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Sample records for dietary substances affect

  1. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with information regarding dietary supplements and be advised to minimise risks for ... to promote strength and muscle mass, ... selective oestrogen receptor modulators or .... It has also come to the attention of the WADA that another sub-.

  2. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    circumstances, especially where food intake or choice is restricted. For this reason, dietary ... health hazard to all consumers.[4,12] While ... physician experienced in the treatment of obesity and familiar with this agent, on a regular basis.

  3. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    many years to boost, even by small margins, their strength and per- formance. ... training or competition routine, even if the rationale for using these products is not .... Dietary supplements adulterated with sibutramine, an anti-obesity agent, which do .... for weight loss and athletic performance: A meta-analysis. JAMA 2003 ...

  4. Substance use and dietary practices among students attending alternative high schools: results from a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Arcan, Chrisa; Kubik, Martha Y; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Hannan, Peter J; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Substance use and poor dietary practices are prevalent among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine frequency of substance use and associations between cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use and selected dietary practices, such as sugar-sweetened beverages, high-fat foods, fruits and vegetables, and frequency of fast food restaurant use among alternative high school students. Associations between multi-substance use and the same dietary practices were also exa...

  5. Determination of caffeine and identification of undeclared substances in dietary supplements and caffeine dietary exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Diana Brito da Justa; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2017-07-01

    Caffeine is one of the most consumed stimulants in the world, and is a frequent ingredient of dietary supplements. The aims of this work were to validate a GC-MS method for the quantitation of caffeine and identification of other substances in supplements, mainly weight loss products, and to estimate the caffeine intake by consumers. Sample preparation included extraction with chloroform:water in ultrasonic bath, centrifugation and analysis of the organic layer for caffeine quantitation, and extraction with methanol for identification of other substances. A total of 213 samples of 52 supplement products not registered in Brazil and seized by the Brazilian Federal Police were analyzed. From the 109 samples that declared the amount of caffeine present, 26.6% contained more than 120% of the specified content. Considering the maximum recommended dose stated on the product labels, the consumption of 47.9% of the samples would lead to a daily intake of caffeine above the safe limit of 400 mg. Undeclared drugs, including sibutramine, phenolphthalein, amphepramone and femproporex were found in 28 samples. These results show that consumers of dietary supplements should be aware that these products might contain caffeine at levels that could represent potential health risks, in addition to undeclared pharmaceutical drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary factors that affect carotenoid bioavailability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, van het K.H.

    1999-01-01

    Carotenoids are thought to contribute to the beneficial effects of increased vegetable consumption. To better understand the potential benefits of carotenoids, we investigated the bioavailability of carotenoids from vegetables and dietary factors which might influence carotenoid

  7. Factors affecting in sacco dietary degradation by Ankole cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting in sacco dietary degradation by Ankole cattle grazing natural range pastures in Uganda. ... Keywords: Ankole cattle, dietary selection, dry matter disappearance, free water intake, in sacco degradation, lignification, live weight change, predictive model, water solubility. African Journal of Range & Forage ...

  8. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances: A review (Part 1)

    OpenAIRE

    van der Bijl, P

    2014-01-01

    Dietary supplements and chemical agents have been used for a number of decades among athletes striving to achieve increased strength and performance. This has led to a huge, growing market for the food supplement industry. The latter's products are classified as 'foods' rather than drugs and are therefore free of the stringent requirements for registration of pharmaceuticals, i.e. no safety and efficacy data are required prior to registration. During the past decade, some dietary supplements ...

  9. Age and disability affect dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartali, Benedetta; Salvini, Simonetta; Turrini, Aida; Lauretani, Fulvio; Russo, Cosimo R; Corsi, Anna M; Bandinelli, Stefania; D'Amicis, Amleto; Palli, Domenico; Guralnik, Jack M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide information on dietary intake in the InCHIANTI study population, a representative sample (n = 1453) of persons living in two towns of Tuscany (Italy), including a large number of old and very old individuals (79.5% >65 y old). We also investigated whether difficulties in nutrition-related activities were associated with inadequate intake of selected nutrients. The percentage of persons with an inadequate intake of nutrients according to Italian Recommended Nutrients Levels (LARN) was higher in the older age groups. Older persons tended to adapt their diets in response to individual functional difficulties, often leading to monotonous food consumption and, as a consequence, to inadequate nutrient intakes. Multiple logistic models were used to evaluate whether inadequate intake of selected nutrients could be predicted by nutrition-related difficulties. Reporting difficulties in three or more nutrition-related activities (chewing, self-feeding, shopping for basic necessities, carrying a shopping bag, cooking a warm meal, using fingers to grasp or handle) significantly increased the risk of inadequate intake of energy [odds ratio (OR) = 3.8, 95% CI = 1.9-7.8) and vitamin C (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.2-4.2, after adjustment for energy intake). More attention to functional problems in the elderly population and the provision of formal or informal help to those who have difficulty in purchasing, processing and eating food may reduce, at least in part, the percentage of older persons with poor nutrition.

  10. Substance use and dietary practices among students attending alternative high schools: results from a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Peter J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use and poor dietary practices are prevalent among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine frequency of substance use and associations between cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use and selected dietary practices, such as sugar-sweetened beverages, high-fat foods, fruits and vegetables, and frequency of fast food restaurant use among alternative high school students. Associations between multi-substance use and the same dietary practices were also examined. Methods A convenience sample of adolescents (n = 145; 61% minority, 52% male attending six alternative high schools in the St Paul/Minneapolis metropolitan area completed baseline surveys. Students were participants in the Team COOL (Controlling Overweight and Obesity for Life pilot study, a group randomized obesity prevention pilot trial. Mixed model multivariate analyses procedures were used to assess associations of interest. Results Daily cigarette smoking was reported by 36% of students. Cigarette smoking was positively associated with consumption of regular soda (p = 0.019, high-fat foods (p = 0.037, and fast food restaurant use (p = 0.002. Alcohol (p = 0.005 and marijuana use (p = 0.035 were positively associated with high-fat food intake. With increasing numbers of substances, a positive trend was observed in high-fat food intake (p = 0.0003. There were no significant associations between substance use and fruit and vegetable intake. Conclusions Alternative high school students who use individual substances as well as multiple substances may be at high risk of unhealthful dietary practices. Comprehensive health interventions in alternative high schools have the potential of reducing health-compromising behaviors that are prevalent among this group of students. This study adds to the limited research examining substance use and diet among at-risk youth. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01315743

  11. Effects of dietary humic substances on egg production and egg shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of dietary humic substances on egg production and egg shell quality of hens after peak laying period. ... Ninety Isa Brown layers from 51 to 61 weeks of age were allocated to three treatment groups, namely H0, H1 and H2. ... Egg production (% hen-day) in the H2 group was higher (P < 0.05) than control group.

  12. Dietary Nutrients and Bioactive Substances Modulate Heat Shock Protein (HSP) Expression: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Carolina Soares; Lollo, Pablo Christiano Barboza; Morato, Priscila Neder; Amaya-Farfan, Jaime

    2018-05-28

    Interest in the heat shock proteins (HSPs), as a natural physiological toolkit of living organisms, has ranged from their chaperone function in nascent proteins to the remedial role following cell stress. As part of the defence system, HSPs guarantee cell tolerance against a variety of stressors, including exercise, oxidative stress, hyper and hypothermia, hyper and hypoxia and improper diets. For the past couple of decades, research on functional foods has revealed a number of substances likely to trigger cell protection through mechanisms that involve the induction of HSP expression. This review will summarize the occurrence of the most easily inducible HSPs and describe the effects of dietary proteins, peptides, amino acids, probiotics, high-fat diets and other food-derived substances reported to induce HSP response in animals and humans studies. Future research may clarify the mechanisms and explore the usefulness of this natural alternative of defense and the modulating mechanism of each substance.

  13. Effects of dietary humic substances on egg production and egg shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... including 30 and 90 ppm dietary humic acid in liquid form, respectively. ... shell strength without affecting egg production and feed efficiency compared to control ..... Caecal metabolites and microbial populations in chickens consuming ... tation on the performance of laying hens fed with diets based on corn.

  14. Sensory qualities of pastry products enriched with dietary fiber and polyphenolic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komolka, Patrycja; Górecka, Danuta; Szymandera-Buszka, Krystyna; Jędrusek-Golińska, Anna; Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Waszkowiak, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Growing consumer demand for products with pro-health properties is forcing food manufacturers to introduce new food items onto the market, which will not only possess such health-enhancing properties but will also compete on the grounds of sensory attributes - taste, flavour, texture etc. The aim was to evaluate these sensory attributes of pastry products enhanced with biologically active compounds, such as inulin, buckwheat hull and buckwheat flour. For decreasing the energy value of the products tested (crispy cookies, muesli cookies, waffles and pancakes) some ingredients were replaced: vegetable butter or oil by inulin and wheat flour by roasted buckwheat flour and thermally processed buckwheat hull. The substances mentioned are rich sources of soluble and insoluble buckwheat fiber, and also polyphenolic substances. Dry chokeberry and mulberry leaf extract were added as a rich source of flavonoids and 1-deoxynorijimycin, respectively. These substances are recommended for people with obesity. The processing was carried out at 175°C for 15 minutes using a convection oven (Rational Combi-Steamer CCC). Pastry products with buckwheat flour, buckwheat hulls, mulberry extract, chokeberry and inulin had a lower food energy, a higher dietary fiber content and scored high on customer desirability. Pastry products which contain ingredients carrying biologically active substances are not only attractive from the sensory point of view, but also low in calories, and are thus recommendable for obesity people.

  15. The prevalence and factors affecting psychoactive substance use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Psychoactive substance use is a proliferating public health and social problem leading to negative multi-dimensional impact especially among young people. This study was done to determine the prevalence and factors predisposing to psychoactive substance use among undergraduates in University of Uyo, ...

  16. Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) affect oxidative stress biomarkers in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielsøe, Maria; Long, Manhai; Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C

    2015-06-01

    Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) have been widely used since 1950s and humans are exposed through food, drinking water, consumer products, dust, etc. The long-chained PFAS are persistent in the environment and accumulate in wildlife and humans. They are suspected carcinogens and a potential mode of action is through generation of oxidative stress. Seven long-chained PFAS found in human serum were investigated for the potential to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), induce DNA damage and disturb the total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The tested PFAS were perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluoroctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnA), and perfluorododecanoate (PFDoA). Using the human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) and an exposure time of 24h we found that all three endpoints were affected by one or more of the compounds. PFHxS, PFOA, PFOS and PFNA showed a dose dependent increase in DNA damage in the concentration range from 2×10(-7) to 2×10(-5)M determined by the comet assay. Except for PFDoA, all the other PFAS increased ROS generation significantly. For PFHxS and PFUnA the observed ROS increases were dose-dependent. Cells exposed to PFOA were found to have a significant lower TAC compared with the solvent control, whereas a non-significant trend in TAC decrease was observed for PFOS and PFDoA and an increase tendency for PFHxS, PFNA and PFUnA. Our results indicate a possible genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of the PFAS in human liver cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Prevalence and Factors affecting Psychoactive Substance Use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNIBEN

    Background: Psychoactive substance use is a proliferating public health and social problem leading to negative ... cannabis and 12.2% for cigarettes.8 In Nigeria, the most common ... and amphetamines such as caffeine, tobacco, nicotine ...

  18. Intended or Unintended Doping? A Review of the Presence of Doping Substances in Dietary Supplements Used in Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sanz, José Miguel; Sospedra, Isabel; Ortiz, Christian Mañas; Baladía, Eduard; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Ortiz-Moncada, Rocio

    2017-10-04

    The use of dietary supplements is increasing among athletes, year after year. Related to the high rates of use, unintentional doping occurs. Unintentional doping refers to positive anti-doping tests due to the use of any supplement containing unlisted substances banned by anti-doping regulations and organizations, such as the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). The objective of this review is to summarize the presence of unlabeled doping substances in dietary supplements that are used in sports. A review of substances/metabolites/markers banned by WADA in ergonutritional supplements was completed using PubMed. The inclusion criteria were studies published up until September 2017, which analyzed the content of substances, metabolites and markers banned by WADA. 446 studies were identified, 23 of which fulfilled all the inclusion criteria. In most of the studies, the purpose was to identify doping substances in dietary supplements. Substances prohibited by WADA were found in most of the supplements analyzed in this review. Some of them were prohormones and/or stimulants. With rates of contamination between 12 and 58%, non-intentional doping is a point to take into account before establishing a supplementation program. Athletes and coaches must be aware of the problems related to the use of any contaminated supplement and should pay special attention before choosing a supplement, informing themselves fully and confirming the guarantees offered by the supplement.

  19. Intended or Unintended Doping? A Review of the Presence of Doping Substances in Dietary Supplements Used in Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Martínez-Sanz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of dietary supplements is increasing among athletes, year after year. Related to the high rates of use, unintentional doping occurs. Unintentional doping refers to positive anti-doping tests due to the use of any supplement containing unlisted substances banned by anti-doping regulations and organizations, such as the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA. The objective of this review is to summarize the presence of unlabeled doping substances in dietary supplements that are used in sports. Methodology: A review of substances/metabolites/markers banned by WADA in ergonutritional supplements was completed using PubMed. The inclusion criteria were studies published up until September 2017, which analyzed the content of substances, metabolites and markers banned by WADA. Results: 446 studies were identified, 23 of which fulfilled all the inclusion criteria. In most of the studies, the purpose was to identify doping substances in dietary supplements. Discussion: Substances prohibited by WADA were found in most of the supplements analyzed in this review. Some of them were prohormones and/or stimulants. With rates of contamination between 12 and 58%, non-intentional doping is a point to take into account before establishing a supplementation program. Athletes and coaches must be aware of the problems related to the use of any contaminated supplement and should pay special attention before choosing a supplement, informing themselves fully and confirming the guarantees offered by the supplement.

  20. Intended or Unintended Doping? A Review of the Presence of Doping Substances in Dietary Supplements Used in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mañas Ortiz, Christian; Ortiz-Moncada, Rocio

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The use of dietary supplements is increasing among athletes, year after year. Related to the high rates of use, unintentional doping occurs. Unintentional doping refers to positive anti-doping tests due to the use of any supplement containing unlisted substances banned by anti-doping regulations and organizations, such as the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). The objective of this review is to summarize the presence of unlabeled doping substances in dietary supplements that are used in sports. Methodology: A review of substances/metabolites/markers banned by WADA in ergonutritional supplements was completed using PubMed. The inclusion criteria were studies published up until September 2017, which analyzed the content of substances, metabolites and markers banned by WADA. Results: 446 studies were identified, 23 of which fulfilled all the inclusion criteria. In most of the studies, the purpose was to identify doping substances in dietary supplements. Discussion: Substances prohibited by WADA were found in most of the supplements analyzed in this review. Some of them were prohormones and/or stimulants. With rates of contamination between 12 and 58%, non-intentional doping is a point to take into account before establishing a supplementation program. Athletes and coaches must be aware of the problems related to the use of any contaminated supplement and should pay special attention before choosing a supplement, informing themselves fully and confirming the guarantees offered by the supplement. PMID:28976928

  1. Dietary fructose and glucose differentially affect lipid and glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Ernst J; Gleason, Joi A; Dansinger, Michael L

    2009-06-01

    Absorbed glucose and fructose differ in that glucose largely escapes first-pass removal by the liver, whereas fructose does not, resulting in different metabolic effects of these 2 monosaccharides. In short-term controlled feeding studies, dietary fructose significantly increases postprandial triglyceride (TG) levels and has little effect on serum glucose concentrations, whereas dietary glucose has the opposite effects. When dietary glucose and fructose have been directly compared at approximately 20-25% of energy over a 4- to 6-wk period, dietary fructose caused significant increases in fasting TG and LDL cholesterol concentrations, whereas dietary glucose did not, but dietary glucose did increase serum glucose and insulin concentrations in the postprandial state whereas dietary fructose did not. When fructose at 30-60 g ( approximately 4-12% of energy) was added to the diet in the free-living state, there were no significant effects on lipid or glucose biomarkers. Sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) contain approximately equal amounts of fructose and glucose and no metabolic differences between them have been noted. Controlled feeding studies at more physiologic dietary intakes of fructose and glucose need to be conducted. In our view, to decrease the current high prevalence of obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and diabetes, the focus should be on restricting the intake of excess energy, sucrose, HFCS, and animal and trans fats and increasing exercise and the intake of vegetables, vegetable oils, fish, fruit, whole grains, and fiber.

  2. Does pharmaceutical advertising affect journal publication about dietary supplements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hood Kaylene L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advertising affects consumer and prescriber behaviors. The relationship between pharmaceutical advertising and journals' publication of articles regarding dietary supplements (DS is unknown. Methods We reviewed one year of the issues of 11 major medical journals for advertising and content about DS. Advertising was categorized as pharmaceutical versus other. Articles about DS were included if they discussed vitamins, minerals, herbs or similar products. Articles were classified as major (e.g., clinical trials, cohort studies, editorials and reviews or other (e.g., case reports, letters, news, and others. Articles' conclusions regarding safety and effectiveness were coded as negative (unsafe or ineffective or other (safe, effective, unstated, unclear or mixed. Results Journals' total pages per issue ranged from 56 to 217 while advertising pages ranged from 4 to 88; pharmaceutical advertisements (pharmads accounted for 1.5% to 76% of ad pages. Journals with the most pharmads published significantly fewer major articles about DS per issue than journals with the fewest pharmads (P Conclusion These data are consistent with the hypothesis that increased pharmaceutical advertising is associated with publishing fewer articles about DS and publishing more articles with conclusions that DS are unsafe. Additional research is needed to test alternative hypotheses for these findings in a larger sample of more diverse journals.

  3. Marital adjustment of patients with substance dependence, schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shital S Muke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marital adjustment is considered as a part of social well-being. Disturbed marital relationship can directly affect the disease adjustment and the way they face disease outcomes and complications. It may adversely affect physical health, mental health, the quality-of-life and even economic status of individuals. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the marital adjustment among patients with substance dependence, schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of each 30 patients with substance dependence, bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia, diagnosed as per international classification of diseases-10 diagnostic criteria for research with a minimum duration of illness of 1 year were evaluated using marital adjustment questionnaire. The data was analyzed using parametric and non-parametric statistics. Results: Prevalence of poor marital adjustment in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder and substance dependence was 60%, 70% and 50% respectively. There was a significant difference on overall marital adjustment among substance dependence and bipolar affective disorder patients. There was no significant difference on overall marital adjustment among patients with substance dependence and schizophrenia as well as among patients with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. On marital adjustment domains, schizophrenia patients had significantly poor sexual adjustment than substance dependence patients while bipolar affective disorder patients had significantly poor sexual and social adjustment compared with substance dependence patients. Conclusion: Patients with substance dependence have significant better overall marital adjustment compared with bipolar affective disorder patients. Patients with substance dependence have significantly better social and sexual adjustment than patients with bipolar affective disorder as well as significantly better sexual

  4. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior. Interacting sources of influence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, J.K.; Hermans, R.C.J.; Sleddens, E.F.C.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Fisher, J.O.; Kremers, S.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on

  5. Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) affect oxidative stress biomarkers in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielsøe, Maria; Long, Manhai; Ghisari, Mandana

    2015-01-01

    Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) have been widely used since 1950s and humans are exposed through food, drinking water, consumer products, dust, etc. The long-chained PFAS are persistent in the environment and accumulate in wildlife and humans. They are suspected carcinogens and a potential...... mode of action is through generation of oxidative stress. Seven long-chained PFAS found in human serum were investigated for the potential to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), induce DNA damage and disturb the total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The tested PFAS were perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHx...

