WorldWideScience

Sample records for differential wiring analysis

  1. Subchannel Analysis of Wire Wrapped SCWR Assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Jianqiang Shan; Henan Wang; Wei Liu; Linxing Song; Xuanxiang Chen; Yang Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Application of wire wrap spacers in SCWR can reduce pressure drop and obtain better mixing capability. As a consequence, the required coolant pumping power is decreased and the coolant temperature profile inside the fuel bundle is flattened which will obviously decrease the peak cladding temperature. The distributed resistance model for wire wrap was developed and implemented in ATHAS subchannel analysis code. The HPLWR wire wrapped assembly was analyzed. The results show that: (1) the assemb...

  2. Subchannel Analysis of Wire Wrapped SCWR Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang Shan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of wire wrap spacers in SCWR can reduce pressure drop and obtain better mixing capability. As a consequence, the required coolant pumping power is decreased and the coolant temperature profile inside the fuel bundle is flattened which will obviously decrease the peak cladding temperature. The distributed resistance model for wire wrap was developed and implemented in ATHAS subchannel analysis code. The HPLWR wire wrapped assembly was analyzed. The results show that: (1 the assembly with wire wrap can obtain a more uniform coolant temperature profile than the grid spaced assembly, which will result in a lower peak cladding temperature; (2 the pressure drop in a wire wrapped assembly is less than that in a grid spaced assembly, which can reduce the operating power of pump effectively; (3 the wire wrap pitch has significant effect on the flow in the assembly. Smaller Hwire/Drod will result in stronger cross flow a more uniform coolant temperature profile, and also a higher pressure drop.

  3. The Analysis of the High Speed Wire Drawing Process of High Carbon Steel Wires Under Hydrodynamic Lubrication Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliga M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work the analysis of the wire drawing process in hydrodynamic dies has been done. The drawing process of φ5.5 mm wire rod to the final wire of φ1.7 mm was conducted in 12 passes, in drawing speed range of 5-25 m/s. For final wires of φ1.7 mm the investigation of topography of wire surface, the amount of lubricant on the wire surface and the pressure of lubricant in hydrodynamic dies were determined. Additionally, in the work selected mechanical properties of the wires have been estimated.

  4. The Analysis of the High Speed Wire Drawing Process of High Carbon Steel Wires Under Hydrodynamic Lubrication Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Suliga M.

    2015-01-01

    In this work the analysis of the wire drawing process in hydrodynamic dies has been done. The drawing process of φ5.5 mm wire rod to the final wire of φ1.7 mm was conducted in 12 passes, in drawing speed range of 5-25 m/s. For final wires of φ1.7 mm the investigation of topography of wire surface, the amount of lubricant on the wire surface and the pressure of lubricant in hydrodynamic dies were determined. Additionally, in the work selected mechanical properties of the wires have been estima...

  5. Applications of surface analysis in the wire industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, David A.

    The quality of wire is judged not only by its physical properties such as tensile strength and fatigue resistance, but also by its surface finish. The surface roughness, oxide formation, cleanliness, and plating homogeneity and porosity are just a few of the surface properties than can influence the performance of a wire product. Coupled to this is the large amount of surface area generated in drawing wire. For example, a ten pound spool holds nine miles of 0.006″ diameter stainless steel wire. For these reasons surface analysis has become important both to the manufacturer and consumer of wire products. When surface analysis equipment such as AES, ESCA, and SIMS was first becoming commercially available in the late sixties and early seventies, the wire industry was beginning to enter a phase of technological development for many of its products. Wire manufacturers and users began using surface analysis to investigate such topics as adhesion of brass plated automobile tire cord to rubber and diffusion of layered deposits. Examples of surface analysis used for process control, problem solving, and project development include discoloration problems on stainless steel wire, welding problems with composite wires, diffusion formed brass coatings, and diffusion problems with solder coated and Cu plated steel wire.

  6. Heat Transfer Analysis in Wire Bundles for Aerospace Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, S. L.; Iamello, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Design of wiring for aerospace vehicles relies on an understanding of "ampacity" which refers to the current carrying capacity of wires, either, individually or in wire bundles. Designers rely on standards to derate allowable current flow to prevent exceedance of wire temperature limits due to resistive heat dissipation within the wires or wire bundles. These standards often add considerable margin and are based on empirical data. Commercial providers are taking an aggressive approach to wire sizing which challenges the conventional wisdom of the established standards. Thermal modelling of wire bundles may offer significant mass reduction in a system if the technique can be generalized to produce reliable temperature predictions for arbitrary bundle configurations. Thermal analysis has been applied to the problem of wire bundles wherein any or all of the wires within the bundle may carry current. Wire bundles present analytical challenges because the heat transfer path from conductors internal to the bundle is tortuous, relying on internal radiation and thermal interface conductance to move the heat from within the bundle to the external jacket where it can be carried away by convective and radiative heat transfer. The problem is further complicated by the dependence of wire electrical resistivity on temperature. Reduced heat transfer out of the bundle leads to higher conductor temperatures and, hence, increased resistive heat dissipation. Development of a generalized wire bundle thermal model is presented and compared with test data. The steady state heat balance for a single wire is derived and extended to the bundle configuration. The generalized model includes the effects of temperature varying resistance, internal radiation and thermal interface conductance, external radiation and temperature varying convective relief from the free surface. The sensitivity of the response to uncertainties in key model parameters is explored using Monte Carlo analysis.

  7. Differential evolutionary wiring of the tyrosine kinase Btk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain M Nawaz

    to components of the proximal signaling, whereas the corresponding, downstream transcriptional regulation has been differentially wired.

  8. Failure analysis of the fractured wires in sternal perichronal loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jesús; Voces, Roberto; Peña, Carmen

    2011-10-01

    We report failure analysis of sternal wires in two cases in which a perichronal fixation technique was used to close the sternotomy. Various characteristics of the retrieved wires were compared to those of unused wires of the same grade and same manufacturer and with surgical wire specifications. In both cases, wire fracture was un-branched and transgranular and proceeded by a high cycle fatigue process, apparently in the absence of corrosion. However, stress anlysis indicates that the effective stress produced during strong coughing is lower than the yield strength. Our findings suggest that in order to reduce the risk for sternal dehiscence, the diameter of the wire used should be increased. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Deformation Analysis of Surface Crack in Rolling and Wire Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Tetsuo; Yoshida, Kazunari

    The surface flaw of a drawn wire has a significant influence on the quality of a product. High-surface-quality drawn wires and rods have been required for the manufacture of automobiles and machines. Wire breaks due to large surface defects are common problems in wire drawing. The authors carried out rolling and multi-pass drawing of a stainless-steel wire with an artificial scratch, and investigated the growth and disappearance of a scratch from both sides by experiments and Finite Element Analysis (FEA). When the scratch angle is small, the scratch side surfaces are pushed toward each other and the scratch becomes an overlap defect. In contrast, when the scratch angle is large, the bottom of the scratch rises, and the scratch is recovered satisfactorily. Furthermore, the scratch shape and the drawing conditions were varied, and the deformation state of a scratch was clarified.

  10. Analysis of pulsed wire method for field integral measurements in undulators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vinit Kumar; Ganeshwar Mishra

    2010-05-01

    Pulsed wire technique is a fast and accurate method for the measurement of first and second field integrals of undulators used in free-electron lasers and synchrotron light sources. In this paper, we present a theoretical analysis of this technique by finding out the analytic solution of the differential equation for the forced vibration of the wire taking dispersion due to stiffness into account. Method of images is used to extend these solutions to include reflections at the ends. For long undulators, the effect of dispersion of the acoustic wave in the wire could be significant and our analysis provides a method for the evaluation of the magnetic field profile even in such cases taking the effect due to dispersion into account in an exact way.

  11. Analysis of heat transfer from single wires close to walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J.-M.; Gerlach, D.; Breuer, M.; Durst, F.; Lange, C. F.

    2003-04-01

    Two-dimensional numerical investigations of the forced heat convection from a microcylinder in laminar cross-flow, both in free stream and in near-wall flow, were carried out aiming at a better understanding of the physics behind the wall effects on hot-wire near-wall measurements. In the physical model, an infinitely thin plate with the same properties as the fluid (air) was used as an artificial wall. The conjugate heat transfer between the flow regions on both sides of the plate was taken into account. The effect of the conjugate thermal conditions (temperature distribution and diffusive heat flux) at the interface of the two flow regions on the heat transfer from the wire was investigated by varying the flow conditions on the side opposite to the wire location. Careful energy balance analysis was performed for both the free-stream case and the near-wall case. This enabled the authors to verify their own understanding of the physical mechanism responsible for the wall effect on hot-wire measurements and to examine other mechanisms proposed in the literature. The numerical results showed that the heat diffusion from the wire is significantly enhanced in the case of small wire-to-wall distances (Y+convection) was shown not to be the most important influencing factor for the heat transfer of a hot wire. Although the present model study was performed for a laminar flow, the results obtained are applicable to hot-wire measurements in turbulent flows, as stated in the literature.

  12. Phase transformation analysis of varied nickel-titanium orthodontic wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Chao-chao; BAI Yu-xing; WANG Hong-mei; ZHENG Yu-feng; LI Song

    2008-01-01

    Background The shape memory effect of nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwires is largely determined by the phase transition temperature. It is associated with a reversible transformation from martensite to austenite. The aim of this study was to characterize austenite, martensite and R phase temperatures as well as transition temperature ranges of the commonly used clinical NiTi orthodontic arch wires selected from several manufacturers.Methods Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method was used to study the phase transformation temperatures and the phase transition processes of 9 commonly used clinical NiTi alloys (types: 0.40 mm (0.016 inch), 0.40 mm x 0.56 mm (0.016 inch x 0.022 inch)).Results The austenite finish temperatures (Af) of 0.40 mm Smart, Ormco and 3M NiTi wires were lower than the room temperature, and no phase transformation was detected during oral temperature. Therefore, we predicted that these types of NiTi did not possess shape memory property. For 0.40 mm and 0.40 mm x 0.56 mm Youyan I NiTi wires, no phase transformation was detected during the scanning temperature range, suggesting that these two types of wires did not possess shape memory either. The Af of 0.40 mm x 0.56 mm Smart, L&H, Youyan Ⅱ Ni-Ti wires were close to the oral temperature and presented as martensitic-austenitic structures at room temperature, suggesting the NiTi wires listed above have good shape memory effect. Although the 0.40 mm x 0.56 mm Damon CuNiTi wire showed martensitic-austenitic structures at oral temperature, its Af was much higher than the oral temperature. It means that transformation from martensite to austenite for this type of NiTi only finishes when oral temperature is above normal. Conclusion The phase transformation temperatures and transformation behavior varied among different commonly used NiTi orthodontic arch wires, leading to variability in shape memory effect.

  13. A Study on Protection of Cables by Solkor Differential Protection Relay with Fibre Optic Pilot Wireor Metallic Pilot Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Rashad .E. Bakr

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to briefly compare the protection of buried three phase high voltage cable with Solkordifferential protection relay using metallic pilot wires orfibre optic pilot wires. Dielectric property of the fiber optic provides complete electrical isolation as well as interference free signaling. This provides total immunity from GPR (ground potential rise, longitudinal induction, and differential mode noise coupling andhigh-voltage hazards to personnel safety. So Fibre optic provides great advantage for Solkor differential protection relaying.

  14. Finite element analysis on the wire breaking rule of 1×7IWS steel wire rope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzheng Du

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking the wire rope of 1×7+IWS structure as the research object, the influences of the number of broken wires on the stress distribution under the same axial load were simulated and analysed, and it also explored the rule of wire breaking of steel wire ropes. Based on the SolidWorks software, the three-dimensional model of the wire rope was established. Importing the model into the ABAQUS, the finite element model of the steel wire rope was established. Firstly 5000 N axial tension was placed on the rope, the stress distribution was simulated and analysed, and the steel wire with the largest stress distribution was found out. Then one steel wire was truncated with the load unchanged, and the finite element simulation was carried out again, and repeated the steps several times. The results show that, with the increase of the number of broken wires, the Von-Mises stress of the wire rope increases sharply, and the stress distribution is concentrated on the rest of the unbroken wires, which brings great challenges to the safety of the wire rope.

  15. Negative differential resistance in a one-dimensional molecular wire with odd number of atoms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Lakshmi; Swapan K Pati

    2005-10-01

    We have investigated the effects of electron{phonon coupling on the current-voltage characteristics of a one-dimensional molecular wire with odd number of atoms. The wire has been modelled using the Su-Schreiffer-Heeger (SSH) Hamiltonian and the current{voltage characteristics have been obtained using the Landauer's formalism. In the presence of strong electron-lattice coupling, we find that there are regions of negative differential resistance (NDR) at some critical bias, due to the degeneracy in the energies of the frontier molecular orbitals. The presence of the applied bias and the electron{lattice coupling results in the delocalization of these low-lying molecular states leading to the NDR behaviour.

  16. Temperature characteristics analysis of HIV partial disconnection wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Dong; Shim, Jae-Myung; Lee, Yu-Sung; Jeong, Yun-Mi; Kim, Young-Dal

    2015-09-01

    Electric fires are caused mainly due to short circuits, overloads, and electric leakage. Of the causes, short circuits are caused by deteriorated insulation, poor contacts, and pressure damage. A partially disconnected wire refers to the status in which the wire section is partially cut, thus reducing the contact area compared to the normal state. Causes of partially disconnected wires, e.g., poor wire contacts and pressure damage, occur mostly in the wiring and in the device's contact area, and they locally increase the resistance, thus triggering thermal changes. Thus, this study simulated damage to a 450/750 V heat-resistant polyvinyl-chloride-insulated (HIV) wire used for preventing electric fires and analyzed the temperature characteristics of normal wires and partially disconnected wires.

  17. Deformation Analysis of Surface Defects in Wire Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Tetsuo; Yoshida, Kazunari

    2004-06-01

    Recently, the high surface quality of drawn wires and rods have been required from the field of automobile and machine. The surface flaw of a drawn wire has big influence on the quality of a product. Using three-dimensional FEA, this study investigates growth of surface defects due to wire drawing when these on wire, wire breaks due to surface defects are common problems in wire drawing. As a cause of a surface flaw, rolling up of a wire rod and the poor handling at the time of conveyance are cited. The authors artificially produced transversal cracks and scratches on the surface of wires, and investigated the growth and disappearance of these cracks during drawing, by three-dimensional FEA and experiments. If drawing out of the wire rod which has a flaw in the wire rod surface is repeated, it will become the check mark which the width of a flaw spreads and is known well in the production site. Furthermore, if drawing out is repeated, the compression stress of the direction of an axis by stress, and will become quite small. However, the crack of the direction of an axis remained and it was shown clearly that quality is affected. Moreover, the influence which the surface treatment of peeling has on a wire rod was also considered.

  18. Mathematical analysis differentiation and integration

    CERN Document Server

    Aramanovich, IG; Lyusternik, LA; Sneddon, I N

    1965-01-01

    Mathematical Analysis: Differentiation and Integration is devoted to two basic operations of mathematical analysis, differentiation and integration. The problems directly connected with the operations of differentiation and integration of functions of one or several variables are discussed, together with elementary generalizations of these operations. This volume is comprised of seven chapters and begins by considering the differentiation of functions of one variable and of n variables, paying particular attention to derivatives and differentials as well as their properties. The next chapter d

  19. Finite element analysis of inclusion effects on high strength steel cord wire drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang-liang; Zhao, Tian-Zhang; Zhang, Shi-hong

    2013-05-01

    In wire drawing of high strength steel wire for the application in tier cords, the inclusion plays the key role resulting in wire fractures. The effects of inclusion size, position and shape on wire drawing is investigated via finite element analysis in this paper. A 3D finite element model is developed to analyze the effect of inclusion position on the risk of fracture, and a 2D axisymmetrical finite element model for an inclusion at the wire center is established to investigate the effects of inclusion size and shape on wire fracture. A damage model with the consideration of stress status and plastic strain increment is used to characterize the risk of wire fracture. Finite element analysis results indicate that wire fracture is very critical to the inclusion located at wire core, and inclusion with an elliptical shape and its long axis lining well with the wire axis. Finite element analysis also proves that with the use of 7 degree die instead of 9 degree die is able to reduce the risk of fractures by about 28%.

  20. The Analysis of Thin Wires Using Higher-Order Elements and Basis Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champagne, N J; Wilton, D R; Rockway, J W

    2006-01-23

    Thin wire analysis was applied to curved wire segments in [1], but a special procedure was needed to evaluate the self and near-self terms. The procedure involved associating the singular behavior with a straight segment tangent to the curved source segment, permitting use of algorithms for straight wires. Recently, a procedure that avoids the singularity extraction for straight wires was presented in [2-4]. In this paper, the approach in [4] is applied to curved (or higher-order) wires using a procedure similar to that used in [1] for singularity extraction. Here, the straight tangent segment is used to determine the quadrature rules to be used on the curved segment. The result is a formulation that allows for a general mixture of higher-order basis functions [5] and higher-order wire segments.

  1. Optoelectronic analysis of multijunction wire array solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Wire arrays have demonstrated promising photovoltaic performance as single junction solar cells and are well suited to defect mitigation in heteroepitaxy. These attributes can combine in tandem wire array solar cells, potentially leading to high efficiencies. Here, we demonstrate initial growths of GaAs on Si_(0.9)Ge_(0.1) structures and investigate III-V on Si_(1-x)Ge_x device design with an analytical model and optoelectronic simulations. We consider Si_(0.1)Ge_(0.9) wires coated with a GaA...

  2. Transient Analysis of Lumped Circuit Networks Loaded Thin Wires By DGTD Method

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping

    2016-03-31

    With the purpose of avoiding very fine mesh cells in the proximity of a thin wire, the modified telegrapher’s equations (MTEs) are employed to describe the thin wire voltage and current distributions, which consequently results in reduced number of unknowns and augmented Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) number. As hyperbolic systems, both the MTEs and the Maxwell’s equations are solved by the discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) method. In realistic situations, the thin wires could be either driven or loaded by circuit networks. The thin wire-circuit interface performs as a boundary condition for the thin wire solver, where the thin wire voltage and current used for the incoming flux evaluation involved in the DGTD analyzed MTEs are not available. To obtain this voltage and current, an auxiliary current flowing through the thin wire-circuit interface is introduced at each interface. Corresponding auxiliary equations derived from the invariable property of characteristic variable for hyperbolic systems are developed and solved together with the circuit equations established by the modified nodal analysis (MNA) modality. Furthermore, in order to characterize the field and thin wire interactions, a weighted electric field and a volume current density are added into the MTEs and Maxwell-Ampere’s law equation, respectively. To validate the proposed algorithm, three representative examples are presented.

  3. Optoelectronic analysis of multijunction wire array solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Evans, Daniel B.; Chen, Christopher T.; Emmer, Hal; McMahon, William E.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2013-07-01

    Wire arrays have demonstrated promising photovoltaic performance as single junction solar cells and are well suited to defect mitigation in heteroepitaxy. These attributes can combine in tandem wire array solar cells, potentially leading to high efficiencies. Here, we demonstrate initial growths of GaAs on Si0.9Ge0.1 structures and investigate III-V on Si1-xGex device design with an analytical model and optoelectronic simulations. We consider Si0.1Ge0.9 wires coated with a GaAs0.9P0.1 shell in three different geometries: conformal, hemispherical, and spherical. The analytical model indicates that efficiencies approaching 34% are achievable with high quality materials. Full field electromagnetic simulations serve to elucidate the optical loss mechanisms and demonstrate light guiding into the wire core. Simulated current-voltage curves under solar illumination reveal the impact of a varying GaAs0.9P0.1 minority carrier lifetime. Finally, defective regions at the hetero-interface are shown to have a negligible effect on device performance if highly doped so as to serve as a back surface field. Overall, the growths and the model demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed geometries and can be used to guide tandem wire array solar cell designs.

  4. Design and Analysis of Fully Integrated Differential VCOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Prochaska

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Oscillators play a decisive role for electronic equipment in many fields - like communication, navigation or data processing. Especially oscillators are key building blocks in integrated transceivers for wired and wireless communication systems. In this context the study of fully integrated differential VCOs has received attention. In this paper we present an analytic analysis of the steady state oscillation of integrated differential VCOs which is based on a nonlinear model of the oscillator. The outcomes of this are design formulas for the amplitude as well as the stability of the oscillator which take the nonlinearity of the circuit into account.

  5. Time-Domain Analysis of a Wire Antenna Near Arbitrarily Shaped Conductor Bodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng; Li-Zhi; Xiao; Bo-xun; 等

    2003-01-01

    A time domain electrical field integral equation (TDEFIE) is formulated for the problem of a thin wire antenna in the presence of conductor bodies, and this equation is solved by the method in time marching algorithm. The analysis is valid for any arbitrarily shaped, oriented and positioned wire antennas relative to arbitrarily shaped conductor bodies. Current at the excited point, input admittance and radiation pattern are given and agree with the results computed by the method in frequency domain.

  6. Time-Domain Analysis of a Wire Antenna Near Arbitrarily Shaped Conductor Bodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Li-zhi; Xiao Bo-xur; Zhu Guo-qiang; Yang Zi-jie

    2003-01-01

    A time domain electrical field integral equation (TDEFIE) is formulated for the problem of a thin wire antenna in the presence of conductor bodies, and this equation is solved by the method of time marching algorithm. The analysis is valid for any arbitrarily shaped, oriented and positioned wire antennas relative to arbitrarily shaped conductor bodies. Current at the excited point, input admittance and radiation pattern are given and agree with the results computed by the method in frequency domain.

  7. Effect of wire shape on wire array discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimomura, N.; Tanaka, Y.; Yushita, Y.; Nagata, M. [University of Tokushima, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tokushima (Japan); Teramoto, Y.; Katsuki, S.; Akiyama, H. [Kumamoto University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Although considerable investigations have been reported on z-pinches to achieve nuclear fusion, little attention has been given from the point of view of how a wire array consisting of many parallel wires explodes. Instability existing in the wire array discharge has been shown. In this paper, the effect of wire shape in the wire array on unstable behavior of the wire array discharge is represented by numerical analysis. The claws on the wire formed in installation of wire may cause uniform current distribution on wire array. The effect of error of wire diameter in production is computed by Monte Carlo Method. (author)

  8. Group analysis of differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Ovsiannikov, L V

    1982-01-01

    Group Analysis of Differential Equations provides a systematic exposition of the theory of Lie groups and Lie algebras and its application to creating algorithms for solving the problems of the group analysis of differential equations.This text is organized into eight chapters. Chapters I to III describe the one-parameter group with its tangential field of vectors. The nonstandard treatment of the Banach Lie groups is reviewed in Chapter IV, including a discussion of the complete theory of Lie group transformations. Chapters V and VI cover the construction of partial solution classes for the g

  9. Slug to churn transition analysis using wire-mesh sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. F. Velasco, P.; Ortiz-Vidal, L. E.; Rocha, D. M.; Rodriguez, O. M. H.

    2016-06-01

    A comparison between some theoretical slug to churn flow-pattern transition models and experimental data is performed. The flow-pattern database considers vertical upward air-water flow at standard temperature and pressure for 50 mm and 32 mm ID pipes. A briefly description of the models and its phenomenology is presented. In general, the performance of the transition models is poor. We found that new experimental studies describing objectively both stable and unstable slug flow-pattern are required. In this sense, the Wire Mesh Sensor (WMS) can assist to that aim. The potential of the WMS is outlined.

  10. Mechanical behavior and numerical analysis of corrugated wire mesh laminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jeong Ho; Shankar, Krishna; Tahtali, Murat [UNSW, ADFA, Canberra (Australia)

    2012-01-15

    The objective is to show a possibility of corrugated wire mesh laminate (CWML) structure for bone application. CWML is a part of open-cell structures with low density and high strength built with bonded mesh layers. Specimens of CWML made of 316 stainless steel woven meshes with 0.22 mm wire diameter and 0.95 mm mesh aperture, bonded by transit liquid phase (TLP) at low temperatures, were fabricated and tested under quasi-static conditions to determine their compressive behavior with varying numbers of layers of the sample. The finite element software was used to model the CWML and studied their response to mechanical loading. Then, the numerical model was confirmed by the tested sample. Consequently, CWML specimens were reasonably matched with the human tibia bone ranged over apparent density from 0.05 to 0.08 g/cm{sup 3} in Young's modulus and from 0.05 to 0.11 g/cm{sup 3} in compressive yield strength. The CWML model can have the potential for bone application.

  11. Optimizing SUS 304 wire drawing process by grey relational analysis utilizing Taguchi method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In the stainless steel 304 (SUS 304) wire drawing process,optimizing the die life and wire tensile strength,which are the larger-the-better quality characteristics (QCH) types,is of main interest.Three control factors,involving reduction ratio,lubricant temperature,and drawing speed,were investigated utilizing L9(34) orthogonal array (OA).The grey relational analysis was conducted for the normalized signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios.The ordinal value of the grey grade was then used to decide optimal factor levels.The anticipated improvements in die life and wire tensile strength were estimated 25.31 h and 22.50 kg/mm2,respectively.To decide the significant factor which had effect on each QCH and predict the average value of each QCH,analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed for S/N ratio and QCH.Confurmation experiments were then conducted,where a good overlap was noticed between the predicted and confirmation intervals for each QCH.The Hotelling 72 and the sample generalized variance control charts were finally utilized in controlling and monitoring future production.In conclusion,the grey relational analysis utilizing Taguchi method is an effective approach for optimizing the die life and wire tensile strength for SUS wire drawing process.

  12. Mission-profile-based stress analysis of bond-wires in SiC power modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel mission-profile-based reliability analysis approach for stress on bond wires in Silicon Carbide (SiC) MOSFET power modules using statistics and thermo-mechanical FEM analysis. In the proposed approach, both the operational and environmental thermal stresses are taken i...

  13. ROOT Analysis of 2004 H8 Test Beam Data & Studies of MDT Sense Wire Displacements

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Tests are being carried out at the CERN H8 Test Facility on the subdetectors of ATLAS. Using MUTRAK, a tool developed by Dan Levin, data from test muon beam runs are converted to PAW plots and ntuples for easy analysis. ROOT classes are currently being developed to convert the PAW output of MUTRAK to ROOT files for more detailed analysis. Also studies are currently underway to understand the effect of sense wire displacements in Monitored Drift Tubes on drift time spectra. Concurrent tests using simulations in GARFIELD and Cosmic Ray MDT experiments are underway to study wire sags which may be up to 480 micrometers due to gravitational and electrostatic forces .

  14. Analysis of an Underground Vertical Electrically Small Wire Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuwei Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem considered is a vertical electrically small wire antenna located underground, which transmits electromagnetic signals to the ground. Getting Green’s function of the vertical dipole underground was the first step to calculate this issue. A quasistatic situation was considered to make an approximation on Sommerfeld integral for easy solution. The method of moments was used to solve the current distribution on the antenna surface at different frequencies, which laid a good foundation for obtaining the electric field of the antenna. Then the axial and radial components of the electric field with the radial distance on the ground were investigated, as well as the voltage received on the ground. Furthermore, the influence of the frequency and stratum parameters on current and electric field was studied to understand the variation clearly.

  15. Study of Performance Analysis in Wired and Wireless Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Kirubanand

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The main intent of this study is to derive a high performance clientserver network using hub, switch, Bluetooth, WI-Fi and Wimax using the steadfast algorithms. Approach: This study mainly focuses on M/M (a,b/1 markovian model with adaboost algorithm and user selection algorithms to find performance on wired and wireless technologies in terms of service rate, arrival rate, Expected waiting time and Busy period. When comparing the wireless technologies with wired technologies in term of inter-arrival and inter-service time it has been found that the wireless technologies are better. Adaboost algorithm in between client-server is to deliver the data packets to the destination without any loss and also to boost the data packets to the destination when there occurs congestion in network. The main intention of user selection algorithm is to select the appropriate user one who have highest priority in the queue. If more than one user has the highest priority then a user is selected at random from among them with uniform probability. It also have been found that, in wireless technologies the data transaction in between client-server using Wimax technology is very efficient in M/M (a,b/1 for implementation with adaboost and user selection algorithm in terms of arrival rate, service rate, Expected waiting time and Busy period implementation. Results: The values obtained from the bluetooth technology can use for calculating the performance of other wireless technologies. Conclusion/Recommendation: In order to provide security for the data packets which flows inside the network, we use RSA algorithm which gives elevated security measures.

  16. Lightning Surge Analysis Including Diagonal Wires Based on the FDTD Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kazuo; Iki, Hiroyuki

    This paper presents an arbitrary diagonal wire on an rectangular surface composing a cubic cell in an electromagnetic analysis based on the orthogonal FDTD (Finite-Difference Time-Domain) Algorithm. One of the numerical electromagnetic analyzing algorithms is the FDTD method based on Maxwell’s equation. The basic FDTD method divides the analyzed space into cubic cells and directly calculates the electrical and magnetic fields of the cells by discretizing the Maxwell’s equation of electromagnetic fields, where the derivatives with respect to time and space are replaced by a numerical difference. The development of computer performance brings about an actual execution of the FDTD method on a usual personal computer recently. In dealing with a diagonal and curved wire, the boundaries of which do not coincide with the finite-difference grid lines, the staircase approximation has been commonly used. However, the approximation causes the large error in a resonant frequency and a propagation time of a system including the diagonal or curved wire. The proposed method can express a diagonal and curved wires on a rectangular surface composing a cubic cell by transforming the general integral form of Maxwell’s equation to the different integral form around the wires. This proposed method is also useful to calculate surge propagation on an arbitrary three-dimensional skeleton structure including a diagonal or curved grid such as a tower model and so on.

  17. Distributed hot-wire anemometry based on Brillouin optical time-domain analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Michael T V; Brown, Anthony W; Colpitts, Bruce G

    2012-07-02

    A distributed hot-wire anemometer based on Brillouin optical time-domain analysis is presented. The anemometer is created by passing a current through a stainless steel tube fibre bundle and monitoring Brillouin frequency changes in the presence of airflow. A wind tunnel is used to provide laminar airflow while the device response is calibrated against theoretical models. The sensitivity equation for this anemometer is derived and discussed. Airspeeds from 0 m/s to 10 m/s are examined, and the results show that a Brillouin scattering based distributed hot-wire anemometer is feasible.

  18. Core Microstructure and Strain State Analysis in MgB2 Wires with Different Metal Sheaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Sobrero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed analysis of the effect of the sheath materials on the microstructure and superconducting properties of MgB2 wires produced by the powder-in-tube method (PIT. We reduced commercial MgB2 powder by attrition milling in nitrogen atmosphere using tungsten carbide balls and obtained powders with grain sizes lower than 150 nm and different strain states through this process. Several Ti, stainless steel, and copper monofilamentary wires were prepared using these powders by the PIT method. We investigated different thermal treatments and mechanical paths during the processing of the wires for the enhancement of the critical currents. The superconducting properties were determined by magnetization measurements in a SQUID magnetometer. The correlation between the thermal treatments, structure, and superconducting properties is discussed.

  19. Trim cut machining and surface integrity analysis of Nimonic 80A alloy using wire cut EDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitesh Goswami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This present work deals with the features of trim cut wire EDM machining of Nimonic 80A in terms of machining parameters, to predict material removal rate (MRR, surface roughness (Ra, wire wear ratio (WWR and microstructure analysis. Trim cut is performed after rough cut to remove the rough layer deposited after machining due to melting and re-solidification of the eroded metal from workpiece as well as from wire electrode. Taguchi’s design of experiments methodology has been used for planning and designing the experiments. The relative significance of various factors has also been evaluated and analyzed using ANOVA. The results clearly indicate trim cut potential for high surface finish compared to rough cut machining.

  20. Multidimensional real analysis I differentiation

    CERN Document Server

    Duistermaat, J J; van Braam Houckgeest, J P

    2004-01-01

    Part one of the authors' comprehensive and innovative work on multidimensional real analysis. This book is based on extensive teaching experience at Utrecht University and gives a thorough account of differential analysis in multidimensional Euclidean space. It is an ideal preparation for students who wish to go on to more advanced study. The notation is carefully organized and all proofs are clean, complete and rigorous. The authors have taken care to pay proper attention to all aspects of the theory. In many respects this book presents an original treatment of the subject and it contains man

  1. Applied analysis and differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Cârj, Ovidiu

    2007-01-01

    This volume contains refereed research articles written by experts in the field of applied analysis, differential equations and related topics. Well-known leading mathematicians worldwide and prominent young scientists cover a diverse range of topics, including the most exciting recent developments. A broad range of topics of recent interest are treated: existence, uniqueness, viability, asymptotic stability, viscosity solutions, controllability and numerical analysis for ODE, PDE and stochastic equations. The scope of the book is wide, ranging from pure mathematics to various applied fields such as classical mechanics, biomedicine, and population dynamics.

  2. Implementation of a planar coil of wires as a sinus-galvanometer. Analysis of the coil magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Stoyanov, Dimitar G

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a theoretical analysis on the interaction between the Earth's magnetic field of a compass needle and the magnetic field of a straight infinite current-carrying wire. Implementation of a planar horizontal coil of wires has been shown as a sinus galvanometer. The magnetic field over the planar coil of wires has been examined by experiment. The coil could be used as a model for straight infinite current wire in demonstration set-ups or could be given as an assignment in Physics laboratory workshops.

  3. Implementation of a planar coil of wires as a sinus-galvanometer. Analysis of the coil magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Stoyanov, Dimitar G.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a theoretical analysis on the interaction between the Earth's magnetic field of a compass needle and the magnetic field of a straight infinite current-carrying wire. Implementation of a planar horizontal coil of wires has been shown as a sinus galvanometer. The magnetic field over the planar coil of wires has been examined by experiment. The coil could be used as a model for straight infinite current wire in demonstration set-ups or could be given as an assignment in Physic...

  4. Seismic fragility analysis of lap-spliced reinforced concrete columns retrofitted by SMA wire jackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Park, Sun-Hee; Chung, Young-Soo; Kim, Hee Sun

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study is to provide seismic fragility curves of reinforced concrete columns retrofitted by shape memory alloy wire jackets and thus assess the seismic performance of the columns against earthquakes, comparing them with reinforced concrete columns with lap-spliced and continuous reinforcement. For that purpose, this study first developed analytical models of the experimental results of the three types of columns, (1) lap-spliced reinforcement, (2) continuous reinforcement and (3) lap-spliced reinforcement and retrofitted by SMA wire jackets, using the OpenSEES program, which is oriented to nonlinear dynamic analysis. Then, a suite of ten recorded ground motions was used to conduct dynamic analyses of the analytical models with scaling of the peak ground acceleration from 0.1g to 1.0g in steps of 0.1g. From the static experimental tests, the column retrofitted with SMA wire jackets had a larger displacement ductility by a factor of 2.3 times that of the lap-spliced column, which was 6% larger compared with the ductility of the continuous reinforcement column. From the fragility analyses, the SMA wire jacketed column had median values of 0.162g and 0.567g for yield and collapse, respectively. For the yield damage state, the SMA wire jacketed column had a median value similar to the continuous reinforcement column. However, for the complete damage state, the SMA wire jacketed column showed a 1.33 times larger median value than the continuously reinforcement column.

  5. APPLICATION OF THE X-RAY STRUCTURE ANALYSIS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROCES- SES OF WIRE PRODUCTION AT BMZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Kuznetsov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The X-ray diffraction methods of qualitative and quantative analysis of phase composition of the brass coating, scale on the surface of brass wire, rod, patented wire, methods of determining the characteristics of the microstrains the lattice ferritic matrix pearlitic high-carbon steel, are explored.

  6. Comparative reliability studies and analysis of Au, Pd-coated Cu and Pd-doped Cu wire in microelectronics packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong Leong, Gan; Uda, Hashim

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares and discusses the wearout reliability and analysis of Gold (Au), Palladium (Pd) coated Cu and Pd-doped Cu wires used in fineline Ball Grid Array (BGA) package. Intermetallic compound (IMC) thickness measurement has been carried out to estimate the coefficient of diffusion (Do) under various aging conditions of different bonding wires. Wire pull and ball bond shear strengths have been analyzed and we found smaller variation in Pd-doped Cu wire compared to Au and Pd-doped Cu wire. Au bonds were identified to have faster IMC formation, compared to slower IMC growth of Cu. The obtained weibull slope, β of three bonding wires are greater than 1.0 and belong to wearout reliability data point. Pd-doped Cu wire exhibits larger time-to-failure and cycles-to-failure in both wearout reliability tests in Highly Accelerated Temperature and Humidity (HAST) and Temperature Cycling (TC) tests. This proves Pd-doped Cu wire has a greater potential and higher reliability margin compared to Au and Pd-coated Cu wires.

  7. Comparative reliability studies and analysis of Au, Pd-coated Cu and Pd-doped Cu wire in microelectronics packaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan Chong Leong

    Full Text Available This paper compares and discusses the wearout reliability and analysis of Gold (Au, Palladium (Pd coated Cu and Pd-doped Cu wires used in fineline Ball Grid Array (BGA package. Intermetallic compound (IMC thickness measurement has been carried out to estimate the coefficient of diffusion (Do under various aging conditions of different bonding wires. Wire pull and ball bond shear strengths have been analyzed and we found smaller variation in Pd-doped Cu wire compared to Au and Pd-doped Cu wire. Au bonds were identified to have faster IMC formation, compared to slower IMC growth of Cu. The obtained weibull slope, β of three bonding wires are greater than 1.0 and belong to wearout reliability data point. Pd-doped Cu wire exhibits larger time-to-failure and cycles-to-failure in both wearout reliability tests in Highly Accelerated Temperature and Humidity (HAST and Temperature Cycling (TC tests. This proves Pd-doped Cu wire has a greater potential and higher reliability margin compared to Au and Pd-coated Cu wires.

  8. Repeatability of phasic muscle activity: performance of surface and intramuscular wire electrodes in gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadaba, M P; Wootten, M E; Gainey, J; Cochran, G V

    1985-01-01

    Repeatability is an important consideration for gait analysis data that are being used as an adjunct to clinical decision making. An index of repeatability may be based on a statistical criterion (variance ratio) that reflects similarity of wave forms over a number of identical cycles. The purpose of this study was to use the variance ratio to assess the repeatability of phasic muscle activity recorded with surface and bipolar intramuscular wire electrodes during gait on 10 normal subjects. Variance ratios were calculated using rectified and smoothed electromyographic data recorded simultaneously from the two types of electrodes. Three measures of repeatability (reproducibility, reliability, and constancy--defined as the cycle-to-cycle, run-to-run, and day-to-day repeatability of phasic muscle activity) were used to compare the performance of the two electrode techniques. Results show that the reproducibility and reliability were better for surface electrodes than for intramuscular wire electrodes, and constancy was good for surface electrodes and poor for intramuscular wire electrodes. Repeatability improved with increasing smoothing window lengths but was better for surface electrodes than wire electrodes, irrespective of the smoothing window. This study indicates that surface electrode data represent a more consistent measure of activity of superficial muscles, if comparisons are to be made between gait data from different test days.

  9. Performance Analysis of DiffServ based Quality of Service in a Multimedia Wired Network and VPN effect using OPNET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aamir

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Quality of Service (QoS techniques are applied in IP networks to utilize available network resources in the most efficient manner to minimize delays and delay variations (jitters in network traffic having multiple type of services. Multimedia services may include voice, video and database. Researchers have done considerable work on queuing disciplines to analyze and improve QoS performance in wired and wireless IP networks. This paper highlights QoS analysis in a wired IP network with more realistic enterprise modeling and presents simulation results of a few statistics not presented and discussed before. Four different applications are used i.e. FTP, Database, Voice over IP (VoIP and Video Conferencing (VC. Two major queuing disciplines are evaluated i.e. Priority Queuing and Weighted Fair Queuing for packet identification under Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP. The simulation results show that WFQ has an edge over PQ in terms of queuing delays and jitters experienced by low priority services. For high priority traffic, dependency of Traffic Drop, Buffer Usage and Packet Delay Variation on selected buffer sizes is simulated and discussed to evaluate QoS deeper. In the end, it is also analyzed how networks database service with applied Quality of Service may be affected in terms of throughput (average rate of data receivedfor internal network users when the server is also accessed by external user(s through Virtual Private Network (VPN.

  10. Dimensional analysis of detrimental ozone generation by positive wire-to-plate corona discharge in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Z.; Chen, J. H.

    2010-02-01

    The dimensional analysis technique is used to formulate a correlation between ozone generation rate and various parameters that are important in the design and operation of positive wire-to-plate corona discharges in indoor air. The dimensionless relation is determined by linear regression analysis based on the results from 36 laboratory-scale experiments. The derived equation is validated by experimental data and a numerical model published in the literature. Applications of such derived equation are illustrated through an example selection of the appropriate set of operating conditions in the design/operation of a photocopier to follow the federal regulations of ozone emission. Finally, a new current-voltage characteristic equation is proposed for positive wire-to-plate corona discharges based on the derived dimensionless equation.

  11. Analysis of Mechanical Stresses/Strains in Superconducting Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Matthew; Chen, Jingping; Zhai, Yuhu

    2016-10-01

    The optimization of superconducting magnet performance and development of high-field superconducting magnets will greatly impact the next generation of fusion devices. A successful magnet development, however, relies deeply on the understanding of superconducting materials. Among the numerous factors that impact a superconductor's performance, mechanical stress is the most important because of the extreme operation temperature and large electromagnetic forces. In this study, mechanical theory is used to calculate the stresses/strains in typical superconducting strands, which consist of a stabilizer, a barrier, a matrix and superconducting filaments. Both thermal loads and mechanical loads are included in the analysis to simulate operation conditions. Because this model simulates the typical architecture of major superconducting materials, such as Nb3Sn, MgB2, Bi-2212 etc., it provides a good overall picture for us to understand the behavior of these superconductors in terms of thermal and mechanical loads. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Workforce Development for Teachers and Scientists (WDTS) under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) program.

  12. Analysis on Factors Affecting the Self-Repair Capability of SMA Wire Concrete Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Crack expansion of concrete is the initial damage stage of structures, which may cause greater damage to structures subject to long-term loads or under extreme conditions. In recent years, the application of intelligent materials to crack self-repair has become a hotspot among researchers. In order to study the influence of factors on the self-repair capability of shape memory alloy (SMA wire concrete beam, both theoretical and experimental methods were employed for analysis. For the convenience of experiment, composite materials (epoxy cement mortar and silicone polymer clay instead of concrete were used. The SMA wires were externally installed on and internally embedded in epoxy resin cement mortar beams and silicone polymer clay beams. Comparison of crack repair situation between two installation methods turns out that both methods possess their own advantages and disadvantages and should be employed according to the actual situation. The influence of unbonded length on the self-repair capability of embedded type SMA wire beams and the necessary minimum unbonded length to achieve self-repair function were studied. The results state clearly that the longer the unbonded length is, the better the crack repair situation is.

  13. Analysis the influence of drawing process parameters on the amount of retained austenite in trip steel wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Muskalski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a theoretical analysis of the process of drawing TRIP-effect steel wires involving simulation of the drawing process. The process was run following two variants, with small and large partial drafts for three drawing speeds: 1,11; 0,23 and 0,005 m/s. The investigations carried out allowed a relationship between the amount of retained austenite and strain intensity and strain rate to be established for TRIP steel wires drawn.

  14. Selected papers on analysis and differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Society, American Mathematical

    2010-01-01

    This volume contains translations of papers that originally appeared in the Japanese journal Sūgaku. These papers range over a variety of topics in ordinary and partial differential equations, and in analysis. Many of them are survey papers presenting new results obtained in the last few years. This volume is suitable for graduate students and research mathematicians interested in analysis and differential equations.

  15. Differential analysis of matrix convex functions II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank; Tomiyama, Jun

    2009-01-01

    We continue the analysis in [F. Hansen, and J. Tomiyama, Differential analysis of matrix convex functions. Linear Algebra Appl., 420:102--116, 2007] of matrix convex functions of a fixed order defined in a real interval by differential methods as opposed to the characterization in terms of divide...

  16. Analysis of Magneto-hydrodynamics Flow and Heat Transfer of a Viscoelastic Fluid through Porous Medium in Wire Coating Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Khan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Wire coating process is a continuous extrusion process for primary insulation of conducting wires with molten polymers for mechanical strength and protection in aggressive environments. Nylon, polysulfide, low/high density polyethylene (LDPE/HDPE and plastic polyvinyl chloride (PVC are the common and important plastic resin used for wire coating. In the current study, wire coating is performed using viscoelastic third grade fluid in the presence of applied magnetic field and porous medium. The governing equations are first modeled and then solved analytically by utilizing the homotopy analysis method (HAM. The convergence of the series solution is established. A numerical technique called ND-solve method is used for comparison and found good agreement. The effect of pertinent parameters on the velocity field and temperature profile is shown with the help of graphs. It is observed that the velocity profiles increase as the value of viscoelastic third grade parameter β increase and decrease as the magnetic parameter M and permeability parameter K increase. It is also observed that the temperature profiles increases as the Brinkman number B r , permeability parameter K , magnetic parameter M and viscoelastic third grade parameter (non-Newtonian parameter β increase.

  17. [Arc spectrum diagnostic and heat coupling mechanism analysis of double wire pulsed MIG welding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-qiang; Li, Huan; Yang, Li-jun; Zheng, Kai; Gao, Ying

    2015-01-01

    A double wire pulsed MIG welding test system was built in the present paper, in order to analyze the heat-coupling mechanism of double wire pulsed MIG welding, and study are temperature field. Spectroscopic technique was used in diagnostic analysis of the are, plasma radiation was collected by using hollow probe method to obtain the arc plasma optical signal The electron temperature of double wire pulsed MIG welding arc plasma was calculated by using Boltzmann diagram method, the electron temperature distribution was obtained, a comprehensive analysis of the arc was conducted combined with the high speed camera technology and acquisition means of electricity signal. The innovation of this paper is the combination of high-speed camera image information of are and optical signal of arc plasma to analyze the coupling mechanism for dual arc, and a more intuitive analysis for are temperature field was conducted. The test results showed that a push-pull output was achieved and droplet transfer mode was a drop in a pulse in the welding process; Two arcs attracted each other under the action of a magnetic field, and shifted to the center of the arc in welding process, so a new heat center was formed at the geometric center of the double arc, and flowing up phenomenon occurred on the arc; Dual arc electronic temperature showed an inverted V-shaped distribution overall, and at the geometric center of the double arc, the arc electron temperature at 3 mm off the workpiece surface was the highest, which was 16,887.66 K, about 4,900 K higher than the lowest temperature 11,963.63 K.

  18. Transmission Performance Analysis of Digital Wire and Wireless Optical Links in Local and Wide Areas Optical Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mohamed, Abd El Naser A; Rashed, Ahmed Nabih Zaki; Nabawy, Amina E M El

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper, the transmission performance analysis of digital wire and wireless optical links in local and wide areas optical networks have been modeled and parametrically investigated over wide range of the affecting parameters. Moreover, we have analyzed the basic equations of the comparative study of the performance of digital fiber optic links with wire and wireless optical links. The development of optical wireless communication systems is accelerating as a high cost effective to wire fiber optic links. The optical wireless technology is used mostly in wide bandwidth data transmission applications. Finally, we have investigated the maximum transmission distance and data transmission bit rates that can be achieved within digital wire and wireless optical links for local and wide areas optical network applications.

  19. Heat transfer monitoring by means of the hot wire technique and finite element analysis software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Wong, J; Suarez, V; Guarachi, J; Calderón, A; Rojas-Trigos, J B; Juárez, A G; Marín, E

    2014-01-01

    It is reported the study of the radial heat transfer in a homogeneous and isotropic substance with a heat linear source in its axial axis. For this purpose, the hot wire characterization technique has been used, in order to obtain the temperature distribution as a function of radial distance from the axial axis and time exposure. Also, the solution of the transient heat transport equation for this problem was obtained under appropriate boundary conditions, by means of finite element technique. A comparison between experimental, conventional theoretical model and numerical simulated results is done to demonstrate the utility of the finite element analysis simulation methodology in the investigation of the thermal response of substances.

  20. Flutter and Thermal Buckling Analysis for Composite Laminated Panel Embedded with Shape Memory Alloy Wires in Supersonic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonghui Shao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The flutter and thermal buckling behavior of laminated composite panels embedded with shape memory alloy (SMA wires are studied in this research. The classical plate theory and nonlinear von-Karman strain-displacement relation are employed to investigate the aeroelastic behavior of the smart laminated panel. The thermodynamic behaviors of SMA wires are simulated based on one-dimensional Brinson SMA model. The aerodynamic pressure on the panel is described by the nonlinear piston theory. Nonlinear governing partial differential equations of motion are derived for the panel via the Hamilton principle. The effects of ply angle of the composite panel, SMA layer location and orientation, SMA wires temperature, volume fraction and prestrain on the buckling, flutter boundary, and amplitude of limit cycle oscillation of the panel are analyzed in detail.

  1. Vibrating wire alignment technique

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao-Long, Wang; lei, Wu; Chun-Hua, Li

    2013-01-01

    Vibrating wire alignment technique is a kind of method which through measuring the spatial distribution of magnetic field to do the alignment and it can achieve very high alignment accuracy. Vibrating wire alignment technique can be applied for magnet fiducialization and accelerator straight section components alignment, it is a necessary supplement for conventional alignment method. This article will systematically expound the international research achievements of vibrating wire alignment technique, including vibrating wire model analysis, system frequency calculation, wire sag calculation and the relation between wire amplitude and magnetic induction intensity. On the basis of model analysis this article will introduce the alignment method which based on magnetic field measurement and the alignment method which based on amplitude and phase measurement. Finally, some basic questions will be discussed and the solutions will be given.

  2. Design and comparative analysis of 10 MW class superconducting wind power generators according to different types of superconducting wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Hae-Jin, E-mail: haejin90@changwon.ac.kr [Changwon National University, 55306 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gyeong-Hun; Kim, Kwangmin; Park, Minwon [Changwon National University, 55306 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, In-Keun, E-mail: yuik@changwon.ac.kr [Changwon National University, 55306 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-Yul [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon 641-120 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •10 MW SC wind power generators are designed using different types of SC wires. •SCSGs using YBCO and Bi-2223 wires are optimized by the modified Taguchi method. •The results demonstrate a proper type of SC wire for the optimal design of SCSG. -- Abstract: Wind turbine concepts can be classified into the geared type and the gearless type. The gearless type wind turbine is more attractive due to advantages of simplified drive train and increased energy yield, and higher reliability because the gearbox is omitted. In addition, this type resolves the weight issue of the wind turbine with the light weight of gearbox. However, because of the low speed operation, this type has disadvantage such as the large diameter and heavy weight of generator. Super-Conducting (SC) wind power generator can reduce the weight and volume of a wind power system. Properties of superconducting wire are very different from each company. This paper considers the design and comparative analysis of 10 MW class SC wind power generators according to different types of SC wires. Super-Conducting Synchronous Generators (SCSGs) using YBCO and Bi-2223 wires are optimized by an optimal method. The magnetic characteristics of the SCSGs are investigated using the finite elements method program. The optimized specifications of the SCSGs are discussed in detail, and the optimization processes can be used effectively to develop large scale wind power generation systems.

  3. Photoelastic analysis of stress generated by wires when conventional and self-ligating brackets are used: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Caiado Sobral

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: By means of a photoelastic model, this study analyzed the stress caused on conventional and self-ligating brackets with expanded arch wires. METHOD: Standard brackets were adhered to artificial teeth and a photoelastic model was prepared using the Interlandi 19/12 diagram as base. Successive activations were made with 0.014-in and 0.018-in rounded cross section Nickel-Titanium wires (NiTi and 0.019 x 0.025-in rectangular stainless steel wires all of which made on 22/14 Interlandi diagram. The model was observed on a plane polariscope - in a dark field microscope configuration - and photographed at each exchange of wire. Then, they were replaced by self-ligating brackets and the process was repeated. Analysis was qualitative and observed stress location and pattern on both models analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: Results identified greater stress on the region of the apex of premolars in both analyzed models. Upon comparing the stress between models, a greater amount of stress was found in the model with conventional brackets in all of its wires. Therefore, the present pilot study revealed that alignment of wires in self-ligating brackets produced lower stress in periodontal tissues in expansive mechanics.

