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Sample records for diethylstilbestrol

  1. Oxidative metabolites of diethylstilbestrol in the fetal Syrian golden hamster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maydl, R.; Metzler, M.

    1984-01-01

    14 C-Diethylstilbestrol was administered orally, intraperitoneally, and intrafetally to 15-day pregnant hamsters at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight, and the radioactivity was determined in the fetus, placenta, and maternal liver after 6 hours. Significant amounts of radioactivity were found in these tissues in every case, indicating maternal-fetal and fetal-maternal transfer of diethylstilbestrol. Part of the radioactivity found in the tissues could not be extracted even after excessive washing. This implied the presence of reactive metabolites. In the fetal and placental extracts, eight oxidative metabolites of diethylstilbestrol were identified by mass fragmentography as hydroxy- and methoxy-derivatives of diethylstilbestrol, pseudodiethylstilbestrol, and dienestrol. The presence of oxidative metabolites in the hamster fetus and the covalent binding to tissue macromolecules are possibly associated with the fetotoxic effects of diethylstilbestrol

  2. Lessons learned from perinatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newbold, Retha R

    2004-09-01

    The synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) is well documented to be a perinatal carcinogen in both humans and experimental animals. Exposure to DES during critical periods of differentiation permanently alters the programming of estrogen target tissues resulting in benign and malignant abnormalities in the reproductive tract later in life. Using the perinatal DES-exposed rodent model, cellular and molecular mechanisms have been identified that play a role in these carcinogenic effects. Although DES is a potent estrogenic chemical, effects of low doses of the compound are being used to predict health risks of weaker environmental estrogens. Therefore, it is of particular interest that developmental exposure to very low doses of DES has been found to adversely affect fertility and to increase tumor incidence in murine reproductive tract tissues. These adverse effects are seen at environmentally relevant estrogen dose levels. New studies from our lab verify that DES effects are not unique; when numerous environmental chemicals with weak estrogenic activity are tested in the experimental neonatal mouse model, developmental exposure results in an increased incidence of benign and malignant tumors including uterine leiomyomas and adenocarcinomas that are similar to those shown following DES exposure. Finally, growing evidence in experimental animals suggests that some adverse effects can be passed on to subsequent generations, although the mechanisms involved in these trans-generational events remain unknown. Although the complete spectrum of risks to DES-exposed humans are uncertain at this time, the scientific community continues to learn more about cellular and molecular mechanisms by which perinatal carcinogenesis occurs. These advances in knowledge of both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms will be significant in ultimately predicting risks to other environmental estrogens and understanding more about the role of estrogens in normal and abnormal development.

  3. Lessons learned from perinatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newbold, Retha R.

    2004-01-01

    The synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) is well documented to be a perinatal carcinogen in both humans and experimental animals. Exposure to DES during critical periods of differentiation permanently alters the programming of estrogen target tissues resulting in benign and malignant abnormalities in the reproductive tract later in life. Using the perinatal DES-exposed rodent model, cellular and molecular mechanisms have been identified that play a role in these carcinogenic effects. Although DES is a potent estrogenic chemical, effects of low doses of the compound are being used to predict health risks of weaker environmental estrogens. Therefore, it is of particular interest that developmental exposure to very low doses of DES has been found to adversely affect fertility and to increase tumor incidence in murine reproductive tract tissues. These adverse effects are seen at environmentally relevant estrogen dose levels. New studies from our lab verify that DES effects are not unique; when numerous environmental chemicals with weak estrogenic activity are tested in the experimental neonatal mouse model, developmental exposure results in an increased incidence of benign and malignant tumors including uterine leiomyomas and adenocarcinomas that are similar to those shown following DES exposure. Finally, growing evidence in experimental animals suggests that some adverse effects can be passed on to subsequent generations, although the mechanisms involved in these trans-generational events remain unknown. Although the complete spectrum of risks to DES-exposed humans are uncertain at this time, the scientific community continues to learn more about cellular and molecular mechanisms by which perinatal carcinogenesis occurs. These advances in knowledge of both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms will be significant in ultimately predicting risks to other environmental estrogens and understanding more about the role of estrogens in normal and abnormal development

  4. Organizational effects of diethylstilbestrol on brain vasotocin and sexual behavior in male quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viglietti-Panzica, Carla; Montoncello, Barbara; Mura, Elena; Pessatti, Marzia; Panzica, GianCarlo

    2005-04-15

    In Japanese quail, we previously described a sexual dimorphism of the parvocellular vasotocin system of the limbic region that, as the reproductive behavior, is steroid-sensitive and is organized during embryonic life by the exposure to estradiol. We verified in this study whether diethylstilbestrol, a chemical xenoestrogen, has analogous organizational effects on the vasotocin system of limbic regions and on copulatory behavior of male Japanese quail. We injected in the yolk sac of 3 day-old quail embryos diethylstilbestrol or estradiol benzoate (a treatment which suppresses male copulatory behavior in adulthood and reduces vasotocin innervation), or sesame oil (control). No further hormonal manipulations were performed after hatching. Sexual behavior was recorded in males at the age of 6 weeks. Estradiol- and diethylstilbestrol-treated males exhibited a total suppression of copulatory behavior. After behavioral tests, all males were sacrificed and brain sections processed for vasotocin immunocytochemistry. Significant decrease in the density of vasotocin immunoreactivity was detected in the medial preoptic nucleus, in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis, and in the lateral septum of diethylstilbestrol-treated males. The magnocellular vasotocin neurons were, in contrast, not affected. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that embryonic treatment with diethylstilbestrol induces a full sex reversal of behavioral phenotype as well as a significant decrease of vasotocin expression in the preoptic-limbic region in male Japanese quail. Therefore, the parvocellular vasotocin system could represent an optimal model to investigate the effects of pollutants on neural circuits controlling reproductive functions.

  5. Localization of 3H-diethylstilbestrol in skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, B.; Cohen, L.

    1981-01-01

    The localization of diethylstilbestrol (DES) in skeletal muscle was studied in CF1 mice and perfused rat hindlimbs. There was a slow accumulation of 3H-DES in mouse muscle from 4 to 24 hours following i.p. injection even though plasma DES was decreasing. Twenty-four hours after injection of 50 microCi 3H-DES (714 pmole) mouse gastrocnemius contained 8.9 x 10(-17) mole unaltered 3H-DES per mg muscle. Extrapolating to the entire skeletal muscle mass of the animal, this represents 0.15% of the radioactivity injected. The radioactivity in muscle was completely extracted with 95% ethanol or ether: ethanol (3:1), and both unaltered DES and DES-metabolites were present in the extracts. The fraction of radioactivity due to unaltered DES 4 hours after injection was 0.51 +/- 0.09 in muscle and 0.30 +/- 0.11 in plasma. Significant extrahepatic metabolism of DES was demonstrated in perfused isolated rat hindlimbs by the presence of DES-metabolites in the perfusate. The radioactivity extracted from the perfused muscle itself was unaltered DES. These results indicate that skeletal muscle is an important site of DES localization in rodents

  6. Prenatal diethylstilbestrol exposure and reproductive hormones in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, L A; Troisi, R; Hatch, E E; Titus, L J; Rothman, K J; Harlow, B L

    2015-06-01

    Diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen widely prescribed to pregnant women in the mid-1900s, is a potent endocrine disruptor. Prenatal DES exposure has been associated with reproductive disorders in women, but little is known about its effects on endogenous hormones. We assessed the association between prenatal DES exposure and reproductive hormones among participants from the Harvard Study of Moods and Cycles (HSMC), a longitudinal study of premenopausal women aged 36-45 years from Massachusetts (1995-1999). Prenatal DES exposure was reported at baseline (43 DES exposed and 782 unexposed). Early follicular-phase concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol were measured at baseline and every 6 months during 36 months of follow-up. Inhibin B concentrations were measured through 18 months. We used multivariable logistic and repeated-measures linear regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and percent differences in mean hormone values (β), respectively, comparing DES exposed with unexposed women, adjusted for potential confounders. DES-exposed women had lower mean concentrations of estradiol (pg/ml) (β=-15.6%, 95% confidence interval (CI): -26.5%, -3.2%) and inhibin B (pg/ml) (β=-20.3%, CI: -35.1%, -2.3%), and higher mean concentrations of FSH (IU/I) (β=12.2%, CI: -1.5%, 27.9%) and LH (IU/I) (β=10.4%, CI: -7.2%, 31.3%), than unexposed women. ORs for the association of DES with maximum FSH>10 IU/I and minimum inhibin B<45 pg/ml--indicators of low ovarian reserve--were 1.90 (CI: 0.86, 4.22) and 4.00 (CI: 0.88-18.1), respectively. Prenatal DES exposure was associated with variation in concentrations of FSH, estradiol and inhibin B among women of late reproductive age.

  7. Cancer risk in men exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohsnitter, W C; Noller, K L; Hoover, R N; Robboy, S J; Palmer, J R; Titus-Ernstoff, L; Kaufman, R H; Adam, E; Herbst, A L; Hatch, E E

    2001-04-04

    An association between prenatal diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure and cancer in men, especially testicular cancer, has been suspected, but findings from case-control studies have been inconsistent. This study was conducted to investigate the association between prenatal DES exposure and cancer risk in men via prospective follow-up. A total of 3613 men whose prenatal DES exposure status was known were followed from 1978 through 1994. The overall and site-specific cancer incidence rates among the DES-exposed men were compared with those of the unexposed men in the study and with population-based rates. The relative rate (RR) was used to assess the strength of the association between prenatal DES exposure and cancer development. All statistical tests were two-sided. Overall cancer rates among DES-exposed men were similar to those among unexposed men (RR = 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.58 to 1.96) and to national rates (RR = 0.99; 95% CI = 0.65 to 1.44). Testicular cancer may be elevated among DES-exposed men, since the RRs for testicular cancer were 3.05 (95% CI = 0.65 to 22.0) times those of unexposed men in the study and 2.04 (95% CI = 0.82 to 4.20) times those of males in the population-based rates. The higher rate of testicular cancer in the DES-exposed men is, however, also compatible with a chance observation. To date, men exposed to DES in utero do not appear to have an increased risk of most cancers. It remains uncertain, however, whether prenatal DES exposure is associated with testicular cancer.

  8. Prenatal diethylstilbestrol exposure and self-reported immune-related diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vingerhoets, A. J.; Assies, J.; Goodkin, K.; van Heck, G. L.; Bekker, M. H.

    1998-01-01

    To compare self-reports of immune-related diseases in diethylstilbestrol (DES) daughters and controls. Prenatal exposure to DES has been associated with several malformations in the lower genital tract, a higher prevalence of adenosis, and increased risk of clear cell adenocarcinoma, and

  9. Extracellular distribution of radiolabel obscures specific binding of diethylstilbestrol in mouse skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, B.; Blix, P.M.; Cohen, L.

    1985-01-01

    The extracellular distribution of 3 H-diethylstilbestrol ( 3 H-DES) in mouse skeletal muscle was assessed following intraperitoneal injection. Total muscle extracellular space was measured with 14 C-inulin, and the vascular space with 125 I-albumin. A significant difference in the distribution of native 3 H-DES and its metabolites in muscle and blood was found. This could only be explained if these compounds distributed with the albumin space and not the inulin space

  10. Radiometric detection of metabolic activity of Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis and its susceptibility to amphotericin B and Diethylstilbestrol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, E.E.; Sato, M.K.; Del Negro, G.M.B.; Lacaz, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    A radiometric assay system has been applied to study the metabolic activity and the effect of drugs (amphotericin B and diethylstilbestrol) on the fungus Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis ''in vitro''. The Y form of the yeast, grown in liquid Sabouraud medium was inoculated into sterile reaction vials containing the 6B aerobic medium along with 2.0μCi of 14 C-substrates. (M.A.C.) [pt

  11. [Obstetrical prognosis improvement in patients exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol with specific care management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amour, M-C; Mokdad, A; Mayenga, J-M; Belaisch-Allart, J

    2004-11-01

    To define the interest of a specific care management of pregnancies in patients exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol, with the intention of reducing the number of spontaneous miscarriage and prematurity. One hundred and three pregnancies in 49 patients exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol were followed during a 4-year study, while establishing a specific care management of pregnancies in those women. Spontaneous miscarriage rate was 18.5%, among which 16.5% before 15 weeks of pregnancy and 2% after 15 weeks of pregnancy. Premature birth rate was 41.9%, among which 10.8% of great premature birth (before 32 weeks of pregnancy), 13.5% of moderate premature birth (between 32 and 36 weeks of pregnancy), and 17.6% of minor prematurity (after 36 weeks of pregnancy). The patients' average delivery term was 36 +/-3.6 weeks. As compared with the literature data, our miscarriage and prematurity rates are found to be lower. Our specific care management seems thus to be effective.

  12. Neonatal diethylstilbestrol exposure alters the metabolic profile of uterine epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yin

    2012-11-01

    Developmental exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES causes reproductive tract malformations, affects fertility and increases the risk of clear cell carcinoma of the vagina and cervix in humans. Previous studies on a well-established mouse DES model demonstrated that it recapitulates many features of the human syndrome, yet the underlying molecular mechanism is far from clear. Using the neonatal DES mouse model, the present study uses global transcript profiling to systematically explore early gene expression changes in individual epithelial and mesenchymal compartments of the neonatal uterus. Over 900 genes show differential expression upon DES treatment in either one or both tissue layers. Interestingly, multiple components of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ-mediated adipogenesis and lipid metabolism, including PPARγ itself, are targets of DES in the neonatal uterus. Transmission electron microscopy and Oil-Red O staining further demonstrate a dramatic increase in lipid deposition in uterine epithelial cells upon DES exposure. Neonatal DES exposure also perturbs glucose homeostasis in the uterine epithelium. Some of these neonatal DES-induced metabolic changes appear to last into adulthood, suggesting a permanent effect of DES on energy metabolism in uterine epithelial cells. This study extends the list of biological processes that can be regulated by estrogen or DES, and provides a novel perspective for endocrine disruptor-induced reproductive abnormalities.

  13. Homeodomain Transcription Factor Msx-2 Regulates Uterine Progenitor Cell Response to Diethylstilbestrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yan; Lin, Congxing; Zhang, Ivy; Fisher, Alexander V; Dhandha, Maulik; Ma, Liang

    The fate of mouse uterine epithelial progenitor cells is determined between postnatal days 5 to 7. Around this critical time window, exposure to an endocrine disruptor, diethylstilbestrol (DES), can profoundly alter uterine cytodifferentiation. We have shown previously that a homeo domain transcription factor MSX-2 plays an important role in DES-responsiveness in the female reproductive tract (FRT). Mutant FRTs exhibited a much more severe phenotype when treated with DES, accompanied by gene expression changes that are dependent on Msx2 . To better understand the role that MSX-2 plays in uterine response to DES, we performed global gene expression profiling experiment in mice lacking Msx2 By comparing this result to our previously published microarray data performed on wild-type mice, we extracted common and differentially regulated genes in the two genotypes. In so doing, we identified potential downstream targets of MSX-2, as well as genes whose regulation by DES is modulated through MSX-2. Discovery of these genes will lead to a better understanding of how DES, and possibly other endocrine disruptors, affects reproductive organ development.

  14. Effects of postnatal administration of diethylstilbestrol on puberty and thyroid function in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae-Ho; Kim, Tae Sung; Kang, Il Hyun; Kang, Tae Seok; Moon, Hyun Ju; Han, Soon-Young

    2009-10-01

    To examine the effects of diethylstilbestrol (DES) on male pubertal development and thyroid function, juvenile male Sprague-Dawley rats were given DES daily by oral intubation at doses of 10, 20 and 40 microg/kg/day from postnatal day 33 for 20 days. Prepuce separation was significantly delayed at the dose of 20 microg/kg/day and above in the DES-treated rats. DES treatment induced a significant reduction in the weights of testes, epididymides, the ventral prostate, seminal vesicles plus coagulating glands and fluid, levator ani bulbocavernosus muscles, Cowper's glands and the glans penis. The weights of the liver and adrenals increased in the DES-treated animals. DES caused a dose-dependent reduction in germ cells; in particular the spermatids were mainly affected. The serum levels of testosterone and luteinizing hormone were significantly reduced in the DES-treated groups, but that of estradiol decreased. No differences were observed in the serum thyroxine levels of the control and DES-treated groups. In microscopic observation of the DES-treated animals, degeneration of germ cells and tubular atrophy in the testis were noted, but there were no microscopic changes in the thyroid. These results indicate that DES affected the pubertal development of juvenile male rats and that its mode of action may be related to alterations in hormone levels.

  15. [Isolation, identification and characterization of a diethylstilbestrol-degrading bacterial strain Serratia sp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ran-Fang; Sun, Min-Xia; Liu, Juan; Wang, Hong; Li, Xin; Zhu, Xue-Zhu; Ling, Wan-Ting

    2014-08-01

    Utilizing the diethylstilbestrol (DES)-degrading bacteria to biodegrade DES is a most reliable technique for cleanup of DES pollutants from the environment. However, little information is available heretofore on the isolation of DES-degrading bacteria and their DES removal performance in the environment. A novel bacterium capable of degrading DES was isolated from the activated sludge of a wastewater treatment plant. According to its morphology, physiochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, this strain was identified as Serratia sp.. The strain was an aerobic bacterium, and it could degrade 68.3% of DES (50 mg x L(-1)) after culturing for 7 days at 30 degrees C, 150 r x min(-1) in shaking flasks. The optimal conditions for DES biodegradation by the obtained strain were 30 degrees C, 40-60 mg x L(-1) DES, pH 7.0, 5% of inoculation volume, 0 g x L(-1) of added NaCl, and 10 mL of liquid medium volume in 100 mL flask.

  16. Expression of aquaporin 9 in rat liver and efferent ducts of the male reproductive system after neonatal diethylstilbestrol exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellejus, Anja; Jensen, Henrik E; Loft, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQP) have important solute transport functions in many tissues including the epididymal efferent ducts (ED) and in the liver. We investigated the effect of neonatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) on AQP9 expressions in the ED and in the liver of rats. DES was administered from d...... to the epithelial cells of the ED. In conclusion, neonatal DES exposure appears to upregulate AQP9 channels in the ED in male rats, whereas a downregulation in the hepatic expression was observed, particularly in the periacinous area....

  17. The endocrine disruptor diethylstilbestrol induces adipocyte differentiation and promotes obesity in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Chan-Juan; Cheng, Xue-Jia; Xia, Hong-Fei, E-mail: hongfeixia@yahoo.com.cn; Ma, Xu

    2012-08-15

    Epidemiology studies indicate that exposure to endocrine disruptors during developmental “window” contributes to adipogenesis and the development of obesity. Implication of endocrine disruptor such as diethylstilbestrol (DES) on adipose tissue development has been poorly investigated. Here we evaluated the effects of DES on adipocyte differentiation in vitro and in vivo, and explored potential mechanism involved in its action. DES induced 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner, and activated the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and peroxisome proliferator-acivated receptor (PPAR) γ as well as its target genes required for adipogenesis in vitro. ER mediated the enhancement of DES-induced PPARγ activity. Moreover, DES perturbed key regulators of adipogenesis and lipogenic pathway in vivo. In utero exposure to low dose of DES significantly increased body weight, liver weight and fat mass in female offspring at postnatal day (PND) 60. In addition, serum triglyceride and glucose levels were also significantly elevated. These results suggest that perinatal exposure to DES may be expected to increase the incidence of obesity in a sex-dependent manner and can act as a potential chemical stressor for obesity and obesity-related disorders. -- Highlights: ► DES induced adipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner in 3T3-L1 cells. ► DES activated adipogenic critical regulators and markers in vitro and in vivo. ► Perinatal exposure to DES led to the obese phenotype in female offspring. ► DES might be a potential chemical stressor for obesity and obesity-related disorders.

  18. Methylomic changes in individuals with psychosis, prenatally exposed to endocrine disrupting compounds: Lessons from diethylstilbestrol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Rivollier

    Full Text Available In the Western world, between 1940 and 1970, more than 2 million people were exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol (DES. In exposed individuals, and in their descendants, adverse outcomes have been linked to such exposure, including cancers, genital malformations, and less consistently, psychiatric disorders. We aimed to explore whether prenatal DES exposure would be associated with DNA methylation changes, and whether these epigenetic modifications would be associated with increased risk of psychosis.From 247 individuals born from mothers exposed to DES, we selected 69 siblings from 30 families. In each family, at least one sibling was exposed in utero to DES. We performed a methylome-wide association study using HumanMethylation450 DNA Analysis BeadChip® in peripheral blood. We analyzed methylation changes at individual CpGs or regions in exposed (n = 37 versus unexposed individuals (n = 32. We also compared exposed individuals with (n = 7 and without psychosis (n = 30.There were more individuals with schizophrenia in the DES-exposed group. We found no significant differences between exposed and unexposed individuals with respect to differentially methylated CpGs or regions. The largest difference was in a region near the promoter of an ADAMTS proteoglycanase gene (ADAMTS9. Compared to exposed individuals without psychosis, exposed individuals with psychosis had differential methylation in the region encompassing the gene encoding the zinc finger protein 57 (ZFP57.In utero exposure to DES was not associated with methylation changes at specific CpG or regions. In exposed individuals, however, psychosis was associated with specific methylomic modifications that could impact neurodevelopment and neuroplasticity.

  19. The endocrine disruptor diethylstilbestrol induces adipocyte differentiation and promotes obesity in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Chan-Juan; Cheng, Xue-Jia; Xia, Hong-Fei; Ma, Xu

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiology studies indicate that exposure to endocrine disruptors during developmental “window” contributes to adipogenesis and the development of obesity. Implication of endocrine disruptor such as diethylstilbestrol (DES) on adipose tissue development has been poorly investigated. Here we evaluated the effects of DES on adipocyte differentiation in vitro and in vivo, and explored potential mechanism involved in its action. DES induced 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner, and activated the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and peroxisome proliferator-acivated receptor (PPAR) γ as well as its target genes required for adipogenesis in vitro. ER mediated the enhancement of DES-induced PPARγ activity. Moreover, DES perturbed key regulators of adipogenesis and lipogenic pathway in vivo. In utero exposure to low dose of DES significantly increased body weight, liver weight and fat mass in female offspring at postnatal day (PND) 60. In addition, serum triglyceride and glucose levels were also significantly elevated. These results suggest that perinatal exposure to DES may be expected to increase the incidence of obesity in a sex-dependent manner and can act as a potential chemical stressor for obesity and obesity-related disorders. -- Highlights: ► DES induced adipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner in 3T3-L1 cells. ► DES activated adipogenic critical regulators and markers in vitro and in vivo. ► Perinatal exposure to DES led to the obese phenotype in female offspring. ► DES might be a potential chemical stressor for obesity and obesity-related disorders.

  20. [The effect of diethylstilbestrol on inducing abdominal cryptorchidism and relevant genetic expression in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Zheng, Xin-min; Zheng, Hang; Yang, Zhi-wei; Li, Shi-wen

    2009-05-01

    To study the effect of diethylstilbestrol (DES) at different doses on transabdominal testicular descent in rats and the expression of INSL3 in the testis and HOXA10 in the gubernaculum. Fifty E13.5 (embryonic day 13.5) pregnant female SD rats were randomly divided into five groups that received a subcutaneous injection of DMSO, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg/kg DES (group A, B, C, D and E), respectively. Male offspring were killed at E19.5, and then fetal mortality, the degree of transabdominal testicular ascent (DTA) was determined by a stereomicroscope. The mRNA expressions of INSL3 in the testis and HOXA10 in the gubernaculum were determined by RT-PCR. The expression of INSL3 protein was determined by Western blotting. Male fetal mortality in group A, B, C, D, and E were 3.57%, 6.90%, 12.00%, 19.23% and 36.36%, respectively, which showed a dose-effect relationship between DES and the male fatal mortality (r=0.999, P0.05), those in other groups were down-regulated significantly (q=12.4304, 17.2477 and 20.2789, respectively, Pdescent dose-dependently via down-regulating the expression of INSL3. HOXA10 may play no role in low-dosage DES induced intra-abdominal cryptorchidism, but down-regulated HOXA10 mRNA was involved in high-dosage DES induced ones.

  1. Urogenital abnormalities in men exposed to diethylstilbestrol in utero: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmer Julie R

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diethylstilbestrol (DES, a synthetic estrogen widely prescribed to pregnant women during the 1940s–70s, has been shown to cause reproductive problems in the daughters. Studies of prenatally-exposed males have yielded conflicting results. Methods In data from a collaborative follow-up of three U.S. cohorts of DES-exposed sons, we examined the relation of prenatal DES exposure to occurrence of male urogenital abnormalities. Exposure status was determined through review of prenatal records. Mailed questionnaires (1994, 1997, 2001 asked about specified abnormalities of the urogenital tract. Risk ratios (RR were estimated by Cox regression with constant time at risk and control for year of birth. Results Prenatal DES exposure was not associated with varicocele, structural abnormalities of the penis, urethral stenosis, benign prostatic hypertrophy, or inflammation/infection of the prostate, urethra, or epididymus. However, RRs were 1.9 (95% confidence interval 1.1–3.4 for cryptorchidism, 2.5 (1.5–4.3 for epididymal cyst, and 2.4 (1.5–4.4 for testicular inflammation/infection. Stronger associations were observed for DES exposure that began before the 11th week of pregnancy: RRs were 2.9 (1.6–5.2 for cryptorchidism, 3.5 (2.0–6.0 for epididymal cyst, and 3.0 (1.7–5.4 for inflammation/infection of testes. Conclusion These results indicate that prenatal exposure to DES increases risk of male urogenital abnormalities and that the association is strongest for exposure that occurs early in gestation. The findings support the hypothesis that endocrine disrupting chemicals may be a cause of the increased prevalence of cryptorchidism that has been seen in recent years.

  2. Liquid-phase exfoliated graphene as highly-sensitive sensor for simultaneous determination of endocrine disruptors: Diethylstilbestrol and estradiol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Lintong; Cheng, Qin [Key Laboratory for Large-Format Battery Materials and System, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen, Danchao; Ma, Ming [Ningbo Entry-exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau of China, Ningbo 315012 (China); Wu, Kangbing, E-mail: kbwu@hust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Large-Format Battery Materials and System, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2015-02-11

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A novel electrochemical sensor was developed for diethylstilbestrol and estradiol. • Graphene prepared by solvent exfoliation greatly enhances the detection sensitivity. • The newly-developed method has promising application and the accuracy is good. - Abstract: It is quite important to develop convenient and rapid analytical methods for trace levels of endocrine disruptors because they heavily affect health and reproduction of humans and animals. Herein, graphene was easily prepared via one-step exfoliation using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone as solvent, and then used to construct an electrochemical sensor for highly-sensitive detection of diethylstilbestrol (DES) and estradiol (E2). On the surface of prepared graphene film, two independent and greatly-increased oxidation waves were observed at 0.28 V and 0.49 V for DES and E2. The remarkable signal enlargements indicated that the detection sensitivity was improved significantly. The influences of pH value, amount of graphene and accumulation time on the oxidation signals of DES and E2 were discussed. As a result, a highly-sensitive and rapid electrochemical method was newly developed for simultaneous detection of DES and E2. The values of detection limit were evaluated to be 10.87 nM and 4.9 nM for DES and E2. Additionally, this new method was successfully used in lake water samples and the accuracy was satisfactory.

  3. Liver X receptors interfere with the deleterious effect of diethylstilbestrol on testicular physiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oumeddour, Abdelkader [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Génétique Reproduction et Développement, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6293, GReD, F-63171 Aubiere (France); INSERM, UMR 1103, GReD, F-63171 Aubiere (France); Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine d’Auvergne, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Laboratoire de Neuroendocrinologie Appliquée, Université Badji Mokhtar Annaba, BP12, 23000 Annaba (Algeria); Viennois, Emilie; Caira, Françoise; Decourbey, Clélia [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Génétique Reproduction et Développement, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6293, GReD, F-63171 Aubiere (France); INSERM, UMR 1103, GReD, F-63171 Aubiere (France); Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine d’Auvergne, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Maqdasy, Salwan [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Génétique Reproduction et Développement, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6293, GReD, F-63171 Aubiere (France); INSERM, UMR 1103, GReD, F-63171 Aubiere (France); Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine d’Auvergne, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Service d’endocrinologie, diabétologie et maladies métaboliques, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, F-63003 Clermont-Ferrand (France); and others

    2014-04-11

    Highlights: • Part of the neonatal effect of DES on testis needs the presence of Lxrα/β. • Some DES-induced pathways are blocked in Lxr-deficient mice. • Lxr-deficient mice analysis defines DES-target genes protected by Lxr. - Abstract: Liver X receptors LXRα (NR1H3) and LXRβ (NR1H2) are transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily, activated by specific oxysterols, oxidized derivatives of cholesterol. These receptors are involved in the regulation of testis physiology. Lxr-deficient mice pointed to the physiological roles of these nuclear receptors in steroid synthesis, lipid homeostasis and germ cell apoptosis and proliferation. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a synthetic estrogen considered as an endocrine disruptor that affects the functions of the testis. Various lines of evidences have made a clear link between estrogens, their nuclear receptors ERα (NR3A1) and ERβ (NR3A2), and Lxrα/β. As LXR activity could also be regulated by the nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (SHP, NR0A2) and DES could act through SHP, we wondered whether LXR could be targeted by estrogen-like endocrine disruptors such as DES. For that purpose, wild-type and Lxr-deficient mice were daily treated with 0.75 μg DES from days 1 to 5 after birth. The effects of DES were investigated at 10 or 45 days of age. We demonstrated that DES induced a decrease of the body mass at 10 days only in the Lxr-deficient mice suggesting a protective effect of Lxr. We defined three categories of DES-target genes in testis: those whose accumulation is independent of Lxr; those whose accumulation is enhanced by the lack of both Lxrα/β; those whose accumulation is repressed by the absence of Lxrα/β. Lipid accumulation is also modified by neonatal DES injection. Lxr-deficient mice present different lipid profiles, demonstrating that DES could have its effects in part due to Lxrα/β. Altogether, our study shows that both nuclear receptors Lxrα and Lxrβ are not only

  4. Center for Disease Control's Diethylstilbestrol Update: a case for effective operationalization of messaging in social marketing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Marifran; Basu, Ambar

    2010-07-01

    The Center for Disease Control's (CDC) Diethylstilbestrol (DES) Update, a campaign to educate people who may have been exposed to the drug DES, is framed on the premises of the social marketing model, namely formative research, audience segmentation, product, price, placement, promotion, and campaign evaluation. More than that, the campaign takes a critical step in extending the social marketing paradigm by highlighting the need to situate the messaging process at the heart of any health communication campaign. This article uses CDC's DES Update as a case study to illustrate an application of a message development tool within social marketing. This tool promotes the operationalization of messaging within health campaigns. Ultimately, the goal of this project is to extend the social marketing model and provide useful theoretical guidance to health campaign practitioners on how to accomplish stellar communication within a social marketing campaign.

  5. Multifunctional molecular imaging probes for estrogen receptors. 99mTc labeled diethylstilbestrol (DES) conjugated, cuinp quantum dot nanoparticles (DESCIP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payam Moharrami; Perihan Unak; Ozge Kozgus Guldu; Medine, E.I.; Gul Gumuser; Elvan Sayit Bilgin; Omer Aras

    2017-01-01

    A theranostic nanoparticle was synthesized based on diethylstilbestrol conjugated with phosphate, copper, and indium (DESCIP) and labelled with 99m Tc which can be used for SPECT imaging of ER-enriched cancers. In vitro biological activity of 99m Tc-DESCIP was examined in breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7), prostatic carcinoma cells (PC-3), and pulmonary epithelial cells (A-549). In vivo lymph node imaging was performed in normal and receptor blocked female New Zealand rabbits. Results demonstrated that 99m Tc-DESCIP and DESCIP has potential for imaging ER-enriched tumors such as breast and prostate tumors, and their metastases in the lung, as well as improving management for their therapies. (author)

  6. Induction stage-dependent expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and aquaporin-1 in diethylstilbestrol-treated rat pituitary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Zhao

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The anterior pituitary gland undergoes tumourigenic changes in response to oestrogen treatment in several breeds of rats. We administered diethylstilbestrol (DES to female Wistar rats and assessed whether the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and aquaporin-1 (AQP-1 was altered at different time points following DES administration. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans showed that the mass index corresponding to the mid-sagittal area of DES-treated pituitary was significantly higher than the vehicle-controlled pituitary (p less than 0.01 at three specific time points, accompanied by a significant reduction in body weight. Haematoxylin and eosin (HE staining and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that during early stages of induction, DES increased cell proliferation and sprouting of endothelial cells, and VEGF expression transitioned from a vessel-surrounding pattern to a diffuse pattern. During later stages, angiogenesis was predominant, and VEGF expression decreased. In contrast to the early abundant expression of VEGF, endothelial expression of AQP- 1 increased during later stages. Our data indicated a dynamic scenario of biological alterations in DES-treated pituitary tissue, in which VEGF and AQP-1 exert their functions at different stages of induction, and we provide novel insights into understanding oestrogen-related tumourigenesis in the anterior pituitary gland.

