluR7 activation differentially modulates conditioned-fear extinction, in dependence on the protocol employed, and suggests drugs with AMN082-like mechanisms as potential add-on drugs following exposure-based psychotherapy for fear-related human

  7. BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF LIPID METABOLISM IN ANIMALS AFFECTED BY HEAVY METAL SALTS AND TREATED WITH CARNITINE CHLORIDE AND SODIUM ALGINATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Bekus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lipid metabolism disorders in the organism affected by environmental pollutants, including poisoning with cadmium and lead salts are of topical matter nowadays. Objective. The study was aimed to examine biochemical features of lipid metabolism in rats subjected to toxic damage by lead and cadmium salts and treated with carnitine chloride and Algigel. Methods. Experiments were carried out on white mature outbred male rats weighing 180-200 g. To cause the toxic damage the animals were administered with aqueous solution of cadmium chloride and lead acetate daily for the period of 30 days using intra-gastric lavage. The indices of lipid metabolism were detected by biochemical methods. Results. In animals treated with cadmium chloride and lead acetate the following changes were observed: HDL-cholesterol concentrations significantly decreased, resulting in 87% of the levels in the intact animals on the third day, 84% on the fifth and 80% on the seventh day. Conversely, concentrations of HDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol significantly increased during the experiment. Respectively, the ratios for HDL-cholesterol are 240%, 352%, and 388%; and for VLDL-cholesterol 108%, 116%, and 132%. Conclusions. Lipids profile of the rats displayed changes in the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins of low, high and very low density.

  8. Differentiation of sympatric zebra and quagga mussels in ecotoxicological studies: A comparison of morphometric data, gene expression, and body metal concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerambrun, E; Delahaut, L; Geffard, A; David, E

    2018-06-15

    The zebra mussel is among the best studied freshwater molluscs in ecotoxicology, but information on the quagga mussel is lacking. Considering its potential spread, we selected a river in France in which zebra and quagga mussels coexisted, and then we used genetic markers to differentiate the two species and compared morphological parameters. cDNA sequencing assays of ten genes already used in zebra mussels were performed on quagga mussels to obtain functional specific primers. Then we analyzed the expression of genes involved in cellular metabolic activities (Cytochrome-c-oxidase - cox, and ATP synthase - atp), detoxification processes (Glutathione-S-Transferase - gst), oxidative stress (Catalase - cat), and digestive functions (Amylase - amy) on the two species. Whereas morphometric analysis underlined similarities in shape between the two species, relative gene expression profiles and metal concentrations evidenced strong differences. Quagga mussels notably presented half as high concentrations in Cd and Pb, two particularly toxic elements, as zebra mussels. These results imply that i) particular attention should be paid to properly distinguish the two species considering their similar external appearance, and ii) zebra mussels cannot be replaced by quagga mussels in ecotoxicological studies without preliminary investigations on biomarker response patterns. To our knowledge, this study is the first to have undertaken such an approach in gene expression analysis in quagga mussels, and more generally to have compared such biomarker responses of zebra and quagga mussels in the field. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ventral tegmental area disruption selectively affects CA1/CA2 but not CA3 place fields during a differential reward working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martig, Adria K; Mizumori, Sheri J Y

    2011-02-01

    Hippocampus (HPC) receives dopaminergic (DA) projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra. These inputs appear to provide a modulatory signal that influences HPC dependent behaviors and place fields. We examined how efferent projections from VTA to HPC influence spatial working memory and place fields when the reward context changes. CA1 and CA3 process environmental context changes differently and VTA preferentially innervates CA1. Given these anatomical data and electrophysiological evidence that implicate DA in reward processing, we predicted that CA1 place fields would respond more strongly to both VTA disruption and changes in the reward context than CA3 place fields. Rats (N = 9) were implanted with infusion cannula targeting VTA and recording tetrodes aimed at HPC. Then they were tested on a differential reward, win-shift working memory task. One recording session consisted of 5 baseline and 5 manipulation trials during which place cells in CA1/CA2 (N = 167) and CA3 (N = 94) were recorded. Prior to manipulation trials rats were infused with either baclofen or saline and then subjected to control or reward conditions during which the learned locations of large and small reward quantities were reversed. VTA disruption resulted in an increase in errors, and in CA1/CA2 place field reorganization. There were no changes in any measures of CA3 place field stability during VTA disruption. Reward manipulations did not affect performance or place field stability in CA1/CA2 or CA3; however, changes in the reward locations "rescued" performance and place field stability in CA1/CA2 when VTA activity was compromised, perhaps by trigging compensatory mechanisms. These data support the hypothesis that VTA contributes to spatial working memory performance perhaps by maintaining place field stability selectively in CA1/CA2. Copyright © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Social Memory Formation Rapidly and Differentially Affects the Motivation and Performance of Vocal Communication Signals in the Bengalese Finch (Lonchura striata var. domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toccalino, Danielle C; Sun, Herie; Sakata, Jon T

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive processes like the formation of social memories can shape the nature of social interactions between conspecifics. Male songbirds use vocal signals during courtship interactions with females, but the degree to which social memory and familiarity influences the likelihood and structure of male courtship song remains largely unknown. Using a habituation-dishabituation paradigm, we found that a single, brief (memory for that female: adult male Bengalese finches were significantly less likely to produce courtship song to an individual female when re-exposed to her 5 min later (i.e., habituation). Familiarity also rapidly decreased the duration of courtship songs but did not affect other measures of song performance (e.g., song tempo and the stereotypy of syllable structure and sequencing). Consistent with a contribution of social memory to the decrease in courtship song with repeated exposures to the same female, the likelihood that male Bengalese finches produced courtship song increased when they were exposed to a different female (i.e., dishabituation). Three consecutive exposures to individual females also led to the formation of a longer-term memory that persisted over days. Specifically, when courtship song production was assessed 2 days after initial exposures to females, males produced fewer and shorter courtship songs to familiar females than to unfamiliar females. Measures of song performance, however, were not different between courtship songs produced to familiar and unfamiliar females. The formation of a longer-term memory for individual females seemed to require at least three exposures because males did not differentially produce courtship song to unfamiliar females and females that they had been exposed to only once or twice. Taken together, these data indicate that brief exposures to individual females led to the rapid formation and persistence of social memories and support the existence of distinct mechanisms underlying the motivation to

  11. Intestinal Barrier Function and the Gut Microbiome Are Differentially Affected in Mice Fed a Western-Style Diet or Drinking Water Supplemented with Fructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volynets, Valentina; Louis, Sandrine; Pretz, Dominik; Lang, Lisa; Ostaff, Maureen J; Wehkamp, Jan; Bischoff, Stephan C

    2017-05-01

    Background: The consumption of a Western-style diet (WSD) and high fructose intake are risk factors for metabolic diseases. The underlying mechanisms are largely unclear. Objective: To unravel the mechanisms by which a WSD and fructose promote metabolic disease, we investigated their effects on the gut microbiome and barrier function. Methods: Adult female C57BL/6J mice were fed a sugar- and fat-rich WSD or control diet (CD) for 12 wk and given access to tap water or fructose-supplemented water. The microbiota was analyzed with the use of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Barrier function was studied with the use of permeability tests, and endotoxin, mucus thickness, and gene expressions were measured. Results: The WSD increased body weight gain but not endotoxin translocation compared with the CD. In contrast, high fructose intake increased endotoxin translocation 2.6- and 3.8-fold in the groups fed the CD + fructose and WSD + fructose, respectively, compared with the CD group. The WSD + fructose treatment also induced a loss of mucus thickness in the colon (-46%) and reduced defensin expression in the ileum and colon. The lactulose:mannitol ratio in the WSD + fructose mice was 1.8-fold higher than in the CD mice. Microbiota analysis revealed that fructose, but not the WSD, increased the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio by 88% for CD + fructose and 63% for WSD + fructose compared with the CD group. Bifidobacterium abundance was greater in the WSD mice than in the CD mice (63-fold) and in the WSD + fructose mice than in the CD + fructose mice (330-fold). Conclusions: The consumption of a WSD or high fructose intake differentially affects gut permeability and the microbiome. Whether these differences are related to the distinct clinical outcomes, whereby the WSD primarily promotes weight gain and high fructose intake causes barrier dysfunction, needs to be investigated in future studies. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Pre-learning stress differentially affects long-term memory for emotional words, depending on temporal proximity to the learning experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Clark, Brianne; Warnecke, Ashlee; Smith, Lindsay; Tabar, Jennifer; Talbot, Jeffery N

    2011-07-06

    Stress exerts a profound, yet complex, influence on learning and memory and can enhance, impair or have no effect on these processes. Here, we have examined how the administration of stress at different times before learning affects long-term (24-hr) memory for neutral and emotional information. Participants submerged their dominant hand into a bath of ice cold water (Stress) or into a bath of warm water (No stress) for 3 min. Either immediately (Exp. 1) or 30 min (Exp. 2) after the water bath manipulation, participants were presented with a list of 30 words varying in emotional valence. The next day, participants' memory for the word list was assessed via free recall and recognition tests. In both experiments, stressed participants exhibited greater blood pressure, salivary cortisol levels, and subjective pain and stress ratings than non-stressed participants in response to the water bath manipulation. Stress applied immediately prior to learning (Exp. 1) enhanced the recognition of positive words, while stress applied 30 min prior to learning (Exp. 2) impaired free recall of negative words. Participants' recognition of positive words in Experiment 1 was positively associated with their heart rate responses to the water bath manipulation, while participants' free recall of negative words in Experiment 2 was negatively associated with their blood pressure and cortisol responses to the water bath manipulation. These findings indicate that the differential effects of pre-learning stress on long-term memory may depend on the temporal proximity of the stressor to the learning experience and the emotional nature of the to-be-learned information. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Cyclophilin-B Modulates Collagen Cross-linking by Differentially Affecting Lysine Hydroxylation in the Helical and Telopeptidyl Domains of Tendon Type I Collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terajima, Masahiko; Taga, Yuki; Chen, Yulong; Cabral, Wayne A; Hou-Fu, Guo; Srisawasdi, Sirivimol; Nagasawa, Masako; Sumida, Noriko; Hattori, Shunji; Kurie, Jonathan M; Marini, Joan C; Yamauchi, Mitsuo