  4. Differentiation, ageing, and terminal differentiation: a semantic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, J M

    1983-12-21

    The largely unsolved problems in the theoretical analysis of differentiation and ageing involve a substantial component of linguistic (semantic) difficulties. Some of these are simple traps of ambiguity, resulting from metaphorical or analogical employment of established terms--for example, "terminal differentiation" (loss of division potential in vitro) as a borrowing from "differentiation" as used by developmental biologists, or "commitment" by analogy with "determination". Some difficulties represent a failure to adopt (at least provisionally) an operational (empirical) view--for example, failure to ask what is the nature of the evidence for the view that a fertilized ovum is totipotential, or to scrutinize the evidence for the view that cells "terminally differentiated" in vitro in a conventional medium are in fact moribund under all conditions, or to examine more closely the view that the differentiated state and the cycling state are mutually exclusive. With respect to the problem of ageing, we review some of the critical experiments on "terminal differentiation" or "clonal senescence". We then proceed to consider some of the models that have been proposed, including a molecular model proposed by the author which appears to overcome some of the objections to other models. Some of the models exemplify the results of what are ultimately semantic vices. The problems with which these remarks began should indeed yield to the immense and novel resources of molecular biology. But the development of complete analyses demands not only good luck and delicate technique but also critical semantic clarity and severity. Given the best tools, we shall solve major theoretical problems only if we understand quite fully what problem it is that we are trying to solve--and the history of science illustrates that this is not as elementary a matter as it sounds.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Two-year survival analysis of twisted wire fixed retainer versus spiral wire and fiber-reinforced composite retainers: a preliminary explorative single-blind randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobouti, Farhad; Rakhshan, Vahid; Saravi, Mahdi Gholamrezaei; Zamanian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective Traditional retainers (both metal and fiber-reinforced composite [FRC]) have limitations, and a retainer made from more flexible ligature wires might be advantageous. We aimed to compare an experimental design with two traditional retainers. Methods In this prospective preliminary clinical trial, 150 post-treatment patients were enrolled and randomly divided into three groups of 50 patients each to receive mandibular canine-to-canine retainers made of FRC, flexible spiral wire (FSW), and twisted wire (TW). The patients were monitored monthly. The time at which the first signs of breakage/debonding were detected was recorded. The success rates of the retainers were compared using chi-squared, Kaplan-Meier, and Cox proportional-hazard regression analyses (α = 0.05). Results In total, 42 patients in the FRC group, 41 in the FSW group, and 45 in the TW group completed the study. The 2-year failure rates were 35.7% in the FRC group, 26.8% in the FSW group, and 17.8% in the TW group. These rates differed insignificantly (chi-squared p = 0.167). According to the Kaplan-Meier analysis, failure occurred at 19.95 months in the FRC group, 21.37 months in the FSW group, and 22.36 months in the TW group. The differences between the survival rates in the three groups were not significant (Cox regression p = 0.146). Conclusions Although the failure rate of the experimental retainer was two times lower than that of the FRC retainer, the difference was not statistically significant. The experimental TW retainer was successful, and larger studies are warranted to verify these results. PMID:27019825

  6. Numerical Analysis of Partial Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Lui, S H

    2011-01-01

    A balanced guide to the essential techniques for solving elliptic partial differential equations Numerical Analysis of Partial Differential Equations provides a comprehensive, self-contained treatment of the quantitative methods used to solve elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs), with a focus on the efficiency as well as the error of the presented methods. The author utilizes coverage of theoretical PDEs, along with the nu merical solution of linear systems and various examples and exercises, to supply readers with an introduction to the essential concepts in the numerical analysis

  7. Analysis of electrical explosion of wire systems for the production of nanopowder

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rashmita Das; Basanta Kumar Das; Rohit Shukla; T Prabaharan; Anurag Shyam

    2012-10-01

    Nanoscience and nanotechnology continue to grow as fields of scientific research and commercial development as many fundamental properties are size dependent on the nano scale. There are so many techniques for the production and characterization of various ultra fine powders. To gain a fundamental understanding of size dependant properties of matter in the nanometer size regimes and to developnanoscale materials into useful devices to benefit society requires detailed study of the experimental methods, better methods of sample preparation of mono dispersed material in large quantities, and development of nanoparticles characterization methods. Exploding wire method is one such method for the production of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles capable of producing bulk amount of metal nanoparticles at low cost. With the intention of developing better exploding wire system for the production of nanoparticle and to understand the nanoparticle formation process, we have developed two systems in the way of optimization of the experimental set-up for final production of nanoparticles. The detail analysis of the systems and its effect on the nanoparticles has been described in the paper.

  8. Contribution of ion beam analysis methods to the development of second generation high temperature superconducting wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usov, I. O.; Arendt, P. N.; Foltyn, S. R.; Stan, L.; DePaula, R. F.; Holesinger, T. G.

    2010-06-01

    One of the crucial steps in the second generation high temperature superconducting wire program was development of the buffer-layer architecture. The architecture designed at the Superconductivity Technology Center at Los Alamos National Laboratory consists of several oxide layers wherein each layer plays a specific role, namely: nucleation layer, diffusion barrier, biaxially textured template, and intermediate layer providing a suitable lattice match to the superconducting Y 1Ba 2Cu 3O 7 (YBCO) compound. This report demonstrates how a wide range of ion beam analysis techniques (SIMS, RBS, channeling, PIXE, PIGE, NRA and ERD) was employed for analysis of each buffer layer and the YBCO film. These results assisted in understanding of a variety of physical processes occurring during the buffer layer fabrication and helped to optimize the buffer-layer architecture as a whole.

  9. Analysis of Anther Cell Differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Hong [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2015-01-19

    This grant supports research on genes that regulate Arabidopsis anther development. The proposed research largely concerns that functions of two key regulatory genes: SPL and DYT1, which encode two putative transcription factors, as well as genes that interact with these genes. Last year, we reported progress in preparation for ChIP analysis with SPL and DYT1, in dyt1 and ams microarray experiments and initial data analysis, in functional analysis of one of the DYT1 target gene, MYB35.

  10. Wire Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  11. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber.Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  12. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Proportional multi-wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle. Proportional wire chambers allow a much quicker reading than the optical or magnetoscriptive readout wire chambers.

  13. Time domain analysis of thin-wire antennas over lossy ground using the reflection-coefficient approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández Pantoja, M.; Yarovoy, A.G.; Rubio Bretones, A.; González García, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure to extend the methods of moments in time domain for the transient analysis of thin-wire antennas to include those cases where the antennas are located over a lossy half-space. This extended technique is based on the reflection coefficient (RC) approach, which approxim

  14. MIP Plasma Decapsulation of Copper-wired Semiconductor Devices for Failure Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, J.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of Integrated Circuit (IC) devices are encapsulated in wire-bonded plastic IC packages. Epoxy molding compound is used as the encapsulation material and gold was used as the bonding wire material. However, the increase of gold material price from 400 USD/ounce in year 2005 to 1400 USD/o

  15. MIP Plasma Decapsulation of Copper-wired Semiconductor Devices for Failure Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, J.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of Integrated Circuit (IC) devices are encapsulated in wire-bonded plastic IC packages. Epoxy molding compound is used as the encapsulation material and gold was used as the bonding wire material. However, the increase of gold material price from 400 USD/ounce in year 2005 to 1400 USD/o

  16. MIP Plasma Decapsulation of Copper-wired Semiconductor Devices for Failure Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, J.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of Integrated Circuit (IC) devices are encapsulated in wire-bonded plastic IC packages. Epoxy molding compound is used as the encapsulation material and gold was used as the bonding wire material. However, the increase of gold material price from 400 USD/ounce in year 2005 to 1400

  17. Analysis of Magneto-hydrodynamics Flow and Heat Transfer of a Viscoelastic Fluid through Porous Medium in Wire Coating Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zeeshan Khan; Muhammad Altaf Khan; Saeed Islam; Bilal Jan; Fawad Hussain; Haroon Ur Rasheed; Waris Khan

    2017-01-01

    Wire coating process is a continuous extrusion process for primary insulation of conducting wires with molten polymers for mechanical strength and protection in aggressive environments. Nylon, polysulfide, low/high density polyethylene (LDPE/HDPE) and plastic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) are the common and important plastic resin used for wire coating. In the current study, wire coating is performed using viscoelastic third grade fluid in the presence of applied magnetic field and porous medium. ...

  18. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  19. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Was used in ISR (Intersecting Storage Ring) split field magnet experiment. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  20. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  1. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1985-01-01

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  2. Movement analysis on steel wire rope of continuous conveyor with disc-tube assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUAN Li-jun; SHI Shu-lin; REN Li-yi

    2004-01-01

    The steel wire rope of continuous conveyor with disc-tube assembly is droved by the driving wheel. When the driving wheel rotates, the gear is combined to the connection disc in turn, promoting the connection disc to move in succession. Turning the whirling torque of driving wheel into the straight-line traction force. When the steel wire rope is winded by the driving wheel some winded along the circumference, others winded along the straight line. Used motion subject law, this article analyses the change of the velocity and the acceleration of the steel wire rope in the straight movement, and observe the mathematics' model of velocity and acceleration.

  3. I-Wire Heart-on-a-Chip II: Biomechanical analysis of contractile, three-dimensional cardiomyocyte tissue constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroer, Alison K; Shotwell, Matthew S; Sidorov, Veniamin Y; Wikswo, John P; Merryman, W David

    2017-01-15

    This companion study presents the biomechanical analysis of the "I-Wire" platform using a modified Hill model of muscle mechanics that allows for further characterization of construct function and response to perturbation. The I-Wire engineered cardiac tissue construct (ECTC) is a novel experimental platform to investigate cardiac cell mechanics during auxotonic contraction. Whereas passive biomaterials often exhibit nonlinear and dissipative behavior, active tissue equivalents, such as ECTCs, also expend metabolic energy to perform mechanical work that presents additional challenges in quantifying their properties. The I-Wire model uses the passive mechanical response to increasing applied tension to measure the inherent stress and resistance to stretch of the construct before, during, and after treatments. Both blebbistatin and isoproterenol reduced prestress and construct stiffness; however, blebbistatin treatment abolished subsequent force-generating potential while isoproterenol enhanced this property. We demonstrate that the described model can replicate the response of these constructs to intrinsic changes in force-generating potential in response to both increasing frequency of stimulation and decreasing starting length. This analysis provides a useful mathematical model of the I-Wire platform, increases the number of parameters that can be derived from the device, and serves as a demonstration of quantitative characterization of nonlinear, active biomaterials. We anticipate that this quantitative analysis of I-Wire constructs will prove useful for qualifying patient-specific cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts prior to their utilization for cardiac regenerative medicine. Passive biomaterials may have non-linear elasticity and losses, but engineered muscle tissue also exhibits time- and force-dependent contractions. Historically, mathematical muscle models include series-elastic, parallel-elastic, contractile, and viscous elements. While hearts-on-a-chip can

  4. Giant magnetoimpedance modelling using Fourier analysis in soft magnetic amorphous wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Polo, C.; Knobel, M.; Pirota, K. R.; Vázquez, M.

    2001-06-01

    In this work, the Fourier analysis is employed to investigate the giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect in a FeCoSiB amorphous wire with vanishing magnetostriction. In order to modify the initial quenched-in anisotropy, pieces 8 cm in length were submitted to Joule heating treatments below the corresponding Curie point. The induced circumferential anisotropy determines the field evolution of the electrical impedance of the sample upon the application of an axial magnetic field. The experimental results are interpreted within the framework of the classical electrodynamical theory, where a simple rotational model is used to estimate the circular magnetization process of the sample. The mean value of the circumferential permeability is obtained through Fourier analysis of the time derivative of the estimated circular magnetization. Moreover, the existence of a second harmonic component of the GMI voltage is also experimentally detected. Its amplitude sensitively evolves with the axial DC magnetic field and its appearance is associated to an asymmetry in the circular magnetization process.

  5. Comparison and analysis of the efficiency of heat exchange of copper rod and copper wires current lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, J.; Yu, T.; Li, Z. M.; Wei, B.; Qiu, M.; Zhang, H. J.

    2013-11-01

    Current leads are the key components that connect the low-temperature and high temperature parts of the cryogenic system. Owing to the wide range of temperatures, current leads are the main sources of heat leakage. Since the HTS tapes have no resistance and the generated Joule heat is almost zero, HTS binary current leads can reduce heat leakage compared to the conventional leads. However, heat will still be generated and conducted to the cryogenic system through the copper parts of the HTS current leads. In order to reduce heat leakage by the copper parts of the HTS current leads, this paper presents an optimized design of the copper parts of HTS binary current leads. Inside the leads, the copper wires were applied as an alternative to the copper rod without changing the overall dimensions. Firstly, the differential function of heat transfer was derived. By solving the function, the optimum number of the copper wires and the temperature distribution of two different current leads were gotten. Then the experiment of the temperature distribution was done, and the experimental results were basically the same with the calculative results. The simulation and related experiments proved that the copper wire can increase security margins and reduce maximum temperatures under the same shunt current.

  6. MHD Flow and Heat Transfer Analysis in the Wire Coating Process Using Elastic-Viscous

    OpenAIRE

    Zeeshan Khan; Rehan Ali Shah; Saeed Islam; Hamid Jan; Bilal Jan; Haroon-Ur Rasheed; Aurangzeeb Khan

    2017-01-01

    The most important plastic resins used for wire coating are polyvinyl chloride (PVC), nylon, polysulfone, and low-/high-density polyethylene (LDPE/HDPE). In this article, the coating process is performed using elastic-viscous fluid as a coating material for wire coating in a pressure type coating die. The elastic-viscous fluid is electrically conducted in the presence of an applied magnetic field. The governing non-linear equations are modeled and then solved analytically by utilizing an Adom...

  7. HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS OF HEAT GENERATING WIRE USING FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    Dipak J. Parmar; Bhargav M. Chavda

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the numerical results of the heat transfer from heat generating wire at different conditions by finite element method. The parametric effects on heat transfer were investigated. The varied parameters included ambient conditions, as well as the shape of the cross-section. The numerical results show that the type of the medium where the heat generating wire immerges has strong effects on the heatdissipation rate. As the size of the diameter the heat dis...

  8. Analysis of thermal characteristics of electrical wiring for load groups in cattle barns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Doo Hyun; Yoo, Sang-Ok; Kim, Sung Chul; Hwang, Dong Kyu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to analyze the thermal characteristics of electrical wirings depending on the number of operating load by connecting four types of electrical wirings that are selected by surveying the conditions for the electric fans, automatic waterers and halogen warm lamps that were installed in cattle barns in different years. The conditions of 64 cattle barns were surveyed and an experimental test was conducted at a cattle barn. The condition-survey covered inappropriate design, construction and misuse of electrical facility, including electrical wiring mostly used, and the mode of load current was evaluated. The survey showed that the mode of load current increased as the installation year of the fans, waterers and halogen lamps became older. Accordingly, the cattle barn manager needed to increase the capacity of the circuit breaker, which promoted the degradation of insulation of the electrical wires' sheath and increased possibility for electrical fires in the long-run. The test showed that the saturation temperature of the wire insulated sheath increased depending on the installation year of the load groups, in case of VCTFK and VFF electric wires, therefore, requiring their careful usage in the cattle barns.

  9. DNA microarray analysis of genes differentially expressed in adipocyte differentiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chunyan Yin; Yanfeng Xiao; Wei Zhang; Erdi Xu; Weihua Liu; Xiaoqing Yi; Ming Chang

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, the human liposarcoma cell line SW872 was used to identify global changes in gene expression profiles occurring during adipogenesis. We further explored some of the genes expressed during the late phase of adipocyte differentiation. These genes may play a major role in promoting excessive proliferation and accumulation of lipid droplets, which contribute to the development of obesity. By using microarray-based technology, we examined differential gene expression in early differentiated adipocytes and late differentiated adipocytes. Validated genes exhibited a ≥ 10-fold increase in the late phase of adipocyte differentiation by polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Compared with undifferentiated preadipocytes, we found that 763 genes were increased in early differentiated adipocytes, and 667 genes were increased in later differentiated adipocytes. Furthermore, 21 genes were found being expressed 10-fold higher in the late phase of adipocyte differentiation. The results were in accordance with the RT-PCR test, which validated 11 genes, namely, CIDEC, PID1, LYRM1, ADD1, PPAR2, ANGPTL4, ADIPOQ, ACOX1, FIP1L1, MAP3K2 and PEX14. Most of these genes were found being expressed in the later phase of adipocyte differentiation involved in obesity-related diseases. The findings may help to better understand the mechanism of obesity and related diseases.

  10. DNA microarray analysis of genes differentially expressed in adipocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chunyan; Xiao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Erdi; Liu, Weihua; Yi, Xiaoqing; Chang, Ming

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, the human liposarcoma cell line SW872 was used to identify global changes in gene expression profiles occurring during adipogenesis. We further explored some of the genes expressed during the late phase of adipocyte differentiation. These genes may play a major role in promoting excessive proliferation and accumulation of lipid droplets, which contribute to the development of obesity. By using microarray-based technology, we examined differential gene expression in early differentiated adipocytes and late differentiated adipocytes. Validated genes exhibited a greater than or equal to 10-fold increase in the late phase of adipocyte differentiation by polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Compared with undifferentiated preadipocytes, we found that 763 genes were increased in early differentiated adipocytes, and 667 genes were increased in later differentiated adipocytes. Furthermore, 21 genes were found being expressed 10-fold higher in the late phase of adipocyte differentiation. The results were in accordance with the RTPCR test, which validated 11 genes, namely, CIDEC, PID1, LYRM1, ADD1, PPAR?2, ANGPTL4, ADIPOQ, ACOX1, FIP1L1, MAP3K2 and PEX14. Most of these genes were found being expressed in the later phase of adipocyte differentiation involved in obesity-related diseases. The findings may help to better understand the mechanism of obesity and related diseases.

  11. Differential network analysis in human cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Ryan; Datta, Somnath; Datta, Susmita

    2014-01-01

    A complex disease like cancer is hardly caused by one gene or one protein singly. It is usually caused by the perturbation of the network formed by several genes or proteins. In the last decade several research teams have attempted to construct interaction maps of genes and proteins either experimentally or reverse engineer interaction maps using computational techniques. These networks were usually created under a certain condition such as an environmental condition, a particular disease, or a specific tissue type. Lately, however, there has been greater emphasis on finding the differential structure of the existing network topology under a novel condition or disease status to elucidate the perturbation in a biological system. In this review/tutorial article we briefly mention some of the research done in this area; we mainly illustrate the computational/statistical methods developed by our team in recent years for differential network analysis using publicly available gene expression data collected from a well known cancer study. This data includes a group of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and a group with acute myeloid leukemia. In particular, we describe the statistical tests to detect the change in the network topology based on connectivity scores which measure the association or interaction between pairs of genes. The tests under various scores are applied to this data set to perform a differential network analysis on gene expression for human leukemia. We believe that, in the future, differential network analysis will be a standard way to view the changes in gene expression and protein expression data globally and these types of tests could be useful in analyzing the complex differential signatures.

  12. Determining damping characteristics of railway-overhead-wire system for finite-element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Dong; Zhang, Wei Hua; Li, Rui Ping; Zhou, Ning; Mei, Gui Ming

    2016-07-01

    In order to investigate the damping characteristics of railway-overhead-wire systems, we propose herein an approach based on the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and two existing formulas concerning Rayleigh damping coefficients (RDCs). In the proposed process, the displacement histories of a real catenary are first obtained by using a set of noncontact photogrammetric devices, following which an exclusive catenary damping ratio related to the first dominant modal component in the catenary response is identified through a complex Morlet CWT. Thereafter, iterative finite-element analysis is conducted to find the optimal RDCs, which involves using two related formulas and the similarity between the catenary displacements obtained by simulation and experimentation. The results of our study demonstrate that this combined approach is constructive, especially for structures with closely spaced modes, such as catenaries. For the case studied herein, the catenary modal damping ratio at 1.19 Hz is approximately 1%, and the mass and stiffness proportional Rayleigh damping coefficients are approximately 0.02845 and 0.00274, respectively.

  13. Hierarchical Parallelization of Gene Differential Association Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwarkadas Sandhya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray gene differential expression analysis is a widely used technique that deals with high dimensional data and is computationally intensive for permutation-based procedures. Microarray gene differential association analysis is even more computationally demanding and must take advantage of multicore computing technology, which is the driving force behind increasing compute power in recent years. In this paper, we present a two-layer hierarchical parallel implementation of gene differential association analysis. It takes advantage of both fine- and coarse-grain (with granularity defined by the frequency of communication parallelism in order to effectively leverage the non-uniform nature of parallel processing available in the cutting-edge systems of today. Results Our results show that this hierarchical strategy matches data sharing behavior to the properties of the underlying hardware, thereby reducing the memory and bandwidth needs of the application. The resulting improved efficiency reduces computation time and allows the gene differential association analysis code to scale its execution with the number of processors. The code and biological data used in this study are downloadable from http://www.urmc.rochester.edu/biostat/people/faculty/hu.cfm. Conclusions The performance sweet spot occurs when using a number of threads per MPI process that allows the working sets of the corresponding MPI processes running on the multicore to fit within the machine cache. Hence, we suggest that practitioners follow this principle in selecting the appropriate number of MPI processes and threads within each MPI process for their cluster configurations. We believe that the principles of this hierarchical approach to parallelization can be utilized in the parallelization of other computationally demanding kernels.

  14. Variable temperature hot wire anemometry applied to the joint analysis of the velocity and temperature fluctuations in a mixing layer

    OpenAIRE

    Ndoye, M.; Delville, J.; Dorignac, E.; Arroyo, G.

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Our study provides a detailed description of the thermal mixing process in an anisothermal mixing layer. Velocity and temperature are simultaneously measured at the same point by using a new hot wire anemometer. This anemometer implements the multiple overheat principle, associated with a non linear Levenberg-Marquardt signal processing. These simultaneous measurements allowed an analysis based on conditional Probability Density Functions (PDFs), joint PDFs and a quadr...

  15. Penalty-Finite Element Analysis of the Eddy Current Loss in a Fully-Stabilized Multifilamentary Superconducting Wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The paper is mainly concerned with the penalty incurred in finiteelement analysis of the eddy-current loss problem in a fully established multi-filamentary superconducting wire. A finite element model with 4-node quadrilateral isoparametric elements is formulated for the present problem. Unlike the conventional vector potential scheme in use for electromagnetic field problem, the present work features a direct computational approach to eddy current loss. Simplicity and remarkable enhancement in computational accuracy can be obtained with the proposed method.

  16. Influence of Flaws of Wire Rod Surface, Inclusions and Voids on Wire Breaks in Superfine Wire Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kazunari; Norasethasopon, Somchai; Shinohara, Tetsuo; Ido, Ryuta

    By means of the finite element analysis (FEA), this study analyzed wire breaks that occurred in the drawing fine wires containing flaws on the wire surface, inclusion and void. The deformation behavior of an inclusion was examined, in which the inclusion's location is assumed to be on the center axis of the wire, and the cause of wire breaks and their prevention method were clarified. It was found that an inclusion diameter/wire diameter ratio of 0.4 or higher increases the likelihood of wire breaks occurring. When the inclusion is not assumed to be in the center axis of the wire, it was also found that necking and wire breaks appear more frequently. FEA showed that a flaw grows with each processing step, when a small circumferential flaw is placed on the wire rod surface, and eventually becomes a surface defect, which is called a check mark in practice.

  17. Analysis of wire drawing process with friction and thermal conditions obtained by inverse engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Chang Sun; Kim, Nak Soo [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    In cold wire drawing process, which is performed at room temperature, heat is generated because of plastic work and friction at the workpiece die interface. Temperature distribution in both the workpiece and the die affects thermal expansion, deformation pattern, and elastic recovery. These effects produce the final dimension of the drawn products. We propose inverse engineering procedures to determine friction and thermal conditions by comparing simple measurements with the computational results of the drawing power and the temperature changes of the die. The conditions were then used to simulate numerically the deformation behavior of the wire and the temperature distribution in the die. The thermal effects on the quality of drawn products were investigated based on the prediction of the final dimensions of the products. Therefore, thermal effects should not be ignored even in cold wire-drawing process because reasonable numerical results were acquired in comparing the experiments.

  18. Numerical analysis of parasitic crossing compensation with wires in DA$\\Phi$NE

    CERN Document Server

    Valishev, A; Milardi, C; Zobov, M

    2015-01-01

    Current bearing wire compensators were successfully used in the 2005-2006 run of the DA{\\Phi}NE collider to mitigate the detrimental effects of parasitic beam-beam interactions. A marked improvement of the positron beam lifetime was observed in machine operation with the KLOE detector. In view of the possible application of wire beam-beam compensators for the High Luminosity LHC upgrade, we revisit the DA{\\Phi}NE experiments. We use an improved model of the accelerator with the goal to validate the modern simulation tools and provide valuable input for the LHC upgrade project.

  19. Wire transfer function analysis for castellated dual-energy x-ray detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jer Wang; Evans, James Paul Owain; Yong, Yen San; Monteith, Andrew

    2004-12-10

    An investigation into the spatial resolving power of a castellated linear dual-energy x-ray detector array is reported. The detector was developed for use in aviation security screening applications. Experiments employing different gauges of lead wire are used to plot a wire transfer function. A numerical simulation is developed to predict and underpin the empirical results. The suitable processing of the castellated detector signals helps to maintain spatial resolving power while affording a 50% reduction in x-ray sensing elements. This encouraging result has formed the basis for an ongoing investigation into materials discrimination capability of the castellated detector array.

  20. Numerical Analysis of Parasitic Crossing Compensation with Wires in DA$\\Phi$NE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valishev, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Shatilov, D. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Budker Inst. of Nuclear Physics (BINP); Milardi, C. [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Frascati (Italy). National Lab. of Frascati (INFN-LNF); Zobov, M. [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Frascati (Italy). National Lab. of Frascati (INFN-LNF)

    2015-06-24

    Current-bearing wire compensators were successfully used in the 2005-2006 run of the DAΦNE collider to mitigate the detrimental effects of parasitic beam-beam interactions. A marked improvement of the positron beam lifetime was observed in machine operation with the KLOE detector. In view of the possible application of wire beam-beam compensators for the High Luminosity LHC upgrade, we revisit the DAΦNE experiments. We use an improved model of the accelerator with the goal to validate the modern simulation tools and provide valuable input for the LHC upgrade project.

  1. Implementation and Applications of the Method of Auxiliary Sources for Analysis of Smooth Scatterers and Wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal

    2007-01-01

    This report documents the implementation of Method of Auxiliary Sources techniques developed for smooth scatterers and wire scatterers. The work was done in the course of the PhD project "Electronically Steerable Antennas for Satellite Communication" where the techniques were employed to investig......This report documents the implementation of Method of Auxiliary Sources techniques developed for smooth scatterers and wire scatterers. The work was done in the course of the PhD project "Electronically Steerable Antennas for Satellite Communication" where the techniques were employed...

  2. Imperfection analysis of flexible pipe armor wires in compression and bending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Niels Højen; Lyckegaard, Anders; Andreasen, Jens H.

    2012-01-01

    The work presented in this paper is motivated by a specific failure mode known as lateral wire buckling occurring in the tensile armor layers of flexible pipes. The tensile armor is usually constituted by two layers of initially helically wound steel wires with opposite lay directions. During pipe...... laying in ultra deep waters, a flexible pipe experiences repeated bending cycles and longitudinal compression. These loading conditions are known to impose a danger to the structural integrity of the armoring layers, if the compressive load on the pipe exceeds the total maximum compressive load carrying...

  3. CFD analysis of transverse flow in a wire-wrapped hexagonal seven-pin bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Pinghui, E-mail: phzhao@mail.ustc.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Liu, Jiaming; Ge, Zhihao [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Wang, Xi; Cheng, Xu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Fusion and Reactor Technologies, Kaiserstrasse 12, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Transverse flow in a wire-wrapped hexagonal seven-pin bundle are simulated. • Four kinds of subchannels are taken as the object. • Effects of wire number and position on transverse velocities are studied. • Parameter studies reveal P/D and H/D have a great influence than Re. • Present transverse velocity correlations need to be modified. - Abstract: Transverse flow induced by helical spacer wires has important effects on the flow and heat transfer behavior of reactor core. In this paper, transverse flow in a wire-wrapped hexagonal seven-pin bundle was simulated by the open source code, OpenFOAM, based on computational fluid dynamic (CFD) method. The Shear Stress Transport (SST) k-ω model and Spalding wall function were used to resolve the momentum field. Hexahedral dominated meshes were generated to achieve high grid quality. Periodic boundary condition and parallel processing were adopted to save the computational cost. Transverse velocity distributions in four different kinds of subchannel gaps were analyzed. The results show that the influence of wire number and position on the transverse velocity distribution is obvious. For an interior gap, transverse flow seems to be dominated by wires near the gap, and its direction changes periodically in one helical pitch. However, for a peripheral gap, transverse velocity is affected by more wires and its direction is decided by the direction of wire rotation. Parameter studies reveal that the Reynolds number (Re, at the range of 6000–100,000) has little effect on the normalized transverse flow, while the pitch to pin diameter ratio (P/D, at the range of 1.11–1.22) and the helical pitch to pin diameter ratio (H/D, at the range of 12–24) have a great influence on it, especially the P/D. Large discrepancies between our simulation results and some existing correlations were observed. This indicates that new correlations comprehensively considering both P/D and H/D effects need to be developed

  4. Surface chemical-bonds analysis of silicon particles from diamond-wire cutting of crystalline silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benayad, Anass; Hajjaji, Hamza; Coustier, Fabrice; Benmansour, Malek; Chabli, Amal

    2016-12-01

    The recycling of the Si powder resulting from the kerf loss during silicon ingot cutting into wafers for photovoltaic application shows both significant and achievable economic and environmental benefits. A combined x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflection (ATR)-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and micro-Raman spectral analyses were applied to kerf-loss Si powders reclaimed from the diamond wire cutting using different cutting fluids. These spectroscopies performed in suitable configurations for the analysis of particles, yield detailed insights on the surface chemical properties of the powders demonstrating the key role of the cutting fluid nature. A combined XPS core peak, plasmon loss, and valence band study allow assessing a qualitative and quantitative chemical, structural change of the kerf-loss Si powders. The relative contribution of the LO and TO stretching modes to the Si-O-Si absorption band in the ATR-FTIR spectra provide a consistent estimation of the effective oxidation level of the Si powders. The change in the cutting media from deionized water to city water, induces a different silicon oxide layer thickness at the surface of the final kerf-loss Si, depending on the powder reactivity to the media. The surfactant addition induces an enhanced carbon contamination in the form of grafted carbonated species on the surface of the particles. The thickness of the modified surface, depending on the cutting media, was estimated based on a simple model derived from the combined XPS core level and plasmon peak intensities. The effective nature of these carbonated species, sensitive to the water quality, was evidenced based on coupled XPS core peak and valence band study. The present work paves the way to a controlled process to reclaim the kerf-loss Si powder without heavy chemical etching steps.

  5. Radar micro-Doppler of wind turbines: Simulation and analysis using rotating linear wire structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krasnov, O.A.; Yarovoy, A.

    2015-01-01

    A simple electromagnetic model of wind-turbine's main structural elements as the linear wired structures is developed to simulate the temporal patterns of observed radar return Doppler spectra (micro-Doppler). Using the model, the micro-Doppler for different combinations of the turbines rotation

  6. Differential thermal analysis microsystem for explosive detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper Kenneth; Greve, Anders; Senesac, L.

    2011-01-01

    A micro differential thermal analysis (DTA) system is used for detection of trace explosive particles. The DTA system consists of two silicon micro chips with integrated heaters and temperature sensors. One chip is used for reference and one for the measurement sample. The sensor is constructed...... as a small silicon nitride membrane incorporating heater elements and a temperature measurement resistor. In this manuscript the DTA system is described and tested by measuring calorimetric response of 3 different kinds of explosives (TNT, RDX and PETN). This project is carried out under the framework...

  7. Fracture Reason Analysis of Wire Drawing%线材拉拔断裂原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯岩青

    2011-01-01

    Common causes and failure analysis procedure of wire drawing fracture were illuminated, and fracture mode had been divided into two Wpes, one was crack initiation sites at surface of wire rod (including cord design, folding, crack on billet steel, subcutaneous bubble, inclusion and so on), the others at interior of hard wire (including inclusion, central shrinkage cavity, central martensite, central net carbide and so on), which explained by examples.%归纳了线材拉拔断裂的常见原因,总结了线材失效分析的步骤,并将线材拉拔断裂分为两大类:一是断裂源起源于外表面(包括线纹、折叠、钢坯上裂纹、皮下气泡和非金属夹杂物等);二是断裂源产生于内部(包括中心夹杂物、中心缩孔、中心马氏体和中心网状碳化物等),并举例进行了说明。

  8. Design and comparative analysis of 10 MW class superconducting wind power generators according to different types of superconducting wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hae-Jin; Kim, Gyeong-Hun; Kim, Kwangmin; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Kim, Jong-Yul

    2013-11-01

    Wind turbine concepts can be classified into the geared type and the gearless type. The gearless type wind turbine is more attractive due to advantages of simplified drive train and increased energy yield, and higher reliability because the gearbox is omitted. In addition, this type resolves the weight issue of the wind turbine with the light weight of gearbox. However, because of the low speed operation, this type has disadvantage such as the large diameter and heavy weight of generator. Super-Conducting (SC) wind power generator can reduce the weight and volume of a wind power system. Properties of superconducting wire are very different from each company. This paper considers the design and comparative analysis of 10 MW class SC wind power generators according to different types of SC wires. Super-Conducting Synchronous Generators (SCSGs) using YBCO and Bi-2223 wires are optimized by an optimal method. The magnetic characteristics of the SCSGs are investigated using the finite elements method program. The optimized specifications of the SCSGs are discussed in detail, and the optimization processes can be used effectively to develop large scale wind power generation systems.

  9. A Thermal Analysis of a Hot-Wire Probe for Icing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk, Peter M.; Rigby, David L.; Venkataraman, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a steady-state thermal model of a hot-wire instrument applicable to atmospheric measurement of water content in clouds. In this application, the power required to maintain the wire at a given temperature is used to deduce the water content of the cloud. The model considers electrical resistive heating, axial conduction, convection to the flow, radiation to the surroundings, as well as energy loss due to the heating, melting, and evaporation of impinging liquid and or ice. All of these parameters can be varied axially along the wire. The model further introduces a parameter called the evaporation potential which locally gauges the maximum fraction of incoming water that evaporates. The primary outputs of the model are the steady-state power required to maintain a spatially-average constant temperature as well as the variation of that temperature and other parameters along the wire. The model is used to understand the sensitivity of the hot-wire performance to various flow and boundary conditions including a detailed comparison of dry air and wet (i.e. cloud-on) conditions. The steady-state power values are compared to experimental results from a Science Engineering Associates (SEA) Multi-Element probe, a commonly used water-content measurement instrument. The model results show good agreement with experiment for both dry and cloud-on conditions with liquid water content. For ice, the experimental measurements under read the actual water content due to incomplete evaporation and splashing. Model results, which account for incomplete evaporation, are still higher than experimental results where the discrepancy is attributed to splashing mass-loss which is not accounted in the model.

  10. Delay differential analysis of time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainscsek, Claudia; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2015-03-01

    Nonlinear dynamical system analysis based on embedding theory has been used for modeling and prediction, but it also has applications to signal detection and classification of time series. An embedding creates a multidimensional geometrical object from a single time series. Traditionally either delay or derivative embeddings have been used. The delay embedding is composed of delayed versions of the signal, and the derivative embedding is composed of successive derivatives of the signal. The delay embedding has been extended to nonuniform embeddings to take multiple timescales into account. Both embeddings provide information on the underlying dynamical system without having direct access to all the system variables. Delay differential analysis is based on functional embeddings, a combination of the derivative embedding with nonuniform delay embeddings. Small delay differential equation (DDE) models that best represent relevant dynamic features of time series data are selected from a pool of candidate models for detection or classification. We show that the properties of DDEs support spectral analysis in the time domain where nonlinear correlation functions are used to detect frequencies, frequency and phase couplings, and bispectra. These can be efficiently computed with short time windows and are robust to noise. For frequency analysis, this framework is a multivariate extension of discrete Fourier transform (DFT), and for higher-order spectra, it is a linear and multivariate alternative to multidimensional fast Fourier transform of multidimensional correlations. This method can be applied to short or sparse time series and can be extended to cross-trial and cross-channel spectra if multiple short data segments of the same experiment are available. Together, this time-domain toolbox provides higher temporal resolution, increased frequency and phase coupling information, and it allows an easy and straightforward implementation of higher-order spectra across time

  11. Delay Differential Analysis of Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainscsek, Claudia; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamical system analysis based on embedding theory has been used for modeling and prediction, but it also has applications to signal detection and classification of time series. An embedding creates a multidimensional geometrical object from a single time series. Traditionally either delay or derivative embeddings have been used. The delay embedding is composed of delayed versions of the signal, and the derivative embedding is composed of successive derivatives of the signal. The delay embedding has been extended to nonuniform embeddings to take multiple timescales into account. Both embeddings provide information on the underlying dynamical system without having direct access to all the system variables. Delay differential analysis is based on functional embeddings, a combination of the derivative embedding with nonuniform delay embeddings. Small delay differential equation (DDE) models that best represent relevant dynamic features of time series data are selected from a pool of candidate models for detection or classification. We show that the properties of DDEs support spectral analysis in the time domain where nonlinear correlation functions are used to detect frequencies, frequency and phase couplings, and bispectra. These can be efficiently computed with short time windows and are robust to noise. For frequency analysis, this framework is a multivariate extension of discrete Fourier transform (DFT), and for higher-order spectra, it is a linear and multivariate alternative to multidimensional fast Fourier transform of multidimensional correlations. This method can be applied to short or sparse time series and can be extended to cross-trial and cross-channel spectra if multiple short data segments of the same experiment are available. Together, this time-domain toolbox provides higher temporal resolution, increased frequency and phase coupling information, and it allows an easy and straightforward implementation of higher-order spectra across time

  12. Wired on steroids: Sexual differentiation of the brain and its role in the expression of sexual partner preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Mae Alexander

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The preference to seek out a sexual partner of the opposite sex is robust and ensures reproduction and survival of the species. Development of female-directed partner preference in the male is dependent on exposure of the developing brain to gonadal steroids synthesized during critical periods of sexual differentiation of the central nervous system. In the absence of androgen exposure, a male-directed partner preference develops. The development and expression of sexual partner preference has been extensively studied in rats, ferrets, and sheep model systems. From these models it is clear that gonadal testosterone, often through estrogenic metabolites, cause both masculinization and defeminization of behavior during critical periods of brain development. Changes in the steroid environment during these critical periods results in atypical sexual partner preference. In this manuscript, we review the major findings which support the hypothesis that the organizational actions of sex steroids are responsible for sexual differentiation of sexual partner preferences in select non-human species. We also explore how this information has helped to frame our understanding of the biological influences on human sexual orientation and gender identity.

  13. MHD Flow and Heat Transfer Analysis in the Wire Coating Process Using Elastic-Viscous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important plastic resins used for wire coating are polyvinyl chloride (PVC, nylon, polysulfone, and low-/high-density polyethylene (LDPE/HDPE. In this article, the coating process is performed using elastic-viscous fluid as a coating material for wire coating in a pressure type coating die. The elastic-viscous fluid is electrically conducted in the presence of an applied magnetic field. The governing non-linear equations are modeled and then solved analytically by utilizing an Adomian decomposition method (ADM. The convergence of the series solution is established. The results are also verified by Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM. The effect of different emerging parameters such as non-Newtonian parameters α and β, magnetic parameter Mand the Brinkman number Br on solutions (velocity and temperature profiles are discussed through several graphs. Additionally, the current results are compared with published work already available.

  14. Analysis of wire antennas mounted on large perfectly conducting platforms using MLFMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Que Xiaofeng; Nie Zaiping

    2007-01-01

    The electric field integral equation (EFIE) combined with the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) is applied to analyze the radiation and impedance properties of wire antennas mounted on complex conducting platforms to realize fast, accurate solutions. Wire, surface and junction basis functions are used to model the current distribution on the object. Application of MLFMA reduces memory requirement and computing time compared to conventional methods, such as method of moment (MOM), especially for the antenna on a largesized platform. Generalized minimal residual (GMRES) solver with incomplete LU factorization preconditioner using a dual dropping strategy (ILUT) is applied to reduce the iterative number. Several typical numerical examples are presented to validate this algorithm and show the accuracy and computational efficiency.

  15. Grain-resolved analysis of localized deformation in nickel-titanium wire under tensile load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedmák, P.; Pilch, J.; Heller, L.; Kopeček, J.; Wright, J.; Sedlák, P.; Frost, M.; Šittner, P.

    2016-08-01

    The stress-induced martensitic transformation in tensioned nickel-titanium shape-memory alloys proceeds by propagation of macroscopic fronts of localized deformation. We used three-dimensional synchrotron x-ray diffraction to image at micrometer-scale resolution the grain-resolved elastic strains and stresses in austenite around one such front in a prestrained nickel-titanium wire. We found that the local stresses in austenite grains are modified ahead of the nose cone-shaped buried interface where the martensitic transformation begins. Elevated shear stresses at the cone interface explain why the martensitic transformation proceeds in a localized manner. We established the crossover from stresses in individual grains to a continuum macroscopic internal stress field in the wire and rationalized the experimentally observed internal stress field and the topology of the macroscopic front by means of finite element simulations of the localized deformation.

  16. Comprehensive analysis of passive generation of parabolic similaritons in tapered hydrogenated amorphous silicon photonic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Chao; Li, Feng; Yuan, Jinhui; Kang, Zhe; Zhang, Xianting; Yan, Binbin; Sang, Xinzhu; Wu, Qiang; Zhou, Xian; Zhong, Kangping; Wang, Liang; Wang, Kuiru; Yu, Chongxiu; Wai, P K A

    2017-06-19

    Parabolic pulses have important applications in both basic and applied sciences, such as high power optical amplification, optical communications, all-optical signal processing, etc. The generation of parabolic similaritons in tapered hydrogenated amorphous silicon photonic wires at telecom (λ ~ 1550 nm) and mid-IR (λ ≥ 2100 nm) wavelengths is demonstrated and analyzed. The self-similar theory of parabolic pulse generation in passive waveguides with increasing nonlinearity is presented. A generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation is used to describe the coupled dynamics of optical field in the tapered hydrogenated amorphous silicon photonic wires with either decreasing dispersion or increasing nonlinearity. The impacts of length dependent higher-order effects, linear and nonlinear losses including two-photon absorption, and photon-generated free carriers, on the pulse evolutions are characterized. Numerical simulations show that initial Gaussian pulses will evolve into the parabolic pulses in the waveguide taper designed.

  17. Analysis of Alternative Rework Strategies for Printed Wiring Assembly Manufacturing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Driels, Morris; Klegka, John S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a model for predicting the cost of test, diagnosis, and rework activities in the manufacture of printed wiring assemblies (PWA's). Rework is defined as all actions taken to correct or improve the basic assembly process. These actions may include those of inspectors and solder touchup technicians who do not add value to the PWA, but whose actions are required in order to produce acceptable yields from the manufacturing process. Two alternative rework strategies for cont...

  18. Sensitivity Analysis of Differential-Algebraic Equations and Partial Differential Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzold, L; Cao, Y; Li, S; Serban, R

    2005-08-09

    Sensitivity analysis generates essential information for model development, design optimization, parameter estimation, optimal control, model reduction and experimental design. In this paper we describe the forward and adjoint methods for sensitivity analysis, and outline some of our recent work on theory, algorithms and software for sensitivity analysis of differential-algebraic equation (DAE) and time-dependent partial differential equation (PDE) systems.

  19. Security Mechanisms of Wired Equivalent Privacy and Wi-Fi Protected Access in WLAN: Review and Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xian-shi; KANG Ge-wen; WANG Xin-heng

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of WLAN security mechanisms of wired equivalent privacy (WEP) and Wi-Fi protected access (WPA) discovers that the current literature is not totally creditable in its judgment on the security value of WEP and WPA.Based on the respective performances of WEP and WPA under certain typical attacks,this paper substantiates the judgment that WEP has quite a few vulnerabilities concerning confidentiality and integrity,but at the same time challenges the judgment on WPA with that WPA is robust enough to confront potential typical attacks and is not so unreliable as the current literature believes,although it has some vulnerabilities in its message integrity code (MIC).

  20. Numerical analysis of systems of ordinary and stochastic differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Artemiev, S S

    1997-01-01

    This text deals with numerical analysis of systems of both ordinary and stochastic differential equations. It covers numerical solution problems of the Cauchy problem for stiff ordinary differential equations (ODE) systems by Rosenbrock-type methods (RTMs).

  1. Cluster analysis of stress corrosion mechanisms for steel wires used in bridge cables through acoustic emission particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongsheng; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Wenyao

    2017-01-18

    Stress corrosion is the major failure type of bridge cable damage. The acoustic emission (AE) technique was applied to monitor the stress corrosion process of steel wires used in bridge cable structures. The damage evolution of stress corrosion in bridge cables was obtained according to the AE characteristic parameter figure. A particle swarm optimization cluster method was developed to determine the relationship between the AE signal and stress corrosion mechanisms. Results indicate that the main AE sources of stress corrosion in bridge cables included four types: passive film breakdown and detachment of the corrosion product, crack initiation, crack extension, and cable fracture. By analyzing different types of clustering data, the mean value of each damage pattern's AE characteristic parameters was determined. Different corrosion damage source AE waveforms and the peak frequency were extracted. AE particle swarm optimization cluster analysis based on principal component analysis was also proposed. This method can completely distinguish the four types of damage sources and simplifies the determination of the evolution process of corrosion damage and broken wire signals.

  2. Reason Analysis on Fracture of Prestressed Steel Wires%预应力钢丝断裂原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹力扬

    2012-01-01

    通过化学成分分析、金相检验、低倍检验以及力学性能测试等方法,对82B盘条在拉拔成预应力钢丝过程中发生断裂的原因进行了分析。结果表明:造成82B盘条拉拔时发生脆断的主要原因是由于原料中存在严重的碳偏析,轧制时在富碳区出现过热,析出网状和块状渗碳体以及渗碳体魏氏组织;因而在相同的拉拔力作用下,盘条整个横截面上的塑性变形程度不同,容易产生微裂纹,在拉拔过程中发生断裂。%By means of chemical compositions analysis, metallographic examination, macroscopic examination and mechanical properties lest, the fracture reasons of prestressed steel wires during drawing from 82B steel wire rod were analyzed. The results show that the key reason of the brittle fracture was that the raw materials had defects of serious carbon segregation which resulted in overheating at the carbon-rich area and precipitation of mesh and massive cementite and cementite Widmanstatten structure when rolling. So in the same drawing force, the plastic deformation degree of the whole cross section of the wire rod was different, cracks produced and fracture happened during drawing.

  3. Wire Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1986-01-01

    Two wire chambers made originally for the R807 Experiment at CERN's Intersecting Storage Rings. In 1986 they were used for the PS 201 experiment (Obelix Experiment) at LEAR, the Low Energy Antiproton Ring. The group of researchers from Turin, using the chambers at that time, changed the acquisition system using for the first time 8 bit (10 bit non linear) analog to digital conversion for incoming signals from the chambers. The acquisition system was controlled by 54 CPU and 80 digital signal processors. The power required for all the electronics was 40 kW. For the period, this system was one of the most powerful on-line apparatus in the world. The Obelix Experiment was closed in 1996. To find more about how a wire chamber works, see the description for object CERN-OBJ-DE-038.

  4. Further Studies Of Hot-Wire Anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckenzie, Robert; Logan, Pamela; Bershader, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Report discusses factors affecting readings of hot-wire anemometer in turbulent supersonic boundary layer. Represents extension of work described in "Hot-Wire Anemometry Versus Laser-Induced Fluorescence" (ARC-11802). Presents theoretical analysis of responses of hot-wire probe to changes in flow; also compares measurements by hot-wire probe with measurements of same flows by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF).

  5. Performance of a position sensitive low-pressure wire chamber (LPWC) having position readout from a separate sense wire plane a critical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, C; Roy, S; Basu, P; Majumdar, H; Chatterjee, M L

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the operation of a simple one-dimensional LPWC from a completely different standpoint. The position output is derived from a separate position plane, where discrete resistances are soldered between two adjacent wires. Theoretical formulations for the position extraction are derived where the role of various detector parameters are dealt with. Position spectrum is shown for various choices of resistances varying from 50 OMEGA to 220 k OMEGA. Best position resolution and linearity is obtained for 33 k OMEGA though it violates the existing hypothesis.

  6. Contribution of ion beam analysis methods to the development of 2nd generation high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usov, Igor O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arendt, Paul N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stan, Liliana [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holesinger, Terry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Foltyn, Steven R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Depaula, Raymond F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    One of the crucial steps in the second generation high temperature superconducting wire program was development of the buffer layer architecture. The architecture designed at the Superconductivity Technology Center at Los Alamos National Laboratory consists of several oxide layers wherein each layer plays a specific role, namely: nucleation layer, diffusion barrier, biaxially textured template, and an intermediate layer with a good match to the lattice parameter of superconducting Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO) compound. This report demonstrates how a wide range of ion beam analysis techniques (SIMS, RBS, channeling, PIXE, PIGE, NRA, ERD) was employed for analysis of each buffer layer and the YBCO films. These results assisted in understanding of a variety of physical processes occurring during the buffet layer fabrication and helped to optimize the buffer layer architecture as a whole.

  7. Analysis of axially symmetric wire antennas by the use of exact kernel of electric field integral equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krneta Aleksandra J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new method for the analysis of wire antennas with axial symmetry. Truncated cones have been applied to precisely model antenna geometry, while the exact kernel of the electric field integral equation has been used for computation. Accuracy and efficiency of the method has been further increased by the use of higher order basis functions for current expansion, and by selecting integration methods based on singularity cancelation techniques for the calculation of potential and impedance integrals. The method has been applied to the analysis of a typical dipole antenna, thick dipole antenna and a coaxial line. The obtained results verify the high accuracy of the method. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-32005

  8. DNA microsatellite analysis for tomato genetic differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miskoska-Milevska Elizabeta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Commonly used method for determination of the genetic diversity among the populations is the test for genetic differentiation. DNA microsatellite markers are usually used to investigate the genetic structure of natural populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of eight DNA microsatellite loci (LECH13, LE21085, LEMDDNa, LEEF1Aa, LELEUZIP, LE20592, TMS9 and LE2A11 in genetic differentiation of six morphologically different tomato varieties (var. grandifolium from subsp. cultum; var. cerasiforme - red and yellow, var. pruniforme and var. pyriforme from subsp. subspontaneum; and var. racemigerum from subsp. spontaneum. The fragment analyses was performed using Applied Biosystems DNA analyzer (ABI 3130 and GeneMapper® Software program. The data were analysed using the specific program Power Marker Software. The average number of detected alleles was 3,625. Also, the average PIC value for all 8 DNA microsatellites loci was 0,3571. The genetic differentiation test in the researched tomato subspecies showed minor differentiation for locus LELEUZIP (- 0,0009, modest differentiation for locus LECH13 (0,0896, locus LEMDDNa (0,0896 and locus LE21085 (0,0551 and major differentiation for locus LE2A11 (0,7633, locus LEEF1Aa (0,6167, locus TMS9 (0.4967 and locus LE20592 (0,4263. On the other hand, in the estimated tomato varieties, locus LE21085 (0,0297, locus LECH13 (0,0256 and locus LELEUZIP (0,0005 showed minor differentiation, locus LEMDDNa (0,1333 showed modest differentiation, while locus TMS9 (0,5929, locus LEEF1Aa (0,5006, locus LE2A11 (0,4013 and locus LE20592 (0,2606 showed major differentiation. The eight DNA microsatellite loci can be applicable solution for tomato genetic differentiation. The overall results suggest that these microsatellite loci could be used in further population genetic studies of tomatoes.

  9. [Plasma temperature calculation and coupling mechanism analysis of laser-double wire hybrid welding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kai; Li, Huan; Yang, Li-Jun; Gu, Xiao-Yan; Gao, Ying

    2013-04-01

    The plasma radiation of laser-double wire hybrid welding was collected by using fiber spectrometer, the coupling mechanism of arc with laser was studied through high-speed photography during welding process, and the temperature of hybrid plasma was calculated by using the method of Boltzmann plot. The results indicated that with laser hybrid, luminance was enhanced; radiation intensity became stronger; arc was attracted to the laser point; cross section contracted and arc was more stable. The laser power, welding current and arc-arc distance are important factors that have great influence on electron temperature. Increase in the laser power, amplification of welding current and reduction of arc-arc distance can all result in the rise of temperature.

  10. An Efficient Framework for Analysis of Wire-Grid Shielding Structures over a Broad Frequency Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karwowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A computationally efficient MoM-based framework for broadband electromagnetic simulation of wire-grid shielding structures is presented in the paper. Broadband capability of the approach is attained through supporting MoM by an adaptive frequency sweep combined with rational interpolation of the observable implemented via Stoer-Bulirsch algorithm. The performance increase is gained by employing CUDA-enabled CPU+GPU co-processing. For large-size problems exceeding the amount of memory available on the GPU device, a hybrid out-of-GPU memory LU decomposition algorithm is employed. The demonstration examples are provided to illustrate the the accuracy and high efficiency of the approach.

  11. Upward Flame Propagation and Wire Insulation Flammability: 2006 Round Robin Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, David B.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews test results from tests of different material used for wire insulation for flame propagation and flammability. The presentation focused on investigating data variability both within and between laboratories; evaluated the between-laboratory consistency through consistency statistic h, which indicates how one laboratory s cell average compares with averages from other labs; evaluated the within-laboratory consistency through the consistency statistic k, which is an indicator of how one laboratory s within-laboratory variability compares with the variability of other labs combined; and extreme results were tested to determine whether they resulted by chance or from nonrandom causes (human error, instrument calibration shift, non-adherence to procedures, etc.)

  12. MIDAS, prototype Multivariate Interactive Digital Analysis System, phase 1. Volume 3: Wiring diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegler, F. J.; Christenson, D.; Gordon, M.; Kistler, R.; Lampert, S.; Marshall, R.; Mclaughlin, R.

    1974-01-01

    The Midas System is a third-generation, fast, multispectral recognition system able to keep pace with the large quantity and high rates of data acquisition from present and projected sensors. A principal objective of the MIDAS Program is to provide a system well interfaced with the human operator and thus to obtain large overall reductions in turn-around time and significant gains in throughput. The hardware and software generated in Phase I of the overall program are described. The system contains a mini-computer to control the various high-speed processing elements in the data path and a classifier which implements an all-digital prototype multivariate-Gaussian maximum likelihood decision algorithm operating at 2 x 100,000 pixels/sec. Sufficient hardware was developed to perform signature extraction from computer-compatible tapes, compute classifier coefficients, control the classifier operation, and diagnose operation. The MIDAS construction and wiring diagrams are given.

  13. Efficient Analysis of Surface-Wire Configurations Using AIM and Best Uniform Rational Approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Hailin; GONG Shuxi; WANG Xing; ZHANG Penfei; ZHAO Bo

    2015-01-01

    The Adaptive integral method (AIM) in conjunction with the best uniform approximation tech-nique is applied to analyze the electromagnetic problems of surface-wire junction geometries over a wide frequency band. To improve the computation efficiency, the best uniform approximation method is utilized. The AIM can reduce memory requirements and accelerate the matrix-vector multiplications in iterative process. Some numeri-cal examples are shown to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method. Compared with the di-rect solution method and Asymptotic waveform evaluation (AWE) technique, the proposed technique is found to be efficient in a broadband with the lower Central processing unit (CPU) time required and without loss of accuracy.

  14. Thermoprocessing and wire drawing behaviour of ultra high strength steel wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Bargujer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermo-processing of piano wire rods is carried out in the lead bath. This experimentation is carried out under industrial conditions. The investigation is done to examine the effect of austenitic time, lead bath time and wire diameter on mechanical properties of lead patented wire. The Taguchi technique is adopted for optimization of thermo-processing of hypereutectoid steel wires. The lead patented wire of diameter 7.00 mm is cold drawn in a sequence of conical converging dies. The best pass schedule of lead patented piano wire is obtained by optimizing the ultimate tensile strength and torsion strength of cold drawn wire. The characterization of wire drawing behaviour of lead patented wires is carried out using optical microscopy, scanned electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis techniques.

