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Sample records for dietary triacylglycerol structure

  1. The digestion of dietary triacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2004-01-01

    Dietary triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the major lipid components in the human diet and they are carriers of energy as well as important fatty acids. Many factors affect the digestion and absorption of TAGs. Evidence is accumulating that, in addition to the overall fatty acid profile, the TAG......, or one may speculate additionally on the possibilities of modifying the structure of fats to affect their absorption and the distribution of the fatty acids in the body after digestion and uptake. In this review we will summarize diverse aspects of TAG digestion and absorption, as well as the influences...... of the fatty acid composition and the intramolecular structure of dietary TAGs on their digestion and absorption....

  2. Dietary control of equine plasma triacylglycerols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallebeek, Johanna Maria

    2002-01-01

    The study of this thesis concerns the dietary influence on lipid metabolism in horses. The main issue is the effect of dietary medium chain triacylglycerols (MCT) on triacylglycerol metabolism. In certain conditions high-fat diets can be beneficial for horses. Diets rich in long-chain

  3. Effects of dietary triacylglycerol structure on triacylglycerols of resultant chylomicrons from fish oil- and seal oil-fed rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Carl-Erik; Christensen, Michael Søberg

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the influence of the intramolecular fatty acid distribution of dietary triacyl-sn-glycerols (TAG) rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the structure of chylomicron TAG. Fish oil and seal oil, comparable in fatty acid compositions but with different contents of major n-3...... PUFA esterified at the sn-2 position (20:5n-3, 46,6%, and 5.3%; 22:6n-3, 75.5% and 3.8%, respectively), were fed to rats. Mesenteric lymph was collected and the chylomicrons were isolated by ultracentrifugation. The fatty acid compostition of chylomicrons largely reflected the fatty acid composition...... of the oils administered. The intramolecular fatty acid distributions of the TAG fed were reflected in the chylomicron TAG as the fraction of the total contents observed in the sn-2 postition of 20:5n-3 were 23.6 and 13.3% and of 22:6n-3 were 30.6 and 5.4% for resultant chylomicrons following fish oil...

  4. Dietary carbohydrates and triacylglycerol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, H M

    1999-02-01

    There is a growing body of scientific evidence which demonstrates that plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentration, especially in the postprandial state, is an important risk factor in relation to the development of CHD. Postprandial hypertriacylglycerolaemia is associated with a number of adverse metabolic risk factors, including the preponderance of small dense LDL, low HDL-cholesterol concentrations and elevated factor VII activity. Traditionally, a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet was used to prevent CHD because it effectively reduces plasma cholesterol concentrations, but this dietary regimen increases plasma TAG concentrations and reduces HDL-cholesterol concentrations. There is substantial epidemiological evidence which demonstrates that high plasma TAG and low plasma HDL concentrations are associated with an increased risk of CHD. Thus, there is reason for concern that the adverse effects of low-fat high-carbohydrate diets on TAG and HDL may counteract or negate the beneficial effect of reducing LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Although there have been no prospective studies to investigate whether reduced fat intake has an adverse effect on CHD, there is strong epidemiological evidence that reducing total fat intake is not protective against CHD. On the other hand, high-fat diets predispose to obesity, and central obesity adversely affects TAG metabolism. There is substantial evidence that in free-living situations low-fat high-carbohydrate diets lead to weight loss, which in turn will correct insulin resistance and plasma TAG metabolism. Clearly there is a need for prospective studies to resolve the issue as to whether low-fat high-carbohydrate diets play an adverse or beneficial role in relation to the development of CHD.

  5. Dietary structured triacylglycerols containing docosahexaenoic acid given from birth affect visual and auditory performance and tissue fatty acid profiles of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M. M.; Lund, S. P.; Simonsen, L.

    1998-01-01

    To examine whether it is possible to enhance the level of 22:6(n-3) in the central nervous system, newborn rats were fed dietary supplements containing oils with either specific or random triacylglycerol structure, but similar concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the specific structu...... in differences in learning ability, but caused changes in visual function, evidenced by higher latency of the b-wave and lower oscillatory potential, and in auditory brainstem response, evidenced by generally greater amplitude of wave la in the group fed specific structured oil....

  6. Early dietary intervention with structured triacylglycerols containing docosahexaenoic acid. Effect on brain, liver, and adipose tissue lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Merete Myrup; Høy, Carl-Erik

    1997-01-01

    Newborn rats were fed liquid diets containing 7 wt% fat in which 3.8% of the total fatty acids were 22:6n-3. The fats were either a specificstructured oil with 22:6n-3 mostly located in the sn-2 position or a randomized oil with 22:6n-3 equally distributed in the triacylglycerol (TAG)molecules. T...

  7. Influence of dietary triacylglycerol structure and level of n-3 fatty acids administered during development on brain phospholipids and memory and learning ability of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, M.S.; Mu, Huiling; Hougaard, K.S.

    2004-01-01

    of the nervous system. Methods: Pregnant rats were fed experimental diets from the 8th day of pregnancy throughout lactation. After weaning and until 13 weeks of age, the pups were fed the same diet as their dams. The experimental diets contained either a structured oil, a linseed oil, or a fish oil...... and 22:6n-3 adding up to a total of 2 mol% n-3 fatty acids. The effects of the experimental diets were compared to the effect of a chow diet. Results: The amount of 22:6n-3 in brain phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidyl serine (PS) of dams and offspring (3 and 13 weeks of age) was not affected......The objective of this study was to examine the effects of triacylglycerol (TAG) structure and level of n-3 fatty acids on fatty acid profile of brain phospholipids (PL) of dams and offspring, and the memory and learning ability of the offspring, when administered during initial development...

  8. Intestinal absorption of specific structured triacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2001-01-01

    on a reversed-phase high performance Liquid chromatograph (RP-HPLC) and identified by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry, The composition of triacylglycerols was quantified by RP-HPLC with evaporative Light scattering detection. The intact MLM-type triacylglycerols were detected...

  9. EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL EXERCISES ON TRIACYLGLYCEROL LEVEL IN SKELETAL MUSCLES IN DIETARY-INDUCED OBESE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yu. Yakimovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of triacylglycerol in peripheral tissues is one of mechanisms of insulin resistance. This paper presents the investigation of the influence of aerobic and anaerobic physical exercises on triacylglycerol level in skeletal muscles and on insulin resistance in dietary-induced obese rats. It is estimated that a high-energy (HE diet causes the accumulation of triacylglycerols in skeletal muscles that leads to high resistance to insulin. Aerobic and anaerobic physical exercises reduce the level of triacylglycerols in skeletal  muscles  and  raise  sensitivity to  insulin  in  obese  rats.  Physical  exercises  raise  the  level  of triacylglycerols in skeletal muscles in standard-diet rats that probably is the adaptation to high energy expenditure, but does not lead to high insulin resistance.

  10. Lymphatic fatty acids in canine with pharmaceutical formulations containing structured triacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, R.; Porsgaard, Trine; Porter, C.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    The intramolecular structure of dietary triacylglycerols (TAG) influences absorption. In this study, two different pharmaceutical formulations were compared containing TAG differing in fatty acid profiles and intramolecular structures: LML and MLM, where M represented medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA...... was generally higher than from the animals dosed with the MLM vehicle; however, statistically significant differences were only found for 18:0 and 18:3n-3. In conclusion, these results indicated that the fatty acid profile and intramolecular structure of administered TAG influenced the absorption of fatty acids...

  11. Structured triacylglycerol containing behenic and oleic acids suppresses triacylglycerol absorption and prevents obesity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamatsu Kiyoharu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary 1(3-behenoyl-2,3(1-dioleoyl-rac-glycerol (BOO has been reported to inhibit pancreatic lipase activity in vitro and suppress postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia in humans. In the present study, the anti-obesity activities of BOO and its inhibitory effects on lymphatic triacylglycerol (TAG absorption were investigated in rats. Methods In Experiment 1, rats were fed either BOO or soybean oil (SO diet for 6 weeks. In the BOO diet, 20% of SO was replaced with an experimental oil rich in BOO. In Experiments 2 and 3, rats cannulated in the thoracic duct were administered an emulsions containing trioleoylglycerol (OOO or an oil mixture (OOO:BOO, 9:1. Tri[1-14C]oleoylglycerol (14C-OOO was added to the emulsions administered in Experiment 3. Results No observable differences were detected in food intake or body weight gain between the BOO and SO groups in Experiment 1. Plasma and liver TAG concentrations and visceral fat weights were significantly lower in the BOO group than in the SO group. The apparent absorption rate of fat was significantly lower in the BOO group than in the SO group. In Experiment 2, the lymphatic recovery of oleic and behenic acids was significantly lower at 5 and 6 h after BOO administration than after OOO administration. In Experiment 3, the lymphatic recovery of 14C-OOO was significantly lower at 5 and 6 h after BOO administration than after OOO administration. Conclusions These results suggest that BOO prevents deposition of visceral fat and hepatic TAG by lowering and delaying intestinal absorption of TAG.

  12. Plasma triacylglycerol and coagulation factor concentrations predict the anticoagulant effect of dietary fish oil in overweight subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanschoonbeek, Kristof; Feijge, Marion A H; Saris, Wim H M

    2007-01-01

    fish-oil effects. In study 1, 54 overweight subjects consumed 3.1 g (n-3) PUFA daily. In study 2, which involved 42 overweight patients with type 2 diabetes, 20 subjects consumed (n-3) PUFA, whereas 22 others ingested a preparation rich in (n-6) PUFA. Tissue factor-induced thrombin generation (thrombin...... potential) was determined as an integrated measure of plasma coagulant activity. In both studies, multivariate analysis indicated a strong clustering of fasting concentrations of triacylglycerols, prothrombin, factor V, factor VII, and factor X with one another at baseline. This cluster of factors......-induced lowering of triacylglycerol and coagulation factor V, VII, and X concentrations, and thrombin generation. We conclude that high fasting triacylglycerol concentrations predict high procoagulant activity and a lowering of thrombin potential with dietary fish oil....

  13. Protein and energy metabolism of young male Wistar rats fed conjugated linoleic acid as structured triacylglycerol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, H.; Hansen, C. H.; Mu, Huiling

    2010-01-01

    Twelve 4-week-old male Wistar rats weighing 100 g were fed diets semi-ad libitum for 22 d containing either 1.5% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-diet) or high oleic sunflower oil (Control-diet). The CLA was structured triacylglycerol with predominantly cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 fatty acid...

  14. Lymphatic recovery of exogenous oleic acid in rats on long chain or specific structured triacylglycerol diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Bodil; Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2006-01-01

    Specific structured triacylglycerols, MLM (M = medium-chain fatty acid, L = long-chain fatty acid), rapidly deliver energy and long-chain fatty acids to the body and are used for longer periods in human enteral feeding. In the present study rats were fed diets of 10 wt% MLM or LLL (L = oleic acid......% and 45%, respectively). However, the recovery of exogenous 18:1 n-9 was higher after a single bolus of MLM compared with a bolus of LLL in rats on the MLM diet (40% and 24%, respectively, P = 0.009). The recovery of lymphatic 18:1 n-9 of the LLL bolus tended to depend on the diet triacylglycerol...... structure and composition (P = 0.07). This study demonstrated that with a diet containing specific structured triacylglycerol, the lymphatic recovery of 18:1 n-9 after a single bolus of fat was dependent on the triacylglycerol structure of the bolus. This indicates that the lymphatic recovery of long...

  15. The stereospecific triacylglycerol structures and fatty acid profiles of human milk and infant formulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straarup, Ellen Marie; Lauritzen, L.; Færk, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Background: The stereospecific structures of the triacylglycerol molecules in human milk differ from that of cow's milk and vegetable oils, which are the fat sources used in infant formula. In human milk, palmitic acid (16:0) is predominantly esterified in the sn2 position, whereas vegetable oils...

  16. The effect of dietary sugars on triacylglycerol metabolism in subjects at increased risk of metabolic syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Marino, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background: High sugar diet may increase plasma triacylglycerol (TG) levels and cause dyslipidaemia, resulting in a higher cardiometabolic risk. High sugar intake may also promote the accumulation of ectopic fat in the liver. Objectives: To determine the effect of two isocaloric diets, low and high in extrinsic sugars (6% or 26% total energy respectively corresponding to the lower and upper 2.5th percentile of the intake in men aged 40-65 in the UK) but with the same total carbohydrate co...

  17. Synthesis of structured triacylglycerols containing caproic acid by lipase-catalyzed acidolysis: Optimization by response surface methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, D.Q.; Xu, Xuebing; Mu, Huiling

    2001-01-01

    Production in a batch reactor with a solvent-free system of structured triacylglycerols containing short-chain fatty acids by Lipozyme RM IM-catalyzed acidolysis between rapeseed oil and caproic acid was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Reaction time (t(r)), substrate ratio (S......-r = 2-6 mol/mol; and W-c = 2-12 wt %. The biocatalyst was Lipozyme RM IM, in which Rhizomucor miehei lipase is immobilized on a resin. The incorporation of caproic acid into rapeseed oil was the main monitoring response. In addition, the contents of mono-incorporated structured triacylglycerols and di......-incorporated structured triacylglycerols were also evaluated. The optimal reaction conditions for the incorporation of caproic acid and the content of di-incorporated structured triacylglycerols were as follows: t(r) = 17 h; 8, = 5; E-1 = 14 wt %; W-c = 10 wt %; T-e = 65 degreesC. At these conditions, products with 55...

  18. Effect of training on muscle triacylglycerol and structural lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn W; Dela, Flemming

    2003-01-01

    We studied whether endurance training impacts insulin sensitivity by affecting the structural and storage lipids in humans. Eight male subjects participated (age 25 +/- 1 years, height 178 +/- 3 cm, weight 76 +/- 4 kg [mean +/- SE]). Single-leg training was performed for 30 min/day for 4 weeks...... polyunsaturates, which may indicate that membrane lipids may have a role in the training-induced increase in insulin sensitivity....

  19. Dietary sphingolipids lower plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol and prevent liver steatosis in APOE*3Leiden mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorden, Ilse; Voshol, Peter J.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; van Duyvenvoorde, Wim; Romijn, Johannes A.; Emeis, Jef J.; Havekes, Louis M.; Nieuwenhuizen, Willem F.

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of dyslipidemia and obesity resulting from excess energy intake and physical inactivity is increasing. The liver plays a pivotal role in systemic lipid homeostasis. Effective, natural dietary interventions that lower plasma lipids and promote liver health are needed. Our goal was to

  20. Dietary sphingolipids lower plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol and prevent liver steatosis in APOE*3Leiden mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorden, I.; Voshol, P.J.; Rensen, P.C.N.; Duyvenvoorde, W. van; Romijn, J.A.; Emeis, J.J.; Havekes, L.M.; Nieuwenhuizen, W.F.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of dyslipidemia and obesity resulting from excess energy intake and physical inactivity is increasing. The liver plays a pivotal role in systemic lipid homeostasis. Effective, natural dietary interventions that lower plasma lipids and promote liver health are needed.

  1. Regioisomers of octanoic acid-containing structured triacylglycerols analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry using ammonia negative ion chemical ionization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurvinen, J.P.; Mu, Huiling; Kallio, H.

    2001-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry based on ammonia negative ion chemical ionization and sample introduction via direct exposure probe was applied to analysis of regioisomeric structures of octanoic acid containing structured triacylglycerols (TAG) of type MML, MLM, MLL, and LML (M, medium-chain fatty acid...

  2. Distribution of fatty acids from dietary oils into phospholipid classes of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abia, Rocio; Pacheco, Yolanda M; Montero, Emilio; Ruiz-Gutierrez, Valentina; Muriana, Francisco J G

    2003-02-21

    Several studies have suggested that lipoprotein metabolism can be affected by lipoprotein phospholipid composition. We investigated the effect of virgin olive oil (VOO) and high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) intake on the distribution of fatty acids in triacylglycerols (TG), cholesteryl esters (CE) and phospholipid (PL) classes of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins (TRL) from normolipidemic males throughout a 7 h postprandial metabolism. Particularly, changes in oleic acid (18:1n-9) concentration of PL were used as a marker of in vivo hydrolysis of TRL external monolayer. Both oils equally promoted the incorporation of oleic acid into the TG and CE of postprandial TRL. However, PL was enriched in oleic acid (18:1n-9) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) after VOO meal, whereas in stearic (18:0) and linoleic (18:2n-6) acids after HOSO meal. We also found that VOO produced TRL which PL 18:1n-9 content was dramatically reduced along the postprandial period. We conclude that the fatty acid composition of PL can be a crucial determinant for the clearance of TRL during the postprandial metabolism of fats.

  3. Synthesis of 2-monoacylglycerols and structured triacylglycerols rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids by enzyme catalyzed reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Esteban, Luis; Martín, Lorena; Jiménez, María José; Hita, Estrella; Castillo, Beatriz; González, Pedro A; Robles, Alfonso

    2012-08-10

    This paper studies the synthesis of structured triacylglycerols (STAGs) by a four-step process: (i) obtaining 2-monoacylglycerols (2-MAGs) by alcoholysis of cod liver oil with several alcohols, catalyzed by lipases Novozym 435, from Candida antartica and DF, from Rhizopus oryzae, (ii) purification of 2-MAGs, (iii) formation of STAGs by esterification of 2-MAGs with caprylic acid catalyzed by lipase DF, from R. oryzae, and (iv) purification of these STAGs. For the alcoholysis of cod liver oil, absolute ethanol, ethanol 96% (v/v) and 1-butanol were compared; the conditions with ethanol 96% were then optimized and 2-MAG yields of around 54-57% were attained using Novozym 435. In these 2-MAGs, DHA accounted for 24-31% of total fatty acids. In the operational conditions this lipase maintained a stable level of activity over at least 11 uses. These results were compared with those obtained with lipase DF, which deactivated after only three uses. The alcoholysis of cod liver oil and ethanol 96% catalyzed by Novozym 435 was scaled up by multiplying the reactant amounts 100-fold and maintaining the intensity of treatment constant (IOT=3g lipase h/g oil). In these conditions, the 2-MAG yield attained was about 67%; these 2-MAGs contained 36.6% DHA. The synthesized 2-MAGs were separated and purified from the alcoholysis reaction products by solvent extraction using solvents of low toxicity (ethanol and hexane); 2-MAG recovery yield and purity of the target product were approximately 96.4% and 83.9%, respectively. These 2-MAGs were transformed to STAGs using the optimal conditions obtained in a previous work. After synthesis and purification, 93% pure STAGs were obtained, containing 38% DHA at sn-2 position and 60% caprylic acid (CA) at sn-1,3 positions (of total fatty acids at these positions), i.e. the major TAG is the STAG with the structure CA-DHA-CA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of dietary fatty acids on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in healthy male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Anette; Holmer, G.; Lund, Pia

    2005-01-01

    interesterified test fats with equal amounts of palmitic acid ( P fat), stearic acid (S fat), trans-18: 1 isomers (T fat), oleic acid (O fat), or linoleic acid (L fat) were tested. Subjects: A total of 16 healthy, normolipidaemic males ( age 23 +/- 2 y) were recruited. Interventions: The participants ingested fat......Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of trans-18: 1 isomers compared to other fatty acids, especially saturates, on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols ( TAG) in chylomicrons and VLDL. Design: A randomised crossover experiment where five......-rich test meals ( 1 g fat per kg body weight) and the fatty acid profiles of chylomicron and VLDL TAG were followed for 8 h. Results: The postprandial fatty acid composition of chylomicron TAG resembled that of the ingested fats. The fatty acids in chylomicron TAG were randomly distributed among the three...

  5. Sensing of triacylglycerol in the gut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleberg, Karen; Jacobsen, Anne Katrine; Ferreira, Jozelia G

    2015-01-01

    KEY POINTS: Digestion is required for intestinal sensing of triacylglycerol in this behavioural model. The hydrolysis products of triacylglycerol, fatty acids and 2-monoacylglycerol, regulate feeding via separate mechanisms. Sensing of long-chain fatty acids, but not of 2-monoacylglycerol......, stimulated central dopaminergic signalling. Fatty acid chain length regulates behavioural responses to fatty acids. ABSTRACT: Sensing of dietary triacylglycerol in the proximal small intestine results in physiological, hormonal and behavioural responses. However, the exact physiological pathways linking...... intestinal fat sensing to food intake and the activation of brain circuits remain to be identified. In this study we examined the role of triacylglycerol digestion for intestinal fat sensing, and compared the effects of the triacylglycerol digestion products, fatty acids and 2-monoacylglycerol...

  6. Lipidemic effects of an interesterified mixture of butter, medium-chain triacylglycerol and safflower oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mascioli, E.A.; McLennan, C.E.; Schaefer, E.J.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the positional structure of dietary triacylglycerol affected lipidemic responses. Thirty healthyadults (16 men and 14 postmenopausal women) with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations >3.37 mM (130 mg/dL)enrolled in a prospective...

  7. Transport of C-13-labelled linoleic and C-13-labelled caprylic acid in rat plasma after administration of specific structured triacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Bodil; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2004-01-01

    the transport of dietary C-13-labelled fatty acids in rat plasma to compare the chylomicron fatty acid metabolism after administration of specific structured, long chain and medium chain triacylglycerols. Rats were fed ML*M, M*LM*, L*L*L* or M*M*M* (L=linoleic acid, 18:2n-6, M=caprylic acid, 8:0, * = C-13......-labelled fatty acid) by gavage. A maximum transport of 0.5% of the administered C-13-labelled 18:2n-6 was observed in 1mL rat plasma both after administration of L*L*L* and ML*M, while approximately 0.04% of the administered C-13-labelled 8:0 was detected in 1mL plasma following administration of M......*M*M* or M*LM*. After L*L*L* administration C-13-labelled 20:4n-6 was observed in plasma, probably formed by elongation and desaturation of 18:2n-6 in the enterocyte or liver cells. Furthermore, C-13-labelled 16:0, 48:0, 18: 1n-9 and 20:4n-6 were observed in plasma of rats fed M*M*M* and M*LM* due...

  8. Dietary creatine supplementation lowers hepatic triacylglycerol by increasing lipoprotein secretion in rats fed high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Robin P; Leonard, Kelly-Ann; Jacobs, René L

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that dietary creatine supplementation can prevent lipid accumulation in the liver. Creatine is a small molecule that plays a large role in energy metabolism, but since the enzyme creatine kinase is not present in the liver, the classical role in energy metabolism does not hold in this tissue. Fat accumulation in the liver can lead to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a progressive disease that is prevalent in humans. We have previously reported that creatine can directly influence lipid metabolism in cell culture to promote lipid secretion and oxidation. Our goal in the current study was to determine whether similar mechanisms that occur in cell culture were present in vivo. We also sought to determine whether dietary creatine supplementation could be effective in reversing steatosis. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet or a high-fat diet supplemented with creatine for 5 weeks. We found that rats supplemented with creatine had significantly improved rates of lipoprotein secretion and alterations in mitochondrial function that were consistent with greater oxidative capacity. We also find that introducing creatine into a high-fat diet halted hepatic lipid accumulation in rats with fatty liver. Our results support our previous report that liver cells in culture with creatine secrete and oxidize more oleic acid, demonstrating that dietary creatine can effectively change hepatic lipid metabolism by increasing lipoprotein secretion and oxidation in vivo. Our data suggest that creatine might be an effective therapy for NAFLD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary structured lipids for post-weaning piglets: fat digestibility, nitrogen retention and fatty acid profiles of tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straarup, Ellen Marie; Danielsen, V.; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2006-01-01

    In four groups of post-weaning piglets the effects of triacylglycerol structure and fatty acid profiles of four dietary fats on apparent faecal nutrient digestibility, nitrogen retention and fatty acid profiles of platelet and erythrocyte membranes, liver, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle were...... examined. Dietary fats included as 10% (w/w) of the diets were two structured fats of rapeseed oil interesterified with tridecanoin (R1) or coconut oil (R2), respectively, one mixture of rapeseed oil and coconut oil (R3) and rapeseed oil as control (R4). Faeces and urine from piglets weaned at 28 days...

  10. Formation of highly structured cubic micellar lipid nanoparticles of soy phosphatidylcholine and glycerol dioleate and their degradation by triacylglycerol lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsäter, Maria; Barauskas, Justas; Nylander, Tommy; Tiberg, Fredrik

    2014-05-28

    Lipid nanoparticles of reversed internal phase structures, such as cubic micellar (I2) structure show good drug loading ability of peptides and proteins as well as some small molecules. Due to their controllable small size and inner morphology, such nanoparticles are suitable for drug delivery using several different administration routes, including intravenous, intramuscular, and subcutaneous injection. A very interesting system in this regard, is the two component soy phosphatidylcholine (SPC)/glycerol dioleate (GDO) system, which depending on the ratio of the lipid components form a range of reversed liquid crystalline phases. For a 50/50 (w/w) ratio in excess water, these lipids have been shown to form a reversed cubic micellar (I2) phase of the Fd3m structure. Here, we demonstrate that this SPC/GDO phase, in the presence of small quantities (5-10 wt %) of Polysorbate 80 (P80), can be dispersed into nanoparticles, still with well-defined Fd3m structure. The resulting nanoparticle dispersion has a narrow size distribution and exhibit good long-term stability. In pharmaceutical applications, biodegradation pathways of the drug delivery vehicles and their components are important considerations. In the second part of the study we show how the structure of the particles evolves during exposure to a triacylglycerol lipase (TGL) under physiological-like temperature and pH. TGL catalyzes the lipolytic degradation of acylglycerides, such as GDO, to monoglycerides, glycerol, and free fatty acids. During the degradation, the interior phase of the particles is shown to undergo continuous phase transitions from the reversed I2 structure to structures of less negative curvature (2D hexagonal, bicontinuous cubic, and sponge), ultimately resulting in the formation of multilamellar vesicles.

  11. Quantitation of acyl migration during lipase-catalyzed acidolysis, and of the regioisomers of structured triacylglycerols formed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Kurvinen, J.P.; Kallio, H.

    2001-01-01

    degradation, and ranged from 39.0 to 48.7% and 0.6 to 9.3%, respectively. Quantitation of triacylglycerol molecular species was performed by ammonia negative ion chemical ionization (NICI) mass spectrometry (MS). The proportion of ACN (acyl carbon number) 34 species that contained one C-18 fatty acid and two...... C-8:0, in samples analyzed, varied from 12.5 to 23.2%. The selected regioisomers MLM and MML within the ACN 34 species group were quantified by NICI tandem MS (MS/MS) and were in the range of 97.1 to 98.4% and 1.6 to 2.9%, respectively. There was no correlation between the level of acyl migration...

  12. Structure-cytotoxicity relationships for dietary flavonoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, V.; Dragsted, L.O.

    1998-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of a large series of dietary flavonoids was tested in a non-tumorigenic mouse and two human cancer cell lines, using the neutral red dye exclusion assay. All compounds tested exhibited a concentration-dependent cytotoxic action in the employed cell lines. The relative cytotoxicity...... of the flavonoids, however, Tvas found to vary greatly among the different cell Lines. With a few exceptions, the investigated flavonoids were more cytotoxic to the human cancer cell lines, than the mouse cell line. The differences in cytotoxicity were accounted for in part by differences in cellular uptake...... and metabolic capacity among the different cell types. In 3T3 cells fairly consistent structure-cytotoxicity relationships were found. The most cytotoxic structures tested in 3T3 cells were flavonoids with adjacent 3',4' hydroxy groups on the B-ring, such as luteolin, quercetin, myricetin, fisetin, eriodictyol...

  13. Dietary Lipid Sources Influence Fatty Acid Composition in Tissue of Large Yellow Croaker (Larmichthys crocea by Regulating Triacylglycerol Synthesis and Catabolism at the Transcriptional Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Qiu

    Full Text Available An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary lipid sources on growth performance, fatty acid composition, rate-limiting enzyme activities and gene expression related to lipid metabolism in large yellow croaker (Larmichthys crocea. Five iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipidic experimental diets were formulated to contain different lipid sources, such as fish oil (FO, soybean oil (SO, linseed oil (LO, rapeseed oil (RO and peanut oil (PO, respectively. Triplicate groups of 50 fish (initial weight 13.77±0.07g were stocked in 15 floating net cages (1.5m×1.5m×2.0m. Fish fed the diets containing RO and LO had lower weight gain and specific growth rates than those fed the FO, SO and PO diets. Survival, feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio, hepatosomatic index, viscerasomatic index and condition factor were not significantly affected by different dietary lipid sources. Fish fed the diet containing FO had higher lipid content in whole body compared with the other groups, whereas fish fed the SO diet had the lowest muscle lipid content. Fatty acid profiles of muscle and liver reflected the fatty acid composition of the diets. Plasma glucose, triglyceride, and the enzymatic activity of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were significantly influenced by different dietary lipid sources, while total protein, cholesterol, superoxide dismutase or malondialdehyde in plasma were not affected by the different dietary lipid sources. Fish fed the LO diet had lower adipose triglyceride lipase and fatty acid synthase activities in liver than those fed the diets containing FO and RO, while the LO diet resulted in the highest hepatic carnitine palmitoultransferase-1 activity. Hepatic gene relative expression of adipose triglyceride lipase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 in fish fed PO diet was significantly higher than all other groups, whereas fish fed the SO and LO diets had lower relative expression levels of

  14. Synthesis of structured triacylglycerols containing medium-chain and long-chain fatty acids by interesterification with a stereoespecific lipase from Mucor miehei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto, Susana

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of structured triacylglycerols sn-1, sn-3 dilauryl, sn-2 eicosapentaenoyl glycerol and sn-1, sn-3 dilauryl, sn-2 docosahexaenoyl glycerol by enzymatic interesterification under restricted water availability is described. Laurie acid, one of the substrates for interesterification, was obtained by the controlled hydrolysis of coconut oil by a non-specific lipase obtained from Candida cylindracea. The fatty acid was separated from the hydrolysis products by silverresin column chromatography and converted to methyl ester, sn-2 Eicosapentaenoyl glycerol and sn-2 docosahexaenoyl glycerol were prepared by the hydrolysis of fish oil by the sn-1, sn-3 stereospecific immobilized lipase Lipozyme IM-20 obtained from Mucor miehei as described in the accompanying paper. The interesterification was carried out in a water jacketed glass reactor and the triacylglycerol products were separated and recovered through aluminum oxide column chromatography The interesterification procedure described allows to obtain In laboratory scale structured triacylglycerols containing medium-chain fatty acids at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid from marine origin at the sn-2 glycerol position.

    Se describe la preparación de triacilgliceroles estructurados sn-1, sn-3 dilauril, sn-2 ecosapentaenoil glicerol y sn-1, sn-3 diiauril, sn-2 docosahexaenoil glicerol por interesterificación enzimática bajo disponibilidad de agua reducida. Acido láurico, uno de los sustratos para la interesterificación, se obtuvo mediante hidrólisis controlada del aceite de coco por una lipasa no-específica obtenida de Candida cylindracea. Los ácidos grasos se separaron de los productos de hidrólisis mediante cromatografía en columna de resina de plata y convertidos en sus esteres metílicos, sn-2 Eicosapentaenoil glicerol y sn-2 docosahexaenoil glicerol se prepararon mediante hidrólisis de aceite de pescado por la sn-1, sn

  15. Structures of hydroxy fatty acids as the constituents of triacylglycerols in Philippine wild edible mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible Philippine mushrooms including Ganoderma lucidum have many health benefits. We have recently reported the identities and the contents of 77 molecular species of acylglycerols containing hydroxy fatty acids (HFA) in this mushroom. The structures of these HFA were proposed using the electrospra...

  16. Parenting styles, family structure and adolescent dietary behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Natalie; Atkin, Andrew J; Biddle, Stuart J H; Gorely, Trish; Edwardson, Charlotte

    2010-08-01

    To examine associations between parenting styles, family structure and aspects of adolescent dietary behaviour. Cross-sectional study. Secondary schools in the East Midlands, UK. Adolescents aged 12-16 years (n 328, 57 % boys) completed an FFQ assessing their consumption of fruit, vegetables, unhealthy snacks and breakfast. Adolescents provided information on parental and sibling status and completed a seventeen-item instrument measuring the general parenting style dimensions of involvement and strictness, from which four styles were derived: indulgent, neglectful, authoritarian, authoritative. After controlling for adolescent gender and age, analysis of covariance revealed no significant interactions between parenting style and family structure variables for any of the dietary behaviours assessed. Significant main effects for family structure were observed only for breakfast consumption, with adolescents from dual-parent families (P parent families and those with one or more brother, respectively. Significant main effects for parenting style were observed for all dietary behaviours apart from vegetable consumption. Adolescents who described their parents as authoritative ate more fruit per day, fewer unhealthy snacks per day, and ate breakfast on more days per week than those who described their parents as neglectful. The positive associations between authoritative parenting style and adolescent dietary behaviour transcend family structure. Future research should be food-specific and assess the efficacy of strategies promoting the central attributes of an authoritative parenting style on the dietary behaviours of adolescents from a variety of family structures.

  17. DGAT enzymes and triacylglycerol biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Yen, Chi-Liang Eric; Stone, Scot J.; Koliwad, Suneil; Harris, Charles; Farese, Robert V.

    2008-01-01

    Triacylglycerols (triglycerides) (TGs) are the major storage molecules of metabolic energy and FAs in most living organisms. Excessive accumulation of TGs, however, is associated with human diseases, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and steatohepatitis. The final and the only committed step in the biosynthesis of TGs is catalyzed by acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzymes. The genes encoding two DGAT enzymes, DGAT1 and DGAT2, were identified in the past decade, ...

  18. Investigation of Lipid Metabolism by a New Structured Lipid with Medium- and Long-Chain Triacylglycerols from Cinnamomum camphora Seed Oil in Healthy C57BL/6J Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiang-Ning; Shen, Jin-Rong; Xiong, Chao-Yue; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Deng, Ze-Yuan

    2018-02-28

    In the present study, a new structured lipid with medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (MLCTs) was synthesized from camellia oil (CO) and Cinnamomum camphora seed oil (CCSO) by enzymatic interesterification. Meanwhile, the antiobesity effects of structured lipid were investigated through observing the changes of enzymes related to lipid mobilization in healthy C57BL/6J mice. Results showed that after synthesis, the major triacylgeride (TAG) species of intesterificated product changed to LaCC/CLaC (12.6 ± 0.46%), LaCO/LCL (21.7 ± 0.76%), CCO/LaCL (14.2 ± 0.55%), COO/OCO (10.8 ± 0.43%), and OOO (18.6 ± 0.64%). Through second-stage molecular distillation, the purity of interesterified product (MLCT) achieved 95.6%. Later, male C57BL/6J mice were applied to study whether the new structured lipid with MLCT has the efficacy of preventing the formation of obesity or not. After feeding with different diets for 6 weeks, MLCTs could reduce body weight and fat deposition in adipose tissue, lower plasma triacylglycerols (TG) (0.89 ± 0.16 mmol/L), plasma total cholesterol (TC) (4.03 ± 0.08 mmol/L), and hepatic lipids (382 ± 34.2 mg/mice) by 28.8%, 16.0%, and 30.5%, respectively, when compared to the control 2 group. This was also accompanied by increasing fecal lipids (113%) and the level of enzymes including cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), protein kinase A (PKA), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) related to lipid mobilization in MLCT group. From the results, it can be concluded that MLCT reduced body fat deposition probably by modulating enzymes related to lipid mobilization in C57BL/6J mice.

  19. Triacylglycerol-based fuels: An evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variety of feedstocks exist and several processes have been developed to produce alternative diesel fuels from triacylglycerol-based materials, such as plant and algal oils as well as animal fats and used cooking oils. Biodiesel is obtained by transesterifying a triacylglycerol feedstock with an a...

  20. Dietary phosphorus depletion in sheep: Longterm effects on bone structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breves, G.; Prokop, M.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were performed on 6 sheep from 8 months old to study effects of dietary phosphorus depletion on bone structure. Sheep were given a semisynthetic diet of chopped straw and pellets for 38 weeks. Mean daily P in the diet was 0.97 g and 3 sheep were given additional NaH2PO4.H2O, increasing daily P supply to 4.5 g (controls). Bone density was estimated photometrically within the laterodistal metaphysis of the foreleg and standardized by a copper step wedge. Metacarpal cortical thickness was also measured. Cortical thickness and bone density started to decrease about 4 weeks after start of P depletion. The trabecular structure of the distal radius was coarser and less dense with reduced cross-linking between trabeculae

  1. DGAT enzymes and triacylglycerol biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chi-Liang Eric; Stone, Scot J.; Koliwad, Suneil; Harris, Charles; Farese, Robert V.

    2008-01-01

    Triacylglycerols (triglycerides) (TGs) are the major storage molecules of metabolic energy and FAs in most living organisms. Excessive accumulation of TGs, however, is associated with human diseases, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and steatohepatitis. The final and the only committed step in the biosynthesis of TGs is catalyzed by acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzymes. The genes encoding two DGAT enzymes, DGAT1 and DGAT2, were identified in the past decade, and the use of molecular tools, including mice deficient in either enzyme, has shed light on their functions. Although DGAT enzymes are involved in TG synthesis, they have distinct protein sequences and differ in their biochemical, cellular, and physiological functions. Both enzymes may be useful as therapeutic targets for diseases. Here we review the current knowledge of DGAT enzymes, focusing on new advances since the cloning of their genes, including possible roles in human health and diseases. PMID:18757836

  2. Consumption of diets with different type of fat influences triacylglycerols-rich lipoproteins particle number and size during the postprandial state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and aims: Previous evidence suggests that dietary fat could influence the composition and size of triacylglycerols-rich lipoproteins (TRL). In a controlled intervention study on healthy subjects, we evaluated the influence of 3 dietary interventions, with different types of fat on postpra...

  3. Effect of rumen-protected choline on performance, blood metabolites, and hepatic triacylglycerols of periparturient dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zom, R.L.G.; Baal, van J.; Goselink, R.M.A.; Bakker, J.A.; Veth, M.J.; Vuuren, van A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of a dietary supplement of rumen-protected choline on feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, blood metabolites, and hepatic triacylglycerol were evaluated in periparturient dairy cows. Thirty-eight multiparous cows were blocked into 19 pairs and then randomly allocated to either one

  4. Regioisomeric and enantiomeric analysis of triacylglycerols

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Pádrová, K.; Sigler, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 524, SI (2017), s. 3-12 ISSN 0003-2697 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-00227S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Regioisomers * Enantiomers * Triacylglycerols Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.334, year: 2016

  5. Production of structured triacylglycerols from microalgae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Lukavský, Jaromír; Nedbalová, Linda; Sigler, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 104, AUG 2014 (2014), s. 95-104 ISSN 0031-9422 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/0215 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:67985939 Keywords : microalgae * enantiomers * chiral LC Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.547, year: 2014

  6. Overall glycemic index and glycemic load of vegan diets in relation to plasma lipoproteins and triacylglycerols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, Annika; Ströhle, Alexander; Koschizke, Jochen W; Leitzmann, Claus; Hahn, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the overall glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and intake of dietary fiber, and to examine the associations between these factors and plasma lipoproteins and triacylglycerols in adult vegans in the German Vegan Study (GVS). Cross-sectional study, Germany. Healthy men (n = 67) and women (n = 87), who fulfilled the study criteria (vegan diet for >or=1 year prior to study start; minimum age of 18 years; no pregnancy/childbirth during the last 12 months) and who participated in all study segments. The average dietary GL of the GVS population was 144, and the average GI was 51.4. The adjusted geometric mean total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol concentrations decreased across the increasing quartiles of GL, carbohydrate and dietary fiber intake. The associations between total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and GL density and GI were inconsistent. Also, associations between GI, GL, the intake of carbohydrates, and triacylglycerol concentration were not observed. Fiber-rich vegan diets are characterized by a low GI and a low to moderate GL. The data do not support the hypothesis that a carbohydrate-rich diet per se is associated with unfavorable effects on triaclyglycerols that would be predicted to increase the risk of coronary heart disease. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. The Effects of Dietary Macronutrient Balance on Skin Structure in Aging Male and Female Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Aisling C.; Ruohonen, Kari; Raubenheimer, David; Ballard, J. William O.; Le Couteur, David G.; Nicholls, Caroline; Li, Zhe; Maitz, Peter K. M.; Wang, Yiwei; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition influences skin structure; however, a systematic investigation into how energy and macronutrients (protein, carbohydrate and fat) affects the skin has yet to be conducted. We evaluated the associations between macronutrients, energy intake and skin structure in mice fed 25 experimental diets and a control diet for 15 months using the Geometric Framework, a novel method of nutritional analysis. Skin structure was associated with the ratio of dietary macronutrients eaten, not energy intake, and the nature of the effect differed between the sexes. In males, skin structure was primarily associated with protein intake, whereas in females carbohydrate intake was the primary correlate. In both sexes, the dermis and subcutaneous fat thicknesses were inversely proportional. Subcutaneous fat thickness varied positively with fat intake, due to enlarged adipocytes rather than increased adipocyte number. We therefore demonstrated clear interactions between skin structure and macronutrient intakes, with the associations being sex-specific and dependent on dietary macronutrient balance. PMID:27832138

  8. Characterisation of Fecal Soap Fatty Acids, Calcium Contents, Bacterial Community and Short-Chain Fatty Acids in Sprague Dawley Rats Fed with Different sn-2 Palmitic Triacylglycerols Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jianchun; Hu, Songyou; Ni, Kefeng; Chang, Guifang; Sun, Xiangjun; Yu, Liangli

    2016-01-01

    The structure of dietary triacylglycerols is thought to influence fatty acid and calcium absorption, as well as intestinal microbiota population of the host. In the present study, we investigated the impact of palmitic acid (PA) esterified at the sn-2 position on absorption of fatty acid and calcium and composition of intestinal microorganisms in rats fed high-fat diets containing either low sn-2 PA (12.1%), medium sn-2 PA (40.4%) or high sn-2 PA (56.3%), respectively. Fecal fatty acid profiles in the soaps were measured by gas chromatography (GC), while fecal calcium concentration was detected by ICP-MS. The fecal microbial composition was assessed using a 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing technology and fecal short-chain fatty acids were detected by ion chromatograph. Dietary supplementation with a high sn-2 PA fat significantly reduced total fecal contents of fatty acids soap and calcium compared with the medium or low sn-2 PA fat groups. Diet supplementation with sn-2 PA fat did not change the entire profile of the gut microbiota community at phylum level and the difference at genera level also were minimal in the three treatment groups. However, high sn-2 PA fat diet could potentially improve total short-chain fatty acids content in the feces, suggesting that high dietary sn-2 PA fat might have a beneficial effect on host intestinal health.

  9. Desaturation of excess intramyocellular triacylglycerol in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, S B; Madsbad, S; Mu, Huiling

    2010-01-01

    , however, was increased twofold in obese women compared to obese men (Pfasting glucose (P...OBJECTIVE: Excess intramyocellular triacylglycerol (IMTG), found especially in obese women, is slowly metabolized and, therefore, prone to longer exposure to intracellular desaturases. Accordingly, it was hypothesized that IMTG content correlates inversely with IMTG fatty acid (FA) saturation...... in sedentary subjects. In addition, it was validated if IMTG palmitic acid is associated with insulin resistance as suggested earlier. DESIGN: Cross-sectional human study. SUBJECTS: In skeletal muscle biopsies, which were obtained from sedentary subjects (34 women, age 48+/-2 years (27 obese including 7 type 2...

  10. Changes in the triacylglycerol content of flaxseeds during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in the composition of triacylglycerols (TAGs) of three varieties of flaxseeds (H52, O116 and P129) during development were investigated using non-aqueous reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (LC-APPI-MS). 17 species of triacylglycerols ...

  11. Distribuição estereoespecífica de lipídios estruturados a partir de gorduras de palma, palmiste e triacilgliceróis de cadeia média Stereospecific distribution of structured lipids obtained from palm oil, palm kernel oil, and medium chain triacylglycerols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise D'Agostini

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Por meio de interesterificação química foram sintetizados lipídios estruturados a partir das gorduras de palma, palmiste e triacilgliceróis de cadeia média. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a distribuição estereoespecífica dos ácidos graxos nos lipídios estruturados. Foi possível comprovar a ocorrência da interesterificação através da hidrólise enzimática, que permitiu conhecer a composição dos ácidos graxos em posições específicas dos triacilgliceróis. Foram estudadas 10 amostras, representadas por 3 amostras individuais, 3 misturas binárias e 4 misturas ternárias. As amostras foram submetidas à hidrólise com lipase pancreática suína à temperatura de 40 ºC e posteriormente analisadas por cromatografia gasosa quanto à composição em ácidos graxos na posição sn-2. A partir dos resultados foram calculados os grupos de triacilgliceróis nas amostras individuais e nas misturas antes e após a reação de interesterificação, utilizando as teorias 1,3-random 2-random e 1,2,3-random. Os resultados demonstraram que antes do rearranjo ao acaso houve preferência do ácido oléico pela posição sn-2, enquanto que os ácidos palmítico e esteárico distribuíram-se principalmente pelas posições sn-1 e sn-3. Nos lipídios estruturados, os ácidos graxos saturados aumentaram sua participação na posição central do triacilglicerol, enquanto que os ácidos graxos insaturados apresentaram diminuição nesta mesma posição.Structured lipids were synthesized by chemical interesterification from palm oil, palm kernel oil, and medium chain triacylglycerols. The objective of this study was to verify the fatty acids positional distribution in the structured lipids. It was possible to confirm the interesterification occurrence through enzymatic hydrolysis, which allowed to know the fatty acids composition in specific positions of the triacylglycerols. Ten samples composed by three individual samples, three binary

  12. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) at the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols increases DHA incorporation in brown, but not in white adipose tissue, of hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Paula A; Bandarra, Narcisa M; Martins, Susana V; Madeira, Marta S; Ferreira, Júlia; Guil-Guerrero, José L; Prates, José A M

    2018-06-01

    We hypothesised that the incorporation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) across adipose tissues will be higher when it is ingested as triacylglycerols (TAG) structured at the sn-2 position. Ten-week old male hamsters were allocated to 4 dietary treatments (n = 10): linseed oil (LSO-control group), fish oil (FO), fish oil ethyl esters (FO-EE) and structured DHA at the sn-2 position of TAG (DHA-SL) during 12 weeks. In opposition to the large variations found for fatty acid composition in retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT) was less responsive to diets. DHA was not found in subcutaneous and retroperitoneal WAT depots but it was successfully incorporated in BAT reaching the highest percentage in DHA-SL. The PCA on plasma hormones (insulin, leptin, adiponectin) and fatty acids discriminated BAT from WATs pointing towards an individual signature on fatty acid deposition, but did not allow for full discrimination of dietary treatments within each adipose tissue.

  13. Structured Dietary Interventions in the Treatment of Severe Pediatric Obesity: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalarchian, Melissa A; Levine, Michele D; Marcus, Marsha D

    2013-06-01

    Structured dietary interventions have been associated with improved outcomes in adult weight-control programs, but virtually no research has focused on children. Thus, we conducted an uncontrolled pilot study to determine the potential utility of structured approaches to enhance the dietary component of family-based treatment of severe pediatric obesity (body mass index [BMI] >97th percentile for age and sex). Children aged 8-12 years participated with a parent or guardian. Individualized menu plans were provided (MENU, n =12) alone, or along with meals and snacks for the child (MENU+MEAL, n =6). All families received up to $30/week reimbursement for foods included in the menus. Median BMI change was -1.2 kg/m 2 for MENU ( n =12), and -1.8 kg/m 2 for MENU+MEAL ( n =6). Both approaches were associated with significant reductions in BMI ( p obesity are acceptable to families and warrant further development.

  14. Structural and Interpersonal Characteristics of Family Meals: Associations with Adolescent BMI and Dietary Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Berge, Jerica M.; Jin, Seok Won; Hannan, Peter; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    The last decade of research has suggested that family meals play an important role in promoting healthful dietary intake in youth. However, little is known about the structural characteristics and interpersonal dynamics of family meals that may help to inform why family meals are protective for youth. The current mixed methods, cross-sectional study conducted in 2010–2011 includes adolescents and parents who participated in two linked population-based studies. Participants included 40 parents...

  15. Triacylglycerol and melting profiles of milk fat from several species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smiddy, M.A.; Huppertz, T.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Gas chromatography and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to differentiate the fats of cow, goat, sheep, water buffalo, donkey, horse and camel milk (n = 20 for each species). Principal component analysis of triacylglycerol (TAG) composition allowed classification into groups

  16. Isolation and structural identification of a novel minoxidil analogue in an illegal dietary supplement: triaminodil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Park, Han Na; Park, Hyoung Joon; Kim, Nam Sook; Park, Sung-Kwan; Lee, Jongkook; Baek, Sun Young

    2018-01-01

    A new minoxidil analogue was detected in an illegal dietary supplement advertised as a hair-growth treatment. The analogue was identified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HR-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The compound was structurally elucidated as a minoxidil analogue in which the piperidinyl group of minoxidil was replaced with a pyrrolidinyl group corresponding to a molecular formula of C 8 H 13 N 5 O. The new analogue has been named triaminodil. As this is the first report of the compound, there are no chemical, toxicology or pharmacological data available.

  17. Antigenotoxicity of Dietary Coconut Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Lim-Sylianco

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzo(apyrene, dimethylnitrosamine, methylmethanesulfonate and tetracycline induced formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes indicating that these substances are genotoxic to bone marrow cells of the experimental mice.Genotoxicity of these substances to germ cells was also observed when low fertility index and high percentage dead implants were induced in experimental mice.When each genotoxin was administered to mice fed with diets containing 18 % coconut oil for 23 days, the formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes was greatly reduced. Antigenotoxic activity of dietary coconut oil was very much greater than dietary soybean oil.Germ cell genotoxicity of each genotoxin was also reduced when male mice fed the 18 % coconut oil diet were used. When male mice treated with the genotoxin was mated with virgin females, fertility index was increased in the group fed with coconut oil diet. Percentage dead implants was reduced. The antigenotoxic activity of dietary coconut oil on germ cells far exceeds that of dietary soybean oil.Dietary restriction of coconut oil diets enhanced the antigenotoxic activity of coconut oil in bone marrow cells and germs cells.Among the triacylglycerols of coconut oil, trilaurin gave the best antigenotoxic activity in bone marrow cells. Trilaurin is the major triacylglycerol in coconut oil.

  18. Dietary differentiation and the evolution of population genetic structure in a highly mobile carnivore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Pilot

    Full Text Available Recent studies on highly mobile carnivores revealed cryptic population genetic structures correlated to transitions in habitat types and prey species composition. This led to the hypothesis that natal-habitat-biased dispersal may be responsible for generating population genetic structure. However, direct evidence for the concordant ecological and genetic differentiation between populations of highly mobile mammals is rare. To address this we analyzed stable isotope profiles (δ(13C and δ(15N values for Eastern European wolves (Canis lupus as a quantifiable proxy measure of diet for individuals that had been genotyped in an earlier study (showing cryptic genetic structure, to provide a quantitative assessment of the relationship between individual foraging behavior and genotype. We found a significant correlation between genetic distances and dietary differentiation (explaining 46% of the variation in both the marginal test and crucially, when geographic distance was accounted for as a co-variable. These results, interpreted in the context of other possible mechanisms such as allopatry and isolation by distance, reinforce earlier studies suggesting that diet and associated habitat choice are influencing the structuring of populations in highly mobile carnivores.

  19. Structural and interpersonal characteristics of family meals: associations with adolescent body mass index and dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Jin, Seok Won; Hannan, Peter; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-06-01

    The last decade of research has suggested that family meals play an important role in promoting healthful dietary intake in youth. However, little is known about the structural characteristics and interpersonal dynamics of family meals that might help to inform why family meals are protective for youth. The current mixed methods, cross-sectional study conducted in 2010-2011 includes adolescents and parents who participated in two linked population-based studies. Participants included 40 parents (91.5% female) and adolescents (57.5% female) from the Minneapolis/St Paul, MN, area participating in EAT (Eating and Activity Among Teens) 2010 and F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity Among Teens). The structural (eg, length of the meal, types of foods served) and interpersonal characteristics (eg, communication, emotion/affect management) of family meals were described, and associations between interpersonal dynamics at family meals and adolescent body mass index and dietary intake were examined via direct observational methods. Families were videorecorded during two mealtimes in their homes. Results indicated that family meals were approximately 20 minutes in length, included multiple family members, were typically served family style (70%), and occurred in the kitchen 62% of the time and 38% of the time in another room (eg, family room, office). In addition, significant associations were found between positive interpersonal dynamics (ie, communication, affect management, interpersonal involvement, overall family functioning) at family meals and lower adolescent body mass index and higher vegetable intake. These findings add to the growing body of literature on family meals by providing a better understanding of what is happening at family meals in order to inform obesity-prevention studies and recommendations for providers working with families of youth. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural and Interpersonal Characteristics of Family Meals: Associations with Adolescent BMI and Dietary Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; Jin, Seok Won; Hannan, Peter; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    The last decade of research has suggested that family meals play an important role in promoting healthful dietary intake in youth. However, little is known about the structural characteristics and interpersonal dynamics of family meals that may help to inform why family meals are protective for youth. The current mixed methods, cross-sectional study conducted in 2010–2011 includes adolescents and parents who participated in two linked population-based studies. Participants included 40 parents (91.5% female) and adolescents (57.5% female) from the Minneapolis/St. Paul area participating in EAT 2010 and F-EAT. The structural (e.g. length of the meal, types of foods served) and interpersonal characteristics (e.g., communication, emotion/affect management) of family meals were described and associations between interpersonal dynamics at family meals and adolescent body mass index (BMI) and dietary intake were examined via direct observational methods. Families were video-recorded during two mealtimes in their homes. Results indicated that family meals were approximately 20 minutes in length, included multiple family members, were typically served family style (70%) and occurred in the kitchen 62% of the time and 38% of the time in another room (e.g., family room, office). Additionally, significant associations were found between positive interpersonal dynamics (i.e., communication, affect management, interpersonal involvement, overall family functioning) at family meals and lower adolescent BMI and higher vegetable intake. These findings add to the growing body of literature on family meals by providing a better understanding of what is happening at family meals in order to inform obesity prevention studies and recommendations for providers working with families of youth. PMID:23567247

  1. Separation of Enantiomeric Triacylglycerols by Chiral-Phase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Sigler, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2014 (2014), s. 1251-1260 ISSN 0024-4201 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/0215 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : triacylglycerols * atmospheric pressure Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.854, year: 2014

  2. High triacylglycerol turnover rate in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sacchetti, Massimo; Saltin, Bengt; Olsen, David B

    2004-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the relationship between plasma fatty acids (FA) and intramuscular triacylglycerol (IMTAG) kinetics of healthy volunteers. With this aim [U-(13)C]-palmitate was infused for 10 h and FA kinetics determined across the leg. In addition, the rate of FA incorporation...

  3. Improved Triacylglycerol Production in Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 by Metabolic Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karp Matti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triacylglycerols are used in various purposes including food applications, cosmetics, oleochemicals and biofuels. Currently the main sources for triacylglycerol are vegetable oils, and microbial triacylglycerol has been suggested as an alternative for these. Due to the low production rates and yields of microbial processes, the role of metabolic engineering has become more significant. As a robust model organism for genetic and metabolic studies, and for the natural capability to produce triacylglycerol, Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 serves as an excellent organism for modelling the effects of metabolic engineering for energy molecule biosynthesis. Results Beneficial gene deletions regarding triacylglycerol production were screened by computational means exploiting the metabolic model of ADP1. Four deletions, acr1, poxB, dgkA, and a triacylglycerol lipase were chosen to be studied experimentally both separately and concurrently by constructing a knock-out strain (MT with three of the deletions. Improvements in triacylglycerol production were observed: the strain MT produced 5.6 fold more triacylglycerol (mg/g cell dry weight compared to the wild type strain, and the proportion of triacylglycerol in total lipids was increased by 8-fold. Conclusions In silico predictions of beneficial gene deletions were verified experimentally. The chosen single and multiple gene deletions affected beneficially the natural triacylglycerol metabolism of A. baylyi ADP1. This study demonstrates the importance of single gene deletions in triacylglycerol metabolism, and proposes Acinetobacter sp. ADP1 as a model system for bioenergetic studies regarding metabolic engineering.

  4. Water-soluble dietary fibers and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuwissen, Elke; Mensink, Ronald P

    2008-05-23

    One well-established way to reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) is to lower serum LDL cholesterol levels by reducing saturated fat intake. However, the importance of other dietary approaches, such as increasing the intake of water-soluble dietary fibers is increasingly recognized. Well-controlled intervention studies have now shown that four major water-soluble fiber types-beta-glucan, psyllium, pectin and guar gum-effectively lower serum LDL cholesterol concentrations, without affecting HDL cholesterol or triacylglycerol concentrations. It is estimated that for each additional gram of water-soluble fiber in the diet serum total and LDL cholesterol concentrations decrease by -0.028 mmol/L and -0.029 mmol/L, respectively. Despite large differences in molecular structure, no major differences existed between the different types of water-soluble fiber, suggesting a common underlying mechanism. In this respect, it is most likely that water-soluble fibers lower the (re)absorption of in particular bile acids. As a result hepatic conversion of cholesterol into bile acids increases, which will ultimately lead to increased LDL uptake by the liver. Additionally, epidemiological studies suggest that a diet high in water-soluble fiber is inversely associated with the risk of CVD. These findings underlie current dietary recommendations to increase water-soluble fiber intake.

  5. SUCROSE TRANSPORTER 5 supplies Arabidopsis embryos with biotin and affects triacylglycerol accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommerrenig, Benjamin; Popko, Jennifer; Heilmann, Mareike; Schulmeister, Sylwia; Dietel, Katharina; Schmitt, Bianca; Stadler, Ruth; Feussner, Ivo; Sauer, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    The Arabidopsis SUC5 protein represents a classical sucrose/H+ symporter. Functional analyses previously revealed that SUC5 also transports biotin, an essential co-factor for fatty acid synthesis. However, evidence for a dual role in transport of the structurally unrelated compounds sucrose and biotin in plants was lacking. Here we show that SUC5 localizes to the plasma membrane, and that the SUC5 gene is expressed in developing embryos, confirming the role of the SUC5 protein as substrate carrier across apoplastic barriers in seeds. We show that transport of biotin but not of sucrose across these barriers is impaired in suc5 mutant embryos. In addition, we show that SUC5 is essential for the delivery of biotin into the embryo of biotin biosynthesis-defective mutants (bio1 and bio2). We compared embryo and seedling development as well as triacylglycerol accumulation and fatty acid composition in seeds of single mutants (suc5, bio1 or bio2), double mutants (suc5 bio1 and suc5 bio2) and wild-type plants. Although suc5 mutants were like the wild-type, bio1 and bio2 mutants showed developmental defects and reduced triacylglycerol contents. In suc5 bio1 and suc5 bio2 double mutants, developmental defects were severely increased and the triacylglycerol content was reduced to a greater extent in comparison to the single mutants. Supplementation with externally applied biotin helped to reduce symptoms in both single and double mutants, but the efficacy of supplementation was significantly lower in double than in single mutants, showing that transport of biotin into the embryo is lower in the absence of SUC5. PMID:23031218

  6. Triacylglycerol secretion in rats: validation of a tracer method employing radioactive glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, M.; Williams, M.A.; Baker, N.

    1984-01-01

    A two-compartment model was developed to analyze the temporal changes in plasma triacylglycerol (TG)-specific radioactivity after injection of [2- 3 H]glycerol into rats. The analysis, which yielded fractional rate constants of TG secretion, was tested in rats fed diets either adequate or deficient in essential fatty acids (EFA) and containing either glucose, fructose or sucrose as the dietary carbohydrate. The method of analysis appeared valid, first, because of a close agreement between experimental and computer-fitted TG-specific radioactivity curves, and second, because the fractional rate constants obtained were quite similar to fractional rate constants determined previously by the Triton WR-1339 technique in rats maintained on identical diets. The results show that EFA deficiency increased the fractional rate constant of TG secretion 1.7-, 1.8- and 3.3-fold and the rate of TG secretion 1.8-, 1.6- and 1.4-fold when the dietary carbohydrate was glucose, sucrose and fructose, respectively, in comparison with control rats fed diets supplying these same carbohydrates but adequate in EFA. In the latter groups, the rates of plasma TG secretion were in the range of 0.14-0.17 mg/min per 100 g body weight, and the rate of secretion in the fructose-fed rats was only 20% higher than in the glucose-fed rats

  7. Relationships between molecular structure and kinetic and thermodynamic controls in lipid systems. Part II: Phase behavior and transformation paths of SSS, PSS and PPS saturated triacylglycerols--effect of chain length mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzidi, Laziz; Narine, Suresh S

    2012-01-01

    The kinetic phase behavior and phase transformation paths of purified tristearoylglycerol (SSS), 3-palmitoyl-1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycerol (PSS) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-stearoyl-sn-glycerol (PPS) were investigated in terms of polymorphism, crystallization and melting. The details of the phase transformation paths were obtained using the heating cycles of two sets of experiments: (a) cooling rate was varied and heating rate fixed and (b) cooling rate was fixed and heating rate varied. Kinetic effects were manifest in all measured properties, underscoring the complexity of the phase transformation paths for each TAG, and the intricate thermodynamics-molecular relationships. For the first time, XRD data obtained for SSS, PSS and PPS TAGs, cooled at rates higher than 0.5°C/min, suggested the formation of a transient structure similar to the so-called α(2)-phase which has been observed in mixed saturated-unsaturated TAGs quenched from the melt. The more stable phases (β' in PSS and PPS, and β in SSS) were only observed for cooling rates lower than 1.0°C/min. The kinetic and thermodynamic differences observed in the crystallization, structure and melting of SSS, PSS and PPS are proposed to be mainly due to the disturbances introduced at the "terrace" level via methyl-end group interactions, i.e., the missing of two or four CH(2) groups compared to SSS. The symmetrical SSS with a relatively flat "terrace" crystallizes preferably in the most stable β-form. Two missing CH(2) groups at the sn-1 position (PSS) introduces enough structural disturbances to promote the relative prevalence and persistence of the β'-phase, and four missing CH(2) groups at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions (PPS) is relatively too large of a disturbance and therefore favors the α-form. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fat-specific protein 27 regulates storage of triacylglycerol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, P.; Petrie, J.T.; Rose, P. De

    2008-01-01

    FSP27 (fat-specific protein 27) is a member of the cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor-alpha-like effector (CIDE) family. Although Cidea and Cideb were initially characterized as activators of apoptosis, recent studies have demonstrated important metabolic roles for these proteins...... in several cell types without induction of adipocyte genes. Increased triacylglycerol is likely due to decreased beta-oxidation of nonesterified fatty acids. Altered flux of fatty acids into triacylglycerol may be a direct effect of FSP27 function, which is localized to lipid droplets in 293T cells and 3T3-L...... decreases with total fat mass but is not associated with measures of insulin resistance (e.g. homeostasis model assessment). Together, these data indicate that FSP27 binds to lipid droplets and regulates their enlargement Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5/23...

  9. [The role of nutritional factors on the structure and function of the brain: an update on dietary requirements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourre, J-M

    2004-09-01

    The brain is an organ elaborated and functioning from substances present in the diet. Dietary regulation of blood glucose level (via ingestion of food with a low glycemic index ensuring a low insulin level) improves the quality and duration of intellectual performance, if only because at rest the adult brain consumes 50 p. 100 of dietary carbohydrates, 80 p. 100 of them for energy purposes. The nature of the amino acid composition of dietary proteins contributes to good cerebral function; tryptophan plays a special role. Many indispensable amino acids present in dietary proteins help to elaborate neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. Omega-3 fatty acids provided the first coherent experimental demonstration of the effect of dietary nutrients on the structure and function of the brain. First it was shown that the differentiation and functioning of cultured brain cells requires omega-3 fatty acids. It was then demonstrated that alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) deficiency alters the course of brain development, perturbs the composition and physicochemical properties of brain cell membranes, neurones, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes (ALA). This leads to physicochemical modifications, induces biochemical and physiological perturbations, and results in neurosensory and behavioral upset. Consequently, the nature of polyunsaturated fatty acids (in particular omega-3) present in formula milks for infants (premature and term) conditions the visual and cerebral abilities, including intellectual abilities. Moreover, dietary omega-3 fatty acids are certainly involved in the prevention of some aspects of cardiovascular disease (including at the level of cerebral vascularization), and in some neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly depression, as well as in dementia, notably Alzheimer's disease. Their deficiency can prevent the satisfactory renewal of membranes and thus accelerate cerebral aging. Iron is necessary to ensure oxygenation, to produce energy in the cerebral parenchyma

  10. Triacylglycerols in some underutilised tropical seed oils 1. Systematic studies of ten oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adebowale, K.O.; Adebowale, Y.A.; Nicholson, G.

