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Sample records for differential brain activation

  1. Explorative investigation of biomarkers of brain damage and coagulation system activation in clinical stroke differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Undén, Johan; Strandberg, Karin; Malm, Jan

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A simple and accurate method of differentiating ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is potentially useful to facilitate acute therapeutic management. Blood measurements of biomarkers of brain damage and activation of the coagulation system may potentially serve as nov...

  2. Tasting calories differentially affects brain activation during hunger and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Inge; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-02-15

    An important function of eating is ingesting energy. Our objectives were to assess whether oral exposure to caloric and non-caloric stimuli elicits discriminable responses in the brain and to determine in how far these responses are modulated by hunger state and sweetness. Thirty women tasted three stimuli in two motivational states (hunger and satiety) while their brain responses were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a randomized crossover design. Stimuli were solutions of sucralose (sweet, no energy), maltodextrin (non-sweet, energy) and sucralose+maltodextrin (sweet, energy). We found no main effect of energy content and no interaction between energy content and sweetness. However, there was an interaction between hunger state and energy content in the median cingulate (bilaterally), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus. This indicates that the anterior insula and thalamus, areas in which hunger state and taste of a stimulus are integrated, also integrate hunger state with caloric content of a taste stimulus. Furthermore, in the median cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, tasting energy resulted in more activation during satiety compared to hunger. This finding indicates that these areas, which are known to be involved in processes that require approach and avoidance, are also involved in guiding ingestive behavior. In conclusion, our results suggest that energy sensing is a hunger state dependent process, in which the median cingulate, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus play a central role by integrating hunger state with stimulus relevance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Spectral-Spatial Differentiation of Brain Activity During Mental Imagery of Improvisational Music Performance Using MEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boasen, Jared; Takeshita, Yuya; Kuriki, Shinya; Yokosawa, Koichi

    2018-01-01

    Group musical improvisation is thought to be akin to conversation, and therapeutically has been shown to be effective at improving communicativeness, sociability, creative expression, and overall psychological health. To understand these therapeutic effects, clarifying the nature of brain activity during improvisational cognition is important. Some insight regarding brain activity during improvisational music cognition has been gained via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). However, we have found no reports based on magnetoencephalography (MEG). With the present study, we aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of improvisational music performance experimentation in MEG. We designed a novel MEG-compatible keyboard, and used it with experienced musicians (N = 13) in a music performance paradigm to spectral-spatially differentiate spontaneous brain activity during mental imagery of improvisational music performance. Analyses of source activity revealed that mental imagery of improvisational music performance induced greater theta (5–7 Hz) activity in left temporal areas associated with rhythm production and communication, greater alpha (8–12 Hz) activity in left premotor and parietal areas associated with sensorimotor integration, and less beta (15–29 Hz) activity in right frontal areas associated with inhibition control. These findings support the notion that musical improvisation is conversational, and suggest that creation of novel auditory content is facilitated by a more internally-directed, disinhibited cognitive state. PMID:29740300

  4. Spectral-Spatial Differentiation of Brain Activity During Mental Imagery of Improvisational Music Performance Using MEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boasen, Jared; Takeshita, Yuya; Kuriki, Shinya; Yokosawa, Koichi

    2018-01-01

    Group musical improvisation is thought to be akin to conversation, and therapeutically has been shown to be effective at improving communicativeness, sociability, creative expression, and overall psychological health. To understand these therapeutic effects, clarifying the nature of brain activity during improvisational cognition is important. Some insight regarding brain activity during improvisational music cognition has been gained via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). However, we have found no reports based on magnetoencephalography (MEG). With the present study, we aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of improvisational music performance experimentation in MEG. We designed a novel MEG-compatible keyboard, and used it with experienced musicians ( N = 13) in a music performance paradigm to spectral-spatially differentiate spontaneous brain activity during mental imagery of improvisational music performance. Analyses of source activity revealed that mental imagery of improvisational music performance induced greater theta (5-7 Hz) activity in left temporal areas associated with rhythm production and communication, greater alpha (8-12 Hz) activity in left premotor and parietal areas associated with sensorimotor integration, and less beta (15-29 Hz) activity in right frontal areas associated with inhibition control. These findings support the notion that musical improvisation is conversational, and suggest that creation of novel auditory content is facilitated by a more internally-directed, disinhibited cognitive state.

  5. Spectral-Spatial Differentiation of Brain Activity During Mental Imagery of Improvisational Music Performance Using MEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Boasen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Group musical improvisation is thought to be akin to conversation, and therapeutically has been shown to be effective at improving communicativeness, sociability, creative expression, and overall psychological health. To understand these therapeutic effects, clarifying the nature of brain activity during improvisational cognition is important. Some insight regarding brain activity during improvisational music cognition has been gained via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and electroencephalography (EEG. However, we have found no reports based on magnetoencephalography (MEG. With the present study, we aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of improvisational music performance experimentation in MEG. We designed a novel MEG-compatible keyboard, and used it with experienced musicians (N = 13 in a music performance paradigm to spectral-spatially differentiate spontaneous brain activity during mental imagery of improvisational music performance. Analyses of source activity revealed that mental imagery of improvisational music performance induced greater theta (5–7 Hz activity in left temporal areas associated with rhythm production and communication, greater alpha (8–12 Hz activity in left premotor and parietal areas associated with sensorimotor integration, and less beta (15–29 Hz activity in right frontal areas associated with inhibition control. These findings support the notion that musical improvisation is conversational, and suggest that creation of novel auditory content is facilitated by a more internally-directed, disinhibited cognitive state.

  6. What makes your brain suggestible? Hypnotizability is associated with differential brain activity during attention outside hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojan, Yann; Piguet, Camille; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2015-08-15

    Theoretical models of hypnosis have emphasized the importance of attentional processes in accounting for hypnotic phenomena but their exact nature and brain substrates remain unresolved. Individuals vary in their susceptibility to hypnosis, a variability often attributed to differences in attentional functioning such as greater ability to filter irrelevant information and inhibit prepotent responses. However, behavioral studies of attentional performance outside the hypnotic state have provided conflicting results. We used fMRI to investigate the recruitment of attentional networks during a modified flanker task in High and Low hypnotizable participants. The task was performed in a normal (no hypnotized) state. While behavioral performance did not reliably differ between groups, components of the fronto-parietal executive network implicated in monitoring (anterior cingulate cortex; ACC), adjustment (lateral prefrontal cortex; latPFC), and implementation of attentional control (intraparietal sulcus; IPS) were differently activated depending on the hypnotizability of the subjects: the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) was more recruited, whereas IPS and ACC were less recruited by High susceptible individuals compared to Low. Our results demonstrate that susceptibility to hypnosis is associated with particular executive control capabilities allowing efficient attentional focusing, and point to specific neural substrates in right prefrontal cortex. We demonstrated that outside hypnosis, low hypnotizable subjects recruited more parietal cortex and anterior cingulate regions during selective attention conditions suggesting a better detection and implementation of conflict. However, outside hypnosis the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) was more recruited by highly hypnotizable subjects during selective attention conditions suggesting a better control of conflict. Furthermore, in highly hypnotizable subjects this region was more connected to the default mode network

  7. Differential associations between impulsivity and risk-taking and brain activations underlying working memory in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Karni; Rutherford, Helena J V; Mencl, W Einar; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Potenza, Marc N; Mayes, Linda C

    2014-11-01

    Increased impulsivity and risk-taking are common during adolescence and relate importantly to addictive behaviors. However, the extent to which impulsivity and risk-taking relate to brain activations that mediate cognitive processing is not well understood. Here we examined the relationships between impulsivity and risk-taking and the neural correlates of working memory. Neural activity was measured in 18 adolescents (13-18 years) while they engaged in a working memory task that included verbal and visuospatial components that each involved encoding, rehearsal and recognition stages. Risk-taking and impulsivity were assessed using the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) and the adolescent version of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11A), respectively. We found overlapping as well as distinct regions subserving the different stages of verbal and visuospatial working memory. In terms of risk-taking, we found a positive correlation between BART scores and activity in subcortical regions (e.g., thalamus, dorsal striatum) recruited during verbal rehearsal, and an inverse correlation between BART scores and cortical regions (e.g., parietal and temporal regions) recruited during visuospatial rehearsal. The BIS-11A evidenced that motor impulsivity was associated with activity in regions recruited during all stages of working memory, while attention and non-planning impulsivity was only associated with activity in regions recruited during recognition. In considering working memory, impulsivity and risk-taking together, both impulsivity and risk-taking were associated with activity in regions recruited during rehearsal; however, during verbal rehearsal, differential correlations were found. Specifically, positive correlations were found between: (1) risk-taking and activity in subcortical regions, including the thalamus and dorsal striatum; and, (2) motor impulsivity and activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus, insula, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Therefore

  8. Differential associations between impulsivity and risk-taking and brain activations underlying working memory in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Karni; Rutherford, Helena J.V.; Mencl, W. Einar; Lacadie, Cheryl M.; Potenza, Marc N.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2014-01-01

    Increased impulsivity and risk-taking are common during adolescence and relate importantly to addictive behaviors. However, the extent to which impulsivity and risk-taking relate to brain activations that mediate cognitive processing is not well understood. Here we examined the relationships between impulsivity and risk-taking and the neural correlates of working memory. Neural activity was measured in 18 adolescents (13–18 years) while they engaged in a working memory task that included verbal and visuospatial components that each involved encoding, rehearsal and recognition stages. Risk-taking and impulsivity were assessed using the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) and the adolescent version of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale -11 (BIS-11A), respectively. We found overlapping as well as distinct regions subserving the different stages of verbal and visuospatial working memory. In terms of risk-taking, we found a positive correlation between BART scores and activity in subcortical regions (e.g., thalamus, dorsal striatum) recruited during verbal rehearsal, and an inverse correlation between BART scores and cortical regions (e.g., parietal and temporal regions) recruited during visuospatial rehearsal. The BIS-11A evidenced that motor impulsivity was associated with activity in regions recruited during all stages of working memory, while attention and non-planning impulsivity was only associated with activity in regions recruited during recognition. In considering working memory, impulsivity and risk-taking together, both impulsivity and risk-taking were associated with activity in regions recruited during rehearsal; however, during verbal rehearsal, differential correlations were found. Specifically, positive correlations were found between: (1) risk-taking and activity in subcortical regions, including the thalamus and dorsal striatum; and, (2) motor impulsivity and activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus, insula, dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal

  9. Brain activation in response to randomized visual stimulation as obtained from conjunction and differential analysis: an fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasaruddin, N H; Yusoff, A N; Kaur, S

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this multiple-subjects functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to identify the common brain areas that are activated when viewing black-and-white checkerboard pattern stimuli of various shapes, pattern and size and to investigate specific brain areas that are involved in processing static and moving visual stimuli. Sixteen participants viewed the moving (expanding ring, rotating wedge, flipping hour glass and bowtie and arc quadrant) and static (full checkerboard) stimuli during an fMRI scan. All stimuli have black-and-white checkerboard pattern. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was used in generating brain activation. Differential analyses were implemented to separately search for areas involved in processing static and moving stimuli. In general, the stimuli of various shapes, pattern and size activated multiple brain areas mostly in the left hemisphere. The activation in the right middle temporal gyrus (MTG) was found to be significantly higher in processing moving visual stimuli as compared to static stimulus. In contrast, the activation in the left calcarine sulcus and left lingual gyrus were significantly higher for static stimulus as compared to moving stimuli. Visual stimulation of various shapes, pattern and size used in this study indicated left lateralization of activation. The involvement of the right MTG in processing moving visual information was evident from differential analysis, while the left calcarine sulcus and left lingual gyrus are the areas that are involved in the processing of static visual stimulus

  10. Brain activation in response to randomized visual stimulation as obtained from conjunction and differential analysis: an fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasaruddin, N. H.; Yusoff, A. N.; Kaur, S.

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this multiple-subjects functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to identify the common brain areas that are activated when viewing black-and-white checkerboard pattern stimuli of various shapes, pattern and size and to investigate specific brain areas that are involved in processing static and moving visual stimuli. Sixteen participants viewed the moving (expanding ring, rotating wedge, flipping hour glass and bowtie and arc quadrant) and static (full checkerboard) stimuli during an fMRI scan. All stimuli have black-and-white checkerboard pattern. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was used in generating brain activation. Differential analyses were implemented to separately search for areas involved in processing static and moving stimuli. In general, the stimuli of various shapes, pattern and size activated multiple brain areas mostly in the left hemisphere. The activation in the right middle temporal gyrus (MTG) was found to be significantly higher in processing moving visual stimuli as compared to static stimulus. In contrast, the activation in the left calcarine sulcus and left lingual gyrus were significantly higher for static stimulus as compared to moving stimuli. Visual stimulation of various shapes, pattern and size used in this study indicated left lateralization of activation. The involvement of the right MTG in processing moving visual information was evident from differential analysis, while the left calcarine sulcus and left lingual gyrus are the areas that are involved in the processing of static visual stimulus.

  11. Adolescent binge drinking linked to abnormal spatial working memory brain activation: differential gender effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squeglia, Lindsay M; Schweinsburg, Alecia Dager; Pulido, Carmen; Tapert, Susan F

    2011-10-01

    Binge drinking is prevalent during adolescence, and its effect on neurocognitive development is of concern. In adult and adolescent populations, heavy substance use has been associated with decrements in cognitive functioning, particularly on tasks of spatial working memory (SWM). Characterizing the gender-specific influences of heavy episodic drinking on SWM may help elucidate the early functional consequences of drinking on adolescent brain functioning. Forty binge drinkers (13 females, 27 males) and 55 controls (24 females, 31 males), aged 16 to 19 years, completed neuropsychological testing, substance use interviews, and an SWM task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Significant binge drinking status × gender interactions were found (p working memory performances (p performance (p gender-specific differences in frontal, temporal, and cerebellar brain activation during an SWM task, which in turn relate to cognitive performance. Activation correlates with neuropsychological performance, strengthening the argument that blood oxygen level-dependent activation is affected by alcohol use and is an important indicator of behavioral functioning. Females may be more vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of heavy alcohol use during adolescence, while males may be more resilient to the deleterious effects of binge drinking. Future longitudinal research will examine the significance of SWM brain activation as an early neurocognitive marker of alcohol impact to the brain on future behaviors, such as driving safety, academic performance, and neuropsychological performance. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  12. Differential distribution of the sodium‐activated potassium channels slick and slack in mouse brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus, Hans‐Günther; Schwarzer, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The sodium‐activated potassium channels Slick (Slo2.1, KCNT2) and Slack (Slo2.2, KCNT1) are high‐conductance potassium channels of the Slo family. In neurons, Slick and Slack channels are involved in the generation of slow afterhyperpolarization, in the regulation of firing patterns, and in setting and stabilizing the resting membrane potential. The distribution and subcellular localization of Slick and Slack channels in the mouse brain have not yet been established in detail. The present study addresses this issue through in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Both channels were widely distributed and exhibited distinct distribution patterns. However, in some brain regions, their expression overlapped. Intense Slick channel immunoreactivity was observed in processes, varicosities, and neuronal cell bodies of the olfactory bulb, granular zones of cortical regions, hippocampus, amygdala, lateral septal nuclei, certain hypothalamic and midbrain nuclei, and several regions of the brainstem. The Slack channel showed primarily a diffuse immunostaining pattern, and labeling of cell somata and processes was observed only occasionally. The highest Slack channel expression was detected in the olfactory bulb, lateral septal nuclei, basal ganglia, and distinct areas of the midbrain, brainstem, and cerebellar cortex. In addition, comparing our data obtained from mouse brain with a previously published study on rat brain revealed some differences in the expression and distribution of Slick and Slack channels in these species. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2093–2116, 2016. © 2015 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26587966

  13. Brain activations to emotional pictures are differentially associated with valence and arousal ratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje B M Gerdes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated the neural responses triggered by emotional pictures, but the specificity of the involved structures such as the amygdala or the ventral striatum is still under debate. Furthermore, only few studies examined the association of stimuli’s valence and arousal and the underlying brain responses. Therefore, we investigated brain responses with functional magnetic resonance imaging of 17 healthy subjects to pleasant and unpleasant affective pictures with comparable arousal levels and afterwards assessed ratings of valence and arousal. As expected, unpleasant pictures strongly activated the right and left amygdala, the right hippocampus, and the medial occipital lobe, whereas pleasant pictures elicited significant activations in left occipital regions, and in parts of the medial temporal lobe. The direct comparison of unpleasant and pleasant pictures which were comparable in arousal clearly indicated stronger amygdala activation in response to the unpleasant pictures. Most important, correlational analyses revealed on the one hand that the arousal of unpleasant pictures was significantly associated with activations in the right amygdala and the left caudate body. On the other hand, valence of pleasant pictures was significantly correlated with activations in the right caudate head, extending to the nucleus accumbens (NAcc and the left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex. These findings support the notion that the amygdala is primarily involved in processing of unpleasant stimuli, and the stronger the more arousing the stimuli are, whereas reward-related structures like the NAcc primarily responds to pleasant stimuli, the stronger the more positive the valence of these stimuli is.

  14. Differential distribution of the sodium-activated potassium channels slick and slack in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Sandra; Knaus, Hans-Günther; Schwarzer, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    The sodium-activated potassium channels Slick (Slo2.1, KCNT2) and Slack (Slo2.2, KCNT1) are high-conductance potassium channels of the Slo family. In neurons, Slick and Slack channels are involved in the generation of slow afterhyperpolarization, in the regulation of firing patterns, and in setting and stabilizing the resting membrane potential. The distribution and subcellular localization of Slick and Slack channels in the mouse brain have not yet been established in detail. The present study addresses this issue through in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Both channels were widely distributed and exhibited distinct distribution patterns. However, in some brain regions, their expression overlapped. Intense Slick channel immunoreactivity was observed in processes, varicosities, and neuronal cell bodies of the olfactory bulb, granular zones of cortical regions, hippocampus, amygdala, lateral septal nuclei, certain hypothalamic and midbrain nuclei, and several regions of the brainstem. The Slack channel showed primarily a diffuse immunostaining pattern, and labeling of cell somata and processes was observed only occasionally. The highest Slack channel expression was detected in the olfactory bulb, lateral septal nuclei, basal ganglia, and distinct areas of the midbrain, brainstem, and cerebellar cortex. In addition, comparing our data obtained from mouse brain with a previously published study on rat brain revealed some differences in the expression and distribution of Slick and Slack channels in these species. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2093-2116, 2016. © 2015 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Differential Effects of E2 on MAPK Activity in the Brain and Heart of Aged Female Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pinceti

    Full Text Available Aging and the coincident loss of circulating estrogens at menopause lead to increased risks for neurological and cardiovascular pathologies. Clinical studies show that estrogen therapy (ET can be beneficial in mitigating these negative effects, in both the brain and heart, when it is initiated shortly after the perimenopausal transition. However, this same therapy is detrimental when initiated >10 years postmenopause. Importantly, the molecular mechanisms underlying this age-related switch in ET efficacy are unknown. Estrogen receptors (ERs mediate the neuroprotective and cardioprotective functions of estrogens by modulating gene transcription or, non-genomically, by activating second messenger signaling pathways, such as mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK. These kinases are critical regulators of cell signaling pathways and have widespread downstream effects. Our hypothesis is that age and estrogen deprivation following menopause alters the expression and activation of the MAPK family members p38 and ERK in the brain and heart. To test this hypothesis, we used a surgically induced model of menopause in 18 month old rats through bilateral ovariectomy (OVX followed by an acute dose of 17β-estradiol (E2 administered at varying time points post-OVX (1 week, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, or 12 weeks. Age and E2 treatment differentially regulated kinase activity in both the brain and heart, and the effects were also brain region specific. MAPK signaling plays an integral role in aging, and the aberrant regulation of those signaling pathways might be involved in age-related disorders. Clinical studies show benefits of ET during early menopause but detrimental effects later, which might be reflective of changes in kinase expression and activation status.

  16. Post-task Effects on EEG Brain Activity Differ for Various Differential Learning and Contextual Interference Protocols

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    Diana Henz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A large body of research has shown superior learning rates in variable practice compared to repetitive practice. More specifically, this has been demonstrated in the contextual interference (CI and in the differential learning (DL approach that are both representatives of variable practice. Behavioral studies have indicate different learning processes in CI and DL. Aim of the present study was to examine immediate post-task effects on electroencephalographic (EEG brain activation patterns after CI and DL protocols that reveal underlying neural processes at the early stage of motor consolidation. Additionally, we tested two DL protocols (gradual DL, chaotic DL to examine the effect of different degrees of stochastic fluctuations within the DL approach with a low degree of fluctuations in gradual DL and a high degree of fluctuations in chaotic DL. Twenty-two subjects performed badminton serves according to three variable practice protocols (CI, gradual DL, chaotic DL, and a repetitive learning protocol in a within-subjects design. Spontaneous EEG activity was measured before, and immediately after each 20-min practice session from 19 electrodes. Results showed distinguishable neural processes after CI, DL, and repetitive learning. Increases in EEG theta and alpha power were obtained in somatosensory regions (electrodes P3, P7, Pz, P4, P8 in both DL conditions compared to CI, and repetitive learning. Increases in theta and alpha activity in motor areas (electrodes C3, Cz, C4 were found after chaotic DL compared to gradual DL, and CI. Anterior areas (electrodes F3, F7, Fz, F4, F8 showed increased activity in the beta and gamma bands after CI. Alpha activity was increased in occipital areas (electrodes O1, O2 after repetitive learning. Post-task EEG brain activation patterns suggest that DL stimulates the somatosensory and motor system, and engages more regions of the cortex than repetitive learning due to a tighter stimulation of the motor and

  17. Differential Modulation of Rhythmic Brain Activity in Healthy Adults by a T-Type Calcium Channel Blocker: An MEG Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Kerry D; Maillet, Emeline L; Garcia, John; Cardozo, Timothy; Galatzer-Levy, Isaac; Llinás, Rodolfo R

    2017-01-01

    1-octanol is a therapeutic candidate for disorders involving the abnormal activation of the T-type calcium current since it blocks this current specifically. Such disorders include essential tremor and a group of neurological and psychiatric disorders resulting from thalamocortical dysrhythmia (TCD). For example, clinically, the observable phenotype in essential tremor is the tremor itself. The differential diagnostic of TCD is not based only on clinical signs and symptoms. Rather, TCD incorporates an electromagnetic biomarker, the presence of abnormal thalamocortical low frequency brain oscillations. The effect of 1-octanol on brain activity has not been tested. As a preliminary step to such a TCD study, we examined the short-term effects of a single dose of 1-octanol on resting brain activity in 32 healthy adults using magnetoencephalograpy. Visual inspection of baseline power spectra revealed that the subjects fell into those with strong low frequency activity (set 2, n = 11) and those without such activity, but dominated by an alpha peak (set 1, n = 22). Cross-validated linear discriminant analysis, using mean spectral density (MSD) in nine frequency bands as predictors, found overall that 82.5% of the subjects were classified as determined by visual inspection. The effect of 1-octanol on the MSD in narrow frequency bands differed between the two subject groups. In set 1 subjects the MSD increased in the 4.5-6.5Hz and 6.5-8.5 Hz bands. This was consistent with a widening of the alpha peak toward lower frequencies. In the set two subjects the MSD decrease in the 2.5-4.5 Hz and 4.5-6.5 Hz bands. This decreased power is consistent with the blocking effect of 1-octanol on T-type calcium channels. The subjects reported no adverse effects of the 1-octanol. Since stronger low frequency activity is characteristic of patients with TCD, 1-octanol and other T-type calcium channel blockers are good candidates for treatment of this group of disorders following a placebo

  18. Differential Modulation of Rhythmic Brain Activity in Healthy Adults by a T-Type Calcium Channel Blocker: An MEG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Kerry D.; Maillet, Emeline L.; Garcia, John; Cardozo, Timothy; Galatzer-Levy, Isaac; Llinás, Rodolfo R.

    2017-01-01

    1-octanol is a therapeutic candidate for disorders involving the abnormal activation of the T-type calcium current since it blocks this current specifically. Such disorders include essential tremor and a group of neurological and psychiatric disorders resulting from thalamocortical dysrhythmia (TCD). For example, clinically, the observable phenotype in essential tremor is the tremor itself. The differential diagnostic of TCD is not based only on clinical signs and symptoms. Rather, TCD incorporates an electromagnetic biomarker, the presence of abnormal thalamocortical low frequency brain oscillations. The effect of 1-octanol on brain activity has not been tested. As a preliminary step to such a TCD study, we examined the short-term effects of a single dose of 1-octanol on resting brain activity in 32 healthy adults using magnetoencephalograpy. Visual inspection of baseline power spectra revealed that the subjects fell into those with strong low frequency activity (set 2, n = 11) and those without such activity, but dominated by an alpha peak (set 1, n = 22). Cross-validated linear discriminant analysis, using mean spectral density (MSD) in nine frequency bands as predictors, found overall that 82.5% of the subjects were classified as determined by visual inspection. The effect of 1-octanol on the MSD in narrow frequency bands differed between the two subject groups. In set 1 subjects the MSD increased in the 4.5-6.5Hz and 6.5–8.5 Hz bands. This was consistent with a widening of the alpha peak toward lower frequencies. In the set two subjects the MSD decrease in the 2.5–4.5 Hz and 4.5–6.5 Hz bands. This decreased power is consistent with the blocking effect of 1-octanol on T-type calcium channels. The subjects reported no adverse effects of the 1-octanol. Since stronger low frequency activity is characteristic of patients with TCD, 1-octanol and other T-type calcium channel blockers are good candidates for treatment of this group of disorders following a

  19. Differential Activation Patterns of fMRI in Sleep-Deprived Brain: Restoring Effects of Acupuncture

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    Lei Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggested a remediation role of acupuncture in insomnia, and acupuncture also has been used in insomnia empirically and clinically. In this study, we employed fMRI to test the role of acupuncture in sleep deprivation (SD. Sixteen healthy volunteers (8 males were recruited and scheduled for three fMRI scanning procedures, one following the individual’s normal sleep and received acupuncture SP6 (NOR group and the other two after 24 h of total SD with acupuncture on SP6 (SD group or sham (Sham group. The sessions were counterbalanced approximately two weeks apart. Acupuncture stimuli elicited significantly different activation patterns of three groups. In NOR group, the right superior temporal lobe, left inferior parietal lobule, and left postcentral gyrus were activated; in SD group, the anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral insula, left basal ganglia, and thalamus were significantly activated while, in Sham group, the bilateral thalamus and left cerebellum were activated. Different activation patterns suggest a unique role of acupuncture on SP6 in remediation of SD. SP6 elicits greater and anatomically different activations than those of sham stimuli; that is, the salience network, a unique interoceptive autonomic circuit, may indicate the mechanism underlying acupuncture in restoring sleep deprivation.

  20. Frequencies of inaudible high-frequency sounds differentially affect brain activity: positive and negative hypersonic effects.

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    Ariko Fukushima

    Full Text Available The hypersonic effect is a phenomenon in which sounds containing significant quantities of non-stationary high-frequency components (HFCs above the human audible range (max. 20 kHz activate the midbrain and diencephalon and evoke various physiological, psychological and behavioral responses. Yet important issues remain unverified, especially the relationship existing between the frequency of HFCs and the emergence of the hypersonic effect. In this study, to investigate the relationship between the hypersonic effect and HFC frequencies, we divided an HFC (above 16 kHz of recorded gamelan music into 12 band components and applied them to subjects along with an audible component (below 16 kHz to observe changes in the alpha2 frequency component (10-13 Hz of spontaneous EEGs measured from centro-parieto-occipital regions (Alpha-2 EEG, which we previously reported as an index of the hypersonic effect. Our results showed reciprocal directional changes in Alpha-2 EEGs depending on the frequency of the HFCs presented with audible low-frequency component (LFC. When an HFC above approximately 32 kHz was applied, Alpha-2 EEG increased significantly compared to when only audible sound was applied (positive hypersonic effect, while, when an HFC below approximately 32 kHz was applied, the Alpha-2 EEG decreased (negative hypersonic effect. These findings suggest that the emergence of the hypersonic effect depends on the frequencies of inaudible HFC.

  1. Frequencies of inaudible high-frequency sounds differentially affect brain activity: positive and negative hypersonic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Ariko; Yagi, Reiko; Kawai, Norie; Honda, Manabu; Nishina, Emi; Oohashi, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    The hypersonic effect is a phenomenon in which sounds containing significant quantities of non-stationary high-frequency components (HFCs) above the human audible range (max. 20 kHz) activate the midbrain and diencephalon and evoke various physiological, psychological and behavioral responses. Yet important issues remain unverified, especially the relationship existing between the frequency of HFCs and the emergence of the hypersonic effect. In this study, to investigate the relationship between the hypersonic effect and HFC frequencies, we divided an HFC (above 16 kHz) of recorded gamelan music into 12 band components and applied them to subjects along with an audible component (below 16 kHz) to observe changes in the alpha2 frequency component (10-13 Hz) of spontaneous EEGs measured from centro-parieto-occipital regions (Alpha-2 EEG), which we previously reported as an index of the hypersonic effect. Our results showed reciprocal directional changes in Alpha-2 EEGs depending on the frequency of the HFCs presented with audible low-frequency component (LFC). When an HFC above approximately 32 kHz was applied, Alpha-2 EEG increased significantly compared to when only audible sound was applied (positive hypersonic effect), while, when an HFC below approximately 32 kHz was applied, the Alpha-2 EEG decreased (negative hypersonic effect). These findings suggest that the emergence of the hypersonic effect depends on the frequencies of inaudible HFC.

  2. Differential SPECT activation patterns associated with PASAT performance may indicate frontocerebellar functional dissociation in chronic mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Naoya; Swan, Megan; Stobbe, Gary A; Uomoto, Jay M; Minoshima, Satoshi; Djang, David; Krishnananthan, Ruben; Lewis, David H

    2009-07-01

    Patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) often complain of cognitive fatigue during the chronic recovery phase. The Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) is a complex psychologic measure that may demonstrate subtle deficiencies in higher cognitive functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the brain activation of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with PASAT in patients with mild TBI to explore mechanisms for the cognitive fatigue. Two groups consisting of 15 patients with mild TBI and 15 healthy control subjects underwent (99m)Tc-ethylene cysteine dimer SPECT at rest and during PASAT on a separate day. Cortical rCBF was extracted using a 3-dimensional stereotactic surface projection and statistically analyzed to identify areas of activation, which were compared with PASAT performance scores. Image analysis demonstrated a difference in the pattern of activation between patients with mild TBI and healthy control subjects. Healthy control subjects activated the superior temporal cortex (Brodmann area [BA] 22) bilaterally, the precentral gyrus (BA 9) on the left, and the precentral gyrus (BA 6) and cerebellum bilaterally. Patients with mild TBI demonstrated a larger area of supratentorial activation (BAs 9, 10, 13, and 46) but a smaller area of activation in the cerebellum, indicating frontocerebellar dissociation. Patients with mild TBI and cognitive fatigue demonstrated a different pattern of activation during PASAT. Frontocerebellar dissociation may explain cognitive impairment and cognitive fatigue in the chronic recovery phase of mild traumatic brain injury.

  3. Lipid-laden cells differentially distributed in the aging brain are functionally active and correspond to distinct phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimabukuro, Marilia Kimie; Langhi, Larissa Gutman Paranhos; Cordeiro, Ingrid; Brito, José M; Batista, Claudia Maria de Castro; Mattson, Mark P; Mello Coelho, Valeria de

    2016-03-31

    We characterized cerebral Oil Red O-positive lipid-laden cells (LLC) of aging mice evaluating their distribution, morphology, density, functional activities and inflammatory phenotype. We identified LLC in meningeal, cortical and neurogenic brain regions. The density of cerebral LLC increased with age. LLC presenting small lipid droplets were visualized adjacent to blood vessels or deeper in the brain cortical and striatal parenchyma of aging mice. LLC with larger droplets were asymmetrically distributed in the cerebral ventricle walls, mainly located in the lateral wall. We also found that LLC in the subventricular region co-expressed beclin-1 or LC3, markers for autophagosome or autophagolysosome formation, and perilipin (PLIN), a lipid droplet-associated protein, suggesting lipophagic activity. Some cerebral LLC exhibited β galactosidase activity indicating a senescence phenotype. Moreover, we detected production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in cortical PLIN(+) LLC. Some cortical NeuN(+) neurons, GFAP(+) glia limitans astrocytes, Iba-1(+) microglia and S100β(+) ependymal cells expressed PLIN in the aging brain. Our findings suggest that cerebral LLC exhibit distinct cellular phenotypes and may participate in the age-associated neuroinflammatory processes.

  4. Lipid-laden cells differentially distributed in the aging brain are functionally active and correspond to distinct phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimabukuro, Marilia Kimie; Langhi, Larissa Gutman Paranhos; Cordeiro, Ingrid; Brito, José M.; Batista, Claudia Maria de Castro; Mattson, Mark P.; de Mello Coelho, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    We characterized cerebral Oil Red O-positive lipid-laden cells (LLC) of aging mice evaluating their distribution, morphology, density, functional activities and inflammatory phenotype. We identified LLC in meningeal, cortical and neurogenic brain regions. The density of cerebral LLC increased with age. LLC presenting small lipid droplets were visualized adjacent to blood vessels or deeper in the brain cortical and striatal parenchyma of aging mice. LLC with larger droplets were asymmetrically distributed in the cerebral ventricle walls, mainly located in the lateral wall. We also found that LLC in the subventricular region co-expressed beclin-1 or LC3, markers for autophagosome or autophagolysosome formation, and perilipin (PLIN), a lipid droplet-associated protein, suggesting lipophagic activity. Some cerebral LLC exhibited β galactosidase activity indicating a senescence phenotype. Moreover, we detected production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in cortical PLIN+ LLC. Some cortical NeuN+ neurons, GFAP+ glia limitans astrocytes, Iba-1+ microglia and S100β+ ependymal cells expressed PLIN in the aging brain. Our findings suggest that cerebral LLC exhibit distinct cellular phenotypes and may participate in the age-associated neuroinflammatory processes. PMID:27029648

  5. Regional cholinesterase activity in white-throated sparrow brain is differentially affected by acephate (Orthene®)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N.B.; Kuenzel, W.J.; Hill, E.F.; Romo, G.A.; Komaragiri, M.V.S.

    1996-01-01

    Effects of a 14-day dietary exposure to an organophosphorus pesticide, acephate (acetylphosphoramidothioic acid O,S-dimethyl ester), were determined on cholinesterase activity in three regions (basal ganglia, hippocampus, and hypothalamus) of the white-throated sparrow, Zonotrichia albicollis, brain. All three regions experienced depressed cholinesterase activity between 0.5–2 ppm acephate. The regions exhibited cholinesterase recovery at 2–16 ppm acephate; however, cholinesterase activity dropped and showed no recovery at higher dietary levels (>16 ppm acephate). Evidence indicates that the recovery is initiated by the magnitude of depression, not the duration. In general, as acephate concentration increased, differences in ChE activity among brain regions decreased. Three terms are introduced to describe ChE response to acephate exposure: 1) ChE resistance threshold, 2) ChE compensation threshold, and 3) ChE depression threshold. It is hypothesized that adverse effects to birds in the field may occur at pesticide exposure levels customarily considered negligible.

  6. Step-down vs. step-up noxious stimulation: differential effects on pain perception and patterns of brain activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J C; Kim, J; Kang, E; Choi, J-H; Park, W Y; Choi, Y-S; Cha, J; Han, C; Park, S K; Kim, M H; Lee, G H; Do, H-J; Jung, S W; Lee, J-M

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesize that pain and brain responses are affected by changes in the presentation sequence of noxious stimuli that are, overall, identical in intensity and duration. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning, 21 participants experienced three patterns of noxious stimulation: Up-type (step-up noxious stimulation, 15 s), Down-type (step-down noxious stimulation, 15 s), and Down-up-type (decreasing and increasing pattern of noxious stimulation, 15 s). The total intensity and duration of the three noxious stimulation patterns were identical, but the stimulation sequences were different. Pain and unpleasantness ratings in the Down- and Down-up-type noxious stimulations were lower than in the Up-type noxious stimulation. The left prefrontal cortex [(PFC, BA (Brodmann area) 10, (-45, 50, 1)] was more highly activated in the Down- and Down-up-type noxious stimulations than in the Up-type noxious stimulation. The S1, S2, insula, bilateral PFC (BA 46), and midcingulate cortex were more highly activated in the Up-type noxious stimulation than in the Down-type noxious stimulation. PFC BA 10 was located at an inferior level compared to the bilateral PFC BA 46 (Z axis = 1 for BA 10, compared to 22 and 25 for the right and left BA 46, respectively). When cortisol level was increased, the left hippocampal cortex, along with the left parahippocampal cortex, was greatly activated for the Up-type noxious stimulation. When pain cannot be avoided in clinical practice, noxious stimuli should be applied to patients in a step-down pattern that delivers the most intense pain first and the least intense pain last. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Aripiprazole and Haloperidol Activate GSK3β-Dependent Signalling Pathway Differentially in Various Brain Regions of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bo; Huang, Xu-Feng; Deng, Chao

    2016-03-28

    Aripiprazole, a dopamine D₂ receptor (D₂R) partial agonist, possesses a unique clinical profile. Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β)-dependent signalling pathways have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and antipsychotic drug actions. The present study examined whether aripiprazole differentially affects the GSK3β-dependent signalling pathways in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and caudate putamen (CPu), in comparison with haloperidol (a D₂R antagonist) and bifeprunox (a D₂R partial agonist). Rats were orally administrated aripiprazole (0.75 mg/kg), bifeprunox (0.8 mg/kg), haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg) or vehicle three times per day for one week. The levels of protein kinase B (Akt), p-Akt, GSK3β, p-GSK3β, dishevelled (Dvl)-3, and β-catenin were measured by Western Blots. Aripiprazole increased GSK3β phosphorylation in the PFC and NAc, respectively, while haloperidol elevated it in the NAc only. However, Akt activity was not changed by any of these drugs. Additionally, both aripiprazole and haloperidol, but not bifeprunox, increased the expression of Dvl-3 and β-catenin in the NAc. The present study suggests that activation of GSK3β phosphorylation in the PFC and NAc may be involved in the clinical profile of aripiprazole; additionally, aripiprazole can increase GSK3β phosphorylation via the Dvl-GSK3β-β-catenin signalling pathway in the NAc, probably due to its relatively low intrinsic activity at D₂Rs.

  8. Differential changes of metabolic brain activity and interregional functional coupling in prefronto-limbic pathways during different stress conditions: Functional imaging in freely behaving rodent pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg eBock

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The trumpet-tailed rat or degu (Octodon degus is an established model to investigate the consequences of early stress on the development of emotional brain circuits and behaviour. The aim of this study was to identify brain circuits, that respond to different stress conditions and to test if acute stress alters functional coupling of brain activity among prefrontal and limbic regions. Using functional imaging (2-Fluoro-deoxyglucose method in 8 day old male degu pups the following stress conditions were compared: (A pups together with parents and siblings (control, (B separation of the litter from the parents, (C individual separation from parents and siblings, (D individual separation and presentation of maternal calls. Condition (B significantly downregulated brain activity in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens and sensory areas compared to controls. Activity decrease was even more pronounced during condition (C, where, in contrast to all other regions, activity in the PAG was increased. Interestingly, brain activity in stress-associated brain regions such as the amygdala and habenula was not affected. In condition (D maternal vocalizations reactivated brain activity in the cingulate and precentral medial cortex, nucleus accumbens and striatum and in sensory areas. In contrast, reduced activity was measured in the prelimbic and infralimbic cortex and in the hippocampus and amygdala. Correlation analysis revealed complex, region- and situation-specific changes of interregional functional coupling among prefrontal and limbic brain regions during stress exposure. We show here for the first time that early life stress results in a widespread reduction of brain activity in the infant brain and changes interregional functional coupling. Moreover, maternal vocalizations can partly buffer stress-induced decrease in brain activity in some regions and evoked very different functional coupling patterns compared to the three other

  9. THE SIZE AND SURFACE COATING OF NANOSILVER DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECTS BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY IN BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER (RBEC4) CELLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linking the physical properties of nanoparticles with differences in their biological activity is critical for understanding their potential toxicity and mode of action. The influence of aggregate size, surface coating, and surface charge on nanosilver's (nanoAg) movement through...

  10. [Sex differentiation of central nervous system--brain of man and woman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Yasumasa

    2004-02-01

    Sex differentiation of human brain is mostly dependent on the prenatal exposure to androgen(testosterone). Congenital aromatase deficiency does not disturb male brain development in men. This is quite different from experimental evidence from rodents whose brains need intraneuronal aromatization from androgen to estrogen to induce sex differentiation. There is evidence for male-female differences in brain structures. Some of them(INHA-3) appear to be related with sexual orientation. The other(BNST) might participate in forming gender-identity. In addition, sexually dimorphic features are recognized in some cognitive activities. The possible involvement of genetic factors in human brain sex differentiation is also discussed.

  11. Consumption of caloric and non-caloric versions of a soft drink differentially affects brain activation during tasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.; Weijzen, P.L.G.; Graaf, de C.; Viergever, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Sensory-specific satiety, which is defined as a relative decrease in pleasantness, is increased by greater oro-sensory stimulation. Both sensory-specific satiety and pleasantness affect taste activation in the orbitofrontal cortex. In contrast, metabolic satiety, which results from energy intake, is

  12. Differential conserted activity induced regulation of Nogo receptors (1-3, LOTUS and Nogo mRNA in mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias E Karlsson

    Full Text Available Nogo Receptor 1 (NgR1 mRNA is downregulated in hippocampal and cortical regions by increased neuronal activity such as a kainic acid challenge or by exposing rats to running wheels. Plastic changes in cerebral cortex in response to loss of specific sensory inputs caused by spinal cord injury are also associated with downregulation of NgR1 mRNA. Here we investigate the possible regulation by neuronal activity of the homologous receptors NgR2 and NgR3 as well as the endogenous NgR1 antagonist LOTUS and the ligand Nogo. The investigated genes respond to kainic acid by gene-specific, concerted alterations of transcript levels, suggesting a role in the regulation of synaptic plasticity, Downregulation of NgR1, coupled to upregulation of the NgR1 antagonist LOTUS, paired with upregulation of NgR2 and 3 in the dentate gyrus suggest a temporary decrease of Nogo/OMgp sensitivity while CSPG and MAG sensitivity could remain. It is suggested that these activity-synchronized temporary alterations may serve to allow structural alterations at the level of local synaptic circuitry in gray matter, while maintaining white matter pathways and that subsequent upregulation of Nogo-A and NgR1 transcript levels signals the end of such a temporarily opened window of plasticity.

  13. Treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and mirtapazine results in differential brain activation by visual erotic stimuli in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won; Jin, Bo-Ra; Yang, Wan-Seok; Lee, Kyuong-Uk; Juh, Ra-Hyung; Ahn, Kook-Jin; Chung, Yong-An; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify patterns of brain activation elicited by erotic visual stimuli in patients treated with either Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) or mirtazipine. Nine middle-aged men with major depressive disorder treated with an SSRI and ten middle-aged men with major depressive disorder treated with mirtazapine completed the trial. Ten subjects with no psychiatric illness were included as a control group. We conducted functional brain magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while a film alternatively played erotic and non-erotic contents for 14 minutes and 9 seconds. The control group showed activation in the occipitotemporal area, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, orbitofrontal cortex, and caudate nucleus. For subjects treated with SSRIs, the intensity of activity in these regions was much lower compared to the control group. Intensity of activation in the group treated with mirtazapine was less than the control group but grea-ter than those treated with SSRIs. Using subtraction analysis, the SSRI group showed significantly lower activation than the mirtazapine group in the anterior cingulate gyrus and the caudate nucleus. Our study suggests that the different rates of sexual side effects between the patients in the SSRI-treated group and the mirtazapine-treated group may be due to different effects on brain activation.

  14. Brain Activities and Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riza, Emel

    2002-01-01

    There are close relationships between brain activities and educational technology. Brain is very important and so complicated part in our bodies. From long time scientists pay attention to that part and did many experiments, but they just reached little information like a drop in the sea. However from time to time they gave us some light to…

  15. Brain Sexual Differentiation and Requirement of SRY: Why or Why Not?

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.

    2017-01-01

    Brain sexual differentiation is orchestrated by precise coordination of sex steroid hormones. In some species, programming of select male brain regions is dependent upon aromatization of testosterone to estrogen. In mammals, these hormones surge during the organizational and activational periods that occur during perinatal development and adulthood, respectively. In various fish and reptiles, incubation temperature during a critical embryonic period results in male or female sexual differenti...

  16. "Brain sex differentiation" in teleosts: Emerging concepts with potential biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumaran, Balasubramanian; Sudhakumari, Cheni-Chery; Mamta, Sajwan-Khatri; Raghuveer, Kavarthapu; Swapna, Immani; Murugananthkumar, Raju

    2015-09-01

    "Brain sex differentiation" in teleosts is a contentious topic of research as most of the earlier reports tend to suggest that gonadal sex differentiation drives brain sex differentiation. However, identification of sex-specific marker genes in the developing brain of teleosts signifies brain-gonadal interaction during early sexual development in lower vertebrates. In this context, the influence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-gonadotropin (GTH) axis on gonadal sex differentiation, if any requires in depth analysis. Presence of seabream (sb) GnRH immunoreactivity (ir-) in the brain of XY Nile tilapia was found as early as 5days post hatch (dph) followed by qualitative reduction in the preoptic area-hypothalamus region. In contrast, in the XX female brain a steady ir- of sbGnRH was evident from 15dph. Earlier studies using sea bass already implied the importance of hypothalamic gonadotropic axis completion during sex differentiation period. Such biphasic pattern of localization was also seen in pituitary GTHs using heterologous antisera in tilapia. However, more recent analysis in the same species could not detect any sexually dimorphic pattern using homologous antisera for pituitary GTHs. Detailed studies on the development of hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadal axis in teleosts focusing on hypothalamic monoamines (MA) and MA-related enzymes demonstrated sex-specific differential expression of tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph) in the early stages of developing male and female brains of tilapia and catfish. The changes in Tph expression was in agreement with the levels of serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxytryptophan in the preoptic area-hypothalamus. Considering the stimulatory influence of 5-HT on GnRH and GTH release, it is possible to propose a network association between these correlates during early development, which may bring about brain sex dimorphism in males. A recent study from our laboratory during female brain sex development demonstrated high expression of

  17. Fueling and Imaging Brain Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald A Dienel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic signals are used for imaging and spectroscopic studies of brain function and disease and to elucidate the cellular basis of neuroenergetics. The major fuel for activated neurons and the models for neuron–astrocyte interactions have been controversial because discordant results are obtained in different experimental systems, some of which do not correspond to adult brain. In rats, the infrastructure to support the high energetic demands of adult brain is acquired during postnatal development and matures after weaning. The brain's capacity to supply and metabolize glucose and oxygen exceeds demand over a wide range of rates, and the hyperaemic response to functional activation is rapid. Oxidative metabolism provides most ATP, but glycolysis is frequently preferentially up-regulated during activation. Underestimation of glucose utilization rates with labelled glucose arises from increased lactate production, lactate diffusion via transporters and astrocytic gap junctions, and lactate release to blood and perivascular drainage. Increased pentose shunt pathway flux also causes label loss from C1 of glucose. Glucose analogues are used to assay cellular activities, but interpretation of results is uncertain due to insufficient characterization of transport and phosphorylation kinetics. Brain activation in subjects with low blood-lactate levels causes a brain-to-blood lactate gradient, with rapid lactate release. In contrast, lactate flooding of brain during physical activity or infusion provides an opportunistic, supplemental fuel. Available evidence indicates that lactate shuttling coupled to its local oxidation during activation is a small fraction of glucose oxidation. Developmental, experimental, and physiological context is critical for interpretation of metabolic studies in terms of theoretical models.

  18. Fueling and imaging brain activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienel, Gerald A

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic signals are used for imaging and spectroscopic studies of brain function and disease and to elucidate the cellular basis of neuroenergetics. The major fuel for activated neurons and the models for neuron–astrocyte interactions have been controversial because discordant results are obtained in different experimental systems, some of which do not correspond to adult brain. In rats, the infrastructure to support the high energetic demands of adult brain is acquired during postnatal development and matures after weaning. The brain's capacity to supply and metabolize glucose and oxygen exceeds demand over a wide range of rates, and the hyperaemic response to functional activation is rapid. Oxidative metabolism provides most ATP, but glycolysis is frequently preferentially up-regulated during activation. Underestimation of glucose utilization rates with labelled glucose arises from increased lactate production, lactate diffusion via transporters and astrocytic gap junctions, and lactate release to blood and perivascular drainage. Increased pentose shunt pathway flux also causes label loss from C1 of glucose. Glucose analogues are used to assay cellular activities, but interpretation of results is uncertain due to insufficient characterization of transport and phosphorylation kinetics. Brain activation in subjects with low blood-lactate levels causes a brain-to-blood lactate gradient, with rapid lactate release. In contrast, lactate flooding of brain during physical activity or infusion provides an opportunistic, supplemental fuel. Available evidence indicates that lactate shuttling coupled to its local oxidation during activation is a small fraction of glucose oxidation. Developmental, experimental, and physiological context is critical for interpretation of metabolic studies in terms of theoretical models. PMID:22612861

  19. Differential activation of brain regions involved with error-feedback and imitation based motor simulation when observing self and an expert's actions in pilots and non-pilots on a complex glider landing task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Daniel E; Terzibas, Cengiz; Cassel, Daniel B; Callan, Akiko; Kawato, Mitsuo; Sato, Masa-Aki

    2013-05-15

    In this fMRI study we investigate neural processes related to the action observation network using a complex perceptual-motor task in pilots and non-pilots. The task involved landing a glider (using aileron, elevator, rudder, and dive brake) as close to a target as possible, passively observing a replay of one's own previous trial, passively observing a replay of an expert's trial, and a baseline do nothing condition. The objective of this study is to investigate two types of motor simulation processes used during observation of action: imitation based motor simulation and error-feedback based motor simulation. It has been proposed that the computational neurocircuitry of the cortex is well suited for unsupervised imitation based learning, whereas, the cerebellum is well suited for error-feedback based learning. Consistent with predictions, pilots (to a greater extent than non-pilots) showed significant differential activity when observing an expert landing the glider in brain regions involved with imitation based motor simulation (including premotor cortex PMC, inferior frontal gyrus IFG, anterior insula, parietal cortex, superior temporal gyrus, and middle temporal MT area) than when observing one's own previous trial which showed significant differential activity in the cerebellum (only for pilots) thought to be concerned with error-feedback based motor simulation. While there was some differential brain activity for pilots in regions involved with both Execution and Observation of the flying task (potential Mirror System sites including IFG, PMC, superior parietal lobule) the majority was adjacent to these areas (Observation Only Sites) (predominantly in PMC, IFG, and inferior parietal loblule). These regions showing greater activity for observation than for action may be involved with processes related to motor-based representational transforms that are not necessary when actually carrying out the task. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Predictive value of brain SPECT with 99 technetium - MIBI for differentiation of histologic grade brain gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    León Castellón, Roberto; Martín Escuela, Juan Miguel; López Díaz, Ing. Adlin; Salva Camaño, Silvia; Gómez Viera, DrC. Nelson; San Pedro, Aley Palau; Castro Jiménez, Mayté

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of primary tumors of the nervous system remain difficult and are a challenge to be addressed in a multidisciplinary way. In order to determine the usefulness of brain SPECT 99 Tc MIBI to differentiate histologic grade brain gliomas - Frequently brain tumors - they were studied 68 patients with this technique. A dynamic study first step in AP and lateral view was performed, and a SPECT at 20 minutes post-administration and at 2 hours late views. the post-surgical histological study of injuries was used as control. several imaging parameters such as the absolute activity of 99m Tc-MIBI were calculated both early and late phase, cortex contralateral tumor rates; pituitary tumor; choroid plexus tumor and Reason Late / Early phase tumor index / contralateral cortex tumor volume functional phase, the volume concentration of MIBI activity in the tumor and the retention rate of the radiopharmaceutical. Of the 68 patients studied, 11 were high-grade tumors and 57 low grade. The cortex contralateral tumor in late stage index showed a negative satisfactory sensitivity of 98.6% and specificity 77.1%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 48.2% and (NPV) of 99.8%. The reason late stage / early in the index tumor / contralateral cortex showed values ​​in turn 96.3%, 98.7%, 98.8% and 98.8% sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV respectively. The retention rate showed a 99% sensitivity, 89% specificity and PPV, NPV of 95% and 99% respectively. Conclusion: The combination cortex contralateral tumor rate in late stage, the reason late stage / early stage tumor index / contralateral cortex and the retention rate of the radiopharmaceutical are the most useful parameters to predict histologic grade of brain gliomas. (author)

  1. Preoperative evaluation of brain lesion with 201TI brain SPECT: is it useful to differentiate benign and malignant lesions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Hyung Sun; Kim, Euy Neyng; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Yong An; Chung, Soo Kyo; Hong, Yong Gil; Lee, Youn Soo

    2000-01-01

    Thallium-201 ( 201 TI) brain SPECT, which can represent cellular activity of brain lesions, may provide more useful information in differentiating between benign and malignant brain lesions more so than CT or MRI, that merely represents anatomic changes or breakdown of blood brain barrier. We used 201 TI brain SPECT prospectively to evaluate the utility of 201 TI-indices as an indicator of benign or malignant lesions. We studied 28 patients. There were 13 cases of benign lesions (3: nonspecific benign lesion, 3: meningioma, 2: low grade glioma, 1: tuberculoma, central neurocytoma, hemangioblastoma, radiation necrosis, and choroid plexus papilloma) and 15 cases of malignant lesions (6: glioblastoma multiforme, 5: anaplastic glioma, 2: medulloblastoma, 1: metastasis and lymphoma). In all patients, CT and/or MRI were obtained and then 201 TI brain SPECT was obtained with measuring mean 201 TI index and peak 201 TI index. An unpaired t-test was performed to compare the 201 TI-indices and pathologic diagnoses to evaluate the utility of 201 TI-indices as an indicator of benign or malignant lesions. There were no statistically significant difference in 201 TI-indices between benign and malignant brain lesions (P>0.05). These results demonstrated that we could not use 201 TI indices on brain SPECT alone as an indicator of benign or malignant brain lesions

  2. Shaping of neuronal activity through a Brain Computer Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Valero-Aguayo, Luis; Silva-Sauer, Leandro; Velasco-Alvarez, Ricardo; Ron-Angevin, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal responses are human actions which can be measured by an EEG, and which imply changes in waves when neurons are synchronized. This activity could be changed by principles of behaviour analysis. This research tests the efficacy of the behaviour shaping procedure to progressively change neuronal activity, so that those brain responses are adapted according to the differential reinforcement of visual feedback. The Brain Computer Interface (BCI) enables us to record the EEG in real ti...

  3. Synergistic induction of astrocytic differentiation by factors secreted from meninges in the mouse developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Yoichiro; Katada, Sayako; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Sanosaka, Tsukasa; Iihara, Koji; Nakashima, Kinichi

    2017-11-01

    Astrocytes, which support diverse neuronal functions, are generated from multipotent neural stem/precursor cells (NS/PCs) during brain development. Although many astrocyte-inducing factors have been identified and studied in vitro, the regions and/or cells that produce these factors in the developing brain remain elusive. Here, we show that meninges-produced factors induce astrocytic differentiation of NS/PCs. Consistent with the timing when astrocytic differentiation of NS/PCs increases, expression of astrocyte-inducing factors is upregulated. Meningeal secretion-mimicking combinatorial treatment of NS/PCs with bone morphogenetic protein 4, retinoic acid and leukemia inhibitory factor synergistically activate the promoter of a typical astrocytic marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein. Taken together, our data suggest that meninges play an important role in astrocytic differentiation of NS/PCs in the developing brain. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  4. Right Brain Activities to Improve Analytical Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Marion E.

    Schools tend to have a built-in bias toward left brain activities (tasks that are linear and sequential in nature), so the introduction of right brain activities (functions related to music, rhythm, images, color, imagination, daydreaming, dimensions) brings a balance into the classroom and helps those students who may be right brain oriented. To…

  5. Brain Sexual Differentiation and Requirement of SRY: Why or Why Not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl S. Rosenfeld

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Brain sexual differentiation is orchestrated by precise coordination of sex steroid hormones. In some species, programming of select male brain regions is dependent upon aromatization of testosterone to estrogen. In mammals, these hormones surge during the organizational and activational periods that occur during perinatal development and adulthood, respectively. In various fish and reptiles, incubation temperature during a critical embryonic period results in male or female sexual differentiation, but this can be overridden in males by early exposure to estrogenic chemicals. Testes development in mammals requires a Y chromosome and testis determining gene SRY (in humans/Sry (all other therian mammals, although there are notable exceptions. Two species of spiny rats: Amami spiny rat (Tokudaia osimensis and Tokunoshima spiny rat (Tokudaia tokunoshimensis and two species of mole voles (Ellobius lutescens and Ellobius tancrei, lack a Y chromosome/Sry and possess an XO chromosome system in both sexes. Such rodent species, prototherians (monotremes, who also lack Sry, and fish and reptile species that demonstrate temperature sex determination (TSD seemingly call into question the requirement of Sry for brain sexual differentiation. This review will consider brain regions expressing SRY/Sry in humans and rodents, respectively, and potential roles of SRY/Sry in the brain will be discussed. The evidence from various taxa disputing the requirement of Sry for brain sexual differentiation in mammals (therians and prototherians and certain fish and reptilian species will be examined. A comparative approach to address this question may elucidate other genes, pathways, and epigenetic modifications stimulating brain sexual differentiation in vertebrate species, including humans.

  6. Proliferation of differentiated glial cells in the brain stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Barradas

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Classical studies of macroglial proliferation in muride rodents have provided conflicting evidence concerning the proliferating capabilities of oligodendrocytes and microglia. Furthermore, little information has been obtained in other mammalian orders and very little is known about glial cell proliferation and differentiation in the subclass Metatheria although valuable knowledge may be obtained from the protracted period of central nervous system maturation in these forms. Thus, we have studied the proliferative capacity of phenotypically identified brain stem oligodendrocytes by tritiated thymidine radioautography and have compared it with known features of oligodendroglial differentiation as well as with proliferation of microglia in the opossum Didelphis marsupialis. We have detected a previously undescribed ephemeral, regionally heterogeneous proliferation of oligodendrocytes expressing the actin-binding, ensheathment-related protein 2'3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase, that is not necessarily related to the known regional and temporal heterogeneity of expression of CNPase in cell bodies. On the other hand, proliferation of microglia tagged by the binding of Griffonia simplicifolia B4 isolectin, which recognizes an alpha-D-galactosyl-bearing glycoprotein of the plasma membrane of macrophages/microglia, is known to be long lasting, showing no regional heterogeneity and being found amongst both ameboid and differentiated ramified cells, although at different rates. The functional significance of the proliferative behavior of these differentiated cells is unknown but may provide a low-grade cell renewal in the normal brain and may be augmented under pathological conditions.

  7. ASIC subunit ratio and differential surface trafficking in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junjun; Xu, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Yu-Qing; Xu, Jiangping; Hu, Youjia; Zha, Xiang-ming

    2016-01-08

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are key mediators of acidosis-induced responses in neurons. However, little is known about the relative abundance of different ASIC subunits in the brain. Such data are fundamental for interpreting the relative contribution of ASIC1a homomers and 1a/2 heteromers to acid signaling, and essential for designing therapeutic interventions to target these channels. We used a simple biochemical approach and semi-quantitatively determined the molar ratio of ASIC1a and 2 subunits in mouse brain. Further, we investigated differential surface trafficking of ASIC1a, ASIC2a, and ASIC2b. ASIC1a subunits outnumber the sum of ASIC2a and ASIC2b. There is a region-specific variation in ASIC2a and 2b expression, with cerebellum and striatum expressing predominantly 2b and 2a, respectively. Further, we performed surface biotinylation and found that surface ASIC1a and ASIC2a ratio correlates with their total expression. In contrast, ASIC2b exhibits little surface presence in the brain. This result is consistent with increased co-localization of ASIC2b with an ER marker in 3T3 cells. Our data are the first semi-quantitative determination of relative subunit ratio of various ASICs in the brain. The differential surface trafficking of ASICs suggests that the main functional ASICs in the brain are ASIC1a homomers and 1a/2a heteromers. This finding provides important insights into the relative contribution of various ASIC complexes to acid signaling in neurons.

  8. Brain Activity and Human Unilateral Chewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, A.; Ichesco, E.; Myers, C.; Schutt, R.; Gerstner, G.E.

    2012-01-01

    Brain mechanisms underlying mastication have been studied in non-human mammals but less so in humans. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate brain activity in humans during gum chewing. Chewing was associated with activations in the cerebellum, motor cortex and caudate, cingulate, and brainstem. We also divided the 25-second chew-blocks into 5 segments of equal 5-second durations and evaluated activations within and between each of the 5 segments. This analysis revealed activation clusters unique to the initial segment, which may indicate brain regions involved with initiating chewing. Several clusters were uniquely activated during the last segment as well, which may represent brain regions involved with anticipatory or motor events associated with the end of the chew-block. In conclusion, this study provided evidence for specific brain areas associated with chewing in humans and demonstrated that brain activation patterns may dynamically change over the course of chewing sequences. PMID:23103631

  9. Brain Signal Variability Differentially Affects Cognitive Flexibility and Cognitive Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster-Genç, Diana J N; Ueltzhöffer, Kai; Fiebach, Christian J

    2016-04-06

    Recent research yielded the intriguing conclusion that, in healthy adults, higher levels of variability in neuronal processes are beneficial for cognitive functioning. Beneficial effects of variability in neuronal processing can also be inferred from neurocomputational theories of working memory, albeit this holds only for tasks requiring cognitive flexibility. However, cognitive stability, i.e., the ability to maintain a task goal in the face of irrelevant distractors, should suffer under high levels of brain signal variability. To directly test this prediction, we studied both behavioral and brain signal variability during cognitive flexibility (i.e., task switching) and cognitive stability (i.e., distractor inhibition) in a sample of healthy human subjects and developed an efficient and easy-to-implement analysis approach to assess BOLD-signal variability in event-related fMRI task paradigms. Results show a general positive effect of neural variability on task performance as assessed by accuracy measures. However, higher levels of BOLD-signal variability in the left inferior frontal junction area result in reduced error rate costs during task switching and thus facilitate cognitive flexibility. In contrast, variability in the same area has a detrimental effect on cognitive stability, as shown in a negative effect of variability on response time costs during distractor inhibition. This pattern was mirrored at the behavioral level, with higher behavioral variability predicting better task switching but worse distractor inhibition performance. Our data extend previous results on brain signal variability by showing a differential effect of brain signal variability that depends on task context, in line with predictions from computational theories. Recent neuroscientific research showed that the human brain signal is intrinsically variable and suggested that this variability improves performance. Computational models of prefrontal neural networks predict differential

  10. Brain region-dependent differential expression of alpha-synuclein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Katsutoshi; Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Tsujimura, Atsushi; Tanaka, Masaki

    2016-04-15

    α-Synuclein, the major constituent of Lewy bodies (LBs), is normally expressed in presynapses and is involved in synaptic function. Abnormal intracellular aggregation of α-synuclein is observed as LBs and Lewy neurites in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD) or dementia with Lewy bodies. Accumulated evidence suggests that abundant intracellular expression of α-synuclein is one of the risk factors for pathological aggregation. Recently, we reported differential expression patterns of α-synuclein between excitatory and inhibitory hippocampal neurons. Here we further investigated the precise expression profile in the adult mouse brain with special reference to vulnerable regions along the progression of idiopathic PD. The results show that α-synuclein was highly expressed in the neuronal cell bodies of some early PD-affected brain regions, such as the olfactory bulb, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, and substantia nigra pars compacta. Synaptic expression of α-synuclein was mostly accompanied by expression of vesicular glutamate transporter-1, an excitatory presynaptic marker. In contrast, expression of α-synuclein in the GABAergic inhibitory synapses was different among brain regions. α-Synuclein was clearly expressed in inhibitory synapses in the external plexiform layer of the olfactory bulb, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra pars reticulata, but not in the cerebral cortex, subthalamic nucleus, or thalamus. These results suggest that some neurons in early PD-affected human brain regions express high levels of perikaryal α-synuclein, as happens in the mouse brain. Additionally, synaptic profiles expressing α-synuclein are different in various brain regions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Infectious diseases of the brain: imaging and differential diagnosis; Infektioese Hirnerkrankungen: Bildgebung und differenzialdiagnostische Aspekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haehnel, S.; Seitz, A. [Abt. Neuroradiologie, Neurologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany); Storch-Hagenlocher, B. [Abt. Neurologie, Neurologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    Infectious diseases of the central nervous system have to be considered in differential diagnosis particularly in immunocompromised persons. Neuro-imaging, specifically advanced techniques such as diffusion weighted MRI and perfusion MRI contribute much to the differentiation of brain infections and for differentiating brain infections from other, for instance, neoplastic diseases. In this review we present the imaging criteria of the most important brains infections in adults and in pediatric patients and discuss differential diagnostic aspects in detail. (orig.)

  12. Differential diagnosis of scintigraphic brain centres by 75Se selenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestagno, M.; Garraffa, V.; Rembado, R.; Guerra, U.

    1975-01-01

    Since standard brain scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc is not always adequate for a satisfactory differential diagnosis of the radioactive foci detected, the possibilities of 75 Se sodium selenite were investigated. It was observed that in centres due to a vascular lesion the selenite concentration is always low, rising steeply in neoplasmic foci. The 75 Se-selenite scintigraphic method is considered highly valid, complementing that of sup(99m)Tc when this latter is unsuitable for diagnosis of the nature of cerebral foci [fr

  13. [Physical activity: positive impact on brain plasticity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiron, Anat; Kalron, Alon

    2008-03-01

    The central nervous system has a unique capability of plasticity that enables a single neuron or a group of neurons to undergo functional and constructional changes that are important to learning processes and for compensation of brain damage. The current review aims to summarize recent data related to the effects of physical activity on brain plasticity. In the last decade it was reported that physical activity can affect and manipulate neuronal connections, synaptic activity and adaptation to new neuronal environment following brain injury. One of the most significant neurotrophic factors that is critical for synaptic re-organization and is influenced by physical activity is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The frequency of physical activity and the intensity of exercises are of importance to brain remodeling, support neuronal survival and positively affect rehabilitation therapy. Physical activity should be employed as a tool to improve neural function in healthy subjects and in patients suffering from neurological damage.