    2016-04-29

    Covalent intermolecular cross-linking provides collagen fibrils with stability. The cross-linking chemistry is tissue-specific and determined primarily by the state of lysine hydroxylation at specific sites. A recent study on cyclophilin B (CypB) null mice, a model of recessive osteogenesis imperfecta, demonstrated that lysine hydroxylation at the helical cross-linking site of bone type I collagen was diminished in these animals (Cabral, W. A., Perdivara, I., Weis, M., Terajima, M., Blissett, A. R., Chang, W., Perosky, J. E., Makareeva, E. N., Mertz, E. L., Leikin, S., Tomer, K. B., Kozloff, K. M., Eyre, D. R., Yamauchi, M., and Marini, J. C. (2014) PLoS Genet 10, e1004465). However, the extent of decrease appears to be tissue- and molecular site-specific, the mechanism of which is unknown. Here we report that although CypB deficiency resulted in lower lysine hydroxylation in the helical cross-linking sites, it was increased in the telopeptide cross-linking sites in tendon type I collagen. This resulted in a decrease in the lysine aldehyde-derived cross-links but generation of hydroxylysine aldehyde-derived cross-links. The latter were absent from the wild type and heterozygous mice. Glycosylation of hydroxylysine residues was moderately increased in the CypB null tendon. We found that CypB interacted with all lysyl hydroxylase isoforms (isoforms 1-3) and a putative lysyl hydroxylase-2 chaperone, 65-kDa FK506-binding protein. Tendon collagen in CypB null mice showed severe size and organizational abnormalities. The data indicate that CypB modulates collagen cross-linking by differentially affecting lysine hydroxylation in a site-specific manner, possibly via its interaction with lysyl hydroxylases and associated molecules. This study underscores the critical importance of collagen post-translational modifications in connective tissue formation. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Cyclophilin-B Modulates Collagen Cross-linking by Differentially Affecting Lysine Hydroxylation in the Helical and Telopeptidyl Domains of Tendon Type I Collagen*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terajima, Masahiko; Taga, Yuki; Chen, Yulong; Cabral, Wayne A.; Hou-Fu, Guo; Srisawasdi, Sirivimol; Nagasawa, Masako; Sumida, Noriko; Hattori, Shunji; Kurie, Jonathan M.; Marini, Joan C.; Yamauchi, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    Covalent intermolecular cross-linking provides collagen fibrils with stability. The cross-linking chemistry is tissue-specific and determined primarily by the state of lysine hydroxylation at specific sites. A recent study on cyclophilin B (CypB) null mice, a model of recessive osteogenesis imperfecta, demonstrated that lysine hydroxylation at the helical cross-linking site of bone type I collagen was diminished in these animals (Cabral, W. A., Perdivara, I., Weis, M., Terajima, M., Blissett, A. R., Chang, W., Perosky, J. E., Makareeva, E. N., Mertz, E. L., Leikin, S., Tomer, K. B., Kozloff, K. M., Eyre, D. R., Yamauchi, M., and Marini, J. C. (2014) PLoS Genet. 10, e1004465). However, the extent of decrease appears to be tissue- and molecular site-specific, the mechanism of which is unknown. Here we report that although CypB deficiency resulted in lower lysine hydroxylation in the helical cross-linking sites, it was increased in the telopeptide cross-linking sites in tendon type I collagen. This resulted in a decrease in the lysine aldehyde-derived cross-links but generation of hydroxylysine aldehyde-derived cross-links. The latter were absent from the wild type and heterozygous mice. Glycosylation of hydroxylysine residues was moderately increased in the CypB null tendon. We found that CypB interacted with all lysyl hydroxylase isoforms (isoforms 1–3) and a putative lysyl hydroxylase-2 chaperone, 65-kDa FK506-binding protein. Tendon collagen in CypB null mice showed severe size and organizational abnormalities. The data indicate that CypB modulates collagen cross-linking by differentially affecting lysine hydroxylation in a site-specific manner, possibly via its interaction with lysyl hydroxylases and associated molecules. This study underscores the critical importance of collagen post-translational modifications in connective tissue formation. PMID:26934917

  15. Social Memory Formation Rapidly and Differentially Affects the Motivation and Performance of Vocal Communication Signals in the Bengalese Finch (Lonchura striata var. domestica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toccalino, Danielle C.; Sun, Herie; Sakata, Jon T.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive processes like the formation of social memories can shape the nature of social interactions between conspecifics. Male songbirds use vocal signals during courtship interactions with females, but the degree to which social memory and familiarity influences the likelihood and structure of male courtship song remains largely unknown. Using a habituation-dishabituation paradigm, we found that a single, brief (female led to the formation of a short-term memory for that female: adult male Bengalese finches were significantly less likely to produce courtship song to an individual female when re-exposed to her 5 min later (i.e., habituation). Familiarity also rapidly decreased the duration of courtship songs but did not affect other measures of song performance (e.g., song tempo and the stereotypy of syllable structure and sequencing). Consistent with a contribution of social memory to the decrease in courtship song with repeated exposures to the same female, the likelihood that male Bengalese finches produced courtship song increased when they were exposed to a different female (i.e., dishabituation). Three consecutive exposures to individual females also led to the formation of a longer-term memory that persisted over days. Specifically, when courtship song production was assessed 2 days after initial exposures to females, males produced fewer and shorter courtship songs to familiar females than to unfamiliar females. Measures of song performance, however, were not different between courtship songs produced to familiar and unfamiliar females. The formation of a longer-term memory for individual females seemed to require at least three exposures because males did not differentially produce courtship song to unfamiliar females and females that they had been exposed to only once or twice. Taken together, these data indicate that brief exposures to individual females led to the rapid formation and persistence of social memories and support the existence of distinct

  16. Thermal Aging Effects on Residual Stress and Residual Strain Distribution on Heat Affected Zone of Alloy 600 in Dissimilar Metal Weld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Junhyuk; Choi, Kyoung Joon; Kim, Ji Hyun [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Dissimilar metal weld (DMW), consisting of Alloy 600, Alloy 182, and A508 Gr.3, has been widely used as a joining material of the reactor pressure vessel penetration nozzle and the steam generator tubing for pressurized water reactors (PWR) because of its good mechanical strength, thermal conductivity, and corrosion resistance. Residual tensile stress is mainly nominated as a cause of SCC in light water reactors by IAEA report. So, to relax the residual stress, post-weld heat treatment is required after manufacturing process such as welding. However, thermal treatment has a great effect on the microstructure and the chromium depletion profile on Alloy 600, so called sensitization. By this reason, HAZ on Alloy 600 is critical to crack. According to G.A. Young et al., Crack growth rates (CGR) in the Alloy 600 HAZ were about 30 times faster than those in the Alloy 600 base metal tested under the same conditions. And according to Z.P. Lu et al., CGR in the Alloy 600 HAZ can be more than 20 times higher than that in its base metal. There are some methods to measure the exact value of residual stress on the material surface. The most common way is X-ray diffraction method (XRD). The principle of XRD is based on lattice strains and depends on the changes in the spacing of the atomic planes in material. And there is a computer simulation method to estimate residual stress distribution which is called ANSYS. This study was conducted to investigate how thermal aging affects residual stress and residual strain distribution of Alloy 600 HAZ. Following conclusions can be drawn from this study. According to preceding researches and this study, both the relaxation of residual stress and the change of residual strain follow as similar way, spreading out from concentrated region. The result of Vickers micro-hardness tester shows that tensile residual stresses are distributed broadly on the material aged by 15 years. Therefore, HT400{sub Y}15 material is weakest state for PWSCC. The

  17. First Industrial Tests of a Drum Monitor Matrix Correction for the Fissile Mass Measurement in Large Volume Historic Metallic Residues with the Differential Die-away Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoni, R.; Passard, C.; Perot, B.; Batifol, M.; Vandamme, J.C. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 St Paul-lez-Durance, (France); Grassi, G. [AREVA NC, 1 place Jean-Millier, 92084 Paris-La-Defense cedex (France)

    2015-07-01

    The fissile mass in radioactive waste drums filled with compacted metallic residues (spent fuel hulls and nozzles) produced at AREVA La Hague reprocessing plant is measured by neutron interrogation with the Differential Die-away measurement Technique (DDT. In the next years, old hulls and nozzles mixed with Ion-Exchange Resins will be measured. The ion-exchange resins increase neutron moderation in the matrix, compared to the waste measured in the current process. In this context, the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory (NML) of CEA Cadarache has studied a matrix effect correction method, based on a drum monitor ({sup 3}He proportional counter inside the measurement cavity). A previous study performed with the NML R and D measurement cell PROMETHEE 6 has shown the feasibility of method, and the capability of MCNP simulations to correctly reproduce experimental data and to assess the performances of the proposed correction. A next step of the study has focused on the performance assessment of the method on the industrial station using numerical simulation. A correlation between the prompt calibration coefficient of the {sup 239}Pu signal and the drum monitor signal was established using the MCNPX computer code and a fractional factorial experimental design composed of matrix parameters representative of the variation range of historical waste. Calculations have showed that the method allows the assay of the fissile mass with an uncertainty within a factor of 2, while the matrix effect without correction ranges on 2 decades. In this paper, we present and discuss the first experimental tests on the industrial ACC measurement system. A calculation vs. experiment benchmark has been achieved by performing dedicated calibration measurement with a representative drum and {sup 235}U samples. The preliminary comparison between calculation and experiment shows a satisfactory agreement for the drum monitor. The final objective of this work is to confirm the reliability of the

  18. First Industrial Tests of a Drum Monitor Matrix Correction for the Fissile Mass Measurement in Large Volume Historic Metallic Residues with the Differential Die-away Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoni, R.; Passard, C.; Perot, B.; Batifol, M.; Vandamme, J.C.; Grassi, G.

    2015-01-01

    The fissile mass in radioactive waste drums filled with compacted metallic residues (spent fuel hulls and nozzles) produced at AREVA La Hague reprocessing plant is measured by neutron interrogation with the Differential Die-away measurement Technique (DDT. In the next years, old hulls and nozzles mixed with Ion-Exchange Resins will be measured. The ion-exchange resins increase neutron moderation in the matrix, compared to the waste measured in the current process. In this context, the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory (NML) of CEA Cadarache has studied a matrix effect correction method, based on a drum monitor ( 3 He proportional counter inside the measurement cavity). A previous study performed with the NML R and D measurement cell PROMETHEE 6 has shown the feasibility of method, and the capability of MCNP simulations to correctly reproduce experimental data and to assess the performances of the proposed correction. A next step of the study has focused on the performance assessment of the method on the industrial station using numerical simulation. A correlation between the prompt calibration coefficient of the 239 Pu signal and the drum monitor signal was established using the MCNPX computer code and a fractional factorial experimental design composed of matrix parameters representative of the variation range of historical waste. Calculations have showed that the method allows the assay of the fissile mass with an uncertainty within a factor of 2, while the matrix effect without correction ranges on 2 decades. In this paper, we present and discuss the first experimental tests on the industrial ACC measurement system. A calculation vs. experiment benchmark has been achieved by performing dedicated calibration measurement with a representative drum and 235 U samples. The preliminary comparison between calculation and experiment shows a satisfactory agreement for the drum monitor. The final objective of this work is to confirm the reliability of the modeling approach

  19. The Arabidopsis arc5 and arc6 mutations differentially affect plastid morphology in pavement and guard cells in the leaf epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Makoto T; Yasuzawa, Mana; Kojo, Kei H; Niwa, Yasuo; Abe, Tomoko; Yoshida, Shigeo; Nakano, Takeshi; Itoh, Ryuuichi D

    2018-01-01

    of epidermal plastids, and indicate that dysfunctions in ARC5 and ARC6 differentially affect plastid replication among mesophyll cells, PCs, and GCs within a single leaf.