    2002-05-01

    Triacylglycerols composition of ten lesser known and underutilised tropical seed oils have been determined. The seed oils include Monodora tenuifolia, Monodora myristica, Colocynthis citrullus, Cyperus esculentus, Cucumeropsis edulis, Andenopus breviflorus, Telfairia occidentalis, Blighia sapida, Antiaris africana and Sesame indicum. In the Moreaceae family (M. tenuifolia, M. myristica) the dominant triacylglycerol are OPO/POO, LLO, OOL, and OOO. They accounted for over 60% of the total triacylglycerol content in the oils. In the Cyperaceae family (C. esculentus), OPP/POO, POL and OOO accounted for over 80% of the total triacylglycerol content. In the Cucurbitaceae family, SSP was the dominant triacylglycerol specie in A. breviflorus, while OPO/POO and OOO were the dominant species in C. citrullus and C. edulis. Blighia sapida recorded a different distribution of triacylglycerols composition. PLL occurred at the highest concentration, while other high molecular weight triacylglycerols were also identified in the oil. They include, SSA, OSA, LSA, OAA and LLA. Analysis of A. antiaris oil showed a different pattern in the distribution of the triacylglycerols. LaLaM, MMLa and LaLaLa accounted for about 80% of the total triacylglycerols. This result reflected the fatty acid composition of the oil. Lauric acid (C12:0) and Myristic acid (C14:0) accounted for 71.5% of the total fatty acid. The possible use of the oils as cocoa butter equivalents CBEs and cocoa butter substitutes CBSs are discussed. (author)

  11. Buoyant triacylglycerol-filled green algae and methods therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, Ursula; Goodson, Carrie

    2015-04-14

    Cultures of Chlamydomonas are disclosed comprising greater than 340 mg/l triacylglycerols (TAG). The cultures can include buoyant Chlamydomonas. Methods of forming the cultures are also disclosed. In some embodiments, these methods comprise providing Chlamydomonas growing in log phase in a first culture medium comprising a nitrogen source and acetate, replacing the first culture medium with a second medium comprising acetate but no nitrogen source, and subsequently supplementing the second medium with additional acetate. In some embodiments, a culture can comprise at least 1,300 mg/l triacyglycerols. In some embodiments, cultures can be used to produce a biofuel such as biodiesel.

  12. The position of rumenic acid on triacylglycerols alters its bioavailability in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardigny, J M; Masson, E; Sergiel, J P; Darbois, M; Loreau, O; Noël, J P; Sébédio, J-L

    2003-12-01

    The metabolic fate of rumenic acid (9cis,11trans-octadecenoic acid) related to its position on the glycerol moiety has not yet been studied. In the present work, synthetic triacylglycerols (TAG) esterified with oleic and rumenic acids were prepared. Rats were force-fed synthetic dioleyl monorumenyl glycerol with (14)C labeled rumenic acid in the internal (sn-2) or in the external position (sn-1 or sn-3). Rats were then placed in metabolic cages for 16 h. At the end of the experiment, the radioactivity in tissues, carcass and expired CO(2) was measured. Rumenic acid that was esterified at the external positions on the TAG was better absorbed and oxidized to a greater extent than when esterified at the internal position. The fatty acid from the 2-TAG form was also better incorporated into the rat carcass. In the liver, rumenic acid appeared mainly in TAG (50%) and to a lesser extent in phospholipids (33%) whatever its dietary form. Moreover, analyses of lipids from Camembert cheese and butter revealed that rumenic acid was located mainly on the sn-1 or sn-3 positions (74%). Taken together, these data suggest that rumenic acid from dairy fat may be well absorbed and used extensively for energy production.

  13. Characterization of non-endcapped polymeric ODS column for the separation of triacylglycerol positional isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Naohiro; Matsumoto, Yumiko; Yuji, Hiromi; Nagai, Toshiharu; Mizobe, Hoyo; Ichioka, Kenji; Kuroda, Ikuma; Noguchi, Noriko; Wada, Shun

    2010-01-01

    The characteristics of a non-endcapped polymeric ODS column for the resolution of triacylglycerol positional isomers (TAG-PI) were examined using a recycle HPLC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry system. A pair of TAG-PI containing saturated fatty acids at least 12 carbons was separated. Except for TAG-PI containing elaidic acid, pairs of TAG-PI containing three unsaturated fatty acids were not separated, even by recycle runs. These results indicate that the resolution of TAG-PI on a non-endcapped polymeric ODS stationary phase is realized by the recognition of the linear structure of the fatty acid and the binding position of the saturated fatty acid in TAG-PI. Chain length was also an important factor for resolution. This method may be a useful and simple for measuring the abundance ratio of TAG-PI containing saturated fatty acids in natural oils.

  14. Conjugated Linoleic Triacylglycerols Exhibit Superior Lymphatic Absorption Than Free Conjugate Linoleic Acids and Have Antiobesity Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hyunjoon; Chung, Min-Yu; Kim, Juyeon; Kong, Daecheol; Min, Jinyoung; Choi, Hee-Don; Choi, In-Wook; Kim, In-Hwan; Noh, Sang K; Kim, Byung Hee

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to compare lymphatic absorption of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) in the triacylglycerol (TAG) or free fatty acid (FFA) form and to examine the antiobesity effects of different doses of CLAs in the TAG form in animals. Conjugated linoleic TAGs (containing 70.3 wt% CLAs; CLA-TAG) were prepared through lipase-catalyzed esterification of glycerol with commercial CLA mixtures (CLA-FFA). Lymphatic absorption of CLA-TAG and CLA-FFA was compared in a rat model of lymphatic cannulation. Greater amounts of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 CLAs were detected in the collected lymph from a lipid emulsion containing CLA-TAG. This result suggests that CLA-TAG has greater capacity for lymphatic absorption than does CLA-FFA. The antiobesity efficacy of CLA-TAG at different doses was examined in mice with diet-induced obesity. A high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks caused a significant increase in body weight and epididymal and retroperitoneal fat weights, which were significantly decreased by 2% dietary supplementation (w/w) with CLA-TAG. CLA-TAG at 2% significantly attenuated the HFD-induced upregulation of serum TAG, but led to hepatomegaly and exacerbated HFD-induced hypercholesterolemia. CLA-TAG at 1% significantly attenuated upregulation of retroperitoneal fat weight and significantly increased liver weight, which was decreased by the HFD. Nonetheless, the liver weight in group "HFD +1% CLA-TAG" was not significantly different from that of normal diet controls. CLA-TAG at 1% significantly reduced serum TAG levels and did not exacerbate HFD-induced hypercholesterolemia. Thus, 1% dietary supplementation with CLA-TAG reduces retroperitoneal fat weight without apparent hepatomegaly, a known side-effect of CLAs in mouse models of obesity.

  15. Dietary 2-oxoglutarate mitigates gastrectomy-evoked structural changes in cartilage of female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolski, Piotr; Tomaszewska, Ewa; Kurlak, Paulina; Pierzynowski, Stefan G

    2016-01-01

    Gastrectomy (Gx) leads to osteopenia/osteoporosis in humans and animals. However, little is known about the influence of Gx on the cartilage in this regard. Recent studies have demonstrated a protective effect of 2-oxoglutaric acid (2-Ox) on bone and cartilage. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether 2-Ox can mitigate eventual Gx-induced cartilage impairment. Twenty female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to Gx and randomly divided into two groups: Gx + 2-Ox and Gx. Another 20 rats were sham-operated (ShO) and randomly divided into two groups: ShO + 2-Ox and ShO. The daily dose of 2-Ox administered to the rats in the drinking water was 0.43 g per 100 g rat. After eight weeks, rats were euthanized and femora and tibiae were collected. Histology and histomorphometry analyses of the articular cartilage and the growth plate were done. Gx resulted in a 32% (±44.5 femur, ±35.8 tibia) decrease in overall thickness of articular cartilage in both bones (femur: ShO 279.1 ± 48.5 vs. Gx 190.2 ± 38.4 µm, tibia: ShO 222.9 ± 50.3 µm vs. Gx 151.3 ± 52.6 µm) (in some zones up to 58 ± 28.0%), and in the growth plate up to 20% (±22.4) (femur: ShO 243.0 ± 34.0 vs. Gx 207.0 ± 33.7 µm, tibia: ShO 220.0 ± 24.6 µm vs. Gx 171.1 ± 16.1 µm). Gx altered the spatial distribution of thick and thin collagen fibers, and chondrocyte shape and size. 2-Ox administration prevented the reduction in both cartilages thickness (Gx + 2-Ox: articular cartilage 265.2 ± 53.8 µm, 235.6 ± 42.7 µm, growth plate 236.7 ± 39.2 µm, 191.3 ± 16.5 µm in femur and tibia, respectively), and abolished the spatial changes in collagen distribution and structure induced by Gx. Gx affects cartilage structure and thickness, however, 2-Ox administration mitigates these effects and showed protective and stimulatory properties. Our observations suggest that dietary 2-Ox can be used to offset

  16. Decreased dietary fiber intake and structural alteration of gut microbiota in patients with advanced colorectal adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Min; Yu, Ya-Nan; Wang, Ji-Lin; Lin, Yan-Wei; Kong, Xuan; Yang, Chang-Qing; Yang, Li; Liu, Zhan-Ju; Yuan, Yao-Zong; Liu, Fei; Wu, Jian-Xin; Zhong, Liang; Fang, Dian-Chun; Zou, Weiping; Fang, Jing-Yuan

    2013-05-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that diet is one of the most important environmental factors involved in the progression from advanced colorectal adenoma (A-CRA) to colorectal cancer. We evaluated the possible effects of dietary fiber on the fecal microbiota of patients with A-CRA. Patients with a diagnosis of A-CRA by pathological examination were enrolled in the A-CRA group. Patients with no obvious abnormalities or histopathological changes were enrolled in the healthy control (HC) group. Dietary fiber intake was assessed in all patients. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in feces were detected by gas chromatography. The fecal microbiota community was analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing based on 16S ribosomal RNA. Lower dietary fiber patterns and consistently lower SCFA production were observed in the A-CRA group (n = 344). Principal component analysis showed distinct differences in the fecal microbiota communities of the 2 groups. Clostridium, Roseburia, and Eubacterium spp. were significantly less prevalent in the A-CRA group (n = 47) than in the HC group (n = 47), whereas Enterococcus and Streptococcus spp. were more prevalent in the A-CRA group (n = 47) (all P < 0.05). Butyrate and butyrate-producing bacteria were more prevalent in a subgroup of HC subjects with a high fiber intake than in those in both the low-fiber HC subgroup and the high-fiber A-CRA subgroup (all P < 0.05). A high-fiber dietary pattern and subsequent consistent production of SCFAs and healthy gut microbiota are associated with a reduced risk of A-CRA. This trial was registered at www.chictr.org as ChiCTR-TRC-00000123.

  17. Survey the of building and dietary structure of local residents around Yangjiang and Hongyanhe nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Yekan; Lei Cuiping; Sun Quanfu; Fan Yaohua; Huang Zhibiao; Cui Yong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide a guide in the course of the daily operation and accident emergency response. Methods: The survey was conducted with questionnaires among heads of households collected by stratified radom sampling. The head of a household was asked about residential type and structure, the sources of drinking water, milk, type and frequency of main vegetables. Results: Two-storied and more than two-storied houses were dominant around Yangjiang nuclear power plant, single-storey houses and tile-roofed houses were dominant around Hongyanhe nuclear power plant. The top three of wall construction materials around the two nuclear power plants were orderly brick, stone and beton. Glass window shelters were in the majority. Drinking water of residents was mainly from wells and waterworks. Milk comes from nonlocal packaged products. The top five high frequency vegetables the residents around Yangjiang nuclear power plants eat were orderly cabbage, zucchini, string beans, tong dish, cucumber, and those around Yangjiang nuclear power plant were orderly chinese cabbage, leek, celery, cabbage, spinach. Conclusion: Building and dietary structure around Yangjiang and Hongyanhe nuclear power plants are incongruence. Government can make decisions to collect foods for nuclides monitoring according to building and dietary structure baseline data, and take emergency measures to direct nuclear safety radiation protection for residents when nuclear accident takes place. (authors)

  18. Influence of maternal dietary n-3 fatty acids on breast milk and liver lipids of rat dams and offspring - a preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, M.S.; Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2003-01-01

    The impact of triacylglycerol (TAG) structure and level of n-3 fatty acids on the fatty acid profile of total breast milk lipids and total liver phospholipids (PL) of dams and offspring (1, 3 and 13 weeks of age), when administered during development, was examined. Pregnant rats were fed experime......The impact of triacylglycerol (TAG) structure and level of n-3 fatty acids on the fatty acid profile of total breast milk lipids and total liver phospholipids (PL) of dams and offspring (1, 3 and 13 weeks of age), when administered during development, was examined. Pregnant rats were fed...... experimental diets from the 8(th) day of pregnancy throughout lactation. After weaning and until 13 weeks of age, the offspring were fed the same diet as their dams. The experimental diets contained either a specific structured oil, linseed oil or fish oil. In the specific structured oil, a-linolenic acid (18...... fatty acids. Samples from three animals in each group were analyzed. The highest level of 22:6n-3 in the breast milk was obtained with diets containing this fatty acid itself. The fatty acid profile of rat dam liver PL was very different from the milk lipids indicating that the maternal dietary fats...

  19. Rapid Quantification of Low-Viscosity Acetyl-Triacylglycerols Using Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sunil; Durrett, Timothy P

    2016-09-01

    Acetyl-triacylglycerols (acetyl-TAG) possess an sn-3 acetate group, which confers useful chemical and physical properties to these unusual triacylglycerols (TAG). Current methods for quantification of acetyl-TAG are time consuming and do not provide any information on the molecular species profile. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS)-based methods can overcome these drawbacks. However, the ESI-MS signal intensity for TAG depends on the aliphatic chain length and unsaturation index of the molecule. Therefore response factors for different molecular species need to be determined before any quantification. The effects of the chain length and the number of double-bonds of the sn-1/2 acyl groups on the signal intensity for the neutral loss of short chain length sn-3 groups were quantified using a series of synthesized sn-3 specific structured TAG. The signal intensity for the neutral loss of the sn-3 acyl group was found to negatively correlated with the aliphatic chain length and unsaturation index of the sn-1/2 acyl groups. The signal intensity of the neutral loss of the sn-3 acyl group was also negatively correlated with the size of that chain. Further, the position of the group undergoing neutral loss was also important, with the signal from an sn-2 acyl group much lower than that from one located at sn-3. Response factors obtained from these analyses were used to develop a method for the absolute quantification of acetyl-TAG. The increased sensitivity of this ESI-MS-based approach allowed successful quantification of acetyl-TAG in various biological settings, including the products of in vitro enzyme activity assays.

  20. Influence of apolipoprotein A-V on the metabolic fate of triacylglycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vineeta; Forte, Trudy M; Ryan, Robert O

    2013-04-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) A-V functions to modulate intracellular and extracellular triacylglycerol metabolism. The present review addresses molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. The relevance of apoA-V to human disease conditions is illustrated by the strong correlation between single nucleotide polymorphisms in APOA5, elevated plasma triacylglycerol and dyslipidemic disease. Despite undergoing processing for secretion from hepatocytes, a portion of apoA-V escapes this destiny and accumulates as a component of cytosolic lipid droplets. Expression of recombinant apoA-V in hepatocarcinoma cells results in increased lipid droplet size and number at the expense of triacylglycerol secretion.ApoA-V modulates atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic apoE null mice. ApoE null/human apoA-V transgenic mice had reduced levels of triacylglycerol and cholesterol in plasma along with decreased aortic lesion size. ApoA-V modulates triacylglycerol metabolic fate. Following its synthesis, apoA-V enters the endoplasmic reticulum and associates with membrane defects created by triacylglycerol accumulation. Association of apoA-V with endoplasmic reticulum membrane defects promotes nascent lipid droplets budding toward the cytosol. Despite its low concentration in plasma (∼150 ng/ml), apoA-V modulates lipoprotein metabolism by binding to glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein binding protein 1. This interaction effectively localizes triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in the vicinity of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein binding protein1's other ligand, lipoprotein lipase.

  1. Thematic review series: glycerolipids. DGAT enzymes and triacylglycerol biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chi-Liang Eric; Stone, Scot J; Koliwad, Suneil; Harris, Charles; Farese, Robert V

    2008-11-01

    Triacylglycerols (triglycerides) (TGs) are the major storage molecules of metabolic energy and FAs in most living organisms. Excessive accumulation of TGs, however, is associated with human diseases, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and steatohepatitis. The final and the only committed step in the biosynthesis of TGs is catalyzed by acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzymes. The genes encoding two DGAT enzymes, DGAT1 and DGAT2, were identified in the past decade, and the use of molecular tools, including mice deficient in either enzyme, has shed light on their functions. Although DGAT enzymes are involved in TG synthesis, they have distinct protein sequences and differ in their biochemical, cellular, and physiological functions. Both enzymes may be useful as therapeutic targets for diseases. Here we review the current knowledge of DGAT enzymes, focusing on new advances since the cloning of their genes, including possible roles in human health and diseases.

  2. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for overproduction of triacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Raphael; Teixeira, Paulo Goncalves; Gossing, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are valuable versatile compounds that can be used as metabolites for nutrition and health, as well as feedstocks for biofuel production. Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the favored microbial cell factory for industrial production of biochemicals, it does not produce...... large amounts of lipids and TAGs comprise only ~1% of its cell dry weight. Here, we engineered S. cerevisiae to reorient its metabolism for overproduction of TAGs, by regulating lipid droplet associated-proteins involved in TAG synthesis and hydrolysis. We implemented a push-and-pull strategy...... PXA1 led to accumulation of  254 mg∙gCDW−1. The TAG levels achieved here are the highest titer reported in S. cerevisiae, reaching 27.4% of the maximum theoretical yield in minimal medium with 2% glucose. This work shows the potential of using an industrially established and robust yeast species...

  3. Enrichment of probiotic ice cream with different dietary fibers: Structural characteristics and culture viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akalın, A S; Kesenkas, H; Dinkci, N; Unal, G; Ozer, E; Kınık, O

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of 5 dietary fibers (apple, orange, oat, bamboo, and wheat) on the physicochemical, rheological, and textural characteristics; sensory properties; and culture viability of probiotic ice cream stored at -18°C for 180 d. The presence of orange and apple fibers increased the titratable acidity, decreased the lightness (color) value of the ice creams, and enhanced the red and yellow coloration. Compared with the control sample, the consistency indices and apparent viscosities of the experimental samples increased with the addition of all dietary fibers except oat fiber. The highest viscosity was obtained in the sample fortified with apple fiber, whereas the ice cream containing orange fiber showed the highest hardness after d 60 of storage. The addition of orange and apple fibers significantly increased melting resistance; however, panelists did not generally like these samples in terms of taste-flavor. All ice creams had viable counts of Lactobacillus acidophilus of ≥7 log cfu/g during storage except the samples with orange and bamboo fiber. Bifidobacterium lactis counts were also found to be >6 log cfu/g in those samples until d 150 of storage. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prolonged Intake of Dietary Lipids Alters Membrane Structure and T Cell Responses in LDLr-/- Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Abigail H; Tedla, Nicodemus; Hancock, Sarah E; Cornely, Rhea; Mitchell, Todd W; Yang, Zhengmin; Kockx, Maaike; Parton, Robert G; Rossy, Jérémie; Gaus, Katharina

    2016-05-15

    Although it is recognized that lipids and membrane organization in T cells affect signaling and T cell activation, to what extent dietary lipids alter T cell responsiveness in the absence of obesity and inflammation is not known. In this study, we fed low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice a Western high-fat diet for 1 or 9 wk and examined T cell responses in vivo along with T cell lipid composition, membrane order, and activation ex vivo. Our data showed that high levels of circulating lipids for a prolonged period elevated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell proliferation and resulted in an increased proportion of CD4(+) central-memory T cells within the draining lymph nodes following induction of contact hypersensitivity. In addition, the 9-wk Western high-fat diet elevated the total phospholipid content and monounsaturated fatty acid level, but decreased saturated phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin within the T cells. The altered lipid composition in the circulation, and of T cells, was also reflected by enhanced membrane order at the activation site of ex vivo activated T cells that corresponded to increased IL-2 mRNA levels. In conclusion, dietary lipids can modulate T cell lipid composition and responses in lipoprotein receptor knockout mice even in the absence of excess weight gain and a proinflammatory environment. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  5. Dietary fibers - purification, structure and their health benefits with particular reference to feruloyl arabinoxylans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, Shyama Prasad; Muralikrishna, G

    2011-01-01

    The nature of carbohydrates present in the food is growing field of interest within the food industry due to the potential of some of them to help prevent diseases of lifestyle. Non-glycemic carbohydrates, i.e., those carbohydrates (or their components) that are not absorbed in the small intestine...... and, therefore, transit down to become fermented in the colon, have drawn lot of attention. In fact, food carbohydrates can be broadly classified on the basis of their in vivo digestibility into digestible and non-digestible carbohydrates (Table1) (Asp, 1996; Englyst et al., 1992). Non......-digestible carbohydrates have been collectively referred to as ‘dietary fibre’ (Hipsley, 1953). Some of these carbohydrates are of particular interest to the food industry for the purpose of developing ‘functional foods’, i.e., foods that are able to exert positive health effects. Non-digestible oligo...

  6. A Phospholipid-Protein Complex from Krill with Antioxidative and Immunomodulating Properties Reduced Plasma Triacylglycerol and Hepatic Lipogenesis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie S. Ramsvik

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intake of marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs can change the plasma profile from atherogenic to cardioprotective. In addition, there is growing evidence that proteins of marine origin may have health benefits. We investigated a phospholipid-protein complex (PPC from krill that is hypothesized to influence lipid metabolism, inflammation, and redox status. Male Wistar rats were fed a control diet (2% soy oil, 8% lard, 20% casein, or diets where corresponding amounts of casein and lard were replaced with PPC at 3%, 6%, or 11% (wt %, for four weeks. Dietary supplementation with PPC resulted in significantly lower levels of plasma triacylglycerols in the 11% PPC-fed group, probably due to reduced hepatic lipogenesis. Plasma cholesterol levels were also reduced at the highest dose of PPC. In addition, the plasma and liver content of n-3 PUFAs increased while n-6 PUFAs decreased. This was associated with increased total antioxidant capacity in plasma and increased liver gene expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (Sod2. Finally, a reduced plasma level of the inflammatory mediator interleukin-2 (IL-2 was detected in the PPC-fed animals. The present data show that PPC has lipid-lowering effects in rats, and may modulate risk factors related to cardiovascular disease progression.

  7. The transport of DDT from chylomicrons to adipocytes does not mimic triacylglycerol transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohan, Alison B.; Vandersall, Abbey E.; Yang, Qing; Xu, Min; Jandacek, Ronald J.; Tso, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Despite being banned in the U.S., organochlorine toxins such as DDT are frequently detected in human adipose tissue. The main route of exposure is through the consumption of contaminated foods and subsequent intestinal packaging of DDT into chylomicrons. These chylomicrons, which also contain dietary triacylglycerol (TG), are delivered directly to peripheral tissues without first being metabolized by the liver. The physiological process by which these compounds are delivered from chylomicrons to adipose is not well understood, but is clinically relevant since it bypasses first-pass metabolism. Based on its highly lipophilic nature, it has been assumed that DDT is transferred to peripheral tissues similar to TG; however, this has not been measured. Here, we use the lymph fistula rat to isolate chylomicrons containing both DDT and TG. These chylomicrons are the in vivo DDT delivery vehicle. Using 3T3-L1 adipocytes, we investigated the rate at which DDT transfers from chylomicrons to adipocytes, and mediators of this process. This novel approach closely approximates the in vivo DDT exposure route. We show that: 1) DDT repartitions from chylomicrons to adipocytes, 2) this transport does not require hydrolysis of TG within the chylomicron, and is stimulated by the inhibition of LPL, 3) albumin does not inhibit DDT uptake, 4) DDT dissolved in DMSO does not appropriately mimic in vivo DDT transport; and most importantly, 5) DDT uptake from chylomicrons does not mimic the uptake of TG from the same particles. Understanding these factors is important for designing interventions for human populations exposed to DDT. PMID:22885168

  8. Lipidomic profiling of di- and tri-acylglycerol species in weight-controlled mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenee S King

    Full Text Available Weight control by dietary calorie restriction (DCR or exercise has been shown to prevent cancer in various models. However, the mechanisms as to how weight control is beneficial are not well understood. While previous reports have investigated the effects of weight control on total lipid levels or lipid composition within cellular membranes, there has been little work surrounding changes to individual lipids following weight control interventions. In this study, using a model of skin carcinogenesis centered on the tumor promotion stage, CD-1 mice were randomly assigned into 4 groups: ad libitum and sedentary (control, ad libitum with exercise (AL+Exe, exercise with pair feeding of a diet isocaloric with control (PF+Exe, and sedentary with 20% DCR compared to control. After ten weeks, body weight and body fat percentages significantly decreased in the PF+Exe and DCR groups but not AL+Exe when compared with sedentary controls. Murine skin and plasma samples were obtained for analysis. Lipidomics using electrospray ionization MS/MS was employed to profile triacylglycerol (TG and diacylglycerol (DG species. Both plasma and tissue TG species containing fatty acid chains with length 18:1 were significantly decreased following DCR when compared to sedentary control animals. In regards to DG, the most significant changes occurred in the plasma. DG species containing fatty acids with lengths 16:1 or 18:1 were significantly decreased in PF+Exe and DCR groups when compared to sedentary controls. Due to the significant role of TG in energy storage and DG in cellular signaling, our findings of the effects of weight control on individual TG and DG species in plasma and skin tissue following exposure to a tumor promoter, may provide insight into the mechanism of weight control on cancer prevention.

  9. Efficient production of triacylglycerols rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by osmo-heterotrophic marine protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Tang, Jie; Li, Jingjing; Daroch, Maurycy; Cheng, Jay J

    2014-12-01

    Thraustochytrids have recently emerged as a promising source for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) production due to their high growth rate and oil content. In this study, two thraustochytrid isolates, Aurantiochytrium sp. PKU#SW7 and Thraustochytriidae sp. PKU#Mn16 were used for DHA production. Following growth parameters were optimized to maximize DHA production: temperature, pH, salinity, and glucose concentration. Both isolates achieved the highest DHA yield at the cultivation temperature of 28 °C, pH 6, 100 % seawater, and 2 % glucose. A DHA yield of 1.395 g/l and 1.426 g/l was achieved under the optimized culture conditions. Further investigation revealed that both isolates possess simple fatty acids profiles with palmitic acid and DHA as their dominant constituents, accounting for ∼79 % of total fatty acids. To date, very few studies have focused on the DHA distribution in various lipid fractions which is an important factor for identifying strains with a potential for industrial DHA production. In the present study, the lipids profiles of each strain both revealed that the majority of DHA was distributed in neutral lipids (NLs), and the DHA distribution in NLs of PKU#SW7 was exclusively in the form of triacylglycerols (TAGs) which suggest that PKU#SW7 could be utilized as an alternative source of DHA for dietary supplements. The fermentation process established for both strains also indicating that Aurantiochytrium sp. PKU#SW7 was more suitable for cultivation in fermenter. In addition, the high percentage of saturated fatty acids produced by the two thraustochytrids indicates their potential application in biodiesel production. Overall, our findings suggest that two thraustochytrid isolates are suitable candidates for biotechnological applications.

  10. Desaturation of excess intramyocellular triacylglycerol in obesity: implications for glycemic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, S B; Madsbad, S; Mu, Huiling

    2010-01-01

    Excess intramyocellular triacylglycerol (IMTG), found especially in obese women, is slowly metabolized and, therefore, prone to longer exposure to intracellular desaturases. Accordingly, it was hypothesized that IMTG content correlates inversely with IMTG fatty acid (FA) saturation in sedentary...

  11. Conjugated linoleic acid-rich soy oil triacylglycerol identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Rahul K; Proctor, Andrew; Jain, Vishal P; Lay, Jackson O

    2009-03-11

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-rich soy oil has been produced by soy oil linoleic acid (LA) photoisomerization, but CLA-rich oil triacylglycerol (TAG) characterization was not described. Therefore, the objectives were to identify and quantify new TAG fractions in CLA-rich oil by nonaqueous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (NARP-HPLC). Analytical NARP-HPLC with an acetonitrile/dichloromethane (ACN/DCM) gradient and an evaporating light scattering detector/ultraviolet (ELSD/UV) detector was used. New TAG peaks from LA-containing TAGs were observed. The LnLL, LLL, LLO, and LLP (Ln, linolenic; L, linoleic; O, oleic; and P, palmitic) peaks reduced after isomerization with an increase in adjacent peaks that coeluted with LnLnO, LnLO, LnOO, and LnPP. The newly formed peaks were wider than those of the original oil and absorbed at 233 nm, suggesting the possibility of various CLA containing TAGs. The HPLC profile showed five fractions of mixed TAGs, and fatty acid analysis showed that CLA isomers were found predominately in fractions 2 and 3, which originally contained most LA. The CLA isomers were 70-80% trans,trans and 20-30% cis,trans and trans,cis.

  12. Effect of dietary monensin on the bacterial population structure of dairy cattle colonic contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Jeffery A; Hamilton, Scott W; DePeters, Edward J; Mitloehner, Frank M

    2010-02-01

    To determine the effect of monensin, a carboxylic polyether ionophore antibiotic, on the bacterial population structure of dairy cattle colonic contents, we fed six lactating Holstein cows a diet containing monensin (600 mg day(-1)) or an identical diet without monensin. Fresh waste samples were taken directly from the animals once a month for 3 months and assayed for their bacterial population structure via 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. In total 6,912 16S rRNA genes were examined, comprising 345 and 315 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from the monensin fed and control animals, respectively. Coverage estimates of the OTUs identified were 87.6% for the monensin fed and 88.3% for the control colonic content derived library. Despite this high level of coverage, no significant difference was found between the libraries down to the genus level. Thus we concluded that although monensin is believed to increase milk production in dairy cattle by altering the bacterial population structure within the bovine gastrointestinal tract, we were unable to identify any significant difference in the bacterial population structure of the colonic contents of monensin fed vs. the control dairy cattle, down to the genus level.

  13. Analysis of co-crystallized free phytosterols with triacylglycerols as a functional food ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Nuria C; Franchetti, Danielle

    2016-07-01

    This research focuses on the analysis of mixtures of free phytosterols (FPSs) with fully hydrogenated soybean oil (FHSO):soybean oil (SO) mixtures as a potential zero-trans substitute for various types of shortenings. Oil binding capacity as well as the thermal, rheological and structural properties of FHSO:SO blends containing 0, 20 and 25wt.% β-sitosterol or stigmasterol were investigated in this study. Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXRD) revealed that co-crystallization of FPSs with FHSO:SO blends occurred. Polymorphic forms were characterized as a mixture of β' and β for all samples. The addition of FPSs decreased oil loss (OL) of FHSO:SO samples. Melting profiles of the prepared FPS-TAG (triacylglycerol) blends were extended to higher temperatures compared to a commercial shortening. Rheological properties were comparable to those of commercial puff pastry shortening suggesting that FPS-TAG blends may be acceptable for bakery applications. FPSs co-crystallized with FHSO and SO may be a suitable trans-fat free substitute for a number of types of shortening, including puff pastry shortening. The manufacturing of co-crystallized /FPS-TAG matrices will possibly bring large economic benefits as their functionalization can potentially be achieved by using existing simple shear processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification of triacylglycerol using automated annotation of high resolution multistage mass spectral trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiupin; Peng, Qingzhi; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Ding, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Liangxiao

    2016-10-12

    High complexity of identification for non-target triacylglycerols (TAGs) is a major challenge in lipidomics analysis. To identify non-target TAGs, a powerful tool named accurate MS(n) spectrometry generating so-called ion trees is used. In this paper, we presented a technique for efficient structural elucidation of TAGs on MS(n) spectral trees produced by LTQ Orbitrap MS(n), which was implemented as an open source software package, or TIT. The TIT software was used to support automatic annotation of non-target TAGs on MS(n) ion trees from a self-built fragment ion database. This database includes 19108 simulate TAG molecules from a random combination of fatty acids and corresponding 500582 self-built multistage fragment ions (MS ≤ 3). Our software can identify TAGs using a "stage-by-stage elimination" strategy. By utilizing the MS(1) accurate mass and referenced RKMD, the TIT software can discriminate unique elemental composition candidates. The regiospecific isomers of fatty acyl chains will be distinguished using MS(2) and MS(3) fragment spectra. We applied the algorithm to the selection of 45 TAG standards and demonstrated that the molecular ions could be 100% correctly assigned. Therefore, the TIT software could be applied to TAG identification in complex biological samples such as mouse plasma extracts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemistry and liquid chromatography methods for the analyses of primary oxidation products of triacylglycerols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeb, A

    2015-05-01

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are one of the major components of the cells in higher biological systems, which can act as an energy reservoir in the living cells. The unsaturated fatty acid moiety is the key site of oxidation and formation of oxidation compounds. The TAG free radical generates several primary oxidation compounds. These include hydroperoxides, hydroxides, epidioxides, hydroperoxy epidioxides, hydroxyl epidioxides, and epoxides. The presence of these oxidized TAGs in the cell increases the chances of several detrimental processes. For this purpose, several liquid chromatography (LC) methods were reported in their analyses. This review is therefore focused on the chemistry, oxidation, extraction, and the LC methods reported in the analyses of oxidized TAGs. The studies on thin-layer chromatography were mostly focused on the total oxidized TAGs separation and employ hexane as major solvent. High-performance LC (HPLC) methods were discussed in details along with their merits and demerits. It was found that most of the HPLC methods employed isocratic elution with methanol and acetonitrile as major solvents with an ultraviolet detector. The coupling of HPLC with mass spectrometry (MS) highly increases the efficiency of analysis as well as enables reliable structural elucidation. The use of MS was found to be helpful in studying the oxidation chemistry of TAGs and needs to be extended to the complex biological systems.

  16. Dietary quality and its structural relationships among equivalent income, emotional well-being, and a five-year subjective health in Japanese middle-aged urban dwellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Sayuri; Fujii, Nobuya; Furuhata, Tadashi; Sakurai, Naoko; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Hoshi, Tanji

    2015-01-01

    Although dietary quality in middle-age and the prime age of a person's work career might be determined by positive emotional well-being based on socioeconomic status (SES), causation among determinants of dietary quality still remains unclear. Our purpose was to elucidate the structural relationships among five-year prior dietary quality, equivalent income, emotional well-being, and a five-year subjective health by sex and age group separately. In 2003, 10,000 middle-aged urban dwellers aged 40-64 years, who lived in ward A in the Tokyo metropolitan area, were randomly selected and a questionnaire survey was conducted by mail. In 2008, we made a follow-up survey for dwellers, and were able to gather their survival status. A total of 2507, middle-aged men (n = 1112) and women (n = 1395), were examined at baseline. We created three latent variables for a structural equation modeling (SEM), five-year subjective health reported in 2003 and in 2008, dietary quality of principle food groups diversity and eating behavior in 2003, and emotional well-being constructed by enjoyment & ikigai (meaning of life) and by close people in 2003. Equivalent income in 2003 was calculated as SES indicator. In the SEM analysis of both men and women, there was an indirect effect of the equivalent income on dietary quality and on five-year subjective health, via emotional well-being explained by ikigai and having comforting people close to the individuals, significantly. There tended to be a larger direct effect of emotional well-being on the dietary quality in men than in women, and also a larger effect accompanying with aging. In women, there was a large direct effect of equivalent income on dietary quality than in men. When examined comprehensively, there appeared to be a larger effect of five-year prior equivalent income on subjective health during five-year in men than in women. This study suggests that it is necessary to support the improvement of dietary quality in middle

  17. Identification of characteristic fatty acids to quantify triacylglycerols in microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peili eShen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid profiles of lipids from microalgae are unique. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are generally enriched in polar lipids, whereas saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids constitute the majority of fatty acids in triacylglycerols (TAG. Each species has characteristic fatty acids, and their content is positively or negatively correlated with TAGs. The marine oleaginous diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was used as the paradigm to determine the quantitative relationship between TAG and characteristic fatty acid content. Fatty acid profiles and TAG content of Phaeodactylum tricornutum were determined in a time course. C16:0/C16:1 and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3 were identified as characteristic fatty acids in TAGs and polar lipids, respectively. The percentage of those characteristic fatty acids in total fatty acids had a significant linear relationship with TAG content and thus the correlation coefficient presenting r2 were 0.96, 0.94 and 0.97 respectively. The fatty acid-based method for TAG quantification could also be applied to other microalgae such as Nannochloropsis oceanica in which the r2 of C16:0, EPA were 0.94, 0.97 respectively and Chlorella pyrenoidosa, whose r2 value correspondingly between C18:1, C18:3 and TAG content were 0.91, 0.99 as well. This characteristic fatty acid-based method provided a distinct way to quantify TAGs in microalgae, by which TAGs could be measured precisely by immediate transesterification from wet biomass rather than using conventional methods. This procedure simplified the operation and required smaller samples than conventional methods.

  18. Triacylglycerol Storage in Lipid Droplets in Procyclic Trypanosoma brucei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Allmann

    Full Text Available Carbon storage is likely to enable adaptation of trypanosomes to nutritional challenges or bottlenecks during their stage development and migration in the tsetse. Lipid droplets are candidates for this function. This report shows that feeding of T. brucei with oleate results in a 4-5 fold increase in the number of lipid droplets, as quantified by confocal fluorescence microscopy and by flow cytometry of BODIPY 493/503-stained cells. The triacylglycerol (TAG content also increased 4-5 fold, and labeled oleate is incorporated into TAG. Fatty acid carbon can thus be stored as TAG in lipid droplets under physiological growth conditions in procyclic T. brucei. β-oxidation has been suggested as a possible catabolic pathway for lipids in T. brucei. A single candidate gene, TFEα1 with coding capacity for a subunit of the trifunctional enzyme complex was identified. TFEα1 is expressed in procyclic T. brucei and present in glycosomal proteomes, Unexpectedly, a TFEα1 gene knock-out mutant still expressed wild-type levels of previously reported NADP-dependent 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity, and therefore, another gene encodes this enzymatic activity. Homozygous Δtfeα1/Δtfeα1 null mutant cells show a normal growth rate and an unchanged glycosomal proteome in procyclic T. brucei. The decay kinetics of accumulated lipid droplets upon oleate withdrawal can be fully accounted for by the dilution effect of cell division in wild-type and Δtfeα1/Δtfeα1 cells. The absence of net catabolism of stored TAG in procyclic T. brucei, even under strictly glucose-free conditions, does not formally exclude a flux through TAG, in which biosynthesis equals catabolism. Also, the possibility remains that TAG catabolism is completely repressed by other carbon sources in culture media or developmentally activated in post-procyclic stages in the tsetse.

  19. An examination of structure-function claims in dietary supplement advertising in the U.S.: 2003-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Rosemary J; Eisenberg, Matthew D; Cantor, Jonathan H

    2017-04-01

    Dietary supplement advertising cannot claim a causal link between the product and the treatment, prevention, or cure of a disease unless manufacturers seek approval from the FDA for a health claim. Manufacturers can make structure-function (S-F) claims without FDA approval linking a supplement to a body function or system using words such as "may help" or "promotes." These S-F claims are examined in this study in order to determine whether they mimic health claims for which the FDA requires stricter scientific evidence. Data include S-F claims in supplement advertisements (N=6179) appearing in US nationally circulated magazines (N=137) from 2003 to 2009. All advertisements were comprehensively coded for S-F claims, seals of approval, and other claims of guarantee. S-F claims associate supplements with a wide variety of health conditions, many of which are serious diseases and/or ailments. A significant number of the specific verbs used in these S-F claims are indicative of disease treatment/cure effects, thereby possibly mimicking health claims to the average consumer. The strength of the clinical associations made are largely unsubstantiated in the medical literature. Claims that a product is "scientifically proven" or "guaranteed" were largely unsubstantiated by clinical literature. Ads carrying externally validating seals of approval were highly prevalent. S-F claims that strongly mimic FDA-prohibited health claims are likely to create confusion in interpretation and possible public health concerns are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of liver fat on the differential partitioning of hepatic triacylglycerol into VLDL subclasses on high and low sugar diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umpleby, A Margot; Shojaee-Moradie, Fariba; Fielding, Barbara; Li, Xuefei; Marino, Andrea; Alsini, Najlaa; Isherwood, Cheryl; Jackson, Nicola; Ahmad, Aryati; Stolinski, Michael; Lovegrove, Julie A; Johnsen, Sigurd; Jeewaka R Mendis, A S; Wright, John; Wilinska, Malgorzata E; Hovorka, Roman; Bell, Jimmy D; Thomas, E Louise; Frost, Gary S; Griffin, Bruce A

    2017-11-01

    Dietary sugars are linked to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and dyslipidaemia, but it is unknown if NAFLD itself influences the effects of sugars on plasma lipoproteins. To study this further, men with NAFLD ( n = 11) and low liver fat 'controls' ( n = 14) were fed two iso-energetic diets, high or low in sugars (26% or 6% total energy) for 12 weeks, in a randomised, cross-over design. Fasting plasma lipid and lipoprotein kinetics were measured after each diet by stable isotope trace-labelling.There were significant differences in the production and catabolic rates of VLDL subclasses between men with NAFLD and controls, in response to the high and low sugar diets. Men with NAFLD had higher plasma concentrations of VLDL 1 -triacylglycerol (TAG) after the high ( P sugar ( P diets, a lower VLDL 1 -TAG fractional catabolic rate after the high sugar diet ( P sugar diet ( P sugar diet, was to channel hepatic TAG into a higher production of VLDL 1 -TAG ( P sugars. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Structural Chromosomal Alterations Induced by Dietary Bioflavonoids in Fanconi Anemia Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Guevara

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionFanconi anemia is an autosomal recessive diseasecharacterized by a variety of congenital abnormalities,progressive bone marrow failure,increased chromosomal instability and higherrisk to acute myeloid leukemia, solid tumors. Thisentity can be considered an appropriate biologicalmodel to analyze natural substances with possiblegenotoxic effect. The aims of this study wereto describe and quantify structural chromosomalaberrations induced by 5 flavones, 2 isoflavonesand a topoisomerase II chemotherapeutic inhibitorin Fanconi anemia lymphocytes in order todetermine chromosomal numbers changes and/or type of chromosomal damage.Materials and methodsChromosomes stimulated by phytohaemagglutininM, from Fanconi anemia lymphocytes,were analysed by conventional cytogenetic culture.For each chemical substance and controls,one hundred metaphases were evaluated. Chromosomalalterations were documented by photographyand imaging analyzer. To statisticalanalysis was used chi square test to identify significantdifferences between frequencies of chromosomaldamage of basal and exposed cellcultured a P value less than 0.05.ResultsThere were 431 chromosomal alterations in1000 metaphases analysed; genistein was themore genotoxic bioflavonoid, followed in descendentorder by genistin, fisetin, kaempferol,quercetin, baicalein and miricetin. Chromosomalaberrations observed were: chromatidbreaks, chromosomal breaks, cromatid andchromosomal gaps, quadriratials exchanges,dicentrics chromosome and complex rearrangements.ConclusionBioflavonoids as genistein, genistin and fisetin,which are commonly present in the human diet,showed statistical significance in the number ofchromosomal aberrations in Fanconi anemialymphocytes, regarding the basal damage.

  2. Structural analysis and binding domain of albumin complexes with natural dietary supplement humic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Fei; Diao Jianxiong; Yang Xinling; Sun Ying

    2011-01-01

    Humic acid, a natural ionic molecule, is rapidly being recognized as one of the crucial elements in our modern diets of the new century. A biophysical protocol utilizing circular dichroism (CD), steady state and time-resolved fluorescence for the investigation of the complexation of the humic acid to the staple in vivo transporter, human serum albumin (HSA), as a model for protein-humic substances, is proclaimed. The alterations of CD and three-dimensional fluorescence suggest that the polypeptide chain of HSA partially folded after complexation with humic acid. The data of fluorescence emission displayed that the binding of humic acid to HSA is the formation of HSA-humic acid complex with an association constant of 10 4 M -1 ; this corroborates the fluorescence lifetime measurements that the static mechanism was operated. The precise binding domain of humic acid in HSA has been verified from the denaturation of albumin, hydrophobic ANS displacement, and site-specific ligands; subdomain IIA (Sudlow's site I) was earmarked to possess high-affinity for humic acid. The observations are relevant for other albumin-humic substance systems when the ligands have analogous configuration with humic acid. - Highlights: → Albumin structure partially folds upon humic acid complexation. → Static type is dominance for the diminution in the Trp-214 fluorescence.→ Subdomain IIA is designate to possess high-affinity site for humic acid.

  3. Comparison of the Incorporation of DHA in Circulatory and Neural Tissue When Provided as Triacylglycerol (TAG), Monoacylglycerol (MAG) or Phospholipids (PL) Provides New Insight into Fatty Acid Bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destaillats, Frédéric; Oliveira, Manuel; Bastic Schmid, Viktoria; Masserey-Elmelegy, Isabelle; Giuffrida, Francesca; Thakkar, Sagar K; Dupuis, Lénaïck; Gosoniu, Maria Laura; Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina

    2018-05-15

    Phospholipids (PL) or partial acylglycerols such as sn -1(3)-monoacylglycerol (MAG) are potent dietary carriers of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) and have been reported to provide superior bioavailability when compared to conventional triacylglycerol (TAG). The main objective of the present study was to compare the incorporation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in plasma, erythrocytes, retina and brain tissues in adult rats when provided as PL (PL-DHA) and MAG (MAG-DHA). Conventional dietary DHA oil containing TAG (TAG-DHA) as well as control chow diet were used to evaluate the potency of the two alternative DHA carriers over a 60-day feeding period. Fatty acid profiles were determined in erythrocytes and plasma lipids at time 0, 7, 14, 28, 35 and 49 days of the experimental period and in retina, cortex, hypothalamus, and hippocampus at 60 days. The assessment of the longitudinal evolution of DHA in erythrocyte and plasma lipids suggest that PL-DHA and MAG-DHA are efficient carriers of dietary DHA when compared to conventional DHA oil (TAG-DHA). Under these experimental conditions, both PL-DHA and MAG-DHA led to higher incorporations of DHA erythrocytes lipids compared to TAG-DHA group. After 60 days of supplementation, statistically significant increase in DHA level incorporated in neural tissues analyzed were observed in the DHA groups compared with the control. The mechanism explaining hypothetically the difference observed in circulatory lipids is discussed.

  4. Modifications of the metabolic pathways of lipid and triacylglycerol production in microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wei-Luen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Microalgae have presented themselves as a strong candidate to replace diminishing oil reserves as a source of lipids for biofuels. Here we describe successful modifications of terrestrial plant lipid content which increase overall lipid production or shift the balance of lipid production towards lipid varieties more useful for biofuel production. Our discussion ranges from the biosynthetic pathways and rate limiting steps of triacylglycerol formation to enzymes required for the formation of triacylglycerol containing exotic lipids. Secondarily, we discuss techniques for genetic engineering and modification of various microalgae which can be combined with insights gained from research in higher plants to aid in the creation of production strains of microalgae.

  5. 13-week dietary study and in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity studies of a structuring fat produced through a microalgal fermentation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Matulka

    Full Text Available Microalgae are increasingly being utilized as food ingredients for a variety of applications, including as sources of protein, egg and dairy substitutes, and cooking oils. The dietary safety of a new structuring fat produced using a heterotrophic fermentation process by a strain of Prototheca moriformis was evaluated in a 13-week dietary toxicity study and compared with kokum fat, a structuring fat of similar composition used in the food industry and derived from Garcinia indica seeds. The algal structuring fat was evaluated for its genotoxic potential using both in vitro and in vivo assays. No treatment-related adverse events occurred in rats consuming algal structuring fat or kokum fat in the 13-week study; no treatment-related effects were reported for body weight, food consumption, urinalysis, hematology, clinical chemistry, gross pathology, organ weights, or histopathology. While statistically significant effects occurred in some parameters, none were dose-related or considered adverse. Overall, the NOAELs for the algal structuring fat and the kokum fat were 100 000 ppm, the highest concentrations tested. The algal structuring fat was not mutagenic in the bacterial reverse mutation assay in the Salmonella typhimurium or Escherichia coli strains tested and was not clastogenic in the in vivo mouse bone marrow chromosome aberration assay. Keywords: Microalgae, Stearic acid, Subchronic toxicity, Kokum, Prototheca moriformis, Structuring fat

  6. Roles of Acyl-CoA:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferases 1 and 2 in Triacylglycerol Synthesis and Secretion in Primary Hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Li, Lena; Lian, Jihong; Watts, Russell; Nelson, Randal; Goodwin, Bryan; Lehner, Richard

    2015-05-01

    Very low-density lipoprotein assembly and secretion are regulated by the availability of triacylglycerol. Although compelling evidence indicates that the majority of triacylglycerol in very low-density lipoprotein is derived from re-esterification of lipolytic products released by endoplasmic reticulum-associated lipases, little is known about roles of acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) in this process. We aimed to investigate the contribution of DGAT1 and DGAT2 in lipid metabolism and lipoprotein secretion in primary mouse and human hepatocytes. We used highly selective small-molecule inhibitors of DGAT1 and DGAT2, and we tracked storage and secretion of lipids synthesized de novo from [(3)H]acetic acid and from exogenously supplied [(3)H]oleic acid. Inactivation of individual DGAT activity did not affect incorporation of either radiolabeled precursor into intracellular triacylglycerol, whereas combined inactivation of both DGATs severely attenuated triacylglycerol synthesis. However, inhibition of DGAT2 augmented fatty acid oxidation, whereas inhibition of DGAT1 increased triacylglycerol secretion, suggesting preferential channeling of separate DGAT-derived triacylglycerol pools to distinct metabolic pathways. Inactivation of DGAT2 impaired cytosolic lipid droplet expansion, whereas DGAT1 inactivation promoted large lipid droplet formation. Moreover, inactivation of DGAT2 attenuated expression of lipogenic genes. Finally, triacylglycerol secretion was significantly reduced on DGAT2 inhibition without altering extracellular apolipoprotein B levels. Our data suggest that DGAT1 and DGAT2 can compensate for each other to synthesize triacylglycerol, but triacylglycerol synthesized by DGAT1 is preferentially channeled to oxidation, whereas DGAT2 synthesizes triacylglycerol destined for very low-density lipoprotein assembly. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Deep Illumina-based shotgun sequencing reveals dietary effects on the structure and function of the fecal microbiome of growing kittens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Deusch

    Full Text Available Previously, we demonstrated that dietary protein:carbohydrate ratio dramatically affects the fecal microbial taxonomic structure of kittens using targeted 16S gene sequencing. The present study, using the same fecal samples, applied deep Illumina shotgun sequencing to identify the diet-associated functional potential and analyze taxonomic changes of the feline fecal microbiome.Fecal samples from kittens fed one of two diets differing in protein and carbohydrate content (high-protein, low-carbohydrate, HPLC; and moderate-protein, moderate-carbohydrate, MPMC were collected at 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age (n = 6 per group. A total of 345.3 gigabases of sequence were generated from 36 samples, with 99.75% of annotated sequences identified as bacterial. At the genus level, 26% and 39% of reads were annotated for HPLC- and MPMC-fed kittens, with HPLC-fed cats showing greater species richness and microbial diversity. Two phyla, ten families and fifteen genera were responsible for more than 80% of the sequences at each taxonomic level for both diet groups, consistent with the previous taxonomic study. Significantly different abundances between diet groups were observed for 324 genera (56% of all genera identified demonstrating widespread diet-induced changes in microbial taxonomic structure. Diversity was not affected over time. Functional analysis identified 2,013 putative enzyme function groups were different (p<0.000007 between the two dietary groups and were associated to 194 pathways, which formed five discrete clusters based on average relative abundance. Of those, ten contained more (p<0.022 enzyme functions with significant diet effects than expected by chance. Six pathways were related to amino acid biosynthesis and metabolism linking changes in dietary protein with functional differences of the gut microbiome.These data indicate that feline feces-derived microbiomes have large structural and functional differences relating to the dietary

  8. Insoluble Dietary Fiber from Pear Pomace Can Prevent High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in Rats Mainly by Improving the Structure of the Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shimin; Cui, Xingtian; Guo, Mingzhang; Tian, Yiling; Xu, Wentao; Huang, Kunlun; Zhang, Yuxing

    2017-04-28

    Supplement of dietary fibers (DF) is regarded as one of the most effective way to prevent and relieve chronic diseases caused by long-term intake of a high-fat diet in the current society. The health benefits of soluble dietary fibers (SDF) have been widely researched and applied, whereas the insoluble dietary fibers (IDF), which represent a higher proportion in plant food, were mistakenly thought to have effects only in fecal bulking. In this article, we proved the anti-obesity and glucose homeostasis improvement effects of IDF from pear pomace at first, and then the mechanisms responsible for these effects were analyzed. The preliminary study by real-time PCR and ELISA showed that this kind of IDF caused more changes in the gut microbiota compared with in satiety hormone or in hepatic metabolism. Further analysis of the gut microbiota by high-throughput amplicon sequencing showed IDF from pear pomace obviously improved the structure of the gut microbiota. Specifically, it promoted the growth of Bacteroidetes and inhibited the growth of Firmicutes. These results are coincident with previous hypothesis that the ratio of Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes is negatively related with obesity. In conclusion, our results demonstrated IDF from pear pomace could prevent high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats mainly by improving the structure of the gut microbiota.

  9. Synthesis of cocoa butter triacylglycerols using a model acidolysis system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göǧüş, Fahrettin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of reaction parameters such as substrate mole ratio, reaction temperature, enzyme load, water content and reaction time were studied in a model enzymatic acidolysis system. Palmitic and stearic acids were incorporated into triolein (OOO under the catalysis of sn-1,3 specific lipase to produce the three major triacylglycerols (TAGs in cocoa butter (CB, namely, 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl--glycerol (POP, 1(3-palmitoyl-3(1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POS and 1,3distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS. TAG contents of the reaction products were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatograph (HPLC.The best results (15.2% POP, 30.4% POS, 15.2 % SOS were obtained at 1:3:3 (OOO:palmitic acid:stearic acid substrate mole ratio and reaction parameters: time 10 h, temperature 45 oC, enzyme load 20 %, water content 5 %. The results obtained in this model system might be used for the optimization and application of lipase catalyzed acidolysis reactions in natural systems to produce cocoa butter equivalents (CBEs.El efecto de parámetros de reacción como el ratio molar de sustratos, carga de enzima, contenido de agua o temperatura de reacción fueron estudiados en un sistema modelo de acidolisis para la síntesis de triglicéridos disaturados. Los ácidos grasos palmítico y esteárico se incorporaron a la molécula de trioleína (OOO mediante la catálisis con una li-pasa sn-1,3 específica para producir los tres triglicéridos (TAGs mayoritarios de la manteca de cacao (CB: 1,3-dipalmitil-2-oleoil glicerol (POP, 1(3-palmitil-3(1-estearil-2glicerol (POS and 1,3-diestearil-2-oleoil glicerol (SOS. Los TAGs producidos en cada reacción se analizaron por cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia (HPLC. Los mejores resultados (15.2 %, POP, 30.4 % POS, 15.2 % SOS se obtuvieron empleando la relación molar de sustratos 1:3:3 (OOO: ácido palmítico:ácido esteárico y los parámetros de reacción: tiempo 10h, temperatura 45 °C, carga de enzima 20

  10. Involvement of triacylglycerol in the metabolism of fatty acids by cultured neuroblastoma and glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, H.W.; Clarke, J.T.; Spence, M.W.

    1982-01-01

    The metabolism (chain elongation, desaturation, and incorporation into complex lipids) of thirteen different radiolabeled fatty acids and acetate was examined in N1E-115 neuroblastoma and C-6 glioma cell lines in culture. During 6-hr incubations, all fatty acids were extensively (14-80%) esterified to complex lipids, mainly choline phosphoglycerides and triacylglycerol. With trienoic and tetraenoic substrates, inositol and ethanolamine phosphoglycerides also contained up to 30% of the labeled fatty acids; plasmalogen contained up to half of the label in the ethanolamine phosphoglyceride fraction of neuroblastoma cells. Chain elongation and delta 9, delta 6, and delta 5 desaturation occurred in both cell lines; delta 4 desaturation was not observed. Seemingly anomalous utilization of arachidic acid and some selectivity based on the geometric configuration of double bonds was observed. These studies indicate that these cell lines are capable of modulating cellular membrane composition by a combination of selective exclusion and removal of inappropriate acyl chains and of modification of other acyl chains by desaturation and chain elongation. The time courses and patterns of modification and incorporation of exogenous substrates into phospholipids and triacylglycerol suggest that exogenous unsaturated fatty acid may be incorporated into triacylglycerol and later released for further metabolism and incorporation into phospholipids. This supports a role for triacylglycerol in the synthesis of membrane complex lipids in cell lines derived from neural tissue

  11. Enantiomeric separation of triacylglycerols containing polyunsaturated fatty acids with 18 carbon atoms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Nedbalová, L.; Sigler, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1467, October (2016), s. 261-269 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-00227S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Chiral triacylglycerols * Enantiomers * Regioisomers Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.981, year: 2016

  12. Regulation of the Yeast Triacylglycerol Lipase Tgl3p by Formation of Nonpolar Lipids*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Claudia; Athenstaedt, Karin; Koch, Barbara; Ploier, Birgit; Daum, Günther

    2013-01-01

    Tgl3p, the major triacylglycerol lipase of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a component of lipid droplets but is also present in the endoplasmic reticulum in a minor amount. Recently, it was shown that this enzyme can also serve as a lysophospholipid acyltransferase (Rajakumari, S., and Daum, G. (2010) Mol. Biol. Cell 21, 501–510). Here, we describe the effects of the presence/absence of triacylglycerols and lipid droplets on the functionality of Tgl3p. In a dga1Δlro1Δare1Δare2Δ quadruple mutant lacking all four triacylglycerol- and steryl ester-synthesizing acyltransferases and consequently the lipid droplets, the gene expression of TGL3 was only slightly altered. In contrast, protein level and stability of Tgl3p were markedly reduced in the absence of lipid droplets. Under these conditions, the enzyme was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. Even the lack of the substrate, triacylglycerol, affected stability and localization of Tgl3p to some extent. Interestingly, Tgl3p present in the endoplasmic reticulum seems to lack lipolytic as well as acyltransferase activity as shown by enzymatic analysis and lipid profiling. Thus, we propose that the activity of Tgl3p is restricted to lipid droplets, whereas the endoplasmic reticulum may serve as a parking lot for this enzyme. PMID:23673660

  13. Isolated hyperglycaemia does not increase VLDL-triacylglycerol secretion in type 1 diabetic men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Rakel Fuglsang; Søndergaard, Esben; Sørensen, Lars Peter

    2015-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In type 1 diabetes, abnormalities of both glucose and lipoprotein metabolism are seen. The relationship between these factors is not understood, but studies indicate that hyperglycaemia may increase hepatic VLDL-triacylglycerol (VLDL-TG) secretion and reduce VLDL-TG fatty acid...

  14. Postprandial triacylglycerol uptake in the legs is increased during exercise and post-exercise recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, L H; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2005-01-01

    plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) uptake and clearance in the exercising legs immediately and for at least 4 h post-exercise, while food intake per se did not change leg plasma TAG uptake or clearance for up to 6 h. It is hypothesized that the effect of exercise on leg plasma TAG metabolism is a result...

  15. Enzymatic and fluorometric determination of triacylglycerols in cow milk and other opaque matrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Larsen, Mette Krogh; Friggens, Nic

    2011-01-01

    The fat content of milk is an important indication of quality, both economically and physiologically. Existing analytical methods of milk fat are based on physical determination, i.e. gravimetric determination or near infrared spectroscopy (IR). Triacylglycerols (TAG) constitute up to 98% of tota...

  16. Triacylglycerol infusion improves exercise endurance in patients with mitochondrial myopathy due to complex I deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roef, MJ; de Meer, K; Reijngoud, DJ; Straver, HWHC; de Barse, M; Kalhan, SC; Berger, R

    Background: A high-fat diet has been recommended for the treatment of patients with mitochondrial myopathy due to complex I (NADH dehydrogenase) deficiency (CID). Objective: This study evaluated the effects of intravenous infusion of isoenergetic amounts of triacylglycerol or glucose on substrate

  17. Muscle triacylglycerol and hormone-sensitive lipase activity in untrained and trained human muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Biba, Taus O; Galbo, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    During exercise, triacylglycerol (TG) is recruited in skeletal muscles. We hypothesized that both muscle hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity and TG recruitment would be higher in trained than in untrained subjects in response to prolonged exercise. Healthy male subjects (26 +/- 1 years, body ...

  18. Arabidopsis SEIPIN Proteins Modulate Triacylglycerol Accumulation and Influence Lipid Droplet Proliferation[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The lipodystrophy protein SEIPIN is important for lipid droplet (LD) biogenesis in human and yeast cells. In contrast with the single SEIPIN genes in humans and yeast, there are three SEIPIN homologs in Arabidopsis thaliana, designated SEIPIN1, SEIPIN2, and SEIPIN3. Essentially nothing is known about the functions of SEIPIN homologs in plants. Here, a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) SEIPIN deletion mutant strain and a plant (Nicotiana benthamiana) transient expression system were used to test the ability of Arabidopsis SEIPINs to influence LD morphology. In both species, expression of SEIPIN1 promoted accumulation of large-sized lipid droplets, while expression of SEIPIN2 and especially SEIPIN3 promoted small LDs. Arabidopsis SEIPINs increased triacylglycerol levels and altered composition. In tobacco, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized SEIPINs reorganized the normal, reticulated ER structure into discrete ER domains that colocalized with LDs. N-terminal deletions and swapping experiments of SEIPIN1 and 3 revealed that this region of SEIPIN determines LD size. Ectopic overexpression of SEIPIN1 in Arabidopsis resulted in increased numbers of large LDs in leaves, as well as in seeds, and increased seed oil content by up to 10% over wild-type seeds. By contrast, RNAi suppression of SEIPIN1 resulted in smaller seeds and, as a consequence, a reduction in the amount of oil per seed compared with the wild type. Overall, our results indicate that Arabidopsis SEIPINs are part of a conserved LD biogenesis machinery in eukaryotes and that in plants these proteins may have evolved specialized roles in the storage of neutral lipids by differentially modulating the number and sizes of lipid droplets. PMID:26362606

  19. HPLC separation of triacylglycerol positional isomers on a polymeric ODS column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Ikuma; Nagai, Toshiharu; Mizobe, Hoyo; Yoshimura, Nobuhito; Gotoh, Naohiro; Wada, Shun

    2008-07-01

    A polymeric ODS column was applied to the resolution of triacylglycerol positional isomers (TAG-PI), i.e. 1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoyl-glycerol (OPO) and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-palmitoyl-rac-glycerol (OOP), with a recycle HPLC system. To investigate the ODS column species and the column temperatures for the resolution of a TAG-PI pair, a mixture of OPO and OOP was subjected to an HPLC system equipped with a non-endcapped polymeric, endcapped monomeric, endcapped intermediate, or non-endcapped monomeric ODS column at three different column temperatures (40, 25, or 10 degrees C). Only the non-endcapped polymeric ODS column achieved the separation of OPO and OOP, and the lowest column temperature (10 degrees C) showed the best resolution for them. The other pair of TAG-PI, a mixture of 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POP) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-oleoyl-rac-glycerol (PPO) was also subjected to the system equipped with a non-endcapped polymeric or monomeric ODS column at five different column temperatures (40, 32, 25, 17, and 10 degrees C). Thus, POP and PPO were also separated on only the non-endcapped polymeric ODS column at 25 degrees C. However, no clear peak appeared at 10 degrees C. These results would indicate that the polymeric ODS stationary phase has an ability to recognize the structural differences between TAG-PI pairs. Also, the column temperature is a very important factor for separating the TAG-PI pair, and the optimal temperature would relate to the solubility of TAG-PI in the mobile phase. Furthermore, the recycle HPLC system provided measurements for the separation and analysis of TAG-PI pairs.