  14. Sexual differentiation of the human brain: Relation to gender identity, sexual orientation and neuropsychiatric disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, Ai-Min; Swaab, Dick F.

    2011-01-01

    During the intrauterine period a testosterone surge masculinizes the fetal brain, whereas the absence of such a surge results in a feminine brain. As sexual differentiation of the brain takes place at a much later stage in development than sexual differentiation of the genitals, these two processes

  15. Differential diagnosis of the epileptogenic supratentorial brain tumors in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Khalilov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-six out of 79 pediatric patients with supratentorial brain tumors were noted to have symptomatic epilepsy. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNET, diffuse astrocytomas (DA, and gangliogliomas (GG were the most epileptogenic tumors. Seizures were new-onset in all our noted cases of DNET and in 4 patients with GG and the only clinical tumor sign in 6 of 8 cases of DNET. The neuroimaging features of the MRI pattern of DNET, DA, and GG were an iso/hypointense signal on Tl-weighted magnetic resonance images and a signal, the intensity of which varied from heterogeneous to cerebrospinal fluid, on T2-weighted FLAIR images. Cases of DNET and GG displayed no mass effect or perifocal edema, a trend towards location in the temporoinsular regions, and a frequent concurrence with local gray-white matter differentiation disorders and atrophy. The FLAIR images clearly showed the so-called foam-like (multicystic structure with pericystic changes. No significant change in the dimensions of the identified DNET and GG was observed during the follow up period. In low-grade DA, tumor growth was reduced and it is difficult to differentiate minimal perifocal edema from tumor-like tissue. The sensitivity of these tumors to contrast enhancement is ambiguous. Along with DNET (that was epileptogenic in 100% of cases, DA (91,7% and GG (80% were the most common epileptogenic brain tumors.

  16. Does Aerobic Exercise Influence Intrinsic Brain Activity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flodin, Pär; Jonasson, Lars S; Riklund, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    exercise group or an active control group. Both groups recieved supervised training, 3 days a week for 6 months. Multimodal brain imaging data was acquired before and after the intervention, including 10 min of resting state brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and arterial spin labeling......Previous studies have indicated that aerobic exercise could reduce age related decline in cognition and brain functioning. Here we investigated the effects of aerobic exercise on intrinsic brain activity. Sixty sedentary healthy males and females (64-78 years) were randomized into either an aerobic...... group improved more. Contrary to our hypothesis, we did not observe any significant group by time interactions with regard to any measure of intrinsic activity. To further probe putative relationships between fitness and brain activity, we performed post hoc analyses disregarding group belongings...

  17. Two-dimensional zymography differentiates gelatinase isoforms in stimulated microglial cells and in brain tissues of acute brain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanyan; Meng, Fanjun; Chen, Zhenzhou; Tomlinson, Brittany N; Wesley, Jennifer M; Sun, Grace Y; Whaley-Connell, Adam T; Sowers, James R; Cui, Jiankun; Gu, Zezong

    2015-01-01

    Excessive activation of gelatinases (MMP-2/-9) is a key cause of detrimental outcomes in neurodegenerative diseases. A single-dimension zymography has been widely used to determine gelatinase expression and activity, but this method is inadequate in resolving complex enzyme isoforms, because gelatinase expression and activity could be modified at transcriptional and posttranslational levels. In this study, we investigated gelatinase isoforms under in vitro and in vivo conditions using two-dimensional (2D) gelatin zymography electrophoresis, a protocol allowing separation of proteins based on isoelectric points (pI) and molecular weights. We observed organomercuric chemical 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate-induced activation of MMP-2 isoforms with variant pI values in the conditioned medium of human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. Studies with murine BV-2 microglial cells indicated a series of proform MMP-9 spots separated by variant pI values due to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The MMP-9 pI values were shifted after treatment with alkaline phosphatase, suggesting presence of phosphorylated isoforms due to the proinflammatory stimulation. Similar MMP-9 isoforms with variant pI values in the same molecular weight were also found in mouse brains after ischemic and traumatic brain injuries. In contrast, there was no detectable pI differentiation of MMP-9 in the brains of chronic Zucker obese rats. These results demonstrated effective use of 2D zymography to separate modified MMP isoforms with variant pI values and to detect posttranslational modifications under different pathological conditions.

  18. Infectious diseases of brain parenchyma in adults: imaging and differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haehnel, S.; Kress, B.; Stippich, C.; Sartor, K.; Seitz, A.; Storch-Hagenlocher, B.; Forsting, M.; Jansen, O.

    2005-01-01

    Infectious diseases of the central nervous system have often to be considered in differential diagnosis, particularly in immunocompromised persons. Neuroimaging, specifically advanced techniques such as diffusion-weighted MRI and perfusion MRI contribute much to the differentiation of various brain infections and to delineation of brain infections from other, for instance, neoplastic diseases. In this review we present the imaging criteria for the most important brain infections in adults and discuss in detail differential diagnostic aspects. (orig.)

  19. Genetic biomarkers for brain hemisphere differentiation in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourani, Mou'ath; Mendes, Alexandre; Berretta, Regina; Moscato, Pablo

    2007-11-01

    This work presents a study on the genetic profile of the left and right hemispheres of the brain of a mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). The goal is to characterize, in a genetic basis, PD as a disease that affects these two brain regions in different ways. Using the same whole-genome microarray expression data introduced by Brown et al. (2002) [1], we could find significant differences in the expression of some key genes, well-known to be involved in the mechanisms of dopamine production control and PD. The problem of selecting such genes was modeled as the MIN (α,β)—FEATURE SET problem [2]; a similar approach to that employed previously to find biomarkers for different types of cancer using gene expression microarray data [3]. The Feature Selection method produced a series of genetic signatures for PD, with distinct expression profiles in the Parkinson's model and control mice experiments. In addition, a close examination of the genes composing those signatures shows that many of them belong to genetic pathways or have ontology annotations considered to be involved in the onset and development of PD. Such elements could provide new clues on which mechanisms are implicated in hemisphere differentiation in PD.

  20. Differentiating the Influences of Aging and Adiposity on Brain Weights, Levels of Serum and Brain Cytokines, Gastrointestinal Hormones, and Amyloid Precursor Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, William A; Abrass, Christine K; Hansen, Kim M

    2016-01-01

    Aging and obesity exert important effects on disease. Differentiating these effects is difficult, however, because weight gain often accompanies aging. Here, we used a nested design of aged, calorically restricted, and refed rats to measure changes in brain and blood levels of cytokines and gastrointestinal hormones, brain amyloid precursor protein levels, and brain and body weights. By comparing groups and using path analysis, we found divergent influences of chronological aging versus body weight, our main findings being (i) changes in whole brain weight and serum macrophage colony-stimulating factor levels correlated better with body weight than with chronological aging, (ii) a decrease in brain cytokines and brain plasminogen activator inhibitor levels correlated better with chronological aging than with body weight, (iii) serum erythropoietin levels were influenced by both body weight and aging, (iv) serum plasminogen activator inhibitor, serum cytokines, and brain tumor necrosis factor were not influenced by aging or body weight, and (v) brain amyloid precursor protein more closely related to body weight and serum levels of gastrointestinal hormones than to brain weight, chronological aging, or cytokines. These findings show that although aging and body weight interact, their influences are distinct not only among various cytokines and hormones but also between the central nervous system and the peripheral tissue compartments. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Gerontological Society of America 2014.

  1. Brain cytoplasmic RNA 1 suppresses smooth muscle differentiation and vascular development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yung-Chun; Chuang, Ya-Hui; Shao, Qiang; Chen, Jian-Fu; Chen, Shi-You

    2018-04-13

    The cardiovascular system develops during the early stages of embryogenesis, and differentiation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is essential for that process. SMC differentiation is critically regulated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/SMAD family member 3 (SMAD3) signaling, but other regulators may also play a role. For example, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate various cellular activities and events, such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. However, whether long noncoding RNAs also regulate SMC differentiation remains largely unknown. Here, using the murine cell line C3H10T1/2, we found that brain cytoplasmic RNA 1 (BC1) is an important regulator of SMC differentiation. BC1 overexpression suppressed, whereas BC1 knockdown promoted, TGF-β-induced SMC differentiation, as indicated by altered cell morphology and expression of multiple SMC markers, including smooth muscle α-actin (αSMA), calponin, and smooth muscle 22α (SM22α). BC1 appeared to block SMAD3 activity and inhibit SMC marker gene transcription. Mechanistically, BC1 bound to SMAD3 via RNA SMAD-binding elements (rSBEs) and thus impeded TGF-β-induced SMAD3 translocation to the nucleus. This prevented SMAD3 from binding to SBEs in SMC marker gene promoters, an essential event in SMC marker transcription. In vivo , BC1 overexpression in mouse embryos impaired vascular SMC differentiation, leading to structural defects in the artery wall, such as random breaks in the elastic lamina, abnormal collagen deposition on SM fibers, and disorganized extracellular matrix proteins in the media of the neonatal aorta. Our results suggest that BC1 is a suppressor of SMC differentiation during vascular development. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Whole-brain activity mapping onto a zebrafish brain atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randlett, Owen; Wee, Caroline L.; Naumann, Eva A.; Nnaemeka, Onyeka; Schoppik, David; Fitzgerald, James E.; Portugues, Ruben; Lacoste, Alix M.B.; Riegler, Clemens; Engert, Florian; Schier, Alexander F.

    2015-01-01

    In order to localize the neural circuits involved in generating behaviors, it is necessary to assign activity onto anatomical maps of the nervous system. Using brain registration across hundreds of larval zebrafish, we have built an expandable open source atlas containing molecular labels and anatomical region definitions, the Z-Brain. Using this platform and immunohistochemical detection of phosphorylated-Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK/MAPK) as a readout of neural activity, we have developed a system to create and contextualize whole brain maps of stimulus- and behavior-dependent neural activity. This MAP-Mapping (Mitogen Activated Protein kinase – Mapping) assay is technically simple, fast, inexpensive, and data analysis is completely automated. Since MAP-Mapping is performed on fish that are freely swimming, it is applicable to nearly any stimulus or behavior. We demonstrate the utility of our high-throughput approach using hunting/feeding, pharmacological, visual and noxious stimuli. The resultant maps outline hundreds of areas associated with behaviors. PMID:26778924

  3. Whole-brain activity mapping onto a zebrafish brain atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randlett, Owen; Wee, Caroline L; Naumann, Eva A; Nnaemeka, Onyeka; Schoppik, David; Fitzgerald, James E; Portugues, Ruben; Lacoste, Alix M B; Riegler, Clemens; Engert, Florian; Schier, Alexander F

    2015-11-01

    In order to localize the neural circuits involved in generating behaviors, it is necessary to assign activity onto anatomical maps of the nervous system. Using brain registration across hundreds of larval zebrafish, we have built an expandable open-source atlas containing molecular labels and definitions of anatomical regions, the Z-Brain. Using this platform and immunohistochemical detection of phosphorylated extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) as a readout of neural activity, we have developed a system to create and contextualize whole-brain maps of stimulus- and behavior-dependent neural activity. This mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP)-mapping assay is technically simple, and data analysis is completely automated. Because MAP-mapping is performed on freely swimming fish, it is applicable to studies of nearly any stimulus or behavior. Here we demonstrate our high-throughput approach using pharmacological, visual and noxious stimuli, as well as hunting and feeding. The resultant maps outline hundreds of areas associated with behaviors.

  4. Trans-differentiation of neural stem cells: a therapeutic mechanism against the radiation induced brain damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeung Min Joo

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy is an indispensable therapeutic modality for various brain diseases. Though endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs would provide regenerative potential, many patients nevertheless suffer from radiation-induced brain damage. Accordingly, we tested beneficial effects of exogenous NSC supplementation using in vivo mouse models that received whole brain irradiation. Systemic supplementation of primarily cultured mouse fetal NSCs inhibited radiation-induced brain atrophy and thereby preserved brain functions such as short-term memory. Transplanted NSCs migrated to the irradiated brain and differentiated into neurons, astrocytes, or oligodendrocytes. In addition, neurotrophic factors such as NGF were significantly increased in the brain by NSCs, indicating that both paracrine and replacement effects could be the therapeutic mechanisms of NSCs. Interestingly, NSCs also differentiated into brain endothelial cells, which was accompanied by the restoration the cerebral blood flow that was reduced from the irradiation. Inhibition of the VEGF signaling reduced the migration and trans-differentiation of NSCs. Therefore, trans-differentiation of NSCs into brain endothelial cells by the VEGF signaling and the consequential restoration of the cerebral blood flow would also be one of the therapeutic mechanisms of NSCs. In summary, our data demonstrate that exogenous NSC supplementation could prevent radiation-induced functional loss of the brain. Therefore, successful combination of brain radiation therapy and NSC supplementation would provide a highly promising therapeutic option for patients with various brain diseases.

  5. 201Tl brain SPECT in differentiating central nervous system lymphoma from toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, Noriko; Suzuki, Kenzo; Abe, Katsumi; Yokoyama, Yoshiaki; Ushimi, Hisashi; Terada, Kazushi

    1997-01-01

    In AIDS patients, toxoplasmosis and lymphoma are the leading causes of CNS mass lesions. It is important to make the correct diagnosis expeditiously, since the two diseases require markedly different treatments and have different prognoses. In general, CT and MR imaging have failed to provide specific distinguishing characteristics to differentiate CNS lymphoma from toxoplasmosis, and it is difficult to differentiate these entities clinically. We performed 201 Tl brain SPECT in order to differentiate two diseases. Counts ratio of a lesion to the normal brain (L/N ratio) was elevated in patients of lymphoma compared in patients of toxoplasmosis. 201 Tl brain SPECT is useful to differentiate CNS lymphoma from toxoplasmosis. (author)

  6. Diversity of sharp-wave–ripple LFP signatures reveals differentiated brain-wide dynamical events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Villegas, Juan F.; Logothetis, Nikos K.; Besserve, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Sharp-wave–ripple (SPW-R) complexes are believed to mediate memory reactivation, transfer, and consolidation. However, their underlying neuronal dynamics at multiple scales remains poorly understood. Using concurrent hippocampal local field potential (LFP) recordings and functional MRI (fMRI), we study local changes in neuronal activity during SPW-R episodes and their brain-wide correlates. Analysis of the temporal alignment between SPW and ripple components reveals well-differentiated SPW-R subtypes in the CA1 LFP. SPW-R–triggered fMRI maps show that ripples aligned to the positive peak of their SPWs have enhanced neocortical metabolic up-regulation. In contrast, ripples occurring at the trough of their SPWs relate to weaker neocortical up-regulation and absent subcortical down-regulation, indicating differentiated involvement of neuromodulatory pathways in the ripple phenomenon mediated by long-range interactions. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence for the existence of SPW-R subtypes with differentiated CA1 activity and metabolic correlates in related brain areas, possibly serving different memory functions. PMID:26540729

  7. Diversity of sharp-wave-ripple LFP signatures reveals differentiated brain-wide dynamical events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Villegas, Juan F; Logothetis, Nikos K; Besserve, Michel

    2015-11-17

    Sharp-wave-ripple (SPW-R) complexes are believed to mediate memory reactivation, transfer, and consolidation. However, their underlying neuronal dynamics at multiple scales remains poorly understood. Using concurrent hippocampal local field potential (LFP) recordings and functional MRI (fMRI), we study local changes in neuronal activity during SPW-R episodes and their brain-wide correlates. Analysis of the temporal alignment between SPW and ripple components reveals well-differentiated SPW-R subtypes in the CA1 LFP. SPW-R-triggered fMRI maps show that ripples aligned to the positive peak of their SPWs have enhanced neocortical metabolic up-regulation. In contrast, ripples occurring at the trough of their SPWs relate to weaker neocortical up-regulation and absent subcortical down-regulation, indicating differentiated involvement of neuromodulatory pathways in the ripple phenomenon mediated by long-range interactions. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence for the existence of SPW-R subtypes with differentiated CA1 activity and metabolic correlates in related brain areas, possibly serving different memory functions.

  8. Asymmetric Frontal Brain Activity and Parental Rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huffmeijer, R.; Alink, L.R.A.; Tops, M.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetric frontal brain activity has been widely implicated in reactions to emotional stimuli and is thought to reflect individual differences in approach-withdrawal motivation. Here, we investigate whether asymmetric frontal activity, as a measure of approach-withdrawal motivation, also predicts

  9. Hyperthyroidism differentially regulates neuropeptide S system in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Carmen R; Martínez de Morentin, Pablo B; Martínez-Sánchez, Noelia; Gómez-Díaz, Consuelo; Lage, Ricardo; Varela, Luis; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Castaño, Justo P; López, Miguel

    2012-04-23

    Thyroid hormones play an important role in the regulation of energy balance, sleep and emotional behaviors. Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a recently discovered neuropeptide, regulating feeding, sleep and anxiety. Here, we examined the effect of hyperthyroidism on the gene and protein expression of neuropeptide S and its receptor (NPS-R) in the hypothalamus, brainstem and amygdala of rats. Our results showed that the expression of NPS and NPS-R was differentially modulated by hyperthyroidism in the rat brain. NPS and NPS-R mRNA and protein levels were decreased in the hypothalamus of hyperthyroid rats. Conversely NPS-R expression was highly increased in the brainstem and NPS and NPS-R expression were unchanged in the amygdala of these rats. These data suggest that changes in anxiety and food intake patterns observed in hyperthyroidism could be associated with changes in the expression of NPS and NPS-R. Thus, the NPS/NPS-R system may be involved in several hyperthyroidism-associated comorbidities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Accelerated differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells to blood-brain barrier endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, Emma K; Bailey, Amanda K; Potharazu, Archit V; Neely, M Diana; Bowman, Aaron B; Lippmann, Ethan S

    2017-04-13

    Due to their ability to limitlessly proliferate and specialize into almost any cell type, human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer an unprecedented opportunity to generate human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs), which compose the blood-brain barrier (BBB), for research purposes. Unfortunately, the time, expense, and expertise required to differentiate iPSCs to purified BMECs precludes their widespread use. Here, we report the use of a defined medium that accelerates the differentiation of iPSCs to BMECs while achieving comparable performance to BMECs produced by established methods. Induced pluripotent stem cells were seeded at defined densities and differentiated to BMECs using defined medium termed E6. Resultant purified BMEC phenotypes were assessed through trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER), fluorescein permeability, and P-glycoprotein and MRP family efflux transporter activity. Expression of endothelial markers and their signature tight junction proteins were confirmed using immunocytochemistry. The influence of co-culture with astrocytes and pericytes on purified BMECs was assessed via TEER measurements. The robustness of the differentiation method was confirmed across independent iPSC lines. The use of E6 medium, coupled with updated culture methods, reduced the differentiation time of iPSCs to BMECs from thirteen to 8 days. E6-derived BMECs expressed GLUT-1, claudin-5, occludin, PECAM-1, and VE-cadherin and consistently achieved TEER values exceeding 2500 Ω × cm 2 across multiple iPSC lines, with a maximum TEER value of 4678 ± 49 Ω × cm 2 and fluorescein permeability below 1.95 × 10 -7 cm/s. E6-derived BMECs maintained TEER above 1000 Ω × cm 2 for a minimum of 8 days and showed no statistical difference in efflux transporter activity compared to BMECs differentiated by conventional means. The method was also found to support long-term stability of BMECs harboring biallelic PARK2 mutations associated

  11. Mapping of brain activity by automated volume analysis of immediate early genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renier, Nicolas; Adams, Eliza L.; Kirst, Christoph; Wu, Zhuhao; Azevedo, Ricardo; Kohl, Johannes; Autry, Anita E.; Kadiri, Lolahon; Venkataraju, Kannan Umadevi; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Victoria X.; Tang, Cheuk Y.; Olsen, Olav; Dulac, Catherine; Osten, Pavel; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Summary Understanding how neural information is processed in physiological and pathological states would benefit from precise detection, localization and quantification of the activity of all neurons across the entire brain, which has not to date been achieved in the mammalian brain. We introduce a pipeline for high speed acquisition of brain activity at cellular resolution through profiling immediate early gene expression using immunostaining and light-sheet fluorescence imaging, followed by automated mapping and analysis of activity by an open-source software program we term ClearMap. We validate the pipeline first by analysis of brain regions activated in response to Haloperidol. Next, we report new cortical regions downstream of whisker-evoked sensory processing during active exploration. Lastly, we combine activity mapping with axon tracing to uncover new brain regions differentially activated during parenting behavior. This pipeline is widely applicable to different experimental paradigms, including animal species for which transgenic activity reporters are not readily available. PMID:27238021

  12. Bitter taste stimuli induce differential neural codes in mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Wilson

    Full Text Available A growing literature suggests taste stimuli commonly classified as "bitter" induce heterogeneous neural and perceptual responses. Here, the central processing of bitter stimuli was studied in mice with genetically controlled bitter taste profiles. Using these mice removed genetic heterogeneity as a factor influencing gustatory neural codes for bitter stimuli. Electrophysiological activity (spikes was recorded from single neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius during oral delivery of taste solutions (26 total, including concentration series of the bitter tastants quinine, denatonium benzoate, cycloheximide, and sucrose octaacetate (SOA, presented to the whole mouth for 5 s. Seventy-nine neurons were sampled; in many cases multiple cells (2 to 5 were recorded from a mouse. Results showed bitter stimuli induced variable gustatory activity. For example, although some neurons responded robustly to quinine and cycloheximide, others displayed concentration-dependent activity (p<0.05 to quinine but not cycloheximide. Differential activity to bitter stimuli was observed across multiple neurons recorded from one animal in several mice. Across all cells, quinine and denatonium induced correlated spatial responses that differed (p<0.05 from those to cycloheximide and SOA. Modeling spatiotemporal neural ensemble activity revealed responses to quinine/denatonium and cycloheximide/SOA diverged during only an early, at least 1 s wide period of the taste response. Our findings highlight how temporal features of sensory processing contribute differences among bitter taste codes and build on data suggesting heterogeneity among "bitter" stimuli, data that challenge a strict monoguesia model for the bitter quality.

  13. Sequence learning in differentially activated dendrites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bjørn Gilbert

    2003-01-01

    . It is proposed that the neural machinery required in such a learning/retrieval mechanism could involve the NMDA receptor, in conjunction with the ability of dendrites to maintain differentially activated regions. In particular, it is suggested that such a parcellation of the dendrite allows the neuron......Differentially activated areas of a dendrite permit the existence of zones with distinct rates of synaptic modification, and such areas can be individually accessed using a reference signal which localizes synaptic plasticity and memory trace retrieval to certain subregions of the dendrite...... to participate in multiple sequences, which can be learned without suffering from the 'wash-out' of synaptic efficacy associated with superimposition of training patterns. This is a biologically plausible solution to the stability-plasticity dilemma of learning in neural networks....

  14. Modulation of Brain Activity during Phonological Familiarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerus, S.; Van der Linden, M.; Collette, F.; Laureys, S.; Poncelet, M.; Degueldre, C.; Delfiore, G.; Luxen, A.; Salmon, E.

    2005-01-01

    We measured brain activity in 12 adults for the repetition of auditorily presented words and nonwords, before and after repeated exposure to their phonological form. The nonword phoneme combinations were either of high (HF) or low (LF) phonotactic frequency. After familiarization, we observed, for both word and nonword conditions, decreased…

  15. Nanoparticle-mediated transcriptional modification enhances neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells following transplantation in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowei; Tzeng, Stephany Y; Liu, Xiaoyan; Tammia, Markus; Cheng, Yu-Hao; Rolfe, Andrew; Sun, Dong; Zhang, Ning; Green, Jordan J; Wen, Xuejun; Mao, Hai-Quan

    2016-04-01

    Strategies to enhance survival and direct the differentiation of stem cells in vivo following transplantation in tissue repair site are critical to realizing the potential of stem cell-based therapies. Here we demonstrated an effective approach to promote neuronal differentiation and maturation of human fetal tissue-derived neural stem cells (hNSCs) in a brain lesion site of a rat traumatic brain injury model using biodegradable nanoparticle-mediated transfection method to deliver key transcriptional factor neurogenin-2 to hNSCs when transplanted with a tailored hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel, generating larger number of more mature neurons engrafted to the host brain tissue than non-transfected cells. The nanoparticle-mediated transcription activation method together with an HA hydrogel delivery matrix provides a translatable approach for stem cell-based regenerative therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical value of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for differentiating recurrent or residual brain tumor from delayed cerebral necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, June S.; Langston, James W.; Reddick, Wilburn E.; Kingsley, Peter B.; Ogg, Robert J.; Pui, Margaret H.; Kun, Larry E.; Jenkins, Jesse J.; Gang, Chen; Ochs, Judith J.; Sanford, Robert A.; Heideman, Richard L.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Delayed cerebral necrosis (DN) is a significant risk for brain tumor patients treated with high-dose irradiation. Although differentiating DN from tumor progression is an important clinical question, the distinction cannot be made reliably by conventional imaging techniques. We undertook a pilot study to assess the ability of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) to differentiate prospectively between DN or recurrent/residual tumor in a series of children treated for primary brain tumors with high-dose irradiation. Methods and Materials: Twelve children (ages 3-16 years), who had clinical and MR imaging (MRI) changes that suggested a diagnosis of either DN or progressive/recurrent brain tumor, underwent localized 1 H MRS prior to planned biopsy, resection, or other confirmatory histological procedure. Prospective 1 H MRS interpretations were based on comparison of spectral peak patterns and quantitative peak area values from normalized spectra: a marked depression of the intracellular metabolite peaks from choline, creatine, and N-acetyl compounds was hypothesized to indicate DN, and median-to-high choline with easily visible creatine metabolite peaks was labeled progressive/recurrent tumor. Subsequent histological studies identified the brain lesion as DN or recurrent/residual tumor. Results: The patient series included five cases of DN and seven recurrent/residual tumor cases, based on histology. The MRS criteria prospectively identified five out of seven patients with active tumor, and four out of five patients with histologically proven DN correctly. Discriminant analysis suggested that the primary diagnostic information for differentiating DN from tumor lay in the normalized MRS peak areas for choline and creatine compounds. Conclusions: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy shows promising sensitivity and selectivity for differentiating DN from recurrent/progressive brain tumor. A novel diagnostic index based on peak areas for choline and

  17. Xanthine oxidase activity regulates human embryonic brain cells growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevorkian G. A.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Involvement of Xanthine Oxidase (XO; EC1.1.3.22 in cellular proliferation and differentiation has been suggested by the numerous investigations. We have proposed that XO might have undoubtedly important role during the development, maturation as well as the death of human embryos brain cells. Methods. Human abortion material was utilized for the cultivation of brain cells (E90. XO activity was measured by the formation of uric acid in tissue. Cell death was detected by the utility of Trypan Blue dye. Results. Allopurinol suppressed the XO activity in the brain tissue (0.12 ± 0.02; 0.20 ± 0.03 resp., p < 0.05. On day 12th the number of cells in the culture treated with the Allopurinol at the early stage of development was higher in comparison with the Control (2350.1 ± 199.0 vs 2123 ± 96 and higher in comparison with the late period of treatment (1479.6 ± 103.8, p < < 0.05. In all groups, the number of the dead cells was less than in Control, indicating the protective nature of Allopurinol as an inhibitor of XO. Conclusions. Allopurinol initiates cells proliferation in case of the early treatment of the human brain derived cell culture whereas at the late stages it has an opposite effect.

  18. Genes differentially expressed in medulloblastoma and fetal brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michiels, E. M.; Oussoren, E.; van Groenigen, M.; Pauws, E.; Bossuyt, P. M.; Voûte, P. A.; Baas, F.

    1999-01-01

    Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) was used to identify genes that might be involved in the development or growth of medulloblastoma, a childhood brain tumor. Sequence tags from medulloblastoma (10229) and fetal brain (10692) were determined. The distributions of sequence tags in each

  19. Propagation of damage in the rat brain following sarin exposure: Differential progression of early processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazar, Shlomi; Egoz, Inbal; Brandeis, Rachel; Chapman, Shira; Bloch-Shilderman, Eugenia; Grauer, Ettie

    2016-01-01

    Sarin is an irreversible organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor and a highly toxic warfare agent. Following the overt, dose-dependent signs (e.g. tremor, hyper secretion, seizures, respiratory depression and eventually death), brain damage is often reported. The goal of the present study was to characterize the early histopathological and biochemical events leading to this damage. Rats were exposed to 1LD50 of sarin (80 μg/kg, i.m.). Brains were removed at 1, 2, 6, 24 and 48 h and processed for analysis. Results showed that TSPO (translocator protein) mRNA increased at 6 h post exposure while TSPO receptor density increased only at 24 h. In all brain regions tested, bax mRNA decreased 1 h post exposure followed by an increase 24 h later, with only minor increase in bcl2 mRNA. At this time point a decrease was seen in both anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 and pro-apoptotic Bax, followed by a time and region specific increase in Bax. An immediate elevation in ERK1/2 activity with no change in JNK may indicate an endogenous “first response” mechanism used to attenuate the forthcoming apoptosis. The time dependent increase in the severity of brain damage included an early bi-phasic activation of astrocytes, a sharp decrease in intact neuronal cells, a time dependent reduction in MAP2 and up to 15% of apoptosis. Thus, neuronal death is mostly due to necrosis and severe astrocytosis. The data suggests that timing of possible treatments should be determined by early events following exposure. For example, the biphasic changes in astrocytes activity indicate a possible beneficial effects of delayed anti-inflammatory intervention. - Highlights: • The severity of brain damage post 1LD50 sarin exposure is time dependent. • Sarin induce differential progression of early processes in the rat brain. • Potential treatments should be timed according to early events following exposure. • The biphasic astrocytes activity suggests a delay in anti-inflammatory intervention.

  20. Propagation of damage in the rat brain following sarin exposure: Differential progression of early processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazar, Shlomi; Egoz, Inbal; Brandeis, Rachel; Chapman, Shira; Bloch-Shilderman, Eugenia; Grauer, Ettie, E-mail: ettieg@iibr.gov.il

    2016-11-01

    Sarin is an irreversible organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor and a highly toxic warfare agent. Following the overt, dose-dependent signs (e.g. tremor, hyper secretion, seizures, respiratory depression and eventually death), brain damage is often reported. The goal of the present study was to characterize the early histopathological and biochemical events leading to this damage. Rats were exposed to 1LD50 of sarin (80 μg/kg, i.m.). Brains were removed at 1, 2, 6, 24 and 48 h and processed for analysis. Results showed that TSPO (translocator protein) mRNA increased at 6 h post exposure while TSPO receptor density increased only at 24 h. In all brain regions tested, bax mRNA decreased 1 h post exposure followed by an increase 24 h later, with only minor increase in bcl2 mRNA. At this time point a decrease was seen in both anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 and pro-apoptotic Bax, followed by a time and region specific increase in Bax. An immediate elevation in ERK1/2 activity with no change in JNK may indicate an endogenous “first response” mechanism used to attenuate the forthcoming apoptosis. The time dependent increase in the severity of brain damage included an early bi-phasic activation of astrocytes, a sharp decrease in intact neuronal cells, a time dependent reduction in MAP2 and up to 15% of apoptosis. Thus, neuronal death is mostly due to necrosis and severe astrocytosis. The data suggests that timing of possible treatments should be determined by early events following exposure. For example, the biphasic changes in astrocytes activity indicate a possible beneficial effects of delayed anti-inflammatory intervention. - Highlights: • The severity of brain damage post 1LD50 sarin exposure is time dependent. • Sarin induce differential progression of early processes in the rat brain. • Potential treatments should be timed according to early events following exposure. • The biphasic astrocytes activity suggests a delay in anti-inflammatory intervention.

  1. Differentiating functional brain regions using optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Daniel A.; Bow, Hansen C.; Shen, Jin-H.; Joos, Karen M.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2017-02-01

    The human brain is made up of functional regions governing movement, sensation, language, and cognition. Unintentional injury during neurosurgery can result in significant neurological deficits and morbidity. The current standard for localizing function to brain tissue during surgery, intraoperative electrical stimulation or recording, significantly increases the risk, time, and cost of the procedure. There is a need for a fast, cost-effective, and high-resolution intraoperative technique that can avoid damage to functional brain regions. We propose that optical coherence tomography (OCT) can fill this niche by imaging differences in the cellular composition and organization of functional brain areas. We hypothesized this would manifest as differences in the attenuation coefficient measured using OCT. Five functional regions (prefrontal, somatosensory, auditory, visual, and cerebellum) were imaged in ex vivo porcine brains (n=3), a model chosen due to a similar white/gray matter ratio as human brains. The attenuation coefficient was calculated using a depth-resolved model and quantitatively validated with Intralipid phantoms across a physiological range of attenuation coefficients (absolute difference Nissl-stained histology will be used to validate our results and correlate OCT-measured attenuation coefficients to neuronal density. Additional development and validation of OCT algorithms to discriminate brain regions are planned to improve the safety and efficacy of neurosurgical procedures such as biopsy, electrode placement, and tissue resection.

  2. Differential role of tumor necrosis factor receptors in mouse brain inflammatory responses in cryolesion brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintana, Albert; Giralt, Mercedes; Rojas, Santiago

    2005-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is one of the mediators dramatically increased after traumatic brain injury that leads to the activation, proliferation, and hypertrophy of mononuclear, phagocytic cells and gliosis. Eventually, TNF-alpha can induce both apoptosis and necrosis via intracell......Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is one of the mediators dramatically increased after traumatic brain injury that leads to the activation, proliferation, and hypertrophy of mononuclear, phagocytic cells and gliosis. Eventually, TNF-alpha can induce both apoptosis and necrosis via...... intracellular signaling. This cytokine exerts its functions via interaction with two receptors: type-1 receptor (TNFR1) and type-2 receptor (TNFR2). In this work, the inflammatory response after a freeze injury (cryolesion) in the cortex was studied in wild-type (WT) animals and in mice lacking TNFR1 (TNFR1 KO...... signaling also affected the expression of apoptosis/cell death-related genes (Fas, Rip, p53), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP3, MMP9, MMP12), and their inhibitors (TIMP1), suggesting a role of TNFR1 in extracellular matrix remodeling after injury. However, GDNF, NGF, and BDNF expression were not affected...

  3. Differential effects of ethanol on regional glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmitter pathways in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Vivek; Veeraiah, Pandichelvam; Subramaniam, Vaidyanathan; Patel, Anant Bahadur

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the effects of ethanol on neuronal and astroglial metabolism using (1)H-[(13)C]-NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with infusion of [1,6-(13)C2]/[1-(13)C]glucose or [2-(13)C]acetate, respectively. A three-compartment metabolic model was fitted to the (13)C turnover of GluC3 , GluC4, GABAC 2, GABAC 3, AspC3 , and GlnC4 from [1,6-(13)C2 ]glucose to determine the rates of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) and neurotransmitter cycle associated with glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. The ratio of neurotransmitter cycle to TCA cycle fluxes for glutamatergic and GABAegic neurons was obtained from the steady-state [2-(13)C]acetate experiment and used as constraints during the metabolic model fitting. (1)H MRS measurement suggests that depletion of ethanol from cerebral cortex follows zero order kinetics with rate 0.18 ± 0.04 μmol/g/min. Acute exposure of ethanol reduces the level of glutamate and aspartate in cortical region. GlnC4 labeling was found to be unchanged from a 15 min infusion of [2-(13)C]acetate suggesting that acute ethanol exposure does not affect astroglial metabolism in naive mice. Rates of TCA and neurotransmitter cycle associated with glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons were found to be significantly reduced in cortical and subcortical regions. Acute exposure of ethanol perturbs the level of neurometabolites and decreases the excitatory and inhibitory activity differentially across the regions of brain. Depletion of ethanol and its effect on brain functions were measured using (1)H and (1)H-[(13)C]-NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with infusion of (13)C-labeled substrates. Ethanol depletion from brain follows zero order kinetics. Ethanol perturbs level of glutamate, and the excitatory and inhibitory activity in mice brain. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  4. Validation of DWI pre-processing procedures for reliable differentiation between human brain gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellmer, Sebastian; Tonoyan, Aram S; Suter, Dieter; Pronin, Igor N; Maximov, Ivan I

    2018-02-01

    Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is a powerful tool in clinical applications, in particular, in oncology screening. dMRI demonstrated its benefit and efficiency in the localisation and detection of different types of human brain tumours. Clinical dMRI data suffer from multiple artefacts such as motion and eddy-current distortions, contamination by noise, outliers etc. In order to increase the image quality of the derived diffusion scalar metrics and the accuracy of the subsequent data analysis, various pre-processing approaches are actively developed and used. In the present work we assess the effect of different pre-processing procedures such as a noise correction, different smoothing algorithms and spatial interpolation of raw diffusion data, with respect to the accuracy of brain glioma differentiation. As a set of sensitive biomarkers of the glioma malignancy grades we chose the derived scalar metrics from diffusion and kurtosis tensor imaging as well as the neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) biophysical model. Our results show that the application of noise correction, anisotropic diffusion filtering, and cubic-order spline interpolation resulted in the highest sensitivity and specificity for glioma malignancy grading. Thus, these pre-processing steps are recommended for the statistical analysis in brain tumour studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  5. Differential Recruitment of Brain Regions During Response Inhibition in Children Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodali, Vikas N; Jacobson, Joseph L; Lindinger, Nadine M; Dodge, Neil C; Molteno, Christopher D; Meintjes, Ernesta M; Jacobson, Sandra W

    2017-02-01

    Response inhibition is a distinct aspect of executive function that is frequently impaired in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). We used a Go/NoGo (GNG) task in a functional MRI protocol to investigate differential activation of brain regions in the response inhibition network in children diagnosed with full or partial fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS/PFAS), compared with healthy controls. A rapid, event-related task with 120 Go and 60 NoGo trials was used to study children aged 8 to 12 years-8 with FAS/PFAS, 17 controls. Letters were projected sequentially, with Go and NoGo trials randomly interspersed across the task. BOLD signal in the whole brain was contrasted for the correct NoGo minus correct Go trials between the FAS/PFAS and control groups. Compared to the FAS/PFAS group, controls showed greater activation of the inferior frontal and anterior cingulate network linked to response inhibition in typically developing children. By contrast, the FAS/PFAS group showed greater BOLD response in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and other middle prefrontal regions, suggesting compensation for inefficient function of pathways that normally mediate inhibitory processing. All group differences were significant after control for potential confounding variables. None of the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on activation of the regions associated with response inhibition were attributable to the effects of this exposure on IQ. This is the first FASD GNG study in which all participants in the exposed group met criteria for a diagnosis of full FAS or PFAS. Although FASD is frequently comorbid with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, the pattern of brain activation seen in these disorders differs, suggesting that different neural pathways mediate response inhibition in FASD and that different interventions for FASD are, therefore, warranted. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  6. Intelligence is differentially related to neural effort in the task-positive and the task-negative brain network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, U.; Stelzel, C.; Fiebach, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies on individual differences in intelligence and brain activation during cognitive processing focused on brain regions where activation increases with task demands (task-positive network, TPN). Our study additionally considers brain regions where activation decreases with task demands

  7. Association Between Brain Activation and Functional Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D

    2018-04-13

    The origin of the "resting-state" brain activity recorded with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is still uncertain. Here we provide evidence for the neurovascular origins of the amplitude of the low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and the local functional connectivity density (lFCD) by comparing them with task-induced blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) responses, which are considered a proxy for neuronal activation. Using fMRI data for 2 different tasks (Relational and Social) collected by the Human Connectome Project in 426 healthy adults, we show that ALFF and lFCD have linear associations with the BOLD response. This association was significantly attenuated by a novel task signal regression (TSR) procedure, indicating that task performance enhances lFCD and ALFF in activated regions. We also show that lFCD predicts BOLD activation patterns, as was recently shown for other functional connectivity metrics, which corroborates that resting functional connectivity architecture impacts brain activation responses. Thus, our findings indicate a common source for BOLD responses, ALFF and lFCD, which is consistent with the neurovascular origin of local hemodynamic synchrony presumably reflecting coordinated fluctuations in neuronal activity. This study also supports the development of task-evoked functional connectivity density mapping.

  8. Sexual differentiation of the human brain: relation to gender identity, sexual orientation and neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Ai-Min; Swaab, Dick F

    2011-04-01

    During the intrauterine period a testosterone surge masculinizes the fetal brain, whereas the absence of such a surge results in a feminine brain. As sexual differentiation of the brain takes place at a much later stage in development than sexual differentiation of the genitals, these two processes can be influenced independently of each other. Sex differences in cognition, gender identity (an individual's perception of their own sexual identity), sexual orientation (heterosexuality, homosexuality or bisexuality), and the risks of developing neuropsychiatric disorders are programmed into our brain during early development. There is no evidence that one's postnatal social environment plays a crucial role in gender identity or sexual orientation. We discuss the relationships between structural and functional sex differences of various brain areas and the way they change along with any changes in the supply of sex hormones on the one hand and sex differences in behavior in health and disease on the other. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Differential diagnostic value of diffusion weighted imaging on brain abscess and necrotic or cystic brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaoya; Yin Jie; Wang Kunpeng; Zhang Jiandang; Liang Biling

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI)on brain abscess and necrotic or cystic brain tumors. Methods: 27 cases with brain abscesses and 33 cases with necrotic or cystic brain tumors (gliomas or metastases) were performed conventional MRI and DWI. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of region of interest (ROI) was measured and statistically tested. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated and compared with conventional MR and DWI. Results: Hyperintensity signal was seen on most brain abscesses. All necrotic or cystic brain tumors showed hypointensity signal on DWI. There was statistical significance on ADC of them. The sensitivity and specificity of conventional MRI was lower than that of DWI. Conclusion: DWI and ADC were useful in distinguishing brain abscessed from necrotic or cystic brain tumors, which was important in addition to conventional MRI. (authors)

  10. Using Brain Electrical Activity Mapping to Diagnose Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torello, Michael, W.; Duffy, Frank H.

    1985-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience assumes that measurement of brain electrical activity should relate to cognition. Brain Electrical Activity Mapping (BEAM), a non-invasive technique, is used to record changes in activity from one brain area to another and is 80 to 90 percent successful in classifying subjects as dyslexic or normal. (MT)

  11. Evidence from intrinsic activity that asymmetry of the human brain is controlled by multiple factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hesheng; Stufflebeam, Steven M; Sepulcre, Jorge; Hedden, Trey; Buckner, Randy L

    2009-12-01

    Cerebral lateralization is a fundamental property of the human brain and a marker of successful development. Here we provide evidence that multiple mechanisms control asymmetry for distinct brain systems. Using intrinsic activity to measure asymmetry in 300 adults, we mapped the most strongly lateralized brain regions. Both men and women showed strong asymmetries with a significant, but small, group difference. Factor analysis on the asymmetric regions revealed 4 separate factors that each accounted for significant variation across subjects. The factors were associated with brain systems involved in vision, internal thought (the default network), attention, and language. An independent sample of right- and left-handed individuals showed that hand dominance affects brain asymmetry but differentially across the 4 factors supporting their independence. These findings show the feasibility of measuring brain asymmetry using intrinsic activity fluctuations and suggest that multiple genetic or environmental mechanisms control cerebral lateralization.

  12. Brain Activation During Singing: "Clef de Sol Activation" Is the "Concert" of the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavridis, Ioannis N; Pyrgelis, Efstratios-Stylianos

    2016-03-01

    Humans are the most complex singers in nature, and the human voice is thought by many to be the most beautiful musical instrument. Aside from spoken language, singing represents a second mode of acoustic communication in humans. The purpose of this review article is to explore the functional anatomy of the "singing" brain. Methodologically, the existing literature regarding activation of the human brain during singing was carefully reviewed, with emphasis on the anatomic localization of such activation. Relevant human studies are mainly neuroimaging studies, namely functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography studies. Singing necessitates activation of several cortical, subcortical, cerebellar, and brainstem areas, served and coordinated by multiple neural networks. Functionally vital cortical areas of the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes bilaterally participate in the brain's activation process during singing, confirming the latter's role in human communication. Perisylvian cortical activity of the right hemisphere seems to be the most crucial component of this activation. This also explains why aphasic patients due to left hemispheric lesions are able to sing but not speak the same words. The term clef de sol activation is proposed for this crucial perisylvian cortical activation due to the clef de sol shape of the topographical distribution of these cortical areas around the sylvian fissure. Further research is needed to explore the connectivity and sequence of how the human brain activates to sing.

  13. 5-HTTLPR differentially predicts brain network responses to emotional faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Patrick M; Grady, Cheryl L; Madsen, Martin K

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on neural responses to emotionally salient faces have been studied extensively, focusing on amygdala reactivity and amygdala-prefrontal interactions. Despite compelling evidence that emotional face paradigms engage a distributed network of brain regions...... to fearful faces was significantly greater in S' carriers compared to LA LA individuals. These findings provide novel evidence for emotion-specific 5-HTTLPR effects on the response of a distributed set of brain regions including areas responsive to emotionally salient stimuli and critical components...... involved in emotion, cognitive and visual processing, less is known about 5-HTTLPR effects on broader network responses. To address this, we evaluated 5-HTTLPR differences in the whole-brain response to an emotional faces paradigm including neutral, angry and fearful faces using functional magnetic...

  14. Striatal Activation Predicts Differential Therapeutic Responses to Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kurt P; Bédard, Anne-Claude V; Fan, Jin; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Stein, Mark A; Ivanov, Iliyan; Halperin, Jeffrey M; Newcorn, Jeffrey H

    2017-07-01

    Methylphenidate has prominent effects in the dopamine-rich striatum that are absent for the selective norepinephrine transporter inhibitor atomoxetine. This study tested whether baseline striatal activation would predict differential response to the two medications in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A total of 36 youth with ADHD performed a Go/No-Go test during functional magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and were treated with methylphenidate and atomoxetine using a randomized cross-over design. Whole-brain task-related activation was regressed on clinical response. Task-related activation in right caudate nucleus was predicted by an interaction of clinical responses to methylphenidate and atomoxetine (F 1,30  = 17.00; p atomoxetine. The rate of robust response was higher for methylphenidate than for atomoxetine in youth with high (94.4% vs. 38.8%; p = .003; number needed to treat = 2, 95% CI = 1.31-3.73) but not low (33.3% vs. 50.0%; p = .375) caudate activation. Furthermore, response to atomoxetine predicted motor cortex activation (F 1,30  = 14.99; p atomoxetine in youth with ADHD, purportedly reflecting the dopaminergic effects of methylphenidate but not atomoxetine in the striatum, whereas motor cortex activation may predict response to atomoxetine. These data do not yet translate directly to the clinical setting, but the approach is potentially important for informing future research and illustrates that it may be possible to predict differential treatment response using a biomarker-driven approach. Stimulant Versus Nonstimulant Medication for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children; https://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT00183391. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Combinations of Ashwagandha leaf extracts protect brain-derived cells against oxidative stress and induce differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navjot Shah

    Full Text Available Ashwagandha, a traditional Indian herb, has been known for its variety of therapeutic activities. We earlier demonstrated anticancer activities in the alcoholic and water extracts of the leaves that were mediated by activation of tumor suppressor functions and oxidative stress in cancer cells. Low doses of these extracts were shown to possess neuroprotective activities in vitro and in vivo assays.We used cultured glioblastoma and neuroblastoma cells to examine the effect of extracts (alcoholic and water as well as their bioactive components for neuroprotective activities against oxidative stress. Various biochemical and imaging assays on the marker proteins of glial and neuronal cells were performed along with their survival profiles in control, stressed and recovered conditions. We found that the extracts and one of the purified components, withanone, when used at a low dose, protected the glial and neuronal cells from oxidative as well as glutamate insult, and induced their differentiation per se. Furthermore, the combinations of extracts and active component were highly potent endorsing the therapeutic merit of the combinational approach.Ashwagandha leaf derived bioactive compounds have neuroprotective potential and may serve as supplement for brain health.

  16. Differential susceptibility of brain regions to tributyltin chloride toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sumonto; Siddiqui, Waseem A; Khandelwal, Shashi

    2015-12-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), a well-known endocrine disruptor, is an omnipresent environmental pollutant and is explicitly used in many industrial applications. Previously we have shown its neurotoxic potential on cerebral cortex of male Wistar rats. As the effect of TBT on other brain regions is not known, we planned this study to evaluate its effect on four brain regions (cerebellum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and striatum). Four-week-old male Wistar rats were gavaged with a single dose of TBT-chloride (TBTC) (10, 20, and 30 mg/kg) and sacrificed on days 3 and 7, respectively. Effect of TBTC on blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and tin (Sn) accumulation were measured. Oxidative stress indexes such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation were analyzed as they play an imperative role in various neuropathological conditions. Since metal catalyzed reactions are a major source of oxidant generation, levels of essential metals like iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and calcium (Ca) were estimated. We found that TBTC disrupted BBB and increased Sn accumulation, both of which appear significantly correlated. Altered metal homeostasis and ROS generation accompanied by elevated lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation indicated oxidative damage which appeared more pronounced in the striatum than in cerebellum, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. This could be associated to the depleted GSH levels in striatum. These results suggest that striatum is more susceptible to TBTC induced oxidative damage as compared with other brain regions under study. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Regulation of brain aromatase activity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roselli, C.E.; Ellinwood, W.E.; Resko, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The distribution and regulation of aromatase activity in the adult rat brain with a sensitive in vitro assay that measures the amount of 3 H 2 O formed during the conversion of [1 beta- 3 H]androstenedione to estrone. The rate of aromatase activity in the hypothalamus-preoptic area (HPOA) was linear with time up to 1 h, and with tissue concentrations up to 5 mgeq/200 microliters incubation mixture. The enzyme demonstrated a pH optimum of 7.4 and an apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of 0.04 microns. The greatest amount of aromatase activity was found in amygdala and HPOA from intact male rats. The hippocampus, midbrain tegmentum, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and anterior pituitary all contained negligible enzymatic activity. Castration produced a significant decrease in aromatase activity in the HPOA, but not in the amygdala or cerebral cortex. The HPOAs of male rats contained significantly greater aromatase activity than the HPOAs of female rats. In females, this enzyme activity did not change during the estrous cycle or after ovariectomy. Administration of testosterone to gonadectomized male and female rats significantly enhanced HPOA aromatase activities to levels approximating those found in HPOA from intact males. Therefore, the results suggest that testosterone, or one of its metabolites, is a major steroidal regulator of HPOA aromatase activity in rats

  18. Fish with thermolabile sex determination (TSD) as models to study brain sex differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blázquez, Mercedes; Somoza, Gustavo M

    2010-05-01

    As fish are ectothermic animals, water temperature can affect their basic biological processes such as larval development, growth and reproduction. Similar to reptiles, the incubation temperature during early phases of development is capable to modify sex ratios in a large number of fish species. This phenomenon, known as thermolabile sex determination (TSD) was first reported in Menidia menidia, a species belonging to the family Atherinopsidae. Since then, an increasing number of fish have also been found to exhibit TSD. Traditionally, likewise in reptiles, several TSD patterns have been described in fish, however it has been recently postulated that only one, females at low temperatures and males at high temperatures, may represent the "real" or "true" TSD. Many studies regarding the influence of temperature on the final sex ratios have been focused on the expression and activity of gonadal aromatase, the enzyme involved in the conversion of androgens into estrogens and encoded by the cyp19a1a gene. In this regard, teleost fish, may be due to a whole genome duplication event, produce another aromatase enzyme, commonly named brain aromatase, encoded by the cyp19a1b gene. Contrary to what has been described in other vertebrates, fish exhibit very high levels of aromatase activity in the brain and therefore they synthesize high amounts of neuroestrogens. However, its biological significance is still not understood. In addition, the mechanism whereby temperature can induce the development of a testis or an ovary still remains elusive. In this context the present review is aimed to discuss several theories about the possible role of brain aromatase using fish as models. The relevance of brain aromatase and therefore of neuroestrogens as the possible cue for gonadal differentiation is raised. In addition, the possible role of brain aromatase as the way to keep the high levels of neurogenesis in fish is also considered. Several key examples of how teleosts and aromatase

  19. Brain activation associated with pride and shame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Lilian; Kaffenberger, Tina; Herwig, Uwe; Brühl, Annette B

    2014-01-01

    Self-referential emotions such as shame/guilt and pride provide evaluative information about persons themselves. In addition to emotional aspects, social and self-referential processes play a role in self-referential emotions. Prior studies have rather focused on comparing self-referential and other-referential processes of one valence, triggered mostly by external stimuli. In the current study, we aimed at investigating the valence-specific neural correlates of shame/guilt and pride, evoked by the remembrance of a corresponding autobiographical event during functional magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 25 healthy volunteers were studied. The task comprised a negative (shame/guilt), a positive (pride) and a neutral condition (expecting the distractor). Each condition was initiated by a simple cue, followed by the remembrance and finished by a distracting picture. Pride and shame/guilt conditions both activated typical emotion-processing circuits including the amygdala, insula and ventral striatum, as well as self-referential brain regions such as the bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Comparing the two emotional conditions, emotion-processing circuits were more activated by pride than by shame, possibly due to either hedonic experiences or stronger involvement of the participants in positive self-referential emotions due to a self-positivity bias. However, the ventral striatum was similarly activated by pride and shame/guilt. In the whole-brain analysis, both self-referential emotion conditions activated medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate regions, corresponding to the self-referential aspect and the autobiographical evocation of the respective emotions. Autobiographically evoked self-referential emotions activated basic emotional as well as self-referential circuits. Except for the ventral striatum, emotional circuits were more active with pride than with shame.

  20. Oxidative stress and superoxide dismutase activity in brain of rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    effect of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in brain homogenates of Wistar rats. Oxidative stress measured as ..... on the brain and nervous system of humans as handlers and ... environment may be at higher health risk in that their internal ...

  1. Temperament, character and serotonin activity in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuominen, L; Salo, J; Hirvonen, J

    2013-01-01

    The psychobiological model of personality by Cloninger and colleagues originally hypothesized that interindividual variability in the temperament dimension 'harm avoidance' (HA) is explained by differences in the activity of the brain serotonin system. We assessed brain serotonin transporter (5-HTT...

  2. Analysis of fractional anisotropy facilitates differentiation of glioblastoma and brain metastases in a clinical setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bette, Stefanie, E-mail: stefanie.bette@tum.de [Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Huber, Thomas; Wiestler, Benedikt; Boeckh-Behrens, Tobias [Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Gempt, Jens; Ringel, Florian; Meyer, Bernhard [Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Zimmer, Claus; Kirschke, Jan S. [Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Purpose: Differentiating glioblastoma from brain metastases is important for therapy planning. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was described as a promising tool, however with conflicting results. Aim: of this study was to analyze the clinical utility of DTI for the differentiation of brain metastases and glioblastoma. Methods: 294 patients (165 glioblastoma, 129 brain metastases) with preoperative DTI were included in this retrospective study. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was measured via regions of interest (ROIs) in the contrast-enhancing tumor, the necrosis and the FLAIR-hyperintense non-enhancing peritumoral region (NEPTR). Two neuroradiologists classified patient cases as glioblastoma or brain metastases without and with knowledge of FA values. Results: Glioblastoma showed significantly higher FA{sub contrast} (median glioblastoma = 0.33, metastases = 0.23; P < 0.001) whereas no significant difference was observed for FA{sub NEPTR} (0.21 vs. 0.22; P = 0.28) and for FA{sub necrosis} (0.17 vs. 0.18, P = 0.37). FA improved diagnostic accuracy of the neuroradiologists significantly from an AUC of 0.84/0.85 (Reader1/Reader2) to 0.89/0.92. Conclusions: Glioblastoma show significantly higher FA values in the contrast enhancing tumor part than brain metastases. Implementation of a ROI-based measurement of FA values and FA color maps in clinical routine helps to differentiate between glioblastoma and brain metastases.

  3. TDP-43 causes differential pathology in neuronal versus glial cells in the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Sen; Wang, Chuan-En; Wei, Wenjie; Gaertig, Marta A; Lai, Liangxue; Li, Shihua; Li, Xiao-Jiang

    2014-05-15

    Mutations in TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) are associated with familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Although recent studies have revealed that mutant TDP-43 in neuronal and glial cells is toxic, how mutant TDP-43 causes primarily neuronal degeneration in an age-dependent manner remains unclear. Using adeno-associated virus (AAV) that expresses mutant TDP-43 (M337V) ubiquitously, we found that mutant TDP-43 accumulates preferentially in neuronal cells in the postnatal mouse brain. We then ubiquitously or selectively expressed mutant TDP-43 in neuronal and glial cells in the striatum of adult mouse brains via stereotaxic injection of AAV vectors and found that it also preferentially accumulates in neuronal cells. Expression of mutant TDP-43 in neurons in the striatum causes more severe degeneration, earlier death and more robust symptoms in mice than expression of mutant TDP-43 in glial cells; however, aging increases the expression of mutant TDP-43 in glial cells, and expression of mutant TDP-43 in older mice caused earlier onset of phenotypes and more severe neuropathology than that in younger mice. Although expression of mutant TDP-43 in glial cells via stereotaxic injection does not lead to robust neurological phenotypes, systemic inhibition of the proteasome activity via MG132 in postnatal mice could exacerbate glial TDP-43-mediated toxicity and cause mice to die earlier. Consistently, this inhibition increases the expression of mutant TDP-43 in glial cells in mouse brains. Thus, the differential accumulation of mutant TDP-43 in neuronal versus glial cells contributes to the preferential toxicity of mutant TDP-43 in neuronal cells and age-dependent pathology.

  4. The differential effects of acute right- vs. left-sided vestibular failure on brain metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-Bense, Sandra; Dieterich, Marianne; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Bartenstein, Peter; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Brandt, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    The human vestibular system is represented in the brain bilaterally, but it has functional asymmetries, i.e., a dominance of ipsilateral pathways and of the right hemisphere in right-handers. To determine if acute right- or left-sided unilateral vestibular neuritis (VN) is associated with differential patterns of brain metabolism in areas representing the vestibular network and the visual-vestibular interaction, patients with acute VN (right n = 9; left n = 13) underwent resting state (18)F-FDG PET once in the acute phase and once 3 months later after central vestibular compensation. The contrast acute vs. chronic phase showed signal differences in contralateral vestibular areas and the inverse contrast in visual cortex areas, both more pronounced in VN right. In VN left additional regions were found in the cerebellar hemispheres and vermis bilaterally, accentuated in severe cases. In general, signal changes appeared more pronounced in patients with more severe vestibular deficits. Acute phase PET data of patients compared to that of age-matched healthy controls disclosed similarities to these patterns, thus permitting the interpretation that the signal changes in vestibular temporo-parietal areas reflect signal increases, and in visual areas, signal decreases. These data imply that brain activity in the acute phase of right- and left-sided VN exhibits different compensatory patterns, i.e., the dominant ascending input is shifted from the ipsilateral to the contralateral pathways, presumably due to the missing ipsilateral vestibular input. The visual-vestibular interaction patterns were preserved, but were of different prominence in each hemisphere and more pronounced in patients with right-sided failure and more severe vestibular deficits.

  5. Differential chemokine responses in the murine brain following lyssavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, D J; Núñez, A; Banyard, A C; Williams, A; Ortiz-Pelaez, A; Fooks, A R; Johnson, N

    2013-11-01

    The hallmark of lyssavirus infection is lethal encephalomyelitis. Previous studies have reported distinct lyssavirus isolate-related differences in severity of cellular recruitment into the encephalon in a murine model of infection following peripheral inoculation with rabies virus (RABV) and European bat lyssavirus (EBLV)-1 and -2. In order to understand the role of chemokines in this process, comparative studies of the chemokine pattern, distribution and production in response to infection with these lyssaviruses were undertaken. Expression of CCL2, CCL5 and CXCL10 was observed throughout the murine brain with a distinct caudal bias in distribution, similar to both inflammatory changes and virus antigen distribution. CCL2 immunolabelling was localized to neuronal and astroglial populations. CCL5 immunolabelling was only detected in the astroglia, while CXCL10 labelling, although present in the astroglia, was more prominent in neurons. Isolate-dependent differences in the amount of chemokine immunolabelling in specific brain regions and chemokine production by neurons in vitro were observed, with a greater expression of CCL5 in vivo and CXCL10 production in vitro after EBLV infection. Additionally, strong positive associations between chemokine immunolabelling and perivascular cuffing and, to a lesser extent, virus antigen score were also observed. These differences in chemokine expression may explain the variation in severity of encephalitic changes observed in animals infected with different lyssavirus isolates. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. From word reading to multisentence comprehension: Improvements in brain activity in children with autism after reading intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna L. Murdaugh

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Our results provide evidence for differential recruitment of brain regions based on task demands in children with ASD, and support the potential of targeted interventions to alter brain activation in response to positive gains in treatment. Children with ASD have a different reading profile from other reading disorders that needs to be specifically targeted in interventions.

  7. Dynamic Variation in Pleasure in Children Predicts Nonlinear Change in Lateral Frontal Brain Electrical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Sharee N.; Coan, James A.; Frye, Corrina; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Davidson, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Individual variation in the experience and expression of pleasure may relate to differential patterns of lateral frontal activity. Brain electrical measures have been used to study the asymmetric involvement of lateral frontal cortex in positive emotion, but the excellent time resolution of these measures has not been used to capture…

  8. Sexual differentiation of the human brain: relevance for gender identity, transsexualism and sexual orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaab, D. F.

    2004-01-01

    Male sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior are thought, on the basis of experiments in rodents, to be caused by androgens, following conversion to estrogens. However, observations in human subjects with genetic and other disorders show that direct effects of testosterone on the developing

  9. Sexual differentiation of the human brain: relevance for gender identity, transsexualism and sexual orientation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaab, D.F.

    2004-01-01

    Male sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior are thought, on the basis of experiments in rodents, to be caused by androgens, following conversion to estrogens. However, observations in human subjects with genetic and other disorders show that direct effects of testosterone on the developing

  10. Nutritionally driven differential gene expression leads to heterochronic brain development in honeybee castes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Maria Moda

    Full Text Available The differential feeding regimes experienced by the queen and worker larvae of the honeybee Apis mellifera shape a complex endocrine response cascade that ultimately gives rise to differences in brain morphologies. Brain development analyzed at the morphological level from the third (L3 through fifth (L5 larval instars revealed an asynchrony between queens and workers. In the feeding phase of the last larval instar (L5F, two well-formed structures, pedunculi and calyces, are identifiable in the mushroom bodies of queens, both of which are not present in workers until a later phase (spinning phase, L5S. Genome-wide expression analyses and normalized transcript expression experiments monitoring specific genes revealed that this differential brain development starts earlier, during L3. Analyzing brains from L3 through L5S1 larvae, we identified 21 genes with caste-specific transcription patterns (e.g., APC-4, GlcAT-P, fax, kr-h1 and shot, which encode proteins that are potentially involved in the development of brain tissues through controlling the cell proliferation rate (APC4, kr-h1 and fasciculation (GlcAT-P, fax, and shot. Shot, whose expression is known to be required for axon extension and cell proliferation, was found to be transcribed at significantly higher levels in L4 queens compared with worker larvae. Moreover, the protein encoded by this gene was immunolocalized to the cytoplasm of cells near the antennal lobe neuropiles and proximal to the Kenyon cells in the brains of L4 queens. In conclusion, during the larval period, the brains of queens are larger and develop more rapidly than workers' brains, which represents a developmental heterochrony reflecting the effect of the differential feeding regime of the two castes on nervous system development. Furthermore, this differential development is characterized by caste-specific transcriptional profiles of a set of genes, thus pointing to a link between differential nutrition and

  11. Nutritionally driven differential gene expression leads to heterochronic brain development in honeybee castes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Lívia Maria; Vieira, Joseana; Guimarães Freire, Anna Cláudia; Bonatti, Vanessa; Bomtorin, Ana Durvalina; Barchuk, Angel Roberto; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2013-01-01

    The differential feeding regimes experienced by the queen and worker larvae of the honeybee Apis mellifera shape a complex endocrine response cascade that ultimately gives rise to differences in brain morphologies. Brain development analyzed at the morphological level from the third (L3) through fifth (L5) larval instars revealed an asynchrony between queens and workers. In the feeding phase of the last larval instar (L5F), two well-formed structures, pedunculi and calyces, are identifiable in the mushroom bodies of queens, both of which are not present in workers until a later phase (spinning phase, L5S). Genome-wide expression analyses and normalized transcript expression experiments monitoring specific genes revealed that this differential brain development starts earlier, during L3. Analyzing brains from L3 through L5S1 larvae, we identified 21 genes with caste-specific transcription patterns (e.g., APC-4, GlcAT-P, fax, kr-h1 and shot), which encode proteins that are potentially involved in the development of brain tissues through controlling the cell proliferation rate (APC4, kr-h1) and fasciculation (GlcAT-P, fax, and shot). Shot, whose expression is known to be required for axon extension and cell proliferation, was found to be transcribed at significantly higher levels in L4 queens compared with worker larvae. Moreover, the protein encoded by this gene was immunolocalized to the cytoplasm of cells near the antennal lobe neuropiles and proximal to the Kenyon cells in the brains of L4 queens. In conclusion, during the larval period, the brains of queens are larger and develop more rapidly than workers' brains, which represents a developmental heterochrony reflecting the effect of the differential feeding regime of the two castes on nervous system development. Furthermore, this differential development is characterized by caste-specific transcriptional profiles of a set of genes, thus pointing to a link between differential nutrition and differential

  12. Synaptic network activity induces neuronal differentiation of adult hippocampal precursor cells through BDNF signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Babu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is regulated by activity. But how do neural precursor cells in the hippocampus respond to surrounding network activity and translate increased neural activity into a developmental program? Here we show that long-term potential (LTP-like synaptic activity within a cellular network of mature hippocampal neurons promotes neuronal differentiation of newly generated cells. In co-cultures of precursor cells with primary hippocampal neurons, LTP-like synaptic plasticity induced by addition of glycine in Mg2+-free media for 5 min, produced synchronous network activity and subsequently increased synaptic strength between neurons. Furthermore, this synchronous network activity led to a significant increase in neuronal differentiation from the co-cultured neural precursor cells. When applied directly to precursor cells, glycine and Mg2+-free solution did not induce neuronal differentiation. Synaptic plasticity-induced neuronal differentiation of precursor cells was observed in the presence of GABAergic neurotransmission blockers but was dependent on NMDA-mediated Ca2+ influx. Most importantly, neuronal differentiation required the release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF from the underlying substrate hippocampal neurons as well as TrkB receptor phosphorylation in precursor cells. This suggests that activity-dependent stem cell differentiation within the hippocampal network is mediated via synaptically evoked BDNF signaling.