  20. Aerobic exercise training differentially affects ACE C- and N-domain activities in humans: Interactions with ACE I/D polymorphism and association with vascular reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Cléber Rene; Fernandes, Tiago; Lemos, José Ribeiro; Magalhães, Flávio de Castro; Trombetta, Ivani Credidio; Alves, Guilherme Barreto; Mota, Glória de Fátima Alves da; Dias, Rodrigo Gonçalves; Pereira, Alexandre Costa; Krieger, José Eduardo; Negrão, Carlos Eduardo; Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes

    2018-01-01

    genotype. AET differentially affects the ACE C- and N-domain activities, and the N-domain activity is dependent on ACE polymorphism.

  1. Factors affecting nucleolytic efficiency of some ternary metal complexes with DNA binding and recognition domains. Crystal and molecular structure of Zn(phen)(edda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Hoi-Ling; Ong, Han-Kiat Alan; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd; Yamin, Bohari M; Tiekink, Edward R T; Tan, Kong Wai; Maah, Mohd Jamil; Caracelli, Ignez; Ng, Chew Hee

    2008-11-01

    The binding selectivity of the M(phen)(edda) (M=Cu, Co, Ni, Zn; phen=1,10-phenanthroline, edda=ethylenediaminediacetic acid) complexes towards ds(CG)(6), ds(AT)(6) and ds(CGCGAATTCGCG) B-form oligonucleotide duplexes were studied by CD spectroscopy and molecular modeling. The binding mode is intercalation and there is selectivity towards AT-sequence and stacking preference for A/A parallel or diagonal adjacent base steps in their intercalation. The nucleolytic properties of these complexes were investigated and the factors affecting the extent of cleavage were determined to be: concentration of complex, the nature of metal(II) ion, type of buffer, pH of buffer, incubation time, incubation temperature, and the presence of hydrogen peroxide or ascorbic acid as exogenous reagents. The fluorescence property of these complexes and its origin were also investigated. The crystal structure of the Zn(phen)(edda) complex is reported in which the zinc atom displays a distorted trans-N(4)O(2) octahedral geometry; the crystal packing features double layers of complex molecules held together by extensive hydrogen bonding that inter-digitate with adjacent double layers via pi...pi interactions between 1,10-phenanthroline residues. The structure is compared with that of the recently described copper(II) analogue and, with the latter, included in molecular modeling.

  2. Spectral and physical properties of metal in meteorite assemblages - implications of asteroid surface materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffey, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    One of the objectives of the present paper is related to a definition of the spectral contribution of the nickel-iron metal component in meteoritic assemblages. Another objective is the elucidation of the chemical, physical, and petrographic properties of the metal grains which affect the spectral signature in asteroid surface materials. It is pointed out that an improved understanding of the spectral and physical properties of metal in asteroid regoliths should permit an improved characterization of these objects, and, in particular, a better evaluation of the differentiated or undifferentiated nature of the S-type and M-type asteroids. Attention is given to the spectra of iron and nickel-iron metals, the spectral effects of metal in chondritic assemblages, the spectral reflectance of metal grains in ordinary chondrites, the nature of the surfaces of chondritic metal grains, the origin of coats on chondritic metal grains, and the fragmentation of metal on asteroid surfaces. 57 references

  3. Stroke and TIA survivors’ cognitive beliefs and affective responses regarding treatment and future stroke risk differentially predict medication adherence and categorised stroke risk

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, L. Alison; Diefenbach, Michael A.; Abrams, Jessica; Horowitz, Carol R.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive beliefs and affective responses to illness and treatment are known to independently predict health behaviours. The purpose of the current study is to assess the relative importance of four psychological domains – specifically, affective illness, cognitive illness, affective treatment and cognitive treatment – for predicting stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) survivors’ adherence to stroke prevention medications as well as their objective, categorised stroke risk. We assessed...

  4. Different culture media affect growth characteristics, surface marker distribution and chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmann, Sebastien; Moradi, Babak; Frank, Sebastian; Dreher, Thomas; Kämmerer, Peer Wolfgang; Richter, Wiltrud; Gotterbarm, Tobias

    2013-07-30

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) play an important role in modern tissue engineering, while distinct variations of culture media compositions and supplements have been reported. Because MSCs are heterogeneous regarding their regenerative potential and their surface markers, these parameters were compared in four widely used culture media compositions. MSCs were isolated from bone marrow and expanded in four established cell culture media. MSC yield/1000 MNCs, passage time and growth index were observed. In P4, typical MSC surface markers were analysed by fluorescence cytometry. Additionally, chondrogenic, adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation potential were evaluated. Growth index and P0 cell yield varied importantly between the media. The different expansion media had a significant influence on the expression of CD10, CD90, CD105, CD140b CD146 and STRO-1. While no significant differences were observed regarding osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation, chondrogenic differentiation was superior in medium A as reflected by GAG/DNA content. The choice of expansion medium can have a significant influence on growth, differentiation potential and surface marker expression of mesenchymal stromal cells, which is of fundamental importance for tissue engineering procedures.

  5. Differential effects of metal contamination on the transcript expression of immune- and stress-response genes in the Sydney Rock oyster, Saccostrea glomerata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Daisy A.; Thompson, Emma L.; Nair, Sham V.; Raftos, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental contamination by metals is a serious threat to the biological sustainability of coastal ecosystems. Our current understanding of the potential biological effects of metals in these ecosystems is limited. This study tested the transcriptional expression of immune- and stress-response genes in Sydney Rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata). Oysters were exposed to four metals (cadmium, copper, lead and zinc) commonly associated with anthropogenic pollution in coastal waterways. Seven target genes (superoxide dismutase, ferritin, ficolin, defensin, HSP70, HSP90 and metallothionein) were selected. Quantitative (real-time) PCR analyses of the transcript expression of these genes showed that each of the different metals elicited unique transcriptional profiles. Significant changes in transcription were found for 18 of the 28 combinations tested (4 metals × 7 genes). Of these, 16 reflected down-regulation of gene transcription. HSP90 was the only gene significantly up-regulated by metal contamination (cadmium and zinc only), while defensin expression was significantly down-regulated by exposure to all four metals. This inhibition could have a significant negative effect on the oyster immune system, promoting susceptibility to opportunistic infections and disease. -- Highlights: ► Oysters were exposed to Cd, Cu, Pb or Zn, all commonly associated with coastal pollution. ► qPCR identified significant down-regulation in stress- and immune-response genes in oysters exposed to these metals. ► qPCR showed that each of the different metals elicited unique transcriptional profiles. ► The genes identified have the potential to lead to increased disease susceptibility in oysters. -- qPCR identified significant down-regulation in stress- and immune-response genes in oysters exposed to metals, which could lead to increased disease susceptibility

  6. Metal chaperones: a holistic approach to the treatment of AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Anthony Adlard

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available As the burden of proof for the role of metal ion dysregulation in the pathogenesis of multiple CNS disorders grows, it has become important to more precisely identify and differentiate the biological effects of various pharmacological modulators of metal ion homeostasis. This is particularly evident in disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, where the use of metal chaperones (that transport metals, as opposed to chelators (which exclude metals from biological interactions, may prove to be the first truly disease modifying approach for this condition. The purpose of this mini-review is to highlight the emerging notion that metal chaperones, such as PBT2 (Prana Biotechnology, modulate a variety of critical pathways affecting key aspects of the AD cascade to provide a more holistic approach to the treatment of this disease.

  7. Regional probabilistic risk assessment of heavy metals in different environmental media and land uses: An urbanization-affected drinking water supply area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chi; Cai, Yimin; Wang, Tieyu; Xiao, Rongbo; Chen, Weiping

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we proposed a Regional Probabilistic Risk Assessment (RPRA) to estimate the health risks of exposing residents to heavy metals in different environmental media and land uses. The mean and ranges of heavy metal concentrations were measured in water, sediments, soil profiles and surface soils under four land uses along the Shunde Waterway, a drinking water supply area in China. Hazard quotients (HQs) were estimated for various exposure routes and heavy metal species. Riverbank vegetable plots and private vegetable plots had 95th percentiles of total HQs greater than 3 and 1, respectively, indicating high risks of cultivation on the flooded riverbank. Vegetable uptake and leaching to groundwater were the two transfer routes of soil metals causing high health risks. Exposure risks during outdoor recreation, farming and swimming along the Shunde Waterway are theoretically safe. Arsenic and cadmium were identified as the priority pollutants that contribute the most risk among the heavy metals. Sensitivity analysis showed that the exposure route, variations in exposure parameters, mobility of heavy metals in soil, and metal concentrations all influenced the risk estimates.

  8. Bioavailability of heavy metals, germanium and rare earth elements at Davidschacht dump-field in mine affected area of Freiberg (Saxony)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midula, Pavol; Wiche, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Bioavailability research presents an essential tool, in modern phytoremediation and phytomining technologies, allowing the estimation of plant available fractions of elements in soils. However, up to date, sufficient interdisciplinary knowledge on the biogeochemically impacted behavior of specific target elements, in particular Ge and REEs in mining affected soils and their uptake into strategically used plants is lacking. This presented work is focused on a correlation study between the concentrations of selected heavy metals, Ge and REEs in soils formed on the top of the dump-field of Davidschacht and the corresponding their concentrations in 12 vascular plant species. The mine-dump of Davidschacht, situated in the Freiberg (Saxony, Germany) municipality area was chosen as the study area, which has been considered to be a high contaminated enclave, due to the mining history of the region. In total 12 sampling sites with differing composition of plant species were selected. At each sampling site soil samples from a soil depth of 0 - 10 cm and samples of plant material (shoots) were taken. The soil samples were analysed for total concentration of elements, pH (H2O) and consequently analysed by 4-step sequential extraction (SE) to determine fractions of elements that are mobile (fraction 1), acid soluble (pH 5) (fraction 2), bound to organic and oxidizable matter (fraction 3) and bound to amorphic oxides (fraction 4). The plant material was decomposed by hydrofluoric acid in order to extract the elements. Concentrations of elements in soil extracts and digestion solutions were analysed by ICP-MS. For all species bioconcentration factor (BCF) was calculated of the total concentration of elements in order to investigate the bioaccumulation potential. Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were chosen as the representative heavy metals. Within the REEs neodymium (Nd) and cerium (Ce) were selected as representatives for all REEs, since Nd and Ce correlated significant

  9. Bearing for liquid metal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, R.J.; Pennell, W.E.; Wasko, J.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid metal pump bearing support comprises a series of tangentially oriented spokes that connect the bearing cylinder to the pump internals structure. The spokes may be arranged in a plurality of planes extending from the bearing cylinder to the pump internals with the spokes in one plane being arranged alternately with those in the next plane. The bearing support structure provides the pump with sufficient lateral support for the bearing structure together with the capability of accommodating differential thermal expansion without adversely affecting pump performance

  10. Bioaccumulation of selected heavy metals by the water fern, Azolla filiculoides Lam. in a wetland ecosystem affected by sewage, mine and industrial pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wet, L.P.D. de; Schoonbee, H.J.; Pretorius, J.; Bezuidenhout, L.M. (Rand Afrikaans University, Johannesburg (South Africa). Depts. of Zoology and Botany, Research Unit for Aquatic and Terrestrial Ecosystems)