  7. Induction stage-dependent expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and aquaporin-1 in diethylstilbestrol-treated rat pituitary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Wang

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The anterior pituitary gland undergoes tumourigenic changes in response to oestrogen treatment in several breeds of rats. We administered diethylstilbestrol (DES to female Wistar rats and assessed whether the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and aquaporin-1 (AQP-1 was altered at different time points following DES administration. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans showed that the mass index corresponding to the mid-sagittal area of DES-treated pituitary was significantly higher than the vehicle-controlled pituitary (p<0.01 at three specific time points, accompanied by a significant reduction in body weight. Haematoxylin and eosin (HE staining and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that during early stages of induction, DES increased cell proliferation and sprouting of endothelial cells, and VEGF expression transitioned from a vessel-surrounding pattern to a diffuse pattern. During later stages, angiogenesis was predominant, and VEGF expression decreased. In contrast to the early abundant expression of VEGF, endothelial expression of AQP- 1 increased during later stages. Our data indicated a dynamic scenario of biological alterations in DES-treated pituitary tissue, in which VEGF and AQP-1 exert their functions at different stages of induction, and we provide novel insights into understanding oestrogen-related tumourigenesis in the anterior pituitary gland.

  8. Selection of diethylstilbestrol-specific single-chain antibodies from a non-immunized mouse ribosome display library.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Sun

    Full Text Available Single chain variable fragments (scFvs against diethylstilbestrol (DES were selected from the splenocytes of non-immunized mice by ribosome display technology. A naive library was constructed and engineered to allow in vitro transcription and translation using an E. coli lysate system. Alternating selection in solution and immobilization in microtiter wells was used to pan mRNA-ribosome-antibody (ARM complexes. After seven rounds of ribosome display, the expression vector pTIG-TRX containing the selected specific scFv DNAs were transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3 for expression. Twenty-six positive clones were screened and five clones had high antibody affinity and specificity to DES as evidenced by indirect competitive ELISA. Sequence analysis showed that these five DES-specific scFvs had different amino acid sequences, but the CDRs were highly similar. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR analysis was used to determine binding kinetics of one clone (30-1. The measured K(D was 3.79 µM. These results indicate that ribosome display technology can be used to efficiently isolate hapten-specific antibody (Ab fragments from a naive library; this study provides a methodological framework for the development of novel immunoassays for multiple environmental pollutants with low molecular weight detection using recombinant antibodies.

  9. Determination of diethylstilbestrol in seawater by molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiuping; Mei, Xiaoqi; Wang, Jiangtao; Lian, Ziru; Tan, Liju; Wu, Wei

    2016-01-15

    An effective and highly selective molecularly imprinted material was prepared by suspension polymerization for the isolation and pre-concentration of synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) in seawater. The obtained MIPMs were proved to have more uniform size and porous structure, with maximum adsorption capacity of 8.43 mg g(-1) almost two times more than NIPMs (4.43 mg g(-1)). The MIPMs showed no significant deterioration of the adsorption capacity after five rounds of regeneration. An off-line molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) method followed by HPLC-DAD was proposed for the detection of DES in seawater, and recoveries were satisfactorily higher than 77%. Four seawater samples in aquaculture area were analyzed and 0.61 ng mL(-1) DES was detected in one sample. The result demonstrated that this method can be used for the rapid separation and clean up of trace residual of DES in seawater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Maternal obesogenic diet induces endometrial hyperplasia, an early hallmark of endometrial cancer, in a diethylstilbestrol mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owuor, Theresa O; Reid, Michaela; Reschke, Lauren; Hagemann, Ian; Greco, Suellen; Modi, Zeel; Moley, Kelle H

    2018-01-01

    Thirty-eight percent of US adult women are obese, meaning that more children are now born of overweight and obese mothers, leading to an increase in predisposition to several adult onset diseases. To explore this phenomenon, we developed a maternal obesity animal model by feeding mice a diet composed of high fat/ high sugar (HF/HS) and assessed both maternal diet and offspring diet on the development of endometrial cancer (ECa). We show that maternal diet by itself did not lead to ECa initiation in wildtype offspring of the C57Bl/6J mouse strain. While offspring fed a HF/HS post-weaning diet resulted in poor metabolic health and decreased uterine weight (regardless of maternal diet), it did not lead to ECa. We also investigated the effects of the maternal obesogenic diet on ECa development in a Diethylstilbestrol (DES) carcinogenesis mouse model. All mice injected with DES had reproductive tract lesions including decreased number of glands, condensed and hyalinized endometrial stroma, and fibrosis and increased collagen deposition that in some mice extended into the myometrium resulting in extensive disruption and loss of the inner and outer muscular layers. Fifty percent of DES mice that were exposed to maternal HF/HS diet developed several features indicative of the initial stages of carcinogenesis including focal glandular and atypical endometrial hyperplasia versus 0% of their Chow counterparts. There was an increase in phospho-Akt expression in DES mice exposed to maternal HF/HS diet, a regulator of persistent proliferation in the endometrium, and no difference in total Akt, phospho-PTEN and total PTEN expression. In summary, maternal HF/HS diet exposure induces endometrial hyperplasia and other precancerous phenotypes in mice treated with DES. This study suggests that maternal obesity alone is not sufficient for the development of ECa, but has an additive effect in the presence of a secondary insult such as DES.

  11. Menarche, menopause, years of menstruation, and the incidence of osteoporosis: the influence of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Samantha E; Troisi, Rebecca; Wise, Lauren A; Palmer, Julie R; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Strohsnitter, William C; Hatch, Elizabeth E

    2014-02-01

    Estrogen is critical for bone formation and growth in women. Estrogen exposures occur throughout life, including prenatally, and change with reproductive events, such as menarche and menopause. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between age at menarche, age at menopause, and years of menstruation with incidence of osteoporosis and assess the impact of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen, on such associations. Participants were 5573 women in the National Cancer Institute Combined Cohort Study of DES (1994-2006). Data on reproductive history and medical conditions were collected through questionnaires at baseline in 1994 and subsequently in 1997, 2001, and 2006. Age-stratified Cox regression models were used to calculate multivariable incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Effect measure modification by prenatal DES exposure was assessed using cubic restricted spline regression models. Osteoporosis was the main outcome measure. The IRRs for osteoporosis incidence with age at menarche less than 11 years and age at menopause of 50 years or younger were 0.82 (CI 0.59, 1.14) and 0.61 (CI 0.40, 0.92), respectively. Fewer than 25 years of menstruation was associated with an increased incidence of osteoporosis (IRR 1.80; CI 1.14, 2.86) compared with 35 years or more of menstruation. Associations were stronger among women who had not been prenatally exposed to DES. Our data support the hypothesis that lifetime cumulative exposure to estrogens is protective against osteoporosis. Furthermore, prenatal exposure to estrogen appears to modify these associations, although the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown.

  12. Estrogen receptor-α mediates the detrimental effects of neonatal diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure in the murine reproductive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couse, John F.; Korach, Kenneth S.

    2004-01-01

    It is generally believed that estrogen receptor-dependent and -independent pathways are involved in mediating the developmental effects of the synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol (DES). However, the precise role and extent to which each pathway contributes to the resulting pathologies remains unknown. We have employed the estrogen receptor knockout (ERKO) mice, which lack either estrogen receptor-α (αERKO or estrogen receptor-β (βERKO), to gain insight into the contribution of each ER-dependent pathway in mediating the effects of neonatal DES exposure in the female and male reproductive tract tissues of the mouse. Estrogen receptor-α female mice exhibited complete resistance to the chronic effects of neonatal DES exposure that were obvious in exposed wild-type animals, including atrophy and epithelial squamous metaplasia in the uterus; proliferative lesions of the oviduct; and persistent cornification of the vaginal epithelium. DES-mediated reduction in uterine Hoxa10, Hoxa11 and Wnt7a expression that occurs wild-type females during the time of exposure was also absent in αERKO females. In the male, αERKO mice exhibited complete resistance to the chronic effects of neonatal DES exposure on the prostate, including decreased androgen receptor levels, epithelial hyperplasia, and increased basal cell proliferation. Although ERβ is highly expressed in the prostate epithelium, DES-exposed βERKO males exhibited all of the effects of neonatal DES exposure that were observed in similarly exposed wild-type males. Therefore, the lack of DES-effects on gene expression and tissue differentiation in the αERKO uterus and prostate provides unequivocal evidence of an obligatory role for ERα in mediating the detrimental actions of neonatal DES exposure in the murine reproductive tract

  13. Diethylstilbestrol 1 mg in the Treatment of Acute Urinary Retention due to Prostatic Obstruction in the Elderly: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Oliveira Reis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients who failed a catheter-free trial after acute urinary retention and one week of full dose alpha-blocker and 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor were offered Diethylstilbestrol 1 mg plus Aspirin 100 mg over 4 weeks. Prostate volume, age, serum creatinine, and initial retention drained urine volume were recorded. After excluding cardiovascular morbidity (n=7, upper urinary tract dilation (n=3, compromised renal function (n=2, urinary tract infection (n=2, neurological diagnosis (n=2, or preferred immediate channel transurethral resection of prostate (n=5, 48 of 69 consecutive patients ≥70 years were included. Mean age was 76.6 years (70–84, mean prostate volume 90 cm3 (42–128, and mean follow-up 204 days; 58% (28/48 were passing urine and 42% (20/48 were catheter dependent after 4 weeks Diethylstilbestrol trial. Mean age and drained urine volume of catheter dependent patients were 82.4 years and 850 mL compared with 74.6 years and 530 mL in catheter-free men, respectively. Age and drained urine volume were independent predictors of catheter-free trial (both P<0.01. Seventy-five percent (6/8 of patients 80 years and older were catheter dependent. Transient nipple/breast tenderness and gynecomastia were the only adverse effects reported by 21% (10/48 and 4% (2/48, respectively. No patient presented severe complications.

  14. Gestational exposure to diethylstilbestrol alters cardiac structure/function, protein expression and DNA methylation in adult male mice progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Rami, E-mail: rami.haddad@mail.mcgill.ca [Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, McGill University, 850 Sherbrooke Street, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3A 1A2 (Canada); Kasneci, Amanda, E-mail: amanda.kasneci@mail.mcgill.ca [Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); Mepham, Kathryn, E-mail: katherine.mepham@mail.mcgill.ca [Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, McGill University, 850 Sherbrooke Street, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3A 1A2 (Canada); Sebag, Igal A., E-mail: igal.sebag@mcgill.ca [Division of Cardiology, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); and others

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women, and thus their fetuses, are exposed to many endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs). Fetal cardiomyocytes express sex hormone receptors making them potentially susceptible to re-programming by estrogenizing EDCs. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a proto-typical, non-steroidal estrogen. We hypothesized that changes in adult cardiac structure/function after gestational exposure to the test compound DES would be a proof in principle for the possibility of estrogenizing environmental EDCs to also alter the fetal heart. Vehicle (peanut oil) or DES (0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 μg/kg/da.) was orally delivered to pregnant C57bl/6n dams on gestation days 11.5–14.5. At 3 months, male progeny were left sedentary or were swim trained for 4 weeks. Echocardiography of isoflurane anesthetized mice revealed similar cardiac structure/function in all sedentary mice, but evidence of systolic dysfunction and increased diastolic relaxation after swim training at higher DES doses. The calcium homeostasis proteins, SERCA2a, phospholamban, phospho-serine 16 phospholamban and calsequestrin 2, are important for cardiac contraction and relaxation. Immunoblot analyses of ventricle homogenates showed increased expression of SERCA2a and calsequestrin 2 in DES mice and greater molecular remodeling of these proteins and phospho-serine 16 phospholamban in swim trained DES mice. DES increased cardiac DNA methyltransferase 3a expression and DNA methylation in the CpG island within the calsequestrin 2 promoter in heart. Thus, gestational DES epigenetically altered ventricular DNA, altered cardiac function and expression, and reduced the ability of adult progeny to cardiac remodel when physically challenged. We conclude that gestational exposure to estrogenizing EDCs may impact cardiac structure/function in adult males. -- Highlights: ► Gestational DES changes cardiac SERCA2a and CASQ2 expression. ► Echocardiography identified systolic dysfunction and increased diastolic relaxation. ► DES

  15. Diethylstilbestrol can effectively accelerate estradiol-17-O-glucuronidation, while potently inhibiting estradiol-3-O-glucuronidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Liangliang; Xiao, Ling; Xia, Yangliu; Zhou, Kun; Wang, Huili; Huang, Minyi; Ge, Guangbo; Wu, Yan; Wu, Ganlin; Yang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study investigates the effects of diethylstilbestrol (DES), a widely used toxic synthetic estrogen, on estradiol-3- and 17-O- (E2-3/17-O) glucuronidation, via culturing human liver microsomes (HLMs) or recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) with DES and E2. DES can potently inhibit E2-3-O-glucuronidation in HLM, a probe reaction for UGT1A1. Kinetic assays indicate that the inhibition follows a competitive inhibition mechanism, with the Ki value of 2.1 ± 0.3 μM, which is less than the possible in vivo level. In contrast to the inhibition on E2-3-O-glucuronidation, the acceleration is observed on E2-17-O-glucuronidation in HLM, in which cholestatic E2-17-O-glucuronide is generated. In the presence of DES (0–6.25 μM), K m values for E2-17-O-glucuronidation are located in the range of 7.2–7.4 μM, while V max values range from 0.38 to 1.54 nmol/min/mg. The mechanism behind the activation in HLM is further demonstrated by the fact that DES can efficiently elevate the activity of UGT1A4 in catalyzing E2-17-O-glucuronidation. The presence of DES (2 μM) can elevate V max from 0.016 to 0.81 nmol/min/mg, while lifting K m in a much lesser extent from 4.4 to 11 μM. Activation of E2-17-O-glucuronidation is well described by a two binding site model, with K A , α, and β values of 0.077 ± 0.18 μM, 3.3 ± 1.1 and 104 ± 56, respectively. However, diverse effects of DES towards E2-3/17-O-glucuronidation are not observed in liver microsomes from several common experimental animals. In summary, this study issues new potential toxic mechanisms for DES: potently inhibiting the activity of UGT1A1 and powerfully accelerating the formation of cholestatic E2-17-O-glucuronide by UGT1A4. - Highlights: • E2-3-O-glucuronidation in HLM is inhibited when co-incubated with DES. • E2-17-O-glucuronidation in HLM is stimulated when co-incubated with DES. • Acceleration of E2-17-O-glucuronidationin in HLM by DES is via activating the activity of UGT1A4

  16. Wnt family genes and their modulation in the ovary-independent and persistent vaginal epithelial cell proliferation and keratinization induced by neonatal diethylstilbestrol exposure in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takeshi; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Katsu, Yoshinao; Watanabe, Hajime; Mizutani, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Proliferation and differentiation of cells in female reproductive organs, the oviduct, uterus and vagina, are regulated by endogenous estrogen. In utero exposure to a synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol (DES), induces vaginal clear-cell adenocarcinoma in humans. In mice, perinatal exposure to DES results in abnormalities such as polyovular follicles, uterine circular muscle disorganization and persistent vaginal epithelial cell proliferation. We reported the persistent gene expression change such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) related genes, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and its downstream signaling in the mouse vagina exposed neonatally to DES. In this study, we found persistent up-regulation of Wnt4 and persistent down-regulation of Wnt11 in the vagina of mice exposed neonatally to DES and estrogen receptor α specific ligand. Also Wnt4 expression in vagina is correlated to the stratification of epithelial cells with the superficial keratinization of vagina, but not epithelial cell stratification only.

  17. Diethylstilbestrol can effectively accelerate estradiol-17-O-glucuronidation, while potently inhibiting estradiol-3-O-glucuronidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Liangliang; Xiao, Ling [The Centre for Drug and Food Safety Evaluation, School of Life Science, Anqing Normal University, Anqing 246011 (China); Xia, Yangliu [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Zhou, Kun [College of Pharmacy, Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Dalian 116600 (China); Wang, Huili; Huang, Minyi [The Centre for Drug and Food Safety Evaluation, School of Life Science, Anqing Normal University, Anqing 246011 (China); Ge, Guangbo, E-mail: geguangbo@dicp.ac.cn [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Wu, Yan; Wu, Ganlin [The Centre for Drug and Food Safety Evaluation, School of Life Science, Anqing Normal University, Anqing 246011 (China); Yang, Ling, E-mail: yling@dicp.ac.cn [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2015-03-01

    This in vitro study investigates the effects of diethylstilbestrol (DES), a widely used toxic synthetic estrogen, on estradiol-3- and 17-O- (E2-3/17-O) glucuronidation, via culturing human liver microsomes (HLMs) or recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) with DES and E2. DES can potently inhibit E2-3-O-glucuronidation in HLM, a probe reaction for UGT1A1. Kinetic assays indicate that the inhibition follows a competitive inhibition mechanism, with the Ki value of 2.1 ± 0.3 μM, which is less than the possible in vivo level. In contrast to the inhibition on E2-3-O-glucuronidation, the acceleration is observed on E2-17-O-glucuronidation in HLM, in which cholestatic E2-17-O-glucuronide is generated. In the presence of DES (0–6.25 μM), K{sub m} values for E2-17-O-glucuronidation are located in the range of 7.2–7.4 μM, while V{sub max} values range from 0.38 to 1.54 nmol/min/mg. The mechanism behind the activation in HLM is further demonstrated by the fact that DES can efficiently elevate the activity of UGT1A4 in catalyzing E2-17-O-glucuronidation. The presence of DES (2 μM) can elevate V{sub max} from 0.016 to 0.81 nmol/min/mg, while lifting K{sub m} in a much lesser extent from 4.4 to 11 μM. Activation of E2-17-O-glucuronidation is well described by a two binding site model, with K{sub A}, α, and β values of 0.077 ± 0.18 μM, 3.3 ± 1.1 and 104 ± 56, respectively. However, diverse effects of DES towards E2-3/17-O-glucuronidation are not observed in liver microsomes from several common experimental animals. In summary, this study issues new potential toxic mechanisms for DES: potently inhibiting the activity of UGT1A1 and powerfully accelerating the formation of cholestatic E2-17-O-glucuronide by UGT1A4. - Highlights: • E2-3-O-glucuronidation in HLM is inhibited when co-incubated with DES. • E2-17-O-glucuronidation in HLM is stimulated when co-incubated with DES. • Acceleration of E2-17-O-glucuronidationin in HLM by DES is via activating the

  18. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DES-exposed grandchildren have? Researchers are also studying possible health effects among women and men who are the children ... for unexposed men. In addition, researchers are studying possible health effects on the grandchildren of mothers who were exposed ...

  19. The immune system of geriatric mice is modulated by estrogenic endocrine disruptors (diethylstilbestrol, α-zearalanol, and genistein): Effects on interferon-γ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calemine, Jillian; Zalenka, Julie; Karpuzoglu-Sahin, Ebru; Ward, Daniel L.; Lengi, Andrea; Ahmed, S. Ansar

    2003-01-01

    The immune system is a potential target for estrogenic endocrine disrupters. To date, there is limited information on whether estrogenic endocrine disruptors modulate the immune system of aged individuals. To address this issue, groups of 74-week-old mice were given nine oral doses of selected estrogenic endocrine disrupters: diethylstilbestrol (DES, 3 μg/100 g bw), α-zearalanol (0.5 mg/100 g bw), or genistein (0.15 mg/100 g bw) in corn oil, or corn oil alone, over 2.5 weeks. Both developmental (thymus) and mature (spleen) lymphoid organs were affected, although specific effects varied with the chemical. DES significantly decreased thymocyte numbers. However, relative percentages of thymocyte subsets were not altered. While splenic cellularity and percentages of T and B cells were unchanged, splenocytes from DES-exposed mice had significantly decreased ability to proliferate in response to Concanavalin-A (Con-A). Con-A-activated splenocytes from mice treated with genistein or α-zearalanol had decreased levels of interferon-γ (IFNγ) protein in their culture supernatants compared to similar cultures from oil-treated mice. RT-PCR analysis of Con-A-activated splenocytes revealed that the expression of IFNγ gene is altered by DES or genistein treatment. Together, these results suggest that estrogenic endocrine disruptors modulate the immune system of aged mice

  20. Diethylstilbestrol alters positive and negative selection of T cells in the thymus and modulates T-cell repertoire in the periphery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Nicole; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) is known to cause altered immune functions and increased susceptibility to autoimmune disease in humans. In the current study, we investigated the effects of DES on T-cell differentiation in the thymus using the HY-TCR transgenic (Tg) mouse model in which the female mice exhibit positive selection of T cells bearing the Tg TCR, while the male mice show negative selection of such T cells. In female HY-TCR-Tg mice, exposure to DES showed more pronounced decrease in thymic cellularity when compared to male mice. Additionally, female mice also showed a significant decrease in the proportion of double-positive (DP) T cells in the thymus and HY-TCR-specific CD8 + T cells in the periphery. Male mice exhibiting negative selection also showed decreased thymic cellularity following DES exposure. Moreover, the male mice showed increased proportion of double-negative (DN) T cells in the thymus and decreased proportion of CD8 + T cells. The density of expression of HY-TCR on CD8 + cells was increased following DES exposure in both females and males. Finally, the proliferative response of thymocytes to mitogens and peripheral lymph node T cells to male H-Y antigen was significantly altered in female and male mice following DES treatment. Taken together, these data suggest that DES alters T-cell differentiation in the thymus by interfering with positive and negative selection processes, which in turn modulates the T-cell repertoire in the periphery

  1. In vitro effects of diethylstilbestrol, genistein, 4-tert-butylphenol, and 4-tert-octylphenol on steroidogenic activity of isolated immature rat ovarian follicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myllymaeki, Sari; Haavisto, Tapio; Vainio, Minna; Toppari, Jorma; Paranko, Jorma

    2005-01-01

    Isolated rat ovarian follicles grow and produce steroid hormones in vitro and so provide a good model for studying the effects of hormonally active compounds on follicular steroidogenesis. We have evaluated the effects of diethylstilbestrol (DES), genistein (GEN) and two alkylphenols, 4-tert-butylphenol (BP) and 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) on the growth, survival, and steroid hormone and cAMP production by isolated 14-day-old rat (Sprague-Dawley) ovarian follicles. During a 5-day culture, FSH was obligatory for follicle growth and increased estradiol and testosterone secretion in a dose-dependent manner. DES (10 -6 M) caused the strongest decline in estradiol and testosterone levels but did not have detectable effects on either cAMP production or aromatase enzyme activity. GEN caused a prominent decrease in cAMP and testosterone levels without significant changes in secreted estradiol. The latter, apparently, was due to a dose-dependent stimulation of aromatase enzyme activity in the presence of genistein. Both BP and OP decreased estradiol and testosterone secretion in a dose-dependent manner while no effect on aromatase activity was observed. OP, unlike BP, decreased forskolin-induced cAMP levels. Xenoestrogens at the used concentrations did not interfere with the growth and survival of the follicles. The results indicate that isolated ovarian follicles representing intact morphological and functional units offer a sensitive model system for elucidating the female-specific reproductive effects of environmental chemicals

  2. Voltammetric determination of the endocrine disruptor diethylstilbestrol by using a glassy carbon electrode modified with a composite consisting of platinum nanoparticles and multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Xiaobin; Zhang, Rongfei

    2016-01-01

    A nanocomposite consisting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) decorated with Pt nanoparticles (Pt-NPs) was synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted method. The composite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction patterns, and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. The results showed the Pt-NPs to be evenly deposited on the surface of the MWCNTs, with diameters ranging from about 2 nm to 3 nm. The nanocomposite was used to modify a glassy carbon electrode which then revealed a substantial catalytic activity for the oxidation of diethylstilbestrol (DES), best at a working potential of 0.73 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) at pH 7. The electrochemical oxidation mechanism is discussed. The peak current in square wave voltammetry is linearly related to the concentration of DES in the 0.1 to 25 μM range. The limit of detection (at an SNR of 3) is 12 nM. (author)

  3. Diethylstilbestrol alters positive and negative selection of T cells in the thymus and modulates T-cell repertoire in the periphery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Nicole [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical College of Virginia Campus, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); Nagarkatti, Mitzi [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical College of Virginia Campus, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); Nagarkatti, Prakash S [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, PO Box 980613, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, Richmond, VA 23298-0613 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) is known to cause altered immune functions and increased susceptibility to autoimmune disease in humans. In the current study, we investigated the effects of DES on T-cell differentiation in the thymus using the HY-TCR transgenic (Tg) mouse model in which the female mice exhibit positive selection of T cells bearing the Tg TCR, while the male mice show negative selection of such T cells. In female HY-TCR-Tg mice, exposure to DES showed more pronounced decrease in thymic cellularity when compared to male mice. Additionally, female mice also showed a significant decrease in the proportion of double-positive (DP) T cells in the thymus and HY-TCR-specific CD8{sup +} T cells in the periphery. Male mice exhibiting negative selection also showed decreased thymic cellularity following DES exposure. Moreover, the male mice showed increased proportion of double-negative (DN) T cells in the thymus and decreased proportion of CD8{sup +} T cells. The density of expression of HY-TCR on CD8{sup +} cells was increased following DES exposure in both females and males. Finally, the proliferative response of thymocytes to mitogens and peripheral lymph node T cells to male H-Y antigen was significantly altered in female and male mice following DES treatment. Taken together, these data suggest that DES alters T-cell differentiation in the thymus by interfering with positive and negative selection processes, which in turn modulates the T-cell repertoire in the periphery.

  4. Diethylstilbestrol induces vaginal adenosis by disrupting SMAD/RUNX1-mediated cell fate decision in the Müllerian duct epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laronda, Monica M.; Unno, Kenji; Ishi, Kazutomo; Serna, Vanida A.; Butler, Lindsey M.; Mills, Alea A.; Orvis, Grant D.; Behringer, Richard R.; Deng, Chuxia; Sinha, Satrajit; Kurita, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Women exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES) in utero frequently develop vaginal adenosis, from which clear cell adenocarcinoma can arise. Despite decades of extensive investigation, the molecular pathogenesis of DES-associated vaginal adenosis remains elusive. Here we report that DES induces vaginal adenosis by inhibiting the BMP4/Activin A-regulated vaginal cell fate decision through a downregulation of RUNX1. BMP4 and Activin A produced by vaginal mesenchyme synergistically activated the expression of ΔNp63, thus deciding vaginal epithelial cell fate in the Müllerian duct epithelial cells (MDECs) via direct binding of SMADs on the highly conserved 5′sequence of ΔNp63. Therefore, mice in which Smad4 was deleted in MDECs failed to express ΔNp63 in vaginal epithelium and developed adenosis. This SMAD-dependent ΔNp63 activation required RUNX1, a binding partner of SMADs. Conditional deletion of Runx1 in the MDECs induced adenosis in the cranial portion of vagina, which mimicked the effect of developmental DES-exposure. Furthermore, neonatal DES exposure downregulated RUNX1 in the fornix of the vagina, where DES-associated adenosis is frequently found. This observation strongly suggests that the downregulation of RUNX1 is the cause of vaginal adenosis. However, once cell fate was determined, the BMP/Activin-SMAD/RUNX1 signaling pathway became dispensable for the maintenance of ΔNp63 expression in vaginal epithelium. Instead, the activity of the ΔNp63 locus in vaginal epithelium was maintained by a ΔNp63-dependent mechanism. This is the first demonstration of a molecular mechanism through which developmental chemical exposure causes precancerous lesions by altering cell fate. PMID:23830984

  5. Prostate enlargement in mice due to fetal exposure to low doses of estradiol or diethylstilbestrol and opposite effects at high doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saal, Frederick S. vom; Timms, Barry G.; Montano, Monica M.; Palanza, Paola; Thayer, Kristina A.; Nagel, Susan C.; Dhar, Minati D.; Ganjam, V. K.; Parmigiani, Stefano; Welshons, Wade V.

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of results of studies using high doses of estrogens, exposure to estrogen during fetal life is known to inhibit prostate development. However, it is recognized in endocrinology that low concentrations of a hormone can stimulate a tissue, while high concentrations can have the opposite effect. We report here that a 50% increase in free-serum estradiol in male mouse fetuses (released by a maternal Silastic estradiol implant) induced a 40% increase in the number of developing prostatic glands during fetal life; subsequently, in adulthood, the number of prostatic androgen receptors per cell was permanently increased by 2-fold, and the prostate was enlarged by 30% (due to hyperplasia) relative to untreated males. However, as the free serum estradiol concentration in male fetuses was increased from 2- to 8-fold, adult prostate weight decreased relative to males exposed to the 50% increase in estradiol. As a model for fetal exposure to man-made estrogens, pregnant mice were fed diethylstilbestrol (DES) from gestation days 11 to 17. Relative to controls, DES doses of 0.02, 0.2, and 2.0 ng per g of body weight per day increased adult prostate weight, whereas a 200-ng-per-g dose decreased adult prostate weight in male offspring. Our findings suggest that a small increase in estrogen may modulate the action of androgen in regulating prostate differentiation, resulting in a permanent increase in prostatic androgen receptors and prostate size. For both estradiol and DES, prostate weight first increased then decreased with dose, resulting in an inverted-U dose-response relationship. PMID:9050904

  6. Enhanced urinary bladder and liver carcinogenesis in male CD1 mice exposed to transplacental inorganic arsenic and postnatal diethylstilbestrol or tamoxifen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waalkes, Michael P.; Liu Jie; Ward, Jerrold M.; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.

    2006-01-01

    Pregnant CD1 mice received 85 ppm arsenite in the drinking water from gestation day 8 to 18, groups (n = 35) of male offspring were subsequently injected on postpartum days 1 through 5 with diethylstilbestrol (DES; 2 μg/pup/day) or tamoxifen (TAM; 10 μg/pup/day), and tumor formation was assessed over 90 weeks. Arsenic alone increased hepatocellular carcinoma (14%), adenoma (23%) and total tumors (31%) compared to control (0, 2 and 2%, respectively). Arsenic alone also increased lung adenocarcinoma, adrenal cortical adenoma and renal cystic tubular hyperplasia compared to control. Compared to arsenic alone, arsenic plus DES increased liver tumor incidence in mice at risk 2.2-fold and increased liver tumor multiplicity (tumors/liver) 1.8-fold. The treatments alone did not impact urinary bladder carcinogenesis, but arsenic plus TAM significantly increased formation of urinary bladder transitional cell tumors (papilloma and carcinoma; 13%) compared to control (0%). Urinary bladder proliferative lesions (combined tumors and hyperplasia) were also increased by arsenic plus TAM (40%) or arsenic plus DES (43%) compared to control (0%) or the treatments alone. Urinary bladder proliferative lesions occurred in the absence of any evidence of uroepithelial cytotoxic lesions. Urinary bladder lesions and hepatocellular carcinoma induced by arsenic plus TAM and/or DES overexpressed estrogen receptor-α, indicating that aberrant estrogen signaling may have been a factor in the enhanced carcinogenic response. Thus, in male CD1 mice, gestational arsenic exposure alone induced liver adenoma and carcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma, adrenal adenoma and renal cystic hyperplasia. Furthermore, DES enhanced transplacental arsenic-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. In utero arsenic also initiated urinary bladder tumor formation when followed by postnatal TAM and uroepithelial proliferative lesions when followed by TAM or DES

  7. Induction of gene expression in sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) treated with 17beta-estradiol, diethylstilbestrol, or ethinylestradiol: the use of mRNA fingerprints as an indicator of gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denslow, N D; Bowman, C J; Ferguson, R J; Lee, H S; Hemmer, M J; Folmar, L C

    2001-03-01

    The recent interest in hormonally active environmental contaminants has sparked a drive to find sensitive methods to measure their effects on wildlife. A molecular-based assay has been developed to measure the induction of gene expression in sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) exposed in vivo to the natural and pharmaceutical estrogens 17beta-estradiol, ethinylestradiol, and diethylstilbestrol. This method used differential display reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assays to compare the expression of individual mRNAs from control and estrogen-exposed fish. Forty-eight differentially expressed cDNAs were isolated by this method, including cDNAs for vitelline envelope proteins and vitellogenin. The mRNA expression patterns for fish injected with a pharmacological dose of estradiol (5 mg/kg) were identical to those obtained in fish receiving constant aqueous exposure to 212 ng estradiol/liter. Further, the cDNA "fingerprint" pattern observed in the estradiol-treated fish also matched that obtained in fish receiving continuous-flow aqueous exposures to 192 ng ethinyl estradiol/liter and a nominal concentration of 200 ng diethylstilbestrol/liter. The results demonstrate a characteristic expression pattern for genes upregulated by exposure to a variety of natural and anthropogenic estrogens and suggest this approach may be valuable to examine the potential effects of environmental contaminants on other endocrine-mediated pathways of reproduction, growth, and development. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  8. Diethylstilbestrol (DES)-stimulated hormonal toxicity is mediated by ERα alteration of target gene methylation patterns and epigenetic modifiers (DNMT3A, MBD2, and HDAC2) in the mouse seminal vesicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yin; Hamilton, Katherine J; Lai, Anne Y; Burns, Katherine A; Li, Leping; Wade, Paul A; Korach, Kenneth S

    2014-03-01

    Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a synthetic estrogen associated with adverse effects on reproductive organs. DES-induced toxicity of the mouse seminal vesicle (SV) is mediated by estrogen receptor α (ERα), which alters expression of seminal vesicle secretory protein IV (Svs4) and lactoferrin (Ltf) genes. We examined a role for nuclear receptor activity in association with DNA methylation and altered gene expression. We used the neonatal DES exposure mouse model to examine DNA methylation patterns via bisulfite conversion sequencing in SVs of wild-type (WT) and ERα-knockout (αERKO) mice. The DNA methylation status at four specific CpGs (-160, -237, -306, and -367) in the Svs4 gene promoter changed during mouse development from methylated to unmethylated, and DES prevented this change at 10 weeks of age in WT SV. At two specific CpGs (-449 and -459) of the Ltf gene promoter, DES altered the methylation status from methylated to unmethylated. Alterations in DNA methylation of Svs4 and Ltf were not observed in αERKO SVs, suggesting that changes of methylation status at these CpGs are ERα dependent. The methylation status was associated with the level of gene expression. In addition, gene expression of three epigenetic modifiers-DNMT3A, MBD2, and HDAC2-increased in the SV of DES-exposed WT mice. DES-induced hormonal toxicity resulted from altered gene expression of Svs4 and Ltf associated with changes in DNA methylation that were mediated by ERα. Alterations in gene expression of DNMT3A, MBD2, and HDAC2 in DES-exposed male mice may be involved in mediating the changes in methylation status in the SV. Li Y, Hamilton KJ, Lai AY, Burns KA, Li L, Wade PA, Korach KS. 2014. Diethylstilbestrol (DES)-stimulated hormonal toxicity is mediated by ERα alteration of target gene methylation patterns and epigenetic modifiers (DNMT3A, MBD2, and HDAC2) in the mouse seminal vesicle. Environ Health Perspect 122:262-268; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307351.