  6. Working with children from substance-affected families: the community-based group intervention TRAMPOLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Bröning

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children from substance-affected families show an elevated risk for developing own substance-related or other mental disorders. Frequently, they experience violence, abuse and neglect in their families. Therefore, they are an important target group for preventive efforts. In Germany it is estimated that approx. 2.65 million children are affected by parental substance abuse or dependence. Only ten percent of them receive treatment when parents are treated. To date, no evaluated program for children from substance-affected families exists in Germany. Methods: A new group intervention for children from substance-affected families was developed and is currently being evaluated in a randomized-controlled multicenter study funded by the German Ministry of Health. The development process was simultaneously guided by theory, existing research knowledge and expert opinion. Promoting resilience in children affected by parental substance abuse is a key goal of the program. Results: The TRAMPOLINE manual describes a 9-session addiction-focused, modular group program for children aged 8 to 12 years with at least one substance-using parent. Weekly sessions last for 90 minutes and combine psychoeducational elements with exercises and role play. A two-session parent intervention component is also integrated in the program. Content, structure and theoretical background of the intervention are described. Discussion: TRAMPOLINE is a new interventive effort targeting children from substance-affected families. It is grounded in theory and practice. The results of the research in progress will provide fundamental information on the effectiveness of a structured group prevention program for German children from substance-abusing families. Thus, the study will contribute to creating a broader and more effective system of preventive help for this high-risk target group.

  7. Lifelong dietary intervention does not affect hematopoietic stem cell function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazare, Seka; Ausema, Albertina; Reijne, Aaffien C; van Dijk, Gertjan; van Os, Ronald; de Haan, Gerald

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) undergo a profound functional decline during normal aging. Because caloric or dietary restriction has been shown to delay multiple aspects of the aging process in many species, we explored the consequences of lifelong caloric restriction, or conversely, lifelong

  8. Dietary-induced hyperthyroidism marginally affects neonatal testicular development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijntjes, Eddy; Wientjes, Anna T.; Swarts, Hans J. M.; de Rooij, Dirk G.; Teerds, Katja J.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary-induced mild fetal/neonatal hyperthyroidism influenced the initiation of spermatogenesis and the development of the adult-type Leydig cell population. Previously, the effects of neonatally induced hyperthyroidism have been investigated in

  9. Adverse interactions between herbal and dietary substances and prescription medications: a clinical survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Thomas M; Rayburn, Keith S; Holloway, Sandra W; Sanchez-Yamamoto, Deanna S; Allen, Blaine L; Lam, Tiffany; So, Brian K; Tran, De H; Greyber, Elizabeth R; Kantor, Sophia; Roth, Larry W

    2007-01-01

    Patients often combine prescription medications with herbal and dietary substances (herein referred to as herbal medicines). A variety of potential adverse herb-drug interactions exist based on the pharmacological properties of herbal and prescription medications. To determine the incidence of potential and observed adverse herb-drug interactions in patients using herbal medicines with prescription medications. Consecutive patients were questioned about their use of herbal medicines in 6 outpatient clinics. Patients reporting use of these products provided a list of their prescription medications, which were reviewed for any potential adverse herb-drug interactions using a comprehensive natural medicine database. Any potential adverse herb-drug interactions prompted a review of the patient's chart for evidence of an observed adverse herb-drug interaction. The rate of potential and observed adverse herb-drug interactions. Eight hundred four patients were surveyed, and 122 (15%) used herbal medicines. Eighty-five potential adverse herb-drug interactions were found in 49 patients (40% of herbal medicine users). Twelve possible adverse herb-drug interactions in 8 patients (7% of herbal medicine users) were observed. In all 12 cases, the severity scores were rated as mild, including 8 cases of hypoglycemia in diabetics taking nopal (prickly pear cactus). A substantial number of potential adverse herb-drug interactions were detected and a small number of adverse herb-drug interactions observed, particularly in diabetics taking nopal. Screening for herbal medicine usage in 804 patients did not uncover any serious adverse interactions with prescription medications.

  10. A daily diary study of perceived social isolation, dietary restraint, and negative affect in binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Tyler B; Heron, Kristin E; Braitman, Abby L; Lewis, Robin J

    2016-02-01

    Negative affect and dietary restraint are key predictors of binge eating, yet less is known about the impact of social factors on binge eating. The study sought to replicate and extend research on the relationships between negative affect, dietary restraint, perceived social isolation and binge eating using a daily diary methodology. College women (N = 54) completed measures of dietary restraint, negative affect, perceived social isolation, and binge eating daily for 14 days. Participants completed the measures nightly each day. A series of generalized estimating equations showed that dietary restraint was associated with less binge eating while controlling for negative affect and for perceived social isolation separately. Negative affect and perceived social isolation were associated with greater binge eating while controlling for restraint in separate analyses, but only perceived social isolation was significant when modeled simultaneously. All two-way interactions between negative affect, dietary restraint, and perceived social isolation predicting binge eating were nonsignificant. This study furthers our understanding of predictors of binge eating in a nonclinical sample. Specifically, these data suggest perceived social isolation, negative affect, and dietary restraint are important variables associated with binge eating in daily life and warrant further research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Improving the outcomes of children affected by parental substance abuse: a review of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calhoun S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stacy Calhoun,1,2 Emma Conner,2 Melodi Miller,3 Nena Messina1 1UCLA Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Criminology, Law and Society, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA; 3Social Solutions International, Inc., Silver Spring, MD, USA Abstract: Substance abuse is a major public health concern that impacts not just the user but also the user's family. The effect that parental substance abuse has on children has been given substantial attention over the years. Findings from the literature suggest that children of substance-abusing parents have a high risk of developing physical and mental health and behavioral problems. A number of intervention programs have been developed for parents who have a substance abuse problem. There have also been a number of interventions that have been developed for children who have at least one parent with a substance abuse problem. However, it remains unclear how we can best mitigate the negative effects that parental substance abuse has on children due to the scarcity of evaluations that utilize rigorous methodologies such as experimental designs. The purpose of this study is to review randomized controlled trials of intervention programs targeting parents with substance abuse problems and/or children with at least one parent with a substance abuse problem in order to identify programs that show some promise in improving the behavioral and mental health outcomes of children affected by parental substance abuse. Four randomized controlled trials that met our eligibility criteria were identified using major literature search engines. The findings from this review suggest that interventions that focus on improving parenting practices and family functioning may be effective in reducing problems in children affected by parental substance abuse. However, further research utilizing rigorous methodologies are needed in order to identify other successful interventions that can

  12. Dietary water affects human skin hydration and biomechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma L

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lídia Palma,1 Liliana Tavares Marques,1 Julia Bujan,2,3 Luís Monteiro Rodrigues1,4 1CBIOS – Research Center for Health Science and Technologies, Universidade Lusófona, Campo Grande, Lisboa, Portugal; 2Department of Medicine and Medical Specialities, Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain; 3CIBER-BBN, Madrid, España, Spain; 4Department of Pharmacological Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal Abstract: It is generally assumed that dietary water might be beneficial for the health, especially in dermatological (age preventing terms. The present study was designed to quantify the impact of dietary water on major indicators of skin physiology. A total of 49 healthy females (mean 24.5±4.3 years were selected and characterized in terms of their dietary daily habits, especially focused in water consumption, by a Food Frequency Questionnaire. This allowed two groups to be set – Group 1 consuming less than 3,200 mL/day (n=38, and Group 2 consuming more than 3,200 mL/day (n=11. Approximately 2 L of water were added to the daily diet of Group 2 individuals for 1 month to quantify the impact of this surplus in their skin physiology. Measurements involving epidermal superficial and deep hydration, transepidermal water loss, and several biomechanical descriptors were taken at day 0 (T0, 15 (T1, and 30 (T2 in several anatomical sites (face, upper limb, and leg. This stress test (2 L/day for 30 days significantly modified superficial and deep skin hydration, especially in Group 1. The same impact was registered with the most relevant biomechanical descriptors. Thus, in this study, it is clear that higher water inputs in regular diet might positively impact normal skin physiology, in particular in those individuals with lower daily water consumptions. Keywords: dietary water, water consume, skin hydration, TEWL, skin biomechanics

  13. Dietary water affects human skin hydration and biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Lídia; Marques, Liliana Tavares; Bujan, Julia; Rodrigues, Luís Monteiro

    2015-01-01

    It is generally assumed that dietary water might be beneficial for the health, especially in dermatological (age preventing) terms. The present study was designed to quantify the impact of dietary water on major indicators of skin physiology. A total of 49 healthy females (mean 24.5±4.3 years) were selected and characterized in terms of their dietary daily habits, especially focused in water consumption, by a Food Frequency Questionnaire. This allowed two groups to be set - Group 1 consuming less than 3,200 mL/day (n=38), and Group 2 consuming more than 3,200 mL/day (n=11). Approximately 2 L of water were added to the daily diet of Group 2 individuals for 1 month to quantify the impact of this surplus in their skin physiology. Measurements involving epidermal superficial and deep hydration, transepidermal water loss, and several biomechanical descriptors were taken at day 0 (T0), 15 (T1), and 30 (T2) in several anatomical sites (face, upper limb, and leg). This stress test (2 L/day for 30 days) significantly modified superficial and deep skin hydration, especially in Group 1. The same impact was registered with the most relevant biomechanical descriptors. Thus, in this study, it is clear that higher water inputs in regular diet might positively impact normal skin physiology, in particular in those individuals with lower daily water consumptions.

  14. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior. Interacting sources of influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Junilla K; Hermans, Roel C J; Sleddens, Ester F C; Engels, Rutger C M E; Fisher, Jennifer O; Kremers, Stef P J

    2015-06-01

    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on children's food intake. In this narrative review, we provide a conceptual model that bridges the gap between both literatures and consists of three main hypotheses. First, parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices are important interactive sources of influence on children's dietary behavior and Body Mass Index (BMI). Second, parental influences are importantly mediated by changes in the child's home food environment. Third, parenting context (i.e., parenting styles and differential parental treatment) moderates effects of food parenting practices, whereas child characteristics (i.e., temperament and appetitive traits) mainly moderate effects of the home food environment. Future studies testing (parts of) this conceptual model are needed to inform effective parent-child overweight preventive interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors Affecting Dietary Practices in a Mississippi African American Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Monique; Addison, Clifton; Jenkins, Brenda W Campbell; Henderson, Frances; McGill, Dorothy; Payton, Marinelle; Antoine-LaVigne, Donna

    2017-07-03

    This study examined the practices, personal motivation, and barriers of African American communities in Mississippi regarding their dietary practices. We selected the Metro Jackson Area comprised of Hinds, Madison and Rankin Counties because it is a combination of urban and rural communities. The sample consisted of 70 participants from seven sites. A total of seven focus groups responded to six questions to assess practices, personal motivation, and barriers to dietary practices: (1) Where in your community can you access fresh fruits and vegetables? (2) How many meals a day should a person eat? (3) What would you consider to be a healthy breakfast, lunch and dinner? (4) What would you consider to be a healthy snack? (5) What do you consider to be your motivations for eating healthy? (6) What do you consider to be your barriers to eating healthy? Each of the seven focus groups consisted of 6 to 12 participants and provided details of their dietary practices. The focus group interviews were digitally-recorded. The recorded interviews were transcribed. The majority of the participants stated that there is a limited availability of fresh fruits/vegetables in rural areas because of a shortage of grocery stores. When they do find fruits, they are priced very high and are unaffordable. Even though health conditions dictate food frequency and portion size, community members feel that individuals should eat three good balanced meals per day with snacks, and they should adhere to small portion sizes. While the desire to attain overall good health and eliminate associative risks for heart disease (e.g., diabetes, obesity) are personal motivations, the cost of food, transportation, age, and time required for food preparation were seen as barriers to healthy eating. Decisions regarding meal choice and meal frequency can have an impact on long-term health outcomes. Health promotion programs should become an integral part of academic- community collaborative agreements.

  16. Circulating levels of perfluoroalkyl substances are associated with dietary patterns - A cross sectional study in elderly Swedish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjogren, Per; Montse, Rachel; Lampa, Erik; Salihovic, Samira; van Bavel, Bert; Lind, Lars; Lind, P Monica

    2016-10-01

    In our daily life, we are exposed to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) with possible health implications. The main exposure route for these substances is diet but comparative studies on how dietary habits influence exposure are lacking. To examine the relations between blood levels of PFAS and adherence to three predefined dietary patterns (a WHO recommended diet, a Mediterranean-like diet, and a Low-Carbohydrate High-Protein (LCHP) diet) in an elderly Swedish population. Dietary data from 7-day food records and serum concentrations of PFAS were obtained from a 70-year-old Swedish population (n=844), the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. The Healthy Diet Indicator score (based on WHO recommendations), the Mediterranean Diet Score and LCHP score were used to assess adherence. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the associations between eight major PFAS and adherence to each dietary pattern. The WHO recommended diet was positively associated with perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS). The LCHP diet was positively related to four out of eight PFAS; namely, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA). The Mediterranean-like diet was positively associated with most PFAS; namely perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), PFHxS, PFNA, PFDA, and PFUnDA. All dietary patterns were positively associated with blood levels of PFAS. The highest body burden of PFAS was found in individuals with high adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, whilst individuals who more closely followed the officially recommended diet displayed a lower body burden of these compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Variability of perfluoroalkyl substance concentrations in pregnant women by socio-demographic and dietary factors in a Spanish birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano-Salgado, Cyntia B; Casas, Maribel; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Ballester, Ferran; Martinez, David; Ibarluzea, Jesus; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Schettgen, Thomas; Vioque, Jesus; Sunyer, Jordi; Vrijheid, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) might affect child health; but maternal determinants of PFAS exposure are unclear. We evaluated the socio-demographic and dietary factors of prenatal PFAS concentrations in a Spanish birth cohort. We analyzed perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in 1216 plasma samples collected during the 1(ST) trimester of pregnancy (2003-2008). We used multivariable linear regressions to assess the geometric mean (GM) ratios of PFAS concentrations by socio-demographic and dietary factors. We used analysis of variance (ANOVA) to assess the variability of PFAS concentrations by maternal factors. GM PFAS concentrations ranged from 0.55ng/mL for PFHxS to 5.77ng/mL for PFOS. Women born outside of Spain had lower PFAS concentrations (e.g. GM ratio for PFHxS 0.53[95%CI: 0.46, 0.60] than Spanish women. PFHxS and PFOA concentrations were higher in mothers from the regions of Sabadell (2.13[1.93, 2.35] and 1.73[1.60, 1.88], respectively) and Valencia (1.40[1.28, 1.54] and 1.42[1.31, 1.53], respectively) than Gipuzkoa. PFOA and PFNA concentrations decreased with parity (≥2 children: 0.79[0.67, 0.94] and 0.82[0.68, 0.99], respectively). Younger women (i.e. 6months compared to those who never breastfed (0.79[0.67, 0.94] and 0.82[0.71, 0.95], respectively). High intake of fish and shellfish during pregnancy (i.e. ≥5.6 servings/week) was associated with 11% (1.11[1.04, 1.18]) higher PFOS concentrations than the lowest intake group. Our ANOVA models explained 26% to 40% of PFAS concentrations variability. Prenatal PFAS concentrations were mainly determined by maternal country of birth, region of residence, previous breastfeeding and age. Fish and shellfish intake also contributed to PFOS and PFOA concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Lamb meat colour stability as affected by dietary tannins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Pennisi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one male Comisana lambs were divided into three groups at 45 days of age and were individually penned for 60 days. Seven lambs were fed a concentrate-based diet (C, seven lambs received the same concentrate with the addiction of tannins from quebracho (Schinopsis lorentzii; T, whereas the remaining animals were fed exclusively fresh vetch (Vicia sativa; H. Colour descriptors (a*, b* and H* and metmyoglobin (MMb percentages were measured on minced semimembranosus muscle over 14 days of refrigerated storage in a high oxygen atmosphere. Regardless of dietary treatment, meat redness decreased, while yellowness and hue angle increased (P < 0.001 over storage duration. However, higher a* values, lower b* values and lower H* values were observed in meat from both H- and T-fed animals as compared to meat from C-fed lambs (P = 0.012; P = 0.02; P = 0.003, respectively. Metmyoglobin formation increased over time (P < 0.001, but H diet resulted in lower metmyoglobin percentages than C diet (P = 0.007. We conclude that the inclusion of tannins into the concentrate improved meat colour stability compared to a tannin-free concentrate. Moreover, the protective effect of tannins against meat discolouration was comparable to that obtained by feeding lambs fresh herbage.

  19. Adaptive coping strategies of affected family members of a relative with substance misuse: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Terence V; Lubman, Dan I

    2018-01-01

    To explore the coping strategies used by affected family members of a relative with substance misuse. Families play an important role in supporting a relative with substance misuse. However, the experience often has an adverse effect on their general well-being, the extent of which depends largely on their coping strategies. An interpretative phenomenological analysis study. Data were collected between January - December 2015. Semistructured, audio-recorded qualitative interviews were conducted with 31 affected family members. Three main themes and related subthemes were abstracted from the data illustrating how participants coped with their relative's substance misuse: (1) Seeking timely access to evidence-based information; (2) Enhancing personal coping strategies and (3) Accessing informal and formal support. Greater investment is needed in support services for affected family members, particularly in regional and rural areas. A wide range of accessible evidence-based information and informal and formal support, including telephone and online support, is needed to assist them to cope in this crucial support-giving role. Affected family members need to adopt a flexible set of coping strategies while supporting a relative with substance misuse. Family and friends, alcohol and other drug services, mental health nurses and other clinicians have a critical role providing emotional, instrumental and educational support to affected family members to enhance their adaptive coping strategies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Affective Self-Regulation Trajectories during Secondary School Predict Substance Use among Urban Minority Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Kenneth W.; Lowe, Sarah R.; Acevedo, Bianca P.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between trajectories of affective self-regulation skills during secondary school and young adult substance use in a large multiethnic, urban sample (N = 995). During secondary school, participants completed a measure of cognitive and behavioral skills used to control negative, unpleasant emotions or perceived…

  1. Dietary composition affects odour emissions from meat chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishchal K. Sharma

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abatement of odour emissions has become an important consideration to agricultural industries, including poultry production. The link between diet and odour emissions was studied in two experiments using Ross 308 male meat chickens reared in specially designed chambers in a climate controlled room. In the first experiment, two treatments were compared using three replicates of two birds per chamber. Two wheat-soy based treatment diets were formulated with or without canola seed, an ingredient rich in sulfur amino acids. Treatment 1 (T1 had 13.39 MJ/kg ME (as fed and used 60 g/kg canola seed without corn while Treatment 2 (T2 contained 12.90 MJ/kg ME (as fed and used 150 g/kg corn without canola seed. In the second experiment, birds were assigned to three dietary treatments of five replicates with five birds per replicate (chamber. The basal starter, grower and finisher diets in the control group (SBM group contained soybean meal in the range of 227–291 g/kg (as fed as the main protein source. The other treatments (CM and MBM groups contained either high levels of canola meal (174–190 g/kg or meat meal (74–110 g/kg at the expense of soybean meal. In both experiments, diets were isocaloric, isonitrogenous and contained similar digestible amino acid contents as per 2007 Aviagen Ross 308 guidelines. Emissions of odour were measured using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. In both experiments, major odorous compounds detected included 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl, 2-butanone, dimethyl disulfide, methyl mercaptan, ethyl mercaptan, 2-butanol, 3-methyl-butanal, phenol and m-cresol. In the first experiment, T1 (with canola seed produced higher concentration of methyl mercaptan (P < 0.05 and lower diacetyl (P < 0.01 than T2. In the second experiment, methyl mercaptan emission was higher in SBM group (P = 0.01 and total elemental sulfur were higher in SBM and CM groups up to day 24 (P < 0.01. Results of these experiments

  2. Effects of parent-child affective quality during high school years on subsequent substance use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina S. Ralston

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The literature indicates that the quality of affective relationships between youth and parents is associated with lower levels of a range of problem behaviors during childhood, early and late adolescence. While the protective effect of parental monitoring on substance use in the high school and post high school years has been demonstrated, there is a knowledge gap concerning effects of parent-child affective quality (PCAQ during the same periods. We tested a conceptual theoretical model to examine the effects of PCAQ on substance use following high school. The sample was from a RCT that assessed adolescents in rural Iowa from the seventh grade through two years after high school (N=456. We specified direct effects of PCAQ in 12th grade on drunkenness, smoking and illicit drug use during the two years immediately following high school graduation. We also specified the effects of early substance use initiation (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use reported at baseline on later use. The direct effect of PCAQ in 12th grade on substance use was significant for all substances during at least one of the two years past graduation (ypg. Results were: drunkenness 1 ypg, β=-.126, p<.05; smoking 1 ypg, β=-.119, p<.05; 2 ypg, β=-.146, p<.05; illicit drug use 2 ypg, β=-.165, p<.05. Some significant indirect effects of PCAQ at baseline, via PCAQ at 12th grade, were found. Results also indicated significant direct effects of early initiation on two of the three substances, albeit with a different pattern of effects over time for each substance by years post high school. Importantly, while early initiation remains the strongest predictor of long-term tobacco and illicit drug use, results show how PCAQ might reduce its harmful effects.