    1990-10-01

    The bio-accumulation of the heavy metals, Fe, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mn and Cr by the water fern, Azolla filiculoides Lam. in a wetland ecosystem polluted by effluents from sewage works, mines and industries was investigated. Results showed that the different metals can be accumulated by the water fern at concentration levels not necessarily related to their actual concentrations in the aquatic environment, as measured in this case, in the bottom sediments. 45 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. Assessment of metal contamination in a small mining- and smelting-affected watershed: high resolution monitoring coupled with spatial analysis by GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coynel, Alexandra; Blanc, Gérard; Marache, Antoine; Schäfer, Jörg; Dabrin, Aymeric; Maneux, Eric; Bossy, Cécile; Masson, Matthieu; Lavaux, Gilbert

    2009-05-01

    The Riou Mort River watershed (SW France), representative of a heavily polluted, small, heterogeneous watershed, represents a major source for the polymetallic pollution of the Lot-Garonne-Gironde fluvial-estuarine system due to former mining and ore-treatment activities. In order to assess spatial distribution of the metal/metalloid contamination in the watershed, a high resolution hydrological and geochemical monitoring were performed during one year at four permanent observation stations. Additionally, thirty-five stream sediment samples were collected at representative key sites and analyzed for metal/metalloid (Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, As, Sb, Mo, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Th, U and Hg) concentrations. The particulate concentrations in water and stream sediments show high spatial differences for most of the studied elements suggesting strong anthropogenic and/or lithogenic influences; for stream sediments, the sequence of the highest variability, ranging from 100% to 300%, is the following: Mo < Cu < Hg < As < Sb < Cd < Zn < Pb. Multidimensional statistical analyses combined with metal/metalloid maps generated by GIS tool were used to establish relationships between elements, to identify metal/metalloid sources and localize geochemical anomalies attributed to local geochemical background, urban and industrial activities. Finally, this study presents an approach to assess anthropogenic trace metal inputs within this watershed by combining lithology-dependent geochemical background values, metal/metalloid concentrations in stream sediments and mass balances of element fluxes at four key sites. The strongest anthropogenic contributions to particulate element fluxes are 90-95% for Cd, Zn and Hg in downstream sub-catchments. The localisation of anthropogenic metal/metalloid sources in restricted areas offers a great opportunity to further significantly reduce metal emissions and restore the Lot-Garonne-Gironde fluvial-estuarine ecosystem.

  12. Multi-phase distribution and comprehensive ecological risk assessment of heavy metal pollutants in a river affected by acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jianbo; Ru, Xuan; Xie, Binbin; Zhang, Wanhui; Wu, Haizhen; Wu, Chaofei; Wei, Chaohai

    2017-07-01

    To date, there is a lack of a comprehensive research on heavy metals detection and ecological risk assessment in river water, sediments, pore water (PW) and suspended solids (SS). Here, the concentrations of heavy metals, including Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd, Pb and As, and their distribution between the four phases was studied. Samples for analysis were taken from twelve sites of the Hengshi River, Guangdong Province, China, during the rainy and dry seasons. A new comprehensive ecological risk index (CERI) based on considering metal contents, pollution indices, toxicity coefficients and water categories is offered for prediction of potential risk on aquatic organisms. The results of comprehensive analysis showed that the highest concentrations of Cu, Zn and Mn of 6.42, 87.17 and 98.74mg/L, respectively, in PW were comparable with those in water, while concentrations of Cd, Pb and As of 609.5, 2757 and 96.38μg/L, respectively, were 2-5 times higher. The sum of the exchangeable and carbonate fractions of target metals in sediments followed the order of Cd > Mn > Zn > Pb > Cu > As. The distribution of heavy metals in phases followed the order of sediment > SS > water > PW, having the sum content in water and PW lower than 2% of total. The elevated ecological risk for a single metal and the phase were 34,585 for Cd and 1160 for water, respectively, implied Cd as a priority pollutant in the considered area. According to the CERI, the maximum risk value of 769.3 was smaller than 1160 in water, but higher than those in other phases. Out of considering the water categories and contribution coefficients, the CERI was proved to be more reliable for assessing the pollution of rivers with heavy metals. These results imply that the CERI has a potential of adequate assessment of multi-phase composite metals pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Task Difficulty Differentially Affects Two Measures of Processing Load: The Pupil Response during Sentence Processing and Delayed Cued Recall of the Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekveld, Adriana A.; Festen, Joost M.; Kramer, Kramera

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors assessed the influence of masking level (29% or 71% sentence perception) and test modality on the processing load during language perception as reflected by the pupil response. In addition, the authors administered a delayed cued stimulus recall test to examine whether processing load affected the encoding of…

  14. Differential performance on tasks of affective processing and decision-making in patients with Panic Disorder and Panic Disorder with comorbid Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Johanna S; Erickson, Kristine; Luckenbaugh, David A; Weiland-Fiedler, Petra; Geraci, Marilla; Sahakian, Barbara J; Charney, Dennis; Drevets, Wayne C; Neumeister, Alexander

    2006-10-01

    Neuropsychological studies have provided evidence for deficits in psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and mood disorders. However, neuropsychological function in Panic Disorder (PD) or PD with a comorbid diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) has not been comprehensively studied. The present study investigated neuropsychological functioning in patients with PD and PD + MDD by focusing on tasks that assess attention, psychomotor speed, executive function, decision-making, and affective processing. Twenty-two unmedicated patients with PD, eleven of whom had a secondary diagnosis of MDD, were compared to twenty-two healthy controls, matched for gender, age, and intelligence on tasks of attention, memory, psychomotor speed, executive function, decision-making, and affective processing from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), Cambridge Gamble Task, and Affective Go/No-go Task. Relative to matched healthy controls, patients with PD + MDD displayed an attentional bias toward negatively-valenced verbal stimuli (Affective Go/No-go Task) and longer decision-making latencies (Cambridge Gamble Task). Furthermore, the PD + MDD group committed more errors on a task of memory and visual discrimination compared to their controls. In contrast, no group differences were found for PD patients relative to matched control subjects. The sample size was limited, however, all patients were drug-free at the time of testing. The PD + MDD patients demonstrated deficits on a task involving visual discrimination and working memory, and an attentional bias towards negatively-valenced stimuli. In addition, patients with comorbid depression provided qualitatively different responses in the areas of affective and decision-making processes.

  15. Binding of sFRP-3 to EGF in the extra-cellular space affects proliferation, differentiation and morphogenetic events regulated by the two molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Scardigli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: sFRP-3 is a soluble antagonist of Wnts, widely expressed in developing embryos. The Wnt gene family comprises cysteine-rich secreted ligands that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, organogenesis and oncogenesis of different organisms ranging from worms to mammals. In the canonical signal transduction pathway Wnt proteins bind to the extracellular domain of Frizzled receptors and consequently recruit Dishevelled (Dsh to the cell membrane. In addition to Wnt membrane receptors belonging to the Frizzled family, several other molecules have been described which share homology in the CRD domain and lack the putative trans-membrane domain, such as sFRP molecules (soluble Frizzled Related Protein. Among them, sFRP-3 was originally isolated from bovine articular cartilage and also as a component of the Spemann organizer. sFRP-3 blocks Wnt-8 induced axis duplication in Xenopus embryos and binds to the surface of cells expressing a membrane-anchored form of Wnt-1. Injection of sFRP-3 mRNA blocks expression of XMyoD mRNA and leads to embryos with enlarged heads and shortened trunks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report that sFRP-3 specifically blocks EGF-induced fibroblast proliferation and foci formation. Over-expression of sFRP-3 reverts EGF-mediated inhibition of hair follicle development in the mouse ectoderm while its ablation in Xenopus maintains EGF-mediated inhibition of ectoderm differentiation. Conversely, over-expression of EGF reverts the inhibition of somitic myogenesis and axis truncation in Xenopus and mouse embryos caused by sFRP-3. In vitro experiments demonstrated a direct binding of EGF to sFRP-3 both on heparin and on the surface of CHO cells where the molecule had been membrane anchored. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: sFRP-3 and EGF reciprocally inhibit their effects on cell proliferation, differentiation and morphogenesis and indeed are expressed in contiguous domains of the embryo, suggesting that in

  16. Distinct Gut-Derived Bacteria Differentially Affect Three Types of Antigen-Presenting Cells and Impact on NK- and T-Cell Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen; Hansen, Anne Marie Valentin; Frøkiær, Hanne

    Objectives Gut bacteria are assumed essential for development and maintenance of a balanced immune system. Specifically, stimulation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) by gut bacteria is important for polarisation of the immune response. This experiment was designed to reveal similarities...... and differences between the reaction patterns of three types of human APCs when stimulated with intestinal bacteria. Furthermore, the effect of these APCs on NK-cells and T-cells was examined. Methodology The APCs used in this study were blood monocytes, blood dendritic cells, and dendritic cells differentiated...... from monocytes. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells constitute a commonly used model of dendritic cell function. The APCs were cultured for 18 h with four different gut bacteria: Lactobacillus acidophilus X37, Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 12246, E. coli Nissle 1917 or Bifidobacterium longum Q46. Results...

  17. An approach to quantify sources, seasonal change, and biogeochemical processes affecting metal loading in streams: Facilitating decisions for remediation of mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, B.A.; Runkel, R.L.; Walton-Day, K.

    2010-01-01

    Historical mining has left complex problems in catchments throughout the world. Land managers are faced with making cost-effective plans to remediate mine influences. Remediation plans are facilitated by spatial mass-loading profiles that indicate the locations of metal mass-loading, seasonal changes, and the extent of biogeochemical processes. Field-scale experiments during both low- and high-flow conditions and time-series data over diel cycles illustrate how this can be accomplished. A low-flow experiment provided spatially detailed loading profiles to indicate where loading occurred. For example, SO42 - was principally derived from sources upstream from the study reach, but three principal locations also were important for SO42 - loading within the reach. During high-flow conditions, Lagrangian sampling provided data to interpret seasonal changes and indicated locations where snowmelt runoff flushed metals to the stream. Comparison of metal concentrations between the low- and high-flow experiments indicated substantial increases in metal loading at high flow, but little change in metal concentrations, showing that toxicity at the most downstream sampling site was not substantially greater during snowmelt runoff. During high-flow conditions, a detailed temporal sampling at fixed sites indicated that Zn concentration more than doubled during the diel cycle. Monitoring programs must account for diel variation to provide meaningful results. Mass-loading studies during different flow conditions and detailed time-series over diel cycles provide useful scientific support for stream management decisions.