  20. Multiple pathways from the neighborhood food environment to increased body mass index through dietary behaviors: A structural equation-based analysis in the CARDIA study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrea S.; Meyer, Katie A.; Howard, Annie Green; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Popkin, Barry M.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Shikany, James M.; Lewis, Cora E.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine longitudinal pathways from multiple types of neighborhood restaurants and food stores to BMI, through dietary behaviors. Methods We used data from participants (n=5114) in the United States-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study and a structural equation model to estimate longitudinal (1985–86 to 2005–06) pathways simultaneously from neighborhood fast food restaurants, sit-down restaurants, supermarkets, and convenience stores to BMI through dietary behaviors, controlling for socioeconomic status (SES) and physical activity. Results Higher numbers of neighborhood fast food restaurants and lower numbers of sit-down restaurants were associated with higher consumption of an obesogenic fast food-type diet. The pathways from food stores to BMI through diet were inconsistent in magnitude and statistical significance. Conclusions Efforts to decrease the numbers of neighborhood fast food restaurants and to increase the numbers of sit-down restaurant options could influence diet behaviors. Availability of neighborhood fast food and sit-down restaurants may play comparatively stronger roles than food stores in shaping dietary behaviors and BMI. PMID:26454248

  1. Dietary Intake of Structured Lipids with Different Contents of Medium-Chain Fatty Acids on Obesity Prevention in C57BL/6J Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shengmin; Wang, Yueqiang; Jiang, Yuanrong; Zhang, Zhongfei; Sun, Xiangjun; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2017-08-01

    Three medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (MLCT) with different contents of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) (10% to 30%, w/w) were prepared and evaluated for their anti-obesity potential in C57BL/6J mice. The group fed with a high fat diet of MLCT containing 30% (w/w) MCFA showed significantly decreased body weight and fat mass (P obesity-inducing high fat rapeseed oil diet. In addition, serum parameters including triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1 and apolipoprotein B in the treatment group fed with 30% (w/w) MCFA were close to those of mice fed with a low fat rapeseed oil diet, but significantly different (P obesity control group. Moreover, the intake of MLCT with high content of MCFA reduced the size of adipocytes. In addition, the visceral fat and liver weights, as well as the liver triacylglycerol for 3 treatment groups were lower than those of the obesity control group. These results demonstrate the great potential of MLCT with high content of MCFA in weight loss. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. Population genetic structure of gray wolves (Canis lupus) in a marine archipelago suggests island-mainland differentiation consistent with dietary niche

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stronen, Astrid Vik; Navid, Erin L; Quinn, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence suggests that ecological heterogeneity across space can influence the genetic structure of populations, including that of long-distance dispersers such as large carnivores. On the central coast of British Columbia, Canada, wolf (Canis lupus L., 1758) dietary niche...... mainland and island wolves. This pattern occurs despite field observations that individuals easily traverse the 30 km wide study area and swim up to 13 km among landmasses in the region. Conclusions Natal habitat-biased dispersal (i.e., the preference for dispersal into familiar ecological environments...

  3. The intramolecular position of docosahexaenoic acid in the triacylglycerol sources used for pediatric nutrition has a minimal effect on its metabolic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala-Vila, Aleix; Castellote, Ana I; López-Sabater, M Carmen

    2008-03-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) plays an important role in normal development of the brain and retina in the human. In utero, DHA is incorporated in the fetus, and its accretion continues throughout early postnatal life. Although human breast milk contains this fatty acid, several organizations recommend supplementing infant formulas with DHA for infants and premature infants. Traditionally, certain types of fish oil have been used for fortifying some infant formulas, but with the decline in world fisheries, the search for alternative sources of DHA continues. Among the viable ingredient sources of DHA is oil derived from single-cell organisms (marine microorganisms); however, these oil sources display different positional specificity of DHA in the glycerol lipids compared with that found in human breast milk lipids. In the latter, the DHA is mainly esterified in the central position of the glycerol backbone. Because of these differences in human milk and oils derived from single-cell organisms, recent research in biotechnology has focused on developing new structured triacylglycerols with an intramolecular structure resembling that found in human milk lipids. This research is justified by the potential differences in metabolism of DHA based on the hypothetical bioavailability and benefits in DHA found in human milk lipids. Presented herein is a review of the published research on the metabolism of DHA from different triacylglycerol sources including in vitro studies and animal studies. Despite small differences observed in digestion, the current data reveal a minimal effect on the parameters of development studied for the intramolecular position in which DHA is esterified.

  4. Influence of ionizing irradiation to enzymatic metabolism and concentration of triacylglycerols in serum of chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakova, J.; Danova, D.; Benova, K.; Toropila, M.; Dvorak, P.

    2006-01-01

    The investigation of the effect of ionizing irradiation helps to develop methods of protection against its negative influences. In the study we investigated the effect of low-dose ionizing irradiation on the organism of chicken. We investigated changes of activity of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase and changes of concentration of triacylglycerols in time gap 1, 4, 14 and 25 days after expose with a single whole-body gamma irradiation of 3 Gy. The activity of aspartate aminotransferase was significantly increased on day of 1. after irradiation and concentration of triacylglycerols was significantly increased on day of 14. and 25. after irradiation. From this study we can see by this relatively low dose of irradiation in view of higher radioresistance of chickens the organism of poultry sensitive responds with visible changes of selected biochemical parameters. (authors)

  5. Advances in silver ion chromatography for the analysis of fatty acids and triacylglycerols-2001 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momchilova, Svetlana M; Nikolova-Damyanova, Boryana M

    2012-01-01

    An effort is made to critically present the achievements in silver ion chromatography during the last decade. Novelties in columns, mobile-phase compositions and detectors are described. Recent applications of silver ion chromatography in the analysis of fatty acids and triacylglycerols are presented while stressing novel analytical strategies or new objects. The tendencies in the application of the method in complementary ways with reversed-phase chromatography, chiral chromatography and, especially, mass detection are outlined.

  6. [Assessment of control of cardiovascular risk factors in obese posmenopausal women after monitoring a structured dietary education and exercise program. (SÍSIFO Program)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Soto, Z M; Montoro García, S; Leal Hernández, M; Abellán Alemán, J

    2016-01-01

    Evaluate the influence of a specific program of physical exercise on cardiovascular risk, quality of life and eating habits of menopausal women. Prospective, intervention study previous-after without control group for three months. 66 menopausal women were included. The intervention consisted of a structured diet and exercise program. Biochemical, anthropometric, dietary and life quality parameters were determined before and three months after surgery. After the intervention a decrease in weight (4.4±2,3kg) and BMI (1.83±0.84kg/m(2)) (p<.05) occurs. A decrease in SBP (p<.05) was also observed. The fasting glucose went down 13.75±11.11mg/dl and HbA1c fell by 0.19±0,12%, both with p<.05. The lipid profile follows a similar behavior, highlighting a decline of 8± 6.2mg/dl in LDL cholesterol values (p<.05). The score on the measured cardiovascular risk by the Framingham tables decreases by 3% postoperatively (p<.05). Regarding the quality of life, it is significantly improved in all analyzed areas. The application of a structured exercise and diet program improves close monitoring parameters associated with cardiovascular risk of the women studied. It also improves the quality of life and dietary habits. Copyright © 2016 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Biosynthesis of triacylglycerols containing very long chain monounsaturated acyl moieties in developing seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehling, E.; Murphy, D.J.; Mukherjee, K.D.

    1990-01-01

    Particulate (15,000g) fractions from developing seeds of honesty (Lunaria annua L.) and mustard (Sinapis alba L.) synthesize radioactive very long chain monounsaturated fatty acids (gadoleic, erucic, and nervonic) from [1- 14 C]oleoyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA or from oleoyl-CoA and [2- 14 C]malonyl-CoA. The very long chain monounsaturated fatty acids are rapidly channeled to triacylglycerols and other acyl lipids without intermediate accumulation of their CoA thioesters. When [1- 14 C]oleoyl-CoA is used as the radioactive substrate, phosphatidylcholines and other phospholipids are most extensively radiolabeled by oleoyl moieties rather than by very long chain monounsaturated acyl moieties. When [2- 14 C]malonyl-CoA is used as the radioactive substrate, no radioactive oleic acid is formed and the newly synthesized very long chain monounsaturated fatty acids are extensively incorporated into phosphatidylcholines and other phospholipids as well as triacylglycerols. The pattern of labeling of the key intermediates of the Kennedy pathway, e.g. lysophosphatidic acids, phosphatidic acids, and diacylglycerols by the newly synthesized very long chain monounsaturated fatty acids is consistent with the operation of this pathway in the biosynthesis of triacylglycerols

  8. Short term and dosage influences of palm based medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols on body fat and blood parameters in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee-Ying; Tang, Teck-Kim; Ab Karim, Nur Azwani; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu Mohamed; Lai, Oi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Structured lipid medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (MLCT) are claimed to be able to manage obesity. The present study investigated the body fat influence of enzymatically interesterifed palm-based medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (P-MLCT) on diet-induced obesity (DIO) C57BL/6J mice compared with commercial MLCT oil (C-MLCT) and a control, which was the non enzymatically modified palm kernel and palm oil blend (PKO-PO blend). It also investigated the low fat and high fat effects of P-MLCT. DIO C57BL/6J mice were fed ad libitum with low fat (7%) and high fat (30%) experimental diets for 8 weeks before being sacrificed to obtain blood serum for analysis. From the results, there is a trend that P-MLCT fed mice were found to have the lowest body weight, body weight gain, total fat pad accumulation (perirenal, retroperitoneal, epididymal and mesenteric), total triglyceride levels and efficiency in controlling blood glucose level, compared with C-MLCT and the PKO-PO blend in both low fat and high fat diets. Nevertheless, the PKO-PO blend and P-MLCT caused significantly (P < 0.05) higher total cholesterol levels compared to C-MLCT. P-MLCT present in low fat and high fat dosage were shown to be able to suppress body fat accumulation. This effect is more prominent with the low fat dosage.

  9. Air-drying of cells, the novel conditions for stimulated synthesis of triacylglycerol in a Green Alga, Chlorella kessleri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuma Shiratake

    Full Text Available Triacylglycerol is used for the production of commodities including food oils and biodiesel fuel. Microalgae can accumulate triacylglycerol under adverse environmental conditions such as nitrogen-starvation. This study explored the possibility of air-drying of green algal cells as a novel and simple protocol for enhancement of their triacylglycerol content. Chlorella kessleri cells were fixed on the surface of a glass fibre filter and then subjected to air-drying with light illumination. The dry cell weight, on a filter, increased by 2.7-fold in 96 h, the corresponding chlorophyll content ranging from 1.0 to 1.3-fold the initial one. Concomitantly, the triacylglycerol content remarkably increased to 70.3 mole% of fatty acids and 15.9% (w/w, relative to total fatty acids and dry cell weight, respectively, like in cells starved of nitrogen. Reduction of the stress of air-drying by placing the glass filter on a filter paper soaked in H2O lowered the fatty acid content of triacylglycerol to 26.4 mole% as to total fatty acids. Moreover, replacement of the H2O with culture medium further decreased the fatty acid content of triacylglycerol to 12.2 mole%. It thus seemed that severe dehydration is required for full induction of triacylglycerol synthesis, and that nutritional depletion as well as dehydration are crucial environmental factors. Meanwhile, air-drying of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells increased the triacylglycerol content to only 37.9 mole% of fatty acids and 4.8% (w/w, relative to total fatty acids and dry cell weight, respectively, and a marked decrease in the chlorophyll content, on a filter, of 33%. Air-drying thus has an impact on triacylglycerol synthesis in C. reinhardtii also, however, the effect is considerably limited, owing probably to instability of the photosynthetic machinery. This air-drying protocol could be useful for the development of a system for industrial production of triacylglycerol with appropriate selection of the

  10. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...

  11. Effects of increasing dietary concentrations of specific structured triacylglycerides on performance and nitrogen and energy metabolism in broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, C.T.; Jørgensen, Henning; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2006-01-01

    treatments as two series of 40 chicks: a basal diet with graded levels of STG of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 g/kg diet at the expense of rapeseed oil were fed to the chickens in groups of four. At 12d of age the chickens were placed pair-wise in metabolism cages. The grower period (d 13-36) was divided into four...... effect on digestibility of STG. Weight of small intestine and colon decreased with increasing inclusion of STG. 4. Utilisation of dietary protein relative to intake increased while that of retained fat tended to decrease resulting in a decreased utilisation of metabolisable energy (RE/ME) in birds...

  12. Developmental programming of adult adrenal structure and steroidogenesis: effects of fetal glucocorticoid excess and postnatal dietary omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Brendan J; Bollen, Maike; Wyrwoll, Caitlin S; Mori, Trevor A; Mark, Peter J

    2010-05-01

    Fetal glucocorticoid excess programs a range of detrimental outcomes in the adult phenotype, at least some of which may be due to altered adult adrenocortical function. In this study, we determined the effects of maternal dexamethasone treatment on offspring adrenal morphology and function, as well as the interactive effects of postnatal dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids. This postnatal dietary intervention has been shown to alleviate many of the programming outcomes in this model, but whether this is via the effects on adrenal function is unknown. Dexamethasone acetate was administered to pregnant rats (0.75 microg/ml drinking water) from day 13 to term. Cross-fostered offspring were raised on either a standard or high-n-3 diet. Adrenal weight (relative to body weight) at 6 months of age was unaffected by prenatal dexamethasone, regardless of postnatal diet, and stereological analysis showed no effect of dexamethasone on the volumes of adrenal components (zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata/reticularis or adrenal medulla). Expression of key steroidogenic genes (Cyp11a1 and Star) was unaffected by either prenatal dexamethasone or postnatal diet. In contrast, adrenal expression of Mc2r mRNA, which encodes the ACTH receptor, was higher in offspring of dexamethasone-treated mothers, an effect partially attenuated by the Hn3 diet. Moreover, stress-induced levels of plasma and urinary corticosterone and urinary aldosterone were elevated in offspring of dexamethasone-treated mothers, indicative of enhanced adrenal responsiveness. In conclusion, this study shows that prenatal exposure to dexamethasone does not increase basal adrenocortical activity but does result in a more stress-responsive adrenal phenotype, possibly via increased Mc2r expression.

  13. Effects of nutrients (in food) on the structure and function of the nervous system: update on dietary requirements for brain. Part 1: micronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourre, J M

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this update is to give an overview of the effects of dietary nutrients on the structure and certain functions of the brain. As any other organ, the brain is elaborated from substances present in the diet (sometimes exclusively, for vitamins, minerals, essential amino-acids and essential fatty acids, including omega- 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids). However, for long it was not fully accepted that food can have an influence on brain structure, and thus on its function, including cognitive and intellectuals. In fact, most micronutrients (vitamins and trace-elements) have been directly evaluated in the setting of cerebral functioning. For instance, to produce energy, the use of glucose by nervous tissue implies the presence of vitamin B1; this vitamin modulates cognitive performance, especially in the elderly. Vitamin B9 preserves brain during its development and memory during ageing. Vitamin B6 is likely to benefit in treating premenstrual depression. Vitamins B6 and B12, among others, are directly involved in the synthesis of some neurotransmitters. Vitamin B12 delays the onset of signs of dementia (and blood abnormalities), provided it is administered in a precise clinical timing window, before the onset of the first symptoms. Supplementation with cobalamin improves cerebral and cognitive functions in the elderly; it frequently improves the functioning of factors related to the frontal lobe, as well as the language function of those with cognitive disorders. Adolescents who have a borderline level of vitamin B12 develop signs of cognitive changes. In the brain, the nerve endings contain the highest concentrations of vitamin C in the human body (after the suprarenal glands). Vitamin D (or certain of its analogues) could be of interest in the prevention of various aspects of neurodegenerative or neuroimmune diseases. Among the various vitamin E components (tocopherols and tocotrienols), only alpha-tocopherol is actively uptaken by the brain and is

  14. n-3 PUFA Esterified to Glycerol or as Ethyl Esters Reduce Non-Fasting Plasma Triacylglycerol in Subjects with Hypertriglyceridemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedengran, Anne; Szecsi, Pal B; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    To date, treatment of hypertriglyceridemia with long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) has been investigated solely in fasting and postprandial subjects. However, non-fasting triacylglycerols are more strongly associated with risk of cardiovascular disease. The objective of this st......To date, treatment of hypertriglyceridemia with long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) has been investigated solely in fasting and postprandial subjects. However, non-fasting triacylglycerols are more strongly associated with risk of cardiovascular disease. The objective...... of this study was to investigate the effect of long-chain n-3 PUFA on non-fasting triacylglycerol levels and to compare the effects of n-3 PUFA formulated as acylglycerol (AG-PUFA) or ethyl esters (EE-PUFA). The study was a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled interventional trial, and included 120...... subjects with non-fasting plasma triacylglycerol levels of 1.7-5.65 mmol/L (150-500 mg/dL). The participants received approximately 3 g/day of AG-PUFA, EE-PUFA, or placebo for a period of eight weeks. The levels of non-fasting plasma triacylglycerols decreased 28 % in the AG-PUFA group and 22 % in the EE...

  15. Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in early childhood: effects on blood pressure and arterial structure and function at age 8 y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayer, Julian G; Harmer, Jason A; Xuan, Wei; Toelle, Brett; Webb, Karen; Almqvist, Catarina; Marks, Guy B; Celermajer, David S

    2009-08-01

    n-3 Fatty acid supplementation in adults results in cardiovascular benefits. However, the cardiovascular effects of n-3 supplementation in early childhood are unknown. The objective was to evaluate blood pressure (BP) and arterial structure and function in 8-y-old children who had participated in a randomized controlled trial of dietary n-3 and n-6 modification over the first 5 y of life. The children (n = 616; 49% girls) were randomly assigned antenatally to active (n = 312; increase in n-3 intake and decrease in n-6 intake) or control (n = 304) diet interventions implemented from the time of weaning or introduction of solids until 5 y of age. At age 8.0 +/- 0.1 y, BP, carotid intima-media thickness, carotid artery distensibility, augmentation index, and brachial pulse wave velocity were measured in 405 of these children. Venous blood was collected for measurement of plasma fatty acids, lipoproteins, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and asymmetric dimethylarginine. Plasma fatty acid concentrations were also assessed during the intervention. Plasma concentrations of n-3 fatty acids were higher and of n-6 were lower in the active than in the control diet group at 18 mo and 3 and 5 y (P n-3 and n-6 fatty acids were similar at 8 y. At 8 y of age, no significant differences were found in BP, carotid intima-media thickness, carotid artery distensibility, augmentation index, asymmetric dimethylarginine, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, or lipoproteins between diet groups. A dietary supplement intervention to increase n-3 and decrease n-6 intakes from infancy until 5 y does not result in significant improvements in arterial structure and function at age 8 y. This trial was registered at the Australian Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN012605000042640.

  16. Triacylglycerol Accumulation is not primarily affected in Myotubes established from Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation, glucose and fatty acid (FA) uptake, and glycogen synthesis (GS) in human myotubes from healthy, lean, and obese subjects with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D), exposed to increasing palmitate (PA) and oleate (OA...... uptake (P0.05). These results indicate that (1) TAG accumulation is not primarily affected in skeletal muscle tissue of obese and T2D; (2) induced inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation is followed by TAG accumulation...... in skeletal muscle of obese and T2D subjects is adaptive....

  17. Dietary fat (virgin olive oil or sunflower oil) and physical training interactions on blood lipids in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles, José L; Huertas, Jesús R; Ochoa, Julio J; Battino, Maurizio; Mataix, José; Mañas, Mariano

    2003-04-01

    We investigated whether the intake of virgin olive oil or sunflower oil and performance of physical exercise (at different states) affect plasma levels of triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, and fatty acid profile in rats. The study was carried out with six groups of male rats subjected for 8 wk to a diet based on virgin olive oil (three groups) or sunflower oil (three groups) as dietary fat. One group for each diet acted as sedentary control; the other two groups ran in a treadmill for 8 wk at 65% of the maximum oxygen consumption. One group for each diet was killed 24 h after the last bout of exercise and the other was killed immediately after the exercise performance. Triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, and fatty acid profile were analyzed in plasma. Analysis of variance was used to test differences among groups. Animals fed on virgin olive oil had lower triacylglycerol and cholesterol values. Physical exercise reduced these parameters with both dietary treatments. Fatty acid profile showed higher monounsaturated fatty acid proportion in virgin olive fed oil animals and a higher omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid proportion in sunflower oil fed animals. Physical exercise reduced the levels of monounsaturated fatty acids with both diets and increased the proportions of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Results from the present study supported the idea that physical exercise and the intake of virgin olive oil are very good ways of reducing plasma triacylglycerols and cholesterol, which is desirable in many pathologic situations. Concerning findings on fatty acid profile, we had results similar to those of other investigators regarding the effect of different sources of dietary fat on plasma. The most interesting results came from the effect of physical exercise, with significant increases in the levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which may contribute to the antithrombotic state and lower production of proinflammatory prostanoids attributed to

  18. Positional Distribution of Fatty Acids in Triacylglycerols and Phospholipids from Fillets of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar) Fed Vegetable and Fish Oil Blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Lopez, Noemi; Stubhaug, Ingunn; Ipharraguerre, Ignacio; Rimbach, Gerald; Menoyo, David

    2015-07-10

    The nutritional and functional characteristics of dietary fat are related to the fatty acid (FA) composition and its positional distribution in the triacylglycerol (TAG) fraction. Atlantic salmon is an important source of healthy long chain omega 3 FA (particularly, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docoxahexaenoic (DHA) acids). However, the impact of lipid sources in salmon feeds on the regiospecificity of FA in the fish TAG remains to be explored. The present study determines the effect of feeding salmon with blends of palm, rapeseed, and fish oil, providing two different EPA + DHA concentrations (high: H-ED 10.3% and low: L-ED 4.6%) on the fillet lipid class composition and the positional distribution of FA in TAG and phospholipids. The regiospecific analysis of fillet TAG showed that around 50% of the EPA and around 80% of DHA was located in the sn-2 position. The positional distribution of FA in phosphatidylcholine (PC), showed that around 80% of the EPA and around 90% of DHA were located in the sn-2. Fish fed the vegetable-rich diets showed higher EPA in the sn-2 position in PC (77% vs. 83% in the H-ED and L-ED diets, respectively) but similar DHA concentrations. It is concluded that feeding salmon with different EPA + DHA concentrations does not affect their positional distribution in the fillet TAG.

  19. Positional Distribution of Fatty Acids in Triacylglycerols and Phospholipids from Fillets of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar Fed Vegetable and Fish Oil Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi Ruiz-Lopez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional and functional characteristics of dietary fat are related to the fatty acid (FA composition and its positional distribution in the triacylglycerol (TAG fraction. Atlantic salmon is an important source of healthy long chain omega 3 FA (particularly, eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docoxahexaenoic (DHA acids. However, the impact of lipid sources in salmon feeds on the regiospecificity of FA in the fish TAG remains to be explored. The present study determines the effect of feeding salmon with blends of palm, rapeseed, and fish oil, providing two different EPA + DHA concentrations (high: H-ED 10.3% and low: L-ED 4.6% on the fillet lipid class composition and the positional distribution of FA in TAG and phospholipids. The regiospecific analysis of fillet TAG showed that around 50% of the EPA and around 80% of DHA was located in the sn-2 position. The positional distribution of FA in phosphatidylcholine (PC, showed that around 80% of the EPA and around 90% of DHA were located in the sn-2. Fish fed the vegetable-rich diets showed higher EPA in the sn-2 position in PC (77% vs. 83% in the H-ED and L-ED diets, respectively but similar DHA concentrations. It is concluded that feeding salmon with different EPA + DHA concentrations does not affect their positional distribution in the fillet TAG.

  20. The Structural and Functional Capacity of Ruminal and Cecal Microbiota in Growing Cattle Was Unaffected by Dietary Supplementation of Linseed Oil and Nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Milka; McGovern, Emily; McCabe, Matthew S.; Martin, Cécile; Doreau, Michel; Arbre, Marie; Meale, Sarah J.; Morgavi, Diego P.; Waters, Sinéad M.

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms in the digestive tract of ruminants differ in their functionality and ability to use feed constituents. While cecal microbiota play an important role in post-rumen fermentation of residual substrates undigested in the rumen, limited knowledge exists regarding its structure and function. In this trial we investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with linseed oil and nitrate on methane emissions and on the structure of ruminal and cecal microbiota of growing bulls. Animals were allocated to either a CTL (control) or LINNIT (CTL supplemented with 1.9% linseed and 1.0% nitrates) diet. Methane emissions were measured using the GreenFeed system. Microbial diversity was assessed using amplicon sequencing of microbial genomic DNA. Additionally, total RNA was extracted from ruminal contents and functional mcrA and mtt genes were targeted in amplicon sequencing approach to explore the diversity of functional gene expression in methanogens. LINNIT had no effect on methane yield (g/kg DMI) even though it decreased methane production by 9% (g/day; P ruminants. There was a parallel between the lack of effect of LINNIT on ruminal and cecal microbial community structure and functions on one side and methane emission changes on the other. These results suggest that the sequencing strategy used here to study microbial diversity and function accurately reflected the absence of effect on methane phenotypes in bulls treated with linseed plus nitrate. PMID:28596764

  1. Nanoscale characteristics of triacylglycerol oils: phase separation and binding energies of two-component oils to crystalline nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Colin J; Razul, M Shajahan; Papp-Szabo, Erzsebet; Peyronel, Fernanda; Hanna, Charles B; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Pink, David A

    2012-01-01

    Fats are elastoplastic materials with a defined yield stress and flow behavior and the plasticity of a fat is central to its functionality. This plasticity is given by a complex tribological interplay between a crystalline phase structured as crystalline nanoplatelets (CNPs) and nanoplatelet aggregates and the liquid oil phase. Oil can be trapped within microscopic pores within the fat crystal network by capillary action, but it is believed that a significant amount of oil can be trapped by adsorption onto crystalline surfaces. This, however, remains to be proven. Further, the structural basis for the solid-liquid interaction remains a mystery. In this work, we demonstrate that the triglyceride liquid structure plays a key role in oil binding and that this binding could potentially be modulated by judicious engineering of liquid triglyceride structure. The enhancement of oil binding is central to many current developments in this area since an improvement in the health characteristics of fat and fat-structured food products entails a reduction in the amount of crystalline triacylglycerols (TAGs) and a relative increase in the amount of liquid TAGs. Excessive amounts of unbound, free oil, will lead to losses in functionality of this important food component. Engineering fats for enhanced oil binding capacity is thus central to the design of more healthy food products. To begin to address this, we modelled the interaction of triacylglycerol oils, triolein (OOO), 1,2-olein elaidin (OOE) and 1,2-elaidin olein (EEO) with a model crystalline nanoplatelet composed of tristearin in an undefined polymorphic form. The surface of the CNP in contact with the oil was assumed to be planar. We considered pure OOO and mixtures of OOO + OOE and OOO + EEO with 80% OOO. The last two cases were taken as approximations to high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO). The intent was to investigate whether phase separation on a nanoscale took place. We defined an "oil binding capacity" parameter, B

  2. The coffee diterpene cafestol increases plasma triacylglycerol by increasing the production rate of large VLDL apolipoprotein B in healthy normolipidemic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de B.; Caslake, M.J.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Bedford, D.; Demacker, P.N.; Katan, M.B.; Packard, C.J.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Cafestol is a diterpene in unfiltered coffee that raises plasma triacylglycerol in humans. Objective: We studied whether cafestol increases plasma triacylglycerol by increasing the production rate or by decreasing the fractional catabolic rate of VLDL1 [Svedberg flotation unit (Sf)

  3. Effect of a fat spread enriched with medium-chain triacylglycerols and a special fatty acid-micronutrient combination on cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight patients with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bitterlich Norman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3-PUFA and micronutrients may be useful for weight and cardiometabolic risk management. However, studies analyzing the effect of a combination of both in individuals at increased cardiometabolic risk are lacking. Therefore, this randomized, controlled, double-blind study investigated the effect of a fat spread enriched with two different doses of MCT and a special long-chain fatty acid-micronutrient combination on cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight diabetic patients. Methods Fifty-four patients received either a fat spread with 6 g/d MCT (MCT30% or 1.2 g/d (MCT6%. Forty-three completed the study. Analysis was performed according to the median of MCT intake (supplemented and food-derived MCT. Clinical, anthropometric, blood, 24 h-urine parameters and dietary intake were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. Results Total MCT intake > 7 g/d (MCT > 7 group significantly reduced waist circumference (WC by 1.81 ± 2.69 cm, whereas ≤ 7 g/d MCT (MCT ≤ 7 group increased WC by 0.32 ± 3.03 cm (p = 0.027, which was supported by a change in waist-to-height ratio (WHtR (p = 0.018. Fasting serum triglycerides (TG increased in both groups over time due to dietary habits. In contrast, diabetic metabolic situation and urinary albumin excretion did not alter. Urinary pH differed significantly between groups after 12 weeks. Conclusion An intake of >7 g/d MCT reduced WC in overweight diabetics, whereas the increase in the intake of fatty acids may have worsened fasting TG. Therefore, the suitability of a fat for nutrient enrichment remains to be challenged, and further studies in low-fat matrices are desirable.

  4. Modifications of the C terminus affect functionality and stability of yeast triacylglycerol lipase Tgl3p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Barbara; Schmidt, Claudia; Ploier, Birgit; Daum, Günther

    2014-07-11

    Lipid droplets are specific organelles for the storage of triacylglycerols and steryl esters. They are surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer with a small but specific set of proteins embedded. Assembly and insertion of proteins into this surface membrane is an intriguing question of lipid droplet biology. To address this question we studied the topology of Tgl3p, the major triacylglycerol lipase of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, on lipid droplets. Employing the method of limited proteolysis of lipid droplet surface proteins, we found that the C terminus of Tgl3p faces the inside of the organelle, whereas the N terminus is exposed at the cytosolic side of lipid droplets. Detailed analysis of the C terminus revealed a stretch of seven amino acids that are critical for protein stability and functionality. The negative charge of two aspartate residues within this stretch is crucial for lipase activity of Tgl3p. A portion of Tgl3p, which is located to the endoplasmic reticulum, exhibits a different topology. In the phospholipid bilayer of the endoplasmic reticulum the C terminus faces the cytosol, which results in instability of the protein. Thus, the topology of Tgl3p is important for its function and strongly dependent on the membrane environment. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Examination of triacylglycerol biosynthetic pathways via de novo transcriptomic and proteomic analyses in an unsequenced microalga.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T Guarnieri

    Full Text Available Biofuels derived from algal lipids represent an opportunity to dramatically impact the global energy demand for transportation fuels. Systems biology analyses of oleaginous algae could greatly accelerate the commercialization of algal-derived biofuels by elucidating the key components involved in lipid productivity and leading to the initiation of hypothesis-driven strain-improvement strategies. However, higher-level systems biology analyses, such as transcriptomics and proteomics, are highly dependent upon available genomic sequence data, and the lack of these data has hindered the pursuit of such analyses for many oleaginous microalgae. In order to examine the triacylglycerol biosynthetic pathway in the unsequenced oleaginous microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, we have established a strategy with which to bypass the necessity for genomic sequence information by using the transcriptome as a guide. Our results indicate an upregulation of both fatty acid and triacylglycerol biosynthetic machinery under oil-accumulating conditions, and demonstrate the utility of a de novo assembled transcriptome as a search model for proteomic analysis of an unsequenced microalga.

  6. Developmental co-expression of small molecular weight apolipoprotein B synthesis and triacylglycerol secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, R.A.; Haynes, E.B.; Sand, T.M.; Davis, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The development of the liver's ability to coordinately express the synthesis and secretion of the two major components of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL): triacylglycerol (TG) and apolipoprotein B (apo B) was examined in cultured hepatocytes obtained from fetal, suckling and adult rats. Hepatocytes from fetal and suckling rats synthesized and secreted TG at rates lower than that displayed by adult cells. When TG synthesis was equalized by adding oleic acid to the culture medium, fetal cells still secreted only 39% as much TG as did adult cells. To determine the basis for the apparent defect in VLDL assembly/secretion displayed by fetal cells, the synthesis and secretion of [ 35 S]methionine-labeled apo B was quantified by immunoprecipitation. Although adult and fetal cells synthesized and secreted large molecular weight apo B at similar rates, the synthesis and secretion of small molecular weight apo B was 2-fold greater in adult cells. These data suggest that the ability to assemble/secrete VLDL triacylglycerol varies in parallel with the developmental expression of small molecular weight apo B. Furthermore, these studies show the usefulness of the cultured rat hepatocyte model for examining the ontogeny and regulation of VLDL assembly/secretion

  7. Comparison of diet-induced thermogenesis of foods containing medium- versus long-chain triacylglycerols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Michio; Nosaka, Naohisa; Maki, Hideaki; Suzuki, Yoshie; Takeuchi, Hiroyuki; Aoyama, Toshiaki; Ohra, Atsushi; Harada, Youji; Okazaki, Mitsuko; Kondo, Kazuo

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 5-10 g of medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT) on diet-induced thermogenesis in healthy humans. The study compared diet-induced thermogenesis after ingestion of test foods containing MCT and long-chain triacylglycerols (LCT), using a double-blind, crossover design. Eight male and eight female subjects participated in study 1 and study 2, respectively. In both studies, the LCT was a blend of rapeseed oil and soybean oil. In study 1, the liquid meals contained 10 g MCT (10M), a mixture of 5 g MCT and 5 g LCT (5M5L), and 10 g LCT (10L). In study 2, the subjects were given a meal (sandwich and clear soup) with the mayonnaise or margarine containing 5 g of MCT or LCT. Postprandial energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry before and during the 6 h after ingestion of the test meals. Diet-induced thermogenesis was significantly greater after 5M5L and 10M Ingestion as compared to 10L ingestion. Ingestion of the mayonnaise or margarine containing 5 g MCT caused significantly larger diet-induced thermogenesis as compared to that of LCT. These results suggest that, in healthy humans, the intake of 5-10 g of MCT causes larger diet-induced thermogenesis than that of LCT, irrespective of the form of meal containing the MCT.

  8. Detection of structurally similar adulterants in botanical dietary supplements by thin-layer chromatography and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Zhu, Qing xia; Chwee, Tsz sian; Wu, Lin; Chai, Yi feng; Lu, Feng; Yuan, Yong fang

    2015-07-09

    Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) coupled with surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been widely used for the study of various complex systems, especially for the detection of adulterants in botanical dietary supplements (BDS). However, this method is not sufficient to distinguish structurally similar adulterants in BDS since the analogs have highly similar chromatographic and/or spectroscopic behaviors. Taking into account the fact that higher cost and more time will be required for comprehensive chromatographic separation, more efforts with respect to spectroscopy are now focused on analyzing the overlapped SERS peaks. In this paper, the combination of a TLC-SERS method with two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS), with duration of exposure to laser as the perturbation, is applied to solve this problem. Besides the usual advantages of the TLC-SERS method, such as its simplicity, rapidness, and sensitivity, more advantages are presented here, such as enhanced selectivity and good reproducibility, which are obtained by 2DCOS. Two chemicals with similar structures are successfully differentiated from the complex BDS matrices. The study provides a more accurate qualitative screening method for detection of BDS with adulterants, and offers a new universal approach for the analysis of highly overlapped SERS peaks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of green chemistry methods in the extraction of dietary fibers from cactus rackets (Opuntia ficus indica): Structural and microstructural studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheikh Rouhou, Marwa; Abdelmoumen, Souhir; Thomas, Sabu; Attia, Hamadi; Ghorbel, Dorra

    2018-05-23

    This work aims to compare the development of three green chemistry methods in the extraction of cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) dietary fibers. The influence of extraction conditions (solvent nature: water, lemon juice and ethanol; extraction process: maceration and steam explosion; extraction time: 30 min, 1 h, 3 h, 5 h) on the chemical and structural composition was studied. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy proved that all treatments do not affect the cellulose structure and could induce the reduction of hemicelluloses and lignin content. The steam treatment with lemon juice was the best treatment in term of quality of the fibers extracted. Through X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis, it was demonstrated that this treatment contributed to the destruction of the amorphous phase with preservation of the crystalline phase. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the microstructure of the sample surface was uniform and contains arranged fibers. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) revealed fibers with 80 nm of diameter. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Triacylglycerol infusion does not improve hyperlactemia in resting patients with mitochondrial myopathy due to complex I deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roef, MJ; de Meer, K; Reijngoud, DJ; Straver, HWHC; de Barse, M; Kalhan, SC; Berger, R

    Background: A high-fat diet has been recommended for correction of biochemical abnormalities and muscle energy state in patients with complex I (NADH dehydrogenase) deficiency (CID). Objective: This study evaluated the effects of intravenous infusion of isoenergetic amounts of triacylglycerol or

  11. Central GLP-1 receptor signalling accelerates plasma clearance of triacylglycerol and glucose by activating brown adipose tissue in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, Sander; Wang, Yanan; Parlevliet, Edwin T.; Boon, Mariëtte R.; Edelschaap, David; Snaterse, Gido; Pijl, Hanno; Romijn, Johannes A.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) agonism, used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, has recently been shown to increase thermogenesis via the brain. As brown adipose tissue (BAT) produces heat by burning triacylglycerol (TG) and takes up glucose for de novo lipogenesis, the aim of

  12. Comparative analysis of triacylglycerols from different Stichococcus strains by RP-HPLC/APCI-MS and chiral HPLC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Nedbalová, L.; Sigler, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2015), s. 685-696 ISSN 0921-8971 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/0215 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Green alga * Stichococcus bacillaris * Triacylglycerols Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.372, year: 2015

  13. Dietary Protection Against Free Radicals: A Case for Multiple Testing to Establish Structure-activity Relationships for Antioxidant Potential of Anthocyanic Plant Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Cheng Lim

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage by reactive species is associated with susceptibility to chronic human degenerative disorders. Anthocyanins are naturally occurring antioxidants, that may prevent or reverse such damage. There is considerable interest in anthocyanic food plants as good dietary sources, with the potential for reducing susceptibility to chronic disease. While structure-activity relationships have provided guidelines on molecular structure in relation to free hydroxyl- radical scavenging, this may not cover the situation in food plants where the anthocyanins are part of a complex mixture, and may be part of complex structures, including anthocyanic vacuolar inclusions (AVIs. Additionally, new analytical methods have revealed new structures in previously-studied materials. We have compared the antioxidant activities of extracts from six anthocyanin-rich edible plants (red cabbage, red lettuce, blueberries, pansies, purple sweetpotato skin, purple sweetpotato flesh and Maori potato flesh using three chemical assays (DPPH, TRAP and ORAC, and the in vitro Comet assay. Extracts from the flowering plant, lisianthus, were used for comparison. The extracts showed differential effects in the chemical assays, suggesting that closely related structures have different affinities to scavenge different reactive species. Integration of anthocyanins to an AVI led to more sustained radical scavenging activity as compared with the free anthocyanin. All but the red lettuce extract could reduce endogenous DNA damage in HT-29 colon cancer cells. However, while extracts from purple sweetpotato skin and flesh, Maori potato and pansies, protected cells against subsequent challenge by hydrogen peroxide at 0oC, red cabbage extracts were pro-oxidant, while other extracts had no effect. When the peroxide challenge was at 37oC, all of the extracts appeared pro-oxidant. Maori potato extract, consistently the weakest antioxidant in all the chemical assays, was more effective in the

  14. A chloroplast pathway for the de novo biosynthesis of triacylglycerol in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, J.; Xu, C.; Andre, C.

    2011-06-23

    Neutral lipid metabolism has been extensively studied in yeast, plants and mammals. In contrast, little information is available regarding the biochemical pathway, enzymes and regulatory factors involved in the biosynthesis of triacylglycerol (TAG) in microalgae. In the conventional TAG biosynthetic pathway widely accepted for yeast, plants and mammals, TAG is assembled in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) from its immediate precursor diacylglycerol (DAG) made by ER-specific acyltransferases, and is deposited exclusively in lipid droplets in the cytosol. Here, we demonstrated that the unicellular microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii employs a distinct pathway that uses DAG derived almost exclusively from the chloroplast to produce TAG. This unique TAG biosynthesis pathway is largely dependent on de novo fatty acid synthesis, and the TAG formed in this pathway is stored in lipid droplets in both the chloroplast and the cytosol. These findings have wide implications for understanding TAG biosynthesis and storage and other areas of lipid metabolism in microalgae and other organisms.

  15. TOR (target of rapamycin) is a key regulator of triacylglycerol accumulation in microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Sousuke; Kawase, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Ikki; Shimojima, Mie; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kan

    2016-01-01

    Most microalgae abundantly accumulate lipid droplets (LDs) containing triacylglycerols (TAGs) under several stress conditions, but the underlying molecular mechanism of this accumulation remains unclear. In a recent study, we found that inhibition of TOR (target of rapamycin), a highly conserved protein kinase of eukaryotes, by rapamycin resulted in TAG accumulation in microalgae, indicating that TOR negatively regulates TAG accumulation. Here, we show that formation of intracellular LDs and TAG accumulation were also induced in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii after exposure to Torin1 or AZD8055, which are novel TOR inhibitors that inhibit TOR activity in a manner different from rapamycin. These results supported quite well our previous conclusion that TOR is a central regulator of TAG accumulation in microalgae.

  16. Temperature dependence of production of structured triacylglycerols in the alga Trachydiscus minutus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Lukavský, Jaromír; Sigler, Karel; Nedbalová, Linda; Vítová, Milada

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 110, FEB 2015 (2015), s. 37-45 ISSN 0031-9422 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/0215; GA ČR GA14-00227S; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0110; GA TA ČR TE01020080 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:67985939 Keywords : Alga * Trachydiscus minutus * Eustigmatophyceae Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics; EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics (BU-J) Impact factor: 2.779, year: 2015

  17. Structured Triacylglycerol of Palm-based Margarine Fat by Enzymatic Interesterification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Nuzul Amri Bin

    2008-01-01

    blends containing palm stearin (PS) (60 to 90%), palm kernel oil (PKO) (10 to 40%) and fish oil (FO) (0 to 10%) were interesterified by Lipozyme TL IM (Thermomyces lanuginosa) using a continuous packed bed reactor (PBR). FO in the blend had a similar effect as PKO on solid fat content (SFC...... PBR for enzymatic interesterification of sunflower oil and fish oil blend. The pre-column functions as a protector of the enzyme bed to prolong the lifespan of the enzyme. Deactivation kinetic of enzymes subjected to interesterification using a pre-column was compared against without a pre......-column. The deactivation rate of enzyme bed without a pre-column was 7.4 times faster than the one with a pre-column, where the half-life were 8 and 58 days respectively....

  18. Quantitation of triacylglycerols in edible oils by off-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry using a single column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fang; Hu, Na; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xu-Yan; Chen, Hong

    2015-07-24

    In this investigation, off-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry using a single column has been applied for the identification and quantification of triacylglycerols in edible oils. A novel mixed-mode phenyl-hexyl chromatographic column was employed in this off-line two-dimensional separation system. The phenyl-hexyl column combined the features of traditional C18 and silver-ion columns, which could provide hydrophobic interactions with triacylglycerols under acetonitrile conditions and can offer π-π interactions with triacylglycerols under methanol conditions. When compared with traditional off-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography employing two different chromatographic columns (C18 and silver-ion column) and using elution solvents comprised of two phases (reversed-phase/normal-phase) for triacylglycerols separation, the novel off-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography using a single column can be achieved by simply altering the mobile phase between acetonitrile and methanol, which exhibited a much higher selectivity for the separation of triacylglycerols with great efficiency and rapid speed. In addition, an approach based on the use of response factor with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry has been developed for triacylglycerols quantification. Due to the differences between saturated and unsaturated acyl chains, the use of response factors significantly improves the quantitation of triacylglycerols. This two-dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system was successfully applied for the profiling of triacylglycerols in soybean oils, peanut oils and lord oils. A total of 68 triacylglycerols including 40 triacylglycerols in soybean oils, 50 triacylglycerols in peanut oils and 44 triacylglycerols in lord oils have been identified and quantified. The liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry data were analyzed

  19. Reversible flow of cholesteryl ester between high-density lipoproteins and triacylglycerol-rich particles is modulated by the fatty acid composition and concentration of triacylglycerols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C.R. Quintão

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We determined the influence of fasting (FAST and feeding (FED on cholesteryl ester (CE flow between high-density lipoproteins (HDL and plasma apoB-lipoprotein and triacylglycerol (TG-rich emulsions (EM prepared with TG-fatty acids (FAs. TG-FAs of varying chain lengths and degrees of unsaturation were tested in the presence of a plasma fraction at d > 1.21 g/mL as the source of CE transfer protein. The transfer of CE from HDL to FED was greater than to FAST TG-rich acceptor lipoproteins, 18% and 14%, respectively. However, percent CE transfer from HDL to apoB-containing lipoproteins was similar for FED and FAST HDL. The CE transfer from HDL to EM depended on the EM TG-FA chain length. Furthermore, the chain length of the monounsaturated TG-containing EM showed a significant positive correlation of the CE transfer from HDL to EM (r = 0.81, P < 0.0001 and a negative correlation from EM to HDL (r = -041, P = 0.0088. Regarding the degree of EM TG-FAs unsaturation, among EMs containing C18, the CE transfer was lower from HDL to C18:2 compared to C18:1 and C18:3, 17.7%, 20.7%, and 20%, respectively. However, the CE transfer from EMs to HDL was higher to C18:2 than to C18:1 and C18:3, 83.7%, 51.2%, and 46.3%, respectively. Thus, the EM FA composition was found to be the rate-limiting factor regulating the transfer of CE from HDL. Consequently, the net transfer of CE between HDL and TG-rich particles depends on the specific arrangement of the TG acyl chains in the lipoprotein particle core.

  20. Long-term intake of a high protein diet increases liver triacylglycerol deposition pathways and hepatic signs of injury in rats

    KAUST Repository

    Diaz Rua, Ruben

    2017-04-19

    Intake of high-protein (HP) diets has increased over the last years, mainly due to their popularity for body weight control. Liver is the main organ handling ingested macronutrients and it is associated with the beginning of different pathologies. We aimed to deepen our knowledge on molecular pathways affected by long-term intake of an HP diet. We performed a transcriptome analysis on liver of rats chronically fed with a casein-rich HP diet and analyzed molecular parameters related to liver injury. Chronic increase in the dietary protein/carbohydrate ratio up-regulated processes related with amino acid uptake/metabolism and lipid synthesis, promoting a molecular environment indicative of hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) deposition. Moreover, changes in expression of genes involved in acid–base maintenance and oxidative stress indicate alterations in the pH balance due to the high acid load of the diet, which has been linked to liver/health damage. Up-regulation of immune-related genes was also observed. In concordance with changes at gene expression level, we observed increased liver TG content and increased serum markers of hepatic injury/inflammation (aspartate transaminase, C-reactive protein and TNF-alpha). Moreover, the HP diet strongly increased hepatic mRNA and protein levels of HSP90, a marker of liver injury. Thus, we show for the first time that long-term consumption of an HP diet, resulting in a high acid load, results in a hepatic transcriptome signature reflecting increased TG deposition and increased signs of health risk (increased inflammation, alterations in the acid–base equilibrium and oxidative stress). Persistence of this altered metabolic status could have unhealthy consequences.

  1. Long-term intake of a high protein diet increases liver triacylglycerol deposition pathways and hepatic signs of injury in rats

    KAUST Repository

    Diaz Rua, Ruben; Keijer, Jaap; Palou, Andreu; van Schothorst, Evert M.; Oliver, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Intake of high-protein (HP) diets has increased over the last years, mainly due to their popularity for body weight control. Liver is the main organ handling ingested macronutrients and it is associated with the beginning of different pathologies. We aimed to deepen our knowledge on molecular pathways affected by long-term intake of an HP diet. We performed a transcriptome analysis on liver of rats chronically fed with a casein-rich HP diet and analyzed molecular parameters related to liver injury. Chronic increase in the dietary protein/carbohydrate ratio up-regulated processes related with amino acid uptake/metabolism and lipid synthesis, promoting a molecular environment indicative of hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) deposition. Moreover, changes in expression of genes involved in acid–base maintenance and oxidative stress indicate alterations in the pH balance due to the high acid load of the diet, which has been linked to liver/health damage. Up-regulation of immune-related genes was also observed. In concordance with changes at gene expression level, we observed increased liver TG content and increased serum markers of hepatic injury/inflammation (aspartate transaminase, C-reactive protein and TNF-alpha). Moreover, the HP diet strongly increased hepatic mRNA and protein levels of HSP90, a marker of liver injury. Thus, we show for the first time that long-term consumption of an HP diet, resulting in a high acid load, results in a hepatic transcriptome signature reflecting increased TG deposition and increased signs of health risk (increased inflammation, alterations in the acid–base equilibrium and oxidative stress). Persistence of this altered metabolic status could have unhealthy consequences.

  2. Krill protein hydrolysate reduces plasma triacylglycerol level with concurrent increase in plasma bile acid level and hepatic fatty acid catabolism in high-fat fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie S. Ramsvik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Krill powder, consisting of both lipids and proteins, has been reported to modulate hepatic lipid catabolism in animals. Fish protein hydrolysate diets have also been reported to affect lipid metabolism and to elevate bile acid (BA level in plasma. BA interacts with a number of nuclear receptors and thus affects a variety of signaling pathways, including very low density lipoprotein (VLDL secretion. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a krill protein hydrolysate (KPH could affect lipid and BA metabolism in mice. Method: C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat (21%, w/w diet containing 20% crude protein (w/w as casein (control group or KPH for 6 weeks. Lipids and fatty acid composition were measured from plasma, enzyme activity and gene expression were analyzed from liver samples, and BA was measured from plasma. Results: The effect of dietary treatment with KPH resulted in reduced levels of plasma triacylglycerols (TAG and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs. The KPH treated mice had also a marked increased plasma BA concentration. The increased plasma BA level was associated with induction of genes related to membrane canalicular exporter proteins (Abcc2, Abcb4 and to BA exporters to blood (Abcc3 and Abcc4. Of note, we observed a 2-fold increased nuclear farnesoid X receptor (Fxr mRNA levels in the liver of mice fed KPH. We also observed increased activity of the nuclear peroxiosme proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα target gene carnitine plamitoyltransferase 2 (CPT-2. Conclusion: The KPH diet showed to influence lipid and BA metabolism in high-fat fed mice. Moreover, increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and elevation of BA concentration may regulate the plasma level of TAGs and NEFAs.

  3. Long-term intake of a high-protein diet increases liver triacylglycerol deposition pathways and hepatic signs of injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Rúa, Rubén; Keijer, Jaap; Palou, Andreu; van Schothorst, Evert M; Oliver, Paula

    2017-08-01

    Intake of high-protein (HP) diets has increased over the last years, mainly due to their popularity for body weight control. Liver is the main organ handling ingested macronutrients and it is associated with the beginning of different pathologies. We aimed to deepen our knowledge on molecular pathways affected by long-term intake of an HP diet. We performed a transcriptome analysis on liver of rats chronically fed with a casein-rich HP diet and analyzed molecular parameters related to liver injury. Chronic increase in the dietary protein/carbohydrate ratio up-regulated processes related with amino acid uptake/metabolism and lipid synthesis, promoting a molecular environment indicative of hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) deposition. Moreover, changes in expression of genes involved in acid-base maintenance and oxidative stress indicate alterations in the pH balance due to the high acid load of the diet, which has been linked to liver/health damage. Up-regulation of immune-related genes was also observed. In concordance with changes at gene expression level, we observed increased liver TG content and increased serum markers of hepatic injury/inflammation (aspartate transaminase, C-reactive protein and TNF-alpha). Moreover, the HP diet strongly increased hepatic mRNA and protein levels of HSP90, a marker of liver injury. Thus, we show for the first time that long-term consumption of an HP diet, resulting in a high acid load, results in a hepatic transcriptome signature reflecting increased TG deposition and increased signs of health risk (increased inflammation, alterations in the acid-base equilibrium and oxidative stress). Persistence of this altered metabolic status could have unhealthy consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Structural relations in the effect of convenience food satisfaction and quality of life according to dietary style: Comparative study of singles in metropolitan area of Korea, Japan and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Boram; Joo, Nami

    2014-06-01

    Due to recent changes in social structure, single-person households are on the rise worldwide and therefore the interest in the quality of life of singles is increasing, but the research on the relationships related to their diet-related quality of life is scarce. This research analyzes the structural relations in the effect of convenience food satisfaction and quality of life according to dietary style of Korean, Japanese and Chinese singles. The targets of this study were Korean, Japanese, and Chinese singles, identified as adults between the ages of 25 and 54, having economic capabilities or working and living alone, either legally or in actuality having no partner. A statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS12.0 for Windows and SEM using AMOS 5.0 statistics package. The reliability of these findings was supported by a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.6 and higher for all the factors. In an attempt to study the level of satisfaction with convenience food in accordance to dietary style and the quality of life of singles, a structural equation model was constructed and analyzed. Of the three countries, regarding the effect of dietary style on singles' quality of life, the convenience-oriented style was found to have a negative effect on Korean singles' overall quality of life, but a positive effect on Japanese singles' overall quality of life, and a negative effect on Chinese singles' positive psychological aspect of quality of life. In addition, although Chinese singles have a high level of interest in health, they have an overall high level of satisfaction regarding fast food and its nutritional value. The number of singles in Korea, Japan, and China has been consistently increasing in recent years, and there is a need for continuous interest in their healthy dietary lifestyles in terms of convenience, economy, and taste.

  5. Structural relations in the effect of convenience food satisfaction and quality of life according to dietary style: Comparative study of singles in metropolitan area of Korea, Japan and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Boram

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Due to recent changes in social structure, single-person households are on the rise worldwide and therefore the interest in the quality of life of singles is increasing, but the research on the relationships related to their diet-related quality of life is scarce. This research analyzes the structural relations in the effect of convenience food satisfaction and quality of life according to dietary style of Korean, Japanese and Chinese singles. SUBJECTS/METHODS The targets of this study were Korean, Japanese, and Chinese singles, identified as adults between the ages of 25 and 54, having economic capabilities or working and living alone, either legally or in actuality having no partner. A statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS12.0 for Windows and SEM using AMOS 5.0 statistics package. The reliability of these findings was supported by a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.6 and higher for all the factors. In an attempt to study the level of satisfaction with convenience food in accordance to dietary style and the quality of life of singles, a structural equation model was constructed and analyzed. RESULTS Of the three countries, regarding the effect of dietary style on singles' quality of life, the convenience-oriented style was found to have a negative effect on Korean singles' overall quality of life, but a positive effect on Japanese singles' overall quality of life, and a negative effect on Chinese singles' positive psychological aspect of quality of life. In addition, although Chinese singles have a high level of interest in health, they have an overall high level of satisfaction regarding fast food and its nutritional value. CONCLUSIONS The number of singles in Korea, Japan, and China has been consistently increasing in recent years, and there is a need for continuous interest in their healthy dietary lifestyles in terms of convenience, economy, and taste. PMID:24944777

  6. Daily dietary intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    As part of study on ''Reference Asian Man'' to strengthen radiation protection, the data on the dietary consumption patterns of the Asian region were collected. Eight provided dietary data - Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, Philippines, and Viet Nam. Whereas the dietary information from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Pakistan and Viet Nam are preliminary in nature, the dietary information from China, India, Japan and Philippines, on the other hand, is quite substantial. The population of the countries from which sufficient dietary data are available represents more than 2/3 of the population of the Asian region. The details of the individual data available on dietary parameters from different Asian countries are listed below

  7. CLA supplementation and aerobic exercise lower blood triacylglycerol, but have no effect on peak oxygen uptake or cardiorespiratory fatigue thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Buckner, Samuel L; Cochrane, Kristen C; Bergstrom, Haley C; Goldsmith, Jacob A; Weir, Joseph P; Housh, Terry J; Cramer, Joel T

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the effects of 6 weeks of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation and moderate aerobic exercise on peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), the gas exchange threshold (GET), the respiratory compensation point (RCP), and serum concentrations of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and glucose in humans. Thirty-four untrained to moderately trained men (mean ± SD; age = 21.5 ± 2.8 years; mass = 77.2 ± 9.5 kg) completed this double-blind, placebo controlled study and were randomly assigned to either a CLA (Clarinol A-80; n = 18) or placebo (PLA; sunflower oil; n = 16) group. Prior to and following 6 weeks of aerobic training (50% VO2 peak for 30 min, twice per week) and supplementation (5.63 g of total CLA isomers [of which 2.67 g was c9, t11 and 2.67 g was t10, c12] or 7.35 g high oleic sunflower oil per day), each participant completed an incremental cycle ergometer test to exhaustion to determine their [Formula: see text] peak, GET, and RCP and fasted blood draws were performed to measure serum concentrations of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and glucose. Serum triacylglycerol concentrations were lower (p interactions (p 0.05) between the CLA and PLA groups. GET and RCP increased (p < 0.05) from pre- to post-training for both the CLA and PLA groups. Overall, these data suggested that CLA and aerobic exercise may have synergistic, blood triacylglycerol lowering effects, although CLA may be ineffective for enhancing aerobic exercise performance in conjunction with a 6-week aerobic exercise training program in college-age men.

  8. Two-Stage Enzymatic Preparation of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) And Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Enriched Fish Oil Triacylglycerols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Liu, Fang; Ma, Xiang; Huang, Huihua; Wang, Yong

    2018-01-10

    Fish oil products in the form of triacylglycerols generally have relatively low contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and so it is of potential research and industrial interest to enrich the related contents in commercial products. Thereby an economical and efficient two-stage preparation of EPA and DHA enriched fish oil triacylglycerols is proposed in this study. The first stage was the partial hydrolysis of fish oil by only 0.2 wt.‰ AY "Amano" 400SD which led to increases of EPA and DHA contents in acylglycerols from 19.30 and 13.09 wt % to 25.95 and 22.06 wt %, respectively. Subsequently, products of the first stage were subjected to transesterification with EPA and DHA enriched fatty acid ethyl esters (EDEE) as the second stage to afford EPA and DHA enriched fish oil triacylglycerols by using as low as 2 wt % Novozyme 435. EDEEs prepared from fish oil ethyl ester, and recycled DHA and EPA, respectively, were applied in this stage. Final products prepared with two different sources of EDEEs were composed of 97.62 and 95.92 wt % of triacylglycerols, respectively, with EPA and DHA contents of 28.20 and 21.41 wt % for the former and 25.61 and 17.40 wt % for the latter. Results not only demonstrate this two-stage process's capability and industrial value for enriching EPA and DHA in fish oil products, but also offer new opportunities for the development of fortified fish oil products.

  9. Children and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...

  10. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and solvent extraction of papaya seed oil: yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2013-10-10

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively). Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%-74.7%), palmitic (16:0, 14.9%-17.9%), stearic (18:0, 4.50%-5.25%), and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%-4.6%). Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO), palmitoyl diolein (POO) and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL). In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE) and conditions.

  11. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE and Solvent Extraction of Papaya Seed Oil: Yield, Fatty Acid Composition and Triacylglycerol Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanah Mohd Ghazali

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE and solvent extraction (SE. In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively. Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%–74.7%, palmitic (16:0, 14.9%–17.9%, stearic (18:0, 4.50%–5.25%, and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%–4.6%. Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO, palmitoyl diolein (POO and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL. In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE significantly (p < 0.05 influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE and conditions.

  12. Accurate Mass GC/LC-Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols of Spicy Fruits from the Apiaceae Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thao Nguyen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The triacylglycerol (TAG structure and the regio-stereospecific distribution of fatty acids (FA of seed oils from most of the Apiaceae family are not well documented. The TAG structure ultimately determines the final physical properties of the oils and the position of FAs in the TAG molecule affects the digestion; absorption and metabolism; and physical and technological properties of TAGs. Fixed oils from the fruits of dill (Anethum graveolens, caraway (Carum carvi, cumin (Cuminum cyminum, coriander (Coriandrum sativum, anise (Pimpinella anisum, carrot (Daucus carota, celery (Apium graveolens, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare, and Khella (Ammi visnaga, all from the Apiaceae family, were extracted at room temperature in chloroform/methanol (2:1 v/v using percolators. Crude lipids were fractionated by solid phase extraction to separate neutral triacylglycerols (TAGs from other lipids components. Neutral TAGs were subjected to transesterification process to convert them to their corresponding fatty acids methyl esters (FAMES using 1% boron trifluoride (BF3 in methanol. FAMES were analyzed by gas chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (GC-QTOF mass spectrometry. Triglycerides were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (LC-QTOF mass spectrometry. Petroselinic acid was the major fatty acid in all samples ranging from 57% of the total fatty acids in caraway up to 82% in fennel. All samples contained palmitic (16:0, palmitoleic (C16:1n-9, stearic (C18:0, petroselinic (C18:1n-12, linoleic (C18:2n-6, linolinic (18:3n-3, and arachidic (C20:0 acids. TAG were analyzed using LC-QTOF for accurate mass identification and mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS techniques for regiospesific elucidation of the identified TAGs. Five major TAGs were detected in all samples but with different relative concentrations in all of the tested samples. Several other TAGs were detected as minor components and were present in some

  13. Detection of Lard in Cocoa Butter—Its Fatty Acid Composition, Triacylglycerol Profiles, and Thermal Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marliana Azir

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the detection of lard in cocoa butter through changes in fatty acids composition, triacylglycerols profile, and thermal characteristics. Cocoa butter was mixed with 1% to 30% (v/v of lard and analyzed using a gas chromatography flame ionization detector, high performance liquid chromatography, and differential scanning calorimetry. The results revealed that the mixing of lard in cocoa butter showed an increased amount of oleic acid in the cocoa butter while there was a decrease in the amount of palmitic acid and stearic acids. The amount of POS, SOS, and POP also decreased with the addition of lard. A heating thermogram from the DSC analysis showed that as the concentration of lard increased from 3% to 30%, two minor peaks at −26 °C and 34.5 °C started to appear and a minor peak at 34.5 °C gradually overlapped with the neighbouring major peak. A cooling thermogram of the above adulterated cocoa butter showed a minor peak shift to a lower temperature of −36 °C to −41.5 °C. Values from this study could be used as a basis for the identification of lard from other fats in the food authentication process.

  14. Detection of Lard in Cocoa Butter—Its Fatty Acid Composition, Triacylglycerol Profiles, and Thermal Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azir, Marliana; Abbasiliasi, Sahar; Tengku Ibrahim, Tengku Azmi; Manaf, Yanty Noorzianna Abdul; Sazili, Awis Qurni; Mustafa, Shuhaimi

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates the detection of lard in cocoa butter through changes in fatty acids composition, triacylglycerols profile, and thermal characteristics. Cocoa butter was mixed with 1% to 30% (v/v) of lard and analyzed using a gas chromatography flame ionization detector, high performance liquid chromatography, and differential scanning calorimetry. The results revealed that the mixing of lard in cocoa butter showed an increased amount of oleic acid in the cocoa butter while there was a decrease in the amount of palmitic acid and stearic acids. The amount of POS, SOS, and POP also decreased with the addition of lard. A heating thermogram from the DSC analysis showed that as the concentration of lard increased from 3% to 30%, two minor peaks at −26 °C and 34.5 °C started to appear and a minor peak at 34.5 °C gradually overlapped with the neighbouring major peak. A cooling thermogram of the above adulterated cocoa butter showed a minor peak shift to a lower temperature of −36 °C to −41.5 °C. Values from this study could be used as a basis for the identification of lard from other fats in the food authentication process. PMID:29120362

  15. DGAT enzymes are required for triacylglycerol synthesis and lipid droplets in adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Charles A; Haas, Joel T; Streeper, Ryan S; Stone, Scot J; Kumari, Manju; Yang, Kui; Han, Xianlin; Brownell, Nicholas; Gross, Richard W; Zechner, Rudolf; Farese, Robert V

    2011-04-01

    The total contribution of the acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzymes, DGAT1 and DGAT2, to mammalian triacylglycerol (TG) synthesis has not been determined. Similarly, whether DGAT enzymes are required for lipid droplet (LD) formation is unknown. In this study, we examined the requirement for DGAT enzymes in TG synthesis and LDs in differentiated adipocytes with genetic deletions of DGAT1 and DGAT2. Adipocytes with a single deletion of either enzyme were capable of TG synthesis and LD formation. In contrast, adipocytes with deletions of both DGATs were severely lacking in TG and did not have LDs, indicating that DGAT1 and DGAT2 account for nearly all TG synthesis in adipocytes and appear to be required for LD formation during adipogenesis. DGAT enzymes were not absolutely required for LD formation in mammalian cells, however; macrophages deficient in both DGAT enzymes were able to form LDs when incubated with cholesterol-rich lipoproteins. Although adipocytes lacking both DGATs had no TG or LDs, they were fully differentiated by multiple criteria. Our findings show that DGAT1 and DGAT2 account for the vast majority of TG synthesis in mice, and DGAT function is required for LDs in adipocytes, but not in all cell types.