  3. Does Dietary Fiber Affect the Levels of Nutritional Components after Feed Formulation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidu Adams

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies on dietary fiber and nutrient bioavailability have gained an increasing interest in both human and animal nutrition. Questions are increasingly being asked regarding the faith of nutrient components such as proteins, minerals, vitamins, and lipids after feed formulation. The aim of this review is to evaluate the evidence with the perspective of fiber usage in feed formulation. The consumption of dietary fiber may affect the absorption of nutrients in different ways. The physicochemical factors of dietary fiber, such as fermentation, bulking ability, binding ability, viscosity and gel formation, water-holding capacity and solubility affect nutrient absorption. The dietary fiber intake influences the different methods in which nutrients are absorbed. The increase in the total fiber content of the diet may delay the glycemic response. Soluble fiber decreased blood glucose content whereas purified insoluble fiber has a little or no effect on the blood glucose levels after a meal. Dietary fiber and prebiotics influence the host animal well-being by regulating blood glucose or insulin levels, stool bulking effects, increasing the acidity of the gut, constructive synthesis of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs, decreasing intestinal transit time, stimulating the growth of intestinal microbes, and increasing blood parameters. Previous studies suggest that fiber affects the bioavailability of nutrients, and maintains the host wellness.

  4. Relationship of aggression, negative affect, substance use problems, and childhood delinquency to DWI recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Braden K; Nochajski, Thomas; Wieczorek, William

    2016-01-01

    Driving under the influence remains a pervasive problem. Approximately 30% of those arrested for impaired driving offenses each year are repeat offenders, suggesting that current rehabilitative efforts are not sufficiently effective for reducing driving while intoxicated (DWI) recidivism. Aggression, negative affect, substance use problems, and childhood delinquency have been noted in the population of impaired drivers, but study of these variables on recidivism has been limited. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of aggression, negative affect, substance use problems, and childhood delinquency on DWI recidivism among first time offenders. In 1992, 6436 individuals in impaired driver programs in New York State were surveyed. A total of 3511 individuals provided names so that state driver abstracts could be reviewed in the future. A total of 2043 matches were found and 1770 remained after excluding those with previous DWI convictions. Driver records were reviewed in 2010 and 2012, providing between 18 and 20 years of follow-up. During the follow-up period, 16.5% of individuals were arrested for an impaired driving offense. Multivariate analysis suggested that recidivism was a function of several problems, including: alcohol problem severity, aggression, negative affect, drug problem severity, criminal history, and childhood delinquency. Impaired driving programs should assess for childhood delinquency, aggressive tendencies, and negative affect as these constructs, along with substance use, are evident among impaired drivers who recidivate. Interventions addressing aggression and negative affect may ultimately prove useful in reducing recidivism.

  5. How does dietary particle size affect carnivore gastrointestinal transit: A dog model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cuyper, A; Hesta, M; Tibosch, S; Wanke, C; Clauss, M; Janssens, G P J

    2018-04-01

    The effect of dietary particle size on gastrointestinal transit in carnivores has not been studied and might offer more insight into their digestive physiology. This study evaluated the effect of two dietary particle sizes (fine = 7.8 mm vs. coarse = 13 mm) of chunked day-old chicks on transit parameters in dogs. Six beagle dogs were fed both dietary treatments in a crossover design of 7 days with transit testing on the fifth day. Transit parameters were assessed using two markers, that is a wireless motility capsule (IntelliCap ® ) and titanium oxide (TiO 2 ). Dietary particle size did not affect gastric emptying time (GRT), small bowel transit time (SBTT), colonic transit time (CTT) and total transit time (aTTT) of the capsule (p > .05). There was no effect of dietary particle size on TiO 2 mean retention time (MRT) (p > .05). The time of last TiO 2 excretion (MaxRT) differed (p = .013) between diets, being later for the coarse diet. Both MRT (R = 0.617, p = .032) and MaxRT (R = 0.814; p = .001) were positively correlated to aTTT. The ratio MRT/aTTT tended towards a difference between diets (p = .059) with the coarse diet exceeding fine diet values. Results show that the difference between capsule measurements and TiO 2 is larger for the fine than the coarse diet suggesting that the capsule becomes more accurate when dietary particle size approaches marker size. Dietary particle size might have affected transit parameters but differences are too small to claim major physiological consequences. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Dietary restriction of rodents decreases aging rate without affecting initial mortality rate a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, Mirre J. P.; Koch, Wouter; Verhulst, Simon

    Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan in multiple species from various taxa. This effect can arise via two distinct but not mutually exclusive ways: a change in aging rate and/or vulnerability to the aging process (i.e. initial mortality rate). When DR affects vulnerability, this lowers

  7. How physicians professional socialisation and social technologies may affect colleagues in substance use disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Johanne Korsdal

    2018-01-01

    . The article draws attention to the role of physician work culture in the development and management of physicians own substance use and SUD. It reports results from my Danish study analysing how professional socialisation and social technologies affect physicians disclosure of their own SUD and their help...... seeking at work. The work-related aspects that in some cases affect the development of substance use and SUD include hierarchical pressure, emotional strain from critical patient cases and work-related competition. In the analysis a disciplinary paradox concerning the social technologies intended...... to normalise and standardise physicians’ conduct and ensure the quality of treatment. Ironically, the social technologies seemed to have an unintended consequence: to conserve and maintain SUD rather than facilitating treatment and recovery. For instance, I show how the fear of social sanctions in the form...

  8. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids affect tissue lipid composition but not de novo lipogenesis in finishing pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Bee , Giuseppe

    2001-01-01

    International audience; Dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been reported to profoundly affect lipid metabolism and to act as repartitioning agents. Currently, little is known about their effect on the fatty acid profile of tissue lipids in pigs. In the present study we determined the lipid composition of the backfat inner (BFI) and outer layer (BFO), omental fat (OF) and intramuscular fat (IMF) of the longissimus dorsi muscle in 24 Swiss Large White pigs fed diets supplemented eithe...

  9. Stimulus control and affect in dietary behaviours. An intensive longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Benjamin; Bower, Jodie; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2015-04-01

    Dietary behaviours are substantially influenced by environmental and internal stimuli, such as mood, social situation, and food availability. However, little is known about the role of stimulus control for eating in non-clinical populations, and no studies so far have looked at eating and drinking behaviour simultaneously. 53 individuals from the general population took part in an intensive longitudinal study with repeated, real-time assessments of eating and drinking using Ecological Momentary Assessment. Eating was assessed as main meals and snacks, drinks assessments were separated along alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks. Situational and internal stimuli were assessed during both eating and drinking events, and during randomly selected non-eating occasions. Hierarchical multinomial logistic random effects models were used to analyse data, comparing dietary events to non-eating occasions. Several situational and affective antecedents of dietary behaviours could be identified. Meals were significantly associated with having food available and observing others eat. Snacking was associated with negative affect, having food available, and observing others eat. Engaging in activities and being with others decreased the likelihood of eating behaviours. Non-alcoholic drinks were associated with observing others eat, and less activities and company. Alcoholic drinks were associated with less negative affect and arousal, and with observing others eat. RESULTS support the role of stimulus control in dietary behaviours, with support for both internal and external, in particular availability and social stimuli. The findings for negative affect support the idea of comfort eating, and results point to the formation of eating habits via cue-behaviour associations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Analyses of the Erosive Effect of Dietary Substances and Medications on Deciduous Teeth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Lussi

    Full Text Available This study aimed at analysing the erosive potential of 30 substances (drinks, candies, and medicaments on deciduous enamel, and analyse the associated chemical factors with enamel dissolution. We analysed the initial pH, titratable acidity (TA to pH 5.5, calcium (Ca, inorganic phosphate (Pi, and fluoride (F concentration, and degree of saturation ((pK -pIHAP, (pK -pIFAP, and (pK-pICaF2 of all substances. Then, we randomly distributed 300 specimens of human deciduous enamel into 30 groups (n = 10 for each of the substances tested. We also prepared 20 specimens of permanent enamel for the sake of comparison between the two types of teeth, and we tested them in mineral water and Coca-Cola®. In all specimens, we measured surface hardness (VHN: Vickers hardness numbers and surface reflection intensity (SRI at baseline (SH baseline and SRI baseline, after a total of 2 min (SH2 min and after 4 min (SH4 min and SRI4 min erosive challenges (60 ml of substance for 6 enamel samples; 30°C, under constant agitation at 95 rpm. There was no significant difference in SH baseline between deciduous and permanent enamel. Comparing both teeth, we observed that after the first erosive challenge with Coca-Cola®, a significantly greater hardness loss was seen in deciduous (-90.2 ± 11.3 VHN than in permanent enamel (-44.3 ± 12.2 VHN; p = 0.007, but no differences between the two types of teeth were observed after two challenges (SH4 min. After both erosive challenges, all substances except for mineral water caused a significant loss in relative surface reflectivity intensity, and most substances caused a significant loss in surface hardness. Multiple regression analyses showed that pH, TA and Ca concentration play a significant role in initial erosion of deciduous enamel. We conclude that drinks, foodstuffs and medications commonly consumed by children can cause erosion of deciduous teeth and erosion is mainly associated with pH, titratable acidity and calcium

  11. Analyses of the Erosive Effect of Dietary Substances and Medications on Deciduous Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussi, Adrian; Carvalho, Thiago Saads

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at analysing the erosive potential of 30 substances (drinks, candies, and medicaments) on deciduous enamel, and analyse the associated chemical factors with enamel dissolution. We analysed the initial pH, titratable acidity (TA) to pH 5.5, calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphate (Pi), and fluoride (F) concentration, and degree of saturation ((pK -pI)HAP, (pK -pI)FAP, and (pK-pI)CaF2) of all substances. Then, we randomly distributed 300 specimens of human deciduous enamel into 30 groups (n = 10 for each of the substances tested. We also prepared 20 specimens of permanent enamel for the sake of comparison between the two types of teeth, and we tested them in mineral water and Coca-Cola®. In all specimens, we measured surface hardness (VHN: Vickers hardness numbers) and surface reflection intensity (SRI) at baseline (SH baseline and SRI baseline), after a total of 2 min (SH2 min) and after 4 min (SH4 min and SRI4 min) erosive challenges (60 ml of substance for 6 enamel samples; 30°C, under constant agitation at 95 rpm). There was no significant difference in SH baseline between deciduous and permanent enamel. Comparing both teeth, we observed that after the first erosive challenge with Coca-Cola®, a significantly greater hardness loss was seen in deciduous (-90.2 ± 11.3 VHN) than in permanent enamel (-44.3 ± 12.2 VHN; p = 0.007), but no differences between the two types of teeth were observed after two challenges (SH4 min). After both erosive challenges, all substances except for mineral water caused a significant loss in relative surface reflectivity intensity, and most substances caused a significant loss in surface hardness. Multiple regression analyses showed that pH, TA and Ca concentration play a significant role in initial erosion of deciduous enamel. We conclude that drinks, foodstuffs and medications commonly consumed by children can cause erosion of deciduous teeth and erosion is mainly associated with pH, titratable acidity and calcium

  12. How dietary arachidonic- and docosahexaenoic- acid rich oils differentially affect the murine hepatic transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Matthew A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Herein, we expand our previous work on the effects of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA on the murine hepatic transcriptome using novel statistical and bioinformatic approaches for evaluating microarray data. The analyses focuses on key differences in the transcriptomic response that will influence metabolism following consumption of FUNG (rich in 20:4n6, FISH (rich in 20:5n3, 22:5n3, and 22:6n3 and COMB, the combination of the two. Results Using a variance-stabilized F-statistic, 371 probe sets (out of 13 K probe sets in the Affymetrix Mu11K chip set were changed by dietary treatment (P Conclusion Distinct transcriptomic, signaling cascades, and predicted affects on murine liver metabolism have been elucidated for 20:4n6-rich dietary oils, 22:6n3-rich oils, and a surprisingly distinct set of genes were affected by the combination of the two. Our results emphasize that the balance of dietary n6 and n3 LC-PUFA provided for infants and in nutritional and neutraceutical applications could have profoundly different affects on metabolism and cell signaling, beyond that previously recognized.

  13. Dietary fat level affecting histochemical radiosensitivity in dorsal aorta in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousri, R.M.; Roushdy, H.M.; EL-Malkh, N.M.; Ashry, M.A.; Soliman, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    The present work has been conducted to investigate the effect of dietary fat status and/or cumulative whole body gamma radiation exposures up to 15 Gy the histochemical pattern of the dorsal aortas of male albino rats. Experimental animals were fed on either fat-rich or fat-free diet and the observations compared with those fed normal fat diet. The histochemical investigations has been confined to the concentration levels of mucopolysaccharide substance and total lipids. The dorsal aorta normal fat group showed higher content of PAS-positive material in the first two layers of the aorta wall in comparison with decreased amount of collagen fibers was shown in fat-rich group

  14. Subtyping Women with Bulimia Nervosa along Dietary and Negative Affect Dimensions: Further Evidence of Reliability and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Bohon, Cara; Marti, C. Nathan; Fischer, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Studies have found that individuals with bulimia nervosa can be classified into dietary and dietary-negative affect subtypes and that the latter exhibit greater eating pathology, psychiatric comorbidity, and functional impairment; a more protracted clinical course; and a worse treatment response. In this report, the authors describe 2 prospective…

  15. Dietary Linoleic and a-Linolenic Acid Affect Anxiety-Related Responses and Exploratory Activity in Growing Pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clouard, C.M.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Kerkhof, van I.; Smink, W.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Growing evidence suggests that the dietary ratio of linoleic acid (LA) to a-linolenic acid (ALA), the precursors of arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), respectively, may affect behavior in mammals. Objective: This study aimed at evaluating the impact of dietary LA and

  16. Seasonality affects dietary diversity of school-age children in northern Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Razak Abizari

    Full Text Available Dietary diversity score (DDS is relatively easy to measure and is shown to be a very useful indicator of the probability of adequate micronutrient intake. Dietary diversity, however, is usually assessed during a single period and little is known about the effect of seasonality on it. This study investigates whether dietary diversity is influenced by seasonality.Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in two different seasons-dry season (October 2010 and rainy season (May 2011 among the same school-age children (SAC in two rural schools in northern Ghana. The study population consisted of 228 school-age children. A qualitative 24-hour dietary recall was conducted in both seasons. Based on 13 food groups, a score of 1 was given if a child consumed a food item belonging to a particular food group, else 0. Individual scores were aggregated into DDS for each child. Differences in mean DDS between seasons were compared using linear mixed model analysis.The dietary pattern of the SAC was commonly plant foods with poor consumption of animal source foods. The mean DDS was significantly higher (P < 0.001 in the rainy season (6.95 ± 0.55 compared to the dry season (6.44 ± 0.55 after adjusting for potential confounders such as age, sex, occupation (household head and mother and education of household head. The difference in mean DDS between dry and rainy seasons was mainly due to the difference in the consumption of Vitamin A-rich fruits and vegetables between the seasons. While vitamin A-rich fruits (64.0% vs. 0.9%; P < 0.0001 and vitamin A rich dark green leafy vegetables (52.6% vs. 23.3%, P < .0001 were consumed more during the rainy season than the dry season, more children consumed vitamin A-rich deep yellow, orange and red vegetables during the dry season than during the rainy season (73.7% vs. 36.4%, P <0.001.Seasonality has an effect on DDS and may affect the quality of dietary intake of SAC; in such a context, it would be useful to measure DDS

  17. Psychometric properties of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) in a heterogeneous sample of substance users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Kelly; Malin-Mayor, Bo; Nich, Charla; Hunkele, Karen; Carroll, Kathleen M

    2016-03-01

    The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) is a widely used measure of affect. A comprehensive psychometric evaluation among substance users, however, has not been published. To examine the psychometric properties of the PANAS in a sample of outpatient treatment substance users. We used pooled data from four randomized clinical trials (N = 416; 34% female, 48% African American). A confirmatory factor analysis indicated adequate support for a two-factor correlated model comprised of Positive Affect and Negative Affect with correlated item errors (Comparative Fit Index = 0.93, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = 0.07, χ(2) = 478.93, df = 156). Cronbach's α indicated excellent internal consistency for both factors (0.90 and 0.91, respectively). The PANAS factors had good convergence and discriminability (Composite Reliability > 0.7; Maximum Shared Variance Positive Affect = 0.80, Negative Affect = 0.76). Concurrent and discriminant validity were demonstrated with correlations with the Brief Symptom Inventory and Addiction Severity Index. The PANAS scores were also significantly correlated with treatment outcomes (e.g. Positive Affect was associated with the maximum days of consecutive abstinence from primary substance of abuse, r = 0.16, p = 0.001). Our data suggest that the psychometric properties of the PANAS are retained in substance using populations. Although several studies have focused on the role of Negative Affect, our findings suggest that Positive Affect may also be an important factor in substance use treatment outcomes.