  18. Traits across the personality hierarchy differentially relate to positive and negative affect: Evidence for the predictive validity of empirically derived meta-traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengartner, Michael P; Graf, Markus; Schreiber, Marc

    2017-05-01

    There is increasing interest in the construct validity of higher-order domains of the Big Five personality traits. A total of 831 persons from the Swiss population completed the International Personality Item Pool and an adaptation of the Positive and Negative Affect Scales. Using Goldberg's bass-ackwards method, we found evidence for the general factor of personality (GFP) and the two meta-traits of positive emotionality (blend of low neuroticism and high extraversion) and constraint (blend of high agreeableness and conscientiousness). In association with positive affect, the explanatory power of the GFP (r = 0.43) and positive emotionality (r = 0.37) was largely superior to extraversion (r = 0.24), conscientiousness (r = 0.18), agreeableness (r = 0.09) and openness (r = 0.04), although not neuroticism (r = -0.34). In association with negative affect, neuroticism (r = 0.41), the GFP (r = -0.36) and positive emotionality (r = -0.35) were the most powerful single predictors. We conclude that the higher-order structure of personality is best explained by the meta-traits of positive emotionality and constraint, which correspond closely to the well-established superfactors of internalizing and externalizing. We further demonstrate that these have substantial criterion validity when broad positive and negative affect is the outcome of interest. These findings help to relate Big Five meta-traits to pathological personality. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Distinct mutations in yeast TAF(II)25 differentially affect the composition of TFIID and SAGA complexes as well as global gene expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Doris B; vom Baur, Elmar; Thibault, Christelle; Sanders, Steven L; Gangloff, Yann-Gaël; Davidson, Irwin; Weil, P Anthony; Tora, Làszlò

    2002-05-01

    The RNA polymerase II transcription factor TFIID, composed of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and TBP-associated factors (TAF(II)s), nucleates preinitiation complex formation at protein-coding gene promoters. SAGA, a second TAF(II)-containing multiprotein complex, is involved in transcription regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One of the essential protein components common to SAGA and TFIID is yTAF(II)25. We define a minimal evolutionarily conserved 91-amino-acid region of TAF(II)25 containing a histone fold domain that is necessary and sufficient for growth in vivo. Different temperature-sensitive mutations of yTAF(II)25 or chimeras with the human homologue TAF(II)30 arrested cell growth at either the G(1) or G(2)/M cell cycle phase and displayed distinct phenotypic changes and gene expression patterns. Immunoprecipitation studies revealed that TAF(II)25 mutation-dependent gene expression and phenotypic changes correlated at least partially with the integrity of SAGA and TFIID. Genome-wide expression analysis revealed that the five TAF(II)25 temperature-sensitive mutant alleles individually affect the expression of between 18 and 33% of genes, whereas taken together they affect 64% of all class II genes. Thus, different yTAF(II)25 mutations induce distinct phenotypes and affect the regulation of different subsets of genes, demonstrating that no individual TAF(II) mutant allele reflects the full range of its normal functions.

  20. Interactions between cadmium and other heavy metals in affecting the growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. c. v. Webbs Wonderful) seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepp, N.W.

    1977-01-01

    Changes in root and shoot extension of lettuce seedlings in relation to single or dual applications of heavy metal ions have been studied. When cadmium, copper, lead or nickel are applied singly, at concentrations of 10 ..mu..g/litre, significant reductions in root and shoot growth of the seedlings are apparent. Dual ion applications of 10 ..mu..g/litre cadmium with 10 ..mu..g/litre of any of the other elements produce no significant synergistic reduction in seedling growth. The responses observed are either additive or antagonistic, depending upon the metal treatment. The results are discussed in terms of their possible significance to heavy metal effects on plant growth. 14 references, 1 figure.

  1. Factors affecting the equilibrium constant of homolysis of complexes with metal-carbon σ bonds in aqueous solutions. Pulse radiolysis studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerstein, D.; Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba

    1989-01-01

    Pulse-Radiolysis is a powerful technique for the determination of the equilibrium constants of the homolytic cleavage of metal-carbon σ bonds in aqueous solutions. In most systems studied the observed reaction is: L m-1 M (n+1) -R + L ↔ ML m. n + ·R. Therefore the results do not enable a direct determination of the metal-carbon bond dissociation energies. The results obtained indicate that these equilibrium constants are not directly related to the redox potential of either L .m M (n) or of ·R, or to the activation energies for the homolytic cleavage of a family of similarly substituted ethanes. (author)

  2. Bioavailability of metals in soils and sedimentes affected by old mining actitvities. The study case of the Portman bay (SE, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Agudo, Ines; Banegas, Ascension; Garcia-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Gonzalez-Ciudad, Eva; Perez-Espinosa, Victor; Martinez-Lopez, Salvadora; Martinez, Lucia; Perz-Sirvent, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    A study on metal (Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu and As) mobilization and analysis of the health risk represented by ingestion from contaminated sediments in Portman Bay (SE Spain) was carried out. This zone has suffered a great impact from mining activity, since million tons of mine tailings were dumped into the bay for a long period, giving as a result the filling of the bay with them. The long-term deposition of metals in soils and sediments can lead to their accumulation and transport, while their toxicity depends on the mobility and bioavailability of a significant fraction of the metals. The ingestion of contaminated soil particles by grazing animals or young children may well represent a special exposure pathway for Pb, Cd and other hazardous metals. The aim of this study was to determine the bioaccessibility of Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu and As ,and the extent to which bioaccessibility is influenced by mineralogy in materials from this mining site as an indicator of the potential risk that metals pose to both environmental and human health. General analytical determinations (pH, particle size, organic matter, equivalent calcium carbonate content and mineralogical composition) were carried out to characterize the samples. The mineralogical composition was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), using a Philips PW3040 diffractometer with Cu-Kα. To determine the total metal content, the samples were digested in a Milestone ETHOS PLUS microwave, Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd contents were determined by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry, while As was analysed by HG- AFS using an automated continuous flow hydride generation spectrometer. To assess bioaccessibility, the gastric solution was prepared according to the Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) developed by the Solubility/Bioavailability Research Consortium (SBRC). The mineralogical composition, corresponds to materials which have suffered a supergenic oxidation process which has been influenced by the presence of sea water

  3. Cocaine self-administration differentially affects allosteric A2A-D2 receptor-receptor interactions in the striatum. Relevance for cocaine use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintsuk, Julia; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Pomierny, Bartosz; Wydra, Karolina; Zaniewska, Magdalena; Filip, Malgorzata; Fuxe, Kjell

    2016-05-01

    In the current study behavioral and biochemical experiments were performed to study changes in the allosteric A2AR-D2R interactions in the ventral and dorsal striatum after cocaine self-administration versus corresponding yoked saline control. By using ex vivo [(3)H]-raclopride/quinpirole competition experiments, the effects of the A2AR agonist CGS 21680 (100 nM) on the KiH and KiL values of the D2-like receptor (D2-likeR) were determined. One major result was a significant reduction in the D2-likeR agonist high affinity state observed with CGS 21680 after cocaine self-administration in the ventral striatum compared with the yoked saline group. The results therefore support the hypothesis that A2AR agonists can at least in part counteract the motivational actions of cocaine. This action is mediated via the D2-likeR by targeting the A2AR protomer of A2AR-D2-like R heteroreceptor complexes in the ventral striatum, which leads to the reduction of D2-likeR protomer recognition through the allosteric receptor-receptor interaction. In contrast, in the dorsal striatum the CGS 21680-induced antagonistic modulation in the D2-likeR agonist high affinity state was abolished after cocaine self-administration versus the yoked saline group probably due to a local dysfunction/disruption of the A2AR-D2-like R heteroreceptor complexes. Such a change in the dorsal striatum in cocaine self-administration can contribute to the development of either locomotor sensitization, habit-forming learning and/or the compulsive drug seeking by enhanced D2-likeR protomer signaling. Potential differences in the composition and stoichiometry of the A2AR-D2R heteroreceptor complexes, including differential recruitment of sigma 1 receptor, in the ventral and dorsal striatum may explain the differential regional changes observed in the A2A-D2-likeR interactions after cocaine self-administration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Increasing CO2 differentially affects essential and non-essential amino acid concentration of rice grains grown in cadmium-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huibin; Song, Zhengguo; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Zhongqi; Tang, Shirong

    2016-09-01

    Environmental pollution by both ambient CO2 and heavy metals has been steadily increasing, but we do not know how fluctuating CO2 concentrations influence plant nutrients under high Cd pollution, especially in crops. Here, we studied the effects of elevated CO2 and Cd accumulation on proteins and amino acids in rice under Cd stress. In this pot experiment, we analyzed the amino-acid profile of 20 rice cultivars that accumulate Cd differently; the plants were grown in Cd-containing soils under ambient conditions and elevated CO2 levels. We found that although Cd concentrations appeared to be higher in most cultivars under elevated CO2 than under ambient CO2, the effect was significant only in seven cultivars. Combined exposure to Cd and elevated CO2 strongly decreased rice protein and amino acid profiles, including essential and non-essential amino acids. Under elevated CO2, the ratios of specific amino acids were either higher or lower than the optimal ratios provided by FAO/WHO, suggesting that CO2 may flatten the overall amino-acid profile, leading to an excess in some amino acids and deficiencies in others when the rice is consumed. Thus, Cd-tainted rice limits the concentration of essential amino acids in rice-based diets, and the combination with elevated CO2 further exacerbates the problem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adhesion, growth and differentiation markers in human osteoblast-like cells cultured on surface-modified metallic materials designed for bone implants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bačáková, Lucie; Kabátová, J.; Lisá, Věra; Starý, V.; Fencl, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 58-60 (2006), s. 1-3 ISSN 1429-7248 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/06/0226 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : bone tissue engineering * metals * surface modifications Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  6. The influence of metallic ions from CoCr28Mo6 on the osteogenic differentiation and cytokine release of human osteoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonitz-Heincke A

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory reactions associated with osteolysis and implant loosening can be the result of generated CoCr particles and the simultaneous release of ions, which are the consequence of wear at the articulating surfaces of metallic implants. By now, there is little knowledge about the influence of CoCr ions on the viability of human osteoblasts (hOB.