  9. Mal-Development of the Penis and Loss of Fertility in Male Rats Treated Neonatally with Female Contraceptive 17α-Ethinyl Estradiol: A Dose-Response Study and a Comparative Study with a Known Estrogenic Teratogen Diethylstilbestrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Ensa; Braden, Tim D.; Williams, Carol S.; Williams, John W.; Bolden-Tiller, Olga; Goyal, Hari O.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to find a minimal dose of 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE) that is detrimental to the developing penis and fertility and to compare estrogenic effects between EE and diethylstilbestrol (DES). Neonatal rats received EE at 10 ng (1 μg/kg), 100 ng, 1 μg, or 10 μg per pup on alternate days from postnatal days 1 to 11 (dose-response study) or received EE or DES at 100 ng per pup daily from postnatal days 1 to 6 (comparative study). Effects of EE were dose dependent, with ≥ 100-ng dose inducing significant (p penis was malformed, characterized by underdeveloped os penis and accumulation of fat cells. Fertility was 0% in the ≥ 1-μg groups, in contrast to 60% in the 100-ng group and 100% in the 10-ng and control groups. Animals treated with ≥ 10 ng had significant reductions in the weight of bulbospongious muscle, testis, seminal vesicle, epididymal fat pad, and in epididymal sperm numbers. A comparison of EE and DES effects showed similar reductions in penile weight and length and the weight of bulbospongiosus muscle, testis, seminal vesicle, epididymis, and epididymal fat pad in both adolescent and adult rats. While 5/6 control males sired, only 1/6 in the EE group and 0/6 in the DES group sired. Hence, neonatal exposure to EE at 10 ng (environmentally relevant dose) adversely affects male reproductive organs. A dose ten times higher than this leads to permanently mal-developed penis and infertility. Furthermore, EE and DES exposures show similar level of toxicity to male reproductive organs. PMID:19729556

  10. Abnormal morphology of the penis in male rats exposed neonatally to diethylstilbestrol is associated with altered profile of estrogen receptor-alpha protein, but not of androgen receptor protein: a developmental and immunocytochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, H O; Braden, T D; Williams, C S; Dalvi, P; Mansour, M M; Mansour, M; Williams, J W; Bartol, F F; Wiley, A A; Birch, L; Prins, G S

    2004-05-01

    Objectives of the study were to determine developmental changes in morphology and expression of androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor (ER)alpha in the body of the rat penis exposed neonatally to diethylstilbestrol (DES). Male pups received DES at a dose of 10 microg per rat on alternate days from Postnatal Day 2 to Postnatal Day 12. Controls received olive oil vehicle only. Tissue samples were collected on Days 18 (prepuberty), 41 (puberty), and 120 (adult) of age. DES-induced abnormalities were evident at 18 days of age and included smaller, lighter, and thinner penis, loss of cavernous spaces and associated smooth muscle cells, and increased deposition of fat cells in the corpora cavernosa penis. Fat cells virtually filled the entire area of the corpora cavernosa at puberty and adulthood. Plasma testosterone (T) was reduced to an undetectable level, while LH was unaltered in all treated groups. AR-positive cells were ubiquitous and their profile (incidence and staining intensity) did not differ between control and treated rats of the respective age groups. Conversely, ERalpha-positive cells were limited to the stroma of corpus spongiosus in all age groups of both control and treated rats, but the expression in treated rats at 18 days was up-regulated in stromal cells of corpora cavernosa, coincident with the presence of morphological abnormalities. Hence, this study reports for the first time DES-induced developmental, morphological abnormalities in the body of the penis and suggests that these abnormalities may have resulted from decreased T and/or overexpression of ERalpha.

  11. Prenatal exposure of mice to diethylstilbestrol disrupts T-cell differentiation by regulating Fas/Fas ligand expression through estrogen receptor element and nuclear factor-κB motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narendra P; Singh, Udai P; Nagarkatti, Prakash S; Nagarkatti, Mitzi

    2012-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) is known to cause altered immune functions and increased susceptibility to autoimmune disease in humans. In the current study, we investigated the effect of prenatal exposure to DES on thymocyte differentiation involving apoptotic pathways. Prenatal DES exposure caused thymic atrophy, apoptosis, and up-regulation of Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) expression in thymocytes. To examine the mechanism underlying DES-mediated regulation of Fas and FasL, we performed luciferase assays using T cells transfected with luciferase reporter constructs containing full-length Fas or FasL promoters. There was significant luciferase induction in the presence of Fas or FasL promoters after DES exposure. Further analysis demonstrated the presence of several cis-regulatory motifs on both Fas and FasL promoters. When DES-induced transcription factors were analyzed, estrogen receptor element (ERE), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT), and activator protein-1 motifs on the Fas promoter, as well as ERE, NF-κB, and NF-AT motifs on the FasL promoter, showed binding affinity with the transcription factors. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays were performed to verify the binding affinity of cis-regulatory motifs of Fas or FasL promoters with transcription factors. There was shift in mobility of probes (ERE or NF-κB2) of both Fas and FasL in the presence of nuclear proteins from DES-treated cells, and the shift was specific to DES because these probes failed to shift their mobility in the presence of nuclear proteins from vehicle-treated cells. Together, the current study demonstrates that prenatal exposure to DES triggers significant alterations in apoptotic molecules expressed on thymocytes, which may affect T-cell differentiation and cause long-term effects on the immune functions.

  12. Changes in the uterus after maternal treatment with diethylstilbestrol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, F.B.M.; Dony, J.M.J.; Rosenbusch, G.; Katholieke Univ. Nijmegen

    1985-01-01

    In the fifties and sixties pregnant women with a history of habitual abortions or premature deliveries were treated with DES (diethylstilboestrol). This treatment can lead to certain pathognomonic uterine changes in the daughters, that are recognizable on hysterosalpingographs. Because of the obstetric consequences, it is important to interpret these changes correctly. The findings in 7 patients are described. As most of the DES-daughters are now coming into reproductive age, gynecologists and radiologists will be confronted more frequently with their specific problems. (orig.) [de

  13. Mouse bioassay to assess oestrogenic and anti-oestrogenic compounds: Hydroxytamoxifen, Diethylstilbestrol and Genistein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Köhlerová, Eva; Škarda, Josef

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 5 (2004), s. 209-217 ISSN 0931-184X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/02/0406; GA AV ČR IBS5045302; GA AV ČR KSK5020115 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : bioassay * anti-oestrogens * oestrogenicity Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 0.471, year: 2004

  14. Gynaecomastia linked to the intake of a herbal supplement fortified with diethylstilbestrol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toorians, A.W.F.T.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Rooy, De J.; Stolker, L.A.A.M.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the findings of a supplement marketed on the Internet for prostate problems. The supplement was orally taken by a 60-year-old man with divergent hormonal levels and who was surgically treated for gynaecomastia: development of abnormally large mammary glands in males. The

  15. Involvement of insulin-like factor 3 (Insl3) in diethylstilbestrol-induced cryptorchidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.A. Emmen (Judith); A. McLuskey; I.M. Adham; W. Engel; M. Verhoef-Post (Miriam); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel); J.A. Grootegoed (Anton); A.O. Brinkmann (Albert)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractRecently, it has been shown that targeted inactivation of the Insl3 gene in male mice results in cryptorchidism. The Insl3 gene encodes insulin-like factor 3 (Insl3), which is expressed in fetal Leydig cells. The testicular factor Insl3 appears to play an

  16. Positive HER-2 protein expression in circulating prostate cells and micro-metastasis, resistant to androgen blockage but not diethylstilbestrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel P Murray

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : HER-2 expression in prostate cancer is associated with a worse prognosis and is suggested to play a role in androgen resistance. We present a study of HER-2 expression in circulating tumor cells and micrometastasis in bone marrow and the effect of androgen blockage or DES in the presence of HER-2 expressing cells. Patients and Methods : A multicenter study of men with prostate cancer, treated with surgery, radiotherapy, or observation, and with or without hormone therapy. Mononuclear cells were separated from blood and bone marrow aspirate by differential centrifugation, touch preps were made from bone marrow biopsy samples. Prostate cells were detected using anti-PSA monoclonal antibody and standard immunocytochemistry. Positive samples were processed using Herceptest® to determine HER-2 expression. After 1 year, patients were re-evaluated and the findings of HER-2 expression and PSA change compared with treatment. Results : Total 199 men participated, and 97 had a second evaluation 1 year later, frequency of HER-2 expression in circulating tumor cells and micrometastasis was 18% and 21%, respectively. There was no significant difference in HER-2 expression in the pretreatment group, after radical surgery or radiotherapy or with biochemical failure. Men with androgen blockade had a significantly higher expression of HER-2 (58% (P =0.001. Of the 97 men with a second evaluation, 56 were in the observation arm, 27 androgen blockade, and 14 DES. Use of androgen blockade or DES significantly reduced serum PSA levels in comparison with observation (P =0.001. However, there was a significant increase in HER-2 expression in patients with androgen blockade (P =0.05 en comparison with observation or DES treatment. No patient with observation or DES became HER-2 positive, en comparison 4/22 patients initially HER-2 negative became HER-2 positive with androgen blockade. Conclusions : The results suggest that HER-2 positive cells are resistant to androgen blockade. In an environment lacking androgens, HER-2 positive cells are selected and survive, while HER-2 negative cells are eliminated thus decreasing the serum PSA. The population of HER-2 positive cells proliferate producing androgen-independent disease. DES does not increase HER-2 expression possibly by stimulating beta-estrogen receptors and blocking HER-2 androgen receptor activation.

  17. Clearcellekarcinom i livmoderhalsen hos en 17-årig pige

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønneberg, Elisabeth Thal; Lidang, Marianne; Palle, Connie

    2014-01-01

    Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix (CCEA) is a rare disease, accounting for only 1% of all cervical cancers. The disease in young women is linked to diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure in utero. Following the ban of DES in 1979, CCEA rarely occurs in young women, but still remains...

  18. Risk of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia and invasive cancer of the cervix in DES daughters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Verloop (Herman); F.E. van Leeuwen (F.); T.J.M. Helmerhorst (Theo); I.M.C.M. de Kok (Inge); van Erp, E.J.M.; H.H. van Boven (Hester); M.A. Rookus (Matti)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Women exposed to diethylstilbestrol in utero (DES) have an increased risk of clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCA) of the vagina and cervix, while their risk of non-CCA invasive cervical cancer is still unclear. Methods: We studied the risk of pre-cancerous (CIN) lesions and non-CCA

  19. Prenatal Estrogens and the Development of Homosexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines the hypothesis that prenatal estrogens contribute to the development of human sexual orientation. Several groups of women with a history of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) were compared with several samples of control women. Findings showed that more DES-exposed women than controls were rated as bisexual or homosexual,…

  20. Predictive values of traditional animal bioassay studies for human perinatal carcinogenesis risk determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Lucy M.

    2004-01-01

    The many physiological, biochemical, and structure differences between rodents and humans, especially with regard to gestation and fetal development, invite questions as to the utility of rodent models for the prediction of risk of perinatal carcinogenesis in humans and for extrapolation of mechanistic studies. Here, the relevance of basic generalities, derived from rodent perinatal studies, to human contexts is considered. The cross-species usefulness of these generalities was upheld by the example of carcinogen activation and detoxification as determining factors. These have been established in rodent studies and recently indicted in humans by investigations of genetic polymorphisms in cytochromes P450, N-acetyltransferase, myeloperoxidase, quinone reductase, and glutathione S-transferase. Also, published data have been analyzed comparatively for diethylstilbestrol and irradiation, the two known human transplacental carcinogenic agents. At similar doses to those experienced by humans, both diethylstilbestrol and X- and gamma-irradiation in rodents and dogs yielded increased tumors at rates similar to those for humans. In rodents, there was a clearly negative relationship between total diethylstilbestrol dose and tumors per dose unit, and a similar pattern was suggested for radiation. Diethylstilbestrol had transgenerational effects that did not diminish over three generations. Overall, this analysis of the published literature indicates that there are basic qualitative and quantitative similarities in the responsiveness of human and rodent fetuses to carcinogens, and that dose effects may be complex and in need of further investigation

  1. Mammary carcinogenesis in rats: basic facts and recent results in Brookhaven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shellabarger, C.J.; Stone, J.P.; Holtzman, s.

    1982-01-01

    Some research results from experiments investigating neutron-induced mammary carcinogenesis in rats are presented. The additive effects of neutrons and 3-methylcholanthrene on mammary adenocarcinoma were determined. Synergism between diethylstilbestrol and neutrons was likewise studied. Differences in mammary neoplastic response between strains of laboratory rats was also investigated

  2. Mechanism for Prenatal LPS-Induced DA Neuron Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Pike B, Root H, Rubenstein J, Boyer R, Stenroos ES, Chan- 26. drasekharappa S, Athanassiadou A, Papapetropoulos T, Johnson Yurek DM, Fletcher- Tumer A...diethylstilbestrol-induced cancers . Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. Capobianco, L., Battaglia, G., De Blasi, A., Nicoletti, F., Paparelli, 983, 161-169. A., 2004

  3. Synthesis of deuterium-labelled compounds for FOTEK project; Syntese af deuterium-maerkede forbindelser til FOeTEK projektet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, O.; Egsgaard, H.; Larsen, E. [Forskningscenter Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-06-01

    In the FoTech project there have been utilized labelled compounds of stable isotopes as internal standards. Some of these compounds are commercially available ({sup 13}C-labelled PCB congeners, {sup 13}C-labelled diethylstilbestrol for determination of anabolic steroids). Others, like D{sub 9}-clenbuterol, D{sub 3}-clenbuterol, D{sub 3}-zeramol and D{sub 3}-dimetridazol have been synthesized. General aspects of deuterium compounds labelling are considered. (EG).

  4. Synthesis of deuterium-labelled compounds for FOTEK project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, O.; Egsgaard, H.; Larsen, E.

    1996-01-01

    In the FoTech project there have been utilized labelled compounds of stable isotopes as internal standards. Some of these compounds are commercially available ( 13 C-labelled PCB congeners, 13 C-labelled diethylstilbestrol for determination of anabolic steroids). Others, like D 9 -clenbuterol, D 3 -clenbuterol, D 3 -zeramol and D 3 -dimetridazol have been synthesized. General aspects of deuterium compounds labelling are considered. (EG)

  5. Adenocarcinoma de células claras do colo do útero em idade jovem: um desafio diagnóstico

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Cristina Nogueira; Silva, Ana Isabel; Rocha, Afonso; Serrano, Paula; Pena, Domingos Jardim da

    2015-01-01

    Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the cervix is a rare tumor, classically related with in utero diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure. The authors report a rare case of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the cervix in a 21-yearold woman who had no history of in utero DES exposure, presenting with intermittent vaginal bleeding. It stresses the relevance to always clarify the etiology of abnormal genital bleeding and consider the possibility of cervicovaginal tumors.

  6. Does Cancer Start in the Womb? Altered Mammary Gland Development and Predisposition to Breast Cancer due to in Utero Exposure to Endocrine Disruptors

    OpenAIRE

    Soto, Ana M.; Brisken, Cathrin; Schaeberle, Cheryl; Sonnenschein, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We are now witnessing a resurgence of theories of development and carcinogenesis in which the environment is again being accepted as a major player in phenotype determination. Perturbations in the fetal environment predispose an individual to disease that only becomes apparent in adulthood. For example, gestational exposure to diethylstilbestrol resulted in clear cell carcinoma of the vagina and breast cancer. In this review the effects of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol-A (BPA) on mammary ...

  7. On the rumors about the silent spring: review of the scientific evidence linking occupational and environmental pesticide exposure to endocrine disruption health effects Rumores de uma primavera silenciosa: uma revisão das evidências científicas sobre a associação entre exposição ocupacional e ambiental a pesticidas e distúrbios endócrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Pierluigi Cocco

    2002-01-01

    Occupational exposure to some pesticides, and particularly DBCP and chlordecone, may adversely affect male fertility. However, apart from the therapeutic use of diethylstilbestrol, the threat to human reproduction posed by "endocrine disrupting" environmental contaminants has not been supported by epidemiological evidence thus far. As it concerns other endocrine effects described in experimental animals, only thyroid inhibition following occupational exposure to amitrole and mancozeb has been...

  8. Proposal for a Study of the Incidence and Occupational Distribution of Testicular Neoplasms in United States Air Force Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    testicular cancer and in utero exposure to DES and other hormones, to date, evidence for such an association is weak. In a case comparison study of 108... testicular cancer in the cryptorchid testis, since maldescent is related to events in utero , much of the avalible * evidence seems to suggest maternal...diethylstilbestrol in utero . Journal of Urology 125: 47-50, 1981. 64. Williams FLR. Occupation and testicular cancer . The Journal of Epidemiology and

  9. Use of radioimmunoassay procedures for the determination of sex hormones in animal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, B.

    1983-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay methods for the determination of sex steroids and other compounds with sex hormone-like activities in various edible animal tissues and endocrine glands have been developed. Reliability of these methods, allowing quantification in a range of 10 -11 M, has been adequately demonstrated. When applied to monitoring residues of anabolic sex hormones in edible tissues of veal calves, physiological baseline levels of some endogenous ''anabolic'' steroids (like testosterone, oestrogens) were established; in the case of xenobiotics residues at the scheduled time of slaughter could be quantified (trenbolone) and a regulatory method to implement the ban of diethylstilbestrol was introduced. (author)

  10. Use of radioimmunoassay procedures for the determination of sex hormones in animal tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, B. (Institut fuer Veterinaermedizin des Bundesgesundheitsamtes (Robert von Ostertag-Institut), Berlin (Germany, F.R.))

    1983-07-01

    Radioimmunoassay methods for the determination of sex steroids and other compounds with sex hormone-like activities in various edible animal tissues and endocrine glands have been developed. Reliability of these methods, allowing quantification in a range of 10/sup -11/ M, has been adequately demonstrated. When applied to monitoring residues of anabolic sex hormones in edible tissues of veal calves, physiological baseline levels of some endogenous ''anabolic'' steroids (like testosterone, oestrogens) were established; in the case of xenobiotics residues at the scheduled time of slaughter could be quantified (trenbolone) and a regulatory method to implement the ban of diethylstilbestrol was introduced.

  11. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the ulterine cervix in a 15 year old girl: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seung Joon; Kim, Jee Eun; KIm, Hyung Sik; Choi, Hye Young

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is rare in the pediatric population. In cases of cervical cancer, adenocarcinoma is predominantly reported. Clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCAC) of the uterine cervix is a very rare tumor and accounts for only 4% of all adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix. Risk factors and pathogenesis of this disease are not exactly revealed. The intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) and associated non-steroidal estrogen during pregnancy before 18 weeks is the only known risk factor. This study reports the imaging finding of primary uterine cervical tumor in a 15-year-old girl, who was finally diagnosed with CCAC, with no maternal history of DES exposure in utero.

  12. Principles of radiation therapy in the treatment of vaginal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nori, D.

    1987-01-01

    Vaginal tumors constitute about 1-1.5% of all gynecological cancers. However, there is a great variety of histological types of vaginal cancers that affect females of all ages. Characteristically embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (sarcoma botryoides) occurs in infants; diethylstilbestrol-induced clear cell adenocarcinomas in teenage girls; and squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma, sarcoma, and adenocarcinoma in adult women. Because of the rarity of these tumors, few clinicians gain wide experience in their treatment. Treatment of these three clinical entities in three different age groups is presented in this chapter

  13. One-pot synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-self-immolative polyoxalate prodrug nanoparticles for hormone dependent cancer therapy with minimized side effects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Höcherl, Anita; Jäger, Eliezer; Jäger, Alessandro; Hrubý, Martin; Konefal, Rafal; Janoušková, Olga; Spěváček, Jiří; Jiang, Y.; Schmidt, P. W.; Lodge, T. P.; Štěpánek, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 13 (2017), s. 1999-2004 ISSN 1759-9954 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14079; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02870S; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-13853S; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-09998S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyprodrug * diethylstilbestrol * cancer Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 5.375, year: 2016

  14. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the ulterine cervix in a 15 year old girl: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seung Joon; Kim, Jee Eun; KIm, Hyung Sik; Choi, Hye Young [Dept. of Radiology, Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Cervical cancer is rare in the pediatric population. In cases of cervical cancer, adenocarcinoma is predominantly reported. Clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCAC) of the uterine cervix is a very rare tumor and accounts for only 4% of all adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix. Risk factors and pathogenesis of this disease are not exactly revealed. The intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) and associated non-steroidal estrogen during pregnancy before 18 weeks is the only known risk factor. This study reports the imaging finding of primary uterine cervical tumor in a 15-year-old girl, who was finally diagnosed with CCAC, with no maternal history of DES exposure in utero.

  15. Studies with 17 beta(16 alpha-[125I]iodo)-estradiol, an estrogen receptor-binding radiopharmaceutical, in rats bearing mammary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatley, S.J.; Shaughnessy, W.J.; Inhorn, L.; Leiberman, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    We have studied the distribution of 17 beta(16 alpha-[125I]iodo)-estradiol (I-E2) in tumor-bearing and normal rats. High early adrenal-to-blood ratios (up to 22 at 5 min) were seen in all groups, but this fell to six at 1 hr. Uterus-to-blood ratios of 15 were found, and these were fairly constant up to 2 hr after administration. Uptake of label in the uterus, but not in the adrenals, was sensitive to excess diethylstilbestrol, which competes with I-E2 for estrogen receptors. Mean tumor-to-blood ratios of 1.4, 5.5, and 8.7 were seen at 1 hr in rats with transplanted, spontaneous, and N-nitrosomethylurea-induced tumors, respectively. Diethylstilbestrol was shown to reduce uptake of label by spontaneous tumors. Most of the radioactivity was excreted in the bile by 1 hr. Better estrogen-receptor-binding radiopharmaceuticals can probably be designed

  16. Estrogens in the wrong place at the wrong time: Fetal BPA exposure and mammary cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulose, Tessie; Speroni, Lucia; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M

    2015-07-01

    Iatrogenic gestational exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) induced alterations of the genital tract and predisposed individuals to develop clear cell carcinoma of the vagina as well as breast cancer later in life. Gestational exposure of rodents to a related compound, the xenoestrogen bisphenol-A (BPA) increases the propensity to develop mammary cancer during adulthood, long after cessation of exposure. Exposure to BPA during gestation induces morphological alterations in both the stroma and the epithelium of the fetal mammary gland at 18 days of age. We postulate that the primary target of BPA is the fetal stroma, the only mammary tissue expressing estrogen receptors during fetal life. BPA would then alter the reciprocal stroma-epithelial interactions that mediate mammogenesis. In addition to this direct effect on the mammary gland, BPA is postulated to affect the hypothalamus and thus in turn affect the regulation of mammotropic hormones at puberty and beyond. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. General and selective isolation procedure for high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of anabolic steroids in tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganà, A; Marino, A

    1991-12-27

    A multi-residue method has been developed for the determination of anabolic steroids in animal tissue. The analytes are extracted from tissue with methanol and the extract is subjected to two solid-phase extractions, one using a non-specific adsorbing material, such as graphitized carbon black (Carbopack B), and the other Amberlite CG-400 I in the OH form. This procedure allowed the neutral anabolics (testosterone, trenbolone and progesterone) to be isolated and separated from the acidic type (phenolic group), such as diethylstilbestrol, oestradiol, zeranol/zearalenone and their respective metabolites. The determination was effected using high-performance liquid chromatography with different detectors (ultraviolet, fluorimetric and electrochemical). Several analytical parameters were studied: chromatographic conditions, recoveries, evaporation step, solvent flow-rate, cartridges reusability, interference of plastic cartridges. For all the anabolics investigated the recoveries were greater than 83.6%.

  18. The effect of ultraviolet radiation on wheat root vesicles enriched in plasma membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, L.A. Jr.; Murphy, T.M.; Travis, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The irradiation of plant cells with UV radiation (254 nm) causes various solutes to leak from the cells. Vesicles enriched in plasma membranes were prepared from wheat roots. These were used to determine whether UV radiation alters membrane function by direct action on the membranes and to distinguish between the chemical effects produced by high and low fluences of UV. The plasma membrane-associated K + -stimulated ATPase was very sensitive to UV radiation (100% inhibition with 2 ). ATPase activity measured in the absence of K + and K + -stimulated ATPase activity measured in the presence of diethylstilbestrol were much less sensitive. Lipid breakdown, as measured by malondialdehyde production, occurred only at UV fluences greater than 1.8 kJ/m 2 . (author)

  19. Estrogenic activity of constituents from the rhizomes of Rheum undulatum Linné.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, SeonJu; Kim, Yun Na; Kwak, Hee Jae; Jeong, Eun Ju; Kim, Seung Hyun

    2018-02-15

    Stilbenes have been reported to be phytoestrogen compounds owing to its structural similarity to the estrogenic agent diethylstilbestrol. To find new stilbene-derivative phytoestrogens, isolation of stilbene-rich R. undulatum was performed and led to identify six new compounds (1-5 and 28), one newly determined absolute configurations compound (27) together with 21 previously reported compounds (6-26). The structures of compounds were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR and CD spectra data. All the isolated compounds were tested for their estrogenic activities in HepG2 cells transiently transfected with ERα, ERβ and ERE-reporter plasmid. Among them, stilbene-derivatives, piceatannol 3'-O-β-d-xylopyranoside (12), cis-rhaponticin (16) and rhapontigenin 3'-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (17), showed the more potent binding affinity for estrogen receptors than 17β-estrodiol. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Selection of chemotherapy for metastatic mammary cancer by effect on 131Cs uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, D.J.; Harper, P.V.

    1977-01-01

    Cesium-131 was administered intravenously to 39 patients with superficial metastases of mammary carcinoma and the concentration in tumor was compared with that in normal tissue by application of a detector in vivo, before and after 1 to 5 days of chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide (CP), 5-fluorouracil (FU), or diethylstilbestrol. A change of the cesium concentration ratio (tumor/normal issue) greater than 15% after brief treatment correctly predicted the therapeutic effect after 1 to 39 months on the tumors that were tested in 30 of 33 tests. No reliable correlation could be made in the remaining 21 tests in which the change of ratio was less than 15%. The concentration of cesium-131 in the skin, fat, and skeletal muscle of mice was not appreciably altered by treatment for 5 days with CP or FU

  1. Subcellular localization of H(+)-ATPase from pumpkin hypocotyls (Cucurbita maxima L.) by membrane fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, G F

    1984-03-01

    A new method of preparing sealed vesicles from membrane fractions of pumpkin hypocotyls in ethanolamine-containing buffers was used to investigate the subcellular localization of H(+)-ATPase measured as nigericin-stimulated ATPase. In a fluorescence-quench assay, the H(+) pump was directly demonstrated. The H(+) pump was substrate-specific for Mg·ATP and 0.1 mM diethylstilbestrol completely prevented the development of a Δ pH. The presence of unsupecific phosphatase hampered the detection of nigericin-stimulated ATPase. Unspecific phosphatases could be demonstrated by comparing the broad substrate specificity of the hydrolytic activities of the fractions with the clear preference for Mg·ATP as the substrate for the proton pump. Inhibitor studies showed that neither orthovanadate nor molybdate are absolutely specific for ATPase or acid phosphatase, respectively. Diethylstilbestrol seemed to be a specific inhibitor of ATPase activity in fractions containing nigericin-stimulated ATPase, but it stimulated acid phosphatase which tended to obscure its effect on ATPase activity. Nigericin-stimulated ATPase had its optimum at pH 6.0 and the nigericin effect was K(+)-dependent. The combination of valinomycin and carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone had a similar effect to nigericin, but singly these ionophores were much less stimulatory. After prolonged centrifugation on linear sucrose gradients, nigericin-stimulated ATPase correlated in dense fractions with plasma membrane markers but a part of it remained at the interphase. This lessdense part of the nigericin-stimulated ATPase could be derived from tonoplast vesicles because α-mannosidase, an enzyme of the vacuolar sap, remained in the upper part of the gradient. Nigericinstimulated ATPase did not correlate with the mitochondrial marker, cytochrome c oxidase, whereas azide inhibition of ATPase activity did.

  2. Monitoring of estrogens, pesticides and bisphenol A in natural waters and drinking water treatment plants by solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; de Alda, Maria J López; Barceló, Damià

    2004-08-06

    A multi-residue analytical method has been developed for the determination of various classes of selected endocrine disruptors. This method allows the simultaneous extraction and quantification of different estrogens (estradiol, estrone, estriol, estradiol-17-glucuronide, estradiol diacetate, estrone-3-sulfate, ethynyl estradiol and diethylstilbestrol), pesticides (atrazine, simazine, desethylatrazine, isoproturon and diuron), and bisphenol A in natural waters. In the method developed, 500 ml of water are preconcentrated on LiChrolut RP-18 cartridges. Further analysis is carried out by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) in the positive ion mode for determination of pesticides and electrospray in the negative ionisation mode for determination of estrogens and bisphenol A. Recoveries for most compounds were between 90 and 119%, except for bisphenol A (81%) and diethylstilbestrol (70%), with relative standard deviations below 20%. Limits of detection ranged between 2 and 15 ng/l. The method was used to study the occurrence of the selected pollutants in surface and groundwater used for abstraction of drinking water in a waterworks and to evaluate the removal efficiency of the different water treatments applied. Water samples from the river, the aquifer, and after each treatment stage (sand filtration, ozonation, activated carbon filtration and post-chlorination) were taken monthly from February to August of 2002. The presence in river water of atrazine, simazine, diuron and bisphenol A were relatively frequent at concentrations usually below 0.1 microg/l. Lower levels, below 0.02 microg/l, were usual for isoproturon. Estrone-3-sulfate and estrone were detected occasionally in the river. Most of the compounds were completely removed during the water treatment, especially after activated carbon filtration.