  13. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of higher brain activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui He; Wang Yunjiu; Chen Runsheng; Tang Xiaowei.

    1996-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance images (fMRIs) exhibit small differences in the magnetic resonance signal intensity in positions corresponding to focal areas of brain activation. These signal are caused by variation in the oxygenation state of the venous vasculature. Using this non-invasive and dynamic method, it is possible to localize functional brain activation, in vivo, in normal individuals, with an accuracy of millimeters and a temporal resolution of seconds. Though a series of technical difficulties remain, fMRI is increasingly becoming a key method for visualizing the working brain, and uncovering the topographical organization of the human brain, and understanding the relationship between brain and the mind

  14. Distinct patterns of brain activity characterise lexical activation and competition in spoken word production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitória Piai

    Full Text Available According to a prominent theory of language production, concepts activate multiple associated words in memory, which enter into competition for selection. However, only a few electrophysiological studies have identified brain responses reflecting competition. Here, we report a magnetoencephalography study in which the activation of competing words was manipulated by presenting pictures (e.g., dog with distractor words. The distractor and picture name were semantically related (cat, unrelated (pin, or identical (dog. Related distractors are stronger competitors to the picture name because they receive additional activation from the picture relative to other distractors. Picture naming times were longer with related than unrelated and identical distractors. Phase-locked and non-phase-locked activity were distinct but temporally related. Phase-locked activity in left temporal cortex, peaking at 400 ms, was larger on unrelated than related and identical trials, suggesting differential activation of alternative words by the picture-word stimuli. Non-phase-locked activity between roughly 350-650 ms (4-10 Hz in left superior frontal gyrus was larger on related than unrelated and identical trials, suggesting differential resolution of the competition among the alternatives, as reflected in the naming times. These findings characterise distinct patterns of activity associated with lexical activation and competition, supporting the theory that words are selected by competition.

  15. When problem size matters: differential effects of brain stimulation on arithmetic problem solving and neural oscillations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Rütsche

    Full Text Available The problem size effect is a well-established finding in arithmetic problem solving and is characterized by worse performance in problems with larger compared to smaller operand size. Solving small and large arithmetic problems has also been shown to involve different cognitive processes and distinct electroencephalography (EEG oscillations over the left posterior parietal cortex (LPPC. In this study, we aimed to provide further evidence for these dissociations by using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS. Participants underwent anodal (30min, 1.5 mA, LPPC and sham tDCS. After the stimulation, we recorded their neural activity using EEG while the participants solved small and large arithmetic problems. We found that the tDCS effects on performance and oscillatory activity critically depended on the problem size. While anodal tDCS improved response latencies in large arithmetic problems, it decreased solution rates in small arithmetic problems. Likewise, the lower-alpha desynchronization in large problems increased, whereas the theta synchronization in small problems decreased. These findings reveal that the LPPC is differentially involved in solving small and large arithmetic problems and demonstrate that the effects of brain stimulation strikingly differ depending on the involved neuro-cognitive processes.

  16. Changing patterns of brain activation during maze learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, J D; Gold, J M; Esposito, G; Ostrem, J L; Mattay, V; Weinberger, D R; Berman, K F

    1998-05-18

    Recent research has found that patterns of brain activation involving the frontal cortex during novel task performance change dramatically following practice and repeat performance. Evidence for differential left vs. right frontal lobe activation, respectively, during episodic memory encoding and retrieval has also been reported. To examine these potentially related issues regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 15 normal volunteers using positron emission tomography (PET) during the naive and practiced performance of a maze task paradigm. SPM analysis indicated a largely right-sided, frontal lobe activation during naive performance. Following training and practice, performance of the same maze task elicited a more posterior pattern of rCBF activation involving posterior cingulate and precuneus. The change in the pattern of rCBF activation between novel and practiced task conditions agrees with results found in previous studies using repeat task methodology, and indicates that the neural circuitry required for encoding novel task information differs from that required when the same task has become familiar and information is being recalled. The right-sided preponderance of activation during naive performance may relate to task novelty and the spatially-based nature of the stimuli, whereas posterior areas activated during repeat performance are those previously found to be associated with visuospatial memory recall. Activation of these areas, however, does not agree with previously reported findings of left-sided activation during verbal episodic memory encoding and right-sided activation during retrieval, suggesting different neural substrates for verbal and visuospatial processing within memory. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  17. Application of magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the differentiation of high-grade brain neoplasm and inflammatory brain lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraz-Filho, Jose Roberto Lopes; Santana-Netto, Pedro Vieira; Sgnolf, Aline [FAMERP Medical School, Sao Jose do Rio Preto SP (Brazil). Image Dept.], e-mail: jrl.ferraz@terra.com.br; Rocha-Filho, Jose Alves; Mauad, Fernando [FAMERP Medical School, Sao Jose do Rio Preto SP (Brazil). Radiology Dept.; Sanches, Rafael Angelo [FAMERP Medical School, Sao Jose do Rio Preto SP (Brazil). Imaging Dept.

    2009-06-15

    This study aims at evaluating the application of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in the differential diagnosis of brain tumors and inflammatory brain lesions. The examinations of 81 individuals, who performed brain MRS and were retrospectively analyzed. The patients with ages between 10 and 80 years old, were divided into two groups. Group A consisted of 42 individuals with diagnoses of cerebral toxoplasmosis and Group B was formed of 39 individuals with diagnosis of glial neoplasms. On analyzing the ROC curve, the discriminatory boundary for the Cho/Cr ratio between inflammatory lesions and tumors was 1.97 and for the NAA/Cr ratio it was 1.12. RMS is an important method useful in the distinction of inflammatory brain lesions and high-degree tumors when the Cho/Cr ratio is greater than 1.97 and the NAA/Cr ratio is less than 1.12. And so this method is important in the planning of treatment and monitoring of the therapeutic efficiency. (author)

  18. Application of magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the differentiation of high-grade brain neoplasm and inflammatory brain lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraz-Filho, Jose Roberto Lopes; Santana-Netto, Pedro Vieira; Sgnolf, Aline; Rocha-Filho, Jose Alves; Mauad, Fernando; Sanches, Rafael Angelo

    2009-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the application of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in the differential diagnosis of brain tumors and inflammatory brain lesions. The examinations of 81 individuals, who performed brain MRS and were retrospectively analyzed. The patients with ages between 10 and 80 years old, were divided into two groups. Group A consisted of 42 individuals with diagnoses of cerebral toxoplasmosis and Group B was formed of 39 individuals with diagnosis of glial neoplasms. On analyzing the ROC curve, the discriminatory boundary for the Cho/Cr ratio between inflammatory lesions and tumors was 1.97 and for the NAA/Cr ratio it was 1.12. RMS is an important method useful in the distinction of inflammatory brain lesions and high-degree tumors when the Cho/Cr ratio is greater than 1.97 and the NAA/Cr ratio is less than 1.12. And so this method is important in the planning of treatment and monitoring of the therapeutic efficiency. (author)

  19. Finer discrimination of brain activation with local multivariate distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The organization of human brain function is diverse on different spatial scales.Various cognitive states are alwavs represented as distinct activity patterns across the specific brain region on fine scales.Conventional univariate analysis of functional MRI data seeks to determine how a particular cognitive state is encoded in brain activity by analyzing each voxel separately without considering the fine-scale patterns information contained in the local brain regions.In this paper,a local multivariate distance mapping(LMDM)technique is proposed to detect the brain activation and to map the fine-scale brain activity patterns.LMDM directly represents the local brain activity with the patterns across multiple voxels rather than individual voxels,and it employs the multivariate distance between different patterns to discriminate the brain state on fine scales.Experiments with simulated and real fMRI data demonstrate that LMDM technique can dramatically increase the sensitivity of the detection for the fine-scale brain activity pettems which contain the subtle information of the experimental conditions.

  20. Artifact suppression and analysis of brain activities with electroencephalography signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed-Al-Mahfuz, Md; Islam, Md Rabiul; Hirose, Keikichi; Molla, Md Khademul Islam

    2013-06-05

    Brain-computer interface is a communication system that connects the brain with computer (or other devices) but is not dependent on the normal output of the brain (i.e., peripheral nerve and muscle). Electro-oculogram is a dominant artifact which has a significant negative influence on further analysis of real electroencephalography data. This paper presented a data adaptive technique for artifact suppression and brain wave extraction from electroencephalography signals to detect regional brain activities. Empirical mode decomposition based adaptive thresholding approach was employed here to suppress the electro-oculogram artifact. Fractional Gaussian noise was used to determine the threshold level derived from the analysis data without any training. The purified electroencephalography signal was composed of the brain waves also called rhythmic components which represent the brain activities. The rhythmic components were extracted from each electroencephalography channel using adaptive wiener filter with the original scale. The regional brain activities were mapped on the basis of the spatial distribution of rhythmic components, and the results showed that different regions of the brain are activated in response to different stimuli. This research analyzed the activities of a single rhythmic component, alpha with respect to different motor imaginations. The experimental results showed that the proposed method is very efficient in artifact suppression and identifying individual motor imagery based on the activities of alpha component.

  1. Time delay between cardiac and brain activity during sleep transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, X.; Arends, J.B.A.M.; Aarts, R.M.; Haakma, R.; Fonseca, P.; Rolink, J.

    2015-01-01

    Human sleep consists of wake, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, and non-REM (NREM) sleep that includes light and deep sleep stages. This work investigated the time delay between changes of cardiac and brain activity for sleep transitions. Here, the brain activity was quantified by

  2. Brain activity and fatigue during prolonged exercise in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bodil; Hyldig, Tino; Bidstrup, F.

    2001-01-01

    We hypothesized that fatigue due to hyperthermia during prolonged exercise in the heat is in part related to alterations in frontal cortical brain activity. The electroencephalographic activity (EEG) of the frontal cortex of the brain was measured in seven cyclists [maximal O2 uptake (VO2max) 4...... min of exercise; P

  3. Potential Moderators of Physical Activity on Brain Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina L. Leckie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related cognitive decline is linked to numerous molecular, structural, and functional changes in the brain. However, physical activity is a promising method of reducing unfavorable age-related changes. Physical activity exerts its effects on the brain through many molecular pathways, some of which are regulated by genetic variants in humans. In this paper, we highlight genes including apolipoprotein E (APOE, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT along with dietary omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, as potential moderators of the effect of physical activity on brain health. There are a growing number of studies indicating that physical activity might mitigate the genetic risks for disease and brain dysfunction and that the combination of greater amounts of DHA intake with physical activity might promote better brain function than either treatment alone. Understanding whether genes or other lifestyles moderate the effects of physical activity on neurocognitive health is necessary for delineating the pathways by which brain health can be enhanced and for grasping the individual variation in the effectiveness of physical activity interventions on the brain and cognition. There is a need for future research to continue to assess the factors that moderate the effects of physical activity on neurocognitive function.

  4. Dopaminergic differentiation of human neural stem cells mediated by co-cultured rat striatal brain slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anwar, Mohammad Raffaqat; Andreasen, Christian Maaløv; Lippert, Solvej Kølvraa

    2008-01-01

    differentiation, we co-cultured cells from a human neural forebrain-derived stem cell line (hNS1) with rat striatal brain slices. In brief, coronal slices of neonatal rat striatum were cultured on semiporous membrane inserts placed in six-well trays overlying monolayers of hNS1 cells. After 12 days of co......Properly committed neural stem cells constitute a promising source of cells for transplantation in Parkinson's disease, but a protocol for controlled dopaminergic differentiation is not yet available. To establish a setting for identification of secreted neural compounds promoting dopaminergic...

  5. Network-dependent modulation of brain activity during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Kan, Shigeyuki; Koike, Takahiko; Misaki, Masaya; Konishi, Seiki; Miyauchi, Satoru; Miyahsita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-09-01

    Brain activity dynamically changes even during sleep. A line of neuroimaging studies has reported changes in functional connectivity and regional activity across different sleep stages such as slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. However, it remains unclear whether and how the large-scale network activity of human brains changes within a given sleep stage. Here, we investigated modulation of network activity within sleep stages by applying the pairwise maximum entropy model to brain activity obtained by functional magnetic resonance imaging from sleeping healthy subjects. We found that the brain activity of individual brain regions and functional interactions between pairs of regions significantly increased in the default-mode network during SWS and decreased during REM sleep. In contrast, the network activity of the fronto-parietal and sensory-motor networks showed the opposite pattern. Furthermore, in the three networks, the amount of the activity changes throughout REM sleep was negatively correlated with that throughout SWS. The present findings suggest that the brain activity is dynamically modulated even in a sleep stage and that the pattern of modulation depends on the type of the large-scale brain networks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Possible promotion of neuronal differentiation in fetal rat brain neural progenitor cells after sustained exposure to static magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamichi, Noritaka; Ishioka, Yukichi; Hirai, Takao; Ozawa, Shusuke; Tachibana, Masaki; Nakamura, Nobuhiro; Takarada, Takeshi; Yoneda, Yukio

    2009-08-15

    We have previously shown significant potentiation of Ca(2+) influx mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, along with decreased microtubules-associated protein-2 (MAP2) expression, in hippocampal neurons cultured under static magnetism without cell death. In this study, we investigated the effects of static magnetism on the functionality of neural progenitor cells endowed to proliferate for self-replication and differentiate into neuronal, astroglial, and oligodendroglial lineages. Neural progenitor cells were isolated from embryonic rat neocortex and hippocampus, followed by culture under static magnetism at 100 mT and subsequent determination of the number of cells immunoreactive for a marker protein of particular progeny lineages. Static magnetism not only significantly decreased proliferation of neural progenitor cells without affecting cell viability, but also promoted differentiation into cells immunoreactive for MAP2 with a concomitant decrease in that for an astroglial marker, irrespective of the presence of differentiation inducers. In neural progenitors cultured under static magnetism, a significant increase was seen in mRNA expression of several activator-type proneural genes, such as Mash1, Math1, and Math3, together with decreased mRNA expression of the repressor type Hes5. These results suggest that sustained static magnetism could suppress proliferation for self-renewal and facilitate differentiation into neurons through promoted expression of activator-type proneural genes by progenitor cells in fetal rat brain.

  7. MRI of metastatic adenocarcinomas to the brain. Differential diagnosis of colorectal and pulmonary cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukusumi, Akio; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Takayama, Katsutoshi

    1998-01-01

    To clarify the characteristic features of MR imagings of metastatic adenocarcinomas to the brain and search for differential points between the lesions from colorectal cancer and those of lung cancer, we evaluated retrospectively intraparenchymal metastatic lesions of 13 colorectal origins and 13 pulmonary origins on MR imagings, compared with resected specimens. Metastatic lesions from colorectal cancer showed marked hypointense solid components on T2WI, which correspond to the dense tumor cells and coagulated necrosis pathologically. Metastatic lesions from lung cancers showed mixed intensity and various components on T2WI, which correspond to various histological components, such as solid tumor cell's nests, hemorrhage, necrosis and cystic fluid collection. Pathological specimens suggested that the low signal intensity on T2WI of MRI derived from concentration of tumor cells and coagulated necrosis including macrophages and lymphocytes. This study may contribute to make the differential diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinomas to the brain from colorectal and pulmonary cancers. (author)

  8. Convergent differential regulation of parvalbumin in the brains of vocal learners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erina Hara

    Full Text Available Spoken language and learned song are complex communication behaviors found in only a few species, including humans and three groups of distantly related birds--songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds. Despite their large phylogenetic distances, these vocal learners show convergent behaviors and associated brain pathways for vocal communication. However, it is not clear whether this behavioral and anatomical convergence is associated with molecular convergence. Here we used oligo microarrays to screen for genes differentially regulated in brain nuclei necessary for producing learned vocalizations relative to adjacent brain areas that control other behaviors in avian vocal learners versus vocal non-learners. A top candidate gene in our screen was a calcium-binding protein, parvalbumin (PV. In situ hybridization verification revealed that PV was expressed significantly higher throughout the song motor pathway, including brainstem vocal motor neurons relative to the surrounding brain regions of all distantly related avian vocal learners. This differential expression was specific to PV and vocal learners, as it was not found in avian vocal non-learners nor for control genes in learners and non-learners. Similar to the vocal learning birds, higher PV up-regulation was found in the brainstem tongue motor neurons used for speech production in humans relative to a non-human primate, macaques. These results suggest repeated convergent evolution of differential PV up-regulation in the brains of vocal learners separated by more than 65-300 million years from a common ancestor and that the specialized behaviors of learned song and speech may require extra calcium buffering and signaling.

  9. Differential diagnosis in patients with ring-like thallium-201 uptake in brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinuya, Keiko; Ohashi, Masahiro; Itoh, Syotaro [Tonami General Hospital, Toyama (Japan)] (and others)

    2002-09-01

    This study was performed to investigate lesions with ring-like thallium-201 ({sup 201}Tl) uptake and to determine whether SPECT provides any information in differential diagnosis. A total of 244 {sup 201}Tl SPECT images were reviewed. In each study, early (15 min postinjection) and late (3 hr) brain SPECT images were obtained with 111 MBq of {sup 201}Tl. The early uptake ratio (ER; lesion to normal brain average count ratio) and the late uptake ratio (LR) and the L/E ratio (ratio of LR to ER) were calculated. Ring-like uptake was observed in pre-therapeutic 26 SPECT images, including ten glioblastoma multiformes (ER, 3.45{+-}0.64; LR, 2.74{+-}0.54; L/E ratio 0.80{+-}0.13), five meningiomas (6.48{+-}2.34; 4.41{+-}1.41; 0.72{+-}0.19), four metastatic lung cancers (3.47{+-}1.23; 2.40{+-}0.98; 0.70{+-}0.14), four brain abscesses (2.48{+-}1.06; 1.59{+-}0.30; 0.78{+-}0.15), one invasive lesion of squamous cell carcinoma from the ethmoid sinus (1.54; 1.52; 0.99), one medulloblastoma (3.53; 3.52; 1.00) and one hematoma (3.32; 2.36; 0.71). The ER of meningioma was significantly higher than those of glioblastoma multiforme (p<0.0005), metastatic lung cancer (p<0.005) and brain abscess (p<0.0005). There were no significant differences among these three entities. The LR of meningioma was significantly higher than those of glioblastoma multiforme (p<0.005), metastatic lung cancer (p<0.005) and brain abscess (p<0.0001). The LR of brain abscess was significantly lower than that of glioblastoma multiforme (p<0.05). The L/E ratio could not differentiate these four entities. High ER and high LR in a lesion with ring-like uptake is likely an indicator of meningioma. The LR of brain abscess was significantly lower than that of glioblastoma multiforme, but {sup 201}Tl SPECT has still difficulty in differentiating abscess from brain tumor. (author)

  10. Differential Diagnosis Tool for Parkinsonian Syndrome Using Multiple Structural Brain Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho Ota

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical differentiation of parkinsonian syndromes such as the Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P and cerebellar subtype (MSA-C from Parkinson's disease is difficult in the early stage of the disease. To identify the correlative pattern of brain changes for differentiating parkinsonian syndromes, we applied discriminant analysis techniques by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. T1-weighted volume data and diffusion tensor images were obtained by MRI in eighteen patients with MSA-C, 12 patients with MSA-P, 21 patients with Parkinson’s disease, and 21 healthy controls. They were evaluated using voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics, respectively. Discriminant functions derived by step wise methods resulted in correct classification rates of 0.89. When differentiating these diseases with the use of three independent variables together, the correct classification rate was the same as that obtained with step wise methods. These findings support the view that each parkinsonian syndrome has structural deviations in multiple brain areas and that a combination of structural brain measures can help to distinguish parkinsonian syndromes.

  11. Linking neuronal brain activity to the glucose metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Göbel, Britta; Oltmanns, Kerstin M; Chung, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Background Energy homeostasis ensures the functionality of the entire organism. The human brain as a missing link in the global regulation of the complex whole body energy metabolism is subject to recent investigation. The goal of this study is to gain insight into the influence of neuronal brain activity on cerebral and peripheral energy metabolism. In particular, the tight link between brain energy supply and metabolic responses of the organism is of interest. We aim to identifying regul...

  12. Qualitative and quantitative measurement of human brain activity using pixel subtraction algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Myoung; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Kim, Hyung Joong; Cho, Seong Hoon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Seo, Jeong Jin; Park, Seung Jin [School of Medicine, Chonnam National Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-08-01

    To develop an automated quantification program, which is called FALBA (Functional and Anatomical Labeling of Brain Activation), and to provide information on the brain centers, brain activity (%) and hemispheric lateralization index on the basis of a brain activation map obtained from functional MR imaging. The 3-dimensional activation MR images were processed by a statistical parametric mapping program (SPM99, The Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, University College London, UK) and MRIcro software (www.micro.com). The 3-dimensional images were first converted into 2-dimensional sectional images, and then overlapped with the corresponding T1-weighted images. Then, the image dataset was extended to -59 mm to 83 mm with a 2 mm slice-gap, giving 73 axial images. By using a pixeI subtraction method, the differences in the R, G, B values between the T1-weighted images and the activation images were extracted, in order to produce black and white (B/W) differentiation images, in which each pixel is represented by 24-bit R, G, B true colors. Subsequently, another pixel differentiation method was applied to two template images, namely one functional and one anatomical index image, in order to generate functional and anatomical differentiation images containing regional brain activation information based on the Brodmann's and anatomical areas, respectively. In addition, the regional brain lateralization indices were automatically determined, in order to evaluate the hemispheric predominance, with the positive (+) and negative (-) indices showing left and right predominance, respectively. The manual counting method currently used is time consuming and has limited accuracy and reliability in the case of the activated cerebrocortical regions. The FALBA program we developed was 240 times faster than the manual counting method: -10 hours for manual accounting and -2.5 minutes for the FALBA program using a Pentium IV processor. Compared with the FALBA program, the

  13. Qualitative and quantitative measurement of human brain activity using pixel subtraction algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Myoung; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Kim, Hyung Joong; Cho, Seong Hoon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Seo, Jeong Jin; Park, Seung Jin

    2004-01-01

    To develop an automated quantification program, which is called FALBA (Functional and Anatomical Labeling of Brain Activation), and to provide information on the brain centers, brain activity (%) and hemispheric lateralization index on the basis of a brain activation map obtained from functional MR imaging. The 3-dimensional activation MR images were processed by a statistical parametric mapping program (SPM99, The Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, University College London, UK) and MRIcro software (www.micro.com). The 3-dimensional images were first converted into 2-dimensional sectional images, and then overlapped with the corresponding T1-weighted images. Then, the image dataset was extended to -59 mm to 83 mm with a 2 mm slice-gap, giving 73 axial images. By using a pixeI subtraction method, the differences in the R, G, B values between the T1-weighted images and the activation images were extracted, in order to produce black and white (B/W) differentiation images, in which each pixel is represented by 24-bit R, G, B true colors. Subsequently, another pixel differentiation method was applied to two template images, namely one functional and one anatomical index image, in order to generate functional and anatomical differentiation images containing regional brain activation information based on the Brodmann's and anatomical areas, respectively. In addition, the regional brain lateralization indices were automatically determined, in order to evaluate the hemispheric predominance, with the positive (+) and negative (-) indices showing left and right predominance, respectively. The manual counting method currently used is time consuming and has limited accuracy and reliability in the case of the activated cerebrocortical regions. The FALBA program we developed was 240 times faster than the manual counting method: -10 hours for manual accounting and -2.5 minutes for the FALBA program using a Pentium IV processor. Compared with the FALBA program, the manual

  14. Males and females differ in brain activation during cognitive tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Emily C; Willson, Morgan C; Wilman, Alan H; Dave, Sanjay; Silverstone, Peter H

    2006-04-01

    To examine the effect of gender on regional brain activity, we utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a motor task and three cognitive tasks; a word generation task, a spatial attention task, and a working memory task in healthy male (n = 23) and female (n = 10) volunteers. Functional data were examined for group differences both in the number of pixels activated, and the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) magnitude during each task. Males had a significantly greater mean activation than females in the working memory task with a greater number of pixels being activated in the right superior parietal gyrus and right inferior occipital gyrus, and a greater BOLD magnitude occurring in the left inferior parietal lobe. However, despite these fMRI changes, there were no significant differences between males and females on cognitive performance of the task. In contrast, in the spatial attention task, men performed better at this task than women, but there were no significant functional differences between the two groups. In the word generation task, there were no external measures of performance, but in the functional measurements, males had a significantly greater mean activation than females, where males had a significantly greater BOLD signal magnitude in the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the right inferior parietal lobe, and the cingulate. In neither of the motor tasks (right or left hand) did males and females perform differently. Our fMRI findings during the motor tasks were a greater mean BOLD signal magnitude in males in the right hand motor task, compared to females where males had an increased BOLD signal magnitude in the right inferior parietal gyrus and in the left inferior frontal gyrus. In conclusion, these results demonstrate differential patterns of activation in males and females during a variety of cognitive tasks, even though performance in these tasks may not vary, and also that variability in performance may not

  15. Brain activity and cognitive transition during childhood: A longitudinal event-related brain potential study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stauder, J.E.A.; Molenaar, P.C.M.; van der Molen, M.W.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the relation between brain activation and cognitive development using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and a longitudinal design. 5 yr old females performed a visual recognition ('oddball') task and an experimental analogue of the Piagetian conservation of liquid quantity task At three

  16. Differential impact of thalamic versus subthalamic deep brain stimulation on lexical processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugel, Lea K; Ehlen, Felicitas; Tiedt, Hannes O; Kühn, Andrea A; Klostermann, Fabian

    2014-10-01

    Roles of subcortical structures in language processing are vague, but, interestingly, basal ganglia and thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation can go along with reduced lexical capacities. To deepen the understanding of this impact, we assessed word processing as a function of thalamic versus subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation. Ten essential tremor patients treated with thalamic and 14 Parkinson׳s disease patients with subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation performed an acoustic Lexical Decision Task ON and OFF stimulation. Combined analysis of task performance and event-related potentials allowed the determination of processing speed, priming effects, and N400 as neurophysiological correlate of lexical stimulus processing. 12 age-matched healthy participants acted as control subjects. Thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation prolonged word decisions and reduced N400 potentials. No comparable ON-OFF effects were present in patients with subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation. In the latter group of patients with Parkinson' disease, N400 amplitudes were, however, abnormally low, whether under active or inactive Deep Brain Stimulation. In conclusion, performance speed and N400 appear to be influenced by state functions, modulated by thalamic, but not subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation, compatible with concepts of thalamo-cortical engagement in word processing. Clinically, these findings specify cognitive sequels of Deep Brain Stimulation in a target-specific way. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Brain perfusion SPECT with Brodmann areas analysis in differentiating frontotemporal dementia subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valotassiou, Varvara; Papatriantafyllou, John; Sifakis, Nikolaos; Tzavara, Chara; Tsougos, Ioannis; Psimadas, Dimitrios; Kapsalaki, Eftychia; Fezoulidis, Ioannis; Hadjigeorgiou, George; Georgoulias, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    Despite the known validity of clinical diagnostic criteria, significant overlap of clinical symptoms between Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) subtypes exists in several cases, resulting in great uncertainty of the diagnostic boundaries. We evaluated the perfusion between FTD subtypes using brain perfusion (99m)Tc-HMPAO SPECT with Brodmann areas (BA) mapping. NeuroGam software was applied on single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) studies for the semi-quantitative evaluation of perfusion in BA and the comparison with the software's normal database. We studied 91 consecutive FTD patients: 21 with behavioural variants (bvFTD), 39 with language variants (lvFTD) [12 with progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA), 27 with semantic dementia (SD)], and 31 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)/corticobasal degeneration (CBD). Stepwise logistic regression analyses showed that the BA 28L and 32R could independently differentiate bvFTD from lvFTD, while the BA 8R and 25R could discriminate bvFTD from SD and PNFA, respectively. Additionally, BA 7R and 32R were found to discriminate bvFTD from CBD/PSP. The only BA that could differentiate SD from PNFA was 6L. BA 6R and 20L were found to independently differentiate CBD/PSP from lvFTD. Moreover, BA 20L and 22R could discriminate CBD/PSP from PNFA, while BA 6R, 20L and 45R were found to independently discriminate CBD/PSP from SD. Brain perfusion SPECT with BA mapping can be a useful additional tool in differentiating FTD variants by improving the definition of brain areas that are specifically implicated, resulting in a more accurate differential diagnosis in atypical or uncertain forms of FTD.

  18. Brain activation patterns during memory of cognitive agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, Sophia; Luks, Tracy L; Simpson, Gregory V; Schulman, Brian J; Glenn, Shenly; Wong, Amy E

    2006-06-01

    Agency is the awareness that one's own self is the agent or author of an action, a thought, or a feeling. The implicit memory that one's self was the originator of a cognitive event - the sense of cognitive agency - has not yet been fully explored in terms of relevant neural systems. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we examined brain activation patterns differentiating memory for the source of previously self-generated vs. experimenter-presented word items from a sentence completion paradigm designed to be emotionally neutral and semantically constrained in content. Accurate memory for the source of self-generated vs. externally-presented word items resulted in activation of dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) bilaterally, supporting an emerging body of work that indicates a key role for this region in self-referential processing. Our data extend the function of mPFC into the domain of memory and the accurate retrieval of the sense of cognitive agency under conditions where agency was encoded implicitly.

  19. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes through Integrated Study of Alzheimer's Disease Affected Brain Regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Puthiyedth

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common form of dementia in older adults that damages the brain and results in impaired memory, thinking and behaviour. The identification of differentially expressed genes and related pathways among affected brain regions can provide more information on the mechanisms of AD. In the past decade, several studies have reported many genes that are associated with AD. This wealth of information has become difficult to follow and interpret as most of the results are conflicting. In that case, it is worth doing an integrated study of multiple datasets that helps to increase the total number of samples and the statistical power in detecting biomarkers. In this study, we present an integrated analysis of five different brain region datasets and introduce new genes that warrant further investigation.The aim of our study is to apply a novel combinatorial optimisation based meta-analysis approach to identify differentially expressed genes that are associated to AD across brain regions. In this study, microarray gene expression data from 161 samples (74 non-demented controls, 87 AD from the Entorhinal Cortex (EC, Hippocampus (HIP, Middle temporal gyrus (MTG, Posterior cingulate cortex (PC, Superior frontal gyrus (SFG and visual cortex (VCX brain regions were integrated and analysed using our method. The results are then compared to two popular meta-analysis methods, RankProd and GeneMeta, and to what can be obtained by analysing the individual datasets.We find genes related with AD that are consistent with existing studies, and new candidate genes not previously related with AD. Our study confirms the up-regualtion of INFAR2 and PTMA along with the down regulation of GPHN, RAB2A, PSMD14 and FGF. Novel genes PSMB2, WNK1, RPL15, SEMA4C, RWDD2A and LARGE are found to be differentially expressed across all brain regions. Further investigation on these genes may provide new insights into the development of AD. In addition, we

  20. Sexual differentiation of the brain: a model for drug-induced alterations of the reproductive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorski, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The process of the sexual differentiation of the brain represents a valuable model system for the study of the chemical modification of the mammalian brain. Although there are numerous functional and structural sex differences in the adult brain, these are imposed on an essentially feminine or bipotential brain by testicular hormones during a critical phase of perinatal development in the rat. It is suggested that a relatively marked structural sex difference in the rat brain, the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA), is a morphological signature of the permanent or organizational action of estradiol derived from the aromatization of testicular testosterone. The SDN-POA of the male rat is severalfold larger in volume and is composed of more neurons than that of the female. The observation that the mitotic formation of the neurons of the SDN-POA is specifically prolonged has enabled us to identify the time course and pathway of neuronal migration into the nucleus. Study of the development of the SDN-POA suggests that estradiol in the male increases the number of neurons which survive a phase of neuronal death by exerting a neurite growth promoting action and/or a direct neuronotrophic action. Finally, although it is clear that gonadal hormones have dramatic permanent effects on the brain during perinatal development, even after puberty and in adulthood gonadal steroids can alter neuronal structure and, perhaps as a corollary to this, have permanent effects on reproductive function. Although the brain may be most sensitive to gonadal hormones or exogenous chemical factors during perinatal development, such as sensitivity does not appear limited to this period

  1. Acupuncture inhibits cue-induced heroin craving and brain activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xinghui; Song, Xiaoge; Li, Chuanfu; Xu, Chunsheng; Li, Xiliang; Lu, Qi

    2012-11-25

    Previous research using functional MRI has shown that specific brain regions associated with drug dependence and cue-elicited heroin craving are activated by environmental cues. Craving is an important trigger of heroin relapse, and acupuncture may inhibit craving. In this study, we performed functional MRI in heroin addicts and control subjects. We compared differences in brain activation between the two groups during heroin cue exposure, heroin cue exposure plus acupuncture at the Zusanli point (ST36) without twirling of the needle, and heroin cue exposure plus acupuncture at the Zusanli point with twirling of the needle. Heroin cue exposure elicited significant activation in craving-related brain regions mainly in the frontal lobes and callosal gyri. Acupuncture without twirling did not significantly affect the range of brain activation induced by heroin cue exposure, but significantly changed the extent of the activation in the heroin addicts group. Acupuncture at the Zusanli point with twirling of the needle significantly decreased both the range and extent of activation induced by heroin cue exposure compared with heroin cue exposure plus acupuncture without twirling of the needle. These experimental findings indicate that presentation of heroin cues can induce activation in craving-related brain regions, which are involved in reward, learning and memory, cognition and emotion. Acupuncture at the Zusanli point can rapidly suppress the activation of specific brain regions related to craving, supporting its potential as an intervention for drug craving.

  2. Sexual differentiation of the human brain in relation to gender identity and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Ivanka; Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia; Swaab, Dick F

    2010-01-01

    It is believed that during the intrauterine period the fetal brain develops in the male direction through a direct action of testosterone on the developing nerve cells, or in the female direction through the absence of this hormone surge. According to this concept, our gender identity (the conviction of belonging to the male or female gender) and sexual orientation should be programmed into our brain structures when we are still in the womb. However, since sexual differentiation of the genitals takes place in the first two months of pregnancy and sexual differentiation of the brain starts in the second half of pregnancy, these two processes can be influenced independently, which may result in transsexuality. This also means that in the event of ambiguous sex at birth, the degree of masculinization of the genitals may not reflect the degree of masculinization of the brain. There is no proof that social environment after birth has an effect on gender identity or sexual orientation. Data on genetic and hormone independent influence on gender identity are presently divergent and do not provide convincing information about the underlying etiology. To what extent fetal programming may determine sexual orientation is also a matter of discussion. A number of studies show patterns of sex atypical cerebral dimorphism in homosexual subjects. Although the crucial question, namely how such complex functions as sexual orientation and identity are processed in the brain remains unanswered, emerging data point at a key role of specific neuronal circuits involving the hypothalamus. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Spatial heterogeneity analysis of brain activation in fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In many brain diseases it can be qualitatively observed that spatial patterns in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD activation maps appear more (diffusively distributed than in healthy controls. However, measures that can quantitatively characterize this spatial distributiveness in individual subjects are lacking. In this study, we propose a number of spatial heterogeneity measures to characterize brain activation maps. The proposed methods focus on different aspects of heterogeneity, including the shape (compactness, complexity in the distribution of activated regions (fractal dimension and co-occurrence matrix, and gappiness between activated regions (lacunarity. To this end, functional MRI derived activation maps of a language and a motor task were obtained in language impaired children with (Rolandic epilepsy and compared to age-matched healthy controls. Group analysis of the activation maps revealed no significant differences between patients and controls for both tasks. However, for the language task the activation maps in patients appeared more heterogeneous than in controls. Lacunarity was the best measure to discriminate activation patterns of patients from controls (sensitivity 74%, specificity 70% and illustrates the increased irregularity of gaps between activated regions in patients. The combination of heterogeneity measures and a support vector machine approach yielded further increase in sensitivity and specificity to 78% and 80%, respectively. This illustrates that activation distributions in impaired brains can be complex and more heterogeneous than in normal brains and cannot be captured fully by a single quantity. In conclusion, heterogeneity analysis has potential to robustly characterize the increased distributiveness of brain activation in individual patients.

  4. Dynamics differentiate between active and inactive inteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Melissa; Coolbaugh, Michael J; Nellis, David; Zhu, Jianwei; Wood, David W; Nussinov, Ruth; Ma, Buyong

    2015-02-16

    The balance between stability and dynamics for active enzymes can be somewhat quantified by studies of intein splicing and cleaving reactions. Inteins catalyze the ligation of flanking host exteins while excising themselves. The potential for applications led to engineering of a mini-intein splicing domain, where the homing endonuclease domain of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis RecA (Mtu recA) intein was removed. The remaining domains were linked by several short peptides, but splicing activity in all was substantially lower than the full-length intein. Native splicing activity was restored in some cases by a V67L mutation. Using computations and experiments, we examine the impact of this mutation on the stability and conformational dynamics of the mini-intein splicing domain. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to delineate the factors that determine the active state, including the V67L mini-intein mutant, and peptide linker. We found that (1) the V67L mutation lowers the global fluctuations in all modeled mini-inteins, stabilizing the mini-intein constructs; (2) the connecting linker length affects intein dynamics; and (3) the flexibilities of the linker and intein core are higher in the active structure. We have observed that the interaction of the linker region and a turn region around residues 35-41 provides the pathway for the allostery interaction. Our experiments reveal that intein catalysis is characterized by non-linear Arrhenius plot, confirming the significant contribution of protein conformational dynamics to intein function. We conclude that while the V67L mutation stabilizes the global structure, cooperative dynamics of all intein regions appear more important for intein function than high stability. Our studies suggest that effectively quenching the conformational dynamics of an intein through engineered allosteric interactions could deactivate intein splicing or cleaving. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Brain activation during human male ejaculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstege, Ger; Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Paans, Anne M.J.; Meiners, Linda C.; Graaf, Ferdinand H.C.E. van der; Reinders, A.A.T.Simone

    2003-01-01

    Brain mechanisms that control human sexual behavior in general, and ejaculation in particular, are poorly understood. We used positron emission tomography to measure increases in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during ejaculation compared with sexual stimulation in heterosexual male volunteers.

  6. BRAIN NETWORKS. Correlated gene expression supports synchronous activity in brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richiardi, Jonas; Altmann, Andre; Milazzo, Anna-Clare; Chang, Catie; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Lemaître, Hervé; Mann, Karl F; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor W; Smolka, Michael N; Spanagel, Rainer; Ströhle, Andreas; Schumann, Gunter; Hawrylycz, Mike; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Greicius, Michael D

    2015-06-12

    During rest, brain activity is synchronized between different regions widely distributed throughout the brain, forming functional networks. However, the molecular mechanisms supporting functional connectivity remain undefined. We show that functional brain networks defined with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging can be recapitulated by using measures of correlated gene expression in a post mortem brain tissue data set. The set of 136 genes we identify is significantly enriched for ion channels. Polymorphisms in this set of genes significantly affect resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of healthy adolescents. Expression levels of these genes are also significantly associated with axonal connectivity in the mouse. The results provide convergent, multimodal evidence that resting-state functional networks correlate with the orchestrated activity of dozens of genes linked to ion channel activity and synaptic function. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Differential metabolism of 4-hydroxynonenal in liver, lung and brain of mice and rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Ruijin; Dragomir, Ana-Cristina; Mishin, Vladimir; Richardson, Jason R.; Heck, Diane E.; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    The lipid peroxidation end-product 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) is generated in tissues during oxidative stress. As a reactive aldehyde, it forms Michael adducts with nucleophiles, a process that disrupts cellular functioning. Liver, lung and brain are highly sensitive to xenobiotic-induced oxidative stress and readily generate 4-HNE. In the present studies, we compared 4-HNE metabolism in these tissues, a process that protects against tissue injury. 4-HNE was degraded slowly in total homogenates and S9 fractions of mouse liver, lung and brain. In liver, but not lung or brain, NAD(P)+ and NAD(P)H markedly stimulated 4-HNE metabolism. Similar results were observed in rat S9 fractions from these tissues. In liver, lung and brain S9 fractions, 4-HNE formed protein adducts. When NADH was used to stimulate 4-HNE metabolism, the formation of protein adducts was suppressed in liver, but not lung or brain. In both mouse and rat tissues, 4-HNE was also metabolized by glutathione S-transferases. The greatest activity was noted in livers of mice and in lungs of rats; relatively low glutathione S-transferase activity was detected in brain. In mouse hepatocytes, 4-HNE was rapidly taken up and metabolized. Simultaneously, 4-HNE-protein adducts were formed, suggesting that 4-HNE metabolism in intact cells does not prevent protein modifications. These data demonstrate that, in contrast to liver, lung and brain have a limited capacity to metabolize 4-HNE. The persistence of 4-HNE in these tissues may increase the likelihood of tissue injury during oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Lipid peroxidation generates 4-hydroxynonenal, a highly reactive aldehyde. • Rodent liver, but not lung or brain, is efficient in degrading 4-hydroxynonenal. • 4-hydroxynonenal persists in tissues with low metabolism, causing tissue damage

  8. Differential metabolism of 4-hydroxynonenal in liver, lung and brain of mice and rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Ruijin; Dragomir, Ana-Cristina; Mishin, Vladimir [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University-Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Richardson, Jason R. [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Rutgers University-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Environmental Science, School of Health Sciences and Practice, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University-Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Rutgers University-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2014-08-15

    The lipid peroxidation end-product 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) is generated in tissues during oxidative stress. As a reactive aldehyde, it forms Michael adducts with nucleophiles, a process that disrupts cellular functioning. Liver, lung and brain are highly sensitive to xenobiotic-induced oxidative stress and readily generate 4-HNE. In the present studies, we compared 4-HNE metabolism in these tissues, a process that protects against tissue injury. 4-HNE was degraded slowly in total homogenates and S9 fractions of mouse liver, lung and brain. In liver, but not lung or brain, NAD(P)+ and NAD(P)H markedly stimulated 4-HNE metabolism. Similar results were observed in rat S9 fractions from these tissues. In liver, lung and brain S9 fractions, 4-HNE formed protein adducts. When NADH was used to stimulate 4-HNE metabolism, the formation of protein adducts was suppressed in liver, but not lung or brain. In both mouse and rat tissues, 4-HNE was also metabolized by glutathione S-transferases. The greatest activity was noted in livers of mice and in lungs of rats; relatively low glutathione S-transferase activity was detected in brain. In mouse hepatocytes, 4-HNE was rapidly taken up and metabolized. Simultaneously, 4-HNE-protein adducts were formed, suggesting that 4-HNE metabolism in intact cells does not prevent protein modifications. These data demonstrate that, in contrast to liver, lung and brain have a limited capacity to metabolize 4-HNE. The persistence of 4-HNE in these tissues may increase the likelihood of tissue injury during oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Lipid peroxidation generates 4-hydroxynonenal, a highly reactive aldehyde. • Rodent liver, but not lung or brain, is efficient in degrading 4-hydroxynonenal. • 4-hydroxynonenal persists in tissues with low metabolism, causing tissue damage.

  9. Food-Related Odors Activate Dopaminergic Brain Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Sorokowska; Agnieszka Sorokowska; Katherina Schoen; Cornelia Hummel; Pengfei Han; Jonathan Warr; Thomas Hummel

    2017-01-01

    Food-associated cues of different sensory categories have often been shown to be a potent elicitor of cerebral activity in brain reward circuits. Smells influence and modify the hedonic qualities of eating experience, and in contrast to smells not associated with food, perception of food-associated odors may activate dopaminergic brain areas. In this study, we aimed to verify previous findings related to the rewarding value of food-associated odors by means of an fMRI design involving careful...

  10. Lactobacilli Differentially Activate Natural Killer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen; Christensen, Hanne Risager; Frøkiær, Hanne

    bacteria on regulatory functions of NK-cells. Here, we have investigated how human gut flora-derived non-pathogenic lactobacilli affect NK cells in vitro, by measuring proliferation and IFN-gamma production of human peripheral blood NK cells upon bacterial stimulation. CD3-CD56+ NK cells were isolated from...... having engulfed bacteria, stimulated the growth of the NK cells. In contrast, a Lactobacillus paracasei strain caused the NK cells to proliferate only in the presence of monocytes. These results demonstrate that various lactobacilli have the capacity to activate NK cells in vitro, in a monocyte dependent...

  11. SPECT perfusion brain scintigraphy in dementia: early diagnostic and differential diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klisarova, A.

    2003-01-01

    The present review discusses the role of Single Photon Emission Computer Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) for the early detection and the differential diagnosis of the different types of dementia. The usefulness of the functional imaging is particularly emphasized in the detection of the early changes occurring in Alzheimer's diseases. The early diagnosis is a crucial factor for the treatment in the phase of reversible changes. The correlation between the severity of the diseases and the degree of hypoperfusion of the functional neuroimaging is also subject to review. SPECT and PET are of particular importance for the differential diagnosis of the various kinds of dementia. The imaging models are defined for the different stages of diseases. The functional imaging together with the clinical tests increase the diagnostic accuracy in Alzheimer's disease. The review presents the relation between the development of Alzheimer's disease and some risk factors. The review confirms the usefulness of SPECT and PET in the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and the differential diagnosis of the different types of dementia which proves the SPECT appropriateness in the routine clinical practice. The brain structures are more advantageous than the other methods of visualisation (CT and MRI) for the detection of the functional disorders in the brain cortex in a number of diseases of the central nervous system. (author)

  12. VEGF-mediated angiogenesis stimulates neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation in the premature brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jinqiao; Sha, Bin; Zhou, Wenhao; Yang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of angiogenesis on the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in the premature brain. We observed the changes in neurogenesis that followed the stimulation and inhibition of angiogenesis by altering vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in a 3-day-old rat model. VEGF expression was overexpressed by adenovirus transfection and down-regulated by siRNA interference. Using immunofluorescence assays, Western blot analysis, and real-time PCR methods, we observed angiogenesis and the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells. Immunofluorescence assays showed that the number of vWF-positive areas peaked at day 7, and they were highest in the VEGF up-regulation group and lowest in the VEGF down-regulation group at every time point. The number of neural stem cells, neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes in the subventricular zone gradually increased over time in the VEGF up-regulation group. Among the three groups, the number of these cells was highest in the VEGF up-regulation group and lowest in the VEGF down-regulation group at the same time point. Western blot analysis and real-time PCR confirmed these results. These data suggest that angiogenesis may stimulate the proliferation of neural stem cells and differentiation into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes in the premature brain.

  13. The role of choline (Cho) in the diagnostics and differentiation of brain tumours with HMRS technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobiecka, B.; Urbanik, A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aim of the research was a comprehensive analysis of Cho concentration and Cho/Cr, NAA/Cho, NAA/Cho+Cr ratios for the purposes of the diagnostics and differentiation of brain tumours (the type of the pathological lesion in patients with brain tumours) with the use of HMRS technique. Material/Methods: The HMRS examinations were performed with the use of the MRI Signa Excite 1.5 T system, in PRESS technique (TR = 1500 ms, TE = 35 ms) and involved 100 patients with brain tumours (age range: 18 to 81 yrs, mean age 50.61). Spectra were taken from three different locations: tumour centre, the tumour edge and contralateral unchanged cerebral tissue. All patients underwent surgery followed by histopathological analysis, on the basis of which two groups were separated (benign tumours, malignant tumours - 50 cases each). Additionally, 30 healthy volunteers in the age of 20 to 79 years (mean age 40.8) were examined. Results: The comparison of the examined patients with the control group revealed significantly higher Cho concentrations in patients with brain tumours. The analysis of Cho concentration was also performed with consideration of the age factor (under and over 60 years of age). Significantly lower mean Cho concentrations were discovered in a group of patients under 60 years of age. The analysis of Cho concentrations and Cho/Cr ratios reveled statistical significance for two factors: voxel location factor and the type of the pathological lesion. The average of Cho concentration and Cho/Cr ratios were higher in the group of patients with malignant tumours. The highest Cho concentrations and Cho/Cr ratios were observed in the tumour centre. The relative NAA/Cho and NAA/Cho+Cr ratios were statistically significant when taking into consideration the voxel location factor only. The results received from contralateral normal cerebral tissue (the internal model) were compared with control group (the external model). Mean values of Cho concentration were

  14. Linking neuronal brain activity to the glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, Britta; Oltmanns, Kerstin M; Chung, Matthias

    2013-08-29

    Energy homeostasis ensures the functionality of the entire organism. The human brain as a missing link in the global regulation of the complex whole body energy metabolism is subject to recent investigation. The goal of this study is to gain insight into the influence of neuronal brain activity on cerebral and peripheral energy metabolism. In particular, the tight link between brain energy supply and metabolic responses of the organism is of interest. We aim to identifying regulatory elements of the human brain in the whole body energy homeostasis. First, we introduce a general mathematical model describing the human whole body energy metabolism. It takes into account the two central roles of the brain in terms of energy metabolism. The brain is considered as energy consumer as well as regulatory instance. Secondly, we validate our mathematical model by experimental data. Cerebral high-energy phosphate content and peripheral glucose metabolism are measured in healthy men upon neuronal activation induced by transcranial direct current stimulation versus sham stimulation. By parameter estimation we identify model parameters that provide insight into underlying neurophysiological processes. Identified parameters reveal effects of neuronal activity on regulatory mechanisms of systemic glucose metabolism. Our examinations support the view that the brain increases its glucose supply upon neuronal activation. The results indicate that the brain supplies itself with energy according to its needs, and preeminence of cerebral energy supply is reflected. This mechanism ensures balanced cerebral energy homeostasis. The hypothesis of the central role of the brain in whole body energy homeostasis as active controller is supported.

  15. Brain activity patterns uniquely supporting visual feature integration after traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali eRaja Beharelle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI patients typically respond more slowly and with more variability than controls during tasks of attention requiring speeded reaction time. These behavioral changes are attributable, at least in part, to diffuse axonal injury (DAI, which affects integrated processing in distributed systems. Here we use a multivariate method sensitive to distributed neural activity to compare brain activity patterns of patients with chronic phase moderate-to-severe TBI to those of controls during performance on a visual feature-integration task assessing complex attentional processes that has previously shown sensitivity to TBI. The TBI patients were carefully screened to be free of large focal lesions that can affect performance and brain activation independently of DAI. The task required subjects to hold either one or three features of a target in mind while suppressing responses to distracting information. In controls, the multi-feature condition activated a distributed network including limbic, prefrontal, and medial temporal structures. TBI patients engaged this same network in the single-feature and baseline conditions. In multi-feature presentations, TBI patients alone activated additional frontal, parietal, and occipital regions. These results are consistent with neuroimaging studies using tasks assessing different cognitive domains, where increased spread of brain activity changes was associated with TBI. Our results also extend previous findings that brain activity for relatively moderate task demands in TBI patients is similar to that associated with of high task demands in controls.

  16. Differential regional brain growth and rotation of the prenatal human tentorium cerebelli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Nathan

    2002-02-01

    Folds of dura mater, the falx cerebri and tentorium cerebelli, traverse the vertebrate endocranial cavity and compartmentalize the brain. Previous studies suggest that the tentorial fold has adopted an increasingly important role in supporting the increased load of the cerebrum during human evolution, brought about by encephalization and an adaptation to bipedal posture. Ontogenetic studies of the fetal tentorium suggest that its midline profile rotates inferoposteriorly towards the foramen magnum in response to disproportionate growth of the cerebrum. This study tests the hypothesis that differential growth of the cerebral and cerebellar components of the brain underlies the inferoposterior rotation of the tentorium cerebelli during human fetal development. Brain volumes and tentorial angles were taken from high-resolution magnetic resonance images of 46 human fetuses ranging from 10 to 29 gestational weeks. Apart from the expected increases of both supratentorial and infratentorial brain volumes with age, the results confirm previous studies showing a significant relative enlargement of the supratentorial volume. Correlated with this enlargement was a rotation of the midline section of the tentorium towards the posterior cranial base. These findings support the concept that increases of supratentorial volume relative to infratentorial volume affect an inferoposterior rotation of the human fetal tentorium cerebelli. These results are discussed in the context of the role played by the tentorium cerebelli during human evolution and underline implications for phylogenetic and ontogenetic models of encephalization.

  17. Interleukin 6 modulates acetylcholinesterase activity of brain neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarencon, D.; Multon, E.; Galonnier, M.; Estrade, M.; Fournier, C.; Mathieu, J.; Mestries, J.C.; Testylier, G.; Fatome, M.

    1995-01-01

    Classically, radiation injuries results in a peripheral inflammatory process, and we have previously observed an early systemic interleukin 6 (IL-6) release following whole-body irradiation. Besides, we have demonstrated an early decrease of rat or primate brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity a gamma exposure. The object of the present study is to find possible IL-6 systemic effects on the brain AChE activity. We show that, though intravenous (i.v.) or intra-cerebro-ventricular (ICV) injection of IL-6 can induce a drop in rat brain AChE activity, this cytokine induces only a slight decrease of the AChE release in cultured brain cells. (author)

  18. The effects of physical activity on brain structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam eThomas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic activity is a powerful stimulus for improving mental health and for generating structural changes in the brain. We review the literature documenting these structural changes and explore exactly where in the brain these changes occur as well as the underlying substrates of the changes including neural, glial, and vasculature components. Aerobic activity has been shown to produce different types of changes in the brain. The presence of novel experiences or learning is an especially important component in how these changes are manifest. We also discuss the distinct time courses of structural brain changes with both aerobic activity and learning as well as how these effects might differ in diseased and elderly groups.

  19. Voluntary breath holding affects spontaneous brain activity measured by magnetoencephalography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, N. A.; Reits, D.

    1999-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity was measured by multichannel magnetoencephalography (MEG) during voluntary breath holds. Significant changes in the activity are limited to the alpha rhythm: 0.25 Hz frequency increase and narrowing of the peak. The area of alpha activity shifts slightly toward (fronto-)

  20. Differential diagnosis in patients with ring-like thallium-201 uptake in brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinuya, Keiko; Ohashi, Masahiro; Itoh, Syotaro

    2002-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate lesions with ring-like thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) uptake and to determine whether SPECT provides any information in differential diagnosis. A total of 244 201 Tl SPECT images were reviewed. In each study, early (15 min postinjection) and late (3 hr) brain SPECT images were obtained with 111 MBq of 201 Tl. The early uptake ratio (ER; lesion to normal brain average count ratio) and the late uptake ratio (LR) and the L/E ratio (ratio of LR to ER) were calculated. Ring-like uptake was observed in pre-therapeutic 26 SPECT images, including ten glioblastoma multiformes (ER, 3.45±0.64; LR, 2.74±0.54; L/E ratio 0.80±0.13), five meningiomas (6.48±2.34; 4.41±1.41; 0.72±0.19), four metastatic lung cancers (3.47±1.23; 2.40±0.98; 0.70±0.14), four brain abscesses (2.48±1.06; 1.59±0.30; 0.78±0.15), one invasive lesion of squamous cell carcinoma from the ethmoid sinus (1.54; 1.52; 0.99), one medulloblastoma (3.53; 3.52; 1.00) and one hematoma (3.32; 2.36; 0.71). The ER of meningioma was significantly higher than those of glioblastoma multiforme (p 201 Tl SPECT has still difficulty in differentiating abscess from brain tumor. (author)

  1. Cognitive benefit and cost of acute stress is differentially modulated by individual brain state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Nils; Hermans, Erno J; Fernández, Guillén

    2017-07-01

    Acute stress is associated with beneficial as well as detrimental effects on cognition in different individuals. However, it is not yet known how stress can have such opposing effects. Stroop-like tasks typically show this dissociation: stress diminishes speed, but improves accuracy. We investigated accuracy and speed during a stroop-like task of 120 healthy male subjects after an experimental stress induction or control condition in a randomized, counter-balanced cross-over design; we assessed brain-behavior associations and determined the influence of individual brain connectivity patterns on these associations, which may moderate the effect and help identify stress resilience factors. In the mean, stress was associated to increase in accuracy, but decrease in speed. Accuracy was associated to brain activation in a distributed set of brain regions overlapping with the executive control network (ECN) and speed to temporo-parietal activation. In line with a stress-related large-scale network reconfiguration, individuals showing an upregulation of the salience and down-regulation of the executive-control network under stress displayed increased speed, but decreased performance. In contrast, individuals who upregulate their ECN under stress show improved performance. Our results indicate that the individual large-scale brain network balance under acute stress moderates cognitive consequences of threat. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. Pacing and awareness: brain regulation of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, A M; Polman, R C J

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this current opinion article is to provide a contemporary perspective on the role of brain regulatory control of paced performances in response to exercise challenges. There has been considerable recent conjecture as to the role of the brain during exercise, and it is now broadly accepted that fatigue does not occur without brain involvement and that all voluntary activity is likely to be paced at some level by the brain according to individualised priorities and knowledge of personal capabilities. This article examines the role of pacing in managing and distributing effort to successfully accomplish physical tasks, while extending existing theories on the role of the brain as a central controller of performance. The opinion proposed in this article is that a central regulator operates to control exercise performance but achieves this without the requirement of an intelligent central governor located in the subconscious brain. It seems likely that brain regulation operates at different levels of awareness, such that minor homeostatic challenges are addressed automatically without conscious awareness, while larger metabolic disturbances attract conscious awareness and evoke a behavioural response. This supports the view that the brain regulates exercise performance but that the interpretation of the mechanisms underlying this effect have not yet been fully elucidated.

  3. Structural, Functional, and Metabolic Brain Markers Differentiate Collision versus Contact and Non-Contact Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Nathan W; Hutchison, Michael G; Di Battista, Alex P; Graham, Simon J; Schweizer, Tom A

    2017-01-01

    There is growing concern about how participation in contact sports affects the brain. Retrospective evidence suggests that contact sports are associated with long-term negative health outcomes. However, much of the research to date has focused on former athletes with significant health problems. Less is known about the health of current athletes in contact and collision sports who have not reported significant medical issues. In this cross-sectional study, advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate multiple aspects of brain physiology in three groups of athletes participating in non-contact sports ( N  = 20), contact sports ( N  = 22), and collision sports ( N  = 23). Diffusion tensor imaging was used to assess white matter microstructure based on measures of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD); resting-state functional MRI was used to evaluate global functional connectivity; single-voxel spectroscopy was used to compare ratios of neural metabolites, including N -acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), choline, and myo-inositol. Multivariate analysis revealed structural, functional, and metabolic measures that reliably differentiated between sport groups. The collision group had significantly elevated FA and reduced MD in white matter, compared to both contact and non-contact groups. In contrast, the collision group showed significant reductions in functional connectivity and the NAA/Cr metabolite ratio, relative to only the non-contact group, while the contact group overlapped with both non-contact and collision groups. For brain regions associated with contact sport participation, athletes with a history of concussion also showed greater alterations in FA and functional connectivity, indicating a potential cumulative effect of both contact exposure and concussion history on brain physiology. These findings indicate persistent differences in brain physiology for athletes participating in contact and collision sports

  4. Lutein Is Differentially Deposited across Brain Regions following Formula or Breast Feeding of Infant Rhesus Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sookyoung; Ranard, Katherine M; Neuringer, Martha; Johnson, Emily E; Renner, Lauren; Kuchan, Matthew J; Pereira, Suzette L; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Erdman, John W

    2018-01-01

    Lutein, a yellow xanthophyll, selectively accumulates in primate retina and brain. Lutein may play a critical role in neural and retinal development, but few studies have investigated the impact of dietary source on its bioaccumulation in infants. We explored the bioaccumulation of lutein in infant rhesus macaques following breastfeeding or formula-feeding. From birth to 6 mo of age, male and female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were either breastfed (BF) (n = 8), fed a formula supplemented with lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene, and lycopene (237, 19.0, 74.2, and 338 nmol/kg, supplemented formula-fed; SF) (n = 8), or fed a formula with low amounts of these carotenoids (38.6, 2.3, 21.5, and 0 nmol/kg, unsupplemented formula-fed; UF) (n = 7). The concentrations of carotenoids in serum and tissues were analyzed by HPLC. At 6 mo of age, the BF group exhibited significantly higher lutein concentrations in serum, all brain regions, macular and peripheral retina, adipose tissue, liver, and other tissues compared to both formula-fed groups (P Lutein concentrations were higher in the SF group than in the UF group in serum and all tissues, with the exception of macular retina. Lutein was differentially distributed across brain areas, with the highest concentrations in the occipital cortex, regardless of the diet. Zeaxanthin was present in all brain regions but only in the BF infants; it was present in both retinal regions in all groups but was significantly enhanced in BF infants compared to either formula group (P lutein concentrations compared to unsupplemented formula, concentrations were still well below those in BF infants. Regardless of diet, occipital cortex showed selectively higher lutein deposition than other brain regions, suggesting lutein's role in visual processing in early life. © 2018 American Society for Nutrition. All rights reserved.

  5. Differentiation of pyogenic and fungal brain abscesses with susceptibility-weighted MR sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antulov, Ronald; Miletic, Damir [Clinical Hospital Centre Rijeka, Department of Radiology, Rijeka (Croatia); Dolic, Kresimir [Clinical Hospital Centre Split, Department of Radiology, Split (Croatia); Fruehwald-Pallamar, Julia; Thurnher, Majda M. [Medical University Vienna, University Hospital Vienna, Department of Radiology-Subdivision of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-11-15

    Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are insufficient to determine the causative agent of brain abscesses. We investigated: (1) the value of susceptibility-weighted MR sequences (SWMRS) in the differentiation of fungal and pyogenic brain abscesses; and (2) the effect of different SWMRS (susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) versus venous blood oxygen level dependent (VenoBOLD)) for the detection of specific imaging characteristics of pyogenic brain abscesses. We studied six patients with fungal and ten patients with pyogenic brain abscesses. Imaging characteristics on conventional MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and SWMRS were recorded in all abscesses. All lesions were assessed for the presence of a ''dual-rim sign'' on SWMRS. Homogenously hyperintense lesions on DWI were present in 60 % of patients with pyogenic abscesses, whereas none of the patients with fungal abscesses showed such lesions. On SWMRS, 90 % of patients with pyogenic abscesses and 60 % of patients with fungal abscesses had only lesions with a low-signal-intensity rim. On SWI, the dual-rim sign was apparent in all pyogenic abscesses. None of the fungal abscesses on SWI (P = 0.005) or any of the pyogenic abscesses on VenoBOLD (P = 0.005) were positive for a dual-rim sign. In fungal abscesses, the dual-rim sign is not present but a prominent peripheral rim or central susceptibility effects on SWI will be seen. The appearance of pyogenic abscesses on SWMRS depends on the used sequence, with the dual-rim sign a specific feature of pyogenic brain abscesses on SWI. (orig.)

  6. Visual short term memory related brain activity predicts mathematical abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet-Craig, Aubrée; Robaey, Philippe; Lacourse, Karine; Jerbi, Karim; Oswald, Victor; Krajinovic, Maja; Laverdière, Caroline; Sinnett, Daniel; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Lippé, Sarah

    2017-07-01

    Previous research suggests visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity and mathematical abilities are significantly related. Moreover, both processes activate similar brain regions within the parietal cortex, in particular, the intraparietal sulcus; however, it is still unclear whether the neuronal underpinnings of VSTM directly correlate with mathematical operation and reasoning abilities. The main objective was to investigate the association between parieto-occipital brain activity during the retention period of a VSTM task and performance in mathematics. The authors measured mathematical abilities and VSTM capacity as well as brain activity during memory maintenance using magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 19 healthy adult participants. Event-related magnetic fields (ERFs) were computed on the MEG data. Linear regressions were used to estimate the strength of the relation between VSTM related brain activity and mathematical abilities. The amplitude of parieto-occipital cerebral activity during the retention of visual information was related to performance in 2 standardized mathematical tasks: mathematical reasoning and calculation fluency. The findings show that brain activity during retention period of a VSTM task is associated with mathematical abilities. Contributions of VSTM processes to numerical cognition should be considered in cognitive interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Principal tools for exploring the brain and mapping its activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazoyer, B.; Mashaal, M.

    1996-01-01

    The electro-encephalography (EEG), magneto-encephalography (MEG), scanner, positron computed tomography, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and NMR imaging are the main methods used to explore human brain and to do a mapping of its activity. These methods are described into details (principle, visualization, uses, advantages, disadvantages). They can be useful to detect the possible anomalies of the human brain. (O.M.)

  8. Radio frequency radiation effects on protein kinase C activity in rats' brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulraj, R.; Behari, J.

    2004-01-01

    The present work describes the effect of amplitude modulated radio frequency (rf) radiation (112 MHz amplitude-modulated at 16 Hz) on calcium-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) activity on developing rat brain. Thirty-five days old Wistar rats were used for this study. The rats were exposed 2 h per day for 35 days at a power density of 1.0 mW/cm 2 (SAR=1.48 W/kg). After exposure, rats were sacrificed and PKC was determined in whole brain, hippocampus and whole brain minus hippocampus separately. A significant decrease in the enzyme level was observed in the exposed group as compared to the sham exposed group. These results indicate that this type of radiation could affect membrane bound enzymes associated with cell signaling, proliferation and differentiation. This may also suggest an affect on the behavior of chronically exposed rats

  9. Brain modularity controls the critical behavior of spontaneous activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, R; Herrmann, H J; de Arcangelis, L

    2014-03-13

    The human brain exhibits a complex structure made of scale-free highly connected modules loosely interconnected by weaker links to form a small-world network. These features appear in healthy patients whereas neurological diseases often modify this structure. An important open question concerns the role of brain modularity in sustaining the critical behaviour of spontaneous activity. Here we analyse the neuronal activity of a model, successful in reproducing on non-modular networks the scaling behaviour observed in experimental data, on a modular network implementing the main statistical features measured in human brain. We show that on a modular network, regardless the strength of the synaptic connections or the modular size and number, activity is never fully scale-free. Neuronal avalanches can invade different modules which results in an activity depression, hindering further avalanche propagation. Critical behaviour is solely recovered if inter-module connections are added, modifying the modular into a more random structure.