  7. Exposure to altered gravity during specific developmental periods differentially affects growth, development, the cerebellum and motor functions in male and female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguon, K.; Ladd, B.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that perinatal exposure to hypergravity affects cerebellar structure and motor coordination in rat neonates. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that neonatal cerebellar structure and motor coordination may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of hypergravity during specific developmental stages. To test this hypothesis, we compared neurodevelopment, motor behavior and cerebellar structure in rat neonates exposed to 1.65 G on a 24-ft centrifuge during discrete periods of time: the 2nd week of pregnancy [gestational day (G) 8 through G15; group A], the 3rd week of pregnancy (G15 through birth on G22/G23; group B), the 1st week of nursing [birth through postnatal day (P) 6; group C], the 2nd and 3rd weeks of nursing (P6 through P21; group D), the combined 2nd and 3rd weeks of pregnancy and nursing (G8 through P21; group E) and stationary control (SC) neonates (group F). Prenatal exposure to hypergravity resulted in intrauterine growth retardation as reflected by a decrease in the number of pups in a litter and lower average mass at birth. Exposure to hypergravity immediately after birth impaired the righting response on P3, while the startle response in both males and females was most affected by exposure during the 2nd and 3rd weeks after birth. Hypergravity exposure also impaired motor functions, as evidenced by poorer performance on a rotarod; while both males and females exposed to hypergravity during the 2nd and 3rd weeks after birth performed poorly on P21, male neonates were most dramatically affected by exposure to hypergravity during the second week of gestation, when the duration of their recorded stay on the rotarod was one half that of SC males. Cerebellar mass was most reduced by later postnatal exposure. Thus, for the developing rat cerebellum, the postnatal period that overlaps the brain growth spurt is the most vulnerable to hypergravity. However, male motor behavior is also affected by midpregnancy exposure to

  8. Residues at a Single Site Differentiate Animal Cryptochromes from Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimer Photolyases by Affecting the Proteins' Preferences for Reduced FAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Wen, Bin; Wang, Yuan; Tian, Changqing; Wu, Mingcai; Zhu, Guoping

    2017-06-19

    Cryptochromes (CRYs) and photolyases belong to the cryptochrome/photolyase family (CPF). Reduced FAD is essential for photolyases to photorepair UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) or 6-4 photoproducts in DNA. In Drosophila CRY (dCRY, a type I animal CRY), FAD is converted to the anionic radical but not to the reduced state upon illumination, which might induce a conformational change in the protein to relay the light signal downstream. To explore the foundation of these differences, multiple sequence alignment of 650 CPF protein sequences was performed. We identified a site facing FAD (Ala377 in Escherichia coli CPD photolyase and Val415 in dCRY), hereafter referred to as "site 377", that was distinctly conserved across these sequences: CPD photolyases often had Ala, Ser, or Asn at this site, whereas animal CRYs had Ile, Leu, or Val. The binding affinity for reduced FAD, but not the photorepair activity of E. coli photolyase, was dramatically impaired when replacing Ala377 with any of the three CRY residues. Conversely, in V415S and V415N mutants of dCRY, FAD was photoreduced to its fully reduced state after prolonged illumination, and light-dependent conformational changes of these mutants were severely inhibited. We speculate that the residues at site 377 play a key role in the different preferences of CPF proteins for reduced FAD, which differentiate animal CRYs from CPD photolyases. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Birth origin differentially affects depressive-like behaviours: are captive-born cynomolgus monkeys more vulnerable to depression than their wild-born counterparts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine M J Camus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adverse early-life experience might lead to the expression of abnormal behaviours in animals and the predisposition to psychiatric disorder (e.g. major depressive disorder in Humans. Common breeding processes employ weaning and housing conditions different from what happens in the wild. METHODS: The present study, therefore, investigated whether birth origin impacts the possible existence of spontaneous atypical/abnormal behaviours displayed by 40 captive-born and 40 wild-born socially-housed cynomolgus macaques in farming conditions using an unbiased ethological scan-sampling analysis followed by multifactorial correspondence and hierarchical clustering analyses. RESULTS: We identified 10 distinct profiles (groups A to J that significantly differed on several behaviours, body postures, body orientations, distances between individuals and locations in the cage. Data suggest that 4 captive-born and 1 wild-born animals (groups G and J present depressive-like symptoms, unnatural early life events thereby increasing the risk of developing pathological symptoms. General differences were also highlighted between the captive- and wild-born populations, implying the expression of differential coping mechanisms in response to the same captive environment. CONCLUSIONS: Birth origin thus impacts the development of atypical ethologically-defined behavioural profiles, reminiscent of certain depressive-like symptoms. The use of unbiased behavioural observations might allow the identification of animal models of human mental/behavioural disorders and their most appropriate control groups.

  10. S1P Signalling Differentially Affects Migration of Peritoneal B Cell Populations In Vitro and Influences the Production of Intestinal IgA In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinwort, Annabel; Lührs, Felix; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter; Lipp, Martin; Schulze, Tobias

    2018-01-29

    Introduction: Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) regulates the migration of follicular B cells (B2 cells) and directs the positioning of Marginal zone B cells (MZ B cells) within the spleen. The function of S1P signalling in the third B cell lineage, B1 B cells, mainly present in the pleural and peritoneal cavity, has not yet been determined. Methods: S1P receptor expression was analysed in peritoneal B cells by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The chemotactic response to S1P was studied in vitro. The role of S1P signalling was further explored in a s1p₄ -/- mouse strain. Results: Peritoneal B cells expressed considerable amounts of the S1P receptors 1 and 4 (S1P₁ and S1P₄, respectively). S1P₁ showed differential expression between the distinct peritoneal B cell lineages. While B2 cells showed no chemotactic response to S1P, B1 B cells showed a migration response to S1P. s1p₄ -/- mice displayed significant alterations in the composition of peritoneal B cell populations, as well as a significant reduction of mucosal immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the gut. Discussion: S1P signalling influences peritoneal B1 B cell migration. S1P₄ deficiency alters the composition of peritoneal B cell populations and reduces secretory IgA levels. These findings suggest that S1P signalling may be a target to modulate B cell function in inflammatory intestinal pathologies.

  11. Production of pigment-free pullulan by swollen cell in Aureobasidium pullulans NG which cell differentiation was affected by pH and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing-xue; Zhang, Ning; Peng, Qing; Yin, Tie; Guan, Fei-fei; Wang, Gui-li; Li, Ying

    2009-08-01

    A black yeast strain "NG" was isolated from strawberry fruit and identified as Aureobasidium pullulans. Strain NG displayed yeast-like cell (YL), swollen cell (SC), septate swollen cell (SSC), meristematic structure (MS), and chlamydospore (CH) morphologies. pH was the key factor regulating cell morphogenesis of strain NG. Differentiation of YL controlled by extracellular pH had no relationship with nutrition level. YL was maintained at pH >6.0, but was transformed into SC at pH approximately 4.5. SC, a stable cell type of A. pullulans, could bud, septate, or transform into MS or CH, in response to nutrition level and low pH. SC produced swollen cell blastospores (SCB) at pH 2.1 with abundant nutrition, and could transform into MS at lower pH (1.5). SC was induced to form CH by low level nutrition and pH melanin) were produced by SC of strain NG. Pullulan content of the polysaccharides was very high (98.37%). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed that chemical structures of the polysaccharides and standard pullulan were identical. Swollen cells produced 2.08 mg/ml non-pigmented polysaccharides at 96 h in YPD medium. Controlling pH of fermentation is an effective and convenient method to harvest SC for melanin-free pullulan production.

  12. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel extract fractions from different cultivars differentially affect lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taing, Meng-Wong; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Shaw, Paul N; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Gidley, Michael J; Monteith, Gregory R

    2013-02-26

    Plant phytochemicals are increasingly recognised as sources of bioactive molecules which may have potential benefit in many health conditions. In mangoes, peel extracts from different cultivars exhibit varying effects on adipogenesis in the 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell line. In this study, the effects of preparative HPLC fractions of methanol peel extracts from Irwin, Nam Doc Mai and Kensington Pride mangoes were evaluated. Fraction 1 contained the most hydrophilic components while subsequent fractions contained increasingly more hydrophobic components. High content imaging was used to assess mango peel fraction effects on lipid accumulation, nuclei count and nuclear area in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. For all three mango cultivars, the more hydrophilic peel fractions 1-3 inhibited lipid accumulation with greater potency than the more hydrophobic peel fractions 4. For all three cultivars, the more lipophilic fraction 4 had concentrations that enhanced lipid accumulation greater than fractions 1-3 as assessed by lipid droplet integrated intensity. The potency of this fraction 4 varied significantly between cultivars. Using mass spectrometry, five long chain free fatty acids were detected in fraction 4; these were not present in any other peel extract fractions. Total levels varied between cultivars, with Irwin fraction 4 containing the highest levels of these free fatty acids. Lipophilic components appear to be responsible for the lipid accumulation promoting effects of some mango extracts and are the likely cause of the diverse effects of peel extracts from different mango cultivars on lipid accumulation.

  13. K- and L-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) and Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) Determination of Differential Orbital Covalency (DOC) of Transition Metal Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael L; Mara, Michael W; Yan, James J; Hodgson, Keith O; Hedman, Britt; Solomon, Edward I

    2017-08-15

    Continual advancements in the development of synchrotron radiation sources have resulted in X-ray based spectroscopic techniques capable of probing the electronic and structural properties of numerous systems. This review gives an overview of the application of metal K-edge and L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), as well as K resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS), to the study of electronic structure in transition metal sites with emphasis on experimentally quantifying 3d orbital covalency. The specific sensitivities of K-edge XAS, L-edge XAS, and RIXS are discussed emphasizing the complementary nature of the methods. L-edge XAS and RIXS are sensitive to mixing between 3d orbitals and ligand valence orbitals, and to the differential orbital covalency (DOC), that is, the difference in the covalencies for different symmetry sets of the d orbitals. Both L-edge XAS and RIXS are highly sensitive to and enable separation of and donor bonding and back bonding contributions to bonding. Applying ligand field multiplet simulations, including charge transfer via valence bond configuration interactions, DOC can be obtained for direct comparison with density functional theory calculations and to understand chemical trends. The application of RIXS as a probe of frontier molecular orbitals in a heme enzyme demonstrates the potential of this method for the study of metal sites in highly covalent coordination sites in bioinorganic chemistry.

  14. Light regimes differentially affect baseline transcript abundance of stress-axis and (neurodevelopment-related genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio, Hamilton 1822 AB and TL larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruud van den Bos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Many strains of zebrafish (Danio rerio are readily available. Earlier we observed differences between AB and Tupfel long-fin (TL larvae regarding baseline hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI axis activity and (neurodevelopment. Light regimes, i.e. 14 h light:10 h dark and 24 h continuous dark or light, affect hatching rate and larval growth. Here, we assessed baseline transcript abundance of HPI-axis-related genes and (neurodevelopment-related genes of AB and TL larvae (5 days post fertilisation using these light regimes. A principal component analysis revealed that in AB larvae the baseline expression of HPI-axis-related genes was higher the more hours of light, while the expression of (neurodevelopment-related genes was higher under 14 h light:10 h dark than under both continuous light or dark. In TL larvae, a complex pattern emerged regarding baseline expression of HPI-axis-related and (neurodevelopment-related genes. These data extend data of earlier studies by showing that light regimes affect gene-expression in larvae, and more importantly so, strengthen the notion of differences between larvae of the AB and TL strain. The latter finding adds to the growing database of phenotypical differences between zebrafish of the AB and TL strain.