  3. Competitive advantage and tolerance of selected shochu yeast in barley shochu mash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashita, Hideharu; Fujihara, Emi; Furutera, Mihoko; Kajiwara, Yasuhiro; Shimoda, Masahiko; Matsuoka, Masayoshi; Ogawa, Takahira; Kawamoto, Seiji; Ono, Kazuhisa

    2013-07-01

    A shochu yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae BAW-6, was previously isolated from Kagoshima yeast strain Ko, and has since been utilized in shochu production. The BAW-6 strain carries pho3/pho3 homozygous genes in contrast to the heterozygous PHO3/pho3 genes in the parental Ko strain. However, absence of the PHO3 gene per se cannot explain the fermentation superiority of BAW-6. Here, we demonstrate the growth advantage of the BAW-6 strain over the Ko strain by competitive cultivation in barley shochu preparation, where alcohol yield and nihonshudo of the former strain were higher than those of the latter strain. In addition, the maximum growth rate of BAW-6 was less affected than that of Ko by high Brix values of barley koji medium, suggesting that BAW-6 is less sensitive to growth inhibitory compounds derived from barley or barley koji. The tolerance of BAW-6 to growth inhibitory compounds, cerulenin and diethylstilbestrol (an H⁺-ATPase inhibitor), was also higher than that of other yeast strains. Consistent with BAW-6's tolerance to diethylstilbestrol in the presence of 8% ethanol (pH 4.5), H⁺-ATPase activity, but not transcription of its gene, was higher in BAW-6 than in Ko. We conclude that the BAW-6 strain is associated with certain gene alterations other than PHO3, such that it can maintain cellular ion homeostasis under conditions of ethanol stress during the latter phase of fermentation. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Estrogenic Activities of Fatty Acids and a Sterol Isolated from Royal Jelly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isohama, Yoichiro; Maruyama, Hiroe; Yamada, Yayoi; Narita, Yukio; Ohta, Shozo; Araki, Yoko; Miyata, Takeshi; Mishima, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    We have previously reported that royal jelly (RJ) from honeybees (Apis mellifera) has weak estrogenic activity mediated by interaction with estrogen receptors that leads to changes in gene expression and cell proliferation. In this study, we isolated four compounds from RJ that exhibit estrogenic activity as evaluated by a ligand-binding assay for the estrogen receptor (ER) β. These compounds were identified as 10-hydroxy-trans-2-decenoic acid, 10-hydroxydecanoic acid, trans-2-decenoic acid and 24-methylenecholesterol. All these compounds inhibited binding of 17β-estradiol to ERβ, although more weakly than diethylstilbestrol or phytoestrogens. However, these compounds had little or no effect on the binding of 17β-estradiol to ERα. Expression assays suggested that these compounds activated ER, as evidenced by enhanced transcription of a reporter gene containing an estrogen-responsive element. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with these compounds enhanced their proliferation, but concomitant treatment with tamoxifen blocked this effect. Exposure of immature rats to these compounds by subcutaneous injection induced mild hypertrophy of the luminal epithelium of the uterus, but was not associated with an increase in uterine weight. These findings provide evidence that these compounds contribute to the estrogenic effect of RJ. PMID:18830443

  5. Estrogenic Activities of Fatty Acids and a Sterol Isolated from Royal Jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazu-Michi Suzuki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that royal jelly (RJ from honeybees (Apis mellifera has weak estrogenic activity mediated by interaction with estrogen receptors that leads to changes in gene expression and cell proliferation. In this study, we isolated four compounds from RJ that exhibit estrogenic activity as evaluated by a ligand-binding assay for the estrogen receptor (ER β. These compounds were identified as 10-hydroxy-trans-2-decenoic acid, 10-hydroxydecanoic acid, trans-2-decenoic acid and 24-methylenecholesterol. All these compounds inhibited binding of 17β-estradiol to ERβ, although more weakly than diethylstilbestrol or phytoestrogens. However, these compounds had little or no effect on the binding of 17β-estradiol to ERα. Expression assays suggested that these compounds activated ER, as evidenced by enhanced transcription of a reporter gene containing an estrogen-responsive element. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with these compounds enhanced their proliferation, but concomitant treatment with tamoxifen blocked this effect. Exposure of immature rats to these compounds by subcutaneous injection induced mild hypertrophy of the luminal epithelium of the uterus, but was not associated with an increase in uterine weight. These findings provide evidence that these compounds contribute to the estrogenic effect of RJ.

  6. Regional differences in the prostate of the neonatally estrogenized mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pylkkaenen, L.S.; Santti, R.; Newbold, R.; McLachlan, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Neonatal estrogenization of the mouse with diethylstilbestrol resulted in time-of-exposure and dose-dependent inhibition of the growth of the prostatic lobes observed at the age of 2 mon. The critical time was the days 1-6 of postnatal life. In neonatally estrogenized (neoDES) mice, responses to 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone in terms of nuclear 3H-thymidine labelling were altered concomitantly with the inhibition of growth and were in accordance with changes in the relative volumes of epithelium, glandular lumina, and interacinar stroma. Secondary estrogen treatment of neoDES mice with 17 beta-estradiol did not increase 3H-thymidine labelling in the prostate of control or neoDES mice. However, it induced squamous epithelial metaplasia in periurethral collecting ducts and proximal parts of coagulating glands of neoDES animals. In control mice only slight epithelial hyperplasia could be observed after similar treatment. Estrogen receptors, located immunocytochemically in nuclei of stromal cell, corresponded with the sites of increased estrogen sensitivity, observed as metaplastic transformation. When the neoDES animals aged, epithelial hyperplasia and dysplasia could be observed at distinct prostatic sites, ie, the periurethral collecting ducts and the coagulating glands and periurethral glands, and stromal inflammation become more extensive. Almost identical location of the epithelial changes and the altered estrogen response is suggestive of causal relationship

  7. Dietary exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in metropolitan population from China: a risk assessment based on probabilistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dongliang; Ye, Xiaolei; Xiao, Yonghua; Zhao, Nana; Long, Jia; Zhang, Piwei; Fan, Ying; Ding, Shibin; Jin, Xin; Tian, Chong; Xu, Shunqing; Ying, Chenjiang

    2015-11-01

    The intake of contaminated foods is an important exposure pathway for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). However, data on the occurrence of EDCs in foodstuffs are sporadic and the resultant risk of co-exposure is rarely concerned. In this study, 450 food samples representing 7 food categories (mainly raw and fresh food), collected from three geographic cities in China, were analyzed for eight EDCs using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Besides estrone (E1), other EDCs including diethylstilbestrol (DES), nonylphenol (NP), bisphenol A (BPA), octylphenol (OP), 17β-estradiol (E2), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), and estriol (E3) were ubiquitous in food. Dose-dependent relationships were found between NP and EE2 (r=0.196, pRisk Assessment (MCRA) system. The 50th and 95th percentile exposure of any EDCs isomer were far below the tolerable daily intake (TDI) value identically. However, the sum of 17β-estradiol equivalents (∑EEQs) exposure in population was considerably larger than the value of exposure to E2, which implied the underlying resultant risk of multiple EDCs in food should be concern. In conclusion, co-exposure via food consumption should be considered rather than individual EDCs during health risk evaluation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Icotinib inhibits EGFR signaling and alleviates psoriasis-like symptoms in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Fenlai; Yang, Guiqun; Wang, Yanping; Chen, Haibo; Yu, Bo; Li, He; Guo, Jing; Huang, Xiaoling; Deng, Yifang; Yu, Pengxia; Ding, Lieming

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the effects of icotinib hydrochloride and a derivative cream on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling and within animal psoriasis models, respectively. The effect of icotinib on EGFR signaling was examined in HaCaT cells, while its effect on angiogenesis was tested in chick embryo chorioallantoic membranes (CAM). The effectiveness of icotinib in treating psoriasis was tested in three psoriasis models, including diethylstilbestrol-treated mouse vaginal epithelial cells, mouse tail granular cell layer formation, and propranolol-induced psoriasis-like features in guinea pig ear skin. Icotinib treatment blocked EGFR signaling and reduced HaCaT cell viability as well as suppressed CAM angiogenesis. Topical application of icotinib ameliorated psoriasis-like histological characteristics in mouse and guinea pig psoriasis models. Icotinib also significantly inhibited mouse vaginal epithelium mitosis, promoted mouse tail squamous epidermal granular layer formation, and reduced the thickness of the horny layer in propranolol treated auricular dorsal surface of guinea pig. We conclude that icotinib can effectively inhibit psoriasis in animal models. Future clinical studies should be conducted to explore the therapeutic effects of icotinb in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Modifying factors in rat mammary gland carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shellabarger, C.J.

    1975-01-01

    The spontaneous incidence of mammary adenocarcinomas and mammary fibroadenomas in rats was found to be related to the strain of rat studied. Strains of rats that are sensitive to chemical carcinogens in regard to induced mammary neoplasia tend to be the same strains of rats that are sensitive to radiation. Methylcholantrene (MCA) and x-rays appeared to act in an additive fashion on the induction of mammary adenocarcinomas when they were given together. Lactating and older rats lose responsiveness to chemical carcinogens but do not lose responsiveness to radiation. Radiation appears to act in a scopal fashion in the induction of mammary neoplasia. Mammary neoplasia induction was not changed when low LET radiation was split into 2 equal fractions and high LET radiation was more effective than low LET radiation in inducing mammary neoplasia. It is suggested that DMBA can act as an initiator for the induction of mammary adenocarcinomas, that phorbol can act as a promotor, and that viruses may induce mammary neoplasia. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and radiation appeared to act synergistically in the induction of mammary adenocarcinomas in one strain of rat but not in another strain. (U.S.)

  10. Identification of hormone esters in injection site in muscle tissues by LC/MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costain, R M; Fesser, A C E; McKenzie, D; Mizuno, M; MacNeil, J D

    2008-12-01

    The detection of hormone abuse for growth promotion in food animal production is a global concern. Initial testing for hormones in Canada was directed at the compounds approved for use in beef cattle, melengestrol acetate, trenbolone acetate and zeranol, and the banned compound diethylstilbestrol (DES). No hormonal growth promoters are approved for use in veal production in Canada. However, instances of use of trenbolone and clenbuterol were detected in Canada in the 1990s. During the development of a new analytical method for testosterone and progesterone, there were reports of suspicious injection sites being found in veal calves. Upon implementation of the method, analysis of investigative samples revealed significant residues of testosterone in some injection sites. To prove that the source of these residues was exogenous, a fully validated method for hormone esters was developed to confirm the presence of exogenous hormones in these injection sites. The QUECHERS model was employed in methods development and resulted in a simple, effective extraction technique that consisted of sample pre-homogenization, liquid/liquid partitioning, extract dilution, filtration and use of LC/MS/MS to provide detection selectivity. The result was an adaptable MS/MS confirmation technique that meets the needs of Canadian regulatory authorities to confirm the misuse of injectable testosterone, and potentially other hormones, in food animal production.

  11. Induction and inhibition of oocyte maturation by EDCs in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokumoto Mika

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oocyte maturation in lower vertebrates is triggered by maturation-inducing hormone (MIH, which acts on unidentified receptors on the oocyte surface and induces the activation of maturation-promoting factor (MPF in the oocyte cytoplasm. We previously described the induction of oocyte maturation in fish by an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC, diethylstilbestrol (DES, a nonsteroidal estrogen. Methods In this study, stimulatory and inhibitory effects of EDCs and natural steroids on oocyte maturation were examined in zebrafish. For effective agents, some details about the mechanism in induction or inhibition of maturation were examined. Possible groups of DES interacting with the MIH receptor are discussed based on relative potency of steroids to induce maturation. Results Among agents tested, tamoxifen (TAM and its metabolite 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT showed stimulatory activity similar to DES. The time courses of the change in germinal vesicle breakdown and an intracellular molecular event (the synthesis of cyclin B induced by TAM were indistinguishable from those induced by MIH. In contrast, pentachlorophenol (PCP had a potent inhibitory effect on MIH-induced oocyte maturation. PCP inhibited not only MIH-induced maturation but also DES- and TAM-induced maturation. Methoxychlor also inhibited maturation when oocytes were pre-treated with this agent. Conclusion These results suggest that EDCs act as agonists or antagonists in the induction of oocyte maturation in fish.

  12. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer, Including Occupational Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Weiderpass

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr. For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as “carcinogenic to humans” (Group 1: alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure. Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification “probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

  13. Dual cloud point extraction coupled with hydrodynamic-electrokinetic two-step injection followed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography for simultaneous determination of trace phenolic estrogens in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yingying; Li, Jinhua; Liu, Junshen; Lu, Wenhui; Ma, Jiping; Chen, Lingxin

    2013-07-01

    A dual cloud point extraction (dCPE) off-line enrichment procedure coupled with a hydrodynamic-electrokinetic two-step injection online enrichment technique was successfully developed for simultaneous preconcentration of trace phenolic estrogens (hexestrol, dienestrol, and diethylstilbestrol) in water samples followed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) analysis. Several parameters affecting the extraction and online injection conditions were optimized. Under optimal dCPE-two-step injection-MEKC conditions, detection limits of 7.9-8.9 ng/mL and good linearity in the range from 0.05 to 5 μg/mL with correlation coefficients R(2) ≥ 0.9990 were achieved. Satisfactory recoveries ranging from 83 to 108% were obtained with lake and tap water spiked at 0.1 and 0.5 μg/mL, respectively, with relative standard deviations (n = 6) of 1.3-3.1%. This method was demonstrated to be convenient, rapid, cost-effective, and environmentally benign, and could be used as an alternative to existing methods for analyzing trace residues of phenolic estrogens in water samples.

  14. Specific estrogen-induced cell proliferation of cultured Syrian hamster renal proximal tubular cells in serum-free chemically defined media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberley, T.D.; Lauchner, L.J.; Pugh, T.D.; Gonzalez, A.; Goldfarb, S.; Li, S.A.; Li, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    It has long been recognized that the renal proximal tubular epithelium of the hamster is a bona fide estrogen target tissue. The effect of estrogens on the growth of proximal tubule cell explants and dissociated single cells derived from these explant outgrowths has been studied in culture. Renal tubular cells were grown on a PF-HR-9 basement membrane under serum-free chemically defined culture conditions. At 7-14 days in culture, cell number was enhanced 3-fold in the presence of either 17β-estradiol or diethylstilbestrol. A similar 3-fold increase in cell number was also seen at 1 nM 17β-estradiol in subcultured dissociated single tubular cells derived from hamster renal tubular explant outgrowths at 21 days in culture. Concomitant exposure of tamoxifen at 3-fold molar excess in culture completely abolished the increase in cell number seen with 17β-estradiol. The proliferation effect of estrogens on proximal tubular cell growth appears to be species specific since 17β-estradiol did not alter the growth of either rat or guinea pig proximal tubules in culture. In addition, at 7-10 days in culture in the presence of 17β-estradiol, [ 3 H]thymidine labeling of hamster tubular cells was enhanced 3-fold. These results clearly indicate that estrogens can directly induce primary epithelial cell proliferation at physiologic concentrations and provide strong additional evidence for an important hormonal role in the neoplastic transformation of the hamster kidney

  15. Steroidal hormones and other endocrine active compounds in shallow groundwater in nonagricultural areas of Minnesota—Study design, methods, and data, 2009–10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Melinda L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, completed a study on the occurrence of steroidal hormones and other endocrine active compounds in shallow groundwater in nonagricultural areas of Minnesota during 2009–10. This report describes the study design and methods, and presents the data collected on steroidal hormones and other related compounds. Environmental and quality-control samples were collected from 40 wells as part of this study. Samples were analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory for 16 steroidal hormones and 4 other related compounds, of which all but 2 compounds are endocrine active compounds. Most of the water samples did not contain detectable concentrations of any of the 20 compounds analyzed. Water samples from three wells had detectable concentrations of one or more compounds. Bisphenol A was detected in samples from three wells, and trans-diethylstilbestrol was detected in one of the samples in which bisphenol A also was detected.

  16. Molecular imprinted opal closest-packing photonic crystals for the detection of trace 17β-estradiol in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, Na; Wu, Yuntang; Sun, Zhong; Huang, Guowei; Gao, Zhixian

    2015-11-01

    A novel opal closest-packing (OCP) photonic crystal (PC) was prepared by the introduction of molecular imprinting technique into the OCP PC. This molecular imprinted (MI)-OCP PC was fabricated via a vertical convective self-assembly method using 17β-estradiol (E2) as template molecules for monitoring E2 in aqueous solution. Morphology characterization showed that the MI-OCP PC possessed a highly ordered three-dimensional (3D) periodically-ordered structure, showing the desired structural color. The proposed PC material displayed a reduced reflection intensity when detecting E2 in water environment, because the molecular imprinting recognition events make the optical characteristics of PC change. The Bragg diffraction intensity decreased by 19.864 a.u. with the increase of E2 concentration from 1.5 ng mL(-1) to 364.5 ng mL(-1) within 6 min, whereas there were no obvious peak intensity changes for estriol, estrone, cholesterol, testosterone and diethylstilbestrol, indicating that the MI-OCP PC had selective and rapid response for E2 molecules. The adsorption results showed that the OCP structure and homogeneous layers were created in the MI-OCP PC with higher adsorption capacity. Thus, it was learned the MI-OCP PC is a simple prepared, sensitive, selective, and easy operative material, which shows promising use in routine supervision for residue detection in food and environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Estrogenic compound profiles in an urbanized industry-impacted coastal bay and potential risk assessment by pollution indices and multivariative statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zaosheng; Li, Rui; Wu, Fengchang; Feng, Chenglian; Ye, Chun; Yan, Changzhou

    2017-01-15

    The occurrence and distribution of target estrogenic compounds in a highly urbanized industry-impacted coastal bay were investigated, and contamination profiles were evaluated by estimating total estradiol equivalents (∑EEQs) and risk quotients (RQs). Phenolic compounds were the most abundant xenoestrogens, but seldom showed contribution to the ∑EEQs. The diethylstilbestrol (DES) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were the major contributors followed by 17β-estradiol (E2) in comparison with a slight contribution from estrone (E1) and estriol (E3). Both ∑EEQs and RQs indicated likely adverse effects posed on resident organisms. Further, multivariate statistical method comprehensively revealed pollution status by visualized factor scores and identified multiple "hotspots" of estrogenic sources, demonstrating the presence of complex pollution risk gradients inside and particularly outside of bay area. Overall, this study favors the integrative utilization of pollution indices and factor analysis as powerful tool to scientifically diagnose the pollution characterization of human-derived chemicals for better management decisions in aquatic environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Estrogen Responsiveness of the TFIID Subunit TAF4B in the Normal Mouse Ovary and in Ovarian Tumors1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, Jennifer R.; Hodgkinson, Kendra M.; Binder, April K.; Seymour, Kimberly A.; Korach, Kenneth S.; Vanderhyden, Barbara C.; Freiman, Richard N.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Estrogen signaling in the ovary is a fundamental component of normal ovarian function, and evidence also indicates that excessive estrogen is a risk factor for ovarian cancer. We have previously demonstrated that the gonadally enriched TFIID subunit TAF4B, a paralog of the general transcription factor TAF4A, is required for fertility in mice and for the proliferation of ovarian granulosa cells following hormonal stimulation. However, the relationship between TAF4B and estrogen signaling in the normal ovary or during ovarian tumor initiation and progression has yet to be defined. Herein, we show that Taf4b mRNA and TAF4B protein, but not Taf4a mRNA or TAF4A protein, are increased in whole ovaries and granulosa cells of the ovary after exposure to 17beta-estradiol or the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol and that this response occurs within hours after stimulation. Furthermore, this increase occurs via nuclear estrogen receptors both in vivo and in a mouse granulosa cancer cell line, NT-1. We observe a significant increase in Taf4b mRNA in estrogen-supplemented mouse ovarian tumors, which correlates with diminished survival of these mice. These data highlight the novel response of the general transcription factor TAF4B to estrogen in the normal ovary and during ovarian tumor progression in the mouse, suggesting its potential role in regulating actions downstream of estrogen stimulation. PMID:24068106

  19. Estrogen responsiveness of the TFIID subunit TAF4B in the normal mouse ovary and in ovarian tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, Jennifer R; Hodgkinson, Kendra M; Binder, April K; Seymour, Kimberly A; Korach, Kenneth S; Vanderhyden, Barbara C; Freiman, Richard N

    2013-11-01

    Estrogen signaling in the ovary is a fundamental component of normal ovarian function, and evidence also indicates that excessive estrogen is a risk factor for ovarian cancer. We have previously demonstrated that the gonadally enriched TFIID subunit TAF4B, a paralog of the general transcription factor TAF4A, is required for fertility in mice and for the proliferation of ovarian granulosa cells following hormonal stimulation. However, the relationship between TAF4B and estrogen signaling in the normal ovary or during ovarian tumor initiation and progression has yet to be defined. Herein, we show that Taf4b mRNA and TAF4B protein, but not Taf4a mRNA or TAF4A protein, are increased in whole ovaries and granulosa cells of the ovary after exposure to 17beta-estradiol or the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol and that this response occurs within hours after stimulation. Furthermore, this increase occurs via nuclear estrogen receptors both in vivo and in a mouse granulosa cancer cell line, NT-1. We observe a significant increase in Taf4b mRNA in estrogen-supplemented mouse ovarian tumors, which correlates with diminished survival of these mice. These data highlight the novel response of the general transcription factor TAF4B to estrogen in the normal ovary and during ovarian tumor progression in the mouse, suggesting its potential role in regulating actions downstream of estrogen stimulation.

  20. [Effects of Liangxue Jiedu Decoction in treating psoriasis in a mouse psoriasis model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Min-Jie; Gao, Shang-Pu; Li, Yong-Mei

    2009-06-01

    To study the effects of Liangxue Jiedu Decoction, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine with the function of blood-cooling and detoxicating, in treating psoriasis in mice and to explore its mechanism. (1) Sixty mice were randomly divided into Liangxue Jiedu Decoction group, compound Indigo Naturalis capsule group, acitretin capsule group and normal saline group. Another 10 mice were selected as blank control. After 2-week administration, mice were sacrificed to obtain samples. After hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, tail scales with granular layers were calculated by an optical microscope. (2) Except for ten mice in blank group, sixty female mice were injected intraperitoneally with diethylstilbestrol once daily. After 3-day injection, mice were randomly divided into four groups and treated as above description. After 2-week treatment, all mice were injected intraperitoneally with colchicine (2 mg/kg), and sacrificed 6 h after the injection. The mitotic rate in virginal epithelium was calculated after HE staining. Compared with normal saline, Liangxue Jiedu Decoction could significantly inhibit the mitosis of mouse vaginal epithelium (P mouse tail-scale epidermis (P < 0.01). The mechanism of Liangxue Jiedu Decoction in treating psoriasis may be related to promoting granular cell growth and inhibiting proliferation of epidermic cells.

  1. Epidemiology of cancer in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, R.S.; Shuster, J.L. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The epidemiologic features of cancers among children have stimulated abundant descriptive and analytic investigation. The descriptive work has demonstrated consistent differences in the incidence rates of these cancers by anatomic site, age, race, and gender. It is clear that the various forms of cancer during childhood have distinctive patterns of occurrence. To a large extent, the characteristic population distributions of these diseases may represent differences in the underlying etiologic processes. Analytic studies of cancer during childhood have addressed possible genetic and environmental risk factors for these diseases. The demonstration of cancers induced by transplacental exposure to diethylstilbestrol has confirmed the speculation that the prenatal environment may influence subsequent carcinogenesis. Although possible leukemogenic effects of intrauterine diagnostic irradiation remain controversial, the issue may become unimportant clinically as prenatal irradiation is replaced by other diagnostic modalities (194). To date, studies of prenatal ultrasound have provided no evidence of an overall excess of subsequent malignancies. Postnatal exposure to high doses of irradiation is known to produce considerable excesses of leukemias and other cancers. At present, there are insufficient data available to reach a firm conclusion on the possible carcinogenic effects of exposure during childhood to low doses of irradiation, fringe magnetic fields, or chemicals

  2. Pregnancy-dependent initiation in tumorigenesis of Wistar rat mammary glands by 60Co-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inano, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Keiko; Ishii-Ohba, Hiroko; Ikeda, Kiyomi; Wakabayashi, Katsumi

    1991-01-01

    Pregnant Wistar rats received whole body irradiation with 260 cGy γ-rays at days 7, 14 and 20 of pregnancy and then were treated with diethylstilbestrol (DES) for 1 year. The highest incidence (92.9%) for tumorigenesis of mammary glands was observed in the rats irradiated in late pregnancy. Histological examination showed that tumors were classified as fibroadenoma and adenocarcinoma. To determine the reasons for specific induction of mammary tumors by irradiation in late pregnancy, hormone concentrations in serum and estrogen receptors in mammary glands during pregnancy were measured. Concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone and placental lactogen at day 20 were higher than at days 7 and/or 14, but no difference was observed in the concentrations of prolactin and thyroid-stimulating hormone during pregnancy. The estrogen receptor in mammary glands at day 20 was indicated to have the highest affinity and the highest binding capacity during pregnancy. Normal mammary glands at day 20 were suggested to have more abundant epithelial cells in the mammary lobes than those at days 7 and 14. The data suggest that the critical requirements for the initiation of tumorigenesis by γ-rays are dependent upon the differentiated state of mammary glands exposed to various hormones, and that the concentration and persistence of the synthetic estrogen (DES) are necessary for the promotion of tumorigenesis of the irradiated mammary glands. (Author)

  3. Strong enhancement of the electrochemiluminescence of luminol by AuAg and PtAg alloy nanoclusters, and its sensitization by phenolic artificial oestrogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ke; Tu, Yifeng; Wei, Xiuhua

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the synthesis of AuAg and PtAg alloy nanoclusters (NCs) and their enhancement effect on the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of luminol. The conditions of synthesis were optimized, and the structure and properties of the NCs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, electrochemistry, and optical spectroscopy. The NCs are found to intensify (by up to 20 times) the ECL of luminol in solution of pH 8.5. This finding can largely extend the useful pH range of the ECL of luminol. The enhanced ECL is strongly affected by oxygen and hydrogen peroxide, and the mechanism of enhancement is attributed to the accelerated production of reactive oxygen species. The enhanced ECL is also affected by phenolic artificial estrogens, and this was used for their determination with detection limits as low as 700 pg L −1 (with AuAg) and 1.6 ng L −1 (with PtAg). The method was applied to the determination of such estrogens in egg samples using diethylstilbestrol as a reference substance. (author)

  4. Fish skin as a model membrane: structure and characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrádsdóttir, Fífa; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Sigfússon, Sigurdur Dadi

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic and cell-based membranes are frequently used during drug formulation development for the assessment of drug availability. However, most of the currently used membranes do not mimic mucosal membranes well, especially the aqueous mucous layer of the membranes. In this study we evaluated catfish (Anarichas lupus L) skin as a model membrane. Permeation of hydrocortisone, lidocaine hydrochloride, benzocaine, diethylstilbestrol, naproxen, picric acid and sodium nitrate through skin from a freshly caught catfish was determined in Franz diffusion cells. Both lipophilic and hydrophilic molecules permeate through catfish skin via hydrated channels or aqueous pores. No correlation was observed between the octanol/water partition coefficient of the permeating molecules and their permeability coefficient through the skin. Permeation through catfish skin was found to be diffusion controlled. The results suggest that permeation through the fish skin proceeds via a diffusion-controlled process, a process that is similar to drug permeation through the aqueous mucous layer of a mucosal membrane. In addition, the fish skin, with its collagen matrix structure, appears to possess similar properties to the eye sclera.

  5. Antitumour and immunological activity of a beta 1----3/1----6 glucan from Glomerella cingulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, K; Kraus, J; Rosskopf, F; Röper, H; Franz, G

    1992-01-01

    The in vivo antitumour activity of a beta 1----3/1----6 glucan from the fungus Glomerella cingulata was investigated in vivo. The glucan exhibited a strong inhibition of tumour growth of the allogeneic Sarcoma-180 as well as the syngeneic DBA/2-MC.SC-1 fibrosarcoma with inhibition ratios up to 100%. Against the hormone sensitive Noble-Nb-R prostate carcinoma the glucan alone showed a moderate antitumour effect, whereas in combination with diethylstilbestrol an almost complete regression of the tumour could be achieved. It could be demonstrated that a highly ordered structure of the glucan is not essential for the antitumour activity. Since the glucan expressed no direct cytotoxic effects, the immunomodulating activity was investigated in vitro in order to get an indication for a possible mode of action. In the lymphocyte transformation assay the glucan at a dose of 100 micrograms/ml caused a fourfold increase in the proliferation of murine spleen lymphocytes. Moreover, the glucan stimulated the phagocytosis of zymosan by bone marrow macrophages up to 100%. However, the glucan was not able to render macrophages cytotoxic against P-815 mastocytoma cells.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of Muellerian duct anomalies in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yi; Phelps, Andrew; Zapala, Matthew A.; MacKenzie, John D.; MacKenzie, Tippi C.; Courtier, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    Muellerian duct anomalies encompass a wide variety of disorders resulting from abnormalities in the embryological development of the Muellerian ducts. In the prepubertal pediatric population, Muellerian duct anomalies are often incidental findings on studies obtained for other reasons. The onset of menses can prompt more clinical symptoms. Proper characterization of Muellerian duct anomalies is important because these anomalies can affect the development of gynecological disorders as well as fertility. Muellerian duct anomalies also carry a high association with other congenital anomalies, particularly renal abnormalities. MRI is widely considered the best modality for assessing Muellerian duct anomalies; it provides multiplanar capability, clear anatomical detail and tissue characterization without ionizing radiation. MRI allows for careful description of Muellerian duct anomalies, often leading to classification into the most widely accepted classification system for Muellerian duct anomalies. This system, developed by the American Society of Reproductive Medicine, includes seven subtypes: uterine agenesis/hypoplasia, unicornuate, didelphys, bicornuate, septate, arcuate, and diethylstilbestrol (DES) drug-related uterus. In cases of complex anomalies that defy classification, MRI allows detailed depiction of all components of the anatomical abnormality, allowing for proper management and surgical planning. (orig.)

  7. Atypical McMurry Cross-Coupling Reactions Leading to a New Series of Potent Antiproliferative Compounds Bearing the Key [Ferrocenyl-Ene-Phenol] Motif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Pigeon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the preparation of a series of ferrocenyl derivatives of diethylstilbestrol (DES, in which one of the 4-hydroxyphenyl moieties was replaced by a ferrocenyl group, the McMurry reaction of chloropropionylferrocene with a number of mono-aryl ketones unexpectedly yielded the hydroxylated ferrocenyl DES derivatives, 5a–c, in poor yields (10%–16%. These compounds showed high activity on the hormone-independent breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 with IC50 values ranging from 0.14 to 0.36 µM. Surprisingly, non-hydroxylated ferrocenyl DES, 4, showed only an IC50 value of 1.14 µM, illustrating the importance of the hydroxyethyl function in this promising new series. For comparison, McMurry reactions of the shorter chain analogue chloroacetylferrocene were carried out to see the difference in behaviour with mono-aryl ketones versus a diaryl ketone. The effect of changing the length of the alkyl chain adjacent to the phenolic substituent of the hydroxylated ferrocenyl DES was studied, a mechanistic rationale to account for the unexpected products is proposed, and the antiproliferative activities of all of these compounds on MDA-MB-231 cells lines were measured and compared. X-ray crystal structures of cross-coupled products and of pinacol-pinacolone rearrangements are reported.

  8. A Rat α-Fetoprotein Binding Activity Prediction Model to Facilitate Assessment of the Endocrine Disruption Potential of Environmental Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Huixiao; Shen, Jie; Ng, Hui Wen; Sakkiah, Sugunadevi; Ye, Hao; Ge, Weigong; Gong, Ping; Xiao, Wenming; Tong, Weida

    2016-03-25

    Endocrine disruptors such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), diethylstilbestrol (DES) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) are agents that interfere with the endocrine system and cause adverse health effects. Huge public health concern about endocrine disruptors has arisen. One of the mechanisms of endocrine disruption is through binding of endocrine disruptors with the hormone receptors in the target cells. Entrance of endocrine disruptors into target cells is the precondition of endocrine disruption. The binding capability of a chemical with proteins in the blood affects its entrance into the target cells and, thus, is very informative for the assessment of potential endocrine disruption of chemicals. α-fetoprotein is one of the major serum proteins that binds to a variety of chemicals such as estrogens. To better facilitate assessment of endocrine disruption of environmental chemicals, we developed a model for α-fetoprotein binding activity prediction using the novel pattern recognition method (Decision Forest) and the molecular descriptors calculated from two-dimensional structures by Mold² software. The predictive capability of the model has been evaluated through internal validation using 125 training chemicals (average balanced accuracy of 69%) and external validations using 22 chemicals (balanced accuracy of 71%). Prediction confidence analysis revealed the model performed much better at high prediction confidence. Our results indicate that the model is useful (when predictions are in high confidence) in endocrine disruption risk assessment of environmental chemicals though improvement by increasing number of training chemicals is needed.