  15. Stability analysis of impulsive functional differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Stamova, Ivanka

    2009-01-01

    This book is devoted to impulsive functional differential equations which are a natural generalization of impulsive ordinary differential equations (without delay) and of functional differential equations (without impulses). At the present time the qualitative theory of such equationsis under rapid development. After a presentation of the fundamental theory of existence, uniqueness and continuability of solutions, a systematic development of stability theory for that class of problems is given which makes the book unique. It addresses to a wide audience such as mathematicians, applied research

  16. Trace vanadium analysis by catalytic adsorptive stripping voltammetry using mercury-coated micro-wire and polystyrene-coated bismuth film electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dansby-Sparks, Royce; Chambers, James Q. [Department of Chemistry, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-1600 (United States); Xue Ziling, E-mail: xue@ion.chem.utk.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-1600 (United States)

    2009-06-08

    An electrochemical technique has been developed for ultra-trace (ng L{sup -1}) vanadium (V) measurement. Catalytic adsorptive stripping voltammetry for V analysis was developed at mercury-coated gold micro-wire electrodes (MWEs, 100 {mu}m) in the presence of gallic acid (GA) and bromate ion. A potential of -0.275 V (vs Ag/AgCl) was used to accumulate the complex in acetate buffer (pH 5.0) at the electrode surface followed by a differential pulse voltammetric scan. Parameters affecting the electrochemical response, including pH, concentration of GA and bromate, deposition potential and time have been optimized. Linear response was obtained in the 0-1000 ng L{sup -1} range (2 min deposition), with a detection limit of 0.88 ng L{sup -1}. The method was validated by comparison of results for an unknown solution of V by atomic absorption measurement. The protocol was evaluated in a real sample by measuring the amount of V in river water samples. Thick bismuth film electrodes with protective polystyrene films have also been made and evaluated as a mercury free alternative. However, ng L{sup -1} level detection was only attainable with extended (10 min) deposition times. The proposed use of MWEs for the detection of V is sensitive enough for future use to test V concentration in biological fluids treated by the advanced oxidation process (AOP).

  17. Trace vanadium analysis by catalytic adsorptive stripping voltammetry using mercury-coated micro-wire and polystyrene-coated bismuth film electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansby-Sparks, Royce; Chambers, James Q; Xue, Zi-Ling

    2009-06-08

    An electrochemical technique has been developed for ultra-trace (ng L(-1)) vanadium (V) measurement. Catalytic adsorptive stripping voltammetry for V analysis was developed at mercury-coated gold micro-wire electrodes (MWEs, 100 microm) in the presence of gallic acid (GA) and bromate ion. A potential of -0.275 V (vs Ag/AgCl) was used to accumulate the complex in acetate buffer (pH 5.0) at the electrode surface followed by a differential pulse voltammetric scan. Parameters affecting the electrochemical response, including pH, concentration of GA and bromate, deposition potential and time have been optimized. Linear response was obtained in the 0-1000 ng L(-1) range (2 min deposition), with a detection limit of 0.88 ng L(-1). The method was validated by comparison of results for an unknown solution of V by atomic absorption measurement. The protocol was evaluated in a real sample by measuring the amount of V in river water samples. Thick bismuth film electrodes with protective polystyrene films have also been made and evaluated as a mercury free alternative. However, ng L(-1) level detection was only attainable with extended (10 min) deposition times. The proposed use of MWEs for the detection of V is sensitive enough for future use to test V concentration in biological fluids treated by the advanced oxidation process (AOP).

  18. Selected papers on analysis and differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Nomizu, Katsumi

    2003-01-01

    This volume contains translations of papers that originally appeared in the Japanese journal, Sugaku. The papers range over a variety of topics, including nonlinear partial differential equations, C^*-algebras, and Schrödinger operators.

  19. Magnetoconductance of quantum wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Gerson J.; Sammarco, Filipe; Egues, Carlos

    2010-03-01

    At low temperatures the conductance of a quantum wires exhibit characteristic plate-aus due to the quantization of the transverse modes [1]. In the presence of high in-plane magnetic fields these spin-split transverse modes cross. Recently, these crossings were observed experimentally [2] via measurements of the differential conductance as a function of the gate voltage and the in-plane magnetic-field. These show structures described as either anti-crossings or magnetic phase transitions. Motivated by our previous works on magnetotransport in 2DEGs via the Spin Density Functional Theory (SDFT) [3], here we propose a similar model to investigate the magnetoconductance of quantum wires. We use (i) the SDFT via the Kohn-Sham self-consistent scheme within the local spin density approximation to obtain the electronic structure and (ii) the Landauer-Buettiker formalism to calculate the conductance of a quantum wire. Our results show qualitative agreement with the data of Ref. [2]. [1] B. J. van Wees et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 848 (1988). [2] A. C. Graham et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 226804 (2008). [3] H. J. P. Freire, and J. C. Egues, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 026801 (2007); G. J. Ferreira, and J. Carlos Egues, J. Supercond. Nov. Mag., in press; G. J. Ferreira, H. J. P. Freire, J. Carlos Egues, submitted.

  20. Operation and force analysis of the guide wire in a minimally invasive vascular interventional surgery robot system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Wang, Hongbo; Sun, Li; Yu, Hongnian

    2015-03-01

    To develop a robot system for minimally invasive surgery is significant, however the existing minimally invasive surgery robots are not applicable in practical operations, due to their limited functioning and weaker perception. A novel wire feeder is proposed for minimally invasive vascular interventional surgery. It is used for assisting surgeons in delivering a guide wire, balloon and stenting into a specific lesion location. By contrasting those existing wire feeders, the motion methods for delivering and rotating the guide wire in blood vessel are described, and their mechanical realization is presented. A new resistant force detecting method is given in details. The change of the resistance force can help the operator feel the block or embolism existing in front of the guide wire. The driving torque for rotating the guide wire is developed at different positions. Using the CT reconstruction image and extracted vessel paths, the path equation of the blood vessel is obtained. Combining the shapes of the guide wire outside the blood vessel, the whole bending equation of the guide wire is obtained. That is a risk criterion in the delivering process. This process can make operations safer and man-machine interaction more reliable. A novel surgery robot for feeding guide wire is designed, and a risk criterion for the system is given.

  1. Operation and Force Analysis of the Guide Wire in a Minimally Invasive Vascular Interventional Surgery Robot System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xue; WANG Hongbo; SUN Li; YU Hongnian

    2015-01-01

    To develop a robot system for minimally invasive surgery is significant, however the existing minimally invasive surgery robots are not applicable in practical operations, due to their limited functioning and weaker perception. A novel wire feeder is proposed for minimally invasive vascular interventional surgery. It is used for assisting surgeons in delivering a guide wire, balloon and stenting into a specific lesion location. By contrasting those existing wire feeders, the motion methods for delivering and rotating the guide wire in blood vessel are described, and their mechanical realization is presented. A new resistant force detecting method is given in details. The change of the resistance force can help the operator feel the block or embolism existing in front of the guide wire. The driving torque for rotating the guide wire is developed at different positions. Using the CT reconstruction image and extracted vessel paths, the path equation of the blood vessel is obtained. Combining the shapes of the guide wire outside the blood vessel, the whole bending equation of the guide wire is obtained. That is a risk criterion in the delivering process. This process can make operations safer and man-machine interaction more reliable. A novel surgery robot for feeding guide wire is designed, and a risk criterion for the system is given.

  2. Flow Injection Analysis of Mercury Using 4-(Dimethylamino Benzaldehyde-4-Ethylthiosemicarbazone as the Ionophore of a Coated Wire Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Ab Ghani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A flow injection analysis (FIA incorporating a thiosemicarbazone-based coated wire electrode (CWE was developed method for the determination of mercury(II. A 0.1 M KNO3 carrier stream with pH between 1 and 5 and flow rate of 1 mL·min−1 were used as optimum parameters. A linear plot within the concentration range of 5 × 10−6–0.1 M Hg(II, slope of 27.8 ± 1 mV per decade and correlation coefficient (R2 of 0.984 were obtained. The system was successfully applied for the determination of mercury(II in dental amalgam solutions and spiked environmental water samples. Highly reproducible measurements with relative standard deviation (RSD < 1% (n = 3 were obtained, giving a typical throughput of 30 samples·h−1.

  3. Analysis of Microstructure and Damage Evolution in Ultra-Thin Wires of the Magnesium Alloy MgCa0.8 at Multipass Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenin, Andrij; Kustra, Piotr; Byrska-Wójcik, Dorota; Grydin, Olexandr; Schaper, Mirko; Mentlein, Thorben; Gerstein, Gregory; Nürnberger, Florian

    2016-12-01

    A combined multipass hot and cold drawing process was implemented to manufacture ultra-thin wires of the magnesium alloy MgCa0.8 with a final diameter of 0.05 mm. Numerical simulations were applied to design the drawing process of 40 passes regarding the microstructure evolution. To parametrize the model, in situ tensile tests were performed. Analysis of the MgCa0.8 wires featuring diameters below 0.1 mm revealed no intergranular crack initiation. The grain size of the ultra-thin wires is within the range of 30-500 nm with grains elongated in the drawing direction. The fine-grained microstructure provides high mechanical strength properties.

  4. Continuous nowhere differentiable functions the monsters of analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jarnicki, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the construction, analysis, and theory of continuous nowhere differentiable functions, comprehensively and accessibly. After illuminating the significance of the subject through an overview of its history, the reader is introduced to the sophisticated toolkit of ideas and tricks used to study the explicit continuous nowhere differentiable functions of Weierstrass, Takagi–van der Waerden, Bolzano, and others. Modern tools of functional analysis, measure theory, and Fourier analysis are applied to examine the generic nature of continuous nowhere differentiable functions, as well as linear structures within the (nonlinear) space of continuous nowhere differentiable functions. To round out the presentation, advanced techniques from several areas of mathematics are brought together to give a state-of-the-art analysis of Riemann’s continuous, and purportedly nowhere differentiable, function. For the reader’s benefit, claims requiring elaboration, and open problems, are clearly indicated. An a...

  5. Design and Analysis of a Bio-Inspired Wire-Driven Multi-Section Flexible Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Li

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a bio‐inspired wire‐driven multi‐section flexible robot. It is inspired by the snake skeleton and octopus arm muscle arrangements. The robot consists of three sections and each section is made up of several identical vertebras, which are articulated by both spherical joints and a flexible backbone. Each section is driven by two groups of wires, controlling the bending motion in X and Y directions. This design integrates the serpentine robots’ structure and the continuum robots’ actuation. As a result, it is more compact than traditional serpentine robots and has a higher positioning accuracy than typical continuum soft robots, such as OctArm V. A Kinematics model and a workspace model of the robot are developed based on the piece wise constant curvature assumption. To evaluate the design, a prototype is built and experiments are carried out. The average distal end positioning error is less than 4%. Characteristics of the wire‐driven robot are also discussed, including the leverage effect and the manipulability under constraint. These features makes the proposed robot well suited to confined spaces, especially for working in minimally invasive surgery, nuclear reactor pipelines, disaster debris, etc.

  6. Modeling and finite element analysis of rod and wire steel rolling process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shulun Liao; Liwen Zhang; Siyu Yuan; Yu Zhen; Shuqi Guo

    2008-01-01

    Two thermomechanical coupled elastic-plastic finite element (FE) models were developed for predicting the 12-pass continuous rolling process of GCr15 rod and wire steel. The distances between stands in the proposed models were set according to the actual values, and the billets were shortened in the models to reduce the calculation time. To keep the continuity of simulation, a technique was developed to transfer temperature data between the meshes of different models in terms of nodal parameters by interpolation functions. The different process variables related to the rolling process, such as temperature, total equivalent plastic strain,equivalent plastic strain rate, and contact friction force, were analyzed. Also, the proposed models were applied to analyze the reason for the occurrence of an excessive spread in width. Meanwhile, it was also utilized to assess the influence of the roll diameter change on the simulated results such as temperature and rolling force. The simulated results of temperature are found to agree well with the measured results.

  7. Tensor analysis and elementary differential geometry for physicists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen-Schäfer, Hung

    2017-01-01

    This book comprehensively presents topics, such as Dirac notation, tensor analysis, elementary differential geometry of moving surfaces, and k-differential forms. Additionally, two new chapters of Cartan differential forms and Dirac and tensor notations in quantum mechanics are added to this second edition. The reader is provided with hands-on calculations and worked-out examples at which he will learn how to handle the bra-ket notation, tensors, differential geometry, and differential forms; and to apply them to the physical and engineering world. Many methods and applications are given in CFD, continuum mechanics, electrodynamics in special relativity, cosmology in the Minkowski four-dimensional spacetime, and relativistic and non-relativistic quantum mechanics. Tensors, differential geometry, differential forms, and Dirac notation are very useful advanced mathematical tools in many fields of modern physics and computational engineering. They are involved in special and general relativity physics, quantum m...

  8. Mini-plate versus Kirschner wire internal fixation for treatment of metacarpal and phalangeal fractures in Chinese Han population: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiaming; Zhang, Changqing

    2014-04-11

    This meta-analysis aimed to compare the therapeutic effect of mini-plate versus Kirschner wire (K-wire) internal fixation on the treatment of metacarpal and phalangeal fractures among Chinese Han population. Databases of China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, Chinese VIP, PubMed, and Embase were retrieved for studies on mini-plate (case group) versus K-wire (control group) internal fixation for the treatment of metacarpal and phalangeal fractures among Chinese Han population. The odds ratio (OR) and standardized mean difference (SMD) at 95% confidence interval (CI) were used for estimating the effects of dichotomous data and continuous data, respectively. All statistical analyses were performed by Review Manager 5.2 software. A total of 18 studies involving 1,375 metacarpal or phalangeal fracture patients (709 cases and 666 controls) were included in the meta-analysis. There were significant differences in fracture healing time (SMD = -1.28; 95% CI: -1.81, -0.76), postoperative infection rate (OR = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.39), complication incidence (OR = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.15, 0.38), and surgery time (SMD = 1.57; 95% CI: 0.76, 2.37) between the case and the control group, while no significant difference was found in hospital stays between these two groups (SMD = 0.43; 95% CI: -0.34, 1.20; P = 0.27). For the treatment of metacarpal or phalangeal fracture among Chinese Han population, mini-plate has advantages of shorter healing time and lower infection rate and complication incidence compared with K-wire internal fixation, while a longer surgery time than K-wire. In conclusion, mini-plate is prior than K-wire internal fixation for the treatment of metacarpal or phalangeal fracture among Chinese Han population.

  9. Asymptotic analysis for functional stochastic differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, Jianhai; Yuan, Chenggui

    2016-01-01

    This brief treats dynamical systems that involve delays and random disturbances. The study is motivated by a wide variety of systems in real life in which random noise has to be taken into consideration and the effect of delays cannot be ignored. Concentrating on such systems that are described by functional stochastic differential equations, this work focuses on the study of large time behavior, in particular, ergodicity. This brief is written for probabilists, applied mathematicians, engineers, and scientists who need to use delay systems and functional stochastic differential equations in their work. Selected topics from the brief can also be used in a graduate level topics course in probability and stochastic processes.

  10. Differential analysis of matrix convex functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank; Tomiyama, Jun

    2007-01-01

    We analyze matrix convex functions of a fixed order defined in a real interval by differential methods as opposed to the characterization in terms of divided differences given by Kraus [F. Kraus, Über konvekse Matrixfunktionen, Math. Z. 41 (1936) 18-42]. We obtain for each order conditions for ma...

  11. Cause Analysis of Break of Leveling Wire Rope for Wiggins Gasholder and Countermeasures%威金斯气柜调平钢丝绳断丝原因分析及解决措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张善明; 张文义; 梁明明; 张天寿

    2016-01-01

    通过威金斯气柜调平钢丝绳损伤机理的分析,经过钢丝绳破断拉力计算,查找钢丝绳断丝的原因,提出了调平钢丝绳的选型。%Through analysis of the damage mechanism of the leveling wire rope for Wiggins gasholder and calculation of the breaking force of wire rope, the cause of wire break was found out and type selection method for the level wire rope was recommended.

  12. Nonlinear eigenvalue approach to differential Riccati equations for contraction analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawano, Yu; Ohtsuka, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we extend the eigenvalue method of the algebraic Riccati equation to the differential Riccati equation (DRE) in contraction analysis. One of the main results is showing that solutions to the DRE can be expressed as functions of nonlinear eigenvectors of the differential Hamiltonian ma

  13. Cavity Mode Related Wire Breaking of the SPS Wire Scanners and Loss Measurements of Wire Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, Friedhelm; Jensen, E; Koopman, J; Malo, J F; Roncarolo, F

    2003-01-01

    During the SPS high intensity run 2002 with LHC type beam, the breaking of several of the carbon wires in the wire scanners has been observed in their parking position. The observation of large changes in the wire resistivity and thermionic electron emission clearly indicated strong RF heating that was depending on the bunch length. A subsequent analysis in the laboratory, simulating the beam by two probe antennas or by a powered stretched wire, showed two main problems: i) the housing of the wire scanner acts as a cavity with a mode spectrum starting around 350 MHz and high impedance values around 700 MHz; ii) the carbon wire used so far appears to be an excellent RF absorber and thus dissipates a significant part of the beam-induced power. Different wire materials are compared with the classical cavity mode technique for the determination of the complex permittivity in the range of 2-4 GHz. As a resonator a rectangular TE_01n type device is utilized.

  14. Cavity mode related wire breaking of the SPS Wire Scanners and loss measurements of wire materials

    CERN Document Server

    Roncarolo, Federico

    2003-01-01

    During the SPS high intensity run 2002 with LHC type beam, the breaking of several of the carbon wires in the wire scanners has been observed in their parking position. The observation of large changes in the wire resistivity and thermionic electron emission clearly indicated strong RF heating that was depending on the bunch length. A subsequent analysis in the laboratory, simulating the beam by two probe antennas or by a powered stretched wire, showed two main problems: i) the housing of the wire scanner acts as a cavity with a mode spectrum starting around 350MHz and high impedance values around 700 MHz; ii) the carbon wire used so far appears to be an excellent RF absorber and thus dissipates a significant part of the beam-induced power. Different wire materials are compared with the classical cavity mode technique for the determination of the complex permittivity in the range of 2-4 GHz. As a resonator a rectangular TE01n type device is utilized.

  15. Calibration, Data Acquisition, and Post Analysis of Turbulent Fluid Flow in a Calibration Jet Using Hot-wire Anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    The Turbine Branch concentrates on the following areas: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), and implementing experimental procedures to obtain physical modeling data. Hot-wire Anemometry is a valuable tool for obtaining physical modeling data. Hot-wire Anemometry is likely to remain the principal research tool for most turbulent air/gas flow studies. The Hot-wire anemometer consists of a fine wire heated by electric current. When placed in a fluid stream, the hot-wire loses heat to the fluid by forced convection. In forced convection, energy transfer is due to molecular motion imposed by an extraneous force moving fluid parcels. When the hot-wire is in "equilibrium", the rate of heat input to the wire is equal to the rate of heat loss at the wire ends. The equality between heat input and heat loss is the basis for King s equation, which relates the electrical parameters of the hot-wire to the flow parameters of the fluid. Hot-wire anemometry is based on convective heat transfer from a heated wire element placed in a fluid flow. Any change in the fluid flow condition that affects the heat transfer from the heated element will be detected virtually instantaneously by a constant-temperature Hot-wire anemometry system. The system implemented for this research is the IFA 300. The system is a fully-integrated, thermal anemometer-based system that measures mean and fluctuating velocity components in air, water, and other fluids. It also measures turbulence and makes localized temperature measurements. A constant-temperature anemometer is a bridge and amplifier circuit that controls a tiny wire at constant temperature. As a fluid flow passes over the heated sensor, the amplifier senses the bridge off-balance and adjusts the voltage to the top of the bridge, keeping the bridge in balance. The voltage on top of the bridge can then be related to the velocity of the flow. The bridge voltage is sensitive to temperature as well as velocity and so the built-in thermocouple

  16. Static and dynamic finite element analysis of 304 stainless steel rod and wire hot continuous rolling process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siyu Yuan; Liwen Zhang; Shulun Liao; Mao Li; Min Qi; Yu Zhen; Shuqi Guo

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional finite element models were developed to analyze 304 stainless steel rod and wire hot continuous rolling process with the help of MSC.Marc software. The entire 30-pass deformation process and the actual parameters of production line were taken into account. Static and dynamic procedures were used to study the continuous rolling process with the aid of the thermo-mechanical coupled FEM of elastic-plasticity. The properties of billets, such as deformation, temperature field and rolling force, were mainly discussed. The simulation results of temperature agree well with the measured values. Comparisons of the analysis results obtained using static implicit method and dynamic implicit method were presented. It is shown that static implicit proce-dure is more accurate than dynamic implicit procedure and is able to simulate the rolling process with a lower speed, such as a rough-ing mill. Whereas, dynamic analysis shows a higher efficiency than static analysis and is fit for simulating the rolling process with a higher speed, such as a finishing mill.

  17. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. Trolley wires, trolley feeder wires, and bare signal wires shall be insulated...

  18. Differential Regulatory Analysis Based on Coexpression Network in Cancer Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With rapid development of high-throughput techniques and accumulation of big transcriptomic data, plenty of computational methods and algorithms such as differential analysis and network analysis have been proposed to explore genome-wide gene expression characteristics. These efforts are aiming to transform underlying genomic information into valuable knowledges in biological and medical research fields. Recently, tremendous integrative research methods are dedicated to interpret the development and progress of neoplastic diseases, whereas differential regulatory analysis (DRA based on gene coexpression network (GCN increasingly plays a robust complement to regular differential expression analysis in revealing regulatory functions of cancer related genes such as evading growth suppressors and resisting cell death. Differential regulatory analysis based on GCN is prospective and shows its essential role in discovering the system properties of carcinogenesis features. Here we briefly review the paradigm of differential regulatory analysis based on GCN. We also focus on the applications of differential regulatory analysis based on GCN in cancer research and point out that DRA is necessary and extraordinary to reveal underlying molecular mechanism in large-scale carcinogenesis studies.

  19. Differential equation analysis in biomedical science and engineering partial differential equation applications with R

    CERN Document Server

    Schiesser, William E

    2014-01-01

    Features a solid foundation of mathematical and computational tools to formulate and solve real-world PDE problems across various fields With a step-by-step approach to solving partial differential equations (PDEs), Differential Equation Analysis in Biomedical Science and Engineering: Partial Differential Equation Applications with R successfully applies computational techniques for solving real-world PDE problems that are found in a variety of fields, including chemistry, physics, biology, and physiology. The book provides readers with the necessary knowledge to reproduce and extend the com

  20. Differential equation analysis in biomedical science and engineering ordinary differential equation applications with R

    CERN Document Server

    Schiesser, William E

    2014-01-01

    Features a solid foundation of mathematical and computational tools to formulate and solve real-world ODE problems across various fields With a step-by-step approach to solving ordinary differential equations (ODEs), Differential Equation Analysis in Biomedical Science and Engineering: Ordinary Differential Equation Applications with R successfully applies computational techniques for solving real-worldODE problems that are found in a variety of fields, including chemistry, physics, biology,and physiology. The book provides readers with the necessary knowledge to reproduce andextend the comp

  1. Lie symmetry analysis of some time fractional partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kinani, E. H.; Ouhadan, A.

    2015-04-01

    This paper uses Lie symmetry analysis to reduce the number of independent variables of time fractional partial differential equations. Then symmetry properties have been employed to construct some exact solutions.

  2. Fatigue of orthodontic nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires in different fluids under constant mechanical stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prymak, O.; Klocke, A.; Kahl-Nieke, B.; Epple, M

    2003-07-25

    The aim of this study was to analyze in vitro the fatigue resistance of nickel-titanium (NiTi) and CuNiTi orthodontic wires when subjected to forces and fluids which are present intraorally. The wires were subjected to dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) while they were immersed into different fluids with mechanical loading parameters similar to those that are subjected in the mouth. The characteristic temperatures of transitions and a rough surface structure on the perimeter of the wires were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively, before and after the DMA experiments. Stainless steel wires were used for comparison. In general, NiTi wires fractured earlier than the stainless steel specimens. Survival times were lower for the NiTi wires when immersed in fluids (water, citric acid, NaCl solution, artificial saliva, and fluoridated artificial saliva) than in air. SEM surface analysis showed that the NiTi and CuNiTi wires had a rougher surface than steel wires. The fracture occurred within a short number of loading cycles. Until fracture occurred, the mechanical properties remained mostly constant.

  3. Analysis of ultra-relativistic charged particle beam and stretched wire measurement interactions with cylindrically symmetric structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deibele, C. E. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The beam impedance and wakefield are quantities which describe the stability of charged particles in their trajectory within an accelerator. The stretched wire measurement technique is a method which estimates the beam impedance and wakefield. Definitions for the beam impedance, the wakefield, and the stretched wire measurement are presented. A pillbox resonator with circular beampipes is studied for its relatively simple profile and mode structure. Theoretical predictions and measurement data are presented for the interaction of various charged particle beams and center conductor geometries between the cavity and beampipe. Time domain predictions for the stretched wire measurement and wakefield are presented and are shown to be a linear interaction.

  4. Charged Particle Dynamics in the Magnetic Field of a Long Straight Current-Carrying Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, A.; Fatuzzo, M.; Toepker, T.

    2015-01-01

    By describing the motion of a charged particle in the well-known nonuniform field of a current-carrying long straight wire, a variety of teaching/learning opportunities are described: 1) Brief review of a standard problem; 2) Vector analysis; 3) Dimensionless variables; 4) Coupled differential equations; 5) Numerical solutions.

  5. Empirical Bayes Model Comparisons for Differential Methylation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxiang Teng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of empirical Bayes models (each with different statistical distribution assumptions have now been developed to analyze differential DNA methylation using high-density oligonucleotide tiling arrays. However, it remains unclear which model performs best. For example, for analysis of differentially methylated regions for conservative and functional sequence characteristics (e.g., enrichment of transcription factor-binding sites (TFBSs, the sensitivity of such analyses, using various empirical Bayes models, remains unclear. In this paper, five empirical Bayes models were constructed, based on either a gamma distribution or a log-normal distribution, for the identification of differential methylated loci and their cell division—(1, 3, and 5 and drug-treatment-(cisplatin dependent methylation patterns. While differential methylation patterns generated by log-normal models were enriched with numerous TFBSs, we observed almost no TFBS-enriched sequences using gamma assumption models. Statistical and biological results suggest log-normal, rather than gamma, empirical Bayes model distribution to be a highly accurate and precise method for differential methylation microarray analysis. In addition, we presented one of the log-normal models for differential methylation analysis and tested its reproducibility by simulation study. We believe this research to be the first extensive comparison of statistical modeling for the analysis of differential DNA methylation, an important biological phenomenon that precisely regulates gene transcription.

  6. Numerical analysis of complex impedance and microwave absorption of metamaterials composed of split cut wires on grounded dielectric substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jun-Hee; Liu, Tian; Kim, Sung-Soo

    2014-06-01

    The microwave absorption of metamaterials composed of split cut wire (SCW) on grounded dielectric substrate has been investigated on the basis of equivalent transmission line circuit. S-parameters (S 11 and S 21) and input impedance are numerically simulated with variations of the thickness and dielectric loss of the substrate and the geometry of the SCW. Magnetic resonance resulting from antiparallel currents between SCW and ground plane was observed at the frequency of minimum reflection loss. The simulated resonance frequency and reflection loss can be explained well on the basis of the circuit theory of an LC resonator. Analysis of the input impedance of the high impedance surface has shown that perfect absorption can be obtained at the optimized impedance-matching condition, which is dependent on SCW width, thickness and the dielectric loss of the substrate. Better insight into the absorption mechanism of metamaterial absorbers can be attained through the parametric analysis on complex impedance of SCW and its relationship with reflection loss.

  7. Dynamic data analysis modeling data with differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Ramsay, James

    2017-01-01

    This text focuses on the use of smoothing methods for developing and estimating differential equations following recent developments in functional data analysis and building on techniques described in Ramsay and Silverman (2005) Functional Data Analysis. The central concept of a dynamical system as a buffer that translates sudden changes in input into smooth controlled output responses has led to applications of previously analyzed data, opening up entirely new opportunities for dynamical systems. The technical level has been kept low so that those with little or no exposure to differential equations as modeling objects can be brought into this data analysis landscape. There are already many texts on the mathematical properties of ordinary differential equations, or dynamic models, and there is a large literature distributed over many fields on models for real world processes consisting of differential equations. However, a researcher interested in fitting such a model to data, or a statistician interested in...

  8. Analysis of linear partial differential operators

    CERN Document Server

    Hörmander , Lars

    2005-01-01

    This volume is an expanded version of Chapters III, IV, V and VII of my 1963 book "Linear partial differential operators". In addition there is an entirely new chapter on convolution equations, one on scattering theory, and one on methods from the theory of analytic functions of several complex variables. The latter is somewhat limited in scope though since it seems superfluous to duplicate the monographs by Ehrenpreis and by Palamodov on this subject. The reader is assumed to be familiar with distribution theory as presented in Volume I. Most topics discussed here have in fact been encountered in Volume I in special cases, which should provide the necessary motivation and background for a more systematic and precise exposition. The main technical tool in this volume is the Fourier- Laplace transformation. More powerful methods for the study of operators with variable coefficients will be developed in Volume III. However, constant coefficient theory has given the guidance for all that work. Although the field...

  9. Structural Characterisation and Mechanical FE Analysis of Conventional and M-Wire Ni-Ti Alloys Used in Endodontic Rotary Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Montalvão

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to understand how the M-Wire alloy conditions the mechanical flexibility of endodontic rotary files at body temperature.Two different rotary instruments, a Profile GT 20/.06 and a Profile GT Series X 20/.06, were selected due to their geometrical similarity and their different constituent alloy. GT series X files are made from M-Wire, a Ni-Ti alloy allegedly having higher flexibility at body temperature. Both files were analysed by X-Ray Diffraction and Differential Scanning Calorimetry to investigate phase transformations and the effects of working temperature on these different alloys. Mechanical behaviour was assessed by means of static bending and torsional Finite Element simulations, taking into account the nonlinear superelastic behaviour of Ni-Ti materials. It was found that GT files present austenitic phase at body temperature, whereas GT series X present R-phase at temperatures under 40°C with a potential for larger flexibility. For the same load conditions, simulations showed that the slight geometrical differences between the two files do not introduce great disagreement in the instruments’ mechanical response. It was confirmed that M-Wire increases the instrument’s flexibility, mainly due to the presence of R-phase at body temperature.

  10. Analysis of Different Positions of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Retainers versus Multistrand Wire Retainers Using the Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Jahanbin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to evaluate root displacement of the lower incisors fixed with FRC in different positions versus FSW retainers using the finite element method. Materials and Methods. 3D finite element models were designed for a mandibular anterior segment: Model 1: flexible spiral wire bonded to the lingual teeth surfaces, Model 2: FRC bonded to the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces, and Model 3: FRC bonded to the middle third. FE analysis was performed for three models and then tooth displacements were evaluated. Results. In contrast to lateral incisors and canines, the FSW retainer caused the central teeth to move more than the teeth bonded with FRC in both loadings. Comparison between Models 2 and 3 (in vertical loading showed that FRC retainers that bonded at the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces made central and canine teeth move less than FRC retainers bonded at the middle third; however, for lateral teeth it was the opposite. Conclusion. FRC retainers bonded at the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces make central and canine teeth move less than FRC retainers bonded at the middle third in vertical loading; however, for lateral teeth it was the opposite.

  11. Differential PIXE analysis of Mesoamerican jewelry items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demortier, G.; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J. L.

    1996-09-01

    Gold jewelry items of Mesoamerican origin (from Peru, Colombia, Mexico, etc,…) are usually cast in Tumbaga: a man-made gold-copper-silver alloy containing a large proportion of copper. In order to give the objects a colour close to that of pure gold, ancient Mesoamerican goldsmiths experimented with a procedure to eliminate less noble metals (like copper and silver) from the surface. RBS may be used to identify a possible enrichment in gold in the most external layer of the items but due to the low capability of this technique to separate scattered particles on gold and silver and due to the low Rutherford cross section for α-particles on copper by comparison with those on gold, the determination of the exact depth depletion of copper cannot be easily reached. Differential PIXE is an appropriate method to achieve this goal. It takes the relative X-ray intensities of Cu and Au lines into account. By varying the incident proton energy, this ratio is modified in a completely different way if the sample is homogeneous or exhibits a layered or depth profile structure.

  12. Analysis and optimization of silicon wafers wire sawing; Analyse et optimisation du procede de decoupe de plaques de silicium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouault de Coligny, P.

    2002-09-15

    This work has been done at the Centre de Mise en Forme des Materiaux and supported by the Agence de l'Environnement et la Maitrise de l'Energie and Photowatt International SA. It concerns one of the stages of the production of photovoltaic solar cells: the cutting of multi-crystalline silicon wafers by wire sawing. A review of the literature combined with the observation of rough wafers shows that wire sawing involves 3-body abrasion and that material removal is achieved in a ductile manner and forms micro-chips. Therefore, the depth of indentation which is necessary for the ductile-fragile transition as shown by the review of the literature is not reached. The resulting abrasion can be described thanks to Archard's Law. The subsurface damage is 2.5 {mu}m deep. A thermal study has shown that the temperature of the cutting is no higher than about 50 deg. C and that it depends on how much heat can be evacuated by the wire. Analyzing the flaws of the wafers has enabled us to identify their origins and to find solutions. The study of the wire's wear has proved that its diameter can be reduced only if the wire is drawn continuously. Energy can be saved at various stages, the surface of the wafers can be improved, these three arguments plead for the suppression of the back and forth. A tribological device has been set up which allows us to study the abrasion of silicon in the same conditions as in the wire sawing. A mechanical model linking the bending of the wire to the parameters collected during the wire sawing process can predict how high the wire web will be in the transitional and permanent regimes, the contact pressure and the wire wear. Material removal by plane strain scratch tests has been numerically simulated. The orders of magnitude of wear coefficients are identical to those deduced from tribological simulations and to those measured on the saws. This approach has opened new prospects which will improve the process by optimizing the

  13. Combined effects of different heat treatments and Cu element on transformation behavior of NiTi orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyyed Aghamiri, S M; Ahmadabadi, M Nili; Raygan, Sh

    2011-04-01

    The shape memory nickel-titanium alloy has been applied in many fields due to its unique thermal and mechanical performance. One of the successful applications of NiTi wires is in orthodontics because of its good characteristics such as low stiffness, high spring back, high stored energy, biocompatibility, superelasticity and shape memory effect. The mechanical properties of wires are paid special attention which results in achieving continuous optimal forces and eventually causing rapid tooth movement without any damage. The behavior of the alloy can be controlled by chemical composition and thermo-mechanical treatment during the manufacturing process. In this study two kinds of commercial superelastic NiTi archwires of 0.41 mm diameter were investigated: Copper NiTi and Highland Metal. The chemical analysis of both wires was estimated by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). It was showed that Copper NiTi wire contained copper and chromium. The two types of wires were exposed to different heat treatment conditions at 400 and 500 °C for 10 and 60 min to compare the behavior of the wires at aged and as-received conditions. Phase transformation temperatures clarified by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed B2 R B19 transformation in Highland Metal wire and B2 B19(') transformation in Copper NiTi wire. Three point bending (TPB) tests in the certain designed fixture were performed at 37 °C to evaluate the mechanical behavior of the wires. The experimental results revealed the superelastic behavior of the Highland Metal wire after 60 min ageing at 400 and 500 °C and the plastic deformation of the Copper NiTi wire after annealing due to the effect of copper in the alloy composition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Solving Generalised Riccati Differential Equations by Homotopy Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vahidi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the quadratic Riccati differential equation is solved by means of an analytic technique, namely the homotopy analysis method (HAM. Comparisons are made between Adomian’s decomposition method (ADM and the exact solution and the homotopy analysis method. The results reveal that the proposed method is very effective and simple.

  15. Differential expression of gastric MUC5AC in colonic epithelial cells: TFF3-wired IL1 β/Akt crosstalk-induced mucosal immune response against Shigella dysenteriae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Subramaniya Bharathi; Murali, Malliga Raman; Devaraj, Halagowder; Devaraj, Sivasithamparam Niranjali

    2012-02-01

    An understanding of the signaling mechanism(s) that regulate the differential expression of gastric mucin MUC5AC in colonic epithelial cells would contribute significantly to investigations of its role in colonic mucosa infected with the bacterial pathogen Shigella dysenteriae. Here we show that S. dysenteriae-Sinduced expression of interleukin-1β upregulates MUC2 expression and the differential expression of MUC5AC. Differential expression of MUC5AC involves crosstalk between interleukin-1β and Akt, whereby the trefoil factor family peptide TFF3 activates Akt by phosphorylation of EGFR. TFF3 also downregulates E-cadherin expression, causing accumulation of β-catenin in the cytosol. Phosphorylation of GSK-3β (inactivated) by activated Akt inhibits ubiquitylation of β-catenin, leading to its nuclear translocation, which then induces the expression of MUC5AC and cyclin D1. Accumulation of cyclin D1 alters the cell cycle, promoting cell survival and proliferation. Human colon HT29MTX cells, which overexpress MUC5AC, were resistant to adherence and invasion of S. dysenteriae when compared with other mucin-secreting HT29 cell types. Thus, during infection with S. dysenteriae, crosstalk between interleukin-1β and Akt wired by TFF3 induces expression of MUC5AC in colonic epithelial cells. Differentially expressed gastric MUC5AC aids in mucosal clearance of S. dysenteriae, inhibiting adherence and invasion of the pathogen to colonic epithelial cells, which protects the host.

  16. Analysis and Sliding Mode Control of Four-Wire Three-Leg Shunt Active Power Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Farid Hamoudi; Hocine Amimeur

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the analysis and the sliding mode control application for a shunt active filter is presented. The active filter is based on a three-leg split-capacitor voltage source inverter which is used to compensate harmonics and unbalance in the phase currents, and therefore to cancel neutral current. The proposed sliding mode control is formulated from the multivariable state model established in dq0 frames. The selection of the sliding mode functions takes in account simultaneously, the...

  17. 录井钢丝断裂的失效分析%Failure Analysis of Logging Steel Wire Fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗启文; 邵菲; 司鲜娥

    2011-01-01

    针对录井钢丝的断裂原因,对事故钢丝和未使用钢丝进行宏观形貌和金相组织的对比分析,对钢丝表面的点蚀坑进行能谱分析,对断口进行扫描电镜分析.结果表明,油井中的钢丝表面腐蚀坑和裂纹源区均含有Cl元素,腐蚀介质是引起钢丝断裂的主要原因.在腐蚀性介质和外加载荷的双重作用下,裂纹持续扩展,直至发生疲劳断裂.%To analyze the fracture reason of well logging wire, the invalid and unused steel wire were compared and analyzed about macro-profile and metallurgical structure. The corrosion pit in steel wire surface was analyzed by energy spectrum, the fracture was analyzed by SEM. The results show that the both steel wire surface corrosive pit and crack origin area contain Cl element, the corrosive medium is main causes of well logging steel wire fracture. Under the dual influence of corrosive medium and applied load,the crack expands continuously,until the fracture happens.

  18. A hybrid DGTD scheme for transient analysis of electromagnetic field interactions on microwave systems loaded with thin wires

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping

    2015-10-15

    Use of the discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) method for analyzing electromagnetic field interactions on microwave structures loaded with thin wires has been very limited despite its well-known advantages. Direct application of the three dimensional (3D) DGTD method to such structures calls for very fine volumetric discretizations in the proximity of the thin wires. In this work, to avoid this possible source of computational inefficiency, electromagnetic field interactions on thin wires and the rest of the structures are modeled separately using the modified telegrapher and Maxwell equations, respectively. Then, 1D and 3D DGTD methods are used to discretize them. The coupling between the two resulting matrix systems is realized by introducing equivalent source terms in each equation set. A weighted electric field obtained from the 3D discretization around the wire is introduced as a voltage source in the telegrapher equations. A volume current density obtained from the 1D discretization on the wire is introduced as a current source in the Ampere law equation. © 2015 IEEE.

  19. Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistor Differential Amplifier Circuit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Thomas A.; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2008-01-01

    There has been considerable research investigating the Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistor (FeFET) in memory circuits. However, very little research has been performed in applying the FeFET to analog circuits. This paper investigates the use of FeFETs in a common analog circuit, the differential amplifier. The two input Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) transistors in a general MOS differential amplifier circuit are replaced with FeFETs. Resistors are used in place of the other three MOS transistors. The FeFET model used in the analysis has been previously reported and was based on experimental device data. Because of the FeFET hysteresis, the FeFET differential amplifier has four different operating modes depending on whether the FeFETs are positively or negatively polarized. The FeFET differential amplifier operation in the different modes was analyzed by calculating the amplifier voltage transfer and gain characteristics shown in figures 2 through 5. Comparisons were made between the FeFET differential amplifier and the standard MOS differential amplifier. Possible applications and benefits of the FeFET differential amplifier are discussed.

  20. Aging analyses of aircraft wire insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GILLEN,KENNETH T.; CLOUGH,ROGER LEE; CELINA,MATHIAS C.; AUBERT,JAMES H.; MALONE,G. MICHAEL

    2000-05-08

    Over the past two decades, Sandia has developed a variety of specialized analytical techniques for evaluating the long-term aging and stability of cable insulation and other related materials. These techniques have been applied to cable reliability studies involving numerous insulation types and environmental factors. This work has allowed the monitoring of the occurrence and progression of cable material deterioration in application environments, and has provided insights into material degradation mechanisms. It has also allowed development of more reliable lifetime prediction methodologies. As a part of the FAA program for intrusive inspection of aircraft wiring, they are beginning to apply a battery of techniques to assessing the condition of cable specimens removed from retired aircraft. It is anticipated that in a future part of this program, they may employ these techniques in conjunction with accelerated aging methodologies and models that the authros have developed and employed in the past to predict cable lifetimes. The types of materials to be assessed include 5 different wire types: polyimide, PVC/Glass/Nylon, extruded XL-polyalkene/PVDF, Poly-X, and XL-ETFE. This presentation provides a brief overview of the main techniques that will be employed in assessing the state of health of aircraft wire insulation. The discussion will be illustrated with data from their prior cable aging studies, highlighting the methods used and their important conclusions. A few of the techniques that they employ are widely used in aging studies on polymers, but others are unique to Sandia. All of their techniques are non-proprietary, and maybe of interest for use by others in terms of application to aircraft wiring analysis. At the end of this report is a list showing some leading references to papers that have been published in the open literature which provide more detailed information on the analytical techniques for elastomer aging studies. The first step in the

  1. Wire bonding in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Harman, George G

    2010-01-01

    Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Third Edition, has been thoroughly revised to help you meet the challenges of today's small-scale and fine-pitch microelectronics. This authoritative guide covers every aspect of designing, manufacturing, and evaluating wire bonds engineered with cutting-edge techniques. In addition to gaining a full grasp of bonding technology, you'll learn how to create reliable bonds at exceedingly high yields, test wire bonds, solve common bonding problems, implement molecular cleaning methods, and much more. Coverage includes: Ultrasonic bonding systems and technologies, including high-frequency systems Bonding wire metallurgy and characteristics, including copper wire Wire bond testing Gold-aluminum intermetallic compounds and other interface reactions Gold and nickel-based bond pad plating materials and problems Cleaning to improve bondability and reliability Mechanical problems in wire bonding High-yield, fine-pitch, specialized-looping, soft-substrate, and extreme-temperature wire bo...

  2. Tensor and vector analysis with applications to differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Springer, C E

    2012-01-01

    Concise and user-friendly, this college-level text assumes only a knowledge of basic calculus in its elementary and gradual development of tensor theory. The introductory approach bridges the gap between mere manipulation and a genuine understanding of an important aspect of both pure and applied mathematics.Beginning with a consideration of coordinate transformations and mappings, the treatment examines loci in three-space, transformation of coordinates in space and differentiation, tensor algebra and analysis, and vector analysis and algebra. Additional topics include differentiation of vect

  3. Analysis by design of experiments of distortion potentials in drawn and induction hardened wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre da Silva Rocha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation a DoE (Design of Experiments analysis of distortion for a typical manufacturing process of pre-straightened, cold drawn and induction hardened AISI 1045 cylindrical steel bars was carried out. A careful characterization of the material, including residual stress states and geometrical changes, was done for the different manufacturing steps. In order to identify effects and correlations on distortion behavior, the investigated variables included the drawing process itself with two different drawing angles, a stress relief treatment, which was applied to one part of the samples, and, finally, induction hardening with two different case depths. Main and statistically significant effects on the distortion of the induction hardened samples were found to be in this order, the drawing angle, the stress relief treatment and the induction hardening depth. It was also found that the distortion potentials are transmitted from the drawing process to further manufacturing steps and, consequently, from one production site to the next.

  4. Analysis on Common Defects on the Surface of Hot Rolled Wire Rods%热轧盘条常见表面缺陷分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪先虎; 姜洪刚; 吴东明

    2014-01-01

    介绍了热轧盘条常见的各类表面缺陷,结合金相微观分析方法,对盘条不同表面缺陷的典型微观形貌和金相组织形态进行分类与分析,从连铸与轧制工艺角度追溯了盘条表面缺陷产生的原因,提出了相应解决方案。%All kinds of common defects on the surface of hot rolled wired rods are introduced, and then typical microstructures and metallographic structure forms of different defects on the sur-face of wire rods are classified and analyzed by metallographic microscopic analysis method. Fi-nally the corresponding solution for dealing with these defects is proposed based on getting the causes leading to the defects on the surface of wire rods through analysis of the continuous casting and rolling process.

  5. Wire harness twisting aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, E. J.; Commadore, C. C.; Ingles, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Long wire bundles twist into uniform spiral harnesses with help of simple apparatus. Wires pass through spacers and through hand-held tool with hole for each wire. Ends are attached to low speed bench motor. As motor turns, operator moves hand tool away forming smooth twists in wires between motor and tool. Technique produces harnesses that generate less radio-frequency interference than do irregularly twisted cables.

  6. Differential network analysis reveals dysfunctional regulatory networks in gastric carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mu-Shui; Liu, Bing-Ya; Dai, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Wei-Xin; Li, Yi-Xue; Li, Yuan-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Gastric Carcinoma is one of the most common cancers in the world. A large number of differentially expressed genes have been identified as being associated with gastric cancer progression, however, little is known about the underlying regulatory mechanisms. To address this problem, we developed a differential networking approach that is characterized by including a nascent methodology, differential coexpression analysis (DCEA), and two novel quantitative methods for differential regulation analysis. We first applied DCEA to a gene expression dataset of gastric normal mucosa, adenoma and carcinoma samples to identify gene interconnection changes during cancer progression, based on which we inferred normal, adenoma, and carcinoma-specific gene regulation networks by using linear regression model. It was observed that cancer genes and drug targets were enriched in each network. To investigate the dynamic changes of gene regulation during carcinogenesis, we then designed two quantitative methods to prioritize differentially regulated genes (DRGs) and gene pairs or links (DRLs) between adjacent stages. It was found that known cancer genes and drug targets are significantly higher ranked. The top 4% normal vs. adenoma DRGs (36 genes) and top 6% adenoma vs. carcinoma DRGs (56 genes) proved to be worthy of further investigation to explore their association with gastric cancer. Out of the 16 DRGs involved in two top-10 DRG lists of normal vs. adenoma and adenoma vs. carcinoma comparisons, 15 have been reported to be gastric cancer or cancer related. Based on our inferred differential networking information and known signaling pathways, we generated testable hypotheses on the roles of GATA6, ESRRG and their signaling pathways in gastric carcinogenesis. Compared with established approaches which build genome-scale GRNs, or sub-networks around differentially expressed genes, the present one proved to be better at enriching cancer genes and drug targets, and prioritizing

  7. Analysis of eco-relevant elements and noble metals in printed wiring boards using AAS, ICP-AES and EDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Tobias; Popp, Ralf; Wolf, Marion; Eldik, Rudi van [Institute for Inorganic Chemistry, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Egerlandstr. 1, 91058, Erlangen (Germany)

    2003-03-01

    Different analytical procedures were developed to investigate the chemical composition of printed wiring boards. A set of 11 samples from different electronic devices were ground and prepared for ICP-AES and AAS analyses by extraction with aqua regia and microwave digestion. Several sample preparation techniques were used for the analyses by EDXRF; the best results were obtained by embedding the samples in Vaseline. Since no standard reference material is available for printed wiring boards, a model reference material was created to compare the applicability and limitations of the employed analytical techniques. (orig.)

  8. Water Desalination with Wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porada, S.; Sales, B.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    We show the significant potential of water desalination using a novel capacitive wire-based technology in which anode/cathode wire pairs are constructed from coating a thin porous carbon electrode layer on top of electrically conducting rods (or wires). By alternately dipping an array of electrode

  9. Analysis of a wire-duct electrostatic precipitator under dust loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hamouz, Zakariya, E-mail: zhamouz@kfupm.edu.s [Electrical Engineering Department, KFUPM, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); El-Hamouz, Amer [Chemical Engineering Department, An Najah National University (Palestinian Territory, Occupied)

    2011-02-15

    A combined finite element based method (FEM) and a modified method of characteristics (MMC) is developed for the analysis and computation of the current density profiles, corona current and hence corona power loss associated with WDEP under particle loading conditions. To test the developed algorithm, comparison with experimental and numerical findings reported in the literature has been made. Comparisons showed high accuracy of the developed algorithm accompanied with a reduction in the number of iterations needed to converge. One major problem reported in the literature, namely, that the characteristic lines never follow the FE grid pattern, is eliminated in the present work. A proto-type design that represents a WDEP, which has been fabricated at the research institute of KFUPM (RI-KFUPM), is used to test the developed algorithm. Smoke of fired coal is used as a source of seed particles of PM10 category (with 75-80% of particles lying below 10 {mu}m). A group of experiments were carried out under laboratory conditions. The results show how different design parameters influenced the corona current and current density profiles.

  10. DGCA: A comprehensive R package for Differential Gene Correlation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Andrew T; Katsyv, Igor; Song, Won-Min; Wang, Minghui; Zhang, Bin

    2016-11-15

    Dissecting the regulatory relationships between genes is a critical step towards building accurate predictive models of biological systems. A powerful approach towards this end is to systematically study the differences in correlation between gene pairs in more than one distinct condition. In this study we develop an R package, DGCA (for Differential Gene Correlation Analysis), which offers a suite of tools for computing and analyzing differential correlations between gene pairs across multiple conditions. To minimize parametric assumptions, DGCA computes empirical p-values via permutation testing. To understand differential correlations at a systems level, DGCA performs higher-order analyses such as measuring the average difference in correlation and multiscale clustering analysis of differential correlation networks. Through a simulation study, we show that the straightforward z-score based method that DGCA employs significantly outperforms the existing alternative methods for calculating differential correlation. Application of DGCA to the TCGA RNA-seq data in breast cancer not only identifies key changes in the regulatory relationships between TP53 and PTEN and their target genes in the presence of inactivating mutations, but also reveals an immune-related differential correlation module that is specific to triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). DGCA is an R package for systematically assessing the difference in gene-gene regulatory relationships under different conditions. This user-friendly, effective, and comprehensive software tool will greatly facilitate the application of differential correlation analysis in many biological studies and thus will help identification of novel signaling pathways, biomarkers, and targets in complex biological systems and diseases.

  11. Large-scale differential display analysis of T helper cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojala, Pekka; Virtanen, Eveliina; Chen, Zhi

    2007-03-01

    We have developed a novel large-scale multicapillary fluorescent differential display (FDD) platform amenable to further automation. The power of the method is demonstrated by the analysis of T helper cell differentiation. Eight RNA samples from wild type, Stat4 knockout and Stat6 knockout mice were analyzed with 16 anchoring primers and 24 arbitrary primers, resulting in 285 294 sample peaks. Visually selected patterns of differential expression suggest two major regulatory mechanisms: activation and Stat4 genotype. A subset of the findings is reproduced in the confirmatory differential display (DD) that included technical and biological replicates. In a small fragment identification pilot study, we identify Ifi27 and Cct8 to be up-regulated by T cell activation. We present a method for the analysis of electropherogram similarity across large datasets, based on correlation of low-resolution representations of electrophoretic data. We show how it can be applied to analyze experimental and technical variables. Using this method, we demonstrate the effect of activation and genotype. In addition, agreement of our real experimental data to the theoretical basis of DD, as well as issues in anchoring primer selectivity, are studied.

  12. Partial differential equations modeling, analysis and numerical approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Le Dret, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to the study of partial differential equation problems both from the theoretical and numerical points of view. After presenting modeling aspects, it develops the theoretical analysis of partial differential equation problems for the three main classes of partial differential equations: elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic. Several numerical approximation methods adapted to each of these examples are analyzed: finite difference, finite element and finite volumes methods, and they are illustrated using numerical simulation results. Although parts of the book are accessible to Bachelor students in mathematics or engineering, it is primarily aimed at Masters students in applied mathematics or computational engineering. The emphasis is on mathematical detail and rigor for the analysis of both continuous and discrete problems. .

  13. Covariance analysis of differential drag-based satellite cluster flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yaacov, Ohad; Ivantsov, Anatoly; Gurfil, Pini

    2016-06-01

    One possibility for satellite cluster flight is to control relative distances using differential drag. The idea is to increase or decrease the drag acceleration on each satellite by changing its attitude, and use the resulting small differential acceleration as a controller. The most significant advantage of the differential drag concept is that it enables cluster flight without consuming fuel. However, any drag-based control algorithm must cope with significant aerodynamical and mechanical uncertainties. The goal of the current paper is to develop a method for examination of the differential drag-based cluster flight performance in the presence of noise and uncertainties. In particular, the differential drag control law is examined under measurement noise, drag uncertainties, and initial condition-related uncertainties. The method used for uncertainty quantification is the Linear Covariance Analysis, which enables us to propagate the augmented state and filter covariance without propagating the state itself. Validation using a Monte-Carlo simulation is provided. The results show that all uncertainties have relatively small effect on the inter-satellite distance, even in the long term, which validates the robustness of the used differential drag controller.