  18. Relationship between drug dreams, affect, and craving during treatment for substance dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanguay, Hélène; Zadra, Antonio; Good, Daniel; Leri, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    To explore the relationship between occurrence of drug dreams (DDs) and daytime negative affect and drug craving during the course of a 5-week treatment program for substance dependence. Using the dream journal methodology, 86 participants reported occurrence of dreams, dream content, and ratings of affect and drug craving. The relationships between the experience of DD, dream content ("active" vs "passive"), and affect and craving were analyzed using mixed model methods. The experience of DD was associated with higher levels of negative affect (P < 0.001) and craving (P < 0.001). The occurrence of DD did not decrease significantly over the 5 weeks of the study. Cocaine/crack users reported a higher occurrence of DD (P < 0.05) than the other drug groups (opiates and alcohol), and DD involving "active" drug use was associated with larger (P < 0.05) changes in negative affect. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that DD can act as drug-conditioned stimuli to elevate negative affect and craving in abstaining individuals. Although correlational, such findings support the implementation of psychological and pharmacological interventions aimed at minimizing the impact of DD on individuals in recovery from drug addiction.

  19. Dietary carbohydrate deprivation increases 24-hour nitrogen excretion without affecting postabsorptive hepatic or whole body protein metabolism in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; de Sain-van der Velden, MGM; Stellaard, F; Kuipers, F; Meijer, AJ; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    Because insulin is an important regulator of protein metabolism, we hypothesized that physiological modulation of insulin secretion, by means of extreme variations in dietary carbohydrate content, affects postabsorptive protein metabolism. Therefore, we studied the effects of three isocaloric diets

  20. Dietary carbohydrate deprivation increases 24-hour nitrogen excretion without affecting postabsorptive hepatic or whole body protein metabolism in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, P. H.; de Sain-van der Velden, M. G. M.; Stellaard, F.; Kuipers, F.; Meijer, A. J.; Sauerwein, H. P.; Romijn, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Because insulin is an important regulator of protein metabolism, we hypothesized that physiological modulation of insulin secretion, by means of extreme variations in dietary carbohydrate content, affects postabsorptive protein metabolism. Therefore, we studied the effects of three isocaloric diets

  1. Selective prevention programs for children from substance-affected families: a comprehensive systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bröning Sonja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Children from substance-affected families show an elevated risk for developing own substance-related or other mental disorders. Therefore, they are an important target group for preventive efforts. So far, such programs for children of substance-involved parents have not been reviewed together. We conducted a comprehensive systematic review to identify and summarize evaluations of selective preventive interventions in childhood and adolescence targeted at this specific group. From the overall search result of 375 articles, 339 were excluded, 36 full texts were reviewed. From these, nine eligible programs documented in 13 studies were identified comprising four school-based interventions (study 1–6, one community-based intervention (study 7–8, and four family-based interventions (study 9–13. Studies’ levels of evidence were rated in accordance with the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN methodology, and their quality was ranked according to a score adapted from the area of meta-analytic family therapy research and consisting of 15 study design quality criteria. Studies varied in program format, structure, content, and participants. They also varied in outcome measures, results, and study design quality. We found seven RCT’s, two well designed controlled or quasi-experimental studies, three well-designed descriptive studies, and one qualitative study. There was preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of the programs, especially when their duration was longer than ten weeks and when they involved children’s, parenting, and family skills training components. Outcomes proximal to the intervention, such as program-related knowledge, coping-skills, and family relations, showed better results than more distal outcomes such as self-worth and substance use initiation, the latter due to the comparably young age of participants and sparse longitudinal data. However, because of the small overall number of studies found

  2. Alcohol and dietary fibre intakes affect circulating sex hormones among premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Morimoto, Yukiko; Takata, Yumie; Murphy, Suzanne P; Stanczyk, Frank Z

    2006-10-01

    The association of alcohol and fibre intake with breast cancer may be mediated by circulating sex hormone levels, which are predictors of breast cancer risk. To evaluate the relationship of alcohol and dietary fibre intake with circulating sex hormone levels among premenopausal women. A total of 205 premenopausal women completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline and after 2 years; blood samples taken at the same time were analysed for circulating sex hormone concentrations, including oestrone (E1), oestradiol (E2), free E2, progesterone, androstenedione and sex hormone-binding globulin, by radioimmunoassay. We used mixed models to estimate least-square means of sex hormone concentrations for alcohol intake categories and quartiles of dietary intake. After adjustment for covariates, alcohol consumption was moderately associated with higher circulating oestrogen levels; those who consumed more than one drink per day had 20% higher E2 (Ptrend=0.07) levels than non-drinkers. In contrast, higher dietary fibre intake was associated with lower serum levels of androstenedione (-8% between the lowest and highest quartiles of intake, Ptrend=0.06), but not oestrogens. Similarly, consumption of fruits (-12%, Ptrend=0.03), vegetables (-9%, Ptrend=0.15) and whole grains (-7%, Ptrend=0.07) showed inverse associations with androstenedione levels. The consistency of the observed differences in sex hormone levels associated with alcohol and fibre-rich foods indicates that these nutritional factors may affect sex hormone concentrations and play a role in breast cancer aetiology and prevention.

  3. DIETARY BLACK CUMIN (NIGELLA SATIVA SEED OIL AFFECTS SERUM LIPIDS IN CHICKEN BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Hodžić

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The research was performed on 40 chicken broilers of Cobb provenience to investigate the effect of dietary black cumin seed oil on some blood biochemical parameters in chicken broilers. 40 chicken broilers who were included in the 42 days lasting experiment were divided into two groups, each one of 20 individuals. Group K was the control – with no added oil in feed mixture and the second group P was the experimental one – chickens were fed with 0,025 g of p.o. administered black cumin seed oil. Feed and water supplies were ad libitum. Microclimate conditions (light, temperature and airflow were maintained according to the technological procedure. Blood samples were taken from the wing vein of all animals from both groups at age of 25, 32 and 39 days. The following blood serum biochemical parameters were determined: total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, albumen and calcium. Dietary black cumin seed oil significantly (P<0.05 affected serum lipid components, particularly total lipids, but not albumen and calcium in chicken broilers. Possible reason for these findings could be dietary fat component as well as fatty-acid composition of added black cumin seed oil. Key words: black cumin seed oil, chicken broilers, blood serum biochemical parameters, fatty acid composition of oil

  4. VARIATIONS IN MATERNAL DIETARY FATTY ACID COMPOSITION AFFECTS THE NEURODEVELOPMENT OF RAT PUPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids are part of the structural matrix of cellular and subcellular membranes. Alterations in tissue fatty acid composition can affect nerve tissue function by altering membrane thickness or by changing properties of the lipid phase. In this study, the appearance of specific neurodevelopment responses was observed on rap pups whose dams were fed on varied dietary fatty acid composition. Three dietary treatments of corn oil, fish oil and reference meals were administered on these groups of pregnant dams. From postnatal day 5 to 30, littered pups were assessed daily for the appearance of neurodevelopmental reflexes based on the Smart- Dobbing method. The neurodevelopmental attributes of Righting reflex, Cliff avoidance, Negative geotaxis, Auditory startle, Vibrissa placing, Free-fall righting and Visual placing was observed in experimental pups between day 5 and 30. Tests were conducted between 1200 and 1400h. A 30 seconds time limit was employed in testing of the cliff-avoidance and negative-geotaxis appearance. The time appearance of auditory-startle and vibrissa-placing responses were significantly delayed (P and lt;0.05 in pups of dietary fish oil and ndash; fed dams than those of corn oil fed dams. The delay in auditory-startle response may be due to negative myelination of the auditory brainstem pathway.

  5. Dietary Components Affect the Plasma and Tissue Levels of Lutein in Aged Rats with Lutein Deficiency--A Repeated Gavage and Dietary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshappa, Mamatha Bangera; Ranganathan, Arunkumar; Bhatiwada, Nidhi; Talahalli, Ramprasad Ravichandra; Vallikannan, Baskaran

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the influence of selected dietary components on plasma and tissue response of repeated micellar and dietary lutein in aged rats with lutein deficiency. In repeated (16 d) gavage study, micellar lutein was co-ingested with either phosphatidylcholine (PC), lyso-phosphatidylcholine (lysoPC), β-carotene, dietary fiber or vegetable fat (3% soybean oil). In dietary study, rats were fed (4 wk) semi-synthetic diet either with lutein + PC, lutein + dietary fiber or B. alba (lutein source) + PC. The post-prandial plasma and tissue response of lutein was measured by HPLC. Results showed that micellar fat, PC and lysoPC significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased the lutein levels in plasma (31.1%, 26.8%, and 34.9%), liver (27.4%, 29.5%, and 8.6%), and eyes (63.5%, 90.2%, and 86%) compared to the control group (group gavaged micelles with no dietary components studied). Similarly, dietary study showed an enhanced plasma, liver, and eye lutein levels by 44.8%, 24.1%, and 42.0% (lutein + PC group) and 51.7%, 39.8%, and 31.7% (B.alba + PC group), respectively compared to control. The activity of antioxidant enzymes in plasma and liver of both the studies were also affected compared to control. Result reveals, that PC enhance the intestinal absorption of both micellar and dietary lutein which is either in free or bound form with food matrices in aged rats with lutein deficiency. Hence, PC at a concentration used in this study can be considered to improve the lutein bioavailability in lutein deficiency. Lutein and zeaxanthin are macular pigments acquired mostly from greens, that play an significant role in protecting vision from Age related macular degeneration (AMD). However, their biological availability is poor and affected by dietary components. This study demonstrates the positive influence of dietary PC and lyso PC in improving intestinal uptake of lutein. Our previous and present finding shows there is a possibility of developing functional

  6. Dietary sucrose and starch affect dysplastic characteristics in carcinogen-induced aberrant crypt foci in rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caderni, G; Lancioni, L; Luceri, C; Giannini, A; Lodovici, M; Biggeri, A; Dolara, P

    1997-03-19

    To study whether dietary carbohydrates affect dysplasia in aberrant crypt foci (ACF), rats treated with 1,2-dimethilhydrazine (DMH) were fed for three months with diets containing 46% sucrose or corn starch. The number of ACF/colon in the two dietary groups was similar (P = 0.58), but ACF were smaller in the starch than in sucrose group (P colon carcinogenesis while sucrose in the diet is detrimental, promoting the dysplasia of preneoplastic lesions like ACF.

  7. Dietary protein level affects iridescent coloration in Anna's hummingbirds, Calypte anna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Melissa G; Roudybush, Thomas E; McGraw, Kevin J

    2012-08-15

    Many animal displays involve colorful ornamental traits that signal an individual's quality as a mate or rival. Brilliant iridescent ornaments are common, but little is currently known about their production cost and signaling value. One potential cost of colorful ornaments is the acquisition of limited dietary resources that may be involved, directly or indirectly, in their production. Protein, the primary component of bird feathers and of many nanostructural components of iridescent traits, is naturally restricted in hummingbird diets (comprised mostly of sugars), suggesting that iridescent coloration may be especially challenging to produce in these animals. In this study, we experimentally investigated the effect of dietary protein availability during molt on iridescent color expression in male Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna). We fed captive birds either a 6% (high) or a 3% (low) protein diet and stimulated molt by plucking half the gorget and crown ornaments on each bird as well as the non-ornamental iridescent green tail feathers. We found that birds receiving more protein grew significantly more colorful crown feathers (higher red chroma and redder hue) than those fed the low-protein diet. Diet did not affect gorget coloration, but regrowth of feathers in captivity affected both gorget and crown coloration. Additionally, birds on the high-protein diet grew yellower (higher hue) green tail feathers than birds on the low-protein diet. These results indicate that iridescent ornamental feathers are sensitive to diet quality and may serve as honest signals of nutrition to mates or rivals. Further, because both ornamental and non-ornamental iridescent coloration were affected by conditions during their growth, iridescent color in these birds appears to be generally condition dependent.

  8. Sucrose Sensitivity of Honey Bees Is Differently Affected by Dietary Protein and a Neonicotinoid Pesticide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien J Démares

    Full Text Available Over a decade, declines in honey bee colonies have raised worldwide concerns. Several potentially contributing factors have been investigated, e.g. parasites, diseases, and pesticides. Neonicotinoid pesticides have received much attention due to their intensive use in crop protection, and their adverse effects on many levels of honey bee physiology led the European Union to ban these compounds. Due to their neuronal target, a receptor expressed throughout the insect nervous system, studies have focused mainly on neuroscience and behaviour. Through the Geometric Framework of nutrition, we investigated effects of the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam on survival, food consumption and sucrose sensitivity of honey bees (Apis mellifera. Thiamethoxam did not affect protein and carbohydrate intake, but decreased responses to high concentrations of sucrose. Interestingly, when bees ate fixed unbalanced diets, dietary protein facilitated better sucrose detection. Both thiamethoxam and dietary protein influenced survival. These findings suggest that, in the presence of a pesticide and unbalanced food, honey bee health may be severely challenged. Consequences for foraging efficiency and colony activity, cornerstones of honey bee health, are also discussed.

  9. Dietary fatty acids early in life affect lipid metabolism and adiposity in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana Paula S; Guimarães, Daniella E D; Mizurini, Daniella M; Maia, Ingrid C; Ortiz-Costa, Susana; Sardinha, Fátima L; do Carmo, Maria G Tavares

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of four isoenergetic diets of differing fat composition on blood lipid profile and adiposity in young rats. Diets containing different lipid sources--partially hydrogenated vegetable oil (PHVO), palm oil (PO), canola oil (CO), and soy oil (SO)--were fed to lactating rats during the 21 days of lactation, and then fed to young males following weaning until the 45th day of life. In vivo lipogenesis rate (LR), lipid content (LC), relative level of FA, and the activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) enzyme were measured in epididymal adipose tissue (EPI). Fasting blood lipoproteins and LC in the carcass were also appraised. Body weight of PO and PHVO groups was significantly higher than CO and SO groups from day 14 of lactation to day 45, despite the lower food intake in the PHVO group. PO and PHVO groups presented higher LR and LC in EPI than SO and CO groups. Carcass fat content was significantly higher in PHVO and PO groups than in CO and SO groups. The LPL activity in EPI was unaffected by dietary lipids. PHVO group had increased total cholesterol and TAG concentrations in comparison with the PO group, and significantly lower HDL level compared with the other groups. These results show that the kind of FA in the dietary lipid offered early in life can affect lipid metabolism and adiposity.

  10. Colostrum and milk production of sows is affected by dietary conjugated linoleic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Uffe; Flummer, Christine; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2012-01-01

    (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12) from day 108 of gestation until weaning (4 wk after parturition) to evaluate whether dietary CLA affects the yield and composition of colostrum, time for initiation of milk production, and sow milk yield. Sows fed CLA tended to produce more colostral fat (6.3 vs....... 5.2%, respectively; P = 0.10) than CON sows whereas contents of lactose, protein, and dry matter were similar in the two groups. Sows fed CLA tended to produce less colostrum than CON sows (409 vs. 463 g/piglet, respectively; P = 0.07) as predicted by the piglet rate of gain from 0 to 24 h (58 vs.......03). Weight at birth (1.40 kg for both groups; P = 0.98) and at weaning [8.2 kg (CLA) and 8.0 kg (CON); P = 0.52] was not statistically different. In conclusion, colostrum yield was inhibited but milk yield was stimulated by dietary inclusion of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA and indicates that sow...

  11. How nutritional status, diet and dietary supplements can affect autism. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawicka, Anna; Regulska-Ilow, Bozena

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with symptoms arising that are apparent throughout the patient's lifespan. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterised by impaired social and communication interactions as well as restricted, repetitive interests and behaviour. Currently in Poland, about 50 000 people suffer from autism, of which 1/5 are children. Epidemiological studies show that the incidence of autism is increasing, which may be due to the diagnostic category of ASD having been developed. Of vital importance in the treatment of autism, is early diagnosis which is conducive to more rapidly improving the quality of patients' health. It is believed that both genetic and environmental factors may affect the development of the disease. Moreover, expert opinion emphasises the importance of making an adequate diagnosis when the first symptoms of autism start appearing which can be both psychological, gastro-intestinal and metabolic ones. Conventional treatment is based on the combination of behavioural and dietary therapy together with pharmacotherapy. For example, adapting an appropriate diet could help alleviate the disease severity, as well as the psychological and gastrointestinal symptoms. Much scientific research has indicated that pathogenesis of autism may have a beginning already in foetal life. During pregnancy, specialists should take special heed of metabolic disorders, which can increase the risk ofASD in children. One of the dietician's tasks are to properly assess the nutritional status of mothers before and during pregnancy, thereby allowing changes in nutrition to be made wherever necessary in order that metabolic indicators be improved. Thus an important part of autism therapy is the improving patient's nutritional status to prevent the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms. Adopting diets and tailored to individual disease symptoms, is linked to the nutritional requirements and food preferences of the patient. Specialists also emphasise that

  12. Perfluoroalkyl substances in adolescents in northern Norway: Lifestyle and dietary predictors. The Tromsø study, Fit Futures 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averina, Maria; Brox, Jan; Huber, Sandra; Furberg, Anne-Sofie

    2018-05-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are environmentally persistent chemicals widely used in many consumer products due to water and oil proofing and fire-resistant properties. Several PFASs are recognized as environmental pollutants. This study investigated serum concentrations of 18 different PFASs and their associations with diet and lifestyle variables in 940 adolescents (age 15-19 years) who participated in the Fit Futures 1 study in the Troms arctic district of Norway. Serum concentrations of PFASs were analyzed by ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (UHPLC-MS/MS). The most abundant PFASs in this population were perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorononanoate (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) that were found in 99% of the participants. Perfluoroheptane sulfonate (PFHpS) was found in 98% of the participants. Median concentrations were: PFOS 6.20 ng/mL, PFOA 1.92 ng/mL, PFHxS 0.71 ng/mL, PFNA 0.50 ng/mL, PFDA 0.21 ng/mL and PFHpS 0.15 ng/mL. Median of PFASs sum concentration (∑PFAS) was 10.7 ng/mL, the concentration range was 2.6-200.8 ng/mL. Intake of fat fish, fish liver, seagull eggs, reindeer meat and drinks with sugar were the main dietary predictors of several PFASs. Intake of junk food (pizza, hamburger, sausages) was positively associated with PFNA, intake of canned food was positively associated with PFHxS. Intake of fruits and vegetables, milk products, snacks and candy was not associated with PFASs concentrations. Lean fish intake was positively associated with PFUnDA, but not with other PFASs. There was a positive association of ∑PFAS, PFHxS, PFOA, PFNA and PFDA with chewed tobacco use. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Dietary protein content affects evolution for body size, body fat and viability in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten N; Overgaard, Johannes; Loeschcke, Volker

    2011-01-01

    The ability to use different food sources is likely to be under strong selection if organisms are faced with natural variation in macro-nutrient (protein, carbohydrate and lipid) availabilities. Here, we use experimental evolution to study how variable dietary protein content affects adult body...... composition and developmental success in Drosophila melanogaster. We reared flies on either a standard diet or a protein-enriched diet for 17 generations before testing them on both diet types. Flies from lines selected on protein-rich diet produced phenotypes with higher total body mass and relative lipid...... content when compared with those selected on a standard diet, irrespective of which of the two diets they were tested on. However, selection on protein-rich diet incurred a cost as flies reared on this diet had markedly lower developmental success in terms of egg-to-adult viability on both medium types...