  9. Early exposure to a low dose of bisphenol A affects socio-sexual behavior of juvenile female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrini, Stefania; Belloni, Virginia; Della Seta, Daniele; Farabollini, Francesca; Giannelli, Giuletta; Dessì-Fulgheri, Francesco

    2005-04-15

    Play behavior is affected by alteration of the hormonal environment during development. In fact, congenital adrenal hyperplasia or early administration of diethylstilbestrol are able to modify female play behavior in mammals. In this research, play behavior of female rats was used to explore the effects of perinatal exposure to low, environmentally relevant dose of bisphenol A (BPA), a xenoestrogen widely diffused in the environment. We used 18 females born to mothers exposed to 40 microg/kg/day BPA during pregnancy and lactation, and 18 control females. The subjects were observed in a heterosexual social situation from 35 to 55 days of age. Six main behaviors were identified by principal component analysis (PCA): exploration, defensive behavior to males, play behavior with males, play behavior with females, low-intensity mating behavior, social grooming. Early administration of BPA was responsible for a significant increase of exploration (including social investigation) (pbehavior, but is able however to defeminize some aspects of female behavior. This result is compatible with the estrogenic properties of BPA, and suggests caution in the use of a chemical that, in the range of human exposure, is able to influence the development of the brain during a critical period, resulting in long-term effects on behavior.

  10. Development of an in vitro test battery for assessing chemical effects on bovine germ cells under the ReProTect umbrella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzari, Giovanna; Tessaro, Irene; Crotti, Gabriella; Galli, Cesare; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Bremer, Susanne; Pellizzer, Cristian

    2008-01-01

    Current European legislation for the registration and authorisation of chemicals (REACH) will require a dramatic increase in the use of animals for reproductive toxicity testing. Since one objective of REACH is to use vertebrates only as last resort, the development and validation of alternative methods is urgently needed. For this purpose ReProTect, an integrated research project funded by the European Union, joining together 33 partners with complementary expertise in reproductive toxicology, was designed. The study presented here describes a battery of two tests developed within ReProTect. The objective of these tests is the detection of chemical effects during the processes of oocyte maturation and fertilisation in a bovine model. The corresponding toxicological endpoints are the reaching of metaphase II and the formation of the pronuclei respectively. Fifteen chemicals have been tested (Benzo[a]pyrene, Busulfan, Butylparaben, Cadmium Chloride, Carbendazim, Cycloheximide, Diethylstilbestrol, Genistein, Ionomycin, Ketoconazole, Lindane, Methylacetoacetate, Mifepristone, Nocodazole and DMSO as solvent) demonstrating high intra-laboratory reproducibility of the tests. Furthermore, the responses obtained in both tests, for several substances, had a good correlation with the available in vivo and in vitro data. These tests therefore, could predictably become part of an integrated testing strategy that combines the bovine models with additional in vitro tests, in order to predict chemical hazards on mammalian fertility

  11. Steroid hormones and brain development: some guidelines for understanding actions of pseudohormones and other toxic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, B.S.

    1987-10-01

    Gonadal, adrenal, and thyroid hormones affect the brain directly, and the sensitivity to hormones begins in embryonic life with the appearance of hormone receptor sites in discrete populations of neurons. Because the secretion of hormones is also under control by its neural and pituitary targets, the brain-endocrine axis during development is in a delicately balanced state that can be upset in various ways, and any agent that disrupts normal hormone secretion can upset normal brain development. Moreover, exogenous substances that mimic the actions of natural hormones can also play havoc with CNS development and differentiation. This paper addresses these issues in the following order: First, actions of glucocorticoids on the developing nervous system related to cell division dendritic growth and neurotransmitter phenotype will be presented followed by a discussion of the developmental effects of synthetic steroids. Second, actions of estrogens related to brain sexual differentiation will be described, followed by a discussion of the actions of the nonsteroidal estrogen, diethylstilbestrol, as an example of exogenous estrogenic substances. The most important aspect of the potency of exogenous estrogens appears to be the degree to which they either bypass protective mechanisms or are subject to transformations to more active metabolites. Third, agents that influence hormone levels or otherwise modify the neuroendocrine system, such as nicotine, barbiturates, alcohol, opiates, and tetrahydrocannabinol, will be noted briefly to demonstrate the diversity of toxic agents that can influence neural development and affect personality, cognitive ability, and other aspects of behavior. 53 references.

  12. Introduction and overview. Perinatal carcinogenesis: growing a node for epidemiology, risk management, and animal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Lucy M.

    2004-01-01

    Perinatal carcinogenesis as a cross-disciplinary concern is the subject of this special issue of Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, which consists of a total of eight reviews or commentaries in the areas of epidemiology, risk assessment, and animal models. Some of the conclusions from these articles, and the Questions and Answers section that follows most of them, are summarized here. There is adequate reason to suspect that perinatal exposures contribute to human cancer risk, both childhood cancers, and those appearing later in life. The latter type of risk may actually be quantitatively the more important, and involve a wide range of types of effects, but has received only limited attention. With regard to childhood cancers, fetal irradiation and diethylstilbestrol exposure are known etiological agents, and it is likely, but not yet certain, there are additional external causes of a portion of these. Some current focal points of interest here include nitroso compounds, DNA topoisomerase inhibitors, viruses, anti-AIDS drugs, and endocrine disruptors. Regulatory agencies must rely heavily on animal data for estimation of human risk due to perinatal exposures to chemicals, and the quantity and quality of these data presently available for this purpose are greatly limiting. Correctly designed conventional animal studies with suspect chemicals are still needed. Furthermore, genetically engineered mouse models for childhood cancers, especially medulloblastoma, have become available, and could be used for screening of candidate causative agents for this cancer type, and for better understanding of gene-environment interactions

  13. Simultaneous Determination of Hormonal Residues in Treated Waters Using Ultrahigh Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayco Guedes-Alonso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, hormone consumption has increased exponentially. Because of that, hormone compounds are considered emerging pollutants since several studies have determinted their presence in water influents and effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. In this study, a quantitative method for the simultaneous determination of oestrogens (estrone, 17β-estradiol, estriol, 17α-ethinylestradiol, and diethylstilbestrol, androgens (testosterone, and progestogens (norgestrel and megestrol acetate has been developed to determine these compounds in wastewater samples. Due to the very low concentrations of target compounds in the environment, a solid phase extraction procedure has been optimized and developed to extract and preconcentrate the analytes. Determination and quantification were performed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS. The method developed presents satisfactory limits of detection (between 0.15 and 9.35 ng·L−1, good recoveries (between 73 and 90% for the most of compounds, and low relative standard deviations (under 8.4%. Samples from influents and effluents of two wastewater treatment plants of Gran Canaria (Spain were analyzed using the proposed method, finding several hormones with concentrations ranged from 5 to 300 ng·L−1.

  14. Diagnostic imaging in fertility disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, A.C.; Fleischer, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    Some 10%-15% of married couples are affected by a fertility disorder. The number of infertile couples seeking medical assistance has increased dramatically in the past decade. The roles of diagnostic imaging with radiography and US (conventional and transvaginal) is emphasized in the assessment of couples with fertility disorders and an unexpectedly higher incidence of fetal wastage secondary to unsuspected uterine anomalies. The most frequently utilized radiographic examination in infertile patients is hysterosalpingography (HSG). Techniques and complications of HSG are illustrated. The normal anatomy, variants, and congenital anomalies of the uterus and fallopian tubes are demonstrated, as are the numerous abnormalities such as filling defects of the uterine cavity, synechiae, effects of maternal diethylstilbestrol exposure, inflammatory tubal disease, and the more common HSG findings following uterine and tubal surgery. The role of diagnostic imaging in male infertility, including vasography and varicocele detection, are addressed. Conventional and transvaginal US in the management of gynecologic fertility disorders are examined, with an emphasis on follicular monitoring, guided follicular aspirations, endometrial evaluations, and evaluation of other disorders (such as endometriosis) associated with infertility

  15. Facile screening of potential xenoestrogens by an estrogen receptor-based reusable optical biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lanhua; Zhou, Xiaohong; Lu, Yun; Shan, Didi; Xu, Bi; He, Miao; Shi, Hanchang; Qian, Yi

    2017-11-15

    The apparent increase in hormone-induced cancers and disorders of the reproductive tract has led to a growing demand for new technologies capable of screening xenoestrogens. We reported an estrogen receptor (ER)-based reusable fiber biosensor for facile screening estrogenic compounds in environment. The bioassay is based on the competition of xenoestrogens with 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) for binding to the recombinant receptor of human estrogen receptor α (hERα) protein, leaving E 2 free to bind to fluorophore-labeled anti-E 2 monoclonal antibody. Unbound anti-E 2 antibody then binds to the immobilized E 2 -protein conjugate on the fiber surface, and is detected by fluorescence emission induced by evanescent field. As expected, the stronger estrogenic activity of xenoestrogen would result in the weaker fluorescent signal. Three estrogen-agonist compounds, diethylstilbestrol (DES), 4-n-nonylphenol (NP) and 4-n-octylphenol (OP), were chosen as a paradigm for validation of this assay. The rank order of estrogenic potency determined by this biosensor was DES>OP>NP, which were consistent with the published results in numerous studies. Moreover, the E 2 -protein conjugate modified optical fiber was robust enough for over 300 sensing cycles with the signal recoveries ranging from 90% to 100%. In conclusion, the biosensor is reusable, reliable, portable and amenable to on-line operation, providing a facile, efficient and economical alternative to screen potential xenoestrogens in environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Characteristics of estrogen-induced peroxidase in mouse uterine luminal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jellinck, P.H.; Newbold, R.R.; McLachlan, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Peroxidase activity in the uterine luminal fluid of mice treated with diethylstilbestrol was measured by the guaiacol assay and also by the formation of 3H2O from [2-3H]estradiol. In the radiometric assay, the generation of 3H2O and 3H-labeled water-soluble products was dependent on H2O2 (25 to 100 microM), with higher concentrations being inhibitory. Tyrosine or 2,4-dichlorophenol strongly enhanced the reaction catalyzed either by the luminal fluid peroxidase or the enzyme in the CaCl2 extract of the uterus, but decreased the formation of 3H2O from [2-3H]estradiol by lactoperoxidase in the presence of H2O2 (80 microM). NADPH, ascorbate, and cytochrome c inhibited both luminal fluid and uterine tissue peroxidase activity to the same extent, while superoxide dismutase showed a marginal activating effect. Lactoferrin, a major protein component of uterine luminal fluid, was shown not to contribute to its peroxidative activity, and such an effect by prostaglandin synthase was also ruled out. However, it was not possible to exclude eosinophil peroxidase, brought to the uterus after estrogen stimulation, as being the source of peroxidase activity in uterine luminal fluid

  17. Evaluation of graphene-based sorbent in the determination of polar environmental contaminants in water by micro-solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Nyi Nyi; Li, Sam Fong Yau; Lee, Hian Kee

    2016-01-04

    A facile method of extraction using porous membrane protected micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE) with a graphene-based sorbent followed by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector was developed. The reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) (1mg), synthesized from graphite oxide, was enclosed in a polypropylene bag representing the μ-SPE device, which was used for the extraction of estrogens such as estrone, 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethynylestradiol and diethylstilbestrol in water. The r-GO obtained was identified and characterized by Fourier transform infrared, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The sorbent was loaded with sodium dodecyl sulfate by sonication to prevent agglomeration in aqueous solution. With this method, low limits of detection of between 0.24 and 0.52 ng L(-1) were achieved. For estrogen analysis a linear calibration range of 0.01-100 μg L(-1) was obtained, with the coefficients of determination (r(2)) higher than 0.992. This proposed method was successfully applied to determine estrogens in water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Transport systems of Ventricaria ventricosa: asymmetry of the hyper- and hypotonic regulation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, M A; Beilby, M J

    2008-01-01

    Hyper- and hypotonic stresses elicit apparently symmetrical responses in the alga Ventricaria. With hypertonic stress, membrane potential difference (PD) between the vacuole and the external medium becomes more positive, conductance at positive PDs (Gmpos) increases and KCl is actively taken up to increase turgor. With hypotonic stress, the membrane PD becomes more negative, conductance at negative PDs (Gmneg) increases and KCl is lost to decrease turgor. We used inhibitors that affect active transport to determine whether agents that inhibit the K(+) pump and hypertonic regulation also inhibit hypotonic regulatory responses. Cells whose turgor pressure was held low by the pressure probe (turgor-clamped) exhibited the same response as cells challenged by hyperosmotic medium, although the response was maintained longer than in osmotically challenged cells, which regulate turgor. The role of active K(+) transport was confirmed by the effects of decreased light, dichlorophenyldimethyl urea and diethylstilbestrol, which induced a uniformly low conductance (quiet state). Cells clamped to high turgor exhibited the same response as cells challenged by hypo-osmotic medium, but the response was similarly transient, making effects of inhibitors hard to determine. Unlike clamped cells, cells challenged by hypo-osmotic medium responded to inhibitors with rapid, transient, negative-going PDs, with decreased Gmneg and increased Gmpos (linearized I-V), achieving the quiet state as PD recovered. These changes are different from those exerted on the pump state, indicating that different transport systems are responsible for turgor regulation in the two cases.

  19. On the rumors about the silent spring: review of the scientific evidence linking occupational and environmental pesticide exposure to endocrine disruption health effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cocco Pierluigi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to some pesticides, and particularly DBCP and chlordecone, may adversely affect male fertility. However, apart from the therapeutic use of diethylstilbestrol, the threat to human reproduction posed by "endocrine disrupting" environmental contaminants has not been supported by epidemiological evidence thus far. As it concerns other endocrine effects described in experimental animals, only thyroid inhibition following occupational exposure to amitrole and mancozeb has been confirmed in humans. Cancer of the breast, endometrium, ovary, prostate, testis, and thyroid are hormone-dependent, which fostered research on the potential risk associated with occupational and environmental exposure to the so-called endocrine-disrupting pesticides. The most recent studies have ruled out the hypothesis of DDT derivatives as responsible for excess risks of cancer of the reproductive organs. Still, we cannot exclude a role for high level exposure to o,p'-DDE, particularly in post-menopausal ER+ breast cancer. On the other hand, other organochlorine pesticides and triazine herbicides require further investigation for a possible etiologic role in some hormone-dependent cancers.

  20. Drug and chemical residues in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussman, H C

    1975-02-01

    Given the large number of chemical substances that may find their way into the food supply, a system is needed to monitor their presence. The U. S. Department of Agriculture's Meat and Poultry Inspection Program routinely tests for chemical residues in animals coming to slaughter. Pesticides, heavy metals, growth promotants (hormones and hormonelike agents), and antibiotics are included. Samples are taken statistically so that inferences as to national incidence of residues can be drawn. When a problem is identified, a more selective sampling is designed to help follow up on the initial regulatory action. In testing for pesticides, only DDT and dieldrin are found with any frequency and their levels are decreasing; violative residues of any chlorinated hydrocarbon are generally a result of an industrial accident rather than agricultural usage. Analyses for heavy metals have revealed detectable levels of mercury, lead, and others, but none at levels that are considered a health hazard. Of the hormone or hormonelike substances, only diethylstilbestrol has been a residue problem and its future is uncertain. The most extensive monitoring for veterinary drugs is on the antimicrobials, including sulfonamides, streptomycin, and the tetracycline group of antibiotics that constitute the bulk of the violations; their simultaneous use prophylactically and therapeutically has contributed to the problem in certain cases. A strong, well-designed user education program on proper application of pesticides, chemicals, and veterinary drugs appears to be one method of reducing the incidence of unwanted residues.

  1. A simple and reliable in vitro test system for the analysis of induced aneuploidy as well as other cytogenetic end-points using Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulout, F.N.; Natarajan, A.T.

    1987-01-01

    Although aneuploidy is a serious human health problem, the experimental methodology devised until now to study the mechanisms involved in the induction of aneuploidy and for the screening of aneuploidy-inducing agents has not been so much employed to have the necessary validation. A procedure using primary cell cultures of Chinese hamster embryo cells grown on cover glasses is described. To avoid the excessive scattering and subsequent loss of chromosomes, a hypotonic treatment with a 0.17% sodium chloride solution, at room temperature, followed by in situ fixation has been standardized. This procedure improves the method through the reduction of the spontaneous frequency of aneuploid cells. Experiments carried out with cells treated with X-rays, X-rays plus caffeine, and the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) demonstrated the accuracy of the system since the average chromosome number remained constant in spite of the induction of high frequencies of aneuploid cells. Moreover, the method allows for the analysis of other cytogenetic endpoints such as anaphase-telophase alterations, structural chromosome aberrations or sister chromatid exchanges. (author)

  2. Estrogen and pure antiestrogen fulvestrant (ICI 182 780) augment cell–matrigel adhesion of MCF-7 breast cancer cells through a novel G protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPR30)-to-calpain signaling axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yan; Li, Zheng; He, Yan; Shang, Dandan; Pan, Jigang; Wang, Hongmei; Chen, Huamei; Zhu, Zhuxia [Department of Physiology/Cancer Research Group, Guiyang Medical University School of Basic Medicine, 9 Beijing Road, Guiyang 550004, Guizhou (China); Wan, Lei [Department of Pharmacology, Guiyang Medical University School of Basic Medicine, 9 Beijing Road, Guiyang 550004, Guizhou (China); Wang, Xudong, E-mail: xdwang@gmc.edu.cn [Department of Physiology/Cancer Research Group, Guiyang Medical University School of Basic Medicine, 9 Beijing Road, Guiyang 550004, Guizhou (China)

    2014-03-01

    Fulvestrant (ICI 182 780, ICI) has been used in treating patients with hormone-sensitive breast cancer, yet initial or acquired resistance to endocrine therapies frequently arises and, in particular, cancer recurs as metastasis. We demonstrate here that both 17-beta-estradiol (E2) and ICI enhance cell adhesion to matrigel in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, with increased autolysis of calpain 1 (large subunit) and proteolysis of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), indicating calpain activation. Additionally, either E2 or ICI induced down-regulation of estrogen receptor α without affecting G protein coupled estrogen receptor 30 (GPR30) expression. Interestingly, GPR30 agonist G1 triggered calpain 1 autolysis but not calpain 2, whereas ER agonist diethylstilbestrol caused no apparent calpain autolysis. Furthermore, the actions of E2 and ICI on calpain and cell adhesion were tremendously suppressed by G15, or knockdown of GPR30. E2 and ICI also induced phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), and suppression of ERK1/2 phosphorylation by U0126 profoundly impeded calpain activation triggered by estrogenic and antiestrogenic stimulations indicating implication of ERK1/2 in the GPR30-mediated action. Lastly, the E2- or ICI-induced cell adhesion was dramatically impaired by calpain-specific inhibitors, ALLN or calpeptin, suggesting requirement of calpain in the GPR30-associated action. These data show that enhanced cell adhesion by E2 and ICI occurs via a novel GPR30-ERK1/2-calpain pathway. Our results indicate that targeting the GPR30 signaling may be a potential strategy to reduce metastasis and improve the efficacy of antiestrogens in treatment of advanced breast cancer. - Highlights: • Estrogen and ICI augment adhesion to matrigel with calpain activation in MCF-7 cells. • GPR30 mediates cell–matrigel adhesion and calpain activation via ERK1/2. • Calpain is required in the cell–matrigel adhesion induced by E2 and ICI.

  3. Estrogen and pure antiestrogen fulvestrant (ICI 182 780) augment cell–matrigel adhesion of MCF-7 breast cancer cells through a novel G protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPR30)-to-calpain signaling axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yan; Li, Zheng; He, Yan; Shang, Dandan; Pan, Jigang; Wang, Hongmei; Chen, Huamei; Zhu, Zhuxia; Wan, Lei; Wang, Xudong

    2014-01-01

    Fulvestrant (ICI 182 780, ICI) has been used in treating patients with hormone-sensitive breast cancer, yet initial or acquired resistance to endocrine therapies frequently arises and, in particular, cancer recurs as metastasis. We demonstrate here that both 17-beta-estradiol (E2) and ICI enhance cell adhesion to matrigel in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, with increased autolysis of calpain 1 (large subunit) and proteolysis of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), indicating calpain activation. Additionally, either E2 or ICI induced down-regulation of estrogen receptor α without affecting G protein coupled estrogen receptor 30 (GPR30) expression. Interestingly, GPR30 agonist G1 triggered calpain 1 autolysis but not calpain 2, whereas ER agonist diethylstilbestrol caused no apparent calpain autolysis. Furthermore, the actions of E2 and ICI on calpain and cell adhesion were tremendously suppressed by G15, or knockdown of GPR30. E2 and ICI also induced phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), and suppression of ERK1/2 phosphorylation by U0126 profoundly impeded calpain activation triggered by estrogenic and antiestrogenic stimulations indicating implication of ERK1/2 in the GPR30-mediated action. Lastly, the E2- or ICI-induced cell adhesion was dramatically impaired by calpain-specific inhibitors, ALLN or calpeptin, suggesting requirement of calpain in the GPR30-associated action. These data show that enhanced cell adhesion by E2 and ICI occurs via a novel GPR30-ERK1/2-calpain pathway. Our results indicate that targeting the GPR30 signaling may be a potential strategy to reduce metastasis and improve the efficacy of antiestrogens in treatment of advanced breast cancer. - Highlights: • Estrogen and ICI augment adhesion to matrigel with calpain activation in MCF-7 cells. • GPR30 mediates cell–matrigel adhesion and calpain activation via ERK1/2. • Calpain is required in the cell–matrigel adhesion induced by E2 and ICI

  4. Targeted analysis with benchtop quadrupole–orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometer: Application to determination of synthetic hormones in animal urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Praveen; Rúbies, Antoni; Centrich, Francesc; Granados, Mercè; Cortés-Francisco, Nuria; Caixach, Josep; Companyó, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •The quadrupole in Q Exactive acts as a powerful filter to reduce ion suppression. •Reducing mass range using quadrupole in targeted modes increases the S/N ratio. •Targeted SIM data dependent scan modes are the most suitable for residue analysis. •A HRMS confirmatory method for synthetic hormones in urine has been developed. •The Q Exactive provides similar sensitivity and enhanced selectivity compared to QqQ. -- Abstract: Sensitive and unequivocal determination of analytes/contaminants in complex matrices is a challenge in the field of food safety control. In this study, various acquisition modes (Full MS/AIF, Full MS + tMS/MS, Full MS/dd MS/MS and tSIM/ddMS/MS) and parameters of a quadrupole–orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometer (Q Exactive) were studied in detail. One of the main conclusions has been that, reducing the scan range for Full MS (using the quadrupole) and targeted modes give higher signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios and thereby better detection limits for analytes in matrix. The use of Q Exactive in a complex case, for the confirmatory analysis of hormones in animal urine is presented. A targeted SIM data dependent MS/MS (tSIM/ddMS/MS) acquisition method for determination of eight synthetic hormones (trenbolone, 17α ethinylestradiol, zeranol, stanozolol, dienestrol, diethylstilbestrol, hexestrol, taleranol) and a naturally occurring hormone (zearalenone) in animal urine were optimized to have sensitive precursors from targeted SIM mode and trigger MS/MS scans over the entire chromatograph peak. The method was validated according to EC/657/2002. CCα (decision limit) for the analytes ranged between 0.11 μg L −1 and 0.69 μg L −1 and CCβ (detection capability) ranged between 0.29 μg L −1 and 0.90 μg L −1

  5. In utero bisphenol A exposure disrupts germ cell nest breakdown and reduces fertility with age in the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei, E-mail: weiwang2@illinois.edu; Hafner, Katlyn S., E-mail: katlynhafner@gmail.com; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    2014-04-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a known reproductive toxicant in rodents. However, the effects of in utero BPA exposure on early ovarian development and the consequences of such exposure on female reproduction in later reproductive life are unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of in utero BPA exposure during a critical developmental window on germ cell nest breakdown, a process required for establishment of the finite primordial follicle pool, and on female reproduction. Pregnant FVB mice (F0) were orally dosed daily with tocopherol-striped corn oil (vehicle), diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0.05 μg/kg, positive control), or BPA (0.5, 20, and 50 μg/kg) from gestational day 11 until birth. Ovarian morphology and gene expression profiles then were examined in F1 female offspring on postnatal day (PND) 4 and estrous cyclicity was examined daily after weaning for 30 days. F1 females were also subjected to breeding studies with untreated males at three to nine months. The results indicate that BPA inhibits germ cell nest breakdown via altering expression of selected apoptotic factors. BPA also significantly advances the age of first estrus, shortens the time that the females remain in estrus, and increases the time that the females remain in metestrus and diestrus compared to controls. Further, F1 females exposed to low doses of BPA exhibit various fertility problems and have a significantly higher percentage of dead pups compared to controls. These results indicate that in utero exposure to low doses of BPA during a critical ovarian developmental window interferes with early ovarian development and reduces fertility with age. - Highlights: • In utero BPA exposure inhibits germ cell nest breakdown in female mouse offspring. • In utero BPA exposure alters expression of apoptosis regulators in the ovaries of mouse offspring. • In utero BPA exposure advances first estrus age and alters cyclicity in mouse offspring. • In utero BPA exposure causes various fertility problems in

  6. Zebrafish embryos as a screen for DNA methylation modifications after compound exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouwmeester, Manon C.; Ruiter, Sander; Lommelaars, Tobias; Sippel, Josefine; Hodemaekers, Hennie M. [Center for Health Protection, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), PO Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Brandhof, Evert-Jan van den [Center for Environmental Quality, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), PO Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Pennings, Jeroen L.A. [Center for Health Protection, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), PO Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Kamstra, Jorke H. [Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jelinek, Jaroslav [Fels Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Biology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Issa, Jean-Pierre J. [Fels Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Biology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Legler, Juliette [Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ven, Leo T.M. van der, E-mail: leo.van.der.ven@rivm.nl [Center for Health Protection, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), PO Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2016-01-15

    Modified epigenetic programming early in life is proposed to underlie the development of an adverse adult phenotype, known as the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concept. Several environmental contaminants have been implicated as modifying factors of the developing epigenome. This underlines the need to investigate this newly recognized toxicological risk and systematically screen for the epigenome modifying potential of compounds. In this study, we examined the applicability of the zebrafish embryo as a screening model for DNA methylation modifications. Embryos were exposed from 0 to 72 h post fertilization (hpf) to bisphenol-A (BPA), diethylstilbestrol, 17α-ethynylestradiol, nickel, cadmium, tributyltin, arsenite, perfluoroctanoic acid, valproic acid, flusilazole, 5-azacytidine (5AC) in subtoxic concentrations. Both global and site-specific methylation was examined. Global methylation was only affected by 5AC. Genome wide locus-specific analysis was performed for BPA exposed embryos using Digital Restriction Enzyme Analysis of Methylation (DREAM), which showed minimal wide scale effects on the genome, whereas potential informative markers were not confirmed by pyrosequencing. Site-specific methylation was examined in the promoter regions of three selected genes vasa, vtg1 and cyp19a2, of which vasa (ddx4) was the most responsive. This analysis distinguished estrogenic compounds from metals by direction and sensitivity of the effect compared to embryotoxicity. In conclusion, the zebrafish embryo is a potential screening tool to examine DNA methylation modifications after xenobiotic exposure. The next step is to examine the adult phenotype of exposed embryos and to analyze molecular mechanisms that potentially link epigenetic effects and altered phenotypes, to support the DOHaD hypothesis. - Highlights: • Compound induced effects on DNA methylation in zebrafish embryos • Global methylation not an informative biomarker • Minimal genome

  7. Thin metal organic frameworks coatings by cathodic electrodeposition for solid-phase microextraction and analysis of trace exogenous estrogens in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Hangzhen; Pan, Daodong; Sun, Yangying; Guo, Yuxing; Wu, Zhen

    2016-09-21

    Cathodic electrodeposition (CED) has received great attention in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) synthesis due to its distinguished properties including simplicity, controllability, mild synthesis conditions, and product continuously. Here, we report the fabrication of thin (Et3NH)2Zn3(BDC)4 (E-MOF-5) film coated solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber by a one-step in situ cathodic electrodeposition strategy. Several etched stainless steel fibers were placed in parallel in order to achieve simultaneously electrochemical polymerization. The influence of different polymerization parameters Et3NHCl concentration and polymerization time were evaluated. The proposed method requires only 20 min for the preparation of E-MOF-5 coating. The optimum coating showed excellent thermal stability and mechanical durability with a long lifetime of more than 120 repetitions SPME operations, and also exhibited higher extraction selectivity and capacity to four estrogens than commonly-used commercial PDMS coating. The limits of detection for the estrogens were 0.17-0.56 ng mL(-1). Fiber-to-fiber reproducibility (n = 8) was in the respective ranges of 3.5%-6.1% relative standard deviation (RSD) for four estrogens for triplicate measurements at 200 ng mL(-1). Finally, the (E-MOF-5) coated fiber was evaluated for ethinylestradiol (EE2), bisphenol A (BPA), diethylstilbestrol (DES), and hexestrol (HEX) extraction in the spiked milk samples. The extraction performance of this new coating was satisfied enough for repeatable use without obvious decline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ept7 influences estrogen action in the pituitary gland and body weight of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Scott G; Dennison, Kirsten L; Samanas, Nyssa Becker; Hickman, Maureen Peters; Eckert, Quincy A; Walker, Tiffany L; Cupp, Andrea S; Shull, James D

    2014-06-01

    Estrogens control many aspects of pituitary gland biology, including regulation of lactotroph homeostasis and synthesis and secretion of prolactin. In rat models, these actions are strain specific and heritable, and multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been mapped that impact the responsiveness of the lactotroph to estrogens. One such QTL, Ept7, was mapped to RNO7 in female progeny generated in an intercross between BN rats, in which the lactotroph population is insensitive to estrogens, and ACI rats, which develop lactotroph hyperplasia/adenoma and associated hyperprolactinemia in response to estrogen treatment. The primary objective of this study was to confirm the existence of Ept7 and to quantify the impact of this QTL on responsiveness of the pituitary gland of female and male rats to 17β-estradiol (E2) and diethylstilbestrol (DES), respectively. Secondary objectives were to determine if Ept7 influences the responsiveness of the male reproductive tract to DES and to identify other discernible phenotypes influenced by Ept7. To achieve these objectives, a congenic rat strain that harbors BN alleles across the Ept7 interval on the genetic background of the ACI strain was generated and characterized to define the effect of administered estrogens on the anterior pituitary gland and male reproductive tissues. Data presented herein indicate Ept7 exerts a marked effect on development of lactotroph hyperplasia in response to estrogen treatment, but does not affect atrophy of the male reproductive tissues in response to hormone treatment. Ept7 was also observed to exert gender specific effects on body weight in young adult rats.

  9. Identification of M2 macrophages in anterior pituitary glands of normal rats and rats with estrogen-induced prolactinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Ken; Yatabe, Megumi; Tofrizal, Alimuddin; Jindatip, Depicha; Yashiro, Takashi; Nagai, Ryozo

    2017-05-01

    Macrophages are present throughout the anterior pituitary gland. However, the features and function of macrophages in the gland are poorly understood. Recent studies have indicated that there are two main macrophage classes: M1 (classically activated) and M2 (alternatively activated). In this study, we examine whether both M1 and M2 macrophages are present in the anterior pituitary gland of rats. Our findings indicate that macrophages that are positive for CD68 (a pan-macrophage marker) were localized near capillaries in rat anterior pituitary gland. These macrophages were positive for iNOS or mannose receptor (MR), which are markers of M1 and M2 macrophages, respectively. To determine the morphological characteristics of M2 macrophages under pathological conditions, diethylstilbestrol (DES)-treated rats were used as an animal model of prolactinoma. After 2 weeks of DES treatment, a number of MR-immunopositive cells were present in the gland. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that MR-immunopositive M2 macrophages had many small vesicles and moderately large vacuoles in cytoplasm. Phagosomes were sometimes present in cytoplasm. Interestingly, M2 macrophages in prolactinoma tissues did not usually exhibit distinct changes or differences during the normal, hyperplasia and adenoma stages. This study is the first to confirm that both M1 and M2 macrophages are present in the anterior pituitary gland of rats. Moreover, the number of M2 macrophages was greatly increased in rats with DES-induced prolactinoma. Future studies should attempt to characterize the functional role of M2 macrophages in the gland.