  16. A novel assay of DGAT activity based on high temperature GC/MS of triacylglycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Michael S; Zhou, Ting; Weselake, Randall J

    2014-08-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the final step in the acyl-CoA-dependent biosynthesis of triacylglycerol (TAG), a high-energy compound composed of three fatty acids esterified to a glycerol backbone. In vitro DGAT assays, which are usually conducted with radiolabeled substrate using microsomal fractions, have been useful in identifying compounds and genetic modifications that affect DGAT activity. Here, we describe a high-temperature gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry (MS)-based method for monitoring molecular species of TAG produced by the catalytic action of microsomal DGAT. This method circumvents the need for radiolabeled or modified substrates, and only requires a simple lipid extraction prior to GC. The utility of the method is demonstrated using a recombinant type-1 Brassica napus DGAT produced in a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisae that is deficient in TAG synthesis. The GC/MS-based assay of DGAT activity was strongly correlated with the typical in vitro assay of the enzyme using [1-(14)C] acyl-CoA as an acyl donor. In addition to determining DGAT activity, the method is also useful for determining substrate specificity and selectivity properties of the enzyme.

  17. DGAT enzymes are required for triacylglycerol synthesis and lipid droplets in adipocytes[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Charles A.; Haas, Joel T.; Streeper, Ryan S.; Stone, Scot J.; Kumari, Manju; Yang, Kui; Han, Xianlin; Brownell, Nicholas; Gross, Richard W.; Zechner, Rudolf; Farese, Robert V.

    2011-01-01

    The total contribution of the acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzymes, DGAT1 and DGAT2, to mammalian triacylglycerol (TG) synthesis has not been determined. Similarly, whether DGAT enzymes are required for lipid droplet (LD) formation is unknown. In this study, we examined the requirement for DGAT enzymes in TG synthesis and LDs in differentiated adipocytes with genetic deletions of DGAT1 and DGAT2. Adipocytes with a single deletion of either enzyme were capable of TG synthesis and LD formation. In contrast, adipocytes with deletions of both DGATs were severely lacking in TG and did not have LDs, indicating that DGAT1 and DGAT2 account for nearly all TG synthesis in adipocytes and appear to be required for LD formation during adipogenesis. DGAT enzymes were not absolutely required for LD formation in mammalian cells, however; macrophages deficient in both DGAT enzymes were able to form LDs when incubated with cholesterol-rich lipoproteins. Although adipocytes lacking both DGATs had no TG or LDs, they were fully differentiated by multiple criteria. Our findings show that DGAT1 and DGAT2 account for the vast majority of TG synthesis in mice, and DGAT function is required for LDs in adipocytes, but not in all cell types. PMID:21317108

  18. Effects of medium-chain triacylglycerols on Maillard reaction in bread baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyosaki, Toshiyuki

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between the fatty acid composition of medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs) and the Maillard reaction induced during bread baking, a comparison with various fatty acids was conducted. Saturated fatty acids had a remarkable inhibitory effect on the amount of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) generated from the Maillard reaction in bread baking compared to unsaturated fatty acids. The amount of AGEs produced by each fatty acid (mg kg -1 ) was as follows: C18:0, 18.7; C12:0, 35.2; C16:0, 21.4; C18:0, 38.2; C18:1, 68.7; C18:2, 80.1; C20:4, 80.8; C22:4, 89.8. Saturated fatty acids were possibly involved in the Maillard reaction and, as a result, acted to inhibit it. In the case of unsaturated fatty acids, amounts of AGEs during the Maillard reaction in baking tended to increase as the degree of unsaturation increased. In other words, there was a positive correlation between the degree of unsaturation and the amount of AGEs. It was also confirmed that the air pore distribution in baked bread was closely related to AGEs. These results led us to conclude that the fatty acid composition of the added lipids also influences properties that determine the tastiness of bread. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Intramyocellular triacylglycerol accumulation across weight loss strategies; Sub-study of the CENTRAL trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gepner, Yftach; Shelef, Ilan; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Cohen, Noa; Bril, Nitzan; Rein, Michal; Tsaban, Gal; Zelicha, Hila; Yaskolka Meir, Anat; Tene, Lilac; Sarusy, Benjamin; Rosen, Philip; Hoffman, Jay R; Stout, Jeffrey R; Thiery, Joachim; Ceglarek, Uta; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Stampfer, Meir J; Shai, Iris

    2017-01-01

    Intramyocellular triacylglycerol (IMTG) is utilized as metabolic fuel during exercise and is linked to insulin resistance, but the long-term effect of weight loss strategies on IMTG among participants with abdominal fat, remain unclear. In an 18-month trial, sedentary participants with abdominal fat/dyslipidemia were randomized to either a low-fat (LF) or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate (MED/LC) diet (including 28g·day-1 of walnuts). After 6-months, the participants were re-randomized to moderate intense physical activity (PA+) or non-physical activity (PA-). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify changes of IMTG, abdominal sub-depots, hepatic and intermuscular fats. Across the 277 participants [86% men, age = 48 years, body-mass-index (BMI) = 31kg/m2, visceral fat = 33%] 86% completed the 18-m trial. At baseline, women had higher IMTG than men (3.4% vs. 2.3%, pvs. 9.5-18.5%, p<0.05). Changes in IMTG were associated with visceral and intermuscular fat, metabolic syndrome, insulin and leptin (p<0.05 for all), however, these associations did not remain after adjustment for visceral fat changes. Lifestyle strategies differentially affect IMTG accumulation; combination of exercise with decreased carbohydrate/increased unsaturated fat proportion intake greatly increase IMTG. Our findings suggest that increased IMTG during diet-induced moderate weight loss may not be directly related to cardiometabolic risk. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01530724.

  20. Triacylglycerol profiling of microalgae strains for biofuel feedstock by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDougall, Karen M.; McNichol, Jesse; McGinn, Patrick J.; O' Leary, Stephen J.B.; Melanson, Jeremy E. [Institute for Marine Biosciences, National Research Council of Canada, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    Biofuels from photosynthetic microalgae are quickly gaining interest as a viable carbon-neutral energy source. Typically, characterization of algal feedstock involves breaking down triacylglycerols (TAG) and other intact lipids, followed by derivatization of the fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters prior to analysis by gas chromatography (GC). However, knowledge of the intact lipid profile could offer significant advantages for discovery stage biofuel research such as the selection of an algal strain or the optimization of growth and extraction conditions. Herein, lipid extracts from microalgae were directly analyzed by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) using a benchtop Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Phospholipids, glycolipids, and TAGs were analyzed in the same chromatographic run, using a combination of accurate mass and diagnostic fragment ions for identification. Using this approach, greater than 100 unique TAGs were identified over the six algal strains studied and TAG profiles were obtained to assess their potential for biofuel applications. Under the growth conditions employed, Botryococcus braunii and Scenedesmus obliquus yielded the most comprehensive TAG profile with a high abundance of TAGs containing oleic acid. (orig.)

  1. White tea (Camellia sinensis extract reduces oxidative stress and triacylglycerols in obese mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Gonçalves Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available White tea is an unfermented tea made from young shoots of Camellia sinensis protected from sunlight to avoid polyphenol degradation. Although its levels of catechins are higher than those of green tea (derived from the same plant, there are no studies addressing the relationship between this tea and obesity associated with oxidative stress.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of white tea on obesity and its complications using a diet induced obesity model. Forty male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet to induce obesity (Obese group or the same diet supplemented with 0.5% white tea extract (Obese + WTE for 8 weeks. Adipose tissue, serum lipid profile, and oxidative stress were studied. White tea supplementation was not able to reduce food intake, body weight, or visceral adiposity. Similarly, there were no changes in cholesterol rich lipoprotein profile between the groups. A reduction in blood triacylglycerols associated with increased cecal lipids was observed in the group fed the diet supplemented with white tea. White tea supplementation also reduced oxidative stress in liver and adipose tissue. In conclusion, white tea extract supplementation (0.5% does not influence body weight or adiposity in obese mice. Its benefits are restricted to the reduction in oxidative stress associated with obesity and improvement of hypertriacylglycerolemia.

  2. Meal frequency differentially alters postprandial triacylglycerol and insulin concentrations in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heden, Timothy D; Liu, Ying; Sims, Lauren J; Whaley-Connell, Adam T; Chockalingam, Anand; Dellsperger, Kevin C; Kanaley, Jill A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare postprandial lipemia, oxidative stress, antioxidant activity, and insulinemia between a three and six isocaloric high-carbohydrate meal frequency pattern in obese women. In a counterbalanced order, eight obese women completed two, 12-h conditions in which they consumed 1,500 calories (14% protein, 21% fat, and 65% carbohydrate) either as three 500 calorie liquid meals every 4-h or six 250 calorie liquid meals every 2-h. Blood samples were taken every 30 min and analyzed for triacylglycerol (TAG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, myeloperoxidase, paraoxonase-1 activity, and insulin. The TAG incremental area under the curve (iAUC) during the three meal condition (321 ± 129 mg/dl · 12 h) was significantly lower (P = 0.04) compared with the six meal condition (481 ± 155 mg/dl · 12 h). The insulin iAUC during the three meal condition (5,549 ± 1,007 pmol/l · 12 h) was significantly higher (P = 0.05) compared with the six meal condition (4,230 ± 757 pmol/l(.) 12 h). Meal frequency had no influence on the other biochemical variables. Collectively, a three and six isocaloric high-carbohydrate meal frequency pattern differentially alters postprandial TAG and insulin concentrations but has no effect on postprandial cholesterol, oxidative stress, or antioxidant activity in obese women. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  3. A soluble diacylglycerol acyltransferase is involved in triacylglycerol biosynthesis in the oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Sapa Hima; Saha, Saikat; Rajasekharan, Ram

    2013-01-01

    The biosynthesis of triacylglycerol (TAG) occurs in the microsomal membranes of eukaryotes. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), a member of the 10 S cytosolic TAG biosynthetic complex (TBC) in Rhodotorula glutinis. Both a full-length and an N-terminally truncated cDNA clone of a single gene were isolated from R. glutinis. The DGAT activity of the protein encoded by RgDGAT was confirmed in vivo by the heterologous expression of cDNA in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae quadruple mutant (H1246) that is defective in TAG synthesis. RgDGAT overexpression in yeast was found to be capable of acylating diacylglycerol (DAG) in an acyl-CoA-dependent manner. Quadruple mutant yeast cells exhibit growth defects in the presence of oleic acid, but wild-type yeast cells do not. In an in vivo fatty acid supplementation experiment, RgDGAT expression rescued quadruple mutant growth in an oleate-containing medium. We describe a soluble acyl-CoA-dependent DAG acyltransferase from R. glutinis that belongs to the DGAT3 class of enzymes. The study highlights the importance of an alternative TAG biosynthetic pathway in oleaginous yeasts.

  4. Improved fatty acid analysis of conjugated linoleic acid rich egg yolk triacylglycerols and phospholipid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Sara; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jack; Proctor, Andrew

    2014-07-16

    Reports from chicken conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) feeding trials are limited to yolk total fatty acid composition, which consistently described increased saturated fatty acids and decreased monounsaturated fatty acids. However, information on CLA triacylglycerol (TAG) and phospholipid (PL) species is limited. This study determined the fatty acid composition of total lipids in CLA-rich egg yolk produced with CLA-rich soy oil, relative to control yolks using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID), determined TAG and PL fatty acid compositions by thin-layer chromatography-GC-FID (TLC-GC-FID), identified intact PL and TAG species by TLC-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (TLC-MALDI-MS), and determined the composition of TAG and PL species in CLA and control yolks by direct flow infusion electrospray ionization MS (DFI ESI-MS). In total, 2 lyso-phosphatidyl choline (LPC) species, 1 sphingomyelin species, 17 phosphatidyl choline species, 19 TAG species, and 9 phosphatidyl ethanolamine species were identified. Fifty percent of CLA was found in TAG, occurring predominantly in C52:5 and C52:4 TAG species. CLA-rich yolks contained significantly more LPC than did control eggs. Comprehensive lipid profiling may provide insight on relationships between lipid composition and the functional properties of CLA-rich eggs.

  5. Reduction of serum triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein concentrations in cows with hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdt, T H; Liesman, J S; Gerloff, B J; Emery, R S

    1983-02-01

    The hepatic and serum lipid concentrations in 49 dairy cows with displaced abomasum, 7 postpartum cows fasted for 6 days, and 14 healthy postpartum cows were studied. The cows with displaced abomasums were retrospectively allotted to 2 groups: those with greater than 15% liver fat (DAHF) and those with less than 15% liver fat (DALF). Liver total lipid concentrations were high in the DAHF group, exceeding these values in the fasted cows by 30% and in the healthy and DALF cows by 63% on the average. In contrast, the liver phospholipid concentrations were low in the DAHF group, intermediate in the fasted and DALF groups and high in the healthy group. On a group basis, an inverse relationship was observed between serum and liver lipid concentrations. The serum concentrations of both total and dextran-sulfate-precipitable (DSP) lipids were high in the fasted cows and were less in the DALF and healthy cows and in the DAHF cows (lowest). The between-group differences in serum total and serum DSP concentrations of triacylglycerol, cholesterol, and phospholipid followed the same quantitative pattern as the total lipids. However, the relative difference between groups was greater for each of the DSP lipid fractions. These results support the hypothesis that severe hepatic lipidosis in cattle occurs due to impaired hepatic lipoprotein synthesis and secretion.

  6. Greater impairment of postprandial triacylglycerol than glucose response in metabolic syndrome subjects with fasting hyperglycaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kim G; Walden, Charlotte M; Murray, Peter; Smith, Adrian M; Minihane, Anne M; Lovegrove, Julie A; Williams, Christine M

    2013-08-01

    Studies have started to question whether a specific component or combinations of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components may be more important in relation to cardiovascular disease risk. Our aim was to examine the impact of the presence of raised fasting glucose as a MetS component on postprandial lipaemia. Men classified with the MetS underwent a sequential test meal investigation, in which blood samples were taken at regular intervals after a test breakfast (t=0 min) and lunch (t=330 min). Lipids, glucose and insulin were measured in the fasting and postprandial samples. MetS subjects with 3 or 4 components were subdivided into those without (n=34) and with (n=23) fasting hyperglycaemia (≥5.6 mmol/l), irrespective of the combination of components. Fasting lipids and insulin were similar in the two groups, with glucose significantly higher in the men with glucose as a MetS component (Pcurve (AUC) and incremental AUC (P ≤0.016) for the postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) response in men with fasting hyperglycaemia. Greater glucose AUC (Pglucose to be an important predictor of the postprandial TAG and glucose response. Our data analysis has revealed a greater impairment of postprandial TAG than glucose response in MetS subjects with raised fasting glucose. The worsening of postprandial lipaemic control may contribute to the greater CVD risk reported in individuals with MetS component combinations which include hyperglycaemia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Target of rapamycin (TOR) plays a critical role in triacylglycerol accumulation in microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Sousuke; Kawase, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Ikki; Sone, Toshiyuki; Era, Atsuko; Miyagishima, Shin-Ya; Shimojima, Mie; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kan

    2015-10-01

    Most microalgae produce triacylglycerol (TAG) under stress conditions such as nitrogen depletion, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we focused on the role of target of rapamycin (TOR) in TAG accumulation. TOR is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is highly conserved and plays pivotal roles in nitrogen and other signaling pathways in eukaryotes. We previously constructed a rapamycin-susceptible Cyanidioschyzon merolae, a unicellular red alga, by expressing yeast FKBP12 protein to evaluate the results of TOR inhibition (Imamura et al. in Biochem Biophys Res Commun 439:264-269, 2013). By using this strain, we here report that rapamycin-induced TOR inhibition results in accumulation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets containing TAG. Transcripts for TAG synthesis-related genes, such as glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase and acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), were increased by rapamycin treatment. We also found that fatty acid synthase-dependent de novo fatty acid synthesis was required for the accumulation of lipid droplets. Induction of TAG and up-regulation of DGAT gene expression by rapamycin were similarly observed in the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. These results suggest the general involvement of TOR signaling in TAG accumulation in divergent microalgae.

  8. The small molecule fenpropimorph rapidly converts chloroplast membrane lipids to triacylglycerols in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanul eKim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Concern about global warming has prompted an intense interest in developing economical methods of producing biofuels. Microalgae provide a promising platform for biofuel production, because they accumulate high levels of lipids, and do not compete with food or feed sources. However, current methods of producing algal oil involve subjecting the microalgae to stress conditions, such as nitrogen deprivation, and are prohibitively expensive. Here, we report that the fungicide fenpropimorph rapidly causes high levels of neutral lipids to accumulate in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells. When treated with fenpropimorph (10 μg mL–1 for 1 h, Chlamydomonas cells accumulated at least four-fold the amount of triacylglycerols (TAGs present in the untreated control cells. Furthermore, the quantity of TAGs present after 1 h of fenpropimorph treatment was over two-fold higher than that formed after 9 days of nitrogen starvation in medium with no acetate supplement. Biochemical analysis of lipids revealed that the accumulated TAGs were derived mainly from chloroplast polar membrane lipids. Such a conversion of chloroplast polar lipids to TAGs is desirable for biodiesel production, because polar lipids are usually removed during the biodiesel production process. Thus, our data exemplified that a cost and time effective method of producing TAGs is possible using fenpropimorph or similar drugs.

  9. Educational level and family structure influence the dietary changes after the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: evidence from the E3N study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Francesca Romana; Affret, Aurelie; Dow, Courtney; Balkau, Beverley; Bihan, Hélène; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Bonnet, Fabrice; Fagherazzi, Guy

    2017-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has no cure but can be controlled by medication, diet, and lifestyle changes. It has been suggested that diabetes dietary self-management is more difficult for people with socioeconomic difficulties. The objective of our study was to test the hypothesis that socioeconomic factors impact the change of diet after T2D diagnosis. The 57 304 French women included in the present study answered food frequency questionnaires in 1993 and 2005 and questionnaires on socioeconomic factors, and were free from T2D in 1993. Between 1993 and 2005, 1249 women developed T2D. Linear regression models evaluated whether having T2D diagnosed had an impact on energy and nutrient intakes and whether socioeconomic factors were implicated. T2D was associated with a reduction of energy (β=-312.54 kJ/d, Peducation of T2D patients and whether or not they had a family (having a partner and/or children). The present study provides evidence that socioeconomic factors impact the way people with T2D change their dietary habits after diagnosis. Furthermore, the family plays a crucial role in dietary self-management, probably encouraging T2D patients to follow dietary recommendations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Structural relations of convenience food satisfaction and quality of life according to dietary style: Focusing on singles in metropolitan area of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Boram; Joo, Nami

    2014-10-01

    Although the issues of singles' dietary style and quality of life are becoming important due to the increasing number of singles with economic power, little research has been conducted to date on singles' use of convenience food and quality of life in relation to their dietary style. Thus, the present study intends to provide basic data to improve the quality of life by determining the current status of the use of convenience food and explicating its relationship with quality of life through analyzing the dietary lifestyles of the singles. The targets of this study were singles, identified as adults between the ages of 25 and 54, living alone, either legally or in actuality having no partner. A statistical analysis of 208 surveys from Seoul, respectively, was conducted using SPSS12.0 for Windows and SEM using AMOS 5.0 statistics package. The convenience-oriented was shown to have a significant positive effect on convenience food satisfaction. HMR satisfaction was found to have a significant effect on positive psychological satisfaction and the convenience-oriented was found to have a significant negative effect on all aspects of quality of life satisfaction. There must be persistent development of food industries considering the distinctive characteristics of the lives of singles in order to satisfy their needs and improve the quality of their lives.

  11. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (DGAT2) and monoacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (MGAT2) interact to promote triacylglycerol synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Youzhi; McFie, Pamela J; Banman, Shanna L; Brandt, Curtis; Stone, Scot J

    2014-10-10

    Acyl CoA:1,2-diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT)-2 is an integral membrane protein that catalyzes triacylglycerol (TG) synthesis using diacylglycerol and fatty acyl CoA as substrates. DGAT2 resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but when cells are incubated with fatty acids, DGAT2 interacts with lipid droplets presumably to catalyze localized TG synthesis for lipid droplet expansion. Previous studies have shown that DGAT2 interacts with proteins that synthesize its fatty acyl CoA substrates. In this study, we provide additional evidence that DGAT2 is present in a protein complex. Using a chemical cross-linker, disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS), we demonstrated that DGAT2 formed a dimer and was also part of a protein complex of ∼ 650 kDa, both in membranes and on lipid droplets. Using co-immunoprecipitation experiments and an in situ proximity ligation assay, we found that DGAT2 interacted with monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT)-2, an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of diacylglycerol. Deletion mutagenesis showed that the interaction with MGAT2 was dependent on the two transmembrane domains of DGAT2. No significant interaction of DGAT2 with lipin1, another enzyme that synthesizes diacylglycerol, could be detected. When co-expressed in cells, DGAT2 and MGAT2 co-localized in the ER and on lipid droplets. Co-expression also resulted in increased TG storage compared with expression of DGAT2 or MGAT2 alone. Incubating McArdle rat hepatoma RH7777 cells with 2-monoacylglycerol caused DGAT2 to translocate to lipid droplets. This also led to the formation of large cytosolic lipid droplets, characteristic of DGAT2, but not DGAT1, and indicated that DGAT2 can utilize monoacylglycerol-derived diacylglycerol. These findings suggest that the interaction of DGAT2 and MGAT2 serves to channel lipid substrates efficiently for TG biosynthesis. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase-2 (DGAT2) and Monoacylglycerol Acyltransferase-2 (MGAT2) Interact to Promote Triacylglycerol Synthesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Youzhi; McFie, Pamela J.; Banman, Shanna L.; Brandt, Curtis; Stone, Scot J.

    2014-01-01

    Acyl CoA:1,2-diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT)-2 is an integral membrane protein that catalyzes triacylglycerol (TG) synthesis using diacylglycerol and fatty acyl CoA as substrates. DGAT2 resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but when cells are incubated with fatty acids, DGAT2 interacts with lipid droplets presumably to catalyze localized TG synthesis for lipid droplet expansion. Previous studies have shown that DGAT2 interacts with proteins that synthesize its fatty acyl CoA substrates. In this study, we provide additional evidence that DGAT2 is present in a protein complex. Using a chemical cross-linker, disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS), we demonstrated that DGAT2 formed a dimer and was also part of a protein complex of ∼650 kDa, both in membranes and on lipid droplets. Using co-immunoprecipitation experiments and an in situ proximity ligation assay, we found that DGAT2 interacted with monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT)-2, an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of diacylglycerol. Deletion mutagenesis showed that the interaction with MGAT2 was dependent on the two transmembrane domains of DGAT2. No significant interaction of DGAT2 with lipin1, another enzyme that synthesizes diacylglycerol, could be detected. When co-expressed in cells, DGAT2 and MGAT2 co-localized in the ER and on lipid droplets. Co-expression also resulted in increased TG storage compared with expression of DGAT2 or MGAT2 alone. Incubating McArdle rat hepatoma RH7777 cells with 2-monoacylglycerol caused DGAT2 to translocate to lipid droplets. This also led to the formation of large cytosolic lipid droplets, characteristic of DGAT2, but not DGAT1, and indicated that DGAT2 can utilize monoacylglycerol-derived diacylglycerol. These findings suggest that the interaction of DGAT2 and MGAT2 serves to channel lipid substrates efficiently for TG biosynthesis. PMID:25164810

  13. Determination of the conjugated linoleic acid-containing triacylglycerols in New Zealand bovine milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, N P; MacGibbon, A K

    2000-07-01

    Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection at 233 nm was used to separate, quantify, and identify the triacylglycerols (TAG) of milk fat that contain conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The absorbance at 233 nm was substantially due to CLA-TAG (chromatography of some representative TAG devoid of CLA, such as tripalmitin and triolein, showed poor responses at 233 nm, 1/800th that of CLA-TAG). A CLA molar extinction coefficient at 233 nm of 23,360 L mol(-1) cm(-1) and an HPLC UV response factor were obtained from a commercially available cis-9,trans-11-CLA standard. This molar extinction coefficient was only 86% of reported literature values. Summation of all chromatographic peaks absorbing at 233 nm using the corrected response factor gave good agreement with independent determinations of total CLA by gas chromatography and UV spectrophotometry. This agreement allowed quantification of individual CLA-TAG peaks in the HPLC separation of a typical New Zealand bovine milk fat. Three CLA-containing TAG, CLA-dipalmitin, CLA-oleoyl-palmitin and CLA-diolein, were prepared by interesterification of tripalmitin with the respective fatty acid methyl esters and used to assign individual peaks in the reversed-phase chromatography of total milk fat, of which CLA-oleoyl-palmitin was coincident with the largest UV peak. Band fractions from argentation thin-layer chromatography of total milk fat were similarly employed to identify five predominant CLA-TAG groups in total milk fat: CLA-disaturates, CLA-oleoyl-saturates, CLA-vaccenyl-saturates, CLA-vaccenyl-olein, and CLA-diolein.

  14. Intramyocellular triacylglycerol accumulation across weight loss strategies; Sub-study of the CENTRAL trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yftach Gepner

    Full Text Available Intramyocellular triacylglycerol (IMTG is utilized as metabolic fuel during exercise and is linked to insulin resistance, but the long-term effect of weight loss strategies on IMTG among participants with abdominal fat, remain unclear.In an 18-month trial, sedentary participants with abdominal fat/dyslipidemia were randomized to either a low-fat (LF or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate (MED/LC diet (including 28g·day-1 of walnuts. After 6-months, the participants were re-randomized to moderate intense physical activity (PA+ or non-physical activity (PA-. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was used to quantify changes of IMTG, abdominal sub-depots, hepatic and intermuscular fats.Across the 277 participants [86% men, age = 48 years, body-mass-index (BMI = 31kg/m2, visceral fat = 33%] 86% completed the 18-m trial. At baseline, women had higher IMTG than men (3.4% vs. 2.3%, p<0.001 and increased IMTG was associated with aging and higher BMI, visceral and intermuscular fats, HbA1c%, HDL-c and leptin(p<0.05, but not with intra-hepatic fat. After 18 month of intervention and a -3 kg mean weight loss, participants significantly increased IMTG by 25%, with a distinct effect in the MED/LCPA+ group as compared to the other intervention groups (57% vs. 9.5-18.5%, p<0.05. Changes in IMTG were associated with visceral and intermuscular fat, metabolic syndrome, insulin and leptin (p<0.05 for all, however, these associations did not remain after adjustment for visceral fat changes.Lifestyle strategies differentially affect IMTG accumulation; combination of exercise with decreased carbohydrate/increased unsaturated fat proportion intake greatly increase IMTG. Our findings suggest that increased IMTG during diet-induced moderate weight loss may not be directly related to cardiometabolic risk.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01530724.

  15. Recruiting a new substrate for triacylglycerol synthesis in plants: the monoacylglycerol acyltransferase pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Petrie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Monoacylglycerol acyltransferases (MGATs are predominantly associated with lipid absorption and resynthesis in the animal intestine where they catalyse the first step in the monoacylglycerol (MAG pathway by acylating MAG to form diacylglycerol (DAG. Typical plant triacylglycerol (TAG biosynthesis routes such as the Kennedy pathway do not include an MGAT step. Rather, DAG and TAG are synthesised de novo from glycerol-3-phosphate (G-3-P by a series of three subsequent acylation reactions although a complex interplay with membrane lipids exists. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate that heterologous expression of a mouse MGAT acyltransferase in Nicotiana benthamiana significantly increases TAG accumulation in vegetative tissues despite the low levels of endogenous MAG substrate available. In addition, DAG produced by this acyltransferase can serve as a substrate for both native and coexpressed diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT. Finally, we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana GPAT4 acyltransferase can produce MAG in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using oleoyl-CoA as the acyl-donor. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates the concept of a new method of increasing oil content in vegetative tissues by using MAG as a substrate for TAG biosynthesis. Based on in vitro yeast assays and expression results in N. benthamiana, we propose that co-expression of a MAG synthesising enzyme such as A. thaliana GPAT4 and a MGAT or bifunctional M/DGAT can result in DAG and TAG synthesis from G-3-P via a route that is independent and complementary to the endogenous Kennedy pathway and other TAG synthesis routes.

  16. Sorting cells of the microalga Chlorococcum littorale with increased triacylglycerol productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanelas, Iago Teles Dominguez; van der Zwart, Mathijs; Kleinegris, Dorinde M M; Wijffels, René H; Barbosa, Maria J

    2016-01-01

    Despite extensive research in the last decades, microalgae are still only economically feasible for high valued markets. Strain improvement is a strategy to increase productivities, hence reducing costs. In this work, we focus on microalgae selection: taking advantage of the natural biological variability of species to select variations based on desired characteristics. We focused on triacylglycerol (TAG), which have applications ranging from biodiesel to high-value omega-3 fatty-acids. Hence, we demonstrated a strategy to sort microalgae cells with increased TAG productivity. 1. We successfully identified sub-populations of cells with increased TAG productivity using Fluorescence assisted cell sorting (FACS). 2. We sequentially sorted cells after repeated cycles of N-starvation, resulting in five sorted populations (S1-S5). 3. The comparison between sorted and original populations showed that S5 had the highest TAG productivity [0.34 against 0.18 g l(-1) day(-1) (original), continuous light]. 4. Original and S5 were compared in lab-scale reactors under simulated summer conditions confirming the increased TAG productivity of S5 (0.4 against 0.2 g l(-1) day(-1)). Biomass composition analyses showed that S5 produced more biomass under N-starvation because of an increase only in TAG content and, flow cytometry showed that our selection removed cells with lower efficiency in producing TAGs. All combined, our results present a successful strategy to improve the TAG productivity of Chlorococcum littorale, without resourcing to genetic manipulation or random mutagenesis. Additionally, the improved TAG productivity of S5 was confirmed under simulated summer conditions, highlighting the industrial potential of S5 for microalgal TAG production.

  17. HPLC-APCI-MS analysis of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in historical pharmaceutical ointments from the eighteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliu, Francesco; Modugno, Francesca; Orlandi, Marco; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2011-10-01

    The lipid fractions of residues from historical pharmaceutical ointments were analysed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and mass spectrometer detection. The residues were contained in a series of historical apothecary jars, dating from the eighteenth century and conserved at the "Aboca Museum" in Sansepolcro (Arezzo, Italy) and at the pharmacy of the "Real Cartuja de Valldemossa" in Palma de Majorca (Spain). The analytical protocol was set up using a comparative study based on the evaluation of triacylglycerol (TAG) compositions in raw natural lipid materials and in laboratory-reproduced ointments. These ointments were prepared following pharmaceutical recipes reported in historical treatises and used as reference materials. The reference materials were also subjected to stress treatments in order to evaluate the modification occurring in the TAG profiles as an effect of ageing. TAGs were successfully detected in the reproduced formulations even in mixtures of up to ten ingredients and after harsh degradative treatments, and also in real historical samples. No particular interferences were detected from other non-lipid ingredients of the formulations. The TAG compositions detected in the historical ointments indicated a predominant use of olive oil and pig adipose material as lipid ingredients. The detection of a high level of tristearine and myristyl-palmitoyl-stearyl glycerol in two of the samples suggested the presence of a fatty material of a different origin (maybe a ruminant). On the basis of the positional isomer ratio, sn-PPO/sn-POP, it was possible to hypothesize an exclusive use of pig fat in one sample. We also evaluated the application of principal component analysis of TAG profiles as an approach for the multivariate statistical comparison of the reference and historical ointments.

  18. Impact of temperature and light intensity on triacylglycerol accumulation in marine microalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurpan Nogueira, Daniel P.; Silva, Anita F.; Araújo, Ofélia Q.F.; Chaloub, Ricardo M.

    2015-01-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) productivity of Isochrysis galbana, Nannochloropsis oceanica and Phaeodactylum tricornutum was compared to study their suitability for biotechnological applications. Photoautotrophic batch cultures grown at 20 °C and 50 μmol photons m −2  s −1 showed that N. oceanica had the least TAG content and TAG productivity of the three microalgae. Hence, effects of temperature and light intensity on growth rate and accumulation of TAG were subsequently assessed only in I. galbana and P. tricornutum by cultivation at 20 and 30 °C under 50, 300 and 600 μmol photons m −2  s −1 . Although P. tricornutum did not grow at temperatures higher than 20 °C, an increase in both TAG content (from 28.37 to 39.53%) and productivity (from 15.58 to 31.39 mg L −1  d −1 ) was observed at the highest irradiance values. We also found that combined effects of temperature and light intensity enhanced TAG content (from 18.59 to 31.71%) and productivity (from 11.76 to 21.67 mg L −1  d −1 ) in I. galbana. - Highlights: • Productivity of oil and biomass in batch-cultured marine microalgae was compared. • Increase in temperature and irradiance rose oil productivity in Isochrysis galbana. • An increase in light intensity rose oil productivity in Phaeodactylum tricornutum. • Phaeodactylum tricornutum showed the highest productivity in biomass and neutral lipids

  19. Replacement of Retinyl Esters by Polyunsaturated Triacylglycerol Species in Lipid Droplets of Hepatic Stellate Cells during Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testerink, Nicole; Ajat, Mokrish; Houweling, Martin; Brouwers, Jos F.; Pully, Vishnu V.; van Manen, Henk-Jan; Otto, Cees; Helms, J. Bernd; Vaandrager, Arie B.

    2012-01-01

    Activation of hepatic stellate cells has been recognized as one of the first steps in liver injury and repair. During activation, hepatic stellate cells transform into myofibroblasts with concomitant loss of their lipid droplets (LDs) and production of excessive extracellular matrix. Here we aimed to obtain more insight in the dynamics and mechanism of LD loss. We have investigated the LD degradation processes in rat hepatic stellate cells in vitro with a combined approach of confocal Raman microspectroscopy and mass spectrometric analysis of lipids (lipidomics). Upon activation of the hepatic stellate cells, LDs reduce in size, but increase in number during the first 7 days, but the total volume of neutral lipids did not decrease. The LDs also migrate to cellular extensions in the first 7 days, before they disappear. In individual hepatic stellate cells. all LDs have a similar Raman spectrum, suggesting a similar lipid profile. However, Raman studies also showed that the retinyl esters are degraded more rapidly than the triacylglycerols upon activation. Lipidomic analyses confirmed that after 7 days in culture hepatic stellate cells have lost most of their retinyl esters, but not their triacylglycerols and cholesterol esters. Furthermore, we specifically observed a large increase in triacylglycerol-species containing polyunsaturated fatty acids, partly caused by an enhanced incorporation of exogenous arachidonic acid. These results reveal that lipid droplet degradation in activated hepatic stellate cells is a highly dynamic and regulated process. The rapid replacement of retinyl esters by polyunsaturated fatty acids in LDs suggests a role for both lipids or their derivatives like eicosanoids during hepatic stellate cell activation. PMID:22536341

  20. Replacement of retinyl esters by polyunsaturated triacylglycerol species in lipid droplets of hepatic stellate cells during activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Testerink

    Full Text Available Activation of hepatic stellate cells has been recognized as one of the first steps in liver injury and repair. During activation, hepatic stellate cells transform into myofibroblasts with concomitant loss of their lipid droplets (LDs and production of excessive extracellular matrix. Here we aimed to obtain more insight in the dynamics and mechanism of LD loss. We have investigated the LD degradation processes in rat hepatic stellate cells in vitro with a combined approach of confocal Raman microspectroscopy and mass spectrometric analysis of lipids (lipidomics. Upon activation of the hepatic stellate cells, LDs reduce in size, but increase in number during the first 7 days, but the total volume of neutral lipids did not decrease. The LDs also migrate to cellular extensions in the first 7 days, before they disappear. In individual hepatic stellate cells. all LDs have a similar Raman spectrum, suggesting a similar lipid profile. However, Raman studies also showed that the retinyl esters are degraded more rapidly than the triacylglycerols upon activation. Lipidomic analyses confirmed that after 7 days in culture hepatic stellate cells have lost most of their retinyl esters, but not their triacylglycerols and cholesterol esters. Furthermore, we specifically observed a large increase in triacylglycerol-species containing polyunsaturated fatty acids, partly caused by an enhanced incorporation of exogenous arachidonic acid. These results reveal that lipid droplet degradation in activated hepatic stellate cells is a highly dynamic and regulated process. The rapid replacement of retinyl esters by polyunsaturated fatty acids in LDs suggests a role for both lipids or their derivatives like eicosanoids during hepatic stellate cell activation.

  1. Metabolism of dietary fatty alcohol, fatty acid, and wax ester in carp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankura, Mitsumasa; Kayama, Mitsu; Iijima, Noriaki.

    1987-01-01

    Lipids in various tissues of the carp, Cyprinus carpio were analyzed. The fates of force-fed [1- 14 C]palmitic acids, [1- 14 C]cetyl alcohol, and oleyl[1- 14 C]linoleate, were compared with those given in vitro experiments. Major lipid classes in all except adipose tissue were found to be polar lipids (phospholipids) and triacylglycerols. The major fatty acids in nearly all the tissues were 16 : 0, 18 : 1, 18 : 2, and 22 : 6. Although the radioactivity incorporation into wax esters from [1- 14 C]palmitic acid and [1- 14 C]cetyl alcohol for various tissue homogenates was quite high, in vivo incorporation of these labelled compounds into wax esters was very low and radioactivity was distributed mainly in the lipids of muscle, skin, hepatopancreas, intestine, and gill. Almost all the radioactivity in various tissues was present in phospatidylcholine and triacylglycerols. Most of the oleyl[1- 14 C]linoleate was easily hydrolyzed by various tissue homogenates. Force-fed oleyl[1- 14 C]linoleate was hydrolyzed in the intestine and then transported to other tissues, such as muscle, kin, gill, and hepatopancreas. Moreover, released radioactivity from oleyl[1- 14 C]linoleate was present in mainly phosphatidylcholine and triacylglycerols. Radioactivity was also detected in wax esters in plasma. Certain amounts for fatty acids released from [1- 14 C]triolein in the hepatopancreas homogenates were incorporated into wax esters; this was stimulated by the addition of oleyl alcohol. The present results indicate extensive hydrolysis of wax ester to possibly occur in the intestine and certain portions of the fatty alcohol moiety to be resterfied. The portions may be oxidized to fatty acids and which subsequently behave as dietary fatty acids. (author) 50 ref

  2. Excessive dietary calcium in the disruption of structural and functional status of adult male reproductive system in rat with possible mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K Chandra, Amar; Sengupta, Pallav; Goswami, Haimanti; Sarkar, Mahitosh

    2012-05-01

    Calcium is essential for functioning of different systems including male reproduction. However, it has also been reported as chemo-castrative agent. The study has been undertaken to elucidate the effect of excessive dietary calcium on male reproductive system in animals with possible action. Adult male healthy rats fed CaCl(2) at different doses (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g%) in diet for 13 and 26 days to investigate reproductive parameters as well as the markers of oxidative stress. Significant alteration was found (P male reproduction.

  3. n-3 PUFA added to high-fat diets affect differently adiposity and inflammation when carried by phospholipids or triacylglycerols in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awada Manar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA is primarily recognized to protect against cardiovascular diseases, cognitive dysfunctions and the onset of obesity and associated metabolic disorders. However, some of their properties such as bioavailability can depend on their chemical carriers. The objective of our study was to test the hypothesis that the nature of n-3 PUFA carrier results in different metabolic effects related to adiposity, oxidative stress and inflammation. Methods 4 groups of C57BL/6 mice were fed for 8 weeks low fat (LF diet or high-fat (HF, 20% diets. Two groups of high-fat diets were supplemented with long-chain n-3 PUFA either incorporated in the form of phospholipids (HF-ω3PL or triacylglycerols (HF-ω3TG. Results Both HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG diets reduced the plasma concentrations of (i inflammatory markers such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and interleukin 6 (IL-6, (ii leptin and (iii 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE, a marker of n-6 PUFA-derived oxidative stress compared with the control HF diet. Moreover, in both HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG groups, MCP-1 and IL-6 gene expressions were decreased in epididymal adipose tissue and the mRNA level of gastrointestinal glutathione peroxidase GPx2, an antioxidant enzyme, was decreased in the jejunum compared with the control HF diet. The type of n-3 PUFA carrier affected other outcomes. The phospholipid form of n-3 PUFA increased the level of tocopherols in epididymal adipose tissue compared with HF-ω3TG and resulted in smaller adipocytes than the two others HF groups. Adipocytes in the HF-ω3PL and LF groups were similar in size distribution. Conclusion Supplementation of mice diet with long-chain n-3 PUFA during long-term consumption of high-fat diets had the same lowering effects on inflammation regardless of triacyglycerol or phospholipid carrier, whereas the location of these fatty acids on a PL carrier had a major effect on decreasing

  4. Prebiotics, Fermentable Dietary Fiber, and Health Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcour, Jan A; Aman, Per; Courtin, Christophe M; Hamaker, Bruce R; Verbeke, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the positive effects of dietary fiber on health have increasingly been recognized. The collective term "dietary fiber" groups structures that have different physiologic effects. Since 1995, some dietary fibers have been denoted as prebiotics, implying a beneficial physiologic effect related to increasing numbers or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Given the complex composition of the microbiota, the demonstration of such beneficial effects is difficult. In contrast, an exploration of the metabolites of dietary fiber formed as a result of its fermentation in the colon offers better perspectives for providing mechanistic links between fiber intake and health benefits. Positive outcomes of such studies hold the promise that claims describing specific health benefits can be granted. This would help bridge the "fiber gap"-that is, the considerable difference between recommended and actual fiber intakes by the average consumer. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  6. The potential health effects of dietary phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.; Louisse, Jochem; Beekmann, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant-derived dietary compounds with structural similarity to 17-β-oestradiol (E2), the primary female sex hormone. This structural similarity to E2 enables phytoestrogens to cause (anti)oestrogenic effects by binding to the oestrogen receptors. The aim of the present review is to

  7. Apparent and quantitative loss of fatty acids and triacylglycerols at frying temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berdeaux, O.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Olive and sunflower oils were heated at 180 °C for 5, 10 and 15 hours with the aim of defining the changes in the contents of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME and triacylglycerols (TAG under frying conditions. Differences between apparent and real loss of FAME or TAG are defined for an adequate interpretation of the changes taking place at high temperature. Such differences depend on the expression of the results and frequently result in erroneous conclusions. Results showed that from the normalized composition it could be deduced that only the most unsaturated FAME (C18:2 or TAG containing it was significantly altered. However, quantitative data indicated that all the unsaturated FAME were degraded in samples of olive oil and sunflower oil whose levels of alteration ranged from 14.6 to 35.4% polar compounds. With regard to TAG, their loss depended on both the number of double bonds and the concentration of the linoleyl group, which is the most unsaturated fatty acyl group in both oils.

    Aceites de oliva y girasol se calentaron a 180 °C durante 5, 10 y 15 horas con el objetivo de definir los cambios en la concentración de ácidos grasos y especies de triglicéridos en condiciones de fritura. Se definen las diferencias entre la pérdida aparente y cuantitativa de ácidos grasos y triglicéridos que dependen de la forma de expresión de los resultados dando lugar en muchas ocasiones a interpretaciones erróneas. Así, a partir de la composición normalizada, podría deducirse que sólo el ácido graso más insaturado en los aceites (C18:2 se altera. Sin embargo, los datos cuantitativos muestran claramente que en muestras con niveles de compuestos polares entre 14.6 y 35.4%, todos los ácidos grasos insaturados sufren degradación significativa en ambos aceites. Con respecto a los cambios en los distintos triglicéridos, su pérdida cuantitativa dependió no sólo de su número de dobles enlaces sino también del contenido del ácido m

  8. Metabolic link between phosphatidylethanolamine and triacylglycerol metabolism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Susanne E; Wagner, Andrea; Steyrer, Ernst; Daum, Günther

    2011-12-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae triacylglycerols (TAG) are synthesized by the acyl-CoA dependent acyltransferases Dga1p, Are1p, Are2p and the acyl-CoA independent phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) Lro1p which uses phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) as a preferred acyl donor. In the present study we investigated a possible link between TAG and PE metabolism by analyzing the contribution of the four different PE biosynthetic pathways to TAG formation, namely de novo PE synthesis via Psd1p and Psd2p, the CDP-ethanolamine (CDP-Etn) pathway and lyso-PE acylation by Ale1p. In cells grown on the non-fermentable carbon source lactate supplemented with 5mM ethanolamine (Etn) the CDP-Etn pathway contributed most to the cellular TAG level, whereas mutations in the other pathways displayed only minor effects. In cki1∆dpl1∆eki1∆ mutants bearing defects in the CDP-Etn pathway both the cellular and the microsomal levels of PE were markedly decreased, whereas in other mutants of PE biosynthetic routes depletion of this aminoglycerophospholipid was less pronounced in microsomes. This observation is important because Lro1p similar to the enzymes of the CDP-Etn pathway is a component of the ER. We conclude from these results that in cki1∆dpl1∆eki1∆ insufficient supply of PE to the PDAT Lro1p was a major reason for the strongly reduced TAG level. Moreover, we found that Lro1p activity was markedly decreased in cki1∆dpl1∆eki1∆, although transcription of LRO1 was not affected. Our findings imply that (i) TAG and PE syntheses in the yeast are tightly linked; and (ii) TAG formation by the PDAT Lro1p strongly depends on PE synthesis through the CDP-Etn pathway. Moreover, it is very likely that local availability of PE in microsomes is crucial for TAG synthesis through the Lro1p reaction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Narrative Dietary Counseling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard Jakobsen, Nina; Kaufmann, Lisbeth; Hennesser, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Using cases and empirical data from a research and development project at a Danish prevention center, this study explores whether and how the use of narrative dietary counseling can strengthen dietitians' relationships and collaboration with clients who are chronically ill. The results of the study...... dietary counseling empowered clients and improved relationship building and collaboration between client and dietitian....

  10. Dietary determinants of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly

  11. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The

  12. The Dietary Effects of Fermented (CBT on Production Performance, Liver Lipids and Intestinal Microflora in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zheng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fermented Chlorella vulgaris CBT® was evaluated for its effects on egg production, egg quality, liver lipids and intestinal microflora in laying hens. One hundred and eight Hy-line Brown layers (n = 108, 80 wk of age, were fed a basal diet supplemented with CBT® at the level of 0, 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg, respectively for 42 d. Egg production was measured daily and egg quality was measured every two weeks. Five eggs from each replicate were collected randomly to determine egg quality. Egg production increased linearly with increasing levels of CBT® supplementation (p<0.05, although there was no significant effect of treatment on feed intake. Egg yolk color (p<0.001 and Haugh unit (p<0.01 improved linearly with increasing dietary CBT®. Hepatic triacylglycerol level was linearly decreased with increasing dietary CBT® (p<0.05. The supplemental CBT® resulted in linear (p<0.001 and quadratic (p<0.01 response in population of cecal lactic acid bacteria. In conclusion, fermented Chlorella vulgaris supplemented to laying hen diets improved egg production, egg yolk color, Haugh unit and positively affected the contents of hepatic triacylglycerol and the profiles of cecal microflora.

  13. Analysis and optimization of triacylglycerol synthesis in novel oleaginous Rhodococcus and Streptomyces strains isolated from desert soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röttig, Annika; Hauschild, Philippa; Madkour, Mohamed H; Al-Ansari, Ahmed M; Almakishah, Naief H; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2016-05-10

    As oleaginous microorganisms represent an upcoming novel feedstock for the biotechnological production of lipids or lipid-derived biofuels, we searched for novel, lipid-producing strains in desert soil. This was encouraged by the hypothesis that neutral lipids represent an ideal storage compound, especially under arid conditions, as several animals are known to outlast long periods in absence of drinking water by metabolizing their body fat. Ten lipid-accumulating bacterial strains, affiliated to the genera Bacillus, Cupriavidus, Nocardia, Rhodococcus and Streptomyces, were isolated from arid desert soil due to their ability to synthesize poly(β-hydroxybutyrate), triacylglycerols or wax esters. Particularly two Streptomyces sp. strains and one Rhodococcus sp. strain accumulate significant amounts of TAG under storage conditions under optimized cultivation conditions. Rhodococcus sp. A27 and Streptomyces sp. G49 synthesized approx. 30% (w/w) fatty acids from fructose or cellobiose, respectively, while Streptomyces isolate G25 reached a cellular fatty acid content of nearly 50% (w/w) when cultivated with cellobiose. The stored triacylglycerols were composed of 30-40% branched fatty acids, such as anteiso-pentadecanoic or iso-hexadecanoic acid. To date, this represents by far the highest lipid content described for streptomycetes. A biotechnological production of such lipids using (hemi)cellulose-derived raw material could be used to obtain sustainable biodiesel with a high proportion of branched-chain fatty acids to improve its cold-flow properties and oxidative stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. From Trioleoyl glycerol to extra virgin olive oil through multicomponent triacylglycerol mixtures: Crystallization and polymorphic transformation examined with differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayés-García, L; Calvet, T; Cuevas-Diarte, M A; Ueno, S

    2017-09-01

    The polymorphic crystallization and transformation behavior of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) was examined by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction with both laboratory-scale (XRD) and synchrotron radiation source (SR-XRD). The complex behavior observed was studied by previously analyzing mixtures composed by its main 2 to 6 triacylglycerol (TAG) components. Thus, component TAGs were successively added to simulate EVOO composition, until reaching a 6 TAGs mixture, composed by trioleoyl glycerol (OOO), 1-palmitoyl-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol (POO), 1,2-dioleoyl-3-linoleoyl glycerol (OOL), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-linoleoyl glycerol (POL), 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-oleoyl glycerol (PPO) and 1-stearoyl-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol (SOO). Molten samples were cooled from 25°C to -80°C at a controlled rate of 2°C/min and subsequently heated at the same rate. The polymorphic behavior observed in multicomponent TAG mixtures was interpreted by considering three main groups of TAGs with different molecular structures: triunsaturated OOO and OOL, saturated-unsaturated-unsaturated POO, POL and SOO, and saturated-saturated-unsaturated PPO. As confirmed by our previous work, TAGs belonging to the same structural group displayed a highly similar polymorphic behavior. EVOO exhibited two different β'-2L polymorphic forms (β' 2 -2L and β' 1 -2L), which transformed into β'-3L when heated. Equivalent polymorphic pathways were detected when the same experimental conditions were applied to the 6 TAG components mixture. Hence, minor components may not exert a strong influence in this case. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Treatment of grain with organic acids at 2 different dietary phosphorus levels modulates ruminal microbial community structure and fermentation patterns in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, H; Khol-Parisini, A; Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Klevenhusen, F; Zebeli, Q

    2015-11-01

    Recent data indicate positive effects of treating grain with citric (CAc) or lactic acid (LAc) on the hydrolysis of phytate phosphorus (P) and fermentation products of the grain. This study used a semicontinuous rumen simulation technique to evaluate the effects of processing of barley with 50.25 g/L (wt/vol) CAc or 76.25 g/L LAc on microbial composition, metabolic fermentation profile, and nutrient degradation at low or high dietary P supply. The low P diet [3.1g of P per kg of dry matter (DM) of dietary P sources only] was not supplemented with inorganic P, whereas the high P diet was supplemented with 0.5 g of inorganic P per kg of DM through mineral premix and 870 mg of inorganic P/d per incubation fermenter via artificial saliva. Target microbes were determined using quantitative PCR. Data showed depression of total bacteria but not of total protozoa or short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration with the low P diet. In addition, the low P diet lowered the relative abundance of Ruminococcus albus and decreased neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation and acetate proportion, but increased the abundance of several predominantly noncellulolytic bacterial species and anaerobic fungi. Treatment of grain with LAc increased the abundance of total bacteria in the low P diet only, and this effect was associated with a greater concentration of SCFA in the ruminal fluid. Interestingly, in the low P diet, CAc treatment of barley increased the most prevalent bacterial group, the genus Prevotella, in ruminal fluid and increased NDF degradation to the same extent as did inorganic P supplementation in the high P diet. Treatment with either CAc or LAc lowered the abundance of Megasphaera elsdenii but only in the low P diet. On the other hand, CAc treatment increased the proportion of acetate in the low P diet, whereas LAc treatment decreased this variable at both dietary P levels. The propionate proportion was significantly increased by LAc at both P levels, whereas butyrate

  16. Dietary macronutrient recommendations for optimal Dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both resistance and endurance-trained athletes have a higher dietary protein requirement of between 1.2 and 1.8 g protein/kg body weight (BW)/day, with an upper limit of 2 g protein/kg BW/day. To increase the rate of protein synthesis during the recovery period, immediate ingestion of protein postexercise is recommended ...

  17. Relationship of dietary intake of fish and non-fish selenium to serum lipids in Japanese rural coastal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yukiko; Koyama, Hiroshi; Nojiri, Masami; Suzuki, Shosuke

    2002-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that dietary selenium deficiency may be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). In the present study, 55 men and 71 women were selected from participants in a health examination in a rural coastal community in Japan. The mean dietary selenium intake calculated from the simple food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) was 127.5 micrograms/day. Fish was the major source of dietary selenium and it contributed to 68.7% of the daily total. HDL cholesterol was higher in the middle selenium intake group and in the high selenium intake group than in the low selenium intake group in all subjects and for males, and a significant difference was found between the middle selenium intake group and the low selenium intake group. The atherogenic index was significantly higher in the low selenium intake group than in the middle selenium intake group and in the high selenium intake group in males. GPx activity, total cholesterol and triacylglycerols did not show any significant differences among the three different selenium intake groups. Dietary intake of non-fish Se had a positive correlation with HDL cholesterol, and an inverse correlation with the atherogenic index in all subjects and for females. On the other hand, dietary intake of fish-Se had no relationship with any serum lipids. Non-fish Se is an important factor in selenium status for the prevention of CHD.

  18. The Use of Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry with High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Other Separation Techniques for Identification of Triacylglycerols

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Sigler, Karel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 3, - (2007), s. 252-271 ISSN 1573-4110 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/06/0219 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : triacylglycerols * atmospheric presssure chemical ionization * mass spectrometry Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.815, year: 2007

  19. A plant stanol yogurt drink alone or combined with a low-dose statin lowers serum triacylglycerol and non-HDL cholesterol in metabolic syndrome patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plat, Jogchum; Brufau, Gemma; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dasselaar, Margreet; Mensink, Ronald P.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of 2 commonly available strategies (plant stanol ester drink and 10 mg simvastatin) on coronary heart disease (CHD) risk variables in participants with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome patients are at increased risk to develop CHD, partly due to high triacylglycerol

  20. Regioisomeric analysis of triacylglycerols using silver-ion liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry: Comparison of five different mass analyzers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holčapek, M.; Dvořáková, H.; Lísa, M.; Girón, A. J.; Sandra, P.; Cvačka, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 1217, č. 52 (2010), s. 8186-8194 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0139 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : triacylglycerols * silver-ion liquid chromatography * regioisomer * HPLC/MS * APCI Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.194, year: 2010

  1. Incontinence Treatment: Dietary Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... helpful, please consider supporting IFFGD with a small tax-deductible donation. Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel ... arises requiring an expert’s care. © Copyright 1998-2018 International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, Inc. (IFFGD). All ...

  2. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Primary Mitochondrial Disorders Weight Loss A Acai Aloe Vera Anabolic Steroids Antioxidants (see Exercise and Athletic Performance ) ... Pills (see Weight Loss ) Dietary Supplements Vitamin D E Echinacea Ephedra Essiac/Flor-Essence European Elder Evening ...

  3. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  4. Potential use of avocado oil on structured lipids MLM-type production catalysed by commercial immobilised lipases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Eduardo; Soto, Carmen; Olivares, Araceli; Altamirano, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Structured Lipids are generally constituents of functional foods. Growing demands for SL are based on a fuller understanding of nutritional requirements, lipid metabolism, and improved methods to produce them. Specifically, this work was aimed to add value to avocado oil by producing dietary triacylglycerols (TAG) containing medium-chain fatty acids (M) at positions sn-1,3 and long-chain fatty acids (L) at position sn-2. These MLM-type structured lipids (SL) were produced by interesterification of caprylic acid (CA) (C8:0) and avocado oil (content of C18:1). The regiospecific sn-1,3 commercial lipases Lipozyme RM IM and TL IM were used as biocatalysts to probe the potential of avocado oil to produce SL. Reactions were performed at 30-50°C for 24 h in solvent-free media with a substrate molar ratio of 1∶2 (TAG:CA) and 4-10% w/w enzyme content. The lowest incorporation of CA (1.1% mol) resulted from Lipozyme RM IM that was incubated at 50°C. The maximum incorporation of CA into sn-1,3 positions of TAG was 29.2% mol. This result was obtained at 30°C with 10% w/w Lipozyme TL IM, which is the highest values obtained in solvent-free medium until now for structured lipids of low-calories. This strategy opens a new market to added value products based on avocado oil.

  5. Flaxseed dietary fibers suppress postprandial lipemia and appetite sensation in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M.; Savorani, F.; Christensen, S.

    2013-01-01

    . There was a significant time meal effect on triacylglycerols (TG) (p Z 0.02) and an 18% smaller area under the curve (AUC) for TG after meal HM compared to meal C was observed (p meals compared to C and WF meals. Higher mean ratings of satiety (p ...Background and aim: Dietary fibers (DF) are linked to a reduced risk of life-style diseases, which relate to their physiological effects in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim was to examine whether flaxseed DF-enriched meals suppress postprandial lipemia and reduce appetite. Methods and results......: Four different iso-caloric meals were tested in 18 young men in a doubleblind randomized crossover design. Test meals were served after an overnight fast. DF content and source were: control (C): 1.4 g/MJ; whole flaxseed (WF): 2.4 g/MJ from whole flaxseeds; low-mucilage dose (LM): 2.4 g/MJ from...

  6. Determination and Comparison of Seed Oil Triacylglycerol Composition of Various Soybeans (Glycine max (L. Using 1H-NMR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Woo Kim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed oil triacylglycerol (TAG composition of 32 soybean varieties were determined and compared using 1H-NMR. The contents of linolenic (Ln, linoleic (L, and oleic (O ranged from 10.7% to 19.3%, 37.4%–50.1%, and 15.7%–34.1%, respectively. As is evident, linoleic acid was the major fatty acid of soybean oil. Compositional differences among the varieties were observed. Natural oils containing unsaturated groups have been regarded as important nutrient and cosmetic ingredients because of their various biological activities. The TAG profiles of the soy bean oils could be useful for distinguishing the origin of seeds and controlling the quality of soybean oils. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in which the TAG composition of various soybean oils has been analyzed using the 1H-NMR method.

  7. Impact of alpha-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol on the radiation induced oxidation of rapeseed oil triacylglycerols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braunrath, Robert; Isnardy, Bettina; Solar, Sonja, E-mail: sonja.solar@univie.ac.at; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2010-07-15

    Gamma-irradiation (doses: 2, 4, 7, and 10 kGy) was used as oxidation tool to study the antioxidant effects of alpha-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol (enrichments 500-5000 ppm) in purified rapeseed oil triacylglycerols (RSOTG). Fatty acid composition, tocopherol degradation, primary (conjugated dienes (CD) and peroxide value (POV)) and secondary (p-anisidine value) oxidation products were chosen as test parameters. Fatty acid composition did not change. While secondary oxidation products could not be found in the irradiated samples, the POVs and CDs showed a significant, dose-dependent increase. alpha-Tocopherol did not inhibit the formation of peroxides, whereas gamma- and delta-tocopherol reduced the POVs by more than 30%. No uniform effect of the different tocopherol concentrations at the particular doses could be established. The influence of the individual tocopherols on the CD formation was not pronounced. The degradation of the tocopherols decreased with increasing concentration. None of the tocopherols showed a prooxidant effect.

  8. Impact of α-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol on the radiation induced oxidation of rapeseed oil triacylglycerols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunrath, Robert; Isnardy, Bettina; Solar, Sonja; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Gamma-irradiation (doses: 2, 4, 7, and 10 kGy) was used as oxidation tool to study the antioxidant effects of α-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol (enrichments 500-5000 ppm) in purified rapeseed oil triacylglycerols (RSOTG). Fatty acid composition, tocopherol degradation, primary (conjugated dienes (CD) and peroxide value (POV)) and secondary (p-anisidine value) oxidation products were chosen as test parameters. Fatty acid composition did not change. While secondary oxidation products could not be found in the irradiated samples, the POVs and CDs showed a significant, dose-dependent increase. α-Tocopherol did not inhibit the formation of peroxides, whereas γ- and δ-tocopherol reduced the POVs by more than 30%. No uniform effect of the different tocopherol concentrations at the particular doses could be established. The influence of the individual tocopherols on the CD formation was not pronounced. The degradation of the tocopherols decreased with increasing concentration. None of the tocopherols showed a prooxidant effect.

  9. A simple liquid extraction protocol for overcoming the ion suppression of triacylglycerols by phospholipids in liquid chromatography mass spectrometry studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Pedro; Tilahun, Ephrem; Breivik, Joar Fjørtoft; Abdulkader, Bashir M; Frøyland, Livar; Zeng, Yingxu

    2016-02-01

    It is well-known that triacylglycerol (TAG) ions are suppressed by phospholipid (PL) ions in regiospecific analysis of TAG by mass spectrometry (MS). Hence, it is essential to remove the PL during sample preparation prior to MS analysis. The present article proposes a cost-effective liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method to remove PL from TAG in different kinds of biological samples by using methanol, hexane and water. High performance thin layer chromatography confirmed the lack of PL in krill oil and salmon liver samples, submitted to the proposed LLE protocol, and liquid chromatography tandem MS confirmed that the identified TAG ions were highly enhanced after implementing the LLE procedure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Simultaneous Production of Triacylglycerol and High-Value Carotenoids by the Astaxanthin-Producing Oleaginous Green Microalga Chlorella zofingiensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jin; Mao, Xuemei; Zhou, Wenguang; Guarnieri, Michael T.

    2016-08-01

    The production of lipids and astaxanthin, a high-value carotenoid, by Chlorella zofingiensis was investigated under different culture conditions. Comparative analysis revealed a good correlation between triacylglycerol (TAG) and astaxanthin accumulation in C. zofingiensis. Stress conditions promoted cell size and weight and induced the accumulation of neutral lipids, especially TAG and astaxanthin, with a concomitant decrease in membrane lipids. The highest contents of TAG and astaxanthin achieved were 387 and 4.89 mg g-1 dry weight, respectively. A semi-continuous culture strategy was developed to optimize the TAG and astaxanthin productivities, which reached 297 and 3.3 mg L-1 day-1, respectively. Additionally, astaxanthin accumulation was enhanced by inhibiting de novo fatty acid biosynthesis. In summary, our study represents a pioneering work of utilizing Chlorella for the integrated production of lipids and high-value products and C. zofingiensis has great potential to be a promising production strain and serve as an emerging oleaginous model alga.

  11. Synergistic antioxidant activity of milk sphingomyeline and its sphingoid base with α-tocopherol on fish oil triacylglycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimajiri, Junki; Shiota, Makoto; Hosokawa, Masashi; Miyashita, Kazuo

    2013-08-21

    The effects of milk phospholipids (PLs), sphingolipids (SLs), and their sphingoid backbone on the oxidation of fish oil triacylglycerol (TAG) were examined with or without α-tocopherol. All compounds had little effect on the TAG oxidation in the absence of α-tocopherol. On the other hand, they could act synergistically with α-tocopherol. The highest synergistic activity was shown by sphingoid bases, followed by sphingomyelin (SPM) and other amine-containing PLs and SLs. This result showed that the synergistic activity increased with an increasing concentration of amine group of PLs, SLs, or sphingoid bases in the reaction mixture. The comparison of changes in α-tocopherol content in fish oil TAG and tricaprylin suggested that antioxidant compounds would be formed from the amine group and the lipid oxidation products in a mild oxidation condition controlled by α-tocopherol.