  14. Sensation seeking indirectly affects perceptions of risk for co-occurrent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittner, James B; Warner, Margaret A; Swickert, Rhonda J

    2016-02-01

    High sensation seekers engage in more frequent substance use and perceive a host of potentially dangerous activities as less risky than do low sensation seekers. However, despite a plethora of research on these topics, no study has examined the extent to which personal substance use mediates the association between sensation seeking and perceived risk of substance use. To address this question, we recruited a sample of 79 young adults (mean age=19.1 years, standard deviation=1.4). Participants completed questionnaire measures of sensation seeking, substance use, and perceived risk of co-occurrent substance use. Results from path-analytic modeling indicated that both alcohol use and marijuana use mediated the influence of sensation seeking on perceptions of risk for moderately risky, but not highly risky, pairs of substances. Strengths and limitations of the present study were discussed and directions for future research were suggested.

  15. Longitudinal Modeling of the Association Between Transmissible Risk, Affect During Drug Use and Development of Substance Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Ralph E; Kirisci, Levent; Reynolds, Maureen; Horner, Michelle; Zhai, ZuWei; Gathuru, Irene; Vanyukov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation examined the hypothesis that subjective experience during consumption of preferred drugs mediates the association of transmissible risk for substance use disorder (SUD) measured in childhood and adolescence, and SUD diagnosis in adulthood. Transmissible risk denotes the psychological characteristics having intergenerational continuity between parents and their biological children. The transmissible liability index (TLI) was administered to four hundred eighty-three 10 to 12-year-old boys (baseline). Follow-up evaluations were conducted when the boys attained 12-14, 16, 19, and 22 years of age, using age-specific versions of the TLI. Frequency of consumption of the participants' three most preferred drugs, affect on an ordinary day, affect while under influence of the preferred substances, and presence/absence of current SUD were assessed at 22 years of age. Consumption frequency of preferred drugs among boys mediates the association of transmissible risk during childhood, and adolescence and SUD diagnosis in adulthood. Severity of negative affect on a drug-free day predicts frequency of consumption of preferred drugs, which, in turn, predicts severity of negative affect during the drug use event. Neither affect on a drug-free day nor affect during the drug use event mediates the association of transmissible risk and SUD. Affect on drug-free days, and while under influence of preferred substances, covary with consumption frequency; however, affect is not related to transmissible SUD risk or SUD outcome.

  16. Dietary supplementation with dimethylglycine affects broiler performance and plasma metabolites depending on dose and dietary fatty acid profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmar, I.D.; Cools, A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Huyghebaert, G.; Buyse, J.; Roose, P.; Janssens, G.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of dietary supplementation with N,N-dimethylglycine sodium salt (Na-DMG) was evaluated in a feeding trial with 1500 1-day-old broiler chicks (Cobb 500). DMG was supplemented at 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 or 1 g Na-DMG/kg feed to a ration with either animal fat (chicken fat) or vegetal fat (soy oil)

  17. Assessment of dietary intake of flavouring substances within the procedure for their safety evaluation: advantages and limitations of estimates obtained by means of a per capita method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcella, D; Leclercq, C

    2005-01-01

    The procedure for the safety evaluation of flavourings adopted by the European Commission in order to establish a positive list of these substances is a stepwise approach which was developed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and amended by the Scientific Committee on Food. Within this procedure, a per capita amount based on industrial poundage data of flavourings, is calculated to estimate the dietary intake by means of the maximised survey-derived daily intake (MSDI) method. This paper reviews the MSDI method in order to check if it can provide conservative intake estimates as needed at the first steps of a stepwise procedure. Scientific papers and opinions dealing with the MSDI method were reviewed. Concentration levels reported by the industry were compared with estimates obtained with the MSDI method. It appeared that, in some cases, these estimates could be orders of magnitude (up to 5) lower than those calculated considering concentration levels provided by the industry and regular consumption of flavoured foods and beverages. A critical review of two studies which had been used to support the statement that MSDI is a conservative method for assessing exposure to flavourings among high consumers was performed. Special attention was given to the factors that affect exposure at high percentiles, such as brand loyalty and portion sizes. It is concluded that these studies may not be suitable to validate the MSDI method used to assess intakes of flavours by European consumers due to shortcomings in the assumptions made and in the data used. Exposure assessment is an essential component of risk assessment. The present paper suggests that the MSDI method is not sufficiently conservative. There is therefore a clear need for either using an alternative method to estimate exposure to flavourings in the procedure or for limiting intakes to the levels at which the safety was assessed.

  18. Circulating levels of perfluoroalkyl substances are associated with dietary patterns – A cross sectional study in elderly Swedish men and women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjogren, Per, E-mail: per.sjogren@pubcare.uu.se [Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Montse, Rachel, E-mail: charlesrachel@gmail.com [Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Lampa, Erik, E-mail: erik.lampa@ucr.uu.se [Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Salihovic, Samira, E-mail: samira.salihovic@medsci.uu.se [Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Bavel, Bert van, E-mail: Bert.VanBavel@oru.se [MTM Research Centre, Örebro University, Örebro (Sweden); Lind, Lars, E-mail: lars.lind@medsci.uu.se [Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Lind, P. Monica, E-mail: monica.lind@medsci.uu.se [Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2016-10-15

    Background: In our daily life, we are exposed to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) with possible health implications. The main exposure route for these substances is diet but comparative studies on how dietary habits influence exposure are lacking. Objectives: To examine the relations between blood levels of PFAS and adherence to three predefined dietary patterns (a WHO recommended diet, a Mediterranean-like diet, and a Low-Carbohydrate High-Protein (LCHP) diet) in an elderly Swedish population. Methods: Dietary data from 7-day food records and serum concentrations of PFAS were obtained from a 70-year-old Swedish population (n=844), the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. The Healthy Diet Indicator score (based on WHO recommendations), the Mediterranean Diet Score and LCHP score were used to assess adherence. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the associations between eight major PFAS and adherence to each dietary pattern. Results: The WHO recommended diet was positively associated with perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS). The LCHP diet was positively related to four out of eight PFAS; namely, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA). The Mediterranean-like diet was positively associated with most PFAS; namely perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), PFHxS, PFNA, PFDA, and PFUnDA. Conclusions: All dietary patterns were positively associated with blood levels of PFAS. The highest body burden of PFAS was found in individuals with high adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, whilst individuals who more closely followed the officially recommended diet displayed a lower body burden of these compounds. - Highlights: • Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) quantified in blood of 70-y-old Swedish subjects. • Adherence to predefined dietary patterns was associated with circulating PFAS. • A

  19. Circulating levels of perfluoroalkyl substances are associated with dietary patterns – A cross sectional study in elderly Swedish men and women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjogren, Per; Montse, Rachel; Lampa, Erik; Salihovic, Samira; Bavel, Bert van; Lind, Lars; Lind, P. Monica

    2016-01-01

    Background: In our daily life, we are exposed to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) with possible health implications. The main exposure route for these substances is diet but comparative studies on how dietary habits influence exposure are lacking. Objectives: To examine the relations between blood levels of PFAS and adherence to three predefined dietary patterns (a WHO recommended diet, a Mediterranean-like diet, and a Low-Carbohydrate High-Protein (LCHP) diet) in an elderly Swedish population. Methods: Dietary data from 7-day food records and serum concentrations of PFAS were obtained from a 70-year-old Swedish population (n=844), the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. The Healthy Diet Indicator score (based on WHO recommendations), the Mediterranean Diet Score and LCHP score were used to assess adherence. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the associations between eight major PFAS and adherence to each dietary pattern. Results: The WHO recommended diet was positively associated with perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS). The LCHP diet was positively related to four out of eight PFAS; namely, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA). The Mediterranean-like diet was positively associated with most PFAS; namely perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), PFHxS, PFNA, PFDA, and PFUnDA. Conclusions: All dietary patterns were positively associated with blood levels of PFAS. The highest body burden of PFAS was found in individuals with high adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, whilst individuals who more closely followed the officially recommended diet displayed a lower body burden of these compounds. - Highlights: • Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) quantified in blood of 70-y-old Swedish subjects. • Adherence to predefined dietary patterns was associated with circulating PFAS. • A

  20. Testing Whether and when Parent Alcoholism Uniquely Affects Various Forms of Adolescent Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussong, Andrea M.; Huang, Wenjing; Serrano, Daniel; Curran, Patrick J.; Chassin, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the distal, proximal, and time-varying effects of parents' alcohol-related consequences on adolescents' substance use. Previous studies show that having a parent with a lifetime diagnosis of alcoholism is a clear risk factor for adolescents' own substance use. Less clear is whether the timing of a parent's…

  1. The Role of Family Affect in Juvenile Drug Court Offenders' Substance Use and HIV Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolou-Shams, Marina; Hadley, Wendy; Conrad, Selby M.; Brown, Larry K.

    2012-01-01

    Family-based interventions targeting parenting factors, such as parental monitoring and parent-child communication, have been successful in reducing adolescent offenders' substance use and delinquency. This pilot, exploratory study focuses on family and parenting factors that may be relevant in reducing juvenile offenders' substance use and sexual…

  2. Is the Receptivity of Substance Abuse Prevention Programming Affected by Students' Perceptions of the Instructor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Peggy C.; Sloboda, Zili; Grey, Scott; Stephens, Richard; Hammond, Augustine; Hawthorne, Richard; Teasdale, Brent; Williams, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on the elaboration likelihood model of persuasive communication, the authors examine the impact of the perceptions of the instructor or source on students' receptivity to a new substance abuse prevention curriculum. Using survey data from a cohort of students participating in the Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Study, the authors use…

  3. Dietary supplementation with dimethylglycine affects broiler performance and plasma metabolites depending on dose and dietary fatty acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, I D; Cools, A; Verstegen, M W A; Huyghebaert, G; Buyse, J; Roose, P; Janssens, G P J

    2011-04-01

    The effect of dietary supplementation with N,N-dimethylglycine sodium salt (Na-DMG) was evaluated in a feeding trial with 1500 1-day-old broiler chicks (Cobb 500). DMG was supplemented at 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 or 1 g Na-DMG/kg feed to a ration with either animal fat (chicken fat) or vegetal fat (soy oil) as main fat source. In the vegetal fat diets, production value was significantly linearly improved by supplementation with DMG up to 11%. Irrespective of dietary fat source, abdominal fat percentage was significantly linearly reduced up to 24% and meat yield tended to increase linearly with DMG level up to 4%. In the vegetal fat groups, DMG significantly lowered abdominal fat pad by up to 38% and tended to increase meat yield up to 6% at the highest dose. Fasted non-esterified fatty acid level significantly decreased with increasing DMG level up to 36% and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) decreased with a statistical trend up to 46% at the highest dose. In vegetal fat diets, addition of DMG resulted in significant lower TBARS level by 56% at the highest dose. Finally, a significant quadratic effect on ascites heart index was present in the vegetal fat diets, with a minimal value at 0.5 g Na-DMG/kg. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with DMG may improve technical and slaughter performance, and may reduce oxidative stress and pulmonary hypertension, but the degree of effects is modulated by fatty acid profile of the diet. Herewith, effects are more pronounced in a diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids compared with a diet rich in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. [Study of the dietary preferences and the social-psychological factors that affect the dietary behaviors of high school and university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasamaki, Junichi

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to elucidate the correlation among dietary intake, dietary preferences, and social-psychological factors in the youth and to examine the factors that affect such dietary behaviors as snacking, skipping breakfast, and taking a biased nutrition. A survey was carried out using a questionnaire with closed questions on multiple items such as dietary behaviors, psychosocial stress, dietary externalization, information and consciousness about health. The survey was conducted on 1,056 high school students and 1,323 university students in Japan. As a result of the factor analysis among the groups of male/female and high school/university students, relationships were found between the items of "preferences for snacking" and "snack food intakes" among all these groups. Those who like sweets and snacks tended to snack between lunch and dinner or after dinner by themselves more often than those who do not. In contrast to men, intermediate correlations were found between the item of "a meal as a diversion" and each of the items of "snack food intake," "preferences for fried foods/sautéed foods/meat dishes," and "preferences for snacking," among women who do not live alone, regardless of their being high school or university students. The item of "stress over human relationships/academic performance" was shown to have similarly weak correlations with the items of "reasons for skipping breakfast" and "nutrition intake" in the groups of male and female high school students. The less they value nutrition intake, the more they tend to be conscious of stress over human relationships/academic performance.

  5. Dietary folate and choline status differentially affect lipid metabolism and behavior-mediated neurotransmitters in young rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between choline and folate metabolisms is an important issue due to the essential role of these nutrients in brain plasticity and cognitive functions. Present study was designed to investigate whether modification of the dietary folate-choline status in young rats would affect brain...

  6. Considerations affecting dietary behaviour of immigrants with type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study among Surinamese in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohinor, Mirjam J. E.; Stronks, Karien; Nicolaou, Mary; Haafkens, Joke A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the sociocultural factors affecting the dietary behaviour of Dutch Surinamese patients with type 2 diabetes. In this qualitative study, 32 Surinamese primary care patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus participated in semi-structured interviews (16 African

  7. Considerations affecting dietary behaviour of immigrants with type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study among Surinamese in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohinor, M.J.E.; Stronks, K.; Nicolaou, M.; Haafkens, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to explore the sociocultural factors affecting the dietary behaviour of Dutch Surinamese patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. In this qualitative study, 32 Surinamese primary care patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus participated in semi-structured

  8. Dietary Fructose and Glucose Differentially Affect Lipid and Glucose Homeostasis1–3

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer, Ernst J.; Gleason, Joi A.; Dansinger, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Absorbed glucose and fructose differ in that glucose largely escapes first-pass removal by the liver, whereas fructose does not, resulting in different metabolic effects of these 2 monosaccharides. In short-term controlled feeding studies, dietary fructose significantly increases postprandial triglyceride (TG) levels and has little effect on serum glucose concentrations, whereas dietary glucose has the opposite effects. When dietary glucose and fructose have been directly compared at ∼20–25% ...

  9. Family-based processes associated with adolescent distress, substance use and risky sexual behavior in families affected by maternal HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Patricia; Stein, Judith A; Bursch, Brenda; Rice, Eric; Green, Sara; Penniman, Typhanye; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated how maternal HIV and mediating family processes are associated with adolescent distress, substance use, and risky sexual behavior. Mother-adolescent (ages 12-21) dyads (N = 264) were recruited from neighborhoods where the HIV-affected families resided (161 had mothers with HIV). Mediating family processes were youth aggressive conflict style, maternal bonding, maternal role reversal expectations, and overall family functioning. Results of structural equation modeling indicated that youth aggressive conflict resolution style was strongly associated with adolescent distress, substance use, and risky sexual behavior. In HIV-affected families, youth less frequently reported using an aggressive conflict resolution style and more frequently reported positive maternal bonds; their mothers reported less positive family functioning than control families. Finally, maternal distress indirectly affected adolescent distress and risk behavior via youth aggressive conflict resolution style.

  10. Does proximity to urban centres affect the dietary regime of marine benthic filter feeders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccinelli, Eleonora; Noyon, Margaux; McQuaid, Christopher D.

    2016-02-01

    Threats to marine ecosystems include habitat destruction and degradation of water quality, resulting from land- and ocean-based human activities. Anthropogenic input causing modification of water quality, can affect primary productivity and thus food availability and quality for higher trophic levels. This is especially important for sedentary benthic intertidal communities, which rely on local food availability. We investigated the effect of urbanization on the dietary regime of four species of intertidal filter feeders (three barnacles and one mussel) at sites close to high-density cities and at sites far from heavily urbanized areas using fatty acid and stable isotope techniques. δ15N was significantly higher at urbanized sites compared to their corresponding control sites for all species with few exceptions, while no effect on δ13C was recorded. Barnacle fatty acid profiles were not affected by cities, while mussels from sites close to cities had fatty acid signatures with a higher proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). We suggest that the enrichment in δ15N at urbanised sites reflects the influence of anthropogenically derived nitrogen directly linked to wastewater input from domestic and industrial sewage. Linked to this, the high proportion of PUFA in mussels at urbanized sites may reflect the influence of increased nitrogen concentrations on primary production and enhanced growth of large phytoplankton cells. The results indicate that anthropogenic effects can strongly influence the diets of benthic organisms, but these effects differ among taxa. Changes in the diet of such habitat forming species can affect their fitness and survival with potential effects on the populations associated with them.

  11. Dietary restriction of rodents decreases aging rate without affecting initial mortality rate -- a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Mirre J P; Koch, Wouter; Verhulst, Simon

    2013-06-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan in multiple species from various taxa. This effect can arise via two distinct but not mutually exclusive ways: a change in aging rate and/or vulnerability to the aging process (i.e. initial mortality rate). When DR affects vulnerability, this lowers mortality instantly, whereas a change in aging rate will gradually lower mortality risk over time. Unraveling how DR extends lifespan is of interest because it may guide toward understanding the mechanism(s) mediating lifespan extension and also has practical implications for the application of DR. We reanalyzed published survival data from 82 pairs of survival curves from DR experiments in rats and mice by fitting Gompertz and also Gompertz-Makeham models. The addition of the Makeham parameter has been reported to improve the estimation of Gompertz parameters. Both models separate initial mortality rate (vulnerability) from an age-dependent increase in mortality (aging rate). We subjected the obtained Gompertz parameters to a meta-analysis. We find that DR reduced aging rate without affecting vulnerability. The latter contrasts with the conclusion of a recent analysis of a largely overlapping data set, and we show how the earlier finding is due to a statistical artifact. Our analysis indicates that the biology underlying the life-extending effect of DR in rodents likely involves attenuated accumulation of damage, which contrasts with the acute effect of DR on mortality reported for Drosophila. Moreover, our findings show that the often-reported correlation between aging rate and vulnerability does not constrain changing aging rate without affecting vulnerability simultaneously. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and the Anatomical Society.

  12. Evaluation of Risk Factors Affecting Substance Use among Tenth-Grade Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Öztaş

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study is to detect the prevalence of substance use among tenth-grade students; their thoughts, attitudes, behaviors, and tendencies towards substance use; and risk factors of substance use in tenth-grade students in general. Methods. This study is descriptive and cross-sectional conducted between April and May 2016. Research population consists of tenth-grade students in 2015-2016 school year in the city of Ordu. Since the study involved all tenth-grade students, no sampling was done. Questions on substance use were prepared by Ordu Public Health Directorate and the authors by making use of European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD study questions, AMATEM’s “Drugs and Addiction Youth Survey” study conducted on May 1996, and scientific studies conducted previously on similar subjects. Results. 9825 tenth-grade students in 88 schools from 19 counties in the city of Ordu were included in the study. 8714 of the students participated in the survey. Being male, being over the age of 15, mother and father being separated, living with relatives, being in low income, negative feelings about school, perception of being unsuccessful in school, failing a year, absenteeism, and not being content with life are the risk factors for substance use. Conclusions. The tendency of illegal substance use becoming more and more prevalent especially among youth requires the development of new treatment strategies.

  13. Seasonality affects dietary diversity of school-age children in northern Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abizari, Abdul Razak; Azupogo, Fusta; Nagasu, Miwako; Creemers, Noortje; Brouwer, Inge D.