  10. Radiolabelled spiroperidol: Possible pituitary adenoma imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, C.A.; Marshall, J.C.; Lloyd, R.V.; Sherman, P.S.; Wieland, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas are the most common type of pituitary tumors. Detection currently depends on physical symptoms, elevated serum prolactin levels and CT scans. An imaging agent which specifically localized in prolactinomas based on some functional characteristic of the tumor would be of considerable clinical value not only for early detection but also for monitoring of therapy. Tritiated spiroperidol ( 3 H-Sp) was selected for evaluation based on 1) the presence of D-2 receptors in normal anterior pituitary and adenoma tissue and 2) the high affinity of spiroperidol for D-2 receptors. Recent data have established that implantation of diethylstilbestrol (DES) in Fischer F344 rats induced prolactin-secreting tumors in the pituitary. 3 HSp was evaluated in pituitary tissue of both control and DES-treated rats. 3 HSp concentration in normal female anterior pituitary tissue was found to be about 0.27% kg dose/g from 5 min to 4hrs. This value was about 10 times levels in cortex, cerebellum and striatum. In DES-treated rats the % kg dose/g values remained approximately the same. A 5-fold increase in serum prolactin was associated with a 6-fold increase in both pituitary weight and % dose/organ. The data suggests that although total pituitary weight has increased due to tumor growth (reflected in increased values for % dose/organ), the relative number of receptors per g of tissue has remained constant. This result is in agreement with observations of others on D-2 receptor concentration in prolactinomas

  11. Endocrine disruption screening by protein and gene expression of vitellogenin in freshly isolated and cryopreserved rainbow trout hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markell, Lauren K; Mingoia, Robert T; Peterson, Heather M; Yao, Jianhong; Waters, Stephanie M; Finn, James P; Nabb, Diane L; Han, Xing

    2014-08-18

    Xenobiotics may activate the estrogen receptor, resulting in alteration of normal endocrine functions in animals and humans. Consequently, this necessitates development of assay end points capable of identifying estrogenic xenobiotics. In the present study, we screened the potential estrogenicity of chemicals via their ability to induce vitellogenin (VTG) expression in cultured primary hepatocytes from male trout. A routine method for VTG detection measures the secretion of the protein by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in freshly isolated trout hepatocytes. However, this lengthy (6 days) culturing procedure requires that hepatocyte isolation is performed each time the assay is run. We optimized this methodology by investigating the utility of cryopreserved hepatocytes, shortening the incubation time, performing a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) method for VTG quantification, and verifying the model system with reference chemicals 17β-estradiol, estrone, diethylstilbestrol, hexestrol, genistein, and a negative control, corticosterone. To test the performance of both freshly isolated and cryopreserved hepatocytes, mRNA was collected from hepatocytes following 24 h treatment for VTG gene expression analysis, whereas cell culture media was collected for a VTG ELISA 96 h post-treatment. EC50 values were obtained for each reference chemical except for corticosterone, which exhibited no induction of VTG gene or protein level. Our results show linear concordance between ELISA and qPCR detection methods. Although there was approximately 50% reduction in VTG inducibility following cryopreservation, linear concordance of EC50 values was found between freshly isolated and cryopreserved hepatocytes, indicating that cryopreservation does not alter the functional assessment of estrogen receptor activation and therefore VTG expression. These studies demonstrate that qPCR is a sensitive and specific method for detecting VTG gene expression that can be used together

  12. Regulation and dysregulation of vitellogenin mRNA accumulation in daphnids (Daphnia magna)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannas, Bethany R.; Wang, Ying H.; Thomson, Susanne; Kwon, Gwijun; Hong, Li [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7633 (United States); LeBlanc, Gerald A., E-mail: Gerald_LeBlanc@ncsu.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7633 (United States)

    2011-01-25

    The induction of vitellogenin in oviparous vertebrates has become the gold standard biomarker of exposure to estrogenic chemicals in the environment. This biomarker of estrogen exposure also has been used in arthropods, however, little is known of the factors that regulate the expression of vitellogenin in these organisms. We investigated changes in accumulation of mRNA products of the vitellogenin gene Vtg2 in daphnids (Daphnia magna) exposed to a diverse array of chemicals. We further evaluated the involvement of hormonal factors in the regulation of vitellogenin expression that may be targets of xenobiotic chemicals. Expression of the Vtg2 gene was highly responsive to exposure to various chemicals with an expression range spanning approximately four orders of magnitude. Chemicals causing the greatest induction were piperonyl butoxide, chlordane, 4-nonylphenol, cadmium, and chloroform. Among these, only 4-nonylphenol is recognized to be estrogenic. Exposure to several chemicals also suppressed Vtg2 mRNA levels, as much as 100-fold. Suppressive chemicals included cyproterone acetate, acetone, triclosan, and atrazine. Exposure to the estrogens diethylstilbestrol and bisphenol A had little effect on vitellogenin mRNA levels further substantiating that these genes are not induced by estrogen exposure. Exposure to the potent ecdysteroids 20-hydroxyecdysone and ponasterone A revealed that Vtg2 was subject to strong suppressive control by these hormones. Vtg2 mRNA levels were not significantly affected from exposure to several juvenoid hormones. Results indicate that ecdysteroids are suppressors of vitellogenin gene expression and that vitellogenin mRNA levels can be elevated or suppressed in daphnids by xenobiotics that elicit antiecdysteroidal or ecdysteroidal activity, respectively. Importantly, daphnid Vtg2 is not elevated in response to estrogenic activity.

  13. Regulation and dysregulation of vitellogenin mRNA accumulation in daphnids (Daphnia magna)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannas, Bethany R.; Wang, Ying H.; Thomson, Susanne; Kwon, Gwijun; Li Hong; LeBlanc, Gerald A.

    2011-01-01

    The induction of vitellogenin in oviparous vertebrates has become the gold standard biomarker of exposure to estrogenic chemicals in the environment. This biomarker of estrogen exposure also has been used in arthropods, however, little is known of the factors that regulate the expression of vitellogenin in these organisms. We investigated changes in accumulation of mRNA products of the vitellogenin gene Vtg2 in daphnids (Daphnia magna) exposed to a diverse array of chemicals. We further evaluated the involvement of hormonal factors in the regulation of vitellogenin expression that may be targets of xenobiotic chemicals. Expression of the Vtg2 gene was highly responsive to exposure to various chemicals with an expression range spanning approximately four orders of magnitude. Chemicals causing the greatest induction were piperonyl butoxide, chlordane, 4-nonylphenol, cadmium, and chloroform. Among these, only 4-nonylphenol is recognized to be estrogenic. Exposure to several chemicals also suppressed Vtg2 mRNA levels, as much as 100-fold. Suppressive chemicals included cyproterone acetate, acetone, triclosan, and atrazine. Exposure to the estrogens diethylstilbestrol and bisphenol A had little effect on vitellogenin mRNA levels further substantiating that these genes are not induced by estrogen exposure. Exposure to the potent ecdysteroids 20-hydroxyecdysone and ponasterone A revealed that Vtg2 was subject to strong suppressive control by these hormones. Vtg2 mRNA levels were not significantly affected from exposure to several juvenoid hormones. Results indicate that ecdysteroids are suppressors of vitellogenin gene expression and that vitellogenin mRNA levels can be elevated or suppressed in daphnids by xenobiotics that elicit antiecdysteroidal or ecdysteroidal activity, respectively. Importantly, daphnid Vtg2 is not elevated in response to estrogenic activity.

  14. Two high-affinity ligand binding states of uterine estrogen receptor distinguished by modulation of hydrophobic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchens, T.W.; Li, C.M.; Zamah, N.M.; Besch, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    The steroid binding function of soluble (cytosolic) estrogen receptors from calf uteri was evaluated under conditions known to modify the extent of hydrophobic interaction with receptor-associated proteins. Receptor preparations were equilibrated into 6 M urea buffers and control buffers by chromatography through small columns of Sephadex G-25 or by dialysis at 0.6 0 C. Equilibrium dissociation constants (K/sub d/) and binding capacities (n) of experimental and control receptor preparations were determined by 13-point Scatchard analyses using concentrations of 17β-[ 3 H]estradiol from 0.05 to 10 nM. Nonspecific binding was determined at each concentration by parallel incubations with a 200-fold molar excess of the receptor-specific competitor diethylstilbestrol. The control receptor population was consistently found to be a single class of binding sites with a high affinity for estradiol which was unaffected by G-25 chromatography, by dialysis, by dilution, or by the presence of 0.4 M KCl. However, equilibration into 6 M urea induced a discrete (10-fold) reduction in receptor affinity to reveal a second, thermodynamically stable, high-affinity binding state. The presence of 0.4 M KCl did not significantly influence the discrete change in receptor affinity induced by urea. The effects of urea on both receptor affinity and binding capacity were reversible, suggesting a lack of covalent modification. These results demonstrate nonenzymatic means by which not only the binding capacity but also the affinity of receptor for estradiol can be reversibly controlled, suggesting that high concentrations of urea might be more effectively utilized during the physicochemical characterization and purification of steroid receptor proteins

  15. Metabolic activation of carbon tetrachloride by the cervico-vaginal epithelium in rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brittebo, E.B.; Brandt, I.

    1989-01-01

    The metabolism and binding of 14 C-labelled carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) in the genital tract of female adult or juvenile NMRI-mice and Sprague-Dawly rats (mainly in the pro-oestrous/oestrous stage) and an adult New Zealand rabbit were studied. A marked irreversible binding of radioactivity in the squamous cervico-vaginal epithelium of mice given intravenous injections of 14 C-CCl 4 was revealed by autoradiography of solvent-extracted tissue. The localization of binding in the mouse genital tract incubated with 14 C-CCl 4 under air was similar to that observed in vivo. Bound radioactivity was also present in the cylindrical epithelium of the rabbit vagina incubated with 14 C-CCl 4 in vitro. For a comparison, no preferential binding of radiolabelled diethylstilbestrol or ethinylestradiol was observed in the mouse cervico-vaginal epithelium. The level of irreversible binding to PMSG-primed (pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin) vaginal epithelial 100 x g supernatants of mice and rats incubated with 14 C-CCl 4 under air was low. Addition of the reducing agent dithionite to the incubations increased the binding in the vaginal epithelium 20-fold. In juvenile mice and rats injected with 14 C-CCl 4 , the levels of metabolites in the epithelium were low, whereas PMSG-primed juvenile rats contained a higher level of metabolites. The results show that the cervico-vaginal epithelium can metabolically activate CCl 4 to reactive metabolites and suggest that the metabolism is under endocrine control. (author)

  16. Estrogen-Induced Maldevelopment of the Penis Involves Down-Regulation of Myosin Heavy Chain 11 (MYH11) Expression, a Biomarker for Smooth Muscle Cell Differentiation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumu, L.A.; Bruinton, Sequoia; Braden, Tim D.; Simon, Liz; Goyal, Hari O.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cavernous smooth muscle cells are essential components in penile erection. In this study, we investigated effects of estrogen exposure on biomarkers for smooth muscle cell differentiation in the penis. Neonatal rats received diethylstilbestrol (DES), with or without the estrogen receptor (ESR) antagonist ICI 182,780 (ICI) or the androgen receptor (AR) agonist dihydrotestosterone (DHT), from Postnatal Days 1 to 6. Tissues were collected at 7, 10, or 21 days of age. The smooth muscle cell biomarker MYH11 was studied in depth because microarray data showed it was significantly down-regulated, along with other biomarkers, in DES treatment. Quantitative real time-PCR and Western blot analyses showed 50%–80% reduction (P ≤ 0.05) in Myh11 expression in DES-treated rats compared to that in controls; and ICI and DHT coadministration mitigated the decrease. Temporally, from 7 to 21 days of age, Myh11 expression was onefold increased (P ≥ 0.05) in DES-treated rats versus threefold increased (P ≤ 0.001) in controls, implying the long-lasting inhibitory effect of DES on smooth muscle cell differentiation. Immunohistochemical localization of smooth muscle alpha actin, another biomarker for smooth muscle cell differentiation, showed fewer cavernous smooth muscle cells in DES-treated animals than in controls. Additionally, DES treatment significantly up-regulated Esr1 mRNA expression and suppressed the neonatal testosterone surge by 90%, which was mitigated by ICI coadministration but not by DHT coadministration. Collectively, results provided evidence that DES treatment in neonatal rats inhibited cavernous smooth muscle cell differentiation, as shown by down-regulation of MYH11 expression at the mRNA and protein levels and by reduced immunohistochemical staining of smooth muscle alpha actin. Both the ESR and the AR pathways probably mediate this effect. PMID:22976277

  17. Somatic mutations in stilbene estrogen-induced Syrian hamster kidney tumors identified by DNA fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Deodutta

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Kidney tumors from stilbene estrogen (diethylstilbestrol-treated Syrian hamsters were screened for somatic genetic alterations by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain-reaction (RAPD-PCR fingerprinting. Fingerprints from tumor tissue were generated by single arbitrary primers and compared with fingerprints for normal tissue from the same animal, as well as normal and tumor tissues from different animals. Sixty one of the arbitrary primers amplified 365 loci that contain approximately 476 kbp of the hamster genome. Among these amplified DNA fragments, 44 loci exhibited either qualitative or quantitative differences between the tumor tissues and normal kidney tissues. RAPD-PCR loci showing decreased and increased intensities in tumor tissue DNA relative to control DNA indicate that loci have undergone allelic losses and gains, respectively, in the stilbene estrogen-induced tumor cell genome. The presence or absence of the amplified DNA fragments indicate homozygous insertions or deletions in the kidney tumor DNA compared to the age-matched normal kidney tissue DNA. Seven of 44 mutated loci also were present in the kidney tissues adjacent to tumors (free of macroscopic tumors. The presence of mutated loci in uninvolved (non-tumor surrounding tissue adjacent to tumors from stilbene estrogen-treated hamsters suggests that these mutations occurred in the early stages of carcinogenesis. The cloning and sequencing of RAPD amplified loci revealed that one mutated locus had significant sequence similarity with the hamster Cyp1A1 gene. The results show the ability of RAPD-PCR to detect and isolate, in a single step, DNA sequences representing genetic alterations in stilbene estrogen-induced cancer cells, including losses of heterozygosity, and homozygous deletion and insertion mutations. RAPD-PCR provides an alternative molecular approach for studying cancer cytogenetics in stilbene estrogen-induced tumors in humans and experimental

  18. High-affinity binding of [3H]estradiol-17 beta by an estrogen receptor in the liver of the turtle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, S.M.; Fehrer, S.; Yu, M.; Liang, L.C.; Press, D.

    1988-01-01

    Specific [3H]estradiol-17 beta ([3H]E2) binding activity (EBA) with characteristics of an estrogen receptor (ER) was demonstrated in cytosols and nuclear extracts of the female turtle, Chrysemys picta. Three different receptor assays (dextran-coated charcoal assay, hydroxylapatite batch procedure, and DNA-cellulose chromatography) were evaluated in terms of their applicability in analyzing large numbers of samples. For the measurement of cytosolic EBA, the hydroxylapatite batch procedure was found to be the most reliable assay. On the other hand, the dextran-coated charcoal assay was found to be the most appropriate method for the measurement of nuclear EBA. Turtle hepatic EBA binds [3H]E2 with high affinity (cytosolic, 17.4 +/- 2.8 X 10(9) M-1; nuclear, 17.7 +/- 1.9 X 10(9) M-1), limited capacity (cytosolic, 133.7 +/- 4.6 fmol/g tissue; nuclear, 81.1 +/- 9.0 fmol/g tissue), and strict steroid specificity. The EBA bound natural estrogens (E2, estrone, estriol) as well as the nonsteroidal estrogen, diethylstilbestrol, but exhibited little affinity for androgens, progesterone, or corticosterone. The turtle hepatic EBA resembled mammalian and avian ERs in terms of binding characteristics; however, unlike mammalian and avian ERs it was shown to be heat-labile. Incubation at 30 degrees caused rapid loss of [3H]E2 binding activity in both cytosolic and nuclear fractions. The exchange between [3H]E2 and the endogenously bound estrogen was slow at 4 and 15 degrees, but the exchange process was facilitated in the presence of the chaotropic salt, NaSCN. Establishment of quantitation methods for both cytosolic and nuclear forms of EBA will enable future investigation of the mechanism and regulation of estrogen action in the liver of this turtle species

  19. In ovo exposure quail assay for risk assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Ryo; Takahashi, Shinji; Shimizu, Akira; Morita, Masatoshi; Shiraishi, Fujio

    2006-12-01

    Although there are in vivo assays using various organisms for the risk assessment of chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties, effective experimental methods for avian species are still under debate. We have developed an in ovo exposure assay using Japanese quail eggs, aimed at assessing disrupting effects on avian reproductive development and function. Hybrid eggs from Brazilian Brown male and White Egg female quails, which can be genetically sexed by their plumage color after hatching, were prepared, and test materials dissolved in olive oil were injected into the air-chamber on day 10 of incubation. After sexual maturation of hatched chicks, we observed egg production by females and the egg quality and male-typical reproductive behavior, and then examined reproductive system morphology and serum steroid concentrations in both sexes. Treatment with a synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol (DES, 0.5-50 ng/g egg), dose-dependently reduced the eggshell thickness and strength of eggs. A few females treated with 5 ng/g DES per egg produced soft-shelled/ unmarked eggs, and all laying females treated with 50 ng/g egg produced eggs completely lacking shells. DES also induced shortening of the left oviduct and abnormal development of the right oviduct in a dose-dependent manner, while testis weight was reduced symmetrically. In addition, 2,2',4',6'-tetrachlorobiphenyl-4-ol (10-1,000 ng/g egg), which previously showed relatively high estrogenic activity in vitro, caused dose-dependent shortening of the left oviduct and reduction in testis weight. The methods for evaluating endocrine disrupting effects and preparing experimental birds proposed in the present study are expected to facilitate assays for avian reproductive toxicology.

  20. DDT Exposure in Utero and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Barbara A; La Merrill, Michele; Krigbaum, Nickilou Y; Yeh, Gregory; Park, June-Soo; Zimmermann, Lauren; Cirillo, Piera M

    2015-08-01

    Currently no direct evidence links in utero dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) exposure to human breast cancer. However, in utero exposure to another xenoestrogen, diethylstilbestrol, predicts an increased breast cancer risk. If this finding extends to DDT, it could have far-reaching consequences. Many women were heavily exposed in utero during widespread DDT use in the 1960s. They are now reaching the age of heightened breast cancer risk. DDT exposure persists and use continues in Africa and Asia without clear knowledge of the consequences for the next generation. In utero exposure to DDT is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. This was a case-control study nested in a prospective 54-year follow-up of 9300 daughters in the Child Health and Development Studies pregnancy cohort (n = 118 breast cancer cases, diagnosed by age 52 y and 354 controls matched on birth year). Kaiser Foundation Health Plan members who received obstetric care in Alameda County, California, from 1959 to 1967, and their adult daughters participated in the study. Daughters' breast cancer diagnosed by age 52 years as of 2012 was measured. Maternal o,p'-DDT predicted daughters' breast cancer (odds ratio fourth quartile vs first = 3.7, 95% confidence interval 1.5-9.0). Mothers' lipids, weight, race, age, and breast cancer history did not explain the findings. This prospective human study links measured DDT exposure in utero to risk of breast cancer. Experimental studies are essential to confirm results and discover causal mechanisms. Findings support classification of DDT as an endocrine disruptor, a predictor of breast cancer, and a marker of high risk.

  1. Zebrafish embryos as a screen for DNA methylation modifications after compound exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouwmeester, Manon C.; Ruiter, Sander; Lommelaars, Tobias; Sippel, Josefine; Hodemaekers, Hennie M.; Brandhof, Evert-Jan van den; Pennings, Jeroen L.A.; Kamstra, Jorke H.; Jelinek, Jaroslav; Issa, Jean-Pierre J.; Legler, Juliette; Ven, Leo T.M. van der

    2016-01-01

    Modified epigenetic programming early in life is proposed to underlie the development of an adverse adult phenotype, known as the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concept. Several environmental contaminants have been implicated as modifying factors of the developing epigenome. This underlines the need to investigate this newly recognized toxicological risk and systematically screen for the epigenome modifying potential of compounds. In this study, we examined the applicability of the zebrafish embryo as a screening model for DNA methylation modifications. Embryos were exposed from 0 to 72 h post fertilization (hpf) to bisphenol-A (BPA), diethylstilbestrol, 17α-ethynylestradiol, nickel, cadmium, tributyltin, arsenite, perfluoroctanoic acid, valproic acid, flusilazole, 5-azacytidine (5AC) in subtoxic concentrations. Both global and site-specific methylation was examined. Global methylation was only affected by 5AC. Genome wide locus-specific analysis was performed for BPA exposed embryos using Digital Restriction Enzyme Analysis of Methylation (DREAM), which showed minimal wide scale effects on the genome, whereas potential informative markers were not confirmed by pyrosequencing. Site-specific methylation was examined in the promoter regions of three selected genes vasa, vtg1 and cyp19a2, of which vasa (ddx4) was the most responsive. This analysis distinguished estrogenic compounds from metals by direction and sensitivity of the effect compared to embryotoxicity. In conclusion, the zebrafish embryo is a potential screening tool to examine DNA methylation modifications after xenobiotic exposure. The next step is to examine the adult phenotype of exposed embryos and to analyze molecular mechanisms that potentially link epigenetic effects and altered phenotypes, to support the DOHaD hypothesis. - Highlights: • Compound induced effects on DNA methylation in zebrafish embryos • Global methylation not an informative biomarker • Minimal genome

  2. Molecular conformation, receptor binding, and hormone action of natural and synthetic estrogens and antiestrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duax, W L; Griffin, J F; Weeks, C M; Korach, K S

    1985-01-01

    The X-ray crystallographic structural determinations of synthetic estrogens and antiestrogens provide reliable information on the global minimum energy conformation of these molecules or a local minimum energy conformation that is within 1 or 2 kcal/mole of the global minimum. In favorable cases, state-of-the-art molecular mechanics calculations provide quantitative agreement with X-ray results and information on the relative energy of other local minimum energy conformations not observed crystallographically. Because the conformation of diethylstilbestrol (DES) observed in solvated crystals has an overall conformation and dipole moment more similar to estradiol it is the form more likely to bind to the receptor and produce hormone activity. Either phenol ring of DES can successfully mimic the estradiol A-ring in binding to the receptor. Indenestrol A (INDA) and indenestrol B (INDB) have nearly identical fully extended planar conformations. Either the alpha or gamma rings of these compounds may mimic the A ring of estradiol and compete for the estrogen receptor. Although there are eight distinct ways in which molecules of a racemic mixture of INDA or INDB can bind to the receptor, not all of them may be able to elicit a hormonal response. This may account for the reduced biological activity of the compounds despite their successful competition for receptor binding. The minimum energy conformations of Z-pseudodiethylstilbestrol (ZPD) and E-pseudodiethylstilbestrol (EPD) are bent in a fashion similar to that of indanestrol (INDC). These molecules have good binding affinity suggesting that the receptor does not require a flat molecule. Therefore these conformations would appear to be compatible with receptor binding, but only the Z isomer has an energetically allowed extended conformation that accounts for its observed biological activity relative to DES. PMID:3905370

  3. In utero bisphenol A exposure disrupts germ cell nest breakdown and reduces fertility with age in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei; Hafner, Katlyn S.; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a known reproductive toxicant in rodents. However, the effects of in utero BPA exposure on early ovarian development and the consequences of such exposure on female reproduction in later reproductive life are unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of in utero BPA exposure during a critical developmental window on germ cell nest breakdown, a process required for establishment of the finite primordial follicle pool, and on female reproduction. Pregnant FVB mice (F0) were orally dosed daily with tocopherol-striped corn oil (vehicle), diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0.05 μg/kg, positive control), or BPA (0.5, 20, and 50 μg/kg) from gestational day 11 until birth. Ovarian morphology and gene expression profiles then were examined in F1 female offspring on postnatal day (PND) 4 and estrous cyclicity was examined daily after weaning for 30 days. F1 females were also subjected to breeding studies with untreated males at three to nine months. The results indicate that BPA inhibits germ cell nest breakdown via altering expression of selected apoptotic factors. BPA also significantly advances the age of first estrus, shortens the time that the females remain in estrus, and increases the time that the females remain in metestrus and diestrus compared to controls. Further, F1 females exposed to low doses of BPA exhibit various fertility problems and have a significantly higher percentage of dead pups compared to controls. These results indicate that in utero exposure to low doses of BPA during a critical ovarian developmental window interferes with early ovarian development and reduces fertility with age. - Highlights: • In utero BPA exposure inhibits germ cell nest breakdown in female mouse offspring. • In utero BPA exposure alters expression of apoptosis regulators in the ovaries of mouse offspring. • In utero BPA exposure advances first estrus age and alters cyclicity in mouse offspring. • In utero BPA exposure causes various fertility problems in

  4. Proton accumulation and ATPase activity in Golgi apparatus-enriched vesicles from rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, H.I.; van Rossum, G.D.

    1991-01-01

    We have studied the mechanism by which liver Golgi apparatus maintains the acidity of its contents, using a subcellular fraction from rat liver highly enriched in Golgi marker enzymes. Proton accumulation (measured by quenching of acridine-orange fluorescence) and anion-dependent ATPase were characterized and compared. Maximal ATPase and proton accumulation required ATP; GTP and other nucleotides gave 10% to 30% of maximal activity. Among anions, Cl- and Br- approximately doubled the activities; others were much less effective. Half-maximal increase of ATPase and H+ uptake required 55 mmol/L and 27 mmol/L Cl-, respectively. In predominantly chloride media, SCN- and NO3- markedly inhibited H+ uptake. Nitrate competitively inhibited both the chloride-dependent ATPase (apparent Ki 6 mmol/L) and proton uptake (apparent Ki 2 mmol/L). Nitrate and SCN- also inhibited uptake of 36Cl. Replacing K+ with Na+ had no effect on the initial rate of proton uptake but somewhat reduced the steady state attained. Replacement of K+ with NH4+ and choline reduced proton uptake without affecting ATPase. The ATPase and H+ uptake were supported equally well by Mg2+ or Mn2+. The ATPase was competitively inhibited by 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyano-stilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (apparent Ki 39 mumol/L). Other agents inhibiting both H+ uptake and ATPase were N-ethylmaleimide, N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, chlorpromazine, diethylstilbestrol, Zn2+, Co2+ and Cu2+. In the Cl- medium, accumulated protons were released by ionophores at the relative rates, monensin = nigericin greater than valinomycin greater than carbonyl cyanide mchlorophenylhydrazone; the last of these also reduced ATPase activity. In the absence of Cl-, monensin and valinomycin both stimulated the ATPase. These results show a close association between ATPase activity and acidification of liver Golgi vesicles

  5. Impact of estrogenic compounds on DNA integrity in human spermatozoa: Evidence for cross-linking and redox cycling activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennetts, L.E.; De Iuliis, G.N.; Nixon, B.; Kime, M.; Zelski, K.; McVicar, C.M.; Lewis, S.E.; Aitken, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    A great deal of circumstantial evidence has linked DNA damage in human spermatozoa with adverse reproductive outcomes including reduced fertility and high rates of miscarriage. Although oxidative stress is thought to make a significant contribution to DNA damage in the male germ line, the factors responsible for creating this stress have not been elucidated. One group of compounds that are thought to be active in this context are the estrogens, either generated as a result of the endogenous metabolism of androgens within the male reproductive tract or gaining access to the latter as a consequence of environmental exposure. In this study, a wide variety of estrogenic compounds were assessed for their direct effects on human spermatozoa in vitro. DNA integrity was assessed using the Comet and TUNEL assays, lesion frequencies were quantified by QPCR using targets within the mitochondrial and nuclear (β-globin) genomes, DNA adducts were characterized by mass spectrometry and redox activity was monitored using dihydroethidium (DHE) as the probe. Of the estrogenic and estrogen analogue compounds evaluated, catechol estrogens, quercetin, diethylstilbestrol and pyrocatechol stimulated intense redox activity while genistein was only active at the highest doses tested. Other estrogens and estrogen analogues, such as 17β-estradiol, nonylphenol, bisphenol A and 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene were inactive. Estrogen-induced redox activity was associated with a dramatic loss of motility and, in the case of 2-hydroxyestradiol, the induction of significant DNA fragmentation. Mass spectrometry also indicated that catechol estrogens were capable of forming dimers that can cross-link the densely packed DNA strands in sperm chromatin, impairing nuclear decondensation. These results highlight the potential importance of estrogenic compounds in creating oxidative stress and DNA damage in the male germ line and suggest that further exploration of these compounds in the aetiology of male

  6. Radical-scavenging Activity of Estrogen and Estrogen-like Compounds Using the Induction Period Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiichiro Fujisawa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The radical-scavenging activity of estrogens (estrone, 2-hydroxyestradiol,estrogen-like compounds (diethylstilbestrol, DES; bisphenol A, BPA and the mono-phenolic compound 2,6-di-t-butyl-4-methoxyphenol (BMP was investigated using themethod of measuring the induction period for polymerization of methyl methacrylate(MMA initiated by thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN andbenzoyl peroxide (BPO at 70°C using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Thestoichiometric factor (n, number of free radicals trapped by one mole of antioxidantmoiety for the AIBN system declined in the order BMP (2.0, 2-hydroxyestradiol (2.0>DES (1.3 > BPA (1.2 > estrone (0.9, whereas that for the BPO system declined in theorder BMP (2.0 >DES (1.9, BPA (1.9 > estrone (1.3 > 2-hydroxyestradiol (0.7. Theinhibition rate constant (kinh x 10-3 M-1s-1 for the AIBN system declined in the orderestrone (2.2 > BPA (2.0 > DES (1.9 > 2-hydroxyestradiol (1.2 > BMP (1.1, whereasthat for the BPO system declined in the order 2-hydroxyestradiol (3.2 > estrone (1.4 >DES (1.2 > BPA (1.0 > BMP (0.9. The radical-scavenging activity for bioactivecompounds such as estrogens should be evaluated using these two methods (the n and kinhto elucidate the mechanism of a particular reaction. The great difference of the n and kinhfor estrogens between the AIBN and BPO system suggested that their oxidation process iscomplex.

  7. Influences of cinnamic aldehydes on H⁺ extrusion activity and ultrastructure of Candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreaz, Sheikh; Bhatia, Rimple; Khan, Neelofar; Muralidhar, Sumathi; Manzoor, Nikhat; Khan, Luqman Ahmad

    2013-02-01

    The antifungal effects of cinnamaldehyde, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamaldehyde (coniferyl aldehyde) and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (sinapaldehyde) were investigated against 65 strains of Candida (six standard, 39 fluconazole-sensitive and 20 fluconazole-resistant). MICs of cinnamaldehyde, coniferyl aldehyde and sinapaldehyde ranged from 100 to 500 µg ml(-1), 100 to 300 µg ml(-1) and 100 to 200 µg ml(-1), respectively. All tested isolates showed a marked sensitivity towards these aldehydes in spot and time-kill assays. Sinapaldehyde was found to be the most effective, followed by coniferyl aldehyde and cinnamaldehyde. At their respective MIC(90) values, the three compounds caused mean inhibition levels of glucose-stimulated H(+)-efflux of 36, 34 and 41 % (cinnamaldehyde), 41, 42 and 47 % (coniferyl aldehyde) and 43, 45 and 51 % (sinapaldehyde) for standard-sensitive, clinical-sensitive and clinical-resistant isolates, respectively. Inhibition levels of H(+)-efflux caused by plasma membrane ATPase inhibitors N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (100 µM) and diethylstilbestrol (10 µM) were 34, 45 and 44 %, and 57, 39 and 35 %, for standard-sensitive, clinical-sensitive and clinical-resistant isolates, respectively. Intracellular pH (pHi) was found to decrease by 0.34, 0.42 and 0.50 units following incubation with three tested aldehydes from the control pHi of 6.70. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analysis was performed on a representative strain, C. albicans 10261, showing alterations in morphology, cell wall, plasma membrane damage and lysis. Haemolytic activity of the three compounds varied from 10 to 15 % at their highest MIC compared to an activity level of 20 % shown by fluconazole at 30 µg ml(-1). In conclusion, this study shows significant activity of cinnamic aldehydes against Candida, including azole-resistant strains, suggesting that these molecules can be developed as antifungals.

  8. Gene expression profiling in Ishikawa cells: A fingerprint for estrogen active compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehme, Kathleen; Simon, Stephanie; Mueller, Stefan O.