  15. Negative affect is related to reduced differential neural responses to social and non-social stimuli in 5-to-8-month-old infants: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kant, Anne; Biro, Szilvia; Levelt, Claartje; Huijbregts, Stephan

    2018-04-01

    Both social perception and temperament in young infants have been related to social functioning later in life. Previous functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) data (Lloyd-Fox et al., 2009) showed larger blood-oxygenation changes for social compared to non-social stimuli in the posterior temporal cortex of five-month-old infants. We sought to replicate and extend these findings by using fNIRS to study the neural basis of social perception in relation to infant temperament (Negative Affect) in 37 five-to-eight-month-old infants. Infants watched short videos displaying either hand and facial movements of female actors (social dynamic condition) or moving toys and machinery (non-social dynamic condition), while fNIRS data were collected over temporal brain regions. Negative Affect was measured using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire. Results showed significantly larger blood-oxygenation changes in the right posterior-temporal region in the social compared to the non-social condition. Furthermore, this differential activation was smaller in infants showing higher Negative Affect. Our results replicate those of Lloyd-Fox et al. and confirmed that five-to-eight-month-old infants show cortical specialization for social perception. Furthermore, the decreased cortical sensitivity to social stimuli in infants showing high Negative Affect may be an early biomarker for later difficulties in social interaction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. S1P Signalling Differentially Affects Migration of Peritoneal B Cell Populations In Vitro and Influences the Production of Intestinal IgA In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel Kleinwort

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P regulates the migration of follicular B cells (B2 cells and directs the positioning of Marginal zone B cells (MZ B cells within the spleen. The function of S1P signalling in the third B cell lineage, B1 B cells, mainly present in the pleural and peritoneal cavity, has not yet been determined. Methods: S1P receptor expression was analysed in peritoneal B cells by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. The chemotactic response to S1P was studied in vitro. The role of S1P signalling was further explored in a s1p4−/− mouse strain. Results: Peritoneal B cells expressed considerable amounts of the S1P receptors 1 and 4 (S1P1 and S1P4, respectively. S1P1 showed differential expression between the distinct peritoneal B cell lineages. While B2 cells showed no chemotactic response to S1P, B1 B cells showed a migration response to S1P. s1p4−/− mice displayed significant alterations in the composition of peritoneal B cell populations, as well as a significant reduction of mucosal immunoglobulin A (IgA in the gut. Discussion: S1P signalling influences peritoneal B1 B cell migration. S1P4 deficiency alters the composition of peritoneal B cell populations and reduces secretory IgA levels. These findings suggest that S1P signalling may be a target to modulate B cell function in inflammatory intestinal pathologies.

  17. Differences in extreme low salinity timing and duration differentially affect eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) size class growth and mortality in Breton Sound, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPeyre, Megan K.; Eberline, Benjamin S.; Soniat, Thomas M.; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how different life history stages are impacted by extreme or stochastic environmental variation is critical for predicting and modeling organism population dynamics. This project examined recruitment, growth, and mortality of seed (25–75 mm) and market (>75 mm) sized oysters along a salinity gradient over two years in Breton Sound, LA. In April 2010, management responses to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill resulted in extreme low salinity (25 °C) significantly and negatively impacted oyster recruitment, survival and growth in 2010, while low salinity (25 °C). With increasing management of our freshwater inputs to estuaries combined with predicted climate changes, how extreme events affect different life history stages is key to understanding variation in population demographics of commercially important species and predicting future populations.

  18. Discontinuous gas-exchange cycle characteristics are differentially affected by hydration state and energy metabolism in gregarious and solitary desert locusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talal, Stav; Ayali, Amir; Gefen, Eran

    2015-12-01

    The termination of discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs) in severely dehydrated insects casts doubt on the generality of the hygric hypothesis, which posits that DGCs evolved as a water conservation mechanism. We followed DGC characteristics in the two density-dependent phases of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria throughout exposure to an experimental treatment of combined dehydration and starvation stress, and subsequent rehydration. We hypothesized that, under stressful conditions, the more stress-resistant gregarious locusts would maintain DGCs longer than solitary locusts. However, we found no phase-specific variations in body water content, water loss rates (total and respiratory) or timing of stress-induced abolishment of DGCs. Likewise, locusts of both phases re-employed DGCs after ingesting comparable volumes of water when rehydrated. Despite comparable water management performances, the effect of exposure to stressful experimental conditions on DGC characteristics varied significantly between gregarious and solitary locusts. Interburst duration, which is affected by the ability to buffer CO2, was significantly reduced in dehydrated solitary locusts compared with gregarious locusts. Moreover, despite similar rehydration levels, only gregarious locusts recovered their initial CO2 accumulation capacity, indicating that cycle characteristics are affected by factors other than haemolymph volume. Haemolymph protein measurements and calculated respiratory exchange ratios suggest that catabolism of haemolymph proteins may contribute to a reduced haemolymph buffering capacity, and thus a compromised ability for CO2 accumulation, in solitary locusts. Nevertheless, DGC was lost at similar hydration states in the two phases, suggesting that DGCs are terminated as a result of inadequate oxygen supply to the tissues. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Novelty response and 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations: Differential prediction of locomotor and affective response to amphetamine in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Erik J; Cain, Mary E

    2016-02-01

    Novelty and sensation seeking (NSS) predisposes humans and rats to experiment with psychostimulants. In animal models, different tests of NSS predict different phases of drug dependence. Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are evoked by psychomotor stimulants and measure the affective/motivation response to stimuli, yet the role NSS has on USVs in response to amphetamine is not determined. The aim of the present study was to determine if individual differences in NSS and USVs can predict locomotor and USV response to amphetamine (0.0, 0.3, and 1.0 mg/kg) after acute and chronic exposure. Thirty male rats were tested for their response to novelty (IEN), choice to engage in novelty (NPP), and heterospecific play (H-USV). Rats were administered non-contingent amphetamine or saline for seven exposures, and USVs and locomotor activity were measured. After a 14-day rest, rats were administered a challenge dose of amphetamine. Regression analyses indicated that amphetamine dose-dependently increased locomotor activity and the NPP test negatively predicted treatment-induced locomotor activity. The H-USV test predicted treatment-induced frequency-modulated (FM) USVs, but the strength of prediction depended on IEN response. Results provide evidence that locomotor activity and FM USVs induced by amphetamine represent different behavioral responses. The prediction of amphetamine-induced FM USVs by the H-USV screen was changed by the novelty response, indicating that the affective value of amphetamine-measured by FM USVs-depends on novelty response. This provides evidence that higher novelty responders may develop a tolerance faster and may escalate intake faster.

  20. Food restriction followed by refeeding with a casein- or whey-based diet differentially affects the gut microbiota of pre-pubertal male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masarwi, Majdi; Solnik, Hadas Isaac; Phillip, Moshe; Yaron, Sima; Shamir, Raanan; Pasmanic-Chor, Metsada; Gat-Yablonski, Galia

    2018-01-01

    Researchers are gaining an increasing understanding of host-gut microbiota interactions, but studies of the role of gut microbiota in linear growth are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of food restriction and refeeding with different diets on gut microbiota composition in fast-growing rats. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed regular rat chow ad libitum (control group) or subjected to 40% food restriction for 36 days followed by continued restriction or ad libitum refeeding for 24 days. Three different diets were used for refeeding: regular vegetarian protein chow or chow in which the sole source of protein was casein or whey. In the control group, the composition of the microbiota remained stable. Food restriction for 60 days led to a significant change in the gut microbiota at the phylum level, with a reduction in the abundance of Firmicutes and an increase in Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. Rats refed with the vegetarian protein diet had a different microbiota composition than rats refed the casein- or whey-based diet. Similarities in the bacterial population were found between rats refed vegetarian protein or a whey-based diet and control rats, and between rats refed a casein-based diet and rats on continued restriction. There was a significant strong correlation between the gut microbiota and growth parameters: humerus length, epiphyseal growth plate height, and levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 and leptin. In conclusion, the type of protein in the diet significantly affects the gut microbiota and, thereby, may affect animal's health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Psychosocial predictors of affect in adult patients undergoing orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñacoba, Cecilia; González, M José; Santos, Noelia; Romero, Martín

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we propose to study the role of psychosocial variables in affect in adult patients undergoing orthodontic treatment, considering that affect is a key variable in treatment adherence. Seventy-four patients (average age 33,24 ± 10,56) with metal multibracket-fixed orthodontic treatment were included. Patients were assessed twice. The first stage, at the beginning of treatment, included assessment of dental impact (Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire), trait anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), self-esteem (Rosenberg's self-esteem scale), and self-efficacy (General Self-efficacy Scale). In the second stage, 6 months later, positive and negative affect towards treatment was assessed using the Positive and Negative Affect Scale. Dental social impact differentiates between patients with high and low negative affect, while self-efficacy differentiates between patients with high and low positive affect. Trait anxiety and self-esteem differentiate between both types of affect (positive and negative). Trait anxiety and self-esteem (when trait anxiety weight is controlled) are significant predictor variables of affective balance. These results have important practical implications, because it seems essential to adopt a bio-psychosocial model incorporating assessment methods focusing on day-to-day changes in mood and well-being.

  2. Short-term testosterone manipulations do not affect cognition or motor function but differentially modulate emotions in young and older male rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brian; Maguire-Herring, Vanessa; Rose, Christian M; Gore, Heather E; Ferrigno, Stephen; Novak, Melinda A; Lacreuse, Agnès

    2014-11-01

    Human aging is characterized by declines in cognition and fine motor function as well as improved emotional regulation. In men, declining levels of testosterone (T) with age have been implicated in the development of these age-related changes. However, studies examining the effects of T replacement on cognition, emotion and fine motor function in older men have not provided consistent results. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are excellent models for human cognitive aging and may provide novel insights on this issue. We tested 10 aged intact male rhesus monkeys (mean age=19, range 15-25) on a battery of cognitive, motor and emotional tasks at baseline and under low or high T experimental conditions. Their performance was compared to that of 6 young males previously tested in the same paradigm (Lacreuse et al., 2009; Lacreuse et al., 2010). Following a 4-week baseline testing period, monkeys were treated with a gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (Depot Lupron, 200 μg/kg) to suppress endogenous T and were tested on the task battery under a 4-week high T condition (injection of Lupron+T enanthate, 20 mg/kg, n=8) or 4-week low T condition (injection of Lupron+oil vehicle, n=8) before crossing over to the opposite treatment. The cognitive tasks consisted of the Delayed Non-Matching-to-Sample (DNMS), the Delayed Response (DR), and the Delayed Recognition Span Test (spatial-DRST). The emotional tasks included an object Approach-Avoidance task and a task in which monkeys were played videos of unfamiliar conspecifics in different emotional context (Social Playbacks). The fine motor task was the Lifesaver task that required monkeys to remove a Lifesaver candy from rods of different complexity. T manipulations did not significantly affect visual recognition memory, working memory, reference memory or fine motor function at any age. In the Approach-Avoidance task, older monkeys, but not younger monkeys, spent more time in proximity of novel objects in the high T condition

  3. Clinical and Surgical Findings and Outcome Following Rumenotomy in Adult Dairy Cattle Affected with Recurrent Rumen Tympany Associated with Non-Metallic Foreign Bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Bani Ismail; A. Al-Majali; K. Al-Qudah

    2007-01-01

    Medical records of 31 adult dairy cows suffering from recurrent rumen tympany for at least 1 month duration that underwent exploratory laparotomy and rumenotomy were reviewed and information was obtained on signalment, history, physical examination findings, laboratory findings and surgical findings. Cases were categorized according to surgical findings into 3 groups. Group 1 (n = 10) included cattle with reticuloruminal, metallic foreign bodies and perireticular adhesions/inflammation, group...