  14. [Three-dimensional finite element analysis of maxillary anterior teeth retraction force system in light wire technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangfeng; Wang, Chao; Xia, Xi; Deng, Feng; Zhang, Yi

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to construct a three-dimensional finite element model of a maxillary anterior teeth retraction force system in light wire technique and to investigate the difference of hydrostatic pressure and initial displacement of upper anterior teeth under different torque values of tip back bend. A geometric three-dimensional model of the maxillary bone, including all the upper teeth, was achieved via CT scan. To construct the force model system, lingual brackets and wire were constructed by using the Solidworks. Brackets software, and wire were assembled to the teeth. ANASYS was used to calculate the hydrostatic pressure and the initial displacement of maxillary anterior teeth under different tip-back bend moments of 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 Nmm when the class II elastic force was 0.556 N. Hydrostatic pressure was concentrated in the root apices and cervical margin of upper anterior teeth. Distal tipping and relative intrusive displacement were observed. The hydrostatic pressure and initial displacement of upper canine were greater than in the central and lateral incisors. This hydrostatic pressure and initial intrusive displacement increased with an increase in tip-back bend moment. Lingual retraction force system of maxillary anterior teeth in light wire technique can be applied safely and controllably. The type and quantity of teeth movement can be controlled by the alteration of tip-back bend moment.

  15. Function spaces and partial differential equations volume 2 : contemporary analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Taheri, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This is a book written primarily for graduate students and early researchers in the fields of Analysis and Partial Differential Equations (PDEs). Coverage of the material is essentially self-contained, extensive and novel with great attention to details and rigour.

  16. Variational analysis and generalized differentiation I basic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mordukhovich, Boris S

    2006-01-01

    Contains a study of the basic concepts and principles of variational analysis and generalized differentiation in both finite-dimensional and infinite-dimensional spaces. This title presents many applications to problems in optimization, equilibria, stability and sensitivity, control theory, economics, mechanics, and more.

  17. PS wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    A wire chamber used at CERN's Proton Synchrotron accelerator in the 1970s. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  18. CVD金刚石涂层拉丝模温度场数值分析%Numerical Analysis of CVD Diamond Wire Drawing Temperature Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄美健; 左敦稳; 卢文壮; 徐锋; 张旭辉

    2012-01-01

    Substrate temperature is one of the key parameters in diamond hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD). Uniform substrate temperature field is even more important in diamond deposition on the interior surface of wire drawing. This paper carries out numerical analysis of the temperature field of wire drawing in HFCVD system and obtains the temperature distribution and the influence characteristics of the hot filament parameters on the magnitude and uniformity of substrate temperature field, which provide a guide for the fabrication of the CVD diamond wire drawing.%衬底温度是热丝化学气相沉积(HFCVD)制备金刚石薄膜的重要参数之一,在拉丝模表面沉积CVD金刚石涂层时,均匀的衬底温度场显得尤为重要.对HFCVD系统中制备CVD金刚石涂层时拉丝模衬底温度场进行数值分析,得到了拉丝模温度场的分布和热丝参数对衬底温度场的影响规律,为CVD金刚石涂层拉丝模的制备提供重要指导.

  19. Modified Homotopy Analysis Method for Nonlinear Fractional Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ziane

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a combined form of natural transform with homotopy analysis method is proposed to solve nonlinear fractional partial differential equations. This method is called the fractional homotopy analysis natural transform method (FHANTM. The FHANTM can easily be applied to many problems and is capable of reducing the size of computational work. The fractional derivative is described in the Caputo sense. The results show that the FHANTM is an appropriate method for solving nonlinear fractional partial differentia equation.

  20. Differentiation-Based Analysis of Environmental Management and Corporate Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Dong-ming; MU Xin

    2007-01-01

    By building a duopoly model based on product differentiation, both of the clean firm's and the dirty firm's performances are studied under the assumptions that consumers have different preferences for the product environmental attributes, and that the product cost increases with the environmental attribute. The analysis results show that under either the case with no environmental regulation or that with a tariff levied on the dirty product, the clean firm would always get more profit. In addition, the stricter the regulation is, the more profit the clean firm would obtain. This can verify that from the view of product differentiation, a firm could improve its corporate competitiveness with environmental management.

  1. Corrosion behavior of titanium wires: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur Prasad Chaturvedi

    2012-01-01

    Results: The results showed degradation of titanium wires by electrochemical attack when they were placed in the hostile electrolytic environments provided in the experiments. Surface analysis of titanium wires showed pitting and localized attacks on the surface. Pitting corrosion was found in the titanium wires.

  2. Nonlinear theory of a hot-wire anemometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betchov, R

    1952-01-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented for the hot-wire anemometer to determine the differences in resistance characteristics as given by King's equation for an infinite wire length and those given by the additional considerations of (a) a finite length of wire with heat loss through its ends and (b) heat loss due to a nonlinear function of the temperature difference between the wire and the air.

  3. Soft magnetic wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M.

    2001-06-01

    An overview of the present state of the art on the preparation techniques, outstanding magnetic properties and applications of soft magnetic micro and nanowires is presented. Rapid solidification techniques (in-rotating-water quenching and drawing methods) to fabricate amorphous microwires with diameter in the range from 100 down to 1 μm are first described. Electrodeposition is also employed to prepare composite microtubes (magnetic coatings) and to fill porous membranes (diameter of the order of 0.1 μm). Magnetic behaviours of interest are related to the different hysteresis loops of samples: square-shaped loops typical of bistable behaviour, and nearly non-hysteretic loop with well-defined transverse anisotropy field. The role played by magnetic dipolar interactions in the magnetic behaviour of arrays of micro and nanowires is described. A particular analysis is done on the giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect in the radio and microwave frequency ranges exhibited by ultrasoft microwires. Finally, a few examples of applications are introduced for magnetostrictive and non-magnetostrictive wires, they are: “magnetoelastic pens”, micromotors; DC current-sensors based on GMI, and sharpened amorphous wire tips in spin polarised scanning tunneling microscopy.

  4. Differentiation of closely related fungi by electronic nose analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlshøj, Kristian; Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2007-01-01

    In this work the potential of electronic nose analysis for differentiation of closely related fun has been described. A total of 20 isolates of the cheese-associated species Geotrichum candidum, Penicillium camemberti, P.nordicum, and Proqueford and its closely related species P paneum, P carneum...... as well as the noacheese ociated P. expansum have been investigated by electronic nose, GC-MS, and LGMS analysis. The isolates were inoculated on yeast extract sucroseagar in 20-mL headspace flasks and electronicnose analysis was performed daily for a-74period. To assess which volatile metabolites...... by high pressure liquid chromatography, coupled-to a diode array detector and a time of flight mass spectrometer. Several mycotoxins were detected in samples from the specles P.nordicum, P.roqueforti, P.paneum, P.carneum, and P.expansum. Differentiation of closely related mycotoxin producing fungi...

  5. Tensor analysis and elementary differential geometry for physicists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen-Schäfer, Hung

    2014-01-01

    Tensors and methods of differential geometry are very useful mathematical tools in many fields of modern physics and computational engineering including relativity physics, electrodynamics, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), continuum mechanics, aero and vibroacoustics, and cybernetics. This book comprehensively presents topics, such as bra-ket notation, tensor analysis, and elementary differential geometry of a moving surface. Moreover, authors intentionally abstain from giving mathematically rigorous definitions and derivations that are however dealt with as precisely as possible. The reader is provided with hands-on calculations and worked-out examples at which he will learn how to handle the bra-ket notation, tensors and differential geometry and to use them in the physical and engineering world. The target audience primarily comprises graduate students in physics and engineering, research scientists, and practicing engineers.

  6. Analysis of pharmacogenomic variants associated with population differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bora Yeon

    Full Text Available In the present study, we systematically investigated population differentiation of drug-related (DR genes in order to identify common genetic features underlying population-specific responses to drugs. To do so, we used the International HapMap project release 27 Data and Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base (PharmGKB database. First, we compared four measures for assessing population differentiation: the chi-square test, the analysis of variance (ANOVA F-test, Fst, and Nearest Shrunken Centroid Method (NSCM. Fst showed high sensitivity with stable specificity among varying sample sizes; thus, we selected Fst for determining population differentiation. Second, we divided DR genes from PharmGKB into two groups based on the degree of population differentiation as assessed by Fst: genes with a high level of differentiation (HD gene group and genes with a low level of differentiation (LD gene group. Last, we conducted a gene ontology (GO analysis and pathway analysis. Using all genes in the human genome as the background, the GO analysis and pathway analysis of the HD genes identified terms related to cell communication. "Cell communication" and "cell-cell signaling" had the lowest Benjamini-Hochberg's q-values (0.0002 and 0.0006, respectively, and "drug binding" was highly enriched (16.51 despite its relatively high q-value (0.0142. Among the 17 genes related to cell communication identified in the HD gene group, five genes (STX4, PPARD, DCK, GRIK4, and DRD3 contained single nucleotide polymorphisms with Fst values greater than 0.5. Specifically, the Fst values for rs10871454, rs6922548, rs3775289, rs1954787, and rs167771 were 0.682, 0.620, 0.573, 0.531, and 0.510, respectively. In the analysis using DR genes as the background, the HD gene group contained six significant terms. Five were related to reproduction, and one was "Wnt signaling pathway," which has been implicated in cancer. Our analysis suggests that the HD gene group from PharmGKB is

  7. Differential analysis for high density tiling microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapranov Philipp

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High density oligonucleotide tiling arrays are an effective and powerful platform for conducting unbiased genome-wide studies. The ab initio probe selection method employed in tiling arrays is unbiased, and thus ensures consistent sampling across coding and non-coding regions of the genome. These arrays are being increasingly used to study the associated processes of transcription, transcription factor binding, chromatin structure and their association. Studies of differential expression and/or regulation provide critical insight into the mechanics of transcription and regulation that occurs during the developmental program of a cell. The time-course experiment, which comprises an in-vivo system and the proposed analyses, is used to determine if annotated and un-annotated portions of genome manifest coordinated differential response to the induced developmental program. Results We have proposed a novel approach, based on a piece-wise function – to analyze genome-wide differential response. This enables segmentation of the response based on protein-coding and non-coding regions; for genes the methodology also partitions differential response with a 5' versus 3' versus intra-genic bias. Conclusion The algorithm built upon the framework of Significance Analysis of Microarrays, uses a generalized logic to define regions/patterns of coordinated differential change. By not adhering to the gene-centric paradigm, discordant differential expression patterns between exons and introns have been identified at a FDR of less than 12 percent. A co-localization of differential binding between RNA Polymerase II and tetra-acetylated histone has been quantified at a p-value -13. The prototype R code has been made available as supplementary material [see Additional file 1]. Additional file 1 gsam_prototypercode.zip. File archive comprising of prototype R code for gSAM implementation including readme and examples. Click here for file

  8. Differential analysis for high density tiling microarray data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Srinka; Hirsch, Heather A; Sekinger, Edward A; Kapranov, Philipp; Struhl, Kevin; Gingeras, Thomas R

    2007-09-24

    High density oligonucleotide tiling arrays are an effective and powerful platform for conducting unbiased genome-wide studies. The ab initio probe selection method employed in tiling arrays is unbiased, and thus ensures consistent sampling across coding and non-coding regions of the genome. These arrays are being increasingly used to study the associated processes of transcription, transcription factor binding, chromatin structure and their association. Studies of differential expression and/or regulation provide critical insight into the mechanics of transcription and regulation that occurs during the developmental program of a cell. The time-course experiment, which comprises an in-vivo system and the proposed analyses, is used to determine if annotated and un-annotated portions of genome manifest coordinated differential response to the induced developmental program. We have proposed a novel approach, based on a piece-wise function - to analyze genome-wide differential response. This enables segmentation of the response based on protein-coding and non-coding regions; for genes the methodology also partitions differential response with a 5' versus 3' versus intra-genic bias. The algorithm built upon the framework of Significance Analysis of Microarrays, uses a generalized logic to define regions/patterns of coordinated differential change. By not adhering to the gene-centric paradigm, discordant differential expression patterns between exons and introns have been identified at a FDR of less than 12 percent. A co-localization of differential binding between RNA Polymerase II and tetra-acetylated histone has been quantified at a p-value < 0.003; it is most significant at the 5' end of genes, at a p-value < 10-13. The prototype R code has been made available as supplementary material [see Additional file 1].

  9. Transcriptome analysis of differentiating spermatogonia stimulated with kit ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Pellegrino; Lolicato, Francesca; Grimaldi, Paola; Dolci, Susanna; Di Sauro, Annarita; Filipponi, Doria; Geremia, Raffaele

    2008-01-01

    Kit ligand (KL) is a survival factor and a mitogenic stimulus for differentiating spermatogonia. However, it is not known whether KL also plays a role in the differentiative events that lead to meiotic entry of these cells. We performed a wide genome analysis of difference in gene expression induced by treatment with KL of spermatogonia from 7-day-old mice, using gene chips spanning the whole mouse genome. The analysis revealed that the pattern of RNA expression induced by KL is compatible with the qualitative changes of the cell cycle that occur during the subsequent cell divisions in type A and B spermatogonia, i.e. the progressive lengthening of the S phase and the shortening of the G2/M transition. Moreover, KL up-regulates in differentiating spermatogonia the expression of early meiotic genes (for instance: Lhx8, Nek1, Rnf141, Xrcc3, Tpo1, Tbca, Xrcc2, Mesp1, Phf7, Rtel1), whereas it down-regulates typical spermatogonial markers (for instance: Pole, Ptgs2, Zfpm2, Egr2, Egr3, Gsk3b, Hnrpa1, Fst, Ptch2). Since KL modifies the expression of several genes known to be up-regulated or down-regulated in spermatogonia during the transition from the mitotic to the meiotic cell cycle, these results are consistent with a role of the KL/kit interaction in the induction of their meiotic differentiation.

  10. A robust control analysis for a steer-by-wire vehicle with uncertainty on the tyre forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sande, T.; Zegelaar, P.; Besselink, I.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes guidelines for controller design for steer-by-wire vehicles. The proposed controller removes the velocity dependency of the vehicle dynamics and accounts for the nonlinear characteristics of the lateral tyre force. Using an ? approach, bounds on the closed loop sensitivity are presented, which results in guidelines for the controller design. Using the designed controller, simulations using a multi-body model show that the yaw dynamics of the vehicle are stabilised for extreme manoeuvres.

  11. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare..., and bare signal wires shall be adequately guarded: (a) At all points where men are required to work or...

  12. A method for rapid sampling and characterization of smokeless powder using sorbent-coated wire mesh and direct analysis in real time - mass spectrometry (DART-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Frederick; Tice, Joseph; Musselman, Brian D; Hall, Adam B

    2016-09-01

    Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are often used by terrorists and criminals to create public panic and destruction, necessitating rapid investigative information. However, backlogs in many forensic laboratories resulting in part from time-consuming GC-MS and LC-MS techniques prevent prompt analytical information. Direct analysis in real time - mass spectrometry (DART-MS) is a promising analytical technique that can address this challenge in the forensic science community by permitting rapid trace analysis of energetic materials. Therefore, we have designed a qualitative analytical approach that utilizes novel sorbent-coated wire mesh and dynamic headspace concentration to permit the generation of information rich chemical attribute signatures (CAS) for trace energetic materials in smokeless powder with DART-MS. Sorbent-coated wire mesh improves the overall efficiency of capturing trace energetic materials in comparison to swabbing or vacuuming. Hodgdon Lil' Gun smokeless powder was used to optimize the dynamic headspace parameters. This method was compared to traditional GC-MS methods and validated using the NIST RM 8107 smokeless powder reference standard. Additives and energetic materials, notably nitroglycerin, were rapidly and efficiently captured by the Carbopack X wire mesh, followed by detection and identification using DART-MS. This approach has demonstrated the capability of generating comparable results with significantly reduced analysis time in comparison to GC-MS. All targeted components that can be detected by GC-MS were detected by DART-MS in less than a minute. Furthermore, DART-MS offers the advantage of detecting targeted analytes that are not amenable to GC-MS. The speed and efficiency associated with both the sample collection technique and DART-MS demonstrate an attractive and viable potential alternative to conventional techniques.

  13. 绳牵引并联机器人的静刚度解析%Analysis on the Static Stiffness of Wire-driven Parallel Manipulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欣; 仇原鹰; 盛英

    2011-01-01

    基于微分变换和线几何理论,建立包含关节弹性变形以及绳拉力等因素的绳牵引并联机器人的刚度模型,推导刚度矩阵的数学表达式.模型不仅考虑驱动单元、绳的弹性变形对机构刚度的影响,而且考虑机构在广义外力作用下由末端执行器微分运动所引起的结构矩阵的变化.通过线矢量的引入,分步求导模型中结构矩阵对末端执行器位姿变分的三维Hessian矩阵.模型表明,绳牵引并联机器人的系统刚度由两部分组成,其中一部分主要取决于绳的几何布置、末端执行器的位姿、驱动支链的物理特性;另一部分表达为结构矩阵相对末端执行器位姿的变分-Hessian矩阵与绳拉力矢量的乘积.大射电望远镜5m缩尺模型数值仿真与试验结果的对比验证了该方法的正确有效.%Based on differential transform and linear geometry theory, a stiffness model of wire-driven parallel manipulators is established, including the elastic deformation of joints and wire tension. And a mathematical expression of the stiffness matrix is developed. Not only the influence of elastic deformation of the drive units and wires on the mechanism stiffness, but also the change of the structure matrix due to the movement of end-effectors under the action of generalized external force are considered in the stiffness model. The structure matrix derivative with respect to the position and orientation of the1 end-effectors, namely three dimension Hessian matrix is obtained by introducing linear vector. The model shows that the stiffness matrix of wire-driven parallel manipulators consists of two parts, one of which depends mainly on the geometric distribution of the wires, the position and orientation of the end-effectors, and the physical property of the driven links, while the other is a product of the Hessian matrix and the wire tension vector. The simulation and experiments of a five-meter scaled model of large spherical

  14. Painlevé analysis for nonlinear partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Musette, M

    1998-01-01

    The Painlevé analysis introduced by Weiss, Tabor and Carnevale (WTC) in 1983 for nonlinear partial differential equations (PDE's) is an extension of the method initiated by Painlevé and Gambier at the beginning of this century for the classification of algebraic nonlinear differential equations (ODE's) without movable critical points. In these lectures we explain the WTC method in its invariant version introduced by Conte in 1989 and its application to solitonic equations in order to find algorithmically their associated so-called ``integrable'' equations but they are generically no more valid for equations modelising physical phenomema. Belonging to this second class, some equations called ``partially integrable'' sometimes keep remnants of integrability. In that case, the singularity analysis may also be useful for building closed form analytic solutions, which necessarily % Conte agree with the singularity structure of the equations. We display the privileged role played by the Riccati equation and syste...

  15. A Differential Abundance Analysis of HD219175 A and B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Wei Zhang; Gang Zhao

    2005-01-01

    The abundances of the wide binary pair HD 219175 A and B are determined and compared using a line-by-line differential analysis. No evidence for difference has been found in the abundances of Fe, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Sc,Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu and Ba. Our results support a physical relation between the two components of HD 219175.

  16. Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Stewart W.; Martina, Filomeno; Addison, Adrian C.; Ding, Jialuo; Pardal, Goncalo; Colegrove, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Depositing large components (>10 kg) in titanium, aluminium, steel and other metals is possible using Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing. This technology adopts arc welding tools and wire as feedstock for additive manufacturing purposes. High deposition rates, low material and equipment costs, and good structural integrity make Wire+Arc Additive Manufacturing a suitable candidate for replacing the current method of manufacturing from solid billets or large forgings, especially with regards to ...

  17. Genetic analysis of population differentiation and adaptation in Leuciscus waleckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yumei; Tang, Ran; Sun, Xiaowen; Liang, Liqun; Chen, Jinping; Huang, Jinfeng; Dou, Xinjie; Tao, Ran

    2013-12-01

    Demographic events and natural selection both influence animal phenotypic and genetic variation; exploring the effects of demography and selection on population divergence is of great significance in evolutionary biology. To uncover the causes behind the patterns of genetic differentiation and adaptation among six populations of Leuciscus waleckii from Dali Basin (two populations, alkaline vs. freshwater) and Amur Basin (four populations, freshwater rivers vs. alkaline lake), a set of 21 unlinked polymorphic microsatellite markers and two mitochondrial DNA sequences (Cytb and D-loop) were applied to examine whether populations from different environments or habitats have distinct genetic differentiation and whether alkalinity is the major factor that caused population divergence. Bayesian analysis and principal component analysis as well as haplotype network analysis showed that these populations are primarily divided into two groups, which are congruent with geographic separation but not inconsistent with the habitat environment (alkalinity). Using three different approaches, outlier detection indicated that one locus, HLJYL017, may be under directional selection and involved in local adaptation processes. Overall, this study suggested that demographic events and selection of local environmental conditions including of alkalinity are jointly responsible for population divergence. These findings constitute an important step towards the understanding of the genetic basis of differentiation and adaptation, as well as towards the conservation of L. waleckii.

  18. Charpak hemispherical wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    pieces. Mesures are of the largest one. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  19. Photovoltaic Wire Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate a new architecture for photovoltaic devices based on nanotechnology: photovoltaic wire. The...

  20. On-Wire Lithography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lidong Qin; Sungho Park; Ling Huang; Chad A. Mirkin

    2005-01-01

    .... This procedure, termed on-wire lithography, combines advances in template-directed synthesis of nanowires with electrochemical deposition and wet-chemical etching and allows routine fabrication...

  1. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development.

  2. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction

  3. Differential Proteomic Analysis of Carbon Ion Radiation in Sheep Sperm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yu-xuan; LI Hong-yan; ZHANG Yong; HE Jian-hua; ZHANG Hong; ZHAO Xing-xu

    2013-01-01

    This study is first to investigate proteomic changes in sheep sperm induced by carbon ion radiation using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis in the project of breeding a new variety of sheep. Differential expression proteins were detected using the PDQuest 8.0 software after staining with Coomassie blue. Valid spots were then analyzed through liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Among the 480 total protein spots displayed in 2-D gels, 6 specific protein spots were observed in sperm gels. A search against protein sequences in the National Center for Biotechnology Information databases (NCBI) indicated that differentially expressed proteins correspond to two proteins, identified to be enolase and transcription factor AP-2-alpha (TFAP-2α). The two proteins were up-regulated in the irradiated sperm. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to identify proteomic changes induced by carbon ion radiation in sheep sperm. The analysis of differential expression protein may be useful in identifying new breeding markers in sheep reproduction and in clarifying the mechanisms involved in irradiation or space breeding.

  4. Circadian phase has profound effects on differential expression analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polly Yingshan Hsu

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms are physiological and behavioral cycles with a period of approximately 24 hours that are generated by an endogenous clock, or oscillator. Found in diverse organisms, they are precisely controlled and provide growth and fitness benefits. Numerous microarray studies examining circadian control of gene expression have reported that a substantial fraction of the genomes of many organisms is clock-controlled. Here we show that a long-period mutant in Arabidopsis, rve8-1, has a global alteration in phase of all clock-controlled genes. After several days in constant environmental conditions, at which point the mutant and control plants have very different circadian phases, we found 1557 genes to be differentially expressed in rve8-1, almost all of which are clock-regulated. However, after adjusting for this phase difference, only a handful show overall expression level differences between rve8-1 and wild type. Thus the apparent differential expression is mainly due to the phase difference between these two genotypes. These findings prompted us to examine the effect of phase on gene expression within a single genotype. Using samples of wild-type plants harvested at thirty-minute intervals, we demonstrated that even this small difference in circadian phase significantly influences the results of differential expression analysis. Our study demonstrates the robust influence of the circadian clock on the transcriptome and provides a cautionary note for all biologists performing genome-level expression analysis.

  5. Teacher knowledge of error analysis in differential calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice K. Moru

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated teacher knowledge of error analysis in differential calculus. Two teachers were the sample of the study: one a subject specialist and the other a mathematics education specialist. Questionnaires and interviews were used for data collection. The findings of the study reflect that the teachers’ knowledge of error analysis was characterised by the following assertions, which are backed up with some evidence: (1 teachers identified the errors correctly, (2 the generalised error identification resulted in opaque analysis, (3 some of the identified errors were not interpreted from multiple perspectives, (4 teachers’ evaluation of errors was either local or global and (5 in remedying errors accuracy and efficiency were emphasised more than conceptual understanding. The implications of the findings of the study for teaching include engaging in error analysis continuously as this is one way of improving knowledge for teaching.

  6. DRAWING BREAK ANALYSIS OF 45#HARD WIRE%45#硬线拉拔断裂分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海旺; 张敏; 汪鹏; 李朝辉

    2015-01-01

    针对45#硬线由Φ6.5 mm拉拔到Φ4.6 mm时发生断裂的问题,分析了其拉拔断口及表面裂纹形貌,用金相显微镜、扫描电镜对其金相组织、夹杂物及化学成分进行分析,结果表明:45#硬线钢中存在大颗粒脆性夹杂物,降低了盘条表面的强度和塑性,使其在拉拔过程中出现横裂纹,继而引起拉拔断裂,盘条表层组织不均匀也增加了盘条断裂机率。提出了夹杂物控制和金相组织改进措施,改进后盘条拉拔到Φ3.8 mm时的断丝率不足1.5%。%To solve the problem of 45#hard wire:breaking when drew from Φ6.5 to 4.6 mm, its fracture surface and the surface cracks morphology are analyzed as well as its metallographic structure, inclusion and chemical composition with metallographic microscope and SEM.It is showed from the result that there is large-size brittle inclusion in it and so the surface strength and plasticity of the wire bar reduced, and trans-verse crack takes place on it in drawing and then broken.Besides, not homogeneous surface structure of wire bar increases the rate of break.The measures in controlling inclusion and improving metallographic structure are proposed.After improvement the break rate of wire bar is below 1.5%when drew toΦ3.8 mm.

  7. PC analysis of stochastic differential equations driven by Wiener noise

    KAUST Repository

    Le Maitre, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    A polynomial chaos (PC) analysis with stochastic expansion coefficients is proposed for stochastic differential equations driven by additive or multiplicative Wiener noise. It is shown that for this setting, a Galerkin formalism naturally leads to the definition of a hierarchy of stochastic differential equations governing the evolution of the PC modes. Under the mild assumption that the Wiener and uncertain parameters can be treated as independent random variables, it is also shown that the Galerkin formalism naturally separates parametric uncertainty and stochastic forcing dependences. This enables us to perform an orthogonal decomposition of the process variance, and consequently identify contributions arising from the uncertainty in parameters, the stochastic forcing, and a coupled term. Insight gained from this decomposition is illustrated in light of implementation to simplified linear and non-linear problems; the case of a stochastic bifurcation is also considered.

  8. Quantum Analysis - Non-Commutative Differential and Integral Calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masuo

    1997-01-01

    A new scheme of quantum analysis, namely a non-commutative calculus of operator derivatives and integrals is introduced. This treats differentiation of an operator-valued function with respect to the relevant operator in a Banach space. In this new scheme, operator derivatives are expressed in terms of the relevant operator and its inner derivation explicitly. Derivatives of hyperoperators are also defined. Some possible applications of the present calculus to quantum statistical physics are briefly discussed. Acknowledgements The author would like to thank Professor H. Araki, Professor K. Aomoto, Professor H. Hiai, Professor N. Obata and Dr. R.I. McLachlan for useful comments. Added in proof. Recently it has been proven that the quantum derivatives {dn f(A)/ dAn} are invariant for any choice of definitions of the differential df(A) satisfying the Leibniz rule and the linearity (M. Suzuki, J. Math. Phys.).->

  9. Accuracy Of Hot-Wire Anemometry In Supersonic Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Pamela; Mckenzie, Robert L.; Bershader, Daniel

    1989-01-01

    Sensitivity of hot-wire probe compared to laser-induced-florescence measurements. Report discusses factors affecting readings of hot-wire anemometer in turbulent supersonic boundary layer. Presents theoretical analysis of responses of hot-wire probe to changes in flow; also compares measurements by hot-wire probe with measurements of same flows by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). Because LIF provides spatially and temporally resolved data on temperature, density, and pressure, provides independent means to determine responses of hot-wire anemometers to these quantities.

  10. Lie Symmetry Analysis of the Hopf Functional-Differential Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. Janocha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we extend the classical Lie symmetry analysis from partial differential equations to integro-differential equations with functional derivatives. We continue the work of Oberlack and Wacławczyk (2006, Arch. Mech. 58, 597, (2013, J. Math. Phys. 54, 072901, where the extended Lie symmetry analysis is performed in the Fourier space. Here, we introduce a method to perform the extended Lie symmetry analysis in the physical space where we have to deal with the transformation of the integration variable in the appearing integral terms. The method is based on the transformation of the product y(xdx appearing in the integral terms and applied to the functional formulation of the viscous Burgers equation. The extended Lie symmetry analysis furnishes all known symmetries of the viscous Burgers equation and is able to provide new symmetries associated with the Hopf formulation of the viscous Burgers equation. Hence, it can be employed as an important tool for applications in continuum mechanics.

  11. Differential network analysis with multiply imputed lipidomic data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiju Kujala

    Full Text Available The importance of lipids for cell function and health has been widely recognized, e.g., a disorder in the lipid composition of cells has been related to atherosclerosis caused cardiovascular disease (CVD. Lipidomics analyses are characterized by large yet not a huge number of mutually correlated variables measured and their associations to outcomes are potentially of a complex nature. Differential network analysis provides a formal statistical method capable of inferential analysis to examine differences in network structures of the lipids under two biological conditions. It also guides us to identify potential relationships requiring further biological investigation. We provide a recipe to conduct permutation test on association scores resulted from partial least square regression with multiple imputed lipidomic data from the LUdwigshafen RIsk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC study, particularly paying attention to the left-censored missing values typical for a wide range of data sets in life sciences. Left-censored missing values are low-level concentrations that are known to exist somewhere between zero and a lower limit of quantification. To make full use of the LURIC data with the missing values, we utilize state of the art multiple imputation techniques and propose solutions to the challenges that incomplete data sets bring to differential network analysis. The customized network analysis helps us to understand the complexities of the underlying biological processes by identifying lipids and lipid classes that interact with each other, and by recognizing the most important differentially expressed lipids between two subgroups of coronary artery disease (CAD patients, the patients that had a fatal CVD event and the ones who remained stable during two year follow-up.

  12. 三相四线有功电能表错误接线分析与判断%Analysis and Judgment of the Wrong Wiring of the 3-Phase and 4-Wire Watt-Hour Meter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪莲; 何伟; 陈虎

    2016-01-01

    通过分析接线图、相量图、功率及更正系数,介绍三相四线有功电能表常见的错误接线方式,提出检查三相四线有功电能表错误接线的简单方法,并介绍退补电量的计算方法。%By analyzing the wiring diagram,the vector diagram,the power and the adjusted coefficient,this paper in-troduces the common wrong wiring modes of the 3-phase and 4-wire watt-hour meter,presents simple checking methods,and describes the method of calculation for electricity return and compensation.

  13. Modelling and analysis of material removal rate and surface roughness in wire-cut EDM of armour materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindranadh Bobbili

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current work presents a comparative study of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM of armour materials such as aluminium alloy 7017 and rolled homogeneous armour (RHA steel using buckingham pi theorem to model the input variables and thermo-physical characteristics of WEDM on material removal rate (MRR and surface roughness (Ra of Al 7017 and RHA steel. The parameters of the model such as pulse-on time, flushing pressure, input power, thermal diffusivity and latent heat of vaporization have been determined through design of experiment methodology. Wear rate of brass wire increases with rise in input energy in machining Al 7017. The dependence of thermo-physical properties and machining variables on mechanism of MRR and Ra has been described by performing scanning electron microscope (SEM study. The rise in pulse-on time from 0.85μs to 1.25μs causes improvement in MRR and deterioration of surface finish. The machined surface has revealed that craters are found on the machined surface. The propensity of formation of craters increases during WEDM with a higher current and larger pulse-on time.

  14. “簈丝青年”的发展困境与心理分析%Development Difficulties and Psychological Analysis to the Cock Wire Youth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹古丽

    2015-01-01

    The term of "cock wire"has risen from the spoof title given by Thunder Three Giants Bar to the Li -yi Bar in 2012, and later evolved into the self -mockery addressing for the hard tempered young people in the bottom of China society.The "cock wire"youth try to make their access to social identity through the label of "Cock wire",get attention through the "cock"way and break through the plight of their own development with "cock"strategies.Taking Fromm's escape freedom concept as a theoretical background,this paper makes analysis to the development difficulties and psychological mechanisms under current social conditions and explores on how to help the cock wire youth to get out of the drifting situation.It reshapes the value and dignity that a "person"should have and protects their increasingly fragile soul that ripped by the crucial society.%簈丝一词兴起于2012年雷霆三巨头吧对李毅吧的恶搞称谓,后来逐渐演变为处于中国社会底层、辛苦恣睢的青年人自我嘲讽的代称。以簈丝自称的青年试图通过簈丝这一标签使自己获得社会认同,通过“簈”的方式去引起别人的注意,用“簈”的策略去突围自身发展的困境。本文以弗洛姆的逃避自由观为理论背景,分析当前社会条件下簈丝青年的发展困境和心理机制,探索如何帮助簈丝青年走出放任自流的境况,重塑其作为“人”应有的价值与尊严,保护他们被严酷的社会撕裂得越来越脆弱的心灵。

  15. Differential item functioning analysis by applying multiple comparison procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebi, Paolo; Kreiner, Svend

    2015-01-01

    Analysis within a Rasch measurement framework aims at development of valid and objective test score. One requirement of both validity and objectivity is that items do not show evidence of differential item functioning (DIF). A number of procedures exist for the assessment of DIF including those based on analysis of contingency tables by Mantel-Haenszel tests and partial gamma coefficients. The aim of this paper is to illustrate Multiple Comparison Procedures (MCP) for analysis of DIF relative to a variable defining a very large number of groups, with an unclear ordering with respect to the DIF effect. We propose a single step procedure controlling the false discovery rate for DIF detection. The procedure applies for both dichotomous and polytomous items. In addition to providing evidence against a hypothesis of no DIF, the procedure also provides information on subset of groups that are homogeneous with respect to the DIF effect. A stepwise MCP procedure for this purpose is also introduced.

  16. Multivariable Discriminant Analysis for the Differential Diagnosis of Microcytic Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Urrechaga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Iron deficiency anemia and thalassemia are the most common causes of microcytic anemia. Powerful statistical computer programming enables sensitive discriminant analyses to aid in the diagnosis. We aimed at investigating the performance of the multiple discriminant analysis (MDA to the differential diagnosis of microcytic anemia. Methods. The training group was composed of 200 β-thalassemia carriers, 65 α-thalassemia carriers, 170 iron deficiency anemia (IDA, and 45 mixed cases of thalassemia and acute phase response or iron deficiency. A set of potential predictor parameters that could detect differences among groups were selected: Red Blood Cells (RBC, hemoglobin (Hb, mean cell volume (MCV, mean cell hemoglobin (MCH, and RBC distribution width (RDW. The functions obtained with MDA analysis were applied to a set of 628 consecutive patients with microcytic anemia. Results. For classifying patients into two groups (genetic anemia and acquired anemia, only one function was needed; 87.9% β-thalassemia carriers, and 83.3% α-thalassemia carriers, and 72.1% in the mixed group were correctly classified. Conclusion. Linear discriminant functions based on hemogram data can aid in differentiating between IDA and thalassemia, so samples can be efficiently selected for further analysis to confirm the presence of genetic anemia.

  17. Identification of the mechanisms responsible for static strain ageing in heavily drawn pearlitic steel wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, A.; Kleber, X.; Massardier-Jourdan, V.; Mari, D.

    2014-08-01

    The microstructural changes occurring during drawing and ageing in pearlitic steel wires have been studied using the thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements combined with atom probe tomography (APT) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). APT analysis confirmed that cementite dissolution occurs during the cold-drawing process. The high sensitivity of TEP to solute atoms allowed two ageing mechanisms to be identified, both related to a redistribution of carbon atoms. The complementary use of tensile tests and DSC confirmed these results.

  18. Numerical Analysis for Functional Differential and Integral Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hermann BRUNNER; Tao TANG; Stefan VANDEWALLE

    2009-01-01

    @@ From December 3-6,2007,the Department of Mathematics at Hong Kong Baptist University hosted the International Workshop on Numerical Analysis and Computational Methods for Functional Differential and Integral Equations. This workshop,organized by Hermann Brunner of Memorial University of Newfoundland (Canada) & Hong Kong Baptist University,Leevan Ling and Tao Tang of Hong Kong Baptist University,and Chengjian Zhang of Huazhong University of Science and Technology (China) brought together some 40 members of research groups in Hong Kong,Taiwan and the mainland of China,Belgium,Canada,Japan,and Portugal.

  19. Statistics for proteomics: experimental design and 2-DE differential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chich, Jean-François; David, Olivier; Villers, Fanny; Schaeffer, Brigitte; Lutomski, Didier; Huet, Sylvie

    2007-04-15

    Proteomics relies on the separation of complex protein mixtures using bidimensional electrophoresis. This approach is largely used to detect the expression variations of proteins prepared from two or more samples. Recently, attention was drawn on the reliability of the results published in literature. Among the critical points identified were experimental design, differential analysis and the problem of missing data, all problems where statistics can be of help. Using examples and terms understandable by biologists, we describe how a collaboration between biologists and statisticians can improve reliability of results and confidence in conclusions.

  20. Wire recycling for quantum circuit optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paler, Alexandru; Wille, Robert; Devitt, Simon J.

    2016-10-01

    Quantum information processing is expressed using quantum bits (qubits) and quantum gates which are arranged in terms of quantum circuits. Here, each qubit is associated with a quantum circuit wire which is used to conduct the desired operations. Most of the existing quantum circuits allocate a single quantum circuit wire for each qubit and hence introduce significant overhead. In fact, qubits are usually not needed during the entire computation, only between their initialization and measurement. Before and after that, corresponding wires may be used by other qubits. In this work, we propose a solution which exploits this fact in order to optimize the design of quantum circuits with respect to the required wires. To this end, we introduce a representation of the lifetimes of all qubits which is used to analyze the respective need for wires. Based on this analysis, a method is proposed which "recycles" the available wires and, as a result, reduces the size of the resulting circuit. Numerical tests based on established reversible and fault-tolerant quantum circuits confirm that the proposed solution reduces the number of wires by more than 90% compared to unoptimized quantum circuits.

  1. Singularities, swallowtails and Dirac points. An analysis for families of Hamiltonians and applications to wire networks, especially the Gyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, Ralph M.; Khlebnikov, Sergei; Wehefritz-Kaufmann, Birgit

    2012-08-15

    Motivated by the Double Gyroid nanowire network we develop methods to detect Dirac points and classify level crossings, aka. singularities in the spectrum of a family of Hamiltonians. The approach we use is singularity theory. Using this language, we obtain a characterization of Dirac points and also show that the branching behavior of the level crossings is given by an unfolding of A{sub n} type singularities. Which type of singularity occurs can be read off a characteristic region inside the miniversal unfolding of an A{sub k} singularity. We then apply these methods in the setting of families of graph Hamiltonians, such as those for wire networks. In the particular case of the Double Gyroid we analytically classify its singularities and show that it has Dirac points. This indicates that nanowire systems of this type should have very special physical properties.

  2. Two-Phase Flow in Wire Coating with Heat Transfer Analysis of an Elastic-Viscous Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work considers two-phase flow of an elastic-viscous fluid for double-layer coating of wire. The wet-on-wet (WOW coating process is used in this study. The analytical solution of the theoretical model is obtained by Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM. The expression for the velocity field and temperature distribution for both layers is obtained. The convergence of the obtained series solution is established. The analytical results are verified by Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM. The obtained velocity field is compared with the existing exact solution of the same flow problem of second-grade fluid and with analytical solution of a third-grade fluid. Also, emerging parameters on the solutions are discussed and appropriate conclusions are drawn.

  3. 3D FE Analysis of Thermal Behavior of Billet in Rod and Wire Hot Continuous Rolling Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Si-yu; ZHANG Li-wen; LIAO Shu-lun; QI Min; ZHEN Yu; GUO Shu-qi

    2007-01-01

    An FE model was developed to study thermal behavior during the rod and wire hot continuous rolling process. The FE code MSC.Marc was used in the simulation using implicit static arithmetic. The whole rolling process of 30 passes was separated and simulated with several continuous 3D elastic-plastic FE models. A rigid pushing body and a data transfer technique were introduced into this model. The on-line experiments were conducted on 304 stainless steel and GCr15 steel hot continuous rolling process to prove the results of simulation by implicit static FEM. The results show that the temperature results of finite element simulations are in good agreement with experiments, which indicate that the FE model developed in this study is effective and efficient.

  4. The Finite Element Analysis for Parallel-wire Capacitance Probe in Small Diameter Two-phase Flow Pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Lusheng; JIN Ningde; GAO Zhongke; HUANG Xu

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel capacitance probe,i.e.,parallel-wire capacitance probe (PWCP),for two-phase flow measurement.Using finite element method (FEM),the sensitivity field of the PWCP is investigated and the optimum sensor geometry is determiend in term of the characterisitc parameters.Then,the response of PWCP for the oil-water stratified fiow is calculated,and it is found the PWCP has better linearity and sensitivity to the variation of water-layer thickness,and is almost independant of the angle between the oil-water interface and the sensor electrode.Finally,the static experiment for oil-water stratified flow is carried out and the calibration method of liquid holdup is presented.

  5. Residual stress analysis of fixed retainer wires after in vitro loading: can mastication-induced stresses produce an unfavorable effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifakakis, Iosif; Eliades, Theodore; Bourauel, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare four different types of fixed canine-to-canine retainer regarding the maximum and residual force system generated on a canine during the intrusive in vitro loading of the rest of the anterior teeth. Retainers constructed from Ortho-FlexTech gold chain 0.038 × 0.016-inch (rectangular, 0.96 × 0.40 mm(²)), Tru-Chrome® 7-strand twisted 0.027-inch (round, 0.68 mm diameter) steel wire, and Wildcat 0.0175-inch (round, 0.44 mm) and 0.0215-inch (round, 0.55 mm) 3-strand Twistflex steel wire bonded on the anterior teeth of an acrylic resin model, installed in the Orthodontic Measurement and Simulation System. The force system on the canine was recorded during the loading of the anterior teeth as well as the residual force system at the same tooth after the unloading. During maximum loading, the gold chain exerted the lowest and the 0.0215-inch archwire the highest force and moment magnitude. Residual forces and moments were exerted on the canine after the unloading in all retainer types, i.e., the evaluated fixed retainers were not passive after in vitro vertical loading. The lowest magnitude was measured in gold chain retainers and the highest in cases of the high formable/low yield strength 0.027-inch archwire. This fact may explain the unexpected movements of teeth bonded on fixed retainers detected long-term in vivo.

  6. Modern Analysis of Protein Folding by Differential Scanning Calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Molero, Beatriz; Naganathan, Athi N; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M; Muñoz, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a very powerful tool for investigating protein folding and stability because its experimental output reflects the energetics of all conformations that become minimally populated during thermal unfolding. Accordingly, analysis of DSC experiments with simple thermodynamic models has been key for developing our understanding of protein stability during the past five decades. The discovery of ultrafast folding proteins, which have naturally broad conformational ensembles and minimally cooperative unfolding, opens the possibility of probing the complete folding free energy landscape, including those conformations at the top of the barrier to folding, via DSC. Exploiting this opportunity requires high-quality experiments and the implementation of novel analytical methods based on statistical mechanics. Here, we cover the recent exciting developments in this front, describing the new analytical procedures in detail as well as providing experimental guidelines for performing such analysis.

  7. Differentiating salt marsh species using foreground/background analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, M.; Pinzon, J.; Ustin, S.L.; Rejmankova, E. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Three California salt marsh plant species have distinctive morphologies that could be remotely sensed by airborne spectrometers because the architectures create differences in canopy reflectance characteristics. This paper presents a method to differentiate wetland species using a modified spectral mixture analysis termed hierarchical foreground and background analysis (HFBA). To validate this approach, the method was applied to field spectral data from several salt marshes. Foreground and background analysis allows the user to direct analysis along a specified axis of variance by identifying vectors through the n-dimensional spectral volume by identifying vectors that comprise the information of selected subset of spectra which emphasizes the presence of a discriminative signature of interest. The goal of FBA is to project spectral variation along the most relevant axis of variance that maximizes spectral differences between groups, while minimizing spectral variation within each group. For this work, we selected a training set that allowed us to create HFBA vectors which efficiently discriminate species based on canopy spectral characteristics. Results indicated that the dominant species in these salts marshes could be clearly differentiated with greater than 90% certainty from field collected canopy spectrometer data. Hundred percent of Spartina and 79% of Salicornia were correctly classified at the first level of classification. The accuracy of classification for Salicornia improved to 87% in the second level of classification. The unclassified spectral samples were related to extraordinary conditions within the wetlands such as extreme biomass, salinity and nitrogen conditions. These patterns were apparent in AVIRIS (Airborne Visible/infrared Imaging Spectrometer) images which showed distinct zonation corresponding to the distributions of these species in the marsh. Results were confirmed by field reconnaissance. 19 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. A statistical framework for differential network analysis from microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datta Somnath

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been long well known that genes do not act alone; rather groups of genes act in consort during a biological process. Consequently, the expression levels of genes are dependent on each other. Experimental techniques to detect such interacting pairs of genes have been in place for quite some time. With the advent of microarray technology, newer computational techniques to detect such interaction or association between gene expressions are being proposed which lead to an association network. While most microarray analyses look for genes that are differentially expressed, it is of potentially greater significance to identify how entire association network structures change between two or more biological settings, say normal versus diseased cell types. Results We provide a recipe for conducting a differential analysis of networks constructed from microarray data under two experimental settings. At the core of our approach lies a connectivity score that represents the strength of genetic association or interaction between two genes. We use this score to propose formal statistical tests for each of following queries: (i whether the overall modular structures of the two networks are different, (ii whether the connectivity of a particular set of "interesting genes" has changed between the two networks, and (iii whether the connectivity of a given single gene has changed between the two networks. A number of examples of this score is provided. We carried out our method on two types of simulated data: Gaussian networks and networks based on differential equations. We show that, for appropriate choices of the connectivity scores and tuning parameters, our method works well on simulated data. We also analyze a real data set involving normal versus heavy mice and identify an interesting set of genes that may play key roles in obesity. Conclusions Examining changes in network structure can provide valuable information about the

  9. Tunable permeability of magnetic wires at microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panina, L. V.; Makhnovskiy, D. P.; Morchenko, A. T.; Kostishin, V. G.

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the analysis into microwave magnetic properties of magnetic microwires and their composites in the context of applications in wireless sensors and tunable microwave materials. It is demonstrated that the intrinsic permeability of wires has a wide frequency dispersion with relatively large values in the GHz band. In the case of a specific magnetic anisotropy this results in a tunable microwave impedance which could be used for distributed wireless sensing networks in functional composites. The other range of applications is related with developing the artificial magnetic dielectrics with large and tunable permeability. The composites with magnetic wires with a circumferential anisotropy have the effective permeability which differs substantially from unity for a relatively low concentration (less than 10%). This can make it possible to design the wire media with a negative and tunable index of refraction utilising natural magnetic properties of wires.

  10. Penalized differential pathway analysis of integrative oncogenomics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wieringen, Wessel N; van de Wiel, Mark A

    2014-04-01

    Through integration of genomic data from multiple sources, we may obtain a more accurate and complete picture of the molecular mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis. We discuss the integration of DNA copy number and mRNA gene expression data from an observational integrative genomics study involving cancer patients. The two molecular levels involved are linked through the central dogma of molecular biology. DNA copy number aberrations abound in the cancer cell. Here we investigate how these aberrations affect gene expression levels within a pathway using observational integrative genomics data of cancer patients. In particular, we aim to identify differential edges between regulatory networks of two groups involving these molecular levels. Motivated by the rate equations, the regulatory mechanism between DNA copy number aberrations and gene expression levels within a pathway is modeled by a simultaneous-equations model, for the one- and two-group case. The latter facilitates the identification of differential interactions between the two groups. Model parameters are estimated by penalized least squares using the lasso (L1) penalty to obtain a sparse pathway topology. Simulations show that the inclusion of DNA copy number data benefits the discovery of gene-gene interactions. In addition, the simulations reveal that cis-effects tend to be over-estimated in a univariate (single gene) analysis. In the application to real data from integrative oncogenomic studies we show that inclusion of prior information on the regulatory network architecture benefits the reproducibility of all edges. Furthermore, analyses of the TP53 and TGFb signaling pathways between ER+ and ER- samples from an integrative genomics breast cancer study identify reproducible differential regulatory patterns that corroborate with existing literature.

  11. Design and Construction of Optimized Electrochemical Cell and Data Analysis System for Etching of Ion Tracks and Electro Deposition of Nano and Micro Wires in Porous Ion Tracks Foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    ShakeriJooybari, B.; Moghimi, R.; Golgiri, D.; Afarideh, H.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Ghergherehchi, M.

    In this work, an optimized computer controlled electrochemical cell were designed and constructed. This Electrolytic cell was used for etching latent ion tracks and electrochemical deposition of wires in pores of etched-ion tracks foils. The applied voltage and current through the electrochemical cell during the etching and electrodeposition were measured and monitored in real time by a Data Analysis system. Monitoring the current time curve during the filling of pores and growth of micro and nano wires allows one to stop the deposition process after a given time to obtain nano- and micro wire of a predefined length. In this work, Design and manufacture of a sealed electrochemical cell was done in a manner that one can change distance between electrodes and geometry of cathodes. Data analysis system was used to measuring and monitoring of applied voltage and current through the cell consists of three parts: Amplifier, Data acquisition (DAQ) system and Software. A current amplifier that used in data analysis system is a log ratio amplifier. A log ratio amplifier provides an output voltage proportional to the log base 10 of the ratio input current I1 (current during the electrodeposition of wire in cell) and Input current I2(flexible current of precision current source). A DAQ reading output voltage of amplifier and send to Computer. With lab view software analyzed the voltage and converted to the current corresponding to the electrodeposition of wires. Current amplifier designed and built in this work is a noise suppression that can measure small current through the cell with high accuracy. Advantage of proposed log ratio amplifier is one can used this amplifier for measuring and monitoring of current during the filling of pores and growth of wires in the etched ion track foils with various track density.

  12. Differential DNA Methylation Analysis without a Reference Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Klughammer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide DNA methylation mapping uncovers epigenetic changes associated with animal development, environmental adaptation, and species evolution. To address the lack of high-throughput methods for DNA methylation analysis in non-model organisms, we developed an integrated approach for studying DNA methylation differences independent of a reference genome. Experimentally, our method relies on an optimized 96-well protocol for reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS, which we have validated in nine species (human, mouse, rat, cow, dog, chicken, carp, sea bass, and zebrafish. Bioinformatically, we developed the RefFreeDMA software to deduce ad hoc genomes directly from RRBS reads and to pinpoint differentially methylated regions between samples or groups of individuals (http://RefFreeDMA.computational-epigenetics.org. The identified regions are interpreted using motif enrichment analysis and/or cross-mapping to annotated genomes. We validated our method by reference-free analysis of cell-type-specific DNA methylation in the blood of human, cow, and carp. In summary, we present a cost-effective method for epigenome analysis in ecology and evolution, which enables epigenome-wide association studies in natural populations and species without a reference genome.

  13. Differential DNA Methylation Analysis without a Reference Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klughammer, Johanna; Datlinger, Paul; Printz, Dieter; Sheffield, Nathan C; Farlik, Matthias; Hadler, Johanna; Fritsch, Gerhard; Bock, Christoph

    2015-12-22

    Genome-wide DNA methylation mapping uncovers epigenetic changes associated with animal development, environmental adaptation, and species evolution. To address the lack of high-throughput methods for DNA methylation analysis in non-model organisms, we developed an integrated approach for studying DNA methylation differences independent of a reference genome. Experimentally, our method relies on an optimized 96-well protocol for reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS), which we have validated in nine species (human, mouse, rat, cow, dog, chicken, carp, sea bass, and zebrafish). Bioinformatically, we developed the RefFreeDMA software to deduce ad hoc genomes directly from RRBS reads and to pinpoint differentially methylated regions between samples or groups of individuals (http://RefFreeDMA.computational-epigenetics.org). The identified regions are interpreted using motif enrichment analysis and/or cross-mapping to annotated genomes. We validated our method by reference-free analysis of cell-type-specific DNA methylation in the blood of human, cow, and carp. In summary, we present a cost-effective method for epigenome analysis in ecology and evolution, which enables epigenome-wide association studies in natural populations and species without a reference genome.

  14. Research regarding stiffness optimization of wires used for joints actuation from an elephant's trunk robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofu, C.; Stan, G.

    2016-11-01

    Elephant's trunk robotic arms driven by wires and pulley mechanisms have issues with wires stiffness because of the entailed elastic deformations that is causing errors of positioning. Static and dynamic loads from each joint of the robotic arm affect the stiffness of driving wires and precision positioning. The influence of wires elastic deformation on precision positioning decreases with the increasing of wires stiffness by using different pre-tensioning devices. In this paper, we analyze the variation of driving wires stiffness particularly to each wire driven joint. We obtain optimum wires stiffness variation by using an analytical method that highlights the efficiency of pre-tensioning mechanism. The analysis of driving wires stiffness is necessary for taking appropriate optimization measures of robotic arm dynamic behavior and, thus, for decreasing positioning errors of the elephant's trunk robotic arm with inner actuation through wires/cables.

  15. Cavitation during wire brushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Zou, Jun; Ji, Chen

    2016-11-01

    In our daily life, brush is often used to scrub the surface of objects, for example, teeth, pots, shoes, pool, etc. And cleaning rust and stripping paint are accomplished using wire brush. Wire brushes also can be used to clean the teeth for large animals, such as horses, crocodiles. By observing brushing process in water, we capture the cavitation phenomenon on the track of moving brush wire. It shows that the cavitation also can affect the surface. In order to take clear and entire pictures of cavity, a simplified model of one stainless steel wire brushing a boss is adopted in our experiment. A transparent organic tank filled with deionized water is used as a view box. And a high speed video camera is used to record the sequences. In experiment, ambient pressure is atmospheric pressure and deionized water temperature is kept at home temperature. An obvious beautiful flabellate cavity zone appears behind the moving steel wire. The fluctuation of pressure near cavity is recorded by a hydrophone. More movies and pictures are used to show the behaviors of cavitation bubble following a restoring wire. Beautiful tracking cavitation bubble cluster is captured and recorded to show.