    2009-01-01

    Several anthropogenous and naturally occurring substances, referred to as estrogen active compounds (EACs), are able to interfere with hormone and in particular estrogen receptor signaling. EACs can either cause adverse health effects in humans and wildlife populations or have beneficial effects on estrogen-dependent diseases. The aim of this study was to examine global gene expression profiles in estrogen receptor (ER)-proficient Ishikawa plus and ER-deficient Ishikawa minus endometrial cancer cells treated with selected well-known EACs (Diethylstilbestrol, Genistein, Zearalenone, Resveratrol, Bisphenol A and o,p'-DDT). We also investigated the effect of the pure antiestrogen ICI 182,780 (ICI) on the expression patterns caused by these compounds. Transcript levels were quantified 24 h after compound treatment using Illumina BeadChip Arrays. We identified 87 genes with similar expression changes in response to all EAC treatments in Ishikawa plus. ICI lowered the magnitude or reversed the expression of these genes, indicating ER dependent regulation. Apart from estrogenic gene regulation, Bisphenol A, o,p'-DDT, Zearalenone, Genistein and Resveratrol displayed similarities to ICI in their expression patterns, suggesting mixed estrogenic/antiestrogenic properties. In particular, the predominant antiestrogenic expression response of Resveratrol could be clearly distinguished from the other test compounds, indicating a distinct mechanism of action. Divergent gene expression patterns of the phytoestrogens, as well as weaker estrogenic gene expression regulation determined for the anthropogenous chemicals Bisphenol A and o,p'-DDT, warrants a careful assessment of potential detrimental and/or beneficial effects of EACs. The characteristic expression fingerprints and the identified subset of putative marker genes can be used for screening chemicals with an unknown mode of action and for predicting their potential to exert endocrine disrupting effects

  9. Potential for imaging ovarian carcinoma by radioiodinated 11β methoxy 17α-iodovinylestradiol (MIVE/sub 2/)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.E.; Holt, J.A.; Greene, G.L.; Jagoda, E.M.; Eckelman, W.C.; Rzeszotarski, W.J.; Francis, B.E.; Reba, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    I-125 labeled MIVE/sub 2/ provides the highest extent of receptor mediated localization and the highest uterus to blood ratio (immature rat) of any radioiodinated derivative of estradiol. The authors have determined that 48% of the activity which localizes in the uterus remains after 24 hrs. Nonetheless, in vivo the I-127 derivative is an agonist as demonstrated by the induction of progesterone synthesis by the ovaries of rabbit. In addition to estrogen dependent breast tumors, ovarian carcinoma (OVCA) has been shown to exhibit high concentrations of estrogen receptor. The receptor isolated from OVCA has been studied using I-125 labeled MIVE/sub 2/ as the receptor radiotracer. In addition to sucrose gradient profiles consistent with that of ER and competition studies (diethylstilbestrol and estradiol compete, testosterone, progesterone and cortisol do not) consistent with an ER drug profile, antibodies H222, H226 (Abbott Lab.) and D547, all raised against human breast cancer, interact with the receptor from OVCA. The affinities of MIVE/sub 2/ for ER from rat uterus and OVCA are the same (K/sub A/ = 6.5 x 10/sup 9/ M/sup -1/ and K/sub A/ = 9.1 x 10/sup 9/ M/sup -1/, respectively). These results are consistent with the receptor being ER. The longer retention time of MIVE/sub 2/ in ER rich tissue should provide time for clearance of radiotracer from background tissues to allow the imaging of OVCA primaries and metasteses. In addition, MIVE/sub 2/ labeled with I-131 or an analogue containing Br-80m or Br-77, may prove radiotoxic to the receptor rich OVCA

  10. Cytotoxic effects and aromatase inhibition by xenobiotic endocrine disrupters alone and in combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benachour, Nora; Moslemi, Safa; Sipahutar, Herbert; Seralini, Gilles-Eric

    2007-01-01

    Xenobiotics may cause long-term adverse effects in humans, especially at the embryonic level, raising questions about their levels of exposure, combined effects, and crucial endpoints. We are interested in the possible interactions between xenobiotic endocrine disrupters, cellular viability and androgen metabolism. Accordingly, we tested aroclor 1254 (A1254), atrazine (AZ), o,p'-DDT, vinclozolin (VZ), p,p'-DDE, bisphenol A (BPA), chlordecone (CD), nonylphenol (NP), tributylin oxide (TBTO), and diethylstilbestrol (DES) for cellular toxicity against human embryonic 293 cells, and activity against cellular aromatase, but also on placental microsomes and on the purified equine enzyme. Cellular viability was affected in 24 h by all the xenobiotics with a threshold at 50 μM (except for TBTO and DES, 10 μM threshold), and aromatase was inhibited at non-toxic doses. In combination synergism was observed reducing the threshold values of toxicity to 4-10 μM, and aromatase activity by 50% in some cases. In placental microsomes the most active xenobiotics rapidly inhibited microsomal aromatase in a manner independent of NADPH metabolism. Prolonged exposures to low doses in cells generally amplified by 50 times aromatase inhibition. These xenobiotics may act by inhibition of the active site or by allosteric effects on the enzyme. Bioaccumulation is a feature of some xenobiotics, especially chlordecone, DDT and DDE, and low level chronic exposures can also affect cell signaling mechanisms. This new information about the mechanism of action of these xenobiotics will assist in improved molecular design with a view to providing safer compounds for use in the (human) environment

  11. Estrogenic compounds inhibit gap junctional intercellular communication in mouse Leydig TM3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwase, Yumiko; Fukata, Hideki; Mori, Chisato

    2006-01-01

    Some estrogenic compounds are reported to cause testicular disorders in humans and/or experimental animals by direct action on Leydig cells. In carcinogenesis and normal development, gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) plays an essential role in maintaining homeostasis. In this study, we examine the effects of diethylstilbestrol (DES, a synthetic estrogen), 17β-estradiol (E 2 , a natural estrogen), and genistein (GEN, a phytoestrogen) on GJIC between mouse Leydig TM3 cells using Lucifer yellow microinjection. The three compounds tested produced GJIC inhibition in the TM3 cells after 24 h. Gradually, 10 μM DES began to inhibit GJIC for 24 h and this effect was observed until 72 h. On the other hand, both 20 μM E 2 and 25 μM GEN rapidly inhibited GJIC in 6 h and 2 h, respectively. The effects continued until 24 h, but weakened by 72 h. Furthermore, a combined effect at μM level between DES and E 2 on GJIC inhibition was observed, but not between GEN and E 2 . DES and E 2 showed GJIC inhibition at low dose levels (nearly physiological estrogen levels) after 72 h, but GEN did not. DES-induced GJIC inhibition at 10 pM and 10 μM was completely counteracted by ICI 182,780 (ICl), an estrogen receptor antagonist. On the other hand, the inhibitory effects on GJIC with E 2 (10 pM and 20 μM) and GEN (25 μM) were partially blocked by ICI or calphostin C, a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, and were completely blocked by the combination of ICI and calphostin C. These results demonstrate that DES inhibits GJIC between Leydig cells via the estrogen receptor (ER), and that E 2 and GEN inhibit GJIC via ER and PKC. These estrogenic compounds may have different individual nongenotoxic mechanism including PKC pathway on testicular carcinogenesis or development

  12. Nuclear receptors and endocrine disruptors in fetal and neonatal testes: a gapped landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie eRouiller-Fabre

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, many studies reported that male reproductive disorders are increasing among humans. It is currently acknowledged that these abnormalities can result from fetal exposure to environmental chemicals that are progressively becoming more concentrated and widespread in our environment. Among the chemicals present in the environment (air, water, food and many consumer products, several can act as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs, thus interfering with the endocrine system. Phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA and diethylstilbestrol (DES have been largely incriminated, particularly during the fetal and neonatal period, due to their estrogenic and/or anti-androgenic properties. Indeed, many epidemiological and experimental studies have highlighted their deleterious impact on fetal and neonatal testis development. As EDCs can affect many different genomic and non-genomic pathways, the mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of EDC exposure are difficult to elucidate. Using literature data and results from our laboratory, in the present review we discuss the role of classical nuclear receptors (genomic pathway in the fetal and neonatal testis response to EDC exposure, particularly to phthalates, BPA and DES. Among the nuclear receptors we focused on some of the most likely candidates, such as peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor (PPAR, androgen receptor (AR, estrogen receptors (ERα and β, liver X receptors (LXR and small heterodimer partner (SHP. First, we describe the expression and potential functions (based on data from studies using receptor agonists and mouse knockout models of these nuclear receptors in the developing testis. Then, for each EDC studied, we summarize the main evidences indicating that the reprotoxic effect of each EDC under study is mediated through a specific nuclear receptor(s. We also point-out the involvement of other receptors and nuclear receptor-independent pathways.

  13. Calcium transport in sealed vesicles from red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) storage tissue. II. Characterization of 45Ca2+ uptake into plasma membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannini, J.L.; Ruiz-Cristin, J.; Briskin, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Calcium uptake was examined in sealed plasma membrane vesicles isolated from red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) storage tissue using 45 Ca 2+ . Uptake of 45 Ca 2+ by the vesicles was ATP-dependent and radiotracer accumulated by the vesicles could be released by the addition of the calcium ionophore A23187. The uptake was stimulated by gramicidin D but slightly inhibited by carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Although the latter result might suggest some degree of indirect coupling of 45 Ca 2+ uptake to ATP utilization via ΔμH + , no evidence for a secondary H + /Ca 2+ antiport in this vesicle system could be found. Following the imposition of an acid-interior pH gradient, proton efflux from the vesicle was not enhanced by the addition of Ca 2+ and an imposed pH gradient could not drive 45 Ca 2+ uptake. Optimal uptake of 45 Ca 2+ occurred broadly between pH 7.0 and 7.5 and the transport was inhibited by orthovanadate, N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, and diethylstilbestrol but insensitive to nitrate and azide. The dependence of 45 Ca 2+ uptake on both calcium and Mg:ATP concentration demonstrated saturation kinetics with K/sub m/ values of 6 micromolar and 0.37 millimolar, respectively. While ATP was the preferred substrate for driving 45 Ca 2+ uptake, GTP could drive transport at about 50% of the level observed for ATP. The results of this study demonstrate the presence of a unique primary calcium transport system associated with the plasma membrane which could drive calcium efflux from the plant cell

  14. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome and the estrogen hypothesis: a quantitative meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Olwenn V; Shialis, Tassos; Lester, John N; Scrimshaw, Mark D; Boobis, Alan R; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2008-02-01

    Male reproductive tract abnormalities such as hypospadias and cryptorchidism, and testicular cancer have been proposed to comprise a common syndrome together with impaired spermatogenesis with a common etiology resulting from the disruption of gonadal development during fetal life, the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). The hypothesis that in utero exposure to estrogenic agents could induce these disorders was first proposed in 1993. The only quantitative summary estimate of the association between prenatal exposure to estrogenic agents and testicular cancer was published over 10 years ago, and other systematic reviews of the association between estrogenic compounds, other than the potent pharmaceutical estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES), and TDS end points have remained inconclusive. We conducted a quantitative meta-analysis of the association between the end points related to TDS and prenatal exposure to estrogenic agents. Inclusion in this analysis was based on mechanistic criteria, and the plausibility of an estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha-mediated mode of action was specifically explored. We included in this meta-analysis eight studies investigating the etiology of hypospadias and/or cryptorchidism that had not been identified in previous systematic reviews. Four additional studies of pharmaceutical estrogens yielded a statistically significant updated summary estimate for testicular cancer. The doubling of the risk ratios for all three end points investigated after DES exposure is consistent with a shared etiology and the TDS hypothesis but does not constitute evidence of an estrogenic mode of action. Results of the subset analyses point to the existence of unidentified sources of heterogeneity between studies or within the study population.

  15. Impact of estrogenic compounds on DNA integrity in human spermatozoa: Evidence for cross-linking and redox cycling activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennetts, L.E.; De Iuliis, G.N.; Nixon, B.; Kime, M.; Zelski, K. [ARC Centre of Excellence in Biotechnology and Development and Discipline of Biological Sciences, University of Newcastle, NSW (Australia); McVicar, C.M.; Lewis, S.E. [Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Queen' s University, Belfast (United Kingdom); Aitken, R.J. [ARC Centre of Excellence in Biotechnology and Development and Discipline of Biological Sciences, University of Newcastle, NSW (Australia)], E-mail: jaitken@mail.newcastle.edu.au

    2008-05-10

    A great deal of circumstantial evidence has linked DNA damage in human spermatozoa with adverse reproductive outcomes including reduced fertility and high rates of miscarriage. Although oxidative stress is thought to make a significant contribution to DNA damage in the male germ line, the factors responsible for creating this stress have not been elucidated. One group of compounds that are thought to be active in this context are the estrogens, either generated as a result of the endogenous metabolism of androgens within the male reproductive tract or gaining access to the latter as a consequence of environmental exposure. In this study, a wide variety of estrogenic compounds were assessed for their direct effects on human spermatozoa in vitro. DNA integrity was assessed using the Comet and TUNEL assays, lesion frequencies were quantified by QPCR using targets within the mitochondrial and nuclear ({beta}-globin) genomes, DNA adducts were characterized by mass spectrometry and redox activity was monitored using dihydroethidium (DHE) as the probe. Of the estrogenic and estrogen analogue compounds evaluated, catechol estrogens, quercetin, diethylstilbestrol and pyrocatechol stimulated intense redox activity while genistein was only active at the highest doses tested. Other estrogens and estrogen analogues, such as 17{beta}-estradiol, nonylphenol, bisphenol A and 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene were inactive. Estrogen-induced redox activity was associated with a dramatic loss of motility and, in the case of 2-hydroxyestradiol, the induction of significant DNA fragmentation. Mass spectrometry also indicated that catechol estrogens were capable of forming dimers that can cross-link the densely packed DNA strands in sperm chromatin, impairing nuclear decondensation. These results highlight the potential importance of estrogenic compounds in creating oxidative stress and DNA damage in the male germ line and suggest that further exploration of these compounds in the aetiology of

  16. Resveratrol, tryptophanum, glycine and vitamin E: a nutraceutical approach to sleep disturbance and irritability in peri- and post-menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazzini, F

    2015-02-01

    The climacteric syndrome is characterized by several symptoms: hot flashes are the most common and reported by about 70% of peri- post-menopausal women. Sleep disorders, particularly decreased sleep quality, and irritability are also commonly reported. There is a clinical and epidemiological relationship between these symptoms. Common biological mechanisms may explain in part the relationship between hot flushes, sleep disorders and irritability. For example, withdrawal of hormones causes change in the serotonin levels. Tryptophan is an essential amino acid. it is the precursor for the serotonin synthesis and is naturally found in food such as turkey, cheese, and nuts. The serotonergic system is implicated in sleep, mood, and hot flashes. Glycine is an amino acid found mainly in protein-rich food such as meat, fish, dairy products, cheese and vegetables. It is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Studies have shown that glycine can promote a deeper level of sleep. Resveratrol has a similar chemical structure to the diethylstilbestrol and 17-beta estradiol and acts as a phytoestrogen. Resveratrol at doses of 3-10 micromoles inhibited the estradiol-estrogen receptor binding and showed an estrogen-like activity. Vitamin E is found naturally in some food and available as a dietary supplement. It has an antioxidant activity. It has been suggested that the oxidative stress may also play a role in sleep disorders. Some studies have shown protective effect of vitamins E on sleep quality. In conclusion, hot flashes, sleep disturbances and mood disorders may represent a continuum in the climacteric syndrome, which recognize in the hormonal changes and the neurotrasmettitors level alteration a potential common pathway. The nutraceutical approach may be useful in a preventive perspective. Among the large choice of functional food available, the combination of resveratrol, tryptophanum, glycine and vitamin E may represent an interesting opportunity in

  17. Efficacy and tolerability of high dose "ethinylestradiol" in post-menopausal advanced breast cancer patients heavily pre-treated with endocrine agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Amit; Robertson, John F R; Cheung, K L

    2006-07-11

    High dose estrogens (HDEs) were frequently used as endocrine agents prior to the introduction of tamoxifen which carries fewer side effects. Due to the development of resistance to available endocrine agents in almost all women with metastatic breast cancer, interest has renewed in the use of HDEs as yet another endocrine option that may have activity. We report our experience with one of the HDEs ("ethinylestradiol" 1 mg daily) in advanced breast cancer (locally advanced and metastatic) in post-menopausal women who had progressed on multiple endocrine agents. According to a database of advanced breast cancer patients seen in our Unit since 1998, those who had complete set of information and fulfilled the following criteria were studied: (1) patients in whom further endocrine therapy was deemed appropriate i.e., patients who have had clinical benefit with previous endocrine agents or were not fit or unwilling to receive chemotherapy in the presence of potentially life-threatening visceral metastases; (2) disease was assessable by UICC criteria; (3) were treated with "ethinylestradiol" until they were withdrawn from treatment due to adverse events or disease progression. Twelve patients with a median age of 75.1 years (49.1-85 years) were identified. Majority (N = 8) had bony disease. They had ethinylestradiol as 3rd to 7th line endocrine therapy. One patient (8%) came off treatment early due to hepato-renal syndrome. Clinical benefit (objective response or durable stable disease for > or = 6 months) was seen in 4 patients (33.3%) with a median duration of response of 10+ (7-36) months. The time to treatment failure was 4 (0.5-36) months. Yet unreported, high dose "ethinylestradiol" is another viable therapeutic strategy in heavily pre-treated patients when further endocrine therapy is deemed appropriate. Although it tends to carry more side effects, they may not be comparable to those of other HDEs (such as diethylstilbestrol) or chemotherapy.

  18. Performance of metal-organic framework MIL-101 after surfactant modification in the extraction of endocrine disrupting chemicals from environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhenzhen; Lee, Hian Kee

    2015-10-01

    The research presented in this paper explored the modification and application of a metal-organic framework, MIL-101, with nonionic surfactant-Triton X-114 in dispersive solid-phase extraction for the preconcentration of four endocrine disrupting chemicals (estrone, 17α-ethynylestradiol, estriol and diethylstilbestrol) from environmental water samples. Triton X-114 molecules could be adsorbed by the hydrophobic surface of the MIL-101 crystals, and thus improved the dispersibility of MIL-101 in aqueous solution by serving as a hydrophilic coating. Cloud point phase separation from Triton X-114 accelerated the separation of extracts from the aqueous matrix. The proposed method combines the favorable attributes of strong adsorption capacity resulting from the porous structure of MIL-101 and self-assembly of Triton X-114 molecules. Post-extraction derivatization using N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide was employed to facilitate the quantitative determination of the extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main factors affecting the preparation of modified MIL-101, and extraction of the analytes, such as the amount of surfactant, the ultrasonic and vortex durations, solution pH and desorption conditions, were investigated in detail. Under the optimized conditions, the present method yielded low limits of detection (0.006-0.023 ng/mL), good linearity from 0.09 to 45 ng/mL (coefficients of determination higher than 0.9980) and acceptable precision (relative standard deviations of 2.2-13%). The surface modified MIL-101 was demonstrated to be effective for the extraction of the selected estrogens from aqueous samples, giving rise to markedly improved extraction performance compared to the unmodified MIL-101. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Surface-imprinted core–shell Au nanoparticles for selective detection of bisphenol A based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Jin-Qun; Li, Da-Wei; Qu, Lu-Lu; Long, Yi-Tao

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •The molecularly imprinted polymer capped core–shell AuNPs (MIP-ir-AuNPs) were fabricated as a specific functional SERS substrate. •MIP-ir-AuNPs could be utilized in rapid and selective detection of BPA. •MIP-ir-AuNPs displayed good capability for determination of BPA in real samples. -- Abstract: Surface-imprinted core–shell Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) were explored for the highly selective detection of bisphenol A (BPA) by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). A triethoxysilane-template complex (BPA-Si) was synthesized and then utilized to fabricate a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) layer on the AuNPs via a sol–gel process. The imprinted BPA molecules were removed by a simple thermal treatment to generated the imprint-removed material, MIP-ir-AuNPs, with the desired recognition sites that could selectively rebind the BPA molecules. The morphological and polymeric characteristics of MIP-ir-AuNPs were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that the MIP-ir-AuNPs were fabricated with a 2 nm MIP shell layer within which abundant amine groups were generated. The rebinding kinetics study showed that the MIP-ir-AuNPs could reach the equilibrium adsorption for BPA within 10 min owning to the advantage of ultrathin core–shell nanostructure. Moreover, a linear relationship between SERS intensity and the concentration of BPA on the MIP-ir-AuNPs was observed in the range of 0.5–22.8 mg L −1 , with a detection limit of 0.12 mg L −1 (blank ± 3 × s.d.). When applied to SERS detection, the developed surface-imprinted core–shell MIP-ir-AuNPs could recognize BPA and prevent interference from the structural analogues such as hexafluorobisphenol A (BPAF) and diethylstilbestrol (DES). These results revealed that the proposed method displayed significant potential utility in rapid and selective detection of BPA in real samples

  20. MicroPET assessment of androgenic control of glucose and acetate uptake in the rat prostate and a prostate cancer tumor model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Nobuyuki; Kim, Joonyoung; Jones, Lynne A.; Mercer, Nicole M.; Engelbach, John A.; Sharp, Terry L.; Welch, Michael J. E-mail: welchm@mir.wustl.edu

    2002-11-01

    PET has been used to monitor changes in tumor metabolism in breast cancer following hormonal therapy. This study was undertaken to determine whether PET imaging could evaluate early metabolic changes in prostate tumor following androgen ablation therapy. Studies were performed comparing two positron-emitting tracers, {sup 18}F-FDG and {sup 11}C-acetate, in Sprague-Dawley male rats to monitor metabolic changes in normal prostate tissue. Additional studies were performed in nude mice bearing the CWR22 androgen-dependent human prostate tumor to evaluate metabolic changes in prostate tumor. In rats, for the androgen ablation pretreatment, 1 mg diethylstilbestrol (DES) was injected subcutaneously 3 and 24 hours before tracer injection. For androgen pretreatment, 500 {mu}g dihydrotestosterone (DHT) was injected intraperitoneally 2 and 6 hours before tracer injection. The rats were divided into three groups, Group A (no-DES, no-DHT, n = 18), Group B (DES, no-DHT, n = 18) and Group C (DES, DHT, n = 18). In each group, 10 animals received {sup 18}F-FDG, whereas the remaining eight animals were administered {sup 11}C-acetate. Rats were sacrificed at 120 min post-injection of {sup 18}F-FDG or 30 min post-injection of {sup 11}C-acetate. Pretreatment of the mouse model using DHT (200 {mu}g of DHT in 0.1 mL of sunflower seed oil) or DES (200 {mu}g of DES in 0.1 mL of sunflower seed oil) was conducted every 2 days for one week. Mice were imaged with both tracers in the microPET scanner (Concorde Microsystems Inc.). DES treatment caused a decrease in acetate and glucose metabolism in the rat prostate. Co-treatment with DHT maintained the glucose metabolism levels at baseline values. In the tumor bearing mice, similar effects were seen in {sup 18}F-FDG study, while there was no significant difference in {sup 11}C-acetate uptake. These results indicate that changes in serum testosterone levels influence {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in the prostate gland, which is closely tied to glucose

  1. The effects of in utero bisphenol A exposure on reproductive capacity in several generations of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziv-Gal, Ayelet, E-mail: zivgal1@illinois.edu; Wang, Wei, E-mail: weiwang2@illinois.edu; Zhou, Changqing, E-mail: czhou27@illinois.edu; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    2015-05-01

    In utero bisphenol A (BPA) exposure affects reproductive function in the first generation (F1) of mice; however, not many studies have examined the reproductive effects of BPA exposure on subsequent generations. In this study, pregnant mice (F0) were orally dosed with vehicle, BPA (0.5, 20, and 50 μg/kg/day) or diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0.05 μg/kg/day) daily from gestation day 11 until birth. F1 females were used to generate the F2 generation, and F2 females were used to generate the F3 generation. Breeding studies at the ages of 3, 6, and 9 months were conducted to evaluate reproductive capacity over time. Further, studies were conducted to evaluate pubertal onset, litter size, and percentage of dead pups; and to calculate pregnancy rate, and mating, fertility, and gestational indices. The results indicate that BPA exposure (0.5 and 50 μg/kg/day) significantly delayed the age at vaginal opening in the F3 generation compared to vehicle control. Both DES (0.05 μg/kg/day) and BPA (50 μg/kg/day) significantly delayed the age at first estrus in the F3 generation compared to vehicle control. BPA exposure reduced gestational index in the F1 and F2 generations compared to control. Further, BPA exposure (0.5 μg/kg/day) compromised the fertility index in the F3 generation compared to control. Finally, in utero BPA exposure reduced the ability of female mice to maintain pregnancies as they aged. Collectively, these data suggest that BPA exposure affects reproductive function in female mice and that some effects may be transgenerational in nature. - Highlights: • In utero BPA delayed vaginal opening in the F3 generation compared to control. • In utero BPA delayed estrus in the F3 generation compared to control. • In utero BPA reduced the ability of F1 and F2 female mice to maintain pregnancies. • In utero BPA compromised the ability of F3 female mice to become pregnant. • Some effects of in utero BPA may be transgenerational in nature.

  2. The relevance of chemical interactions with CYP17 enzyme activity: Assessment using a novel in vitro assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelofs, Maarke J.E.; Piersma, Aldert H.; Berg, Martin van den; Duursen, Majorie B.M. van

    2013-01-01

    The steroidogenic cytochrome P450 17 (CYP17) enzyme produces dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), which is the most abundant circulating endogenous sex steroid precursor. DHEA plays a key role in e.g. sexual functioning and development. To date, no rapid screening assay for effects on CYP17 is available. In this study, a novel assay using porcine adrenal cortex microsomes (PACMs) was described. Effects of twenty-eight suggested endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) on CYP17 activity were compared with effects in the US EPA validated H295R (human adrenocorticocarcinoma cell line) steroidogenesis assay. In the PACM assay DHEA production was higher compared with the H295R assay (4.4 versus 2.2 nmol/h/mg protein). To determine the additional value of a CYP17 assay, all compounds were also tested for interaction with CYP19 (aromatase) using human placental microsomes (HPMs) and H295R cells. 62.5% of the compounds showed enzyme inhibition in at least one of the microsomal assays. Only the cAMP inducer forskolin induced CYP17 activity, while CYP19 was induced by four test compounds in the H295R assay. These effects remained unnoticed in the PACM and HPM assays. Diethylstilbestrol and tetrabromobisphenol A inhibited CYP17 but not CYP19 activity, indicating different mechanisms for the inhibition of these enzymes. From our results it becomes apparent that CYP17 can be a target for EDCs and that this interaction differs from interactions with CYP19. Our data strongly suggest that research attention should focus on validating a specific assay for CYP17 activity, such as the PACM assay, that can be included in the EDC screening battery. - Highlights: ► DHEA, produced by CYP17, plays a key role in sexual functioning and development. ► No rapid screening assay for effects on CYP17 is available yet. ► A novel assay using porcine adrenal cortex microsomes (PACMs) was described. ► Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) targeting CYP17 interact differently with CYP19. ► A

  3. Influence of exercise on bone remodeling-related hormones and cytokines in ovariectomized rats: a model of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Li

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the effects of exercise on postmenopausal osteoporosis and the mechanisms by which exercise affects bone remodeling. Sixty-three Wistar female rats were randomly divided into five groups: (1 control group, (2 sham-operated group, (3 OVX (Ovariectomy group, (4 DES-OVX (Diethylstilbestrol-OVX group, and (5 Ex-OVX (Exercise-OVX group. The rat osteoporosis model was established through ovariectomy. The Ex-OVX rats were made to run 251.2 meters every day, 6 d/wk for 3 months in a running wheel. Trabecular bone volume (TBV%, total resorption surface (TRS%, trabecular formation surface (TFS%, mineralization rate (MAR, bone cortex mineralization rate (mAR, and osteoid seam width (OSW were determined by bone histomorphometry. The mRNA and protein levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β2, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2 were determined by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Serum levels of estrogen estradiol (E2, calcitonin (CT, osteocalcin (BGP, and parathyroid hormone (PTH were determined by ELISA assays. The investigation revealed that compared to the control and the sham-operated groups, the OVX group showed significantly lower levels of TBV%, E2, and CT, but much higher levels of TRS%, TFS%, MAR, OSW, BGP, and PTH. The Ex-OVX group showed increased TBV% and serum levels of E2 and CT compared to the OVX group. Ovariectomy also led to a significant increase in IL-1β mRNA and protein levels in the bone marrow and IL-6 and Cox-2 protein levels in tibias. In addition, the Ex-OVX group showed lower levels of IL-1 mRNA and protein, IL-6 mRNA, and Cox-2 mRNA and protein than those in the OVX group. The upshot of the study suggests that exercise can significantly increase bone mass in postmenopausal osteoporosis rat models by inhibiting bone resorption and increasing bone formation, especially in trabecular bones.

  4. Assessment of a robust model protocol with accelerated throughput for a human recombinant full length estrogen receptor-alpha binding assay: protocol optimization and intralaboratory assay performance as initial steps towards validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyberger, Alexius; Wilson, Vickie; Weimer, Marc; Tan, Shirlee; Tran, Hoai-Son; Ahr, Hans-Jürgen

    2010-08-01

    Despite about two decades of research in the field of endocrine active compounds, still no validated human recombinant (hr) estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) binding assay is available, although hr-ERalpha is available from several sources. In a joint effort, US EPA and Bayer Schering Pharma with funding from the EU-sponsored 6th framework project, ReProTect, developed a model protocol for such a binding assay. Important features of this assay are the use of a full length hr-ERalpha and performance in a 96-well plate format. A full length hr-ERalpha was chosen, as it was considered to provide the most accurate and human-relevant results, whereas truncated receptors could perform differently. Besides three reference compounds [17beta-estradiol, norethynodrel, dibutylphthalate] nine test compounds with different affinities for the ERalpha [diethylstilbestrol (DES), ethynylestradiol, meso-hexestrol, equol, genistein, o,p'-DDT, nonylphenol, n-butylparaben, and corticosterone] were used to explore the performance of the assay. Three independent experiments per compound were performed on different days, and dilutions of test compounds from deep-frozen stocks, solutions of radiolabeled ligand and receptor preparation were freshly prepared for each experiment. The ERalpha binding properties of reference and test compounds were well detected. As expected dibutylphthalate and corticosterone were non-binders in this assay. In terms of the relative ranking of binding affinities, there was good agreement with published data obtained from experiments using a human recombinant ERalpha ligand binding domain. Irrespective of the chemical nature of the compound, individual IC(50)-values for a given compound varied by not more than a factor of 2.5. Our data demonstrate that the assay was robust and reliably ranked compounds with strong, weak, and no affinity for the ERalpha with high accuracy. It avoids the manipulation and use of animals, i.e., the preparation of uterine cytosol as

  5. The effects of in utero bisphenol A exposure on reproductive capacity in several generations of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziv-Gal, Ayelet; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Changqing; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2015-01-01

    In utero bisphenol A (BPA) exposure affects reproductive function in the first generation (F1) of mice; however, not many studies have examined the reproductive effects of BPA exposure on subsequent generations. In this study, pregnant mice (F0) were orally dosed with vehicle, BPA (0.5, 20, and 50 μg/kg/day) or diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0.05 μg/kg/day) daily from gestation day 11 until birth. F1 females were used to generate the F2 generation, and F2 females were used to generate the F3 generation. Breeding studies at the ages of 3, 6, and 9 months were conducted to evaluate reproductive capacity over time. Further, studies were conducted to evaluate pubertal onset, litter size, and percentage of dead pups; and to calculate pregnancy rate, and mating, fertility, and gestational indices. The results indicate that BPA exposure (0.5 and 50 μg/kg/day) significantly delayed the age at vaginal opening in the F3 generation compared to vehicle control. Both DES (0.05 μg/kg/day) and BPA (50 μg/kg/day) significantly delayed the age at first estrus in the F3 generation compared to vehicle control. BPA exposure reduced gestational index in the F1 and F2 generations compared to control. Further, BPA exposure (0.5 μg/kg/day) compromised the fertility index in the F3 generation compared to control. Finally, in utero BPA exposure reduced the ability of female mice to maintain pregnancies as they aged. Collectively, these data suggest that BPA exposure affects reproductive function in female mice and that some effects may be transgenerational in nature. - Highlights: • In utero BPA delayed vaginal opening in the F3 generation compared to control. • In utero BPA delayed estrus in the F3 generation compared to control. • In utero BPA reduced the ability of F1 and F2 female mice to maintain pregnancies. • In utero BPA compromised the ability of F3 female mice to become pregnant. • Some effects of in utero BPA may be transgenerational in nature

  6. Targeted functional imaging of estrogen receptors with 99mTc-GAP-EDL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Nobukazu; Yang, David J.; Kohanim, Saady; Oh, Chang-Sok; Yu, Dong-Fang; Azhdarinia, Ali; Kurihara, Hiroaki; Kim, E.E.; Zhang, Xiaochun; Chang, Joe Y.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using 99m Tc-glutamate peptide-estradiol in functional imaging of estrogen receptor-positive [ER(+)] diseases. 3-Aminoethyl estradiol (EDL) was conjugated to glutamate peptide (GAP) to yield GAP-EDL. Cellular uptake studies of 99m Tc-GAP-EDL were conducted in ER(+) cell lines (MCF-7, 13762 and T47D). To demonstrate whether GAP-EDL increases MAP kinase activation, Western blot analysis of GAP-EDL was performed in 13762 cells. Biodistribution was conducted in nine rats with 13762 breast tumors at 0.5-4 h. Each rat was administered 99m Tc-GAP-EDL. Two animal models (rats and rabbits) were created to ascertain whether tumor uptake of 99m Tc-GAP-EDL was via an ER-mediated process. In the tumor model, breast tumor-bearing rats were pretreated with diethylstilbestrol (DES) 1 h prior to receiving 99m Tc-GAP-EDL. In the endometriosis model, part of the rabbit uterine tissue was dissected and grafted to the peritoneal wall. The rabbit was administered with 99m Tc-GAP-EDL. There was a 10-40% reduction in uptake of 99m Tc-GAP-EDL in cells treated with DES or tamoxifen compared with untreated cells. Western blot analysis showed an ERK1/2 phosphorylation process with GAP-EDL. Biodistribution studies showed that tumor uptake and tumor-to-muscle count density ratio in 99m Tc-GAP-EDL groups were significantly higher than those in 99m Tc-GAP groups at 4 h. Among 99m Tc-GAP-EDL groups, region of interest analysis of images showed that tumor-to muscle ratios were decreased in blocking groups. In the endometriosis model, the grafted uterine tissue could be visualized by 99m Tc-GAP-EDL. Cellular or tumor uptake of 99m Tc-GAP-EDL occurs via an ER-mediated process. 99m Tc-GAP-EDL is a useful agent for imaging functional ER(+) disease. (orig.)