  12. Characterization of blood lipoproteins and validation of cholesterol and triacylglycerol assays for free-ranging polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, John P; Frank, Nicholas; Greller, Katie A; Harlow, Henry J; Ben-David, Merav

    2013-05-01

    Blood triacylglycerol (TG) and lipoproteins are important variables for evaluating nutritional status of wildlife, but measurements are often expensive and difficult. Performance of a small, portable blood analyzer intended for human medical diagnostics was evaluated in measuring these variables in plasma and serum from free-ranging polar bears (Ursus maritimus), which are experiencing nutritional stress related to sea ice loss. The analyzer accurately tracked changes in concentration of total cholesterol (Ctotal), cholesterol associated with high-density lipoprotein (CHDL), and TG during a validation protocol of diluting samples and spiking them with exogenous cholesterol and glycerol. Values of Ctotal and TG agreed well with values obtained by other methods (ultracentrifugation followed by colorimetric assays); agreement was variable for values of cholesterol associated with specific lipoproteins. Similar to a study of captive polar bears, ultracentrifugation methods revealed greater TG in very low-density lipoproteins than in low-density lipoprotein, which is unusual and merits additional study.

  13. Determination and comparison of seed oil triacylglycerol composition of various soybeans (Glycine max (L.)) using ¹H-NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won Woo; Rho, Ho Sik; Hong, Yong Deog; Yeom, Myung Hun; Shin, Song Seok; Yi, Jun Gon; Lee, Min-Seuk; Park, Hye Yoon; Cho, Dong Ha

    2013-11-21

    Seed oil triacylglycerol (TAG) composition of 32 soybean varieties were determined and compared using ¹H-NMR. The contents of linolenic (Ln), linoleic (L), and oleic (O) ranged from 10.7% to 19.3%, 37.4%-50.1%, and 15.7%-34.1%, respectively. As is evident, linoleic acid was the major fatty acid of soybean oil. Compositional differences among the varieties were observed. Natural oils containing unsaturated groups have been regarded as important nutrient and cosmetic ingredients because of their various biological activities. The TAG profiles of the soy bean oils could be useful for distinguishing the origin of seeds and controlling the quality of soybean oils. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in which the TAG composition of various soybean oils has been analyzed using the ¹H-NMR method.

  14. Dietary supplements for football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L

    2006-07-01

    Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed

  15. The effect of fatty acid positioning in dietary triacylglycerols and intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on bone mineral accretion in growing piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Daniel; Ludvig, Stine E; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab

    2013-01-01

    compared with a control (CONT) and if increasing n-3LCPUFA intake giving fish oil (FO) compared with sunflower oil (SO) would affect bone parameters in piglets in two sets of controlled 14d-interventions (n=12/group). We assessed this by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and ex vivo peripheral quantitative...

  16. Dietary ecology of human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minagawa, Masao

    1990-01-01

    The dietary life of humans varies with the environment where they live and has been changing with time. It has become possible to examine such changes by using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition as a chemical tool. The present report outlines recent developments in the application of this tool and compares the dietary ecologies of various human groups from the viewpoint of isotope geochemistry. The history of the application of this tool to dietary analysis is summarized first, and features of the carbon and nitrogen isotope composition in animals and their relations with the food chain are outlined. The dietary ecology of the current people is then discussed in relation to the isotope composition in food, the isotope composition in hair of the current people, and determination of food habit of specific groups of people from such isotope compositions. For prediction of dietary composition, the report presents a flow chart for an algorism which is based on the Monte Carlo method. It also outlines processes for analyzing food habits of people in the prehistoric age, focusing on distribution of isotope composition in humans over the world. (N.K.)

  17. Dietary antioxidants and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott K; DeRuisseau, Keith C; Quindry, John; Hamilton, Karyn L

    2004-01-01

    Muscular exercise promotes the production of radicals and other reactive oxygen species in the working muscle. Growing evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species are responsible for exercise-induced protein oxidation and contribute to muscle fatigue. To protect against exercise-induced oxidative injury, muscle cells contain complex endogenous cellular defence mechanisms (enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants) to eliminate reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, exogenous dietary antioxidants interact with endogenous antioxidants to form a cooperative network of cellular antioxidants. Knowledge that exercise-induced oxidant formation can contribute to muscle fatigue has resulted in numerous investigations examining the effects of antioxidant supplementation on human exercise performance. To date, there is limited evidence that dietary supplementation with antioxidants will improve human performance. Furthermore, it is currently unclear whether regular vigorous exercise increases the need for dietary intake of antioxidants. Clearly, additional research that analyses the antioxidant requirements of individual athletes is needed.

  18. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    A healthy diet is essential for healthy growth and development during childhood and may prevent obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases throughout life. Traditionally, diet has been investigated as single nutrients. However, people do not eat one single nutrient and they do not even eat one...... single food. People consume meals and these meals vary during a day, over a year and during a life time. To comprehend some of this complexity it could be advantageous to investigate dietary patterns representing the whole diet as patterns might be better markers of growth and health than single...... childhood. These associations might contribute to the identification of families, who would benefit from guidance to help them establish healthy dietary patterns for their infants. Finding tracking for some infants and changes in adherence to dietary patterns for others as well as the association between...

  19. Dietary hyperthyroidism in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, B; Stengel, C; Neiger, R

    2012-03-01

    Evaluation of dogs with elevated plasma thyroxine concentration fed raw food before and after changing the diet. Between 2006 and 2011 all dogs presented with an elevated plasma thyroxine concentration and a dietary history of feeding raw food were included. Thyroxine (reference interval: 19·3 to 51·5 nmol/L) and in many cases also thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations (reference interval: weight loss, aggressiveness, tachycardia, panting and restlessness while six dogs had no clinical signs. After changing the diet eight dogs were examined: thyroxine concentration normalised in all dogs and clinical signs resolved. Dietary hyperthyroidism can be seen in dogs on a raw meat diet or fed fresh or dried gullets. Increased plasma thyroxine concentration in a dog, either with or without signs of hyperthyroidism, should prompt the veterinarian to obtain a thorough dietary history. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  20. Metabolomic profiles as reliable biomarkers of dietary composition123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esko, Tõnu; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Feldman, Henry A; Hsu, Yu-Han H; Deik, Amy A; Clish, Clary B; Ebbeling, Cara B; Ludwig, David S

    2017-01-01

    Background: Clinical nutrition research often lacks robust markers of compliance, complicating the interpretation of clinical trials and observational studies of free-living subjects. Objective: We aimed to examine metabolomics profiles in response to 3 diets that differed widely in macronutrient composition during a controlled feeding protocol. Design: Twenty-one adults with a high body mass index (in kg/m2; mean ± SD: 34.4 ± 4.9) were given hypocaloric diets to promote weight loss corresponding to 10–15% of initial body weight. They were then studied during weight stability while consuming 3 test diets, each for a 4-wk period according to a crossover design: low fat (60% carbohydrate, 20% fat, 20% protein), low glycemic index (40% carbohydrate, 40% fat, 20% protein), or very-low carbohydrate (10% carbohydrate, 60% fat, 30% protein). Plasma samples were obtained at baseline and at the end of each 4-wk period in the fasting state for metabolomics analysis by using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Statistical analyses included adjustment for multiple comparisons. Results: Of 333 metabolites, we identified 152 whose concentrations differed for ≥1 diet compared with the others, including diacylglycerols and triacylglycerols, branched-chain amino acids, and markers reflecting metabolic status. Analysis of groups of related metabolites, with the use of either principal components or pathways, revealed coordinated metabolic changes affected by dietary composition, including pathways related to amino acid metabolism. We constructed a classifier using the metabolites that differed between diets and were able to correctly identify the test diet from metabolite profiles in 60 of 63 cases (>95% accuracy). Analyses also suggest differential effects by diet on numerous cardiometabolic disease risk factors. Conclusions: Metabolomic profiling may be used to assess compliance during clinical nutrition trials and the validity of dietary assessment in

  1. Non-covalent interaction between dietary stilbenoids and human serum albumin: Structure-affinity relationship, and its influence on the stability, free radical scavenging activity and cell uptake of stilbenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui; Jia, Xueping; Shi, Jian; Xiao, Jianbo; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2016-07-01

    Dietary stilbenoids are associated with many benefits for human health, which depend on their bioavailability and bioaccessibility. The stilbenoid-human serum albumin (HSA) interactions are investigated to explore the structure-affinity relationship and influence on the stability, free radical scavenging activity and cell uptake of stilbenoids. The structure-affinity relationship of the stilbenoids-HSA interaction was found as: (1) the methoxylation enhanced the affinity, (2) an additional hydroxyl group increases the affinity and (3) the glycosylation significantly weakened the affinity. HSA obviously masked the free radical scavenging potential of stilbenoids. The stabilities of stilbenoids in different medium were determined as: HSA solution>human plasma>Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium. It appears that the milk enhanced the cell uptake of stilbenoids with multi-hydroxyl groups and weakened the cell uptake of stilbenoids with methoxyl group on EA.hy 926 endothelial cells. The stilbenoids are hardly absorbed by human umbilical vein endothelial cells in the presence of milk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dietary Reference Values for choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for choline. In this Opinion, the Panel considers dietary choline including choline compounds (e.g. glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine...

  3. Effects of dexamethasone and insulin on the synthesis of triacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholine and the secretion of very-low-density lipoproteins and lysophosphatidylcholine by monolayer cultures of rat hepatocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Mangiapane, E H; Brindley, D N

    1986-01-01

    Rat hepatocytes in monolayer culture were preincubated for 19 h with 1 microM-dexamethasone, and the incubation was continued for a further 23 h with [14C]oleate, [3H]glycerol and 1 microM-dexamethasone. Dexamethasone increased the secretion of triacylglycerol into the medium in particles that had the properties of very-low-density lipoproteins. The increased secretion was matched by a decrease in the triacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine that remained in the hepatocytes. Preincubating the ...

  4. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tayyem, Reema F.; Bawadi, Hiba A.; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M.; AbuMweis, Suhad S.; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Bani-Hani, Kamal E.; Heath, Dennis D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background & aimsDietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of action of dietary factors in CRC disease is unclear. The aim of this study is the examination of several dietary choices and their potential association with the risk of developing CRC. MethodsDietary data was collected from 220 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 281 control subjects (matched by age, g...

  5. Dietary low or excess levels of lipids reduced growth performance, and impaired immune function and structure of head kidney, spleen and skin in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) under the infection of Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Pei-Jun; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2016-08-01

    Our study explored the effect of dietary lipids on growth and immunity and structure (head kidney, spleen and skin) of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 young grass carp with an average initial weight of 261.41 ± 0.53 g were fed diets containing six graded levels of lipids at 5.9-80.1 g/kg diet for 8 weeks. After that, a challenge trial was conducted by injection of Aeromonas hydrophila over 2 weeks. The results indicated that compared with optimal lipids supplementation, low and excess levels of lipids down-regulated the mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptides, anti-inflammatory cytokines, inhibitor of κBα (IκBα) and ribosomal p70S6 kinase (S6K1), and up-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor κB p65 (NF-κB p65), NF-κB c-Rel (not p52), IκB kinase α (IKKα), IKKβ, IKKγ, and eIF4E-binding protein (4EBP) mRNA levels in the head kidney and spleen of young grass carp (P lipids also increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PC) contents, reduced the activities of antioxidant enzymes (P lipids down-regulated the mRNA levels of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) in the head kidney and spleen, whereas up-regulated the mRNA levels of apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1), caspase 3, 7, 8 and 9 mRNA levels in the head kidney and spleen and Fas ligand (FasL) mRNA levels in the spleen of young grass carp, suggesting that low or excess levels of lipids could decrease the head kidney and spleen immune function, induce oxidative damage and apoptosis and impair antioxidant system of young grass carp. At last, low or excess levels of lipids also impaired the immune function and structure in the skin of young grass carp. Based on the quadratic regression analysis for PWG, skin haemorrhage and lesions morbidity and IgM content, the dietary lipids requirements for young grass carp were estimated to be 43.7, 60.2, 55.0 and 52.1

  6. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At

  7. The degree of saturation of fatty acids in dietary fats does not affect the metabolic response to ingested carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, Angela; Hassan, Youssef; Gannon, Mary C; Nuttall, Frank Q

    2009-06-01

    We are interested in the metabolic response to ingested macronutrients, and the interaction between macronutrients in meals. Previously, we and others reported that the postprandial rise in serum glucose following ingestion of 50 g carbohydrate, consumed as potato, was markedly attenuated when butter was ingested with the carbohydrate, whereas the serum insulin response was little affected by the combination. To determine whether a similar response would be observed with three other dietary fats considerably different in fatty acid composition. Nine healthy subjects received lard, twelve received olive oil and eleven received safflower oil as a test meal. The subjects ingested meals of 25 g fat (lard, olive oil or safflower oil), 50 g CHO (potato), 25 g fat with 50 g CHO or water only. Glucose, C peptide, insulin, triacylglycerols and nonesterified fatty acids were determined. Ingestion of lard, olive oil or safflower oil with potato did not affect the quantitative glucose and insulin responses to potato alone. However, the responses were delayed, diminished and prolonged. All three fats when ingested alone modestly increased the insulin concentration when compared to ingestion of water alone. When either lard, olive oil or safflower oil was ingested with the potato, there was an accelerated rise in triacylglycerols. This was most dramatic with safflower oil. Our data indicate that the glucose and insulin response to butter is unique when compared with the three other fat sources varying in their fatty acid composition.

  8. Changes in Acylglycerols composition, quality characteristics and in vivo effects of dietary pumpkin seed oil upon thermal oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeb, Alam; Ahmad, Sultan

    2017-07-01

    This study was aimed to determine the acylglycerols composition, quality characteristics and protective role of dietary pumpkin seed oil in rabbits. Pumpkin seed oil was thermally oxidized and analyzed for quality characteristics and acylglycerols composition using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Oxidized and un-oxidized oil samples were fed to the rabbits in different doses for two weeks. The changes in the serum biochemistry, hematology, and liver histology were studied. The levels of quality parameters such peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AV), total phenolic contents (TPC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes (CD) and conjugated trienes (CT) significantly increased with thermal treatment. HPLC analyses revealed ten individual triacylglycerols (TAGs), total di-acylglycerols (DAGs), mono-acylglycerols (MAGs), and total oxidized TAGs. Trilinolein (LLL), 1-oleoyl-2,3-dilinolinoyl glycerol (OLL), triolein (OOO) and 1,2-distearoyl-3-palmitoyl glycerol (SSP) were present in higher amounts and decreased with thermal treatment. Animal's studies showed that oxidized oils decreased the whole body weight, which was ameliorated by the co-administration of un-oxidized oils. The levels of serum biochemical parameters were improved by co-administration of pumpkin seed oils. There were no significant effects of both oxidized and un-oxidized pumpkin seed oil on the hematological and histological parameters of rabbits. In conclusion, nutritionally important triacylglycerols were present in pumpkin seed oil with protective role against the toxicity of its corresponding oxidized oils.

  9. Changes in Acylglycerols Composition, Quality Characteristics and In vivo Effects of Dietary Pumpkin Seed Oil upon Thermal Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Zeb

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the acylglycerols composition, quality characteristics, and protective role of dietary pumpkin seed oil (PSO in rabbits. PSO was thermally oxidized and analyzed for quality characteristics and acylglycerols composition using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD. Oxidized and un-oxidized oil samples were fed to the rabbits in different doses for 2 weeks. The changes in the serum biochemistry, hematology, and liver histology were studied. The levels of quality parameters such peroxide value (PV, anisidine value (AV, total phenolic contents (TPC, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, conjugated dienes (CD and conjugated trienes (CT significantly increased with thermal treatment. HPLC analyses revealed 10 individual triacylglycerols (TAGs, total di-acylglycerols (DAGs, mono-acylglycerols (MAGs, and total oxidized TAGs. Trilinolein (LLL, 1-oleoyl-2,3-dilinolinoyl glycerol (OLL, triolein (OOO and 1,2-distearoyl-3-palmitoyl glycerol (SSP were present in higher amounts and decreased with thermal treatment. Animal's studies showed that oxidized oils decreased the whole body weight, which was ameliorated by the co-administration of un-oxidized oils. The levels of serum biochemical parameters were improved by co-administration of pumpkin seed oils. There were no significant effects of both oxidized and un-oxidized PSO on the hematological and histological parameters of rabbits. In conclusion, nutritionally important triacylglycerols were present in PSO with protective role against the toxicity of its corresponding oxidized oils.

  10. Comparison of HPLC/MS and MALDI-MS for characterizing triacylglycerols in insects: Specie-specific composition of lipids in fat bodies of bumblebee males

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kofroňová, Edita; Cvačka, Josef; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Hanus, Robert; Jiroš, Pavel; Kindl, Jiří; Hovorka, Oldřich; Valterová, Irena

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 877, č. 30 (2009), s. 3878-3884 ISSN 1570-0232 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0139; GA ČR GA203/09/1446; GA MŠk 2B06007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Bumblebee * fat body * triacylglycerols * HPLC/APCI-MS * MALDI-MS Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.777, year: 2009

  11. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2015-12-22

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block's Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  12. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persephone Vargas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ. Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA. Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA and dietary intake was determined using the Block’s Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ. Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208 = 0.193, p < 0.01, percentage fat intake (r(208 = 0.154, p < 0.05, percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208 = −0.172, p < 0.05, Body Mass Index (BMI (r(208 = 0.216, p < 0.01 and waist circumference (r(208 = 0.161, p < 0.01. There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  13. Viral infection of the marine alga Emiliania huxleyi triggers lipidome remodeling and induces the production of highly saturated triacylglycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malitsky, Sergey; Ziv, Carmit; Rosenwasser, Shilo; Zheng, Shuning; Schatz, Daniella; Porat, Ziv; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Aharoni, Asaph; Vardi, Assaf

    2016-04-01

    Viruses that infect marine photosynthetic microorganisms are major ecological and evolutionary drivers of microbial food webs, estimated to turn over more than a quarter of the total photosynthetically fixed carbon. Viral infection of the bloom-forming microalga Emiliania huxleyi induces the rapid remodeling of host primary metabolism, targeted towards fatty acid metabolism. We applied a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based lipidomics approach combined with imaging flow cytometry and gene expression profiling to explore the impact of viral-induced metabolic reprogramming on lipid composition. Lytic viral infection led to remodeling of the cellular lipidome, by predominantly inducing the biosynthesis of highly saturated triacylglycerols (TAGs), coupled with a significant accumulation of neutral lipids within lipid droplets. Furthermore, TAGs were found to be a major component (77%) of the lipidome of isolated virions. Interestingly, viral-induced TAGs were significantly more saturated than TAGs produced under nitrogen starvation. This study highlights TAGs as major products of the viral-induced metabolic reprogramming during the host-virus interaction and indicates a selective mode of membrane recruitment during viral assembly, possibly by budding of the virus from specialized subcellular compartments. These findings provide novel insights into the role of viruses infecting microalgae in regulating metabolism and energy transfer in the marine environment and suggest their possible biotechnological application in biofuel production. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Fostering triacylglycerol accumulation in novel oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus psychrotolerans IITRFD utilizing groundnut shell for improved biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeba, Farha; Pruthi, Vikas; Negi, Yuvraj S

    2017-10-01

    The investigation was carried out to examine the potential of triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation by novel oleaginous yeast isolate Cryptococcus psychrotolerans IITRFD on utilizing groundnut shell acid hydrolysate (GSH) as cost-effective medium. The maximum biomass productivity and lipid productivity of 0.095±0.008g/L/h and 0.044±0.005g/L/h, respectively with lipid content 46% was recorded on GSH. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profile obtained by GC-MS analysis revealed oleic acid (37.8%), palmitic (29.4%) and linoleic (32.8%) as major fatty acids representing balance between oxidative stability (OS) and cold flow filter properties (CFFP) for improved biodiesel quality. The biodiesel property calculated were correlated well with the fuel standards limits of ASTM D6751, EN 14214 and IS 15607. The present findings raise the possibility of using agricultural waste groundnut shell as a substrate for production of biodiesel by novel oleaginous yeast isolate C. psychrotolerans IITRFD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of conjugated linoleic acid-enriched triacylglycerol mixtures by isocratic silver-ion high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlof, R O; Menzel, A; Dorovska-Taran, V

    2002-04-12

    Silver-ion HPLC (Ag-HPLC) was applied to the fractionation of a triacylglycerol (TAG) sample enriched (>80%) with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). After conversion of the TAGs to fatty acid methyl esters using sodium methoxide in methanol, Ag-HPLC (dual-column; isocratic solvent system of 0.1% acetonitrile in hexane; UV detection at 233 nm) was used to determine the CLA isomer distribution (50:50 mixture of 9c 11t- and 10t,12c-18:2). Three or four Ag-HPLC columns connected in series (0.6-1.0% acetonitrile in hexane as solvent; UV detection at 206 nm) were used to analyze the sample in TAG form. Elution times for CLA-enriched TAGs averaged 30 min or less. Isocratic solvent conditions were used to eliminate the solvent equilibration times (often 30 min or more) required between sample injections when solvent programming is used. The ratio of TAGs containing three vs. only two CLA molecules was found to be approximately 3 to 1. Ag-HPLC has thus been shown to be a useful method for rapidly analyzing not only CLA isomers as esters, but also in the TAG form.

  16. Functional analysis of three type-2 DGAT homologue genes for triacylglycerol production in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Russa, M; Bogen, C; Uhmeyer, A; Doebbe, A; Filippone, E; Kruse, O; Mussgnug, J H

    2012-11-30

    Photosynthetic organisms like plants and algae can use sunlight to produce lipids as important metabolic compounds. Plant-derived triacylglycerols (TAGs) are valuable for human and animal nutrition because of their high energy content and are becoming increasingly important for the production of renewable biofuels. Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) have been demonstrated to play an important role in the accumulation of TAG compounds in higher plants. DGAT homologue genes have been identified in the genome of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, however their function in vivo is still unknown. In this work, the three most promising type-2 DGAT candidate genes potentially involved in TAG lipid accumulation (CrDGAT2a, b and c) were investigated by constructing overexpression strains. For each of the genes, three strains were identified which showed enhanced mRNA levels of between 1.7 and 29.1 times that of the wild type (wt). Total lipid contents, neutral lipids and fatty acid profiles were determined and showed that an enhanced mRNA expression level of the investigated DGAT genes did not boost the intracellular TAG accumulation or resulted in alterations of the fatty acid profiles compared to wild type during standard growth condition or during nitrogen or sulfur stress conditions. We conclude that biotechnological efforts to enhance cellular TAG amount in microalgae need further insights into the complex network of lipid biosynthesis to identify potential bottlenecks of neutral lipid production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of CO(2) and bicarbonate as inorganic carbon sources for triacylglycerol and starch accumulation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert D; Lohman, Egan; Gerlach, Robin; Cooksey, Keith E; Peyton, Brent M

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae are capable of accumulating high levels of lipids and starch as carbon storage compounds. Investigation into the metabolic activities involved in the synthesis of these compounds has escalated since these compounds can be used as precursors for food and fuel. Here, we detail the results of a comprehensive analysis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using high or low inorganic carbon concentrations and speciation between carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, and the effects these have on inducing lipid and starch accumulation during nitrogen depletion. High concentrations of CO(2) (5%; v/v) produced the highest amount of biofuel precursors, transesterified to fatty acid methyl esters, but exhibited rapid accumulation and degradation characteristics. Low CO(2) (0.04%; v/v) caused carbon limitation and minimized triacylglycerol (TAG) and starch accumulation. High bicarbonate caused a cessation of cell cycling and accumulation of both TAG and starch that was more stable than the other experimental conditions. Starch accumulated prior to TAG and then degraded as maximum TAG was reached. This suggests carbon reallocation from starch-based to TAG-based carbon storage. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Determination of triacylglycerol regioisomers using electrospray ionization-quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry with a kinetic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveque, Nathalie L; Acheampong, Akwasi; Heron, Sylvie; Tchapla, Alain

    2012-04-13

    The kinetic method was applied to differentiate and quantify mixtures of regioisomeric triacylglycerols (TAGs) by generating and mass selecting alkali ion bound metal dimeric clusters with a TAG chosen as reference (ref) and examining their competitive dissociations in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. This methodology readily distinguished pairs of regioisomers (AAB/ABA) such as LLO/LOL, OOP/OPO and SSP/SPS and consequently distinguished sn-1/sn-3, sn-2 substituents on the glycerol backbone. The dimeric complex ions [ref, Li, TAG((AAB and/or ABA))](+) generated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry were subjected to collision induced dissociation causing competitive loss of either the neutral TAG reference (ref) leading to [Li(AAB and/or ABA)](+) or the neutral TAG molecule (TAG((AAB and/or ABA))) leading to [ref, Li](+). The ratio of the two competitive dissociation rates, defined by the product ion branching ratio (R(iso)), was related via the kinetic method to the regioisomeric composition of the investigated TAG mixture. In this work, a linear correlation was established between composition of the mixture of each TAG regioisomer and the logarithm of the branching ratio for competitive fragmentation. Depending on the availability of at least one TAG regioisomer as standard, the kinetic method and the standard additions method led to the quantitative analysis of natural TAG mixtures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Simultaneous production of intracellular triacylglycerols and extracellular polyol esters of fatty acids by Rhodotorula babjevae and Rhodotorula aff. paludigena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay, Luis A; Sitepu, Irnayuli R; Cajka, Tomas; Cathcart, Erin; Fiehn, Oliver; German, J Bruce; Block, David E; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L

    2017-10-01

    Microbial oils have been analyzed as alternatives to petroleum. However, just a handful of microbes have been successfully adapted to produce chemicals that can compete with their petroleum counterparts. One of the reasons behind the low success rate is the overall economic inefficiency of valorizing a single product. This study presents a lab-scale analysis of two yeast species that simultaneously produce multiple high-value bioproducts: intracellular triacylglycerols (TG) and extracellular polyol esters of fatty acids (PEFA), two lipid classes with immediate applications in the biofuels and surfactant industries. At harvest, the yeast strain Rhodotorula aff. paludigena UCDFST 81-84 secreted 20.9 ± 0.2 g L -1 PEFA and produced 8.8 ± 1.0 g L -1 TG, while the yeast strain Rhodotorula babjevae UCDFST 04-877 secreted 11.2 ± 1.6 g L -1 PEFA and 18.5 ± 1.7 g L -1 TG. The overall glucose conversion was 0.24 and 0.22 g (total lipid) g (glucose) -1 , respectively. The results present a stable and scalable microbial growth platform yielding multiple co-products.

  20. Reduced triacylglycerol mobilization during seed germination and early seedling growth in Arabidopsis containing nutritionally important polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushkar Shrestha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There are now several examples of plant species engineered to synthesise and accumulate nutritionally important polyunsaturated fatty acids in their seed triacylglycerols (TAG. The utilization of such TAG in germinating seeds of such transgenic plants was unknown. In this study, we examined the TAG utilization efficiency during seed germination in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds containing several examples of these fatty acids. Seed TAG species with native fatty acids had higher utilization rate than the TAG species containing transgenically produced polyunsaturated fatty acids. Conversely, quantification of the fatty acid components remaining in the total TAG after early stages of seed germination revealed that the undigested TAGs tended to contain an elevated level of the engineered polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. LC-MS analysis further revealed asymmetrical mobilization rates for the individual TAG species. TAGs which contained multiple PUFA fatty acids were mobilized slower than the species containing single PUFA. The mobilised engineered fatty acids were used in de novo membrane lipid synthesis during seedling development.

  1. The effects of epidermal fatty acid profiles, 1-oleoglycerol, and triacylglycerols on the susceptibility of hibernating bats to Pseudogymnoascus destructans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa R Ingala

    Full Text Available White Nose Syndrome (WNS greatly increases the over-winter mortality of little brown (Myotis lucifugus, Indiana (M. sodalis, northern (M. septentrionalis, and tricolored (Perimyotis subflavus bats, and is caused by cutaneous infections with Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd. Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus are highly resistant to Pd infections. Seven different fatty acids (myristic, pentadecanoic, palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic, and, linoleic acids occur in the wing epidermis of both M. lucifugus and E. fuscus, 4 of which (myristic, palmitoleic, oleic, and, linoleic acids inhibit Pd growth. The amounts of myristic and linoleic acids in the epidermis of M. lucifugus decrease during hibernation, thus we predicted that the epidermal fatty acid profile of M. lucifugus during hibernation has a reduced ability to inhibit Pd growth. Laboratory Pd growth experiments were conducted to test this hypothesis. The results demonstrated that the fatty acid profile of M. lucifugus wing epidermis during hibernation has a reduced ability to inhibit the growth of Pd. Additional Pd growth experiments revealed that: a triacylglycerols composed of known anti-Pd fatty acids do not significantly affect growth, b pentadecanoic acid inhibits Pd growth, and c 1-oleoglycerol, which is found in the wing epidermis of E. fuscus, also inhibits the growth of this fungus. Analyses of white adipose from M. lucifugus also revealed the selective retention of oleic and linoleic acids in this tissue during hibernation.

  2. The effects of epidermal fatty acid profiles, 1-oleoglycerol, and triacylglycerols on the susceptibility of hibernating bats to Pseudogymnoascus destructans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingala, Melissa R; Ravenelle, Rebecca E; Monro, Johanna J; Frank, Craig L

    2017-01-01

    White Nose Syndrome (WNS) greatly increases the over-winter mortality of little brown (Myotis lucifugus), Indiana (M. sodalis), northern (M. septentrionalis), and tricolored (Perimyotis subflavus) bats, and is caused by cutaneous infections with Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) are highly resistant to Pd infections. Seven different fatty acids (myristic, pentadecanoic, palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic, and, linoleic acids) occur in the wing epidermis of both M. lucifugus and E. fuscus, 4 of which (myristic, palmitoleic, oleic, and, linoleic acids) inhibit Pd growth. The amounts of myristic and linoleic acids in the epidermis of M. lucifugus decrease during hibernation, thus we predicted that the epidermal fatty acid profile of M. lucifugus during hibernation has a reduced ability to inhibit Pd growth. Laboratory Pd growth experiments were conducted to test this hypothesis. The results demonstrated that the fatty acid profile of M. lucifugus wing epidermis during hibernation has a reduced ability to inhibit the growth of Pd. Additional Pd growth experiments revealed that: a) triacylglycerols composed of known anti-Pd fatty acids do not significantly affect growth, b) pentadecanoic acid inhibits Pd growth, and c) 1-oleoglycerol, which is found in the wing epidermis of E. fuscus, also inhibits the growth of this fungus. Analyses of white adipose from M. lucifugus also revealed the selective retention of oleic and linoleic acids in this tissue during hibernation.

  3. Korean Pine Nut Oil Attenuated Hepatic Triacylglycerol Accumulation in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyoung Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Korean pine nut oil (PNO has been reported to influence weight gain and lipid metabolism. We examined whether PNO replacement in a high-fat diet (HFD can ameliorate HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Five-week-old male C57BL mice were fed control diets containing 10% of the energy from fat from PNO or soybean oil (SBO (PC, SC or HFDs with 45% of the energy from fat, with 10% from PNO or SBO and 35% from lard (PHFD, SHFD, for 12 weeks. Body weight gain and amount of white adipose tissue were lower in PHFD (10% and 18% lower, respectively compared with SHFD. Hepatic triacylglycerol (TG level was significantly lower in PHFD than the SHFD (26% lower. PNO consumption upregulated hepatic ACADL mRNA levels. The hepatic PPARG mRNA level was lower in the PC than in the SC. Expression of the sirtuin (SIRT 3 protein in white adipose tissue was down-regulated in the SHFD and restored in the PHFD to the level in the lean control mice. SIRT 3 was reported to be upregulated under conditions of caloric restriction (CR and plays a role in regulating mitochondrial function. PNO consumption resulted in lower body fat and hepatic TG accumulation in HFD-induced obesity, which seemed to be associated with the CR-mimetic response.

  4. Laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of triacylglycerols and other components in fingermark samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Beth; Gidden, Jennifer; Lay, Jackson O; Durham, Bill

    2011-03-01

    The chemical composition of fingermarks could potentially be important for determining investigative leads, placing individuals at the time of a crime, and has applications as biomarkers of disease. Fingermark samples containing triacylglycerols (TAGs) and other components were analyzed using laser desorption/ionization (LDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF MS). Only LDI appeared to be useful for this application while conventional matrix-assisted LDI-TOF MS was not. Tandem MS was used to identify/confirm selected TAGs. A limited gender comparison, based on a simple t-distribution and peaks intensities, indicated that two TAGs showed gender specificity at the 95% confidence level and two others at 97.5% confidence. Because gender-related TAGs differences were most often close to the standard deviation of the measurements, the majority of the TAGs showed no gender specificity. Thus, LDI-TOF MS is not a reliable indicator of gender based on fingermark analysis. Cosmetic ingredients present in some samples were identified. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Dietary arginine and linear growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vught, Anneke J A H; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Arts, Ilja C W

    2013-01-01

    Child Intervention Study during 2001-2 (baseline), and at 3-year and 7-year follow-up, were used. Arginine intake was estimated via a 7 d precoded food diary at baseline and 3-year follow-up. Data were analysed in a multilevel structure in which children were embedded within schools. Random intercept......The amino acid arginine is a well-known growth hormone (GH) stimulator and GH is an important modulator of linear growth. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary arginine on growth velocity in children between 7 and 13 years of age. Data from the Copenhagen School...... and slopes were defined to estimate the association between arginine intake and growth velocity, including the following covariates: sex; age; baseline height; energy intake; puberty stage at 7-year follow-up and intervention/control group. The association between arginine intake and growth velocity...

  6. Dietary Proteins and Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Medina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both defective and persistent angiogenesis are linked to pathological situations in the adult. Compounds able to modulate angiogenesis have a potential value for the treatment of such pathologies. Several small molecules present in the diet have been shown to have modulatory effects on angiogenesis. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the potential modulatory roles of dietary proteins on angiogenesis. There is currently limited available information on the topic. Milk contains at least three proteins for which modulatory effects on angiogenesis have been previously demonstrated. On the other hand, there is some scarce information on the potential of dietary lectins, edible plant proteins and high protein diets to modulate angiogenesis.

  7. [Dietary counseling in obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Nathalie; Haslebacher, Yvonne; Teuscher-Sick, Patricia; Fischer, Beatrice

    2013-02-01

    Information on weight management and a healthy eating is accessible to anyone. However, recommendations are inconsistent. This often leads to confusion rather than to real changes in eating behavior. The principle of a long-term weight reduction is based on the idea of achieving negative energy balance with a healthy, balanced and slightly hypocaloric diet. The regimen is neither supposed to be rigid nor should it ban any food products or food products. Changes in eating patterns come about step by step and the counseling approach should be based on the patient's habits and capabilities. The basic requirement to successfully treat obese patients is their own motivation Therefore, the timing of launching the therapy needs to be well chosen. Apart from goals directly concerning weight loss, goals related to well-being, general health and exercise should be set and pursued. However, the main focus should be on changes of dietary behavior. Dietary counseling is preferably embedded in a multidisciplinary treatment concept.

  8. Effecting dietary change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Ashley J; Mathers, John C

    2004-11-01

    A world epidemic of diet-related chronic disease is currently being faced. In the UK incidence of obesity alone has tripled in the last 20 years and this trend is predicted to continue. Consensus exists for the urgent need for a change in diet and other lifestyle factors and for the direction and targets for this change. The evidence for how this change can be achieved is less certain. It has been established that disease processes begin in childhood. Recent evidence indicates that dietary habits too are established in childhood but that these habits are amenable to change. While establishing a healthy lifestyle in childhood is paramount, interventions have the potential to promote positive change throughout the life course. Success in reversing current trends in diet-related disease will depend on commitment from legislators, health professionals, industry and individuals, and this collaboration must seek to address not only the food choices of the individual but also the environment that influences such choices. Recent public health policy development in England, if fully supported and implemented, is a positive move towards this goal. Evidence for effective strategies to promote dietary change at the individual level is emerging and three reviews of this evidence are discussed. In addition, three recent dietary intervention studies, in three different settings and with different methods and aims, are presented to illustrate methods of effecting dietary change. Further work is required on what factors influence the eating behaviour and physical activity of individuals. There is a need for further theory-based research on which to develop more effective strategies to enable individuals to adopt healthier lifestyles.

  9. Plasma biomarker of dietary phytosterol intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Lin

    Full Text Available Dietary phytosterols, plant sterols structurally similar to cholesterol, reduce intestinal cholesterol absorption and have many other potentially beneficial biological effects in humans. Due to limited information on phytosterol levels in foods, however, it is difficult to quantify habitual dietary phytosterol intake (DPI. Therefore, we sought to identify a plasma biomarker of DPI.Data were analyzed from two feeding studies with a total of 38 subjects during 94 dietary periods. DPI was carefully controlled at low, intermediate, and high levels. Plasma levels of phytosterols and cholesterol metabolites were assessed at the end of each diet period. Based on simple ordinary least squares regression analysis, the best biomarker for DPI was the ratio of plasma campesterol to the endogenous cholesterol metabolite 5-α-cholestanol (R2 = 0.785, P 0.600; P < 0.01.The ratio of plasma campesterol to the coordinately regulated endogenous cholesterol metabolite 5-α-cholestanol is a biomarker of dietary phytosterol intake. Conversely, plasma phytosterol levels alone are not ideal biomarkers of DPI because they are confounded by large inter-individual variation in absorption and turnover of non-cholesterol sterols. Further work is needed to assess the relation between non-cholesterol sterol metabolism and associated cholesterol transport in the genesis of coronary heart disease.

  10. Dietary treatment of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Pita Lottenberg

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The fast global increased prevalence of obesity has been classifiedas an epidemics by the World Health Organization. The etiology ofobesity is very complex and involves genetic and environmentalfactors. One of the main factors that trigger obesity is sedentarylife, as well as the great availability of fat-rich foods that present ahigh energy density. According to the NHANES II, although thepopulation has decreased the ingestion of fat, the total consumptionof food has increased. The main factors that influence in choice offood are flavor, followed by cost, convenience and, finally, itsnutritional value. The dietary treatment of obesity should haverealistic goals concerning weight loss rate and amount. It issuggested to prescribe a balanced low-calorie diet, emphasizingmostly the quality of foods by using the food pyramid. Therefore,patients may learn the appropriate criteria to select food and makehealthy choices. The dietary treatment of obesity also includesthe use of behavioral techniques directed at dietary education,thus resulting in choice of healthy foods with adequate energyvalue.

  11. Natural Dietary Phytosterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Susan B; Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    Most clinical phytosterol studies are performed by adding purified supplements to smaller phytosterol amounts present in the natural diet. However, natural dietary phytosterols themselves may also have important effects on cholesterol metabolism. Epidemiological work using food frequency questionnaires to estimate dietary intake suggest that extremes of normal consumption may be associated with 3-14% changes in LDL cholesterol. Standardized food databases do not have enough phytosterol values to allow calculation of phytosterol intake for individuals outside of specialized studies. Natural diets contain phytosterol amounts ranging from less than 60 mg/2000 kcal to over 500 mg/2000 kcal. Physiological studies in which whole body cholesterol metabolism is investigated show large effects of natural dietary phytosterols on cholesterol absorption efficiency, cholesterol biosynthesis and cholesterol excretion which exceed the magnitude of changes in LDL cholesterol. The dual effects of natural phytosterols on both LDL-C and whole body cholesterol metabolism need to be considered in relating them to potential protection from coronary heart disease risk.

  12. Dietary methanol and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Ralph G; Monte, Woodrow C

    2015-10-01

    The authors sought to establish whether maternal dietary methanol during pregnancy was a factor in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders. A seven item questionnaire was given to women who had given birth to at least one child after 1984. The subjects were solicited from a large primary care practice and several internet sites and separated into two groups - mothers who had given birth to a child with autism and those who had not. Average weekly methanol consumption was calculated based on questionnaire responses. 550 questionnaires were completed by women who gave birth to a non-autistic child. On average these women consumed 66.71mg. of methanol weekly. 161 questionnaires were completed by women who had given birth to an autistic child. The average estimated weekly methanol consumption for this group was 142.31mg. Based on the results of the Wilcoxon rank sum-test, we see a significant difference between the reported methanol consumption rates of the two groups. This study suggests that women who have given birth to an autistic child are likely to have had higher intake of dietary sources of methanol than women who have not. Further investigation of a possible link of dietary methanol to autism is clearly warranted. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. The measurement of dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger: an examination of the factor structure of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, M J; McDowell, A J; Wilkinson, J Y

    2001-06-01

    To conduct separate factor analyses of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-R, TFEQ-D and TFEQ-H) scales and provide initial evidence of the construct validity of the obtained solutions. A cross-sectional survey with a 12 month retest of a subsample of subjects. A total of 553 undergraduate university women with a mean age of 25.0 y. The retest sample comprised 64 subjects with a mean age at retest of 25.7 y. In addition to the TFEQ, age, body mass index (BMI), satisfaction with current weight, nutrition knowledge and current exercise level were recorded. Three restraint (strategic dieting behaviour, attitude to self-regulation, avoidance of fattening foods), three disinhibition (habitual susceptibility, emotional susceptibility, situational susceptibility) and two hunger constructs (internal locus for hunger, external locus for hunger) were identified. Initial evidence of the validity of these constructs was provided. The explanation of disordered eating behaviour is likely to be refined more by specific constructs, such as those presented, rather than by the more general constructs measured by the original TFEQ-R, TFEQ-D and TFEQ-H scales. Further examination of the factor structures presented is therefore encouraged.

  14. Determinants of dietary supplement use - healthy individuals use dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2015-01-01

    influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54 948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements...... and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation...... to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher...

  15. Effects of amount and type of dietary fats on postprandial lipemia and thrombogenic markers in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Kim-Tiu; Chang, Chee-Yan; Kanthimathi, M S; Tan, Alexander Tong Boon; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2015-09-01

    Postprandial lipemia has been reported to affect endothelial function by thrombogenic and inflammatory pathways. We set out to investigate the impact of a) specific amount (50 g vs 20 g fat), and b) type of fatty acids (saturated, monounsaturated or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids; SFA, MUFA, PUFA) on postprandial lipemia, thrombogenic and inflammatory factors in metabolic syndrome subjects. 30 subjects (15 men, 15 women) participated in a double-blind, randomized crossover design study with both the subjects and investigators blinded to treatments. Blood samples were collected at fasting and 30 min, hourly interval for a total of 6 h. As expected, lower triacylglycerol response was observed for low fat/high carbohydrate meal; whereas no difference was detected between the types of fatty acids. The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for low fat/high carbohydrate meal was 70%, 81% and 61% lower than the SFA, MUFA and PUFA meals, respectively. The iAUC 0-6 h for triacylglycerol was 42% lower in women compared with the men (P = 0.024), with the similar trend observed for non-esterified fatty acids. There were significant meal × time interaction (P = 0.000) for plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and thromboxane B2 (P = 0.022) from baseline. No differences were observed between meals for plasma D-dimer, interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. These data indicate that in metabolic syndrome subjects, only the amount of dietary fatty acids affects postprandial lipemia but both amount and type of dietary fats alter thrombogenic factors. The study was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01571947). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid connecting phospholipids on the lipid peroxidation of the brain in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Seiichi; Ishihara, Kenji; Kitagawa, Tomoko; Wada, Shun; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

    2008-12-01

    The effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) with two lipid types on lipid peroxidation of the brain was investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Each group of female Balb/c mice was fed a diet containing DHA-connecting phospholipids (DHA-PL) or DHA-connecting triacylglycerols (DHA-TG) for 5 wk. Safflower oil was fed as the control. The lipid peroxide level of the brain was significantly lower in the mice fed the DHA-PL diet when compared to those fed the DHA-TG and safflower oil diets, while the alpha-tocopherol level was significantly higher in the mice fed the DHA-PL diet than in those fed the DHA-TG and safflower oil diets. The DHA level of phosphatidylethanolamine in the brain was significantly higher in the mice fed the DHA-PL diet than in those fed the safflower oil diet. The dimethylacetal levels were significantly higher in the mice fed the DHA-PL diet than in those fed the safflower oil and DHA-TG diets. These results suggest that the dietary DHA-connecting phospholipids have an antioxidant activity on the brain lipids in mice, and the effect may be related to the brain plasmalogen.

  17. Application of artificial neural networks to determine the authentication of fattening diets of Iberian pigs according to their triacylglycerol profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    León-Camacho, M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The triacylglycerols in the subcutaneous fat from Iberian pigs reared on four different feeding types, Montanera, Recebo, extensive Cebo and intensive Cebo, have been determined by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. Analyses were performed in a column coated with a bonded stationary phase (50% phenyl-50% methylpolysiloxane with hydrogen as the carrier gas. Lipids were extracted by melting the subcutaneous fat in a microwave oven and then filtering and dissolving it in hexane. A total amount of 2783 samples from several campaigns were considered. Using the triacylglycerols as chemical descriptors, a study on the discriminating power to differentiate samples according to the pig feeding type and system was performed. With this aim, pattern recognition techniques, such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA and multilayer perceptron artificial neural networks (MLPANN, have been used. ANN performed better than LDA, with a mean prediction ability of approximately 97% in the differentiation of fattening diets such as Montanera, extensive Cebo and intensive Cebo. In the case of including the recebo fattening diet, the model presents a mean performance of 82%. The differentiation of fattening systems has also been achieved by means of ANN, with a mean performance of 96%.Se ha determinado mediante cromatografía de gases con detector de ionización de llama los triglicéridos de la grasa subcutánea de cerdos ibéricos, cebados con cuatro tipos de alimentación: montanera, recebo, cebo extensivo y cebo intensivo. Los análisis se realizaron en una columna con una fase estacionaria ligada químicamente (50% fenil-50% metilpolisiloxano usando hidrógeno como gas portador. La grasa subcutánea se extrajo por fusión en horno de microondas, posteriormente se filtró y se disolvió en hexano. Un total de 2.783 muestras de varias campañas fueron analizadas. Usando los triglicéridos como descriptores químicos se ha llevado a cabo un estudio

  18. Development of a high-throughput assay for measuring lipase activity using natural triacylglycerols coated on microtiter plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serveau-Avesque, Carole; Verger, Robert; Rodriguez, Jorge A; Abousalham, Abdelkarim

    2013-09-21

    We have designed a convenient, specific, sensitive and continuous lipase assay based on the use of natural triacylglycerols (TAGs) from the Aleurites fordii seed oil which contains α-eleostearic acid (9,11,13,cis,trans,trans-octadecatrienoic acid) and which was coated in the wells of microtiter plates. The coated TAG film cannot be desorbed by the various buffers used during the lipase assay. Upon lipase action, α-eleostearic acid is liberated and desorbed from the interface and then solubilized into the micellar phase. Consequently, the UV absorbance of the α-eleostearic acid is considerably enhanced due to the transformation from an adsorbed to a water soluble state. The lipase activity can be measured continuously by recording the variations with time of the UV absorption spectra. The rate of lipolysis was monitored by measuring the increase of OD at 272 nm, which was found to be linear with time and directly proportional to the amount of added lipase. This microtiter plate lipase assay, based on coated TAGs, presents various advantages as compared to the classical systems: (i) coated TAGs on the microtiter plates could be stored for a long-time at 4 °C, (ii) higher sensitivity in lipase detection, (iii) good reproducibility, and (iv) increase of signal to noise ratio due to high UV absorption after transfer of α-eleostearic acid from an adsorbed to a soluble state. Low concentrations, down to 1 pg mL(-1) of pure Thermomyces lanuginosus or human pancreatic lipase, could be detected under standard assay conditions. The detection sensitivity of this coated method is around 1000 times higher as compared to those obtained with the classical emulsified systems. This continuous high throughput lipase assay could be used to screen new lipases and/or lipase inhibitors present in various biological samples.

  19. Extending food deprivation reverses the short-term lipolytic response to fasting: role of the triacylglycerol/fatty acid cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jean-Michel; Reidy, Shannon P

    2012-05-01

    The effects of short-term food deprivation on lipid metabolism are well documented, but little is known about prolonged fasting. This study monitored the kinetics of glycerol (rate of appearance, R(a) glycerol) and non-esterified fatty acids (R(a) NEFA) in fasting rabbits. Our goals were to determine whether lipolysis is stimulated beyond values seen for short-term fasting, and to characterize the roles of primary (intracellular) and secondary (with transit through the circulation) triacylglycerol/fatty acid cycling (TAG/FA cycling) in regulating fatty acid allocation to oxidation or re-esterification. R(a) glycerol (9.62±0.72 to 15.29±0.96 μmol kg(-1) min(-1)) and R(a) NEFA (18.05±2.55 to 31.25±1.93 μmol kg(-1) min(-1)) were stimulated during the first 2 days of fasting, but returned to baseline after 4 days. An initial increase in TAG/FA cycling was followed by a reduction below baseline after 6 days without food, with primary and secondary cycling contributing to these responses. We conclude that the classic activation of lipolysis caused by short-term fasting is abolished when food deprivation is prolonged. High rates of re-esterification may become impossible to sustain, and TAG/FA cycling could decrease to reduce its cost to 3% of total energy expenditure. Throughout prolonged fasting, fatty acid metabolism gradually shifts towards increased oxidation and reduced re-esterification. Survival is achieved by pressing fuel selection towards the fatty acid dominance of energy metabolism and by slowing substrate cycles to assist metabolic suppression. However, TAG/FA cycling remains active even after prolonged fasting, suggesting that re-esterification is a crucial mechanism that cannot be stopped without harmful consequences.

  20. Dietary Determinants of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, Lisa W

    2005-01-01

    .... Epidemiologic studies suggest that dietary factors may be important in the etiology of PCa. The objective of our research is to determine how nutritional compounds genistein, betasitosterol (STT...

  1. Polyunsaturated fatty acids acutely affect triacylglycerol-derived skeletal muscle fatty acid uptake and increases postprandial insulin sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jans, Anneke; Konings, Ellen; Goossens, Gijs H.; Bouwman, Freek G.; Moors, Chantalle C.; Boekschoten, Mark; Afman, Lydia; Muller, Michael; Mariman, Edwin C.; Blaak, Ellen E.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary fat quality may influence skeletal muscle lipid handling and fat accumulation, thereby modulating insulin sensitivity. Objective: To examine acute effects of meals with various fatty acid (FA) compositions on skeletal muscle FA handling and postprandial insulin sensitivity in obese insulin

  2. Dietary effect of pomegranate seed oil rich in 9cis, 11trans, 13cis conjugated linolenic acid on lipid metabolism in obese, hyperlipidemic OLETF Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cha Jae-Young

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Conjugated fatty acid, the general term of positional and geometric isomers of polyunsaturated fatty acids with conjugated double bonds, has attracted considerable attention because of its potentially beneficial biological effects. In the present study, dietary effect of pomegranate seed oil rich in punicic acid (9cis, 11trans, 13cis-conjugated linolenic acid; 9c, 11t, 13c-CLNA on lipid metabolism was investigated in obese, hyperlipidemic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF rats. After 2 weeks feeding period, OLETF rats revealed obesity and hyperlipidemia compared with their progenitor LETO rats. Feeding of the diet supplemented with 9% safflower oil and 1% pomegranate seed oil (9c, 11t, 13c-CLNA diet did not affect abdominal white adipose tissue weights and serum lipid levels compared with the diet supplemented with 10% safflower oil (control diet in OLETF rats. However, the accumulated hepatic triacylglycerol was markedly decreased by 9c, 11t, 13c-CLNA diet in OLETF rats. Activities of hepatic enzymes related to fatty acid synthesis and fatty acid β-oxidation were not altered by 9c, 11t, 13c-CLNA diet. Levels of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA, major storage form of fatty acid, in serum triacylglycerol were markedly higher in obese, hyperlipidemic OLETF rats than in lean LETO rats. In addition, 9c, 11t, 13c-CLNA diet significantly decreased MUFA levels in OLETF rats. This is the first study showing that 9c, 11t, 13c-CLNA suppresses delta-9 desaturation in vivo, and we suggest that the alleviation of hepatic triacylglycerol accumulation by 9c, 11t, 13c-CLNA diet was, at least in part, attributable to the suppression of delta-9 desaturation in OLETF rats.

  3. Prebiotics, Fermentable Dietary Fiber, and Health Claims12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Per; Courtin, Christophe M; Hamaker, Bruce R; Verbeke, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the positive effects of dietary fiber on health have increasingly been recognized. The collective term “dietary fiber” groups structures that have different physiologic effects. Since 1995, some dietary fibers have been denoted as prebiotics, implying a beneficial physiologic effect related to increasing numbers or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Given the complex composition of the microbiota, the demonstration of such beneficial effects is difficult. In contrast, an exploration of the metabolites of dietary fiber formed as a result of its fermentation in the colon offers better perspectives for providing mechanistic links between fiber intake and health benefits. Positive outcomes of such studies hold the promise that claims describing specific health benefits can be granted. This would help bridge the “fiber gap”—that is, the considerable difference between recommended and actual fiber intakes by the average consumer. PMID:26773010

  4. Red palm oil-supplemented and biofortified cassava gari increase the carotenoid and retinyl palmitate concentrations of triacylglycerol-rich plasma in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenghao; Cai, Yimeng; Gertz, Erik R; La Frano, Michael R; Burnett, Dustin J; Burri, Betty J

    2015-11-01

    Boiled biofortified cassava containing β-carotene can increase retinyl palmitate in triacylglycerol-rich plasma. Thus, it might alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Cassava requires extensive preparation to decrease its level of cyanogenic glucosides, which can be fatal. Garification is a popular method of preparing cassava that removes cyanogen glucosides. Our objective was to compare the effectiveness of biofortified gari to gari prepared with red palm oil. The study was a randomized crossover trial in 8 American women. Three gari preparations separated by 2-week washout periods were consumed. Treatments (containing 200-225.9 g gari) were as follows: biofortified gari (containing 1 mg β-carotene), red palm oil-fortified gari (1 mg β-carotene), and unfortified gari with a 0.3-mg retinyl palmitate reference dose. Blood was collected 6 times from -0.5 to 9.5 hours after ingestion. Triacylglycerol-rich plasma was separated by ultracentrifugation and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection. Area under the curve for β-carotene, α-carotene, and retinyl palmitate increased after the fortified meals were fed (P palm oil treatment was greater than that induced by the biofortified treatment (P palm oil and biofortified gari, respectively. These results show that both treatments increased β-carotene, α-carotene, and retinyl palmitate in triacylglycerol-rich plasma concentrations in healthy well-nourished adult women, supporting our hypothesis that both interventions could support efforts to alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. National Children's Study Dietary Assessment Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Children's Study dietary assessment workshop was an opportunity for experts in dietary assessment methodology to gather and discuss the current state of knowledge about methodologies used to assess dietary intake during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

  6. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Home Food Resources for You Consumers Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know Share Tweet Linkedin ... and nutrients you personally need. What are dietary supplements? Dietary supplements include such ingredients as vitamins, minerals, ...

  7. Dietary Therapies for Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H Kossoff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since their introduction in 1921, high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diets have been used worldwide for refractory childhood epilepsy. Approximately half of the children have at least half their seizures reduced, including 15% who are seizure free. The mechanisms of action of dietary therapies are under active investigation and appear to involve mitochondria. Once perceived as a last resort, modifications to initiation and maintenance, as well as the widespread use of pre-made ketogenic formulas have allowed dietary treatment to be used earlier in the course of epilepsy. For infantile spasms (West syndrome specifically, the ketogenic diet is successful about 50% of the time as a first-line treatment. New "alternative" diets such as the modified Atkins diet were created in 2003 and can be started more easily and are less restrictive. They may have particular value for countries in Asia. Side effects include constipation, dyslipidemia, growth slowing, acidosis, and kidney stones. Additionally, neurologists are studying ketogenic diets for conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer's disease, autism, and brain tumors.

  8. New isochaetochromin, an inhibitor of triacylglycerol synthesis in mammalian cells, produced by Penicillium sp. FKI-4942: I. Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugaki, Narihiro; Matsuda, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Nonaka, Kenichi; Masuma, Rokuro; Omura, Satoshi; Tomoda, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    A new bis-naphtho-γ-pyrone isomer named isochaetochromin A(1) was isolated along with known isochaetochromins B(1) and B(2) from the culture broth of Penicillium sp. FKI-4942 by solvent extraction, silica gel column chromatography and HPLC. Among them, isochaetochromin B(1) showed the most potent inhibitory activity of triacylglycerol synthesis with an IC(50) value of 5.6 μM, followed by isochaetochromins B(2) (IC(50), 11 μM) and A(1) (33 μM).

  9. Analysis of molecular species of triacylglycerols from vegetable oils containing fatty acids with non-methylene-interrupted double bonds, by HPLC in the silver-ion mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joh, Y.; Kim, S. [Dong A Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-20

    The possibilities for application of silver ion HPLC to analysis of the triacylglycerols containing conjugate trienoic acids and {Delta}{sup 5}-polymethylene-interrupted acids and proportions of triacylglycerol fractions obtained by silver-ion HPLC from the seed oil of Momordica charantia double bonds were examined, respectively. The triacylglycerols of seed oils containing conjugate trienoic acids such as {alpha}-eleostearic acid (C{sub 18:3 9c,11t,13t}) and punicic acid (C{sub 18:3} {sub 9c,11t,13c}) were resolved by silver-ion HPLC. Fractions were fractionated on the basis of the number and configuration of double bonds in the species, and the elution profile is quite different from that of the species comprising exclusively saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with methylene-interrupted double bonds ; for instance, the species (DT(c2)) composed of one dienoic acid and two conjugate trienoic acids eluted much earlier than the species (D{sub 2}T{sub c}) composed of two dienoic acids and one conjugate trienoic acid, in spite of having larger number of double bonds. This means that the interaction of conjugate double bonds with silver ions is weaker than that of methylene-interrupted double bonds, presumably because of the delocalization of {pi}-electrons in conjugate double bonds. In this instance, the strength of interaction of a conjugate trienoic double bond system with silver ions seemed to be between that of methylene-interrupted dienoic and monoenoic double bond systems. Triacylglycerols of the seeds of Ginkgo biloba have been resolved by HPLC in the silver-ion mode according to the number and position of double bonds. In this instance, the strength of interaction between the {pi}-electrons of double bonds in the fatty acyl residues and silver ions is in the order; C{sub 18:3{omega}3}>C(20:3){Delta}{sup 5,11,14}C{sub 18:3}{Delta}{sup 5,9,12}>= C{sub 18:2{omega}6}>C{sub 18:2}{Delta}{sup 5,9}>C{sub 18:1{omega}9}>C{sub 18:1ome= ga7}. 49 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Dietary intervention in acne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the endocrine signaling of Western diet, a fundamental environmental factor involved in the pathogenesis of epidemic acne. Western nutrition is characterized by high calorie uptake, high glycemic load, high fat and meat intake, as well as increased consumption of insulin- and IGF-1-level elevating dairy proteins. Metabolic signals of Western diet are sensed by the nutrient-sensitive kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which integrates signals of cellular energy, growth factors (insulin, IGF-1) and protein-derived signals, predominantly leucine, provided in high amounts by milk proteins and meat. mTORC1 activates SREBP, the master transcription factor of lipogenesis. Leucine stimulates mTORC1-SREBP signaling and leucine is directly converted by sebocytes into fatty acids and sterols for sebaceous lipid synthesis. Over-activated mTORC1 increases androgen hormone secretion and most likely amplifies androgen-driven mTORC1 signaling of sebaceous follicles. Testosterone directly activates mTORC1. Future research should investigate the effects of isotretinoin on sebocyte mTORC1 activity. It is conceivable that isotretinoin may downregulate mTORC1 in sebocytes by upregulation of nuclear levels of FoxO1. The role of Western diet in acne can only be fully appreciated when all stimulatory inputs for maximal mTORC1 activation, i.e., glucose, insulin, IGF-1 and leucine, are adequately considered. Epidemic acne has to be recognized as an mTORC1-driven disease of civilization like obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. These new insights into Western diet-mediated mTORC1-hyperactivity provide a rational basis for dietary intervention in acne by attenuating mTORC1 signaling by reducing (1) total energy intake, (2) hyperglycemic carbohydrates, (3) insulinotropic dairy proteins and (4) leucine-rich meat and dairy proteins. The necessary dietary changes are opposed to the evolution of

  11. Effects of dexamethasone and insulin on the synthesis of triacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholine and the secretion of very-low-density lipoproteins and lysophosphatidylcholine by monolayer cultures of rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiapane, E H; Brindley, D N

    1986-01-01

    Rat hepatocytes in monolayer culture were preincubated for 19 h with 1 microM-dexamethasone, and the incubation was continued for a further 23 h with [14C]oleate, [3H]glycerol and 1 microM-dexamethasone. Dexamethasone increased the secretion of triacylglycerol into the medium in particles that had the properties of very-low-density lipoproteins. The increased secretion was matched by a decrease in the triacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine that remained in the hepatocytes. Preincubating the hepatocytes for the total 42 h period with 36 nM-insulin decreased the amount of triacylglycerol in the medium and in the cells after the final incubation for 23 h with radioactive substrates. However, insulin had no significant effect on the triacylglycerol content of the cell and medium when it was present only in the final 23 h incubation. Insulin antagonized the effects of dexamethasone in stimulating the secretion of triacylglycerol from the hepatocytes, especially when it was present throughout the total 42 h period. The labelling of lysophosphatidylcholine in the medium when hepatocytes were incubated with [14C]oleate and [3H]glycerol was greater than that of phosphatidylcholine. The appearance of this lipid in the medium, unlike that of triacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine, was not stimulated by dexamethasone, or inhibited by colchicine. However, the presence of lysophosphatidylcholine in the medium was decreased when the hepatocytes were incubated with both dexamethasone and insulin. These findings are discussed in relation to the control of the synthesis of glycerolipids and the secretion of very-low-density lipoproteins and lysophosphatidylcholine by the liver, particularly in relation to the interactions of glucocorticoids and insulin. PMID:3513755

  12. Dietary Karaya Saponin and Rhodobacter capsulatus Exert Hypocholesterolemic Effects by Suppression of Hepatic Cholesterol Synthesis and Promotion of Bile Acid Synthesis in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Afrose

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to elucidate the mechanism underlying the hypolipidemic action of karaya saponin or Rhodobacter (R. capsulatus. A total of 40 laying hens (20-week-old were assigned into four dietary treatment groups and fed a basal diet (as a control or basal diets supplemented with either karaya saponin, R. capsulatus, or both for 60 days. The level of serum low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and the levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the serum, liver, and egg yolk were reduced by all the supplementations (<.05. Liver bile acid concentration and fecal concentrations of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and bile acid were simultaneously increased by the supplementation of karaya saponin, R. capsulatus, and the combination of karaya saponin and R. capsulatus (<.05. The supplementation of karaya saponin, R. capsulatus, and the combination of karaya saponin and R. capsulatus suppressed the incorporation of 14C from 1-14C-palmitic acid into the fractions of total lipids, phospholipids, triacylglycerol, and cholesterol in the liver in vitro (<.05. These findings suggest that the hypocholesterolemic effects of karaya saponin and R. capsulatus are caused by the suppression of the cholesterol synthesis and the promotion of cholesterol catabolism in the liver.

  13. Coordination of storage lipid synthesis and membrane biogenesis: evidence for cross-talk between triacylglycerol metabolism and phosphatidylinositol synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Maria L; Hofbauer, Harald F; Kohlwein, Sepp D; Henry, Susan A

    2011-01-21

    Despite the importance of triacylglycerols (TAG) and steryl esters (SE) in phospholipid synthesis in cells transitioning from stationary-phase into active growth, there is no direct evidence for their requirement in synthesis of phosphatidylinositol (PI) or other membrane phospholipids in logarithmically growing yeast cells. We report that the dga1Δlro1Δare1Δare2Δ strain, which lacks the ability to synthesize both TAG and SE, is not able to sustain normal growth in the absence of inositol (Ino(-) phenotype) at 37 °C especially when choline is present. Unlike many other strains exhibiting an Ino(-) phenotype, the dga1Δlro1Δare1Δare2Δ strain does not display a defect in INO1 expression. However, the mutant exhibits slow recovery of PI content compared with wild type cells upon reintroduction of inositol into logarithmically growing cultures. The tgl3Δtgl4Δtgl5Δ strain, which is able to synthesize TAG but unable to mobilize it, also exhibits attenuated PI formation under these conditions. However, unlike dga1Δlro1Δare1Δare2Δ, the tgl3Δtgl4Δtgl5Δ strain does not display an Ino(-) phenotype, indicating that failure to mobilize TAG is not fully responsible for the growth defect of the dga1Δlro1Δare1Δare2Δ strain in the absence of inositol. Moreover, synthesis of phospholipids, especially PI, is dramatically reduced in the dga1Δlro1Δare1Δare2Δ strain even when it is grown continuously in the presence of inositol. The mutant also utilizes a greater proportion of newly synthesized PI than wild type for the synthesis of inositol-containing sphingolipids, especially in the absence of inositol. Thus, we conclude that storage lipid synthesis actively influences membrane phospholipid metabolism in logarithmically growing cells.