  10. Functional brain imaging in the dementias: role in early detection, differential diagnosis, and longitudinal studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devous, M.D. Sr. [Nuclear Medicine Center and Department of Radiology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd., Dallas, TX (United States)

    2002-12-01

    This review considers the role of functional brain imaging techniques in the dementias. The substantial assistance that especially single-photon emission tomography and positron emission tomography can play in the initial diagnosis of dementia and in the differential diagnosis of the specific dementing disorder is discussed. These techniques alone essentially match the sensitivity and specificity of clinical diagnoses in distinguishing Alzheimer's dementia (AD) from age-matched controls, from frontal lobe dementia and vascular dementia, and even from Lewy body dementia. Newer analytic techniques such as voxel-based correlational analyses and discriminant function analyses enhance the power of such differential diagnoses. Functional brain imaging techniques can also significantly assist in patient screening for clinical trials. The correlation of the observed deficits with specific patterns of cognitive abnormalities permits enhanced patient management and treatment planning and improved longitudinal assessment of outcome. It is also noteworthy that the classic abnormalities of temporoparietal and posterior cingulate hypoperfusion or hypometabolism appear to be present prior to symptom onset. These abnormalities predict progression to AD in the presence of the earliest of symptoms, and are present even in cognitively normal but at-risk subjects, with a severity proportional to the risk status. Even greater predictive ability for progression to AD is obtained by combining measures of perfusion or metabolism with risk factors, tau protein levels, hippocampal N-Acetyl aspartate concentrations, or hippocampal volume measures. (orig.)

  11. Functional brain imaging in the dementias: role in early detection, differential diagnosis, and longitudinal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devous, M.D. Sr.

    2002-01-01

    This review considers the role of functional brain imaging techniques in the dementias. The substantial assistance that especially single-photon emission tomography and positron emission tomography can play in the initial diagnosis of dementia and in the differential diagnosis of the specific dementing disorder is discussed. These techniques alone essentially match the sensitivity and specificity of clinical diagnoses in distinguishing Alzheimer's dementia (AD) from age-matched controls, from frontal lobe dementia and vascular dementia, and even from Lewy body dementia. Newer analytic techniques such as voxel-based correlational analyses and discriminant function analyses enhance the power of such differential diagnoses. Functional brain imaging techniques can also significantly assist in patient screening for clinical trials. The correlation of the observed deficits with specific patterns of cognitive abnormalities permits enhanced patient management and treatment planning and improved longitudinal assessment of outcome. It is also noteworthy that the classic abnormalities of temporoparietal and posterior cingulate hypoperfusion or hypometabolism appear to be present prior to symptom onset. These abnormalities predict progression to AD in the presence of the earliest of symptoms, and are present even in cognitively normal but at-risk subjects, with a severity proportional to the risk status. Even greater predictive ability for progression to AD is obtained by combining measures of perfusion or metabolism with risk factors, tau protein levels, hippocampal N-Acetyl aspartate concentrations, or hippocampal volume measures. (orig.)

  12. Differential Diagnosis and Management of Incomplete Locked-In Syndrome after Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Surdyke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Locked-in syndrome (LIS is a rare diagnosis in which patients present with quadriplegia, lower cranial nerve paralysis, and mutism. It is clinically difficult to differentiate from other similarly presenting diagnoses with no standard approach for assessing such poorly responsive patients. The purpose of this case is to highlight the clinical differential diagnosis process and outcomes of a patient with LIS during acute inpatient rehabilitation. A 32-year-old female was admitted following traumatic brain injury. She presented with quadriplegia and mutism but was awake and aroused based on eye gaze communication. The rehabilitation team was able to diagnose incomplete LIS based on knowledge of neuroanatomy and clinical reasoning. Establishing this diagnosis allowed for an individualized treatment plan that focused on communication, coping, family training, and discharge planning. The patient was ultimately able to discharge home with a single caregiver, improving her quality of life. Continued evidence highlights the benefits of intensive comprehensive therapy for those with acquired brain injury such as LIS, but access is still limited for those with a seemingly poor prognosis. Access to a multidisciplinary, specialized team provides opportunity for continued assessment and individualized treatment as the patient attains more medical stability, improving long-term management.

  13. Differentiation between eclampsia and cerebrovascular disorders by brain CT scan in pregnant patients with convulsive seizures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi, Katsuto; Lin, Yaw-Tyng; Noda, Kiyofumi; Saeki, Kazuhiko; Yonezawa, Masaru; Sekiba, Kaoru; Ochiai, Youji

    1987-01-01

    Six pregnant women with convulsions between 25 to 40 weeks of gestation were experienced. Among them, 4 patients were diagnosed as having intracranial hemorrhage and two as simple eclampsia. With the aid of brain CT scan, one case of arteriovenous malformation was detected and treated surgically with good prognosis for both the mother and the fetus. Two patients were diagnosed to have cerebral hemorrhage with subsequent penetration into the lateral ventricles and were treated conservatively. Their fetuses were delivered alive by cesarean section, but the mothers expired. The other patient with cerebral hemorrhage was treated surgically, and both the mother and the fetus survived. One of the simple eclampsia patients was noted to have a growth retarded fetus at 32 weeks of pregnancy with subsequent intra-uterine death, but the mother recovered after conservative treatment. Another patient at 40 weeks of pregnancy was also treated conservatively and both the fetus and the mother survived. Brain CT scan findings differed between these two eclampsia patients; local brain edema for the second patient and generalized brain edema for the first patient. Thus more active application of brain CT scan is recommended in managing pregnant patients with convulsions. (author)

  14. Differentiation between eclampsia and cerebrovascular disorders by brain CT scan in pregnant patients with convulsive seizures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, Katsuto; Lin, Yaw-Tyng; Noda, Kiyofumi; Saeki, Kazuhiko; Yonezawa, Masaru; Sekiba, Kaoru; Ochiai, Youji

    1987-06-01

    Six pregnant women with convulsions between 25 to 40 weeks of gestation were experienced. Among them, 4 patients were diagnosed as having intracranial hemorrhage and two as simple eclampsia. With the aid of brain CT scan, one case of arteriovenous malformation was detected and treated surgically with good prognosis for both the mother and the fetus. Two patients were diagnosed to have cerebral hemorrhage with subsequent penetration into the lateral ventricles and were treated conservatively. Their fetuses were delivered alive by cesarean section, but the mothers expired. The other patient with cerebral hemorrhage was treated surgically, and both the mother and the fetus survived. One of the simple eclampsia patients was noted to have a growth retarded fetus at 32 weeks of pregnancy with subsequent intra-uterine death, but the mother recovered after conservative treatment. Another patient at 40 weeks of pregnancy was also treated conservatively and both the fetus and the mother survived. Brain CT scan findings differed between these two eclampsia patients; local brain edema for the second patient and generalized brain edema for the first patient. Thus more active application of brain CT scan is recommended in managing pregnant patients with convulsions.

  15. Using perturbations to identify the brain circuits underlying active vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtz, Robert H

    2015-09-19

    The visual and oculomotor systems in the brain have been studied extensively in the primate. Together, they can be regarded as a single brain system that underlies active vision--the normal vision that begins with visual processing in the retina and extends through the brain to the generation of eye movement by the brainstem. The system is probably one of the most thoroughly studied brain systems in the primate, and it offers an ideal opportunity to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the series of perturbation techniques that have been used to study it. The perturbations have been critical in moving from correlations between neuronal activity and behaviour closer to a causal relation between neuronal activity and behaviour. The same perturbation techniques have also been used to tease out neuronal circuits that are related to active vision that in turn are driving behaviour. The evolution of perturbation techniques includes ablation of both cortical and subcortical targets, punctate chemical lesions, reversible inactivations, electrical stimulation, and finally the expanding optogenetic techniques. The evolution of perturbation techniques has supported progressively stronger conclusions about what neuronal circuits in the brain underlie active vision and how the circuits themselves might be organized.

  16. Uncovering intrinsic modular organization of spontaneous brain activity in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong He

    Full Text Available The characterization of topological architecture of complex brain networks is one of the most challenging issues in neuroscience. Slow (<0.1 Hz, spontaneous fluctuations of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal in functional magnetic resonance imaging are thought to be potentially important for the reflection of spontaneous neuronal activity. Many studies have shown that these fluctuations are highly coherent within anatomically or functionally linked areas of the brain. However, the underlying topological mechanisms responsible for these coherent intrinsic or spontaneous fluctuations are still poorly understood. Here, we apply modern network analysis techniques to investigate how spontaneous neuronal activities in the human brain derived from the resting-state BOLD signals are topologically organized at both the temporal and spatial scales. We first show that the spontaneous brain functional networks have an intrinsically cohesive modular structure in which the connections between regions are much denser within modules than between them. These identified modules are found to be closely associated with several well known functionally interconnected subsystems such as the somatosensory/motor, auditory, attention, visual, subcortical, and the "default" system. Specifically, we demonstrate that the module-specific topological features can not be captured by means of computing the corresponding global network parameters, suggesting a unique organization within each module. Finally, we identify several pivotal network connectors and paths (predominantly associated with the association and limbic/paralimbic cortex regions that are vital for the global coordination of information flow over the whole network, and we find that their lesions (deletions critically affect the stability and robustness of the brain functional system. Together, our results demonstrate the highly organized modular architecture and associated topological properties in

  17. Cognitive benefit and cost of acute stress is differentially modulated by individual brain state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Erno J.; Fernández, Guillén

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Acute stress is associated with beneficial as well as detrimental effects on cognition in different individuals. However, it is not yet known how stress can have such opposing effects. Stroop-like tasks typically show this dissociation: stress diminishes speed, but improves accuracy. We investigated accuracy and speed during a stroop-like task of 120 healthy male subjects after an experimental stress induction or control condition in a randomized, counter-balanced cross-over design; we assessed brain–behavior associations and determined the influence of individual brain connectivity patterns on these associations, which may moderate the effect and help identify stress resilience factors. In the mean, stress was associated to increase in accuracy, but decrease in speed. Accuracy was associated to brain activation in a distributed set of brain regions overlapping with the executive control network (ECN) and speed to temporo-parietal activation. In line with a stress-related large-scale network reconfiguration, individuals showing an upregulation of the salience and down-regulation of the executive-control network under stress displayed increased speed, but decreased performance. In contrast, individuals who upregulate their ECN under stress show improved performance. Our results indicate that the individual large-scale brain network balance under acute stress moderates cognitive consequences of threat. PMID:28402480

  18. Individual Variability in Brain Activity: A Nuisance or an Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, John Darrell; Grafton, Scott T; Miller, Michael B

    2008-12-01

    Functional imaging research has been heavily influenced by results based on population-level inference. However, group average results may belie the unique patterns of activity present in the individual that ordinarily are considered random noise. Recent advances in the evolution of MRI hardware have led to significant improvements in the stability and reproducibility of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) measurements. These enhancements provide a unique opportunity for closer examination of individual patterns of brain activity. Three objectives can be accomplished by considering brain scans at the individual level; (1) Mapping functional anatomy at a fine grained analysis; (2) Determining if an individual scan is normative with respect to a reference population; and (3) Understanding the sources of intersubject variability in brain activity. In this review, we detail these objectives, briefly discuss their histories and present recent trends in the analyses of individual variability. Finally, we emphasize the unique opportunities and challenges for understanding individual differences through international collaboration among Pacific Rim investigators.

  19. Listening to humans walking together activates the social brain circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Miiamaaria V; Hari, Riitta

    2008-01-01

    Human footsteps carry a vast amount of social information, which is often unconsciously noted. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we analyzed brain networks activated by footstep sounds of one or two persons walking. Listening to two persons walking together activated brain areas previously associated with affective states and social interaction, such as the subcallosal gyrus bilaterally, the right temporal pole, and the right amygdala. These areas seem to be involved in the analysis of persons' identity and complex social stimuli on the basis of auditory cues. Single footsteps activated only the biological motion area in the posterior STS region. Thus, hearing two persons walking together involved a more widespread brain network than did hearing footsteps from a single person.

  20. Spontaneous brain activity predicts learning ability of foreign sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Sanjuán, Ana; González, Julio; Palomar-García, María-Ángeles; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Deco, Gustavo; Ávila, César

    2013-05-29

    Can learning capacity of the human brain be predicted from initial spontaneous functional connectivity (FC) between brain areas involved in a task? We combined task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) before and after training with a Hindi dental-retroflex nonnative contrast. Previous fMRI results were replicated, demonstrating that this learning recruited the left insula/frontal operculum and the left superior parietal lobe, among other areas of the brain. Crucially, resting-state FC (rs-FC) between these two areas at pretraining predicted individual differences in learning outcomes after distributed (Experiment 1) and intensive training (Experiment 2). Furthermore, this rs-FC was reduced at posttraining, a change that may also account for learning. Finally, resting-state network analyses showed that the mechanism underlying this reduction of rs-FC was mainly a transfer in intrinsic activity of the left frontal operculum/anterior insula from the left frontoparietal network to the salience network. Thus, rs-FC may contribute to predict learning ability and to understand how learning modifies the functioning of the brain. The discovery of this correspondence between initial spontaneous brain activity in task-related areas and posttraining performance opens new avenues to find predictors of learning capacities in the brain using task-related fMRI and rs-fMRI combined.

  1. Immunologic differentiation of two high-affinity neurotensin receptor isoforms in the developing rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudin, H; Lazaroff, B; Bachelet, C M; Pélaprat, D; Rostène, W; Beaudet, A

    2000-09-11

    Earlier studies have demonstrated overexpression of NT1 neurotensin receptors in rat brain during the first 2 weeks of life. To gain insight into this phenomenon, we investigated the identity and distribution of NT1 receptor proteins in the brain of 10-day-old rats by using two different NT1 antibodies: one (Abi3) directed against the third intracellular loop and the other (Abi4) against the C-terminus of the receptor. Immunoblot experiments that used Abi3 revealed the presence of two differentially glycosylated forms of the NT1 receptor in developing rat brain: one migrating at 54 and the other at 52 kDa. Whereas the 54-kDa form was expressed from birth to adulthood, the 52-kDa form was detected only at 10 and 15 days postnatal. Only the 52-kDa isoform was recognized by Abi4. By immunohistochemistry, both forms of the receptor were found to be predominantly expressed in cerebral cortex and dorsal hippocampus, in keeping with earlier radioligand binding and in situ hybridization data. However, whereas Abi4 immunoreactivity was mainly concentrated within nerve cell bodies and extensively colocalized with the Golgi marker alpha-mannosidase II, Abi3 immunoreactivity was predominantly located along neuronal processes. These results suggest that the transitorily expressed 52-kDa protein corresponds to an immature, incompletely glycosylated and largely intracellular form of the NT1 receptor and that the 54-kDa protein corresponds to a mature, fully glycosylated, and largely membrane-associated form. They also indicate that antibodies directed against different sequences of G-protein-coupled receptors may yield isoform-specific immunohistochemical labeling patterns in mammalian brain. Finally, the selective expression of the short form of the NT1 receptor early in development suggests that it may play a specific role in the establishment of neuronal circuitry. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Differentiated effects of deep brain stimulation and medication on somatosensory processing in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Kousik Sarathy; Højlund, Andreas; Johnsen, Erik Lisbjerg; Sunde, Niels Aagaard; Johansen, Lars Gottfried; Beniczky, Sándor; Østergaard, Karen

    2017-07-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) and dopaminergic medication effectively alleviate the motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, but their effects on the sensory symptoms of PD are still not well understood. To explore early somatosensory processing in PD, we recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) from thirteen DBS-treated PD patients and ten healthy controls during median nerve stimulation. PD patients were measured during DBS-treated, untreated and dopaminergic-medicated states. We focused on early cortical somatosensory processing as indexed by N20m, induced gamma augmentation (31-45Hz and 55-100Hz) and induced beta suppression (13-30Hz). PD patients' motor symptoms were assessed by UPDRS-III. Using Bayesian statistics, we found positive evidence for differentiated effects of treatments on the induced gamma augmentation (31-45Hz) with highest gamma in the dopaminergic-medicated state and lowest in the DBS-treated and untreated states. In contrast, UPDRS-III scores showed beneficial effects of both DBS and dopaminergic medication on the patients' motor symptoms. Furthermore, treatments did not affect the amplitude of N20m. Our results suggest differentiated effects of DBS and dopaminergic medication on cortical somatosensory processing in PD patients despite consistent ameliorating effects of both treatments on PD motor symptoms. The differentiated effect suggests differences in the effect mechanisms of the two treatments. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. On a Mathematical Model of Brain Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtner, K.-H.; Fichtner, L.; Freudenberg, W.; Ohya, M.

    2007-01-01

    The procedure of recognition can be described as follows: There is a set of complex signals stored in the memory. Choosing one of these signals may be interpreted as generating a hypothesis concerning an 'expexted view of the world'. Then the brain compares a signal arising from our senses with the signal chosen from the memory leading to a change of the state of both signals. Furthermore, measurements of that procedure like EEG or MEG are based on the fact that recognition of signals causes a certain loss of excited neurons, i.e. the neurons change their state from 'excited' to 'nonexcited'. For that reason a statistical model of the recognition process should reflect both--the change of the signals and the loss of excited neurons. A first attempt to explain the process of recognition in terms of quantum statistics was given. In the present note it is not possible to present this approach in detail. In lieu we will sketch roughly a few of the basic ideas and structures of the proposed model of the recognition process (Section). Further, we introduce the basic spaces and justify the choice of spaces used in this approach. A more elaborate presentation including all proofs will be given in a series of some forthcoming papers. In this series also the procedures of creation of signals from the memory, amplification, accumulation and transformation of input signals, and measurements like EEG and MEG will be treated in detail

  4. Differential pharmacological effects on brain reactivity and plasticity in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Katharine eBrem

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI are the most commonly prescribed monotherapeutic medications for Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, their underlying neurophysiological effects remain largely unknown.We investigated the effects of monotherapy (AChEI and combination therapy (AChEI and memantine on brain reactivity and plasticity. Patients treated with monotherapy (AChEI (N=7 were compared to patients receiving combination therapy (COM (N=9 and a group of age-matched, healthy controls (HC (N=13. Cortical reactivity and plasticity of the motor cortex (MC were examined using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Cognitive functions were assessed with the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-Cog, activities of daily living with the ADCS-ADL. In addition we assessed the degree of brain atrophy by measuring brain-scalp distances in seven different brain areas.Patient groups differed in resting motor threshold and brain atrophy, with COM showing a lower motor threshold but less atrophy than AChEI. COM showed similar plasticity effects as the HC group, while plasticity was reduced in AChEI. Long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI was impaired in both patient groups when compared to HC. ADAS-Cog scores were positively correlated with LICI measures and with brain atrophy, specifically in the left IPL.AD patients treated with mono- or combination therapy show distinct neurophysiological patterns. Further studies should investigate whether these measures might serve as biomarkers of treatment response and whether they could guide other therapeutic interventions.

  5. Brain activation associated with deep brain stimulation causing dissociation in a patient with Tourette's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goethals, Ingeborg; Jacobs, Filip; Van der Linden, Chris; Caemaert, Jacques; Audenaert, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Dissociation involves a disruption in the integrated functions of consciousness, memory, identity, or perception of the environment. Attempts at localizing dissociative responses have yielded contradictory results regarding brain activation, laterality, and regional involvement. Here, we used a single-day split-dose activation paradigm with single photon emission computed tomography and 99m-Tc ethylcysteinatedimer as a brain perfusion tracer in a patient with Tourette's syndrome undergoing bilateral high-frequency thalamic stimulation for the treatment of tics who developed an alternate personality state during right thalamic stimulation. We documented increased regional cerebral blood flow in bilateral prefrontal and left temporal brain areas during the alternate identity state. We conclude that our findings support the temporal lobe as well as the frontolimbic disconnection hypotheses of dissociation.

  6. Hyperbaric Oxygen Environment Can Enhance Brain Activity and Multitasking Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dor Vadas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Brain uses 20% of the total oxygen supply consumed by the entire body. Even though, <10% of the brain is active at any given time, it utilizes almost all the oxygen delivered. In order to perform complex tasks or more than one task (multitasking, the oxygen supply is shifted from one brain region to another, via blood perfusion modulation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether a hyperbaric oxygen (HBO environment, with increased oxygen supply to the brain, will enhance the performance of complex and/or multiple activities.Methods: A prospective, double-blind randomized control, crossover trial including 22 healthy volunteers. Participants were asked to perform a cognitive task, a motor task and a simultaneous cognitive-motor task (multitasking. Participants were randomized to perform the tasks in two environments: (a normobaric air (1 ATA 21% oxygen (b HBO (2 ATA 100% oxygen. Two weeks later participants were crossed to the alternative environment. Blinding of the normobaric environment was achieved in the same chamber with masks on while hyperbaric sensation was simulated by increasing pressure in the first minute and gradually decreasing to normobaric environment prior to tasks performance.Results: Compared to the performance at normobaric conditions, both cognitive and motor single tasks scores were significantly enhanced by HBO environment (p < 0.001 for both. Multitasking performance was also significantly enhanced in HBO environment (p = 0.006 for the cognitive part and p = 0.02 for the motor part.Conclusions: The improvement in performance of both single and multi-tasking while in an HBO environment supports the hypothesis which according to, oxygen is indeed a rate limiting factor for brain activity. Hyperbaric oxygenation can serve as an environment for brain performance. Further studies are needed to evaluate the optimal oxygen levels for maximal brain performance.

  7. KIC 9451096: Magnetic Activity, Flares and Differential Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdarcan, O.; Yoldaş, E.; Dal, H. A.

    2018-04-01

    We present a spectroscopic and photometric analysis of KIC 9451096. The combined spectroscopic and photometric modelling shows that the system is a detached eclipsing binary in a circular orbit and composed of F5V + K2V components. Subtracting the best-fitting light curve model from the whole long cadence data reveals additional low (mmag) amplitude light variations in time and occasional flares, suggesting a low, but still remarkable level of magnetic spot activity on the K2V component. Analyzing the rotational modulation of the light curve residuals enables us to estimate the differential rotation coefficient of the K2V component as k = 0.069 ± 0.008, which is 3 times weaker compared with the solar value of k = 0.19, assuming a solar type differential rotation. We find the stellar flare activity frequency for the K2V component as 0.000368411 h-1 indicating a low magnetic activity level.

  8. Differential expression of mRNAs for protein kinase inhibitor isoforms in mouse brain.

    OpenAIRE

    Seasholtz, A F; Gamm, D M; Ballestero, R P; Scarpetta, M A; Uhler, M D

    1995-01-01

    Many neurotransmitters are known to regulate neuronal cell function by means of activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and phosphorylation of neuronal substrate proteins, including transcription factors and ion channels. Here, we have characterized the gene expression of two isoforms of a protein kinase inhibitor (PKI) specific for PKA in mouse brain by RNase protection and in situ hybridization histochemistry. The studies demonstrate that the PKI alpha isoform is abundant in many ...

  9. p62 modulates Akt activity via association with PKCζ in neuronal survival and differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joung, Insil; Kim, Hak Jae; Kwon, Yunhee Kim

    2005-01-01

    p62 is a ubiquitously expressed phosphoprotein that interacts with a number of signaling molecules and a major component of neurofibrillary tangles in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. It has been implicated in important cellular functions such as cell proliferation and anti-apoptotic pathways. In this study, we have addressed the potential role of p62 during neuronal differentiation and survival using HiB5, a rat neuronal progenitor cell. We generated a recombinant adenovirus encoding T7-epitope tagged p62 to reliably transfer p62 cDNA into the neuronal cells. The results show that an overexpression of p62 led not only to neuronal differentiation, but also to decreased cell death induced by serum withdrawal in HiB5 cells. In this process p62-dependent Akt phosphorylation occurred via the release of Akt from PKCζ by association of p62 and PKCζ, which is known as a negative regulator of Akt activation. These findings indicate that p62 facilitates cell survival through novel signaling cascades that result in Akt activation. Furthermore, we found that p62 expression was induced during neuronal differentiation. Taken together, the data suggest p62 is a regulator of neuronal cell survival and differentiation

  10. Managing Brain Extracellular K(+) during Neuronal Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Brian Roland; Stoica, Anca; MacAulay, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    characteristics required to fulfill their distinct physiological roles in clearance of K(+) from the extracellular space in the face of neuronal activity. Understanding the nature, impact and effects of the various Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase isoform combinations in K(+) management in the central nervous system might...... understanding of the pathological events occurring during disease....

  11. Brain activation during micturition in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Bertil F.M.; Sturms, Leontien M.; Holstege, Gert

    1998-01-01

    Experiments in the cat have led to a concept of how the CNS controls micturition. In a previous study this concept was tested in a PET study in male volunteers, It was demonstrated that specific brainstem and forebrain areas are activated during micturition, It was unfortunate that this study did

  12. Brain activation studies with PET and functional MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonekura, Yoshiharu [Fukui Medical Univ., Matsuoka (Japan). Biomedical Imaging Research Center; Sadato, Norihiro [Okazaki National Research Inst., Aichi (Japan). National Inst. for Physiological Sciences

    2002-01-01

    Application of PET and functional MRI in brain activation studies is reviewed. 3D-PET images obtained repeatedly after intravenous injection of about 370 MBq of H{sub 2}{sup 15}O can detect a faint blood flow change in the brain. Functional MRI can also detect the blood flow change in the brain due to blood oxygen level-dependent effect. Echo-planar imaging is popular in MRI with 1.5 or 3 T. Images are analyzed by statistical parametric mapping with correction of cerebral regions, anatomical normalization and statistics. PET data give the blood flow change by the H{sub 2}{sup 15}O incorporation into the brain and MRI data, by the scarce tissue oxygen consumption despite the change. Actual images during the cognition task-performance and of frequent artifacts are given. PET is suitable for studies of brain functions like sensibility and emotion and functional MRI, like cortex functions and clinical practices in identification of functional regions prior to surgery and evaluation of functional recovery of damaged brain. (K.H.)

  13. Brain activation studies with PET and functional MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Sadato, Norihiro

    2002-01-01

    Application of PET and functional MRI in brain activation studies is reviewed. 3D-PET images obtained repeatedly after intravenous injection of about 370 MBq of H 2 15 O can detect a faint blood flow change in the brain. Functional MRI can also detect the blood flow change in the brain due to blood oxygen level-dependent effect. Echo-planar imaging is popular in MRI with 1.5 or 3 T. Images are analyzed by statistical parametric mapping with correction of cerebral regions, anatomical normalization and statistics. PET data give the blood flow change by the H 2 15 O incorporation into the brain and MRI data, by the scarce tissue oxygen consumption despite the change. Actual images during the cognition task-performance and of frequent artifacts are given. PET is suitable for studies of brain functions like sensibility and emotion and functional MRI, like cortex functions and clinical practices in identification of functional regions prior to surgery and evaluation of functional recovery of damaged brain. (K.H.)

  14. Electric field encephalography for brain activity monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versek, Craig William; Frasca, Tyler; Zhou, Jianlin; Chowdhury, Kaushik; Sridhar, Srinivas

    2018-05-11

    Objective - We describe an early-stage prototype of a new wireless electrophysiological sensor system, called NeuroDot, which can measure neuroelectric potentials and fields at the scalp in a new modality called Electric Field Encephalography (EFEG). We aim to establish the physical validity of the EFEG modality, and examine some of its properties and relative merits compared to EEG. Approach - We designed a wireless neuroelectric measurement device based on the Texas Instrument ADS1299 Analog Front End platform and a sensor montage, using custom electrodes, to simultaneously measure EFEG and spatially averaged EEG over a localized patch of the scalp (2cm x 2cm). The signal properties of each modality were compared across tests of noise floor, Berger effect, steady-state Visually Evoked Potential (ssVEP), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and others. In order to compare EFEG to EEG modalities in the frequency domain, we use a novel technique to compute spectral power densities and derive narrow-band SNR estimates for ssVEP signals. A simple binary choice brain-computer-interface (BCI) concept based on ssVEP is evaluated. Also, we present examples of high quality recording of transient Visually Evoked Potentials and Fields (tVEPF) that could be used for neurological studies. Main results - We demonstrate the capability of the NeuroDot system to record high quality EEG signals comparable to some recent clinical and research grade systems on the market. We show that the locally-referenced EFEG metric is resistant to certain types of movement artifacts. In some ssVEP based measurements, the EFEG modality shows promising results, demonstrating superior signal to noise ratios than the same recording processed as an analogous EEG signal. We show that by using EFEG based ssVEP SNR estimates to perform a binary classification in a model BCI, the optimal information transfer rate (ITR) can be raised from 15 to 30 bits per minute - though these preliminary results are likely

  15. [Methods of statistical analysis in differential diagnostics of the degree of brain glioma anaplasia during preoperative stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavatskiĭ, A Ia; Guzhovskaia, N V; Lysenko, S N; Kulik, A V

    2005-12-01

    The authors proposed a possible preoperative diagnostics of the degree of supratentorial brain gliom anaplasia using statistical analysis methods. It relies on a complex examination of 934 patients with I-IV degree anaplasias, which had been treated in the Institute of Neurosurgery from 1990 to 2004. The use of statistical analysis methods for differential diagnostics of the degree of brain gliom anaplasia may optimize a diagnostic algorithm, increase reliability of obtained data and in some cases avoid carrying out irrational operative intrusions. Clinically important signs for the use of statistical analysis methods directed to preoperative diagnostics of brain gliom anaplasia have been defined

  16. Comparison of brain activation to purposefully activate a tool in healthy subjects and brain tumor patients using fMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Masahiko; Yoshii, Yoshihiko; Hyodo, Akio; Sugimoto, Koichi; Tsuchida, Yukihiro; Yonaha, Hirokatsu; Ito, Koichi

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the functional organization of the human brain involved in tool-manipulation. Blood Oxygen Level Dependent was measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging in seventeen right-handed healthy volunteers and two brain tumor patients during two tool-manipulation tasks: simulated tightening a bolt with a screwdriver (Simulation), and tightening a bolt with a screwdriver (Real). Subjects performed the experiment without watching the tasks. Bilateral pre-supplementary motor areas, bilateral cerebellar posterior lobes, right ventral premotor area, right calcarine sulcus, and cerebellar vermis were activated during Real but not during Simulation tasks in healthy volunteers. In addition, brain tumor patients activated the prefrontal areas. Our results suggest that the human brain mechanisms for tool-manipulation have a neural-network comprised of presupplementary motor area, ventral premotor area, and bilateral cerebellar posterior lobes. In the patients with brain dusfurction diee to tumors, activation at the prefrontal area provided function compensation without motor paralysis. (author)

  17. Towards a fourth spatial dimension of brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Arturo; Peters, James F

    2016-06-01

    Current advances in neurosciences deal with the functional architecture of the central nervous system, paving the way for general theories that improve our understanding of brain activity. From topology, a strong concept comes into play in understanding brain functions, namely, the 4D space of a "hypersphere's torus", undetectable by observers living in a 3D world. The torus may be compared with a video game with biplanes in aerial combat: when a biplane flies off one edge of gaming display, it does not crash but rather it comes back from the opposite edge of the screen. Our thoughts exhibit similar behaviour, i.e. the unique ability to connect past, present and future events in a single, coherent picture as if we were allowed to watch the three screens of past-present-future "glued" together in a mental kaleidoscope. Here we hypothesize that brain functions are embedded in a imperceptible fourth spatial dimension and propose a method to empirically assess its presence. Neuroimaging fMRI series can be evaluated, looking for the topological hallmark of the presence of a fourth dimension. Indeed, there is a typical feature which reveal the existence of a functional hypersphere: the simultaneous activation of areas opposite each other on the 3D cortical surface. Our suggestion-substantiated by recent findings-that brain activity takes place on a closed, donut-like trajectory helps to solve long-standing mysteries concerning our psychological activities, such as mind-wandering, memory retrieval, consciousness and dreaming state.

  18. Oxidative stress and superoxide dismutase activity in brain of rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was envisaged to investigate the possible role of oxidative stress in permethrin neurotoxicity and to evaluate the protective effect of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in brain homogenates of Wistar rats. Oxidative stress measured as thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) was found to ...

  19. The Brain-to-Pancreatic Islet Neuronal Map Reveals Differential Glucose Regulation From Distinct Hypothalamic Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Wilfredo; Singh, Inderroop; Wautlet, Arnaud; Patterson, Christa; Flak, Jonathan; Becker, Thomas C; Ali, Almas; Tamarina, Natalia; Philipson, Louis H; Enquist, Lynn W; Myers, Martin G; Rhodes, Christopher J

    2016-09-01

    The brain influences glucose homeostasis, partly by supplemental control over insulin and glucagon secretion. Without this central regulation, diabetes and its complications can ensue. Yet, the neuronal network linking to pancreatic islets has never been fully mapped. Here, we refine this map using pseudorabies virus (PRV) retrograde tracing, indicating that the pancreatic islets are innervated by efferent circuits that emanate from the hypothalamus. We found that the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), ventromedial nucleus (VMN), and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) significantly overlap PRV and the physiological glucose-sensing enzyme glucokinase. Then, experimentally lowering glucose sensing, specifically in the ARC, resulted in glucose intolerance due to deficient insulin secretion and no significant effect in the VMN, but in the LHA it resulted in a lowering of the glucose threshold that improved glucose tolerance and/or improved insulin sensitivity, with an exaggerated counter-regulatory response for glucagon secretion. No significant effect on insulin sensitivity or metabolic homeostasis was noted. Thus, these data reveal novel direct neuronal effects on pancreatic islets and also render a functional validation of the brain-to-islet neuronal map. They also demonstrate that distinct regions of the hypothalamus differentially control insulin and glucagon secretion, potentially in partnership to help maintain glucose homeostasis and guard against hypoglycemia. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  20. Brain MR Contribution to the Differential Diagnosis of Parkinsonian Syndromes: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Rizzo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain magnetic resonance (MR represents a useful and feasible tool for the differential diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease. Conventional MR may reveal secondary forms of parkinsonism and may show peculiar brain alterations of atypical parkinsonian syndromes. Furthermore, advanced MR techniques, such as morphometric-volumetric analyses, diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, tractography, proton MR spectroscopy, and iron-content sensitive imaging, have been used to obtain quantitative parameters useful to increase the diagnostic accuracy. Currently, many MR studies have provided both qualitative and quantitative findings, reflecting the underlying neuropathological pattern of the different degenerative parkinsonian syndromes. Although the variability in the methods and results across the studies limits the conclusion about which technique is the best, specific radiologic phenotypes may be identified. Qualitative/quantitative MR changes in the substantia nigra do not discriminate between different parkinsonisms. In the absence of extranigral abnormalities, the diagnosis of PD is more probable, whereas basal ganglia changes (mainly in the putamen suggest the diagnosis of an atypical parkinsonian syndrome. In this context, changes in pons, middle cerebellar peduncles, and cerebellum suggest the diagnosis of MSA, in midbrain and superior cerebellar peduncles the diagnosis of PSP, and in whole cerebral hemispheres (mainly in frontoparietal cortex with asymmetric distribution the diagnosis of Corticobasal Syndrome.

  1. Participation in leisure activities during brain injury rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Jennifer; Braithwaite, Helen; Gustafsson, Louise; Griffin, Janelle; Collier, Ann Maree; Fletcher, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    To describe and compare pre- and post-injury leisure activities of individuals receiving brain injury rehabilitation and explore levels of leisure participation and satisfaction. Cross-sectional descriptive study incorporating a survey of current and past leisure activities. Questionnaires were completed by 40 individuals with an acquired brain injury receiving inpatient or outpatient rehabilitation. Shortened Version of the Nottingham Leisure Questionnaire and Changes in Leisure Questionnaire (developed for this study). Leisure participation declined following injury, particularly in social leisure activities. Pre-injury activities with high rates of discontinued or decreased participation were driving, going to pubs and parties, do-it-yourself activities and attending sports events. Inpatient participants generally attributed decreased participation to the hospital environment, whereas outpatient participants reported this predominantly as a result of disability. Post-injury levels of perceived leisure satisfaction were significantly lower for the inpatient group compared to pre-injury, but not for the outpatient group. Uptake of some new leisure activities was reported post-injury, however not at the rate to which participation declined. Leisure participation decreases during brain injury rehabilitation compared to pre-injury levels. Re-engagement in relevant, age-appropriate leisure activities needs to be addressed during rehabilitation to improve participation in this domain.

  2. Air pollutant sulfur dioxide-induced alterations on the levels of lipids, lipid peroxidation and lipase activity in various regions of the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haider, S S; Hasan, M; Khan, N H

    1982-07-01

    The exposure of rats to SO/sub 2/ (10 p.p.m.) for one hour daily for 30 days caused depletion of total lipids in all brain areas. The contents of phospholipid were elevated in cerebellum and brain stem, but were depleted in cerebral hemisphere. Cholesterol levels showed an increase in various brain regions. On the other hand, gangliosides were increased in cerebellum and brain stem, but were decreased in cerebral hemisphere. Interestingly, cholesterol/phospholipid ratio was increased in different regions of the brain. Lipase activity was elevated in cerebral hemisphere. Lipid peroxidation showed marked increment in whole brain and in all the brain areas studied. The results suggest that SO/sub 2/-exposure induces degradation of lipids. Interestingly, the lipid contents are affected differentially in the various parts of the brain.

  3. Brain activation during anticipation of sound sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaver, Amber M; Van Lare, Jennifer; Zielinski, Brandon; Halpern, Andrea R; Rauschecker, Josef P

    2009-02-25

    Music consists of sound sequences that require integration over time. As we become familiar with music, associations between notes, melodies, and entire symphonic movements become stronger and more complex. These associations can become so tight that, for example, hearing the end of one album track can elicit a robust image of the upcoming track while anticipating it in total silence. Here, we study this predictive "anticipatory imagery" at various stages throughout learning and investigate activity changes in corresponding neural structures using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Anticipatory imagery (in silence) for highly familiar naturalistic music was accompanied by pronounced activity in rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and premotor areas. Examining changes in the neural bases of anticipatory imagery during two stages of learning conditional associations between simple melodies, however, demonstrates the importance of fronto-striatal connections, consistent with a role of the basal ganglia in "training" frontal cortex (Pasupathy and Miller, 2005). Another striking change in neural resources during learning was a shift between caudal PFC earlier to rostral PFC later in learning. Our findings regarding musical anticipation and sound sequence learning are highly compatible with studies of motor sequence learning, suggesting common predictive mechanisms in both domains.

  4. Laterality of Brain Activation for Risk Factors of Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Harold W

    2016-01-01

    Laterality of brain activation is reported for tests of risk factors of addiction- impulsivity and craving-but authors rarely address the potential significance of those asymmetries. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate this laterality and discuss its relevance to cognitive and neurophysiological asymmetries associated with drug abuse vulnerability in order to provide new insights for future research in drug abuse. From published reports, brain areas of activation for two tests of response inhibition or craving for drugs of abuse were compiled from fMRI activation peaks and were tabulated for eight sections (octants) in each hemisphere. Percent asymmetries were calculated (R-L/R+L) across studies for each area. For impulsivity, most activation peaks favored the right hemisphere. Overall, the percent difference was 32% (Χ2 = 16.026; p laterality into consideration is a missed opportunity in designing studies and gaining insight into the etiology of drug abuse and pathways for treatment.

  5. Use of brain electrical activity for the identification of hematomas in mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Daniel F; Chabot, Robert; Mould, W Andrew; Morgan, Timothy; Naunheim, Rosanne; Sheth, Kevin N; Chiang, William; Prichep, Leslie S

    2013-12-15

    This study investigates the potential clinical utility in the emergency department (ED) of an index of brain electrical activity to identify intracranial hematomas. The relationship between this index and depth, size, and type of hematoma was explored. Ten minutes of brain electrical activity was recorded from a limited montage in 38 adult patients with traumatic hematomas (CT scan positive) and 38 mild head injured controls (CT scan negative) in the ED. The volume of blood and distance from recording electrodes were measured by blinded independent experts. Brain electrical activity data were submitted to a classification algorithm independently developed traumatic brain injury (TBI) index to identify the probability of a CT+traumatic event. There was no significant relationship between the TBI-Index and type of hematoma, or distance of the bleed from recording sites. A significant correlation was found between TBI-Index and blood volume. The sensitivity to hematomas was 100%, positive predictive value was 74.5%, and positive likelihood ratio was 2.92. The TBI-Index, derived from brain electrical activity, demonstrates high accuracy for identification of traumatic hematomas. Further, this was not influenced by distance of the bleed from the recording electrodes, blood volume, or type of hematoma. Distance and volume limitations noted with other methods, (such as that based on near-infrared spectroscopy) were not found, thus suggesting the TBI-Index to be a potentially important adjunct to acute assessment of head injury. Because of the life-threatening risk of undetected hematomas (false negatives), specificity was permitted to be lower, 66%, in exchange for extremely high sensitivity.

  6. Microglial Inflammasome Activation in Penetrating Ballistic-Like Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephanie W; Gajavelli, Shyam; Spurlock, Markus S; Andreoni, Cody; de Rivero Vaccari, Juan Pablo; Bullock, M Ross; Keane, Robert W; Dietrich, W Dalton

    2018-04-02

    Penetrating traumatic brain injury (PTBI) is a significant cause of death and disability in the United States. Inflammasomes are one of the key regulators of the interleukin (IL)-1β mediated inflammatory responses after traumatic brain injury. However, the contribution of inflammasome signaling after PTBI has not been determined. In this study, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to sham procedures or penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) and sacrificed at various time-points. Tissues were assessed by immunoblot analysis for expression of IL-1β, IL-18, and components of the inflammasome: apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-activation and recruitment domain (ASC), caspase-1, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), and gasdermin-D (GSDMD). Specific cell types expressing inflammasome proteins also were evaluated immunohistochemically and assessed quantitatively. After PBBI, expression of IL-1β, IL-18, caspase-1, ASC, XIAP, and NLRP3 peaked around 48 h. Brain protein lysates from PTBI animals showed pyroptosome formation evidenced by ASC laddering, and also contained increased expression of GSDMD at 48 h after injury. ASC-positive immunoreactive neurons within the perilesional cortex were observed at 24 h. At 48 h, ASC expression was concentrated in morphologically activated cortical microglia. This expression of ASC in activated microglia persisted until 12 weeks following PBBI. This is the first report of inflammasome activation after PBBI. Our results demonstrate cell-specific patterns of inflammasome activation and pyroptosis predominantly in microglia, suggesting a sustained pro-inflammatory state following PBBI, thus offering a therapeutic target for this type of brain injury.

  7. Glucose metabolism regulates T cell activation, differentiation and functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Steve Palmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive immune system is equipped to eliminate both tumors and pathogenic microorganisms. It requires a series of complex and coordinated signals to drive the activation, proliferation and differentiation of appropriate T cell subsets. It is now established that changes in cellular activation are coupled to profound changes in cellular metabolism. In addition, emerging evidence now suggest that specific metabolic alterations associated with distinct T cell subsets may be ancillary to their differentiation and influential in their immune functions. The Warburg effect originally used to describe a phenomenon in which most cancer cells relied on aerobic glycolysis for their growth is a key process that sustain T cell activation and differentiation. Here we review how different aspects of metabolism in T cells influence their functions, focusing on the emerging role of key regulators of glucose metabolism such as HIF-1α. A thorough understanding of the role of metabolism in T cell function could provide insights into mechanisms involved in inflammatory-mediated conditions, with the potential for developing novel therapeutic approaches to treat these diseases.

  8. Differential Responses of Human Fetal Brain Neural Stem Cells to Zika Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica L. McGrath

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV infection causes microcephaly in a subset of infants born to infected pregnant mothers. It is unknown whether human individual differences contribute to differential susceptibility of ZIKV-related neuropathology. Here, we use an Asian-lineage ZIKV strain, isolated from the 2015 Mexican outbreak (Mex1-7, to infect primary human neural stem cells (hNSCs originally derived from three individual fetal brains. All three strains of hNSCs exhibited similar rates of Mex1-7 infection and reduced proliferation. However, Mex1-7 decreased neuronal differentiation in only two of the three stem cell strains. Correspondingly, ZIKA-mediated transcriptome alterations were similar in these two strains but significantly different from that of the third strain with no ZIKV-induced neuronal reduction. This study thus confirms that an Asian-lineage ZIKV strain infects primary hNSCs and demonstrates a cell-strain-dependent response of hNSCs to ZIKV infection.

  9. Differential Responses of Human Fetal Brain Neural Stem Cells to Zika Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Erica L; Rossi, Shannan L; Gao, Junling; Widen, Steven G; Grant, Auston C; Dunn, Tiffany J; Azar, Sasha R; Roundy, Christopher M; Xiong, Ying; Prusak, Deborah J; Loucas, Bradford D; Wood, Thomas G; Yu, Yongjia; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Weaver, Scott C; Vasilakis, Nikos; Wu, Ping

    2017-03-14

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection causes microcephaly in a subset of infants born to infected pregnant mothers. It is unknown whether human individual differences contribute to differential susceptibility of ZIKV-related neuropathology. Here, we use an Asian-lineage ZIKV strain, isolated from the 2015 Mexican outbreak (Mex1-7), to infect primary human neural stem cells (hNSCs) originally derived from three individual fetal brains. All three strains of hNSCs exhibited similar rates of Mex1-7 infection and reduced proliferation. However, Mex1-7 decreased neuronal differentiation in only two of the three stem cell strains. Correspondingly, ZIKA-mediated transcriptome alterations were similar in these two strains but significantly different from that of the third strain with no ZIKV-induced neuronal reduction. This study thus confirms that an Asian-lineage ZIKV strain infects primary hNSCs and demonstrates a cell-strain-dependent response of hNSCs to ZIKV infection. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Differential Effects of Tacrolimus versus Sirolimus on the Proliferation, Activation and Differentiation of Human B Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opas Traitanon

    Full Text Available The direct effect of immunosuppressive drugs calcineurin inhibitor (Tacrolimus, TAC and mTOR inhibitor (Sirolimus, SRL on B cell activation, differentiation and proliferation is not well documented. Purified human B cells from healthy volunteers were stimulated through the B Cell Receptor with Anti-IgM + anti-CD40 + IL21 in the absence / presence of TAC or SRL. A variety of parameters of B cell activity including activation, differentiation, cytokine productions and proliferation were monitored by flow cytometry. SRL at clinically relevant concentrations (6 ng/ml profoundly inhibited CD19(+ B cell proliferation compared to controls whereas TAC at similar concentrations had a minimal effect. CD27(+ memory B cells were affected more by SRL than naïve CD27- B cells. SRL effectively blocked B cell differentiation into plasma cells (CD19(+CD138(+ and Blimp1(+/Pax5(low cells even at low dose (2 ng/ml, and totally eliminated them at 6 ng/ml. SRL decreased absolute B cell counts, but the residual responding cells acquired an activated phenotype (CD25(+/CD69(+ and increased the expression of HLA-DR. SRL-treated stimulated B cells on a per cell basis were able to enhance the proliferation of allogeneic CD4(+CD25(- T cells and induce a shift toward the Th1 phenotype. Thus, SRL and TAC have different effects on B lymphocytes. These data may provide insights into the clinical use of these two agents in recipients of solid organ transplants.

  11. When thoughts become action: an fMRI paradigm to study volitional brain activity in non-communicative brain injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boly, M; Coleman, M R; Davis, M H; Hampshire, A; Bor, D; Moonen, G; Maquet, P A; Pickard, J D; Laureys, S; Owen, A M

    2007-07-01

    The assessment of voluntary behavior in non-communicative brain injured patients is often challenging due to the existence of profound motor impairment. In the absence of a full understanding of the neural correlates of consciousness, even a normal activation in response to passive sensory stimulation cannot be considered as proof of the presence of awareness in these patients. In contrast, predicted activation in response to the instruction to perform a mental imagery task would provide evidence of voluntary task-dependent brain activity, and hence of consciousness, in non-communicative patients. However, no data yet exist to indicate which imagery instructions would yield reliable single subject activation. The aim of the present study was to establish such a paradigm in healthy volunteers. Two exploratory experiments evaluated the reproducibility of individual brain activation elicited by four distinct mental imagery tasks. The two most robust mental imagery tasks were found to be spatial navigation and motor imagery. In a third experiment, where these two tasks were directly compared, differentiation of each task from one another and from rest periods was assessed blindly using a priori criteria and was correct for every volunteer. The spatial navigation and motor imagery tasks described here permit the identification of volitional brain activation at the single subject level, without a motor response. Volunteer as well as patient data [Owen, A.M., Coleman, M.R., Boly, M., Davis, M.H., Laureys, S., Pickard J.D., 2006. Detecting awareness in the vegetative state. Science 313, 1402] strongly suggest that this paradigm may provide a method for assessing the presence of volitional brain activity, and thus of consciousness, in non-communicative brain-injured patients.

  12. Food-Related Odors Activate Dopaminergic Brain Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Sorokowska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Food-associated cues of different sensory categories have often been shown to be a potent elicitor of cerebral activity in brain reward circuits. Smells influence and modify the hedonic qualities of eating experience, and in contrast to smells not associated with food, perception of food-associated odors may activate dopaminergic brain areas. In this study, we aimed to verify previous findings related to the rewarding value of food-associated odors by means of an fMRI design involving carefully preselected odors of edible and non-edible substances. We compared activations generated by three food and three non-food odorants matching in terms of intensity, pleasantness and trigeminal qualities. We observed that for our mixed sample of 30 hungry and satiated participants, food odors generated significantly higher activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (right and left, insula (right, and putamen (right than non-food odors. Among hungry subjects, regardless of the odor type, we found significant activation in the ventral tegmental area in response to olfactory stimulation. As our stimuli were matched in terms of various perceptual qualities, this result suggests that edibility of an odor source indeed generates specific activation in dopaminergic brain areas.

  13. Brain activities associated with gaming urge of online gaming addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Gin-Chung; Hsiao, Sigmund; Yen, Ju-Yu; Yang, Ming-Jen; Lin, Wei-Chen; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the neural substrates of online gaming addiction through evaluation of the brain areas associated with the cue-induced gaming urge. Ten participants with online gaming addiction and 10 control subjects without online gaming addiction were tested. They were presented with gaming pictures and the paired mosaic pictures while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning. The contrast in blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signals when viewing gaming pictures and when viewing mosaic pictures was calculated with the SPM2 software to evaluate the brain activations. Right orbitofrontal cortex, right nucleus accumbens, bilateral anterior cingulate and medial frontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and right caudate nucleus were activated in the addicted group in contrast to the control group. The activation of the region-of-interest (ROI) defined by the above brain areas was positively correlated with self-reported gaming urge and recalling of gaming experience provoked by the WOW pictures. The results demonstrate that the neural substrate of cue-induced gaming urge/craving in online gaming addiction is similar to that of the cue-induced craving in substance dependence. The above-mentioned brain regions have been reported to contribute to the craving in substance dependence, and here we show that the same areas were involved in online gaming urge/craving. Thus, the results suggest that the gaming urge/craving in online gaming addiction and craving in substance dependence might share the same neurobiological mechanism.

  14. Trying to trust: Brain activity during interpersonal social attitude change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filkowski, Megan M; Anderson, Ian W; Haas, Brian W

    2016-04-01

    Interpersonal trust and distrust are important components of human social interaction. Although several studies have shown that brain function is associated with either trusting or distrusting others, very little is known regarding brain function during the control of social attitudes, including trust and distrust. This study was designed to investigate the neural mechanisms involved when people attempt to control their attitudes of trust or distrust toward another person. We used a novel control-of-attitudes fMRI task, which involved explicit instructions to control attitudes of interpersonal trust and distrust. Control of trust or distrust was operationally defined as changes in trustworthiness evaluations of neutral faces before and after the control-of-attitudes fMRI task. Overall, participants (n = 60) evaluated faces paired with the distrust instruction as being less trustworthy than faces paired with the trust instruction following the control-of-distrust task. Within the brain, both the control-of-trust and control-of-distrust conditions were associated with increased temporoparietal junction, precuneus (PrC), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and medial prefrontal cortex activity. Individual differences in the control of trust were associated with PrC activity, and individual differences in the control of distrust were associated with IFG activity. Together, these findings identify a brain network involved in the explicit control of distrust and trust and indicate that the PrC and IFG may serve to consolidate interpersonal social attitudes.

  15. Time course of brain activation elicited by basic emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot, Pascal; Sequeira, Henrique

    2013-11-13

    Whereas facial emotion recognition protocols have shown that each discrete emotion has a specific time course of brain activation, there is no electrophysiological evidence to support these findings for emotional induction by complex pictures. Our objective was to specify the differences between the time courses of brain activation elicited by feelings of happiness and, with unpleasant pictures, by feelings of disgust and sadness. We compared event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by the watching of high-arousing pictures from the International Affective Picture System, selected to induce specific emotions. In addition to a classical arousal effect on late positive components, we found specific ERP patterns for each emotion in early temporal windows (emotion to be associated with different brain processing after 140 ms, whereas happiness and sadness differed in ERPs elicited at the frontal and central sites after 160 ms. Our findings highlight the limits of the classical averaging of ERPs elicited by different emotions inside the same valence and suggest that each emotion could elicit a specific temporal pattern of brain activation, similar to those observed with emotional face recognition.

  16. Improved differentiation between MS and vascular brain lesions using FLAIR* at 7 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilsdonk, Iris D.; Wattjes, Mike P.; Lopez-Soriano, Alexandra; Jong, Marcus C. de; Graaf, Wolter L. de; Conijn, Mandy M.A.; Barkhof, Frederik [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, De Boelelaan 1118, HZ, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kuijer, Joost P.A. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Physics and Medical Technology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Polman, Chris H. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Luijten, Peter R. [University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Geurts, Jeroen J.G. [VU University, Department of Anatomy and Neurosciences, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Geerlings, Mirjam I. [University Medical Center, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-04-15

    To investigate whether a new magnetic resonance image (MRI) technique called T2*-weighted fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR*) can differentiate between multiple sclerosis (MS) and vascular brain lesions, at 7 Tesla (T). We examined 16 MS patients and 16 age-matched patients with (risk factors for) vascular disease. 3D-FLAIR and T2*-weighted images were combined into FLAIR* images. Lesion type and intensity, perivascular orientation and presence of a hypointense rim were analysed. In total, 433 cerebral lesions were detected in MS patients versus 86 lesions in vascular patients. Lesions in MS patients were significantly more often orientated in a perivascular manner: 74 % vs. 47 % (P < 0.001). Ten MS lesions (2.3 %) were surrounded by a hypointense rim on FLAIR*, and 24 MS lesions (5.5 %) were hypointense on T2*. No lesions in vascular patients showed any rim or hypointensity. Specificity of differentiating MS from vascular lesions on 7-T FLAIR* increased when the presence of a central vessel was taken into account (from 63 % to 88 %), most obviously for deep white matter lesions (from 69 % to 94 %). High sensitivity remained (81 %). 7-T FLAIR* improves differentiation between MS and vascular lesions based on lesion location, perivascular orientation and presence of hypointense (rims around) lesions. circle A new MRI technique T2*-weighted fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR*) was investigated. circle FLAIR* at 7-T MRI combines FLAIR and T2* images into a single image. circle FLAIR* at 7 T does not require enhancement with contrast agents. (orig.)

  17. Can earth's magnetic micropulsations induce brain activities modifications?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, Altair Souza de

    2008-01-01

    Full text: We present in this paper preliminary study on which level earth's magnetic micro pulsations might interact with human brain activities. Magnetic micro pulsations are magnetospheric plasma wave Eigenmodes that are generated at the earth's magnetosphere and, via magnetospheric-ionospheric coupling induce ionospheric currents, and this ionospheric current pattern creates surface geomagnetic perturbations, which induce earth's surface electrical currents, and they are easily detected by earth's based magnetometers. These Eigenmodes are basically of Alfven type, and can be generated, for instance, by magnetic storms, situation where they are more intense and, in principle, might be felt by a more sensible human brain. Here, we also show how the modes are generated and present theirs basic physical properties. Finally, we compare the magnetic field level at the brain with the micro pulsation magnetic intensity. (author)

  18. Hyperbaric Oxygen Environment Can Enhance Brain Activity and Multitasking Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadas, Dor; Kalichman, Leonid; Hadanny, Amir; Efrati, Shai

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Brain uses 20% of the total oxygen supply consumed by the entire body. Even though, multitasking), the oxygen supply is shifted from one brain region to another, via blood perfusion modulation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether a hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) environment, with increased oxygen supply to the brain, will enhance the performance of complex and/or multiple activities. Methods: A prospective, double-blind randomized control, crossover trial including 22 healthy volunteers. Participants were asked to perform a cognitive task, a motor task and a simultaneous cognitive-motor task (multitasking). Participants were randomized to perform the tasks in two environments: (a) normobaric air (1 ATA 21% oxygen) (b) HBO (2 ATA 100% oxygen). Two weeks later participants were crossed to the alternative environment. Blinding of the normobaric environment was achieved in the same chamber with masks on while hyperbaric sensation was simulated by increasing pressure in the first minute and gradually decreasing to normobaric environment prior to tasks performance. Results: Compared to the performance at normobaric conditions, both cognitive and motor single tasks scores were significantly enhanced by HBO environment ( p Multitasking performance was also significantly enhanced in HBO environment ( p = 0.006 for the cognitive part and p = 0.02 for the motor part). Conclusions: The improvement in performance of both single and multi-tasking while in an HBO environment supports the hypothesis which according to, oxygen is indeed a rate limiting factor for brain activity. Hyperbaric oxygenation can serve as an environment for brain performance. Further studies are needed to evaluate the optimal oxygen levels for maximal brain performance.

  19. Hippocalcin Is Required for Astrocytic Differentiation through Activation of Stat3 in Hippocampal Neural Precursor Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Jeong Kang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hippocalcin (Hpca is a neuronal calcium sensor protein expressed in the mammalian brain. However, its function in neural stem/precursor cells has not yet been studied. Here, we clarify the function of Hpca in astrocytic differentiation in hippocampal neural precursor cells (HNPCs. When we overexpressed Hpca in HNPCs in the presence or absence of bFGF, expression levels of nerve-growth factors such as neurotrophin-3 (NT-3, neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, together with the proneural basic helix loop helix (bHLH transcription factors neuroD and neurogenin 1 (ngn1, increased significantly. In addition, there was an increase in the number of cells expressing glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, an astrocyte marker, and in dendrite outgrowth, indicating astrocytic differentiation of the HNPCs. Downregulation of Hpca by transfection with Hpca siRNA reduced expression of NT-3, NT-4/5, BDNF, neuroD and ngn1 as well as levels of GFAP protein. Furthermore, overexpression of Hpca increased the phosphorylation of STAT3 (Ser727, and this effect was abolished by treatment with a STAT3 inhibitor (S3I-201, suggesting that STAT3 (Ser727 activation is involved in Hpca-mediated astrocytic differentiation. As expected, treatment with Stat3 siRNA or STAT3 inhibitor caused a complete inhibition of astrogliogenesis induced by Hpca overexpression. Taken together, this is the first report to show that Hpca, acting through Stat3, has an important role in the expression of neurotrophins and proneural bHLH transcription factors, and that it is an essential regulator of astrocytic differentiation and dendrite outgrowth in HNPCs.

  20. Highly Crumpled All-Carbon Transistors for Brain Activity Recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Long; Zhao, Yan; Xu, Wenjing; Shi, Enzheng; Wei, Wenjing; Li, Xinming; Cao, Anyuan; Cao, Yanping; Fang, Ying

    2017-01-11

    Neural probes based on graphene field-effect transistors have been demonstrated. Yet, the minimum detectable signal of graphene transistor-based probes is inversely proportional to the square root of the active graphene area. This fundamentally limits the scaling of graphene transistor-based neural probes for improved spatial resolution in brain activity recording. Here, we address this challenge using highly crumpled all-carbon transistors formed by compressing down to 16% of its initial area. All-carbon transistors, chemically synthesized by seamless integration of graphene channels and hybrid graphene/carbon nanotube electrodes, maintained structural integrity and stable electronic properties under large mechanical deformation, whereas stress-induced cracking and junction failure occurred in conventional graphene/metal transistors. Flexible, highly crumpled all-carbon transistors were further verified for in vivo recording of brain activity in rats. These results highlight the importance of advanced material and device design concepts to make improvements in neuroelectronics.

  1. Mapping brain activity with flexible graphene micro-transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschke, Benno M.; Tort-Colet, Núria; Guimerà-Brunet, Anton; Weinert, Julia; Rousseau, Lionel; Heimann, Axel; Drieschner, Simon; Kempski, Oliver; Villa, Rosa; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V.; Garrido, Jose A.

    2017-06-01

    Establishing a reliable communication interface between the brain and electronic devices is of paramount importance for exploiting the full potential of neural prostheses. Current microelectrode technologies for recording electrical activity, however, evidence important shortcomings, e.g. challenging high density integration. Solution-gated field-effect transistors (SGFETs), on the other hand, could overcome these shortcomings if a suitable transistor material were available. Graphene is particularly attractive due to its biocompatibility, chemical stability, flexibility, low intrinsic electronic noise and high charge carrier mobilities. Here, we report on the use of an array of flexible graphene SGFETs for recording spontaneous slow waves, as well as visually evoked and also pre-epileptic activity in vivo in rats. The flexible array of graphene SGFETs allows mapping brain electrical activity with excellent signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), suggesting that this technology could lay the foundation for a future generation of in vivo recording implants.

  2. Brain REST/NRSF Is Not Only a Silent Repressor but Also an Active Protector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yangang; Zhu, Min; Yu, Yanlan; Qiu, Linli; Zhang, Yuanyuan; He, Li; Zhang, Jiqiang

    2017-01-01

    During neurogenesis, specific transcription factors are needed to repress neuronal genes in nonneuronal cells to ensure precise development. Repressor element-1 binding transcription factor (REST), or neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF), has been shown to be an important regulator for the establishment of neuronal specificity. It restricts the expression of neuronal genes by binding to the neuron-restrictive silencer element (NRSE/RE1) domain in neuron-specific genes. REST/NRSF regulates many target genes in stem cells, nonneural cells, and neurons, which are involved in neuronal differentiation, axonal growth, vesicular transport, and release as well as ionic conductance. However, it is also regulated by some cytokines/regulators such as epigenetic factors (microRNAs) and even its truncated isoform. REST/NRSF is widely detected in brain regions and has been shown to be highly expressed in nonneuronal cells, but current findings also reveal that, at least in the human brain, it is also highly expressed in neurons and increases with ageing. However, its loss in expression and cytoplasmic translocation seems to play a pivotal role in several human dementias. Additionally, REST/NRSF knockdown leads to malformations in nerve and nonneural tissues and embryonic lethality. Altered REST/NRSF expression has been not only related to deficient brain functions such as neurodegenerative diseases, mental disorders, brain tumors, and neurobehavioral disorders but also highly correlated to brain injuries such as alcoholism and stroke. Encouragingly, several compounds such as valproic acid and X5050 that target REST/NRSF have been shown to be clinically effective at rescuing seizures or Niemann-Pick type C disease. Surprisingly, studies have also shown that REST/NRSF can function as an activator to induce neuronal differentiation. These findings strongly indicate that REST/NRSF is not only a classical repressor to maintain normal neurogenesis, but it is also a fine

  3. High-contrast differentiation resolution 3D imaging of rodent brain by X-ray computed microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikmund, T.; Novotná, M.; Kavková, M.; Tesařová, M.; Kaucká, M.; Szarowská, B.; Adameyko, I.; Hrubá, E.; Buchtová, M.; Dražanová, E.; Starčuk, Z.; Kaiser, J.

    2018-02-01

    The biomedically focused brain research is largely performed on laboratory mice considering a high homology between the human and mouse genomes. A brain has an intricate and highly complex geometrical structure that is hard to display and analyse using only 2D methods. Applying some fast and efficient methods of brain visualization in 3D will be crucial for the neurobiology in the future. A post-mortem analysis of experimental animals' brains usually involves techniques such as magnetic resonance and computed tomography. These techniques are employed to visualize abnormalities in the brains' morphology or reparation processes. The X-ray computed microtomography (micro CT) plays an important role in the 3D imaging of internal structures of a large variety of soft and hard tissues. This non-destructive technique is applied in biological studies because the lab-based CT devices enable to obtain a several-micrometer resolution. However, this technique is always used along with some visualization methods, which are based on the tissue staining and thus differentiate soft tissues in biological samples. Here, a modified chemical contrasting protocol of tissues for a micro CT usage is introduced as the best tool for ex vivo 3D imaging of a post-mortem mouse brain. This way, the micro CT provides a high spatial resolution of the brain microscopic anatomy together with a high tissue differentiation contrast enabling to identify more anatomical details in the brain. As the micro CT allows a consequent reconstruction of the brain structures into a coherent 3D model, some small morphological changes can be given into context of their mutual spatial relationships.