  7. Three-dimensional ultrasound in the diagnosis of Müllerian duct anomalies and concordance with magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, C; Martínez Ten, P; Cantarero, R; Diaz, D; Pérez Pedregosa, J; Barrón, E; Labrador, E; Ruiz López, L

    2010-05-01

    To demonstrate the value of three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound in the diagnosis of uterine malformations and its concordance with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study included 286 women diagnosed with uterine malformation by 3D ultrasound, having been referred to our clinics on suspicion of uterine malformation following clinical and/or conventional two-dimensional ultrasound examination. With the exception of three with intact hymen, patients underwent both bimanual examination and speculoscopy before and/or after sonography. MRI was performed in 65 cases. We analyzed the diagnostic concordance between the techniques in the study of uterine malformations. Using 3D ultrasound we diagnosed: one case with uterine agenesis; 10 with unicornuate uterus, four of which also underwent MRI; six with didelphic uterus, one of which had MRI; 45 with bicornuate uterus, 12 of which had MRI; 125 with septate uterus (18 with two cervices), 42 of which had MRI (six with two cervices); 96 with arcuate uterus, three of which had MRI; and three with diethylstilbestrol (DES) iatrogenic uterine malformations, all of which had MRI. Among the 65 which underwent MRI, the diagnosis was: four cases with unicornuate uterus, 10 with bicornuate uterus (two with two cervices), 45 with septate uterus (five with two cervices), three with arcuate uterus and three with DES-related uterine malformations. The concordance between 3D ultrasound and MRI was very good (kappa index, 0.880 (95% CI, 0.769-0.993)). Discrepancies in diagnosis between the two techniques occurred in four cases. There was very good concordance in the diagnosis of associated findings (kappa index, 0.878 (95% CI, 0.775-0.980)), this analysis identifying differences in two cases. There is a high degree of concordance between 3D ultrasound and MRI in the diagnosis of uterine malformations, the relationship between cavity and fundus being visualized equally well with both techniques. 3D ultrasound should be complemented by

  8. Transplacental arsenic carcinogenesis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waalkes, Michael P.; Liu, Jie; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.

    2007-01-01

    Our work has focused on the carcinogenic effects of in utero arsenic exposure in mice. Our data show that a short period of maternal exposure to inorganic arsenic in the drinking water is an effective, multi-tissue carcinogen in the adult offspring. These studies have been reproduced in three temporally separate studies using two different mouse strains. In these studies pregnant mice were treated with drinking water containing sodium arsenite at up to 85 ppm arsenic from days 8 to 18 of gestation, and the offspring were observed for up to 2 years. The doses used in all these studies were well tolerated by both the dam and offspring. In C3H mice, two separate studies show male offspring exposed to arsenic in utero developed liver carcinoma and adrenal cortical adenoma in a dose-related fashion during adulthood. Prenatally exposed female C3H offspring show dose-related increases in ovarian tumors and lung carcinoma and in proliferative lesions (tumors plus preneoplastic hyperplasia) of the uterus and oviduct. In addition, prenatal arsenic plus postnatal exposure to the tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in C3H mice produces excess lung tumors in both sexes and liver tumors in females. Male CD1 mice treated with arsenic in utero develop tumors of the liver and adrenal and renal hyperplasia while females develop tumors of urogenital system, ovary, uterus and adrenal and hyperplasia of the oviduct. Additional postnatal treatment with diethylstilbestrol or tamoxifen after prenatal arsenic in CD1 mice induces urinary bladder transitional cell proliferative lesions, including carcinoma and papilloma, and enhances the carcinogenic response in the liver of both sexes. Overall this model has provided convincing evidence that arsenic is a transplacental carcinogen in mice with the ability to target tissues of potential human relevance, such as the urinary bladder, lung and liver. Transplacental carcinogenesis clearly occurs with other agents in humans

  9. The relevance of chemical interactions with CYP17 enzyme activity: Assessment using a novel in vitro assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofs, Maarke J.E., E-mail: m.j.e.roelofs@uu.nl [Endocrine Toxicology Research Group, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.177, NL-3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Center for Health Protection, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Piersma, Aldert H. [Endocrine Toxicology Research Group, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.177, NL-3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Center for Health Protection, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Berg, Martin van den; Duursen, Majorie B.M. van [Endocrine Toxicology Research Group, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.177, NL-3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-05-01

    The steroidogenic cytochrome P450 17 (CYP17) enzyme produces dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), which is the most abundant circulating endogenous sex steroid precursor. DHEA plays a key role in e.g. sexual functioning and development. To date, no rapid screening assay for effects on CYP17 is available. In this study, a novel assay using porcine adrenal cortex microsomes (PACMs) was described. Effects of twenty-eight suggested endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) on CYP17 activity were compared with effects in the US EPA validated H295R (human adrenocorticocarcinoma cell line) steroidogenesis assay. In the PACM assay DHEA production was higher compared with the H295R assay (4.4 versus 2.2 nmol/h/mg protein). To determine the additional value of a CYP17 assay, all compounds were also tested for interaction with CYP19 (aromatase) using human placental microsomes (HPMs) and H295R cells. 62.5% of the compounds showed enzyme inhibition in at least one of the microsomal assays. Only the cAMP inducer forskolin induced CYP17 activity, while CYP19 was induced by four test compounds in the H295R assay. These effects remained unnoticed in the PACM and HPM assays. Diethylstilbestrol and tetrabromobisphenol A inhibited CYP17 but not CYP19 activity, indicating different mechanisms for the inhibition of these enzymes. From our results it becomes apparent that CYP17 can be a target for EDCs and that this interaction differs from interactions with CYP19. Our data strongly suggest that research attention should focus on validating a specific assay for CYP17 activity, such as the PACM assay, that can be included in the EDC screening battery. - Highlights: ► DHEA, produced by CYP17, plays a key role in sexual functioning and development. ► No rapid screening assay for effects on CYP17 is available yet. ► A novel assay using porcine adrenal cortex microsomes (PACMs) was described. ► Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) targeting CYP17 interact differently with CYP19. ► A

  10. Municipal wastewater affects adipose deposition in male mice and increases 3T3-L1 cell differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biasiotto, Giorgio; Zanella, Isabella; Masserdotti, Alice; Pedrazzani, Roberta; Papa, Matteo; Caimi, Luigi; Di Lorenzo, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Trace concentration of EDs (endocrine disrupting compounds) in water bodies caused by wastewater treatment plant effluents is a recognized problem for the health of aquatic organisms and their potential to affect human health. In this paper we show that continuous exposure of male mice from early development to the adult life (140 days) to unrestricted drinking of wastewater collected from a municipal sewage treatment plant, is associated with an increased adipose deposition and weight gain during adulthood because of altered body homeostasis. In parallel, bisphenol A (BPA) at the administration dose of 5 μg/kg/body weight, shows an increasing effect on total body weight and fat mass. In vitro, a solid phase extract (SPE) of the wastewater (eTW), caused stimulation of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation at dilutions of 0.4 and 1 % in the final culture medium which contained a concentration of BPA of 40 nM and 90 nM respectively. Pure BPA also promoted adipocytes differentiation at the concentration of 50 and 80 μM. BPA effect in 3T3-L1 cells was associated to the specific activation of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in undifferentiated cells and the estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) in differentiated cells. BPA also activated the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor gamma (PPARγ) upregulating a minimal 3XPPARE luciferase reporter and the PPARγ-target promoter of the aP2 gene in adipose cells, while it was not effective in preadipocytes. The pure estrogen receptor agonist diethylstilbestrol (DES) played an opposite action to that of BPA inhibiting PPARγ activity in adipocytes, preventing cell differentiation, activating ERα in preadipocytes and inhibiting ERα and ERβ regulation in adipocytes. The results of this work show that the drinking of chemically-contaminated wastewater promotes fat deposition in male mice and that EDs present in sewage are likely responsible for this effect through a nuclear receptor-mediated mechanism. - Highlights: • Sewage

  11. Clear cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: clinical characteristics and feasibility of fertility-preserving treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang X

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Xiang Jiang, Ying Jin, Yan Li, Hui-Fang Huang, Ming Wu, Keng Shen, Ling-Ya Pan Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People's Republic of China Abstract: The objective of this retrospective study was to analyze the clinical characteristics and prognosis of clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCA in the post-diethylstilbestrol (DES era and to evaluate the feasibility of fertility-preserving treatment. The records of 32 patients with CCAs who were treated at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from August 1986 to June 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Three of the patients had undergone fertility-preserving treatment. The incidence of CCA among cervical adenocarcinomas was 15.2%. The median age was 38 years: 11 patients (34.4% were diagnosed before 30 years of age and two (6.3% after 70 years of age. Ten patients (31.2% were nulliparous. No patient had been exposed to DES. Twenty-nine patients (90.6% presented with obvious symptoms, and the cervix appeared abnormal in 26 patients (81.3%. Cervical Papanicolaou (Pap tests were abnormal in all four patients in whom they were performed (three had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and one had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. The distribution by stage was 56.3% stage I, 34.4% stage II, 6.3% stage III, and 3.1% stage IV. Treatments mainly included surgery for patients with stage I to IIA CCA and radiochemotherapy for patients with advanced CCA. The overall 5-year progression-free survival was 72.2%. Patients with stage I to IIA CCA had better 5-year progression-free survival than did patients with stage IIB to IV CCA (81.5% versus 40.0%, P=0.003. The three patients who had undergone fertility-preserving treatment had no recurrences. CCA may also affect adolescents and children without prior DES exposure, who are often misdiagnosed as having functional uterine

  12. No substantial changes in estrogen receptor and estrogen-related receptor orthologue gene transcription in Marisa cornuarietis exposed to estrogenic chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, Richard; Beresford, Nicola; Granger, David W; Pounds, Nadine A; Rand-Weaver, Mariann; White, Roger; Jobling, Susan; Routledge, Edwin J

    2013-09-15

    Estrogen receptor orthologues in molluscs may be targets for endocrine disruptors, although mechanistic evidence is lacking. Molluscs are reported to be highly susceptible to effects caused by very low concentrations of environmental estrogens which, if substantiated, would have a major impact on the risk assessment of many chemicals. The present paper describes the most thorough evaluation to-date of the susceptibility of Marisa cornuarietis ER and ERR gene transcription to modulation by vertebrate estrogens in vivo and in vitro. We investigated the effects of estradiol-17β and 4-tert-Octylphenol exposure on in vivo estrogen receptor (ER) and estrogen-related receptor (ERR) gene transcription in the reproductive and neural tissues of the gastropod snail M. cornuarietis over a 12-week period. There was no significant effect (p>0.05) of treatment on gene transcription levels between exposed and non-exposed snails. Absence of a direct interaction of estradiol-17β and 4-tert-Octylphenol with mollusc ER and ERR protein was also supported by in vitro studies in transfected HEK-293 cells. Additional in vitro studies with a selection of other potential ligands (including methyl-testosterone, 17α-ethinylestradiol, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, diethylstilbestrol, cyproterone acetate and ICI182780) showed no interaction when tested using this assay. In repeated in vitro tests, however, genistein (with mcER-like) and bisphenol-A (with mcERR) increased reporter gene expression at high concentrations only (>10(-6)M for Gen and >10(-5)M for BPA, respectively). Like vertebrate estrogen receptors, the mollusc ER protein bound to the consensus vertebrate estrogen-response element (ERE). Together, these data provide no substantial evidence that mcER-like and mcERR activation and transcript levels in tissues are modulated by the vertebrate estrogen estradiol-17β or 4-tert-Octylphenol in vivo, or that other ligands of vertebrate ERs and ERRs (with the possible exception of genistein and

  13. No substantial changes in estrogen receptor and estrogen-related receptor orthologue gene transcription in Marisa cornuarietis exposed to estrogenic chemicals☆☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, Richard; Beresford, Nicola; Granger, David W.; Pounds, Nadine A.; Rand-Weaver, Mariann; White, Roger; Jobling, Susan; Routledge, Edwin J.

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen receptor orthologues in molluscs may be targets for endocrine disruptors, although mechanistic evidence is lacking. Molluscs are reported to be highly susceptible to effects caused by very low concentrations of environmental estrogens which, if substantiated, would have a major impact on the risk assessment of many chemicals. The present paper describes the most thorough evaluation to-date of the susceptibility of Marisa cornuarietis ER and ERR gene transcription to modulation by vertebrate estrogens in vivo and in vitro. We investigated the effects of estradiol-17β and 4-tert-Octylphenol exposure on in vivo estrogen receptor (ER) and estrogen-related receptor (ERR) gene transcription in the reproductive and neural tissues of the gastropod snail M. cornuarietis over a 12-week period. There was no significant effect (p > 0.05) of treatment on gene transcription levels between exposed and non-exposed snails. Absence of a direct interaction of estradiol-17β and 4-tert-Octylphenol with mollusc ER and ERR protein was also supported by in vitro studies in transfected HEK-293 cells. Additional in vitro studies with a selection of other potential ligands (including methyl-testosterone, 17α-ethinylestradiol, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, diethylstilbestrol, cyproterone acetate and ICI182780) showed no interaction when tested using this assay. In repeated in vitro tests, however, genistein (with mcER-like) and bisphenol-A (with mcERR) increased reporter gene expression at high concentrations only (>10−6 M for Gen and >10−5 M for BPA, respectively). Like vertebrate estrogen receptors, the mollusc ER protein bound to the consensus vertebrate estrogen-response element (ERE). Together, these data provide no substantial evidence that mcER-like and mcERR activation and transcript levels in tissues are modulated by the vertebrate estrogen estradiol-17β or 4-tert-Octylphenol in vivo, or that other ligands of vertebrate ERs and ERRs (with the possible exception of

  14. Radioprotective action of curcumin extracted from Curcuma longa LINN: inhibitory effect on formation of urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, tumorigenesis, but not mortality, induced by γ-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inano, Hiroshi; Onoda, Makoto

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: We evaluated the radioprotective action of curcumin [1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione] extracted from Curcuma longa LINN against the acute and chronic effects and the mortality induced by exposure to radiation using female rats. Methods and Materials: For the assay of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in urine, a marker for acute effects, Wistar-MS virgin rats were fed the basal diet with exposure at 0 or 3 Gy to γ-rays from a 60 Co source as the control. Rats in the experimental groups received whole-body irradiation with 3 Gy and were fed a diet containing 1% (wt/wt) curcumin for 3 days before and/or 2 days after irradiation. The urine was collected for a 24-h period between 1 and 2 days after irradiation. Urine samples were used to determine the 8-OHdG level using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the creatinine level by a modified Jaffe reaction. For long-term effects, rats at Day 17 of pregnancy were fed a diet containing curcumin for 3 days before and/or 3 days after irradiation with 1.5 Gy, and received a pellet of diethylstilbestrol as the promoter. The rats were examined for mammary and pituitary tumors for 1 year. To determine survival, virgin rats received whole-body irradiation with 9.6 Gy and were fed a diet containing curcumin for 3 days before and/or 3 days after irradiation. After irradiation, all rats were assessed daily for survival for 30 days. Results: Acutely in virgin rats irradiated with 3 Gy, the creatinine-corrected concentration and total amount of 8-OHdG in the 24-h urine samples were higher (approximately 1.3-fold) than the corresponding values in the nonirradiated controls. Adding curcumin to the diet for 3 days before and/or 2 days after irradiation reduced the elevated 8-OHdG levels by 50-70%. The evaluation of the protective action of curcumin against the long-term effects revealed that curcumin significantly decreased the incidence of mammary and pituitary tumors. However, the

  15. Municipal wastewater affects adipose deposition in male mice and increases 3T3-L1 cell differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biasiotto, Giorgio; Zanella, Isabella [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Civic Hospital of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Masserdotti, Alice [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Civic Hospital of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Pedrazzani, Roberta [DIMI Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Brescia, via Branze 38, I-25123 Brescia (Italy); Papa, Matteo [DICATAM Department of Civil, Environmental, Architectural Engineering and Mathematics, University of Brescia, via Branze 43, I-25123 Brescia (Italy); Caimi, Luigi [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Civic Hospital of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Di Lorenzo, Diego, E-mail: diego.dilorenzo@yahoo.it [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Civic Hospital of Brescia, Brescia (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    Trace concentration of EDs (endocrine disrupting compounds) in water bodies caused by wastewater treatment plant effluents is a recognized problem for the health of aquatic organisms and their potential to affect human health. In this paper we show that continuous exposure of male mice from early development to the adult life (140 days) to unrestricted drinking of wastewater collected from a municipal sewage treatment plant, is associated with an increased adipose deposition and weight gain during adulthood because of altered body homeostasis. In parallel, bisphenol A (BPA) at the administration dose of 5 μg/kg/body weight, shows an increasing effect on total body weight and fat mass. In vitro, a solid phase extract (SPE) of the wastewater (eTW), caused stimulation of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation at dilutions of 0.4 and 1 % in the final culture medium which contained a concentration of BPA of 40 nM and 90 nM respectively. Pure BPA also promoted adipocytes differentiation at the concentration of 50 and 80 μM. BPA effect in 3T3-L1 cells was associated to the specific activation of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in undifferentiated cells and the estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) in differentiated cells. BPA also activated the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor gamma (PPARγ) upregulating a minimal 3XPPARE luciferase reporter and the PPARγ-target promoter of the aP2 gene in adipose cells, while it was not effective in preadipocytes. The pure estrogen receptor agonist diethylstilbestrol (DES) played an opposite action to that of BPA inhibiting PPARγ activity in adipocytes, preventing cell differentiation, activating ERα in preadipocytes and inhibiting ERα and ERβ regulation in adipocytes. The results of this work show that the drinking of chemically-contaminated wastewater promotes fat deposition in male mice and that EDs present in sewage are likely responsible for this effect through a nuclear receptor-mediated mechanism. - Highlights: • Sewage

  16. Targeted functional imaging of estrogen receptors with {sup 99m}Tc-GAP-EDL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Nobukazu; Yang, David J.; Kohanim, Saady; Oh, Chang-Sok; Yu, Dong-Fang; Azhdarinia, Ali; Kurihara, Hiroaki; Kim, E.E. [The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Zhang, Xiaochun; Chang, Joe Y. [The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Radiation Oncology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2007-03-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of using {sup 99m}Tc-glutamate peptide-estradiol in functional imaging of estrogen receptor-positive [ER(+)] diseases. 3-Aminoethyl estradiol (EDL) was conjugated to glutamate peptide (GAP) to yield GAP-EDL. Cellular uptake studies of {sup 99m}Tc-GAP-EDL were conducted in ER(+) cell lines (MCF-7, 13762 and T47D). To demonstrate whether GAP-EDL increases MAP kinase activation, Western blot analysis of GAP-EDL was performed in 13762 cells. Biodistribution was conducted in nine rats with 13762 breast tumors at 0.5-4 h. Each rat was administered {sup 99m}Tc-GAP-EDL. Two animal models (rats and rabbits) were created to ascertain whether tumor uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-GAP-EDL was via an ER-mediated process. In the tumor model, breast tumor-bearing rats were pretreated with diethylstilbestrol (DES) 1 h prior to receiving {sup 99m}Tc-GAP-EDL. In the endometriosis model, part of the rabbit uterine tissue was dissected and grafted to the peritoneal wall. The rabbit was administered with {sup 99m}Tc-GAP-EDL. There was a 10-40% reduction in uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-GAP-EDL in cells treated with DES or tamoxifen compared with untreated cells. Western blot analysis showed an ERK1/2 phosphorylation process with GAP-EDL. Biodistribution studies showed that tumor uptake and tumor-to-muscle count density ratio in {sup 99m}Tc-GAP-EDL groups were significantly higher than those in {sup 99m}Tc-GAP groups at 4 h. Among {sup 99m}Tc-GAP-EDL groups, region of interest analysis of images showed that tumor-to muscle ratios were decreased in blocking groups. In the endometriosis model, the grafted uterine tissue could be visualized by {sup 99m}Tc-GAP-EDL. Cellular or tumor uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-GAP-EDL occurs via an ER-mediated process. {sup 99m}Tc-GAP-EDL is a useful agent for imaging functional ER(+) disease. (orig.)

  17. Targeted analysis with benchtop quadrupole–orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometer: Application to determination of synthetic hormones in animal urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Praveen [Departament de Química Analítica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Rúbies, Antoni; Centrich, Francesc [Laboratori Agència Salut Pública de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Granados, Mercè [Departament de Química Analítica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Cortés-Francisco, Nuria; Caixach, Josep [Mass Spectrometry Laboratory-Organic Pollutants, IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Companyó, Ramon, E-mail: compano@ub.edu [Departament de Química Analítica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-05-30

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •The quadrupole in Q Exactive acts as a powerful filter to reduce ion suppression. •Reducing mass range using quadrupole in targeted modes increases the S/N ratio. •Targeted SIM data dependent scan modes are the most suitable for residue analysis. •A HRMS confirmatory method for synthetic hormones in urine has been developed. •The Q Exactive provides similar sensitivity and enhanced selectivity compared to QqQ. -- Abstract: Sensitive and unequivocal determination of analytes/contaminants in complex matrices is a challenge in the field of food safety control. In this study, various acquisition modes (Full MS/AIF, Full MS + tMS/MS, Full MS/dd MS/MS and tSIM/ddMS/MS) and parameters of a quadrupole–orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometer (Q Exactive) were studied in detail. One of the main conclusions has been that, reducing the scan range for Full MS (using the quadrupole) and targeted modes give higher signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios and thereby better detection limits for analytes in matrix. The use of Q Exactive in a complex case, for the confirmatory analysis of hormones in animal urine is presented. A targeted SIM data dependent MS/MS (tSIM/ddMS/MS) acquisition method for determination of eight synthetic hormones (trenbolone, 17α ethinylestradiol, zeranol, stanozolol, dienestrol, diethylstilbestrol, hexestrol, taleranol) and a naturally occurring hormone (zearalenone) in animal urine were optimized to have sensitive precursors from targeted SIM mode and trigger MS/MS scans over the entire chromatograph peak. The method was validated according to EC/657/2002. CCα (decision limit) for the analytes ranged between 0.11 μg L{sup −1} and 0.69 μg L{sup −1} and CCβ (detection capability) ranged between 0.29 μg L{sup −1} and 0.90 μg L{sup −1}.

  18. Efficacy and tolerability of high dose "ethinylestradiol" in post-menopausal advanced breast cancer patients heavily pre-treated with endocrine agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson John FR

    2006-07-01

    HDEs (such as diethylstilbestrol or chemotherapy.

  19. Therapeutic effects of radix dipsaci, pyrola herb, and cynomorium songaricum on bone metabolism of ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Meijie

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of herbal medicines, such as Radix Dipsaci (RDD, Pyrola Herb (PHD, and Cynomorium songaricum decoction (CSD, on osteoporotic rats induced by ovariectomy (OVX. Methods OVX or sham operations were performed on 69 virgin Wistar rats that were divided into six groups: sham (sham, n = 12, OVX control group (OVX, n = 12, and OVX rats with treatments (diethylstilbestrol, E2, n = 12; RDD, n = 11, PHD, n = 11, and CSD, n = 11. Non-surgical rats served as normal control (NC, n = 12. The treatments began four weeks after surgery and lasted for 12 weeks. Bone mass and bone turnover were analyzed by histomorphometry. Levels of protein expression and mRNA of OPG and RANKL in osteoblasts (OB and bone marrow stromal cells (bMSC were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Results Compared to NC and sham rats, trabecular bone formation was significantly reduced in OVX rats, but restored in E2-treated rats. Treatment with either RDD or PHD enhanced trabecular bone formation remarkably. No significant change of bone formation was observed in CSD-treated rats. OPG expression of protein and mRNA was reduced significantly in OB and bMSC of OVX control rats. RANKL expression of protein and mRNA was increased significantly in OB and bMSC of OVX control rats. These effects were substantially reversed (increased in OPG and decreased in RANKL by treatment with E2, RDD, or PHD in OB and bMSC of OVX rats. No significant changes in either OPG or RANKL expression were observed in OB and bMSC of OVX rats treated with CSD. Conclusions Our study showed that RDD and PHD increased bone formation by stimulating overexpression of OPG and downregulation of RANKL in OB and bMSC. This suggests that RDD and PHD may be used as alternative therapeutic agents for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  20. Resveratrol promotes expression of SIRT1 and StAR in rat ovarian granulosa cells: an implicative role of SIRT1 in the ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morita Yoshihiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resveratrol is a natural polyphenolic compound known for its beneficial effects on energy homeostasis, and it also has multiple properties, including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor activities. Recently, silent information regulator genes (Sirtuins have been identified as targets of resveratrol. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1, originally found as an NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase, is a principal modulator of pathways downstream of calorie restriction, and the activation of SIRT1 ameliorates glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. To date, the presence and physiological role of SIRT1 in the ovary are not known. Here we found that SIRT1 was localized in granulosa cells of the human ovary. Methods The physiological roles of resveratrol and SIRT1 in the ovary were analyzed. Immunohistochemistry was performed to localize the SIRT1 expression. SIRT1 protein expression of cultured cells and luteinized human granulosa cells was investigated by Western blot. Rat granulosa cells were obtained from diethylstilbestrol treated rats. The cells were treated with increasing doses of resveratrol, and subsequently harvested to determine mRNA levels and protein levels. Cell viability was tested by MTS assay. Cellular apoptosis was analyzed by caspase 3/7 activity test and Hoechst 33342 staining. Results SIRT1 protein was expressed in the human ovarian tissues and human luteinized granulosa cells. We demonstrated that resveratrol exhibited a potent concentration-dependent inhibition of rat granulosa cells viability. However, resveratrol-induced inhibition of rat granulosa cells viability is independent of apoptosis signal. Resveratrol increased mRNA levels of SIRT1, LH receptor, StAR, and P450 aromatase, while mRNA levels of FSH receptor remained unchanged. Western blot analysis was consistent with the results of quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay. In addition, progesterone secretion was induced by the treatment of resveratrol

  1. Fate and removal of typical pharmaceuticals and personal care products by three different treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yu-jie; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Xiao-ying; Wang, Xing-nan; Huang, Xi

    2013-01-01

    The presence and distribution of typical of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), which comprise two types of polycyclic musks (PCMs) including Galaxolide (HHCB) and Tonalide (AHTN) as well as six types of estrogens containing estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), diethylstilbestrol (DES), and bisphenol A (BPA), were investigated at two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Jiangsu, China. Only raw wastewater was treated in WWTP A while WWTP B was serving an urban-industrialized area. In the influent, the concentrations of EE2 (2193–4437 ng L −1 ), E2 (1126–1170 ng L −1 ), and DES (268–421 ng L −1 ) were generally higher than the previously reported values, whereas the concentrations of HHCB (306–316 ng L −1 ), E1 (29–129 ng L −1 ), E3 (53 ng L −1 ), and BPA (26–176 ng L −1 ) were much lower than those reported in other previous studies. In addition, AHTN was not detected in either WWTP and E3 was not found in WWTP B. The detected processes including anaerobic/oxic process (A/O), combined orbal oxidation ditch process (C-orbal OD) and anaerobic/anoxic/anoxic/oxic membrane biological reactor (A/A/A/O-MBR) showed higher removal efficiencies for HHCB (67–71%) and EE2 (87%) than those in other previous studies. Besides, the total hydraulic retention time (HRT) ranged between 6.7 and 20.0 h, sludge retention time (SRT) ranged between 8 and 23 d, and water temperature ranged from 24.8 to 28.2 °C. The removal efficiencies for estrogens in biological processes were related to the following factors: the level of hydrophobic estrogens, the type of removal process (C-orbal OD was consistently less efficient in removing estrogens than A/O and A/A/A/O-MBR), and a high SRT or HRT (A/A/A/O-MBR with higher SRT and HRT showed higher and more stable removal of hydrophobic estrogens). - Highlights: ► We investigated 8 kinds of PPCPs in each unit at 2 WWTPs with different processes. ► Agilent 1290

  2. On the rumors about the silent spring: review of the scientific evidence linking occupational and environmental pesticide exposure to endocrine disruption health effects Rumores de uma primavera silenciosa: uma revisão das evidências científicas sobre a associação entre exposição ocupacional e ambiental a pesticidas e distúrbios endócrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Cocco

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to some pesticides, and particularly DBCP and chlordecone, may adversely affect male fertility. However, apart from the therapeutic use of diethylstilbestrol, the threat to human reproduction posed by "endocrine disrupting" environmental contaminants has not been supported by epidemiological evidence thus far. As it concerns other endocrine effects described in experimental animals, only thyroid inhibition following occupational exposure to amitrole and mancozeb has been confirmed in humans. Cancer of the breast, endometrium, ovary, prostate, testis, and thyroid are hormone-dependent, which fostered research on the potential risk associated with occupational and environmental exposure to the so-called endocrine-disrupting pesticides. The most recent studies have ruled out the hypothesis of DDT derivatives as responsible for excess risks of cancer of the reproductive organs. Still, we cannot exclude a role for high level exposure to o,p'-DDE, particularly in post-menopausal ER+ breast cancer. On the other hand, other organochlorine pesticides and triazine herbicides require further investigation for a possible etiologic role in some hormone-dependent cancers.A exposição ocupacional a determinados pesticidas, particularmente ao DBCP e à clordecona, pode ter efeitos adversos sobre a fertilidade masculina. Entretanto, com exceção do uso terapêutico do dietil-estilbestrol, a ameaça à reprodução humana através da "desregulação endócrina" por contaminantes ambientais ainda não foi comprovada através de evidências epidemiológicas. A questão diz respeito a outros efeitos endócrinos descritos em animais experimentais, e apenas a inibição tireóide foi confirmada em seres humanos, após exposição ocupacional a amitrole e mancozeb. O fato de serem hormônio-dependentes os cânceres de mama, endométrio, ovário, próstata, testículos e tireóide motivou pesquisas sobre o risco potencial associado à exposi

  3. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome and the estrogen hypothesis: a quantitative meta-analysis A síndrome da disgenesia testicular e a hipótese do estrogênio: uma meta-análise quantitativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olwenn Martin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Male reproductive tract abnormalities such as hypospadias and cryptorchidism, and testicular cancer have been proposed to comprise a common syndrome together with impaired spermatogenesis with a common etiology resulting from the disruption of gonadal development during fetal life, the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS. The only quantitative summary estimate of the link between prenatal exposure to estrogenic agents and testicular cancer was published over 10 years ago; other reviews of the link between estrogenic compounds, other than the potent pharmaceutical estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES, and TDS end points have remained inconclusive. We conducted a quantitative meta-analysis of the association between the end points related to TDS and prenatal exposure to estrogenic agents. Inclusion in this analysis was based on mechanistic criteria, and the plausibility of an estrogen receptor (ER-α-mediated mode of action was specifically explored. Eight studies were included, investigating the etiology of hypospadias and/or cryptorchidism that had not been identified in previous systematic reviews. Four additional studies of pharmaceutical estrogens yielded a statistically significant updated summary estimate for testicular cancer. Results of the subset analyses point to the existence of unidentified sources of heterogeneity between studies or within the study population.Sugeriu-se que anomalias do trato reprodutivo masculino como hipospádia e criptorquidismo, assim como o câncer de testículo, componham uma síndrome comum com diminuição da espermatogênese, e de etiologia comum, a interrupção do desenvolvimento gonadal na fase fetal, a síndrome de disgenesia testicular (SDT. O único levantamento quantitativo da relação entre exposição pré-natal a agentes estrogênicos e câncer de testículo data de mais de dez anos; outras revisões da relação entre compostos estrogênicos diferentes do potente estrogênio sint