  16. Copper wire bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Preeti S; Zhong, ZhaoWei; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks.  Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material.  However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties.  Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation.  In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed.  The book also discusses best practices and re...

  17. A bidirectional respiratory flowmeter using the hot-wire principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiya, I; Nakajima, T; Nagai, I; Jitsukawa, S

    1975-02-01

    We have devised a bidirectional respiratory flowmeter using the hot-wire principle. The flow-direction sensor consists of a pair of tungsten wires strung parallel to the platinum hot-wire one on each side of the platinum wire. When the gas stream passes through the transducer, the upstream wire is cooled and the downstream wire is heated by the gas stream producing a temperature difference between the two tungsten wires. The difference in resistance thus produced between them is detected and amplified by a differential amplifier whose output serves as a triggering signal of flow inversion. The switching times of the flow inversion of the present instrument are 3 ms during panting and 10 ms during quiet breathing, when the distances from the platinum wire to the tungsten wires are 1.6 mm. Artifacts produced by the delay in switching are practically negligible. The flowmeter can be adapted for many kinds of respiratory flow measurement, except under the condition when inflammable gases are used.

  18. The shape operator for differential analysis of images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avants, Brian; Gee, James

    2003-07-01

    This work provides a new technique for surface oriented volumetric image analysis. The method makes no assumptions about topology, instead constructing a local neighborhood from image information, such as a segmentation or edge map, to define a surface patch. Neighborhood constructions using extrinsic and intrinsic distances are given. This representation allows one to estimate differential properties directly from the image's Gauss map. We develop a novel technique for this purpose which estimates the shape operator and yields both principal directions and curvatures. Only first derivatives need be estimated, making the method numerically stable. We show the use of these measures for multi-scale classification of image structure by the mean and Gaussian curvatures. Finally, we propose to register image volumes by surface curvature. This is particularly useful when geometry is the only variable. To illustrate this, we register binary segmented data by surface curvature, both rigidly and non-rigidly. A novel variant of Demons registration, extensible for use with differentiable similarity metrics, is also applied for deformable curvature-driven registration of medical images.

  19. Differentiation of Staphylococcus spp. by high-resolution melting analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slany, Michal; Vanerkova, Martina; Nemcova, Eva; Zaloudikova, Barbora; Ruzicka, Filip; Freiberger, Tomas

    2010-12-01

    High-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) is a fast (post-PCR) high-throughput method to scan for sequence variations in a target gene. The aim of this study was to test the potential of HRMA to distinguish particular bacterial species of the Staphylococcus genus even when using a broad-range PCR within the 16S rRNA gene where sequence differences are minimal. Genomic DNA samples isolated from 12 reference staphylococcal strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus caprae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus intermedius, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus sciuri, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus warneri, and Staphylococcus xylosus) were subjected to a real-time PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene in the presence of fluorescent dye EvaGreen™, followed by HRMA. Melting profiles were used as molecular fingerprints for bacterial species differentiation. HRMA of S. saprophyticus and S. xylosus resulted in undistinguishable profiles because of their identical sequences in the analyzed 16S rRNA region. The remaining reference strains were fully differentiated either directly or via high-resolution plots obtained by heteroduplex formation between coamplified PCR products of the tested staphylococcal strain and phylogenetically unrelated strain.

  20. Differential proteomic analysis reveals novel links between primary metabolism and antibiotic production in Amycolatopsis balhimycina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallo, G.; Renzone, G.; Alduina, R.

    2010-01-01

    A differential proteomic analysis, based on 2-DE and MS procedures, was performed on Amycolatopsis balhimycina DSM5908, the actinomycete producing the vancomycin-like antibiotic balhimycin. A comparison of proteomic profiles before and during balhimycin production characterized differentially...

  1. Analyzing a Vibrating Wire Transducer using Coupled Resonator Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POP, S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to be an approach on the vibrating wire transducer from the perspective of the necessary rules used for a correct measurement procedure. There are several studies which analyze the vibrating wire transducer as a mechanical system. However, a comparative time-domain analysis between the mechanical and the electrical model is lacking. The transducer analysis is based on a theoretical analysis of the equivalent circuit, on both excitation and response time intervals. The electrical model consists of two magnetic coupled resonating circuits. When connected to an excitation source, there will be an energy transfer from the coil to the wire. The maximum energy transfer will occur at the vibrating wire's frequency of resonance. Using the transient regime analysis, it has been proven that, in the response time interval - when the wire vibrates freely, the current through the circuit that models the wire describes the oscillating movement of the wire. A complex signal is obtained, that contains both coil's and wire's frequencies of resonance, strongly dependent with theirs parasitic elements. The mathematical analysis highlights the similarity between mechanical and electrical model and the procedures in order to determine the wire frequency of resonance from the output signal.

  2. Error analysis for a laser differential confocal radius measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Qiu, Lirong; Zhao, Weiqian; Xiao, Yang; Wang, Zhongyu

    2015-02-10

    In order to further improve the measurement accuracy of the laser differential confocal radius measurement system (DCRMS) developed previously, a DCRMS error compensation model is established for the error sources, including laser source offset, test sphere position adjustment offset, test sphere figure, and motion error, based on analyzing the influences of these errors on the measurement accuracy of radius of curvature. Theoretical analyses and experiments indicate that the expanded uncertainty of the DCRMS is reduced to U=0.13  μm+0.9  ppm·R (k=2) through the error compensation model. The error analysis and compensation model established in this study can provide the theoretical foundation for improving the measurement accuracy of the DCRMS.

  3. Structure analysis of growing network based on partial differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo JIA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The topological structure is one of the most important contents in the complex network research. Therein the node degree and the degree distribution are the most basic characteristic quantities to describe topological structure. In order to calculate the degree distribution, first of all, the node degree is considered as a continuous variable. Then, according to the Markov Property of growing network, the cumulative distribution function's evolution equation with time can be obtained. Finally, the partial differential equation (PDE model can be established through distortion processing. Taking the growing network with preferential and random attachment mechanism as an example, the PDE model is obtained. The analytic expression of degree distribution is obtained when this model is solved. Besides, the degree function over time is the same as the characteristic line of PDE. At last, the model is simulated. This PDE method of changing the degree distribution calculation into problem of solving PDE makes the structure analysis more accurate.

  4. Comparative analysis of discrete exosome fractions obtained by differential centrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dennis Kjølhede; Hvam, Michael L; Primdahl-Bengtson, Bjarke

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cells release a mixture of extracellular vesicles, amongst these exosomes, that differ in size, density and composition. The standard isolation method for exosomes is centrifugation of fluid samples, typically at 100,000×g or above. Knowledge of the effect of discrete...... ultracentrifugation speeds on the purification from different cell types, however, is limited. METHODS: We examined the effect of applying differential centrifugation g-forces ranging from 33,000×g to 200,000×g on exosome yield and purity, using 2 unrelated human cell lines, embryonic kidney HEK293 cells and bladder...... of phenol red and cleared by 200,000×g overnight centrifugation. The centrifugation tube fill level impacted the sedimentation efficacy. Comparative analysis by NTA, protein quantification, and detection of exosomal and contamination markers identified differences in vesicle size, concentration...

  5. Concept of porous wire anemometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afgan, N.H.; Pereira, J.C. [Inst. Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Leontiev, A.I.; Puzach, S.V. [Moscow Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1997-05-01

    The paper presents a new scheme of the anemometer sensing element for the gas mean and fluctuation velocity measurement. The sensing element is a porous tube with gas suction through porous tube wall. The outside surface of the porous tube is at the gas temperature. The analysis, based on the heat balance at steady and unsteady state is performed in order to define the sensitivity and time constant of the porous sensing element. Two cases are considered, namely, the constant current and constant temperature anemometer. Comparison is made with the solid wire anemometer and shown that the proposed porous sensing element can have sensitivity four times higher than the standard hot wire anemometer with the same geometrical dimensions. With the respective selection of the physical properties of the sensing element, it could be possible to obtain higher frequency range of the measurement. Particular attention is devoted to the low gas velocity measurement. It is recognized that the minimum gas velocity to be measured with the solid hot wire anemometer is determined by the local heat transfer coefficient. For the low gas velocity, it was proved that the minimum is around .20 cm/sec. The proposed concept of the sensing element can be used for the very low velocity measurement due to the higher sensitivity obtained by the porous sensing element.

  6. Comparative analysis of discrete exosome fractions obtained by differential centrifugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis K. Jeppesen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cells release a mixture of extracellular vesicles, amongst these exosomes, that differ in size, density and composition. The standard isolation method for exosomes is centrifugation of fluid samples, typically at 100,000×g or above. Knowledge of the effect of discrete ultracentrifugation speeds on the purification from different cell types, however, is limited. Methods: We examined the effect of applying differential centrifugation g-forces ranging from 33,000×g to 200,000×g on exosome yield and purity, using 2 unrelated human cell lines, embryonic kidney HEK293 cells and bladder carcinoma FL3 cells. The fractions were evaluated by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA, total protein quantification and immunoblotting for CD81, TSG101, syntenin, VDAC1 and calreticulin. Results: NTA revealed the lowest background particle count in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium media devoid of phenol red and cleared by 200,000×g overnight centrifugation. The centrifugation tube fill level impacted the sedimentation efficacy. Comparative analysis by NTA, protein quantification, and detection of exosomal and contamination markers identified differences in vesicle size, concentration and composition of the obtained fractions. In addition, HEK293 and FL3 vesicles displayed marked differences in sedimentation characteristics. Exosomes were pelleted already at 33,000×g, a g-force which also removed most contaminating microsomes. Optimal vesicle-to-protein yield was obtained at 67,000×g for HEK293 cells but 100,000×g for FL3 cells. Relative expression of exosomal markers (TSG101, CD81, syntenin suggested presence of exosome subpopulations with variable sedimentation characteristics. Conclusions: Specific g-force/k factor usage during differential centrifugation greatly influences the purity and yield of exosomes. The vesicle sedimentation profile differed between the 2 cell lines.

  7. Delay Differential Analysis of Seizures in Multichannel Electrocorticography Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainscsek, Claudia; Weyhenmeyer, Jonathan; Cash, Sydney S; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2017-08-04

    High-density electrocorticogram (ECoG) electrodes are capable of recording neurophysiological data with high temporal resolution with wide spatial coverage. These recordings are a window to understanding how the human brain processes information and subsequently behaves in healthy and pathologic states. Here, we describe and implement delay differential analysis (DDA) for the characterization of ECoG data obtained from human patients with intractable epilepsy. DDA is a time-domain analysis framework based on embedding theory in nonlinear dynamics that reveals the nonlinear invariant properties of an unknown dynamical system. The DDA embedding serves as a low-dimensional nonlinear dynamical basis onto which the data are mapped. This greatly reduces the risk of overfitting and improves the method's ability to fit classes of data. Since the basis is built on the dynamical structure of the data, preprocessing of the data (e.g., filtering) is not necessary. We performed a large-scale search for a DDA model that best fit ECoG recordings using a genetic algorithm to qualitatively discriminate between different cortical states and epileptic events for a set of 13 patients. A single DDA model with only three polynomial terms was identified. Singular value decomposition across the feature space of the model revealed both global and local dynamics that could differentiate electrographic and electroclinical seizures and provided insights into highly localized seizure onsets and diffuse seizure terminations. Other common ECoG features such as interictal periods, artifacts, and exogenous stimuli were also analyzed with DDA. This novel framework for signal processing of seizure information demonstrates an ability to reveal unique characteristics of the underlying dynamics of the seizure and may be useful in better understanding, detecting, and maybe even predicting seizures.

  8. SWRCH22A十字头螺钉断裂分析%Fracture Analysis of Crosshead Screw Made of SWRCH22A Wire Rod

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪文瀚; 何毅; 诸葛宇明; 金玉静

    2011-01-01

    Crosshead screws made of SWRCH22A wire rod were fractured in the torque force and drilling tests. The fracture reason was discussed by means of the microstructure of wire rod and screw examination and the fracture mode analysis. The results showed that severe surface cracks formed in the teeth valleys of screw during threading process were the main reason for the fracture. In addition, poor protection of spheroidizing annealing resulted in severe decarburization and coarse ferrite grain in wire rod surface; and then the following excessive carburization treatment made the surface layer highly brittle. Meanwhile, a transitional zone consisting of ferrite, martensite and carbide network formed below the brittle carburized layer. Thus, the cracks in surface could easily propagate intergranularly under the maximum shear stress around screw surface and finally caused the screw failure during torque force test.%SWRCH22A盘条生产的十字头螺钉在进行扭力和攻速测试时发生断裂。通过对盘条和螺钉的组织和断口进行分析,探讨了断裂的原因。结果表明:在螺钉生产的搓丝过程中形成的齿间严重表面裂纹是造成螺钉断裂的根本原因。此外,盘条冷镦前球化退火工艺不良造成表面严重脱碳并形成粗大铁素体,而后表面过度渗碳处理致使螺钉表层严重脆化,并在渗碳层下形成铁素体+马氏体过渡层组织和沿晶渗碳体,螺钉表面裂纹在最大剪切应力作用下通过沿晶断裂最终导致螺钉失效。

  9. EBSD analysis of tungsten-filament carburization during the hot-wire CVD of multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, Clive J; Arendse, Christopher J; Camagu, Sigqibo T; Swart, Hendrik

    2014-02-01

    Filament condition during hot-wire chemical vapor deposition conditions of multi-walled carbon nanotubes is a major concern for a stable deposition process. We report on the novel application of electron backscatter diffraction to characterize the carburization of tungsten filaments. During the synthesis, the W-filaments transform to W2C and WC. W-carbide growth followed a parabolic behavior corresponding to the diffusion of C as the rate-determining step. The grain size of W, W2C, and WC increases with longer exposure time and increasing filament temperature. The grain size of the recrystallizing W-core and W2C phase grows from the perimeter inwardly and this phenomenon is enhanced at filament temperatures in excess of 1,400°C. Cracks appear at filament temperatures >1,600°C, accompanied by a reduction in the filament operational lifetime. The increase of the W2C and recrystallized W-core grain size from the perimeter inwardly is ascribed to a thermal gradient within the filament, which in turn influences the hardness measurements and crack formation.

  10. Signal Analysis and Waveform Reconstruction of Shock Waves Generated by Underwater Electrical Wire Explosions with Piezoelectric Pressure Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haibin; Zhang, Yongmin; Han, Ruoyu; Jing, Yan; Wu, Jiawei; Liu, Qiaojue; Ding, Weidong; Qiu, Aici

    2016-04-22

    Underwater shock waves (SWs) generated by underwater electrical wire explosions (UEWEs) have been widely studied and applied. Precise measurement of this kind of SWs is important, but very difficult to accomplish due to their high peak pressure, steep rising edge and very short pulse width (on the order of tens of μs). This paper aims to analyze the signals obtained by two kinds of commercial piezoelectric pressure probes, and reconstruct the correct pressure waveform from the distorted one measured by the pressure probes. It is found that both PCB138 and Müller-plate probes can be used to measure the relative SW pressure value because of their good uniformities and linearities, but none of them can obtain precise SW waveforms. In order to approach to the real SW signal better, we propose a new multi-exponential pressure waveform model, which has considered the faster pressure decay at the early stage and the slower pressure decay in longer times. Based on this model and the energy conservation law, the pressure waveform obtained by the PCB138 probe has been reconstructed, and the reconstruction accuracy has been verified by the signals obtained by the Müller-plate probe. Reconstruction results show that the measured SW peak pressures are smaller than the real signal. The waveform reconstruction method is both reasonable and reliable.

  11. COLD ROLLING ORTHODONTIC WIRES OF AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL AISI 304

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Santos Messner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Austenitic stainless steels wires are widely used in the final stages of orthodontic treatment. The objective of this paper is to study the process of conformation of rectangular wires from round wires commercial austenitic stainless steel AISI 304 by the process of cold rolling. The wire quality is evaluated by means of dimensional analysis, microhardness measurements, tensile strength and fractographic analysis of the wires subjected to tensile tests. Also a study on the application of finite element method to simulate the process, comparing the force and rolling stress obtained in the rolling is done. The simulation results are consistent with those obtained in the actual process and the rolled wires show ductile fracture, tensile strength and dimensional variations appropriate to orthodontic standards. The fracture morphology shows the model cup-cone type besides the high deformation and hardness inherent in the cold rolling process.

  12. Analysis of overvoltages in overhead ground wires of extra high voltage (EHV) power transmission line under single-phase-to-ground faults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dudurych, [No Value; Rosolowski, E

    2000-01-01

    Overhead ground wires (GW) of extra high voltage (EHV) power transmission lines, apart from lightning-induced overvoltage protection are frequently used for carrier-current communication. In this case the ground wires are suspended on insulators, the dielectric strength of which should be sufficient

  13. Resonant bond wire vibrations in the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Barber, T J; Murray, W; Villani, G; Warren, M; Weidberg, A R

    2005-01-01

    Dangerous mechanical resonances exist which can lead to the breaking of bond wires if time varying currents are passed through them in a magnetic field. The results of analytic calculations and an FEA analysis are described. The results of experimental investigations using wire bonds on test circuits are given. The possible effects within the ATLAS SCT were investigated and a fixed frequency trigger veto algorithm, designed to minimise the dangers of breaking wire bonds, was developed.

  14. Analysis of antioxidants in insulation cladding of copper wire: a comparison of different mass spectrometric techniques (ESI-IT, MALDI-RTOF and RTOF-SIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnöller, Johannes; Pittenauer, Ernst; Hutter, Herbert; Allmaier, Günter

    2009-12-01

    Commercial copper wire and its polymer insulation cladding was investigated for the presence of three synthetic antioxidants (ADK STAB AO412S, Irganox 1010 and Irganox MD 1024) by three different mass spectrometric techniques including electrospray ionization-ion trap-mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-MS), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization reflectron time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MALDI-RTOF-MS) and reflectron TOF secondary ion mass spectrometry (RTOF-SIMS). The samples were analyzed either directly without any treatment (RTOF-SIMS) or after a simple liquid/liquid extraction step (ESI-IT-MS, MALDI-RTOF-MS and RTOF-SIMS). Direct analysis of the copper wire itself or of the insulation cladding by RTOF-SIMS allowed the detection of at least two of the three antioxidants but at rather low sensitivity as molecular radical cations and with fairly strong fragmentation (due to the highly energetic ion beam of the primary ion gun). ESI-IT- and MALDI-RTOF-MS-generated abundant protonated and/or cationized molecules (ammoniated or sodiated) from the liquid/liquid extract. Only ESI-IT-MS allowed simultaneous detection of all three analytes in the extract of insulation claddings. The latter two so-called 'soft' desorption/ionization techniques exhibited intense fragmentation only by applying low-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) tandem MS on a multistage ion trap-instrument and high-energy CID on a tandem TOF-instrument (TOF/RTOF), respectively. Strong differences in the fragmentation behavior of the three analytes could be observed between the different CID spectra obtained from either the IT-instrument (collision energy in the very low eV range) or the TOF/RTOF-instrument (collision energy 20 keV), but both delivered important structural information. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Proposal of thermal neutron flux monitors based on vibrating wire

    CERN Document Server

    Arutunian, S G; Chung, M; Harutyunyan, G S; Lazareva, E G

    2015-01-01

    Two types of neutron monitors with fine spatial resolution are proposed based on vibrating wire. In the first type, neutrons interact with the vibrating wire, heat it, and lead to the change of natural frequency, which can be precisely measured. To increase the heat deposition during the neutron scattering, use of gadolinium layer which has the highest thermal neutron capture cross section among all elements is proposed. The second type of the monitor uses vibrating wire as a resonant target. Besides the measurement of beam profile according to the average signal, the differential signal synchronized with the wire oscillations defines the gradient of beam profile. Spatial resolution of the monitor is defined by the diameter of the wire.

  16. Thermal Model of a Current-Carrying Wire in a Vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Border, James

    2006-01-01

    A computer program implements a thermal model of an insulated wire carrying electric current and surrounded by a vacuum. The model includes the effects of Joule heating, conduction of heat along the wire, and radiation of heat from the outer surface of the insulation on the wire. The model takes account of the temperature dependences of the thermal and electrical properties of the wire, the emissivity of the insulation, and the possibility that not only can temperature vary along the wire but, in addition, the ends of the wire can be thermally grounded at different temperatures. The resulting second-order differential equation for the steady-state temperature as a function of position along the wire is highly nonlinear. The wire is discretized along its length, and the equation is solved numerically by use of an iterative algorithm that utilizes a multidimensional version of the Newton-Raphson method.

  17. Model-Based Testability Assessment and Directed Troubleshooting of Shuttle Wiring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Somnath; Domagala, Chuck; Shrestha, Roshan; Malepati, Venkatesh; Cavanaugh, Kevin; Patterson-Hine, Ann; Sanderfer, Dwight; Cockrell, Jim; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We have recently completed a pilot study on the Space shuttle wiring system commissioned by the Wiring Integrity Research (WIRe) team at NASA Ames Research Center, As the space shuttle ages, it is experiencing wiring degradation problems including arcing, chaffing insulation breakdown and broken conductors. A systematic and comprehensive test process is required to thoroughly test and quality assure (QA) the wiring systems. The NASA WIRe team recognized the value of a formal model based analysis for risk-assessment and fault coverage analysis. However. wiring systems are complex and involve over 50,000 wire segments. Therefore, NASA commissioned this pilot study with Qualtech Systems. Inc. (QSI) to explore means of automatically extracting high fidelity multi-signal models from wiring information database for use with QSI's Testability Engineering and Maintenance System (TEAMS) tool.

  18. ANALYSIS OF BRANCHING DISTRIBUTION IN POLYETHYLENES BY DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert Shanks; Fei Chen; Gandara Amarasinghe

    2003-01-01

    Short chain branching has been characterized using thermal fractionation, a stepwise isothermal crystallization technique, followed by a melting analysis scan using differential scanning calorimetry. Short chain branching distribution was also characterized by a continuous slow cooling crystallization, followed by a melting analysis scan. Four different polyethylenes were studied: Ziegler-Natta gas phase, Ziegler-Natta solution, metallocene, constrained-geometry single site catalyzed polyethylenes. The branching distribution was calculated from a calibration of branch content with melting temperature. The lamellar thickness was calculated based on the thermodynamic melting temperature of each polyethylene and the surface free energy of the crystal face. The branching distribution and lamellar thickness distribution were used to calculate weight average branch content, mean lamellar thickness, and a branch dispersity index. The results for the branch content were in good agreement with the known comonomer content of the polyethylenes. A limitation was that high branch content polyethylenes did not reach their potential crystallization at ambient temperatures. Cooling to sub-ambient was necessary to equilibrate the crystallization, but melting temperature versus branch content was not applicable after cooling to below ambient because the calibration data were not performed in this way.

  19. ANALYSIS OF BRANCHING DISTRIBUTION IN POLYETHYLENES BY DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RobertShanks; FeiChan; GandaraAmarasinghe; RobertShanks

    2003-01-01

    Short chain branching has been characterized using thermal fractionation,a stepwise isothermal crystallization technique,followed by a melting analysis scan using differential scanning calorimetry.Short chain branching distribution was also characterized by a continuous slow cooling crystallization,followed by a melting analysis scan.Four different polyethylenes were studied:Ziegler-Natta gas phase,Ziegler-Natta solution,metallocene,constrained-geometry single site catalyzed polyethylenes.The branching distribution was calculated from a calibration of branch content with melting temperature.The lamellar thickness was calculated based on the thermodynamic melting temperature of each polyethylene and the surface free energy of the crystal face.The branching distribution and lamellar thickness distribution were used to calculate weight average branch content,mean lamellar thickness,and a branch dispersity index.The results for the branch content were in good agreement with the known comonomer content of the polyethylenes.A limitation was that high branch content polyethylenes did not reach their potential crystallization at ambient temperatures.Cooling to sub-ambient was necessary to equilibrate the crystallization,but melting temperature versus branch content was not applicable after cooling to below ambient because the calibration data were not performed in this way.

  20. Statistical analysis of plasma thermograms measured by differential scanning calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Daniel J; Brewood, Greg P; Kim, Jong Sung; Garbett, Nichola C; Chaires, Jonathan B; Benight, Albert S

    2010-11-01

    Melting curves of human plasma measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), known as thermograms, have the potential to markedly impact diagnosis of human diseases. A general statistical methodology is developed to analyze and classify DSC thermograms to analyze and classify thermograms. Analysis of an acquired thermogram involves comparison with a database of empirical reference thermograms from clinically characterized diseases. Two parameters, a distance metric, P, and correlation coefficient, r, are combined to produce a 'similarity metric,' ρ, which can be used to classify unknown thermograms into pre-characterized categories. Simulated thermograms known to lie within or fall outside of the 90% quantile range around a median reference are also analyzed. Results verify the utility of the methods and establish the apparent dynamic range of the metric ρ. Methods are then applied to data obtained from a collection of plasma samples from patients clinically diagnosed with SLE (lupus). High correspondence is found between curve shapes and values of the metric ρ. In a final application, an elementary classification rule is implemented to successfully analyze and classify unlabeled thermograms. These methods constitute a set of powerful yet easy to implement tools for quantitative classification, analysis and interpretation of DSC plasma melting curves.

  1. Analysis and differentiation of seminal plasma via polarized SERS spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen X

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Xiwen Chen,1,* Zufang Huang,1,* Shangyuan Feng,1 Jinhua Chen,2 Lan Wang,1 Peng Lu,1 Haishan Zeng,3 Rong Chen1 1Key Laboratory of Opto-Electronic Science and Technology for Medicine of Ministry of Education, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Photonics Technology, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, China; 2Fujian Provincial Hospital, Fuzhou, China; 3Imaging Unit – Integrative Oncology Department, British Columbia Cancer Agency Research Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Polarized surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS spectroscopy was applied for obtaining biochemical information about the seminal plasma. The effect of different laser polarizations (nonpolarized, linear-polarized, right-handed circularly polarized, and left-handed circularly polarized on seminal plasma SERS spectroscopy was explored for the first time. The diagnostic performance in differentiating abnormal seminal plasma (n = 37 from normal seminal plasma (n = 24 was evaluated. A combination of principal component analysis (PCA and linear discriminant analysis (LDA was employed to develop diagnostic algorithms. Classification results of different laser polarizations demonstrated different diagnostic sensitivities and specificities, among which, left-handed circularly polarized laser excitation showed the best diagnostic result (95.8% sensitivity and 64.9% specificity. Our exploratory study demonstrated that SERS spectroscopy with left-handed circularly polarized laser excitation has the potential for becoming a new diagnostic method in semen-quality assessment.Keywords: SERS, seminal plasma, PCA-LDA, polarized laser excitation, silver nanoparticles, biomolecule chirality

  2. Wavelet analysis on adeles and pseudo-differential operators

    CERN Document Server

    Khrennikov, A Yu; Shelkovich, V M

    2011-01-01

    This paper is devoted to wavelet analysis on adele ring $\\bA$ and the theory of pseudo-differential operators. We develop the technique which gives the possibility to generalize finite-dimensional results of wavelet analysis to the case of adeles $\\bA$ by using infinite tensor products of Hilbert spaces. The adele ring is roughly speaking a subring of the direct product of all possible ($p$-adic and Archimedean) completions $\\bQ_p$ of the field of rational numbers $\\bQ$ with some conditions at infinity. Using our technique, we prove that $L^2(\\bA)=\\otimes_{e,p\\in\\{\\infty,2,3,5,...}}L^2({\\bQ}_{p})$ is the infinite tensor product of the spaces $L^2({\\bQ}_{p})$ with a stabilization $e=(e_p)_p$, where $e_p(x)=\\Omega(|x|_p)\\in L^2({\\bQ}_{p})$, and $\\Omega$ is a characteristic function of the unit interval $[0,\\,1]$, $\\bQ_p$ is the field of $p$-adic numbers, $p=2,3,5,...$; $\\bQ_\\infty=\\bR$. This description allows us to construct an infinite family of Haar wavelet bases on $L^2(\\bA)$ which can be obtained by shifts...

  3. Extending Differential Fault Analysis to Dynamic S-Box Advanced Encryption Standard Implementations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-18

    EXTENDING DIFFERENTIAL FAULT ANALYSIS TO DYNAMIC S-BOX ADVANCED ENCRYPTION STANDARD IMPLEMENTATIONS THESIS Bradley M. Flamm, Civilian AFIT-ENG-T-14-S...Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENG-T-14-S-08 EXTENDING DIFFERENTIAL FAULT ANALYSIS TO DYNAMIC S-BOX...RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED AFIT-ENG-T-14-S-08 EXTENDING DIFFERENTIAL FAULT ANALYSIS TO DYNAMIC S-BOX ADVANCED ENCRYPTION STANDARD IMPLEMENTATIONS

  4. Copper Nanoparticle Synthesis By The Wire Explosion Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. S.; Tay, W. H.; Yap, S. L.; Wong, C. S.; Ahmad, Z.

    2009-07-01

    Wire explosion technique is performed by passing a high power pulsed current through a metallic wire to disintegrate it through Joule heating effect. In this work, the production of nanoparticles by the wire explosion technique has been investigated. Copper wires with a diameter of 125 μm and a length of 3.5 cm are exploded in air at two different pressures, namely, 1 bar and 10-2 mbar. Particles produced from the wire explosion are collected for characterization. The characterization of the particles is done by using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive analysis by X-rays (EDAX). The morphology and chemical composition of the particles produced at the two different pressures are compared. Discharge current and optical emission spectra of the wire explosion at the two pressures are also presented.

  5. Distribution of wire deformation within strands of wire ropes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jun; GE Shi-rong; ZHANG De-kun

    2008-01-01

    Using ANSYS software, we developed a modeling program for several kinds of wire ropes with metal cores and built a geometric model for the 6x19 IWS wire rope. Through proper grid partitioning, a finite element model for calculating the deformation of wire rope was obtained. Completely constraining one end of the wire rope and applying an axial force to the other end, we established the boundary conditions for solving the model. In addition, we numerically simulated the stress and deformation of the wire, obtaining the deformation distribution of each wire within the wire rope under different laying directions.At the end, a tensile test of the 6x19 IWS wire rope was carried out and the results of simulation and experiment compared.

  6. Electric wiring domestic

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, A J

    1992-01-01

    Electric Wiring: Domestic, Tenth Edition, is a clear and reliable guide to the practical aspects of domestic electric wiring. Intended for electrical contractors, installation engineers, wiremen and students, its aim is to provide essential up to date information on modern methods and materials in a simple, clear, and concise manner. The main changes in this edition are those necessary to bring the work into line with the 16th Edition of the Regulations for Electrical Installations issued by the Institution of Electrical Engineers. The book begins by introducing the basic features of domestic

  7. Wiring and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Wiring and Lighting provides a comprehensive guide to DIY wiring around the home. It sets out the regulations and legal requirements surrounding electrical installation work, giving clear guidelines that will enable the reader to understand what electrical work they are able to carry out, and what the testing and certification requirements are once the work is completed. Topics covered include: Different types of circuits; Types of cables and cable installation under floors and through joists; Isolating, earthing and bonding; Accessory boxes and fixings; Voltage bands; Detailed advice on safe

  8. Modern wiring practice

    CERN Document Server

    Steward, W E

    2012-01-01

    Continuously in print since 1952, Modern Wiring Practice has now been fully revised to provide an up-to-date source of reference to building services design and installation in the 21st century. This compact and practical guide addresses wiring systems design and electrical installation together in one volume, creating a comprehensive overview of the whole process for contractors and architects, as well as electricians and other installation engineers. Best practice is incorporated throughout, combining theory and practice with clear and accessible explanation, all

  9. Stability analysis of solutions to nonlinear stiff Volterra functional differential equations in Banach spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shoufu

    2005-01-01

    A series of stability, contractivity and asymptotic stability results of the solutions to nonlinear stiff Volterra functional differential equations (VFDEs) in Banach spaces is obtained, which provides the unified theoretical foundation for the stability analysis of solutions to nonlinear stiff problems in ordinary differential equations(ODEs), delay differential equations(DDEs), integro-differential equations(IDEs) and VFDEs of other type which appear in practice.

  10. Nonlinear electron transport in normally pinched-off quantum wire

    OpenAIRE

    Novoselov, K.S.; Dubrovskii, Yu. V.; Sablikov, V. A.; Ivanov, D. Yu.; Vdovin, E. E.; Khanin, Yu N.; Tulin, V. A.; Esteve, D.; Beaumont, S.

    2000-01-01

    Nonlinear electron transport in normally pinched-off quantum wires was studied. The wires were fabricated from AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures with high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas by electron beam lithography and following wet etching. At certain critical source-drain voltage the samples exhibited a step rise of the conductance. The differential conductance of the open wires was noticeably lower than e^2/h as far as only part of the source-drain voltage dropped between source contact ...

  11. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis for differentiating phytoplasma strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musić, Martina Seruga; Skorić, Dijana

    2013-01-01

    Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis is a sensitive and rapid technique for detecting DNA polymorphisms and mutations in PCR-amplified fragments. Due to its technical simplicity, it is widely used as a screening tool in various investigations, ranging from clinical diagnosis of human hereditary diseases to the characterization of microbial communities. This method can also be used successfully on phytoplasmas as a tool for the detection of molecular variability in conserved housekeeping genes such as 16S rRNA and tuf, as well as in more variable genes, revealing the presence of polymorphisms undetected by routine RFLP analyses. The reliability of SSCP has been confirmed by multiple alignments and phylogenetic analyses of representative sequences showing different SSCP profiles. However, it is not broadly applied in phytoplasma research yet. The technique provides an inexpensive, convenient, and sensitive method for determining sequence variation and to differentiate phytoplasma strains, and is particularly suitable for epidemiological studies or as a fast screening, typing tool when dealing with a large number of field samples.

  12. Differential expression analysis for RNAseq using Poisson mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shiquan; Hood, Michelle; Scott, Laura; Peng, Qinke; Mukherjee, Sayan; Tung, Jenny; Zhou, Xiang

    2017-06-20

    Identifying differentially expressed (DE) genes from RNA sequencing (RNAseq) studies is among the most common analyses in genomics. However, RNAseq DE analysis presents several statistical and computational challenges, including over-dispersed read counts and, in some settings, sample non-independence. Previous count-based methods rely on simple hierarchical Poisson models (e.g. negative binomial) to model independent over-dispersion, but do not account for sample non-independence due to relatedness, population structure and/or hidden confounders. Here, we present a Poisson mixed model with two random effects terms that account for both independent over-dispersion and sample non-independence. We also develop a scalable sampling-based inference algorithm using a latent variable representation of the Poisson distribution. With simulations, we show that our method properly controls for type I error and is generally more powerful than other widely used approaches, except in small samples (n <15) with other unfavorable properties (e.g. small effect sizes). We also apply our method to three real datasets that contain related individuals, population stratification or hidden confounders. Our results show that our method increases power in all three data compared to other approaches, though the power gain is smallest in the smallest sample (n = 6). Our method is implemented in MACAU, freely available at www.xzlab.org/software.html. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Differential transcriptome analysis between Paulownia fortunei and its synthesized autopolyploid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoshen; Deng, Minjie; Fan, Guoqiang

    2014-03-21

    Paulownia fortunei is an ecologically and economically important tree species that is widely used as timber and chemical pulp. Its autotetraploid, which carries a number of valuable traits, was successfully induced with colchicine. To identify differences in gene expression between P. fortunei and its synthesized autotetraploid, we performed transcriptome sequencing using an Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx (GAIIx). About 94.8 million reads were generated and assembled into 383,056 transcripts, including 18,984 transcripts with a complete open reading frame. A conducted Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) search indicated that 16,004 complete transcripts had significant hits in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) non-redundant database. The complete transcripts were given functional assignments using three public protein databases. One thousand one hundred fifty eight differentially expressed complete transcripts were screened through a digital abundance analysis, including transcripts involved in energy metabolism and epigenetic regulation. Finally, the expression levels of several transcripts were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. Our results suggested that polyploidization caused epigenetic-related changes, which subsequently resulted in gene expression variation between diploid and autotetraploid P. fortunei. This might be the main mechanism affected by the polyploidization. Our results represent an extensive survey of the P. fortunei transcriptome and will facilitate subsequent functional genomics research in P. fortunei. Moreover, the gene expression profiles of P. fortunei and its autopolyploid will provide a valuable resource for the study of polyploidization.

  14. Differentially Private Data Analysis of Social Networks via Restricted Sensitivity

    CERN Document Server

    Blocki, Jeremiah; Datta, Anupam; Sheffet, Or

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the notion of restricted sensitivity as an alternative to global and smooth sensitivity to improve accuracy in differentially private data analysis. The definition of restricted sensitivity is similar to that of global sensitivity except that instead of quantifying over all possible datasets, we take advantage of any beliefs about the dataset that a querier may have, to quantify over a restricted class of datasets. Specifically, given a query f and a hypothesis H about the structure of a dataset D, we show generically how to transform f into a new query f_H whose global sensitivity (over all datasets including those that do not satisfy H) matches the restricted sensitivity of the query f. Moreover, if the belief of the querier is correct (i.e., D is in H) then f_H(D) = f(D). If the belief is incorrect, then f_H(D) may be inaccurate. We demonstrate the usefulness of this notion by considering the task of answering queries regarding social-networks, which we model as a combination of a graph and a ...

  15. Differential Transcriptome Analysis between Paulownia fortunei and Its Synthesized Autopolyploid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoshen Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Paulownia fortunei is an ecologically and economically important tree species that is widely used as timber and chemical pulp. Its autotetraploid, which carries a number of valuable traits, was successfully induced with colchicine. To identify differences in gene expression between P. fortunei and its synthesized autotetraploid, we performed transcriptome sequencing using an Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx (GAIIx. About 94.8 million reads were generated and assembled into 383,056 transcripts, including 18,984 transcripts with a complete open reading frame. A conducted Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST search indicated that 16,004 complete transcripts had significant hits in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI non-redundant database. The complete transcripts were given functional assignments using three public protein databases. One thousand one hundred fifty eight differentially expressed complete transcripts were screened through a digital abundance analysis, including transcripts involved in energy metabolism and epigenetic regulation. Finally, the expression levels of several transcripts were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. Our results suggested that polyploidization caused epigenetic-related changes, which subsequently resulted in gene expression variation between diploid and autotetraploid P. fortunei. This might be the main mechanism affected by the polyploidization. Our results represent an extensive survey of the P. fortunei transcriptome and will facilitate subsequent functional genomics research in P. fortunei. Moreover, the gene expression profiles of P. fortunei and its autopolyploid will provide a valuable resource for the study of polyploidization.

  16. Analysis of differential infrared thermography for boundary layer transition detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, A. D.; Eder, C.; Wolf, C. C.; Raffel, M.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the differential infrared thermography (DIT) technique, a contactless method of measuring the unsteady movement of the boundary layer transition position on an unprepared surface. DIT has been shown to measure boundary layer transition positions which correlate well with those from other measurement methods. In this paper unsteady aerodynamics from a 2D URANS solution are used and the resulting wall temperatures computed. It is shown that the peak of the temperature difference signal correlates well with the boundary layer transition position, but that the start and end of boundary layer transition cannot be extracted. A small systematic time-lag cannot be reduced by using different surface materials, but the signal strength can be improved by reducing the heat capacity and heat transfer of the surface layer, for example by using a thin plastic coating. Reducing the image time separation used to produce the difference images reduces the time-lag and also the signal level, thus the optimum is when the signal to noise ratio is at the minimum which can be evaluated.

  17. Analysis of Caputo Impulsive Fractional Order Differential Equations with Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshman Mahto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We use Sadovskii's fixed point method to investigate the existence and uniqueness of solutions of Caputo impulsive fractional differential equations of order with one example of impulsive logistic model and few other examples as well. We also discuss Caputo impulsive fractional differential equations with finite delay. The results proven are new and compliment the existing one.

  18. Diagnosability Analysis Considering Causal Interpretations for Differential Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper is focused on structural approaches to study diagnosability properties given a system model taking into account, both simultaneously or separately, integral and differential causal interpretations for differential constraints. We develop a model characterization and corresponding algorithms, for studying system diagnosability using a structural decomposition that avoids generating the full set of system analytical redundancy relations. Simultaneous application of integral and diffe...

  19. Analysis of Caputo impulsive fractional order differential equations with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mahto, Lakshman; Favini, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    We use Sadavoskii's fixed point method to investigate the existence and uniqueness of solutions of Caputo impulsive fractional differential equations of order \\alpha between 0 and 1 with one example of impulsive logistic model and few other examples as well. We also discuss Caputo impulsive fractional differential equations with finite delay. The results proven are new and complement the existing one.

  20. Partial differential equation transform - Variational formulation and Fourier analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Guo-Wei; Yang, Siyang

    2011-12-01

    Nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) models are established approaches for image/signal processing, data analysis and surface construction. Most previous geometric PDEs are utilized as low-pass filters which give rise to image trend information. In an earlier work, we introduced mode decomposition evolution equations (MoDEEs), which behave like high-pass filters and are able to systematically provide intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) of signals and images. Due to their tunable time-frequency localization and perfect reconstruction, the operation of MoDEEs is called a PDE transform. By appropriate selection of PDE transform parameters, we can tune IMFs into trends, edges, textures, noise etc., which can be further utilized in the secondary processing for various purposes. This work introduces the variational formulation, performs the Fourier analysis, and conducts biomedical and biological applications of the proposed PDE transform. The variational formulation offers an algorithm to incorporate two image functions and two sets of low-pass PDE operators in the total energy functional. Two low-pass PDE operators have different signs, leading to energy disparity, while a coupling term, acting as a relative fidelity of two image functions, is introduced to reduce the disparity of two energy components. We construct variational PDE transforms by using Euler-Lagrange equation and artificial time propagation. Fourier analysis of a simplified PDE transform is presented to shed light on the filter properties of high order PDE transforms. Such an analysis also offers insight on the parameter selection of the PDE transform. The proposed PDE transform algorithm is validated by numerous benchmark tests. In one selected challenging example, we illustrate the ability of PDE transform to separate two adjacent frequencies of sin(x) and sin(1.1x). Such an ability is due to PDE transform's controllable frequency localization obtained by adjusting the order of PDEs. The

  1. The Differential Phase Experiment: experimental concept, design analysis, and data reduction analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Glenn A.; Brennan, Terry J.; Browne, Stephen L.; Dueck, Robert H.; Lodin, Michael S.; Roberts, Phillip H.; Vaughn, Jeffrey L.

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes the differential phase experiment (DPE) which formed a major part of the ABLE ACE suite of experiments conducted by the Air Force. The work described covers the rationale for the experiment, the basic experimental concept, the analysis of the differential phase, the optical and software design analysis, a discussion of the polarization scrambling characteristics of the optics, calibration of the equipment and a presentation of some of the major results of the data reduction effort to date. The DPE was a propagation experiment conducted between two aircraft flying at an altitude of 40,000 feet whose purpose was to measure the phase difference between two beams propagating at slightly different angels through the atmosphere. A four bin polarization interferometer was used to measure the differential phase. Due to the high level of scintillation that was presented branch points were present in the phase function. Rytov theory, wave optics simulation and the experimental measurements are in general agreement. Self consistency checks that were performed on the data indicate a high level of confidence in the results. Values of Cn2 that are consistent with the measurements of the differential phase agree with simultaneous scintillometer measurement taken long the same path in levels of turbulence where the scintillometer is not saturated. These differential phase based Cn2 estimates do not appear to saturate as is typical of scintillometer measurements and appear to extend the range over which high levels of Cn2 can be estimated. In addition the differential phase and anisoplanatic Strehl computed from the data is consistent with Rytov theory and wave optics simulations.

  2. Practical wiring in SI units

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Henry A

    2013-01-01

    Practical Wiring, Volume 1 is a 13-chapter book that first describes some of the common hand tools used in connection with sheathed wiring. Subsequent chapters discuss the safety in wiring, cables, conductor terminations, insulating sheathed wiring, conductor sizes, and consumer's control equipments. Other chapters center on socket outlets, plugs, lighting subcircuits, lighting accessories, bells, and primary and secondary cells. This book will be very valuable to students involved in this field of interest.

  3. 3D Wire 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordi, Moréton; F, Escribano; J. L., Farias

    This document is a general report on the implementation of gamification in 3D Wire 2015 event. As the second gamification experience in this event, we have delved deeply in the previous objectives (attracting public areas less frequented exhibition in previous years and enhance networking) and ha......, improves socialization and networking, improves media impact, improves fun factor and improves encouragement of the production team....

  4. One-wire thermocouple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, W. D.; Staimach, C. J.

    1977-01-01

    Nickel alloy/constantan device accurately measures surface temperature at precise locations. Device is moderate in cost and simplifies fabrication of highly-instrumented seamless-surface heat-transfer models. Device also applies to metal surfaces if constantan wire has insulative coat.

  5. 导线结冰热传导分析及防结冰电流%Heat Transfer Analysis on wire Icing and the Current preventing from Icing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘和云; 周迪; 黄素逸

    2001-01-01

    本文研究导线结冰热传导过程,并在分析和计算各项热流的基础上描述导线结冰的热力学过程和推导热平衡公式.%This study concems the heat transfer processes during ice accretion on wires. The steady state heat balance equation assumed to describe the thermodynamics at the surface of a current heated wire subjected to icing is obtained by analyzing and computing each terms of heat flux. The surface temperature of wire is derived from the heat balance equation, which gives out a proposed estimation of the current intensity to prevent the wire icing.

  6. Deriving position of inverse bending roll by experiment and analysis : High precision roll bending of titanium alloy wire for glasses frame

    OpenAIRE

    佐々木, 善教; 大津, 雅亮; 松村, 正三; 森下, 和幸; 田中, 大樹; 八木, 秀樹; 関根, 雄一郎; 浅川, 基男

    2015-01-01

    In forming of glasses frame, bending and inverse bending of rim wires with 4 rolls are usually employed. Only an inverse bending roll, the 4th roll, can change the position to control the curvature of the rim wire. A deriving method of inverse bending roll position is proposed in this study. The proposed method requires not the computational simulations but only some simple steady inverse bending experiments to obtain a relationship between inverse bending roll position and bent curvature whi...

  7. Analysis of SpaceWire Network Layer Protocol and Application Research%SpaceWire网络层协议分析与应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凤雷; 鲁文帅; 付平

    2010-01-01

    本文的研究对象是 SpaceWire 网络层协议. 通过分析欧空局(ESA)SpaceWire 产品和美国航空航天学会 (AIAA)SpaceWire 专题年会成果, 概述了国内外 SpaceWire 技术特别是其组网技术的发展和应用现状. 根据欧空局最新版规范 ECSS-E-ST-50-12C, 详细分析了 SpaceWire 网络层结构, 包括路由方式和寻址方式, 其中重点阐述了蛀洞路由器、区域逻辑寻址的工作原理. 在此理论基础上, 给出了基于 FPGA 单芯片、以交叉矩阵为核心、带有通用主机接口的无阻塞 4 端口 SpaceWire 路由器设计方案. 本文最后还通过比较 SpaceWire 与 Ethernet 协议的异同, 论证了二者在高层协议和应用软件方面的兼容性, 得出结论:可以将 Ethernet 网络的软件资源移植到 SpaceWire 上.

  8. Differential uncertainty analysis for evaluating the accuracy of S-parameter retrieval methods for electromagnetic properties of metamaterial slabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasar, Ugur Cem; Barroso, Joaquim J; Sabah, Cumali; Kaya, Yunus; Ertugrul, Mehmet

    2012-12-17

    We apply a complete uncertainty analysis, not studied in the literature, to investigate the dependences of retrieved electromagnetic properties of two MM slabs (the first one with only split-ring resonators (SRRs) and the second with SRRs and a continuous wire) with single-band and dual-band resonating properties on the measured/simulated scattering parameters, the slab length, and the operating frequency. Such an analysis is necessary for the selection of a suitable retrieval method together with the correct examination of exotic properties of MM slabs especially in their resonance regions. For this analysis, a differential uncertainty model is developed to monitor minute changes in the dependent variables (electromagnetic properties of MM slabs) in functions of independent variables (scattering (S-) parameters, the slab length, and the operating frequency). Two complementary approaches (the analytical approach and the dispersion model approach) each with different strengths are utilized to retrieve the electromagnetic properties of various MM slabs, which are needed for the application of the uncertainty analysis. We note the following important results from our investigation. First, uncertainties in the retrieved electromagnetic properties of the analyzed MM slabs drastically increase when values of electromagnetic properties shrink to zero or near resonance regions where S-parameters exhibit rapid changes. Second, any low-loss or medium-loss inside the MM slabs due to an imperfect dielectric substrate or a finite conductivity of metals can decrease these uncertainties near resonance regions because these losses hinder abrupt changes in S-parameters. Finally, we note that precise information of especially the slab length and the operating frequency is a prerequisite for accurate analysis of exotic electromagnetic properties of MM slabs (especially multiband MM slabs) near resonance regions.

  9. Metallurgical investigation of wire breakage of tyre bead grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyas Palit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tyre bead grade wire is used for tyre making application. The wire is used as reinforcement inside the polymer of tyre. The wire is available in different size/section such as 1.6–0.80 mm thin Cu coated wire. During tyre making operation at tyre manufacturer company, wire failed frequently. In this present study, different broken/defective wire samples were collected from wire mill for detailed investigation of the defect. The natures of the defects were localized and similar in nature. The fracture surface was of finger nail type. Crow feet like defects including button like surface abnormalities were also observed on the broken wire samples. The defect was studied at different directions under microscope. Different advanced metallographic techniques have been used for detail investigation. The analysis revealed that, white layer of surface martensite was formed and it caused the final breakage of wire. In this present study we have also discussed about the possible reason for the formation of such kind of surface martensite (hard-phase.

  10. Societal costs in displaced transverse olecranon fractures: using decision analysis tools to find the most cost-effective strategy between tension band wiring and locked plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Tittu; Washington, Travis; Srivastava, Karan; Moutzouros, Vasilios; Makhni, Eric C; Hakeos, William

    2017-09-15

    Tension band wiring (TBW) and locked plating are common treatment options for Mayo IIA olecranon fractures. Clinical trials have shown excellent functional outcomes with both techniques. Although TBW implants are significantly less expensive than a locked olecranon plate, TBW often requires an additional operation for implant removal. To choose the most cost-effective treatment strategy, surgeons must understand how implant costs and return to the operating room influence the most cost-effective strategy. This cost-effective analysis study explored the optimal treatment strategies by using decision analysis tools. An expected-value decision tree was constructed to estimate costs based on the 2 implant choices. Values for critical variables, such as implant removal rate, were obtained from the literature. A Monte Carlo simulation consisting of 100,000 trials was used to incorporate variability in medical costs and implant removal rates. Sensitivity analysis and strategy tables were used to show how different variables influence the most cost-effective strategy. TBW was the most cost-effective strategy, with a cost savings of approximately $1300. TBW was also the dominant strategy by being the most cost-effective solution in 63% of the Monte Carlo trials. Sensitivity analysis identified implant costs for plate fixation and surgical costs for implant removal as the most sensitive parameters influencing the cost-effective strategy. Strategy tables showed the most cost-effective solution as 2 parameters vary simultaneously. TBW is the most cost-effective strategy in treating Mayo IIA olecranon fractures despite a higher rate of return to the operating room. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimation and analysis of Galileo differential code biases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Yuan, Yunbin; Wang, Ningbo; Li, Zishen; Li, Ying; Huo, Xingliang

    2017-03-01

    When sensing the Earth's ionosphere using dual-frequency pseudorange observations of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), the satellite and receiver differential code biases (DCBs) account for one of the main sources of error. For the Galileo system, limited knowledge is available about the determination and characteristic analysis of the satellite and receiver DCBs. To better understand the characteristics of satellite and receiver DCBs of Galileo, the IGGDCB (IGG, Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, Wuhan, China) method is extended to estimate the satellite and receiver DCBs of Galileo, with the combined use of GPS and Galileo observations. The experimental data were collected from the Multi-GNSS Experiment network, covering the period of 2013-2015. The stability of both Galileo satellite and receiver DCBs over a time period of 36 months was thereby analyzed for the current state of the Galileo system. Good agreement of Galileo satellite DCBs is found between the IGGDCB-based DCB estimates and those from the German Aerospace Center (DLR), at the level of 0.22 ns. Moreover, high-level stability of the Galileo satellite DCB estimates is obtained over the selected time span (less than 0.25 ns in terms of standard deviation) by both IGGDCB and DLR algorithms. The Galileo receiver DCB estimates are also relatively stable for the case in which the receiver hardware device stays unchanged. It can also be concluded that the receiver DCB estimates are rather sensitive to the change of the firmware version and that the receiver antenna type has no great impact on receiver DCBs.

  12. Differential proteome analysis of chikungunya virus infection on host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Li-Ping Thio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that has caused multiple unprecedented and re-emerging outbreaks in both tropical and temperate countries. Despite ongoing research efforts, the underlying factors involved in facilitating CHIKV replication during early infection remains ill-characterized. The present study serves to identify host proteins modulated in response to early CHIKV infection using a proteomics approach. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The whole cell proteome profiles of CHIKV-infected and mock control WRL-68 cells were compared and analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE. Fifty-three spots were found to be differentially modulated and 50 were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Eight were significantly up-regulated and 42 were down-regulated. The mRNA expressions of 15 genes were also found to correlate with the corresponding protein expression. STRING network analysis identified several biological processes to be affected, including mRNA processing, translation, energy production and cellular metabolism, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP and cell cycle regulation. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study constitutes a first attempt to investigate alteration of the host cellular proteome during early CHIKV infection. Our proteomics data showed that during early infection, CHIKV affected the expression of proteins that are involved in mRNA processing, host metabolic machinery, UPP, and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1 regulation (in favour of virus survival, replication and transmission. While results from this study complement the proteomics results obtained from previous late host response studies, functional characterization of these proteins is warranted to reinforce our understanding of their roles during early CHIKV infection in humans.