  4. Brain Injury-Induced Synaptic Reorganization in Hilar Inhibitory Neurons Is Differentially Suppressed by Rapamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Corwin R; Boychuk, Jeffery A; Smith, Bret N

    2017-01-01

    Following traumatic brain injury (TBI), treatment with rapamycin suppresses mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity and specific components of hippocampal synaptic reorganization associated with altered cortical excitability and seizure susceptibility. Reemergence of seizures after cessation of rapamycin treatment suggests, however, an incomplete suppression of epileptogenesis. Hilar inhibitory interneurons regulate dentate granule cell (DGC) activity, and de novo synaptic input from both DGCs and CA3 pyramidal cells after TBI increases their excitability but effects of rapamycin treatment on the injury-induced plasticity of interneurons is only partially described. Using transgenic mice in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) is expressed in the somatostatinergic subset of hilar inhibitory interneurons, we tested the effect of daily systemic rapamycin treatment (3 mg/kg) on the excitability of hilar inhibitory interneurons after controlled cortical impact (CCI)-induced focal brain injury. Rapamycin treatment reduced, but did not normalize, the injury-induced increase in excitability of surviving eGFP+ hilar interneurons. The injury-induced increase in response to selective glutamate photostimulation of DGCs was reduced to normal levels after mTOR inhibition, but the postinjury increase in synaptic excitation arising from CA3 pyramidal cell activity was unaffected by rapamycin treatment. The incomplete suppression of synaptic reorganization in inhibitory circuits after brain injury could contribute to hippocampal hyperexcitability and the eventual reemergence of the epileptogenic process upon cessation of mTOR inhibition. Further, the cell-selective effect of mTOR inhibition on synaptic reorganization after CCI suggests possible mechanisms by which rapamycin treatment modifies epileptogenesis in some models but not others.

  5. Rapid Modulation of Aromatase Activity in the Vertebrate Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry D. Charlier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous steroid hormones, including 17β-estradiol (E2, activate rapid and transient cellular, physiological, and behavioral changes in addition to their well-described genomic effects. Aromatase is the key-limiting enzyme in the production of estrogens, and the rapid modulation of this enzymatic activity could produce rapid changes in local E2 concentrations. The mechanisms that might mediate such rapid enzymatic changes are not fully understood but are currently under intense scrutiny. Recent studies in our laboratory indicate that brain aromatase activity is rapidly inhibited by an increase in intracellular calcium concentration resulting from potassium-induced depolarization or from the activation of glutamatergic receptors. Phosphorylating conditions also reduce aromatase activity within minutes, and this inhibition is blocked by the addition of multiple protein kinase inhibitors. This rapid modulation of aromatase activity by phosphorylating conditions is a general mechanism observed in different cell types and tissues derived from a variety of species, including human aromatase expressed in various cell lines. Phosphorylation processes affect aromatase itself and do not involve changes in aromatase protein concentration. The control of aromatase activity by multiple kinases suggests that several amino acids must be concomitantly phosphorylated to modify enzymatic activity but site-directed mutagenesis of several amino acids alone or in combination has not to date revealed the identity of the targeted residue(s. Altogether, the phosphorylation processes affecting aromatase activity provide a new general mechanism by which the concentration of estrogens can be rapidly altered in the brain.

  6. Dehydration triggers differential microRNA expression in Xenopus laevis brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Bryan E; Storey, Kenneth B

    2015-11-15

    African clawed frogs, Xenopus laevis, although primarily aquatic, have a high tolerance for dehydration, being capable of withstanding the loss of up to 32-35% of total water body water. Recent studies have shown that microRNAs play a role in the response to dehydration by the liver, kidney and ventral skin of X. laevis. MicroRNAs act by modulating the expression of mRNA transcripts, thereby affecting diverse biochemical pathways. In this study, 43 microRNAs were assessed in frog brains comparing control and dehydrated (31.2±0.83% of total body water lost) conditions. MicroRNAs of interest were measured using a modified protocol which employs polyadenylation of microRNAs prior to reverse transcription and qPCR. Twelve microRNAs that showed a significant decrease in expression (to 41-77% of control levels) in brains from dehydrated frogs (xla-miR-15a, -150, -181a, -191, -211, -218, -219b, -30c, -30e, -31, -34a, and -34b) were identified. Genomic analysis showed that the sequences of these dehydration-responsive microRNAs were highly conserved as compared with the comparable microRNAs of mice (91-100%). Suppression of these microRNAs implies that translation of the mRNA transcripts under their control could be enhanced in response to dehydration. Bioinformatic analysis using the DIANA miRPath program (v.2.0) predicted the top two KEGG pathways that these microRNAs collectively regulate: 1. Axon guidance, and 2. Long-term potentiation. Previous studies indicated that suppression of these microRNAs promotes neuroprotective pathways by increasing the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and activating anti-apoptotic pathways. This suggests that similar actions may be triggered in X. laevis brains as a protective response to dehydration. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cholesterol efflux is differentially regulated in neurons and astrocytes: implications for brain cholesterol homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Xiaolu; Kusumo, Handojo; Costa, Lucio G.; Guizzetti, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Disruption of cholesterol homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS) has been associated with neurological, neurodegenerative, and neurodevelopmental disorders. The CNS is a closed system with regard to cholesterol homeostasis, as cholesterol-delivering lipoproteins from the periphery cannot pass the blood-brain-barrier and enter the brain. Different cell types in the brain have different functions in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis, with astrocytes producing and releasing apolipoprotein E and lipoproteins, and neurons metabolizing cholesterol to 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol. We present evidence that astrocytes and neurons adopt different mechanisms also in regulating cholesterol efflux. We found that in astrocytes cholesterol efflux is induced by both lipid-free apolipoproteins and lipoproteins, while cholesterol removal from neurons is triggered only by lipoproteins. The main pathway by which apolipoproteins induce cholesterol efflux is through ABCA1. By upregulating ABCA1 levels and by inhibiting its activity and silencing its expression, we show that ABCA1 is involved in cholesterol efflux from astrocytes but not from neurons. Furthermore, our results suggest that ABCG1 is involved in cholesterol efflux to apolipoproteins and lipoproteins from astrocytes but not from neurons, while ABCG4, whose expression is much higher in neurons than astrocytes, is involved in cholesterol efflux from neurons but not astrocytes. These results indicate that different mechanisms regulate cholesterol efflux from neurons and astrocytes, reflecting the different roles that these cell types play in brain cholesterol homeostasis. These results are important in understanding cellular targets of therapeutic drugs under development for the treatments of conditions associated with altered cholesterol homeostasis in the CNS. PMID:23010475

  8. Spontaneous brain network activity: Analysis of its temporal complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangor Pedersen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The brain operates in a complex way. The temporal complexity underlying macroscopic and spontaneous brain network activity is still to be understood. In this study, we explored the brain’s complexity by combining functional connectivity, graph theory, and entropy analyses in 25 healthy people using task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging. We calculated the pairwise instantaneous phase synchrony between 8,192 brain nodes for a total of 200 time points. This resulted in graphs for which time series of clustering coefficients (the “cliquiness” of a node and participation coefficients (the between-module connectivity of a node were estimated. For these two network metrics, sample entropy was calculated. The procedure produced a number of results: (1 Entropy is higher for the participation coefficient than for the clustering coefficient. (2 The average clustering coefficient is negatively related to its associated entropy, whereas the average participation coefficient is positively related to its associated entropy. (3 The level of entropy is network-specific to the participation coefficient, but not to the clustering coefficient. High entropy for the participation coefficient was observed in the default-mode, visual, and motor networks. These results were further validated using an independent replication dataset. Our work confirms that brain networks are temporally complex. Entropy is a good candidate metric to explore temporal network alterations in diseases with paroxysmal brain disruptions, including schizophrenia and epilepsy. In recent years, connectomics has provided significant insights into the topological complexity of brain networks. However, the temporal complexity of brain networks still remains somewhat poorly understood. In this study we used entropy analysis to demonstrate that the properties of network segregation (the clustering coefficient and integration (the participation coefficient are temporally complex

  9. Contributions of Glycogen to Astrocytic Energetics during Brain Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienel, Gerald A.; Cruz, Nancy F.

    2014-01-01

    Glycogen is the major store of glucose in brain and is mainly in astrocytes. Brain glycogen levels in unstimulated, carefully-handled rats are 10-12 mol/g, and assuming that astrocytes account for half the brain mass, astrocytic glycogen content is twice as high. Glycogen turnover is slow under basal conditions, but it is mobilized during activation. There is no net increase in incorporation of label from glucose during activation, whereas label release from pre-labeled glycogen exceeds net glycogen consumption, which increases during stronger stimuli. Because glycogen level is restored by non-oxidative metabolism, astrocytes can influence the global ratio of oxygen to glucose utilization. Compensatory increases in utilization of blood glucose during inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase are large and approximate glycogenolysis rates during sensory stimulation. In contrast, glycogenolysis rates during hypoglycemia are low due to continued glucose delivery and oxidation of endogenous substrates; rates that preserve neuronal function in the absence of glucose are also low, probably due to metabolite oxidation. Modeling studies predict that glycogenolysis maintains a high level of glucose-6-phosphate in astrocytes to maintain feedback inhibition of hexokinase, thereby diverting glucose for use by neurons. The fate of glycogen carbon in vivo is not known, but lactate efflux from brain best accounts for the major metabolic characteristics during activation of living brain. Substantial shuttling coupled with oxidation of glycogen-derived lactate is inconsistent with available evidence. Glycogen has important roles in astrocytic energetics, including glucose sparing, control of extracellular K+ level, oxidative stress management, and memory consolidation; it is a multi-functional compound. PMID:24515302

  10. Contributions of glycogen to astrocytic energetics during brain activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienel, Gerald A; Cruz, Nancy F

    2015-02-01

    Glycogen is the major store of glucose in brain and is mainly in astrocytes. Brain glycogen levels in unstimulated, carefully-handled rats are 10-12 μmol/g, and assuming that astrocytes account for half the brain mass, astrocytic glycogen content is twice as high. Glycogen turnover is slow under basal conditions, but it is mobilized during activation. There is no net increase in incorporation of label from glucose during activation, whereas label release from pre-labeled glycogen exceeds net glycogen consumption, which increases during stronger stimuli. Because glycogen level is restored by non-oxidative metabolism, astrocytes can influence the global ratio of oxygen to glucose utilization. Compensatory increases in utilization of blood glucose during inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase are large and approximate glycogenolysis rates during sensory stimulation. In contrast, glycogenolysis rates during hypoglycemia are low due to continued glucose delivery and oxidation of endogenous substrates; rates that preserve neuronal function in the absence of glucose are also low, probably due to metabolite oxidation. Modeling studies predict that glycogenolysis maintains a high level of glucose-6-phosphate in astrocytes to maintain feedback inhibition of hexokinase, thereby diverting glucose for use by neurons. The fate of glycogen carbon in vivo is not known, but lactate efflux from brain best accounts for the major metabolic characteristics during activation of living brain. Substantial shuttling coupled with oxidation of glycogen-derived lactate is inconsistent with available evidence. Glycogen has important roles in astrocytic energetics, including glucose sparing, control of extracellular K(+) level, oxidative stress management, and memory consolidation; it is a multi-functional compound.

  11. Distinct Patterns of Brain Activity Characterise Lexical Activation and Competition in Spoken Word Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piai, V.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Jensen, O.; Schoffelen, J.M.; Bonnefond, M.

    2014-01-01

    According to a prominent theory of language production, concepts activate multiple associated words in memory, which enter into competition for selection. However, only a few electrophysiological studies have identified brain responses reflecting competition. Here, we report a magnetoencephalography

  12. In utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in rats disrupts brain sexual differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Masahiko; Mitsui, Tetsuo; Setani, Kaoru; Tamura, Masashi; Kakeyama, Masaki; Sone, Hideko; Tohyama, Chiharu; Tomita, Takako

    2005-01-01

    The effects of in utero and lactational exposure of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on brain sexual differentiation were investigated. TCDD was orally administered to pregnant Holtzman rats on gestation day (GD) 15, and the activity of brain aromatase, a key enzyme for sexual differentiation, was measured in offspring on postnatal day (PND) 2. Changes in sexual dimorphisms of saccharin preference and the volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) were examined in adult offspring. In controls, litter means of brain aromatase activity were higher in males than in females. In utero exposure to 200 ng/kg TCDD significantly decreased the sex ratio of aromatase activity (male/female) on PND 2. Offspring were weaned on PND28 and the saccharin test was started on PND84. In controls, saccharin (0.25%) intake (g/kg body weight) was significantly higher in female offspring than in males. In utero exposure to 200 ng/kg TCDD significantly increased saccharin intake in male offspring compared with control males, whereas 800 ng/kg TCDD had no effect. Neither dose of TCDD influenced saccharin intake of female offspring. In controls, SDN-POA volume was significantly greater in males than in females at 14 weeks of age. Exposure to 200 ng/kg TCDD significantly decreased SDN-POA volume in males, whereas 800 ng/kg TCDD had no effect. Neither doses of TCDD influenced the SDN-POA volume in female offspring. These results suggest that in utero and lactational TCDD exposure dose-dependently induces demasculinization in male offspring by inhibiting brain aromatase activity in the hypothalamus-preoptic area during central nervous system development

  13. Differential MR/GR Activation in Mice Results in Emotional States Beneficial or Impairing for Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Brinks

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroids regulate stress response and influence emotion, learning, and memory via two receptors in the brain, the high‐affinity mineralocorticoid (MR and low‐affinity glucocorticoid receptor (GR. We test the hypothesis that MR- and GR-mediated effects interact in emotion and cognition when a novel situation is encountered that is relevant for a learning process. By adrenalectomy and additional constant corticosterone supplement we obtained four groups of male C57BL/6J mice with differential chronic MR and GR activations. Using a hole board task, we found that mice with continuous predominant MR and moderate GR activations were fast learners that displayed low anxiety and arousal together with high directed explorative behavior. Progressive corticosterone concentrations with predominant action via GR induced strong emotional arousal at the expense of cognitive performance. These findings underline the importance of a balanced MR/GR system for emotional and cognitive functioning that is critical for mental health.

  14. TAM receptors affect adult brain neurogenesis by negative regulation of microglial cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Rui; Tian, Shifu; Lu, Helen J; Lu, Qingjun; Zheng, Yan; Wang, Xiaomin; Ding, Jixiang; Li, Qiutang; Lu, Qingxian

    2013-12-15

    TAM tyrosine kinases play multiple functional roles, including regulation of the target genes important in homeostatic regulation of cytokine receptors or TLR-mediated signal transduction pathways. In this study, we show that TAM receptors affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and loss of TAM receptors impairs hippocampal neurogenesis, largely attributed to exaggerated inflammatory responses by microglia characterized by increased MAPK and NF-κB activation and elevated production of proinflammatory cytokines that are detrimental to neuron stem cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Injection of LPS causes even more severe inhibition of BrdU incorporation in the Tyro3(-/-)Axl(-/-)Mertk(-/-) triple-knockout (TKO) brains, consistent with the LPS-elicited enhanced expression of proinflammatory mediators, for example, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and inducible NO synthase, and this effect is antagonized by coinjection of the anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin in wild-type but not TKO brains. Conditioned medium from TKO microglia cultures inhibits neuron stem cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. IL-6 knockout in Axl(-/-)Mertk(-/-) double-knockout mice overcomes the inflammatory inhibition of neurogenesis, suggesting that IL-6 is a major downstream neurotoxic mediator under homeostatic regulation by TAM receptors in microglia. Additionally, autonomous trophic function of the TAM receptors on the proliferating neuronal progenitors may also promote progenitor differentiation into immature neurons.

  15. Epidermis-type lipoxygenase 3 regulates adipocyte differentiation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallenborg, Philip; Jørgensen, Claus; Petersen, Rasmus K

    2010-01-01

    preadipocytes. Here, we show that forced expression of eLOX3 or addition of eLOX3 products stimulated adipogenesis under conditions that normally require an exogenous PPAR gamma ligand for differentiation. Hepoxilins, a group of oxidized arachidonic acid derivatives produced by eLOX3, bound to and activated...... PPAR gamma. Production of hepoxilins was increased transiently during the initial stages of adipogenesis. Furthermore, small interfering RNA-mediated or retroviral short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of eLOX3 expression abolished differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Finally, we demonstrate...... differentiation has remained enigmatic. Previously, we showed that lipoxygenase (LOX) activity is involved in activation of PPAR gamma during the early stages of adipocyte differentiation. Of the seven known murine LOXs, only the unconventional LOX epidermis-type lipoxygenase 3 (eLOX3) is expressed in 3T3-L1...

  16. Relationship between changes of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activity and brain edema after brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the changes of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activity and brain edema after injury in rats.   Methods: The brain injury models were made by using a free-falling body. The treatment model was induced by means of injecting AP5 into lateral ventricle before brain injury; water contents in brain cortex were measured with dry-wet method; and NMDA receptor activity was detected with a radio ligand binding assay.   Results: The water contents began to increase at 30 minutes and reached the peak at 6 hours after brain injury. The maximal binding (Bmax) of NMDA receptor increased significantly at 15 minutes and reached the peak at 30 minutes, then decreased gradually and had the lowest value 6 hours after brain injury. Followed the treatment with AP5, NMDA receptor activity in the injured brain showed a normal value; and the water contents were lower than that of AP5-free injury group 24 hours after brain injury.   Conclusions: It suggests that excessive activation of NMDA receptor may be one of the most important factors to induce the secondary cerebral impairments, and AP5 may protect the brain from edema after brain injury.

  17. Ciliopathy is differentially distributed in the brain of a Bardet-Biedl syndrome mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khristofor Agassandian

    Full Text Available Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS is a genetically heterogeneous inherited human disorder displaying a pleotropic phenotype. Many of the symptoms characterized in the human disease have been reproduced in animal models carrying deletions or knock-in mutations of genes causal for the disorder. Thinning of the cerebral cortex, enlargement of the lateral and third ventricles, and structural changes in cilia are among the pathologies documented in these animal models. Ciliopathy is of particular interest in light of recent studies that have implicated primary neuronal cilia (PNC in neuronal signal transduction. In the present investigation, we tested the hypothesis that areas of the brain responsible for learning and memory formation would differentially exhibit PNC abnormalities in animals carrying a deletion of the Bbs4 gene (Bbs4-/-. Immunohistochemical localization of adenylyl cyclase-III (ACIII, a marker restricted to PNC, revealed dramatic alterations in PNC morphology and a statistically significant reduction in number of immunopositive cilia in the hippocampus and amygdala of Bbs4-/- mice compared to wild type (WT littermates. Western blot analysis confirmed the decrease of ACIII levels in the hippocampus and amygdala of Bbs4-/- mice, and electron microscopy demonstrated pathological alterations of PNC in the hippocampus and amygdala. Importantly, no neuronal loss was found within the subregions of amygdala and hippocampus sampled in Bbs4-/- mice and there were no statistically significant alterations of ACIII immunopositive cilia in other areas of the brain not known to contribute to the BBS phenotype. Considered with data documenting a role of cilia in signal transduction these findings support the conclusion that alterations in cilia structure or neurochemical phenotypes may contribute to the cognitive deficits observed in the Bbs4-/- mouse mode.

  18. Differential structural and resting state connectivity between insular subdivisions and other pain-related brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiech, K; Jbabdi, S; Lin, C S; Andersson, J; Tracey, I

    2014-10-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies suggest that the anterior, mid, and posterior division of the insula subserve different functions in the perception of pain. The anterior insula (AI) has predominantly been associated with cognitive-affective aspects of pain, while the mid and posterior divisions have been implicated in sensory-discriminative processing. We examined whether this functional segregation is paralleled by differences in (1) structural and (2) resting state connectivity and (3) in correlations with pain-relevant psychological traits. Analyses were restricted to the 3 insular subdivisions and other pain-related brain regions. Both type of analyses revealed largely overlapping results. The AI division was predominantly connected to the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (structural and resting state connectivity) and orbitofrontal cortex (structural connectivity). In contrast, the posterior insula showed strong connections to the primary somatosensory cortex (SI; structural connectivity) and secondary somatosensory cortex (SII; structural and resting state connectivity). The mid insula displayed a hybrid connectivity pattern with strong connections with the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, SII (structural and resting state connectivity) and SI (structural connectivity). Moreover, resting state connectivity revealed strong connectivity of all 3 subdivisions with the thalamus. On the behavioural level, AI structural connectivity was related to the individual degree of pain vigilance and awareness that showed a positive correlation with AI-amygdala connectivity and a negative correlation with AI-rostral anterior cingulate cortex connectivity. In sum, our findings show a differential structural and resting state connectivity for the anterior, mid, and posterior insula with other pain-relevant brain regions, which might at least partly explain their different functional profiles in pain processing. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  19. Time delay between cardiac and brain activity during sleep transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xi; Arends, Johan B.; Aarts, Ronald M.; Haakma, Reinder; Fonseca, Pedro; Rolink, Jérôme

    2015-04-01

    Human sleep consists of wake, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, and non-REM (NREM) sleep that includes light and deep sleep stages. This work investigated the time delay between changes of cardiac and brain activity for sleep transitions. Here, the brain activity was quantified by electroencephalographic (EEG) mean frequency and the cardiac parameters included heart rate, standard deviation of heartbeat intervals, and their low- and high-frequency spectral powers. Using a cross-correlation analysis, we found that the cardiac variations during wake-sleep and NREM sleep transitions preceded the EEG changes by 1-3 min but this was not the case for REM sleep transitions. These important findings can be further used to predict the onset and ending of some sleep stages in an early manner.

  20. Brain activation predicts treatment improvement in patients with major depressive disorder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Samson, Andrea C

    2012-02-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with alterations in brain function that might be useful for therapy evaluation. The current study aimed to identify predictors for therapy improvement and to track functional brain changes during therapy. Twenty-one drug-free patients with MDD underwent functional MRI twice during performance of an emotional perception task: once before and once after 4 weeks of antidepressant treatment (mirtazapine or venlafaxine). Twelve healthy controls were investigated once with the same methods. A significant difference between groups was a relative greater activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in the patients vs. controls. Before treatment, patients responding better to pharmacological treatment showed greater activation in the dorsomedial PFC (dmPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (pCC) and superior frontal gyrus (SFG) when viewing of negative emotional pictures was compared with the resting condition. Activations in the caudate nucleus and insula contrasted for emotional compared to neutral stimuli were also associated with successful treatment. Responders had also significantly higher levels of activation, compared to non-responders, in a range of other brain regions. Brain activation related to treatment success might be related to altered self-referential processes and a differential response to external emotional stimuli, suggesting differences in the processing of emotionally salient stimuli between those who are likely to respond to pharmacological treatment and those who will not. The present investigation suggests the pCC, dmPFC, SFG, caudate nucleus and insula may have a key role as a biological marker for treatment response and predictor for therapeutic success.

  1. Intra-cranial recordings of brain activity during language production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anais eLlorens

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings in the neurophysiology of language production have provided a detailed description of the brain network underlying this behavior, as well as some indications about the timing of operations. Despite their invaluable utility, these data generally suffer from limitations either in terms of temporal resolution, or in terms of spatial localization. In addition, studying the neural basis of speech is complicated by the presence of articulation artifacts such as electro-myographic activity that interferes with the neural signal. These difficulties are virtually absent in a powerful albeit much less frequent methodology, namely the recording of intra-cranial brain activity (iEEG. Such recordings are only possible under very specific clinical circumstances requiring functional mapping before brain surgery, most notably patients that suffer for pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. Here we review the research conducted with this methodology in the field of language production, with explicit consideration of its advantages and drawbacks. The available evidence is shown to be diverse, both in terms of the tasks and cognitive processes tested and in terms of the brain localizations being studied. Still, the review provides valuable information for characterizing the dynamics of the neural events occurring in the language production network. Following modality specific activities (in auditory or visual cortices, there is a convergence of activity in superior temporal sulcus, which is a plausible neural correlate of phonological encoding processes. Later, between 500 and 800 ms, inferior frontal gyrus (around Broca's area is involved. Peri-rolandic areas are recruited in the two modalities relatively early (200-500 ms window, suggesting a very early involvement of (pre- motor processes. We discuss how some of these findings may be at odds with conclusions drawn from available meta-analysis of language production.

  2. Physical activity, fitness, glucose homeostasis, and brain morphology in twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottensteiner, Mirva; Leskinen, Tuija; Niskanen, Eini; Aaltonen, Sari; Mutikainen, Sara; Wikgren, Jan; Heikkilä, Kauko; Kovanen, Vuokko; Kainulainen, Heikki; Kaprio, Jaakko; Tarkka, Ina M; Kujala, Urho M

    2015-03-01

    The main aim of the present study (FITFATTWIN) was to investigate how physical activity level is associated with body composition, glucose homeostasis, and brain morphology in young adult male monozygotic twin pairs discordant for physical activity. From a population-based twin cohort, we systematically selected 10 young adult male monozygotic twin pairs (age range, 32-36 yr) discordant for leisure time physical activity during the past 3 yr. On the basis of interviews, we calculated a mean sum index for leisure time and commuting activity during the past 3 yr (3-yr LTMET index expressed as MET-hours per day). We conducted extensive measurements on body composition (including fat percentage measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), glucose homeostasis including homeostatic model assessment index and insulin sensitivity index (Matsuda index, calculated from glucose and insulin values from an oral glucose tolerance test), and whole brain magnetic resonance imaging for regional volumetric analyses. According to pairwise analysis, the active twins had lower body fat percentage (P = 0.029) and homeostatic model assessment index (P = 0.031) and higher Matsuda index (P = 0.021) compared with their inactive co-twins. Striatal and prefrontal cortex (subgyral and inferior frontal gyrus) brain gray matter volumes were larger in the nondominant hemisphere in active twins compared with those in inactive co-twins, with a statistical threshold of P physical activity is associated with improved glucose homeostasis and modulation of striatum and prefrontal cortex gray matter volume, independent of genetic background. The findings may contribute to later reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and mobility limitations.

  3. Effect of all-trans retinoic acid on the proliferation and differentiation of brain tumor stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu Chao

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To investigate the effect of all-trans retinoic acid(ATRA on the proliferation and differentiation of brain tumor stem cells(BTSCs in vitro. Methods Limiting dilution and clonogenic assay were used to isolate and screen BTSCs from the fresh specimen of human brain glioblastoma. The obtained BTSCs, which were cultured in serum-free medium, were classified into four groups in accordance with the composition of the different treatments. The proliferation of the BTSCs was evaluated by MTT assay. The BTSCs were induced to differentiate in serum-containing medium, and classified into the ATRA group and control group. On the 10th day of induction, the expressions of CD133 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP in the differentiated BTSCs were detected by immunofluorescence. The differentiated BTSCs were cultured in serum-free medium, the percentage and the time required for formation of brain tumor spheres (BTS were observed. Results BTSCs obtained by limiting dilution were all identified as CD133-positive by immunofluorescence. In serum-free medium, the proliferation of BTSCs in the ATRA group was observed significantly faster than that in the control group, but slower than that in the growth factor group and ATRA/growth factor group, and the size of the BTS in the ATRA group was smaller than that in the latter two groups(P P P P Conclusion ATRA can promote the proliferation and induce the differentiation of BTSCs, but the differentiation is incomplete, terminal differentiation cannot be achieved and BTSs can be formed again.

  4. Brain activation to cocaine cues and motivation/treatment status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisciandaro, James J; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Myrick, Hugh; Henderson, Scott; Brady, Kathleen T

    2014-03-01

    Motivation to change is believed to be a key factor in therapeutic success in substance use disorders; however, the neurobiological mechanisms through which motivation to change impacts decreased substance use remain unclear. Existing research is conflicting, with some investigations supporting decreased and others reporting increased frontal activation to drug cues in individuals seeking treatment for substance use disorders. The present study investigated the relationship between motivation to change cocaine use and cue-elicited brain activity in cocaine-dependent individuals using two conceptualizations of 'motivation to change': (1) current treatment status (i.e. currently receiving versus not receiving outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence) and (2) self-reported motivation to change substance use, using the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale. Thirty-eight cocaine-dependent individuals (14 currently in treatment) completed a diagnostic assessment and an fMRI cocaine cue-reactivity task. Whole-brain analyses demonstrated that both treatment-seeking and motivated participants had lower activation to cocaine cues in a wide variety of brain regions in the frontal, occipital, temporal and cingulate cortices relative to non-treatment-seeking and less motivated participants. Future research is needed to explain the mechanism by which treatment and/or motivation impacts neural cue reactivity, as such work could potentially aid in the development of more effective therapeutic techniques for substance-dependent patients. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Using human brain activity to guide machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Ruth C; Scheirer, Walter J; Cox, David D

    2018-03-29

    Machine learning is a field of computer science that builds algorithms that learn. In many cases, machine learning algorithms are used to recreate a human ability like adding a caption to a photo, driving a car, or playing a game. While the human brain has long served as a source of inspiration for machine learning, little effort has been made to directly use data collected from working brains as a guide for machine learning algorithms. Here we demonstrate a new paradigm of "neurally-weighted" machine learning, which takes fMRI measurements of human brain activity from subjects viewing images, and infuses these data into the training process of an object recognition learning algorithm to make it more consistent with the human brain. After training, these neurally-weighted classifiers are able to classify images without requiring any additional neural data. We show that our neural-weighting approach can lead to large performance gains when used with traditional machine vision features, as well as to significant improvements with already high-performing convolutional neural network features. The effectiveness of this approach points to a path forward for a new class of hybrid machine learning algorithms which take both inspiration and direct constraints from neuronal data.

  6. Consciousness as a global property of brain dynamic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, D. M.; Wennberg, R.; Guevara, R.; Perez Velazquez, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    We seek general principles of the structure of the cellular collective activity associated with conscious awareness. Can we obtain evidence for features of the optimal brain organization that allows for adequate processing of stimuli and that may guide the emergence of cognition and consciousness? Analyzing brain recordings in conscious and unconscious states, we followed initially the classic approach in physics when it comes to understanding collective behaviours of systems composed of a myriad of units: the assessment of the number of possible configurations (microstates) that the system can adopt, for which we use a global entropic measure associated with the number of connected brain regions. Having found maximal entropy in conscious states, we then inspected the microscopic nature of the configurations of connections using an adequate complexity measure and found higher complexity in states characterized not only by conscious awareness but also by subconscious cognitive processing, such as sleep stages. Our observations indicate that conscious awareness is associated with maximal global (macroscopic) entropy and with the short time scale (microscopic) complexity of the configurations of connected brain networks in pathological unconscious states (seizures and coma), but the microscopic view captures the high complexity in physiological unconscious states (sleep) where there is information processing. As such, our results support the global nature of conscious awareness, as advocated by several theories of cognition. We thus hope that our studies represent preliminary steps to reveal aspects of the structure of cognition that leads to conscious awareness.

  7. Calpain expression and activity during lens fiber cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maria, Alicia; Shi, Yanrong; Kumar, Nalin M; Bassnett, Steven

    2009-05-15

    In animal models, the dysregulated activity of calcium-activated proteases, calpains, contributes directly to cataract formation. However, the physiological role of calpains in the healthy lens is not well defined. In this study, we examined the expression pattern of calpains in the mouse lens. Real time PCR and Western blotting data indicated that calpain 1, 2, 3, and 7 were expressed in lens fiber cells. Using controlled lysis, depth-dependent expression profiles for each calpain were obtained. These indicated that, unlike calpain 1, 2, and 7, which were most abundant in cells near the lens surface, calpain 3 expression was strongest in the deep cortical region of the lens. We detected calpain activities in vitro and showed that calpains were active in vivo by microinjecting fluorogenic calpain substrates into cortical fiber cells. To identify endogenous calpain substrates, membrane/cytoskeleton preparations were treated with recombinant calpain, and cleaved products were identified by two-dimensional difference electrophoresis/mass spectrometry. Among the calpain substrates identified by this approach was alphaII-spectrin. An antibody that specifically recognized calpain-cleaved spectrin was used to demonstrate that spectrin is cleaved in vivo, late in fiber cell differentiation, at or about the time that lens organelles are degraded. The generation of the calpain-specific spectrin cleavage product was not observed in lens tissue from calpain 3-null mice, indicating that calpain 3 is uniquely activated during lens fiber differentiation. Our data suggest a role for calpains in the remodeling of the membrane cytoskeleton that occurs with fiber cell maturation.

  8. Drug metabolism in human brain: high levels of cytochrome P4503A43 in brain and metabolism of anti-anxiety drug alprazolam to its active metabolite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Agarwal

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 (P450 is a super-family of drug metabolizing enzymes. P450 enzymes have dual function; they can metabolize drugs to pharmacologically inactive metabolites facilitating their excretion or biotransform them to pharmacologically active metabolites which may have longer half-life than the parent drug. The variable pharmacological response to psychoactive drugs typically seen in population groups is often not accountable by considering dissimilarities in hepatic metabolism. Metabolism in brain specific nuclei may play a role in pharmacological modulation of drugs acting on the CNS and help explain some of the diverse response to these drugs seen in patient population. P450 enzymes are also present in brain where drug metabolism can take place and modify therapeutic action of drugs at the site of action. We have earlier demonstrated an intrinsic difference in the biotransformation of alprazolam (ALP in brain and liver, relatively more alpha-hydroxy alprazolam (alpha-OHALP is formed in brain as compared to liver. In the present study we show that recombinant CYP3A43 metabolizes ALP to both alpha-OHALP and 4-hydroxy alprazolam (4-OHALP while CYP3A4 metabolizes ALP predominantly to its inactive metabolite, 4-OHALP. The expression of CYP3A43 mRNA in human brain samples correlates with formation of relatively higher levels of alpha-OH ALP indicating that individuals who express higher levels of CYP3A43 in the brain would generate larger amounts of alpha-OHALP. Further, the expression of CYP3A43 was relatively higher in brain as compared to liver across different ethnic populations. Since CYP3A enzymes play a prominent role in the metabolism of drugs, the higher expression of CYP3A43 would generate metabolite profile of drugs differentially in human brain and thus impact the pharmacodynamics of psychoactive drugs at the site of action.

  9. Cell Membrane Tracking in Living Brain Tissue Using Differential Interference Contrast Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John; Kolb, Ilya; Forest, Craig R; Rozell, Christopher J

    2018-04-01

    Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is widely used for observing unstained biological samples that are otherwise optically transparent. Combining this optical technique with machine vision could enable the automation of many life science experiments; however, identifying relevant features under DIC is challenging. In particular, precise tracking of cell boundaries in a thick ( ) slice of tissue has not previously been accomplished. We present a novel deconvolution algorithm that achieves the state-of-the-art performance at identifying and tracking these membrane locations. Our proposed algorithm is formulated as a regularized least squares optimization that incorporates a filtering mechanism to handle organic tissue interference and a robust edge-sparsity regularizer that integrates dynamic edge tracking capabilities. As a secondary contribution, this paper also describes new community infrastructure in the form of a MATLAB toolbox for accurately simulating DIC microscopy images of in vitro brain slices. Building on existing DIC optics modeling, our simulation framework additionally contributes an accurate representation of interference from organic tissue, neuronal cell-shapes, and tissue motion due to the action of the pipette. This simulator allows us to better understand the image statistics (to improve algorithms), as well as quantitatively test cell segmentation and tracking algorithms in scenarios, where ground truth data is fully known.

  10. The influence of low-grade glioma on resting state oscillatory brain activity: a magnetoencephalography study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, I.; Stam, C. J.; Douw, L.; Bartolomei, F.; Heimans, J. J.; van Dijk, B. W.; Postma, T. J.; Klein, M.; Reijneveld, J. C.

    2008-01-01

    In the present MEG-study, power spectral analysis of oscillatory brain activity was used to compare resting state brain activity in both low-grade glioma (LGG) patients and healthy controls. We hypothesized that LGG patients show local as well as diffuse slowing of resting state brain activity

  11. Spatiotemporal dynamics of large-scale brain activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Jeremy

    Understanding the dynamics of large-scale brain activity is a tough challenge. One reason for this is the presence of an incredible amount of complexity arising from having roughly 100 billion neurons connected via 100 trillion synapses. Because of the extremely high number of degrees of freedom in the nervous system, the question of how the brain manages to properly function and remain stable, yet also be adaptable, must be posed. Neuroscientists have identified many ways the nervous system makes this possible, of which synaptic plasticity is possibly the most notable one. On the other hand, it is vital to understand how the nervous system also loses stability, resulting in neuropathological diseases such as epilepsy, a disease which affects 1% of the population. In the following work, we seek to answer some of these questions from two different perspectives. The first uses mean-field theory applied to neuronal populations, where the variables of interest are the percentages of active excitatory and inhibitory neurons in a network, to consider how the nervous system responds to external stimuli, self-organizes and generates epileptiform activity. The second method uses statistical field theory, in the framework of single neurons on a lattice, to study the concept of criticality, an idea borrowed from physics which posits that in some regime the brain operates in a collectively stable or marginally stable manner. This will be examined in two different neuronal networks with self-organized criticality serving as the overarching theme for the union of both perspectives. One of the biggest problems in neuroscience is the question of to what extent certain details are significant to the functioning of the brain. These details give rise to various spatiotemporal properties that at the smallest of scales explain the interaction of single neurons and synapses and at the largest of scales describe, for example, behaviors and sensations. In what follows, we will shed some

  12. Differential effects of stress and amphetamine administration on Fos-like protein expression in corticotropin releasing factor-neurons of the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotllant, David; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2007-05-01

    Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) appears to be critical for the control of important aspects of the behavioral and physiological response to stressors and drugs of abuse. However, the extent to which the different brain CRF neuronal populations are similarly activated after stress and drug administration is not known. We then studied, using double immunohistochemistry for CRF and Fos protein, stress and amphetamine-induced activation of CRF neurons in cortex, central amygdala (CeA), medial parvocellular dorsal, and submagnocellular parvocellular regions of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVNmpd and PVNsm, respectively) and Barrington nucleus (Bar). Neither exposure to a novel environment (hole-board, HB) nor immobilization (IMO) increased Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) in the CeA, but they did to the same extent in cortical regions. In other regions only IMO increased FLI. HB and IMO both failed to activate CRF+ neurons in cortical areas, but after IMO, some neurons expressing FLI in the PVNsm and most of them in the PVNmpd and Bar were CRF+. Amphetamine administration increased FLI in cortical areas and CeA (with some CRF+ neurons expressing FLI), whereas the number of CRF+ neurons increased only in the PVNsm, in contrast to the effects of IMO. The present results indicate that stress and amphetamine elicited a distinct pattern of brain Fos-like protein expression and differentially activated some of the brain CRF neuronal populations, despite similar levels of overall FLI in the case of IMO and amphetamine.

  13. Limited brain metabolism changes differentiate between the progression and clearance of rabies virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Schutsky

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS metabolic profiles were examined from rabies virus (RABV-infected mice that were either mock-treated or received post-exposure treatment (PET with a single dose of the live recombinant RABV vaccine TriGAS. CNS tissue harvested from mock-treated mice at middle and late stage infection revealed numerous changes in energy metabolites, neurotransmitters and stress hormones that correlated with replication levels of viral RNA. Although the large majority of these metabolic changes were completely absent in the brains of TriGAS-treated mice most likely due to the strong reduction in virus spread, TriGAS treatment resulted in the up-regulation of the expression of carnitine and several acylcarnitines, suggesting that these compounds are neuroprotective. The most striking change seen in mock-treated RABV-infected mice was a dramatic increase in brain and serum corticosterone levels, with the later becoming elevated before clinical signs or loss of body weight occurred. We speculate that the rise in corticosterone is part of a strategy of RABV to block the induction of immune responses that would otherwise interfere with its spread. In support of this concept, we show that pharmacological intervention to inhibit corticosterone biosynthesis, in the absence of vaccine treatment, significantly reduces the pathogenicity of RABV. Our results suggest that widespread metabolic changes, including hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, contribute to the pathogenesis of RABV and that preventing these alterations early in infection with PET or pharmacological blockade helps protect brain homeostasis, thereby reducing disease mortality.

  14. Glial cell ceruloplasmin and hepcidin differentially regulate iron efflux from brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Ryan C; Kosman, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    We have used an in vitro model system to probe the iron transport pathway across the brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC) of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This model consists of human BMVEC (hBMVEC) and C6 glioma cells (as an astrocytic cell line) grown in a transwell, a cell culture system commonly used to quantify metabolite flux across a cell-derived barrier. We found that iron efflux from hBMVEC through the ferrous iron permease ferroportin (Fpn) was stimulated by secretion of the soluble form of the multi-copper ferroxidase, ceruloplasmin (sCp) from the co-cultured C6 cells. Reciprocally, expression of sCp mRNA in the C6 cells was increased by neighboring hBMVEC. In addition, data indicate that C6 cell-secreted hepcidin stimulates internalization of hBMVEC Fpn but only when the end-feet projections characteristic of this glia-derived cell line are proximal to the endothelial cells. This hepcidin-dependent loss of Fpn correlated with knock-down of iron efflux from the hBMVEC; this result was consistent with the mechanism by which hepcidin regulates iron efflux in mammalian cells. In summary, the data support a model of iron trafficking across the BBB in which the capillary endothelium induce the underlying astrocytes to produce the ferroxidase activity needed to support Fpn-mediated iron efflux. Reciprocally, astrocyte proximity modulates the effective concentration of hepcidin at the endothelial cell membrane and thus the surface expression of hBMVEC Fpn. These results are independent of the source of hBMVEC iron (transferrin or non-transferrin bound) indicating that the model developed here is broadly applicable to brain iron homeostasis.

  15. How art changes your brain: differential effects of visual art production and cognitive art evaluation on functional brain connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolwerk, Anne; Mack-Andrick, Jessica; Lang, Frieder R; Dörfler, Arnd; Maihöfner, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Visual art represents a powerful resource for mental and physical well-being. However, little is known about the underlying effects at a neural level. A critical question is whether visual art production and cognitive art evaluation may have different effects on the functional interplay of the brain's default mode network (DMN). We used fMRI to investigate the DMN of a non-clinical sample of 28 post-retirement adults (63.71 years ±3.52 SD) before (T0) and after (T1) weekly participation in two different 10-week-long art interventions. Participants were randomly assigned to groups stratified by gender and age. In the visual art production group 14 participants actively produced art in an art class. In the cognitive art evaluation group 14 participants cognitively evaluated artwork at a museum. The DMN of both groups was identified by using a seed voxel correlation analysis (SCA) in the posterior cingulated cortex (PCC/preCUN). An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was employed to relate fMRI data to psychological resilience which was measured with the brief German counterpart of the Resilience Scale (RS-11). We observed that the visual art production group showed greater spatial improvement in functional connectivity of PCC/preCUN to the frontal and parietal cortices from T0 to T1 than the cognitive art evaluation group. Moreover, the functional connectivity in the visual art production group was related to psychological resilience (i.e., stress resistance) at T1. Our findings are the first to demonstrate the neural effects of visual art production on psychological resilience in adulthood.

  16. How Art Changes Your Brain: Differential Effects of Visual Art Production and Cognitive Art Evaluation on Functional Brain Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolwerk, Anne; Mack-Andrick, Jessica; Lang, Frieder R.; Dörfler, Arnd; Maihöfner, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Visual art represents a powerful resource for mental and physical well-being. However, little is known about the underlying effects at a neural level. A critical question is whether visual art production and cognitive art evaluation may have different effects on the functional interplay of the brain's default mode network (DMN). We used fMRI to investigate the DMN of a non-clinical sample of 28 post-retirement adults (63.71 years ±3.52 SD) before (T0) and after (T1) weekly participation in two different 10-week-long art interventions. Participants were randomly assigned to groups stratified by gender and age. In the visual art production group 14 participants actively produced art in an art class. In the cognitive art evaluation group 14 participants cognitively evaluated artwork at a museum. The DMN of both groups was identified by using a seed voxel correlation analysis (SCA) in the posterior cingulated cortex (PCC/preCUN). An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was employed to relate fMRI data to psychological resilience which was measured with the brief German counterpart of the Resilience Scale (RS-11). We observed that the visual art production group showed greater spatial improvement in functional connectivity of PCC/preCUN to the frontal and parietal cortices from T0 to T1 than the cognitive art evaluation group. Moreover, the functional connectivity in the visual art production group was related to psychological resilience (i.e., stress resistance) at T1. Our findings are the first to demonstrate the neural effects of visual art production on psychological resilience in adulthood. PMID:24983951

  17. Activated and deactivated functional brain areas in the Deqi state

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yong; Zeng, Tongjun; Zhang, Guifeng; Li, Ganlong; Lu, Na; Lai, Xinsheng; Lu, Yangjia; Chen, Jiarong

    2012-01-01

    We compared the activities of functional regions of the brain in the Deqi versus non-Deqi state, as reported by physicians and subjects during acupuncture. Twelve healthy volunteers received sham and true needling at the Waiguan (TE5) acupoint. Real-time cerebral functional MRI showed that compared with non-sensation after sham needling, true needling activated Brodmann areas 3, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 20, 21, 37, 39, 40, 43, and 47, the head of the caudate nucleus, the parahippocampal gyrus, th...

  18. Global diffusion tensor imaging derived metrics differentiate glioblastoma multiforme vs. normal brains by using discriminant analysis: introduction of a novel whole-brain approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto; Rios, Camilo; Cortez-Conradis, David; Favila, Rafael; Moreno-Jimenez, Sergio

    2014-06-01

    Histological behavior of glioblastoma multiforme suggests it would benefit more from a global rather than regional evaluation. A global (whole-brain) calculation of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) derived tensor metrics offers a valid method to detect the integrity of white matter structures without missing infiltrated brain areas not seen in conventional sequences. In this study we calculated a predictive model of brain infiltration in patients with glioblastoma using global tensor metrics. Retrospective, case and control study; 11 global DTI-derived tensor metrics were calculated in 27 patients with glioblastoma multiforme and 34 controls: mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, pure isotropic diffusion, pure anisotropic diffusion, the total magnitude of the diffusion tensor, linear tensor, planar tensor, spherical tensor, relative anisotropy, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity. The multivariate discriminant analysis of these variables (including age) with a diagnostic test evaluation was performed. The simultaneous analysis of 732 measures from 12 continuous variables in 61 subjects revealed one discriminant model that significantly differentiated normal brains and brains with glioblastoma: Wilks' λ = 0.324, χ(2) (3) = 38.907, p tensor and linear tensor. These metrics might be clinically applied for diagnosis, follow-up, and the study of other neurological diseases.

  19. Guiding transcranial brain stimulation by EEG/MEG to interact with ongoing brain activity and associated functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thut, Gregor; Bergmann, Til Ole; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    of NTBS with respect to the ongoing brain activity. Temporal patterns of ongoing neuronal activity, in particular brain oscillations and their fluctuations, can be traced with electro- or magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG), to guide the timing as well as the stimulation settings of NTBS. These novel, online...... and offline EEG/MEG-guided NTBS-approaches are tailored to specifically interact with the underlying brain activity. Online EEG/MEG has been used to guide the timing of NTBS (i.e., when to stimulate): by taking into account instantaneous phase or power of oscillatory brain activity, NTBS can be aligned......Non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation (NTBS) techniques have a wide range of applications but also suffer from a number of limitations mainly related to poor specificity of intervention and variable effect size. These limitations motivated recent efforts to focus on the temporal dimension...

  20. Pathway data concerning differentiation and activation of macrophage - DMPD | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us DMPD Pathway data concerning differentiation and activation of macrophage Data detail Data name Pathway data concern...scription of data contents Pathways concerning differentiation and activation of macrophage extracted from t...tory of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Pathway data concerning differentiation and activation of macrophage - DMPD | LSDB Archive ...

  1. Differential actigraphy for monitoring asymmetry in upper limb motor activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabuffetti, M; Meriggi, P; Pagliari, C; Bartolomeo, P; Ferrarin, M

    2016-09-21

    Most applications of accelerometry-based actigraphy require a single sensor, properly located onto the body, to estimate, for example, the level of activity or the energy expenditure. Some approaches adopt a multi-sensor setup to improve those analyses or to classify different types of activity. The specific case of two symmetrically placed actigraphs allowing, by some kind of differential analysis, for the assessment of asymmetric motor behaviors, has been considered in relatively few studies. This article presents a novel method for differential actigraphy, which requires the synchronized measurements of two triaxial accelerometers (programmable eZ430-Chronos, Texas Instruments, USA) placed symmetrically on both wrists. The method involved the definition of a robust epoch-related activity index and its implementation on-board the adopted programmable platform. Finally, the activity recordings from both sensors allowed us to define a novel asymmetry index AR 24 h ranging from  -100% (only the left arm moves) to  +100% (only the right arm moves) with null value marking a perfect symmetrical behavior. The accuracy of the AR 24 h index was 1.3%. Round-the-clock monitoring on 31 healthy participants (20-79 years old, 10 left handed) provided for the AR 24 h reference data (range  -5% to 21%) and a fairly good correlation to the clinical handedness index (r  =  0.66, p  <  0.001). A subset of 20 participants repeated the monitoring one week apart evidencing an excellent test-retest reliability (r  =  0.70, p  <  0.001). Such figures support future applications of the methodology for the study of pathologies involving motor asymmetries, such as in patients with motor hemisyndromes and, in general, for those subjects for whom a quantification of the asymmetry in daily motor performances is required to complement laboratory tests.

  2. Neurofeedback Tunes Scale-Free Dynamics in Spontaneous Brain Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, T; Frewen, P; Théberge, J; Michela, A; Kluetsch, R; Mueller, A; Candrian, G; Jetly, R; Vuilleumier, P; Lanius, R A

    2017-10-01

    Brain oscillations exhibit long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs), which reflect the regularity of their fluctuations: low values representing more random (decorrelated) while high values more persistent (correlated) dynamics. LRTCs constitute supporting evidence that the brain operates near criticality, a state where neuronal activities are balanced between order and randomness. Here, healthy adults used closed-loop brain training (neurofeedback, NFB) to reduce the amplitude of alpha oscillations, producing a significant increase in spontaneous LRTCs post-training. This effect was reproduced in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder, where abnormally random dynamics were reversed by NFB, correlating with significant improvements in hyperarousal. Notably, regions manifesting abnormally low LRTCs (i.e., excessive randomness) normalized toward healthy population levels, consistent with theoretical predictions about self-organized criticality. Hence, when exposed to appropriate training, spontaneous cortical activity reveals a residual capacity for "self-tuning" its own temporal complexity, despite manifesting the abnormal dynamics seen in individuals with psychiatric disorder. Lastly, we observed an inverse-U relationship between strength of LRTC and oscillation amplitude, suggesting a breakdown of long-range dependence at high/low synchronization extremes, in line with recent computational models. Together, our findings offer a broader mechanistic framework for motivating research and clinical applications of NFB, encompassing disorders with perturbed LRTCs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Differential recruitment of theory of mind brain network across three tasks: An independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thye, Melissa D; Ammons, Carla J; Murdaugh, Donna L; Kana, Rajesh K

    2018-07-16

    Social neuroscience research has focused on an identified network of brain regions primarily associated with processing Theory of Mind (ToM). However, ToM is a broad cognitive process, which encompasses several sub-processes, such as mental state detection and intentional attribution, and the connectivity of brain regions underlying the broader ToM network in response to paradigms assessing these sub-processes requires further characterization. Standard fMRI analyses which focus only on brain activity cannot capture information about ToM processing at a network level. An alternative method, independent component analysis (ICA), is a data-driven technique used to isolate intrinsic connectivity networks, and this approach provides insight into network-level regional recruitment. In this fMRI study, three complementary, but distinct ToM tasks assessing mental state detection (e.g. RMIE: Reading the Mind in the Eyes; RMIV: Reading the Mind in the Voice) and intentional attribution (Causality task) were each analyzed using ICA in order to separately characterize the recruitment and functional connectivity of core nodes in the ToM network in response to the sub-processes of ToM. Based on visual comparison of the derived networks for each task, the spatiotemporal network patterns were similar between the RMIE and RMIV tasks, which elicited mentalizing about the mental states of others, and these networks differed from the network derived for the Causality task, which elicited mentalizing about goal-directed actions. The medial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and right inferior frontal gyrus were seen in the components with the highest correlation with the task condition for each of the tasks highlighting the role of these regions in general ToM processing. Using a data-driven approach, the current study captured the differences in task-related brain response to ToM in three distinct ToM paradigms. The findings of this study further elucidate the neural mechanisms associated

  4. Changes in spontaneous brain activity in early Parkinson's disease.

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    Yang, Hong; Zhou, Xiaohong Joe; Zhang, Min-Ming; Zheng, Xu-Ning; Zhao, Yi-Lei; Wang, Jue

    2013-08-09

    Resting state brain activity can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). The purpose of the present study was (a) to investigate abnormal spontaneous neuronal activity in early PD patients using resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) with a regional homogeneity (ReHo) method and (b) to demonstrate the potential of using changes in abnormal spontaneous neuronal activity for monitoring the progression of PD during its early stages. Seventeen early PD patients were assessed with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), the Hoehn and Yahr disability scale and the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) were compared with seventeen gender- and age-matched healthy controls. All subjects underwent MRI scans using a 1.5T General Electric Signa Excite II scanner. The MRI scan protocol included whole-brain volumetric imaging using a 3D inversion recovery prepared (IR-Prep) fast spoiled gradient-echo pulse sequence and 2D multi-slice (22 axial slices covering the whole brain) resting-state fMRI using an echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence. Images were analyzed in SPM5 together with a ReHo algorithm using the in-house software program REST. A corrected threshold of pbrain regions, including the left cerebellum, left parietal lobe, right middle temporal lobe, right sub-thalamic nucleus areas, right superior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus (MFG), right inferior parietal lobe (IPL), right precuneus lobe, left MFG and left IPL. Additionally, significantly reduced ReHo was also observed in the early PD patients in the following brain regions: the left putamen, left inferior frontal gyrus, right hippocampus, right anterior cingulum, and bilateral lingual gyrus. Moreover, in PD patients, ReHo in the left putamen was negatively correlated with the UPDRS scores (r=-0.69). These results indicate that the abnormal resting state spontaneous brain activity associated with patients with early PD can be revealed by Reho analysis. Copyright

  5. Localizing Brain Activity from Multiple Distinct Sources via EEG

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    George Dassios

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An important question arousing in the framework of electroencephalography (EEG is the possibility to recognize, by means of a recorded surface potential, the number of activated areas in the brain. In the present paper, employing a homogeneous spherical conductor serving as an approximation of the brain, we provide a criterion which determines whether the measured surface potential is evoked by a single or multiple localized neuronal excitations. We show that the uniqueness of the inverse problem for a single dipole is closely connected with attaining certain relations connecting the measured data. Further, we present the necessary and sufficient conditions which decide whether the collected data originates from a single dipole or from numerous dipoles. In the case where the EEG data arouses from multiple parallel dipoles, an isolation of the source is, in general, not possible.

  6. Distinguishing rhythmic from non-rhythmic brain activity during rest in healthy neurocognitive aging.

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    Caplan, Jeremy B; Bottomley, Monica; Kang, Pardeep; Dixon, Roger A

    2015-05-15

    Rhythmic brain activity at low frequencies (healthy neurocognitive aging are mixed. Here we address two reasons conventional spectral analyses may have led to inconsistent results. First, spectral-power measures are compared to a baseline condition; when resting activity is the signal of interest, it is unclear what the baseline should be. Second, conventional methods do not clearly differentiate power due to rhythmic versus non-rhythmic activity. The Better OSCillation detection method (BOSC; Caplan et al., 2001; Whitten et al., 2011) avoids these problems by using the signal's own spectral characteristics as a reference to detect elevations in power lasting a few cycles. We recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) signal during rest, alternating eyes open and closed, in healthy younger (18-25 years) and older (60-74 years) participants. Topographic plots suggested the conventional and BOSC analyses measured different sources of activity, particularly at frequencies, like delta (1-4Hz), at which rhythms are sporadic; topographies were more similar in the 8-12Hz alpha band. There was little theta-band activity meeting the BOSC method's criteria, suggesting prior findings of theta power in healthy aging may reflect non-rhythmic signal. In contrast, delta oscillations were present at higher levels than theta in both age groups. In summary, applying strict and standardized criteria for rhythmicity, slow rhythms appear present in the resting brain at delta and alpha, but not theta frequencies, and appear unchanged in healthy aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Promoter characteristics of two cyp19 genes differentially expressed in the brain and ovary of teleost fish.

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    Tchoudakova, A; Kishida, M; Wood, E; Callard, G V

    2001-11-01

    Teleost fish are characterized by exceptionally high levels of neural estrogen biosynthesis when compared with the brains of other vertebrates or to the ovaries of the same fish. Two P450arom mRNAs which derive from separate gene loci (cyp19a and cyp19b) are differentially expressed in brain (b>a) and ovary (a>b) and have a different developmental program (b>a) and estrogen upregulation (b only). A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genomic walking strategy was used to isolate the 5'-flanking regions of the goldfish (Carassius auratus) cyp19 genes. Sequence analysis of the cyp19b gene approximately 1.8 kb upstream of the transcription start site revealed a TATA box at nucleotide (nt) -30, two estrogen responsive elements (EREs; nt -351 and -211) and a consensus binding site (NBRE) for nerve growth factor inducible-B protein (NGFI-B/Nur77) at -286, which includes another ERE half-site. Also present were a sequence at nt -399 (CCCTCCT) required for neural specificity of the zebrafish GATA-2 gene, and 16 copies of an SRY/SOX binding motif. The 5'-flanking region ( approximately 1.0 kb) of the cyp19a gene had TATA (nt -48) and CAAT (nt -71) boxes, a steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) binding site (nt -265), eight copies of the SRY/SOX motif, and two copies of a recognition site for binding the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR)/AhR nuclear translocator factor (ARNT) heterodimer. Both genes had elements previously identified in the brain specific exon I promoter of the mouse aromatase gene. Cyp19a- and -b/luciferase constructs showed basal promoter activity in aromatase-expressing rodent pituitary (GH3) cells, but differences (a>b) did not reflect expression in fish pituitary in vivo (b>a), implying a lack of appropriate cell factors. Consistent with the onset of cyp19b expression in zebrafish embryos, microinjection of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter plasmid into fertilized eggs revealed labeling in neural tissues at 30-48 h post-fertilization (hpf), most

  8. Resting-state brain activity in adult males who stutter.

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    Yun Xuan

    Full Text Available Although developmental stuttering has been extensively studied with structural and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, few studies have focused on resting-state brain activity in this disorder. We investigated resting-state brain activity of stuttering subjects by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF, region of interest (ROI-based functional connectivity (FC and independent component analysis (ICA-based FC. Forty-four adult males with developmental stuttering and 46 age-matched fluent male controls were scanned using resting-state fMRI. ALFF, ROI-based FCs and ICA-based FCs were compared between male stuttering subjects and fluent controls in a voxel-wise manner. Compared with fluent controls, stuttering subjects showed increased ALFF in left brain areas related to speech motor and auditory functions and bilateral prefrontal cortices related to cognitive control. However, stuttering subjects showed decreased ALFF in the left posterior language reception area and bilateral non-speech motor areas. ROI-based FC analysis revealed decreased FC between the posterior language area involved in the perception and decoding of sensory information and anterior brain area involved in the initiation of speech motor function, as well as increased FC within anterior or posterior speech- and language-associated areas and between the prefrontal areas and default-mode network (DMN in stuttering subjects. ICA showed that stuttering subjects had decreased FC in the DMN and increased FC in the sensorimotor network. Our findings support the concept that stuttering subjects have deficits in multiple functional systems (motor, language, auditory and DMN and in the connections between them.

  9. Resting-State Brain Activity in Adult Males Who Stutter

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    Zhu, Chaozhe; Wang, Liang; Yan, Qian; Lin, Chunlan; Yu, Chunshui

    2012-01-01

    Although developmental stuttering has been extensively studied with structural and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), few studies have focused on resting-state brain activity in this disorder. We investigated resting-state brain activity of stuttering subjects by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), region of interest (ROI)-based functional connectivity (FC) and independent component analysis (ICA)-based FC. Forty-four adult males with developmental stuttering and 46 age-matched fluent male controls were scanned using resting-state fMRI. ALFF, ROI-based FCs and ICA-based FCs were compared between male stuttering subjects and fluent controls in a voxel-wise manner. Compared with fluent controls, stuttering subjects showed increased ALFF in left brain areas related to speech motor and auditory functions and bilateral prefrontal cortices related to cognitive control. However, stuttering subjects showed decreased ALFF in the left posterior language reception area and bilateral non-speech motor areas. ROI-based FC analysis revealed decreased FC between the posterior language area involved in the perception and decoding of sensory information and anterior brain area involved in the initiation of speech motor function, as well as increased FC within anterior or posterior speech- and language-associated areas and between the prefrontal areas and default-mode network (DMN) in stuttering subjects. ICA showed that stuttering subjects had decreased FC in the DMN and increased FC in the sensorimotor network. Our findings support the concept that stuttering subjects have deficits in multiple functional systems (motor, language, auditory and DMN) and in the connections between them. PMID:22276215

  10. Seizures, refractory status epilepticus, and depolarization block as endogenous brain activities

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    El Houssaini, Kenza; Ivanov, Anton I.; Bernard, Christophe; Jirsa, Viktor K.

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy, refractory status epilepticus, and depolarization block are pathological brain activities whose mechanisms are poorly understood. Using a generic mathematical model of seizure activity, we show that these activities coexist under certain conditions spanning the range of possible brain activities. We perform a detailed bifurcation analysis and predict strategies to escape from some of the pathological states. Experimental results using rodent data provide support of the model, highlighting the concept that these pathological activities belong to the endogenous repertoire of brain activities.

  11. Amplitude-modulated stimuli reveal auditory-visual interactions in brain activity and brain connectivity.

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    Laing, Mark; Rees, Adrian; Vuong, Quoc C

    2015-01-01

    The temporal congruence between auditory and visual signals coming from the same source can be a powerful means by which the brain integrates information from different senses. To investigate how the brain uses temporal information to integrate auditory and visual information from continuous yet unfamiliar stimuli, we used amplitude-modulated tones and size-modulated shapes with which we could manipulate the temporal congruence between the sensory signals. These signals were independently modulated at a slow or a fast rate. Participants were presented with auditory-only, visual-only, or auditory-visual (AV) trials in the fMRI scanner. On AV trials, the auditory and visual signal could have the same (AV congruent) or different modulation rates (AV incongruent). Using psychophysiological interaction analyses, we found that auditory regions showed increased functional connectivity predominantly with frontal regions for AV incongruent relative to AV congruent stimuli. We further found that superior temporal regions, shown previously to integrate auditory and visual signals, showed increased connectivity with frontal and parietal regions for the same contrast. Our findings provide evidence that both activity in a network of brain regions and their connectivity are important for AV integration, and help to bridge the gap between transient and familiar AV stimuli used in previous studies.

  12. Amplitude-modulated stimuli reveal auditory-visual interactions in brain activity and brain connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eLaing

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The temporal congruence between auditory and visual signals coming from the same source can be a powerful means by which the brain integrates information from different senses. To investigate how the brain uses temporal information to integrate auditory and visual information from continuous yet unfamiliar stimuli, we use amplitude-modulated tones and size-modulated shapes with which we could manipulate the temporal congruence between the sensory signals. These signals were independently modulated at a slow or a fast rate. Participants were presented with auditory-only, visual-only or auditory-visual (AV trials in the scanner. On AV trials, the auditory and visual signal could have the same (AV congruent or different modulation rates (AV incongruent. Using psychophysiological interaction analyses, we found that auditory regions showed increased functional connectivity predominantly with frontal regions for AV incongruent relative to AV congruent stimuli. We further found that superior temporal regions, shown previously to integrate auditory and visual signals, showed increased connectivity with frontal and parietal regions for the same contrast. Our findings provide evidence that both activity in a network of brain regions and their connectivity are important for auditory-visual integration, and help to bridge the gap between transient and familiar AV stimuli used in previous studies.

  13. Brain activation to facial expressions in youth with PTSD symptoms.

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    Garrett, Amy S; Carrion, Victor; Kletter, Hilit; Karchemskiy, Asya; Weems, Carl F; Reiss, Allan

    2012-05-01

    This study examined activation to facial expressions in youth with a history of interpersonal trauma and current posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) compared to healthy controls (HC). Twenty-three medication-naive youth with PTSS and 23 age- and gender-matched HC underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while viewing fearful, angry, sad, happy, and neutral faces. Data were analyzed for group differences in location of activation, as well as timing of activation during the early versus late phase of the block. Using SPM5, significant activation (P effect of group was identified. Activation from selected clusters was extracted to SPSS software for further analysis of specific facial expressions and temporal patterns of activation. The PTSS group showed significantly greater activation than controls in several regions, including the amygdala/hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, insula, and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and less activation than controls in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). These group differences in activation were greatest during angry, happy, and neutral faces, and predominantly during the early phase of the block. Post hoc analyses showed significant Group × Phase interactions in the right amygdala and left hippocampus. Traumatic stress may impact development of brain regions important for emotion processing. Timing of activation may be altered in youth with PTSS. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Brain activity associated with selective attention, divided attention and distraction.

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    Salo, Emma; Salmela, Viljami; Salmi, Juha; Numminen, Jussi; Alho, Kimmo

    2017-06-01

    Top-down controlled selective or divided attention to sounds and visual objects, as well as bottom-up triggered attention to auditory and visual distractors, has been widely investigated. However, no study has systematically compared brain activations related to all these types of attention. To this end, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain activity in participants performing a tone pitch or a foveal grating orientation discrimination task, or both, distracted by novel sounds not sharing frequencies with the tones or by extrafoveal visual textures. To force focusing of attention to tones or gratings, or both, task difficulty was kept constantly high with an adaptive staircase method. A whole brain analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed fronto-parietal attention networks for both selective auditory and visual attention. A subsequent conjunction analysis indicated partial overlaps of these networks. However, like some previous studies, the present results also suggest segregation of prefrontal areas involved in the control of auditory and visual attention. The ANOVA also suggested, and another conjunction analysis confirmed, an additional activity enhancement in the left middle frontal gyrus related to divided attention supporting the role of this area in top-down integration of dual task performance. Distractors expectedly disrupted task performance. However, contrary to our expectations, activations specifically related to the distractors were found only in the auditory and visual cortices. This suggests gating of the distractors from further processing perhaps due to strictly focused attention in the current demanding discrimination tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Classification of types of stuttering symptoms based on brain activity.