  14. Spirulina platensis effects on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL and triacylglycerols in rabbits fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Maria Colla

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits by feeding them a high cholesterol diet (CD, 350 mg/d and the effects of supplementing this diet with 0.5 g/d Spirulina platensis was evaluated by measuring the levels of serum total-cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerols (TAG and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol at the start of the experiment and after 30 d and 60 d. It was found that the levels of serum cholesterol decreased from 1,054±101 mg.dL-1 in the rabbits fed a CD without S. platensis to 516±163 mg.dL-1 to those fed with a high cholesterol diet supplemented with S. platensis (significant at p A microalga Spirulina é cultivada e comercializada no mundo devido a suas características nutricionais (elevada concentração de proteínas, em torno de 65%, vitaminas e sais minerais e ao seu potencial terapêutico no tratamento de inúmeras doenças, inclusive a hipercolesterolemia. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a inibição da hipercolesterolemia induzida em coelhos por uma dieta adicionada de colesterol (350 mg.d-1, pela suplementação de 0,5 g.dia-1 de biomassa de Spirulina platensis, sendo avaliados os níveis de colesterol total, triglicerídeos e HDL nos tempos de 0 d, 30 d e 60 d de tratamento. Os resultados indicaram que a adição de Spirulina platensis na dieta ocasionou decréscimo nos níveis de colesterol total de 1054±101 mg.dL-1 para 516±163 mg.dL-1 (p<0,0001, para os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica em comparação com os que receberam a dieta adicionada de Spirulina platensis. A adição de Spirulina a dieta colesterolêmica não ocasionou decréscimo significativo nos níveis de triglicerídios dos coelhos. Os valores de HDL aumentaram de 73±31 mg.dL-1 para 91,0±15,7 mg.dL-1, comparando-se os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica e os alimentados com a dieta adicionada de Spirulina, estatisticamente diferentes a um nível de significância maior que 0,1533.

  15. Very low-carbohydrate versus isocaloric high-carbohydrate diet in dietary obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axen, Kathleen V; Axen, Kenneth

    2006-08-01

    The effects of a very low-carbohydrate (VLC), high-fat (HF) dietary regimen on metabolic syndrome were compared with those of an isocaloric high-carbohydrate (HC), low-fat (LF) regimen in dietary obese rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, made obese by 8 weeks ad libitum consumption of an HF diet, developed features of the metabolic syndrome vs. lean control (C) rats, including greater visceral, subcutaneous, and hepatic fat masses, elevated plasma cholesterol levels, impaired glucose tolerance, and fasting and post-load insulin resistance. Half of the obese rats (VLC) were then fed a popular VLC-HF diet (Weeks 9 and 10 at 5% and Weeks 11 to 14 at 15% carbohydrate), and one-half (HC) were pair-fed an HC-LF diet (Weeks 9 to 14 at 60% carbohydrate). Energy intakes of pair-fed VLC and HC rats were less than C rats throughout Weeks 9 to 14. Compared with HC rats, VLC rats exhibited impaired insulin and glycemic responses to an intraperitoneal glucose load at Week 10 and lower plasma triacylglycerol levels but retarded loss of hepatic, retroperitoneal, and total body fat at Week 14. VLC, HC, and C rats no longer differed in body weight, plasma cholesterol, glucose tolerance, or fasting insulin resistance at Week 14. Progressive decreases in fasting insulin resistance in obese groups paralleled concomitant reductions in hepatic, retroperitoneal, and total body fat. When energy intake was matched, the VLC-HF diet provided no advantage in weight loss or in improving those components of the metabolic syndrome induced by dietary obesity and may delay loss of hepatic and visceral fat as compared with an HC-LF diet.

  16. Dietary Advice on Prescription: A novel approach to dietary counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Johansson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a novel approach to giving dietary advice, which is called “Dietary Advice on Prescription” (DAP; Matordning på Recept [MoR] in Swedish. It is the same principle as prescription on medicine and “Physical Activity on Prescription” (PAP; Fysisk aktivitet på Recept [FaR] in Swedish. The main idea is that a written prescription will strengthen the oral advice and emphasize certain aspects of the dietary recommendation. The DAP is on the brink of being tested in a planned study.

  17. Improved parental dietary quality is associated with children's dietary intake through the home environment

    OpenAIRE

    Fl?rez, K. R.; Richardson, A. S.; Ghosh?Dastidar, M. B.; Beckman, R.; Huang, C.; Wagner, L.; Dubowitz, T.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Improving access to supermarkets has been shown to improve some dietary outcomes, yet there is little evidence for such effects on children. Relatedly, there is a dearth of research assessing the impact of a structural change (i.e. supermarket in a former food desert) on the home environment and its relationship with children's diet. Objective Assess the relative impact of the home environment on children's diet after the introduction of a new supermarket in a food desert. ...

  18. Triacylglycerols profiling in plant oils important in food industry, dietetics and cosmetics using high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lísa, Miroslav; Holcapek, Michal

    2008-07-11

    Optimized non-aqueous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method using acetonitrile-2-propanol gradient elution and the column coupling in the total length of 45 cm has been applied for the high resolution separation of plant oils important in food industry, dietetics and cosmetics. Positive-ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry is used for the unambiguous identification and also the reliable quantitation with the response factors approach. Based on the precise determination of individual triacyglycerol concentrations, the calculation of average parameters important in the nutrition is performed, i.e. average carbon number, average double bond number, relative concentrations of essential, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Results are reported in the form of both chromatographic fingerprints and tables containing relative concentrations for all triacylglycerols and fatty acids in individual samples. In total, 264 triacylglycerols consisting of 28 fatty acids with the alkyl chain length from 6 to 26 carbon atoms and 0 to 4 double bonds have been identified in 26 industrial important plant oils.

  19. Revised dietary guidelines for Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Young Ai; Lee, Haeng Shin; Kim, Bok Hee; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Hae Jeung; Moon, Jae Jin; Kim, Cho-il

    2008-01-01

    With rapidly changing dietary environment, dietary guidelines for Koreans were revised and relevant action guides were developed. First, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was established with experts and government officials from the fields of nutrition, preventive medicine, health promotion, agriculture, education and environment. The Committee set dietary goals for Koreans aiming for a better nutrition state of all after a thorough review and analysis of recent information related to nutritional status and/or problems of Korean population, changes in food production/supply, disease pattern, health policy and agricultural policy. Then, the revised dietary guidelines were proposed to accomplish these goals in addition to 6 different sets of dietary action guides to accommodate specific nutrition and health problems of respective age groups. Subsequently, these guidelines and guides were subjected to the focus group review, consumer perception surveys, and a public hearing for general and professional comments. Lastly, the language was clarified in terms of public understanding and phraseology. The revised Dietary guidelines for Koreans are as follows: eat a variety of grains, vegetables, fruits, fish, meat, poultry and dairy products; choose salt-preserved foods less, and use less salt when you prepare foods; increase physical activity for a healthy weight, and balance what you eat with your activity; enjoy every meal, and do not skip breakfast; if you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation; prepare foods properly, and order sensible amounts; enjoy our rice-based diet.

  20. Plasma biomarker of dietary phytosterol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Racette, Susan B; Ma, Lina; Wallendorf, Michael; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Ostlund, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    Dietary phytosterols, plant sterols structurally similar to cholesterol, reduce intestinal cholesterol absorption and have many other potentially beneficial biological effects in humans. Due to limited information on phytosterol levels in foods, however, it is difficult to quantify habitual dietary phytosterol intake (DPI). Therefore, we sought to identify a plasma biomarker of DPI. Data were analyzed from two feeding studies with a total of 38 subjects during 94 dietary periods. DPI was carefully controlled at low, intermediate, and high levels. Plasma levels of phytosterols and cholesterol metabolites were assessed at the end of each diet period. Based on simple ordinary least squares regression analysis, the best biomarker for DPI was the ratio of plasma campesterol to the endogenous cholesterol metabolite 5-α-cholestanol (R2 = 0.785, P 0.600; P phytosterol intake. Conversely, plasma phytosterol levels alone are not ideal biomarkers of DPI because they are confounded by large inter-individual variation in absorption and turnover of non-cholesterol sterols. Further work is needed to assess the relation between non-cholesterol sterol metabolism and associated cholesterol transport in the genesis of coronary heart disease.

  1. Dietary polyphenols and chromatin remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Gian Luigi; Vastolo, Viviana; Ciccarelli, Marco; Albano, Luigi; Macchia, Paolo Emidio; Ungaro, Paola

    2017-08-13

    Polyphenols are the most abundant phytochemicals in fruits, vegetables, and plant-derived beverages. Recent findings suggest that polyphenols display the ability to reverse adverse epigenetic regulation involved in pathological conditions, such as obesity, metabolic disorder, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and various forms of cancer. Epigenetics, defined as heritable changes to the transcriptome, independent from those occurring in the genome, includes DNA methylation, histone modifications, and posttranscriptional gene regulation by noncoding RNAs. Sinergistically and cooperatively, these processes regulate gene expression by changing chromatin organization and DNA accessibility. Such induced epigenetic changes can be inherited during cell division, resulting in permanent maintenance of the acquired phenotype, but they may also occur throughout an individual life-course and may ultimately influence phenotypic outcomes (health and disease risk). In the last decade, a number of studies have shown that nutrients can affect metabolic traits by altering the structure of chromatin and directly regulate both transcription and translational processes. In this context, dietary polyphenol-targeted epigenetics becomes an attractive approach for disease prevention and intervention. Here, we will review how polyphenols, including flavonoids, curcuminoids, and stilbenes, modulate the establishment and maintenance of key epigenetic marks, thereby influencing gene expression and, hence, disease risk and health.

  2. Rural-Urban Differences of Dietary Patterns, Overweight, and Bone Mineral Status in Chinese Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available China is an urban and rural social model country. In the past three decades, the developing speed of rural areas has been much slower than urban areas, which may lead to the differences in dietary patterns. This study aimed to investigate the disparities of dietary structures from urban and rural children, and to analyze the effects of different dietary patterns on their adverse outcome. Among 1590 students, aged 11 years to 17 years, from primary and middle schools, a cross-sectional study was conducted. There were three dietary patterns recognized: Westernization structure, meat diet structure, and Western and Chinese structure. Compared with rural students, more urban students were in the highest categories of the whole dietary patterns (p < 0.001. Overweight/obesity and central adiposity were more prevailing among urban students, while rural students had a more prevailing risk of bone fracture (p < 0.05. Through the adjustment for all confounding factors, the Westernization structure could increase the risk of overweight/obesity and central adiposity, the meat structure could increase the risk of elevated blood pressure/hypertension, while the risk of low bone mineral quality could be reduced by the Chinese and Western structure. In conclusion, a rural-urban disparity in dietary patterns was found in our study, and different dietary patterns were associated with the risk of some adverse outcomes. Therefore, there were different prevalences of the adverse outcomes between rural and urban students.

  3. Dietary Intake of Competitive Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendlove, Jessica; Mitchell, Lachlan; Gifford, Janelle; Hackett, Daniel; Slater, Gary; Cobley, Stephen; O'Connor, Helen

    2015-07-01

    Competitive bodybuilders are well known for extreme physique traits and extremes in diet and training manipulation to optimize lean mass and achieve a low body fat. Although many of the dietary dogmas in bodybuilding lack scientific scrutiny, a number, including timing and dosing of high biological value proteins across the day, have more recently been confirmed as effective by empirical research studies. A more comprehensive understanding of the dietary intakes of bodybuilders has the potential to uncover other dietary approaches, deserving of scientific investigation, with application to the wider sporting, and potential health contexts, where manipulation of physique traits is desired. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of dietary intake practices of competitive bodybuilders, evaluate the quality and currency of the existing literature, and identify research gaps to inform future studies. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted from the earliest record until March 2014. The search combined permutations of the terms 'bodybuilding', 'dietary intake', and 'dietary supplement'. Included studies needed to report quantitative data (energy and macronutrients at a minimum) on habitual dietary intake of competitive bodybuilders. The 18 manuscripts meeting eligibility criteria reported on 385 participants (n = 62 women). Most studies were published in the 1980-1990s, with three published in the past 5 years. Study methodological quality was evaluated as poor. Energy intake ranged from 10 to 24 MJ/day for men and from 4 to 14 MJ/day for women. Protein intake ranged from 1.9 to 4.3 g/kg for men and from 0.8 to 2.8 g/kg for women. Intake of carbohydrate and fat was 6 months from competition) or immediate post-competition period and lowest during competition preparation (≤6 months from competition) or competition week. The most commonly reported dietary supplements were protein powders/liquids and amino acids. The studies failed to provide

  4. Dietary adherence in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    This article describes adherence to a low-fat dietary pattern (less than 20% energy from fat, five or more fruit/vegetable and six or more grain servings daily) in Years 1 and 5 of the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial, which was designed to examine the effects of a low-fat dietary pattern on risk of breast and colorectal cancers and other chronic diseases in postmenopausal women. Participants were randomly assigned to a low-fat dietary intervention arm (40%, n=19,542) or a usual diet control arm (60%, n=29,294). Women in the intervention arm completed 18 group sessions during the first year, followed by quarterly annual maintenance sessions. Adherence was assessed as control minus intervention (C-I) group differences in percent total energy from fat as estimated by a food frequency questionnaire. Based on these self-reported dietary data, mean C-I was 10.9 percentage points of energy from fat at Year 1, decreasing to 9.0 at Year 5. Factors associated with poorer adherence were being older, being African American or Hispanic (compared with white), having low income, and being obese. Group session attendance was strongly associated with better dietary adherence. There are many limitations of self-reported dietary data, particularly related to social desirability and intervention-associated bias. Nonetheless, these data indicate that long-term dietary change was achieved in this clinical trial setting and reinforce the potential of the ongoing trial to answer questions of public health importance.

  5. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with information regarding dietary supplements and be advised to minimise risks for ... to promote strength and muscle mass, ... selective oestrogen receptor modulators or .... It has also come to the attention of the WADA that another sub-.

  6. Dietary polyphenol intake in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Rothwell, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    were collected using a standardized 24-h dietary recall software administered to 36,037 adult subjects. Dietary data were linked with Phenol-Explorer, a database with data on 502 individual polyphenols in 452 foods and data on polyphenol losses due to cooking and food processing. RESULTS: Mean total....... The current cross-sectional analysis aimed at estimating dietary intakes of all currently known individual polyphenols and total intake per class and subclass, and to identify their main food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. METHODS: Dietary data at baseline...... polyphenol intake was the highest in Aarhus-Denmark (1786 mg/day in men and 1626 mg/day in women) and the lowest in Greece (744 mg/day in men and 584 mg/day in women). When dividing the subjects into three regions, the highest intake of total polyphenols was observed in the UK health-conscious group...

  7. Evolutionary adaptations to dietary changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, F; Perry, G H; Di Rienzo, A

    2010-08-21

    Through cultural innovation and changes in habitat and ecology, there have been a number of major dietary shifts in human evolution, including meat eating, cooking, and those associated with plant and animal domestication. The identification of signatures of adaptations to such dietary changes in the genome of extant primates (including humans) may shed light not only on the evolutionary history of our species, but also on the mechanisms that underlie common metabolic diseases in modern human populations. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the major dietary shifts that occurred during hominin evolution, and we discuss the methods and approaches used to identify signals of natural selection in patterns of sequence variation. We then review the results of studies aimed at detecting the genetic loci that played a major role in dietary adaptations and conclude by outlining the potential of future studies in this area.

  8. Should You Take Dietary Supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2013 Print this issue Should You Take Dietary Supplements? A Look at Vitamins, Minerals, Botanicals and More ... Gut in Check Wise Choices Safe Use of Supplements Tell all of your health care providers about ...

  9. Longitudinal analysis of dietary patterns in Chinese adults from 1991 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batis, Carolina; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Mendez, Michelle A; Adair, Linda; Popkin, Barry

    2014-04-28

    In the present study, we aimed to identify the changes or stability in the structure of dietary patterns and tracking, trends and factors related to the adherence to these dietary patterns in China from 1991 to 2009. We analysed dietary data collected during seven waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey and included 9253 adults with complete dietary data for three or more waves. Dietary intake assessment was carried out over a 3 d period with 24 h recalls and a household food inventory. Using factor analysis in each wave, we found that the structure of the two dietary patterns identified remained stable over the studied period. The traditional southern dietary pattern was characterised by high intakes of rice, fresh leafy vegetables, low-fat red meat, pork, organ meats, poultry and fish/seafood and low intakes of wheat flour and maize/coarse grains and the modern high-wheat dietary pattern was characterised by high intakes of wheat buns/breads, cakes/cookies/pastries, deep-fried wheat, nuts/seeds, starchy root/tuber products, fruits, eggs/egg products, soya milk, animal-based milk and instant noodles/frozen dumplings. Temporal tracking (maintenance of a relative position over time) was higher for the traditional southern dietary pattern, whereas adherence to the modern high-wheat dietary pattern had an upward trend over time. Higher income, education and urbanicity levels were positively associated with both the dietary patterns, but the association became weaker in the later years. These results suggest that even in the context of rapid economic changes in China, the way people chose to combine their foods remained relatively stable. However, the increasing popularity of the modern high-wheat dietary pattern, a pattern associated with several energy-dense foods, is a cause of concern.

  10. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyem, Reema F; Bawadi, Hiba A; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M; AbuMweis, Suhad S; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Heath, Dennis D

    2017-06-01

    Dietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of action of dietary factors in CRC disease is unclear. The aim of this study is the examination of several dietary choices and their potential association with the risk of developing CRC. Dietary data was collected from 220 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 281 control subjects (matched by age, gender, occupation and marital status). The data was collected between January 2010 and December 2012, using interview-based questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between dietary choices and risk of developing colorectal cancer. Factor analysis revealed three major dietary patterns. The first pattern we identified as the "Healthy Pattern", the second was identified as "High Sugar/High Tea Pattern" and the third as "Western Pattern". In the Healthy Pattern group we found a 10.54% variation in food intake, while the intake variation was 11.64% in the Western Pattern. After adjusting for confounding factors, the Western Pattern food choice was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of developing CRC (OR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.12-3.16). The results for the Healthy and High-Sugar/High Tea Patterns showed a decrease, but the statistic was not significant for the risk of CRC development. The Western Pattern of dietary choice was directly associated with CRC. The association between the dietary food choice in the Healthy and High-Sugar/High Tea Patterns and colorectal cancer needs further study in our Jordanian population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  11. Potential Use of Avocado Oil on Structured Lipids MLM-Type Production Catalysed by Commercial Immobilised Lipases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Eduardo; Soto, Carmen; Olivares, Araceli; Altamirano, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Structured Lipids are generally constituents of functional foods. Growing demands for SL are based on a fuller understanding of nutritional requirements, lipid metabolism, and improved methods to produce them. Specifically, this work was aimed to add value to avocado oil by producing dietary triacylglycerols (TAG) containing medium-chain fatty acids (M) at positions sn-1,3 and long-chain fatty acids (L) at position sn-2. These MLM-type structured lipids (SL) were produced by interesterification of caprylic acid (CA) (C8:0) and avocado oil (content of C18:1). The regiospecific sn-1,3 commercial lipases Lipozyme RM IM and TL IM were used as biocatalysts to probe the potential of avocado oil to produce SL. Reactions were performed at 30–50°C for 24 h in solvent-free media with a substrate molar ratio of 1∶2 (TAG:CA) and 4–10% w/w enzyme content. The lowest incorporation of CA (1.1% mol) resulted from Lipozyme RM IM that was incubated at 50°C. The maximum incorporation of CA into sn-1,3 positions of TAG was 29.2% mol. This result was obtained at 30°C with 10% w/w Lipozyme TL IM, which is the highest values obtained in solvent-free medium until now for structured lipids of low-calories. This strategy opens a new market to added value products based on avocado oil. PMID:25248107

  12. Potential use of avocado oil on structured lipids MLM-type production catalysed by commercial immobilised lipases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caballero

    Full Text Available Structured Lipids are generally constituents of functional foods. Growing demands for SL are based on a fuller understanding of nutritional requirements, lipid metabolism, and improved methods to produce them. Specifically, this work was aimed to add value to avocado oil by producing dietary triacylglycerols (TAG containing medium-chain fatty acids (M at positions sn-1,3 and long-chain fatty acids (L at position sn-2. These MLM-type structured lipids (SL were produced by interesterification of caprylic acid (CA (C8:0 and avocado oil (content of C18:1. The regiospecific sn-1,3 commercial lipases Lipozyme RM IM and TL IM were used as biocatalysts to probe the potential of avocado oil to produce SL. Reactions were performed at 30-50°C for 24 h in solvent-free media with a substrate molar ratio of 1∶2 (TAG:CA and 4-10% w/w enzyme content. The lowest incorporation of CA (1.1% mol resulted from Lipozyme RM IM that was incubated at 50°C. The maximum incorporation of CA into sn-1,3 positions of TAG was 29.2% mol. This result was obtained at 30°C with 10% w/w Lipozyme TL IM, which is the highest values obtained in solvent-free medium until now for structured lipids of low-calories. This strategy opens a new market to added value products based on avocado oil.

  13. Triacylglycerol composition, physico-chemical characteristics and oxidative stability of interesterified canola oil and fully hydrogenated cottonseed oil blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Nadeem, Muhammad

    2015-10-29

    Partial hydrogenation process is used worldwide to produce shortening, baking, and pastry margarines for food applications. However, demand for such products is decreased during last decade due to their possible links to consumer health and disease. This has raised the need to replace hydrogenation with alternative acceptable interesterification process which has advantage in context of modifying the physico-chemical properties of edible fat-based products. Therefore, the main mandate of research was the development of functional fat through chemical interesterification of canola oil (CaO) and fully hydrogenated cottonseed oil (FHCSO) mixtures. Blends were prepared in the proportions of 75:25 (T1), 50:50 (T2) and 25:75 (T3) of CaO:FHCSO (w/w). Interesterification was performed using sodium methoxide (0.2 %) as catalyst at 120 °C, under reduced pressure and constant agitation for 60 minutes. The non-interesterified and interesterified CaO:FHCSO blends were evaluated for triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, physico-chemical characteristics, oxidative stability and consumer acceptability at 0, 30 and 60 days of storage interval. The oleic acid (58.3 ± 0.6 %) was predominantly present in CaO while the contents of stearic acid (72 ± 0.8 %) were significantly higher in FHCSO. Maximum trisaturated (S3) contents (63.9 ± 0.5 %) were found in T3 while monounsaturated (S2U), diunsaturated (U2S) and triunsaturated (U3) contents were quite low in T2 and T3 before interesterification. A marked reduction in S3 and U3 contents with concomitant increase in S2U and U2S contents was observed for all CaO:FHCSO blends on interesterification. During storage, the changes in S3, S2U and U2S contents were not found significant (p ≥ 0.05). However, maximum decrease 13 %, 7.5 and 5.6 % in U3 contents for T1, T2 and T3 was noted after 60-days of interesterification, respectively. The Lovibond color R, melting point, refractive index, specific gravity, peroxide and free

  14. No difference between high-fructose and high-glucose diets on liver triacylglycerol or biochemistry in healthy overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Richard D; Stephenson, Mary C; Crossland, Hannah; Cordon, Sally M; Palcidi, Elisa; Cox, Eleanor F; Taylor, Moira A; Aithal, Guruprasad P; Macdonald, Ian A

    2013-11-01

    Diets high in fructose have been proposed to contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We compared the effects of high-fructose and matched glucose intake on hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) concentration and other liver parameters. In a double-blind study, we randomly assigned 32 healthy but centrally overweight men to groups that received either a high-fructose or high-glucose diet (25% energy). These diets were provided during an initial isocaloric period of 2 weeks, followed by a 6-week washout period, and then again during a hypercaloric 2-week period. The primary outcome measure was hepatic level of TAG, with additional assessments of TAG levels in serum and soleus muscle, hepatic levels of adenosine triphosphate, and systemic and hepatic insulin resistance. During the isocaloric period of the study, both groups had stable body weights and concentrations of TAG in liver, serum, and soleus muscle. The high-fructose diet produced an increase of 22 ± 52 μmol/L in the serum level of uric acid, whereas the high-glucose diet led to a reduction of 23 ± 25 μmol/L (P fructose diet also produced an increase of 0.8 ± 0.9 in the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, whereas the high-glucose diet produced an increase of only 0.1 ± 0.7 (P = .03). During the hypercaloric period, participants in the high-fructose and high-glucose groups had similar increases in weight (1.0 ± 1.4 vs 0.6 ± 1.0 kg; P = .29) and absolute concentration of TAG in liver (1.70% ± 2.6% vs 2.05% ± 2.9%; P = .73) and serum (0.36 ± 0.75 vs 0.33 ± 0.38 mmol/L; P = .91), and similar results in biochemical assays of liver function. Body weight changes were associated with changes in liver biochemistry and concentration of TAGs. In the isocaloric period, overweight men who were on a high-fructose or a high-glucose diet did not develop any significant changes in hepatic concentration of TAGs or serum levels of liver enzymes. However, in the hypercaloric period

  15. Characterization of fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition in animal fats using silver-ion and non-aqueous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lísa, M.; Netušilová, K.; Franěk, L.; Dvořáková, H.; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Holčapek, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 1218, č. 42 (2011), s. 7499-7510 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0139 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : silver-ion HPLC * non-aqueous reversed-phase HPLC * triacylglycerol Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.531, year: 2011

  16. Effect of simultaneous, single oral doses of beta-carotene with lutein or lycopene on the beta-carotene and retinyl ester responses in the triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein fraction of men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, H. van den; Vliet, T. van

    1998-01-01

    The effects of lutein and lycopene on β-carotene absorption and cleavage were investigated in 12 male subjects. Responses of carotenoids and retinyl palmitate in the triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fraction after a separate 15-mg β-carotene dose were compared with those after a dose of 15 mg

  17. In situ crystallization and transformation kinetics of polymorphic forms of saturated-unsaturated-unsaturated triacylglycerols: 1-palmitoyl-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol, 1-stearoyl-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol, and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-linoleoyl glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayés-García, L; Calvet, T; Cuevas-Diarte, M A; Ueno, S

    2016-07-01

    We examined the influence of dynamic thermal treatment (variation of cooling/heating rates) on the polymorphic crystallization and transformation pathways of 1-palmitoyl-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol (POO), 1-stearoyl-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol (SOO), and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-linoleoyl glycerol (POL), which are major saturated-unsaturated-unsaturated (SUU) triacylglycerols (TAGs) of vegetable oils and animal fats (e.g., palm oil, olive oil, and Iberian ham fat). Using mainly a combination of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD), we analyzed the polymorphic behavior of TAGs when high (15°Cmin -1 ), intermediate (2°Cmin -1 ), and low (0.5°Cmin -1 ) cooling and heating rates were applied. Multiple polymorphic forms were detected in POO, SOO, and POL (sub-α, α, β' 2 , and β' 1 ). Transient disordered phases, defined as kinetic liquid crystal (KLC) phases, were determined in POO and SOO for the first time. The results demonstrated that more stable forms were directly obtained from the melt by decreasing the cooling rates, whereas less stable forms predominated at high cooling rates, as confirmed in our previous work. Regarding heating rate variation, we confirmed that the nature of the polymorphic transformations observed (solid-state, transformation through KLC phase, or melt-mediation) depended largely on the heating rate. These results were discussed considering the activation energies involved in each process and compared with previous studies on TAGs with different saturated-unsaturated structures (1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol, 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol, trioleoyl glycerol, and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-linoleoyl glycerol). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Opposite lipemic response of Wistar rats and C57BL/6 mice to dietary glucose or fructose supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. Barbosa

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic effects of carbohydrate supplementation in mice have not been extensively studied. In rats, glucose- and fructose-rich diets induce hypertriacylglycerolemia. In the present study, we compared the metabolic responses to two monosaccharide supplementations in two murine models. Adult male Wistar rats (N = 80 and C57BL/6 mice (N = 60, after 3 weeks on a standardized diet, were submitted to dietary supplementation by gavage with glucose (G or fructose (F solutions (500 g/L, 8 g/kg body weight for 21 days. Glycemia was significantly higher in rats after fructose treatment (F: 7.9 vs 9.3 mM and in mice (G: 6.5 vs 10 and F: 6.6 vs 8.9 mM after both carbohydrate treatments. Triacylglycerolemia increased significantly 1.5 times in rats after G or F supplementation. Total cholesterol did not change with G treatment in rats, but did decrease after F supplementation (1.5 vs 1.4 mM, P < 0.05. Both supplementations in rats induced insulin resistance, as suggested by the higher Homeostasis Model Assessment Index. In contrast, mice showed significant decreases in triacylglycerol (G: 1.8 vs 1.4 and F: 1.9 vs 1.4 mM, P < 0.01 and total cholesterol levels (G and F: 2.7 vs 2.5 mM, P < 0.05 after both monosaccharide supplementations. Wistar rats and C57BL/6 mice, although belonging to the same family (Muridae, presented opposite responses to glucose and fructose supplementation regarding serum triacylglycerol, free fatty acids, and insulin levels after monosaccharide treatment. Thus, while Wistar rats developed features of plurimetabolic syndrome, C57BL/6 mice presented changes in serum biochemical profile considered to be healthier for the cardiovascular system.

  19. Dietary fructans, but not cellulose, decrease triglyceride accumulation in the liver of obese Zucker fa/fa rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubioul, Catherine; Rousseau, Nicolas; Demeure, Roger; Gallez, Bernard; Taper, Henryk; Declerck, Barbara; Delzenne, Nathalie

    2002-05-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of dietary supplementation with nondigestible carbohydrates, differing in fermentability by colonic bacteria, on hepatic steatosis in growing obese Zucker rats. Male Zucker fa/fa rats were divided into three groups: a control group that received the basal diet, a fructan group that received 10 g highly fermented Synergy 1/100 g diet and a cellulose group that received 10 g poorly fermented Vivapur Microcrystalline cellulose/100 g diet. Rats consuming fructan had a lower energy intake, a lower body weight and less triacylglycerol accumulation in the liver as assessed in vivo by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and ex vivo by biochemical and histochemical analysis compared with the control and/or cellulose groups. The high fermentation of fructans compared with cellulose was reflected by greater cecal contents and by a twofold greater propionate concentration in the portal vein of rats fed fructan compared with those fed cellulose. By measuring the capacity of hepatocytes isolated from liver of Zucker rats to synthesize triglycerides or total lipids from different precursors, we showed that propionate, at the concentrations measured in the portal vein of rats treated with fructan, selectively decreased the incorporation of acetate into total lipids, a phenomenon that could contribute, along with the lower energy intake, to less triglyceride accumulation in the liver of obese Zucker rats fed dietary fructans.

  20. The GCKR rs780094 polymorphism is associated with elevated fasting serum triacylglycerol, reduced fasting and OGTT-related insulinaemia, and reduced risk of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, T; Andersen, G; Nielsen, T

    2007-01-01

    to metabolic traits (mainly fasting hypertriacylglycerolaemia) and traits related to pancreatic beta cell function. METHODS: The polymorphism was genotyped in 16,853 Danes using Taqman allelic discrimination. Association was analysed in case-control studies and quantitative trait analyses. We also analysed...... the possible interactive effect between the GCK -30G>A polymorphism and the GCKR rs780094 variant on metabolic traits. RESULTS: The minor GCKR A-allele of rs780094 is associated with an increased level of fasting serum triacylglycerol (p = 6 x 10(-14)), impaired fasting (p = 0.001) and OGTT-related insulin...... release (p = 3 x 10(-6)), reduced homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (p = 0.0004), WHO-defined dyslipidaemia (p = 6 x 10(-9)) and a modestly decreased risk of type 2 diabetes (p = 0.01). Significantly increased fasting serum insulin concentrations were demonstrated when analysing the GCK...

  1. Triacylglycerol Analysis in Human Milk and Other Mammalian Species: Small-Scale Sample Preparation, Characterization, and Statistical Classification Using HPLC-ELSD Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten-Doménech, Isabel; Beltrán-Iturat, Eduardo; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel; Sancho-Llopis, Juan Vicente; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto Francisco

    2015-06-24

    In this work, a method for the separation of triacylglycerols (TAGs) present in human milk and from other mammalian species by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using a core-shell particle packed column with UV and evaporative light-scattering detectors is described. Under optimal conditions, a mobile phase containing acetonitrile/n-pentanol at 10 °C gave an excellent resolution among more than 50 TAG peaks. A small-scale method for fat extraction in these milks (particularly of interest for human milk samples) using minimal amounts of sample and reagents was also developed. The proposed extraction protocol and the traditional method were compared, giving similar results, with respect to the total fat and relative TAG contents. Finally, a statistical study based on linear discriminant analysis on the TAG composition of different types of milks (human, cow, sheep, and goat) was carried out to differentiate the samples according to their mammalian origin.

  2. The effect of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei L. casei W8® on blood levels of triacylglycerol is independent of colonisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Anne Toksvig; Sørensen, M.B.; Krych, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    Gut microbiota (GM) dysbiosis has been linked to obesity and its metabolic complications such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). The risk of developing CVD increases with elevated concentration of serum triacylglycerol (TAG). In a blinded, randomised two-arm parallel human intervention study we have...... study we analysed faecal samples obtained during the intervention study to investigate whether this effect was related to the ability of L. casei W8 to colonise the human gut after supplementation of L. casei W8 (1010 cfu daily) as determined by qPCR specific for L. paracasei and L. casei (L. casei...... and two weeks after the supplementation was ended, and fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and after 4 weeks. Four weeks supplementation with L. casei W8 did not affect the overall composition of the GM; however, an increase in the relative abundance of the L. casei group from 8...

  3. In situ alcoholysis of triacylglycerols by application of switchable-polarity solvents. A new derivatization procedure for the gas-chromatographic analysis of vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliu, Francesco; Orlandi, Marco

    2013-10-01

    We describe a new use of switchable-polarity solvents for the simultaneous derivatization and extraction of triacylglycerols from vegetable oils before gas-chromatographic analysis. Different equimolecular mixtures of the commercially available amidine 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene and n-alkyl alcohols were tested. Triolein was used as a model compound. Very good results were achieved by using butanol (recovery of butyl oleate was 89 ± 4%). The procedure was applied for the characterization of the fatty acid profile of different vegetable oils. No statistically significant differences from the results obtained with the application of two traditional methods were evidenced. Moreover, the use of switchable-polarity solvents showed many advantages: owing to the basicity of the amidines, no catalyst was required; the transterification reaction was conducted under mild conditions, one step and in situ; no particular matrix interferences were evidenced; the solvent was recovered.

  4. Flaxseed dietary fibers suppress postprandial lipemia and appetite sensation in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, M; Savorani, F; Christensen, S; Engelsen, S B; Bügel, S; Toubro, S; Tetens, I; Astrup, A

    2013-02-01

    Dietary fibers (DF) are linked to a reduced risk of life-style diseases, which relate to their physiological effects in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim was to examine whether flaxseed DF-enriched meals suppress postprandial lipemia and reduce appetite. Four different iso-caloric meals were tested in 18 young men in a double-blind randomized crossover design. Test meals were served after an overnight fast. DF content and source were: control (C): 1.4 g/MJ; whole flaxseed (WF): 2.4 g/MJ from whole flaxseeds; low-mucilage dose (LM): 2.4 g/MJ from flaxseed DF; high-mucilage dose (HM): 3.4 g/MJ from flaxseed DF. During the 7 h test day, subjective appetite sensation was assessed using visual analogue scales and appetite-regulating hormones, and lipemia and glycemia were measured, after which ad libitum energy intake was recorded. There was a significant time × meal effect on triacylglycerols (TG) (p = 0.02) and an 18% smaller area under the curve (AUC) for TG after meal HM compared to meal C was observed (p appetite although subsequent energy intake was not affected. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Early effects of dietary orotic acid upon liver lipid synthesis and bile cholesterol secretion in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokmakjian, S.D.; Haines, D.S.

    1985-01-01

    Dietary orotic acid is known to cause impaired fatty acid synthesis and increased cholesterol synthesis in rats. The authors found that the impaired fatty acid synthesis occurs during the first day of orotic acid feeding and, in studies with albumin-bound [1- 14 C]palmitic acid, an associated decrease in the rate of esterification of this fatty acid into triacylglycerol, phospholipid, and cholesteryl ester was observed. These changes may result from the known decreases in liver levels of adenine nucleotides or, as reported here, from decreased liver CoASH levels in orotic acid-fed rats. The increase in hepatic cholesterol synthesis occurred during the second day of orotic acid feeding. It was detected by increased incorporation of [1,2- 14 C]acetate into cholesterol by liver slices and by a 7-fold increase in HMG-CoA reductase activity. At the same time the biliary output of cholesterol was increased 2-fold and studies using 3 H 2 O revealed that the output of newly synthesized cholesterol in bile was increased 5-fold. The content of cholesteryl ester in hepatic microsomes decreased during orotic acid feeding but free cholesterol was unchanged. The findings are interpreted to suggest that the increased bile cholesterol secretion caused by orotic acid is a result of impaired hepatic cholesterol esterification and that the increase in HMG-CoA reductase activity is a result of diminished negative feedback due to the depleted content of cholesteryl ester in the hepatic microsomes

  6. Modulation of cholesterol levels in broiler meat by dietary garlic and copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konjufca, V H; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I

    1997-09-01

    Male Ross x Ross 208 chickens were fed from hatching to 21 d of age either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% of a commercial garlic powder in Experiments 1 and 2. Once the dose-response relationship was established, 3% garlic powder or 63 or 180 mg/kg copper as cupric citrate or cupric sulfate pentahydrate were supplemented to the diet (Experiments 3, 4, 5, and 6). In the first two experiments, reductions of plasma cholesterol (P = 0.006) and triacylglycerols (P = 0.013) and liver (P = 0.012) and breast muscle (P = 0.165) cholesterol were observed in garlic-supplemented birds. Feeding either garlic powder or copper (63 and 180 mg/kg) resulted in reduced levels of plasma cholesterol, liver cholesterol, blood reduced glutathione, and breast and thigh muscle cholesterol. Differences were significant at P copper (P = 0.982). The activity of fatty acid synthetase was decreased in birds fed copper (P = 0.035). Both garlic and copper supplements decreased cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity (P = 0.024 and P = 0.022, respectively). The results of these trials confirm the findings that garlic and copper alter lipid and cholesterol metabolism. However, they do not work by the same mechanism. Feeding dietary garlic or copper for 21 d reduced cholesterol levels of broiler meat without altering growth of the chickens or feed efficiency.

  7. Structuralism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaget, Jean

    Provided is an overview of the analytical method known as structuralism. The first chapter discusses the three key components of the concept of a structure: the view of a system as a whole instead of so many parts; the study of the transformations in the system; and the fact that these transformations never lead beyond the system but always…

  8. The utilization of the acyl-CoA and the involvement PDAT and DGAT in the biosynthesis of erucic acid-rich triacylglycerols in Crambe seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furmanek, Tomasz; Demski, Kamil; Banaś, Walentyna; Haslam, Richard; Napier, Jonathan; Stymne, Sten; Banaś, Antoni

    2014-04-01

    The triacylglycerol of Crambe abyssinica seeds consist of 95% very long chain (>18 carbon) fatty acids (86% erucic acid; 22:1∆13) in the sn-1 and sn-3 positions. This would suggest that C. abyssinica triacylglycerols are not formed by the action of the phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT), but are rather the results of acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) activity. However, measurements of PDAT and DGAT activities in microsomal membranes showed that C. abyssinica has significant PDAT activity, corresponding to about 10% of the DGAT activity during periods of rapid seed oil accumulation. The specific activity of DGAT for erucoyl-CoA had doubled at 19 days after flowering compared to earlier developmental stages, and was, at that stage, the preferred acyl donor, whereas the activities for 16:0-CoA and 18:1-CoA remained constant. This indicates that an expression of an isoform of DGAT with high specificity for erucoyl-CoA is induced at the onset of rapid erucic acid and oil accumulation in the C. abyssinica seeds. Analysis of the composition of the acyl-CoA pool during different stages of seed development showed that the percentage of erucoyl groups in acyl-CoA was much higher than in complex lipids at all stages of seed development except in the desiccation phase. These results are in accordance with published results showing that the rate limiting step in erucic acid accumulation in C. abyssinica oil is the utilization of erucoyl-CoA by the acyltransferases in the glycerol-3-phosphate pathway.

  9. Fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition of the subcutaneous fat from iberian pigs fattened on the traditional feed: “Montanera”. effect of anatomical location and length of feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narváez-Rivas, Mónica

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions of 200 samples of subcutaneous fat from two different anatomical locations (rump and adipose tissue covering the Biceps femoris muscle of Iberian purebred pigs reared on “Montanera” were determined. Significant differences were found for the majority fatty acids and for some triacylglycerol species (PPS, PLPo + MLO, PLO, PLL + PoLO, SOS, SOL, OLL among the two anatomical locations, being the rump location less saturated. The activity level of the key enzyme involved in lipogenesis differed (p Biceps femoris, increases faster than that of the subcutaneous fat covering a muscle with low oxidative metabolism, as Longissimus dorsi.Se ha determinado la composición de ácidos grasos y de triglicéridos en 200 muestras de grasa subcutánea procedentes de dos localizaciones anatómicas (rabadilla y tejido adiposo que recubre el músculo Biceps femoris de cerdos ibéricos puros alimentados en “Montanera”. Se encontraron diferencias significativas para la mayoría de ácidos grasos y para algunos triglicéridos PPS, PLPo + MLO, PLO, PLL + PoLO, SOS, SOL, OLL entre las dos localizaciones anatómicas, siendo la rabadilla la menos saturada. El nivel de actividad de la enzima involucrada en la lipogénesis defirió significativamente (p B. femoris, aumenta más rápidamente que la de la grasa subcutánea que recubre un músculo con bajo metabolismo oxidativo, como el Longissimus dorsi.

  10. A rich medium-chain triacylglycerol diet benefits adiposity but has adverse effects on the markers of hepatic lipogenesis and beta-oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamma, Carolina Maria de Oliveira; Bargut, Thereza Cristina Lonzetti; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa

    2017-02-22

    We investigated the increasing amounts of medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) in the diet on hepatic lipid metabolism. Mature C57BL/6 male mice were randomly divided into five groups (n = 10/group). The animals received their diet for 12 weeks, as a control (C group, 10% of energy from lipids); high-fat lard (HF group, isoenergetic diet, 50% of energy from lipids with lard); a mixture of lard and MCT oil (with a gradual replacement of lard by MCT: HF-MCT25%, HF-MCT75%, and HF-MCT100% groups). At euthanasia, we collected blood and dissected the liver for analyses (glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, QUICK index, and triacylglycerol, light microscopy, western blotting, and RT-qPCR). The HF diet groups showed a greater body mass gain compared to the C group, but the HF-MCT100% group showed diminished adiposity and amelioration of insulin resistance. All the HF groups also showed a clear increase in hepatic lipid accumulation, increased lipogenesis and decreased PPAR-alpha expression, although HF-MCT groups showed improved local insulin signaling. Lastly, the HF-MCT100% group had raised markers of beta-oxidation (UCP3 and MCAD) and mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC1-alpha and NRF1). In conclusion, the findings demonstrated that a high amount of MCT (HF-MCT100% group) added to an HF diet reduces the body fat accumulation and insulin resistance. However, the lipid accumulation as well as the lipid metabolism is altered in the liver of animals fed with a very high MCT diet, indicating that higher doses of MCT may be harmful in a long-term.

  11. 6 Things to Know about Type 2 Diabetes and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NCCIH NCCIH At a Glance Mission and Vision Organizational Structure Director's Message Strategic Plans & Reports Budget & ... 6 Things To Know About Type 2 Diabetes and Dietary Supplements Share: Diabetes is ...

  12. Lifestyle and dietary habits of an obese pregnant cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Karen L; Heneghan, Clara; McNulty, Breige; Brennan, Lorraine; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-01-01

    Obese pregnant women are the focus of numerous dietary and lifestyle intervention studies, however there is a paucity of literature examining the habitual dietary and lifestyle habits of this population. This paper aims to assess maternal dietary and lifestyle habits in an obese cohort, in order to identify priority areas to be addressed in future studies and in clinical practice. This prospective observational study recruited 100 pregnant women with a body mass index 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2) from routine antenatal clinics. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 3-day food diary and a structured lifestyle questionnaire assessed physical activity levels, smoking and alcohol habits and wellbeing. Macronutrient intakes as a percentage of total energy were not compliant to healthy eating guidelines with an inadequate intake of carbohydrate and excess intake of saturated fat. Compliance to recommended intakes of calcium, iron, folate and vitamin D was poor from diet alone. The consumption of energy dense food groups high in fat and sugar was greater than for published pregnant populations and the general female non-pregnant population. One-third of women reported engaging in weekly physical activity that would comply with recommendations for pregnant women while 25 % reported low mood status indicating potential depression. High intakes of energy-dense processed foods and poor compliance to micronutrient recommendations are critical dietary issues of concern among obese pregnant women. Low mood is a barrier to motivation for changing behaviour which would also need to be addressed in future lifestyle intervention studies.

  13. Dietary reference values for thiamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived dietary reference values (DRVs) for thiamin (vitamin B1). The Panel considers that data from depletion–repletion studies in adults on the amount of dietary thiamin intake...... were measured. Results from other depletion–repletion studies are in agreement with this value. The Panel agrees on the coefficient of variation of 20% used by the SCF to cover uncertainties related to distribution of thiamin requirements in the general population, and endorses the population reference...

  14. Lipid metabolic dose response to dietary alpha-linolenic acid in monk parrot (Myiopsitta monachus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzinger, Christina; Heatley, J J; Bailey, Christopher A; Bauer, John E

    2014-03-01

    Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus) are susceptible to atherosclerosis, a progressive disease characterized by the formation of plaques in the arteries accompanied by underlying chronic inflammation. The family of n-3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA), have consistently been shown to reduce atherosclerotic risk factors in humans and other mammals. Some avian species have been observed to convert α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3, ALA) to EPA and DHA (Htin et al. in Arch Geflugelk 71:258-266, 2007; Petzinger et al. in J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr, 2013). Therefore, the metabolic effects of including flaxseed oil, as a source of ALA, in the diet at three different levels (low, medium, and high) on the lipid metabolism of Monk parrots was evaluated through measuring plasma total cholesterol (TC), free cholesterol (FC), triacylglycerols (TAG), and phospholipid fatty acids. Feed intake, body weight, and body condition score were also assessed. Thus the dose and possible saturation response of increasing dietary ALA at constant linoleic acid (18:2n-6, LNA) concentration on lipid metabolism in Monk parrots (M. monachus) was evaluated. Calculated esterified cholesterol in addition to plasma TC, FC, and TAG were unaltered by increasing dietary ALA. The high ALA group had elevated levels of plasma phospholipid ALA, EPA, and docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-3, 22:5n-3). The medium and high ALA groups had suppressed plasma phospholipid 20:2n-6 and adrenic acid (22:4n-6, ADA) compared to the low ALA group. When the present data were combined with data from a previous study (Petzinger et al. in J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr, 2013) a dose response to dietary ALA was observed when LNA was constant. Plasma phospholipid ALA, EPA, DPAn-3, DHA, and total n-3 were positively correlated while 20:2n-6, di-homo-gamma-linoleic acid (20:3n-6Δ7), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), ADA, and total n-6 were inversely correlated with dietary en% ALA.

  15. Inuit dietary patterns in modern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Jeppesen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to apply two different approaches of dietary pattern definition to data from Greenland and to analyse the contemporary dietary patterns of the Inuit in Greenland in relation to urbanization and socio-economic positions.......The purpose of the study was to apply two different approaches of dietary pattern definition to data from Greenland and to analyse the contemporary dietary patterns of the Inuit in Greenland in relation to urbanization and socio-economic positions....

  16. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    OpenAIRE

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary...

  17. Estimating the Distribution of Dietary Consumption Patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    In the United States the preferred method of obtaining dietary intake data is the 24-hour dietary recall, yet the measure of most interest is usual or long-term average daily intake, which is impossible to measure. Thus, usual dietary intake

  18. 22 CFR 71.12 - Dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dietary supplements. 71.12 Section 71.12... Incarcerated Abroad § 71.12 Dietary supplements. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the dietary supplement program under the following general criteria: (1) An evaluation by a...

  19. Dietary protein intake and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gang Jee; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Tortorici, Amanda R; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2017-01-01

    High-protein intake may lead to increased intraglomerular pressure and glomerular hyperfiltration. This can cause damage to glomerular structure leading to or aggravating chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hence, a low-protein diet (LPD) of 0.6-0.8 g/kg/day is often recommended for the management of CKD. We reviewed the effect of protein intake on incidence and progression of CKD and the role of LPD in the CKD management. Actual dietary protein consumption in CKD patients remains substantially higher than the recommendations for LPD. Notwithstanding the inconclusive results of the 'Modification of Diet in Renal Disease' (MDRD) study, the largest randomized controlled trial to examine protein restriction in CKD, several prior and subsequent studies and meta-analyses appear to support the role of LPD on retarding progression of CKD and delaying initiation of maintenance dialysis therapy. LPD can also be used to control metabolic derangements in CKD. Supplemented LPD with essential amino acids or their ketoanalogs may be used for incremental transition to dialysis especially on nondialysis days. The LPD management in lieu of dialysis therapy can reduce costs, enhance psychological adaptation, and preserve residual renal function upon transition to dialysis. Adherence and adequate protein and energy intake should be ensured to avoid protein-energy wasting. A balanced and individualized dietary approach based on LPD should be elaborated with periodic dietitian counseling and surveillance to optimize management of CKD, to assure adequate protein and energy intake, and to avoid or correct protein-energy wasting.

  20. Dietary Patterns and Human Reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Vujkovic (Marijana)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPart 1 of the thesis focuses on dietary patterns and fatty acid intake in couples undergoing IVF/ICSI fertility treatment. The studies described in Chapter 2, 3 and 4 are based on the FOod Lifestyle and Fertility Outcome study (FOLFO), a prospective cohort study examining the influence

  1. Dietary reference values for riboflavin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives dietary reference values (DRVs) for riboflavin. The Panel considers that the inflection point in the urinary riboflavin excretion curve in relation to riboflavin intake...

  2. Dietary reference values for potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives dietary reference values (DRVs) for potassium. The Panel decides to set DRVs on the basis of the relationships between potassium intake and blood pressure and stroke...

  3. 9691 KNOWLEDGE OF RECOMMENDED DIETARY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    and obese body weight categories. Thus, this investigation indicated an ... understand the role of dietary cholesterol in disease progression or prevention. In addition, some consumers may regard all fats ... frequency of consumption of food rich in cholesterol, and medical check-up was used as an instrument for this study.

  4. Prohibited Contaminants in Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Neilson M

    With the increasing use of unregulated dietary supplements, athletes are at continued risk from adverse medical events and inadvertent doping. A review of Clinical Key, MEDLINE, and PubMed databases from 2012 to 2017 was performed using search terms, including dietary supplement, contamination, doping in athletes, inadvertent doping, and prohibited substances. The references of pertinent articles were reviewed for other relevant sources. Clinical review. Level 3. Poor manufacturing processes and intentional contamination with many banned substances continue to occur in dietary supplements sold in the United States. Certain sectors, such as weight loss and muscle-building supplements, pose a greater threat because they are more likely to be contaminated. Athletes will continue to be at risk for adverse events and failed doping tests due to contaminated dietary supplements until legislation changes how they are regulated. In the interim, there are several steps that can be taken to mitigate this risk, including improved education of medical staff and athletes and use of third party-certified products.

  5. Dietary nutraceuticals as novel radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra

    2012-01-01

    There is long standing need to protect humans from the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation in the event of radiation related calamities or otherwise. Various dietary ingredients have formed an integral part of daily human diets. Most of the ingredients used in the Indian diet possess medicinal properties. However, little attention has been paid to screen the radioprotective ability of dietary ingredients. It is possible that use of dietary agents could protect against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiations more effectively than other exotic synthetic agents simply because they are from natural biological sources, and may be more biocompatible than any other synthetic counterparts. Their acceptance for therapeutic purpose will be acceptable as they are part of daily human diets and do not have any known toxicity. This has been a stimulation to investigate the radioprotective ability of certain dietary ingredients including naringin and mangiferin in vivo and in vitro using micronuclei or survival assays. Treatment of mice with various doses of naringin or mangiferin reduced the symptoms of radiation-induced sickness including listlessness, irritability, lethargy, reduction in food and water intake, diarrhea, lacrimation, facial edema weight loss, emaciation, and epilation. Mice receiving various doses of naringin reduced the radiation-induced micronuclei formation and chromosome aberrations in bone marrow. Likewise, treatment of human peripheral blood lymphocytes with various concentrations of mangiferin reduced the radiation-induced DNA damage. The putative mechanisms of radioprotection are free radical scavenging, increased GSH accompanied by reduced lipid peroxidation. The use of dietary ingredients for radioprotection shall be encouraged as they are consumed daily and toxic implications are negligible. (author)

  6. Dietary Supplement Intake and Associated Factors Among Gym Users in a University Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attlee, Amita; Haider, Amina; Hassan, Asma; Alzamil, Noura; Hashim, Mona; Obaid, Reyad Shaker

    2018-01-02

    Dietary supplement intake and associated factors among gym users in a university community in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (UAE), were assessed using a structured, self-administered questionnaire in this cross-sectional study. Adults (N = 320) from five gyms in the University City of Sharjah participated in this cross-sectional study. The prevalence of dietary supplement intake was 43.8%. Statistically significant associations were found between the use of dietary supplements and sex (47.7% males, 28.1% females; p = .006), as well as weight lifting (88.6% taking supplements vs. 11.4% not taking supplements; p power and to boost exercise recovery. Females mainly used dietary supplements to increase energy, maintain their health, and prevent nutrition deficiency. Overall, protein supplements (whey proteins [48.6%] and protein powder [45.7%]) were among the most-consumed dietary supplements, followed by multivitamins (38.6%), branched-chain amino acids (36.4%), caffeine (35.0%), and creatine (29.3%). A widespread use of Internet-driven, self-prescribed dietary supplement intake was reported among gym users (60.7%). Only 12.8% of dietary supplement users sought information from dietitians. Practical implications suggest that gym instructors and coaches should be sufficiently trained to be able to provide accurate and scientifically sound information on dietary supplements to the exercisers in gyms in the university environment.

  7. Pre-season dietary intake of professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizel, Raquel; da Mata Godois, Allan; Coqueiro, Audrey Yule; Voltarelli, Fabrício Azevedo; Fett, Carlos Alexandre; Tirapegui, Julio; de Paula Ravagnani, Fabricio Cesar; de Faria Coelho-Ravagnani, Christianne

    2017-12-01

    Despite the well-documented importance of nutrition in optimizing performance and health, the dietary intake of soccer players has attracted little attention. We aimed to assess the pre-season dietary intake of professional soccer players and its adequacy in macro and micronutrients. The pre-season dietary intake of 19 male athletes was assessed using a semi-structured 3-day food record. To determine dietary adequacy and excess, energy and macronutrient intake were compared with the Brazilian dietary reference values for athletes, and micronutrients were compared with the Estimated Average Requirement - EAR (minimum recommendation) and Tolerable Upper Intake Level - UL (maximum recommendation). Mean daily energy intake (40.74±12.81 kcal/kg) was adequate. However, there was a low carbohydrate intake (5.44±1.86 g/kg/day) and a high amount of protein and fat (1.91±0.75 and 1.27±0.50 g/kg/day, respectively). Sodium intake (3141.77±939.76 mg/day) was higher than UL (2300 mg/day), while the majority of players showed daily intake of vitamin A (74%), vitamin D (100%), folate (58%), calcium and magnesium (68%) below the EAR (625, 10 and 320 µg/day, 800 and 330 mg/day, respectively). The dietary intake of professional soccer players was adequate in energy, but inadequate in macro and micronutrients, which suggests the need to improve nutritional practices to sustain the physical demands of soccer during pre-season.

  8. Assessing patients' attitudes towards dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzejska, Regina; Jarosz, Mirosław; Siuba, Magdalena; Rambuszek, Michał

    2014-01-01

    There is currently many over the counter products on the market that exert nutritional or physiological effects on the human body. The differences between dietary supplements and non-prescription drugs are however poorly understood by the average consumer and may thus affect their expectations as to the desired effect produced on the body. To evaluate patients' knowledge and attitudes towards dietary supplements as compared to non-prescription drugs. Subjects were 335 patients of the Mazowiecki Voivodeship Hospital in Warsaw, Poland. The data were collected from a face-to-face interview using a single and multiple choice questionnaire with 10 questions on dietary supplements. Statistical analysis used the Chi-square (χ2) test. The majority of respondents were found to be familiar with the term 'dietary supplements', but had difficulties in classifying these products into appropriate categories. Over 55% do not consider dietary supplements to be foodstuffs and more than 40% considered such products to be drugs. Most respondents thought that the main purpose of taking dietary supplements is to improve nutrition, but over one third expected them to also treat disease. Over 70% declared taking notice to which category the non-prescription products they bought belongs to ie. whether non-prescription drugs (medicinal products) or dietary supplements. Many patients mistakenly believe that dietary supplements are drugs and can be used to treat disease and health disorders. dietary supplements, opinion on dietary supplements, nutrition, dietary supplement vs. medicinal product.

  9. High-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection chracterization of delta 5-polyenoic fatty acids in triacylglycerols from conifer seed oils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lísa, M.; Holčapek, M.; Řezanka, Tomáš; Kabátová, N.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 1146, - (2007), s. 67-77 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/06/0219 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA203/05/2106 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : conifer seed oil * triacylglycerol * triglyceride Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.641, year: 2007

  10. Dietary inadequacy in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquin, C G; Hernandez, M I; Hernandez, B M; Mancia, I Y

    1992-01-01

    Researchers conducted a dietary survey of 59 households selected at random in the marginal community of Peralta in San Salvador, El Salvador to ascertain nutritional needs of the families and identify factors which affect intrafamilial distribution and consumption of food. A nutritionist weighed all the food consumed by each family member in 1 day. 50% of the family members consumed just grain, sugar, oil, and/or beans. 93% of the people ate 90% of the required quantity of vitamin A. 88% ate inadequate amounts of riboflavin, 77% iron, and 40% protein. Moreover 58% of the households spent 61-100% of their income on food. No association occurred between caloric sufficiency and family size and between age and dietary adequacy. Therefore each family evenly distributed food among family members. Further poorer families consumed less food than the families of the higher socioeconomic group.

  11. Dietary Carcinogens and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    detected by autoradiography on X-ray film with intensifying screens at - 70 0C. Using this TLC separation system, we have observed one abundant adduct...report in Science, published earlier this year, showed that resveratrol (a phytochemical found in many plant species) inhibited both cyclooxygenase I...the dietary phytochemical resveratrol significantly inhibits PhIP-DNA adduct formation in primary cultures of human mammary epithelial cells. From

  12. Calcium binding by dietary fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, W.P.T.; Branch, W.J.; Southgate, D.A.T.

    1978-01-01

    Dietary fibre from plants low in phytate bound calcium in proportion to its uronic-acid content. This binding by the non-cellulosic fraction of fibre reduces the availability of calcium for small-intestinal absorption, but the colonic microbial digestion of uronic acids liberates the calcium. Thus the ability to maintain calcium balance on high-fibre diets may depend on the adaptive capacity on the colon for calcium. (author)

  13. Dietary Aloe vera improves plasma lipid profile, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after Streptococcus iniae challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Ndakalimwe Naftal; Qiang, Jun; Ma, Xin Yu; He, Jie; Xu, Pao; Liu, Kai

    2015-10-01

    The current study investigated the effects of dietary Aloe vera on plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities of GIFT-tilapia juveniles under Streptococcus iniae challenge. Five dietary groups were designed including a control and 100 % Aloe powder incorporated into a tilapia feed at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 %/kg feed, which were administered for 8 weeks. Fish fed dietary Aloe at 4 %/kg feed significantly reduced in total cholesterol, while triacylglycerol reduced (P Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones. High-density lipoprotein was significantly elevated in fish fed 0.5 and 1 % Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones, and no significant changes (P > 0.05) were noted in low-density lipoprotein among test groups. Furthermore, high activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxide in liver tissues were observed in Aloe-supplemented fish compared to unsupplemented ones, before and after S. iniae challenge (7.7 × 10(6) CFU cells/mL). Variations were also noted in malondialdehyde activity throughout the trial, but no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between groups. Meanwhile, Aloe-supplemented fish reduced serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT) activities before and after challenge. Based on the second-order polynomial regression analysis, dietary Aloe inclusion levels less than or equal to 1.88, 1.86, and 2.79 %/kg feed were determined to be suitable in improving plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia in this study, respectively. Thus, A. vera extracts may be recommended as a tilapia feed supplement to enhance fish antioxidant and hepatoprotective capacities, especially during disease outbreaks.

  14. Interactions between CYP3A4 and Dietary Polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loai Basheer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The human cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s catalyze oxidative reactions of a broad spectrum of substrates and play a critical role in the metabolism of xenobiotics, such as drugs and dietary compounds. CYP3A4 is known to be the main enzyme involved in the metabolism of drugs and most other xenobiotics. Dietary compounds, of which polyphenolics are the most studied, have been shown to interact with CYP3A4 and alter its expression and activity. Traditionally, the liver was considered the prime site of CYP3A-mediated first-pass metabolic extraction, but in vitro and in vivo studies now suggest that the small intestine can be of equal or even greater importance for the metabolism of polyphenolics and drugs. Recent studies have pointed to the role of gut microbiota in the metabolic fate of polyphenolics in human, suggesting their involvement in the complex interactions between dietary polyphenols and CYP3A4. Last but not least, all the above suggests that coadministration of drugs and foods that are rich in polyphenols is expected to stimulate undesirable clinical consequences. This review focuses on interactions between dietary polyphenols and CYP3A4 as they relate to structural considerations, food-drug interactions, and potential negative consequences of interactions between CYP3A4 and polyphenols.

  15. Prevalence of Dietary Supplements Use among Gymnasium Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman H. Jawadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several studies showed that regular gymnasium users use various dietary supplements without comprehension of their potential risks. Objective. To determine the prevalence and dietary supplement intake and assess the awareness of supplement use among regular gymnasium users in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among regular gymnasium users in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between April 2015 and June 2015. A validated structured questionnaire was used. Results. The study included 299 participants. Of these 113 (37.8% were dietary supplements users and this was more common among males than females (44.7% versus 16.4%. Gender based analysis showed that males were exercising more frequently than females and the type of cardiovascular exercise was more among them. The most commonly used supplements were whey protein (22.1%, amino acids (16.8%, multivitamins (16.8%, creatine (11.5%, and omega 3 (11.5%. The reasons for taking dietary supplements were to improve body shape (47.7%, increase health (44.2%, and improve performance (41.5%. Conclusion. Most of the information about supplements was obtained from unreliable sources. More studies are needed to better understand supplements use and their impact on health in Saudi Arabia.