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: Dietary diversity score (DDS) is relatively easy to measure and is shown to be a very useful indicator of the probability of adequate micronutrient intake. Dietary diversity, however, is usually assessed during a single period and little is known about the effect of

  14. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W.) and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L.) provide dietary fibres high in pectic substances and xyloglucans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Lisa M; Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Reuhs, Bradley L; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2015-01-15

    Dietary fibre of quinoa and amaranth was analysed for its insoluble and soluble fibre content, composition, and structure. Total dietary fibre content was 10% for quinoa and 11% for amaranth. For both pseudocereals, 78% of its dietary fibre was insoluble. Insoluble fibre (IDF) from quinoa and amaranth was mainly composed of galacturonic acid, arabinose, galactose, xylose and glucose. Linkage analysis indicated that IDF was composed of homogalacturonans and rhamnogalacturonan-I with arabinan side-chains (∼55-60%), as well as highly branched xyloglucans (∼30%) and cellulose. For both pseudocereals, 22% of total dietary fibre was soluble; a higher proportion than that found in wheat and maize (∼15%). The soluble fibre (SDF) was composed of glucose, galacturonic acid and arabinose; for amaranth, xylose was also a major constituent. Xyloglucans made up ∼40-60% of the SDF and arabinose-rich pectic polysaccharides represented ∼34-55%. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances affects leukocyte telomere length in female newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; Chen, Qian; Lei, Lei; Zhou, Wei; Huang, Lisu; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Dan

    2018-04-01

    Evidence has shown that leukocyte telomere length (LTL) at birth is related to the susceptibility to various diseases in later life and the setting of newborn LTL is influenced by the intrauterine environment. Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), as a kind of persistent organic pollutants, are commonly used in commercial and domestic applications and are capable of crossing the maternal-fetal barrier during pregnancy. We hypothesized that intrauterine exposure to PFASs may affect fetal LTL by increasing oxidative stress. To verify this hypothesis, LTL, concentrations of PFASs and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured in umbilical cord blood of 581 newborns from a prospective cohort. Our results showed that there were interactions between PFOS/PFDA and sex on LTL and ROS. The LTL was significantly shorter (0.926 ± 0.053 vs 0.945 ± 0.054, P = .023 for PFOS; 0.919 ± 0.063 vs 0.940 ± 0.059, P = .011 for PFDA) and the ROS levels were extremely higher (252.9 ± 60.5 [M] vs 233.5 ± 53.6 [M], P = .031 for PFOS; 255.2 ± 62.9 [M] vs 232.9 ± 58.3 [M], P = .011 for PFDA) in the female newborns whose PFOS or PFDA concentrations fell in the upmost quartile compared with those in the lowest quartile after adjusting for potential confounders. ROS levels were inversely associated with LTL in female newborns (β = -1.42 × 10 -4 , P = .022). 13% of the effect of PFOS on female LTL was mediated through ROS approximately by the mediation analyses. However, in male newborns, no relationships among PFASs, ROS and LTL were observed. Our findings suggest a "programming" role of PFASs on fetal telomere biology system in females in intrauterine stage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Does water chemistry affect the dietary uptake and toxicity of silver nanoparticles by the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Serrano Oliver, Ana; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Stoiber, Tasha L.; Tejamaya, Mila; Römer, Isabella; Lead, Jamie R.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in many applications and likely released into the aquatic environment. There is increasing evidence that Ag is efficiently delivered to aquatic organisms from AgNPs after aqueous and dietary exposures. Accumulation of AgNPs through the diet can damage digestion and adversely affect growth. It is well recognized that aspects of water quality, such as hardness, affect the bioavailability and toxicity of waterborne Ag. However, the influence of water chemistry on the bioavailability and toxicity of dietborne AgNPs to aquatic invertebrates is largely unknown. Here we characterize for the first time the effects of water hardness and humic acids on the bioaccumulation and toxicity of AgNPs coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) to the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis after dietary exposures. Our results indicate that bioaccumulation and toxicity of Ag from PVP-AgNPs ingested with food are not affected by water hardness and by humic acids, although both could affect interactions with the biological membrane and trigger nanoparticle transformations. Snails efficiently assimilated Ag from the PVP-AgNPs mixed with diatoms (Ag assimilation efficiencies ranged from 82 to 93%). Rate constants of Ag uptake from food were similar across the entire range of water hardness and humic acid concentrations. These results suggest that correcting regulations for water quality could be irrelevant and ineffective where dietary exposure is important.

  17. Dietary Sodium Restriction Decreases Insulin Secretion Without Affecting Insulin Sensitivity in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Loretta M.; Yu, Chang; Wang, Thomas J.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Interruption of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system prevents incident diabetes in high-risk individuals, although the mechanism remains unclear. Objective: To test the hypothesis that activation of the endogenous renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system or exogenous aldosterone impairs insulin secretion in humans. Design: We conducted a randomized, blinded crossover study of aldosterone vs vehicle and compared the effects of a low-sodium versus a high-sodium diet. Setting: Academic clinical research center. Participants: Healthy, nondiabetic, normotensive volunteers. Interventions: Infusion of exogenous aldosterone (0.7 μg/kg/h for 12.5 h) or vehicle during low or high sodium intake. Low sodium (20 mmol/d; n = 12) vs high sodium (160 mmol/d; n = 17) intake for 5–7 days. Main Outcome Measures: Change in acute insulin secretory response assessed during hyperglycemic clamps while in sodium balance during a low-sodium vs high-sodium diet during aldosterone vs vehicle. Results: A low-sodium diet increased endogenous aldosterone and plasma renin activity, and acute glucose-stimulated insulin (−16.0 ± 5.6%; P = .007) and C-peptide responses (−21.8 ± 8.4%; P = .014) were decreased, whereas the insulin sensitivity index was unchanged (−1.0 ± 10.7%; P = .98). Aldosterone infusion did not affect the acute insulin response (+1.8 ± 4.8%; P = .72) or insulin sensitivity index (+2.0 ± 8.8%; P = .78). Systolic blood pressure and serum potassium were similar during low and high sodium intake and during aldosterone infusion. Conclusions: Low dietary sodium intake reduces insulin secretion in humans, independent of insulin sensitivity. PMID:25029426

  18. Does water chemistry affect the dietary uptake and toxicity of silver nanoparticles by the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Ana López-Serrano; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Stoiber, Tasha L.; Tejamaya, Mila; Römer, Isabella; Lead, Jamie R.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in many applications and likely released into the aquatic environment. There is increasing evidence that Ag is efficiently delivered to aquatic organisms from AgNPs after aqueous and dietary exposures. Accumulation of AgNPs through the diet can damage digestion and adversely affect growth. It is well recognized that aspects of water quality, such as hardness, affect the bioavailability and toxicity of waterborne Ag. However, the influence of water chemistry on the bioavailability and toxicity of dietborne AgNPs to aquatic invertebrates is largely unknown. Here we characterize for the first time the effects of water hardness and humic acids on the bioaccumulation and toxicity of AgNPs coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) to the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis after dietary exposures. Our results indicate that bioaccumulation and toxicity of Ag from PVP-AgNPs ingested with food are not affected by water hardness and by humic acids, although both could affect interactions with the biological membrane and trigger nanoparticle transformations. Snails efficiently assimilated Ag from the PVP-AgNPs mixed with diatoms (Ag assimilation efficiencies ranged from 82 to 93%). Rate constants of Ag uptake from food were similar across the entire range of water hardness and humic acid concentrations. These results suggest that correcting regulations for water quality could be irrelevant and ineffective where dietary exposure is important. - Highlights: • AgNP coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), PVP-AgNP were efficiently assimilated by Lymnaea stagnalis. • Water chemistry has no influence on the dietary uptake of PVP-AgNP by snails. - L. Stagnalis assimilated PVP-AgNPs efficiently from food and water chemistry had no influence on their uptake and toxicity

  19. Dietary Sodium/Potassium Intake Does Not Affect Cognitive Function or Brain Imaging Indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Kristen L; Fried, Linda; Jovanovich, Anna; Ix, Joachim; Yaffe, Kristine; You, Zhiying; Chonchol, Michel

    2018-01-01

    Dietary sodium may influence cognitive function through its effects on cerebrovascular function and cerebral blood flow. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of dietary sodium intake with cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults. We also evaluated the associations of dietary potassium and sodium:potassium intake with cognitive decline, and associations of these nutrients with micro- and macro-structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indices. In all, 1,194 participants in the Health Aging and Body Composition study with measurements of dietary sodium intake (food frequency questionnaire [FFQ]) and change in the modified Mini Mental State Exam (3MS) were included. The age of participants was 74 ± 3 years with a mean dietary sodium intake of 2,677 ± 1,060 mg/day. During follow-up (6.9 ± 0.1 years), 340 (28%) had a clinically significant decline in 3MS score (≥1.5 SD of mean decline). After adjustment, dietary sodium intake was not associated with odds of cognitive decline (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.50-1.84 per doubling of sodium). Similarly, potassium was not associated with cognitive decline; however, higher sodium:potassium intake was associated with increased odds of cognitive decline (OR 2.02 [95% CI 1.01-4.03] per unit increase). Neither sodium or potassium alone nor sodium:potassium were associated with micro- or macro-structural brain MRI indices. These results are limited by the use of FFQ. In community-dwelling older adults, higher sodium:potassium, but not sodium or potassium intake alone, was associated with decline in cognitive function, with no associations observed with micro- and macro-structural brain MRI indices. These findings do not support reduction dietary sodium/increased potassium intake to prevent cognitive decline with aging. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Does dietary inulin affect biological activity of a grapefruit flavonoid-rich extract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgoński, Adam; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Kowalska, Karolina; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2012-04-11

    The aim of the study was to verify that the concomitant presence of grapefruit flavonoid extract with inulin in a Western-type diet may provide synergistic effects to the hindgut metabolism, as well as blood lipid and mineral profiles. Forty male Wistar rats were distributed into 4 groups and fed for 28 days with diets rich in fat, cholesterol and protein. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA was applied to assess the effects of inulin (v. sucrose, 5% of the diet), the addition of dietary grapefruit flavonoid extract (diets without or with 0.3% of an extract from hard parts of grapefruit) and the interaction between these two dietary factors. When compared to the control sucrose-containing diet, the diet enriched with inulin led to typical changes within the caecum, the main part of hindgut fermentation in rats, such as acidification of the digesta, support of bifidobacteria growth and increase of propionate and butyrate production. The dietary grapefruit flavonoid extract without inulin increased the bulk and pH value of caecal digesta, whereas short-chain fatty acid concentration and the bifidobacteria population were lowered compared to the extract-free diets. Simultaneous dietary addition of both tested components decreased slightly the pH value and increased somewhat the bifidobacteria number and the propionate concentration, however to the level observed with the control sucrose-containing diet. With regard to blood lipids, dietary grapefruit flavonoid extract decreased the triglyceride concentration regardless of the dietary carbohydrate type. Inulin does not provide any additional benefit to the blood lipid profile caused by the dietary application of grapefruit flavonoid extract and it does not counteract clearly detrimental effects of the extract in the hindgut. Adding grapefruit extract to the diet must be performed with caution due to possible adverse hindgut responses with overdoses.

  1. Does dietary inulin affect biological activity of a grapefruit flavonoid-rich extract?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgoński Adam

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to verify that the concomitant presence of grapefruit flavonoid extract with inulin in a Western-type diet may provide synergistic effects to the hindgut metabolism, as well as blood lipid and mineral profiles. Methods Forty male Wistar rats were distributed into 4 groups and fed for 28 days with diets rich in fat, cholesterol and protein. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA was applied to assess the effects of inulin (v. sucrose, 5% of the diet, the addition of dietary grapefruit flavonoid extract (diets without or with 0.3% of an extract from hard parts of grapefruit and the interaction between these two dietary factors. Results When compared to the control sucrose-containing diet, the diet enriched with inulin led to typical changes within the caecum, the main part of hindgut fermentation in rats, such as acidification of the digesta, support of bifidobacteria growth and increase of propionate and butyrate production. The dietary grapefruit flavonoid extract without inulin increased the bulk and pH value of caecal digesta, whereas short-chain fatty acid concentration and the bifidobacteria population were lowered compared to the extract-free diets. Simultaneous dietary addition of both tested components decreased slightly the pH value and increased somewhat the bifidobacteria number and the propionate concentration, however to the level observed with the control sucrose-containing diet. With regard to blood lipids, dietary grapefruit flavonoid extract decreased the triglyceride concentration regardless of the dietary carbohydrate type. Conclusion Inulin does not provide any additional benefit to the blood lipid profile caused by the dietary application of grapefruit flavonoid extract and it does not counteract clearly detrimental effects of the extract in the hindgut. Adding grapefruit extract to the diet must be performed with caution due to possible adverse hindgut responses with overdoses.

  2. Dietary vitamin E affects lipid oxidation and total volatiles of irradiated raw turkey meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, D.U.; Sell, J.L.; Jeffery, M.; Jo, C.; Chen, X.; Lee, J.I.

    1997-01-01

    Breast and leg meat patties, prepared from turkeys fed diets containing 25, 200, 400 or 600 IU of dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (TA) per kg diet, were irradiated at 0 or 2.5 kGy with vacuum or loose packaging. The effects of dietary TA on storage stability and production of volatiles in irradiated raw turkey meat were determined. Dietary TA at 200 IU/kg decreased lipid oxidation and reduced total volatiles of raw turkey patties after 7-days of storage. However, the antioxidant effects of dietary TA were more notable when the patties were loosely packaged than when vacuum-packaged. Irradiation increased lipid oxidation of raw turkey meats only when loosely packaged but had limited effects on formation of total volatiles after storage at 4 degrees C for 7 days or longer

  3. Form of Dietary Methylmercury does not Affect Total Mercury Accumulation in the Tissues of Zebra Finch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varian-Ramos, Claire W; Whitney, Margaret; Rice, Gary W; Cristol, Daniel A

    2017-07-01

    Exposure to mercury in humans, other mammals, and birds is primarily dietary, with mercury in the methylated form and bound to cysteine in the tissues of prey items. Yet dosing studies are generally carried out using methylmercury chloride. Here we tested whether the accumulation of total mercury in zebra finch blood, egg, muscle, liver, kidney or brain differed depending on whether dietary mercury was complexed with chloride or cysteine. We found no effect of form of mercury on tissue accumulation. Some previous studies have found lower accumulation of mercury in tissues of animals fed complexed mercury. Much remains to be understood about what happens to ingested mercury once it enters the intestines, but our results suggest that dietary studies using methylmercury chloride in birds will produce similar tissue accumulation levels to those using methylmercury cysteine.

  4. Dietary lipids differentially affect membranes from different areas of rooster sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongalhardo, D C; Leeson, S; Buhr, M M

    2009-05-01

    The present work aimed to compare the effect of dietary flax with other oil sources on rooster sperm membranes and on semen characteristics. White Leghorn roosters (16 per diet) were fed 1 of 4 treatments: control diet (CON), or a diet containing corn oil (CORN), fish oil (FISH), or flax seed (FLAX) as the lipid source. Semen from 4 birds (30 wk old) of each treatment was pooled, the sperm head (HM) and body membranes (BM) were isolated, and lipids were extracted and analyzed. Aspects of lipid composition tested were as follows: percentage of individual fatty acids (C14:0 to C24:1) in total fatty acids, percentage of fatty acid categories [saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated (PUFA), n-3 and n-6 PUFA, and n-6:n-3 ratio] within total fatty acids, and percentage of phospholipids [phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, and sphingomyelin] in total phospholipids. Sperm characteristics evaluated were as follows: volume, concentration, viability, percentage of motile cells, average path velocity, track speed, progressive velocity, lateral head displacement, straightness, and linearity. Diet did not affect membrane phospholipid ratios in either membrane but modified major fatty acids within certain phospholipids. Birds fed FISH and CORN showed, respectively, the highest and the lowest n-3 in sperm, causing reciprocal significant changes in n-6:n-3 ratio. Feeding FLAX caused intermediate effects in n-3, with values significantly lower than FISH but higher than CORN in HM (PC, PE, and phosphatidylinositol) and PC in BM (P < 0.05). In the PE phospholipids, FISH, followed by FLAX, increased n-3 in BM and decreased n-6 PUFA in HM. Sperm concentration was specifically correlated with the amount of 20:4n-6 in FLAX and 22:4n-6 in CON. In FLAX diets, straightness correlated with C18:0, n-3, and n-6:n-3 ratio. Diets containing distinct lipid sources differentially modify the lipid contents of HM and BM, with minor

  5. Stability of Intercellular Exchange of Biochemical Substances Affected by Variability of Environmental Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailović, Dragutin T.; Budinčević, Mirko; Balaž, Igor; Mihailović, Anja

    Communication between cells is realized by exchange of biochemical substances. Due to internal organization of living systems and variability of external parameters, the exchange is heavily influenced by perturbations of various parameters at almost all stages of the process. Since communication is one of essential processes for functioning of living systems it is of interest to investigate conditions for its stability. Using previously developed simplified model of bacterial communication in a form of coupled difference logistic equations we investigate stability of exchange of signaling molecules under variability of internal and external parameters.

  6. Energy balance of lactating primiparous sows as affected by feeding level and dietary energy source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Soede, N.M.; Schrama, J.W.; Kemp, B.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of feeding level and major dietary energy source used during lactation on sow milk composition, piglet body composition, and energy balance of sows were determined. During a 21-d lactation, 48 primiparous sows were fed either a Fat-rich (134.9 g/kg fat; 196.8 g/kg carbohydrate) or a

  7. Dietary protein affects nitrogen excretion and ammonia emission from slurry of growing-finishing pigs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canh, T.T.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Schutte, J.B.; Sutton, A.L.; Langhout, D.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of dietary protein on nitrogen excretion and ammonia emission from slurry of growing–finishing pigs were studied both in vitro and in a pig house. The three diets had similar contents of NE, minerals, vitamins and ileal digestible lysine, methionine cystine, threonine and tryptophan, but

  8. Dietary protein affects nitrogen excretion and ammonia emission from slurry of growing-finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canh, T.T.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Schutte, J.B.; Sutton, A.; Langhout, D.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of dietary protein on nitrogen excretion and ammonia emission from slurry of growing-finishing pigs were studied both in vitro and in a pig house. The three diets had similar contents of NE, minerals, vitamins and ileal digestible lysine, methionine + cystine, threonine and tryptophan,

  9. Assessment of dietary exposure to flavouring substances via consumption of flavoured teas. Part II: transfer rates of linalool and linalyl esters into Earl Grey tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Anne-Marie; Poplacean, Iulia; Fastowski, Oxana; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of dietary exposure via the consumption of flavoured foods is a key element of the safety evaluation of flavouring substances. Linalyl acetate and linalool are the major flavouring substances in Earl Grey teas; the objective of this study was to determine their transfer rates from the tea leaves into the tea beverage upon preparation of a hot water infusion. Spiking experiments revealed a transfer rate of 66% for linalool. In contrast, the transfer rate for linalyl acetate was only 1.9%; in turn, the hydrolysis product linalool (17.0%) and a spectrum (19.9%) of degradation and rearrangement products (monoterpene alcohols, esters and hydrocarbons) were present in the tea beverage. The transfer rates were shown to be proportional to the length of the infusion. The impact of the hot water treatment on the enantiomeric compositions of linalyl acetate and linalool was determined, and structure-dependent experiments were performed by variation of the acyl and the alcohol moiety of the monoterpene ester. Comparative dietary exposure assessments demonstrated the need to take correction factors based on the experimentally determined transfer rates into account. Based on tea consumption data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2000/2001), the exposure to linalyl acetate ranges from 0.2 mg day(-1) (average) to 1.8 mg day(-1) (high). The corresponding values for linalool are 4.2 mg day(-1) (average) and 46.6 mg day(-1) (high). The exposure of linalool via consumption of the tea beverage is approximately 26 times higher than that of linalyl acetate, although in the flavoured tea leaves the median content of linalyl acetate is approximately 1.8 times higher than that of linalool.