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    Jing Jiang

    Full Text Available Among the non-fluencies seen in speech, some are more typical (MT of stuttering speakers, whereas others are less typical (LT and are common to both stuttering and fluent speakers. No neuroimaging work has evaluated the neural basis for grouping these symptom types. Another long-debated issue is which type (LT, MT whole-word repetitions (WWR should be placed in. In this study, a sentence completion task was performed by twenty stuttering patients who were scanned using an event-related design. This task elicited stuttering in these patients. Each stuttered trial from each patient was sorted into the MT or LT types with WWR put aside. Pattern classification was employed to train a patient-specific single trial model to automatically classify each trial as MT or LT using the corresponding fMRI data. This model was then validated by using test data that were independent of the training data. In a subsequent analysis, the classification model, just established, was used to determine which type the WWR should be placed in. The results showed that the LT and the MT could be separated with high accuracy based on their brain activity. The brain regions that made most contribution to the separation of the types were: the left inferior frontal cortex and bilateral precuneus, both of which showed higher activity in the MT than in the LT; and the left putamen and right cerebellum which showed the opposite activity pattern. The results also showed that the brain activity for WWR was more similar to that of the LT and fluent speech than to that of the MT. These findings provide a neurological basis for separating the MT and the LT types, and support the widely-used MT/LT symptom grouping scheme. In addition, WWR play a similar role as the LT, and thus should be placed in the LT type.

  16. Classification of Types of Stuttering Symptoms Based on Brain Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Lu, Chunming; Peng, Danling; Zhu, Chaozhe; Howell, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Among the non-fluencies seen in speech, some are more typical (MT) of stuttering speakers, whereas others are less typical (LT) and are common to both stuttering and fluent speakers. No neuroimaging work has evaluated the neural basis for grouping these symptom types. Another long-debated issue is which type (LT, MT) whole-word repetitions (WWR) should be placed in. In this study, a sentence completion task was performed by twenty stuttering patients who were scanned using an event-related design. This task elicited stuttering in these patients. Each stuttered trial from each patient was sorted into the MT or LT types with WWR put aside. Pattern classification was employed to train a patient-specific single trial model to automatically classify each trial as MT or LT using the corresponding fMRI data. This model was then validated by using test data that were independent of the training data. In a subsequent analysis, the classification model, just established, was used to determine which type the WWR should be placed in. The results showed that the LT and the MT could be separated with high accuracy based on their brain activity. The brain regions that made most contribution to the separation of the types were: the left inferior frontal cortex and bilateral precuneus, both of which showed higher activity in the MT than in the LT; and the left putamen and right cerebellum which showed the opposite activity pattern. The results also showed that the brain activity for WWR was more similar to that of the LT and fluent speech than to that of the MT. These findings provide a neurological basis for separating the MT and the LT types, and support the widely-used MT/LT symptom grouping scheme. In addition, WWR play a similar role as the LT, and thus should be placed in the LT type. PMID:22761887

  17. Bilobalide induces neuronal differentiation of P19 embryonic carcinoma cells via activating Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei; Guo, Jingjing; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Luyong; Pang, Tao; Liao, Hong

    2014-08-01

    Bilobalide, a natural product extracted from Ginkgo biloba leaf, is known to exhibit a number of pharmacological activities. So far, whether it could affect embryonic stem cell differentiation is still unknown. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of bilobalide on P19 embryonic carcinoma cells differentiation and the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that bilobalide induced P19 cells differentiation into neurons in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. We also found that bilobalide promoted neuronal differentiation through activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Exposure to bilobalide increased inactive GSK-3β phosphorylation, further induced the nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, and also up-regulated the expression of Wnt ligands Wnt1 and Wnt7a. Neuronal differentiation induced by bilobalide was totally abolished by XAV939, an inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. These results revealed a novel role of bilobalide in neuronal differentiation from P19 embryonic cells acting through Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which would provide a better insight into the beneficial effects of bilobalide in brain diseases.

  18. Brain Activity Associated with Emoticons: An fMRI Study

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    Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

    In this paper, we describe that brain activities associated with emoticons by using fMRI. In communication over a computer network, we use abstract faces such as computer graphics (CG) avatars and emoticons. These faces convey users' emotions and enrich their communications. However, the manner in which these faces influence the mental process is as yet unknown. The human brain may perceive the abstract face in an entirely different manner, depending on its level of reality. We conducted an experiment using fMRI in order to investigate the effects of emoticons. The results show that right inferior frontal gyrus, which associated with nonverbal communication, is activated by emoticons. Since the emoticons were created to reflect the real human facial expressions as accurately as possible, we believed that they would activate the right fusiform gyrus. However, this region was not found to be activated during the experiment. This finding is useful in understanding how abstract faces affect our behaviors and decision-making in communication over a computer network.

  19. The sequential structure of brain activation predicts skill.

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    Anderson, John R; Bothell, Daniel; Fincham, Jon M; Moon, Jungaa

    2016-01-29

    In an fMRI study, participants were trained to play a complex video game. They were scanned early and then again after substantial practice. While better players showed greater activation in one region (right dorsal striatum) their relative skill was better diagnosed by considering the sequential structure of whole brain activation. Using a cognitive model that played this game, we extracted a characterization of the mental states that are involved in playing a game and the statistical structure of the transitions among these states. There was a strong correspondence between this measure of sequential structure and the skill of different players. Using multi-voxel pattern analysis, it was possible to recognize, with relatively high accuracy, the cognitive states participants were in during particular scans. We used the sequential structure of these activation-recognized states to predict the skill of individual players. These findings indicate that important features about information-processing strategies can be identified from a model-based analysis of the sequential structure of brain activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Distributed patterns of brain activity that lead to forgetting

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    Ilke eOztekin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Proactive interference (PI, in which irrelevant information from prior learning disrupts memory performance, is widely viewed as a major cause of forgetting. However, the hypothesized spontaneous recovery (i.e. automatic retrieval of interfering information presumed to be at the base of PI remains to be demonstrated directly. Moreover, it remains unclear at what point during learning and/or retrieval interference impacts memory performance. In order to resolve these open questions, we employed a machine-learning algorithm to identify distributed patterns of brain activity associated with retrieval of interfering information that engenders PI and causes forgetting. Participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging during an item recognition task. We induced PI by constructing sets of three consecutive study lists from the same semantic category. The classifier quantified the magnitude of category-related activity at encoding and retrieval. Category-specific activity during retrieval increased across lists, consistent with the category information becoming increasingly available and producing interference. Critically, this increase was correlated with individual differences in forgetting and the deployment of frontal lobe mechanisms that resolve interference. Collectively, these findings suggest that distributed patterns of brain activity pertaining to the interfering information during retrieval contribute to forgetting. The prefrontal cortex mediates the relationship between the spontaneous recovery of interfering information at retrieval and individual differences in memory performance.

  1. Dynamic changes in brain activity during prism adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luauté, Jacques; Schwartz, Sophie; Rossetti, Yves; Spiridon, Mona; Rode, Gilles; Boisson, Dominique; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2009-01-07

    Prism adaptation does not only induce short-term sensorimotor plasticity, but also longer-term reorganization in the neural representation of space. We used event-related fMRI to study dynamic changes in brain activity during both early and prolonged exposure to visual prisms. Participants performed a pointing task before, during, and after prism exposure. Measures of trial-by-trial pointing errors and corrections allowed parametric analyses of brain activity as a function of performance. We show that during the earliest phase of prism exposure, anterior intraparietal sulcus was primarily implicated in error detection, whereas parieto-occipital sulcus was implicated in error correction. Cerebellum activity showed progressive increases during prism exposure, in accordance with a key role for spatial realignment. This time course further suggests that the cerebellum might promote neural changes in superior temporal cortex, which was selectively activated during the later phase of prism exposure and could mediate the effects of prism adaptation on cognitive spatial representations.

  2. Intrinsic resting-state activity predicts working memory brain activation and behavioral performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Qihong; Ross, Thomas J; Gu, Hong; Geng, Xiujuan; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Hong, L Elliot; Gao, Jia-Hong; Stein, Elliot A; Zang, Yu-Feng; Yang, Yihong

    2013-12-01

    Although resting-state brain activity has been demonstrated to correspond with task-evoked brain activation, the relationship between intrinsic and evoked brain activity has not been fully characterized. For example, it is unclear whether intrinsic activity can also predict task-evoked deactivation and whether the rest-task relationship is dependent on task load. In this study, we addressed these issues on 40 healthy control subjects using resting-state and task-driven [N-back working memory (WM) task] functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected in the same session. Using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) as an index of intrinsic resting-state activity, we found that ALFF in the middle frontal gyrus and inferior/superior parietal lobules was positively correlated with WM task-evoked activation, while ALFF in the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, superior frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and fusiform gyrus was negatively correlated with WM task-evoked deactivation. Further, the relationship between the intrinsic resting-state activity and task-evoked activation in lateral/superior frontal gyri, inferior/superior parietal lobules, superior temporal gyrus, and midline regions was stronger at higher WM task loads. In addition, both resting-state activity and the task-evoked activation in the superior parietal lobule/precuneus were significantly correlated with the WM task behavioral performance, explaining similar portions of intersubject performance variance. Together, these findings suggest that intrinsic resting-state activity facilitates or is permissive of specific brain circuit engagement to perform a cognitive task, and that resting activity can predict subsequent task-evoked brain responses and behavioral performance. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Brain activation in motor sequence learning is related to the level of native cortical excitability.

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    Silke Lissek

    Full Text Available Cortical excitability may be subject to changes through training and learning. Motor training can increase cortical excitability in motor cortex, and facilitation of motor cortical excitability has been shown to be positively correlated with improvements in performance in simple motor tasks. Thus cortical excitability may tentatively be considered as a marker of learning and use-dependent plasticity. Previous studies focused on changes in cortical excitability brought about by learning processes, however, the relation between native levels of cortical excitability on the one hand and brain activation and behavioral parameters on the other is as yet unknown. In the present study we investigated the role of differential native motor cortical excitability for learning a motor sequencing task with regard to post-training changes in excitability, behavioral performance and involvement of brain regions. Our motor task required our participants to reproduce and improvise over a pre-learned motor sequence. Over both task conditions, participants with low cortical excitability (CElo showed significantly higher BOLD activation in task-relevant brain regions than participants with high cortical excitability (CEhi. In contrast, CElo and CEhi groups did not exhibit differences in percentage of correct responses and improvisation level. Moreover, cortical excitability did not change significantly after learning and training in either group, with the exception of a significant decrease in facilitatory excitability in the CEhi group. The present data suggest that the native, unmanipulated level of cortical excitability is related to brain activation intensity, but not to performance quality. The higher BOLD mean signal intensity during the motor task might reflect a compensatory mechanism in CElo participants.

  4. Differential activation of G-proteins by μ-opioid receptor agonists

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    Saidak, Zuzana; Blake-Palmer, Katherine; Hay, Debbie L; Northup, John K; Glass, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the ability of the activated μ-opioid receptor (MOR) to differentiate between myristoylated Gαi1 and GαoA type Gα proteins, and the maximal activity of a range of synthetic and endogenous agonists to activate each Gα protein. Membranes from HEK293 cells stably expressing transfected MOR were chaotrope extracted to denature endogenous G-proteins and reconstituted with specific purified G-proteins. The Gα subunits were generated in bacteria and were demonstrated to be recognised equivalently to bovine brain purified Gα protein by CB1 cannabinoid receptors. The ability of agonists to catalyse the MOR-dependent GDP/[35S]GTPγS exchange was then compared for Gαi1 and GαoA. Activation of MOR by DAMGO produced a high-affinity saturable interaction for GαoA (Km=20±1 nM) but a low-affinity interaction with Gαi1 (Km=116±12 nM). DAMGO, met-enkephalin and leucine-enkephalin displayed maximal Gα activation among the agonists evaluated. Endomorphins 1 and 2, methadone and β-endorphin activated both Gα to more than 75% of the maximal response, whereas fentanyl partially activated both G-proteins. Buprenorphine and morphine demonstrated a statistically significant difference between the maximal activities between Gαi1 and GαoA. Interestingly, DAMGO, morphine, endomorphins 1 and 2, displayed significant differences in the potencies for the activation of the two Gα. Differences in maximal activity and potency, for Gαi1 versus GαoA, are both indicative of agonist selective activation of G-proteins in response to MOR activation. These findings may provide a starting point for the design of drugs that demonstrate greater selectivity between these two G-proteins and therefore produce a more limited range of effects. PMID:16415903

  5. Differential temporal control of Foxa.a and Zic-r.b specifies brain versus notochord fate in the ascidian embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Tatsuro; Satou, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    In embryos of an invertebrate chordate, Ciona intestinalis, two transcription factors, Foxa.a and Zic-r.b, are required for specification of the brain and the notochord, which are derived from distinct cell lineages. In the brain lineage, Foxa.a and Zic-r.b are expressed with no temporal overlap. In the notochord lineage, Foxa.a and Zic-r.b are expressed simultaneously. In the present study, we found that the temporally non-overlapping expression of Foxa.a and Zic-r.b in the brain lineage was regulated by three repressors: Prdm1-r.a (formerly called BZ1), Prdm1-r.b (BZ2) and Hes.a. In morphant embryos of these three repressor genes, Foxa.a expression was not terminated at the normal time, and Zic-r.b was precociously expressed. Consequently, Foxa.a and Zic-r.b were expressed simultaneously, which led to ectopic activation of Brachyury and its downstream pathways for notochord differentiation. Thus, temporal controls by transcriptional repressors are essential for specification of the two distinct fates of brain and notochord by Foxa.a and Zic-r.b Such a mechanism might enable the repeated use of a limited repertoire of transcription factors in developmental gene regulatory networks. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Organizing effects of sex steroids on brain aromatase activity in quail.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte A Cornil

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Preoptic/hypothalamic aromatase activity (AA is sexually differentiated in birds and mammals but the mechanisms controlling this sex difference remain unclear. We determined here (1 brain sites where AA is sexually differentiated and (2 whether this sex difference results from organizing effects of estrogens during ontogeny or activating effects of testosterone in adulthood. In the first experiment we measured AA in brain regions micropunched in adult male and female Japanese quail utilizing the novel strategy of basing the microdissections on the distribution of aromatase-immunoreactive cells. The largest sex difference was found in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (mBST followed by the medial preoptic nucleus (POM and the tuberal hypothalamic region. A second experiment tested the effect of embryonic treatments known to sex-reverse male copulatory behavior (i.e., estradiol benzoate [EB] or the aromatase inhibitor, Vorozole on brain AA in gonadectomized adult males and females chronically treated as adults with testosterone. Embryonic EB demasculinized male copulatory behavior, while vorozole blocked demasculinization of behavior in females as previously demonstrated in birds. Interestingly, these treatments did not affect a measure of appetitive sexual behavior. In parallel, embryonic vorozole increased, while EB decreased AA in pooled POM and mBST, but the same effect was observed in both sexes. Together, these data indicate that the early action of estrogens demasculinizes AA. However, this organizational action of estrogens on AA does not explain the behavioral sex difference in copulatory behavior since AA is similar in testosterone-treated males and females that were or were not exposed to embryonic treatments with estrogens.

  7. The influence of low-grade glioma on resting state oscillatory brain activity: a magnetoencephalography study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, I.; Stam, C.; Douw, L.; Bartolomei, F.; Heimans, J.; Dijk, van B.; Postma, T.; Klein, M.; Reijneveld, J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In the present MEG-study, power spectral analysis of oscillatory brain activity was used to compare resting state brain activity in both low-grade glioma (LGG) patients and healthy controls. We hypothesized that LGG patients show local as well as diffuse slowing of resting state brain

  8. Visual attention modulates brain activation to angry voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothes-Lasch, Martin; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Straube, Thomas

    2011-06-29

    In accordance with influential models proposing prioritized processing of threat, previous studies have shown automatic brain responses to angry prosody in the amygdala and the auditory cortex under auditory distraction conditions. However, it is unknown whether the automatic processing of angry prosody is also observed during cross-modal distraction. The current fMRI study investigated brain responses to angry versus neutral prosodic stimuli during visual distraction. During scanning, participants were exposed to angry or neutral prosodic stimuli while visual symbols were displayed simultaneously. By means of task requirements, participants either attended to the voices or to the visual stimuli. While the auditory task revealed pronounced activation in the auditory cortex and amygdala to angry versus neutral prosody, this effect was absent during the visual task. Thus, our results show a limitation of the automaticity of the activation of the amygdala and auditory cortex to angry prosody. The activation of these areas to threat-related voices depends on modality-specific attention.

  9. Patterns recognition of electric brain activity using artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musatov, V. Yu.; Pchelintseva, S. V.; Runnova, A. E.; Hramov, A. E.

    2017-04-01

    An approach for the recognition of various cognitive processes in the brain activity in the perception of ambiguous images. On the basis of developed theoretical background and the experimental data, we propose a new classification of oscillating patterns in the human EEG by using an artificial neural network approach. After learning of the artificial neural network reliably identified cube recognition processes, for example, left-handed or right-oriented Necker cube with different intensity of their edges, construct an artificial neural network based on Perceptron architecture and demonstrate its effectiveness in the pattern recognition of the EEG in the experimental.

  10. Lost for emotion words: What motor and limbic brain activity reveals about autism and semantic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Rachel L.; Shtyrov, Yury; Mohr, Bettina; Lombardo, Michael V.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are characterised by deficits in understanding and expressing emotions and are frequently accompanied by alexithymia, a difficulty in understanding and expressing emotion words. Words are differentially represented in the brain according to their semantic category and these difficulties in ASC predict reduced activation to emotion-related words in limbic structures crucial for affective processing. Semantic theories view ‘emotion actions’ as critical for learning the semantic relationship between a word and the emotion it describes, such that emotion words typically activate the cortical motor systems involved in expressing emotion actions such as facial expressions. As ASC are also characterised by motor deficits and atypical brain structure and function in these regions, motor structures would also be expected to show reduced activation during emotion-semantic processing. Here we used event-related fMRI to compare passive processing of emotion words in comparison to abstract verbs and animal names in typically-developing controls and individuals with ASC. Relatively reduced brain activation in ASC for emotion words, but not matched control words, was found in motor areas and cingulate cortex specifically. The degree of activation evoked by emotion words in the motor system was also associated with the extent of autistic traits as revealed by the Autism Spectrum Quotient. We suggest that hypoactivation of motor and limbic regions for emotion word processing may underlie difficulties in processing emotional language in ASC. The role that sensorimotor systems and their connections might play in the affective and social-communication difficulties in ASC is discussed. PMID:25278250

  11. Brain activity and desire for internet video game play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Doug Hyun; Bolo, Nicolas; Daniels, Melissa A.; Arenella, Lynn; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Recent studies have suggested that the brain circuitry mediating cue induced desire for video games is similar to that elicited by cues related to drugs and alcohol. We hypothesized that desire for internet video games during cue presentation would activate similar brain regions to those which have been linked with craving for drugs or pathological gambling. Methods This study involved the acquisition of diagnostic MRI and fMRI data from 19 healthy male adults (ages 18–23 years) following training and a standardized 10-day period of game play with a specified novel internet video game, “War Rock” (K-network®). Using segments of videotape consisting of five contiguous 90-second segments of alternating resting, matched control and video game-related scenes, desire to play the game was assessed using a seven point visual analogue scale before and after presentation of the videotape. Results In responding to internet video game stimuli, compared to neutral control stimuli, significantly greater activity was identified in left inferior frontal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, right and left parietal lobe, right and left thalamus, and right cerebellum (FDR video game (MIGP) cohort showed significantly greater activity in right medial frontal lobe, right and left frontal pre-central gyrus, right parietal post-central gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left parietal precuneus gyrus. Controlling for total game time, reported desire for the internet video game in the MIGP cohort was positively correlated with activation in right medial frontal lobe and right parahippocampal gyrus. Discussion The present findings suggest that cue-induced activation to internet video game stimuli may be similar to that observed during cue presentation in persons with substance dependence or pathological gambling. In particular, cues appear to commonly elicit activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal, orbitofrontal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, and thalamus. PMID:21220070

  12. Brain activity and desire for Internet video game play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Doug Hyun; Bolo, Nicolas; Daniels, Melissa A; Arenella, Lynn; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Renshaw, Perry F

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the brain circuitry mediating cue-induced desire for video games is similar to that elicited by cues related to drugs and alcohol. We hypothesized that desire for Internet video games during cue presentation would activate similar brain regions to those that have been linked with craving for drugs or pathologic gambling. This study involved the acquisition of diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 19 healthy male adults (age, 18-23 years) following training and a standardized 10-day period of game play with a specified novel Internet video game, "War Rock" (K2 Network, Irvine, CA). Using segments of videotape consisting of 5 contiguous 90-second segments of alternating resting, matched control, and video game-related scenes, desire to play the game was assessed using a 7-point visual analogue scale before and after presentation of the videotape. In responding to Internet video game stimuli, compared with neutral control stimuli, significantly greater activity was identified in left inferior frontal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, right and left parietal lobe, right and left thalamus, and right cerebellum (false discovery rate Internet video game showed significantly greater activity in right medial frontal lobe, right and left frontal precentral gyrus, right parietal postcentral gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left parietal precuneus gyrus. Controlling for total game time, reported desire for the Internet video game in the subjects who played more Internet video game was positively correlated with activation in right medial frontal lobe and right parahippocampal gyrus. The present findings suggest that cue-induced activation to Internet video game stimuli may be similar to that observed during cue presentation in persons with substance dependence or pathologic gambling. In particular, cues appear to commonly elicit activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal, orbitofrontal

  13. Temperature differentially regulates the two kisspeptin systems in the brain of zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahjahan, Md; Kitahashi, Takashi; Ogawa, Satoshi; Parhar, Ishwar S

    2013-11-01

    Kisspeptins encoded by the kiss1 and kiss2 genes play an important role in reproduction through the stimulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion by activating their receptors (KissR1 EU047918 and KissR2 EU047917). To understand the mechanism through which temperature affects reproduction, we examined kiss1 and kiss2 and their respective receptor (kissr1 and kissr2) gene expression in the brain of male zebrafish exposed to a low temperature (15°C), normal temperature (27°C), and high temperature (35°C) for 7-days. kiss1 mRNA levels in the brain were significantly increased (2.9-fold) in the low temperature compared to the control (27°C), while no noticeable change was observed in the high temperature conditions. Similarly, kissr1 mRNA levels were significantly increased (1.5-2.2-folds) in the low temperature conditions in the habenula, the nucleus of the medial longitudinal fascicle, oculomotor nucleus, and the interpeduncular nucleus. kiss2 mRNA levels were significantly decreased (0.5-fold) in the low and high temperature conditions, concomitant with kissr2 mRNA levels (0.5-fold) in the caudal zone of the periventricular hypothalamus and the posterior tuberal nucleus. gnrh3 but not gnrh2 mRNA levels were also decreased (0.5-fold) in the low and high temperature conditions. These findings suggest that while the kiss1/kissr1 system is sensitive to low temperature, the kiss2/kissr2 system is sensitive to both extremes of temperature, which leads to failure in reproduction. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Expression and activity of the urokinase plasminogen activator system in canine primary brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossmeisl JH

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available John H Rossmeisl,1–3 Kelli Hall-Manning,4 John L Robertson,1,3,5 Jamie N King,1,2 Rafael V Davalos,3,5 Waldemar Debinski,3 Subbiah Elankumaran6,† 1Veterinary and Comparative Neuro-Oncology Laboratory, 2Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, 3The Brain Tumor Center of Excellence, Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center Comprehensive Cancer Center, Winston-Salem, NC, 4Virginia Tech Animal Laboratory Services, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, 5Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Virginia Tech-Wake Forest University School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Tech, 6Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Blacksburg, VA, USA†The authors regret to advise of the passing of Dr Subbiah Elankumaran prior to publicationBackground: The expression of the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein family member, and the activity of its ligand, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA, have been associated with the invasive and metastatic potentials of a variety of human brain tumors through their regulation of extracellular matrix degradation. Domesticated dogs develop naturally occurring brain tumors that share many clinical, phenotypic, molecular, and genetic features with their human counterparts, which has prompted the use of the dogs with spontaneous brain tumors as models to expedite the translation of novel brain tumor therapeutics to humans. There is currently little known regarding the role of the uPA system in canine brain tumorigenesis. The objective of this study was to characterize the expression of uPAR and the activity of uPA in canine brain tumors as justification for the development of uPAR-targeted brain tumor therapeutics in dogs.Methods: We investigated the expression of uPAR in 37 primary canine brain tumors using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, real

  15. Brain activation profiles during kinesthetic and visual imagery: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilintari, Marina; Narayana, Shalini; Babajani-Feremi, Abbas; Rezaie, Roozbeh; Papanicolaou, Andrew C

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify brain regions involved in motor imagery and differentiate two alternative strategies in its implementation: imagining a motor act using kinesthetic or visual imagery. Fourteen adults were precisely instructed and trained on how to imagine themselves or others perform a movement sequence, with the aim of promoting kinesthetic and visual imagery, respectively, in the context of an fMRI experiment using block design. We found that neither modality of motor imagery elicits activation of the primary motor cortex and that each of the two modalities involves activation of the premotor area which is also activated during action execution and action observation conditions, as well as of the supplementary motor area. Interestingly, the visual and the posterior cingulate cortices show reduced BOLD signal during both imagery conditions. Our results indicate that the networks of regions activated in kinesthetic and visual imagery of motor sequences show a substantial, while not complete overlap, and that the two forms of motor imagery lead to a differential suppression of visual areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Brain Chagas'disease: increasing differential diagnosis of brain mass in immunosuppressed patients - a case report and literature revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, Laercio Leitao; centola, Crescencio A.P.; Kakudate, Milton Y.

    1995-01-01

    The authors present a case of Chagas'disease as tumor-like lesion of the brain, in a patient with Aids, simulating the lesions most frequently found in these patients, as toxoplasmosis, lymphoma and cryptococcosis. Furthermore, the case reported have peculiarity to be the only with lesion documented in cerebellum, and unusual due to be secondary by reactivation of chronic Chagas disease. Moreover, emphasize analysis of cerebrospinal fluid with realization of sorologic tests to Chagas's disease, as simple as effective method, to make use of biopsy with stereotaxia in unfinished cases and bad evolution. Finally, after a wide world literature review about Chagas'disease as a tumor-like lesion of the brain, emphasizing this publication as the first written in a radiology journal of specialty. (author). 40 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  17. Relative cortico-subcortical shift in brain activity but preserved training-induced neural modulation in older adults during bimanual motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Monteiro, Thiago; Beets, Iseult A M; Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Gooijers, Jolien; Pauwels, Lisa; Chalavi, Sima; King, Brad; Albouy, Geneviève; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2017-10-01

    To study age-related differences in neural activation during motor learning, functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired from 25 young (mean 21.5-year old) and 18 older adults (mean 68.6-year old) while performing a bimanual coordination task before (pretest) and after (posttest) a 2-week training intervention on the task. We studied whether task-related brain activity and training-induced brain activation changes differed between age groups, particularly with respect to the hyperactivation typically observed in older adults. Findings revealed that older adults showed lower performance levels than younger adults but similar learning capability. At the cerebral level, the task-related hyperactivation in parietofrontal areas and underactivation in subcortical areas observed in older adults were not differentially modulated by the training intervention. However, brain activity related to task planning and execution decreased from pretest to posttest in temporo-parieto-frontal areas and subcortical areas in both age groups, suggesting similar processes of enhanced activation efficiency with advanced skill level. Furthermore, older adults who displayed higher activity in prefrontal regions at pretest demonstrated larger training-induced performance gains. In conclusion, in spite of prominent age-related brain activation differences during movement planning and execution, the mechanisms of learning-related reduction of brain activation appear to be similar in both groups. Importantly, cerebral activity during early learning can differentially predict the amplitude of the training-induced performance benefit between young and older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Caspase Activation in Fetal Rat Brain Following Experimental Intrauterine Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharangpani, Aditi; Takanohashi, Asako; Bell, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Intrauterine inflammation has been implicated in developmental brain injuries, including the development of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and cerebral palsy (CP). Previous studies in our rat model of intrauterine inflammation demonstrated apoptotic cell death in fetal brains within the first 5 days after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration to mothers and eventual dysmyelination. Cysteine-containing, aspartate-specific proteases, or caspases, are proteins involved with apoptosis through both intracellular (intrinsic pathway) and extracellular (extrinsic pathway) mechanisms. We hypothesized that cell death in our model would occur mainly via activation of the extrinsic pathway. We further hypothesized that Fas, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily, would be increased and the death inducing signaling complex (DISC) would be detectable. Pregnant rats were injected intracervically with LPS at E15 and immunoblotting, immunohistochemical and immunoprecipitation analyses were performed. The presence of the activated form of the effector caspase (caspase-3) was observed 24 h after LPS administration. Caspase activity assays demonstrated rapid increases in (i) caspases-9 and -10 within 1 h, (ii) caspase-8 at 2 h and (iii) caspase-3 at 4 h. At 24 h after LPS, activated caspase-3+/Fas+ cells were observed within the developing white matter. Lastly, the DISC complex (caspase-8, Fas and Fas-associated Death Domain (FADD)) was observed within 30 min by immunoprecipitation. Apoptosis in our model occurs via both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, and activation of Fas may play a role. Understanding the mechanisms of cell death in models of intrauterine inflammation may affect development of future strategies to mitigate these injuries in children. PMID:18289516

  19. Human ApoE Isoforms Differentially Modulate Glucose and Amyloid Metabolic Pathways in Female Brain: Evidence of the Mechanism of Neuroprotection by ApoE2 and Implications for Alzheimer's Disease Prevention and Early Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeney, Jeriel Thomas-Richard; Ibrahimi, Shaher; Zhao, Liqin

    2015-01-01

    Three major genetic isoforms of apolipoprotein E (ApoE), ApoE2, ApoE3, and ApoE4, exist in humans and lead to differences in susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigated the impact of human ApoE isoforms on brain metabolic pathways involved in glucose utilization and amyloid-β (Aβ) degradation, two major areas that are significantly perturbed in preclinical AD. Hippocampal RNA samples from middle-aged female mice with targeted human ApoE2, ApoE3, and ApoE4 gene replacement were comparatively analyzed with a qRT-PCR custom array for the expression of 85 genes involved in insulin/insulin-like growth factor (Igf) signaling. Consistent with its protective role against AD, ApoE2 brain exhibited the most metabolically robust profile among the three ApoE genotypes. When compared to ApoE2 brain, both ApoE3 and ApoE4 brains exhibited markedly reduced levels of Igf1, insulin receptor substrates (Irs), and facilitated glucose transporter 4 (Glut4), indicating reduced glucose uptake. Additionally, ApoE4 brain exhibited significantly decreased Pparg and insulin-degrading enzyme (Ide), indicating further compromised glucose metabolism and Aβ dysregulation associated with ApoE4. Protein analysis showed significantly decreased Igf1, Irs, and Glut4 in ApoE3 brain, and Igf1, Irs, Glut4, Pparg, and Ide in ApoE4 brain compared to ApoE2 brain. These data provide the first documented evidence that human ApoE isoforms differentially affect brain insulin/Igf signaling and downstream glucose and amyloid metabolic pathways, illustrating a potential mechanism for their differential risk in AD. A therapeutic strategy that enhances brain insulin/Igf1 signaling activity to a more robust ApoE2-like phenotype favoring both energy production and amyloid homeostasis holds promise for AD prevention and early intervention.

  20. Differential radioprotection and free radical scavenging activity of Caesalpinia digyna extracts and the active constituent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Umang; Kunwar, A.; Barik, A.; Priyadarsini, K.I.; Mula, S.; Srinivasan, R.

    2008-01-01

    Differential free radical activity of the fractionated extracts (F1: methanolic fraction, F2: acetone soluble fraction and F3: acetone insoluble fraction) of a medicinal plant Caesalpinia digyna, has been studied employing DPPH, superoxide radical and in vitro radioprotecting activity by following their effect on radiation induced protein carbonylation and DNA damage in pBR322. The activity for these fractions is in the order of F1>F2>F3. HPLC analysis indicated that all fractions contain high amount of bergenin, a polyhydroxy isocoumarin derivative and the fractions are more active than isolated bergenin. (author)

  1. Differential radioprotection and free radical scavenging activity of Caesalpinia digyna extracts and the active constituent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Umang; Kunwar, A; Barik, A; Priyadarsini, K I [Radiation and Photochemistry Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Mula, S [Bio-Organic Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Srinivasan, R [JSS College of Pharmacy, Ootacamund (India)

    2008-01-15

    Differential free radical activity of the fractionated extracts (F1: methanolic fraction, F2: acetone soluble fraction and F3: acetone insoluble fraction) of a medicinal plant Caesalpinia digyna, has been studied employing DPPH, superoxide radical and in vitro radioprotecting activity by following their effect on radiation induced protein carbonylation and DNA damage in pBR322. The activity for these fractions is in the order of F1>F2>F3. HPLC analysis indicated that all fractions contain high amount of bergenin, a polyhydroxy isocoumarin derivative and the fractions are more active than isolated bergenin. (author)

  2. Three-dimensional brain-surface MR images of brain anomalies in Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy and its differentiation from Duchenne muscular dystrophy with severe mental retardation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda, Tatsushi; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Shimizu, Teruo; Iwata, Makoto; Kanazawa, Ichiro (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Matsumura, Kiichiro

    1993-12-01

    Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) is the second most common form of muscular dystrophy in Japan and is peculiarly associated with brain anomalies such as micropolygyria. Since these anomalies are preferentially observed on the brain surface, it is difficult to identify them by either X-ray CT or conventional MRI. In addition, FCMD has an atypical (mild) form in which the patients are capable of walking. In such cases, clinical differential diagnosis from Duchenne muscular dystrophy with severe mental retardation (DMD-MR) is not necessarily easy. We analyzed the brain-surface structures of 4 typical FCMD cases. 1 atypical FCMD case, 4 DMD-MR cases, and 1 undiagnosed case using a method of 3-dimensional (3-D) brain-surface MR imaging; we then compared the results with dystrophin immuno-stainings of the biopsied skeletal muscles. In both typical and atypical FCMD cases, micropolygyria could be clearly demonstrated, with individual variations. The 3-D images were verified by neuropathology. Of the 4 DMD-MR cases, 3 cases showed no gyral abnormality. However, in 1 DMD-MR case the diagnosis was corrected to atypical FCMD because of micropolygyria found on 3-D MRI. The one undiangosed case was diagnosed as DMD-MR on the basis of 3-D MRI. There was a good correspondence between the results of the 3-D imaging and the dystrophin test. Recently, some FCMD cases with a complete deficiency of dystrophin have been reported. Therefore, the detection of brain anomalies is important for the precise diagnosis of FCMD; the present method is considered effective for this purpose. (author).

  3. Three-dimensional brain-surface MR images of brain anomalies in Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy and its differentiation from Duchenne muscular dystrophy with severe mental retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, Tatsushi; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Shimizu, Teruo; Iwata, Makoto; Kanazawa, Ichiro; Matsumura, Kiichiro.

    1993-01-01

    Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) is the second most common form of muscular dystrophy in Japan and is peculiarly associated with brain anomalies such as micropolygyria. Since these anomalies are preferentially observed on the brain surface, it is difficult to identify them by either X-ray CT or conventional MRI. In addition, FCMD has an atypical (mild) form in which the patients are capable of walking. In such cases, clinical differential diagnosis from Duchenne muscular dystrophy with severe mental retardation (DMD-MR) is not necessarily easy. We analyzed the brain-surface structures of 4 typical FCMD cases. 1 atypical FCMD case, 4 DMD-MR cases, and 1 undiagnosed case using a method of 3-dimensional (3-D) brain-surface MR imaging; we then compared the results with dystrophin immuno-stainings of the biopsied skeletal muscles. In both typical and atypical FCMD cases, micropolygyria could be clearly demonstrated, with individual variations. The 3-D images were verified by neuropathology. Of the 4 DMD-MR cases, 3 cases showed no gyral abnormality. However, in 1 DMD-MR case the diagnosis was corrected to atypical FCMD because of micropolygyria found on 3-D MRI. The one undiangosed case was diagnosed as DMD-MR on the basis of 3-D MRI. There was a good correspondence between the results of the 3-D imaging and the dystrophin test. Recently, some FCMD cases with a complete deficiency of dystrophin have been reported. Therefore, the detection of brain anomalies is important for the precise diagnosis of FCMD; the present method is considered effective for this purpose. (author)

  4. Available processing resources influence encoding-related brain activity before an event

    OpenAIRE

    Galli, Giulia; Gebert, A. Dorothea; Otten, Leun J.

    2013-01-01

    Effective cognitive functioning not only relies on brain activity elicited by an event, but also on activity that precedes it. This has been demonstrated in a number of cognitive domains, including memory. Here, we show that brain activity that precedes the effective encoding of a word into long-term memory depends on the availability of sufficient processing resources. We recorded electrical brain activity from the scalps of healthy adult men and women while they memorized intermixed visual ...

  5. A balancing act of the brain: activations and deactivations driven by cognitive load

    OpenAIRE

    Arsalidou, Marie; Pascual-Leone, Juan; Johnson, Janice; Morris, Drew; Taylor, Margot J

    2013-01-01

    The majority of neuroimaging studies focus on brain activity during performance of cognitive tasks; however, some studies focus on brain areas that activate in the absence of a task. Despite the surge of research comparing these contrasted areas of brain function, their interrelation is not well understood. We systematically manipulated cognitive load in a working memory task to examine concurrently the relation between activity elicited by the task versus activity during control conditions. ...

  6. Differential brain responses to cries of infants with autistic disorder and typical development: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuti, Paola; Caria, Andrea; Esposito, Gianluca; De Pisapia, Nicola; Bornstein, Marc H; de Falco, Simona

    2012-01-01

    This study used fMRI to measure brain activity during adult processing of cries of infants with autistic disorder (AD) compared to cries of typically developing (TD) infants. Using whole brain analysis, we found that cries of infants with AD compared to those of TD infants elicited enhanced activity in brain regions associated with verbal and prosodic processing, perhaps because altered acoustic patterns of AD cries render them especially difficult to interpret, and increased activity in brain regions associated with emotional processing, indicating that AD cries also elicit more negative feelings and may be perceived as more aversive and/or arousing. Perceived distress engendered by AD cries related to increased activation in brain regions associated with emotional processing. This study supports the hypothesis that cry is an early and meaningful anomaly displayed by children with AD. It could be that cries associated with AD alter parent-child interactions much earlier than the time that reliable AD diagnosis normally occurs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Brain Activity and Functional Connectivity Associated with Hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Heidi; White, Matthew P; Greicius, Michael D; Waelde, Lynn C; Spiegel, David

    2017-08-01

    Hypnosis has proven clinical utility, yet changes in brain activity underlying the hypnotic state have not yet been fully identified. Previous research suggests that hypnosis is associated with decreased default mode network (DMN) activity and that high hypnotizability is associated with greater functional connectivity between the executive control network (ECN) and the salience network (SN). We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate activity and functional connectivity among these three networks in hypnosis. We selected 57 of 545 healthy subjects with very high or low hypnotizability using two hypnotizability scales. All subjects underwent four conditions in the scanner: rest, memory retrieval, and two different hypnosis experiences guided by standard pre-recorded instructions in counterbalanced order. Seeds for the ECN, SN, and DMN were left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), respectively. During hypnosis there was reduced activity in the dACC, increased functional connectivity between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC;ECN) and the insula in the SN, and reduced connectivity between the ECN (DLPFC) and the DMN (PCC). These changes in neural activity underlie the focused attention, enhanced somatic and emotional control, and lack of self-consciousness that characterizes hypnosis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Gender differences in brain activation on a mental rotation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Bledsoe, Jesse; Zhu, David C

    2012-10-01

    Few neuroimaging studies have explored gender differences on mental rotation tasks. Most studies have utilized samples with both genders, samples mainly consisting of men, or samples with six or fewer females. Graduate students in science fields or liberal arts programs (20 males, 20 females) completed a mental rotation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). When a pair of cube figures was shown, the participant made a keypad response based on whether the pair is the same/similar or different. Regardless of gender, the bilateral middle frontal gyrus, bilateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and the left precuneus were activated when a subject tried to solve the mental rotation task. Increased activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus/middle frontal gyrus, the left precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex/cuneus region, and the left middle occipital gyrus was found for men as compared to women. Better accuracy and shorter response times were correlated with an increased activation in the bilateral intraparietal sulcus. No significant brain activity differences related to mental rotation were found between academic majors. These findings suggest that networks involved in visual attention appear to be more strongly activated in the mental rotation tasks in men as compared to women. It also suggests that men use a more automatic process when analyzing complex visual reasoning tasks while women use a more top-down process.

  9. Brain-specific transcriptional regulator T-brain-1 controls brain wiring and neuronal activity in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzyy-Nan eHuang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available T-brain-1 (TBR1 is a brain-specific T-box transcription factor. In 1995, Tbr1 was first identified from a subtractive hybridization that compared mouse embryonic and adult telencephalons. Previous studies of Tbr1–/– mice have indicated critical roles for TBR1 in the development of the cerebral cortex, amygdala and olfactory bulb. Neuronal migration and axonal projection are two important developmental features controlled by TBR1. Recently, recurrent de novo disruptive mutations in the TBR1 gene have been found in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. Human genetic studies have identified TBR1 as a high-confidence risk factor for ASDs. Because only one allele of the TBR1 gene is mutated in these patients, Tbr1+/– mice serve as a good genetic mouse model to explore the mechanism by which de novo TBR1 mutation leads to ASDs. Although neuronal migration and axonal projection defects of cerebral cortex are the most prominent phenotypes in Tbr1–/– mice, these features are not found in Tbr1+/– mice. Instead, inter- and intra-amygdalar axonal projections and NMDAR expression and activity in amygdala are particularly susceptible to Tbr1 haploinsufficiency. The studies indicated that both abnormal brain wiring (abnormal amygdalar connections and excitation/inhibition imbalance (NMDAR hypoactivity, two prominent models for ASD etiology, are present in Tbr1+/– mice. Moreover, calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK was found to interact with TBR1. The CASK-TBR1 complex had been shown to directly bind the promoter of the Grin2b gene, which is also known as Nmdar2b, and upregulate Grin2b expression. This molecular function of TBR1 provides an explanation for NMDAR hypoactivity in Tbr1+/– mice. In addition to Grin2b, cell adhesion molecules-including Ntng1, Cdh8 and Cntn2-are also regulated by TBR1 to control axonal projections of amygdala. Taken together, the studies of Tbr1 provide an integrated picture of ASD

  10. Verbal fluency as a prefrontal activation probe: a validation study using 99mTc-ECD brain SPET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audenaert, K.; Brans, B.; Laere, K. van; Versijpt, J.; Dierckx, R.; Lahorte, P.; Heeringen, K. van

    2000-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) in the letter and category fluency paradigm of the Controlled Oral Word Association (COWA) test in healthy volunteers. Two groups each comprising ten right-handed healthy volunteers were injected twice with 370 MBq technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer following a split-dose paradigm (resting and activation condition). Statistical parametric mapping (SPM96) was used to determine voxelwise significant changes. The letter fluency and the category fluency activation paradigm had a differential brain activation pattern. The posterior part of the left inferior prefrontal cortex (LIPC) was activated in both paradigms, with the category fluency task having an extra activation in the anterior LIPC. In the category fluency task, but not the letter fluency task, an activation in the right inferior prefrontal cortex was found. These findings confirm to a large extent the results of previous functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography studies in semantic and phonological activation paradigms. The choice and validity of various methodological characteristics of the experimental design leading to these results are critically discussed. It is concluded that brain SPET activation with the letter fluency and category fluency paradigm under standard neuropsychological conditions in healthy volunteers is both technically and practically feasible. (orig.)

  11. Verbal fluency as a prefrontal activation probe: a validation study using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audenaert, K. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital (Belgium); Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Ghent University Hospital and Ghent University (Belgium); Brans, B.; Laere, K. van; Versijpt, J.; Dierckx, R. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital (Belgium); Lahorte, P. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital (Belgium); Laboratory of Subatomic and Radiation Physics, Ghent University (Belgium); Heeringen, K. van [Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Ghent University Hospital and Ghent University (Belgium)

    2000-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) in the letter and category fluency paradigm of the Controlled Oral Word Association (COWA) test in healthy volunteers. Two groups each comprising ten right-handed healthy volunteers were injected twice with 370 MBq technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer following a split-dose paradigm (resting and activation condition). Statistical parametric mapping (SPM96) was used to determine voxelwise significant changes. The letter fluency and the category fluency activation paradigm had a differential brain activation pattern. The posterior part of the left inferior prefrontal cortex (LIPC) was activated in both paradigms, with the category fluency task having an extra activation in the anterior LIPC. In the category fluency task, but not the letter fluency task, an activation in the right inferior prefrontal cortex was found. These findings confirm to a large extent the results of previous functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography studies in semantic and phonological activation paradigms. The choice and validity of various methodological characteristics of the experimental design leading to these results are critically discussed. It is concluded that brain SPET activation with the letter fluency and category fluency paradigm under standard neuropsychological conditions in healthy volunteers is both technically and practically feasible. (orig.)

  12. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) activates promyogenic signaling pathways, thereby promoting myoblast differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Jin; Go, Ga-Yeon; Yoo, Miran; Kim, Yong Kee [Research Center for Cell Fate Control, College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Dong-Wan [College of Pharmacy, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jong-Sun [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Gyu-Un, E-mail: gbae@sookmyung.ac.kr [Research Center for Cell Fate Control, College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-29

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) regulates postnatal myogenesis by alleviating myostatin activity, but the molecular mechanisms by which it regulates myogenesis are not fully understood. In this study, we investigate molecular mechanisms of PPARβ/δ in myoblast differentiation. C2C12 myoblasts treated with a PPARβ/δ agonist, GW0742 exhibit enhanced myotube formation and muscle-specific gene expression. GW0742 treatment dramatically activates promyogenic kinases, p38MAPK and Akt, in a dose-dependent manner. GW0742-stimulated myoblast differentiation is mediated by p38MAPK and Akt, since it failed to restore myoblast differentiation repressed by inhibition of p38MAPK and Akt. In addition, GW0742 treatment enhances MyoD-reporter activities. Consistently, overexpression of PPARβ/δ enhances myoblast differentiation accompanied by elevated activation of p38MAPK and Akt. Collectively, these results suggest that PPARβ/δ enhances myoblast differentiation through activation of promyogenic signaling pathways. - Highlights: • A PPARβ/δ agonist, GW0742 promotes myoblast differentiation. • GW0742 activates both p38MAPK and Akt activation in myogenic differentiation. • GW0742 enhances MyoD activity for myogenic differentiation. • Overexpression of PPARβ/δ enhances myoblast differentiation via activating promyogenic signaling pathways. • This is the first finding for agonistic mechanism of PPARβ/δ in myogenesis.

  13. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) activates promyogenic signaling pathways, thereby promoting myoblast differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang-Jin; Go, Ga-Yeon; Yoo, Miran; Kim, Yong Kee; Seo, Dong-Wan; Kang, Jong-Sun; Bae, Gyu-Un

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) regulates postnatal myogenesis by alleviating myostatin activity, but the molecular mechanisms by which it regulates myogenesis are not fully understood. In this study, we investigate molecular mechanisms of PPARβ/δ in myoblast differentiation. C2C12 myoblasts treated with a PPARβ/δ agonist, GW0742 exhibit enhanced myotube formation and muscle-specific gene expression. GW0742 treatment dramatically activates promyogenic kinases, p38MAPK and Akt, in a dose-dependent manner. GW0742-stimulated myoblast differentiation is mediated by p38MAPK and Akt, since it failed to restore myoblast differentiation repressed by inhibition of p38MAPK and Akt. In addition, GW0742 treatment enhances MyoD-reporter activities. Consistently, overexpression of PPARβ/δ enhances myoblast differentiation accompanied by elevated activation of p38MAPK and Akt. Collectively, these results suggest that PPARβ/δ enhances myoblast differentiation through activation of promyogenic signaling pathways. - Highlights: • A PPARβ/δ agonist, GW0742 promotes myoblast differentiation. • GW0742 activates both p38MAPK and Akt activation in myogenic differentiation. • GW0742 enhances MyoD activity for myogenic differentiation. • Overexpression of PPARβ/δ enhances myoblast differentiation via activating promyogenic signaling pathways. • This is the first finding for agonistic mechanism of PPARβ/δ in myogenesis.

  14. Overview of non-pharmacological intervention for dementia and principles of brain-activating rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Haruyasu; Maki, Yohko; Yamagami, Tetsuya

    2010-12-01

    Non-pharmacological interventions for dementia are likely to have an important role in delaying disease progression and functional decline. Research into non-pharmacological interventions has focused on the differentiation of each approach and a comparison of their effects. However, Cochrane Reviews on non-pharmacological interventions have noted the paucity of evidence regarding the effects of these interventions. The essence of non-pharmacological intervention is dependent of the patients, families, and therapists involved, with each situation inevitably being different. To obtain good results with non-pharmacological therapy, the core is not 'what' approach is taken but 'how' the therapists communicate with their patients. Here, we propose a new type of rehabilitation for dementia, namely brain-activating rehabilitation, that consists of five principles: (i) enjoyable and comfortable activities in an accepting atmosphere; (ii) activities associated with empathetic two-way communication between the therapist and patient, as well as between patients; (iii) therapists should praise patients to enhance motivation; (iv) therapists should try to offer each patient some social role that takes advantage of his/her remaining abilities; and (v) the activities should be based on errorless learning to ensure a pleasant atmosphere and to maintain a patient's dignity. The behavioral and cognitive status is not necessarily a reflection of pathological lesions in the brain; there is cognitive reserve for improvement. The aim of brain-activating rehabilitation is to enhance patients' motivation and maximize the use of their remaining function, recruiting a compensatory network, and preventing the disuse of brain function. The primary expected effect is that patients recover a desire for life, as well as their self-respect. Enhanced motivation can lead to improvements in cognitive function. Amelioration of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and improvements in

  15. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1 receptor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene expression is differentially modulated in the rat spinal dorsal horn and hippocampus during inflammatory pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarson Kenneth E

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Persistent pain produces complex alterations in sensory pathways of the central nervous system (CNS through activation of various nociceptive mechanisms. However, the effects of pain on higher brain centers, particularly the influence of the stressful component of pain on the limbic system, are poorly understood. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1 receptors and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, known neuromediators of hyperalgesia and spinal central sensitization, have also been implicated in the plasticity and neurodegeneration occurring in the hippocampal formation during exposures to various stressors. Results of this study showed that injections of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA into the hind paw increased NK-1 receptor and BDNF mRNA levels in the ipsilateral dorsal horn, supporting an important role for these nociceptive mediators in the amplification of ascending pain signaling. An opposite effect was observed in the hippocampus, where CFA down-regulated NK-1 receptor and BDNF gene expression, phenomena previously observed in immobilization models of stress and depression. Western blot analyses demonstrated that in the spinal cord, CFA also increased levels of phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB, while in the hippocampus the activation of this transcription factor was significantly reduced, further suggesting that tissue specific transcription of either NK-1 or BDNF genes may be partially regulated by common intracellular transduction mechanisms mediated through activation of CREB. These findings suggest that persistent nociception induces differential regional regulation of NK-1 receptor and BDNF gene expression and CREB activation in the CNS, potentially reflecting varied roles of these neuromodulators in the spinal cord during persistent sensory activation vs. modulation of the higher brain structures such as the hippocampus.

  16. Erk1 positively regulates osteoclast differentiation and bone resorptive activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzheng He

    Full Text Available The extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1 and 2 are widely-expressed and they modulate proliferation, survival, differentiation, and protein synthesis in multiple cell lineages. Altered ERK1/2 signaling is found in several genetic diseases with skeletal phenotypes, including Noonan syndrome, Neurofibromatosis type 1, and Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome, suggesting that MEK-ERK signals regulate human skeletal development. Here, we examine the consequence of Erk1 and Erk2 disruption in multiple functions of osteoclasts, specialized macrophage/monocyte lineage-derived cells that resorb bone. We demonstrate that Erk1 positively regulates osteoclast development and bone resorptive activity, as genetic disruption of Erk1 reduced osteoclast progenitor cell numbers, compromised pit formation, and diminished M-CSF-mediated adhesion and migration. Moreover, WT mice reconstituted long-term with Erk1(-/- bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs demonstrated increased bone mineral density as compared to recipients transplanted with WT and Erk2(-/- BMMNCs, implicating marrow autonomous, Erk1-dependent osteoclast function. These data demonstrate Erk1 plays an important role in osteoclast functions while providing rationale for the development of Erk1-specific inhibitors for experimental investigation and/or therapeutic modulation of aberrant osteoclast function.

  17. Encoding-related brain activity during deep processing of verbal materials: a PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Toshikatsu; Okuda, Jiro; Tsukiura, Takashi; Ohtake, Hiroya; Suzuki, Maki; Kawashima, Ryuta; Itoh, Masatoshi; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Yamadori, Atsushi

    2002-12-01

    The recent advent of neuroimaging techniques provides an opportunity to examine brain regions related to a specific memory process such as episodic memory encoding. There is, however, a possibility that areas active during an assumed episodic memory encoding task, compared with a control task, involve not only areas directly relevant to episodic memory encoding processes but also areas associated with other cognitive processes for on-line information. We used positron emission tomography (PET) to differentiate these two kinds of regions. Normal volunteers were engaged in deep (semantic) or shallow (phonological) processing of new or repeated words during PET. Results showed that deep processing, compared with shallow processing, resulted in significantly better recognition performance and that this effect was associated with activation of various brain areas. Further analyses revealed that there were regions directly relevant to episodic memory encoding in the anterior part of the parahippocampal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus, and medial frontal lobe in the left hemisphere. Our results demonstrated that several regions, including the medial temporal lobe, play a role in episodic memory encoding.

  18. Baseline and cognition activated brain SPECT imaging in depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jinhua; Lin Xiangtong; Jiang Kaida; Liu Yongchang; Xu Lianqin

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) abnormalities through the semiquantitative analysis of the baseline and cognition activated rCBF imaging in unmedicated depressed patients. Methods: 27 depressed patients unmedicated by anti-depressants were enrolled. The diagnosis (depression of moderate degree with somatization) was confirmed by the ICD-10 criteria. 15 age matched normal controls were studied under identical conditions. Baseline and cognition activated 99m Tc-ECD SPECT were performed on 21 of the 27 patients with depression and 13 of the 15 normal controls. Baseline 99m Tc-ECD SPECT alone were performed on the rest 6 patients with depression and 2 normal controls. The cognitive activation is achieved by Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). 1110 MBq of 99m Tc-ECD was administered by intravenous bolus injection 5 minutes after the onset of the WCST. Semi-quantitative analysis was conducted with the 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th slices of the transaxial imaging. rCBF ratios of every ROI were calculated using the average tissue activity in the region divided by the maximum activity in the cerebellum. Results: 1) The baseline rCBF of left frontal (0.720) and left temporal lobe (0.720) were decreased significantly in depressed patients comparing with those of the control subjects. 2) The activated rCBF of left frontal lobe (0.719) and left temporal lobe (0.690), left parietal lobe (0.701) were decreased evidently than those of the controls. Conclusions: 1) Hypoperfusions of left frontal and left temporal cortexes were identified in patients with depression. 2) The hypoperfusion of left frontal and left temporal cortexes may be the cause of cognition disorder and depressed mood in patients with depression. 3) Cognition activated brain perfusion imaging is helpful for making a more accurate diagnosis of depression

  19. Magnetic field effects on brain monoamine oxidase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borets, V.M.; Ostrovskiy, V.Yu.; Bankovskiy, A.A.; Dudinskaya, T.F.

    1985-03-01

    In view of the increasing use of magnetotherapy, studies were conducted on the effects of 35 mTesla magnetic fields on monoamine oxidase activity in the rat brain. Under in vitro conditions a constant magnetic field in the continuous mode was most effective in inhibiting deamination of dopamine following 1 min exposure, while in vivo studies with 8 min or 10 day exposures showed that inhibition was obtained only with a variable field in the continuous mode. However, inhibition of dopamine deamination was only evident within the first 24 h after exposure was terminated. In addition, in none of the cases was norepinephrine deamination inhibited. The effects of the magnetic fields were, therefore, transient and selective with the CNS as the target system. 9 references.

  20. Role of synchronized oscillatory brain activity for human pain perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Michael; Lorenz, Jürgen; Engel, Andreas K

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of cortical pain processing in humans has significantly improved since the development of modern neuroimaging techniques. Non-invasive electrophysiological approaches such as electro- and magnetoencephalography have proven to be helpful tools for the real-time investigation of neuronal signals and synchronous communication between cortical areas. In particular, time-frequency decomposition of signals recorded with these techniques seems to be a promising approach because different pain-related oscillatory changes can be observed within different frequency bands, which are likely to be linked to specific sensory and motor functions. In this review we discuss the latest evidence on pain-induced time-frequency signals and propose that changes in oscillatory activity reflect an essential communication mechanism in the brain that is modulated during pain processing. The importance of synchronization processes for normal and pathological pain processing, such as chronic pain states, is discussed.

  1. MR brain scanning in patients with vasculitis: Differentiation from multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.H.; Ormerod, I.E.C.; Du Boulay, E.P.G.H.; Rudge, P.; McDonald, W.I.; Gibson, A.

    1987-01-01

    We performed MR (magnetic resonance) brain imaging on 24 patients with a systemic vasculitis. MRI proved to be a sensitive method for detecting brain lesions (clinically silent or manifest) in these patients. The most frequent abnormalities were periventricular lesions seen in 12 cases. Such changes are not specific for vascular disease, and are often seen in multiple sclerosis. However, additional changes were commonly seen which suggested the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  2. Differential Effects of Voluntary and Forced Exercise on Stress Responses after Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Griesbach, Grace S.; Tio, Delia L.; Vincelli, Jennifer; McArthur, David L.; Taylor, Anna N.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary exercise increases levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) when it occurs during a delayed time window. In contrast, acute post-TBI exercise does not increase BDNF. It is well known that increases in glucocorticoids suppress levels of BDNF. Moreover, recent work from our laboratory showed that there is a heightened stress response after fluid percussion injury (FPI). In order to determine if a heightened stress response is also observed ...

  3. Task Context Influences Brain Activation during Music Listening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andjela Markovic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examined brain activation in subjects during two music listening conditions: listening while simultaneously rating the musical piece being played [Listening and Rating (LR] and listening to the musical pieces unconstrained [Listening (L]. Using these two conditions, we tested whether the sequence in which the two conditions were fulfilled influenced the brain activation observable during the L condition (LR → L or L → LR. We recorded high-density EEG during the playing of four well-known positively experienced soundtracks in two subject groups. One group started with the L condition and continued with the LR condition (L → LR; the second group performed this experiment in reversed order (LR → L. We computed from the recorded EEG the power for different frequency bands (theta, lower alpha, upper alpha, lower beta, and upper beta. Statistical analysis revealed that the power in all examined frequency bands increased during the L condition but only when the subjects had not had previous experience with the LR condition (i.e., L → LR. For the subjects who began with the LR condition, there were no power increases during the L condition. Thus, the previous experience with the LR condition prevented subjects from developing the particular mental state associated with the typical power increase in all frequency bands. The subjects without previous experience of the LR condition listened to the musical pieces in an unconstrained and undisturbed manner and showed a general power increase in all frequency bands. We interpret the fact that unconstrained music listening was associated with increased power in all examined frequency bands as a neural indicator of a mental state that can best be described as a mind-wandering state during which the subjects are “drawn into” the music.

  4. Culture modulates brain activity during empathy with anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Greck, Moritz; Shi, Zhenhao; Wang, Gang; Zuo, Xiangyu; Yang, Xuedong; Wang, Xiaoying; Northoff, Georg; Han, Shihui

    2012-02-01

    Interdependent cultures (such as the Chinese) and independent cultures (such as the German) differ in their attitude towards harmony that is more valued in interdependent cultures. Interdependent and independent cultures also differ in their appreciation of anger--an emotion that implies the disruption of harmony. The present study investigated if interdependent and independent cultures foster distinct brain activity associated with empathic processing of familiar angry, familiar neutral, and unfamiliar neutral faces. Using functional MRI, we scanned Chinese and German healthy subjects during an intentional empathy task, a control task (the evaluation of skin color), and a baseline condition. The subject groups were matched with regard to age, gender, and education. Behaviorally, Chinese subjects described themselves as significantly more interdependent compared to German subjects. The contrast 'intentional empathy for familiar angry'>'baseline' revealed several regions, including the left inferior frontal cortex, the left supplementary motor area, and the left insula, that showed comparable hemodynamic responses in both groups. However, the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex had stronger hemodynamic responses in Chinese subjects in the contrast 'intentional empathy for familiar angry'>'baseline'. Germans, in contrast, showed stronger hemodynamic responses in the right temporo-parietal junction, right inferior and superior temporal gyrus, and left middle insula for the same contrast. Hemodynamic responses in the latter three brain regions correlated with interdependences scores over all subjects. Our results suggest that enhanced emotion regulation during empathy with anger in the interdependent lifestyle is mediated by the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Increased tolerance towards the expression of anger in the independent lifestyle, in contrast, is associated with increased activity of the right inferior and superior temporal gyrus and the left middle

  5. Herpes zoster chronification to postherpetic neuralgia induces brain activity and grey matter volume change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Song; Qin, Bangyong; Zhang, Yi; Yuan, Jie; Fu, Bao; Xie, Peng; Song, Ganjun; Li, Ying; Yu, Tian

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Herpes zoster (HZ) can develop into postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), which is a chronic neuropathic pain (NP). Whether the chronification from HZ to PHN induced brain functional or structural change is unknown and no study compared the changes of the same brains of patients who transited from HZ to PHN. We minimized individual differences and observed whether the chronification of HZ to PHN induces functional and pain duration dependent grey matter volume (GMV) change in HZ-PHN patients. Methods: To minimize individual differences induced error, we enrolled 12 patients with a transition from HZ to PHN. The functional and structural changes of their brains between the two states were identified with resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) technique (i.e., the regional homogeneity (ReHo) and fractional aptitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) method) and the voxel based morphometry (VBM) technology respectively. The correlations between MRI parameters (i.e., ΔReHo, ΔfALFF and ΔVBM) and Δpain duration were analyzed too. Results: Compared with HZ brains, PHN brains exhibited abnormal ReHo, fALFF and VBM values in pain matrix (the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, thalamus, limbic lobe and cerebellum) as well as the occipital lobe and temporal lobe. Nevertheless, the activity of vast area of cerebellum and frontal lobe significantly increased while that of occipital lobe and limbic lobe showed apparent decrease when HZ developed to PHN. In addition, PHN brain showed decreased GMV in the frontal lobe, the parietal lobe and the occipital lobe but increased in the cerebellum and the temporal lobe. Correlation analyses showed that some of the ReHo, fALFF and VBM differential areas (such as the cerebellum posterior lobe, the thalamus extra-nuclear and the middle temporal gyrus) correlated well with Δpain duration. Conclusions: HZ chronification induced functional and structural change in cerebellum, occipital lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe and limbic lobe

  6. Connectome-harmonic decomposition of human brain activity reveals dynamical repertoire re-organization under LSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasoy, Selen; Roseman, Leor; Kaelen, Mendel; Kringelbach, Morten L; Deco, Gustavo; Carhart-Harris, Robin L

    2017-12-15

    Recent studies have started to elucidate the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on the human brain but the underlying dynamics are not yet fully understood. Here we used 'connectome-harmonic decomposition', a novel method to investigate the dynamical changes in brain states. We found that LSD alters the energy and the power of individual harmonic brain states in a frequency-selective manner. Remarkably, this leads to an expansion of the repertoire of active brain states, suggestive of a general re-organization of brain dynamics given the non-random increase in co-activation across frequencies. Interestingly, the frequency distribution of the active repertoire of brain states under LSD closely follows power-laws indicating a re-organization of the dynamics at the edge of criticality. Beyond the present findings, these methods open up for a better understanding of the complex brain dynamics in health and disease.

  7. Active-constructive-interactive: a conceptual framework for differentiating learning activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Michelene T H

    2009-01-01

    Active, constructive, and interactive are terms that are commonly used in the cognitive and learning sciences. They describe activities that can be undertaken by learners. However, the literature is actually not explicit about how these terms can be defined; whether they are distinct; and whether they refer to overt manifestations, learning processes, or learning outcomes. Thus, a framework is provided here that offers a way to differentiate active, constructive, and interactive in terms of observable overt activities and underlying learning processes. The framework generates a testable hypothesis for learning: that interactive activities are most likely to be better than constructive activities, which in turn might be better than active activities, which are better than being passive. Studies from the literature are cited to provide evidence in support of this hypothesis. Moreover, postulating underlying learning processes allows us to interpret evidence in the literature more accurately. Specifying distinct overt activities for active, constructive, and interactive also offers suggestions for how learning activities can be coded and how each kind of activity might be elicited. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  8. Accuracy of F-DOPA PET and perfusion-MRI for differentiating radionecrotic from progressive brain metastases after radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicone, Francesco; Papa, Annalisa; Scopinaro, Francesco [Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy). Unit of Nuclear Medicine; ' ' Sapienza' ' Univ., Rome (Italy). Dept. of Surgical and Medicine Sciences and Translational Medicine; Minniti, Giuseppe; Scaringi, Claudia; Maurizi Enrici, Riccardo [' ' Sapienza' ' Univ., Rome (Italy). Dept. of Surgical and Medicine Sciences and Translational Medicine; Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy). Unit of Radiotherapy; Romano, Andrea; Tavanti, Francesca; Bozzao, Alessandro [Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy). Unit of Neuroradiology; Rome Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Neurosciences, Mental Health and Sensory Organs (Ne.S.M.O.S.)