  16. Issues in Nutrition: Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margaret E; Noel, Mary Barth

    2017-01-01

    The majority of American adults report use of one or more dietary supplements every day or occasionally. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 defines dietary supplements and regulates their manufacture and distribution. One of the most commonly used supplements is vitamin D. Measurement of serum levels of vitamin D must be undertaken with the caveats that different laboratories define normal levels differently, and that there is rarely a clinical correlation with the actual level. Patients should understand that supplements should not be used to excess, as there are toxicities and other adverse effects associated with most of them. There currently is considerable research being performed on probiotics and how the gut microbiome affects health and disease states. Protein supplements may be useful in reducing mortality rates in elderly patients but they do not appear to increase quality of life. If used, protein supplements should contain essential amino acids. Casein and whey supplements, derived from dairy sources, help transport essential amino acids to tissues. Although there have been many studies investigating the role of vitamin supplements in disease prevention, there have been few conclusive positive results. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  17. Effect of pressure on the selectivity of polymeric C18 and C30 stationary phases in reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Increased separation of isomeric fatty acid methyl esters, triacylglycerols, and tocopherols at high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okusa, Kensuke; Iwasaki, Yuki; Kuroda, Ikuma; Miwa, Shohei; Ohira, Masayoshi; Nagai, Toshiharu; Mizobe, Hoyo; Gotoh, Naohiro; Ikegami, Tohru; McCalley, David V; Tanaka, Nobuo

    2014-04-25

    A high-density, polymeric C18 stationary phase (Inertsil ODS-P) or a polymeric C30 phase (Inertsil C30) provided improved resolution of the isomeric fatty acids (FAs), FA methyl esters (FAMEs), triacylglycerols (TAGs), and tocopherols with an increase in pressure of 20-70MPa in reversed-phase HPLC. With respect to isomeric C18 FAMEs with one cis-double bond, ODS-P phase was effective for recognizing the position of a double bond among petroselinic (methyl 6Z-octadecenoate), oleic (methyl 9Z-octadecenoate), and cis-vaccenic (methyl 11Z-octadecenoate), especially at high pressure, but the differentiation between oleic and cis-vaccenic was not achieved by C30 phase regardless of the pressure. A monomeric C18 phase (InertSustain C18) was not effective for recognizing the position of the double bond in monounsaturated FAME, while the separation of cis- and trans-isomers was achieved by any of the stationary phases. The ODS-P and C30 phases provided increased separation for TAGs and β- and γ-tocopherols at high pressure. The transfer of FA, FAME, or TAG molecules from the mobile phase to the ODS-P stationary phase was accompanied by large volume reduction (-30∼-90mL/mol) resulting in a large increase in retention (up to 100% for an increase of 50MPa) and improved isomer separation at high pressure. For some isomer pairs, the ODS-P and C30 provided the opposite elution order, and in each case higher pressure improved the separation. The two stationary phases showed selectivity for the isomers having rigid structures, but only the ODS-P was effective for differentiating the position of a double bond in monounsaturated FAMEs. The results indicate that the improved isomer separation was provided by the increased dispersion interactions between the solute and the binding site of the stationary phase at high pressure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Marketing dietary supplements in the United States: A review of the requirements for new dietary ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noonan, Chris; Patrick Noonan, W.

    2006-01-01

    Since the passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act in 1994, the marketplace for dietary supplements has experienced dramatic growth. New products have redefined the entire marketplace, and new ingredients are introduced to consumers at lightning speed. As part of this act, laws were passed to ensure the safety of new dietary ingredients introduced into the United States marketplace. But more than 11 years later, these laws are frequently misunderstood, and more frequently ignored. This article reviews the regulatory landscape of new dietary ingredients and defines the issues manufacturers must contend with to legally market dietary supplements with new dietary ingredients in the U.S

  19. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-12-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary sugars intake. Only thirteen countries (all in the developed world) appear to report estimates of sugars intake from national nutrition surveys at more than one point in time. Definitions of dietary sugars that were used include 'total sugars', 'non-milk extrinsic sugars', 'added sugars', sucrose' and 'mono- and disaccharides'. This variability in terminology across countries meant that comparisons were limited to within countries. Hence trends in dietary sugars intake were examined by country for the whole population (where data permitted), and for specific or combined age and sex subpopulations. Findings indicate that in the majority of population comparisons, estimated dietary sugars intake is either stable or decreasing in both absolute (g/d) and relative (% energy) terms. An increase in sugars intake was observed in few countries and only in specific subpopulations. In conclusion, the findings from the present review suggest that, in the main, dietary sugars intake are decreasing or stable. A consistent approach to estimation of dietary sugars intake from national nutrition surveys is required if more valid estimates of changes in dietary sugars intakes are required in the future.

  20. Antilipolytic and hypotriglyceridemic effects of dietary Salvia triloba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase (PL) is a noteworthy pharmacological target for the management of dyslipidemia, and diabetes and obesity. This study was aimed to evaluate the modulatory effects of Salvia triloba L.f. (Lamiaceae) leaves methanol extract (ME) on a high fat diet (HFD)-induced hypertriglyceridemia ...

  1. Acquired intestinal lymphangiectasia successfully treated with a low-fat and medium-chain triacylglycerol-enriched diet in a patient with liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biselli, Maurizio; Andreone, Pietro; Gramenzi, Annagiulia; Cursaro, Carmela; Lorenzini, Stefania; Bonvicini, Fiorenza; Bernardi, Mauro

    2006-05-01

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia is defined as a dilatation of small bowel lymphatic capillaries and a loss of lymph into the bowel lumen. Clinically it is characterized by hypoproteinaemia and oedema. We present here a case of protein-losing enteropathy due to intestinal lymphangiectasia after liver transplantation in a 57-year-old man who was transplanted for hepatitis C virus. Four years after liver transplantation, the patient developed hypoalbuminaemia and ascites associated with recurrence of cirrhosis. The sudden fall in serum albumin led us to look for a cause of reduction other than or in addition to cirrhosis. Duodenal biopsies showed tall villi with dilated lymphatic vessels and widening of the villi caused by oedema, demonstrating intestinal lymphangiectasia. In this case a low-fat diet supplemented with medium-chain triacylglycerols achieved an early clinical improvement with increased serum albumin levels and ascites disappearance. Intestinal lymphangiectasia should be suspected in liver-transplanted patients developing hypoproteinaemia and hypoalbuminaemia after the recurrence of cirrhosis.

  2. Murine Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase-2 (DGAT2) Can Catalyze Triacylglycerol Synthesis and Promote Lipid Droplet Formation Independent of Its Localization to the Endoplasmic Reticulum*

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFie, Pamela J.; Banman, Shanna L.; Kary, Steven; Stone, Scot J.

    2011-01-01

    Triacylglycerol (TG) is the major form of stored energy in eukaryotic organisms and is synthesized by two distinct acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzymes, DGAT1 and DGAT2. Both DGAT enzymes reside in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but DGAT2 also co-localizes with mitochondria and lipid droplets. In this report, we demonstrate that murine DGAT2 is part of a multimeric complex consisting of several DGAT2 subunits. We also identified the region of DGAT2 responsible for its localization to the ER. A DGAT2 mutant lacking both its transmembrane domains, although still associated with membranes, was absent from the ER and instead localized to mitochondria. Unexpectedly, this mutant was still active and capable of interacting with lipid droplets to promote TG storage. Additional experiments indicated that the ER targeting signal was present in the first transmembrane domain (TMD1) of DGAT2. When fused to a fluorescent reporter, TMD1, but not TMD2, was sufficient to target mCherry to the ER. Finally, the interaction of DGAT2 with lipid droplets was dependent on the C terminus of DGAT2. DGAT2 mutants, in which regions of the C terminus were either truncated or specific regions were deleted, failed to co-localize with lipid droplets when cells were oleate loaded to stimulate TG synthesis. Our findings demonstrate that DGAT2 is capable of catalyzing TG synthesis and promote its storage in cytosolic lipid droplets independent of its localization in the ER. PMID:21680734

  3. Phenolics from Winemaking By-Products Better Decrease VLDL-Cholesterol and Triacylglycerol Levels than Those of Red Wine in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Walkia Polliana; Biasoto, Aline Camarão Telles; Marques, Valquíria Fernanda; Dos Santos, Ieda Maria; Magalhães, Kedma; Correa, Luiz Claudio; Negro-Dellacqua, Melissa; Miranda, Maria Spínola; de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2017-10-01

    Winemaking by-products account for more than 30% of the grape production, but this inexpensive feedstock has not yet been fully exploited. Accordingly, we evaluated the potential biological activity of winemaking by-products produced with Syrah grapes in comparison with those of the wine produced using the same grape cultivar. Winemaking by-products showed higher contents of total anthocyanins, flavonols, stilbenes, and flavanols than red wine as evaluated by HPLC-DAD-FD (on a dry weight basis). In contrast, red wine was a better source of phenolic acids. However, the contribution of phenolic acids was minor for both samples. Furthermore, equivalent concentration of winemaking by-products (100 mg/kg/d) showed greater biological activity by than that of red wine by decreasing the levels of VLDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerols in Wistar rats. Therefore, this study supports the use of winemaking by-products as an economical source of bioactive phenolics with potential use in the food and nutraceutical industries. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  4. Profiling of Polar Lipids in Marine Oleaginous Diatom Fistulifera solaris JPCC DA0580: Prediction of the Potential Mechanism for Eicosapentaenoic Acid-Incorporation into Triacylglycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Liang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine oleaginous diatom Fistulifera solaris JPCC DA0580 is a candidate for biodiesel production because of its high lipid productivity. However, the substantial eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA content in this strain would affect the biodiesel quality. On the other hand, EPA is also known as the essential health supplement for humans. EPAs are mainly incorporated into glycerolipids in the microalgal cell instead of the presence as free fatty acids. Therefore, the understanding of the EPA biosynthesis including the incorporation of the EPA into glycerolipids especially triacylglycerol (TAG is fundamental for regulating EPA content for different purposes. In this study, in order to identify the biosynthesis pathway for the EPA-containing TAG species, a lipidomic characterization of the EPA-enriched polar lipids was performed by using direct infusion electrospray ionization (ESI-Q-TRAP-MS and MS/MS analyses. The determination of the fatty acid positional distribution showed that the sn-2 position of all the chloroplast lipids and part of phosphatidylcholine (PC species was occupied by C16 fatty acids. This result suggested the critical role of the chloroplast on the lipid synthesis in F. solaris. Furthermore, the exclusive presence of C18 fatty acids in PC highly indicated the biosynthesis of EPA on PC. Finally, the PC-based acyl-editing and head group exchange processes were proposed to be essential for the incorporation of EPA into TAG and chloroplast lipids.

  5. The critical micelle concentration of lecithin in bulk oils and medium chain triacylglycerol is influenced by moisture content and total polar materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JiSu; Kim, Mi-Ja; Lee, JaeHwan

    2018-09-30

    Effects of different moisture contents and oxidised compounds on the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of lecithin were determined in bulk oils and in medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT). CMC of lecithin in MCT was significantly higher than that in other vegetable oils including olive, soybean, corn, and rapeseed oils (p < 0.05). Presence of moisture significantly affected the CMC of lecithin in MCT (p < 0.05). CMC of lecithin was high when the moisture content was below 900 ppm, whereas at a moisture content of 1000 ppm, CMC of lecithin decreased significantly (p < 0.05), and then started to increase. Addition of total polar materials (TPM), which are oxidation products, at 3 and 5% concentrations, decreased CMC of lecithin significantly (p < 0.05) in MCT, compared to when 0, 1, and 1.5% of TPM was added to MCT. As the degree of oxidation increased in corn oil, CMC of lecithin gradually decreased. Additionally, under different moisture contents, corn oils showed a similar pattern of CMC of lecithin in MCT, whereas oxidised corn oil had a little lower CMC of lecithin than unoxidised corn oil. The results clearly showed that the concentration of lecithin for the formation of micelles is greatly influenced by the presence of oxidation products and the moisture content in bulk oils. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fungal Screening on Olive Oil for Extracellular Triacylglycerol Lipases: Selection of a Trichoderma harzianum Strain and Genome Wide Search for the Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canseco-Pérez, Miguel Angel; Castillo-Avila, Genny Margarita; Islas-Flores, Ignacio; Apolinar-Hernández, Max M.; Rivera-Muñoz, Gerardo; Gamboa-Angulo, Marcela; Couoh-Uicab, Yeny

    2018-01-01

    A lipolytic screening with fungal strains isolated from lignocellulosic waste collected in banana plantation dumps was carried out. A Trichoderma harzianum strain (B13-1) showed good extracellular lipolytic activity (205 UmL−1). Subsequently, functional screening of the lipolytic activity on Rhodamine B enriched with olive oil as the only carbon source was performed. The successful growth of the strain allows us to suggest that a true lipase is responsible for the lipolytic activity in the B13-1 strain. In order to identify the gene(s) encoding the protein responsible for the lipolytic activity, in silico identification and characterization of triacylglycerol lipases from T. harzianum is reported for the first time. A survey in the genome of this fungus retrieved 50 lipases; however, bioinformatic analyses and putative functional descriptions in different databases allowed us to choose seven lipases as candidates. Suitability of the bioinformatic screening to select the candidates was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The gene codifying 526309 was expressed when the fungus grew in a medium with olive oil as carbon source. This protein shares homology with commercial lipases, making it a candidate for further applications. The success in identifying a lipase gene inducible with olive oil and the suitability of the functional screening and bioinformatic survey carried out herein, support the premise that the strategy can be used in other microorganisms with sequenced genomes to search for true lipases, or other enzymes belonging to large protein families. PMID:29370083

  7. Identification of FadAB Complexes Involved in Fatty Acid β-Oxidation in Streptomyces coelicolor and Construction of a Triacylglycerol Overproducing strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Menendez-Bravo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Oleaginous microorganisms represent possible platforms for the sustainable production of oleochemicals and biofuels due to their metabolic robustness and the possibility to be engineered. Streptomyces coelicolor is among the narrow group of prokaryotes capable of accumulating triacylglycerol (TAG as carbon and energy reserve. Although the pathways for TAG biosynthesis in this organism have been widely addressed, the set of genes required for their breakdown have remained elusive so far. Here, we identified and characterized three gene clusters involved in the β-oxidation of fatty acids (FA. The role of each of the three different S. coelicolor FadAB proteins in FA catabolism was confirmed by complementation of an Escherichia coliΔfadBA mutant strain deficient in β-oxidation. In S. coelicolor, the expression profile of the three gene clusters showed variation related with the stage of growth and the presence of FA in media. Flux balance analyses using a corrected version of the current S. coelicolor metabolic model containing detailed TAG biosynthesis reactions suggested the relevance of the identified fadAB genes in the accumulation of TAG. Thus, through the construction and analysis of fadAB knockout mutant strains, we obtained an S. coelicolor mutant that showed a 4.3-fold increase in the TAG content compared to the wild type strain grown under the same culture conditions.

  8. Precolumn Derivatization with Bromine to Improve Separation and Detection Sensitivity of Triacylglycerols in Edible Oil by Reversed-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xiao-Lin; Liu, Xiao-Ting; Gong, Can; Xu, Xu

    2018-01-01

    The complexity of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in edible oils is largely due to the many similar unsaturated TAG compounds, which makes profiling TAGs difficult. In this study, precolumn derivatization with bromine (Br 2 ) was used to improve the separation and detection sensitivity of TAGs in edible oils by RP-HPLC. Oil samples dissolved in n-hexane and TAGs were derived by reaction with a Br2-CCl 4 (1:1, v/v) solution for 3 h at room temperature. The derivate product solution was stable and was best separated and detected by RP-HPLC using a C18 column, with a mobile phase of methanol-n-hexane (91.5:8.5, v/v) at 25°C. A detection wavelength of 230 nm was used. The results showed that the approach enabled the separation and detection of more similar TAGs by RP-HPLC. The method was applied to profile 20 types of edible oil, and the results presented the differences in the TAG profiles of various edible oils, which may be useful in the identification of edible oils.

  9. Application of selected ion monitoring to the analysis of triacylglycerols in olive oil by high temperature-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Samblás, C; González-Casado, A; Cuadros-Rodríguez, L; García, F P Rodríguez

    2010-06-30

    The analysis of the triacylglycerol (TAG) composition of oils is a very challenging task, since the TAGs have very similar physico-chemical properties. In this work, a high temperature-gas chromatographic method coupled to electron ionization-mass spectrometry (HT-GC/EI-MS), in the Selected Ion Monitoring (SIM) mode, method was developed for the analysis of TAGs in the olive oil; this is a method suitable for routine analysis. This method was developed using commercially available standard TAGs. The TAGs studied were separated according to their equivalent carbon number and degree of unsaturation. The peak assignment was carried out by locating the characteristic fragment ions having the same retention time on the SIM profile such as [RCO+74](+) and [RCO+128](+) ions, due to the fatty acyl residues on sn-1, sn-2 and sn-3 positions of the TAG molecule and the [M-OCOR](+) ions corresponding to the acyl ions. The developed method was very useful to eliminate the interferences that appeared in the mass spectrum since electron ionization can prevent satisfactory interpretation of spectra. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Preparation of triacylglycerols rich in omega-3 fatty acids from sardine oil using a Rhizomucor miehei lipase: focus in the EPA/DHA ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispo, Paulo; Batista, Irineu; Bernardino, Raul J; Bandarra, Narcisa Maria

    2014-02-01

    The increasing evidence on the differential biochemical effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) raises the need of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid concentrates with different amounts of these fatty acids. In the present work, physicochemical and enzymatic techniques were combined to obtain acylglycerols, mainly triacylglycerols (TAG), rich in n-3 fatty acids. Sardine oil was obtained by washing sardine (Sardina pilchardus) mince with a NaHCO3 solution, hydrolyzed in a KOH-ethanol solution, and concentrated with urea. The esterification reaction was performed in the stoichiometric proportion of substrates for re-esterification to TAG, with 10 % level of Rhizomucor miehei lipase based on the weight of substrates, without any solvent, during 48 h. This procedure led to approximately 88 % of acylglycerols, where more than 66 % were TAG and the concentration of n-3 fatty acids was higher than 60 %, the EPA and DHA ratio (EPA/DHA) was 4:1. The content of DHA in the unesterifed fraction (free fatty acids) increased from 20 to 54 %, while the EPA level in the same fraction decreased from 33 to 12.5 % (EPA/DHA ratio ≈1:4). Computational methods (density functional theory calculations) have been carried out at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level to explain some of the experimental results.

  11. Lysophosphatidic Acid Acyltransferase from Coconut Endosperm Mediates the Insertion of Laurate at the sn-2 Position of Triacylglycerols in Lauric Rapeseed Oil and Can Increase Total Laurate Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutzon, Deborah S.; Hayes, Thomas R.; Wyrick, Annette; Xiong, Hui; Maelor Davies, H.; Voelker, Toni A.

    1999-01-01

    Expression of a California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica) 12:0-acyl-carrier protein thioesterase, bay thioesterase (BTE), in developing seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) led to the production of oils containing up to 50% laurate. In these BTE oils, laurate is found almost exclusively at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of the triacylglycerols (T.A. Voelker, T.R. Hayes, A.C. Cranmer, H.M. Davies [1996] Plant J 9: 229–241). Coexpression of a coconut (Cocos nucifera) 12:0-coenzyme A-preferring lysophosphatitic acid acyltransferase (D.S. Knutzon, K.D. Lardizabal, J.S. Nelsen, J.L. Bleibaum, H.M. Davies, J.G. Metz [1995] Plant Physiol 109: 999–1006) in BTE oilseed rape seeds facilitates efficient laurate deposition at the sn-2 position, resulting in the acccumulation of trilaurin. The introduction of the coconut protein into BTE oilseed rape lines with laurate above 50 mol % further increases total laurate levels. PMID:10398708

  12. Safety and lipid-altering efficacy of a new omega-3 fatty acid and antioxidant-containing medical food in men and women with elevated triacylglycerols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, K C; Geohas, J G; Dicklin, M R; Huebner, M; Udani, J K

    2015-08-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multi-center trial investigated the lipid-altering effects of a medical food (PDL-0101) providing 1.8 g/d eicosapentaenoic acid; 12 mg/d astaxanthin, a marine algae-derived carotenoid; and 100 mg/d tocopherol-free gamma/delta tocotrienols enriched with geranylgeraniol, extracted from annatto, on triacylglycerols (TAG), other lipoprotein lipids, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in 102 subjects with TAG 150-499 mg/dL (1.69-5.63 mmol/L) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥70 mg/dL (1.81 mmol/L). Compared to placebo, after eight weeks of treatment, PDL-0101 significantly reduced median TAG (-9.5% vs. 10.6%, p<0.001), while not significantly altering mean LDL-C (-3.0% vs. -8.0% for PDL-0101 and placebo, respectively, p=0.071), mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (~3% decrease in both groups, p=0.732), or median oxidized LDL concentrations (5% vs. -5% for PDL-0101 and placebo, respectively, p=0.112). These results demonstrate that PDL-0101 is an effective medical food for the management of elevated TAG. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Specific-structured lipids: nutritional perspectives and production potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Høy, Carl-Erik; Balchen, Steen

    1997-01-01

    Structured lipids are referring to any triacylglycerols containing both long chain fatty acids (mostly essential fatty acids) and medium or short chain fatty acids. In case of specific-structured lipids (SSLs), each group of fatty acids locates specifically at sn-2 or -1.3 positions of the glycerol...... backbone. Recently the nutritional perspectives of this kind of lipids attract many interests. This causes an increasing interest in the production of them by lipase-catalyzed interesterification. One of the advantages of lipase method over chemical ones is that SSLs can be produced with particular fatty...

  14. Effect of inulin supplementation and dietary fat source on performance, blood serum metabolites, liver lipids, abdominal fat deposition, and tissue fatty acid composition in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, S; Ortiz, L T; Alzueta, C; Rebolé, A; Treviño, J; Rodríguez, M L

    2010-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding inulin to diets containing 2 different types of fat as energy sources on performance, blood serum metabolites, liver lipids, and fatty acids of abdominal adipose tissue and breast and thigh meat. A total of 240 one-day-old female broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 1 of 6 treatments with 8 replicates per treatment and 5 chicks per pen. The experiment consisted of a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments including 3 concentrations of inulin (0, 5, and 10 g/kg of diet) and 2 types of fat [palm oil (PO) and sunflower oil (SO)] at an inclusion rate of 90 g/kg of diet. The experimental period lasted from 1 to 34 d. Dietary fat type did not affect BW gain but impaired feed conversion (P abdominal fat deposition and serum lipid and glucose concentrations. Triacylglycerol contents in liver were higher in the birds fed PO diets. Dietary fat type also modified fatty acids of abdominal and i.m. fat, resulting in a higher concentration of C16:0 and C18:1n-9 and a lower concentration of C18:2n-6 in the birds fed PO diets. The addition of inulin to diets modified (P = 0.017) BW gain quadratically without affecting feed conversion. Dietary inulin decreased the total lipid concentration in liver (P = 0.003) and that of triacylglycerols and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (up to 31%) in blood serum compared with the control groups. The polyunsaturated fatty acid:saturated fatty acid ratio increased in abdominal and i.m. fat when inulin was included in the SO-containing diets. The results from the current study suggest that the addition of inulin to broiler diets has a beneficial effect on blood serum lipids by decreasing triacylglyceride concentrations The results also support the use of inulin to increase the capacity of SO for enhancing polyunsaturated fatty acid:saturated fatty acid ratio of i.m. fat in broilers.

  15. Social determinants of dietary habits in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Margit Velsing; Fagt, Sisse; Brøndsted, L.

    2001-01-01

    significantly associated with the intake of fruit and vegetables. Conclusions: Education seems to be the most important social variable to explain social differences in dietary habits. Additional variables are needed to explain dietary habits of women. Differences are seen for both foods and nutrients....... Sponsorship: The data analysis was financially supported by the Health Insurance Fund. Descriptors: socioeconomic status; education; dietary habits; diet surveys, E%; fat, fruit and vegetables....

  16. Increasing the biological value of dietary cutlets

    OpenAIRE

    SYZDYKOVA L.S.; DIKHANBAYEVA F.T.; BAZYLHANOVA E.CH

    2015-01-01

    Relevance of work: meat products are the main source of the proteins, necessary for activity of the person. In this article is determined the biological value of the cutlets with dietary properties. The purpose of this work is development of the production technology of dietary cutlets in branches of public catering and determination of their biological value. As a result of work dietary cutlets with the increased biological value due to addition of oatmeal are received.

  17. Implementing and sustaining dietary change in the context of social relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydén, Petra J; Sydner, Ylva Mattsson

    2011-09-01

    Changing to healthier dietary habits is quite difficult to implement and even more difficult to sustain. As the majority of people have some or all their meals with others, it is likely that their social relationships influence the dietary change process and its sustainability. Thus, the aim of this research was to explore and describe experiences of dietary change and its sustainability in the context of an individual's social relationships. Semi-structured interviews were conducted individually with fourteen individuals who had previously been participants in a 3-month dietary intervention study using a Mediterranean diet. Thematic analysis was used on verbatim transcripts of the interviews. Social relationships were the main barrier to sustainability - in particular social relationships within the household where various coping strategies were needed on an everyday basis. Social relationships outside the household were also difficult to manage as dietary change challenged existing traditions and norms of what to eat. The changer was thereby forced to risk social disapproval or to deviate from the diet. Social relationships within and outside the household complicated the accomplishment of healthy dietary changes. Hence, it is important to acknowledge the social context of the changer when dietary change is to be implemented. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2011 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  18. Dietary Protein Intake and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gang Jee; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Tortoricci, Amanda R.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of review High protein intake may lead to increased intraglomerular pressure and glomerular hyperfiltration. This can cause damage to glomerular structure leading to or aggravating chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hence, a low protein diet (LPD) of 0.6–0.8 g/kg/day is often recommended for the management of CKD. We reviewed the effect of protein intake on incidence and progression of CKD and the role of LPD the CKD management. Recent findings Actual dietary protein consumption in CKD patients remain substantially higher than the recommendations for LPD. Notwithstanding the inconclusive results of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study, the largest randomized controlled trial to examine protein restriction in CKD, several prior and subsequent studies and meta-analyses including secondary analyses of the MDRD data appear to support the role of LPD on retarding progression of CKD and delaying initiation of maintenance dialysis therapy. LPD can also be used to control metabolic derangements in CKD. Supplemented LPD with essential amino acids or their keto-analogs may be used for incremental transition to dialysis especially in non-dialysis days. An LPD management in lieu of dialysis therapy can reduce costs, enhance psychological adaptation, and preserve residual renal function upon transition to dialysis. Adherence and adequate protein and energy intake should be ensured to avoid protein-energy wasting. Summary A balanced and individualized dietary approach based on LPD should be elaborated with periodic dietitian counselling and surveillance to optimize management of CKD, to assure adequate protein and energy intake and to avoid or correct protein-energy wasting. PMID:27801685

  19. A 90-day repeated-dose toxicity study of dietary alpha linolenic acid-enriched diacylglycerol oil in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushita, Hiroto; Ito, Yuichi; Saito, Tetsuji; Nukada, Yuko; Ikeda, Naohiro; Nakagiri, Hideaki; Saito, Kazutoshi; Morita, Osamu

    2018-05-31

    Diets supplemented with alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)-enriched diacylglycerol (DAG) oil-which mainly consists of oleic and linolenic, linoleic acids-have potential health benefits in terms of preventing or managing obesity. Although safety of DAG oil has been extensively investigated, toxicity of ALA-DAG oil has not been well understood. Hence, the present study was conducted to clarify the potential adverse effects, if any, of ALA-DAG oil in rats (10/sex/group) fed diets containing 1.375%, 2.75%, or 5.5% ALA-DAG oil for 90 days. Compared to control rats fed rapeseed oil or ALA-triacylglycerol oil (flaxseed oil), rats receiving ALA-DAG oil did not reveal any toxicologically significant treatment-related changes as evaluated by clinical signs, functional observational battery, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, clinical chemistry, organ weight, necropsy and histopathology. The no observed adverse effect levels for dietary exposure to ALA-DAG oil for male and female rats were 2916 and 3326 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively, the highest dose tested. The findings from this study suggest that consumption of ALA-DAG oil is unlikely to cause adverse effects. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. The effect of dietary fatty acid composition on the hepatic fatty acid content and plasma lipid profile in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Komprda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate in a model organism the effect of different dietary lipids on plasma concentration of total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and triacylglycerols (TAG. One hundred adult male rats (Wistar Albino were divided into 10 groups with 10 animals each and fed for 7 weeks either basic feed mixture (control diet, C or basic feed mixture with 5% of palm oil (P, safflower oil (SF, salmon oil (S, fish oil (F, Schizochytrium microalga oil (A, and 20% of beef tallow (T; four groups, respectively. The T-groups were fed for another 7 weeks T-, SF-, F- and A-diet, respectively. At the end of both the first and the second 7-week fattening period, plasma lipid concentration and hepatic fatty acid content was determined. Both A and F diets fed for 7 weeks decreased (P -1 compared to control (1.19 mmol∙l-1. The highest (P -1. A-diet had the most positive (decreasing effect on TAG concentrations (0.68–0.86 mmol∙l-1 compared to 1.22 and 2.88 mmol∙l-1 found in the C and T diets, respectively; P P Schizochytrium microalga oil (with high DHA content may have the potential for decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Dietary broccoli protects against fatty liver development but not against progression of liver cancer in mice pretreated with diethylnitrosamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Ju; Myracle, Angela D.; Wallig, Matthew A.; Jeffery, Elizabeth H.

    2016-01-01

    Western-style high fat, high sugar diets are associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and increased liver cancer risk. Sulforaphane from broccoli may protect against these. Previously we initiated broccoli feeding to mice prior to exposure to the hepatocarcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN), and saw protection against NAFLD and liver cancer. Here we administered DEN to unweaned mice, initiating broccoli feeding two weeks later, to determine if broccoli protects against cancer progression. Specifically, male 15-day-old C57BL/6J mice were given DEN and placed on a Western or Western+10%Broccoli diet from the age of 4 weeks through 7 months. Dietary broccoli decreased hepatic triacylglycerols, NAFLD, liver damage and tumour necrosis factor by month 5 without changing body weight or relative liver weight, but did not slow carcinogenesis, seen in 100% of mice. We conclude that broccoli, a good source of sulforaphane, slows progression of hepatic lipidosis, but not tumourigenesis in this robust model. PMID:27672403

  2. The role of dietary creatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Margaret E; Brosnan, John T

    2016-08-01

    The daily requirement of a 70-kg male for creatine is about 2 g; up to half of this may be obtained from a typical omnivorous diet, with the remainder being synthesized in the body Creatine is a carninutrient, which means that it is only available to adults via animal foodstuffs, principally skeletal muscle, or via supplements. Infants receive creatine in mother's milk or in milk-based formulas. Vegans and infants fed on soy-based formulas receive no dietary creatine. Plasma and muscle creatine levels are usually somewhat lower in vegetarians than in omnivores. Human intake of creatine was probably much higher in Paleolithic times than today; some groups with extreme diets, such as Greenland and Alaskan Inuit, ingest much more than is currently typical. Creatine is synthesized from three amino acids: arginine, glycine and methionine (as S-adenosylmethionine). Humans can synthesize sufficient creatine for normal function unless they have an inborn error in a creatine-synthetic enzyme or a problem with the supply of substrate amino acids. Carnivorous animals, such as lions and wolves, ingest much larger amounts of creatine than humans would. The gastrointestinal tract and the liver are exposed to dietary creatine in higher concentrations before it is assimilated by other tissues. In this regard, our observations that creatine supplementation can prevent hepatic steatosis (Deminice et al. J Nutr 141:1799-1804, 2011) in a rodent model may be a function of the route of dietary assimilation. Creatine supplementation has also been reported to improve the intestinal barrier function of the rodent suffering from inflammatory bowel disease.

  3. Amorfrutins are potent antidiabetic dietary natural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Christopher; de Groot, Jens C.; Prasad, Aman; Freiwald, Anja; Quedenau, Claudia; Kliem, Magdalena; Witzke, Annabell; Kodelja, Vitam; Han, Chung-Ting; Giegold, Sascha; Baumann, Matthias; Klebl, Bert; Siems, Karsten; Müller-Kuhrt, Lutz; Schürmann, Annette; Schüler, Rita; Pfeiffer, Andreas F. H.; Schroeder, Frank C.; Büssow, Konrad; Sauer, Sascha

    2012-01-01

    Given worldwide increases in the incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, new strategies for preventing and treating metabolic diseases are needed. The nuclear receptor PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) plays a central role in lipid and glucose metabolism; however, current PPARγ-targeting drugs are characterized by undesirable side effects. Natural products from edible biomaterial provide a structurally diverse resource to alleviate complex disorders via tailored nutritional intervention. We identified a family of natural products, the amorfrutins, from edible parts of two legumes, Glycyrrhiza foetida and Amorpha fruticosa, as structurally new and powerful antidiabetics with unprecedented effects for a dietary molecule. Amorfrutins bind to and activate PPARγ, which results in selective gene expression and physiological profiles markedly different from activation by current synthetic PPARγ drugs. In diet-induced obese and db/db mice, amorfrutin treatment strongly improves insulin resistance and other metabolic and inflammatory parameters without concomitant increase of fat storage or other unwanted side effects such as hepatoxicity. These results show that selective PPARγ-activation by diet-derived ligands may constitute a promising approach to combat metabolic disease. PMID:22509006

  4. Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements: What the Science Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Integrative Health NCCIH Clinical Digest for health professionals Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements: What the Science Says ... Thinkstock Clinical Guidelines, Scientific Literature, Info for Patients: Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements Dietary Supplements Milk Thistle ...

  5. Dietary supplement good manufacturing practices: preparing for compliance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mead, William J

    2012-01-01

    "Dietary Supplement GMP is a one-stop "how-to" road map to the final dietary supplement GMP regulations recently issued by the FDA covering the manufacture, packaging, and holding of dietary supplement...

  6. Dietary fat composition influences tissue lipid profile and gene expression in Fischer-344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Albert L; Hintze, Korry J; Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Ward, Robert E

    2012-12-01

    The AIN-76A diet causes fatty liver in rodents when fed for long periods of time. The aim of this study was to utilize fatty acid analysis and transcriptomics to investigate the effects of different fat sources in the AIN-76A diet on tissue lipid profiles and gene expression in male, weanling Fischer-344 rats. Animals were fed isocaloric diets that differed only in the fat source: (1) corn oil (CO) (2) anhydrous milk fat (AMF), and (3) AMF supplemented with 10% phospholipids from the milk fat globule membrane (AMF-MFGM). There were no differences in food intake, body weight, growth rate, or body fat composition among the groups, and the fatty acid compositions of red blood cells (RBC), plasma, muscle, and visceral adipose tissues reflected the dietary fat sources. Modifying the fat source resulted in 293 genes differentially regulated in skeletal muscle, 1,124 in adipose, and 831 in liver as determined by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Although tissue fatty acid profiles mostly reflected the diet, there were several quantitative differences in lipid classes in the liver and plasma. The AMF diet resulted in the highest level of hepatic triacylglycerols, but the lowest level in plasma. The CO diet resulted in significant accumulation of hepatic unesterified fatty acids and decreased DGAT expression and activity, a potential trigger for steatohepatitis. These results indicate that the fatty acid composition and presence of polar lipids in the AIN-76A diets have significant effects on lipid partitioning, gene expression, and potentially the development of liver pathology.

  7. Understanding the structure of chocolate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenk, H. E-mail: schenk@science.uva.nl; Peschar, R

    2004-11-01

    Crystallization of cocoa-butter in the {beta} phase from the melt under static conditions is only possible using the memory effect of cocoa-butter. Under all other conditions polymorphs with lower melting temperatures develop, whereas the {beta} phase is the preferred one in chocolate. SAXS experiments proved 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol seeds with triple chain-length packing initiate the {beta}-crystallization. Models for the different phases may be based on the crystal structure determinations of triacylglycerols. A new, patented, way of chocolate making is in development in which the traditional tempering process is replaced by another pre-crystallization process. The process is based on the use of seed crystals in the liquid phase and driven by a feedback system.

  8. Understanding the structure of chocolate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, H.; Peschar, R.

    2004-01-01

    Crystallization of cocoa-butter in the β phase from the melt under static conditions is only possible using the memory effect of cocoa-butter. Under all other conditions polymorphs with lower melting temperatures develop, whereas the β phase is the preferred one in chocolate. SAXS experiments proved 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol seeds with triple chain-length packing initiate the β-crystallization. Models for the different phases may be based on the crystal structure determinations of triacylglycerols. A new, patented, way of chocolate making is in development in which the traditional tempering process is replaced by another pre-crystallization process. The process is based on the use of seed crystals in the liquid phase and driven by a feedback system

  9. Understanding the structure of chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, H.; Peschar, R.

    2004-10-01

    Crystallization of cocoa-butter in the β phase from the melt under static conditions is only possible using the memory effect of cocoa-butter. Under all other conditions polymorphs with lower melting temperatures develop, whereas the β phase is the preferred one in chocolate. SAXS experiments proved 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol seeds with triple chain-length packing initiate the β-crystallization. Models for the different phases may be based on the crystal structure determinations of triacylglycerols. A new, patented, way of chocolate making is in development in which the traditional tempering process is replaced by another pre-crystallization process. The process is based on the use of seed crystals in the liquid phase and driven by a feedback system.

  10. Dietary pattern and colonic diverticulosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tursi, Antonio

    2017-09-01

    To assess the role of dietary pattern on the occurrence of colonic diverticulosis, diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis. High-fiber diet does not prevent diverticulosis occurrence, and results about prevention/treatment of diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis are still conflicting.No association was seen between nut, corn or popcorn consumption and occurrence of diverticulosis, diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis.It seems to be a mild association between high alcohol intake and diverticulosis occurrence, whereas alcohol dependence seems to show lower risk of in-hospital mortality due to acute diverticulitis.Higher red-meat consumption shows mild increased risk of acute diverticulitis, especially when consumed as unprocessed red meat (defined as consumption of 'beef or lamb as main dish', 'pork as main dish', 'hamburger' and 'beef, pork or lamb as a sandwich or mixed dish'); higher consumption of poultry (viz. white meat) was not associated with risk of acute diverticulitis.Finally, higher fish intake was associated with reduced risk of diverticulitis in age-adjusted model, but not after further adjustment for other potential confounders. Current literature data about the role of dietary pattern on the occurrence of colonic diverticulosis, diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis are still too conflicting.

  11. Dietary Amelioration of Helicobacter Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Jed W.; Stephenson, Katherine K.; Wallace, Alison J.

    2015-01-01

    We review herein the basis for using dietary components to treat and/or prevent Helicobacter pylori infection, with emphasis on: (a) work reported in the last decade, (b) dietary components for which there is mechanism-based plausibility, and (c) components for which clinical results on H. pylori amelioration are available. There is evidence that a diet-based treatment may reduce the levels and/or the virulence of H. pylori colonization without completely eradicating the organism in treated individuals. This concept was endorsed a decade ago by the participants in a small international consensus conference held in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, and interest in such a diet-based approach has increased dramatically since then. This approach is attractive in terms of cost, treatment, tolerability and cultural acceptability. This review therefore highlights specific foods, food components, and food products, grouped as follows: bee products (e.g. honey and propolis), probiotics, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, oils, essential oils, and herbs, spices and other plants. A discussion of the small number of clinical studies that are available is supplemented by supportive in vitro and animal studies. This very large body of in vitro and pre-clinical evidence must now be followed up with rationally designed, unambiguous human trials. PMID:25799054

  12. Dietary intake of Senegalese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coomes Margerie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90 of all foods; meats 12% (11/90; and grains 11% (10/90. Sauces (6%, 5/90, sweets (4%, 4/90, and desserts (4%, 4/90 were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal.

  13. Analysis of 13C-mixed triacylglycerol in stool by bulk (EA-IRMS) and compound specific (GC/MS) methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, C; Ling, S C; Preston, T; Weaver, L T

    2002-06-01

    This paper was presented in poster form at the 17th International Congress of Nutrition, August 27-31, Vienna, Austria (Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism 2001; 45(Suppl.1):349). Some of the data were also presented in poster form at the British Society of Gastroenterology Meeting, March 18-21, Glasgow, UK (Gut 2001; 48(Suppl.1):A91). The 13C-mixed triacylglycerol (MTG) breath test is used to measure intraluminal fat digestion. In normal digestion, 20-40% of the ingested 13C label is recovered in breath CO2. We aimed to identify the proportions of ingested label excreted in stool, as well as breath following ingestion of 13C-MTG by children with impaired exocrine pancreatic function and healthy controls. 13C enrichment of breath samples was measured by continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and cumulative percent dose recovered (cPDR) in 10 h was calculated. Total 13C of a faecal fat extract from each stool was measured by elemental analyser-IRMS, and 13C enrichment and concentration of the TBDMS derivative of octanoic acid was measured by GC/MS after hydrolysis of the fat extract. Stool 5-day cPDR was calculated. Mean breath cPDR was 35%. Mean cPDR in stool by combustion-IRMS and GC/ MS, respectively, was 0.8% and 1.0%. Therefore, the remaining 64% of the 13C label must remain in the body and variability in breath cPDR is due to postabsorptive rather than predigestive factors.

  14. Comparison of the Distribution of Unsaturated Fatty Acids at the Sn-2 Position of Phospholipids and Triacylglycerols in Marine Fishes and Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beppu, Fumiaki; Yasuda, Keiko; Okada, Ayako; Hirosaki, Yoshitsugu; Okazaki, Masako; Gotoh, Naohiro

    2017-11-01

    Highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) binding at the sn-2 position of phospholipids (PL) becomes a resource for prostaglandin, leukotriene, resolvin, and protectin synthesis. Both triacylglycerol (TAG) and PL synthesis pathways in vivo are via phosphatidic acid; therefore, the distribution of fatty acid species at the sn-2 position must theoretically be the same for TAG and PL if rearrangement does not occur. However, it is known that little HUFA is located at the sn-2 position of TAG in marine mammals. Therefore, distribution of fatty acid species at the sn-2 position of TAG and PL was compared between marine fishes and mammals in this study. The composition of fatty acids binding at the sn-2 or sn-1,3 position of PL and TAG was analyzed via hydrolysis with enzymes and GC-FID. The results showed that 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, and 22:6n-3 were primarily located at the sn-1,3 positions of TAG in marine mammals. Comparison of the binding positions of HUFA and 16:0 in PL and TAG suggested the existence of Lands' cycle in marine fishes and mammals. In conclusion, both marine fishes and mammals condensed HUFA as a source of eicosanoid at the sn-2 position of PL. Furthermore, abundance ratios for 22:5n-3 or 22:6n-3 at the sn-2 position (sn-2 ratio) in TAG and PL (calculated by the equation: [abundance ratio at sn-2 position of TAG]/[abundance ratio at sn-2 position of PL]) was less than 0.35 in marine mammals; however, it was greater than 0.80 in marine fishes. These differences suggested that the HUFA consisted of 22 carbon atoms and had different roles in marine fishes and mammals.

  15. A water-soluble extract of chicken reduced plasma triacylglycerols, but showed no anti-atherosclerotic activity in apoE−/− mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Vik

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: Chicken protein displayed a slight potential to increase mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and reduce plasma TAG. However, CP did not affect plasma cholesterol levels, inflammation status or atherosclerotic development in apoE−/− mice. Based on these results, dietary intervention with CP does not have sufficient capacity to influence atherosclerotic development in apoE−/− mice.

  16. Diabetes and diet : managing dietary barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friele, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis reports on the barriers diabetic patients experience with their diet, and the ways they cope with these barriers. A dietary barrier is a hinderance to a person's well-being, induced by being advised a diet. First inventories were made of possible dietary barriers and ways of

  17. Usability Test of an Interactive Dietary Recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Louisa Ming Yan; Chung, Joanne Wai Yee; Wong, Thomas Kwok Shing

    2009-01-01

    Dietary intake methods are used to collect one's diet habit which is essential in nutrition assessment. Food diary, food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recalls are the most common dietary intake methods. However, they are not welcomed by most clients. Digital handheld devices are now readily available, and the cost of digital…

  18. Identification of diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol containing 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9,14-octadecadienoic acid in castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiann-Tsyh; Chen, Grace Q

    2011-02-28

    Castor oil has many industrial uses. Molecular species of acylglycerols containing monohydroxy, dihydroxy and trihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil have been reported. We report here the identification of acylglycerols containing a triOH18:2 fatty acid in castor oil. The structure of this novel fatty acid was proposed as 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9,14-octadecadienoic acid by the mass spectrometry of the lithiated adducts of acylglycerols in the HPLC fractions of castor oil. The fragmentation pathways of the lithiated adduct of 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9,14-octadecadienoic acid were proposed. We also proposed the biosynthetic pathways of polyhydroxy fatty acids in castor. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Dietary fibre in foods: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Devinder; Michael, Mona; Rajput, Hradesh; Patil, R T

    2012-06-01

    Dietary fibre is that part of plant material in the diet which is resistant to enzymatic digestion which includes cellulose, noncellulosic polysaccharides such as hemicellulose, pectic substances, gums, mucilages and a non-carbohydrate component lignin. The diets rich in fibre such as cereals, nuts, fruits and vegetables have a positive effect on health since their consumption has been related to decreased incidence of several diseases. Dietary fibre can be used in various functional foods like bakery, drinks, beverages and meat products. Influence of different processing treatments (like extrusion-cooking, canning, grinding, boiling, frying) alters the physico- chemical properties of dietary fibre and improves their functionality. Dietary fibre can be determined by different methods, mainly by: enzymic gravimetric and enzymic-chemical methods. This paper presents the recent developments in the extraction, applications and functions of dietary fibre in different food products.

  20. Dietary nitrates, nitrites, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hord, Norman G

    2011-12-01

    Dietary nitrate (NO(3)), nitrite (NO(2)), and arginine can serve as sources for production of NO(x) (a diverse group of metabolites including nitric oxide, nitrosothiols, and nitroalkenes) via ultraviolet light exposure to skin, mammalian nitrate/nitrite reductases in tissues, and nitric oxide synthase enzymes, respectively. NO(x) are responsible for the hypotensive, antiplatelet, and cytoprotective effects of dietary nitrates and nitrites. Current regulatory limits on nitrate intakes, based on concerns regarding potential risk of carcinogenicity and methemoglobinemia, are exceeded by normal daily intakes of single foods, such as soya milk and spinach, as well as by some recommended dietary patterns such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet. This review includes a call for regulatory bodies to consider all available data on the beneficial physiologic roles of nitrate and nitrite in order to derive rational bases for dietary recommendations.

  1. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Pregnancy Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuyang; Zhao, Diqi; Mao, Xun; Xia, Yinyin; Baker, Philip N.; Zhang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy will affect the outcomes for the mother and the baby. Many analyses of the relationship between diet and outcome are often based on a single or a few food items or nutrients. However, foods are not consumed in isolation and dietary patterns can be used to assess the whole diet consumed. The use of dietary pattern analysis to understand nutritional intake and pregnancy outcome is becoming more and more popular. Many published studies have showed the association between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. This review examined articles about the relationship between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. As a modifiable factor, dietary patterns may be more applicable to clinical and pregnant health interventions. PMID:27338455

  2. High level of dietary soybean oil depresses the growth and anti-oxidative capacity and induces inflammatory response in large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Hua; Shen, Haohao; Liu, Jiahuan; Xie, Fangli; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen

    2018-06-01

    Increasing demand, uncertain availability and high price of fish oil with the expansion of aquaculture made it essential to search alternative lipid sources. Vegetable oil has been proved to be the best candidate for the replacement of fish oil in aquafeeds. However, this replacement especially in high level potentially has some negative effects on fish. The present study was conducted to investigate the growth performance, anti-oxidative and inflammatory responses of large yellow croaker to replacement of dietary fish oil by soybean oil. Three isonitrogenous (46% crude protein) and isolipidic (13% crude lipids) diets were formulated to feed fish (initial body weight: 36.80 ± 0.39 g) for 12 weeks. The control diet was designed to contain 6.5% of fish oil, and named as FO. On the basis of the control diet, the fish oil was 50% and 100% replaced by soybean oil, and these two diets were named as FS and SO, respectively. Results showed that the specific growth rate significantly decreased in the SO group. Crude lipid contents in muscle and liver of fish fed SO diet were significantly higher than those in the FO group. The ratio of n-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to identified fatty acids in liver decreased significantly, while n-6 PUFAs increased significantly with increasing dietary soybean oil inclusion. The levels of triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acid and tumour necrosis factor α, and the activity of aspartate aminotransferase in serum significantly increased in SO group. The total anti-oxidative capacity and expressions of the anti-oxidation-related genes (superoxide dismutase 1 and 2, catalase, glutathion peroxidase and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) were significantly decreased by dietary soybean inclusion. Dietary soybean oil significantly decreased the gene expressions of the anti-inflammatory cytokines (arginase I and interleukin 10), and increased the pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor α and interleukin

  3. Dietary fat and not calcium supplementation or dairy product consumption is associated with changes in anthropometrics during a randomized, placebo-controlled energy-restriction trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemel Michael B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Insufficient calcium intake has been proposed to cause unbalanced energy partitioning leading to obesity. However, weight loss interventions including dietary calcium or dairy product consumption have not reported changes in lipid metabolism measured by the plasma lipidome. Methods The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between dairy product or supplemental calcium intake with changes in the plasma lipidome and body composition during energy restriction. A secondary objective of this study was to explore the relationships among calculated macronutrient composition of the energy restricted diet to changes in the plasma lipidome, and body composition during energy restriction. Overweight adults (n = 61 were randomized into one of three intervention groups including a deficit of 500kcal/d: 1 placebo; 2 900 mg/d calcium supplement; and 3 3-4 servings of dairy products/d plus a placebo supplement. Plasma fatty acid methyl esters of cholesterol ester, diacylglycerol, free fatty acids, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and triacylglycerol were quantified by capillary gas chromatography. Results After adjustments for energy and protein (g/d intake, there was no significant effect of treatment on changes in weight, waist circumference or body composition. Plasma lipidome did not differ among dietary treatment groups. Stepwise regression identified correlations between reported intake of monounsaturated fat (% of energy and changes in % lean mass (r = -0.44, P P Conclusions Dairy product consumption or calcium supplementation during energy restriction over the course of 12 weeks did not affect plasma lipids. Independent of calcium and dairy product consumption, short-term energy restriction altered body composition. Reported dietary fat composition of energy restricted diets was associated with the degree of change in body composition in these overweight and obese individuals.

  4. Medicines, excipients and dietary intolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Medicinal products contain not only active drugs but also other ingredients included for a variety of purposes and collectively known as excipients.(1) People who wish to avoid a specific substance because of an allergy or intolerance may ask a healthcare professional about the constituents of a medicine and whether an alternative is available. In a previous article we discussed the issues facing people who wish to avoid certain substances for religious or cultural reasons.(2) Here, we provide an overview of several dietary conditions and the pharmaceutical issues that need to be considered by healthcare professionals advising on the suitability of a medicine. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Dietary management and genetic predisposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Holbæk; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup

    2013-01-01

    variation, and epigenetics might identify additional genetic contributions to obesity, and the use of omics data with integration of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics will identify genetic subgroups who will benefit from specific dietary advice to optimize health and prevent disease. Keywords: Diet . Mutation...... epidemically worldwide, the investigation of genetic predisposition might help to prevent and treat obesity. Predisposition to obesity includes syndromes, such as Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS), severe early-onset obesity, such as mutations in the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), and common forms of obesity......, such as genetic variation in the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO). Several studies have explored gene-diet interactions in obesity, weight loss, and regain, but there is a lack of consistency in the identified interactions. This inconsistency is most probably due to a low-moderate effect size...

  6. Dietary Sodium/Potassium Intake Does Not Affect Cognitive Function or Brain Imaging Indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Kristen L; Fried, Linda; Jovanovich, Anna; Ix, Joachim; Yaffe, Kristine; You, Zhiying; Chonchol, Michel

    2018-01-01

    Dietary sodium may influence cognitive function through its effects on cerebrovascular function and cerebral blood flow. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of dietary sodium intake with cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults. We also evaluated the associations of dietary potassium and sodium:potassium intake with cognitive decline, and associations of these nutrients with micro- and macro-structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indices. In all, 1,194 participants in the Health Aging and Body Composition study with measurements of dietary sodium intake (food frequency questionnaire [FFQ]) and change in the modified Mini Mental State Exam (3MS) were included. The age of participants was 74 ± 3 years with a mean dietary sodium intake of 2,677 ± 1,060 mg/day. During follow-up (6.9 ± 0.1 years), 340 (28%) had a clinically significant decline in 3MS score (≥1.5 SD of mean decline). After adjustment, dietary sodium intake was not associated with odds of cognitive decline (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.50-1.84 per doubling of sodium). Similarly, potassium was not associated with cognitive decline; however, higher sodium:potassium intake was associated with increased odds of cognitive decline (OR 2.02 [95% CI 1.01-4.03] per unit increase). Neither sodium or potassium alone nor sodium:potassium were associated with micro- or macro-structural brain MRI indices. These results are limited by the use of FFQ. In community-dwelling older adults, higher sodium:potassium, but not sodium or potassium intake alone, was associated with decline in cognitive function, with no associations observed with micro- and macro-structural brain MRI indices. These findings do not support reduction dietary sodium/increased potassium intake to prevent cognitive decline with aging. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Refeeding hypertension in dietary obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernsberger, P.; Nelson, D.O.

    1988-01-01

    A novel model of nutritionally induced hypertension in the rat is described. Dietary obesity was produced by providing sweet milk in addition to regular chow, which elicited a 52% increase in caloric intake. Despite 54% greater body weight gain and 139% heavier retroperitoneal fat pads, 120 days of overfeeding failed to increase systolic pressure in the conscious state or mean arterial pressure under urethan anesthesia. In contrast, mild hypertension developed in intermittantly fasted obese animals. The first 4-day supplemented fast was initiated 4 wk after the introduction of sweet milk, when the animals were 47 g overweight relative to chow-fed controls. Thereafter, 4 days of starvation were alternated with 2 wk of refeeding for a total of 4 cycles. A rapid fall in systolic blood pressure accompanied the onset of supplemented fasting and was maintained thereafter. With refeeding, blood pressure rose precipitously, despite poststarvation anorexia. Blood pressure tended to rise slightly over the remainder of the realimentation period. After the 4th supplemented fast, hypertension was sustained during 30 days of refeeding. Cumulative caloric intake in starved-refed rats fell within 2% of that in chow-fed controls. Refeeding hypertension appeared to be due to increased sympathetic nervous activity, since (1) cardiac β-adrenergic receptors were downregulated, as indicated by a 40% decrease in the maximum binding of [ 3 H]dihydroalpranolol; and (2) the decrease in heart rate as a result of β-blockade was enhanced. Refeeding hypertension in the dietary obese rat may be a potential animal model for some forms of human obesity-related hypertension

  8. Dietary Crude Lecithin Increases Systemic Availability of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid with Combined Intake in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Nick; Balvers, Martin; Cansev, Mehmet; Maher, Timothy J; Sijben, John W C; Broersen, Laus M

    2016-07-01

    Crude lecithin, a mixture of mainly phospholipids, potentially helps to increase the systemic availability of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Nevertheless, no clear data exist on the effects of prolonged combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin on RBC and plasma PUFA levels. In the current experiments, levels of DHA and choline, two dietary ingredients that enhance neuronal membrane formation and function, were determined in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) from rats after dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils with and without concomitant dietary supplementation of crude lecithin for 2-3 weeks. The aim was to provide experimental evidence for the hypothesized additive effects of dietary lecithin (not containing any DHA) on top of dietary DHA on PUFA levels in plasma and RBC. Dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils, either as vegetable algae oil or as fish oil, increased DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and total n-3 PUFA, and decreased total omega-6 PUFA levels in plasma and RBC, while dietary lecithin supplementation alone did not affect these levels. However, combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin increased the changes induced by DHA supplementation alone. Animals receiving a lecithin-containing diet also had a higher plasma free choline concentration as compared to controls. In conclusion, dietary DHA-containing oils and crude lecithin have synergistic effects on increasing plasma and RBC n-3 PUFA levels, including DHA and EPA. By increasing the systemic availability of dietary DHA, dietary lecithin may increase the efficacy of DHA supplementation when their intake is combined.

  9. Consumer involvement in dietary guideline development: opinions from European stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kerry A; Hermoso, Maria; Timotijevic, Lada; Barnett, Julie; Lillegaard, Inger Therese L; Řehůřková, Irena; Larrañaga, Ainhoa; Lončarević-Srmić, Azra; Andersen, Lene Frost; Ruprich, Jiří; Fernández-Celemín, Laura; Raats, Monique M

    2013-05-01

    The involvement of consumers in the development of dietary guidelines has been promoted by national and international bodies. Yet, few best practice guidelines have been established to assist with such involvement. Qualitative semi-structured interviews explored stakeholders' beliefs about consumer involvement in dietary guideline development. Interviews were conducted in six European countries: the Czech Republic, Germany, Norway, Serbia, Spain and the UK. Seventy-seven stakeholders were interviewed. Stakeholders were grouped as government, scientific advisory body, professional and academic, industry or non-government organisations. Response rate ranged from 45 % to 95 %. Thematic analysis was conducted with the assistance of NVivo qualitative software. Analysis identified two main themes: (i) type of consumer involvement and (ii) pros and cons of consumer involvement. Direct consumer involvement (e.g. consumer organisations) in the decision-making process was discussed as a facilitator to guideline communication towards the end of the process. Indirect consumer involvement (e.g. consumer research data) was considered at both the beginning and the end of the process. Cons to consumer involvement included the effect of vested interests on objectivity; consumer disinterest; and complications in terms of time, finance and technical understanding. Pros related to increased credibility and trust in the process. Stakeholders acknowledged benefits to consumer involvement during the development of dietary guidelines, but remained unclear on the advantage of direct contributions to the scientific content of guidelines. In the absence of established best practice, clarity on the type and reasons for consumer involvement would benefit all actors.

  10. Dietary effects on fatty acid metabolism of common carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csengeri, I

    1996-01-01

    The paper summarises experimental data demonstrating effects of various dietary factors exerting changes in the fatty acid composition and fatty acid metabolism of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Among the dietary factors (1) supplementary feeding in fish ponds, (2) absence of essential fatty acids (EFA) in the diet, (3) starvation, and (4) ration level were studied. It was concluded that supplementary feeding in carp rearing ponds is frequently excessive in the Hungarian carp culture practice, inducing slight EFA-deficiency and enhancing de novo fatty acid synthesis. This latter caused enlarged fat depots with high oleic acid contents in the fish organs and tissues. EFA-deficient diets enhanced the synthesis of oleic acid except when high rate of de novo fatty acid synthesis was suppressed by dietary fatty acids. Feeding EFA-deficient diets caused gradual decrease in the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and gradual increase in that of Mead's acid: 20:3(n-9), an indicator of the EFA-deficiency. At prolonged starvation, polyunsaturated fatty acids of the structural lipids were somehow protected and mainly oleic acid was utilised for energy production. At high ration levels, excessive exogenous polyunsaturates were decomposed, and probably converted to oleic acid or energy. Starvation subsequent to the feeding the fish at various ration levels, reflected adaptive changes in the fatty acid metabolism: Below and above the ration level required for the most efficient feed utilisation for growth, decomposition processes of the fatty acid metabolism were accelerated.

  11. ROLE OF DIETARY DIVERSITY IN ENSURING ADEQUATE HAEMATOLOGICAL STATUS DURING PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahama Saaka, Abdulai Abdul Rauf

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Though nutrition is a key input to blood formation, little is known about the extent maternal dietary quality contributes to the haematological status of pregnant women in Northern Region of Ghana. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the independent contribution of dietary diversity to haematological status of pregnant women whilst controlling for potential confounding factors including malarial infection. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used on a sample of 307 pregnant women in their third trimester. A structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric and dietary data related to anaemia. Overall dietary quality was assessed using the dietary diversity score. Haemoglobin concentration (Hb was measured using portable HemoCueR Hb 301 system. Predictors of anaemia were estimated using multiple linear regression analysis. Results: The mean Hb was 10.8±1.4 g/dl and prevalence of anaemia (Hb < 11.0 g/dl was 46.3 %. High dietary diversity score [Beta coefficient (β, = 0.141 p < 0.001], multi-gravidity (β=0.205 and high composite score for ANC content (β= 0.201 were associated with a decreased risk of anaemia in the third trimester of pregnancy. Conclusion: The findings suggest the need to strengthen interventions that focus on improving the consumption of diversified foods particularly during pregnancy.

  12. Effect of food processing on the physicochemical properties of dietary fibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyurt, Vasfiye Hazal; Ötles, Semih

    2016-01-01

    Products derived from the manufacturing or processing of plant based foods: cereals, fruits, vegetables, as well as algae, are sources of abundant dietary fibre. Diets high in dietary fibre have been associated with the reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and gastrointestinal disorders. These fibre-rich products and byproducts can also fortify foods, increase their dietary fibre content and result in healthy products, low in calories, cholesterol and fat. Traditionally, consumers have chosen foods such as whole grains, fruits and vegetables as sources of dietary fibre. Recently, food manufacturers have responded to consumer demand for foods with a higher fibre content by developing products in which highfibre ingredients are used. Different food processing methods also increase the dietary fiber content of food. Moreover, its chemical and physical properties may be affected by food processing. Some of them might even improve the functionality of fibre. Therefore, they may also be applied as functional ingredients to improve physical properties like the physical and structural properties of hydration, oil-holding capacity, viscosity. This study was conducted to examine the effect of different food processing methods on the physicochemical properties of dietary fibre.

  13. Barriers and enhancers to dietary behaviour change for Aboriginal people attending a diabetes cooking course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Penelope; Davison, Joyce; Moore, Louise; Rubinstein, Raechelle

    2010-04-01

    Aboriginal people access diabetes and nutrition education less than non-Aboriginal people. Culturally appropriate, effective and accessible diabetes and nutrition education for Aboriginal people is urgently needed. A qualitative approach was used to explore the experiences of Aboriginal people who had attended cooking courses run at the Aboriginal Medical Service Western Sydney between 2002 and 2007. Data from 23 semi-structured interviews were analysed thematically. Despite reported improvements in nutrition knowledge and cooking skills, the ability of participants to implement desired dietary changes varied. A new health diagnosis, such as diabetes, pre-diabetes, heart disease or cancer and the desire of participants to influence their families to lead healthier, diabetes-free lives were strong motivators for dietary change. In contrast, lack of family support for dietary change and a sense of social isolation caused by dietary change strongly impeded some participants' attempts to improve their diets. Other significant barriers were poor oral health and depression, the higher cost of healthier food and generational food preferences. Aboriginal cooking course participants faced multiple barriers to dietary change - social, financial, medical and historical. The family was the most crucial determinant of participant ability to achieve sustained dietary change.

  14. Quantitative determination of vinpocetine in dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John M. T.; King, Matthew D.

    2017-01-01

    Current United States regulatory policies allow for the addition of pharmacologically active substances in dietary supplements if derived from a botanical source. The inclusion of certain nootropic drugs, such as vinpocetine, in dietary supplements has recently come under scrutiny due to the lack of defined dosage parameters and yet unproven short- and long-term benefits and risks to human health. This study quantified the concentration of vinpocetine in several commercially available dietary supplements and found that a highly variable range of 0.6–5.1 mg/serving was present across the tested products, with most products providing no specification of vinpocetine concentrations. PMID:27319129

  15. Dietary education must fit into everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folmann Hempler, Nana; Nicic, Sara; Ewers, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    explores perspectives on dietary diabetes education and healthy food choices of people living in Denmark who have a Pakistani background and type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted between October 2012 and December 2013 with 12 participants with type 2 diabetes who had received dietary...... that is sensitive to the attitudes, wishes, and preferences of the participants and that aims at establishing a connection to the everyday life of the participants might facilitate successful changes in dietary practices among people with a Pakistani background and type 2 diabetes. The findings suggest that more...

  16. Dietary patterns and prevalence of wasting among street children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a cross-sectional study of 36 street children in Lilongwe, Malawi, dietary practices and the prevalence of wasting were assessed to provide information on the risk of poor dietary intake and malnutrition in this population. A food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine dietary practices, ...

  17. Dietary diversity and nutrient intake adequacy among women in Iwo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary diversity and nutrient intake adequacy among women in Iwo Local Government Area, Osun State Nigeria. ... A 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was used to assess the food intake of the respondents, which was converted into nutrient intake using adapted Total Dietary Assessment (TDA) software. Dietary ...

  18. Development of dietary pattern evaluation tool for adults and correlation with Dietary Quality Index

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yeo Do; Kim, Kyung Won; Choi, Kyung-Suk; Kim, Misung; Cho, Yeo Jin; Sohn, Cheongmin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES As the prevalence of chronic diseases has risen, the need for straightforward diagnostic tools for monitoring nutrition status to improve nutrition counseling and disease prevention has likewise increased. This study developed an easily usable dietary behavior pattern diagnosis checklist and investigated its correlation with dietary quality index. SUBJECTS/METHODS A draft dietary pattern evaluation tool was generated by analyzing previous studies. The draft questionnaire...