  10. A review on early gut maturation and colonization in pigs, including biological and dietary factors affecting gut homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Everaert, Nadia; Van Cruchten, Steven; Weström, Björn

    2017-01-01

    During the prenatal, neonatal and post-weaning periods, the mammalian gastrointestinal tract undergoes various morphological and physiological changes alongside with an expansion of the immune system and microbial ecosystem. This review focuses on the time period before weaning and summarizes...... in digestive function coincides with development in both the adaptive and innate immune system. This secures a balanced immune response to the ingested milk-derived macromolecules, and colonizing bacteria. Husbandry and dietary interventions in early life appear to affect the development of multiple components...... and immunological maturation, as influenced by early microbial colonization and ingestion of dietary factors, is of utmost importance to identify management and feeding strategies to optimize intestinal health. We discuss some possible implications related to intrauterine growth restriction, and preterm delivery...

  11. Exploring the factors affecting the implementation of tobacco and substance use interventions within a secondary school setting: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Gillian; Finch, Tracy; Giles, Emma L; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy

    2017-11-14

    The aim of this mixed-methods, systematic literature review was to develop an understanding of the factors affecting the implementation of tobacco and substance use intervention programmes in the secondary school setting using NPT as an analytical framework. A search strategy was developed that combined implementation, school and intervention search terms. Literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, PsycHINFO, Scopus, ERIC, CINAHL, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library. PROSPERO was also searched for similar systematic reviews and a grey literature search of policy documents and relevant material was also conducted. Papers were eligible for inclusion if they were based in a secondary school and focused on the implementation of a tobacco or substance use programme. Both quantitative and qualitative methodologies were considered for inclusion. Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) was used as a conceptual framework to identify facilitators and barriers of implementation and to structure the synthesis. Inclusion criteria were met by 15 papers. The included papers were both quantitative and qualitative and focused on a range of tobacco and substance use interventions, delivered by differing providers. Key facilitating factors for implementation were positive organisational climate, adequate training and teacher's and pupil's motivation. Barriers to implementation included heavy workloads, budget cuts and lack of resources or support. Quality appraisal identified papers to be of moderate to weak quality, as papers generally lacked detail. NPT highlighted the need for studies to extend their focus to include reflexive monitoring around appraisal and the evaluation processes of implementing new tobacco or substance use programs. Future research should also focus on employing implementation theory as a tool to facilitate bridging the gap between school health research and practice.

  12. Exploring the factors affecting the implementation of tobacco and substance use interventions within a secondary school setting: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Waller

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this mixed-methods, systematic literature review was to develop an understanding of the factors affecting the implementation of tobacco and substance use intervention programmes in the secondary school setting using NPT as an analytical framework. Methods A search strategy was developed that combined implementation, school and intervention search terms. Literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, PsycHINFO, Scopus, ERIC, CINAHL, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library. PROSPERO was also searched for similar systematic reviews and a grey literature search of policy documents and relevant material was also conducted. Papers were eligible for inclusion if they were based in a secondary school and focused on the implementation of a tobacco or substance use programme. Both quantitative and qualitative methodologies were considered for inclusion. Normalisation Process Theory (NPT was used as a conceptual framework to identify facilitators and barriers of implementation and to structure the synthesis. Results Inclusion criteria were met by 15 papers. The included papers were both quantitative and qualitative and focused on a range of tobacco and substance use interventions, delivered by differing providers. Key facilitating factors for implementation were positive organisational climate, adequate training and teacher's and pupil’s motivation. Barriers to implementation included heavy workloads, budget cuts and lack of resources or support. Quality appraisal identified papers to be of moderate to weak quality, as papers generally lacked detail. Conclusion NPT highlighted the need for studies to extend their focus to include reflexive monitoring around appraisal and the evaluation processes of implementing new tobacco or substance use programs. Future research should also focus on employing implementation theory as a tool to facilitate bridging the gap between school health research and practice.

  13. Clostridium perfringens challenge and dietary fat type affect broiler chicken performance and fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefiak, D; Kierończyk, B; Rawski, M; Hejdysz, M; Rutkowski, A; Engberg, R M; Højberg, O

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to examine how different fats commonly used in the feed industry affect broiler performance, nutrient digestibility and microbial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens challenged with virulent Clostridium perfringens strains. Two experiments were carried out, each including 480-day-old male broilers (Ross 308), which were randomly distributed to eight experimental groups using six replicate pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. In Experiment 1, birds were fed diets containing soybean oil, palm kernel fatty acid distillers, rendered pork fat and lard. In Experiment 2, birds were fed diets containing rapeseed oil, coconut oil, beef tallow and palm oil. In both experiments, the birds were either not challenged or challenged with a mixture of three C. perfringens type A strains. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens did not affect broiler chicken body weight gain (BWG) and mortality in either of the two experiments. The BWG was affected by dietary fat type in both experiments, indicating that the fatty acid composition of the fat source affects broiler growth performance. In particular, the inclusion of animal fats tended to improve final BW to a greater extent compared with the inclusion of unsaturated vegetable oils. In Experiment 2, irrespective of the dietary fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge significantly impaired feed conversion ratio in the period from 14 to 28 days (1.63 v. 1.69) and at 42 days (1.65 v. 1.68). In both experiments apparent metabolizable energy values were affected by dietary fat type. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge decreased the digesta pH in the crop and ileum, but had no effect in cecal contents. Moreover, in Experiment 1, total organic acid concentration in the ileum was two to three times lower on soybean oil diets as compared with other treatments, indicating that C. perfringens as well as

  14. Dietary energy source affecting fat deposition mechanism, muscle fiber metabolic and overall meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Al-Hijazeen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to investigate the effect of two dietary energy sources, soy bean oil, and sucrose on regulatory mechanisms of meat preservation. Twenty one day-old Hubbard commercial broilers were randomly allocated into two dietary treatment groups with six replicates per treatment, and four broilers per replicate. All birds were coded for the influence of energy source: fat based diet (FD, and sugar based diet (SD. Formulated grower diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. The chickens were slaughtered and then boneless, skinless ground chicken tight meat was prepared. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, and sensory panel evaluation. In addition, meat from the small muscles of the raw thigh was used to evaluate other meat quality characteristics. Proximate analyses showed no significant differences between both dietary treatments on protein, ash and moisture percentage values. Meat samples of the group that was fed FD showed higher significant values of both TBARS and total carbonyl at day 7 of storage time. However, samples of the second group (Fed SD showed lower values of both ultimate pH and water separation % using raw thigh meat. The effect of FD treatment on the meat composition appeared clearly especially on fat percentage content. In addition, meat samples obtained from chickens fed SD showed better significant values of the overall acceptability attribute. According to the current findings, sucrose could be an excellent alternative to oil in dietary broilers which improved the meat preservation bio-system, and post-mortem storage stability.

  15. Dietary protein level affects iridescent coloration in Anna's hummingbirds, Calypte anna

    OpenAIRE

    Meadows, Melissa G.; Roudybush, Thomas E.; McGraw, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    Many animal displays involve colorful ornamental traits that signal an individual's quality as a mate or rival. Brilliant iridescent ornaments are common, but little is currently known about their production cost and signaling value. One potential cost of colorful ornaments is the acquisition of limited dietary resources that may be involved, directly or indirectly, in their production. Protein, the primary component of bird feathers and of many nanostructural components of iridescent traits,...

  16. Factors affecting increased risk for substance use disorders following traumatic brain injury: What we can learn from animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Steven F; Cannella, Lee Anne; Razmpour, Roshanak; Lutton, Evan; Raghupathi, Ramesh; Rawls, Scott M; Ramirez, Servio H

    2017-06-01

    Recent studies have helped identify multiple factors affecting increased risk for substance use disorders (SUDs) following traumatic brain injury (TBI). These factors include age at the time of injury, repetitive injury and TBI severity, neurocircuits, neurotransmitter systems, neuroinflammation, and sex differences. This review will address each of these factors by discussing 1) the clinical and preclinical data identifying patient populations at greatest risk for SUDs post-TBI, 2) TBI-related neuropathology in discrete brain regions heavily implicated in SUDs, and 3) the effects of TBI on molecular mechanisms that may drive substance abuse behavior, like dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmission or neuroimmune signaling in mesolimbic regions of the brain. Although these studies have laid the groundwork for identifying factors that affect risk of SUDs post-TBI, additional studies are required. Notably, preclinical models have been shown to recapitulate many of the behavioral, cellular, and neurochemical features of SUDs and TBI. Therefore, these models are well suited for answering important questions that remain in future investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Necrotic enteritis challenge and high dietary sodium level affect odorant composition or emission from broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nishchal K; Choct, Mingan; Wu, Shu-Biao; Swick, Robert A

    2018-01-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) challenge and high dietary sodium (from sodium chloride) level on odor flux from broiler litter was investigated using 160 day-old Ross 308 male chicks randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments with 4 replicates of 10 birds each. A 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was employed. Factors were: presence or absence of NE challenge and normal (1.6 g/kg) or high (4.0 g/kg) dietary sodium (Na) level. On d 20, odorants were collected from litter headspace with a flux hood and measured using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). On d 33, while challenge did not lead to higher mortality, it reduced feed intake by 5.48% (P litter moisture and litter headspace concentrations of dimethyl sulfide (P litter moisture (P litter headspace concentration of sulfur compounds and phenol (P litter flux of some additional odorants, which included 2,3-butanedione (P broiler farms. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Does comorbid alcohol and substance abuse affect electroconvulsive therapy outcome in the treatment of mood disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Lori; Vaidya, Nutan

    2014-03-01

    Antidepressant medications remain the principal agents used to treat patients with mood disorders, although 30% to 40% of these patients do not improve. One of the factors associated with poor medication response is alcohol and substance abuse. Persons with mood disorders are at the greatest risk for suicide, and alcoholism is a significant additional risk factor. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is shown to be the most effective treatment for major depression especially when associated with psychosis, catatonia, and suicide intent. However, similar to most antidepressant trials, patients with depression and comorbid alcohol and substance abuse are excluded from ECT efficacy studies. Through a retrospective chart review, we compared response to ECT in patients with mood disorder and comorbid alcohol and drug abuse to those with mood disorder only. From 2004 to 2010, 80 patients with mood disorder received ECT. Fifty of these had comorbid alcohol or drug abuse. Using a 10-item psychopathology scale, we compared pre- and post-ECT symptom severity between the 2 groups. Outcome was determined by measuring a decrease in the pre-ECT and post-ECT score using Wilcoxon rank tests, with statistical significance at P = 0.05. There was no difference between the 2 groups in most demographics, ECT medication, or seizure quality. There was no difference in ECT outcome between those with comorbid alcohol abuse and those without based on percent decrease in pre- and post-ECT symptom scores (abuse: mean [SD], 0.89 [0.2] vs nonabuse: mean [SD], 0.93 [0.16]; Wilcoxon, 1332; P = 0.086). When we compared those who met the criteria for alcohol or drug dependence (19 patients) with those with no abuse, there was a trend for the dependence group to not do as well (dependence: mean [SD], 0.83 [0.25] vs nonabuse: mean [SD], 0.93 [0.16]; Wilcoxon, 405; P = 0.053). Those with combined drug and alcohol abuse (18 patients) did have a significantly worse outcome (combined: mean [SD], 0.82 [0

  19. Considerations affecting dietary behaviour of immigrants with type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study among Surinamese in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohinor, Mirjam J E; Stronks, Karien; Nicolaou, Mary; Haafkens, Joke A

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the sociocultural factors affecting the dietary behaviour of Dutch Surinamese patients with type 2 diabetes. In this qualitative study, 32 Surinamese primary care patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus participated in semi-structured interviews (16 African Surinamese and 16 Hindustani Surinamese). Interviews were recorded and transcripts were analysed and coded into themes using principles of grounded theory and MAXQDA software. Surinamese food was eaten regularly by all respondents. Most participants were aware of the need to change their diet but reported difficulty with changing their dietary behaviour to meet dietary guidelines. Many perceived these guidelines to be based on Dutch eating habits, making it difficult to reconcile them with Surinamese cooking and eating practices. Firstly, respondents indicated that they did not choose foods based on their nutritional qualities. Instead, choices were based on Surinamese beliefs regarding 'good' (e.g., bitter vegetables) or 'bad' (e.g., spicy dishes) foods for diabetes. Secondly, respondents often perceived recommendations such as eating at fixed times as interfering with traditional values, for example hospitality. Above all, the maintenance of Surinamese cooking and eating practices was regarded as extremely important since the respondents perceived these to be a core element of their identity as Surinamese. For Surinamese diabetes patients, cooking and eating practices are related to deeply rooted cultural beliefs and values. The wish to maintain one's Surinamese identity may pose difficulty for patients' adherence to dietary guidelines, as these are perceived as being based on 'Dutch' habits. This suggests that immigrants with a long duration of residence in the host country like the Surinamese, who are seen as well integrated might benefit from culturally sensitive diabetes education that is adapted at surface and deep structure.

  20. Viscoelastic Properties of Extracellular Polymeric Substances Can Strongly Affect Their Washing Efficiency from Reverse Osmosis Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando Chavez, Diana Lila; Nejidat, Ali; Herzberg, Moshe

    2016-09-06

    The role of the viscoelastic properties of biofouling layers in their removal from the membrane was studied. Model fouling layers of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) originated from microbial biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 differentially expressing the Psl polysaccharide were used for controlled washing experiments of fouled RO membranes. In parallel, adsorption experiments and viscoelastic modeling of the EPS layers were conducted in a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). During the washing stage, as shear rate was elevated, significant differences in permeate flux recovery between the three different EPS layers were observed. According to the amount of organic carbon remained on the membrane after washing, the magnitude of Psl production provides elevated resistance of the EPS layer to shear stress. The highest flux recovery during the washing stage was observed for the EPS with no Psl. Psl was shown to elevate the layer's shear modulus and shear viscosity but had no effect on the EPS adhesion to the polyamide surface. We conclude that EPS retain on the membrane as a result of the layer viscoelastic properties. These results highlight an important relation between washing efficiency of fouling layers from membranes and their viscoelastic properties, in addition to their adhesion properties.

  1. Integrating affect and impulsivity: The role of positive and negative urgency in substance use risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gregory T; Cyders, Melissa A

    2016-06-01

    The personality traits of positive and negative urgency refer to the tendencies to act rashly when experiencing unusually positive or negative emotions, respectively. The authors review recent empirical work testing urgency theory (Cyders and Smith, 2008a) and consider advances in theory related to these traits. Empirical findings indicate that (a) the urgency traits are particularly important predictors of the onset of, and increases in, substance use in both children and young adults; (b) they appear to operate in part by biasing psychosocial learning; (c) pubertal onset is associated with increases in negative urgency, which in turn predict increases in adolescent drinking behavior; (d) variation in negative urgency trait levels are associated with variations in the functioning of an identified brain system; and (e) variations in the serotonin transporter gene, known to influence the relevant brain system, relate to variations in the urgency traits. A recent model (Carver et al., 2008) proposes the urgency traits to be markers of a tendency to respond reflexively to emotion, whether through impulsive action or ill-advised inaction (the latter leading to depressive symptoms); this model has received empirical support. The authors discuss new directions for research on the urgency traits. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Supplementation with humic substances affects the innate immunity in layer hens in posfasting phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sanmiguel P.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Asses the effect of supplementation with Humic substances (HS over some innate immunity parameters (serum bactericidal activity, phagocytosis, bacterial agglutination, respiratory burst and lisozyme activity in phase after fasting of layer hens. Materials and methods. 120 posfasting phase Hy Line Brown layer hens were taken which were distributed into four groups: The first and the second were supplemented with 0.1 and 0.2% of HS, respectively. The third group was supplemented with 0.25 mg/kg on levamisole hydrochloride and fourth group have no supplementation; during sixty days period. Blood samples were collected on 8th, 30th and 60th of experiment day. Results. The phagocytic index and respiratory burst increased significantly at day 30th in HS supplemented groups. Alike, serum bactericidal activity and lisozyme activity improved on 8 th day, nevertheless, changes were no evident latter. The bacterial agglutination was high in supplemented groups evaluated at everyone times. Conclusions. Results showed that HS behave as immunostimulant in the early phase after fasting layer hens.

  3. Prevalence of Hospitalized Live Births Affected by Alcohol and Drugs and Parturient Women Diagnosed with Substance Abuse at Liveborn Delivery: United States, 1999–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, I-Jen; Yi, Hsiao-ye

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe prevalence trends in hospitalized live births affected by placental transmission of alcohol and drugs, as well as prevalence trends among parturient women hospitalized for liveborn delivery and diagnosed with substance abuse problems in the United States from 1999 to 2008. Comparison of the two sets of trends helps determine whether the observed changes in neonatal problems over time were caused by shifts in maternal substance abuse problems. Methods This study independently identified hospitalized live births and maternal live born deliveries from discharge records in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, one of the largest hospital administrative databases. Substance-related diagnosis codes on the records were used to identify live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women with substance abuse problems. The analysis calculated prevalence differences and percentage changes over the 10 years, with Loess curves fitted to 10-year prevalence estimates to depict trend patterns. Linear and quadratic trends in prevalence were simultaneously tested using logistic regression analyses. The study also examined data on costs, primary expected payer, and length of hospital stays. Results From 1999 to 2008, prevalence increased for narcotic- and hallucinogen-affected live births and neonatal drug withdrawal syndrome but decreased for alcohol- and cocaine-affected live births. Maternal substance abuse at delivery showed similar trends, but prevalence of alcohol abuse remained relatively stable. Substance-affected live births required longer hospital stays and higher medical expenses, mostly billable to Medicaid. Conclusions The findings highlight the urgent need for behavioral intervention and early treatment for substance-abusing pregnant women to reduce the number of substance-affected live births. PMID:22688539

  4. Prevalence of hospitalized live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women diagnosed with substance abuse at liveborn delivery: United States, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, I-Jen; Yi, Hsiao-ye

    2013-05-01

    To describe prevalence trends in hospitalized live births affected by placental transmission of alcohol and drugs, as well as prevalence trends among parturient women hospitalized for liveborn delivery and diagnosed with substance abuse problems in the United States from 1999 to 2008. Comparison of the two sets of trends helps determine whether the observed changes in neonatal problems over time were caused by shifts in maternal substance abuse problems. This study independently identified hospitalized live births and maternal live born deliveries from discharge records in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, one of the largest hospital administrative databases. Substance-related diagnosis codes on the records were used to identify live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women with substance abuse problems. The analysis calculated prevalence differences and percentage changes over the 10 years, with Loess curves fitted to 10-year prevalence estimates to depict trend patterns. Linear and quadratic trends in prevalence were simultaneously tested using logistic regression analyses. The study also examined data on costs, primary expected payer, and length of hospital stays. From 1999 to 2008, prevalence increased for narcotic- and hallucinogen-affected live births and neonatal drug withdrawal syndrome but decreased for alcohol- and cocaine-affected live births. Maternal substance abuse at delivery showed similar trends, but prevalence of alcohol abuse remained relatively stable. Substance-affected live births required longer hospital stays and higher medical expenses, mostly billable to Medicaid. The findings highlight the urgent need for behavioral intervention and early treatment for substance-abusing pregnant women to reduce the number of substance-affected live births.