    2015-01-15

    We assessed the performance of 6-[{sup 18}F]-fluoro-l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (F-DOPA) PET for differentiating radionecrosis (RN) from tumour progression (PD) in a population of patients with brain metastases, treated with stereotactic radiosurgery. The accuracy of F-DOPA PET was compared with that of perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance (perfusion-MR). In 42 patients with a total of 50 brain metastases from various primaries F-DOPA PET/CT was performed because of suspected radiological progression at the site of previously irradiated brain metastasis. Several semiquantitative PET parameters were recorded, and their diagnostic accuracy was compared by receiver operating characteristic curve analyses. The diagnosis was established by either surgery or follow-up. A comparison was made between F-DOPA PET and perfusion-MR sequences acquired no more than 3 weeks apart. Definitive outcome was available in 46 of the 50 lesions (20 PD, 26 RN). Of the 46 lesions, 11 were surgically excised while in the remaining 35 lesions the diagnosis was established by radiological and clinical criteria. The best diagnostic performance was obtained using the semiquantitative PET parameter maximum lesion to maximum background uptake ratio (SUVL{sub max}/Bkgr{sub max}). With a cut-off value of 1.59, a sensitivity of 90 % and a specificity of 92.3 % were achieved in differentiating RN from PD lesions (accuracy 91.3 %). Relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) derived from perfusion-MR was available for comparison in 37 of the 46 metastases. Overall accuracy of rCBV was lower than that of all semiquantitative PET parameters under study. The best differentiating rCBV cut-off value was 2.14; this yielded a sensitivity of 86.7 % and a specificity of 68.2 % (accuracy 75.6 %). F-DOPA PET is a highly accurate tool for differentiating RN from PD brain metastases after stereotactic radiosurgery. In this specific setting, F-DOPA PET seems to perform better than perfusion-MR. (orig.)

  9. Three-dimensional culture conditions differentially affect astrocyte modulation of brain endothelial barrier function in response to transforming growth factor β1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Brian T; Grego, Sonia; Sellgren, Katelyn L

    2015-05-22

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) function is regulated by dynamic interactions among cell types within the neurovascular unit, including astrocytes and endothelial cells. Co-culture models of the BBB typically involve astrocytes seeded on two-dimensional (2D) surfaces, which recent studies indicate cause astrocytes to express a phenotype similar to that of reactive astrocytes in situ. We hypothesized that the culture conditions of astrocytes would differentially affect their ability to modulate BBB function in vitro. Brain endothelial cells were grown alone or in co-culture with astrocytes. Astrocytes were grown either as conventional (2D) monolayers, or in a collagen-based gel which allows them to grow in a three-dimensional (3D) construct. Astrocytes were viable in 3D conditions, and displayed a marked reduction in their expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), suggesting reduced activation. Stimulation of astrocytes with transforming growth factor (TGF)β1 decreased transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and reduced expression of claudin-5 in co-cultures, whereas treatment of endothelial cells in the absence of astrocytes was without effect. The effect of TGFβ1 on TEER was significantly more pronounced in endothelial cells cultured with 3D astrocytes compared to 2D astrocytes. These results demonstrate that astrocyte culture conditions differentially affect their ability to modulate brain endothelial barrier function, and suggest a direct relationship between reactive gliosis and BBB permeability. Moreover, these studies demonstrate the potential importance of physiologically relevant culture conditions to in vitro modeling of disease processes that affect the neurovascular unit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Own-gender imitation activates the brain's reward circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacoboni, Macro; Martin, Alia; Dapretto, Mirella

    2012-01-01

    Imitation is an important component of human social learning throughout life. Theoretical models and empirical data from anthropology and psychology suggest that people tend to imitate self-similar individuals, and that such imitation biases increase the adaptive value (e.g., self-relevance) of learned information. It is unclear, however, what neural mechanisms underlie people's tendency to imitate those similar to themselves. We focused on the own-gender imitation bias, a pervasive bias thought to be important for gender identity development. While undergoing fMRI, participants imitated own- and other-gender actors performing novel, meaningless hand signs; as control conditions, they also simply observed such actions and viewed still portraits of the same actors. Only the ventral and dorsal striatum, orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala were more active when imitating own- compared to other-gender individuals. A Bayesian analysis of the BrainMap neuroimaging database demonstrated that the striatal region preferentially activated by own-gender imitation is selectively activated by classical reward tasks in the literature. Taken together, these findings reveal a neurobiological mechanism associated with the own-gender imitation bias and demonstrate a novel role of reward-processing neural structures in social behavior. PMID:22383803

  11. Platelet activating factor induces transient blood-brain barrier opening to facilitate edaravone penetration into the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Weirong; Zhang, Rui; Sha, Lan; Lv, Peng; Shang, Erxin; Han, Dan; Wei, Jie; Geng, Xiaohan; Yang, Qichuan; Li, Yunman

    2014-03-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) greatly limits the efficacy of many neuroprotective drugs' delivery to the brain, so improving drug penetration through the BBB has been an important focus of research. Here we report that platelet activating factor (PAF) transiently opened BBB and facilitated neuroprotectant edaravone penetration into the brain. Intravenous infusion with PAF induced a transient BBB opening in rats, reflected by increased Evans blue leakage and mild edema formation, which ceased within 6 h. Furthermore, rat regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) declined acutely during PAF infusion, but recovered slowly. More importantly, this transient BBB opening significantly increased the penetration of edaravone into the brain, evidenced by increased edaravone concentrations in tissue interstitial fluid collected by microdialysis and analyzed by Ultra-performance liquid chromatograph combined with a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS). Similarly, incubation of rat brain microvessel endothelial cells monolayer with 1 μM PAF for 1 h significantly increased monolayer permeability to (125)I-albumin, which recovered 1 h after PAF elimination. However, PAF incubation with rat brain microvessel endothelial cells for 1 h did not cause detectable cytotoxicity, and did not regulate intercellular adhesion molecule-1, matrix-metalloproteinase-9 and P-glycoprotein expression. In conclusion, PAF could induce transient and reversible BBB opening through abrupt rCBF decline, which significantly improved edaravone penetration into the brain. Platelet activating factor (PAF) transiently induces BBB dysfunction and increases BBB permeability, which may be due to vessel contraction and a temporary decline of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) triggered by PAF. More importantly, the PAF induced transient BBB opening facilitates neuroprotectant edaravone penetration into brain. The results of this study may provide a new approach to improve drug delivery into

  12. Active Sensing Air Pressure Using Differential Absorption Barometric Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, B.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical storms and other severe weathers cause huge life losses and property damages and have major impacts on public safety and national security. Their observations and predictions need to be significantly improved. This effort tries to develop a feasible active microwave approach that measures surface air pressure, especially over open seas, from space using a Differential-absorption BArometric Radar (DiBAR) operating at 50-55 GHz O2 absorption band in order to constrain assimilated dynamic fields of numerical weather Prediction (NWP) models close to actual conditions. Air pressure is the most important variable that drives atmospheric dynamics, and currently can only be measured by limited in-situ observations over oceans. Even over land there is no uniform coverage of surface air pressure measurements. Analyses show that with the proposed space radar the errors in instantaneous (averaged) pressure estimates can be as low as 4mb ( 1mb) under all weather conditions. NASA Langley research team has made substantial progresses in advancing the DiBAR concept. The feasibility assessment clearly shows the potential of surface barometry using existing radar technologies. The team has also developed a DiBAR system design, fabricated a Prototype-DiBAR (P-DiBAR) for proof-of-concept, conducted laboratory, ground and airborne P-DiBAR tests. The flight test results are consistent with the instrumentation goals. The precision and accuracy of radar surface pressure measurements are within the range of the theoretical analysis of the DiBAR concept. Observational system simulation experiments for space DiBAR performance based on the existing DiBAR technology and capability show substantial improvements in tropical storm predictions, not only for the hurricane track and position but also for the hurricane intensity. DiBAR measurements will provide us an unprecedented level of the prediction and knowledge on global extreme weather and climate conditions.

  13. Relationship between catalase activity and uptake of elemental mercury by rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, I.; Syversen, T.L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Uptake of mercury by brain after intravenous injection of elemental mercury was investigated in the rat. Catalase activity was inhibited by aminotriazole either by intraperitoneal affecting catalase in most tissues of the animal or by intraventricular injections affecting catalase in the brain selectively. Uptake of elemental mercury by rat brain was not influenced by intraperitoneal administration of aminotriazole resulting in 50% inhibition of brain catalase. However, when the inhibitor was injected intraventricularly in concentrations to give a 50% inhibition of brain catalase, it was shown that the mercury uptake by brain was significantly decreased. In the latter case when only brain catalase was inhibited and the supply of elemtal mercury to brain was maintained, mercury uptake by brain was proportional to the activity of catalase in brain tissue and to the injected amount of elemental mercury. Contrary to the intraventricular injection of aminotriazole, in animals recieving aminotriazole intraperitoneally prior to elemental mercury injection, we suggest that the lower activity of brain catalse is compensated by an increased supply of elemtal mercury caused by the generally lower oxidation rate in the animal. This view is supported by the finding that mercury uptake by liver increased due to aminotriazole intraperitoneally although activity of catalase was depressed. (author)

  14. Multichannel brain recordings in behaving Drosophila reveal oscillatory activity and local coherence in response to sensory stimulation and circuit activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulk, Angelique C; Zhou, Yanqiong; Stratton, Peter; Liu, Li; van Swinderen, Bruno

    2013-10-01

    Neural networks in vertebrates exhibit endogenous oscillations that have been associated with functions ranging from sensory processing to locomotion. It remains unclear whether oscillations may play a similar role in the insect brain. We describe a novel "whole brain" readout for Drosophila melanogaster using a simple multichannel recording preparation to study electrical activity across the brain of flies exposed to different sensory stimuli. We recorded local field potential (LFP) activity from >2,000 registered recording sites across the fly brain in >200 wild-type and transgenic animals to uncover specific LFP frequency bands that correlate with: 1) brain region; 2) sensory modality (olfactory, visual, or mechanosensory); and 3) activity in specific neural circuits. We found endogenous and stimulus-specific oscillations throughout the fly brain. Central (higher-order) brain regions exhibited sensory modality-specific increases in power within narrow frequency bands. Conversely, in sensory brain regions such as the optic or antennal lobes, LFP coherence, rather than power, best defined sensory responses across modalities. By transiently activating specific circuits via expression of TrpA1, we found that several circuits in the fly brain modulate LFP power and coherence across brain regions and frequency domains. However, activation of a neuromodulatory octopaminergic circuit specifically increased neuronal coherence in the optic lobes during visual stimulation while decreasing coherence in central brain regions. Our multichannel recording and brain registration approach provides an effective way to track activity simultaneously across the fly brain in vivo, allowing investigation of functional roles for oscillations in processing sensory stimuli and modulating behavior.

  15. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Loaded PS80 PBCA Nanocarrier for In Vitro Neural Differentiation of Mouse Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu-Yen Chung

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF can induce neural differentiation in stem cells and has the potential for repair of the nervous system. In this study, a polysorbate 80-coated polybutylcyanoacrylate nanocarrier (PS80 PBCA NC was constructed to deliver plasmid DNAs (pDNAs containing BDNF gene attached to a hypoxia-responsive element (HRE-cmvBDNF. The hypoxia-sensing mechanism of BDNF expression and inductiveness of the nano-formulation on mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs to differentiate into neurons following hypoxia was tested in vitro with immunofluorescent staining and Western blotting. The HRE-cmvBDNF appeared to adsorb onto the surface of PS80 PBCA NC, with a resultant mean diameter of 92.6 ± 1.0 nm and zeta potential of −14.1 ± 1.1 mV. HIF-1α level in iPSCs was significantly higher in hypoxia, which resulted in a 51% greater BDNF expression when transfected with PS80 PBCA NC/HRE-cmvBDNF than those without hypoxia. TrkB and phospho-Akt were also elevated which correlated with neural differentiation. The findings suggest that PS80 PBCA NC too can be endocytosed to serve as an efficient vector for genes coupled to the HRE in hypoxia-sensitive cells, and activation of the PI3/Akt pathway in iPSCs by BDNF is capable of neural lineage specification.

  16. Hormonally-mediated Epigenetic Changes to Steroid Receptors in the Developing Brain: Implications for Sexual Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Bridget M.; Schwarz, Jaclyn M.; McCarthy, Margaret M.

    2010-01-01

    The establishment of sex-specific neural morphology, which underlies sex-specific behaviors, occurs during a perinatal sensitive window in which brief exposure to gonadal steroid hormones produces permanent masculinization of the brain. In the rodent, estradiol derived from testicular androgens is a principle organizational hormone. The mechanism by which transient estradiol exposure induces permanent differences in neuronal anatomy has been widely investigated, but remains elusive. Epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, allow environmental influences to alter long-term gene expression patterns and therefore may be a potential mediator of estradiol-induced organization of the neonatal brain. Here we review data that demonstrate sex and estradiol-induced differences in DNA methylation on the estrogen receptor α (ERα), estrogen receptor β (ERβ), and progesterone receptor (PR) promoters in sexually dimorphic brain regions across development. Contrary to the overarching view of DNA methylation as a permanent modification directly tied to gene expression, these data demonstrate that methylation patterns on steroid hormone receptors change across the life span and do not necessarily predict expression. Although further exploration into the mechanism and significance of estradiol-induced alterations in DNA methylation patterns in the neonatal brain is necessary, these results provide preliminary evidence that epigenetic alterations can occur in response to early hormone exposure and may mediate estradiol-induced organization of sex differences in the neonatal brain. PMID:20800064

  17. Multistability in Large Scale Models of Brain Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Golos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Noise driven exploration of a brain network's dynamic repertoire has been hypothesized to be causally involved in cognitive function, aging and neurodegeneration. The dynamic repertoire crucially depends on the network's capacity to store patterns, as well as their stability. Here we systematically explore the capacity of networks derived from human connectomes to store attractor states, as well as various network mechanisms to control the brain's dynamic repertoire. Using a deterministic graded response Hopfield model with connectome-based interactions, we reconstruct the system's attractor space through a uniform sampling of the initial conditions. Large fixed-point attractor sets are obtained in the low temperature condition, with a bigger number of attractors than ever reported so far. Different variants of the initial model, including (i a uniform activation threshold or (ii a global negative feedback, produce a similarly robust multistability in a limited parameter range. A numerical analysis of the distribution of the attractors identifies spatially-segregated components, with a centro-medial core and several well-delineated regional patches. Those different modes share similarity with the fMRI independent components observed in the "resting state" condition. We demonstrate non-stationary behavior in noise-driven generalizations of the models, with different meta-stable attractors visited along the same time course. Only the model with a global dynamic density control is found to display robust and long-lasting non-stationarity with no tendency toward either overactivity or extinction. The best fit with empirical signals is observed at the edge of multistability, a parameter region that also corresponds to the highest entropy of the attractors.

  18. New Perspectives on Spontaneous Brain Activity: Dynamic Networks and Energy Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Arturo; Zare, Marzieh; Benasich, April A

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity has received increasing attention as demonstrated by the exponential rise in the number of published article on this topic over the last 30 years. Such "intrinsic" brain activity, generated in the absence of an explicit task, is frequently associated with resting-state or default-mode networks (DMN)s. The focus on characterizing spontaneous brain activity promises to shed new light on questions concerning the structural and functional architecture of the brain and how they are related to "mind". However, many critical questions have yet to be addressed. In this review, we focus on a scarcely explored area, specifically the energetic requirements and constraints of spontaneous activity, taking into account both thermodynamical and informational perspectives. We argue that the "classical" definitions of spontaneous activity do not take into account an important feature, that is, the critical thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Spontaneous brain activity is associated with slower oscillations compared with evoked, task-related activity, hence it exhibits lower levels of enthalpy and "free-energy" (i.e., the energy that can be converted to do work), thus supporting noteworthy thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Increased spike frequency during evoked activity has a significant metabolic cost, consequently, brain functions traditionally associated with spontaneous activity, such as mind wandering, require less energy that other nervous activities. We also review recent empirical observations in neuroscience, in order to capture how spontaneous brain dynamics and mental function can be embedded in a non-linear dynamical framework, which considers nervous activity in terms of phase spaces, particle trajectories, random walks, attractors and/or paths at the edge of the chaos. This takes us from the thermodynamic free-energy, to the realm of "variational

  19. Incidental and intentional learning of verbal episodic material differentially modifies functional brain networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Therese Kuhnert

    Full Text Available Learning- and memory-related processes are thought to result from dynamic interactions in large-scale brain networks that include lateral and mesial structures of the temporal lobes. We investigate the impact of incidental and intentional learning of verbal episodic material on functional brain networks that we derive from scalp-EEG recorded continuously from 33 subjects during a neuropsychological test schedule. Analyzing the networks' global statistical properties we observe that intentional but not incidental learning leads to a significantly increased clustering coefficient, and the average shortest path length remains unaffected. Moreover, network modifications correlate with subsequent recall performance: the more pronounced the modifications of the clustering coefficient, the higher the recall performance. Our findings provide novel insights into the relationship between topological aspects of functional brain networks and higher cognitive functions.

  20. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: A BNCT approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarzi, Samereh; Pazirandeh, Ali; Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin; Baghban Khojasteh, Nasrin

    2012-01-01

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. - Highlights: ► Boron distribution in male and female rats' normal brain was studied in this research. ► Coronal sections of animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. ► Alpha and Lithium tracks were counted using alpha autoradiography. ► Different boron concentration was seen in brain sections of male and female rats. ► The highest boron concentration was seen in 4 h after boron compound injection.

  1. Mapping social behavior-induced brain activation at cellular resolution in the mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongsoo; Venkataraju, Kannan Umadevi; Pradhan, Kith; Mende, Carolin; Taranda, Julian; Turaga, Srinivas C.; Arganda-Carreras, Ignacio; Ng, Lydia; Hawrylycz, Michael J.; Rockland, Kathleen; Seung, H. Sebastian; Osten, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how brain activation mediates behaviors is a central goal of systems neuroscience. Here we apply an automated method for mapping brain activation in the mouse in order to probe how sex-specific social behaviors are represented in the male brain. Our method uses the immediate early gene c-fos, a marker of neuronal activation, visualized by serial two-photon tomography: the c-fos-GFP-positive neurons are computationally detected, their distribution is registered to a reference brain and a brain atlas, and their numbers are analyzed by statistical tests. Our results reveal distinct and shared female and male interaction-evoked patterns of male brain activation representing sex discrimination and social recognition. We also identify brain regions whose degree of activity correlates to specific features of social behaviors and estimate the total numbers and the densities of activated neurons per brain areas. Our study opens the door to automated screening of behavior-evoked brain activation in the mouse. PMID:25558063

  2. Changes in reward-induced brain activation in opiate addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Soelch, C; Chevalley, A F; Künig, G; Missimer, J; Magyar, S; Mino, A; Schultz, W; Leenders, K L

    2001-10-01

    Many studies indicate a role of the cerebral dopaminergic reward system in addiction. Motivated by these findings, we examined in opiate addicts whether brain regions involved in the reward circuitry also react to human prototypical rewards. We measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with H(2)(15)O positron emission tomography (PET) during a visuo-spatial recognition task with delayed response in control subjects and in opiate addicts participating in a methadone program. Three conditions were defined by the types of feedback: nonsense feedback; nonmonetary reinforcement; or monetary reward, received by the subjects for a correct response. We found in the control subjects rCBF increases in regions associated with the meso-striatal and meso-corticolimbic circuits in response to both monetary reward and nonmonetary reinforcement. In opiate addicts, these regions were activated only in response to monetary reward. Furthermore, nonmonetary reinforcement elicited rCBF increases in limbic regions of the opiate addicts that were not activated in the control subjects. Because psychoactive drugs serve as rewards and directly affect regions of the dopaminergic system like the striatum, we conclude that the differences in rCBF increases between controls and addicts can be attributed to an adaptive consequence of the addiction process.

  3. Enhancing Physical Activity and Brain Reorganization after Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet H. Carr

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly clear that, if reorganization of brain function is to be optimal after stroke, there needs to be a reorganisation of the methods used in physical rehabilitation and the time spent in specific task practice, strength and endurance training, and aerobic exercise. Frequency and intensity of rehabilitation need to be increased so that patients can gain the energy levels and vigour necessary for participation in physical activity both during rehabilitation and after discharge. It is evident that many patients are discharged from inpatient rehabilitation severely deconditioned, meaning that their energy levels are too low for active participation in daily life. Physicians, therapists, and nursing staff responsible for rehabilitation practice should address this issue not only during inpatient rehabilitation but also after discharge by promoting and supporting community-based exercise opportunities. During inpatient rehabilitation, group sessions should be frequent and need to include specific aerobic training. Physiotherapy must take advantage of the training aids available, including exercise equipment such as treadmills, and of new developments in computerised feedback systems, robotics, and electromechanical trainers. For illustrative purposes, this paper focuses on the role of physiotherapists, but the necessary changes in practice and in attitude will require cooperation from many others.

  4. Brain Activity while Reading Sentences with Kanji Characters Expressing Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

    In this paper, we describe the brain activity associated with kanji characters expressing emotion, which are places at the end of a sentence. Japanese people use a special kanji character in brackets at the end of sentences in text messages such as those sent through e-mail and messenger tools. Such kanji characters plays a role to expresses the sender's emotion (such as fun, laughter, sadness, tears), like emoticons. It is a very simple and effective way to convey the senders' emotions and his/her thoughts to the receiver. In this research, we investigate the effects of emotional kanji characters by using an fMRI study. The experimental results show that both the right and left inferior frontal gyrus, which have been implicated on verbal and nonverbal information, were activated. We found that we detect a sentence with an emotional kanji character as the verbal and nonverval information, and a sentence with emotional kanji characters enrich communication between the sender and the reciever.

  5. Valence of physical stimuli, not housing conditions, affects behaviour and frontal cortical brain activity in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vögeli, Sabine; Lutz, Janika; Wolf, Martin; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2014-07-01

    Modulation of short-term emotions by long-term mood is little understood but relevant to understand the affective system and of importance in respect to animal welfare: a negative mood might taint experiences, whilst a positive mood might alleviate single negative events. To induce different mood states in sheep housing conditions were varied. Fourteen ewes were group-housed in an unpredictable, stimulus-poor and 15 ewes in a predictable, stimulus-rich environment. Sheep were tested individually for mood in a behavioural cognitive bias paradigm. Also, their reactions to three physical stimuli thought to differ in their perceived valence were observed (negative: pricking, intermediate: slight pressure, positive: kneading). General behaviour, activity, ear movements and positions, and haemodynamic changes in the cortical brain were recorded during stimulations. Generalised mixed-effects models and model probabilities based on the BIC (Bayesian information criterion) were used. Only weak evidence for mood difference was found. Sheep from the unpredictable, stimulus-poor housing condition had a somewhat more negative cognitive bias, showed slightly more aversive behaviour, were slightly more active and moved their ears somewhat more. Sheep most clearly differentiated the negative from the intermediate and positive stimulus in that they exhibited more aversive behaviour, less nibbling, were more active, showed more ear movements, more forward ear postures, fewer backward ear postures, and a stronger decrease in deoxyhaemoglobin when subjected to the negative stimulus. In conclusion, sheep reacted towards stimuli according to their presumed valence but their mood was not strongly influenced by housing conditions. Therefore, behavioural reactions and cortical brain activity towards the stimuli were hardly modulated by housing conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Wired on steroids: Sexual differentiation of the brain and its role in the expression of sexual partner preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Mae Alexander

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The preference to seek out a sexual partner of the opposite sex is robust and ensures reproduction and survival of the species. Development of female-directed partner preference in the male is dependent on exposure of the developing brain to gonadal steroids synthesized during critical periods of sexual differentiation of the central nervous system. In the absence of androgen exposure, a male-directed partner preference develops. The development and expression of sexual partner preference has been extensively studied in rats, ferrets, and sheep model systems. From these models it is clear that gonadal testosterone, often through estrogenic metabolites, cause both masculinization and defeminization of behavior during critical periods of brain development. Changes in the steroid environment during these critical periods results in atypical sexual partner preference. In this manuscript, we review the major findings which support the hypothesis that the organizational actions of sex steroids are responsible for sexual differentiation of sexual partner preferences in select non-human species. We also explore how this information has helped to frame our understanding of the biological influences on human sexual orientation and gender identity.

  7. Wired on steroids: sexual differentiation of the brain and its role in the expression of sexual partner preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Brenda M; Skinner, Donal C; Roselli, Charles E

    2011-01-01

    The preference to seek out a sexual partner of the opposite sex is robust and ensures reproduction and survival of the species. Development of female-directed partner preference in the male is dependent on exposure of the developing brain to gonadal steroids synthesized during critical periods of sexual differentiation of the central nervous system. In the absence of androgen exposure, a male-directed partner preference develops. The development and expression of sexual partner preference has been extensively studied in rat, ferret, and sheep model systems. From these models it is clear that gonadal testosterone, often through estrogenic metabolites, cause both masculinization and defeminization of behavior during critical periods of brain development. Changes in the steroid environment during these critical periods result in atypical sexual partner preference. In this manuscript, we review the major findings which support the hypothesis that the organizational actions of sex steroids are responsible for sexual differentiation of sexual partner preferences in select non-human species. We also explore how this information has helped to frame our understanding of the biological influences on human sexual orientation and gender identity.

  8. Ochratoxin A at nanomolar concentration perturbs the homeostasis of neural stem cells in highly differentiated but not in immature three-dimensional brain cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurich, Marie-Gabrielle; Honegger, Paul

    2011-08-28

    Ochratoxin A (OTA), a fungal contaminant of basic food commodities, is known to be highly cytotoxic, but the pathways underlying adverse effects at subcytotoxic concentrations remain to be elucidated. Recent reports indicate that OTA affects cell cycle regulation. Therefore, 3D brain cell cultures were used to study OTA effects on mitotically active neural stem/progenitor cells, comparing highly differentiated cultures with their immature counterparts. Changes in the rate of DNA synthesis were related to early changes in the mRNA expression of neural stem/progenitor cell markers. OTA at 10nM, a concentration below the cytotoxic level, was ineffective in immature cultures, whereas in mature cultures it significantly decreased the rate of DNA synthesis together with the mRNA expression of key transcriptional regulators such as Sox2, Mash1, Hes5, and Gli1; the cell cycle activator cyclin D2; the phenotypic markers nestin, doublecortin, and PDGFRα. These effects were largely prevented by Sonic hedgehog (Shh) peptide (500ngml(-1)) administration, indicating that OTA impaired the Shh pathway and the Sox2 regulatory transcription factor critical for stem cell self-renewal. Similar adverse effects of OTA in vivo might perturb the regulation of stem cell proliferation in the adult brain and in other organs exhibiting homeostatic and/or regenerative cell proliferation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Visual image reconstruction from human brain activity: A modular decoding approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyawaki, Yoichi; Uchida, Hajime; Yamashita, Okito; Sato, Masa-aki; Kamitani, Yukiyasu; Morito, Yusuke; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Sadato, Norihiro

    2009-01-01

    Brain activity represents our perceptual experience. But the potential for reading out perceptual contents from human brain activity has not been fully explored. In this study, we demonstrate constraint-free reconstruction of visual images perceived by a subject, from the brain activity pattern. We reconstructed visual images by combining local image bases with multiple scales, whose contrasts were independently decoded from fMRI activity by automatically selecting relevant voxels and exploiting their correlated patterns. Binary-contrast, 10 x 10-patch images (2 100 possible states), were accurately reconstructed without any image prior by measuring brain activity only for several hundred random images. The results suggest that our approach provides an effective means to read out complex perceptual states from brain activity while discovering information representation in multi-voxel patterns.

  10. On brain activity mapping: insights and lessons from Brain Decoding Project to map memory patterns in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsien, Joe Z; Li, Meng; Osan, Remus; Chen, Guifen; Lin, Longnian; Wang, Phillip Lei; Frey, Sabine; Frey, Julietta; Zhu, Dajiang; Liu, Tianming; Zhao, Fang; Kuang, Hui

    2013-09-01

    The BRAIN project recently announced by the president Obama is the reflection of unrelenting human quest for cracking the brain code, the patterns of neuronal activity that define who we are and what we are. While the Brain Activity Mapping proposal has rightly emphasized on the need to develop new technologies for measuring every spike from every neuron, it might be helpful to consider both the theoretical and experimental aspects that would accelerate our search for the organizing principles of the brain code. Here we share several insights and lessons from the similar proposal, namely, Brain Decoding Project that we initiated since 2007. We provide a specific example in our initial mapping of real-time memory traces from one part of the memory circuit, namely, the CA1 region of the mouse hippocampus. We show how innovative behavioral tasks and appropriate mathematical analyses of large datasets can play equally, if not more, important roles in uncovering the specific-to-general feature-coding cell assembly mechanism by which episodic memory, semantic knowledge, and imagination are generated and organized. Our own experiences suggest that the bottleneck of the Brain Project is not only at merely developing additional new technologies, but also the lack of efficient avenues to disseminate cutting edge platforms and decoding expertise to neuroscience community. Therefore, we propose that in order to harness unique insights and extensive knowledge from various investigators working in diverse neuroscience subfields, ranging from perception and emotion to memory and social behaviors, the BRAIN project should create a set of International and National Brain Decoding Centers at which cutting-edge recording technologies and expertise on analyzing large datasets analyses can be made readily available to the entire community of neuroscientists who can apply and schedule to perform cutting-edge research.

  11. Resting-state brain activity in the motor cortex reflects task-induced activity: A multi-voxel pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Toshiki; Kurashige, Hiroki; Nambu, Isao; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Hanakawa, Takashi; Wada, Yasuhiro; Osu, Rieko

    2015-08-01

    It has been suggested that resting-state brain activity reflects task-induced brain activity patterns. In this study, we examined whether neural representations of specific movements can be observed in the resting-state brain activity patterns of motor areas. First, we defined two regions of interest (ROIs) to examine brain activity associated with two different behavioral tasks. Using multi-voxel pattern analysis with regularized logistic regression, we designed a decoder to detect voxel-level neural representations corresponding to the tasks in each ROI. Next, we applied the decoder to resting-state brain activity. We found that the decoder discriminated resting-state neural activity with accuracy comparable to that associated with task-induced neural activity. The distribution of learned weighted parameters for each ROI was similar for resting-state and task-induced activities. Large weighted parameters were mainly located on conjunctive areas. Moreover, the accuracy of detection was higher than that for a decoder whose weights were randomly shuffled, indicating that the resting-state brain activity includes multi-voxel patterns similar to the neural representation for the tasks. Therefore, these results suggest that the neural representation of resting-state brain activity is more finely organized and more complex than conventionally considered.

  12. Multichannel brain recordings in behaving Drosophila reveal oscillatory activity and local coherence in response to sensory stimulation and circuit activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulk, Angelique C.; Zhou, Yanqiong; Stratton, Peter; Liu, Li

    2013-01-01

    Neural networks in vertebrates exhibit endogenous oscillations that have been associated with functions ranging from sensory processing to locomotion. It remains unclear whether oscillations may play a similar role in the insect brain. We describe a novel “whole brain” readout for Drosophila melanogaster using a simple multichannel recording preparation to study electrical activity across the brain of flies exposed to different sensory stimuli. We recorded local field potential (LFP) activity from >2,000 registered recording sites across the fly brain in >200 wild-type and transgenic animals to uncover specific LFP frequency bands that correlate with: 1) brain region; 2) sensory modality (olfactory, visual, or mechanosensory); and 3) activity in specific neural circuits. We found endogenous and stimulus-specific oscillations throughout the fly brain. Central (higher-order) brain regions exhibited sensory modality-specific increases in power within narrow frequency bands. Conversely, in sensory brain regions such as the optic or antennal lobes, LFP coherence, rather than power, best defined sensory responses across modalities. By transiently activating specific circuits via expression of TrpA1, we found that several circuits in the fly brain modulate LFP power and coherence across brain regions and frequency domains. However, activation of a neuromodulatory octopaminergic circuit specifically increased neuronal coherence in the optic lobes during visual stimulation while decreasing coherence in central brain regions. Our multichannel recording and brain registration approach provides an effective way to track activity simultaneously across the fly brain in vivo, allowing investigation of functional roles for oscillations in processing sensory stimuli and modulating behavior. PMID:23864378

  13. Reorganization of syntactic processing following left-hemisphere brain damage: does right-hemisphere activity preserve function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Lorraine K; Wright, Paul; Randall, Billi; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A

    2010-11-01

    The extent to which the human brain shows evidence of functional plasticity across the lifespan has been addressed in the context of pathological brain changes and, more recently, of the changes that take place during healthy ageing. Here we examine the potential for plasticity by asking whether a strongly left-lateralized system can successfully reorganize to the right-hemisphere following left-hemisphere brain damage. To do this, we focus on syntax, a key linguistic function considered to be strongly left-lateralized, combining measures of tissue integrity, neural activation and behavioural performance. In a functional neuroimaging study participants heard spoken sentences that differentially loaded on syntactic and semantic information. While healthy controls activated a left-hemisphere network of correlated activity including Brodmann areas 45/47 and posterior middle temporal gyrus during syntactic processing, patients activated Brodmann areas 45/47 bilaterally and right middle temporal gyrus. However, voxel-based morphometry analyses showed that only tissue integrity in left Brodmann areas 45/47 was correlated with activity and performance; poor tissue integrity in left Brodmann area 45 was associated with reduced functional activity and increased syntactic deficits. Activity in the right-hemisphere was not correlated with damage in the left-hemisphere or with performance. Reduced neural integrity in the left-hemisphere through brain damage or healthy ageing results in increased right-hemisphere activation in homologous regions to those left-hemisphere regions typically involved in the young. However, these regions do not support the same linguistic functions as those in the left-hemisphere and only indirectly contribute to preserved syntactic capacity. This establishes the unique role of the left hemisphere in syntax, a core component in human language.

  14. Sex differences in brain activation patterns during processing of positively and negatively valenced emotional words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Alex; Siedentopf, Christian M; Ischebeck, Anja; Rettenbacher, Maria A; Verius, Michael; Felber, Stephan; Wolfgang Fleischhacker, W

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that men and women process emotional stimuli differently. In this study, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate gender differences in regional cerebral activity during the perception of positive or negative emotions. The experiment comprised two emotional conditions (positively/negatively valenced words) during which fMRI data were acquired. Thirty-eight healthy volunteers (19 males, 19 females) were investigated. A direct comparison of brain activation between men and women revealed differential activation in the right putamen, the right superior temporal gyrus, and the left supramarginal gyrus during processing of positively valenced words versus non-words for women versus men. By contrast, during processing of negatively valenced words versus non-words, relatively greater activation was seen in the left perirhinal cortex and hippocampus for women versus men, and in the right supramarginal gyrus for men versus women. Our findings suggest gender-related neural responses to emotional stimuli and could contribute to the understanding of mechanisms underlying the gender disparity of neuropsychiatric diseases such as mood disorders.

  15. Regional brain activation and affective response to physical activity among healthy adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Margaret; Graham, Dan; Grant, Arthur; King, Pamela; Cooper, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that frontal brain activation, assessed via electroencephalographic (EEG) asymmetry, predicts the post-exercise affective response to exercise among adults. Building on this evidence, the present study investigates the utility of resting cortical asymmetry for explaining variance in the affective response both during and after exercise at two different intensities among healthy adolescents. Resting EEG was obtained from 98 adolescents (55% male), who also completed two 30-m...

  16. Transcriptome analyses of sex differential gene expression in brains of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus and effects of tributyltin exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-liang Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available RNA-sequencing was used to identify sex-biased gene expression in brains of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus by comparing transcriptomic profiles between females and males. Furthermore, transcriptomic responses to 10 ng/L tributyltin (TBT in both male and female brains were also investigated to understand whether TBT affects the identified sex-biased genes. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified using the IDEG6 web tool. In this article, we presented male- and female-biased DEGs, and up-regulated and down-regulated DEGs after TBT exposure. The raw reads data supporting the present analyses has been deposited in NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRA, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Traces/sra with accession number PRJNA376634. The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Transcriptomic analyses of sexual dimorphism of rare minnow (G. rarus brains and effects of tributyltin exposure” (doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.02.049.

  17. Data set of interactomes and metabolic pathways of proteins differentially expressed in brains with Alzheimer׳s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito Minjarez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer׳s disease is one of the main causes of dementia in the elderly and its frequency is on the rise worldwide. It is considered the result of complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors, being many of them unknown. Therefore, there is a dire necessity for the identification of novel molecular players for the understanding of this disease. In this data article we determined the protein expression profiles of whole protein extracts from cortex regions of brains from patients with Alzheimer׳s disease in comparison to a normal brain. We identified 721 iTRAQ-labeled polypeptides with more than 95% in confidence. We analyzed all proteins that changed in their expression level and located them in the KEGG metabolic pathways, as well as in the mitochondrial complexes of the electron transport chain and ATP synthase. In addition, we analyzed the over- and sub-expressed polypeptides through IPA software, specifically Core I and Biomarkers I modules. Data in this article is related to the research article “Identification of proteins that are differentially expressed in brains with Alzheimer’s disease using iTRAQ labeling and tandem mass spectrometry” (Minjarez et al., 2016 [1].

  18. Ketamine differentially restores diverse alterations of neuroligins in brain regions in a rat model of neuropathic pain-induced depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei; Zhang, Guang-Fen; Li, Hui-Hui; Ji, Mu-Huo; Zhou, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Kuan-Yu; Yang, Jian-Jun

    2018-07-04

    Depression is present in a large proportion of patients suffering from chronic pain, and yet the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Neuroligins (NLs), as a family of cell-adhesion proteins, are involved in synaptic formation and have been linked to various neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we studied the alterations in NL1 and NL2 in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and the hippocampus in a rat model of neuropathic pain-induced depression, and whether ketamine, a rapid and robust antidepressant, could restore these abnormalities. In the present study, we found that spared nerve injury induced significant mechanical allodynia and subsequent depressive-like symptoms, along with decreased NL1 and increased NL2 in the mPFC, decreased NL1 in the ACC, and decreased NL2 in the hippocampus. In addition, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was reduced in these brain regions. It is noteworthy that ketamine (10 mg/kg) relieved neuropathic pain-induced depressive behaviors and restored alterations of BDNF and NLs in the mPFC and the hippocampus at 24 h and 72 h after the administration of ketamine, but only restored BDNF in the ACC. In conclusion, NLs showed diverse changes in different brain regions in the rat model of neuropathic pain-induced depression, which could be reversed differentially by the administration of ketamine.

  19. Preferred partner characteristics in homosexual men in relation to speculated patterns of brain differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscarella, Frank

    2002-08-01

    The current study was designed to test a neurohormonally based theory of sexual orientation and preferred partner characteristics in homosexual men. The theory holds that the brains of homosexual men are masculinized and feminized directing attraction to targets younger and more masculine than self, and the brains of homosexual adolescents are incompletely masculinized and feminized directing attraction to targets older and more masculine than self. Ninety-six homosexual men completed questionnaires that asked them to rate morphological and behavioral characteristics associated with ethologically relevant indicators of masculinity. The participants made ratings for themselves as adolescents and adults, their current partners and idealized partners as adults, and their idealized partners as adolescents. Results of within-subjects multivariate analyses of variance supported most of the hypotheses. Participants as adults rated their idealized partners as more masculine than themselves and their real partners on five measures: height, weight, muscle development, facial hair, and sexuality. As adolescents they indicated a preference for males older and more masculine than self. The participants in adulthood did not show the predicted preference for partners younger than themselves. The increased ratings of sexuality for self from adolescence to adulthood support the contention that some additional masculinization of the brain may occur with aging. The increased ratings of body size for the idealized target from adolescence to adulthood keeps the target more masculine then self across developmental periods. This phenomenon is consistent with the speculated feminization of the brain at both periods and its effects on partner preferences.

  20. Differential effects of the ApoE4 genotype on brain structure and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matura, S.; Prvulovic, D.; Jurcoane, A.; Hartmann, D.; Miller, J.; Scheibe, M.; O'Dwyer, L.G.; Oertel-Knochel, V.; Knochel, C.; Reinke, B.; Karakaya, T.; Fusser, F.; Pantel, J.

    2014-01-01

    The apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele is a well established genetic risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease. It is associated with structural and functional brain changes in healthy young, middle-aged and elderly subjects. In the current study, we assessed the impact of the ApoE genotype on

  1. Personal and Impersonal Stimuli Differentially Engage Brain Networks during Moral Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shao-Wei; Wang, Yan; Tang, Yi-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Moral decision making has recently attracted considerable attention as a core feature of all human endeavors. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging studies about moral judgment have identified brain areas associated with cognitive or emotional engagement. Here, we applied graph theory-based network analysis of event-related potentials…

  2. Differential distribution of calcineurin Aα isoenzyme mRNA's in rat brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buttini, M.; Limonta, S.; Luyten, M.; Boddeke, H.

    1993-01-01

    Specific antisense oligonucleotide probes for the α isoforms of the catalytic subunit (A-subunit) of calcineurin were prepared and the distribution of Aα1 and Aα2 mRNA's has been studied in rat brain using in situ hybridization histochemistry. Clear regional differences have been observed for the

  3. Patterns of brain structural connectivity differentiate normal weight from overweight subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpana Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: 1. An increased BMI (i.e., overweight subjects is associated with distinct changes in gray-matter and fiber density of the brain. 2. Classification algorithms based on white-matter connectivity involving regions of the reward and associated networks can identify specific targets for mechanistic studies and future drug development aimed at abnormal ingestive behavior and in overweight/obesity.

  4. Brain reactivity differentiates subjects with high and low dream recall frequencies during both sleep and wakefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; Bertrand, Olivier; Morlet, Dominique; Ruby, Perrine

    2014-05-01

    The neurophysiological correlates of dreaming remain unclear. According to the "arousal-retrieval" model, dream encoding depends on intrasleep wakefulness. Consistent with this model, subjects with high and low dream recall frequency (DRF) report differences in intrasleep awakenings. This suggests a possible neurophysiological trait difference between the 2 groups. To test this hypothesis, we compared the brain reactivity (evoked potentials) of subjects with high (HR, N = 18) and low (LR, N = 18) DRF during wakefulness and sleep. During data acquisition, the subjects were presented with sounds to be ignored (first names randomly presented among pure tones) while they were watching a silent movie or sleeping. Brain responses to first names dramatically differed between the 2 groups during both sleep and wakefulness. During wakefulness, the attention-orienting brain response (P3a) and a late parietal response were larger in HR than in LR. During sleep, we also observed between-group differences at the latency of the P3a during N2 and at later latencies during all sleep stages. Our results demonstrate differences in the brain reactivity of HR and LR during both sleep and wakefulness. These results suggest that the ability to recall dreaming is associated with a particular cerebral functional organization, regardless of the state of vigilance.

  5. Sexual differentiation of the human brain in relation to gender identity and sexual orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savic, Ivanka; Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia; Swaab, Dick F.

    2010-01-01

    It is believed that during the intrauterine period the fetal brain develops in the male direction through a direct action of testosterone on the developing nerve cells, or in the female direction through the absence of this hormone surge. According to this concept, our gender identity (the

  6. Differential targeting of brain stress circuits with a selective glucocorticoid receptor modulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zalachoras, I.; Houtman, R.; Atucha, E.; Devos, R.; Tijssen, A.M.I.; Hu, P.; Lockey, P.M.; Datson, N.A.; Belanoff, J.K.; Lucassen, P.J.; Joëls, M.; de Kloet, E.R.; Roozendaal, B.; Hunt, H.; Meijer, O.C.

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonism may be of considerable therapeutic value in stress-related psychopathology such as depression. However, blockade of all GR-dependent processes in the brain will lead to unnecessary and even counteractive effects, such as elevated endogenous cortisol levels.

  7. Multivoxel proton MRS for differentiation of radiation-induced necrosis and tumor recurrence after gamma knife radiosurgery for brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernov, M.F.; Hayashi, Motohiro; Izawa, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    Multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used for differentiation of radiation-induced necrosis and tumor recurrence after gamma knife radiosurgery for intracranial metastases in 33 consecutive cases. All patients presented with enlargement of the treated lesion, increase of perilesional brain edema, and aggravation or appearance of neurological signs and symptoms on average 9.3±4.9 months after primary treatment. Metabolic imaging defined four types of lesions: pure tumor recurrence (11 cases), partial tumor recurrence (11 cases), radiation-induced tumor necrosis (10 cases), and radiation-induced necrosis of the peritumoral brain (1 case). In 1 patient, radiation-induced tumor necrosis was diagnosed 9 months after radiosurgery; however, partial tumor recurrence was identified 6 months later. With the exception of midline shift, which was found to be more typical for radiation-induced necrosis (P<0.01), no one clinical, radiologic, or radiosurgical parameter either at the time of primary treatment or at the time of deterioration showed a statistically significant association with the type of the lesion. Proton MRS-based diagnosis was confirmed histologically in all surgically treated patients (7 cases) and corresponded well to the clinical course in others. In conclusion, multivoxel proton MRS is an effective diagnostic modality for identification of radiation-induced necrosis and tumor recurrence that can be used for monitoring of metabolic changes in intracranial neoplasms after radiosurgical treatment. It can be also helpful for differentiation of radiation-induced necrosis of the tumor and that of the peritumoral brain, which may have important clinical and medicolegal implications. (author)

  8. Effects of sevoflurane on adenylate cyclase and phosphodiesterases activity in brain of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Changdong; Yang Jianping; Dai Tijun

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of sevoflurane on c adenylate cyclase (AC) and phosphodiesterases (PDE) activity in the cerebrocortex, hippocampus and brain stem of rats, and to examine the role of cAMP in sevoflurane anesthesia. Methods: Fourty SD rats were delaminately designed and allocated randomly to 5 groups inhaling 1.5% sevoflurane i.e., no recovery (recovery group, n=8) and one hour after righting reflexrecovery (aware group, n=8). The brain tissues were rapidly dissected into cerebrocortex and hippocampus and brain stem.Then the adenylate cyclase and phosphodiesterases activity were assessed. Results: So far as the activity of AC is concerned, compared with the control group, the activity of AC in the cerebrocortex, hippocampus and brain stem brain stem of induction group and anesthesia group, the cerebrocortex, and hippocampus in the recovery group were significantly increased; compared with those in the anesthesia group, the activity of AC in the cerebrocortex, hippocampus and brain stem of aware group were significantly decreased (P<0.05); For the activity of PDE, compared with the control group, the activity of PDE in the cerebrocortex, hippocampus and brain stem in the induction group and anesthesia group was significantly decreased, compared with that in anesthesia group, the activity of PDE in the cerebrocortex, hippocampus and brain stem of recovery group and aware group was significantly increased (P<0.05). Conclusion: cAMP may play an important role in sevoflurane anesthesia. (authors)

  9. Sex Differences in Brain Activity Related to General and Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija

    2005-01-01

    The study investigated gender differences in resting EEG (in three individually determined narrow [alpha] frequency bands) related to the level of general and emotional intelligence. Brain activity of males decreased with the level of general intelligence, whereas an opposite pattern of brain activity was observed in females. This difference was…

  10. Differential brain development with low and high IQ in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick de Zeeuw

    Full Text Available Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and intelligence (IQ are both heritable phenotypes. Overlapping genetic effects have been suggested to influence both, with neuroimaging work suggesting similar overlap in terms of morphometric properties of the brain. Together, this evidence suggests that the brain changes characteristic of ADHD may vary as a function of IQ. This study investigated this hypothesis in a sample of 108 children with ADHD and 106 typically developing controls, who participated in a cross-sectional anatomical MRI study. A subgroup of 64 children also participated in a diffusion tensor imaging scan. Brain volumes, local cortical thickness and average cerebral white matter microstructure were analyzed in relation to diagnostic group and IQ. Dimensional analyses investigated possible group differences in the relationship between anatomical measures and IQ. Second, the groups were split into above and below median IQ subgroups to investigate possible differences in the trajectories of cortical development. Dimensionally, cerebral gray matter volume and cerebral white matter microstructure were positively associated with IQ for controls, but not for ADHD. In the analyses of the below and above median IQ subgroups, we found no differences from controls in cerebral gray matter volume in ADHD with below-median IQ, but a delay of cortical development in a number of regions, including prefrontal areas. Conversely, in ADHD with above-median IQ, there were significant reductions from controls in cerebral gray matter volume, but no local differences in the trajectories of cortical development.In conclusion, the basic relationship between IQ and neuroanatomy appears to be altered in ADHD. Our results suggest that there may be multiple brain phenotypes associated with ADHD, where ADHD combined with above median IQ is characterized by small, more global reductions in brain volume that are stable over development, whereas ADHD with

  11. Differential Brain Development with Low and High IQ in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zeeuw, Patrick; Schnack, Hugo G.; van Belle, Janna; Weusten, Juliette; van Dijk, Sarai; Langen, Marieke; Brouwer, Rachel M.; van Engeland, Herman; Durston, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and intelligence (IQ) are both heritable phenotypes. Overlapping genetic effects have been suggested to influence both, with neuroimaging work suggesting similar overlap in terms of morphometric properties of the brain. Together, this evidence suggests that the brain changes characteristic of ADHD may vary as a function of IQ. This study investigated this hypothesis in a sample of 108 children with ADHD and 106 typically developing controls, who participated in a cross-sectional anatomical MRI study. A subgroup of 64 children also participated in a diffusion tensor imaging scan. Brain volumes, local cortical thickness and average cerebral white matter microstructure were analyzed in relation to diagnostic group and IQ. Dimensional analyses investigated possible group differences in the relationship between anatomical measures and IQ. Second, the groups were split into above and below median IQ subgroups to investigate possible differences in the trajectories of cortical development. Dimensionally, cerebral gray matter volume and cerebral white matter microstructure were positively associated with IQ for controls, but not for ADHD. In the analyses of the below and above median IQ subgroups, we found no differences from controls in cerebral gray matter volume in ADHD with below-median IQ, but a delay of cortical development in a number of regions, including prefrontal areas. Conversely, in ADHD with above-median IQ, there were significant reductions from controls in cerebral gray matter volume, but no local differences in the trajectories of cortical development. In conclusion, the basic relationship between IQ and neuroanatomy appears to be altered in ADHD. Our results suggest that there may be multiple brain phenotypes associated with ADHD, where ADHD combined with above median IQ is characterized by small, more global reductions in brain volume that are stable over development, whereas ADHD with below median IQ is

  12. Differential Effects of High-Protein Diets Derived from Soy and Casein on Blood–Brain Barrier Integrity in Wild-type Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Snelson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies report that a diet high in protein influences cognitive performance, but the results are inconsistent. Studies demonstrated that protein from different food sources has differential effects on cognition. It is increasingly recognized that the integrity of cerebrovascular blood–brain barrier (BBB is pivotal for central nervous system function. However, to date, no studies have reported the effects of high-protein diets on BBB integrity. Therefore, in this study, the effects of diets enriched in casein or soy protein on BBB permeability were investigated. Immunomicroscopy analyses of cerebral parenchymal immunoglobulin G extravasation indicated significant BBB disruption in the cortex of young adult mice maintained on high-casein diet for 12 weeks, while no signs of BBB dysfunction were observed in mice fed with control or high-soy protein diet. Moreover, cortical expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP was significantly greater in mice fed the high-casein diet compared to control mice, indicating heightened astrocyte activation, whereas mice maintained on a soy-enriched diet showed no increase of GFAP abundance. Plasma concentrations of homocysteine were markedly greater in mice maintained on a high-casein diet in comparison to control mice. Collectively, these findings suggest that a diet enriched in casein but not soy protein may induce astrocyte activation through exaggerated BBB permeability by increased plasma homocysteine. The outcomes indicate the differential effects of protein sources on BBB and neuroinflammation, which may provide an important implication for dietary guidelines for protein supplementation.

  13. Acute and chronic changes in brain activity with deep brain stimulation for refractory depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conen, Silke; Matthews, Julian C; Patel, Nikunj K; Anton-Rodriguez, José; Talbot, Peter S

    2018-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation is a potential option for patients with treatment-refractory depression. Deep brain stimulation benefits have been reported when targeting either the subgenual cingulate or ventral anterior capsule/nucleus accumbens. However, not all patients respond and optimum stimulation-site is uncertain. We compared deep brain stimulation of the subgenual cingulate and ventral anterior capsule/nucleus accumbens separately and combined in the same seven treatment-refractory depression patients, and investigated regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with acute and chronic deep brain stimulation. Deep brain stimulation-response was defined as reduction in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale score from baseline of ≥50%, and remission as a Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale score ≤8. Changes in regional cerebral blood flow were assessed using [ 15 O]water positron emission tomography. Remitters had higher relative regional cerebral blood flow in the prefrontal cortex at baseline and all subsequent time-points compared to non-remitters and non-responders, with prefrontal cortex regional cerebral blood flow generally increasing with chronic deep brain stimulation. These effects were consistent regardless of stimulation-site. Overall, no significant regional cerebral blood flow changes were apparent when deep brain stimulation was acutely interrupted. Deep brain stimulation improved treatment-refractory depression severity in the majority of patients, with consistent changes in local and distant brain regions regardless of target stimulation. Remission of depression was reached in patients with higher baseline prefrontal regional cerebral blood flow. Because of the small sample size these results are preliminary and further evaluation is necessary to determine whether prefrontal cortex regional cerebral blood flow could be a predictive biomarker of treatment response.

  14. Differentiation of Glioblastomas from Metastatic Brain Tumors by Tryptophan Uptake and Kinetic Analysis: A Positron Emission Tomographic Study with Magnetic Resonance Imaging Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O. Kamson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Differentiating high-grade gliomas from solitary brain metastases is often difficult by conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; molecular imaging may facilitate such discrimination. We tested the accuracy of α[11C]methyl-L-tryptophan (AMT–positron emission tomography (PET to differentiate newly diagnosed glioblastomas from brain metastases. AMT-PET was performed in 36 adults with suspected brain malignancy. Tumoral AMT accumulation was measured by standardized uptake values (SUVs. Tracer kinetic analysis was also performed to separate tumoral net tryptophan transport (by AMT volume of distribution [VD] from unidirectional uptake rates using dynamic PET and blood input function. Differentiating the accuracy of these PET variables was evaluated and compared to conventional MRI. For glioblastoma/metastasis differentiation, tumoral AMT SUV showed the highest accuracy (74% and the tumor/cortex VD ratio had the highest positive predictive value (82%. The combined accuracy of MRI (size of contrast-enhancing lesion and AMT-PET reached up to 93%. For ring-enhancing lesions, tumor/cortex SUV ratios were higher in glioblastomas than in metastatic tumors and could differentiate these two tumor types with > 90% accuracy. These results demonstrate that evaluation of tryptophan accumulation by PET can enhance pretreatment differentiation of glioblastomas and metastatic brain tumors. This approach may be particularly useful in patients with a newly diagnosed solitary ring-enhancing mass.

  15. Determination of antioxidant activity of spices and their active principles by differential pulse voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Alberto; Ruiz Montoya, Mercedes; Arteaga, Jesús F; Rodríguez Mellado, Jose M

    2014-01-22

    The anodic oxidation of mercury in the presence of hydrogen peroxide in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to determine the antioxidant (AO) character of radical scavengers. Hydroperoxide radical is formed at the potentials of the oxidation peak on mercury electrodes, such radical reacting with the antioxidants in different extension. The parameter C10 (antioxidant concentration at which the peak area decreases by 10%) is used to measure the scavenging activity of the individual antioxidants. To establish the scavenging activity of antioxidant mixtures as a whole, the parameter, μ10 as the reverse of V10, V10 being the volume necessary to decrease the peak area in DPV by 10%, was selected. Higher μ10 values correspond to higher scavenging activity. The studies have been extended to aqueous extracts of some species. The results may be useful in explaining the effect of spices in vitro and in vivo studies.

  16. Cocaine is pharmacologically active in the nonhuman primate fetal brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benveniste, Helene; Fowler, Joanna S; Rooney, William D

    2010-01-01

    Cocaine use during pregnancy is deleterious to the newborn child, in part via its disruption of placental blood flow. However, the extent to which cocaine can affect the function of the fetal primate brain is still an unresolved question. Here we used PET and MRI and show that in third-trimester ......Cocaine use during pregnancy is deleterious to the newborn child, in part via its disruption of placental blood flow. However, the extent to which cocaine can affect the function of the fetal primate brain is still an unresolved question. Here we used PET and MRI and show that in third......-trimester pregnant nonhuman primates, cocaine at doses typically used by drug abusers significantly increased brain glucose metabolism to the same extent in the mother as in the fetus (approximately 100%). Inasmuch as brain glucose metabolism is a sensitive marker of brain function, the current findings provide...

  17. Sustained Treatment with Insulin Detemir in Mice Alters Brain Activity and Locomotion.

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    Tina Sartorius

    Full Text Available Recent studies have identified unique brain effects of insulin detemir (Levemir®. Due to its pharmacologic properties, insulin detemir may reach higher concentrations in the brain than regular insulin. This might explain the observed increased brain stimulation after acute insulin detemir application but it remained unclear whether chronic insulin detemir treatment causes alterations in brain activity as a consequence of overstimulation.In mice, we examined insulin detemir's prolonged brain exposure by continuous subcutaneous (s.c. application using either micro-osmotic pumps or daily s.c. injections and performed continuous radiotelemetric electrocorticography and locomotion recordings.Acute intracerebroventricular injection of insulin detemir activated cortical and locomotor activity significantly more than regular insulin in equimolar doses (0.94 and 5.63 mU in total, suggesting an enhanced acute impact on brain networks. However, given continuously s.c., insulin detemir significantly reduced cortical activity (theta: 21.3±6.1% vs. 73.0±8.1%, P<0.001 and failed to maintain locomotion, while regular insulin resulted in an increase of both parameters.The data suggest that permanently-increased insulin detemir levels in the brain convert its hyperstimulatory effects and finally mediate impairments in brain activity and locomotion. This observation might be considered when human studies with insulin detemir are designed to target the brain in order to optimize treatment regimens.

  18. Non-cell autonomous impairment of oligodendrocyte differentiation precedes CNS degeneration in the Zitter rat: Implications of macrophage/microglial activation in the pathogenesis

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    Ookawara Shigeo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The zitter (zi/zi rat, a loss-of-function mutant of the glycosylated transmembrane protein attractin (atrn, exhibits widespread age-dependent spongiform degeneration, hypomyelination, and abnormal metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the brain. To date, the mechanisms underlying these phenotypes have remained unclear. Results Here, we show differentiation defects in zi/zi oligodendrocytes, accompanied by aberrant extension of cell-processes and hypomyelination. Axonal bundles were relatively preserved during postnatal development. With increasing in age, the injured oligodendrocytes in zi/zi rats become pathological, as evidenced by the accumulation of iron in their cell bodies. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that atrn expression was absent from an oligodendrocyte lineage, including A2B5-positive progenitors and CNPase-positive differentiated cells. The number and distribution of Olig2-positive oligodendrocyte progenitors was unchanged in the zi/zi brain. Furthermore, an in vitro differentiation assay of cultured oligodendrocyte progenitors prepared from zi/zi brains revealed their normal competence for proliferation and differentiation into mature oligodendrocytes. Interestingly, we demonstrated the accelerated recruitment of ED1-positive macrophages/microglia to the developing zi/zi brain parenchyma prior to the onset of hypomyelination. Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed a significant up-regulation of CD26 and IL1-β in the zi/zi brain during this early postnatal stage. Conclusion We demonstrated that the onset of the impairment of oligodendrocyte differentiation occurs in a non-cell autonomous manner in zi/zi rats. Hypomyelination of oligodendrocytes was not due to a failure of the intrinsic program of oligodendrocytes, but rather, was caused by extrinsic factors that interrupt oligodendrocyte development. It is likely that macrophage/microglial activation in the zi/zi CNS leads to disturbances in

  19. Characterizing Motif Dynamics of Electric Brain Activity Using Symbolic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Zanin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Motifs are small recurring circuits of interactions which constitute the backbone of networked systems. Characterizing motif dynamics is therefore key to understanding the functioning of such systems. Here we propose a method to define and quantify the temporal variability and time scales of electroencephalogram (EEG motifs of resting brain activity. Given a triplet of EEG sensors, links between them are calculated by means of linear correlation; each pattern of links (i.e., each motif is then associated to a symbol, and its appearance frequency is analyzed by means of Shannon entropy. Our results show that each motif becomes observable with different coupling thresholds and evolves at its own time scale, with fronto-temporal sensors emerging at high thresholds and changing at fast time scales, and parietal ones at low thresholds and changing at slower rates. Finally, while motif dynamics differed across individuals, for each subject, it showed robustness across experimental conditions, indicating that it could represent an individual dynamical signature.

  20. Separating neural and vascular effects of caffeine using simultaneous EEG–FMRI: Differential effects of caffeine on cognitive and sensorimotor brain responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diukova, Ana; Ware, Jennifer; Smith, Jessica E.; Evans, C. John; Murphy, Kevin; Rogers, Peter J.; Wise, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of caffeine are mediated through its non-selective antagonistic effects on adenosine A1 and A2A adenosine receptors resulting in increased neuronal activity but also vasoconstriction in the brain. Caffeine, therefore, can modify BOLD FMRI signal responses through both its neural and its vascular effects depending on receptor distributions in different brain regions. In this study we aim to distinguish neural and vascular influences of a single dose of caffeine in measurements of task-related brain activity using simultaneous EEG–FMRI. We chose to compare low-level visual and motor (paced finger tapping) tasks with a cognitive (auditory oddball) task, with the expectation that caffeine would differentially affect brain responses in relation to these tasks. To avoid the influence of chronic caffeine intake, we examined the effect of 250 mg of oral caffeine on 14 non and infrequent caffeine consumers in a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study. Our results show that the task-related BOLD signal change in visual and primary motor cortex was significantly reduced by caffeine, while the amplitude and latency of visual evoked potentials over occipital cortex remained unaltered. However, during the auditory oddball task (target versus non-target stimuli) caffeine significantly increased the BOLD signal in frontal cortex. Correspondingly, there was also a significant effect of caffeine in reducing the target evoked response potential (P300) latency in the oddball task and this was associated with a positive potential over frontal cortex. Behavioural data showed that caffeine also improved performance in the oddball task with a significantly reduced number of missed responses. Our results are consistent with earlier studies demonstrating altered flow-metabolism coupling after caffeine administration in the context of our observation of a generalised caffeine-induced reduction in cerebral blood flow demonstrated by arterial spin labelling (19

  1. Cellular mechanisms of estradiol-mediated sexual differentiation of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Christopher L; Schwarz, Jaclyn S; Dean, Shannon L; McCarthy, Margaret M

    2010-09-01

    Gonadal steroids organize the developing brain during a perinatal sensitive period and have enduring consequences for adult behavior. In male rodents testicular androgens are aromatized in neurons to estrogens and initiate multiple distinct cellular processes that ultimately determine the masculine phenotype. Within specific brain regions, overall cell number and dendritic morphology are the principal targets for hormonal organization. Recent advances have been made in elucidating the cellular mechanisms by which the neurological underpinnings of sexually dimorphic physiology and behavior are determined. These include estradiol-mediated prostaglandin synthesis, presynaptic release of glutamate, postsynaptic changes in glutamate receptors and changes in cell adhesion molecules. Sex differences in cell death are mediated by hormonal modulation of survival and death factors such as TNFalpha and Bcl-2/BAX. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Measurable benefits on brain activity from the practice of educational leisure

    OpenAIRE

    Requena, Carmen; López, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    Even if behavioral studies relate leisure practices to the preservation of memory in old persons, there is unsubstantial evidence of the import of leisure on brain activity. Aim: This study was to compare the brain activity of elderly retired people who engage in different types of leisure activities. Methods: Quasi-experimental study over a sample of 60 elderly, retired subjects distributed into three groups according to the leisure activities they practised: educational leisure (G1), ...

  3. Hormonally-mediated Epigenetic Changes to Steroid Receptors in the Developing Brain: Implications for Sexual Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Nugent, Bridget M.; Schwarz, Jaclyn M.; McCarthy, Margaret M.

    2010-01-01

    The establishment of sex-specific neural morphology, which underlies sex-specific behaviors, occurs during a perinatal sensitive window in which brief exposure to gonadal steroid hormones produces permanent masculinization of the brain. In the rodent, estradiol derived from testicular androgens is a principle organizational hormone. The mechanism by which transient estradiol exposure induces permanent differences in neuronal anatomy has been widely investigated, but remains elusive. Epigeneti...

  4. Structural plasticity of the social brain: Differential change after socio-affective and cognitive mental training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valk, Sofie L; Bernhardt, Boris C; Trautwein, Fynn-Mathis; Böckler, Anne; Kanske, Philipp; Guizard, Nicolas; Collins, D Louis; Singer, Tania

    2017-10-01

    Although neuroscientific research has revealed experience-dependent brain changes across the life span in sensory, motor, and cognitive domains, plasticity relating to social capacities remains largely unknown. To investigate whether the targeted mental training of different cognitive and social skills can induce specific changes in brain morphology, we collected longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data throughout a 9-month mental training intervention from a large sample of adults between 20 and 55 years of age. By means of various daily mental exercises and weekly instructed group sessions, training protocols specifically addressed three functional domains: (i) mindfulness-based attention and interoception, (ii) socio-affective skills (compassion, dealing with difficult emotions, and prosocial motivation), and (iii) socio-cognitive skills (cognitive perspective-taking on self and others and metacognition). MRI-based cortical thickness analyses, contrasting the different training modules against each other, indicated spatially diverging changes in cortical morphology. Training of present-moment focused attention mostly led to increases in cortical thickness in prefrontal regions, socio-affective training induced plasticity in frontoinsular regions, and socio-cognitive training included change in inferior frontal and lateral temporal cortices. Module-specific structural brain changes correlated with training-induced behavioral improvements in the same individuals in domain-specific measures of attention, compassion, and cognitive perspective-taking, respectively, and overlapped with task-relevant functional networks. Our longitudinal findings indicate structural plasticity in well-known socio-affective and socio-cognitive brain networks in healthy adults based on targeted short daily mental practices. These findings could promote the development of evidence-based mental training interventions in clinical, educational, and corporate settings aimed at

  5. Resting brain activity varies with dream recall frequency between subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; Nicolas, Alain; Daltrozzo, Jérôme; Redouté, Jérôme; Costes, Nicolas; Ruby, Perrine

    2014-06-01

    Dreaming is still poorly understood. Notably, its cerebral underpinning remains unclear. Neuropsychological studies have shown that lesions in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and/or the white matter of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) lead to the global cessation of dream reports, suggesting that these regions of the default mode network have key roles in the dreaming process (forebrain 'dream-on' hypothesis). To test this hypothesis, we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using [(15)O]H2O positron emission tomography in healthy subjects with high and low dream recall frequencies (DRFs) during wakefulness (rest) and sleep (rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, N2, and N3). Compared with Low recallers (0.5 ± 0.3 dream recall per week in average), High recallers (5.2 ± 1.4) showed higher rCBF in the TPJ during REM sleep, N3, and wakefulness, and in the MPFC during REM sleep and wakefulness. We demonstrate that the resting states of High recallers and Low recallers differ during sleep and wakefulness. It coheres with previous ERP results and confirms that a high/low DRF is associated with a specific functional organization of the brain. These results support the forebrain 'dream-on' hypothesis and suggest that TPJ and MPFC are not only involved in dream recall during wakefulness but also have a role in dreaming during sleep (production and/or encoding). Increased activity in the TPJ and MPFC might promote the mental imagery and/or memory encoding of dreams. Notably, increased activity in TPJ might facilitate attention orienting toward external stimuli and promote intrasleep wakefulness, facilitating the encoding of the dreams in memory.