  19. Individual and Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents' Dietary Behavior in Low- and Middle-Income Settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosmarijn Verstraeten

    Full Text Available Given the public health importance of improving dietary behavior in chronic disease prevention in low- and middle-income countries it is crucial to understand the factors influencing dietary behavior in these settings. This study tested the validity of a conceptual framework linking individual and environmental factors to dietary behavior among Ecuadorian adolescents aged 10-16 years.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 784 school-going Ecuadorian adolescents in urban and rural Southern Ecuador. Participants provided data on socio-economic status, anthropometry, dietary behavior and its determining factors. The relationships between individual (perceived benefits and barriers, self-efficacy, habit strength, and a better understanding of healthy food and environmental factors (physical environment: accessibility to healthy food; social environment: parental permissiveness and school support, and their association with key components of dietary behavior (fruit and vegetables, sugary drinks, breakfast, and unhealthy snack intake were assessed using structural equation modeling.The conceptual model performed well for each component of eating behavior, indicating acceptable goodness-of-fit for both the measurement and structural models. Models for vegetable intake and unhealthy snacking showed significant and direct effects of individual factors (perceived benefits. For breakfast and sugary drink consumption, there was a direct and positive association with socio-environmental factors (school support and parental permissiveness. Access to healthy food was associated indirectly with all eating behaviors (except for sugary drink intake and this effect operated through socio-environmental (parental permissiveness and school support and individual factors (perceived benefits.Our study demonstrated that key components of adolescents' dietary behaviors are influenced by a complex interplay of individual and environmental factors. The findings indicate

  20. Effects of a meal rich in 1,3-diacylglycerol on postprandial cardiovascular risk factors and the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in subjects with high fasting triacylglycerol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Kentaro; Mizuno, Tomohito; Shiiba, Daisuke; Kawagoe, Tadanobu; Mitsui, Yuuki

    2012-03-14

    It was previously reported that compared to triacylglycerol (TAG) oil, diacylglycerol (DAG) oil improves postprandial lipid response. However, the effects of DAG oil on postprandial hyperglycemia and incretin response have not yet been determined. In this study, the effects of DAG oil on both postprandial hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia and the response to the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) were studied. This randomized, double-blind, crossover study analyzed data for 41 individuals with high fasting triacylglycerol concentrations. The subjects ingested test meals (30.3 g of protein, 18.6 g of fat, and 50.1 g of carbohydrate) containing 10 g of DAG oil (DAG meal) or TAG oil (TAG meal) after fasting for at least 12 h. Blood samples were collected prior to and 0.5, 2, 3, 4, and 6 h after ingestion of the test meal. Postprandial TAG concentrations were significantly lower after the DAG meal compared with the TAG meal. Postprandial TAG, insulin, and GIP concentrations were significantly lower after the DAG meal compared with the TAG meal in 26 subjects with fasting serum TAG levels between 1.36 and 2.83 mmol/L. DAG-oil-based meals, as a replacement for TAG oil, may provide cardiovascular benefits in high-risk individuals by limiting lipid and insulin excursions.

  1. Dietary Quality and Adherence to Dietary Recommendations in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Desiree; Zlatkis, Karyn; Comenge, Beatriz; García, Zoraida; Navarro, Juan F; Lorenzo, Victor; Carrero, Juan Jesús

    2016-05-01

    The multiple dietary restrictions recommended to hemodialysis patients may be difficult to achieve and, at the same time, may result in nutritional deficiencies rendering a poor dietary quality. We here assess the dietary quality and adherence to renal-specific guideline recommendations among hemodialysis patients from a single center in Canary Islands, Spain. Cross-sectional study, including 91 patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Clinical data and 3-day dietary records were collected. We compared patient's reported nutrients intake with guideline recommendations. We also evaluated their alignment with current American Heart Association dietary guidelines for cardiovascular prevention. Seventy-seven percent and 50% of patients consumed less than the recommended daily energy and protein, respectively. Although half of the patients met the recommendations for dietary fat intake, this was accounted by an excess of saturated fat in 92% of them. Only 22% consumed sufficient fiber. A very small proportion of patients (less than 50%) met the requirements for vitamins and other micronutrients. Insufficient dietary intake was observed in most patients for all vitamins except for cobalamin. Similarly, inadequate dietary intake was observed for many minerals, by both excess (phosphorus, calcium, sodium, and potassium) and defect (magnesium). Most patients met the recommendations for iron and zinc in their diets. A large proportion of hemodialysis patients at our center did not meet current renal-specific dietary recommendations. The quality of the diet was considered poor and proatherogenic according to American Heart Association guidelines. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dietary factors that affect carotenoid bioavailability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, van het K.H.

    1999-01-01

    Carotenoids are thought to contribute to the beneficial effects of increased vegetable consumption. To better understand the potential benefits of carotenoids, we investigated the bioavailability of carotenoids from vegetables and dietary factors which might influence carotenoid

  3. Rationale for dietary antioxidant treatment of ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlaet, Annelies A.J.; Maasakkers, Carlijn M.; Hermans, Nina; Savelkoul, Huub F.J.

    2018-01-01

    Increasing understanding arises regarding disadvantages of stimulant medication in children with ADHD (Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder). This review presents scientific findings supporting dietary antioxidant treatment of ADHD and describes substantial alterations in the immune system,

  4. Dietary determinants of plasma homocysteine concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, P.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Severe hyperhomocysteinemia is typically caused by rare enzymatic defects or by renal failure. In contrast, mild to moderate hyperhomocysteinemia chiefly results from suboptimal status of nutritional factors involved in homocysteine metabolism. Low dietary intake of folate is the most important

  5. Urolithiasis: evaluation, dietary factors, and medical management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Helene; Andonian, Sero; Assimos, Dean

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this review was to provide current best evidence for evaluation, dietary, and medical management of patients with urolithiasis. METHODS: Literature addressing evaluation, dietary, and medical management of urolithiasis was searched. Papers were analyzed and rated according...... the life of stone-forming individuals very differently, and that evaluation and medical management should be personalized according to risk of recurrence, severity of stone disease, presence of associated medical conditions, and patient's motivation. With regard to evaluation, dietary and medical...... management of patients with urolithiasis evidence from the literature suggest that selective metabolic evaluation may lead to rational dietary and medical management. Statements based on LOE and GOR are provided to guide clinical practice. CONCLUSION: The provided evidence for evaluation of patients...

  6. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...

  7. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    circumstances, especially where food intake or choice is restricted. For this reason, dietary ... health hazard to all consumers.[4,12] While ... physician experienced in the treatment of obesity and familiar with this agent, on a regular basis.

  8. Introduction - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    To assist in the planning of the National Children's Study, investigators at the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements, NCI and Johns Hopkins University contracted with Westat to conduct a comprehensive review of the scientific literature.

  9. Tips for Older Dietary Supplement Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information for Consumers Tips for Older Dietary Supplement Users Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... site are provided as a service to our users and do not represent FDA endorsement of these ...

  10. Chinese dietary composition and element ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Hongda

    1990-01-01

    Based on the dietary composition and results of some nutrients obtained from the second Nationwide Nutrition Survey in 1982, as well as recently published element contents in various Chinese food, the resultant dietary intake of 19 kinds of elements and 17 radionuclides for Chinese public (mainly for male adults) were estimated. This estimation might be used as basis for development of Chinese Reference Man and estimation of the public background exposure

  11. Dietary fibre in foods: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Dhingra, Devinder; Michael, Mona; Rajput, Hradesh; Patil, R. T.

    2011-01-01

    Dietary fibre is that part of plant material in the diet which is resistant to enzymatic digestion which includes cellulose, noncellulosic polysaccharides such as hemicellulose, pectic substances, gums, mucilages and a non-carbohydrate component lignin. The diets rich in fibre such as cereals, nuts, fruits and vegetables have a positive effect on health since their consumption has been related to decreased incidence of several diseases. Dietary fibre can be used in various functional foods li...

  12. Dietary Supplements: Regulatory Challenges and Research Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna T. Dwyer; Paul M. Coates; Michael J. Smith

    2018-01-01

    Many of the scientific and regulatory challenges that exist in research on the safety, quality and efficacy of dietary supplements are common to all countries as the marketplace for them becomes increasingly global. This article summarizes some of the challenges in supplement science and provides a case study of research at the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health, USA, along with some resources it has developed that are available to all scientists. It includes e...

  13. An Exploration of Dietary Acculturation in Hispanic Males Residing in Mississippi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cuy Castellanos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to explore dietary acculturation in Hispanic males in the context of the Operant Theory of Acculturation. This was a qualitative study using grounded theory to guide methodological procedures. Semi-structured interviews, a focus group, the Acculturation-Rating Scale for Mexican-Americans-II and the Marginality Scale, and photovoice with follow-up interviews were used to explore dietary acculturation in the participant sample. Thirty-five first- and second-generation Hispanic males residing in Mississippi were recruited and categorized into one of three different bidimensional acculturation groups as determined by the Acculturation-Rating Scale for Mexican-Americans-II and the Marginality Scale. Main dietary influencing themes identified were intrapersonal and environmental dietary factors. The subthemes included values, attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and preference for the intrapersonal factors and availability; living structure; accessibility; food preparation skill; and time for the environmental factors. The factors are not mutually exclusive and show the complexity of the dietary acculturation process. This research can be used to guide future research and inform nutrition intervention development for this population.

  14. Isolation and structural characterization of a novel sibutramine analogue, chlorosipentramine, in a slimming dietary supplement, by using HPLC-PDA, LC-Q-TOF/MS, FT-IR, and NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jisuk; Shin, Kye Jung; Choi, Jangduck; Jo, Cheon-Ho

    2018-05-01

    A novel sibutramine analogue was detected in a slimming formula by high performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode detector array (HPLC-PDA). The unknown compound exhibited an ultraviolet (UV) spectrum that was similar to that of chlorosibutramine, despite having a different HPLC retention time. Further analysis of the slimming formula by LC-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF/MS) showed that the unknown compound had the formula C 18 H 27 Cl 2 N. To elucidate the structure of this new sibutramine analogue, the target compound in the slimming formula was isolated on a preparative-LC system equipped with a PDA. After analysis by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the unknown compound was identified as a sibutramine analogue in which the iso-butyl group on the side chain is replaced with an iso-pentyl group. This new sibutramine analogue was identified to be 1-(1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)cyclobutyl)-N,N,4-trimethylpentan-1-amine and has been named as chlorosipentramine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Merging dietary assessment with the adolescent lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schap, T E; Zhu, F; Delp, E J; Boushey, C J

    2014-01-01

    The use of image-based dietary assessment methods shows promise for improving dietary self-report among children. The Technology Assisted Dietary Assessment (TADA) food record application is a self-administered food record specifically designed to address the burden and human error associated with conventional methods of dietary assessment. Users would take images of foods and beverages at all eating occasions using a mobile telephone or mobile device with an integrated camera [e.g. Apple iPhone, Apple iPod Touch (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA, USA); Nexus One (Google, Mountain View, CA, USA)]. Once the images are taken, the images are transferred to a back-end server for automated analysis. The first step in this process is image analysis (i.e. segmentation, feature extraction and classification), which allows for automated food identification. Portion size estimation is also automated via segmentation and geometric shape template modeling. The results of the automated food identification and volume estimation can be indexed with the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies to provide a detailed diet analysis for use in epidemiological or intervention studies. Data collected during controlled feeding studies in a camp-like setting have allowed for formative evaluation and validation of the TADA food record application. This review summarises the system design and the evidence-based development of image-based methods for dietary assessment among children. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  16. Dietary characterization of terrestrial mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Munoz, Silvia; Alroy, John

    2014-08-22

    Understanding the feeding behaviour of the species that make up any ecosystem is essential for designing further research. Mammals have been studied intensively, but the criteria used for classifying their diets are far from being standardized. We built a database summarizing the dietary preferences of terrestrial mammals using published data regarding their stomach contents. We performed multivariate analyses in order to set up a standardized classification scheme. Ideally, food consumption percentages should be used instead of qualitative classifications. However, when highly detailed information is not available we propose classifying animals based on their main feeding resources. They should be classified as generalists when none of the feeding resources constitute over 50% of the diet. The term 'omnivore' should be avoided because it does not communicate all the complexity inherent to food choice. Moreover, the so-called omnivore diets actually involve several distinctive adaptations. Our dataset shows that terrestrial mammals are generally highly specialized and that some degree of food mixing may even be required for most species.

  17. Neuroprotective Actions of Dietary Choline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krzysztof Blusztajn

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Choline is an essential nutrient for humans. It is a precursor of membrane phospholipids (e.g., phosphatidylcholine (PC, the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and via betaine, the methyl group donor S-adenosylmethionine. High choline intake during gestation and early postnatal development in rat and mouse models improves cognitive function in adulthood, prevents age-related memory decline, and protects the brain from the neuropathological changes associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and neurological damage associated with epilepsy, fetal alcohol syndrome, and inherited conditions such as Down and Rett syndromes. These effects of choline are correlated with modifications in histone and DNA methylation in brain, and with alterations in the expression of genes that encode proteins important for learning and memory processing, suggesting a possible epigenomic mechanism of action. Dietary choline intake in the adult may also influence cognitive function via an effect on PC containing eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids; polyunsaturated species of PC whose levels are reduced in brains from AD patients, and is associated with higher memory performance, and resistance to cognitive decline.

  18. Dietary fat and cardiovascular disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie T. Merijanti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary saturated fat (SF intake has been shown to increase low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and therefore has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. This evidence coupled with inferences from epidemiologic studies and clinical trials, had led to longstanding public health recommendations for limiting SF intake as a means of preventing CVD. However the relationship between SF and CVD risk remains controversial, due at least in part to the intrinsic limitations of clinical studies that have evaluated this relationship. A recent meta analysis showed that current evidence does not clearly support cardiovascular guidelines that encourage high consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and low consumption of total SF. They found weak positive associations between circulating palmitic and stearic acids (found largely in palm oil and animal fats, respectively and CVD, whereas circulating margaric acid (a dairy fat significantly reduced the risk of CVD.(2,3 Saturated fat are not associated with all cause mortality, CVD, CHD, ischemic stroke or type 2 diabetes, but the evidence is heterogenous with methodological limitations.

  19. Dietary protection during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounous, G.; Le Bel, E.; Shuster, J.; Gold, P.; Tahan, W.T.; Bastin, E.; Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke; Montreal General Hospital, Quebec

    1975-01-01

    Eighteen patients receiving Cobalt 60 irradiation for abdominal or pelvic malignancies were assigned at random to eat either a semi-hydrolyzed diet (Flexical: 10 g% casein hydrolsate; 14 g% triglycerides, 20% of which medium chain; 66% disaccharides) or a normal diet. There are no significant differences between these two groups with respect to age and the ratio of ideal to actual caloric intake. The patients in the control group received on the average a total of 3,900 rd and those in the Flexical group 4,040 rd. Generally, Flexical appeared to have a significant positive effect on body weight. In addition, radiation-induced diarrhea was not a problem in the Flexical group. In the latter-group, serum proteins including immunoglobulins remained essentially unchanged during therapy while a moderate but significant fall was observed in all control patients. No significant difference between the two groups was observed with respect to peripheral blood hematocrit, red and white cell counts. However, the drop in blood lymphocytes following irradiation was significantly less in the Flexical group. The mechanisms of radioprotection are discussed. These preliminary data indicate that the nutritional and perhaps the immunological status of cancer patients receiving intensive irradiation can be maintained by dietary measures. (orig.) [de

  20. Production of structured lipids: acyl migration during enzymatic interesterification and downstream processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing

    1997-01-01

    Production of structured lipids by lipase-catalyzed interesterification attracts great interests recently. Structured lipids are defined, in this article, as triacylglycerols which contain both medium or short chain fatty acids and long chain fatty acids, each groups locating specifically in the sn......-2 position or sn-1,3 positions of glycerol backbone. These kinds of lipids are reported to be promising for both enteral and parenteral nutrition. However, acyl migration occurs in the reaction stage and downstream purification process. This side-reaction causes by-products which are harmful...

  1. Effects of dietary inulin, statin, and their co-treatment on hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis and changes in drug-metabolizing enzymes in rats fed a high-fat and high-sucrose diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugatani Junko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rats fed a high-fat and high-sucrose (HF diet develop hepatic steatosis and hyperlipidemia. There are several reports that a change in nutritional status affects hepatic levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Synthetic inulin is a dietary component that completely evades glucide digestion. Supplementing a HF diet with inulin ameliorates hypertriglycemia and hepatic steatosis, but not hypercholesterolemia. This study aimed at distinguishing the effects of synthetic inulin and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin, which inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis. Methods We examined effects of co-treatment with synthetic inulin (5% and fluvastatin (0, 4, and 8 mg/kg, per os on body weight, epidydimal white adipose tissue weight, serum and hepatic lipid profiles, and hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP mRNA and protein profiles in rats fed a standard diet or a HF diet for 3 weeks. Results Treatment with the synthetic inulin (5% or fluvastatin at 4 mg/kg (lethal dose in rats fed the HF diet, 8 mg/kg ameliorated the elevation in hepatic triacylglycerol and total cholesterol levels in rats fed the HF diet. Whereas co-treatment with the inulin (5% and fluvastatin (4 mg/kg had a tendency to more strongly suppress the elevation in serum levels of very low density lipoprotein triacylglycerol than either treatment alone, no additive or synergistic effect was found in decrease in hepatic lipid levels. Hepatic levels of CYP1A1/2 and CYP2E1 mRNA and protein and methoxyresorufin O-demethylase and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activities were reduced in rats fed the HF diet. The synthetic inulin alleviated the reduction in hepatic levels of CYP1A1/2 and CYP2E1 mRNA and protein more strongly than fluvastatin, and no synergistic effects were observed on co-treatment. Furthermore, hepatic levels of aryl hydrocarbon receptor mRNA were decreased in rats fed the HF diet and recovered to near normal values with the intake of dietary inulin

  2. Lessons from the war on dietary fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Thomas B; Parker, Mary Jo

    2014-01-01

    Conventional dietary guidelines put forth by health care institutions and providers for the past 40 years have stressed the importance of reducing the amount of dietary fat consumed. Such a diet is purported to mitigate metabolic risk factors and optimize the ability to achieve or maintain a healthy body weight. However, over the past 35 years obesity rates in the United States have risen dramatically though the level of dietary fat consumed by U.S. adults has fallen. This review examines the potential reasons for this paradox. Various meta-analyses, controlled trials, and cohort studies have demonstrated that reducing dietary fat intake provides for very little weight loss unless accompanied by equal or greater reductions in total energy intake. Due to both psychological (e.g., the tendency for people to eat more of what they consider low fat) and physiological (e.g., the low satiety that accompanies carbohydrate intake) factors, reducing total caloric intake while simultaneously reducing fat intake is a difficult challenge. Further, reductions in total carbohydrate intake, increases in protein intake, and adoption of a Mediterranean diet seem to be more effective in inducing weight loss than reductions in fat intake. Traditional claims that simply reducing dietary fat will improve metabolic risk factors are also not borne out by research. There is some evidence that replacing dietary saturated fat with unsaturated fat may improve metabolic risk factors, but that research is not conclusive. • Over the past 40 years, Americans have decreased the percentage of calories they get from dietary fat while rates of overweight and obesity have risen dramatically. • It appears that a decrease in total dietary fat in ad libitum diets may induce a very small decrease in body weight. • Evidence suggests that reductions in total dietary fat intake often occur in conjunction with an increase in total caloric intake. • It seems reasonable to conclude that guiding the

  3. Dietary polyphenol intake in Europe: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Rothwell, Joseph A.; Hemon, Bertrand; Moskal, Aurelie; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Kyro, Cecilie; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Touillaud, Marina; Katzke, Verena; Kuehn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Foerster, Jana; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elissavet; Peppa, Eleni; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Hjartaker, Anette; Menendez, Virginia; Agudo, Antonio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Maria Huerta, Jose; Barricarte, Aurelio; Amiano, Pilar; Sonestedt, Emily; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Landberg, Rikard; Key, Timothy J.; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Lu, Yunxia; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Scalbert, Augustin

    Background/ObjectivesPolyphenols are plant secondary metabolites with a large variability in their chemical structure and dietary occurrence that have been associated with some protective effects against several chronic diseases. To date, limited data exist on intake of polyphenols in populations.

  4. 21 CFR 101.80 - Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sweeteners and dental caries. 101.80 Section 101.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... caries. (a) Relationship between dietary carbohydrates and dental caries. (1) Dental caries, or tooth... development of dental caries. Risk factors include tooth enamel crystal structure and mineral content, plaque...

  5. Exploring dietary guidelines based on ecological and nutritional values: A comparison of six dietary patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dooren, C.; Marinussen, M.; Blonk, B.; Aiking, H.; Vellinga, P.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the synergies between nutritionally healthy and ecologically sustainable diets. The aim was to explore the possibilities for future integrated dietary guidelines that support consumers to make informed dietary choices based on both ecological and

  6. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior. Interacting sources of influence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, J.K.; Hermans, R.C.J.; Sleddens, E.F.C.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Fisher, J.O.; Kremers, S.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on

  7. Toward a food service quality management system for compliance with the Mediterranean dietary model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoroudis, Evangelos; Psaroudaki, Antonia; Diakaki, Christina

    2013-01-01

    The traditional diet of Cretan people in the 1960s is the basis of the Mediterranean dietary model. This article investigates the potential of this model to inspire proposals of meals by food-serving businesses, and suggests a methodology for the development of a quality management system, which will certify the delivery of food service according to this dietary model. The proposed methodology is built upon the principles and structure of the ISO 9001:2008 quality standard to enable integration with other quality, environmental, and food safety management systems.

  8. Candy or apple? How self-control resources and motives impact dietary healthiness in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproesser, Gudrun; Strohbach, Stefanie; Schupp, Harald; Renner, Britta

    2011-06-01

    People can choose between a virtually endless array of food items rising the question, which factors determine healthy or unhealthy food choice. The present study examines the impact of two contrasting motives for food choice (affect regulation and body weight control) and self-regulatory competences on healthy eating within a sample of women (N=761). The data show that a relative lack of self-regulatory resources combined with a high tendency to regulate negative affect through comfort eating was associated with an unfavorable dietary pattern. Accordingly, a healthy dietary pattern requires not only self-regulatory capacities but also a facilitating motive structure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. White tea (Camellia sinensis extract reduces oxidative stress and triacylglycerols in obese mice Extrato de chá branco reduz extresse oxidativo e triacilglicerois em camundongos obesos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Gonçalves Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available White tea is an unfermented tea made from young shoots of Camellia sinensis protected from sunlight to avoid polyphenol degradation. Although its levels of catechins are higher than those of green tea (derived from the same plant, there are no studies addressing the relationship between this tea and obesity associated with oxidative stress.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of white tea on obesity and its complications using a diet induced obesity model. Forty male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet to induce obesity (Obese group or the same diet supplemented with 0.5% white tea extract (Obese + WTE for 8 weeks. Adipose tissue, serum lipid profile, and oxidative stress were studied. White tea supplementation was not able to reduce food intake, body weight, or visceral adiposity. Similarly, there were no changes in cholesterol rich lipoprotein profile between the groups. A reduction in blood triacylglycerols associated with increased cecal lipids was observed in the group fed the diet supplemented with white tea. White tea supplementation also reduced oxidative stress in liver and adipose tissue. In conclusion, white tea extract supplementation (0.5% does not influence body weight or adiposity in obese mice. Its benefits are restricted to the reduction in oxidative stress associated with obesity and improvement of hypertriacylglycerolemia.O chá branco é um chá não fermentando feito a partir de brotos jovens da Camellia sinensis protegidos da luz solar para evitar a degradação de polifenóis. Embora os níveis de catequinas sejam mais elevados que os do chá verde (mesma planta, nenhum estudo foi realizado sobre estresse oxidativo relacionado obesidade. Nosso objetivo foi avaliar o efeito do chá verde na obesidade e suas complicações, usando um modelo de obesidade induzida por dieta. Quarenta camundongos C57BL/6 machos foram alimentados com dieta hiperlipídica para indução da obesidade ou mesma dieta suplementada

  10. Two bifunctional enzymes from the marine protist Thraustochytrium roseum: biochemical characterization of wax ester synthase/acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity catalyzing wax ester and triacylglycerol synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nannan; Mao, Zejing; Luo, Ling; Wan, Xia; Huang, Fenghong; Gong, Yangmin

    2017-01-01

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs) and wax esters (WEs) are important neutral lipids which serve as energy reservoir in some plants and microorganisms. In recent years, these biologically produced neutral lipids have been regarded as potential alternative energy sources for biofuel production because of the increased interest on developing renewable and environmentally benign alternatives for fossil fuels. In bacteria, the final step in TAG and WE biosynthetic pathway is catalyzed by wax ester synthase/acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA):diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT). This bifunctional WS/DGAT enzyme is also a key enzyme in biotechnological production of liquid WE via engineering of plants and microorganisms. To date, knowledge about this class of biologically and biotechnologically important enzymes is mainly from biochemical characterization of WS/DGATs from Arabidopsis, jojoba and some bacteria that can synthesize both TAGs and WEs intracellularly, whereas little is known about WS/DGATs from eukaryotic microorganisms. Here, we report the identification and characterization of two bifunctional WS/DGAT enzymes (designated TrWSD4 and TrWSD5) from the marine protist Thraustochytrium roseum . Both TrWSD4 and TrWSD5 comprise a WS-like acyl-CoA acyltransferase domain and the recombinant proteins purified from Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) have substantial WS and lower DGAT activity. They exhibit WS activity towards various-chain-length saturated and polyunsaturated acyl-CoAs and fatty alcohols ranging from C 10 to C 18 . TrWSD4 displays WS activity with the lowest K m value of 0.14 μM and the highest k cat / K m value of 1.46 × 10 5  M -1  s -1 for lauroyl-CoA (C 12:0 ) in the presence of 100 μM hexadecanol, while TrWSD5 exhibits WS activity with the lowest K m value of 0.96 μM and the highest k cat / K m value of 9.83 × 10 4  M -1  s -1 for decanoyl-CoA (C 10:0 ) under the same reaction condition. Both WS/DGAT enzymes have the highest WS activity at 37 and 47

  11. Identifying and assessing views among physically-active adult gym members in Israel on dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druker, Inbal; Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat

    2017-01-01

    Sports dietary supplements are available for sale in public places including sports clubs. Although there is uncertainty regarding their safety, many gym members who regularly work out consume them. The present study aimed to identify the approaches and perspectives of the public who work out in gyms and take dietary supplements. It examined how professionals view sports dietary supplement consumption, and how they communicate this issue to gym members. The literature discusses the prevalence of SDS use among athletes, but rarely discusses or compares between the risk perceptions of gym members, trainers, and dietitians, who represent the physically-active general public, regarding SDS. We conducted constructivist qualitative research in semi-structured one-on-one interviews ( n  = 34). We held in-depth interviews ( n  = 20) with a heterogeneous population of adult gym members who take dietary supplements, and ( n  = 14) with dietitians and fitness trainers. The main finding was a gap in risk perception of dietary supplement use between dietitians, gym members and fitness trainers. There was low risk perception among dietary supplements consumers. Trainers believed that benefits of supplement consumption exceeded risk, and therefore they did not convey a message to their clients about risk. In contrast, dietitians interviewed for this study renounced general use of sports dietary supplements and doubted whether trainers had proper nutritional knowledge to support it. Lack of awareness of risks suggests that there is a need for communication on this issue. We recommend that professionals (physicians and dietitians) be present in sports clubs that sell such products in an uncontrolled way.

  12. Evaluation of a dietary targets monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, M E J; Anderson, A S; Morrison, C; Currall, J

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate a two-page food frequency list for use as a Dietary Targets Monitor in large scale surveys to quantify consumptions of the key foods groups targeted in health promotion. Intakes of fruit and vegetables, starchy foods and fish estimated from a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were compared with a short food frequency list (the Dietary Targets Monitor) specifically designed to assess habitual frequency of consumption of foods in relation to dietary targets which form the basis of a National (Scottish) Food and Health Policy. A total of 1085 adults aged 25-64 y from the Glasgow MONICA Study. : The two questionnaires both collected data on frequencies of food consumption for fruit and vegetables, starchy foods and fish. Comparing the two questionnaires, there were consistent biases, best expressed as ratios (FFQ:Dietary Targets Monitor) between the methods for fruit and vegetables (1.33, 95% CI 1.29, 1.38) and 'starchy foods' (1.08, 95% CI 1.05, 1.12), the DTM showing systematic under-reporting by men. For fish consumption, there was essentially no bias between the methods (0.99, 95% CI 0.94, 1.03). Using calibration factors to adjust for biases, the Dietary Targets Monitor indicated that 16% of the subjects were achieving the Scottish Diet food target (400 g/day) for fruit and vegetable consumption. Nearly one-third (32%) of the subjects were eating the recommended intakes of fish (three portions per week). The Dietary Targets Monitor measure of starchy foods consumption was calibrated using FFQ data to be able to make quantitative estimates: 20% of subjects were eating six or more portions of starchy food daily. A similar estimation of total fat intake and saturated fat intake (g/day) allowed the categorization of subjects as low, moderate or high fat consumers, with broad agreement between the methods. The levels of agreement demonstrated by Bland-Altman analysis, were insufficient to permit use of the adjusted DTM to estimate quantitative

  13. Dietary protein considerations to support active aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Benjamin T; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2014-11-01

    Given our rapidly aging world-wide population, the loss of skeletal muscle mass with healthy aging (sarcopenia) represents an important societal and public health concern. Maintaining or adopting an active lifestyle alleviates age-related muscle loss to a certain extent. Over time, even small losses of muscle tissue can hinder the ability to maintain an active lifestyle and, as such, contribute to the development of frailty and metabolic disease. Considerable research focus has addressed the application of dietary protein supplementation to support exercise-induced gains in muscle mass in younger individuals. In contrast, the role of dietary protein in supporting the maintenance (or gain) of skeletal muscle mass in active older persons has received less attention. Older individuals display a blunted muscle protein synthetic response to dietary protein ingestion. However, this reduced anabolic response can largely be overcome when physical activity is performed in close temporal proximity to protein consumption. Moreover, recent evidence has helped elucidate the optimal type and amount of dietary protein that should be ingested by the older adult throughout the day in order to maximize the skeletal muscle adaptive response to physical activity. Evidence demonstrates that when these principles are adhered to, muscle maintenance or hypertrophy over prolonged periods can be further augmented in active older persons. The present review outlines the current understanding of the role that dietary protein occupies in the lifestyle of active older adults as a means to increase skeletal muscle mass, strength and function, and thus support healthier aging.

  14. Use of dietary supplements among Brazilian athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Clair Garcez NABUCO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the prevalence and establish the profile of the consumption of dietary supplements among Brazilian athletes. Methods: A total of 182 athletes of both genders from 20 different sports participated in this study. The athletes answered a questionnaire containing sociodemographic and sports-related questions and were interviewed about the consumption of dietary supplements. Results: Forty seven percent of athletes reported having consumed at least one type of dietary supplement and 38% said they use more than three different types of supplements concurrently. Whey protein was the most commonly consumed supplement, and the most frequently mentioned reason for its consumption was performance improvement. The main source of information was coaches, and individual sport athletes were the greatest consumers and the most likely to seek dietary supplement. Conclusion: Approximately half of the participants used dietary supplements, which on most occasions were recommended by coaches. The consumption profile also revealed multiple supplementation practice and showed that nutrition education is essential for this specific population.

  15. Estimating the Distribution of Dietary Consumption Patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, Raymond J.

    2014-02-01

    In the United States the preferred method of obtaining dietary intake data is the 24-hour dietary recall, yet the measure of most interest is usual or long-term average daily intake, which is impossible to measure. Thus, usual dietary intake is assessed with considerable measurement error. We were interested in estimating the population distribution of the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), a multi-component dietary quality index involving ratios of interrelated dietary components to energy, among children aged 2-8 in the United States, using a national survey and incorporating survey weights. We developed a highly nonlinear, multivariate zero-inflated data model with measurement error to address this question. Standard nonlinear mixed model software such as SAS NLMIXED cannot handle this problem. We found that taking a Bayesian approach, and using MCMC, resolved the computational issues and doing so enabled us to provide a realistic distribution estimate for the HEI-2005 total score. While our computation and thinking in solving this problem was Bayesian, we relied on the well-known close relationship between Bayesian posterior means and maximum likelihood, the latter not computationally feasible, and thus were able to develop standard errors using balanced repeated replication, a survey-sampling approach.

  16. Usefulness of herbal and dietary supplement references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Burgunda V; Gay, Wendy E; Leady, Michelle A; Stumpf, Janice L

    2003-04-01

    To describe the usefulness of some of the most common tertiary references that healthcare professionals employ to answer requests about herbal and dietary supplements. All requests for information on herbal and dietary supplements received by the drug information service between April and September 2000 were evaluated. Each question was independently reviewed by 4 clinicians using a 4-point scale; 14 references were searched for appropriate answers. The percent of responses for each of the possible scores for each reference overall and by category of question was reported to determine the most helpful references for answering the broadest range of questions. Fifty questions regarding herbal and dietary supplements were analyzed. The electronic databases (Natural Medicine Comprehensive Database, Micromedex) and the Internet site (The Natural Pharmacist) were determined to be overall the most helpful references for providing information on herbal and dietary supplements. The Natural Therapeutics Pocket Guide was the most helpful book reference. These results will facilitate the retrieval of useful information on herbal and dietary supplements and enable healthcare professionals to determine appropriate allocation of resources as they build a drug information library for handling requests about these products.

  17. Recommendations for a trans-European dietary assessment method in children between 4 and 14 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L. F.; Lioret, S.; Brants, H.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The main objective of European Food Consumption Validation (EFCOVAL)-child Project is to define and evaluate a trans-European methodology for undertaking national representative dietary surveys among children in the age group of 4-14 years. In the process of identifying...... was to investigate whether the method (two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs)) suggested for the adults in European Food Consumption Survey Method (EFCOSUM) would be usable for children in the age group between 4 and 14 years. However, all available dietary assessment methods were included...... of 4-14 years. Nevertheless, on the basis of the literature, the recommendations were separated for preschoolers (4-6 years) and schoolchildren (7-14 years). Conclusion: For preschoolers, two non-consecutive days of a structured food record are recommended, using a (for children adapted) picture...

  18. Food parenting practices and child dietary behavior. Prospective relations and the moderating role of general parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleddens, Ester F C; Kremers, Stef P J; Stafleu, Annette; Dagnelie, Pieter C; De Vries, Nanne K; Thijs, Carel

    2014-08-01

    Research on parenting practices has focused on individual behaviors while largely failing to consider the context of their use, i.e., general parenting. We examined the extent to which food parenting practices predict children's dietary behavior (classified as unhealthy: snacking, sugar-sweetened beverage; and healthy: water and fruit intake). Furthermore, we tested the moderating role of general parenting on this relationship. Within the KOALA Birth Cohort Study, in the Netherlands, questionnaire data were collected at 6 and 8 years (N = 1654). Correlations were computed to assess the association between food parenting practices and general parenting (i.e., nurturance, behavioral control, structure, coercive control, and overprotection). Linear regression models were fitted to assess whether food parenting practices predict dietary behavior. Instrumental and emotional feeding, and pressure to eat were found to have associations with undesirable child dietary behavior (increased unhealthy intake/decreased healthy intake), whereas associations were in the desirable direction for covert control, encouragement and restriction. Moderation analyses were performed by evaluating interactions with general parenting. The associations of encouragement and covert control with desirable child dietary behaviors were found to be stronger for children who were reared in a positive parenting context. Future research should assess the influence of contextual parenting factors moderating the relationships between food parenting and child dietary behavior as the basis for the development of more effective family-based interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W.) and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L.) provide dietary fibres high in pectic substances and xyloglucans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Lisa M; Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Reuhs, Bradley L; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2015-01-15

    Dietary fibre of quinoa and amaranth was analysed for its insoluble and soluble fibre content, composition, and structure. Total dietary fibre content was 10% for quinoa and 11% for amaranth. For both pseudocereals, 78% of its dietary fibre was insoluble. Insoluble fibre (IDF) from quinoa and amaranth was mainly composed of galacturonic acid, arabinose, galactose, xylose and glucose. Linkage analysis indicated that IDF was composed of homogalacturonans and rhamnogalacturonan-I with arabinan side-chains (∼55-60%), as well as highly branched xyloglucans (∼30%) and cellulose. For both pseudocereals, 22% of total dietary fibre was soluble; a higher proportion than that found in wheat and maize (∼15%). The soluble fibre (SDF) was composed of glucose, galacturonic acid and arabinose; for amaranth, xylose was also a major constituent. Xyloglucans made up ∼40-60% of the SDF and arabinose-rich pectic polysaccharides represented ∼34-55%. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Dietary fructose intolerance, fructan intolerance and FODMAPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Amy; Rao, Satish S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary intolerances to fructose, fructans and FODMAPs (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides And Polyols) are common, yet poorly recognized and managed. Over the last decade, they have come to the forefront because of new knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Patients with these problems often present with unexplained bloating, belching, distension, gas, abdominal pain or diarrhea. Here, we have examined the most up-to-date research on these food-related intolerances, discussed controversies, and have provided some guidelines for the dietary management of these conditions. Breath testing for carbohydrate intolerance appears to be standardized and essential for the diagnosis and management of these conditions, especially in the Western population. While current research shows that the FODMAP diet may be effective in treating irritable bowel syndrome, additional research is needed to identify more foods items that are high in FODMAPs, and to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of dietary interventions. PMID:24357350

  1. Dietary fiber and blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre, A; Miguel, M

    2016-04-01

    In the past few years, new strategies to control blood pressure levels are emerging by developing new bioactive components of foods. Fiber has been linked to the prevention of a number of cardiovascular diseases and disorders. β-Glucan, the main soluble fiber component in oat grains, was initially linked to a reduction in plasma cholesterol. Several studies have shown afterward that dietary fiber may also improve glycaemia, insulin resistance and weight loss. The effect of dietary fiber on arterial blood pressure has been the subject of far fewer studies than its effect on the above-mentioned variables, but research has already shown that fiber intake can decrease arterial blood pressure in hypertensive rats. Moreover, certain fibers can improve arterial blood pressure when administered to hypertensive and pre-hypertensive subjects. The present review summarizes all those studies which attempt to establish the antihypertensive effects of dietary fiber, as well as its effect on other cardiovascular risk factors.

  2. Estimate of dietary phosphorus intake using 24-h urine collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yuuka; Sakuma, Masae; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akitsu; Matsushita, Asami; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    Increases in serum phosphorus levels and dietary phosphorus intake induces vascular calcification, arterial sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Limiting phosphorus intake is advisable, however, no assessment methods are capable of estimating dietary phosphorus intake. We hypothesized that urinary phosphorus excretion can be translated into estimation of dietary phosphorus intake, and we evaluated whether a 24-h urine collection method could estimate dietary phosphorus intake. Thirty two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects collected urine samples over 24 h and weighed dietary records. We calculated dietary protein intake and phosphorus intake from dietary records and urine collection, and investigated associations between the two methods in estimating protein and phosphorus intake. Significant positive correlations were observed between dietary records and UC for protein and phosphorus intake. The average intakes determined from dietary records were significantly higher than from urine collection for both protein and phosphorus. There was a significant positive correlation between both the phosphorus and protein difference in dietary records and urine collection. The phosphorus-protein ratio in urine collection was significantly higher than in dietary records. Our data indicated that the 24-h urine collection method can estimate the amount of dietary phosphorus intake, and the results were superior to estimation by weighed dietary record. PMID:25120281

  3. Effects of short-term dietary restriction and glutamine supplementation in vitro on the modulation of inflammatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C de Oliveira, Dalila; Santos, Ed Wilson; Nogueira-Pedro, Amanda; Xavier, José Guilherme; Borelli, Primavera; Fock, Ricardo Ambrósio

    2018-04-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) is a nutritional intervention that exerts profound effects on biochemical and immunologic parameters, modulating some inflammatory properties. Glutamine (GLN) is a conditionally essential amino acid that can modulate inflammatory properties. However, there is a lack of data evaluating the effects of DR and GLN supplementation, especially in relation to inflammatory cytokine production and the expression of transcription factors such as nuclear factor (NF)-κB. We subjected 3-mo-old male Balb/c mice to DR by reducing their food intake by 30%. DR animals lost weight and showed reduced levels of serum triacylglycerols, glucose, cholesterol, and calcium as well as a reduction in bone density. Additionally, blood, peritoneal, and spleen cellularity were reduced, lowering the number of peritoneal F4/80- and CD86-positive cells and the total number of splenic CD4- and CD8-positive cells. The production of interleukin (IL)-10 and the expression of NF-κB in splenic cells were not affected by DR or by GLN supplementation. However, peritoneal macrophages from DR animals showed reduced IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor-α production and increased IL-10 production with reduced phosphorylation of NF-κB expression. Additionally, GLN was able to modulate cytokine production by peritoneal cells from the control group, although no effects were observed in cells from the DR group. DR induces biochemical and immunologic changes, in particular by reducing IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor-α production by macrophages and clearly upregulating IL-10 production, whereas GLN supplementation did not modify these parameters in cells from DR animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Secretive production of long-chain fatty acids, triacylglycerols and n-alkane-2-ones by fermentation processes; Hakkoho ni yoru ekitai nenryo no seisan wa kanoka (shishitsu no bunpi seisan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, S. [University of Fukuyama, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-10-20

    Secretive production of lipids, which are useful source for engine-driving fuel, by microbial process using carbohydrate biomasses as substrate has been investigated in our laboratory. This review consists of four parts concerning breedings and selection of lipid-secretive microorganisms : (1) breedings of long-chain fatty acid-secretive strains from Candida lipolytica L-1 by a step-wise mutagenesis process, (2) selection of a triacylglycerol (TG)-secretive and accumulative yeast strain Trichosporon sp. SH45Y, (3) breedings of mutants, SH45Y-derivatieves, having potent ability to produce TG secretively from glucose, a typical biomass charbohydrate, and (4) selection of microorganisms which produce liquid-n-alkane in culture medium by utilizing long-chain fatty acids and TG; a strain of Penicillium decumbens can produce liquid alkalis with a yield of approximately 60 % in weight from palm kernel oil, a commercial TG. 10 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Iterative Development of an Online Dietary Recall Tool: INTAKE24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Simpson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Collecting large-scale population data on dietary intake is challenging, particularly when resources and funding are constrained. Technology offers the potential to develop novel ways of collecting large amounts of dietary information while making it easier, more convenient, intuitive, and engaging for users. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24 h dietary recall tool developed for use in national food and nutrition surveys. The development of INTAKE24 was a four-stage iterative process of user interaction and evaluation with the intended end users, 11–24 years old. A total of 80 11–24 years old took part in the evaluation, 20 at each stage. Several methods were used to elicit feedback from the users including, ‘think aloud’, ‘eye tracking’, semi-structured interviews, and a system usability scale. Each participant completed an interviewer led recall post system completion. Key system developments generated from the user feedback included a ‘flat’ interface, which uses only a single interface screen shared between all of the various activities (e.g., free text entry, looking up foods in the database, portion size estimation. Improvements to the text entry, search functionality, and navigation around the system were also influenced through feedback from users at each stage. The time to complete a recall using INTAKE24 almost halved from the initial prototype to the end system, while the agreement with an interviewer led recall improved. Further developments include testing the use of INTAKE24 with older adults and translation into other languages for international use. Our future aim is to validate the system with recovery biomarkers.

  6. Dietary protein is associated with musculoskeletal health independently of dietary pattern: the Framingham Third Generation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Kelsey M; Sahni, Shivani; Kiel, Douglas P; Tucker, Katherine L; Dufour, Alyssa B; Hannan, Marian T

    2017-03-01

    Background: Above-average dietary protein, as a single nutrient, improves musculoskeletal health. Evaluating the link between dietary protein and musculoskeletal health from a whole-diet perspective is important, as dietary guidelines focus on dietary patterns. Objective: We examined the prospective association of novel dietary protein food clusters (derived from established dietary pattern techniques) with appendicular lean mass (ALM), quadriceps strength (QS), and bone mineral density (BMD) in 2986 men and women, aged 19-72 y, from the Framingham Third Generation Study. Design: Total protein intake was estimated by food-frequency questionnaire in 2002-2005. A cluster analysis was used to classify participants into mutually exclusive groups, which were determined by using the percentage of contribution of food intake to overall protein intake. General linear modeling was used to 1 ) estimate the association between protein intake (grams per day) and BMD, ALM, appendicular lean mass normalized for height (ALM/ht 2 ), and QS (2008-2011) and to 2 ) calculate adjusted least-squares mean outcomes across quartiles of protein (grams per day) and protein food clusters. Results: The mean ± SD age of subjects was 40 ± 9 y; 82% of participants met the Recommended Daily Allowance (0.8 g · kg body weight -1 · d -1 ). The following 6 dietary protein food clusters were identified: fast food and full-fat dairy, fish, red meat, chicken, low-fat milk, and legumes. BMD was not different across quartiles of protein intake ( P -trend range = 0.32-0.82); but significant positive trends were observed for ALM, ALM/ht 2 ( P dietary protein is associated with ALM and QS but not with BMD. In this study, dietary protein food patterns do not provide further insight into beneficial protein effects on muscle outcomes. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Determinants of dietary supplement use--healthy individuals use dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars O; Tjønneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina

    2015-06-28

    The prevalence of dietary supplement use varies largely among populations, and previous studies have indicated that it is high in the Danish population compared with other European countries. The diversity in supplement use across countries indicates that cultural and environmental factors could influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54,948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher likelihood of being user of any, more common and less common supplements, respectively. In the metabolic risk index, one additional point was associated with 17 and 16 % lower likelihood of being user of any supplement and more common supplements, respectively. No significant association was found for less common supplement use. In conclusion, those with the healthiest lifestyle were more likely to use dietary supplements. Thus, lifestyle and dietary composition should be considered as confounders on supplement use and health outcomes.

  8. Dietary patterns and trace elements intake evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.; Waheed, S.; Zaidi, J.H.; Ahmad, S.

    1998-01-01

    The dietary patterns and trace element contents of the integrated diets of middle income population in Gujranwala and of Islamabad have been studied and dietary intake of winter and summer are given. An overview of the elemental concentration in the two sets of integrated diets reveals similar zinc and manganese concentrations; comparatively higher nickel, selenium and potassium concentrations in Gujranwala and higher chromium, cesium, scandium, sodium and chlorine concentrations in Islamabad. These results undoubtedly reflect the difference in food selection and habits of the two populations, the influence of soil content and industrial pollution

  9. Overcoming consumer inertia to dietary guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Densie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2015-07-01

    Despite 35 y of dietary guidance, there has been no substantial shift in consumer compliance. Consumers report that they seek information on nutrition and healthy eating, but most are not paying attention to dietary recommendations. For guidance to be effective, it must be realistic. Even with increasingly detailed nutrition information and evidence that diet affects health outcomes, convenience and taste remain the strongest determinants of food choices. It is up to health educators to clear up confusion and give consumers control with nutrition messages that are realistic, positive, easy to understand, and actionable without an expectation that consumers will surrender foods they love. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Overcoming Consumer Inertia to Dietary Guidance12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Densie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Despite 35 y of dietary guidance, there has been no substantial shift in consumer compliance. Consumers report that they seek information on nutrition and healthy eating, but most are not paying attention to dietary recommendations. For guidance to be effective, it must be realistic. Even with increasingly detailed nutrition information and evidence that diet affects health outcomes, convenience and taste remain the strongest determinants of food choices. It is up to health educators to clear up confusion and give consumers control with nutrition messages that are realistic, positive, easy to understand, and actionable without an expectation that consumers will surrender foods they love. PMID:26178023

  11. Dietary Supplements: Regulatory Challenges and Research Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Johanna T; Coates, Paul M; Smith, Michael J

    2018-01-04

    Many of the scientific and regulatory challenges that exist in research on the safety, quality and efficacy of dietary supplements are common to all countries as the marketplace for them becomes increasingly global. This article summarizes some of the challenges in supplement science and provides a case study of research at the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health, USA, along with some resources it has developed that are available to all scientists. It includes examples of some of the regulatory challenges faced and some resources for those who wish to learn more about them.

  12. Dietary shifts and implications for US agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, P

    1995-06-01

    Changes to healthier dietary patterns similar to those of traditional Mediterranean diets or those of the US government's dietary guidelines and food guide pyramid would require significant changes in American agricultural practices. The volume, mix, production, and marketing of agricultural commodities would need to be modified. Because differences between actual and recommended intakes for major food groups are quite large and affect a broad range of products, adjustments in supply and demand could overshadow past experience in dealing with such changes. New food and agriculture policies may well be needed to ease and accelerate agricultural adjustments, to improve nutritional characteristics of popular foods, and to promote desirable changes in consumers' food choices.

  13. Nutritional knowledge and dietary diversity of cancer patients at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This increase is possibly attributed to change in behavior and adoption of ... factors such as increase in environmental carcinogens and unhealthy lifestyles. ... during dietary counseling of patients to enable them improve their dietary practice.

  14. Dietary quality, lifestile factors and healthy ageing in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman-Nies, A.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords: dietary quality, dietary patterns, lifestyle factors, smoking, physical activity, elderly, mortality, Mediterranean Diet Score, Healthy Diet Indicator, healthy ageing, self-rated health, functional status


    The contribution

  15. Dietary assessment in Africa: Integration with innovative technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adequate dietary intake is the basis of good health. ... clinics and hospitals, measuring dietary intake and nutritional status is one of the most efficient ... on respondents to recall types and amounts of foods consumed by populations of interest.

  16. Influence of dietary lipid sources on sensory characteristics of broiler

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of dietary lipid sources on sensory characteristics of broiler meat ... fatty acid profile of poultry products such as eggs and meat by means of dietary inclusion of ..... Designer eggs: From improvement of egg composition to functional.

  17. Effects of dietary supplement of turmeric powder (Curcuma longa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ross 308) to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with various levels of turmeric powder on blood constituents and antioxidant activity. The chicks were randomly assigned to eight dietary groups, which were given turmeric powder ...

  18. 5 Things To Know About Dietary Supplements and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... advertised as dietary supplements for weight loss or bodybuilding. Increasingly, products sold as dietary supplements, particularly for weight loss and bodybuilding, contain ingredients that could be harmful, including prescription ...

  19. Position of the American Dietetic Association: health implications of dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlett, Judith A; McBurney, Michael I; Slavin, Joanne L

    2002-07-01

    Dietary fiber consists of the structural and storage polysaccharides and lignin in plants that are not digested in the human stomach and small intestine. A wealth of information supports the American Dietetic Association position that the public should consume adequate amounts of dietary fiber from a variety of plant foods. Recommended intakes, 20-35 g/day for healthy adults and age plus 5 g/day for children, are not being met, because intakes of good sources of dietary fiber, fruits, vegetables, whole and high-fiber grain products, and legumes are low. Consumption of dietary fibers that are viscous lowers blood cholesterol levels and helps to normalize blood glucose and insulin levels, making these kinds of fibers part of the dietary plans to treat cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Fibers that are incompletely or slowly fermented by microflora in the large intestine promote normal laxation and are integral components of diet plans to treat constipation and prevent the development of diverticulosis and diverticulitis. A diet adequate in fiber-containing foods is also usually rich in micronutrients and nonnutritive ingredients that have additional health benefits. It is unclear why several recently published clinical trials with dietary fiber intervention failed to show a reduction in colon polyps. Nonetheless, a fiber-rich diet is associated with a lower risk of colon cancer. A fiber-rich meal is processed more slowly, which promotes earlier satiety, and is frequently less calorically dense and lower in fat and added sugars. All of these characteristics are features of a dietary pattern to treat and prevent obesity. Appropriate kinds and amounts of dietary fiber for the critically ill and the very old have not been clearly delineated; both may need nonfood sources of fiber. Many factors confound observations of gastrointestinal function in the critically ill, and the kinds of fiber that would promote normal small and large intestinal function are usually

  20. Dietary supplements and team-sport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David

    2010-12-01

    A well designed diet is the foundation upon which optimal training and performance can be developed. However, as long as competitive sports have existed, athletes have attempted to improve their performance by ingesting a variety of substances. This practice has given rise to a multi-billion-dollar industry that aggressively markets its products as performance enhancing, often without objective, scientific evidence to support such claims. While a number of excellent reviews have evaluated the performance-enhancing effects of most dietary supplements, less attention has been paid to the performance-enhancing claims of dietary supplements in the context of team-sport performance. Dietary supplements that enhance some types of athletic performance may not necessarily enhance team-sport performance (and vice versa). Thus, the first aim of this review is to critically evaluate the ergogenic value of the most common dietary supplements used by team-sport athletes. The term dietary supplements will be used in this review and is defined as any product taken by the mouth, in addition to common foods, that has been proposed to have a performance-enhancing effect; this review will only discuss substances that are not currently banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Evidence is emerging to support the performance-enhancing claims of some, but not all, dietary supplements that have been proposed to improve team-sport-related performance. For example, there is good evidence that caffeine can improve single-sprint performance, while caffeine, creatine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have all been demonstrated to improve multiple-sprint performance. The evidence is not so strong for the performance-enhancing benefits of β-alanine or colostrum. Current evidence does not support the ingestion of ribose, branched-chain amino acids or β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, especially in well trained athletes. More research on the performance-enhancing effects of the dietary supplements

  1. Production of specifically structured lipids by enzymatic interesterification in a pilot enzyme bed reactor: process optimization by response surface methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    1999-01-01

    Pilot production of specifically structured lipids by Lipozyme IM-catalyzed interesterification was carried out in a continuous enzyme bed reactor without the use of solvent. Medium chain triacylglycerols and oleic acid were used as model substrates. Response surface methodology was applied...... and the production of mono-incorporated and di-incorporated structured lipids with multiple regression and backward elimination. The coefficient of determination (R2) for the incorporation was 0.93, and that for the di-incorporated products was 0.94. The optimal conditions were flow rate, 2 ml/min; temperature, 65...

  2. Women's dietary changes before and during pregnancy: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Hillier, S.E.; Olander, E. K.

    2017-01-01

    Background\\ud \\ud dietary intake before and during pregnancy has significant health outcomes for both mother and child, including a healthy gestational weight gain. To ensure effective interventions are successfully developed to improve dietary intake during pregnancy, it is important to understand what dietary changes pregnant women make without intervention.\\ud Aims\\ud \\ud to systematically identify and review studies examining women's dietary changes before and during pregnancy and to iden...

  3. Research on Rationalization of Basketball Player Nutrition Dietary Pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Junsheng Zuo; Jia Li

    2015-01-01

    Reasonable nutritional dietary pattern is the good protection which can promote hoopster fatigue restoring, enhance exercise training effect and promote sport performance. This study analyzes necessity and significance of rationalizing research of hoopster nutritional dietary pattern by the summary of hoopster nutritional dietary pattern. And it concludes insufficient and drawback which current our country hoopster nutritional dietary pattern existing. And then it generalizes the unreasonable...

  4. Evaluating Nutrition Education Programming by Using a Dietary Screener

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jennifer; Litchfield, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Short dietary assessment instruments known as screeners have potential for use in evaluating nutrition education programming because detecting change in dietary intake can demonstrate movement toward program goals. Using screeners results in objective dietary intake data but involves less administrative time, training, and cost than other…

  5. The history and future of dietary guidance in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidence-based dietary guidance in the US has progressed substantially since its inception over 100 years ago. This review describes the historical development and significance of dietary guidance in the US, including the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and emphasizes the foundations upon which th...

  6. Dietary quality as a non-medical health input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burggraf, Christine; Teuber, Ramona; Glauben, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this inquiry is to provide a comprehensive theoretical framework, which describes the demand for dietary quality. In our dietary health investment model, we consider the health investment character of dietary choices as well as the intertemporal health-taste trade-off. Additionally, a ...

  7. Glycaemic and insulinemic response to dietary carbohydrates in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøkner, Christine; Austbø, Dag; Næsset, Jon A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dietary sugar and starch affect plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. Little information is available about the effect of dietary fibre on plasma glucose and insulin concentration. It is hypothesized that different dietary fibre compositions will alter post-prandial glycaemic- an...

  8. Dietary practices in isovaleric acidemia: A European survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pinto

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: This survey demonstrates wide differences in dietary practice in the management of IVA across European centres. It provides unique dietary data collectively representing European practices in IVA which can be used as a foundation to compare dietary management changes as a consequence of the first E-IMD IVA guidelines availability.

  9. Dietary Advanced Glycation End Products and Cardiometabolic Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luévano-Contreras, Claudia; Gómez-Ojeda, Armando; Macías-Cervantes, Maciste Habacuc; Garay-Sevilla, Ma Eugenia

    2017-08-01

    This report analyzes emerging evidence about the role of dietary advanced glycation end products (AGEs) as a cardiometabolic risk factor. Two important aspects are discussed: First, the modulation of AGE load by dietary AGEs; second, if the evidence of clinical and observational studies is enough to make dietary recommendations towards lowering AGE intake. Clinical studies in subjects with diabetes mellitus have shown that high intake of dietary AGEs increases inflammation markers, oxidative stress, and could impair endothelial function. In subjects at risk for cardiometabolic diseases (with overweight, obesity, or prediabetes), dietary AGE restriction decreases some inflammatory molecules and improves insulin sensitivity. However, studies in healthy subjects are limited, and not all of the studies have shown a decrease in circulating AGEs. Therefore, it is still unclear if dietary AGEs represent a health concern for people potentially at risk for cardiometabolic diseases. The evidence shows that dietary AGEs are bioavailable and absorbed, and the rate of excretion depends on dietary intake. The metabolic fate of most dietary AGEs remains unknown. Regardless, most studies have shown that by diminishing AGE intake, circulating levels will also decrease. Thus, dietary AGEs can modulate the AGE load at least in patients with DM, overweight, or obesity. Studies with specific clinical outcomes and large-scale observational studies are needed for a better risk assessment of dietary AGEs and to establish dietary recommendations accordingly.

  10. ADHD Is Associated with a "Western" Dietary Pattern in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Amber L.; Robinson, Monique; Smith, Grant J.; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Piek, Jan P.; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between dietary patterns and ADHD in a population-based cohort of adolescents. Method: The Raine Study is a prospective study following 2,868 live births. At the 14-year follow-up, the authors collected detailed adolescent dietary data, allowing for the determination of major dietary patterns using factor…

  11. Dietary and health biomarkers-time for an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragsted, L.O.; Gao Qizian,; Praticò, G.; Manach, Claudine; Wishart, D.S.; Scalbert, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the dietary and health research area, biomarkers are extensively used for multiple purposes. These include biomarkers of dietary intake and nutrient status, biomarkers used to measure the biological effects of specific dietary components, and biomarkers to assess the effects of diet on health.

  12. Dietary fibre: new frontiers for food and health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kamp, J. W. van der

    2010-01-01

    ... papers of the Dietary fibre analysis workshop and the HEALTHGRAIN Symposium Cereal grain fibre and health , both held in conjunction with DF09. This book is titled Dietary fibre- new frontiers for food and health . With the adoption - after decades of debate - of almost identical definitions of dietary fibre by Codex Alimentarius and the European Un...

  13. Possible interactions between dietary fibres and 5-aminosalicylic acid [corrected

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Camilla; Hansen, Steen Honoré; Nordgaard-Lassen, Inge

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Potentially, a binding of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) to dietary fibres could reduce the systemic absorption and increase the intraluminal amount [corrected]. The purposes of the study were to investigate if: (1) dietary fibres can bind 5-ASA in vitro, and (2) consumption of dietary......H. The effect might be clinically relevant in patients with UC treated with 5-ASA....

  14. South African dietary total antioxidant capacity based on secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: In this exploratory study, the average adult South African dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was estimated using secondary data and was evaluated against that determined for dietary intake recommendations. Design: The average adult South African dietary TAC was estimated using a report published by ...

  15. Dietary Fibre in Health and Disease | Kolawole | Nigerian Endocrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanism by which dietary fibre exerts its various effects have been the subject several studies. Its ability to slow food digestion and nutrient absorption is well known. This review summarises the broader literature on what constitutes dietary fibre, mechanisms of action of dietary fibre, and its impact on some disease ...

  16. AOAC SMPR 2014.007: Authentication of selected Vaccinium species (Anthocyanins) in dietary ingredients and dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    This AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR) is for authentication of selected Vaccinium species in dietary ingredients and dietary supplements containing a single Vaccinium species using anthocyanin profiles. SMPRs describe the minimum recommended performance characteristics to be used...

  17. On Your Own: Older Adults’ Food Choice and Dietary Habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Whitelock

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The United Kingdom, in common with many countries, has an ageing demographic. Changes accompanying ageing can influence food choice and dietary habits. This study explored older adults’ perceptions and practices related to dietary behaviour and the factors influencing their food choice in later life. Semi-structured focus-group discussions were conducted with 30 individuals (aged 63–90 years in a UK city. An inductive thematic approach was adopted for data analysis, and 4 themes and 12 sub-themes emerged: age-related changes (lower appetite, food changes, declining physical function; food access (food cost, support with food, maintaining independence; on your own (cooking for one, eating alone, shopping for one; and relationship with food (food variety, eating what you want, dieting. These influenced participants’ food acquisition, food preparation and cooking, as well as eating habits. Living alone and its substantial influence, as well as associated social isolation and loneliness, were highlighted in many of the discussions. Given the possible implications for nutritional intake, further work is recommended in this area. Likewise, steps should be taken to improve food access, increase opportunities for commensal eating and, fundamentally, address social isolation and loneliness in the older population.

  18. Dietary assessment in children and adolescents: issues and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Artiach Escauriaza, Belén; Artiach Escauriaza, Javier; Polanco Allúe, Isabel

    2015-02-26

    The assessment of dietary intake in children and adolescents is of great interest for different purposes. The characteristics of each developmental stage and associated cognitive abilities are two factors that influence the ability of children to provide valid and reliable information on food consumption. The ability to remember, limitations of vocabulary or the ability to identify different foods are some of the relevant aspects. In addition, often parents or caregivers provide surrogate information and their degree of knowledge depends on the time they spend with the child and on whether they share meals. As children grow they become more independent and increasingly spend more time away from their parents. Children also have limitations to recognize food models and photographs and associate them with different amounts of food consumed. On the other hand, often children and adolescents perceive long interviews or self-administered questionnaires they as long and boring. The use of new technologies is contributing to the development of new tools adapting dietary assessment the methods to the cognitive abilities of children, introducing gaming environments and narrative structures that attract their interest and improve the quality of information they report.. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2015. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. On Your Own: Older Adults’ Food Choice and Dietary Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelock, Emily; Ensaff, Hannah

    2018-01-01

    The United Kingdom, in common with many countries, has an ageing demographic. Changes accompanying ageing can influence food choice and dietary habits. This study explored older adults’ perceptions and practices related to dietary behaviour and the factors influencing their food choice in later life. Semi-structured focus-group discussions were conducted with 30 individuals (aged 63–90 years) in a UK city. An inductive thematic approach was adopted for data analysis, and 4 themes and 12 sub-themes emerged: age-related changes (lower appetite, food changes, declining physical function); food access (food cost, support with food, maintaining independence); on your own (cooking for one, eating alone, shopping for one); and relationship with food (food variety, eating what you want, dieting). These influenced participants’ food acquisition, food preparation and cooking, as well as eating habits. Living alone and its substantial influence, as well as associated social isolation and loneliness, were highlighted in many of the discussions. Given the possible implications for nutritional intake, further work is recommended in this area. Likewise, steps should be taken to improve food access, increase opportunities for commensal eating and, fundamentally, address social isolation and loneliness in the older population. PMID:29584644

  20. On Your Own: Older Adults' Food Choice and Dietary Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelock, Emily; Ensaff, Hannah

    2018-03-27

    The United Kingdom, in common with many countries, has an ageing demographic. Changes accompanying ageing can influence food choice and dietary habits. This study explored older adults' perceptions and practices related to dietary behaviour and the factors influencing their food choice in later life. Semi-structured focus-group discussions were conducted with 30 individuals (aged 63-90 years) in a UK city. An inductive thematic approach was adopted for data analysis, and 4 themes and 12 sub-themes emerged: age-related changes (lower appetite, food changes, declining physical function); food access (food cost, support with food, maintaining independence); on your own (cooking for one, eating alone, shopping for one); and relationship with food (food variety, eating what you want, dieting). These influenced participants' food acquisition, food preparation and cooking, as well as eating habits. Living alone and its substantial influence, as well as associated social isolation and loneliness, were highlighted in many of the discussions. Given the possible implications for nutritional intake, further work is recommended in this area. Likewise, steps should be taken to improve food access, increase opportunities for commensal eating and, fundamentally, address social isolation and loneliness in the older population.