  4. West Florida continental shelf: a study of geothermal flows and other processes affecting radionuclides and trace metals. Final report, July 1, 1977-September 30, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanning, K.A.; Betzer, P.R.; Byrne, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    The characteristics and distribution of submarine geothermal springs along Florida's west coast were studied. The composition of the effluent, expressed as chlorinity ratios, indicates the source is normal seawater. Six springs have been definitely identified, occupying an 85 km 2 area off Fort Myers, Florida. The effluent is acidified, impoverished in magnesium and phosphate, and enriched in calcium, silica, Ra-226, Rn-222 and metals, and reduced compared to the parent seawater. 6 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  5. Evidence for the triadic model of adolescent brain development: Cognitive load and task-relevance of emotion differentially affect adolescents and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven C. Mueller

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In adults, cognitive control is supported by several brain regions including the limbic system and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC when processing emotional information. However, in adolescents, some theories hypothesize a neurobiological imbalance proposing heightened sensitivity to affective material in the amygdala and striatum within a cognitive control context. Yet, direct neurobiological evidence is scarce. Twenty-four adolescents (12–16 and 28 adults (25–35 completed an emotional n-back working memory task in response to happy, angry, and neutral faces during fMRI. Importantly, participants either paid attention to the emotion (task-relevant condition or judged the gender (task-irrelevant condition. Behaviorally, for both groups, when happy faces were task-relevant, performance improved relative to when they were task-irrelevant, while performance decrements were seen for angry faces. In the dlPFC, angry faces elicited more activation in adults during low relative to high cognitive load (2-back vs. 0-back. By contrast, happy faces elicited more activation in the amygdala in adolescents when they were task-relevant. Happy faces also generally increased nucleus accumbens activity (regardless of relevance in adolescents relative to adults. Together, the findings are consistent with neurobiological models of adolescent brain development and identify neurodevelopmental differences in cognitive control emotion interactions.

  6. A high-fat diet differentially affects the gut metabolism and blood lipids of rats depending on the type of dietary fat and carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgoński, Adam; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2014-02-03

    The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated) and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex). The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet) as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet) as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats.

  7. Plant assemblage composition and soil P concentration differentially affect communities of AM and total fungi in a semi-arid grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klabi, Rim; Bell, Terrence H; Hamel, Chantal; Iwaasa, Alan; Schellenberg, Mike; Raies, Aly; St-Arnaud, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Adding inorganic P- and N-fixing legumes to semi-arid grasslands can increase forage yield, but soil nutrient concentrations and plant cover may also interact to modify soil fungal populations, impacting short- and long-term forage production. We tested the effect of plant assemblage (seven native grasses, seven native grasses + the domesticated N-fixing legume Medicago sativa, seven native grasses + the native N-fixing legume Dalea purpurea or the introduced grass Bromus biebersteinii + M. sativa) and soil P concentration (addition of 0 or 200 P2O5 kg ha(-1) at sowing) on the diversity and community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and total fungi over two consecutive years, using 454-pyrosequencing of 18S rDNA and ITS amplicons. Treatment effects were stronger in the wet year (2008) than the dry year (2009). The presence of an N-fixing legume with native grasses generally increased AM fungal diversity, while the interaction between soil P concentration and plant assemblage modified total fungal community structure in 2008. Excluding interannual variations, which are likely driven by moisture and plant productivity, AM fungal communities in semi-arid grasslands appear to be primarily affected by plant assemblage composition, while the composition of other fungi is more closely linked to soil P. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Acute consumption of walnuts and walnut components differentially affect postprandial lipemia, endothelial function, oxidative stress, and cholesterol efflux in humans with mild hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Claire E; Grieger, Jessica A; West, Sheila G; Chen, Chung-Yen O; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Rothblat, George H; Sankaranarayanan, Sandhya; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2013-06-01

    Walnut consumption improves cardiovascular disease risk; however, to our knowledge, the contribution of individual walnut components has not been assessed. This study evaluated the acute consumption of whole walnuts (85 g), separated nut skins (5.6 g), de-fatted nutmeat (34 g), and nut oil (51 g) on postprandial lipemia, endothelial function, and oxidative stress. Cholesterol efflux (ex vivo) was assessed in the whole walnut treatment only. A randomized, 4-period, crossover trial was conducted in healthy overweight and obese adults (n = 15) with moderate hypercholesterolemia. There was a treatment × time point interaction for triglycerides (P < 0.01) and increased postprandial concentrations were observed for the oil and whole walnut treatments (P < 0.01). Walnut skins decreased the reactive hyperemia index (RHI) compared with baseline (P = 0.02) such that a difference persisted between the skin and oil treatments (P = 0.01). The Framingham RHI was maintained with the oil treatment compared with the skins and whole nut (P < 0.05). There was a treatment effect for the ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) (P < 0.01), and mean FRAP was greater with the oil and skin treatments compared with the nutmeat (P < 0.01). Cholesterol efflux increased by 3.3% following whole walnut consumption in J774 cells cultured with postprandial serum compared with fasting baseline (P = 0.02). Walnut oil favorably affected endothelial function and whole walnuts increased cholesterol efflux. These 2 novel mechanisms may explain in part the cardiovascular benefits of walnuts.

  9. Evidence for the triadic model of adolescent brain development: Cognitive load and task-relevance of emotion differentially affect adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sven C; Cromheeke, Sofie; Siugzdaite, Roma; Nicolas Boehler, C

    2017-08-01

    In adults, cognitive control is supported by several brain regions including the limbic system and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) when processing emotional information. However, in adolescents, some theories hypothesize a neurobiological imbalance proposing heightened sensitivity to affective material in the amygdala and striatum within a cognitive control context. Yet, direct neurobiological evidence is scarce. Twenty-four adolescents (12-16) and 28 adults (25-35) completed an emotional n-back working memory task in response to happy, angry, and neutral faces during fMRI. Importantly, participants either paid attention to the emotion (task-relevant condition) or judged the gender (task-irrelevant condition). Behaviorally, for both groups, when happy faces were task-relevant, performance improved relative to when they were task-irrelevant, while performance decrements were seen for angry faces. In the dlPFC, angry faces elicited more activation in adults during low relative to high cognitive load (2-back vs. 0-back). By contrast, happy faces elicited more activation in the amygdala in adolescents when they were task-relevant. Happy faces also generally increased nucleus accumbens activity (regardless of relevance) in adolescents relative to adults. Together, the findings are consistent with neurobiological models of adolescent brain development and identify neurodevelopmental differences in cognitive control emotion interactions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Metal-poor dwarf galaxies in the SIGRID galaxy sample. II. The electron temperature-abundance calibration and the parameters that affect it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholls, David C.; Dopita, Michael A.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Jerjen, Helmut; Kewley, Lisa J., E-mail: David.Nicholls@anu.edu.au [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Rd., Weston ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2014-07-20

    In this paper, we use the Mappings photoionization code to explore the physical parameters that impact on the measurement of electron temperature and abundance in H II regions. In our previous paper, we presented observations and measurements of physical properties from the spectra of 17 H II regions in 14 isolated dwarf irregular galaxies from the SIGRID sample. Here, we analyze these observations further, together with three additional published data sets. We explore the effects of optical thickness, electron density, ionization parameter, ionization source, and non-equilibrium effects on the relation between electron temperature and metallicity. We present a standard model that fits the observed data remarkably well at metallicities between one-tenth and 1 solar. We investigate the effects of optically thin H II regions, and show that they can have a considerable effect on the measured electron temperature, and that there is evidence that some of the observed objects are optically thin. We look at the role of the ionization parameter and find that lower ionization parameter values give better fits at higher oxygen abundance. We show that higher pressures combined with low optical depth, and also κ electron energy distributions at low κ values, can generate the apparent high electron temperatures in low-metallicity H II regions, and that the former provides the better fit to observations. We examine the effects of these parameters on the strong line diagnostic methods. We extend this to three-dimensional diagnostic grids to confirm how well the observations are described by the grids.

  11. P-channel differential multiple-time programmable memory cells by laterally coupled floating metal gate fin field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tai-Min; Chien, Wei-Yu; Hsu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Chrong Jung; King, Ya-Chin

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we present a new differential p-channel multiple-time programmable (MTP) memory cell that is fully compatible with advanced 16 nm CMOS fin field-effect transistors (FinFET) logic processes. This differential MTP cell stores complementary data in floating gates coupled by a slot contact structure, which make different read currents possible on a single cell. In nanoscale CMOS FinFET logic processes, the gate dielectric layer becomes too thin to retain charges inside floating gates for nonvolatile data storage. By using a differential architecture, the sensing window of the cell can be extended and maintained by an advanced blanket boost scheme. The charge retention problem in floating gate cells can be improved by periodic restoring lost charges when significant read window narrowing occurs. In addition to high programming efficiency, this p-channel MTP cells also exhibit good cycling endurance as well as disturbance immunity. The blanket boost scheme can remedy the charge loss problem under thin gate dielectrics.

  12. Dietary Whey and Casein Differentially Affect Energy Balance, Gut Hormones, Glucose Metabolism, and Taste Preference in Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezeshki, Adel; Fahim, Andrew; Chelikani, Prasanth K

    2015-10-01

    -like peptide 1 concentrations were greater in WH than in CA or WHCA rats. The improvements in glucose tolerance were greater in WH than in WHCA rats. The plasma membrane glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4)-to-total GLUT4 ratio in skeletal muscle was greater in CA and WHCA rats than in CO rats; other markers of glucose and energy metabolism in the adipose and cardiac tissues did not differ. In Expt. 2, during 4 conditioning trials, daily food intake was decreased in WH, CA, and WHCA rats by 26-37%, 30-43%, and 23-33%, respectively, compared with CO rats. Preferences for WH and CA rats were 45% and 31% lower, respectively, than those for CO rats, but that for WHCA rats did not differ. Together, these data demonstrate that in obese rats, whey, casein, and their combination improve energy balance through differential effects on food intake, taste preference, energy expenditure, glucose tolerance, and gut hormone secretion. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Dietary protein sources differentially affect microbiota, mTOR activity and transcription of mTOR signaling pathways in the small intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya K Kar

    Full Text Available Dietary protein sources can have profound effects on host-microbe interactions in the gut that are critically important for immune resilience. However more knowledge is needed to assess the impact of different protein sources on gut and animal health. Thirty-six wildtype male C57BL/6J mice of 35 d age (n = 6/group; mean ± SEM body weight 21.9 ± 0.25 g were randomly assigned to groups fed for four weeks with semi synthetic diets prepared with one of the following protein sources containing (300 g/kg as fed basis: soybean meal (SBM, casein, partially delactosed whey powder, spray dried plasma protein, wheat gluten meal and yellow meal worm. At the end of the experiment, mice were sacrificed to collect ileal tissue to acquire gene expression data, and mammalian (mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR activity, ileal digesta to study changes in microbiota and serum to measure cytokines and chemokines. By genome-wide transcriptome analysis, we identified fourteen high level regulatory genes that are strongly affected in SBM-fed mice compared to the other experimental groups. They mostly re