  6. Geminin Participates in Differentiation Decisions of Adult Neural Stem Cells Transplanted in the Hemiparkinsonian Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taouki, Ioanna; Tasiudi, Eve; Lalioti, Maria-Eleni; Kyrousi, Christina; Skavatsou, Eleni; Kaplani, Konstantina; Lygerou, Zoi; Kouvelas, Elias D; Mitsacos, Adamantia; Giompres, Panagiotis; Taraviras, Stavros

    2017-08-15

    Neural stem cells have been considered as a source of stem cells that can be used for cell replacement therapies in neurodegenerative diseases, as they can be isolated and expanded in vitro and can be used for autologous grafting. However, due to low percentages of survival and varying patterns of differentiation, strategies that will enhance the efficacy of transplantation are under scrutiny. In this article, we have examined whether alterations in Geminin's expression, a protein that coordinates the balance between self-renewal and differentiation, can improve the properties of stem cells transplanted in 6-OHDA hemiparkinsonian mouse model. Our results indicate that, in the absence of Geminin, grafted cells differentiating into dopaminergic neurons were decreased, while an increased number of oligodendrocytes were detected. The number of proliferating multipotent cells was not modified by the absence of Geminin. These findings encourage research related to the impact of Geminin on transplantations for neurodegenerative disorders, as an important molecule in influencing differentiation decisions of the cells composing the graft.

  7. The Brain and Learning: Examining the Connection between Brain Activity, Spatial Intelligence, and Learning Outcomes in Online Visual Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyangsook

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare 2D and 3D visual presentation styles, both still frame and animation, on subjects' brain activity measured by the amplitude of EEG alpha wave and on their recall to see if alpha power and recall differ significantly by depth and movement of visual presentation style and by spatial intelligence. In addition,…

  8. Patterns of brain structural connectivity differentiate normal weight from overweight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Mayer, Emeran A; Sanmiguel, Claudia P; Van Horn, John D; Woodworth, Davis; Ellingson, Benjamin M; Fling, Connor; Love, Aubrey; Tillisch, Kirsten; Labus, Jennifer S

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in the hedonic component of ingestive behaviors have been implicated as a possible risk factor in the pathophysiology of overweight and obese individuals. Neuroimaging evidence from individuals with increasing body mass index suggests structural, functional, and neurochemical alterations in the extended reward network and associated networks. To apply a multivariate pattern analysis to distinguish normal weight and overweight subjects based on gray and white-matter measurements. Structural images (N = 120, overweight N = 63) and diffusion tensor images (DTI) (N = 60, overweight N = 30) were obtained from healthy control subjects. For the total sample the mean age for the overweight group (females = 32, males = 31) was 28.77 years (SD = 9.76) and for the normal weight group (females = 32, males = 25) was 27.13 years (SD = 9.62). Regional segmentation and parcellation of the brain images was performed using Freesurfer. Deterministic tractography was performed to measure the normalized fiber density between regions. A multivariate pattern analysis approach was used to examine whether brain measures can distinguish overweight from normal weight individuals. 1. White-matter classification: The classification algorithm, based on 2 signatures with 17 regional connections, achieved 97% accuracy in discriminating overweight individuals from normal weight individuals. For both brain signatures, greater connectivity as indexed by increased fiber density was observed in overweight compared to normal weight between the reward network regions and regions of the executive control, emotional arousal, and somatosensory networks. In contrast, the opposite pattern (decreased fiber density) was found between ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the anterior insula, and between thalamus and executive control network regions. 2. Gray-matter classification: The classification algorithm, based on 2 signatures with 42 morphological features, achieved 69

  9. Patterns of brain structural connectivity differentiate normal weight from overweight subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Mayer, Emeran A.; Sanmiguel, Claudia P.; Van Horn, John D.; Woodworth, Davis; Ellingson, Benjamin M.; Fling, Connor; Love, Aubrey; Tillisch, Kirsten; Labus, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alterations in the hedonic component of ingestive behaviors have been implicated as a possible risk factor in the pathophysiology of overweight and obese individuals. Neuroimaging evidence from individuals with increasing body mass index suggests structural, functional, and neurochemical alterations in the extended reward network and associated networks. Aim To apply a multivariate pattern analysis to distinguish normal weight and overweight subjects based on gray and white-matter measurements. Methods Structural images (N = 120, overweight N = 63) and diffusion tensor images (DTI) (N = 60, overweight N = 30) were obtained from healthy control subjects. For the total sample the mean age for the overweight group (females = 32, males = 31) was 28.77 years (SD = 9.76) and for the normal weight group (females = 32, males = 25) was 27.13 years (SD = 9.62). Regional segmentation and parcellation of the brain images was performed using Freesurfer. Deterministic tractography was performed to measure the normalized fiber density between regions. A multivariate pattern analysis approach was used to examine whether brain measures can distinguish overweight from normal weight individuals. Results 1. White-matter classification: The classification algorithm, based on 2 signatures with 17 regional connections, achieved 97% accuracy in discriminating overweight individuals from normal weight individuals. For both brain signatures, greater connectivity as indexed by increased fiber density was observed in overweight compared to normal weight between the reward network regions and regions of the executive control, emotional arousal, and somatosensory networks. In contrast, the opposite pattern (decreased fiber density) was found between ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the anterior insula, and between thalamus and executive control network regions. 2. Gray-matter classification: The classification algorithm, based on 2 signatures with 42

  10. Differential Recruitment to and Outcomes of Solidarity Activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toubøl, Jonas

    This dissertation is the first major academic analysis of the Danish refugee solidarity movement that mobilized more than 100,000 citizens in the fall 2015 when the European refugee crisis reached Denmark. The dissertation makes four main contribution to the two questions of differential recruitm......This dissertation is the first major academic analysis of the Danish refugee solidarity movement that mobilized more than 100,000 citizens in the fall 2015 when the European refugee crisis reached Denmark. The dissertation makes four main contribution to the two questions of differential...... in a group culture that focuses on the political and contentious dimension of the matter. Fourth and finally, for activists engaged in the legal cases of refugees, experiencing an immigration-bureaucracy with little or no care for the human beings behind the dossiers combined with an experience of systematic...

  11. Cortical and brain stem changes in neural activity during static handgrip and postexercise ischemia in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Mikael; Macefield, Vaughan G; Henderson, Luke A

    2010-01-01

    , and to differentiate between central command and reflex inputs, we used blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) of the whole brain (3 T). Subjects performed submaximal static handgrip exercise for 2 min followed by 6 min of PEI; MSNA was recorded on a separate day. During the contraction phase...

  12. Whole-Brain Mapping of Neuronal Activity in the Learned Helplessness Model of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongsoo; Perova, Zinaida; Mirrione, Martine M; Pradhan, Kith; Henn, Fritz A; Shea, Stephen; Osten, Pavel; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Some individuals are resilient, whereas others succumb to despair in repeated stressful situations. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying such divergent behavioral responses remain unclear. Here, we employed an automated method for mapping neuronal activity in search of signatures of stress responses in the entire mouse brain. We used serial two-photon tomography to detect expression of c-FosGFP - a marker of neuronal activation - in c-fosGFP transgenic mice subjected to the learned helplessness (LH) procedure, a widely used model of stress-induced depression-like phenotype in laboratory animals. We found that mice showing "helpless" behavior had an overall brain-wide reduction in the level of neuronal activation compared with mice showing "resilient" behavior, with the exception of a few brain areas, including the locus coeruleus, that were more activated in the helpless mice. In addition, the helpless mice showed a strong trend of having higher similarity in whole-brain activity profile among individuals, suggesting that helplessness is represented by a more stereotypic brain-wide activation pattern. This latter effect was confirmed in rats subjected to the LH procedure, using 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography to assess neural activity. Our findings reveal distinct brain activity markings that correlate with adaptive and maladaptive behavioral responses to stress, and provide a framework for further studies investigating the contribution of specific brain regions to maladaptive stress responses.

  13. Whole-brain mapping of neuronal activity in the learned helplessness model of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsoo eKim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Some individuals are resilient, whereas others succumb to despair in repeated stressful situations. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying such divergent behavioral responses remain unclear. Here, we employed an automated method for mapping neuronal activity in search of signatures of stress responses in the entire mouse brain. We used serial two-photon tomography to detect expression of c-FosGFP – a marker of neuronal activation – in c-fosGFP transgenic mice subjected to the learned helplessness (LH procedure, a widely used model of stress-induced depression-like phenotype in laboratory animals. We found that mice showing helpless behavior had an overall brain-wide reduction in the level of neuronal activation compared with mice showing resilient behavior, with the exception of a few brain areas, including the locus coeruleus, that were more activated in the helpless mice. In addition, the helpless mice showed a strong trend of having higher similarity in whole brain activity profile among individuals, suggesting that helplessness is represented by a more stereotypic brain-wide activation pattern. This latter effect was confirmed in rats subjected to the LH procedure, using 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography to assess neural activity. Our findings reveal distinct brain activity markings that correlate with adaptive and maladaptive behavioral responses to stress, and provide a framework for further studies investigating the contribution of specific brain regions to maladaptive stress responses.

  14. Therapeutic effects of human multilineage-differentiating stress enduring (MUSE cell transplantation into infarct brain of mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Yamauchi

    Full Text Available Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs are heterogeneous and their therapeutic effect is pleiotropic. Multilineage-differentiating stress enduring (Muse cells are recently identified to comprise several percentages of BMSCs, being able to differentiate into triploblastic lineages including neuronal cells and act as tissue repair cells. This study was aimed to clarify how Muse and non-Muse cells in BMSCs contribute to functional recovery after ischemic stroke.Human BMSCs were separated into stage specific embryonic antigen-3-positive Muse cells and -negative non-Muse cells. Immunodeficient mice were subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion and received transplantation of vehicle, Muse, non-Muse or BMSCs (2.5×104 cells into the ipsilateral striatum 7 days later.Motor function recovery in BMSC and non-Muse groups became apparent at 21 days after transplantation, but reached the plateau thereafter. In Muse group, functional recovery was not observed for up to 28 days post-transplantation, but became apparent at 35 days post-transplantation. On immunohistochemistry, only Muse cells were integrated into peri-infarct cortex and differentiate into Tuj-1- and NeuN-expressing cells, while negligible number of BMSCs and non-Muse cells remained in the peri-infarct area at 42 days post-transplantation.These findings strongly suggest that Muse cells and non-Muse cells may contribute differently to tissue regeneration and functional recovery. Muse cells may be more responsible for replacement of the lost neurons through their integration into the peri-infarct cortex and spontaneous differentiation into neuronal marker-positive cells. Non-Muse cells do not remain in the host brain and may exhibit trophic effects rather than cell replacement.

  15. Loss of aPKCλ in differentiated neurons disrupts the polarity complex but does not induce obvious neuronal loss or disorientation in mouse brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Yamanaka

    Full Text Available Cell polarity plays a critical role in neuronal differentiation during development of the central nervous system (CNS. Recent studies have established the significance of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC and its interacting partners, which include PAR-3, PAR-6 and Lgl, in regulating cell polarization during neuronal differentiation. However, their roles in neuronal maintenance after CNS development remain unclear. Here we performed conditional deletion of aPKCλ, a major aPKC isoform in the brain, in differentiated neurons of mice by camk2a-cre or synapsinI-cre mediated gene targeting. We found significant reduction of aPKCλ and total aPKCs in the adult mouse brains. The aPKCλ deletion also reduced PAR-6β, possibly by its destabilization, whereas expression of other related proteins such as PAR-3 and Lgl-1 was unaffected. Biochemical analyses suggested that a significant fraction of aPKCλ formed a protein complex with PAR-6β and Lgl-1 in the brain lysates, which was disrupted by the aPKCλ deletion. Notably, the aPKCλ deletion mice did not show apparent cell loss/degeneration in the brain. In addition, neuronal orientation/distribution seemed to be unaffected. Thus, despite the polarity complex disruption, neuronal deletion of aPKCλ does not induce obvious cell loss or disorientation in mouse brains after cell differentiation.

  16. Evidence from intrinsic activity that asymmetry of the human brain is controlled by multiple factors

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hesheng; Stufflebeam, Steven M.; Sepulcre, Jorge; Hedden, Trey; Buckner, Randy L.

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral lateralization is a fundamental property of the human brain and a marker of successful development. Here we provide evidence that multiple mechanisms control asymmetry for distinct brain systems. Using intrinsic activity to measure asymmetry in 300 adults, we mapped the most strongly lateralized brain regions. Both men and women showed strong asymmetries with a significant, but small, group difference. Factor analysis on the asymmetric regions revealed 4 separate factors that each ac...

  17. Activity-based anorexia activates nesfatin-1 immunoreactive neurons in distinct brain nuclei of female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharner, Sophie; Prinz, Philip; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Lommel, Reinhard; Kobelt, Peter; Hofmann, Tobias; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas

    2017-12-15

    Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is an established animal model for the eating disorder anorexia nervosa (AN). The pathophysiology of AN and the involvement of food intake-regulatory peptides is still poorly understood. Nesfatin-1, an anorexigenic peptide also involved in the mediation of stress, anxiety and depression might be a likely candidate involved in the pathogenesis of AN. Therefore, activation of nesfatin-1 immunoreactive (ir) brain nuclei was investigated under conditions of ABA. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were used and divided into four groups (n=6/group): activity-based anorexia (ABA), restricted feeding (RF), activity (AC) and ad libitum fed (AL). After the 21-day experimental period and development of ABA, brains were processed for c-Fos/nesfatin-1 double labeling immunohistochemistry. ABA increased the number of nesfatin-1 immunopositive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus, arcuate nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, locus coeruleus and in the rostral part of the nucleus of the solitary tract compared to AL and AC groups (p0.05). Moreover, we observed significantly more c-Fos and nesfatin-1 ir double-labeled cells in ABA rats compared to RF, AL and AC in the supraoptic nucleus (p<0.05) and compared to AL and AC in the paraventricular nucleus, arcuate nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, dorsal raphe nucleus and the rostral raphe pallidus (p<0.05). Since nesfatin-1 plays a role in the inhibition of food intake and the response to stress, we hypothesize that the observed changes of brain nesfatin-1 might play a role in the pathophysiology and symptomatology under conditions of ABA and potentially also in patients with AN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Brain electrical activity and subjective experience during altered states of consciousness: ganzfeld and hypnagogic states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackermann, Jiri; Pütz, Peter; Büchi, Simone; Strauch, Inge; Lehmann, Dietrich

    2002-11-01

    Manifestations of experimentally induced altered states of consciousness in the brain's electrical activity as well as in subjective experience were explored via the hypnagogic state at sleep onset, and the state induced by exposure to an unstructured perceptual field (ganzfeld). Twelve female paid volunteers participated in sessions involving sleep onset, ganzfeld, and eyes-closed relaxed waking, and were repeatedly prompted for recall of their momentary mentation, according to a predefined schedule. Nineteen channel EEG, two channels EOG and EMG were recorded simultaneously. The mentation reports were followed by the subjects' ratings of their experience on a number of ordinal scales. Two-hundred and forty-one mentation reports were collected. EEG epochs immediately preceding the mentation reports were FFT-analysed and the spectra compared between states. The ganzfeld EEG spectrum, showing no signs of decreased vigilance, was very similar to the EEG spectrum of waking states, even showed a minor acceleration of alpha activity. The subjective experience data were reduced to four principal components: Factor I represented the subjective vigilance dimension, as confirmed by correlations with EEG spectral indices. Only Factor IV, the 'absorption' dimension, differentiated between the ganzfeld state (more absorption) and other states. In waking states and in ganzfeld, the subjects estimated elapsed time periods significantly shorter than in states at sleep onset. The results did not support the assumption of a hypnagogic nature of the ganzfeld imagery. Dream-like imagery can occur in various global functional states of the brain; hypnagogic and ganzfeld-induced states should be conceived as special cases of a broader class of 'hypnagoid' phenomena.

  19. Differentiation of malignant glioma and metastatic brain tumor by thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Yasuhiro; Kuwana, Nobumasa; Noji, Masato; Tosa, Junichi [Yokohama Minami Kyosai Hospital (Japan)

    1994-09-01

    The use of superdelayed thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography ([sup 201]Tl SPECT) for differentiating malignant gliomas from cerebral metastases was investigated in 23 patients (7 with meningioma, 6 with glioma, 7 with cerebral metastasis, 1 with each of neurinoma, abscess, and necrosis). 4 mCi of [sup 201]Tl was injected intravenously, and gamma camera scans were performed after 10 minutes and 4, 24, 72, and 96 hours (superdelayed scan). The mean thallium index of meningiomas was significantly higher than those of gliomas and cerebral metastases after 10 minutes, while the mean thallium indices of meningiomas and gliomas were significantly higher than those of cerebral metastases after 96 hours. The combination of early and superdelayed [sup 201]Tl SPECT may be useful in differentiating malignant gliomas from cerebral metastases. (author).

  20. PARP activity and inhibition in fetal and adult oligodendrocyte precursor cells: Effect on cell survival and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarro, Vito A; Marchesini, Alessandra; Giardino, Luciana; Calzà, Laura

    2017-07-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family members are ubiquitously expressed and play a key role in cellular processes, including DNA repair and cell death/survival balance. Accordingly, PARP inhibition is an emerging pharmacological strategy for cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Consistent evidences support the critical involvement of PARP family members in cell differentiation and phenotype maturation. In this study we used an oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) enriched system derived from fetal and adult brain to investigate the role of PARP in OPCs proliferation, survival, and differentiation. The PARP inhibitors PJ34, TIQ-A and Olaparib were used as pharmacological tools. The main results of the study are: (i) PARP mRNA expression and PARP activity are much higher in fetal than in adult-derived OPCs; (ii) the culture treatment with PARP inhibitors is cytotoxic for OPCs derived from fetal, but not from adult, brain; (iii) PARP inhibition reduces cell number, according to the inhibitory potency of the compounds; (iv) PARP inhibition effect on fetal OPCs is a slow process; (v) PARP inhibition impairs OPCs maturation into myelinating OL in fetal, but not in adult cultures, according to the inhibitory potency of the compounds. These results have implications for PARP-inhibition therapies for diseases and lesions of the central nervous system, in particular for neonatal hypoxic/ischemic encephalopathy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Behavioral inhibition and activation systems in traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christina G; Rapport, Lisa J; Meachen, Sarah-Jane; Hanks, Robin A; Lumley, Mark A

    2016-11-01

    Personality has been linked to cognitive appraisal and health outcomes; however, research specific to traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been sparse. Gray's theory of behavioral inhibition system and behavioral activation system (BIS/BAS) offers a neurobiologic view of personality that may be especially relevant to neurobehavioral change associated with TBI. The present study examined theoretical and psychometric issues of using the BIS/BAS scale among adults with TBI as well as BIS/BAS personality correlates of TBI. Research Method/Design: Eighty-one adults with complicated-mild to severe TBI and 76 of their significant others (SOs) participated. Measures included the BIS/BAS scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and Awareness Questionnaire. Among adults with TBI, BIS/BAS internal consistency reliabilities were similar to those found in normative samples of adults without TBI. The TBI group endorsed significantly higher BAS than did the SO group, and injury severity was positively correlated to BAS. The SO group showed expected patterns of correlation between personality and affect; positive affect was associated with BAS, and negative affect with BIS. In contrast, in the TBI group, BAS was positively correlated to both positive and negative affect. Impaired awareness of abilities moderated the intensity of relationships between BIS/BAS and affect. TBI was associated with relatively intensified BAS (approach behavior) but not BIS (avoidance behavior). The observed pattern is consistent with the neurobiology of TBI-related personality change and with theory regarding the independence of the BIS and BAS systems. The BIS/BAS scale shows promise as a personality measure in TBI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Global loss of acetylcholinesterase activity with mitochondrial complexes inhibition and inflammation in brain of hypercholesterolemic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Rajib; Borah, Anupom

    2017-12-20

    There exists an intricate relationship between hypercholesterolemia (elevated plasma cholesterol) and brain functions. The present study aims to understand the impact of hypercholesterolemia on pathological consequences in mouse brain. A chronic mouse model of hypercholesterolemia was induced by giving high-cholesterol diet for 12 weeks. The hypercholesterolemic mice developed cognitive impairment as evident from object recognition memory test. Cholesterol accumulation was observed in four discrete brain regions, such as cortex, striatum, hippocampus and substantia nigra along with significantly damaged blood-brain barrier by hypercholesterolemia. The crucial finding is the loss of acetylcholinesterase activity with mitochondrial dysfunction globally in the brain of hypercholesterolemic mice, which is related to the levels of cholesterol. Moreover, the levels of hydroxyl radical were elevated in the regions of brain where the activity of mitochondrial complexes was found to be reduced. Intriguingly, elevations of inflammatory stress markers in the cholesterol-rich brain regions were observed. As cognitive impairment, diminished brain acetylcholinesterase activity, mitochondrial dysfunctions, and inflammation are the prima facie pathologies of neurodegenerative diseases, the findings impose hypercholesterolemia as potential risk factor towards brain dysfunction.

  3. Abnormal neural activities of directional brain networks in patients with long-term bilateral hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Long-Chun; Zhang, Gang; Zou, Yue; Zhang, Min-Feng; Zhang, Dong-Sheng; Ma, Hua; Zhao, Wen-Bo; Zhang, Guang-Yu

    2017-10-13

    The objective of the study is to provide some implications for rehabilitation of hearing impairment by investigating changes of neural activities of directional brain networks in patients with long-term bilateral hearing loss. Firstly, we implemented neuropsychological tests of 21 subjects (11 patients with long-term bilateral hearing loss, and 10 subjects with normal hearing), and these tests revealed significant differences between the deaf group and the controls. Then we constructed the individual specific virtual brain based on functional magnetic resonance data of participants by utilizing effective connectivity and multivariate regression methods. We exerted the stimulating signal to the primary auditory cortices of the virtual brain and observed the brain region activations. We found that patients with long-term bilateral hearing loss presented weaker brain region activations in the auditory and language networks, but enhanced neural activities in the default mode network as compared with normally hearing subjects. Especially, the right cerebral hemisphere presented more changes than the left. Additionally, weaker neural activities in the primary auditor cortices were also strongly associated with poorer cognitive performance. Finally, causal analysis revealed several interactional circuits among activated brain regions, and these interregional causal interactions implied that abnormal neural activities of the directional brain networks in the deaf patients impacted cognitive function.

  4. A Cbx8-containing polycomb complex facilitates the transition to gene activation during ES cell differentiation.

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    Catherine Creppe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycomb proteins play an essential role in maintaining the repression of developmental genes in self-renewing embryonic stem cells. The exact mechanism allowing the derepression of polycomb target genes during cell differentiation remains unclear. Our project aimed to identify Cbx8 binding sites in differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells. Therefore, we used a genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation of endogenous Cbx8 coupled to direct massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq. Our analysis identified 171 high confidence peaks. By crossing our data with previously published microarray analysis, we show that several differentiation genes transiently recruit Cbx8 during their early activation. Depletion of Cbx8 partially impairs the transcriptional activation of these genes. Both interaction analysis, as well as chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments support the idea that activating Cbx8 acts in the context of an intact PRC1 complex. Prolonged gene activation results in eviction of PRC1 despite persisting H3K27me3 and H2A ubiquitination. The composition of PRC1 is highly modular and changes when embryonic stem cells commit to differentiation. We further demonstrate that the exchange of Cbx7 for Cbx8 is required for the effective activation of differentiation genes. Taken together, our results establish a function for a Cbx8-containing complex in facilitating the transition from a Polycomb-repressed chromatin state to an active state. As this affects several key regulatory differentiation genes this mechanism is likely to contribute to the robust execution of differentiation programs.

  5. Differentiation of solitary brain metastasis from glioblastoma multiforme: a predictive multiparametric approach using combined MR diffusion and perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Adam Herman; Moser, Franklin G.; Maya, Marcel [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Erly, William; Nael, Kambiz [University of Arizona Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Solitary brain metastasis (MET) and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) can appear similar on conventional MRI. The purpose of this study was to identify magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion and diffusion-weighted biomarkers that can differentiate MET from GBM. In this retrospective study, patients were included if they met the following criteria: underwent resection of a solitary enhancing brain tumor and had preoperative 3.0 T MRI encompassing diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE), and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion. Using co-registered images, voxel-based fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), K{sup trans}, and relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) values were obtained in the enhancing tumor and non-enhancing peritumoral T2 hyperintense region (NET2). Data were analyzed by logistic regression and analysis of variance. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine the optimal parameter/s and threshold for predicting of GBM vs. MET. Twenty-three patients (14 M, age 32-78 years old) met our inclusion criteria. Pathology revealed 13 GBMs and 10 METs. In the enhancing tumor, rCBV, K{sup trans}, and FA were higher in GBM, whereas MD was lower, neither without statistical significance. In the NET2, rCBV was significantly higher (p = 0.05) in GBM, but MD was significantly lower (p < 0.01) in GBM. FA and K{sup trans} were higher in GBM, though not reaching significance. The best discriminative power was obtained in NET2 from a combination of rCBV, FA, and MD, resulting in an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.98. The combination of MR diffusion and perfusion matrices in NET2 can help differentiate GBM over solitary MET with diagnostic accuracy of 98 %. (orig.)

  6. Differentiation of solitary brain metastasis from glioblastoma multiforme: a predictive multiparametric approach using combined MR diffusion and perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Adam Herman; Moser, Franklin G.; Maya, Marcel; Erly, William; Nael, Kambiz

    2015-01-01

    Solitary brain metastasis (MET) and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) can appear similar on conventional MRI. The purpose of this study was to identify magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion and diffusion-weighted biomarkers that can differentiate MET from GBM. In this retrospective study, patients were included if they met the following criteria: underwent resection of a solitary enhancing brain tumor and had preoperative 3.0 T MRI encompassing diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE), and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion. Using co-registered images, voxel-based fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), K trans , and relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) values were obtained in the enhancing tumor and non-enhancing peritumoral T2 hyperintense region (NET2). Data were analyzed by logistic regression and analysis of variance. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine the optimal parameter/s and threshold for predicting of GBM vs. MET. Twenty-three patients (14 M, age 32-78 years old) met our inclusion criteria. Pathology revealed 13 GBMs and 10 METs. In the enhancing tumor, rCBV, K trans , and FA were higher in GBM, whereas MD was lower, neither without statistical significance. In the NET2, rCBV was significantly higher (p = 0.05) in GBM, but MD was significantly lower (p < 0.01) in GBM. FA and K trans were higher in GBM, though not reaching significance. The best discriminative power was obtained in NET2 from a combination of rCBV, FA, and MD, resulting in an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.98. The combination of MR diffusion and perfusion matrices in NET2 can help differentiate GBM over solitary MET with diagnostic accuracy of 98 %. (orig.)

  7. Foveal splitting causes differential processing of Chinese orthography in the male and female brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Janet Hui-Wen; Shillcock, Richard

    2005-10-01

    Chinese characters contain separate phonetic and semantic radicals. A dominant character type exists in which the semantic radical is on the left and the phonetic radical on the right; an opposite, minority structure also exists, with the semantic radical on the right and the phonetic radical on the left. We show that, when asked to pronounce isolated tokens of these two character types, males responded significantly faster when the phonetic information was on the right, whereas females showed a non-significant tendency in the opposite direction. Recent research on foveal structure and reading suggests that the two halves of a centrally fixated character are initially processed in different hemispheres. The male brain typically relies more on the left hemisphere for phonological processing compared with the female brain, causing this gender difference to emerge. This interaction is predicted by an implemented computational model. This study supports the existence of a gender difference in phonological processing, and shows that the effects of foveal splitting in reading extend far enough into word recognition to interact with the gender of the reader in a naturalistic reading task.

  8. Differential effects of voluntary and forced exercise on stress responses after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesbach, Grace S; Tio, Delia L; Vincelli, Jennifer; McArthur, David L; Taylor, Anna N

    2012-05-01

    Voluntary exercise increases levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) when it occurs during a delayed time window. In contrast, acute post-TBI exercise does not increase BDNF. It is well known that increases in glucocorticoids suppress levels of BDNF. Moreover, recent work from our laboratory showed that there is a heightened stress response after fluid percussion injury (FPI). In order to determine if a heightened stress response is also observed with acute exercise, at post-injury days 0-4 and 7-11, corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release were measured in rats running voluntarily or exposed to two daily 20-min periods of forced running wheel exercise. Forced, but not voluntary exercise, continuously elevated CORT. ACTH levels were initially elevated with forced exercise, but decreased by post-injury day 7 in the control, but not the FPI animals. As previously reported, voluntary exercise did not increase BDNF in the FPI group as it did in the control animals. Forced exercise did not increase levels of BDNF in any group. It did, however, decrease hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors in the control group. The results suggest that exercise regimens with strong stress responses may not be beneficial during the early post-injury period.

  9. Differential effects of fructose versus glucose on brain and appetitive responses to food cues and decisions for food rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shan; Monterosso, John R; Sarpelleh, Kayan; Page, Kathleen A

    2015-05-19

    Prior studies suggest that fructose compared with glucose may be a weaker suppressor of appetite, and neuroimaging research shows that food cues trigger greater brain reward responses in a fasted relative to a fed state. We sought to determine the effects of ingesting fructose versus glucose on brain, hormone, and appetitive responses to food cues and food-approach behavior. Twenty-four healthy volunteers underwent two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions with ingestion of either fructose or glucose in a double-blinded, random-order cross-over design. fMRI was performed while participants viewed images of high-calorie foods and nonfood items using a block design. After each block, participants rated hunger and desire for food. Participants also performed a decision task in which they chose between immediate food rewards and delayed monetary bonuses. Hormones were measured at baseline and 30 and 60 min after drink ingestion. Ingestion of fructose relative to glucose resulted in smaller increases in plasma insulin levels and greater brain reactivity to food cues in the visual cortex (in whole-brain analysis) and left orbital frontal cortex (in region-of-interest analysis). Parallel to the neuroimaging findings, fructose versus glucose led to greater hunger and desire for food and a greater willingness to give up long-term monetary rewards to obtain immediate high-calorie foods. These findings suggest that ingestion of fructose relative to glucose results in greater activation of brain regions involved in attention and reward processing and may promote feeding behavior.

  10. Quality and Timing of Stressors Differentially Impact on Brain Plasticity and Neuroendocrine-Immune Function in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Capoccia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that psychological stress is a major risk factor for psychiatric disorders. The basic mechanisms are still under investigation but involve changes in neuroendocrine-immune interactions, ultimately affecting brain plasticity. In this study we characterized central and peripheral effects of different stressors, applied for different time lengths, in adult male C57BL/6J mice. We compared the effects of repeated (7 versus 21 days restraint stress (RS and chronic disruption of social hierarchy (SS on neuroendocrine (corticosterone and immune function (cytokines and splenic apoptosis and on a marker of brain plasticity (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF . Neuroendocrine activation did not differ between SS and control subjects; by contrast, the RS group showed a strong neuroendocrine response characterized by a specific time-dependent profile. Immune function and hippocampal BDNF levels were inversely related to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. These data show a fine modulation of the crosstalk between central and peripheral pathways of adaptation and plasticity and suggest that the length of stress exposure is crucial to determine its final outcome on health or disease.

  11. Subjective memory complaints are associated with brain activation supporting successful memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jessica M; Tang, Lingfei; Viviano, Raymond P; van Rooden, Sanneke; Ofen, Noa; Damoiseaux, Jessica S

    2017-12-01

    Subjective memory complaints, the perceived decline in cognitive abilities in the absence of clinical deficits, may precede Alzheimer's disease. Individuals with subjective memory complaints show differential brain activation during memory encoding; however, whether such differences contribute to successful memory formation remains unclear. Here, we investigated how subsequent memory effects, activation which is greater for hits than misses during an encoding task, differed between healthy older adults aged 50 to 85 years with (n = 23) and without (n = 41) memory complaints. Older adults with memory complaints, compared to those without, showed lower subsequent memory effects in the occipital lobe, superior parietal lobe, and posterior cingulate cortex. In addition, older adults with more memory complaints showed a more negative subsequent memory effects in areas of the default mode network, including the posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Our findings suggest that for successful memory formation, older adults with subjective memory complaints rely on distinct neural mechanisms which may reflect an overall decreased task-directed attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The relation of ongoing brain activity, evoked neural responses, and cognition

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    Sepideh Sadaghiani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing brain activity has been observed since the earliest neurophysiological recordings and is found over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. It is characterized by remarkably large spontaneous modulations. Here, we review evidence for the functional role of these ongoing activity fluctuations and argue that they constitute an essential property of the neural architecture underlying cognition. The role of spontaneous activity fluctuations is probably best understood when considering both their spatiotemporal structure and their functional impact on cognition. We first briefly argue against a ‘segregationist’ view on ongoing activity, both in time and space, countering this view with an emphasis on integration within a hierarchical spatiotemporal organization of intrinsic activity. We then highlight the flexibility and context-sensitivity of intrinsic functional connectivity that suggest its involvement in functionally relevant information processing. This role in information processing is pursued by reviewing how ongoing brain activity interacts with afferent and efferent information exchange of the brain with its environment. We focus on the relationship between the variability of ongoing and evoked brain activity, and review recent reports that tie ongoing brain activity fluctuations to variability in human perception and behavior. Finally, these observations are discussed within the framework of the free-energy principle which – applied to human brain function - provides a theoretical account for a non-random, coordinated interaction of ongoing and evoked activity in perception and behaviour.

  13. Physical activity, structural brain changes and cognitive decline. The SMART-MR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, M.; Boss, H.M.; van der Graaf, Y.; Kappelle, L.J.; Biessels, G.J.; Geerlings, M.I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to examine the cross-sectional and prospective relationship between leisure time physical activity, brain MRI abnormalities and cognitive performance in patients with vascular disease. Methods: Within the SMART-MR study, 1.5T MRI of the brain and neuropsychological examinations

  14. Modeling the dynamics of human brain activity with recurrent neural networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güçlü, U.; Gerven, M.A.J. van

    2017-01-01

    Encoding models are used for predicting brain activity in response to sensory stimuli with the objective of elucidating how sensory information is represented in the brain. Encoding models typically comprise a nonlinear transformation of stimuli to features (feature model) and a linear convolution

  15. Energy landscape and dynamics of brain activity during human bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Masuda, Naoki; Megumi, Fukuda; Kanai, Ryota; Rees, Geraint

    2014-08-28

    Individual differences in the structure of parietal and prefrontal cortex predict the stability of bistable visual perception. However, the mechanisms linking such individual differences in brain structures to behaviour remain elusive. Here we demonstrate a systematic relationship between the dynamics of brain activity, cortical structure and behaviour underpinning bistable perception. Using fMRI in humans, we find that the activity dynamics during bistable perception are well described as fluctuating between three spatially distributed energy minimums: visual-area-dominant, frontal-area-dominant and intermediate states. Transitions between these energy minimums predicted behaviour, with participants whose brain activity tend to reflect the visual-area-dominant state exhibiting more stable perception and those whose activity transits to frontal-area-dominant states reporting more frequent perceptual switches. Critically, these brain activity dynamics are correlated with individual differences in grey matter volume of the corresponding brain areas. Thus, individual differences in the large-scale dynamics of brain activity link focal brain structure with bistable perception.

  16. Regional cerebral blood flow in psychiatry: The resting and activated brains of schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gur, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The investigation of regional brain functioning in schizophrenia has been based on behavioral techniques. Although results are sometimes inconsistent, the behavioral observations suggest left hemispheric dysfunction and left hemispheric overreaction. Recent developments in neuroimaging technology make possible major refinements in assessing regional brain function. Both anatomical and physiological information now be used to study regional brain development in psychiatric disorders. This chapter describes the application of one method - the xenon-133 technique for measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) - in studying the resting and activated brains of schizoprenic patients

  17. Brain activity associated with translation from a visual to a symbolic representation in algebra and geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikin, Mark; Waisman, Ilana; Shaul, Shelley; Leikin, Roza

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a small part of a larger interdisciplinary study that investigates brain activity (using event related potential methodology) of male adolescents when solving mathematical problems of different types. The study design links mathematics education research with neurocognitive studies. In this paper we performed a comparative analysis of brain activity associated with the translation from visual to symbolic representations of mathematical objects in algebra and geometry. Algebraic tasks require translation from graphical to symbolic representation of a function, whereas tasks in geometry require translation from a drawing of a geometric figure to a symbolic representation of its property. The findings demonstrate that electrical activity associated with the performance of geometrical tasks is stronger than that associated with solving algebraic tasks. Additionally, we found different scalp topography of the brain activity associated with algebraic and geometric tasks. Based on these results, we argue that problem solving in algebra and geometry is associated with different patterns of brain activity.

  18. Light Stimulation Properties to Influence Brain Activity: A Brain-CoMputer Interface application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bieger, J.; Garcia Molina, G.

    2010-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) enable people to control appliances without involving the normal output pathways of peripheral nervesand muscles. A particularly promising type of BCI is based on the Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential (SSVEP). Users can selectcommands by focusing their attention

  19. Combined 3 Tesla MRI Biomarkers Improve the Differentiation between Benign vs Malignant Single Ring Enhancing Brain Masses.

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    Simone Salice

    Full Text Available To evaluate whether the combination of imaging biomarkers obtained by means of different 3 Tesla (3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI advanced techniques can improve the diagnostic accuracy in the differentiation between benign and malignant single ring-enhancing brain masses.14 patients presenting at conventional 3T MRI single brain mass with similar appearance as regard ring enhancement, presence of peri-lesional edema and absence of hemorrhage signs were included in the study. All lesions were histologically proven: 5 pyogenic abscesses, 6 glioblastomas, and 3 metastases. MRI was performed at 3 Tesla and included Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI, Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast -Perfusion Weighted Imaging (DSC-PWI, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS, and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI. Imaging biomarkers derived by those advanced techniques [Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF, relative Cerebral Blood Volume (rCBV, relative Main Transit Time (rMTT, Choline (Cho, Creatine (Cr, Succinate, N-Acetyl Aspartate (NAA, Lactate (Lac, Lipids, relative Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (rADC, and Fractional Anisotropy (FA] were detected by two experienced neuroradiologists in joint session in 4 areas: Internal Cavity (IC, Ring Enhancement (RE, Peri-Lesional edema (PL, and Contralateral Normal Appearing White Matter (CNAWM. Significant differences between benign (n = 5 and malignant (n = 9 ring enhancing lesions were tested with Mann-Withney U test. The diagnostic accuracy of MRI biomarkers taken alone and MRI biomarkers ratios were tested with Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analysis with an Area Under the Curve (AUC ≥ 0.9 indicating a very good diagnostic accuracy of the variable.Five MRI biomarker ratios achieved excellent accuracy: IC-rADC/PL-NAA (AUC = 1, IC-rADC/IC-FA (AUC = 0.978, RE-rCBV/RE-FA (AUC = 0.933, IC-rADC/RE-FA (AUC = 0.911, and IC-rADC/PL-FA (AUC = 0.911. Only IC-rADC achieved a very good diagnostic accuracy (AUC = 0.909 among MRI biomarkers

  20. "Liking" and "wanting" linked to Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS): hypothesizing differential responsivity in brain reward circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Gardner, Eliot; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Gold, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to resolve controversy regarding the causal contributions of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) systems to reward, we evaluate the three main competing explanatory categories: "liking,"learning," and "wanting" [1]. That is, DA may mediate (a) the hedonic impact of reward (liking), (b) learned predictions about rewarding effects (learning), or (c) the pursuit of rewards by attributing incentive salience to reward-related stimuli (wanting). We evaluate these hypotheses, especially as they relate to the Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS), and we find that the incentive salience or "wanting" hypothesis of DA function is supported by a majority of the evidence. Neuroimaging studies have shown that drugs of abuse, palatable foods, and anticipated behaviors such as sex and gaming affect brain regions involving reward circuitry, and may not be unidirectional. Drugs of abuse enhance DA signaling and sensitize mesolimbic mechanisms that evolved to attribute incentive salience to rewards. Addictive drugs have in common that they are voluntarily selfadministered, they enhance (directly or indirectly) dopaminergic synaptic function in the nucleus accumbens (NAC), and they stimulate the functioning of brain reward circuitry (producing the "high" that drug users seek). Although originally believed simply to encode the set point of hedonic tone, these circuits now are believed to be functionally more complex, also encoding attention, reward expectancy, disconfirmation of reward expectancy, and incentive motivation. Elevated stress levels, together with polymorphisms of dopaminergic genes and other neurotransmitter genetic variants, may have a cumulative effect on vulnerability to addiction. The RDS model of etiology holds very well for a variety of chemical and behavioral addictions.

  1. Cerebellins are differentially expressed in selective subsets of neurons throughout the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seigneur, Erica; Südhof, Thomas C

    2017-10-15

    Cerebellins are secreted hexameric proteins that form tripartite complexes with the presynaptic cell-adhesion molecules neurexins or 'deleted-in-colorectal-cancer', and the postsynaptic glutamate-receptor-related proteins GluD1 and GluD2. These tripartite complexes are thought to regulate synapses. However, cerebellins are expressed in multiple isoforms whose relative distributions and overall functions are not understood. Three of the four cerebellins, Cbln1, Cbln2, and Cbln4, autonomously assemble into homohexamers, whereas the Cbln3 requires Cbln1 for assembly and secretion. Here, we show that Cbln1, Cbln2, and Cbln4 are abundantly expressed in nearly all brain regions, but exhibit strikingly different expression patterns and developmental dynamics. Using newly generated knockin reporter mice for Cbln2 and Cbln4, we find that Cbln2 and Cbln4 are not universally expressed in all neurons, but only in specific subsets of neurons. For example, Cbln2 and Cbln4 are broadly expressed in largely non-overlapping subpopulations of excitatory cortical neurons, but only sparse expression was observed in excitatory hippocampal neurons of the CA1- or CA3-region. Similarly, Cbln2 and Cbln4 are selectively expressed, respectively, in inhibitory interneurons and excitatory mitral projection neurons of the main olfactory bulb; here, these two classes of neurons form dendrodendritic reciprocal synapses with each other. A few brain regions, such as the nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract, exhibit astoundingly high Cbln2 expression levels. Viewed together, our data show that cerebellins are abundantly expressed in relatively small subsets of neurons, suggesting specific roles restricted to subsets of synapses. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Early endocrine disruptors exposure acts on 3T3-L1 differentiation and endocrine activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane Boudalia

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: This study confirms that EDs singularly or in mixtures, introduced during early stages of life, could affect the differentiation and the endocrine activity of adipocytes, and can act as potential factors for obesity.

  3. N-3 fatty acids, neuronal activity and energy metabolism in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harbeby Emilie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The content of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in brain membranes is of crucial importance for the optimum development of brain functions. A lack of DHA accretion in the brain is accompanied by deficits in learning behavior linked to impairments in neurotransmission processes, which might result from alteration of brain fuel supply and hence energy metabolism. Experimental data we published support the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acids may modulate brain glucose utilization and metabolism. Indeed rats made deficient in DHA by severe depletion of total n-3 fatty acid intake have 1 a lower brain glucose utilization, 2 a decrease of the glucose transporter protein content GLUT1 both in endothelial cells and in astrocytes, 3 a repression of GLUT1 gene expression in basal state as well as upon neuronal activation. This could be due to the specific action of DHA on the regulation of GLUT1 expression since rat brain endothelial cells cultured with physiological doses of DHA had an increased GLUT1 protein content and glucose transport when compared to non-supplemented cells. These experimental data highlight the impact of n-3 fatty acids on the use of brain glucose, thereby constituting a key factor in the control of synaptic activity. This emerging role suggests that dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids can help to reduce the cognitive deficits in the elderly and possibly symptomatic cerebral metabolic alterations in Alzheimer disease by promoting brain glucose metabolism.

  4. Non-neural androgen receptors affect sexual differentiation of brain and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, D A; Swift-Gallant, A

    2018-02-01

    Although gonadal testosterone is the principal endocrine factor that promotes masculine traits in mammals, the development of a male phenotype requires local production of both androgenic and oestrogenic signals within target tissues. Much of our knowledge concerning androgenic components of testosterone signalling in sexual differentiation comes from studies of androgen receptor (Ar) loss of function mutants. Here, we review these studies of loss of Ar function and of AR overexpression either globally or selectively in the nervous system of mice. Global and neural mutations affect socio-sexual behaviour and the neuroanatomy of these mice in a sexually differentiated manner. Some masculine traits are affected by both global and neural mutation, indicative of neural mediation, whereas other masculine traits are affected only by global mutation, indicative of an obligatory non-neural androgen target. These results support a model in which multiple sites of androgen action coordinate to produce masculine phenotypes. Furthermore, AR overexpression does not always have a phenotype opposite to that of loss of Ar function mutants, indicative of a nonlinear relationship between androgen dose and masculine phenotype in some cases. Potential mechanisms of Ar gene function in non-neural targets in producing masculine phenotypes are discussed. © 2017 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  5. Differential effects of active and passive coping on secretory immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, JA; de Geus, E.J.C.; Kelder, A.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Hoogstraten, J.; van Nieuw Amerongen, A.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the acute immunological effects of two laboratory stressors, expected to evoke distinct patterns of cardiac autonomic activity; namely an "active coping" time-paced memory test, and a "passive coping" stressful video showing surgical operations. We measured salivary S-IgA,

  6. The role of circulating sex hormones in menstrual cycle dependent modulation of pain-related brain activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S.; Keaser, Michael L.; Traub, Deborah S.; Zhuo, Jiachen; Gullapalli, Rao P.; Greenspan, Joel D.

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences in pain sensitivity have been consistently found but the basis for these differences is incompletely understood. The present study assessed how pain-related neural processing varies across the menstrual cycle in normally cycling, healthy females, and whether menstrual cycle effects are based on fluctuating sex hormone levels. Fifteen subjects participated in four test sessions during their menstrual, mid-follicular, ovulatory, and midluteal phases. Brain activity was measured while nonpainful and painful stimuli were applied with a pressure algometer. Serum hormone levels confirmed that scans were performed at appropriate cycle phases in 14 subjects. No significant cycle phase differences were found for pain intensity or unpleasantness ratings of stimuli applied during fMRI scans. However, lower pressure pain thresholds were found for follicular compared to other phases. Pain-specific brain activation was found in several regions traditionally associated with pain processing, including the medial thalamus, anterior and mid-insula, mid-cingulate, primary and secondary somatosensory cortices, cerebellum, and frontal regions. The inferior parietal lobule, occipital gyrus, cerebellum and several frontal regions demonstrated interaction effects between stimulus level and cycle phase, indicating differential processing of pain-related responses across menstrual cycle phases. Correlational analyses indicated that cycle-related changes in pain sensitivity measures and brain activation were only partly explained by varying sex hormone levels. These results show that pain-related cerebral activation varies significantly across the menstrual cycle, even when perceived pain intensity and unpleasantness remain constant. The involved brain regions suggest that cognitive pain or more general bodily awareness systems are most susceptible to menstrual cycle effects. PMID:23528204

  7. Reconstruction of human brain spontaneous activity based on frequency-pattern analysis of magnetoencephalography data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llinás, Rodolfo R.; Ustinin, Mikhail N.; Rykunov, Stanislav D.; Boyko, Anna I.; Sychev, Vyacheslav V.; Walton, Kerry D.; Rabello, Guilherme M.; Garcia, John

    2015-01-01

    A new method for the analysis and localization of brain activity has been developed, based on multichannel magnetic field recordings, over minutes, superimposed on the MRI of the individual. Here, a high resolution Fourier Transform is obtained over the entire recording period, leading to a detailed multi-frequency spectrum. Further analysis implements a total decomposition of the frequency components into functionally invariant entities, each having an invariant field pattern localizable in recording space. The method, addressed as functional tomography, makes it possible to find the distribution of magnetic field sources in space. Here, the method is applied to the analysis of simulated data, to oscillating signals activating a physical current dipoles phantom, and to recordings of spontaneous brain activity in 10 healthy adults. In the analysis of simulated data, 61 dipoles are localized with 0.7 mm precision. Concerning the physical phantom the method is able to localize three simultaneously activated current dipoles with 1 mm precision. Spatial resolution 3 mm was attained when localizing spontaneous alpha rhythm activity in 10 healthy adults, where the alpha peak was specified for each subject individually. Co-registration of the functional tomograms with each subject's head MRI localized alpha range activity to the occipital and/or posterior parietal brain region. This is the first application of this new functional tomography to human brain activity. The method successfully provides an overall view of brain electrical activity, a detailed spectral description and, combined with MRI, the localization of sources in anatomical brain space. PMID:26528119

  8. A reliability study on brain activation during active and passive arm movements supported by an MRI-compatible robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Natalia; Yu, Ningbo; Brügger, Mike; Villiger, Michael; Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Riener, Robert; Kollias, Spyros

    2014-11-01

    In neurorehabilitation, longitudinal assessment of arm movement related brain function in patients with motor disability is challenging due to variability in task performance. MRI-compatible robots monitor and control task performance, yielding more reliable evaluation of brain function over time. The main goals of the present study were first to define the brain network activated while performing active and passive elbow movements with an MRI-compatible arm robot (MaRIA) in healthy subjects, and second to test the reproducibility of this activation over time. For the fMRI analysis two models were compared. In model 1 movement onset and duration were included, whereas in model 2 force and range of motion were added to the analysis. Reliability of brain activation was tested with several statistical approaches applied on individual and group activation maps and on summary statistics. The activated network included mainly the primary motor cortex, primary and secondary somatosensory cortex, superior and inferior parietal cortex, medial and lateral premotor regions, and subcortical structures. Reliability analyses revealed robust activation for active movements with both fMRI models and all the statistical methods used. Imposed passive movements also elicited mainly robust brain activation for individual and group activation maps, and reliability was improved by including additional force and range of motion using model 2. These findings demonstrate that the use of robotic devices, such as MaRIA, can be useful to reliably assess arm movement related brain activation in longitudinal studies and may contribute in studies evaluating therapies and brain plasticity following injury in the nervous system.

  9. Activation of the Ca2+/calcineurin/NFAT2 pathway controls smooth muscle cell differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrieu, Daniel; Thiebaud, Pierre; Duplaa, Cecile; Sibon, Igor; Theze, Nadine; Lamaziere, Jean-Marie Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Cellular mechanisms controlling smooth muscle cells (SMCs) phenotypic modulation are largely unknown. Intracellular Ca 2+ movements are essential to ensure SMC functions; one of the roles of Ca 2+ is to regulate calcineurin, which in turn induces nuclear localization of the nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT). In order to investigate, during phenotypic differentiation of SMCs, the effect of calcineurin inhibition on NFAT 2 nuclear translocation, we used a culture model of SMC differentiation in serum-free conditions. We show that the treatment of cultured SMC with the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine A induced their dedifferentiation while preventing their differentiation. These findings suggest that nuclear translocation of NFAT 2 is dependent of calcineurin activity during the in vitro SMC differentiation kinetic and that the nuclear presence of NFAT 2 is critical in the acquisition and maintenance of SMC differentiation

  10. Mitochondrial activity in the regulation of stem cell self-renewal and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khacho, Mireille; Slack, Ruth S

    2017-12-01

    Mitochondria are classically known as the essential energy producers in cells. As such, the activation of mitochondrial metabolism upon cellular differentiation was deemed a necessity to fuel the high metabolic needs of differentiated cells. However, recent studies have revealed a direct role for mitochondrial activity in the regulation of stem cell fate and differentiation. Several components of mitochondrial metabolism and respiration have now been shown to regulate different aspects of stem cell differentiation through signaling, transcriptional, proteomic and epigenetic modulations. In light of these findings mitochondrial metabolism is no longer considered a consequence of cellular differentiation, but rather a key regulatory mechanism of this process. This review will focus on recent progress that defines mitochondria as the epicenters for the regulation of stem cell fate decisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Interfaces, syntactic movement, and neural activation: A new perspective on the implementation of language in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj

    2008-01-01

    Studies of language deficits as well as neuroimaging studies indicate that syntactic processing of displaced constituents is implemented in the brain as a distributed cortical network of modules. The data from the present fMRI study on two types of syntactic movement in Danish offers further...... support for such a distributed syntactic network. These results, together with the results from a number of other fMRI studies in the literature, form the basis for the Domain Hypothesis according to which differential activation in the subcomponents of the cortical network reflects computation...... of different syntactic domains—the interface levels between syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. The activation patters result from the interaction between movement and target domain, not (non-) canonicity or working memory per se. Specifically, movement to the CP-domain activates areas including Broca's area...

  12. Measurable benefits on brain activity from the practice of educational leisure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Carmen; López, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    Even if behavioral studies relate leisure practices to the preservation of memory in old persons, there is unsubstantial evidence of the import of leisure on brain activity. This study was to compare the brain activity of elderly retired people who engage in different types of leisure activities. Quasi-experimental study over a sample of 60 elderly, retired subjects distributed into three groups according to the leisure activities they practised: educational leisure (G1), memory games (G2), and card games (G3). Applied measures include the conceptual distinction between free time and leisure, the test of the organization of free time measuring 24 clock divisions, and EEG register during 12 word list memorizing. The results show that the type of leisure activity is associated with significant quantitative differences regarding the use of free time. G1 devotes more time to leisure activities than G2 (p = 0.007) and G3 (p = 0.034). G1 rests more actively than the other two groups (p = 0.001). The electrical localization of brain activity indicated a reverse tendency of activation according to the bands and groups. Engaging in educational leisure activities is a useful practice to protect healthy brain compensation strategies. Future longitudinal research may verify the causal relation between practicing educational leisure activities and functional brain aging.

  13. Measurable benefits on brain activity from the practice of educational leisure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eRequena

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Even if behavioural studies relate leisure practices to the preservation of memory in old persons, there is unsubstantial evidence of the import of leisure on brain activity. Aim of this study was to compare the brain activity of elderly retired people who engage in different types of leisure activities. Methods: quasi-experimental study over a sample of 60 elderly, retired subjects distributed into three groups according to the leisure activities they practised: educational leisure (G1, memory games (G2 and card games (G3. Applied measures include the conceptual distinction between free time and leisure, the Test of Organization of Free Time (TOFT measuring 24 clock divisions, and EEG register during 12 word list memorizing. The results show that the type of leisure activity is associated with significant quantitative differences regarding the use of free time. G1 devotes more time to leisure activities than G2 (p = 0.007 and G3 (p = 0.034. G1 rests more actively than the other two groups (p=0.001. The electrical localization of brain activity indicated a reverse tendency of activation according to the bands and groups. Discussion. Engaging in educational leisure activities is a useful practice to protect healthy brain compensation strategies. Future longitudinal research may verify the causal relation between practicing educational leisure activities and functional brain aging.

  14. The in vitro isolated whole guinea pig brain as a model to study epileptiform activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Curtis, Marco; Librizzi, Laura; Uva, Laura

    2016-02-15

    Research on ictogenesis is based on the study of activity between seizures and during seizures in animal models of epilepsy (chronic condition) or in in vitro slices obtained from naïve non-epileptic brains after treatment with pro-convulsive drugs, manipulations of the extracellular medium and specific stimulation protocols. The in vitro isolated guinea pig brain retains the functional connectivity between brain structures and maintains interactions between neuronal, glial and vascular compartments. It is a close-to-in vivo preparation that offers experimental advantages not achieved with the use of other experimental models. Neurophysiological and imaging techniques can be utilized in this preparation to study brain activity during and between seizures induced by pharmacological or functional manipulations. Cellular and network determinants of interictal and ictal discharges that reproduce abnormal patterns observed in human focal epilepsies and the associated changes in extracellular ion and blood-brain permeability can be identified and analyzed in the isolated guinea pig brain. Ictal and interictal patterns recorded in in vitro slices may show substantial differences from seizure activity recorded in vivo due to slicing procedure itself. The isolated guinea pig brain maintained in vitro by arterial perfusion combines the typical facilitated access of in vitro preparations, that are difficult to approach during in vivo experiments, with the preservation of larger neuronal networks. The in vitro whole isolated guinea pig brain preparation offers an unique experimental model to study systemic and neurovascular changes during ictogenesis. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. What’s the clinical significance of adding diffusion and perfusion MRI in the differentiation of glioblastoma multiforme and solitary brain metastasis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr F. Mourad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the additional diagnostic value of diffusion and perfusion MRI in the differentiation of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM and solitary brain metastasis. Patients and methods: This retrospective study included 24 patients with histologically proven brain tumors who underwent conventional MRI with analysis of diffusion (DWI and perfusion (PWI MRI findings of each tumor. The Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC values were calculated in the minimum (ADC-MIN, mean (ADC-MEAN, and maximum (ADC-MAX in all the tumors and the peritumoral regions. The PWI data was expressed as maximum regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV of the tumors and peritumoral regions. Results: After adding diffusion and perfusion to conventional MRI findings, we found that the accuracy of differentiation between glioblastoma multiforme (GBM and solitary metastasis increased from 70% to 90%.There is a significant difference in DWI signal intensity between GBM and metastatic tumors (P < 0.05. The ADC values of GBM were lower than that of metastatic tumors. On perfusion MRI, the maximum rCBV of the peritumoral region (rCBVP of GBM was higher than that of brain metastases (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The addition of diffusion and perfusion to the MRI protocol increases the accuracy of differentiation between GBM and solitary brain metastasis and should be considered routinely. Keywords: Diffusion MRI, Perfusion MRI, GBM, Solitary brain metastases

  16. Brain Activation in Response to Visually Evoked Sexual Arousal in Male-to-Female Transsexuals: 3.0 Tesla Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seok-Kyun; Kim, Gwang-Won; Yang, Jong-Chul; Kim, Seok-Kwun; Kang, Heoung-Keun

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to contrast the differential brain activation patterns in response to visual stimulation with both male and female erotic nude pictures in male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals who underwent a sex reassignment surgery. Materials and Methods A total of nine healthy MTF transsexuals after a sex reassignment surgery underwent fMRI on a 3.0 Tesla MR Scanner. The brain activation patterns were induced by visual stimulation with both male and female erotic nude pictures. Results The sex hormone levels of the postoperative MTF transsexuals were in the normal range of healthy heterosexual females. The brain areas, which were activated by viewing male nude pictures when compared with viewing female nude pictures, included predominantly the cerebellum, hippocampus, putamen, anterior cingulate gyrus, head of caudate nucleus, amygdala, midbrain, thalamus, insula, and body of caudate nucleus. On the other hand, brain activation induced by viewing female nude pictures was predominantly observed in the hypothalamus and the septal area. Conclusion Our findings suggest that distinct brain activation patterns associated with visual sexual arousal in postoperative MTF transsexuals reflect their sexual orientation to males. PMID:22563262

  17. Brain Activation in Response to Visually Evoked Sexual Arousal in Male-to-Female Transsexuals: 3.0 Tesla Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Seok Kyun; Kim, Gwang Won; Kang, Heoung Keun; Jeong, Gwang Woo [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Jong Chul [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seok Kwun [Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to contrast the differential brain activation patterns in response to visual stimulation with both male and female erotic nude pictures in male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals who underwent a sex reassignment surgery. A total of nine healthy MTF transsexuals after a sex reassignment surgery underwent fMRI on a 3.0 Tesla MR Scanner. The brain activation patterns were induced by visual stimulation with both male and female erotic nude pictures. The sex hormone levels of the postoperative MTF transsexuals were in the normal range of healthy heterosexual females. The brain areas, which were activated by viewing male nude pictures when compared with viewing female nude pictures, included predominantly the cerebellum, hippocampus, putamen, anterior cingulate gyrus, head of caudate nucleus, amygdala, midbrain, thalamus, insula, and body of caudate nucleus. On the other hand, brain activation induced by viewing female nude pictures was predominantly observed in the hypothalamus and the septal area. Our findings suggest that distinct brain activation patterns associated with visual sexual arousal in postoperative MTF transsexuals reflect their sexual orientation to males.

  18. Brain Activation in Response to Visually Evoked Sexual Arousal in Male-to-Female Transsexuals: 3.0 Tesla Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seok Kyun; Kim, Gwang Won; Kang, Heoung Keun; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Yang, Jong Chul; Kim, Seok Kwun

    2012-01-01

    This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to contrast the differential brain activation patterns in response to visual stimulation with both male and female erotic nude pictures in male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals who underwent a sex reassignment surgery. A total of nine healthy MTF transsexuals after a sex reassignment surgery underwent fMRI on a 3.0 Tesla MR Scanner. The brain activation patterns were induced by visual stimulation with both male and female erotic nude pictures. The sex hormone levels of the postoperative MTF transsexuals were in the normal range of healthy heterosexual females. The brain areas, which were activated by viewing male nude pictures when compared with viewing female nude pictures, included predominantly the cerebellum, hippocampus, putamen, anterior cingulate gyrus, head of caudate nucleus, amygdala, midbrain, thalamus, insula, and body of caudate nucleus. On the other hand, brain activation induced by viewing female nude pictures was predominantly observed in the hypothalamus and the septal area. Our findings suggest that distinct brain activation patterns associated with visual sexual arousal in postoperative MTF transsexuals reflect their sexual orientation to males.

  19. Photoacoustic imaging to detect rat brain activation after cocaine hydrochloride injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Janggun; Yang, Xinmai

    2011-03-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) was employed to detect small animal brain activation after the administration of cocaine hydrochloride. Sprague Dawley rats were injected with different concentrations (2.5, 3.0, and 5.0 mg per kg body) of cocaine hydrochloride in saline solution through tail veins. The brain functional response to the injection was monitored by photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system with horizontal scanning of cerebral cortex of rat brain. Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) was also used for coronal view images. The modified PAT system used multiple ultrasonic detectors to reduce the scanning time and maintain a good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The measured photoacoustic signal changes confirmed that cocaine hydrochloride injection excited high blood volume in brain. This result shows PAI can be used to monitor drug abuse-induced brain activation.

  20. miR-124 and miR-137 inhibit proliferation of glioblastoma multiforme cells and induce differentiation of brain tumor stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costello Joseph F

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is an invariably fatal central nervous system tumor despite treatment with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Further insights into the molecular and cellular mechanisms that drive GBM formation are required to improve patient outcome. MicroRNAs are emerging as important regulators of cellular differentiation and proliferation, and have been implicated in the etiology of a variety of cancers, yet the role of microRNAs in GBM remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of microRNAs in regulating the differentiation and proliferation of neural stem cells and glioblastoma-multiforme tumor cells. Methods We used quantitative RT-PCR to assess microRNA expression in high-grade astrocytomas and adult mouse neural stem cells. To assess the function of candidate microRNAs in high-grade astrocytomas, we transfected miR mimics to cultured-mouse neural stem cells, -mouse oligodendroglioma-derived stem cells, -human glioblastoma multiforme-derived stem cells and -glioblastoma multiforme cell lines. Cellular differentiation was assessed by immunostaining, and cellular proliferation was determined using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Results Our studies revealed that expression levels of microRNA-124 and microRNA-137 were significantly decreased in anaplastic astrocytomas (World Health Organization grade III and glioblastoma multiforme (World Health Organization grade IV relative to non-neoplastic brain tissue (P erbB tumors and cluster of differentiation 133+ human glioblastoma multiforme-derived stem cells (SF6969. Transfection of microRNA-124 or microRNA-137 also induced G1 cell cycle arrest in U251 and SF6969 glioblastoma multiforme cells, which was associated with decreased expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 6 and phosphorylated retinoblastoma (pSer 807/811 proteins. Conclusion microRNA-124 and microRNA-137 induce differentiation of adult mouse neural stem cells, mouse

  1. Breastfeeding, Brain Activation to Own Infant Cry, and Maternal Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pilyoung; Feldman, Ruth; Mayes, Linda C.; Eicher, Virginia; Thompson, Nancy; Leckman, James F.; Swain, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research points to the importance of breastfeeding for promoting close mother-infant contact and social-emotional development. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified brain regions related to maternal behaviors. However, little research has addressed the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the…

  2. Changes in reward-induced brain activation in opiate addicts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Soelch, C; Chevalley, AF; Kunig, G; Missimer, J; Magyar, S; Mino, A; Schultz, W; Leenders, KL

    2001-01-01

    Many studies indicate a role of the cerebral dopaminergic reward system in addiction. Motivated by these findings, we examined in opiate addicts whether brain regions involved in the reward circuitry also react to human prototypical rewards. We measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with

  3. Human brain activation during sexual stimulation of the penis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgiadis, [No Value; Holstege, G; Georgiadis, Janniko R.

    2005-01-01

    Penile sensory information is essential for reproduction, but almost nothing is known about how sexually salient inputs from the penis are processed in the brain. We used positron emission tomography to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during various stages of male sexual performance.

  4. Brain Activation Associated with Practiced Left Hand Mirror Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, T.; Arzouan, Y.; Karni, A.; Manor, D.

    2013-01-01

    Mirror writing occurs in healthy children, in various pathologies and occasionally in healthy adults. There are only scant experimental data on the underlying brain processes. Eight, right-handed, healthy young adults were scanned (BOLD-fMRI) before and after practicing left-hand mirror-writing (lh-MW) over seven sessions. They wrote dictated…

  5. Steroid sulfatase and sulfuryl transferase activities in human brain tumors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kříž, L.; Bičíková, M.; Mohapl, M.; Hill, M.; Černý, Ivan; Hampl, R.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 1 (2008), s. 31-39 ISSN 0960-0760 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : dehydroepiandrosterone * steroid sulfatase * steroid sulfuryl transferase * brain Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.827, year: 2008