  13. Variação da curvatura da base de braquetes "Straight-Wire": estudo comparativo entre quatro marcas comerciais Straight-wire base brackets curvature: analysis of four differents manufactures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana de Paula Gontijo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar as qualidades arquiteturais das bases dos braquetes "Straight-Wire" de quatro marcas comerciais (Morelli, Abzil Lancer, Unitek e A-Company comparando as suas curvaturas médias no sentido oclusogengival e mesiodistal. As curvaturas das bases dos braquetes foram medidas por meio de uma máquina de medidas universais da Société Genevoise D' Instruments de Physique, marca CSIP, modelo MUL-300, e os dados encontrados foram transferidos para um software de desenho AutoCAD 2000, gerando superfícies em ambiente tridimensional, a partir das quais se mediu a curvatura e o raio das bases dos acessórios ortodônticos. Os resultados demonstraram que a curvatura da base de cada braquete variou em sua extensão e que para um mesmo elemento dentário, as curvaturas e seus respectivos raios variaram entre as marcas comerciais analisadas.The objective of this study was to determine the average occlusogingival and mesiodistal curvature of the bases of straight-wire brackets. Brackets from four different manufactures were utilized: Morelli, Abzil Lancer, Unitek and A-Company. The measurements of the curvature of the bases of the brackets were, initially, taken with a universal instrument of the Société Genevoise D'Instruments de Physique, known as CSIP, model MUL-300. The data obtained was transferred to an AUTOCAD 2000 software, which generated a three dimensional image, where the curvature and the radius of the bases were finally measured. The results demonstrated a great variability of these measurements among the four different brands for the same bracket.

  14. CSF neurofilament protein analysis in the differential diagnosis of ALS.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijn, T.S.M.; Abdo, W.; Schelhaas, H.J.; Verbeek, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers have been studied to differentiate between patients with ALS and neurological controls, but not in comparison to clinically more relevant disorders mimicking ALS. METHODS: In this retrospective study, CSF concentrations of various brain-specific

  15. Residues of Logarithmic Differential Forms in Complex Analysis and Geometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.G.Aleksandrov

    2014-01-01

    In the article, we discuss basic concepts of the residue theory of logarithmic and multi-logarithmic differential forms, and describe some aspects of the theory, de-veloped by the author in the past few years. In particular, we introduce the notion of logarithmic differential forms with the use of the classical de Rham lemma and give an explicit description of regular meromorphic differential forms in terms of residues of logarithmic or multi-logarithmic differential forms with respect to hypersurfaces, com-plete intersections or pure-dimensional Cohen-Macaulay spaces. Among other things, several useful applications are considered, which are related with the theory of holo-nomic D-modules, the theory of Hodge structures, the theory of residual currents and others.

  16. Genome wide molecular analysis of minimally differentiated acute myeloid leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Fernando P. G.; Almeida, Ines; Morolli, Bruno; Brouwer-Mandema, Geeske; Wessels, Hans; Vossen, Rolf; Vrieling, Harry; Marijt, Erik W. A.; Valk, Peter J. M.; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.; Sperr, Wolfgang R.; Ludwig, Wolf-Dieter; Giphart-Gassler, Micheline

    2009-01-01

    Background Minimally differentiated acute myeloid leukemia is heterogeneous in karyotype and is defined by immature morphological and molecular characteristics. This originally French-American-British classification is still used in the new World Health Organization classification when other

  17. Genome wide molecular analysis of minimally differentiated acute myeloid leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Fernando P. G.; Almeida, Ines; Morolli, Bruno; Brouwer-Mandema, Geeske; Wessels, Hans; Vossen, Rolf; Vrieling, Harry; Marijt, Erik W. A.; Valk, Peter J. M.; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.; Sperr, Wolfgang R.; Ludwig, Wolf-Dieter; Giphart-Gassler, Micheline

    2009-01-01

    Background Minimally differentiated acute myeloid leukemia is heterogeneous in karyotype and is defined by immature morphological and molecular characteristics. This originally French-American-British classification is still used in the new World Health Organization classification when other criteri

  18. Analysis of global sumoylation changes occurring during keratinocyte differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip R Heaton

    Full Text Available Sumoylation is a highly dynamic process that plays a role in a multitude of processes ranging from cell cycle progression to mRNA processing and cancer. A previous study from our lab demonstrated that SUMO plays an important role in keratinocyte differentiation. Here we present a new method of tracking the sumoylation state of proteins by creating a stably transfected HaCaT keratinocyte cell line expressing an inducible SNAP-SUMO3 protein. The SNAP-tag allows covalent fluorescent labeling that is denaturation resistant. When combined with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the SNAP-tag technology provides direct visualization of sumoylated targets and can be used to follow temporal changes in the global cohort of sumoylated proteins during dynamic processes such as differentiation. HaCaT keratinocyte cells expressing SNAP-SUMO3 displayed normal morphological and biochemical features that are consistent with typical keratinocyte differentiation. SNAP-SUMO3 also localized normally in these cells with a predominantly nuclear signal and some minor cytoplasmic staining, consistent with previous reports for untagged SUMO2/3. During keratinocyte differentiation the total number of proteins modified by SNAP-SUMO3 was highest in basal cells, decreased abruptly after induction of differentiation, and slowly rebounded beginning between 48 and 72 hours as differentiation progressed. However, within this overall trend the pattern of change for individual sumoylated proteins was highly variable with both increases and decreases in amount over time. From these results we conclude that sumoylation of proteins during keratinocyte differentiation is a complex process which likely reflects and contributes to the biochemical changes that drive differentiation.

  19. Biomass pyrolysis and combustion integral and differential reaction heats with temperatures using thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiacheng; Igathinathane, C; Yu, Manlu; Pothula, Anand Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Integral reaction heats of switchgrass, big bluestem, and corn stalks were determined using thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC). Iso-conversion differential reaction heats using TGA/DSC pyrolysis and combustion of biomass were not available, despite reports available on heats required and released. A concept of iso-conversion differential reaction heats was used to determine the differential reaction heats of each thermal characteristics segment of these materials. Results showed that the integral reaction heats were endothermic from 30 to 700°C for pyrolysis of switchgrass and big bluestem, but they were exothermic for corn stalks prior to 587°C. However, the integral reaction heats for combustion of the materials followed an endothermic to exothermic transition. The differential reaction heats of switchgrass pyrolysis were predominantly endothermic in the fraction of mass loss (0.0536-0.975), and were exothermic for corn stalks (0.0885-0.850) and big bluestem (0.736-0.919). Study results provided better insight into biomass thermal mechanism. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Approximate Solutions of Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations by Modified q-Homotopy Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheed N. Huseen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A modified q-homotopy analysis method (mq-HAM was proposed for solving nth-order nonlinear differential equations. This method improves the convergence of the series solution in the nHAM which was proposed in (see Hassan and El-Tawil 2011, 2012. The proposed method provides an approximate solution by rewriting the nth-order nonlinear differential equation in the form of n first-order differential equations. The solution of these n differential equations is obtained as a power series solution. This scheme is tested on two nonlinear exactly solvable differential equations. The results demonstrate the reliability and efficiency of the algorithm developed.

  1. CODEX sounding rocket wire grid collimator design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Ann; Zeiger, Ben; Rogers, Thomas

    2011-05-01

    CODEX is a sounding rocket payload designed to operate in the soft x-ray (0.1-1.0 kV) regime. The instrument has a 3.25 degree square field of view that uses a one meter long wire grid collimator to create a beam that converges to a line in the focal plane. Wire grid collimator performance is directly correlated to the geometric accuracy of actual grid features and their relative locations. Utilizing a strategic combination of manufacturing and assembly techniques, this design is engineered for precision within the confines of a typical rocket budget. Expected resilience of the collimator under flight conditions is predicted by mechanical analysis.

  2. Rotor Embedded with Shape Memory Alloy Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gupta

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present analysis, the fundamental natural frequency of a Jeffcott and a two-mass rotor with fibre reinforced composite shaft embedded with shape memory alloy (SMA wires is evaluated by Rayleigh's procedure. The flexibility of rotor supports is taken into account. The effect of three factors, either singly or in combination with each other, on rotor critical speed is studied. The three factors are: (i increase in Young's modulus of SMA (NITINOL wires when activated, (ii tension in wires because of phase recovery stresses, and (iii variation of support stiffness by three times because of activation of SMA in rotor supports. It is shown by numerical examples that substantial variation in rotor critical speeds can be achieved by a combination of these factors which can be effectively used to avoid resonance during rotor coast up/down.

  3. Ultrasonic Device for Assessing the Quality of a Wire Crimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Perey, Daniel F. (Inventor); Cramer, Karl E. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system for determining the quality of an electrical wire crimp between a wire and ferrule includes an ultrasonically equipped crimp tool (UECT) configured to transmit an ultrasonic acoustic wave through a wire and ferrule, and a signal processor in communication with the UECT. The signal processor includes a signal transmitting module configured to transmit the ultrasonic acoustic wave via an ultrasonic transducer, signal receiving module configured to receive the ultrasonic acoustic wave after it passes through the wire and ferrule, and a signal analysis module configured to identify signal differences between the ultrasonic waves. The signal analysis module is then configured to compare the signal differences attributable to the wire crimp to a baseline, and to provide an output signal if the signal differences deviate from the baseline.

  4. Wire chamber degradation at the Argonne ZGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberichter, W.; Spinka, H.

    1986-01-01

    Experience with multiwire proportional chambers at high rates at the Argonne Zero Gradient Synchrotron is described. A buildup of silicon on the sense wires was observed where the beam passed through the chamber. Analysis of the chamber gas indicated that the density of silicon was probably less than 10 ppM.

  5. Forecasting of Corrosion Properties of Steel Wires for Production of Guide Wires for Cardiological Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Przondziono

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents evaluation of the influence of strain in drawing process and of surface modification on resistance to electrochemical corrosion of wires made of stainless steel for production of guide wires used in invasive cardiology. The results of static tensile test enabled us to determine the course of flow curve of wires made of X10CrNi 18-8 steel as well as mathematical form of flow stress function. Resistance to electrochemical corrosion was evaluated on the ground of registered anodic polarisation curves by means of potentiodynamic method. The tests were performed in solution simulating human blood on samples that were electrolytically polished and samples that were polished and then chemically passivated. Exemplary anodic polarisation curves were given. It was proved that with the applied strain, corrosion properties decrease. It was found that chemical passivation improves wire corrosion characteristics. Statistical analysis showed that there is a significant dependence between corrosion properties (polarisation resistance Rp and strain ε applied in drawing process. Functions that present the change Rp=f(ε were selected. The issue is of importance to guide wire manufacturers because application of the suggested methodology will enable us to forecast corrosion characteristics of wire with the required strength drawn with the applied strain.

  6. Research regarding wires elastic deformations influence on joints positioning of a wire-driven robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofu, C.; Stan, G.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present the influence of driving wires deformation on positioning precision of joints from an elephant's trunk robotic arm. Robotic arms driven by wires have the joint accuracy largely depending on wires rigidity. The joint moment of resistance causes elastic deformation of wires and it is determined by: manipulated object load, weight loads previous to the analyzed joint and inherent resistance moment of joint. Static load analysis emphasizes the particular wires elastic deformation of each driven joint from an elephant's trunk robotic arm with five degrees of freedom. We consider the case of a constant manipulated load. Errors from each driving system of joints are not part of the closed loop system. Thus, precision positioning depends on wires elastic deformation which is about microns and causes angle deviation of joints about tens of minutes of sexagesimal degrees. The closer the joints to base arm the smaller positioning precision of joint. The obtained results are necessary for further compensation made by electronic corrections in the programming algorithm of the elephant's trunk robotic arm to improve accuracy.

  7. Research of Broken Wire Rope Detection System Based on LabVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-ge Gao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we introduce how to detect broken wires in steel rope based on wavelet transform and virtual instrument technology. By means of the powerful data analysis function of virtual instrument and wavelet transform, the singularity of wires can be found and it could help to improve ability of locating broken wires and determining breakage grade.

  8. Wired to freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Kim Sune Karrasch; Bertilsson, Margareta

    2017-01-01

    of cochlear implantations among Danish users in order to shed more light on their social and political implications. We situate cochlear implantation in a framework of new life science advances, politics, and user experiences. Analytically, we draw upon the notion of social imaginary and explore the social...... dimension of life science through a notion of public politics adopted from the political theory of John Dewey. We show how cochlear implantation engages different social imaginaries on the collective and individual levels and we suggest that users share an imaginary of being “wired to freedom” that involves...... new access to social life, continuous communicative challenges, common practices, and experiences. In looking at their lives as “wired to freedom,” we hope to promote a wider spectrum of civic participation in the benefit of future life science developments within and beyond the field of Cochlear...

  9. From Wires to Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Amin, Mustafa A

    2015-01-01

    We provide a statistical framework for characterizing stochastic particle production in the early universe via a precise correspondence to current conduction in wires with impurities. Our approach is particularly useful when the microphysics is uncertain and the dynamics are complex, but only coarse-grained information is of interest. We study scenarios with multiple interacting fields and derive the evolution of the particle occupation numbers from a Fokker-Planck equation. At late times, the typical occupation numbers grow exponentially which is the analog of Anderson localization for disordered wires. Some statistical features of the occupation numbers show hints of universality in the limit of a large number of interactions and/or a large number of fields. For test cases, excellent agreement is found between our analytic results and numerical simulations.

  10. Twisting wire scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Gharibyan, V; Krouptchenkov, I; Nölle, D; Tiessen, H; Werner, M; Wittenburg, K

    2012-01-01

    A new type of 'two-in-one' wire scanner is proposed. Recent advances in linear motors' technology make it possible to combine translational and rotational movements. This will allow to scan the beam in two perpendicular directions using a single driving motor and a special fork attached to it. Vertical or horizontal mounting will help to escape problems associated with the 45 deg scanners. Test results of the translational part with linear motors is presented.

  11. Structural dynamic responses analysis applying differential quadrature method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PU Jun-ping; ZHENG Jian-jun

    2006-01-01

    Unconditionally stable higher-order accurate time step integration algorithms based on the differential quadrature method (DQM) for second-order initial value problems were applied and the quadrature rules of DQM, computing of the weighting coefficients and choices of sampling grid points were discussed. Some numerical examples dealing with the heat transfer problem, the second-order differential equation of imposed vibration of linear single-degree-of-freedom systems and double-degree-of-freedom systems, the nonlinear move differential equation and a beam forced by a changing load were computed,respectively. The results indicated that the algorithm can produce highly accurate solutions with minimal time consumption, and that the system total energy can remain conservative in the numerical computation.

  12. International Winter Workshop on Differential Equations and Numerical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, John; Narasimhan, Ramanujam; Mathiazhagan, Paramasivam; Victor, Franklin

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an ideal introduction to singular perturbation problems, and a valuable guide for researchers in the field of differential equations. It also includes chapters on new contributions to both fields: differential equations and singular perturbation problems. Written by experts who are active researchers in the related fields, the book serves as a comprehensive source of information on the underlying ideas in the construction of numerical methods to address different classes of problems with solutions of different behaviors, which will ultimately help researchers to design and assess numerical methods for solving new problems. All the chapters presented in the volume are complemented by illustrations in the form of tables and graphs.

  13. Optimization and Performance Analysis of Bulk-Driven Differential Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antarpreet kaur

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing demand for high-speed digital circuits at low power consumption. This paper presents a design of input stage of Operational Amplifier i.e cascode differential amplifier using a standard 65nm CMOS Technology.A comparison betweem gate-driven, bulk-driven and cascode bulk driven bulk-driven differential amplifier is described. The Results demonstrate that CMMR is 83.98 dB, 3-dB Bandwidth is 1.04 MHz. The circuit dissipate power of 28uWunder single supply of 1.0V.

  14. Uncovering stem cell differentiation factors for salivary gland regeneration by quantitative analysis of differential proteomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yun-Jong; Koh, Jin; Kwon, Jin Teak; Park, Yong-Seok; Yang, Lijun; Cha, Seunghee

    2017-01-01

    Severe xerostomia (dry mouth) compromises the quality of life in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome or radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. A clinical management of xerostomia is often unsatisfactory as most interventions are palliative with limited efficacy. Following up our previous study demonstrating that mouse BM-MSCs are capable of differentiating into salivary epithelial cells in a co-culture system, we further explored the molecular basis that governs the MSC reprogramming by utilizing high-throughput iTRAQ-2D-LC-MS/MS-based proteomics. Our data revealed the novel induction of pancreas-specific transcription factor 1a (PTF1α), muscle, intestine and stomach expression-1 (MIST-1), and achaete-scute complex homolog 3 (ASCL3) in 7 day co-cultured MSCs but not in control MSCs. More importantly, a common notion of pancreatic-specific expression of PTF1 α was challenged for the first time by our verification of PTF1 α expression in the mouse salivary glands. Furthermore, a molecular network simulation of our selected putative MSC reprogramming factors demonstrated evidence for their perspective roles in salivary gland development. In conclusion, quantitative proteomics with extensive data analyses narrowed down a set of MSC reprograming factors potentially contributing to salivary gland regeneration. Identification of their differential/synergistic impact on MSC conversion warrants further investigation. PMID:28158262

  15. Dual wire welding torch and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Fernando Martinez; Stump, Kevin S.; Ludewig, Howard W.; Kilty, Alan L.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Egland, Keith M.

    2009-04-28

    A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

  16. Partial differential equations with variable exponents variational methods and qualitative analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Radulescu, Vicentiu D

    2015-01-01

    Partial Differential Equations with Variable Exponents: Variational Methods and Qualitative Analysis provides researchers and graduate students with a thorough introduction to the theory of nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) with a variable exponent, particularly those of elliptic type. The book presents the most important variational methods for elliptic PDEs described by nonhomogeneous differential operators and containing one or more power-type nonlinearities with a variable exponent. The authors give a systematic treatment of the basic mathematical theory and constructive meth

  17. Free Vibration Analysis of Laminated Composite Beams Using Differential Quadrature Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯丽娟; 钟宏志; 郝照平; 吴德隆

    2002-01-01

    A higher-order theory for laminated composite beams is used to study the free vibration of laminated composite beams, and the differential quadrature method is employed to obtain the numerical solution of the governing differential equations. Free vibration analysis of beams with rectangular cross-section for various combinations of end conditions is studied. The results show that the differential quadrature method is reliable and accurate compared with other available results.

  18. An Analysis on the Differentiation between Diglossia and Bilingualism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ying

    2014-01-01

    Despite a hot and sensitive topic in China, the practice and education of bilingualism has been misunderstood in some areas because people have little sense of it. This paper is to differentiate the diglossia and the bilingualism to make it clear that it is important and necessary to put into practice the bilingualism and bilingual education in parts of China.

  19. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis of potassium bicarbonate contaminated cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Broido

    1966-01-01

    When samples undergo a complicated set of simultaneous and sequential reactions, as cellulose does on heating, results of thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses are difficult to interpret. Nevertheless, careful comparison of pure and contaminated samples, pyrolyzed under identical conditions, can yield useful information. In these experiments TGA and DTA...

  20. Analysis of Differential Item Functioning in the NAEP History Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Rebecca; Ercikan, Kadriye

    The Mantel-Haenszel approach for investigating differential item functioning (DIF) was applied to U.S. history items that were administered as part of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). DIF analyses were based on the responses of 7,743 students in grade 11. On some items, Blacks, Hispanics, and females performed more poorly…

  1. Stability analysis of a class of fractional delay differential equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sachin B Bhalekar

    2013-08-01

    In this paper we analyse stability of nonlinear fractional order delay differential equations of the form $D^{} y(t) = af(y(t - )) - {\\text{by}} (t)$, where $D^{}$ is a Caputo fractional derivative of order 0 < ≤ 1. We describe stability regions using critical curves. To explain the proposed theory, we discuss fractional order logistic equation with delay.

  2. Differential Protein Network Analysis of the Immune Cell Lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Clancy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the Immunological Genome Project (ImmGen completed the first phase of the goal to understand the molecular circuitry underlying the immune cell lineage in mice. That milestone resulted in the creation of the most comprehensive collection of gene expression profiles in the immune cell lineage in any model organism of human disease. There is now a requisite to examine this resource using bioinformatics integration with other molecular information, with the aim of gaining deeper insights into the underlying processes that characterize this immune cell lineage. We present here a bioinformatics approach to study differential protein interaction mechanisms across the entire immune cell lineage, achieved using affinity propagation applied to a protein interaction network similarity matrix. We demonstrate that the integration of protein interaction networks with the most comprehensive database of gene expression profiles of the immune cells can be used to generate hypotheses into the underlying mechanisms governing the differentiation and the differential functional activity across the immune cell lineage. This approach may not only serve as a hypothesis engine to derive understanding of differentiation and mechanisms across the immune cell lineage, but also help identify possible immune lineage specific and common lineage mechanism in the cells protein networks.

  3. Temperature effect on DNA molecular wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Christopher Minh

    The demand of technology and information today has further pushed the fabrication process of nanotechnology, yet there are limits and obstacles set by the primary laws of physics. Therefore, researchers are pursuing alternative technologies. Deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) molecular wire is one advantageous option due to its unique characteristics including self-assembly and naturally small; size. This thesis reports the temperature effect on the electrical properties of a double-stranded ?-DNA molecular wire. The data will help expand the DNA wire application and functionality. Thus, the data supports the charge hopping theory on DNA electrical conductivity. Diverse amount of literatures has demonstrated that DNA experiences a biochemical alteration when exposed under different temperature conditions. This change will also cause a change in the electrical properties. In this research, DNA will hang between two gold covered microelectrodes with a distance of 10 to 12 microns. The microelectrodes are fabricated through negative lithography techniques. Then, the samples were exposed to a numerous range of temperature from 25°C to 180°C and went through varying cycles of heating and cooling. The experimental results revealed that the DNA experienced a hysteresis like behavior where the impedance differed between the heating and cooling phase. The impedance of the DNA molecular wire increased when exposed to higher temperature. Furthermore, the impedance stops increasing after a certain amount of heat cycles before the DNA structure failed. The biology and thermodynamics of the DNA wire was analyzed due to the temperature hysteresis effect. The melting temperature and the bond dissociation temperature were evaluated to determine the cause of the impedance trends. The studies and analysis of the temperature effect provided certain insights towards the charge hopping transport mechanism. The thesis concludes with possible applications relating to the temperature effect of

  4. Multi-scale analysis by SEM, EBSD and X-ray diffraction of deformation textures of a copper wire drawn industrially

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zidani M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we tried to understand the texture evolution of deformation during the cold drawing of copper wire (99.26% Drawn by the company ENICAB destined for electrical cabling and understand its link with the electrical conductivity. Characterisations performed show the appearance and texture development during the reduction of section of the wire. The texture is mainly composed of the fiber // DN (DN // drawing axis (majority and the fiber // ND (minority whose acuity increases with deformation level. The wire was performed for the main components of the texture, ie the fiber and conventionally present in these materials. We will pay particular attention on the energy of the cube component {100} recrystallization that develops when the level of reduction is sufficient. There was also an increase in hardness and electrical resistivity along the applied deformation.

  5. Towards slide enhancement with the titanium-molybdenum wire?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, Pol; Barthélémi, Stéphane

    2010-12-01

    This study aims to improve the tribological properties of titanium-molybdenum wire. Following an analysis of the wire/bracket/ligation friction parameters and an overview of the technological research into means of reducing such friction,we set up several types of surface treatment in the laboratory by physical deposition in the vapor phase and using cold plasma technology. The specimens obtained underwent two types of tribological tests and were then subjected to traction and bending tests in order to determine the variations in their mechanical properties induced by the different types of treatment. For purposes of comparison, all the tests were conducted on untreated wire, TMA® Low-friction® wire and stainless steel wire and with two types of elastomeric ties. We were able to demonstrate some remarkable slide performances obtained using cold plasma nitriding while preserving the mechanical properties. A significant difference was observed relative to the other surface treatments.

  6. Metering Wheel-Wire Track Wire Boom Deployment Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granoff, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA MMS Spin Plane Double Probe (SDP) Deployer utilizes a helical path, rotating Metering Wheel and a spring loaded Wire "Holding" Track to pay out a "fixed end" 57 meter x 1.5 mm diameter Wire Boom stored between concentric storage cylinders. Unlike rotating spool type storage devices, the storage cylinders remain stationary, and the boom wire is uncoiled along the length of the cylinder via the rotation of the Metering Wheel. This uncoiling action avoids the need for slip-ring contacts since the ends of the wire can remain stationary. Conventional fixed electrical connectors (Micro-D type) are used to terminate to operational electronics.

  7. Investigation of material removal rate (MRR) and wire wear ratio (WWR) for alloy Ti6Al4 V exposed to heat treatment processing in WEDM and optimization of parameters using Grey relational analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altug, Mehmet [Inonu Univ., Malatya (Turkey). Dept. of Machine and Metal Technologies

    2016-11-01

    The study examines the changes of the microstructural, mechanical and conductivity characteristics of the titanium alloy Ti6Al4 V as a result of heat treatment using wire electrical discharge machining, and their effect on machinability. By means of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), analyses have been performed to determine various characteristics and additionally, microhardness and conductivity measurements have been conducted. Material removal rate (MRR) and wire wear ratio (WWR) values have been determined by using L18 Taguchi test design. The microstructures of the samples have been changed by thermal procedures. Results have been obtained by using the Grey relational analysis (GRA) optimization technique to solve the maximum MRR and minimum WWR values. The best (highest) MRR value is obtained from sample E which was water quenched in dual phase processing. The microstructure of this sample is composed of primary α and α' phases. The best (lowest) WWR value is obtained from sample A.

  8. Copper Refinement from Anode to Cathode and then to Wire Rod: Effects of Impurities on Recrystallization Kinetics and Wire Ductility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbert, Anne-Laure; Moya, Alice; Jil, Tomas; Andrieux, Michel; Ignat, Michel; Brisset, François; Baudin, Thierry

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the traceability of copper from the anode to the cathode and then the wire rod has been studied in terms of impurity content, microstructure, texture, recrystallization kinetics, and ductility. These characterizations were obtained based on secondary ion mass spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction, HV hardness, and electron backscattered diffraction. It is shown that the recrystallization was delayed by the total amount of impurities. From tensile tests performed on cold drawn and subsequently annealed wires for a given time, a simplified model has been developed to link tensile elongation to the chemical composition. This model allowed quantification of the contribution of some additional elements, present in small quantity, on the recrystallization kinetics. The proposed model adjusted for the cold-drawn wires was also validated on both the cathode and wire rod used for the study of traceability.

  9. Discussion on geometric modeling and mechanical analysis of columnar-strand wire rope%圆股钢丝绳几何建模与力学分析的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓宇; 王雷; 孟祥宝

    2013-01-01

    主要介绍了圆股钢丝绳几何建模与力学分析的理论研究进展.在总结描述钢丝绳几何与运动学参数的基础上,结合Love-Kirchhoff曲杆理论、赫兹理论、Winkler地基模型和Archard-Kragelsky磨损定律,分析了在拉压、剪切、弯曲、扭转和局部接触等载荷作用下钢丝绳螺旋分层结构的非线性力学现象,并将钢丝绳的几何建模、运动描述、整体变形、接触应力与磨损之间的关系加以综合考虑,加深对钢丝绳结构和相关力学分析的理解,为进一步研究此类问题拓宽思路.%Progress in theoretical study on geometric modeling and mechanical analysis of the columnar-strand wire rope was introduced in detail.After summarizing of geometric and dynamic parameters of the wire rope,in combination with Love-Kirchhoff theory of curved rods,Hertz theory,Winkler foundation model and ArchardKragelsky abrasion law,the paper analyzed nonlinear mechanical behavior of spiral delamination of the wire rope under the action of squeezing,shearing,bending,torsion and local contact.Moreover,the relationship among geometric modeling,kinematic expression,total elastic deformation,contact stress and abrasion were taken into comprehensive account,thus the understanding of wire rope structure and relative mechanical analysis was enhanced,so as to broaden the thinking of studying this kind of problem.

  10. Cyclic Oxidation of High-Temperature Alloy Wires in Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigel, Marissa M.

    2004-01-01

    High-temperature alloy wires are proposed for use in seal applications for future re-useable space vehicles. These alloys offer the potential for improved wear resistance of the seals. The wires must withstand the high temperature environments the seals are subjected to as well as maintain their oxidation resistance during the heating and cooling cycles of vehicle re-entry. To model this, the wires were subjected to cyclic oxidation in stagnant air. of this layer formation is dependent on temperature. Slow growing oxides such as chromia and alumina are desirable. Once the oxide is formed it can prevent the metal from further reacting with its environment. Cyclic oxidation models the changes in temperature these wires will undergo in application. Cycling the temperature introduces thermal stresses which can cause the oxide layer to break off. Re-growth of the oxide layer consumes more metal and therefore reduces the properties and durability of the material. were used for cyclic oxidation testing. The baseline material, Haynes 188, has a Co base and is a chromia former while the other two alloys, Kanthal A1 and PM2000, both have a Fe base and are alumina formers. Haynes 188 and Kanthal A1 wires are 250 pm in diameter and PM2000 wires are 150 pm in diameter. The coiled wire has a total surface area of 3 to 5 sq cm. The wires were oxidized for 11 cycles at 1204 C, each cycle containing a 1 hour heating time and a minimum 20 minute cooling time. Weights were taken between cycles. After 11 cycles, one wire of each composition was removed for analysis. The other wire continued testing for 70 cycles. Post-test analysis includes X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) for phase identification and morphology.

  11. Analysis III analytic and differential functions, manifolds and Riemann surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Godement, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Volume III sets out classical Cauchy theory. It is much more geared towards its innumerable applications than towards a more or less complete theory of analytic functions. Cauchy-type curvilinear integrals are then shown to generalize to any number of real variables (differential forms, Stokes-type formulas). The fundamentals of the theory of manifolds are then presented, mainly to provide the reader with a "canonical'' language and with some important theorems (change of variables in integration, differential equations). A final chapter shows how these theorems can be used to construct the compact Riemann surface of an algebraic function, a subject that is rarely addressed in the general literature though it only requires elementary techniques. Besides the Lebesgue integral, Volume IV will set out a piece of specialized mathematics towards which the entire content of the previous volumes will converge: Jacobi, Riemann, Dedekind series and infinite products, elliptic functions, classical theory of modular fun...

  12. Asymptotical stability analysis of linear fractional differential systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chang-pin; ZHAO Zhen-gang

    2009-01-01

    It has been recently found that many models were established with the aid of fractional derivatives, such as viscoelastic systems, colored noise, electrode-electrolyte polarization, dielectric polarization, boundary layer effects in ducts,electromagnetic waves, quantitative finance, quantum evolution of complex systems, and fractional kinetics. In this paper, the asymptotical stability of higher-dimensional linear fractional differential systems with the Riemann-Liouville fractional order and Caputo fractional order were studied. The asymptotical stability theorems were also derived.

  13. Stability analysis of linear multistep methods for delay differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Bakke

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Stability properties of linear multistep methods for delay differential equations with respect to the test equation y′(t=ay(λt+by(t,   t≥0,0<λ<1, are investigated. It is known that the solution of this equation is bounded if and only if |a|<−b and we examine whether this property is inherited by multistep methods with Lagrange interpolation and by parametrized Adams methods.

  14. A stability analysis for a semilinear parabolic partial differential equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafee, N.

    1973-01-01

    The parabolic partial differential equation considered is u sub t = u sub xx + f(u), where minus infinity x plus infinity and o t plus infinity. Under suitable hypotheses pertaining to f, a class of initial data is exhibited: phi(x), minus infinity x plus infinity, for which the corresponding solutions u(x,t) appraoch zero as t approaches the limit of plus infinity. This convergence is uniform with respect to x on any compact subinterval of the real axis.

  15. Microarray expression analysis of epithelial ovarian cancer with distinct differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To identify gene expression profiling in epithelial ovarian cancer and to explore its correlation with histopathology characterization and prognosis. Gene expression profiles were generated from 10 human ovarian frozen tissue specimens using Agilent Human 1A microarrays. Strikingly, clear differences of gene expression patterns were observed in ovarian cancer as compared to normal tissues. Unique gene profiles were observed in moderately and poorly differentiated epithelial ovarian cancer. It is concluded that different histopathology characterization likely exists extensive molecular heterogeneity.

  16. Triangular Differential Quadrature for Bending Analysis of Reissner Plates with Curved Boundaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华永霞; 钟宏志

    2003-01-01

    The recently proposed concept of the triangular differential quadrature method (TDQM) is applied to the bending analysis of Reissner plates with various curvilinear geometries subjected to various combinations of boundary conditions. A unit isosceles right triangle is used as the standard triangle for all the derivatives expressed using the triangular differential quadrature rule. Geometric transformations are introduced using basis functions to determine the weighting coefficients for the triangular differential quadrature to map an arbitrary curvilinear triangle into the standard triangle. The triangular differential quadrature method provides good accuracy and rapid convergence relative to other available exact and numerical results.

  17. [SADE] A Maple package for the Symmetry Analysis of Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Filho, Tarcí sio M Rocha

    2010-01-01

    We present the package SADE (Symmetry Analysis of Differential Equations) for the determination of symmetries and related properties of systems of differential equations. The main methods implemented are: Lie, nonclassical, Lie-B\\"acklund and potential symmetries, invariant solutions, first-integrals, N\\"other theorem for both discrete and continuous systems, solution of ordinary differential equations, reduction of order or dimension using Lie symmetries, classification of differential equations, Casimir invariants, and the quasi-polynomial formalism for ODE's (previously implemented in the package QPSI by the authors) for the determination of quasi-polynomial first-integrals, Lie symmetries and invariant surfaces. Examples of use of the package are given.

  18. Lie group analysis method for two classes of fractional partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Jiang, Yao-Lin

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we deal with two classes of fractional partial differential equation: n order linear fractional partial differential equation and nonlinear fractional reaction diffusion convection equation, by using the Lie group analysis method. The infinitesimal generators general formula of n order linear fractional partial differential equation is obtained. For nonlinear fractional reaction diffusion convection equation, the properties of their infinitesimal generators are considered. The four special cases are exhaustively investigated respectively. At the same time some examples of the corresponding case are also given. So it is very convenient to solve the infinitesimal generator of some fractional partial differential equation.

  19. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF METALLIC WIRES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU XIANG; GU JI-HUA; CHU JUN-HAO

    2001-01-01

    The effect of radial thickness on the thermal conductivity of a free standing wire is investigated. The thermal conductivity is evaluated using the Boltzmann equation. A simple expression for the reduction in conductivity due to the increase of boundary scattering is presented. A comparison is made between the experimental results of indium wires and the theoretical calculations. It is shown that this decrease of conductivity in wires is smaller than that in film where heat flux is perpendicular to the surface.

  20. Subminiature Hot-Wire Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, R. V.; Lemos, F. R.; Ligrani, P. M.

    1989-01-01

    Class of improved subminiature hot-wire flow-measuring probes developed. Smaller sizes yield improved resolution in measurements of practical aerodynamic flows. Probe made in one-wire, two-perpendicular-wire, and three-perpendicular-wire version for measurement of one, two, or all three components of flow. Oriented and positioned on micromanipulator stage and viewed under microscope during fabrication. Tested by taking measurements in constant-pressure turbulent boundary layer. New probes give improved measurements of turbulence quantities near surfaces and anisotropies of flows strongly influence relative errors caused by phenomena related to spatial resolution.

  1. Plasma Formation Around Single Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duselis, Peter U.; Kusse, Bruce R.

    2002-12-01

    At Cornell's Laboratory of Plasma Studies, single wires of various metals were exploded using a ˜250 ns pulser with a rise time of ˜20 A/ns. It was found that the wires first experience a resistive heating phase that lasts 50-80 ns before a rapid collapse of voltage. From that point on, the voltage across the wire was negligible while the current through the wire continued to increase. We attribute this voltage collapse to the formation of plasma about the wire. Further confirmation of this explanation will be presented along with new experimental data describing preliminary spectroscopy results, the expansion rate of the plasma, and current flow along the wire as a function of radius. The resistance of the wire-electrode connection will be shown to significantly affect the energy deposition. Various diagnostics were used to obtain these experiments. Ultraviolet sensitive vacuum photodiodes and a framing camera with an 8 ns shutter were used to detect and measure the width of the visible light emitted by the plasma. A special wire holder was constructed that allowed the transfer of current from the wire to the surrounding plasma to be observed.

  2. Texture development in Galfenol wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesenberg, A. J.; Restorff, J. B.; Wun-Fogle, M.; Sailsbury, H.; Summers, E.

    2013-05-01

    Galfenol (Fe-Ga alloy) wire fabrication provides a low cost alternative to directional solidification methods. This work evaluates the compositional dependence of the wire drawing suitability of Fe-Ga and characterizes the microstructural and magnetic properties of these wires. Wire has been produced with Ga contents between 10 at. % and 17 at. % to allow determination of the ductile to brittle transition (DTBT) in wire manufacture. Published results on chill cast bend specimens indicated that a DTBT occurs at roughly 15 at. % Ga. This DTBT was observed under tensile loading with a corresponding change in fracture behavior from transverse fracture to intergranular fracture. For improved magnetostrictive performance, higher Ga contents are desired, closer to the 17 at. % Ga evaluated in this work. Electron backscattered diffraction B-H loop and resonance measurements as a function of magnetic field (to determine modulus and coupling factor) are presented for as-drawn, furnace, and direct current (DC) annealed wire. Galfenol wire produced via traditional drawing methods is found to have a strong (α) texture parallel to the drawing direction. As-drawn wire was observed to have a lower magnetic permeability and larger hysteresis than DC annealed wire. This is attributed to the presence of a large volume of crystalline defects; such as vacancies and dislocations.

  3. Comparative Analysis of two Methods for High-Resolution Differential Conductance Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusick, David; Naito, Michio; Ramos, Roberto

    We compare two methods of differential conductance measurement. The first is a traditional method in which current and voltage data is acquired via four-wire measurement, then averaged and differentiated numerically. The second method calculates dI / dV in real time by superimposing a small DC signal dI on the input step function, alternating between addition and subtraction of the signal with each step, then averaging the small signal voltage response over three steps to obtain dV . This requires two instruments: a DC current source and a high-resolution voltmeter. Keithley Instruments has commercially promoted the Keithley 622x current source and 2182A nanovoltmeter as means to achieve this measurement; we therefore refer to it as the Keithley method. We compare the two methods by performing high-resolution measurements of the energy gap of MgB2 thin film Josephson junctions. We show that the Keithley method has advantages of cleaner data, easier implementation, and overall faster data collection, but may lack the traditional method's high resolution. R.C.R. acknowledges support from National Science Foundation Grant # DMR-1555775.

  4. Wiring regulations in brief

    CERN Document Server

    Tricker, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Tired of trawling through the Wiring Regs?Perplexed by Part P?Confused by cables, conductors and circuits?Then look no further! This handy guide provides an on-the-job reference source for Electricians, Designers, Service Engineers, Inspectors, Builders, Students, DIY enthusiastsTopic-based chapters link areas of working practice - such as cables, installations, testing and inspection, special locations - with the specifics of the Regulations themselves. This allows quick and easy identification of the official requirements relating to the situati

  5. Identification of genes differentially expressed in myogenin knock-down bovine muscle satellite cells during differentiation through RNA sequencing analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Ju Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs consisting of MyoD, Myf5, myogenin (MyoG and MRF4 characterizes various phases of skeletal muscle development including myoblast proliferation, cell-cycle exit, cell fusion and the maturation of myotubes to form myofibers. Although it is well known that the function of MyoG cannot be compensated for other MRFs, the molecular mechanism by which MyoG controls muscle cell differentiation is still unclear. Therefore, in this study, RNA-Seq technology was applied to profile changes in gene expression in response to MyoG knock-down (MyoGkd in primary bovine muscle satellite cells (MSCs. RESULTS: About 61-64% of the reads of over 42 million total reads were mapped to more than 13,000 genes in the reference bovine genome. RNA-Seq analysis identified 8,469 unique genes that were differentially expressed in MyoGkd. Among these genes, 230 were up-regulated and 224 were down-regulated by at least four-fold. DAVID Functional Annotation Cluster (FAC and pathway analysis of all up- and down-regulated genes identified overrepresentation for cell cycle and division, DNA replication, mitosis, organelle lumen, nucleoplasm and cytosol, phosphate metabolic process, phosphoprotein phosphatase activity, cytoskeleton and cell morphogenesis, signifying the functional implication of these processes and pathways during skeletal muscle development. The RNA-Seq data was validated by real time RT-PCR analysis for eight out of ten genes as well as five marker genes investigated. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first RNA-Seq based gene expression analysis of MyoGkd undertaken in primary bovine MSCs. Computational analysis of the differentially expressed genes has identified the significance of genes such as SAP30-like (SAP30L, Protein lyl-1 (LYL1, various matrix metalloproteinases, and several glycogenes in myogenesis. The results of the present study widen our knowledge of the molecular basis of skeletal muscle

  6. The Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin; Volume XII; A Multinomial Model for Estimating Ocean Survival from Salmonid Coded Wire-Tag Data.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryding, Kristen E.; Skalski, John R.

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to illustrate the development of a stochastic model using coded wire-tag (CWT) release and age-at-return data, in order to regress first year ocean survival probabilities against coastal ocean conditions and climate covariates.

  7. Corrosion of Wires on Wooden Wire-Bound Packaging Crates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Stan Lebow

    2015-01-01

    Wire-bound packaging crates are used by the US Army to transport materials. Because these crates may be exposed to harsh environments, they are dip-treated with a wood preservative (biocide treatment). For many years, zinc-naphthenate was the most commonly used preservative for these packaging crates and few corrosion problems with the wires were observed. Recently,...

  8. Multiscale differential phase contrast analysis with a unitary detector

    KAUST Repository

    Lopatin, Sergei

    2015-12-30

    A new approach to generate differential phase contrast (DPC) images for the visualization and quantification of local magnetic fields in a wide range of modern nano materials is reported. In contrast to conventional DPC methods our technique utilizes the idea of a unitary detector under bright field conditions, making it immediately usable by a majority of modern transmission electron microscopes. The approach is put on test to characterize the local magnetization of cylindrical nanowires and their 3D ordered arrays, revealing high sensitivity of our method in a combination with nanometer-scale spatial resolution.

  9. Introduction to stochastic analysis integrals and differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Mackevicius, Vigirdas

    2013-01-01

    This is an introduction to stochastic integration and stochastic differential equations written in an understandable way for a wide audience, from students of mathematics to practitioners in biology, chemistry, physics, and finances. The presentation is based on the naïve stochastic integration, rather than on abstract theories of measure and stochastic processes. The proofs are rather simple for practitioners and, at the same time, rather rigorous for mathematicians. Detailed application examples in natural sciences and finance are presented. Much attention is paid to simulation diffusion pro

  10. SYNTHETIC ANALYSIS OF INDICATORS USED IN THE ANALYSIS OF PRODUCT QUALITY DIFFERENTIATED AND NON-DIFFERENTIATED ON QUALITY CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ECOBICI MIHAELA LOREDANA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Product quality has been and will remain one of the most important indicators of increasing economic and financial performance of a company. Quality is that which ensures the greatest part of the competitiveness of a product or service, this being the result of some important aspects such as: products and services of quality to meet consumers requirements, low costs without affecting the quality level, the performance of contractual obligations, customer satisfaction and last but not least obtaining profit. Research and results concerning this issue will result in the prerequisites in the process for quality assurance that can develop both internally and externally. The purpose of this article lies in the approach and illustration of the aspects of products differentiated and non-differentiated in quality classes. In launching this research I will try to highlight some aspects that most efficiently the indicators mentioned above, indicators that read to what extent a certain product meets the characteristics specified to its destination.

  11. Tunable permeability of magnetic wires at microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panina, L.V., E-mail: lpanina@plymouth.ac.uk [National University of Science and Technology, MISiS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute for Design Problems in Microelectronics, RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Makhnovskiy, D.P. [School of Computing and Mathematics, University of Plymouth (United Kingdom); Morchenko, A.T.; Kostishin, V.G. [National University of Science and Technology, MISiS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the analysis into microwave magnetic properties of magnetic microwires and their composites in the context of applications in wireless sensors and tunable microwave materials. It is demonstrated that the intrinsic permeability of wires has a wide frequency dispersion with relatively large values in the GHz band. In the case of a specific magnetic anisotropy this results in a tunable microwave impedance which could be used for distributed wireless sensing networks in functional composites. The other range of applications is related with developing the artificial magnetic dielectrics with large and tunable permeability. The composites with magnetic wires with a circumferential anisotropy have the effective permeability which differs substantially from unity for a relatively low concentration (less than 10%). This can make it possible to design the wire media with a negative and tunable index of refraction utilising natural magnetic properties of wires. - Highlights: • Applications of magnetic microwires for functional composites and distributed sensor networks are proposed. • Diluted composites with magnetic microwires can demonstrate tunable left-handed properties. • Large microwave permeability combined with a specific magnetic structure lead to a large and sensitive microwave magnetoimpedance. • Microwave magnetoimpedance highly sensitive to temperature is demonstrated.

  12. Analysis of Surveyor 3 television cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, F. C.; Park, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    A sample of cable described as four inches of TV cable, fabric wrapped, which had been exposed to the atmosphere for an unknown period of time, was subjected to extensive chemical analyses for the various components. The fabric was tested using attenuated total reflectance, chloroform extract, aqueous extraction, pyrolysis infrared, and reflectance spectroscopy. The wire insulation was tested using pyrolysis infrared, pyrolysis gas chromatography, differential thermal analysis, attenuated total reflectance subsurface, and tensile tests. Corrosion was also observed in parts of certain wires.

  13. Experimental research on the mechanical property of prestressing steel wire during and after heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Wenzhong; HU Qiong; ZHANG Haoyu

    2007-01-01

    The mechanical property of prestressing steel wire during and after heating is the key factor in the design of fire resistance and after-fire damage evaluation of prestressed structures. Tensile experiment of 16 prestressing steel wires (fptk= 1770 N/mm2, d = 5 mm, low relaxation of stress) at high temperature and tensile experiment of 14 prestressed steel wires after heating are carried out. According to the experiment, the shapes of stress-strain curves of steel wire at high temperature go smooth and the mechanical property indexes of the steel wire such as strength, modulus of elastic- ity, etc., degenerate continuously as temperature increased. According to the experiment after heating, the mechanical property of steel wire varies little when the highest tempera- ture that the steel wire has ever been heated to is lower than 300℃; while the stress-strain curves of steel wire become more ductile and the mechanical property indexes of the steel wire degenerate gradually when the highest temperature is higher than 300℃. By applying the theory of viscoelastic mechanics, stress-strain curves of steel wire at high tempera- tures without loading rate influence are obtained. The law of mechanical property indexes of the wire is presented. The mathematical models of the stress-strain relationship of the pre-stressed steel wire are established. All can serve as basic data for the analysis of fire resistance and after-fire damage evaluation ofpre-stressed structures.

  14. BEPC II wire scanner system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUI Yan-Feng; WANG Lin; ZHAO Ying; YUE Jun-Hui; LI Xiao-Ping; CAO Jian-She; MA Li

    2010-01-01

    To monitor the beam profile at the end of the linac non-destructively,a wire scanner as a new diagnostic instrument was designed,manufactured and installed in 2007.Since then,several measurements have been carried out using this device.This paper describes the whole system of the wire scanner and the testing results.

  15. Wire and Packing Tape Sandwiches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Sandy

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how students can combine craft wire with clear packing tape to create a two-dimensional design that can be bent and twisted to create a three-dimensional form. Students sandwich wire designs between two layers of tape. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  16. Wire system ageing assessment and condition monitoring (WASCO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantoni, P.F. (Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) (Norway))

    2009-07-15

    Nuclear facilities rely on electrical wire systems to perform a variety of functions for successful operation. Many of these functions directly support the safe operation of the facility; therefore, the continued reliability of wire systems, even as they age, is critical. Condition Monitoring (CM) of installed wire systems is an important part of any aging program, both during the first 40 years of the qualified life and even more in anticipation of the license renewal for a nuclear power plant. This report contains the results of experiments performed in collaboration with Tecnatom SA, Spain, to compare several cable condition monitoring techniques including LIRA (LIne Resonance Analysis) (au)

  17. Proteomic analysis of osteogenic differentiation of dental follicle precursor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsczeck, Christian; Petersen, Jørgen; Völlner, Florian

    2009-01-01

    proteins, plastin 3 T-isoform, beta-actin, superoxide dismutases, and transgelin were found to be highly up-regulated, whereas cofilin-1, pro-alpha 1 collagen, destrin, prolyl 4-hydrolase and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase were found to be highly down-regulated. The group of up-regulated proteins...... is associated with actin-bundling and defence against oxidative cellular stress, whereas down-regulated proteins were associated with collagen biosynthesis. Bioinformatic analyses of the entire data set confirmed these findings that represent significant steps towards the understanding of DFPC differentiation....... The bioinformatic analyses suggest that proteins associated with cell cycle progression and protein metabolism were down-regulated and proteins involved in catabolism, cell motility and biological quality were up-regulated. These results display the general physiological state of DFPCs before and after osteogenic...

  18. Inverse spectral analysis for singular differential operators with matrix coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour el Houda Mahmoud

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Let $L_alpha$ be the Bessel operator with matrix coefficients defined on $(0,infty$ by $$ L_alpha U(t = U''(t+ {I/4-alpha^2over t^2}U(t, $$ where $alpha$ is a fixed diagonal matrix. The aim of this study, is to determine, on the positive half axis, a singular second-order differential operator of $L_alpha+Q$ kind and its various properties from only its spectral characteristics. Here $Q$ is a matrix-valued function. Under suitable circumstances, the solution is constructed by means of the spectral function, with the help of the Gelfund-Levitan process. The hypothesis on the spectral function are inspired on the results of some direct problems. Also the resolution of Fredholm's equations and properties of Fourier-Bessel transforms are used here.

  19. ANALYSIS OF A HEAT-FLUX DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY INSTRUMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements are used to estimate the fractional latent heat release during phase changes. There are temperature lags inherent to the instruments due to the temperature measurement at a different location than that of the sample and reference materials. Recently, Dong and Hunt[1] showed that significant improvement in estimating the fractional latent heat can be obtained when detailed simulations of the heat transfer within the instrument are performed. The Netzsch DSC 404C instrument, with a high accuracy heat capacity sensor, is considered in this study. This instrument had a different configuration than that studied by Dong and Hunt[1]. The applicability of Dong and Hunt's approach to this instrument is investigated. It was found that the DSC instrument could be described by numerous parameters but that model parameters were difficult to estimate. Numerical simulation results are presented and compared with experimental results for the fractional latent heat of a commercial A356 aluminum alloy.

  20. Differential Geometric Analysis of Alterations in MH α-Helices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hischenhuber, Birgit; Havlicek, Hans; Todoric, Jelena; Höllrigl-Binder, Sonja; Schreiner, Wolfgang; Knapp, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Antigen presenting cells present processed peptides via their major histocompatibility (MH) complex to the T cell receptors (TRs) of T cells. If a peptide is immunogenic, a signaling cascade can be triggered within the T cell. However, the binding of different peptides and/or different TRs to MH is also known to influence the spatial arrangement of the MH α-helices which could itself be an additional level of T cell regulation. In this study, we introduce a new methodology based on differential geometric parameters to describe MH deformations in a detailed and comparable way. For this purpose, we represent MH α-helices by curves. On the basis of these curves, we calculate in a first step the curvature and torsion to describe each α-helix independently. In a second step, we calculate the distribution parameter and the conical curvature of the ruled surface to describe the relative orientation of the two α-helices. On the basis of four different test sets, we show how these differential geometric parameters can be used to describe changes in the spatial arrangement of the MH α-helices for different biological challenges. In the first test set, we illustrate on the basis of all available crystal structures for (TR)/pMH complexes how the binding of TRs influences the MH helices. In the second test set, we show a cross evaluation of different MH alleles with the same peptide and the same MH allele with different peptides. In the third test set, we present the spatial effects of different TRs on the same peptide/MH complex. In the fourth test set, we illustrate how a severe conformational change in an α-helix can be described quantitatively. Taken together, we provide a novel structural methodology to numerically describe subtle and severe alterations in MH α-helices for a broad range of applications. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23703160

  1. Magnetic resonance velocity imaging derived pressure differential using control volume analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Benjamin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosis and treatment of hydrocephalus is hindered by a lack of systemic understanding of the interrelationships between pressures and flow of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain. Control volume analysis provides a fluid physics approach to quantify and relate pressure and flow information. The objective of this study was to use control volume analysis and magnetic resonance velocity imaging to non-invasively estimate pressure differentials in vitro. Method A flow phantom was constructed and water was the experimental fluid. The phantom was connected to a high-resolution differential pressure sensor and a computer controlled pump producing sinusoidal flow. Magnetic resonance velocity measurements were taken and subsequently analyzed to derive pressure differential waveforms using momentum conservation principles. Independent sensor measurements were obtained for comparison. Results Using magnetic resonance data the momentum balance in the phantom was computed. The measured differential pressure force had amplitude of 14.4 dynes (pressure gradient amplitude 0.30 Pa/cm. A 12.5% normalized root mean square deviation between derived and directly measured pressure differential was obtained. These experiments demonstrate one example of the potential utility of control volume analysis and the concepts involved in its application. Conclusions This study validates a non-invasive measurement technique for relating velocity measurements to pressure differential. These methods may be applied to clinical measurements to estimate pressure differentials in vivo which could not be obtained with current clinical sensors.

  2. Wire metamaterials: physics and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simovski, Constantin R; Belov, Pavel A; Atrashchenko, Alexander V; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2012-08-16

    The physics and applications of a broad class of artificial electromagnetic materials composed of lattices of aligned metal rods embedded in a dielectric matrix are reviewed. Such structures are here termed wire metamaterials. They appear in various settings and can operate from microwaves to THz and optical frequencies. An important group of these metamaterials is a wire medium possessing extreme optical anisotropy. The study of wire metamaterials has a long history, however, most of their important and useful properties have been revealed and understood only recently, especially in the THz and optical frequency ranges where the wire media correspond to the lattices of microwires and nanowires, respectively. Another group of wire metamaterials are arrays and lattices of nanorods of noble metals whose unusual properties are driven by plasmonic resonances. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. FIRAS wire grid characterization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Richard D.; Magner, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Characterization techniques used to verify the quality and spectral performance of the large freestanding wire grid polarizing beamsplitters and input/output polarizers used in the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) are presented. The clear aperture of these grids is lined with 20.8 micron diameter gold coated tungsten wire, spaced 33 microns apart. The grid characteristics measured throughout fabrication and space flight qualification are the center to center wire spacing and wire plane flatness. Ideally, the wire grids should produce coherent wavefronts with equal reflectance and transmittance properties. When the spacing is inconsistent, these wavefront intensities are unequal, thus decreasing the efficiency of the grids and reducing the output signal of the FIRAS. The magnitude of the output interferogram is also reduced by incoherence in the interfering wave fronts caused by uneven flatness.

  4. RNA-Seq Analysis of Differential Splice Junction Usage and Intron Retentions by DEXSeq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafang Li

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing is an important biological process in the generation of multiple functional transcripts from the same genomic sequences. Differential analysis of splice junctions (SJs and intron retentions (IRs is helpful in the detection of alternative splicing events. In this study, we conducted differential analysis of SJs and IRs by use of DEXSeq, a Bioconductor package originally designed for differential exon usage analysis in RNA-seq data analysis. We set up an analysis pipeline including mapping of RNA-seq reads, the preparation of count tables of SJs and IRs as the input files, and the differential analysis in DEXSeq. We analyzed the public RNA-seq datasets generated from RNAi experiments on Drosophila melanogaster S2-DRSC cells to deplete RNA-binding proteins (GSE18508. The analysis confirmed previous findings on the alternative splicing of the trol and Ant2 (sesB genes in the CG8144 (ps-depletion experiment and identified some new alternative splicing events in other RNAi experiments. We also identified IRs that were confirmed in our SJ analysis. The proposed method used in our study can output the genomic coordinates of differentially used SJs and thus enable sequence motif search. Sequence motif search and gene function annotation analysis helped us infer the underlying mechanism in alternative splicing events. To further evaluate this method, we also applied the method to public RNA-seq data from human breast cancer (GSE45419 and the plant Arabidopsis (SRP008262. In conclusion, our study showed that DEXSeq can be adapted to differential analysis of SJs and IRs, which will facilitate the identification of alternative splicing events and provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of transcription processes and disease development.

  5. RNA-Seq Analysis of Differential Splice Junction Usage and Intron Retentions by DEXSeq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yafang; Rao, Xiayu; Mattox, William W.; Amos, Christopher I.; Liu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing is an important biological process in the generation of multiple functional transcripts from the same genomic sequences. Differential analysis of splice junctions (SJs) and intron retentions (IRs) is helpful in the detection of alternative splicing events. In this study, we conducted differential analysis of SJs and IRs by use of DEXSeq, a Bioconductor package originally designed for differential exon usage analysis in RNA-seq data analysis. We set up an analysis pipeline including mapping of RNA-seq reads, the preparation of count tables of SJs and IRs as the input files, and the differential analysis in DEXSeq. We analyzed the public RNA-seq datasets generated from RNAi experiments on Drosophila melanogaster S2-DRSC cells to deplete RNA-binding proteins (GSE18508). The analysis confirmed previous findings on the alternative splicing of the trol and Ant2 (sesB) genes in the CG8144 (ps)-depletion experiment and identified some new alternative splicing events in other RNAi experiments. We also identified IRs that were confirmed in our SJ analysis. The proposed method used in our study can output the genomic coordinates of differentially used SJs and thus enable sequence motif search. Sequence motif search and gene function annotation analysis helped us infer the underlying mechanism in alternative splicing events. To further evaluate this method, we also applied the method to public RNA-seq data from human breast cancer (GSE45419) and the plant Arabidopsis (SRP008262). In conclusion, our study showed that DEXSeq can be adapted to differential analysis of SJs and IRs, which will facilitate the identification of alternative splicing events and provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of transcription processes and disease development. PMID:26327458

  6. SAFARI digital processing unit: performance analysis of the SpaceWire links in case of a LEON3-FT based CPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusi, Giovanni; Liu, Scige J.; Di Giorgio, Anna M.; Galli, Emanuele; Pezzuto, Stefano; Farina, Maria; Spinoglio, Luigi

    2014-08-01

    SAFARI (SpicA FAR infrared Instrument) is a far-infrared imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer for the SPICA mission. The Digital Processing Unit (DPU) of the instrument implements the functions of controlling the overall instrument and implementing the science data compression and packing. The DPU design is based on the use of a LEON family processor. In SAFARI, all instrument components are connected to the central DPU via SpaceWire links. On these links science data, housekeeping and commands flows are in some cases multiplexed, therefore the interface control shall be able to cope with variable throughput needs. The effective data transfer workload can be an issue for the overall system performances and becomes a critical parameter for the on-board software design, both at application layer level and at lower, and more HW related, levels. To analyze the system behavior in presence of the expected SAFARI demanding science data flow, we carried out a series of performance tests using the standard GR-CPCI-UT699 LEON3-FT Development Board, provided by Aeroflex/Gaisler, connected to the emulator of the SAFARI science data links, in a point-to-point topology. Two different communication protocols have been used in the tests, the ECSS-E-ST-50-52C RMAP protocol and an internally defined one, the SAFARI internal data handling protocol. An incremental approach has been adopted to measure the system performances at different levels of the communication protocol complexity. In all cases the performance has been evaluated by measuring the CPU workload and the bus latencies. The tests have been executed initially in a custom low level execution environment and finally using the Real- Time Executive for Multiprocessor Systems (RTEMS), which has been selected as the operating system to be used onboard SAFARI. The preliminary results of the carried out performance analysis confirmed the possibility of using a LEON3 CPU processor in the SAFARI DPU, but pointed out, in agreement

  7. Study on in-situ WC particles/tungsten wire reinforced iron matrix composites under electromagnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu Libin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available By applying electromagnetic field to a system consisting of tungsten wires and grey cast iron melt, the grey cast iron matrix composite reinforced by either in-situ WC particles or the combination of in-situ WC particles and the residual tungsten wire was obtained. By means of differential thermal analysis (DTA, the pouring temperature of iron melt was determined at 1,573 K. The microstructures of the composites were analyzed by using of X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM equipped with an energy dispersive spectrum (EDS and pin-on-disc abrasive wear test. The obtained results indicated that, with the enhancing frequency of electromagnetic field, the amount of in-situ WC particles gradually increases, leading to continuous decrease of the residual tungsten wires. When the electromagnetic field frequency was up to 4 kHz, tungsten wires reacted completely with carbon atoms in grey cast iron melt, forming WC particals. The electromagnetic field appeared to accelerate the elemental diffusion in the melt, to help relatively quick formation of a series of small Fe-W-C ternary zones and to improve the kinetic condition of in-situ WC fabrication. As compared with the composite prepared without the electromagnetic field, the composite fabricated at 4 kHz presented good wear resistance.

  8. Nano-storage wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Jun; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Daesan; Park, Juhun; Hong, Seunghun

    2013-08-27

    We report the development of "nano-storage wires" (NSWs), which can store chemical species and release them at a desired moment via external electrical stimuli. Here, using the electrodeposition process through an anodized aluminum oxide template, we fabricated multisegmented nanowires composed of a polypyrrole segment containing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules, a ferromagnetic nickel segment, and a conductive gold segment. Upon the application of a negative bias voltage, the NSWs released ATP molecules for the control of motor protein activities. Furthermore, NSWs can be printed onto various substrates including flexible or three-dimensional structured substrates by direct writing or magnetic manipulation strategies to build versatile chemical storage devices. Since our strategy provides a means to store and release chemical species in a controlled manner, it should open up various applications such as drug delivery systems and biochips for the controlled release of chemicals.

  9. The role of temperature in copper wire drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noseda, Corrado

    -isothermal temperature conditions at 25°C, 100°C, 150°C, 200°C, and 250°C using a custom designed apparatus. The surface appearance, together with the calculated coefficients of friction, gave indications as to the prevailing lubrication mechanism, which turned out to be of the boundary type in most cases, except at 100°C, where surface shaving was observed. Hardness measurements, tensile testing, metallographical investigations, as well as texture analysis indicated that at least partial recrystallization occurs when the wire is exposed to temperatures of 200°C and beyond during drawing. An account was also given on the annealing response of the as-drawn wire, by applying the concept of annealing index, a parameter that encompasses annealing time and temperature.

  10. SWRH82B热轧盘条拉拔笔尖状断口分析%Analysis on Penpoint Fracture During Drawing of SWRH82B Wire Rod

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉岗; 袁子成; 温国栋

    2011-01-01

    The penpoint fracture wire sample of SWRH82B steel was analyzed by SEM and microscope.The result showed that the main reason of wire broken in direct drawing was high network cementite in hot rolled rod.Furthermore,suggestions were put forward to improve%针对φ12.5 mm SWRH82B热轧盘条拉拔笔尖状断口缺陷,采用扫描电子显微镜和金相显微镜进行了专题研究。结果显示:盘条心部存在网状渗碳体是导致笔尖状断口的主要原因,并提出消除该缺陷的措施与办法。

  11. Calculation and Analysis of Differential Corrections for BeiDou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sainan; Chen, Junping; Zhang, Yize

    2015-04-01

    BeiDou Satellite Navigation System has been providing service forAsia-Pacific area. BeiDou uses observations of regional monitoring network to determine satellite orbit, which limits the satellite orbit accuracy. And the satellite clock error is produced by time synchronization system. The time synchronization delay of antenna device is general obtained through prior Calibration, and the residual calibration error is included in the satellite clock, which affects the prediction accuracy of satellite clock error. In this paper, we study the algorithms of Beidou differential corrections to improve the accuracy of satellite signals to improve the user positioning accuracy. In this algorithm, both pseudo-range and phase observations are used to calculate differential corrections. We process pseudo-range observations to obtain equivalent satellite clock error, which include satellite clock errors and orbit radial errors, as well as the average projection of orbit tangential and normal errors in combination. And the epoch-difference of phase observations are processed to eliminate the ambiguity which simplifies algorithms and ensure the relative accuracy (corrections variety between the epochs). Observations more than 10 stations in China are processed, and the equivalent clock error calculation results are analyzed, which shows that the satellite UDRE are significantly reduced and user location accuracy improves when the equivalent clock error corrections are applied. The residuals deducting equivalent satellite clock error contains the projection difference of satellite orbit error in all station (tangential and normal errors are main). We utilize the residuals to solve the tangential and normal orbit errors which cause the projection difference. The same observation data is processed. The results show that after calculating three-dimensional corrections, the satellite UDRE doesn't improve significantly compared to equivalent satellite clock error corrections and user

  12. Prediction of grain deformation in drawn copper wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Chao-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most copper wire is produced using a drawing process. The crystallographic texture of copper wire, which is strongly associated with grain deformation, can have a profound effect on the formability and mechanical and electrical properties. Thus, the ability to predict grain deformation in drawn copper wire could help to elucidate the evolution of microstructure, which could be highly valuable in product design. This study developed a novel method for predicting grain deformation in drawn copper wire based on finite element simulation with flow net analysis. Simple upsetting tests were conducted to obtain flow stress curves for the simulation of the drawing process. Predictions related to grain deformation were compared with those on the micrographs of the drawn copper wire obtained in experiments. In longitudinal and transverse cross-sections of the drawn wire, the predicted and experiment results presented similar trends involving considerable deformation within the grains. This preliminary study demonstrates the efficacy of the proposed method in providing information useful to the prediction of the grain deformation in drawn copper wire.

  13. 钢丝绳淋油装置的改造设计及故障分析%Design and Fault Analysis of Wire Rope Oil Dripping Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆亚娟

    2014-01-01

    本文主要分析了钢丝绳除油装置设计技术难点、创新点以及电气原理图设计,最后分析总结了常见故障的分析及解决方法。%This paper mainly analyzes the difficult points and innovative points of steel wire rope in design and electrical schematic diagram, finally summarizes the common problems and solutions.

  14. Analytical redundancy management mechanization and flight data analysis for the F-8 digital fly-by-wire aircraft flight control sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    The details are presented of an onboard digital computer algorithm designed to reliably detect and isolate the first failure in a duplex set of flight control sensors aboard the NASA F-8 digital fly-by-wire aircraft. The algorithm's successful flight test program is summarized, and specific examples are presented of algorithm behavior in response to software-induced signal faults, both with and without aircraft parameter modeling errors.

  15. Wire chambers with their magnetostrictive readout

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    This set of wire chamber planes shaped as a cylinder sector was installed inside the magnet of a polarized spin target modified to allow as well momentum analysis of the produced particles. The experiment (S126) was set up by the CERN-Trieste Collaboration in the PS beam m9 to measure spin effects in the associated production of of a positive kaon and a positive Sigma by interaction of a positive pion with polarized protons.

  16. Spectral analysis of difference and differential operators in weighted spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bichegkuev, M S [North-Ossetia State University, Vladikavkaz (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-30

    This paper is concerned with describing the spectrum of the difference operator K:l{sub α}{sup p}(Z,X)→l{sub α}{sup p}(Z......athscrKx)(n)=Bx(n−1),  n∈Z,  x∈l{sub α}{sup p}(Z,X), with a constant operator coefficient B, which is a bounded linear operator in a Banach space X. It is assumed that K acts in the weighted space l{sub α}{sup p}(Z,X), 1≤p≤∞, of two-sided sequences of vectors from X. The main results are obtained in terms of the spectrum σ(B) of the operator coefficient B and properties of the weight function. Applications to the study of the spectrum of a differential operator with an unbounded operator coefficient (the generator of a strongly continuous semigroup of operators) in weighted function spaces are given. Bibliography: 23 titles.

  17. Analysis of interdiffusion between SmFeAsO0.92F0.08 and metals for ex situ fabrication of superconducting wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, M.; Matoba, M.; Ozaki, T.; Takano, Y.; Kumakura, H.; Kamihara, Y.

    2011-07-01

    To find good sheath materials that react minimally with the superconducting core of iron-based superconducting wires, we investigated the reaction between polycrystalline SmFeAsO0.92F0.08 and the following seven metals: Cu, Fe, Ni, Ta, Nb, Cr and Ti. Each of the seven metals was prepared as a sheath-material candidate. The interfacial microstructures of SmFeAsO0.92F0.08 and these metal-sheath samples were analysed by an electron probe microanalyzer after annealing at 1000 °C for 20 h. Amongst the seven metal-sheath samples, we found that Cu was the best, because it reacted only very weakly with polycrystalline SmFeAsO0.92F0.08. Moreover, Cu is essential for superconducting wires as a stabilizing material. Metal sheaths made of Fe and Ni do not give rise to reaction layers, but large interdiffusion between these metals and polycrystalline SmFeAsO0.92F0.08 occurs. In contrast, metal sheaths made of Ta, Nb, Cr and Ti do form reaction layers. Their reaction layers apparently prevent electric current from flowing from the sheath material to the superconducting core. In general, through this research, Cu will be expected to be suitable not only as a stabilizing material but also as a sheath material for superconducting Sm-1111 wire fabricated by the ex situ PIT method.

  18. FTIR Spectroscopic and Molecular Analysis during Differentiation of Pluripotent Stem Cells to Pancreatic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Zapien, Gustavo Jesus; Mata-Miranda, Monica Maribel; Sanchez-Monroy, Virginia; Delgado-Macuil, Raul Jacobo; Perez-Ishiwara, David Guillermo; Rojas-Lopez, Marlon

    2016-01-01

    Some of the greatest challenges in stem cells (SCs) biology and regenerative medicine are differentiation control of SCs and ensuring the purity of differentiated cells. In this work, we differentiated mouse pluripotent stem cells (mPSCs) toward pancreatic cells characterizing this differentiation process by molecular and spectroscopic technics. Both mPSCs and Differentiated Pancreatic Cells (DPCs) were subjected to a genetic, phenotypic, and biochemical analysis by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), immunocytochemistry, and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Cultured mPCSs expressed pluripotent genes and proteins (Nanog and SOX2). DPCs expressed endodermal genes (SOX17 and Pdx1) at day 11, an inductor gene of embryonic pancreas development (Pdx1) at day 17 and pancreas genes and proteins (Insulin and Glucagon) at day 21 of differentiation. Likewise, FTIR spectra of mPSCs and DPCs at different maturation stages (11, 17, and 21 days) were obtained and showed absorption bands related with different types of biomolecules. These FTIR spectra exhibited significant spectral changes agreeing with the differentiation process, particularly in proteins and nucleic acids bands. In conclusion, the obtained DPCs passed through the chronological stages of embryonic pancreas development and FTIR spectra provide a new biophysical parameter based on molecular markers indicating the differentiation process of mPSCs to specialized cells.

  19. FTIR Spectroscopic and Molecular Analysis during Differentiation of Pluripotent Stem Cells to Pancreatic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Jesus Vazquez-Zapien

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of the greatest challenges in stem cells (SCs biology and regenerative medicine are differentiation control of SCs and ensuring the purity of differentiated cells. In this work, we differentiated mouse pluripotent stem cells (mPSCs toward pancreatic cells characterizing this differentiation process by molecular and spectroscopic technics. Both mPSCs and Differentiated Pancreatic Cells (DPCs were subjected to a genetic, phenotypic, and biochemical analysis by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR, immunocytochemistry, and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. Cultured mPCSs expressed pluripotent genes and proteins (Nanog and SOX2. DPCs expressed endodermal genes (SOX17 and Pdx1 at day 11, an inductor gene of embryonic pancreas development (Pdx1 at day 17 and pancreas genes and proteins (Insulin and Glucagon at day 21 of differentiation. Likewise, FTIR spectra of mPSCs and DPCs at different maturation stages (11, 17, and 21 days were obtained and showed absorption bands related with different types of biomolecules. These FTIR spectra exhibited significant spectral changes agreeing with the differentiation process, particularly in proteins and nucleic acids bands. In conclusion, the obtained DPCs passed through the chronological stages of embryonic pancreas development and FTIR spectra provide a new biophysical parameter based on molecular markers indicating the differentiation process of mPSCs to specialized cells.

  20. FTIR Spectroscopic and Molecular Analysis during Differentiation of Pluripotent Stem Cells to Pancreatic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Miranda, Monica Maribel; Sanchez-Monroy, Virginia; Delgado-Macuil, Raul Jacobo; Perez-Ishiwara, David Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Some of the greatest challenges in stem cells (SCs) biology and regenerative medicine are differentiation control of SCs and ensuring the purity of differentiated cells. In this work, we differentiated mouse pluripotent stem cells (mPSCs) toward pancreatic cells characterizing this differentiation process by molecular and spectroscopic technics. Both mPSCs and Differentiated Pancreatic Cells (DPCs) were subjected to a genetic, phenotypic, and biochemical analysis by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), immunocytochemistry, and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Cultured mPCSs expressed pluripotent genes and proteins (Nanog and SOX2). DPCs expressed endodermal genes (SOX17 and Pdx1) at day 11, an inductor gene of embryonic pancreas development (Pdx1) at day 17 and pancreas genes and proteins (Insulin and Glucagon) at day 21 of differentiation. Likewise, FTIR spectra of mPSCs and DPCs at different maturation stages (11, 17, and 21 days) were obtained and showed absorption bands related with different types of biomolecules. These FTIR spectra exhibited significant spectral changes agreeing with the differentiation process, particularly in proteins and nucleic acids bands. In conclusion, the obtained DPCs passed through the chronological stages of embryonic pancreas development and FTIR spectra provide a new biophysical parameter based on molecular markers indicating the differentiation process of mPSCs to specialized cells. PMID:27651798

  1. Differential expression analysis of RNA-seq data at single-base resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazee, Alyssa C; Sabunciyan, Sarven; Hansen, Kasper D; Irizarry, Rafael A; Leek, Jeffrey T

    2014-07-01

    RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) is a flexible technology for measuring genome-wide expression that is rapidly replacing microarrays as costs become comparable. Current differential expression analysis methods for RNA-seq data fall into two broad classes: (1) methods that quantify expression within the boundaries of genes previously published in databases and (2) methods that attempt to reconstruct full length RNA transcripts. The first class cannot discover differential expression outside of previously known genes. While the second approach does possess discovery capabilities, statistical analysis of differential expression is complicated by the ambiguity and variability incurred while assembling transcripts and estimating their abundances. Here, we propose a novel method that first identifies differentially expressed regions (DERs) of interest by assessing differential expression at each base of the genome. The method then segments the genome into regions comprised of bases showing similar differential expression signal, and then assigns a measure of statistical significance to each region. Optionally, DERs can be annotated using a reference database of genomic features. We compare our approach with leading competitors from both current classes of differential expression methods and highlight the strengths and weaknesses of each. A software implementation of our method is available on github (https://github.com/alyssafrazee/derfinder).

  2. Digital deblurring based on linear-scale differential analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezzubik, Vitali; Belashenkov, Nikolai; Vdovin, Gleb V.

    2014-09-01

    A novel method of sharpness improvement is proposed for digital images. This method is realized via linear multi-scale analysis of source image and sequent synthesis of restored image. The analysis comprises the procedure of computation of intensity gradient values using the special filters providing simultaneous edge detection and noise filtering. Restoration of image sharpness is achieved by simple subtraction of some discrete recovery function from blurred image. Said recovery function is calculated as a sum of several normalized gradient responses found by linear multi-scale analysis using the operation of spatial transposition of those gradient response values relative the points of zero-crossing of first derivatives of gradients. The proposed method provides the restoration of sharpness of edges in digital image without additional operation of spatial noise filtering and a priori knowledge of blur kernel.

  3. Spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis for differential diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. V. Filonenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-invasive diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions by spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis (SIA-scopy using device for dermatoscopy (SIAscope V by Astron Clinica, Ltd was approved in P.A.Herzen Moscow Cancer Research Institute. The method is based on analysis of light interaction with wavelength of 440–960 nm anf human skin, which is recorded by change of image on scan. The comparative analysis of SIA-scopy and histological data in 327 pigmented skin lesions in 147 patients showed, that SIA had high diagnostic efficiency for cutaneous melanoma: the sensitivity was 96%, specifity – 94%, diagnostic accuracy – 94%. For study of malignant potential of pigmented lesions by SIA-scopy the most informative capacity was obtained for assessment of melanin in papillary dermis, status of blood vessels and collagen fibres (SIA-scans 3, 4, 5.

  4. Higher-order terms in sensitivity analysis through a differential approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubi, A.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1981-06-01

    A differential approach to sensitivity analysis has been developed that eliminates some difficulties existing in previous work. The new development leads to simple explicit expressions for the first-order perturbation as well as any higher-order terms. The higher-order terms are dependent only on differentials of the transport operator, the unperturbed flux, the adjoint flux, and the unperturbed Green's function of the system.

  5. Efficient experimental design and analysis strategies for the detection of differential expression using RNA-Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robles José A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq has emerged as a powerful approach for the detection of differential gene expression with both high-throughput and high resolution capabilities possible depending upon the experimental design chosen. Multiplex experimental designs are now readily available, these can be utilised to increase the numbers of samples or replicates profiled at the cost of decreased sequencing depth generated per sample. These strategies impact on the power of the approach to accurately identify differential expression. This study presents a detailed analysis of the power to detect differential expression in a range of scenarios including simulated null and differential expression distributions with varying numbers of biological or technical replicates, sequencing depths and analysis methods. Results Differential and non-differential expression datasets were simulated using a combination of negative binomial and exponential distributions derived from real RNA-Seq data. These datasets were used to evaluate the performance of three commonly used differential expression analysis algorithms and to quantify the changes in power with respect to true and false positive rates when simulating variations in sequencing depth, biological replication and multiplex experimental design choices. Conclusions This work quantitatively explores comparisons between contemporary analysis tools and experimental design choices for the detection of differential expression using RNA-Seq. We found that the DESeq algorithm performs more conservatively than edgeR and NBPSeq. With regard to testing of various experimental designs, this work strongly suggests that greater power is gained through the use of biological replicates relative to library (technical replicates and sequencing depth. Strikingly, sequencing depth could be reduced as low as 15% without substantial impacts on false positive or true positive rates.

  6. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, J.

    1990-05-01

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an {sup 55}Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed.

  7. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of cluster of differentiation 47 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshimizu, Hisatsugu; Takao, Keizo; Matozaki, Takashi; Ohnishi, Hiroshi; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Cluster of differentiation 47 (CD47) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily which functions as a ligand for the extracellular region of signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα), a protein which is abundantly expressed in the brain. Previous studies, including ours, have demonstrated that both CD47 and SIRPα fulfill various functions in the central nervous system (CNS), such as the modulation of synaptic transmission and neuronal cell survival. We previously reported that CD47 is involved in the regulation of depression-like behavior of mice in the forced swim test through its modulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of SIRPα. However, other potential behavioral functions of CD47 remain largely unknown. In this study, in an effort to further investigate functional roles of CD47 in the CNS, CD47 knockout (KO) mice and their wild-type littermates were subjected to a battery of behavioral tests. CD47 KO mice displayed decreased prepulse inhibition, while the startle response did not differ between genotypes. The mutants exhibited slightly but significantly decreased sociability and social novelty preference in Crawley's three-chamber social approach test, whereas in social interaction tests in which experimental and stimulus mice have direct contact with each other in a freely moving setting in a novel environment or home cage, there were no significant differences between the genotypes. While previous studies suggested that CD47 regulates fear memory in the inhibitory avoidance test in rodents, our CD47 KO mice exhibited normal fear and spatial memory in the fear conditioning and the Barnes maze tests, respectively. These findings suggest that CD47 is potentially involved in the regulation of sensorimotor gating and social behavior in mice.

  8. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of cluster of differentiation 47 knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisatsugu Koshimizu

    Full Text Available Cluster of differentiation 47 (CD47 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily which functions as a ligand for the extracellular region of signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα, a protein which is abundantly expressed in the brain. Previous studies, including ours, have demonstrated that both CD47 and SIRPα fulfill various functions in the central nervous system (CNS, such as the modulation of synaptic transmission and neuronal cell survival. We previously reported that CD47 is involved in the regulation of depression-like behavior of mice in the forced swim test through its modulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of SIRPα. However, other potential behavioral functions of CD47 remain largely unknown. In this study, in an effort to further investigate functional roles of CD47 in the CNS, CD47 knockout (KO mice and their wild-type littermates were subjected to a battery of behavioral tests. CD47 KO mice displayed decreased prepulse inhibition, while the startle response did not differ between genotypes. The mutants exhibited slightly but significantly decreased sociability and social novelty preference in Crawley's three-chamber social approach test, whereas in social interaction tests in which experimental and stimulus mice have direct contact with each other in a freely moving setting in a novel environment or home cage, there were no significant differences between the genotypes. While previous studies suggested that CD47 regulates fear memory in the inhibitory avoidance test in rodents, our CD47 KO mice exhibited normal fear and spatial memory in the fear conditioning and the Barnes maze tests, respectively. These findings suggest that CD47 is potentially involved in the regulation of sensorimotor gating and social behavior in mice.

  9. Power Transformer Differential Protection Based on Neural Network Principal Component Analysis, Harmonic Restraint and Park's Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Tripathy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new approach for power transformer differential protection which is based on the wave-shape recognition technique. An algorithm based on neural network principal component analysis (NNPCA with back-propagation learning is proposed for digital differential protection of power transformer. The principal component analysis is used to preprocess the data from power system in order to eliminate redundant information and enhance hidden pattern of differential current to discriminate between internal faults from inrush and overexcitation conditions. This algorithm has been developed by considering optimal number of neurons in hidden layer and optimal number of neurons at output layer. The proposed algorithm makes use of ratio of voltage to frequency and amplitude of differential current for transformer operating condition detection. This paper presents a comparative study of power transformer differential protection algorithms based on harmonic restraint method, NNPCA, feed forward back propagation neural network (FFBPNN, space vector analysis of the differential signal, and their time characteristic shapes in Park’s plane. The algorithms are compared as to their speed of response, computational burden, and the capability to distinguish between a magnetizing inrush and power transformer internal fault. The mathematical basis for each algorithm is briefly described. All the algorithms are evaluated using simulation performed with PSCAD/EMTDC and MATLAB.

  10. Identification and analysis of differentially expressed genes in differentiating xylem of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guifeng; Gao, Yan; Yang, Liwei; Shi, Jisen

    2007-12-01

    Wood is an important raw material for global industries with rapidly increasing demand. To isolate the genes differentially expressed during xylogenesis of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.), we used a novel system. Forward and reverse subtracted cDNA libraries were constructed using the suppression subtractive hybridization method; for the forward library we used cDNA from the mutant Dugansha as the tester and cDNA from the wild-type clone Jurong 0 as the driver, and for the reverse library we used Jurong 0 cDNA as the tester and Dugansha cDNA as the driver. Transcriptional profiling was performed using a macroarray with 4 digoxigenin-labeled probes. We obtained 618 and 409 clones from the forward and the reverse subtracted library, respectively. A total of 405 unique expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were obtained. Forty percent of the ESTs exhibited homologies with proteins of known function and fell into 4 major classes: metabolism, cell wall biogenesis and remodeling, signal transduction, and stress. Real-time PCR was performed to confirm the results. The expression levels of 11 selected ESTs were consistent with both macroarray and real-time PCR results. The systematic analysis of genes involved in wood formation in Chinese fir provides valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in xylem differentiation and is an important resource for forest research that can be directed toward understanding the genetic control of wood formation and future endeavors to modify wood and fiber properties for industrial use.

  11. Multiresolution Analysis by Infinitely Differentiable Compactly Supported Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    Z 2. Wavelet decompositions The up function provides an interesting example of wavelet decompositions via multiresolution. A general discussion of...Math. Surveys 45:1 (1990), 87-120. [I] (;. Strang and G. Fix, A Fourier analysis of the finite element variational method. C.I.M.F. I 1 Ciclo 1971, in Constructi’c Aspects of Functional Analyszs ed. G. Geymonat 1973, 793-840. 10

  12. The ultrasonographic features of endometriomas: morphologic analysis and differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Sung; Park, Chan Sup; Song, Soon Young; Lee, Eun Ja; Park, No Hyuck [College of Medicine, Kwandong Univ., Koyang (Korea, Republic of); Park, Cheol Min [College of Medicine, Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bo Hyun; Kim, Chan Kyo [College of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-01

    septation, wall nodularity, focal echogenic wall foci, and a solid area, all of which were also apparent in group I. The US findings of endometriomas vary: the most common is homogeneous fine internal echoes (79%), found in 85% of unilocular or multiseptated cysts. Their appearance may also be atypical, however: namely solid and cystic or mixed type, with diverse internal echogenicity, and such masses should be differentiated from other adnexal masses such as cystic neoplasm, teratoma, hemorrhagic cyst, functional cyst and ovarian cancer.

  13. An analysis of income differentials by marital status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Madalozzo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Unmarried cohabitation has become a more frequently observed phenomenon over the last three decades, and not only in the United States. The objective of this work is to examine income differentials between married women and those who remain single or cohabitate. The empirical literature shows that, while the marriage premium is verified in different studies for men, the result for women is not conclusive. The main innovation of my study is the existence of controls for selection. In this study, we have two sources of selectivity: into the labor force and into a marital status category. The switching regressions and the Oaxaca decomposition results demonstrate the existence of a significant penalty for marriage. Correcting for both types of selection, the difference in wages varies between 49% and 53%, when married women are compared with cohabiting ones, and favors non-married women. This result points to the existence of a marriage penalty.O casamento não oficializado, coabitação, tem se tornado cada vez mais freqüente nas últimas décadas. O objetivo deste trabalho é examinar a relação entre os salários das mulheres casadas e das solteiras ou coabitantes. A literatura a este respeito mostra que, enquanto o prêmio financeiro para o casamento é verificado em diversos estudos e países quando o objeto de estudo são os homens, o resultado para mulheres não é conclusivo. A principal inovação do presente estudo é a existência de controles para seleção, tanto na escolha em participar da força de trabalho como de alterar seu estado civil. Regressões "switching" e decomposição de Oaxaca mostram a existência de uma penalização financeira para mulheres casadas. Corrigindo para ambos os tipos de seleção, a diferença nos salários das mulheres casadas com relação às coabitantes varia entre 49% e 53%, favorecendo as coabitantes. Este resultado aponta para a existência de uma penalidade ao casamento.

  14. A methodology for the analysis of differential coexpression across the human lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillis Jesse

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differential coexpression is a change in coexpression between genes that may reflect 'rewiring' of transcriptional networks. It has previously been hypothesized that such changes might be occurring over time in the lifespan of an organism. While both coexpression and differential expression of genes have been previously studied in life stage change or aging, differential coexpression has not. Generalizing differential coexpression analysis to many time points presents a methodological challenge. Here we introduce a method for analyzing changes in coexpression across multiple ordered groups (e.g., over time and extensively test its validity and usefulness. Results Our method is based on the use of the Haar basis set to efficiently represent changes in coexpression at multiple time scales, and thus represents a principled and generalizable extension of the idea of differential coexpression to life stage data. We used published microarray studies categorized by age to test the methodology. We validated the methodology by testing our ability to reconstruct Gene Ontology (GO categories using our measure of differential coexpression and compared this result to using coexpression alone. Our method allows significant improvement in characterizing these groups of genes. Further, we examine the statistical properties of our measure of differential coexpression and establish that the results are significant both statistically and by an improvement in semantic similarity. In addition, we found that our method finds more significant changes in gene relationships compared to several other methods of expressing temporal relationships between genes, such as coexpression over time. Conclusion Differential coexpression over age generates significant and biologically relevant information about the genes producing it. Our Haar basis methodology for determining age-related differential coexpression performs better than other tested methods. The

  15. Group analysis of evolutionary integro-differential equations describing nonlinear waves: the general model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibragimov, Nail H [Department of Mathematics and Science, Blekinge Institute of Technology, SE-371 79 Karlskrona (Sweden); Meleshko, Sergey V [School of Mathematics, Institute of Science, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Rudenko, Oleg V, E-mail: nib@bth.se, E-mail: sergey@math.sut.ac.th, E-mail: rudenko@acs366.phys.msu.ru [Department of Physics, Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-08-05

    The paper deals with an evolutionary integro-differential equation describing nonlinear waves. A particular choice of the kernel in the integral leads to well-known equations such as the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya equation, the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation and others. Since the solutions of these equations describe many physical phenomena, the analysis of the general model studied in this paper is important. One of the methods for obtaining solutions of differential equations is provided by the Lie group analysis. However, this method is not applicable to integro-differential equations. Therefore, we discuss new approaches developed in modern group analysis and apply them to the general model considered in this paper. Reduced equations and exact solutions are also presented.

  16. Particle concentration measurement of virus samples using electrospray differential mobility analysis and quantitative amino acid analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Kenneth D; Pease, Leonard F; Tsai, De-Hao; Singh, Tania; Lute, Scott; Brorson, Kurt A; Wang, Lili

    2009-07-24

    Virus reference materials are needed to develop and calibrate detection devices and instruments. We used electrospray differential mobility analysis (ES-DMA) and quantitative amino acid analysis (AAA) to determine the particle concentration of three small model viruses (bacteriophages MS2, PP7, and phiX174). The biological activity, purity, and aggregation of the virus samples were measured using plaque assays, denaturing gel electrophoresis, and size-exclusion chromatography. ES-DMA was developed to count the virus particles using gold nanoparticles as internal standards. ES-DMA additionally provides quantitative measurement of the size and extent of aggregation in the virus samples. Quantitative AAA was also used to determine the mass of the viral proteins in the pure virus samples. The samples were hydrolyzed and the masses of the well-recovered amino acids were used to calculate the equivalent concentration of viral particles in the samples. The concentration of the virus samples determined by ES-DMA was in good agreement with the concentration predicted by AAA for these purified samples. The advantages and limitations of ES-DMA and AAA to characterize virus reference materials are discussed.

  17. A comparison of wire- and Kevlar-reinforced provisional restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, D B; Nicholls, J I; Yuodelis, R A; Strygler, H

    1994-01-01

    Stainless steel wire 0.036 inch in diameter was compared with Kevlar 49 polyaramid fiber as a means of reinforcing a four-unit posterior provisional fixed restoration with 2 pontics. Three reinforcement patterns for wire and two for Kevlar 49 were evaluated and compared with the control, which was an unreinforced provisional restoration. A central tensile load was placed on the cemented provisional restoration and the variables were measured: (1) the initial stiffness; (2) the load at initial fracture; and (3) the unit toughness, or the energy stored in the beam at a point where the load had undergone a 1.0-mm deflection. Statistical analysis showed (1) the bent wire configuration had a significantly higher initial stiffness (P < or = .05), (2) there was no difference between designs for load at initial fracture, and (3) the bent wire had a significantly higher unit toughness value (P < or = .05).

  18. "Cut wires grating – single longitudinal wire" planar metastructure to achieve microwave magnetic resonance in a single wire

    OpenAIRE

    G. Kraftmakher; V. Butylkin

    2012-01-01

    Here we present metastructures containing cut-wire grating and a single longitudinal cut-wire orthogonal to grating’s wires. Experimental investigations at microwaves show these structures can provide strong magnetic resonant response of a single nonmagnetic cut-wire in dependence on configuration and sizes in the case when metastructures are oriented along the direction of wave propagation and cut-wires of grating are parallel to the electric field of a plane electromagnetic wave. It is sugg...

  19. A proteomic analysis during serial subculture and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hyun Jin; Bahk, Young Yil; Choi, Yon Rak; Shim, Jung Hye; Han, Seung Hwan; Lee, Jin Woo

    2006-11-01

    Although previous studies have reported the effects of extensive subculturing on proliferation rates and osteogenic potential of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), the results remain controversial. The aim of our study was to characterize the proliferation and osteogenic potential of hMSCs during serial subculture, and also to identify proteins that are differentially regulated in hMSCs during serial subculture and osteogenic differentiation using proteome analysis. Here we show that the proliferation and osteogenic capacity of hMSCs decrease during serial subculturing. Several proteins were shown to be differentially regulated during serial subculture; among these the expression of T-complex protein 1 alpha subunit (TCP-1alpha), a protein known to be associated with cell proliferation, cell cycle, morphological changes, and apoptosis, gradually decreased during serial subculture. Among proteins that were differentially regulated during osteogenic differentiation, chloride intracellular channel 1 (CLIC1) was downregulated only during the early passages eukaryotic translation elongation factor, and acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein P0 was downregulated during the middle passages, while annexin V, LIM, and SH3 domain protein 1 (LASP-1), and 14-3-3 protein gamma (YWHAG) were upregulated during the later passage. These studies suggest that differentially regulated passage-specific proteins may play a role in the decrease of osteogenic differentiation potential under serial subculturing.

  20. Investigation of used Conveyor Belts by the Differential Scanning Calorimetry Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Knapcikova,

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented the use of differential scanning calorimetry analysis of the used conveyor belts. This method has been specifically tested on the individual components contained in the used conveyor belts esp. rubber pellets, cord and fabric. The result of the analysis is the determination of Tg temperature and melting temperatures (Tm by the components.Weanalyzed used conveyor belts and after this analysis it was determined components and their application to the industry

  1. MultiRankSeq: multiperspective approach for RNAseq differential expression analysis and quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan; Zhao, Shilin; Ye, Fei; Sheng, Quanhu; Shyr, Yu

    2014-01-01

    After a decade of microarray technology dominating the field of high-throughput gene expression profiling, the introduction of RNAseq has revolutionized gene expression research. While RNAseq provides more abundant information than microarray, its analysis has proved considerably more complicated. To date, no consensus has been reached on the best approach for RNAseq-based differential expression analysis. Not surprisingly, different studies have drawn different conclusions as to the best approach to identify differentially expressed genes based upon their own criteria and scenarios considered. Furthermore, the lack of effective quality control may lead to misleading results interpretation and erroneous conclusions. To solve these aforementioned problems, we propose a simple yet safe and practical rank-sum approach for RNAseq-based differential gene expression analysis named MultiRankSeq. MultiRankSeq first performs quality control assessment. For data meeting the quality control criteria, MultiRankSeq compares the study groups using several of the most commonly applied analytical methods and combines their results to generate a new rank-sum interpretation. MultiRankSeq provides a unique analysis approach to RNAseq differential expression analysis. MultiRankSeq is written in R, and it is easily applicable. Detailed graphical and tabular analysis reports can be generated with a single command line.

  2. Superconducting wires and fractional flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá de Melo, C. A. R.

    1996-05-01

    The quantization of flux quanta in superconductors is revisited and analyzed in a new geometry. The system analyzed is a superconducting wire. The geometry is such that the superconducting wire winds N times around an insulating cylinder and that the wire has its end connected back to its beginning, thus producing an N-loop short circuited solenoid. The winding number N acts as a topological index that controls flux quantization. In this case, fractional flux quanta can be measured through the center of the insulating cylinder, provided that the cylinder radius is small enough. The Little-Parks experiment for an identical geometry is discussed. The period of oscillation of the transition temperature of the wire is found to vary as 1/N in units of flux Φ relative to the flux quantum Φ0. When a SQUID is made in such a geometry the maximal current through the SQUID varies with period Φ0/N.

  3. Wire ropes tension, endurance, reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Feyrer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to present the methods used to calculate the most important parameters for ropes, and to explain how they are applied on the basis of numerous sample calculations. The book, based on the most important chapters of the German book DRAHTSEILE, has been updated to reflect the latest developments, with the new edition especially focusing on computational methods for wire ropes. Many new calculations and examples have also been added to facilitate the dimensioning and calculation of mechanical characteristics of wire ropes. This book offers a valuable resource for all those working with wire ropes, including construction engineers, operators and supervisors of machines and installations involving wire ropes.

  4. Wire Jewelry/Black History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Robert A.; Robinson, Charles C.

    1984-01-01

    Described is a project which made the study of Black history more real to fifth graders by having them make wire jewelry, smaller versions of the ornate filigreed ironwork produced by slave blacksmiths. (RM)

  5. Dieless wire drawing with lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedl, G.; Schuöcker, D.

    2007-06-01

    Thin wires are produced by drawing through nozzle-like tools, so called dies, that suffer from strong wear due to friction. In order to avoid the latter disadvantage the dies can be replaced by a laser beam heating the wire to such extend that the yield strength becomes smaller than the tensile strength and thus the wire is elongated and consequently constricted. To avoid rupture, the wire is cooled down again after the desired reduction of the diameter is reached. A further important advantage of this new process is that only one drawing step with a laser can substitute a large number of mechanical drawing actions, thus making the process much more efficient. Theoretical considerations and experimental investigations prove the feasibility of the latter new laser process and are subject to a description in the actual paper.

  6. Analysis of planetary evolution with emphasis on differentiation and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaula, William M.; Newman, William I.

    1987-01-01

    In order to address the early stages of nebula evolution, a three-dimensional collapse code which includes not only hydrodynamics and radiative transfer, but also the effects of ionization and, possibly, magnetic fields is being addressed. As part of the examination of solar system evolution, an N-body code was developed which describes the latter stages of planet formation from the accretion of planetesimals. To test the code for accuracy and run-time efficiency, and to develop a stronger theoretical foundation, problems were studied in orbital dynamics. A regional analysis of the correlation in the gravity and topography fields of Venus was performed in order to determine the small and intermediate scale subsurface structure.

  7. CCD Photometry of bright stars using objective wire mesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiński, Krzysztof; Zgórz, Marika [Astronomical Observatory Institute, Faculty of Physics, A. Mickiewicz University, Słoneczna 36, 60-286 Poznań (Poland); Schwarzenberg-Czerny, Aleksander, E-mail: chrisk@amu.edu.pl [Copernicus Astronomical Centre, ul. Bartycka 18, PL 00-716 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-06-01

    Obtaining accurate photometry of bright stars from the ground remains problematic due to the danger of overexposing the target and/or the lack of suitable nearby comparison stars. The century-old method of using objective wire mesh to produce multiple stellar images seems promising for the precise CCD photometry of such stars. Furthermore, our tests on β Cep and its comparison star, differing by 5 mag, are very encouraging. Using a CCD camera and a 20 cm telescope with the objective covered by a plastic wire mesh, in poor weather conditions, we obtained differential photometry with a precision of 4.5 mmag per two minute exposure. Our technique is flexible and may be tuned to cover a range as big as 6-8 mag. We discuss the possibility of installing a wire mesh directly in the filter wheel.

  8. A review of theoretical and numerical analysis for nonlinear stiff Volterrafunctional differential equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shoufu LI

    2009-01-01

    In this review,we present the recent work of the author in comparison with various related results obtained by other authors in literature.We first recall the stability,contractivity and asymptotic stability results of the true solution to nonlinear stiff Volterra functional differential equations (VFDEs),then a series of stability,contractivity,asymptotic stability and B-convergence results of Runge-Kutta methods for VFDEs is presented in detail.This work provides a unified theoretical foundation for the theoretical and numerical analysis of nonlinear stiff problems in delay differential equations (DDEs),integro-differential equations (IDEs),delayintegro-differential equations (DIDEs) and VFDEs of other type which appear in practice.

  9. Network integrated wiring information technology strategy analysis%网络综合布线信息化技术策略分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹弘毅

    2014-01-01

    计算机技术的极大发展带动了社会各个行业,发生了翻天覆地的变化,对于数据信息的传输也达到了前所未有的高度,特别是网络综合布线系统,使信息化社会的发展进入到了一个新的层面。不论是图像、文字还是语言,都能够做到及时准确地传递,保证数据的安全性和完整性。通过进一步提高网络综合布线的信息化技术,使得其数据传输能力得以加强,为有效推广网络综合布线系统打下了坚实的基础。%The great development of computer technology,and so did the society each industry,great changes have taken place,for data transmission also reached an unprecedented height,especially network integrated wiring system,making the development of the information society come to a new level.Both images and text and language,to be able to achieve the timely and accurate transmission,ensure data security and integrity. Through further improve the information technology of network integrated wiring,makes the data transmission ability to strengthen,toeffectively promote network integrated wiring system has laid a solid foundation.

  10. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury. The insulation shall not be punctured for test purposes. Splice in underground wire shall have insulation...

  11. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury. The insulation shall not be punctured for test purposes. A splice in underground wire shall have...

  12. Composite conductor containing superconductive wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, W.L.; Wong, J.

    1974-03-26

    A superconductor cable substitute made by coworking multiple rods of superconductive niobium--titanium or niobium--zirconium alloy with a common copper matrix to extend the copper and rods to form a final elongated product which has superconductive wires distributed in a reduced cross-section copper conductor with a complete metallurgical bond between the normal-conductive copper and the superconductor wires contained therein is described. The superconductor cable can be in the form of a tube.

  13. Method of manufacturing superconductor wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motowidlo, Leszek

    2014-09-16

    A method for forming Nb.sub.3Sn superconducting wire is provided. The method employs a powder-in-tube process using a high-tin intermetallic compound, such as MnSn.sub.2, for producing the Nb.sub.3Sn. The use of a high-tin intermetallic compound enables the process to perform hot extrusion without melting the high-tin intermetallic compound. Alternatively, the method may entail drawing the wire without hot extrusion.

  14. Topology Optimized Photonic Wire Splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Borel, Peter Ingo; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard;

    2006-01-01

    Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm.......Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm....

  15. 1 mil gold bond wire study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2013-05-01

    In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

  16. Analysis on HEMP Effects of Double Metal Cavities with Penetrated Wire%双层金属腔体贯通导线HEMP耦合特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴焱杰; 赵煜; 许凯

    2014-01-01

    电磁脉冲( EMP )对电子设备构成严重威胁,研究电子设备HEMP效应是电磁兼容与电子设备安全领域的迫切需求。多层金属腔体是电子设备较为常见的一种结构形式,以一种带贯通导线的双层金属腔体为研究对象,基于时域有限差分方法( FDTD)建立计算模型,分析计算了贯通导线在高空核爆电磁脉冲( HEMP )入射波作用下对腔体内电路的耦合效应。仿真结果表明,贯通导线能将入射脉冲能量耦合进腔体内部,使内电路负载产生感应电流,当入射电场与贯通导线平面相互平行时影响较大,但相互垂直时仍会耦合一部分能量。所得结论可为多层腔体的电磁防护设计提供依据。%Electromagnetic pulses ( EMP ) have a serious threat on electronic equipment, so the study of HEMP effects is an urgent task in the fields of electromagnetic compatibility and electronic equipment safety. Multi⁃layer metal cavities are common struc⁃tures of electronic equipment, so the paper focuses on a kind of double wall cavities with penetrated wire. Based on the finite difference time domain method ( FDTD) , it analyses and calculates the internal circuit coupling effects of the penetrated wire in a structure of double wall cavities under the high-altitude electromagnetic pulse ( HEMP ) plane wave. The results show that the penetrated wires couple the incident pulse energy into the internal cavity, so load current is induced in the internal circuit; there is a greater impact when the incident electric field is parallel to the plane of the penetrated wires, but when they are perpendicular to each other, part of the energy is still coupled. The conclusions provide a reference for the electromagnetic protective design of multi-layer cavities.

  17. HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  18. Wire Scanner Motion Control Card

    CERN Document Server

    Forde, S E

    2006-01-01

    Scientists require a certain beam quality produced by the accelerator rings at CERN. The discovery potential of LHC is given by the reachable luminosity at its interaction points. The luminosity is maximized by minimizing the beam size. Therefore an accurate beam size measurement is required for optimizing the luminosity. The wire scanner performs very accurate profile measurements, but as it can not be used at full intensity in the LHC ring, it is used for calibrating other profile monitors. As the current wire scanner system, which is used in the present CERN accelerators, has not been made for the required specification of the LHC, a new design of a wire scanner motion control card is part of the LHC wire scanner project. The main functions of this card are to control the wire scanner motion and to acquire the position of the wire. In case of further upgrades at a later stage, it is required to allow an easy update of the firmware, hence the programmable features of FPGAs will be used for this purpose. The...

  19. Vibrating wires for beam diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Arutunian, S G; Wittenburg, Kay

    2015-01-01

    A new approach to the technique of scanning by wires is developed. Novelty of the method is that the wire heating quantity is used as a source of information about the number of interacting particles. To increase the accuracy and sensitivity of measurements the wire heating measurement is regenerated as a change of wire natural oscillations frequency. By the rigid fixing of the wire ends on the base an unprecedented sensitivity of the frequency to the temperature and to the corresponding flux of colliding particles. The range of used frequencies (tens of kHz) and speed of processes of heat transfer limit the speed characteristics of proposed scanning method, however, the high sensitivity make it a perspective one for investigation of beam halo and weak beam scanning. Traditional beam profile monitors generally focus on the beam core and loose sensitivity in the halo region where a large dynamic range of detection is necessary. The scanning by a vibrating wire can be also successfully used in profiling and det...

  20. Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Evolved Gas Analysis of Hydromagnesite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Golden, D. C.; Ming, Douglas W.; Boynton, W. V.

    1999-01-01

    Volatile-bearing minerals (e.g., Fe-oxyhydroxides, phyllosilicates, carbonates and sulfates) may be important phases on the surface of Mars. In order to characterize these phases the Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) flying on the Mars'98 lander will perform analyses on surface samples from Mars. Hydromagnesite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2.4H2O] is considered a good standard mineral to examine as a Mars soil analog component because it evolves both H2O and CO2 at temperatures between 0 and 600 C. Our aim here is to interpret the DSC signature of hydromagnesite under ambient pressure and 20 sccm N2 flow in the range 25 to 600 C. The DSC curve for hydromagnesite under the above conditions consists of three endothermic peaks at temperatures 296, 426, and 548 and one sharp exotherm at 511 C. X-ray analysis of the sample at different stop temperatures suggested that the exotherm corresponded with the formation of crystalline magnesite. The first endotherm was due to dehydration of hydromagnesite, and then the second one was due to the decomposition of carbonate, immediately followed by the formation of magnesite (exotherm) and its decomposition to periclase (last endotherm). Evolution of water and CO2 were consistent with the observed enthalpy changes. A library of such DSC-evolved gas curves for putative Martian minerals are currently being acquired in order to facilitate the interpretation of results obtained by a robotic lander.

  1. Osteogenic Differentiation of MSC through Calcium Signaling Activation: Transcriptomics and Functional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viti, Federica; Landini, Martina; Mezzelani, Alessandra; Petecchia, Loredana; Milanesi, Luciano; Scaglione, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The culture of progenitor mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) onto osteoconductive materials to induce a proper osteogenic differentiation and mineralized matrix regeneration represents a promising and widely diffused experimental approach for tissue-engineering (TE) applications in orthopaedics. Among modern biomaterials, calcium phosphates represent the best bone substitutes, due to their chemical features emulating the mineral phase of bone tissue. Although many studies on stem cells differentiation mechanisms have been performed involving calcium-based scaffolds, results often focus on highlighting production of in vitro bone matrix markers and in vivo tissue ingrowth, while information related to the biomolecular mechanisms involved in the early cellular calcium-mediated differentiation is not well elucidated yet. Genetic programs for osteogenesis have been just partially deciphered, and the description of the different molecules and pathways operative in these differentiations is far from complete, as well as the activity of calcium in this process. The present work aims to shed light on the involvement of extracellular calcium in MSC differentiation: a better understanding of the early stage osteogenic differentiation program of MSC seeded on calcium-based biomaterials is required in order to develop optimal strategies to promote osteogenesis through the use of new generation osteoconductive scaffolds. A wide spectrum of analysis has been performed on time-dependent series: gene expression profiles are obtained from samples (MSC seeded on calcium-based scaffolds), together with related microRNAs expression and in vivo functional validation. On this basis, and relying on literature knowledge, hypotheses are made on the biomolecular players activated by the biomaterial calcium-phosphate component. Interestingly, a key role of miR-138 was highlighted, whose inhibition markedly increases osteogenic differentiation in vitro and enhance ectopic bone formation in vivo

  2. Osteogenic Differentiation of MSC through Calcium Signaling Activation: Transcriptomics and Functional Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Viti

    Full Text Available The culture of progenitor mesenchymal stem cells (MSC onto osteoconductive materials to induce a proper osteogenic differentiation and mineralized matrix regeneration represents a promising and widely diffused experimental approach for tissue-engineering (TE applications in orthopaedics. Among modern biomaterials, calcium phosphates represent the best bone substitutes, due to their chemical features emulating the mineral phase of bone tissue. Although many studies on stem cells differentiation mechanisms have been performed involving calcium-based scaffolds, results often focus on highlighting production of in vitro bone matrix markers and in vivo tissue ingrowth, while information related to the biomolecular mechanisms involved in the early cellular calcium-mediated differentiation is not well elucidated yet. Genetic programs for osteogenesis have been just partially deciphered, and the description of the different molecules and pathways operative in these differentiations is far from complete, as well as the activity of calcium in this process. The present work aims to shed light on the involvement of extracellular calcium in MSC differentiation: a better understanding of the early stage osteogenic differentiation program of MSC seeded on calcium-based biomaterials is required in order to develop optimal strategies to promote osteogenesis through the use of new generation osteoconductive scaffolds. A wide spectrum of analysis has been performed on time-dependent series: gene expression profiles are obtained from samples (MSC seeded on calcium-based scaffolds, together with related microRNAs expression and in vivo functional validation. On this basis, and relying on literature knowledge, hypotheses are made on the biomolecular players activated by the biomaterial calcium-phosphate component. Interestingly, a key role of miR-138 was highlighted, whose inhibition markedly increases osteogenic differentiation in vitro and enhance ectopic bone

  3. Immunophenotypic and molecular analysis of human dental pulp stem cells potential for neurogenic differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhat Fatima

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Growing evidence shows that dental pulp (DP tissues could be a potential source of adult stem cells for the treatment of devastating neurological diseases and several other conditions. Aims: Exploration of the expression profile of several key molecular markers to evaluate the molecular dynamics in undifferentiated and differentiated DP-derived stem cells (DPSCs in vitro. Settings and Design: The characteristics and multilineage differentiation ability of DPSCs were determined by cellular and molecular kinetics. DPSCs were further induced to form adherent (ADH and non-ADH (NADH neurospheres under serum-free condition which was further induced into neurogenic lineage cells and characterized for their molecular and cellular diversity at each stage. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis used one-way analysis of variance, Student's t-test, Livak method for relative quantification, and R programming. Results: Immunophenotypic analysis of DPSCs revealed> 80% cells positive for mesenchymal markers CD90 and CD105, >70% positive for transferring receptor (CD71, and> 30% for chemotactic factor (CXCR3. These cells showed mesodermal differentiation also and confirmed by specific staining and molecular analysis. Activation of neuronal lineage markers and neurogenic growth factors was observed during lineage differentiation of cells derived from NADH and ADH spheroids. Greater than 80% of cells were found to express β-tubulin III in both differentiation conditions. Conclusions: The present study reported a cascade of immunophenotypic and molecular markers to characterize neurogenic differentiation of DPSCs under serum-free condition. These findings trigger the future analyses for clinical applicability of DP-derived cells in regenerative applications.

  4. Load-deflection characteristics of superelastic and thermal nickel-titanium wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Elda; Matarese, Giovanni; Di Bella, Guido; Nucera, Riccardo; Borsellino, Chiara; Cordasco, Giancarlo

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical properties of superelastic and thermal nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwires for correct selection of orthodontic wires. Seven different NiTi wires of two different sizes (0.014 and 0.016 inches), commonly used during the alignment phase, were tested. A three-point bending test was carried out to evaluate the load-deflection characteristics. The archwires were subjected to bending at a constant temperature of 37°C and deflections of 2 and 4 mm. Analysis of variance showed that thermal NiTi wires exerted significantly lower working forces than superelastic wires of the same size in all experimental tests (P Wire size had a significant effect on the forces produced: with an increase in archwire dimension, the released strength increased for both thermal and superelastic wires. Superelastic wires showed, at a deflection of 2 mm, narrow and steep hysteresis curves in comparison with the corresponding thermal wires, which presented a wide interval between loading and unloading forces. During unloading at 4 mm of deflection, all wires showed curves with a wider plateau when compared with 2 mm deflection. Such a difference for the superelastic wires was caused by the martensite stress induced at higher deformation levels. A comprehensive understanding of mechanical characteristics of orthodontic wires is essential and selection should be undertaken in accordance with the behaviour of the different wires. It is also necessary to take into account the biomechanics used. In low-friction mechanics, thermal NiTi wires are to be preferred to superelastic wires, during the alignment phase due to their lower working forces. In conventional straightwire mechanics, a low force archwire would be unable to overcome the resistance to sliding.

  5. Improved wire stiffness with modified connection bolts in Ilizarov external frames: a biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessmann, Jan; Jettkant, Birger; Königshausen, Matthias; Schildhauer, Thomas Armin; Seybold, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    Frame stability in Ilizarov external fixators is mainly dependent on the tension of the transosseous wires, which are clamped to the ring by connection bolts. It was the purpose of this biomechanical study to investigate the holding capacity of a modified bolt design featuring a ruffled wire-bolt interface (TrueLok™) and its influence on wire stiffness in comparison with that of classic bolts featuring a smooth, unruffled wire-bolt interface. Six different ring and bolt configurations were tested using a simplified model consisting of a single ring and wire. The holding capacity at two different tightening torques (10 and 14 Nm) of classic cannulated bolts (CB) and slotted bolts (SB) was determined on Ilizarov and Taylor Spatial Frame (TSF™) rings, whereas the modified TrueLok™ CBs and SBs were used with the TrueLok™ rings. The wire stiffness was calculated via a regression analysis of the load-displacement graphs. The modified TrueLok™ bolts demonstrated significantly better slippage resistance than the classic bolts in all configurations and wire stiffness was significantly higher in the TrueLok™ frame set-ups. After maximum loading, all of the wires showed plastic deformation, including constant wire deflection and dent marks at the clamped wire ends. In conclusion, the decrease in wire stiffness can be explained mainly as a result of wire slippage, but plastic deformation and material yielding also contribute. The relatively simple modification made by roughening the wire-bolt interface results in improved holding capacity and wire stiffness. A frame that contains these modified TrueLok™ bolts should provide improved mechanical stiffness.

  6. Morphological, molecular and FTIR spectroscopic analysis during the differentiation of kidney cells from pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Miranda, Monica Maribel; Vazquez-Zapien, Gustavo Jesus; Rojas-Lopez, Marlon; Sanchez-Monroy, Virginia; Perez-Ishiwara, David Guillermo; Delgado-Macuil, Raul Jacobo

    2017-04-04

    Kidney diseases are a global health problem. Currently, over 2 million people require dialysis or transplant which are associated with high morbidity and mortality; therefore, new researches focused on regenerative medicine have been developed, including the use of stem cells. In this research, we generate differentiated kidney cells (DKCs) from mouse pluripotent stem cells (mPSCs) analyzing their morphological, genetic, phenotypic, and spectroscopic characteristics along differentiation, highlighting that there are no reports of the use of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to characterize the directed differentiation of mPSCs to DKCs. The genetic and protein experiments proved the obtention of DKCs that passed through the chronological stages of embryonic kidney development. Regarding vibrational spectroscopy analysis by FTIR, bands related with biomolecules were shown on mPSCs and DKCs spectra, observing distinct differences between cell lineages and maturation stages. The second derivative of DKCs spectra showed changes in the protein bands compared to mPSCs. Finally, the principal components analysis obtained from FTIR spectra allowed to characterize chemical and structurally mPSCs and their differentiation process to DKCs in a rapid and non-invasive way. Our results indicated that we obtained DKCs from mPSCs, which passed through the chronological stages of embryonic kidney development. Moreover, FTIR spectroscopy resulted in a non-invasive, rapid and precise technic that together with principal component analysis allows to characterize chemical and structurally both kind of cells and also discriminate and determine different stages along the cell differentiation process.

  7. Connecting to Thermocouples with Fewer Lead Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsby, Jon C.

    2003-01-01

    A simple technique has been devised to reduce the number of lead wires needed to connect an array of thermocouples to the instruments (e.g., voltmeters) used to read their output voltages. Because thermocouple wires are usually made of expensive metal alloys, reducing the number of lead wires can effect a considerable reduction in the cost of such an array. Reducing the number of wires also reduces the number of terminals and the amount of space needed to accommodate the wires.

  8. Fractal analysis: fractal dimension and lacunarity from MR images for differentiating the grades of glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitha, K A; Gupta, A K; Jayasree, R S

    2015-09-07

    Glioma, the heterogeneous tumors originating from glial cells, generally exhibit varied grades and are difficult to differentiate using conventional MR imaging techniques. When this differentiation is crucial in the disease prognosis and treatment, even the advanced MR imaging techniques fail to provide a higher discriminative power for the differentiation of malignant tumor from benign ones. A powerful image processing technique applied to the imaging techniques is expected to provide a better differentiation. The present study focuses on the fractal analysis of fluid attenuation inversion recovery MR images, for the differentiation of glioma. For this, we have considered the most important parameters of fractal analysis, fractal dimension and lacunarity. While fractal analysis assesses the malignancy and complexity of a fractal object, lacunarity gives an indication on the empty space and the degree of inhomogeneity in the fractal objects. Box counting method with the preprocessing steps namely binarization, dilation and outlining was used to obtain the fractal dimension and lacunarity in glioma. Statistical analysis such as one-way analysis of variance and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis helped to compare the mean and to find discriminative sensitivity of the results. It was found that the lacunarity of low and high grade gliomas vary significantly. ROC curve analysis between low and high grade glioma for fractal dimension and lacunarity yielded 70.3% sensitivity and 66.7% specificity and 70.3% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity, respectively. The study observes that fractal dimension and lacunarity increases with an increase in the grade of glioma and lacunarity is helpful in identifying most malignant grades.

  9. Differential proteomic analysis highlights metabolic strategies associated with balhimycin production in Amycolatopsis balhimycina chemostat cultivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallo, Giuseppe; Alduina, Rosa; Renzone, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    , used to generate biomass for proteomic analysis, mycelia grew with the same rate and with similar glucose-biomass conversion efficiencies. Global gene expression analysis revealed a differential metabolic adaptation, highlighting strategies for energetic supply and biosynthesis of metabolic...... to balhimycin biosynthesis, and of phoP, phoR, pstS and phoD, known to be associated to Pi limitation stress response. 2D-Differential Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) and protein identification, performed by mass spectrometry and computer-assisted 2 D reference-map http......://www.unipa.it/ampuglia/Abal-proteome-maps webcite matching, demonstrated a differential expression for proteins involved in many metabolic pathways or cellular processes, including central carbon and phosphate metabolism. Interestingly, proteins playing a key role in generation of primary metabolism intermediates and cofactors required...

  10. Supporting service differentiation with enhancements of the IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol: Models and analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    As one of the fastest growing wireless access technologies, wireless LANs must evolve to support adequate degrees of service differentiation. Unfortunately, current WLAN standards like IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) lack this ability. Work is in progress to define an enhanced version capable of supporting QoS for multimedia traffic at the MAC layer. In this paper, we aim at gaining insight into three mechanisms to differentiate among traffic categories, i.e., differentiating the minimum contention window size, the Inter-Frame Spacing (IFS), and the length of the packet payload according to the priority of different traffic categories. We propose an analysis model to compute the throughput and packet transmission delays. In addition, we derive approximations to obtain simpler but more meaningful relationships among different parameters. Comparisons with discrete-event simulation results show that good accuracy of performance evaluation can be achieved by using the proposed analysis model.

  11. 82B盘条钢的组织性能及缺陷分析%Analysis on Microstructure and Properties and Defects of 82B Steel Wire Rod

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙莹; 于庆波

    2011-01-01

    通过对82B盘条钢的显微组织观察,研究了索氏体含量对82B盘条拉拔性能的影响,并对生产中常见的组织缺陷进行了分析.结果表明:生产中化学成分及工艺的不稳定是组织缺陷产生的主要原因;提高冷却速度可以增加索氏体含量、降低网状渗碳体含量;采用恒拉速可以减少块状渗碳体的形成.%By observing the microstructure of 82B steel wire rod, the effects of sorbite content on the drawing performance of 82B wire rod were investigated. The common defects in production were analyzed. The results indicate that the instability of chemical composition and technological process results in the defects. Increasing the cooling rate can increase the content of sorbite and decrease the content of network cementite; constant pulling speed can be used to decrease the formation of massive cementite.

  12. Analysis of Solidiifcation of High Manganese Steels Using Improved Differential Thermal Analysis Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-ling ZHUANG; Jian-hua LIU; Christian BERNHARD; Peter PRESOLY

    2015-01-01

    High manganese steels can damage the differential thermal analysis (DTA) instrument due to the manganese evaporation during high temperature experiments. After analyzing the relationship between residual oxygen and manganese evaporation, tanta-lum metal was employed to modify the crucible of DTA, and zirconium getter together with strict gas puriifcation measures were applied to control the volatilization of manganese. By these modiifcations, problems of thermocouple damage and DTA instrument contamination were successfully resolved. Cobalt samples were adopted to calibrate the accuracy of DTA instruments under the same trial condition of high manganese steel samples, and the detection error was conifrmed to be less than 1 °C. Liquidus and soli-dus temperatures of high Mn steels were measured by improved DTA method. It was found that the liquidus temperatures of sam-ples tested by experiments increased linearly with the heating rates. To eliminate the effects of the heating rate, equilibrium liquidus temperature was determined by iftting the liquidus temperatures at different heating rates, and referred as real liquidus temperature. No clear relationship between solidus temperatures and heating rates was found, and the solidus temperature was ifnally set as the average value of several experimental data.

  13. Analysis of regulatory network involved in mechanical induction of embryonic stem cell differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinan Zhang

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cells are conventionally differentiated by modulating specific growth factors in the cell culture media. Recently the effect of cellular mechanical microenvironment in inducing phenotype specific differentiation has attracted considerable attention. We have shown the possibility of inducing endoderm differentiation by culturing the stem cells on fibrin substrates of specific stiffness. Here, we analyze the regulatory network involved in such mechanically induced endoderm differentiation under two different experimental configurations of 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional culture, respectively. Mouse embryonic stem cells are differentiated on an array of substrates of varying mechanical properties and analyzed for relevant endoderm markers. The experimental data set is further analyzed for identification of co-regulated transcription factors across different substrate conditions using the technique of bi-clustering. Overlapped bi-clusters are identified following an optimization formulation, which is solved using an evolutionary algorithm. While typically such analysis is performed at the mean value of expression data across experimental repeats, the variability of stem cell systems reduces the confidence on such analysis of mean data. Bootstrapping technique is thus integrated with the bi-clustering algorithm to determine sets of robust bi-clusters, which is found to differ significantly from corresponding bi-clusters at the mean data value. Analysis of robust bi-clusters reveals an overall similar network interaction as has been reported for chemically induced endoderm or endodermal organs but with differences in patterning between 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional culture. Such analysis sheds light on the pathway of stem cell differentiation indicating the prospect of the two culture configurations for further maturation.

  14. Global transcriptome analysis of spore formation in Myxococcus xanthus reveals a locus necessary for cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treuner-Lange Anke

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myxococcus xanthus is a Gram negative bacterium that can differentiate into metabolically quiescent, environmentally resistant spores. Little is known about the mechanisms involved in differentiation in part because sporulation is normally initiated at the culmination of a complex starvation-induced developmental program and only inside multicellular fruiting bodies. To obtain a broad overview of the sporulation process and to identify novel genes necessary for differentiation, we instead performed global transcriptome analysis of an artificial chemically-induced sporulation process in which addition of glycerol to vegetatively growing liquid cultures of M. xanthus leads to rapid and synchronized differentiation of nearly all cells into myxospore-like entities. Results Our analyses identified 1 486 genes whose expression was significantly regulated at least two-fold within four hours of chemical-induced differentiation. Most of the previously identified sporulation marker genes were significantly upregulated. In contrast, most genes that are required to build starvation-induced multicellular fruiting bodies, but which are not required for sporulation per se, were not significantly regulated in our analysis. Analysis of functional gene categories significantly over-represented in the regulated genes, suggested large rearrangements in core metabolic pathways, and in genes involved in protein synthesis and fate. We used the microarray data to identify a novel operon of eight genes that, when mutated, rendered cells unable to produce viable chemical- or starvation-induced spores. Importantly, these mutants displayed no defects in building fruiting bodies, suggesting these genes are necessary for the core sporulation process. Furthermore, during the starvation-induced developmental program, these genes were expressed in fruiting bodies but not in peripheral rods, a subpopulation of developing cells which do not sporulate

  15. Molecular Analysis of Stromal Cells-Induced Neural Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ramila; Buchanan, James Carlton; Paruchuri, Sailaja; Morris, Nathan; Tavana, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Deriving specific neural cells from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is a promising approach for cell replacement therapies of neurodegenerative diseases. When co-cultured with certain stromal cells, mouse ESCs (mESCs) differentiate efficiently to neural cells. In this study, a comprehensive gene and protein expression analysis of differentiating mESCs is performed over a two-week culture period to track temporal progression of cells from a pluripotent state to specific terminally-differentiated neural cells such as neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Expression levels of 26 genes consisting of marker genes for pluripotency, neural progenitors, and specific neuronal, astroglial, and oligodendrocytic cells are tracked using real time q-PCR. The time-course gene expression analysis of differentiating mESCs is combined with the hierarchal clustering and functional principal component analysis (FPCA) to elucidate the evolution of specific neural cells from mESCs at a molecular level. These statistical analyses identify three major gene clusters representing distinct phases of transition of stem cells from a pluripotent state to a terminally-differentiated neuronal or glial state. Temporal protein expression studies using immunohistochemistry demonstrate the generation of neural stem/progenitor cells and specific neural lineages and show a close agreement with the gene expression profiles of selected markers. Importantly, parallel gene and protein expression analysis elucidates long-term stability of certain proteins compared to those with a quick turnover. Describing the molecular regulation of neural cells commitment of mESCs due to stromal signaling will help identify major promoters of differentiation into specific cell types for use in cell replacement therapy applications.

  16. Microarray analysis of differentially expressed genes in preeclamptic and normal placental tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, K; Lian, Y; Zhou, S; Hu, R; Xiong, Y; Ting, P; Xiong, Y; Li, X; Wang, X

    2014-01-01

    To detect the candidate genes for preeclampsia (PE). The gene expression profiles in preeclamptic and normal placental tissues were analyzed using cDNA microarray approach and the altered expression of important genes were further confirmed by real-time RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) technique. Total RNA was extracted from placental tissues of three cases with severe PE and from three cases with normal pregnancy. After scanning, differentially expressed genes were detected by software. In two experiments (the fluorescent labels were exchanged), a total of 111 differentially expressed genes were detected. In placental tissue ofpreeclamptic pregnancy, 68 differentially expressed genes were up-regulated, and 44 differentially expressed genes were down-regulated. Of these genes, 16 highly differentially expressed genes were confirmed by real-time fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR, and the result showed that the ratio of gene expression differences was comparable to that detected by cDNA microarray. The results of bioinformatic analysis showed that encoding products of differentially expressed genes were correlated to infiltration of placenta trophoblastic cells, immunomodulatory factors, pregnancy-associated plasma protein, signal transduction pathway, and cell adhesion. Further studies on the biological function and regulating mechanism of these genes will provide new clues for better understanding of etiology and pathogenesis of PE.

  17. Fractional Order Differentiation by Integration and Error Analysis in Noisy Environment

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Da Yan

    2015-03-31

    The integer order differentiation by integration method based on the Jacobi orthogonal polynomials for noisy signals was originally introduced by Mboup, Join and Fliess. We propose to extend this method from the integer order to the fractional order to estimate the fractional order derivatives of noisy signals. Firstly, two fractional order differentiators are deduced from the Jacobi orthogonal polynomial filter, using the Riemann-Liouville and the Caputo fractional order derivative definitions respectively. Exact and simple formulae for these differentiators are given by integral expressions. Hence, they can be used for both continuous-time and discrete-time models in on-line or off-line applications. Secondly, some error bounds are provided for the corresponding estimation errors. These bounds allow to study the design parameters\\' influence. The noise error contribution due to a large class of stochastic processes is studied in discrete case. The latter shows that the differentiator based on the Caputo fractional order derivative can cope with a class of noises, whose mean value and variance functions are polynomial time-varying. Thanks to the design parameters analysis, the proposed fractional order differentiators are significantly improved by admitting a time-delay. Thirdly, in order to reduce the calculation time for on-line applications, a recursive algorithm is proposed. Finally, the proposed differentiator based on the Riemann-Liouville fractional order derivative is used to estimate the state of a fractional order system and numerical simulations illustrate the accuracy and the robustness with respect to corrupting noises.

  18. Stem cell differentiation indicated by noninvasive photonic characterization and fractal analysis of subcellular architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalut, Kevin J; Kulangara, Karina; Wax, Adam; Leong, Kam W

    2011-08-01

    We hypothesised that global structural changes in stem cells would manifest with differentiation, and that these changes would be observable with light scattering microscopy. Analysed with a fractal dimension formalism, we observed significant structural changes in differentiating human mesenchymal stem cells within one day after induction, earlier than could be detected by gene expression profiling. Moreover, light scattering microscopy is entirely non-perturbative, so the same sample could be monitored throughout the differentiation process. We explored one possible mechanism, chromatin remodelling, to account for the changes we observed. Correlating with the staining of HP1α, a heterochromatin protein, we applied novel microscopy methods and fractal analysis to monitor the plastic dynamics of chromatin within stem cell nuclei. We showed that the level of chromatin condensation changed during differentiation, and provide one possible explanation for the changes seen with the light scattering method. These results lend physical insight into stem cell differentiation while providing physics-based methods for non-invasive detection of the differentiation process.

  19. Proteomic analysis reveals novel proteins associated with progression and differentiation of colorectal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Gan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study is to characterize differential proteomic expression among well-differentiation and poor-differentiation colorectal carcinoma tissues and normal mucous epithelium. Materials and Methods: The study is based on quantitative 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and analyzed by PDquest. Results: Excluding redundancies due to proteolysis and posttranslational modified isoforms of over 600 protein spots, 11 proteins were revealed as regulated with statistical variance being within the 95 th confidence level and were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting in matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Progression-associated proteins belong to the functional complexes of tumorigenesis, proliferation, differentiation, metabolism, and the regulation of major histocompatibility complex processing and other functions. Partial but significant overlap was revealed with previous proteomics and transcriptomics studies in CRC. Among various differentiation stage of CRC tissues, we identified calreticulin precursor, MHC class I antigen (human leukocyte antigen A , glutathione S-transferase pi1, keratin 8, heat shock protein 27, tubulin beta chain, triosephosphate, fatty acid-binding protein, hemoglobin (deoxy mutant with val b 1 replaced by met (HBB, and zinc finger protein 312 (FEZF2. Conclusions: Their functional networks were analyzed by Ingenuity systems Ingenuity Pathways Analysis and revealed the potential roles as novel biomarkers for progression in various differentiation stages of CRC.

  20. A study on the differential thermal analysis of clays and clay minerals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arens, P.L.

    1951-01-01

    Differential thermal analysis (DTA) as a method of analysing properties of chemical compounds, more especially of clay minerals, developed rapidly, but lack of quantitative interpretations left many problems to be studied. A historical review was presented, showing the purpose of the study.

  1. Gene differential coexpression analysis based on biweight correlation and maximum clique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chun-Hou; Yuan, Lin; Sha, Wen; Sun, Zhan-Li

    2014-01-01

    Differential coexpression analysis usually requires the definition of 'distance' or 'similarity' between measured datasets. Until now, the most common choice is Pearson correlation coefficient. However, Pearson correlation coefficient is sensitive to outliers. Biweight midcorrelation is considered to be a good alternative to Pearson correlation since it is more robust to outliers. In this paper, we introduce to use Biweight Midcorrelation to measure 'similarity' between gene expression profiles, and provide a new approach for gene differential coexpression analysis. Firstly, we calculate the biweight midcorrelation coefficients between all gene pairs. Then, we filter out non-informative correlation pairs using the 'half-thresholding' strategy and calculate the differential coexpression value of gene, The experimental results on simulated data show that the new approach performed better than three previously published differential coexpression analysis (DCEA) methods. Moreover, we use the maximum clique analysis to gene subset included genes identified by our approach and previously reported T2D-related genes, many additional discoveries can be found through our method.

  2. On the analysis of a complex differential game using artificial intelligence techniques [military systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shinar, J.; Siegel, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    The investigation is motivated by the dynamic conflict in an air-to-air combat between two aggressive aircraft, both equipped with medium-range guided missiles. It is a two-target differential game with two independent pursuit-evasion games. A description is given of the analysis of the conflict by

  3. Constructing a High-Sensitivity, Computer-Interfaced, Differential Thermal Analysis Device for Teaching and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, L. M.; Videa, M.; Mederos, F.; Mesquita, J.

    2007-01-01

    The construction of a new highly-sensitive, computer-interfaced, differential thermal analysis (DTA) device, used for gathering different information about the chemical reactions, is described. The instrument provides a better understanding about the phase transitions, phase diagrams and many more concepts to the students.

  4. Differential branching fraction and angular analysis of Lambda(0)(b) -> Lambda mu(+)mu(-) decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Cartelle, P. Alvarez; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M. -O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Perez, D. Campora; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casanova Mohr, R.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Garcia, L. Castillo; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Cheung, S. -F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Vidal, X. Cid; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Counts, I.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A. C.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C. -T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Deleage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suarez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; Rifai, I. El; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Faerber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Garcia Pardinas, J.; Garofoli, J.; Tico, J. Garra; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gastaldi, U.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Geraci, A.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Giani, S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Goebel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gotti, C.; Gandara, M. Grabalosa; Graciani Diaz, R.; Cardoso, L. A. Granado; Grauges, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Gruenberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hess, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J. -P.; Lefevre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrancois, J.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lowdon, P.; Lucchesi, D.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Marki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martinelli, M.; Santos, D. Martinez; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M. -N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Morda, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. -B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Mueller, K.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilar, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Navarro, A. Puig; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Perez, P. Rodriguez; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M. -H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Coutinho, R. Silva; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skillicorn, I.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N. A.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Sterpka, F.; Stevenson, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Gomez, R. Vazquez; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vazquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Barbosa, J. V. Viana; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voss, C.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Wandernoth, S.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.

    2015-01-01

    The differential branching fraction of the rare decay Lambda(0)(b) -> Lambda mu(+)mu(-) is measured as a function of q(2), the square of the dimuon invariant mass. The analysis is performed using proton-proton collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb(-1), collected by the

  5. Vulnerability of advanced encryption standard algorithm to differential power analysis attacks implemented on ATmega-128 microcontroller

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mpalane, Kealeboga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available encryption standard(AES) cryptographic algorithm implementation in a microcontroller crypto-device against differential power analysis (DPA) attacks. ChipWhisperer capture hardware Rev2 tool was used to collect 1000 power traces for DPA. We observed...

  6. Sex-Specific Differential Prediction of College Admission Tests: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Franziska T.; Schult, Johannes; Hell, Benedikt

    2013-01-01

    This is the first meta-analysis that investigates the differential prediction of undergraduate and graduate college admission tests for women and men. Findings on 130 independent samples representing 493,048 students are summarized. The underprediction of women's academic performance (d = 0.14) and the overprediction of men's academic performance…

  7. Constructing a High-Sensitivity, Computer-Interfaced, Differential Thermal Analysis Device for Teaching and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, L. M.; Videa, M.; Mederos, F.; Mesquita, J.

    2007-01-01

    The construction of a new highly-sensitive, computer-interfaced, differential thermal analysis (DTA) device, used for gathering different information about the chemical reactions, is described. The instrument provides a better understanding about the phase transitions, phase diagrams and many more concepts to the students.

  8. Multiparameter Analysis of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Identifies Distinct Immunomodulatory and Differentiation-Competent Subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. James (Sally); J. Fox (James); F. Afsari (Farinaz); J. Lee (Jennifer); S. Clough (Sally); C. Knight (Charlotte); J. Ashmore (James); P. Ashton (Peter); O. Preham (Olivier); M.J. Hoogduijn (Martin); R.D.A.R. Ponzoni (Raquel De Almeida Rocha); Y. Hancock; M. Coles (Mark); P.G. Genever (Paul)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also called bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells) provide hematopoietic support and immunoregulation and contain a stem cell fraction capable of skeletogenic differentiation. We used immortalized human BMSC clonal lines for multi-level analysis

  9. On the analysis of a complex differential game using artificial intelligence techniques [military systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shinar, J.; Siegel, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    The investigation is motivated by the dynamic conflict in an air-to-air combat between two aggressive aircraft, both equipped with medium-range guided missiles. It is a two-target differential game with two independent pursuit-evasion games. A description is given of the analysis of the conflict by

  10. Differential Item Functioning Analysis of the Mental, Emotional, and Bodily Toughness Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yong; Mack, Mick G.; Ragan, Moira A.; Ragan, Brian

    2012-01-01

    In this study the authors used differential item functioning analysis to examine if there were items in the Mental, Emotional, and Bodily Toughness Inventory functioning differently across gender and athletic membership. A total of 444 male (56.3%) and female (43.7%) participants (30.9% athletes and 69.1% non-athletes) responded to the Mental,…

  11. Improvements to Wire Bundle Thermal Modeling for Ampacity Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Steve L.; Iannello, Christopher J.; Shariff, Khadijah

    2017-01-01

    Determining current carrying capacity (ampacity) of wire bundles in aerospace vehicles is critical not only to safety but also to efficient design. Published standards provide guidance on determining wire bundle ampacity but offer little flexibility for configurations where wire bundles of mixed gauges and currents are employed with varying external insulation jacket surface properties. Thermal modeling has been employed in an attempt to develop techniques to assist in ampacity determination for these complex configurations. Previous developments allowed analysis of wire bundle configurations but was constrained to configurations comprised of less than 50 elements. Additionally, for vacuum analyses, configurations with very low emittance external jackets suffered from numerical instability in the solution. A new thermal modeler is presented allowing for larger configurations and is not constrained for low bundle infrared emissivity calculations. Formulation of key internal radiation and interface conductance parameters is discussed including the effects of temperature and air pressure on wire to wire thermal conductance. Test cases comparing model-predicted ampacity and that calculated from standards documents are presented.

  12. [SADE] a Maple package for the symmetry analysis of differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha Filho, Tarcísio M.; Figueiredo, Annibal

    2011-02-01

    We present the package SADE (Symmetry Analysis of Differential Equations) for the determination of symmetries and related properties of systems of differential equations. The main methods implemented are: Lie, nonclassical, Lie-Bäcklund and potential symmetries, invariant solutions, first-integrals, Nöther theorem for both discrete and continuous systems, solution of ordinary differential equations, order and dimension reductions using Lie symmetries, classification of differential equations, Casimir invariants, and the quasi-polynomial formalism for ODE's (previously implemented by the authors in the package QPSI) for the determination of quasi-polynomial first-integrals, Lie symmetries and invariant surfaces. Examples of use of the package are given. Program summaryProgram title: SADE Catalogue identifier: AEHL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEHL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC license, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 27 704 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 346 954 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: MAPLE 13 and MAPLE 14 Computer: PCs and workstations Operating system: UNIX/LINUX systems and WINDOWS Classification: 4.3 Nature of problem: Determination of analytical properties of systems of differential equations, including symmetry transformations, analytical solutions and conservation laws. Solution method: The package implements in MAPLE some algorithms (discussed in the text) for the study of systems of differential equations. Restrictions: Depends strongly on the system and on the algorithm required. Typical restrictions are related to the solution of a large over-determined system of linear or non-linear differential equations. Running time: Depends strongly on the order, the complexity of the differential

  13. Noninvasive average flow and differential pressure estimation for an implantable rotary blood pump using dimensional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Einly; Karantonis, Dean M; Reizes, John A; Cloherty, Shaun L; Mason, David G; Lovell, Nigel H

    2008-08-01

    Accurate noninvasive average flow and differential pressure estimation of implantable rotary blood pumps (IRBPs) is an important practical element for their physiological control. While most attempts at developing flow and differential pressure estimate models have involved purely empirical techniques, dimensional analysis utilizes theoretical principles of fluid mechanics that provides valuable insights into parameter relationships. Based on data obtained from a steady flow mock loop under a wide range of pump operating points and fluid viscosities, flow and differential pressure estimate models were thus obtained using dimensional analysis. The algorithm was then validated using data from two other VentrAssist IRBPs. Linear correlations between estimated and measured pump flow over a flow range of 0.5 to 8.0 L/min resulted in a slope of 0.98 ( R(2) = 0.9848). The average flow error was 0.20 +/- 0.14 L/min (mean +/- standard deviation) and the average percentage error was 5.79%. Similarly, linear correlations between estimated and measured pump differential pressure resulted in a slope of 1.027 ( R(2) = 0.997) over a pressure range of 60 to 180 mmHg. The average differential pressure error was 1.84 +/- 1.54 mmHg and the average percentage error was 1.51%.

  14. An Interactive Method Based on the Live Wire for Segmentation of the Breast in Mammography Images

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Zewei; Wang Tianyue; Guo Li; Wang Tingting; Xu Lu

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve accuracy of computer-aided diagnosis of breast lumps, the authors introduce an improved interactive segmentation method based on Live Wire. This paper presents the Gabor filters and FCM clustering algorithm is introduced to the Live Wire cost function definition. According to the image FCM analysis for image edge enhancement, we eliminate the interference of weak edge and access external features clear segmentation results of breast lumps through improving Live Wire on two...

  15. Differential Proteomic Analysis of Solanum tuberosum L. Leaves under Drought Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Su; Ping Yu; Xiaogan Zhou

    2012-01-01

    The research of molecular mechanism with anti-drought in Solanum tuberosum L.is important for breed improvement in potato to avoid yield loss caused by water deficit.Differential proteomics analysis of potato (anti-drought cultivar) leaves under drought stress were carried out using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.42 differential expression protein spots were analyzed through gel map and identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS.The main function of these proteins were stimulation response,cell development,metabolic and transport adjustment.The experiment can supply theory evidence to explain the anti-drought mechanism of anti-drought potato cultivar with multi-pathways.

  16. Instrumental analysis for differentiation of beers and evaluation of beer ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreve, Simina; Voica, Cezara; Dragan, Felicia; Georgiu, Monica

    2013-11-01

    A representative selection of 5 different beers commercially available were measured spectrophotometrically in UV-Vis spectral region and by fluorescence spectroscopy, in order to determine qualitative differentiation due to the mainly iso-R-acids (with a five member ring) originating from R-acids present in hops. Minerals and trace elements analysis were also performed by ICP-MS method. The determination of the bitter organic acids in beers and of the content in metallic ions can be used as indicators for differentiation of beers and evaluation of beer ageing.

  17. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  18. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  19. 65钢扁钢丝开裂原因分析%Reason Analysis on Micro-cracks in Flat Wire of 65 Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明娣

    2011-01-01

    通过扫描电镜、光学显微镜等研究了65钢在制成刹车线套管时出现毛刺、边部开裂等问题.结果表明:线材在市场存放不良和钢材纯净度不足是导致扁丝开裂的主要原因,并提出了相应的措施以解决65扁钢丝开裂问题.%The problem of burr, edge cracking about brake line mack of 65 steel was studied by SEM, OM and other experimental methods. The results show thai the main reason for cracking is insufficient purity of the 65 steel and poor condition of storage, and then the measures to solve the cracking problem of flat wire 65 are put forward.

  20. Analysis of light propagation for a crossing of thin silicon wires using vertical tunnelling coupling with a thick optical channel waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsarev, A V; Kolosovskii, E A [A.V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-31

    Using silicon photonic wires in a silicon-on-insulator structure as an example, we examine the problem of crossings of thin, high-index-contrast channel waveguides. To ensure high optical wave transmission efficiency at as low a level of parasitic scattering as possible, we propose using a structure with vertical coupling between a thin tapered silicon waveguide and a thick polymer waveguide, separated by a thin buffer oxide layer. Numerical simulation is used to find conditions under which such a structure (3 × 90 μm in dimensions) ensures 98 % and 99 % transmission efficiency at ∼1.55 μm in 35- and 26-nm spectral ranges, respectively, for direct propagation and 99.99 % transmission in the transverse direction. The optical element in question is proposed for use in optical microchips with multiple channel waveguide crossings. (integrated optical waveguides)

  1. Analysis of DNA strand-specific differential expression with high density tiling microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antequera Francisco

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA microarray technology allows the analysis of genome structure and dynamics at genome-wide scale. Expression microarrays (EMA contain probes for annotated open reading frames (ORF and are widely used for the analysis of differential gene expression. By contrast, tiling microarrays (TMA have a much higher probe density and provide unbiased genome-wide coverage. The purpose of this study was to develop a protocol to exploit the high resolution of TMAs for quantitative measurement of DNA strand-specific differential expression of annotated and non-annotated transcripts. Results We extensively filtered probes present in Affymetrix Genechip Yeast Genome 2.0 expression and GeneChip S. pombe 1.0FR tiling microarrays to generate custom Chip Description Files (CDF in order to compare their efficiency. We experimentally tested the potential of our approach by measuring the differential expression of 4904 genes in the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe growing under conditions of oxidative stress. The results showed a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.943 between both platforms, indicating that TMAs are as reliable as EMAs for quantitative expression analysis. A significant advantage of TMAs over EMAs is the possibility of detecting non-annotated transcripts generated only under specific physiological conditions. To take full advantage of this property, we have used a target-labelling protocol that preserves the original polarity of the transcripts and, therefore, allows the strand-specific differential expression of non-annotated transcripts to be determined. By using a segmentation algorithm prior to generating the corresponding custom CDFs, we identified and quantitatively measured the expression of 510 transcripts longer than 180 nucleotides and not overlapping previously annotated ORFs that were differentially expressed at least 2-fold under oxidative stress. Conclusions We show that the information derived from TMA

  2. A Semi-parametric Bayesian Approach for Differential Expression Analysis of RNA-seq Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangfang; Wang, Chong; Liu, Peng

    2015-12-01

    RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) technologies have revolutionized the way agricultural biologists study gene expression as well as generated a tremendous amount of data waiting for analysis. Detecting differentially expressed genes is one of the fundamental steps in RNA-seq data analysis. In this paper, we model the count data from RNA-seq experiments with a Poisson-Gamma hierarchical model, or equivalently, a negative binomial (NB) model. We derive a semi-parametric Bayesian approach with a Dirichlet process as the prior model for the distribution of fold changes between the two treatment means. An inference strategy using Gibbs algorithm is developed for differential expression analysis. The results of several simulation studies show that our proposed method outperforms other methods including the popularly applied edgeR and DESeq methods. We also discuss an application of our method to a dataset that compares gene expression between bundle sheath and mesophyll cells in maize leaves.

  3. Bone Signaling in Middle Ear Development: A Genome‐Wide Differential Expression Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michelle Christine; Bertelsen, Tomas Martin; Friis, Morten

    2014-01-01

    and gene sets in the developing middle ear. Microarray technology was used to identify bone‐related genes and gene sets, which were differentially expressed between the lining tissue of adult (quiescent) bulla and young (resorbing/forming) bulla. Data were analyzed using tools of bioinformatics...... and expression levels of selected genes were validated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The candidate gene products were compared with previously published data on middle ear bone metabolism. No differentially expressed genes were found on the outer surface of bulla. On the inner lining a total...... of 260 genes were identified of which 22 genes were involved in bone metabolism. Gene set analysis revealed five enriched bone‐related gene sets. The identified differentially expressed bone‐related mRNAs and gene sets are of potential significance in the normally developing bulla. These factors and gene...

  4. Multicriteria Gene Screening for Analysis of Differential Expression with DNA Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred O. Hero

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a statistical methodology for the identification of differentially expressed genes in DNA microarray experiments based on multiple criteria. These criteria are false discovery rate (FDR, variance-normalized differential expression levels (paired t statistics, and minimum acceptable difference (MAD. The methodology also provides a set of simultaneous FDR confidence intervals on the true expression differences. The analysis can be implemented as a two-stage algorithm in which there is an initial screen that controls only FDR, which is then followed by a second screen which controls both FDR and MAD. It can also be implemented by computing and thresholding the set of FDR P values for each gene that satisfies the MAD criterion. We illustrate the procedure to identify differentially expressed genes from a wild type versus knockout comparison of microarray data.

  5. An analysis of the wide area differential method of geostationary orbit satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI ChengLin; LI XiaoHui; WU HaiTao

    2009-01-01

    This work aims to obtain a wide area differential method for geostationary orbit (GEO) constellation. A comparison between the dilution of precision (DOP) of four-dimensional (4D) calculation including satellite clock errors and ephemeris errors and that of three-dimensional (3D) calculation only including ephemeris errors with the inverse positioning theory of GPS shows the conclusion that all the 3D PDOPs are greatly reduced. Based on this, a basic idea of correcting satellite clock errors and ephem-eris errors apart is put forward, and moreover, a specific method of separation is proposed. Satellite clock errors are separated in a master station with time synchronization, and all the remaining pseudo-range errors after the satellite clock errors have been deducted are used to work out ephemeris corrections of all GEO satellites. By a comparative analysis of user positioning accuracy before and after differential, the wide area differential method is verified to be quite valid for GEO constellation.

  6. Transcriptome Analysis Showed a Differential Signature between Invasive and Non-invasive Corticotrophinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Leonardo Jose Tadeu; Lerario, Antonio Marcondes; de Castro, Margaret; Martins, Clarissa Silva; Bronstein, Marcello Delano; Machado, Marcio Carlos; Trarbach, Ericka Barbosa; Villares Fragoso, Maria Candida Barisson

    2017-01-01

    ACTH-dependent hypercortisolism caused by a pituitary adenoma [Cushing’s disease (CD)] is the most common cause of endogenous Cushing’s syndrome. CD is often associated with several morbidities, including hypertension, diabetes, osteoporosis/bone fractures, secondary infections, and increased cardiovascular mortality. While the majority (≈80%) of the corticotrophinomas visible on pituitary magnetic resonance imaging are microadenomas (MICs, hypopituitarism and visual defects. Given the clinical and molecular heterogeneity of corticotrophinomas, the aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of genetic differential expression between MIC and MAC, including the invasiveness grade as a criterion for categorizing these tumors. In this study, were included tumor samples from patients with clinical, laboratorial, radiological, and histopathological diagnosis of hypercortisolism due to an ACTH-producing pituitary adenoma. Differential gene expression was studied using an Affymetrix microarray platform in 12 corticotrophinomas, classified as non-invasive MIC (n = 4) and MAC (n = 5), and invasive MAC (n = 3), according to modified Hardy criteria. Somatic mutations in USP8 were also investigated, but none of the patients exhibited USP8 variants. Differential expression analysis demonstrated that non-invasive MIC and MAC have a similar genetic signature, while invasive MACs exhibited a differential expression profile. Among the genes differentially expressed, we highlighted CCND2, ZNF676, DAPK1, and TIMP2, and their differential expression was validated through quantitative real-time PCR in another cohort of 15 non-invasive and 3 invasive cortocotrophinomas. We also identified potential biological pathways associated with growth and invasiveness, TGF-β and G protein signaling pathways, DNA damage response pathway, and pathways associated with focal adhesion. Our study revealed a differential pattern of genetic signature in a subgroup of MAC

  7. Analysis of the erythroid differentiation effect of flavonoid apigenin on K562 human chronic leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoda, Hiroko; Motojima, Hideko; Onaga, Shoko; Samet, Imen; Villareal, Myra O; Han, Junkyu

    2014-09-05

    The erythroid differentiation-inducing effect of apigenin and its derivatives on human chronic myeloid leukemia K562 has been reported but the functional group in its structure responsible for the effect has not yet been elucidated. Here, we determined the moiety responsible for the erythroid differentiation induction effect of apigenin by using different flavonoids to represent the functional groups in its structure. In addition, we compared apigenin and apigetrin, a flavonoid similar in structure to apigenin except for the glycoside in its structure. Morphological changes as well as expressions of specific markers in K562 cells treated with apigenin were compared with those treated with apigetrin, flavone, 7-hydroxyflavone, chrysin, luteolin, or naringenin. The anti-proliferative and erythroid differentiation-inducing effect of apigenin and the five flavonoids were then investigated and their effects on the α, β, and γ globin genes expressions were compared using real-time PCR. Results of the comparison between apigenin and apigetrin revealed that the glycoside part of apigetrin does not have a role in the induction of cell differentiation. Based on glycophorin A expression, the potency of the other flavonoids for induction of differentiation, was: apigenin>chrysin>flavone/7-hydroxyflavone>luteolin/naringenin. Results of the analysis of the relationship between the structure and function of the flavonoids suggest that the apigenin-induced K562 cell differentiation was due to the 2-3 double bond and hydroxyl groups in its structure. This is the first study that identified the specific functional group in apigenin that impact the erythroid differentiation effect in K562 cells.

  8. The influence of drawing speed on surface topography of high carbon steel wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Suliga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the influence of the drawing speed on surface topography of high carbon steel wires has been assessed. The drawing process of f 5,5 mm wire rod to the final wire of f 1,7 mm was conducted in 12 passes by means of a modern Koch multi-die drawing machine. The drawing speeds in the last passes were: 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 m/s. For final wires f 1,7 mm the three-dimensional analysis of the wire surface topography investigation was determined. It has been proved that the wire topography in the drawing process is characterized by a random anisotropy and the amount of directing the geometrical structure of the surface depends on the drawing speed.

  9. Wire-bending test as a predictor of preclinical performance by dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, E C; Ngan, P W; Wilson, S; Kunovich, R

    1990-10-01

    Traditional Dental Aptitude Test and academic grade point average have been shown to be poor predictors of clinical performance by dental students. To refine predictors of psychomotor skills, a wire-bending test was given to 105 freshmen at the beginning of their dental education. Grades from seven restorative preclinical courses in their freshman and sophomore years were compared to scores on wire bending and the three traditional predictors: GPA, academic aptitude, and perceptual aptitude scores. Wire-bending scores correlated significantly with six out of seven preclinical restorative courses. The predictive power for preclinical performance was doubled when wire bending was added to traditional predictors in stepwise multiple regression analysis. Wire-bending scores identified students of low performance. These preliminary results suggest that the wire-bending test shows some potential as a screening test for identifying students who may hae psychomotor difficulties, early in their dental education.

  10. Perturbation-expression analysis identifies RUNX1 as a regulator of human mammary stem cell differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan S Sokol

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The search for genes that regulate stem cell self-renewal and differentiation has been hindered by a paucity of markers that uniquely label stem cells and early progenitors. To circumvent this difficulty we have developed a method that identifies cell-state regulators without requiring any markers of differentiation, termed Perturbation-Expression Analysis of Cell States (PEACS. We have applied this marker-free approach to screen for transcription factors that regulate mammary stem cell differentiation in a 3D model of tissue morphogenesis and identified RUNX1 as a stem cell regulator. Inhibition of RUNX1 expanded bipotent stem cells and blocked their differentiation into ductal and lobular tissue rudiments. Reactivation of RUNX1 allowed exit from the bipotent state and subsequent differentiation and mammary morphogenesis. Collectively, our findings show that RUNX1 is required for mammary stem cells to exit a bipotent state, and provide a new method for discovering cell-state regulators when markers are not available.

  11. Analysis on differential expressed genes of ovarian tissue between high- and low-yield laying hen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Song, Ling-Jun; Zeng, Yong-Qing; Yang, Yun; Wang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    In order to elucidate molecular genetic mechanism of laying hen reproduction at the transcriptional level and the structure of significantly differential genes, the mRNA differential display and reverse northern dot-blot were used to detect the differential expression of genes in the ovary tissue of low-yield laying hens and high-yield laying hens in the present study. Sixteen 32-week-old CAU-pink laying hens divided into two groups were used and the laying performance was measured. The results showed that only the egg numbers were significantly different between the two groups; and from 15 primer pairs, a total of 336 bands were displayed of which 59 cDNA bands were found to be differentially expressed in both high-yield and low-yield laying hen. The sequence analysis indicated that the expression of such bands as H-AP5, H-P5, and H-P4 was significantly potentiated in high-yield laying hen using primer pairs AP5/HT11G, P5/HT11G and P4/HT11G and these transcripts had high homology (98%) to HoxDb, HoxCa, and HoxBa, respectively. The differentially expressed gene fragments may be relevant to the progression of the high-yield hens to the egg-laying stage. And further study is required to elucidate the molecular function to improve the productivity of laying hens.

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENTIAL GENES IN OVARIAN CANCER USING REPRESENTATIONAL DIFFERENCE ANALYSIS OF cDNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Chen; Min Wang; Xin-yan Wang; Shan Gao; Jun Wang; Xiao-ming Guan

    2005-01-01

    Objective To identify differential genes between normal ovarian epithelium tissue and ovarian epithelial cancer using representational difference analysis of cDNA (cDNA-RDA). Methods cDNA-RDA was performed to identify the differentially expressed sequences between cDNAs from cancer tissue and cDNAs from normal ovarian tissue in the same patient who was in the early stage of ovarian serous cystadeno carcinoma. These differentially expressed fragments were cloned and analyzed, then sequenced and compared with known genes.Results Three differentially expressed cDNA fragments were isolated using cDNA from normal ovarian tissue as tester and cDNA from cancer tissue as driver amplicon by cDNA-RDA. DP Ⅲ-1 and DP Ⅲ-2 cDNA clone showed significant ho mology to the cDNA of alpha actin gene; DPⅢ-3 cDNA clone showed significant homology to the cDNA of transgelin gene. Conclusion cDNA-RDA can be used to sensitively identify the differentially expressed genes in ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma. Ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma involves alteration of multiple genes.

  13. Engineering task plan and status of 241-S-106 Enraf level gauge wire break

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, T.L.

    1994-09-01

    This report discusses the findings of a task team which was formed which identified the need for short-term actions to re-establish tank waste level monitoring and to permanently address wire failure. The failed wire was removed and sent to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for analysis. It was determined that the cause of the wire failure was due to chloride ion stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the 316 stainless steel (SS) wire. Radiation induced breakdown of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) riser liners is suspected to be the source of the chloride ions.

  14. Absolute Steady-State Thermal Conductivity Measurements by Use of a Transient Hot-Wire System

    OpenAIRE

    Roder, Hans M.; Perkins, Richard A.; Laesecke, Arno; Nieto de Castro, Carlos A.

    2000-01-01

    A transient hot-wire apparatus was used to measure the thermal conductivity of argon with both steady-state and transient methods. The effects of wire diameter, eccentricity of the wire in the cavity, axial conduction, and natural convection were accounted for in the analysis of the steady-state measurements. Based on measurements on argon, the relative uncertainty at the 95 % level of confidence of the new steady-state measurements is 2 % at low densities. Using the same hot wires, the relat...

  15. Modeling and Dynamical Behavior of Rotating Composite Shafts with SMA Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsheng Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamical model is developed for the rotating composite shaft with shape-memory alloy (SMA wires embedded in. The rotating shaft is represented as a thin-walled composite of circular cross-section with SMA wires embedded parallel to shaft’s longitudinal axis. A thermomechanical constitutive equation of SMA proposed by Brinson is employed and the recovery stress of the constrained SMA wires is derived. The equations of motion are derived based on the variational-asymptotical method (VAM and Hamilton’s principle. The partial differential equations of motion are reduced to the ordinary differential equations of motion by using the Galerkin method. The model incorporates the transverse shear, rotary inertia, and anisotropy of composite material. Numerical results of natural frequencies and critical speeds are obtained. It is shown that the natural frequencies of the nonrotating shaft and the critical rotating speed increase as SMA wire fraction and initial strain increase and the increase in natural frequencies becomes more significant as SMA wire fraction increases. The initial strain of SMA wires appears to have marginal effect on dynamical behaviors of the shaft. The actuation performance of SMA wires is found to be closely related to the ply-angle.

  16. Superconducting proximity effect in a mesoscopic ferromagnetic wire

    OpenAIRE

    Giroud, M.; Courtois, H.; Hasselbach, K.; Mailly, D.; Pannetier, B.

    1998-01-01

    We present an experimental study of the transport properties of a ferromagnetic metallic wire (Co) in metallic contact with a superconductor (Al). As the temperature is decreased below the Al superconducting transition, the Co resistance exhibits a significant dependence on both temperature and voltage. The differential resistance data show that the decay length for the proximity effect is much larger than we would simply expect from the exchange field of the ferromagnet.

  17. Numerical Solution of Nonlinear Fredholm Integro-Differential Equations Using Spectral Homotopy Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Pashazadeh Atabakan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectral homotopy analysis method (SHAM as a modification of homotopy analysis method (HAM is applied to obtain solution of high-order nonlinear Fredholm integro-differential problems. The existence and uniqueness of the solution and convergence of the proposed method are proved. Some examples are given to approve the efficiency and the accuracy of the proposed method. The SHAM results show that the proposed approach is quite reasonable when compared to homotopy analysis method, Lagrange interpolation solutions, and exact solutions.

  18. Global analysis of differentially expressed genes and proteins in the wheat callus infected by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Zhou

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation is an extremely complex and evolved process involving genetic determinants of both the bacteria and the host plant cells. However, the mechanism of the determinants remains obscure, especially in some cereal crops such as wheat, which is recalcitrant for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. In this study, differentially expressed genes (DEGs and differentially expressed proteins (DEPs were analyzed in wheat callus cells co-cultured with Agrobacterium by using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE in conjunction with mass spectrometry (MS. A set of 4,889 DEGs and 90 DEPs were identified, respectively. Most of them are related to metabolism, chromatin assembly or disassembly and immune defense. After comparative analysis, 24 of the 90 DEPs were detected in RNA-seq and proteomics datasets simultaneously. In addition, real-time RT-PCR experiments were performed to check the differential expression of the 24 genes, and the results were consistent with the RNA-seq data. According to gene ontology (GO analysis, we found that a big part of these differentially expressed genes were related to the process of stress or immunity response. Several putative determinants and candidate effectors responsive to Agrobacterium mediated transformation of wheat cells were discussed. We speculate that some of these genes are possibly related to Agrobacterium infection. Our results will help to understand the interaction between Agrobacterium and host cells, and may facilitate developing efficient transformation strategies in cereal crops.

  19. Failure Analysis of Signal Transmission Interrupt under Low Temperature Caused by the Wire of Crimp Connector%压接型连接器导线引起的低温信号传输故障分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝彬

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we introduce a fault modes of signal transmission interrupt under low temperature which caused by the wire and crimp parts do not match when using crimp connector.Guiding by the GJB5020-2001 standard, the failure mechanism is analyzed the failure mechanism from the aspects of electric resistance,resistance to pulling force,metallographic analysis.%文章针对一例压接型连接器因导线与压接件不匹配而引起的低温新号传输故障,以GJB5020-2001标准为指导,从电阻、耐拉力、金相分析等多个方面对失效机理进行了分析。

  20. Laser short pulse heating of metal nano-wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Al-Dweik, A. Y.

    2012-11-01

    Non-equilibrium energy transfer takes place in a solid substrate during a short-pulse laser irradiation and temperature field can be obtained analytically in the irradiated region. In the present study, laser short-pulse heating of metal nano-wire is considered and the analytical solution for two-dimensional axisymmetric nano-wire is presented. Since the absorption of the incident beam takes place in the skin of the irradiated surface, a volumetric heat source resembling the absorption process is incorporated in the analysis. Three different nano-wire materials are introduced in the analysis for the comparison reason. These include silver, chromium, and copper. It is found that temperature decay is gradual on the surface vicinity and temporal variation of the surface temperature follows almost the laser pulse intensity profile at the irradiated center.