  5. Essential versus potentially toxic dietary substances: A seasonal comparison of essential fatty acids and methyl mercury concentrations in the planktonic food web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kainz, Martin [Aquatic Ecosystem Management Research Division, National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, P.O. Box 505, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada)], E-mail: martin.kainz@donau-uni.ac.at; Arts, Michael T. [Water and Aquatic Sciences Research Program, University of Victoria, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 3020, Stn. CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3N5 (Canada); Mazumder, Asit [Aquatic Ecosystem Management Research Division, National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, P.O. Box 505, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2008-09-15

    We investigated seasonal variability of essential fatty acids (EFA) and methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations in four size categories of planktonic organisms in two coastal lakes. MeHg concentrations increased significantly with increasing plankton size and were independent of plankton taxonomy. However, total EFA increased from seston to mesozooplankton, but decreased in the cladoceran-dominated macrozooplankton size-class. Analysis of EFA patterns revealed that linoleic, alpha-linolenic, arachidonic, and eicosapentaenoic acids increased with increasing zooplankton size, but docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the cladoceran-dominated macrozooplankton was generally lower than in seston. This consistent pattern demonstrates that cladocerans, although bioaccumulating MeHg, convey less DHA than similar-sized copepods to their consumers. It is thus evident that fish consuming cladocerans have restricted access to DHA, yet unrestricted dietary access to MeHg. Thus, the structure of planktonic food webs clearly affects the composition of EFA and regulates dietary supply of these essential nutrients, while MeHg bioaccumulates with increasing zooplankton size. - The structure of planktonic food webs largely regulates the composition and dietary supply of essential fatty acids, while MeHg bioaccumulates with zooplankton size.

  6. Essential versus potentially toxic dietary substances: A seasonal comparison of essential fatty acids and methyl mercury concentrations in the planktonic food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainz, Martin; Arts, Michael T.; Mazumder, Asit

    2008-01-01

    We investigated seasonal variability of essential fatty acids (EFA) and methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations in four size categories of planktonic organisms in two coastal lakes. MeHg concentrations increased significantly with increasing plankton size and were independent of plankton taxonomy. However, total EFA increased from seston to mesozooplankton, but decreased in the cladoceran-dominated macrozooplankton size-class. Analysis of EFA patterns revealed that linoleic, alpha-linolenic, arachidonic, and eicosapentaenoic acids increased with increasing zooplankton size, but docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the cladoceran-dominated macrozooplankton was generally lower than in seston. This consistent pattern demonstrates that cladocerans, although bioaccumulating MeHg, convey less DHA than similar-sized copepods to their consumers. It is thus evident that fish consuming cladocerans have restricted access to DHA, yet unrestricted dietary access to MeHg. Thus, the structure of planktonic food webs clearly affects the composition of EFA and regulates dietary supply of these essential nutrients, while MeHg bioaccumulates with increasing zooplankton size. - The structure of planktonic food webs largely regulates the composition and dietary supply of essential fatty acids, while MeHg bioaccumulates with zooplankton size

  7. Extracellular polymeric substances affect the responses of multi-species biofilms in the presence of sulfamethizole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Longfei; Li, Yi; Wang, Li; Zhang, Huanjun; Zhu, Mengjie; Zhang, Peisheng; Zhu, Xiaoxiao

    2018-04-01

    The occurrence and transportation of antibiotics in biofilms from natural and engineered sources have attracted increasing interests. Nevertheless, the effects of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on the responses of biofilms to the exposure to antibiotics are not clear. In this study, the effects of EPS on the sorption and biological responses to one representative antibiotic, sulfamethizole (STZ), in model biofilms were investigated. Proteins dominated the interactions between the EPS and the STZ and the EPS from a moving bed biofilm reactor exhibited the strongest interaction with the STZ. The EPS served as important reservoirs for the STZ and the tested biofilms all showed reduced sorption capacities for the STZ after the EPS were extracted. The respiratory rates and typical enzymatic activities were reduced after the EPS were extracted. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing results confirmed that the bacterial community in the biofilm without the EPS was more vulnerable to antibiotic shock as indicated by the community diversity and richness indices. A greater increase in the abundance of susceptible species was observed in the natural biofilm. The results comprehensively suggested that the EPS played important role in biosorption of STZ and alleviated the direct damage of the antibiotic to the cells; in addition the extent of the bacterial community response was associated with the origins of the biofilms. Our study provided details on the responses of multi-species biofilms to the exposure to an antibiotic and highlighted the role of the EPS in interacting with the antibiotic, thereby providing a deeper understanding of the bioremediation of antibiotics in real-life natural and engineered biofilm systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Protein turnover in lactating mink (Mustela vison) is not affected by dietary protein supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, Anne-Helene; Fink, Rikke; Chwalibog, André

    2006-01-01

    The mink is a strict carnivore and may therefore serve as a model for the cat. Current recommendations for protein supply for lactating mink are based on production experiments with preweaning kit growth as a measure of dietary adequacy (1,2). Recently, nitrogen balance and substrate oxidation have...... in humans (7), growing pigs (8), and growing rats (9). In adult cats, both protein synthesis and breakdown were lower when feeding a low- than when feeding a high-protein diet [20 vs. 70% of metabolizable energy (ME)5 from protein] (10). The objectives of this study were therefore to develop a ¹5N...

  9. Energy balance of lactating primiparous sows as affected by feeding level and dietary energy source

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, van den, H.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Soede, N.M.; Schrama, J.W.; Kemp, B.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of feeding level and major dietary energy source used during lactation on sow milk composition, piglet body composition, and energy balance of sows were determined. During a 21-d lactation, 48 primiparous sows were fed either a Fat-rich (134.9 g/kg fat; 196.8 g/kg carbohydrate) or a Starch-rich (33.2 g/kg fat; 380.9 g/kg carbohydrate) diet at either a High (44 MJ NE/d; 1,050 g protein/d) or a Low (33 MJ NE/d; 790 g protein/d) feeding level. Within each feeding level, the two diets...

  10. Does Dietary Mitigation of Enteric Methane Production Affect Rumen Function and Animal Productivity in Dairy Cows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneman, Jolien B; Muetzel, Stefan; Hart, Kenton J; Faulkner, Catherine L; Moorby, Jon M; Perdok, Hink B; Newbold, Charles J

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that the rumen microbiome and rumen function might be disrupted if methane production in the rumen is decreased. Furthermore concerns have been voiced that geography and management might influence the underlying microbial population and hence the response of the rumen to mitigation strategies. Here we report the effect of the dietary additives: linseed oil and nitrate on methane emissions, rumen fermentation, and the rumen microbiome in two experiments from New Zealand (Dairy 1) and the UK (Dairy 2). Dairy 1 was a randomized block design with 18 multiparous lactating cows. Dairy 2 was a complete replicated 3 x 3 Latin Square using 6 rumen cannulated, lactating dairy cows. Treatments consisted of a control total mixed ration (TMR), supplementation with linseed oil (4% of feed DM) and supplementation with nitrate (2% of feed DM) in both experiments. Methane emissions were measured in open circuit respiration chambers and rumen samples were analyzed for rumen fermentation parameters and microbial population structure using qPCR and next generation sequencing (NGS). Supplementation with nitrate, but not linseed oil, decreased methane yield (g/kg DMI; Prumen acetate to propionate ratio and consistent changes in the rumen microbial populations including a decreased abundance of the main genus Prevotella and a decrease in archaeal mcrA (log10 copies/g rumen DM content). These results demonstrate that methane emissions can be significantly decreased with nitrate supplementation with only minor, but consistent, effects on the rumen microbial population and its function, with no evidence that the response to dietary additives differed due to geography and different underlying microbial populations.

  11. Dietary supplementation of probiotics affects growth, immune response and disease resistance of Cyprinus carpio fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Akhil; Gupta, Paromita; Dhawan, Asha

    2014-12-01

    The effects of dietary Bacillus coagulans (MTCC 9872), Bacillus licheniformis (MTCC 6824) and Paenibacillus polymyxa (MTCC 122) supplementation on growth performance, non-specific immunity and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila infection were evaluated in common carp, Cyprinus carpio fry. Laboratory maintained B. coagulans, B. licheniformis and P. polymyxa were used to study antagonistic activity against fish pathogenic bacteria by agar well diffusion assay. Healthy fish fry were challenged by this bacterium for determination of its safety. Fish were fed for 80 days with control basal diet (B0) and experimental diets containing B. coagulans (B1), B. licheniformis (B2) and P. polymyxa (B3) at 10(9) CFU/g diet. Fish fry (mean weight 0.329 ± 0.01 g) were fed these diets and growth performance, various non-specific immune parameters and disease resistance study were conducted at 80 days post-feeding. The antagonism study showed inhibition zone against A. hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi. All the probiotic bacterial strains were harmless to fish fry as neither mortality nor morbidities were observed of the challenge. The growth-promoting influences of probiotic supplemented dietary treatments were observed with fish fry and the optimum survival, growth and feed utilization were obtained with P. polymyxa (B3) supplemented diet. Study of different non-specific innate immunological parameters viz. lysozyme activity, respiratory burst assay and myeloperoxidase content showed significant (p growth, feed utilization, non-specific immune responses and disease resistance of fry common carp, C. carpio. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Inhibition by natural dietary substances of gastrointestinal absorption of starch and sucrose in rats and pigs: 1. Acute studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Harry G; Echard, Bobby; Bagchi, Debasis; Stohs, Sidney

    2007-08-06

    Rapid gastrointestinal absorption of refined carbohydrates (CHO) is linked to perturbed glucose-insulin metabolism that is, in turn, associated with many chronic health disorders. We assessed the ability of various natural substances, commonly referred to as "CHO blockers," to influence starch and sucrose absorption in vivo in ninety-six rats and two pigs. These natural enzyme inhibitors of amylase/sucrase reportedly lessen breakdown of starches and sucrose in the gastrointestinal tract, limiting their absorption. To estimate absorption, groups of nine SD rats were gavaged with water or water plus rice starch and/or sucrose; and circulating glucose was measured at timed intervals thereafter. For each variation in the protocol a total of at least nine different rats were studied with an equal number of internal controls on three different occasions. The pigs rapidly drank CHO and inhibitors in their drinking water. In rats, glucose elevations above baseline over four hours following rice starch challenge as estimated by area-under-curve (AUC) were 40%, 27%, and 85% of their internal control after ingesting bean extract, hibiscus extract, and l-arabinose respectively in addition to the rice starch. The former two were significantly different from control. L-Arabinose virtually eliminated the rising circulating glucose levels after sucrose challenge, whereas hibiscus and bean extracts were associated with lesser decreases than l-arabinose that were still significantly lower than control. The glucose elevations above baseline over four hours in rats receiving sucrose (AUC) were 51%, 43% and 2% of control for bean extract, hibiscus extract, and L-arabinose, respectively. Evidence for dose-response of bean and hibiscus extracts is reported. Giving the natural substances minus CHO challenge caused no significant changes in circulating glucose concentrations, indicating no major effects on overall metabolism. A formula combining these natural products significantly

  13. Quantification of allyl hexanoate in pineapple beverages and yogurts as a case study to characterise a source of uncertainty in dietary exposure assessment to flavouring substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffo, A; D'Aloise, A; Magrì, A D; Leclercq, C

    2012-01-01

    One source of uncertainty in the estimation of dietary exposure to flavouring substances is the uncertainty in the occurrence and concentration levels of these substances naturally present or added to foodstuffs. The aim of this study was to assess the variability of concentration levels of allyl hexanoate, considered as a case study, in two main food categories to which it is often added: pineapple juice-based beverages and yogurts containing pineapple. Thirty-four beverages and 29 yogurts, with pineapple fruit or juice and added flavourings declared as ingredients on the package, were purchased from the local market (in Rome) and analysed. Analytical methods based on the stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) technique for the isolation of the target analyte, and on GC-MS analysis for final determination, were developed for the two food categories. In beverages, allyl hexanoate concentrations ranged from less than 0.01 to 16.71 mg l(-1), whereas in yogurts they ranged from 0.02 to 89.41 mg kg(-1). Average concentrations in beverages and yogurts with pineapple as the main fruit ingredient (1.91 mg l(-1) for beverages, 9.61 mg kg(-1) for yogurts) were in fair agreement with average use level data reported from industry surveys for the relevant food categories (4.5 and 6.0 mg kg(-1), respectively). Within the group of yogurts a single product was found to contain a level of allyl hexanoate more than 10-fold higher than the average reported use level. The screening techniques developed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) using use level data provided by industry gave estimates of exposure that were of the same order of magnitude as the estimates obtained for regular consumers who would be loyal to the pineapple yogurt and beverage products containing the highest observed concentration of the substance of interest. In this specific case the uncertainty in the results obtained with the use of standard screening techniques for exposure assessment based on industry

  14. Effect of dietary Satureja khuzistanica powder on semen characteristics and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances concentration in testicular tissue of Iranian native breeder rooster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Because of a paucity of information on the effect of Satureja khuzistanica in male chickens, this study was undertaken to determine the influence of dietary S. khuzistanica powder (SKP) on seminal characteristics and testes thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content in Iranian native breeder rooster. Thirty-six 40-week-old roosters were randomly allotted to 3 equal groups and received either a basal diet without SKP (T1 or control), or a diet containing 20 g/kg (T2) and 40 g/kg (T3) of SKP for 8-week-long experimental period. Semen samples were obtained weekly by abdominal massage to evaluate the seminal characteristics. At the end of the eighth week 18 birds (6 birds per each group) were randomly slaughtered, and sample was taken from right testes for TBARS evaluation. Administration of SKP improved all semen traits, except for sperm concentration. Likewise, TBARS content in SKP treatments did not significantly differ from the control (P>0.05). Seminal volume, live sperm percentage and plasma membrane integrity percentage in SKP-treated groups were higher than the control. Conversely, abnormal sperm percentages reduced in SKP-treated groups (Prooster diet improves sperm quality and also reduces their sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, which may lead to higher fertilization rate.

  15. Dietary energy density affects fat mass in early adolescence and is not modified by FTO variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Johnson

    Full Text Available Dietary energy density (DED does not have a simple linear relationship to fat mass in children, which suggests that some children are more susceptible than others to the effects of DED. Children with the FTO (rs9939609 variant that increases the risk of obesity may have a higher susceptibility to the effects of DED because their internal appetite control system is compromised. We tested the relationship between DED and fat mass in early adolescence and its interaction with FTO variants.We carried out a prospective analysis on 2,275 children enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC. Diet was assessed at age 10 y using 3-day diet diaries. DED (kJ/g was calculated excluding drinks. Children were genotyped for the FTO (rs9939609 variant. Fat mass was estimated at age 13 y using the Lunar Prodigy Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry scanner. There was no evidence of interaction between DED at age 10 y and the high risk A allele of the FTO gene in relation to fat mass at age 13 y (beta = 0.005, p = 0.51, suggesting that the FTO gene has no effect on the relation between DED at 10 y and fat mass at 13 y. When DED at 10 y and the A allele of FTO were in the same model they were independently related to fat mass at 13 y. Each A allele of FTO was associated with 0.35+/-0.13 kg more fat mass at 13 y and each 1 kJ/g DED at 10 y was associated with 0.16+/-0.06 kg more fat mass at age 13 y, after controlling for misreporting of energy intake, gender, puberty, overweight status at 10 y, maternal education, TV watching, and physical activity.This study reveals the multi-factorial origin of obesity and indicates that although FTO may put some children at greater risk of obesity, encouraging a low dietary energy density may be an effective strategy to help all children avoid excessive fat gain.

  16. Dietary pomegranate extract and inulin affect gut microbiome differentially in mice fed an obesogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song; Yang, Jieping; Henning, Susanne M; Lee, Rupo; Hsu, Mark; Grojean, Emma; Pisegna, Rita; Ly, Austin; Heber, David; Li, Zhaoping

    2017-12-01

    Growing evidence suggests that dysbiosis of gut microbiota is associated with pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases. Using dietary intervention to shape the composition and metabolism of the gut microbiota is increasingly recognized. In the present study, we investigated the effects of polysaccharide inulin and polyphenol-rich pomegranate extract (PomX) alone or in combination on the cecal microbiota composition and function in a diet induced obesity mouse model. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four experimental groups and consumed either high-fat/high-sucrose [HF/HS (32% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose, 17% energy from protein)] diet, HF/HS diet supplemented with PomX (0.25%), or inulin (9%) or PomX and inulin in combination for 4 weeks. In mice fed the PomX-diet the proportion of Turicibacteraceae and Ruminococcaceae was significantly increased compared to the control HF/HS diet. Supplementation with inulin alone and inulin + PomX combination significantly increased the proportion of Verrucomicrobiaceae (A. muciniphila) and decreased Clostridiaceae. Only mice fed the inulin diet experienced an increase in serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), which was reversed when feeding the inulin + PomX diet. Feeding the inulin + PomX diet was associated with a significant increase in Bifidobacteriaceae and Rikenellaceae, which may have contributed to the reduction of endotoxemia markers. Inulin supplementation showed lower species richness of gut microbiota compared to mice fed with HF/HS or HF/HS/PomX, and the reduction was reversed by the addition of PomX. Inulin alone and in combination with PomX had distinct microbial clusters determined by both weighted and unweighted UniFrac Beta-Diversity principle coordinate analysis. A total of 19 KEGG biological pathways were significantly regulated in the gut microbiota with PomX and inulin alone or combined treatment. Inulin significantly enhanced KEGG

  17. Temporary dietary iron restriction affects the process of thrombus resolution in a rat model of deep vein thrombosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Oboshi

    Full Text Available Deep vein thrombosis (DVT is a major cause of pulmonary thromboembolism and sudden death. Thus, it is important to consider the pathophysiology of DVT. Recently, iron has been reported to be associated with thrombotic diseases. Hence, in this study, we investigate the effects of dietary iron restriction on the process of thrombus resolution in a rat model of DVT.We induced DVT in 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats by performing ligations of their inferior venae cavae. The rats were then given either a normal diet (DVT group or an iron-restricted diet (DVT+IR group. Thrombosed inferior venae cavae were harvested at 5 days after ligation.The iron-restricted diet reduced venous thrombus size compared to the normal diet. Intrathrombotic collagen content was diminished in the DVT+IR group compared to the DVT group. In addition, intrathrombotic gene expression and the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 were increased in the DVT+IR group compared to the DVT group. Furthermore, the DVT+IR group had greater intrathrombotic neovascularization as well as higher gene expression levels of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and tissue-type plasminogen activator than the DVT group. The iron-restricted diet decreased intrathrombotic superoxide production compared to the normal diet.These results suggest that dietary iron restriction affects the process of thrombus resolution in DVT.

  18. Temporary dietary iron restriction affects the process of thrombus resolution in a rat model of deep vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboshi, Makiko; Naito, Yoshiro; Sawada, Hisashi; Hirotani, Shinichi; Iwasaku, Toshihiro; Okuhara, Yoshitaka; Morisawa, Daisuke; Eguchi, Akiyo; Nishimura, Koichi; Fujii, Kenichi; Mano, Toshiaki; Ishihara, Masaharu; Masuyama, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a major cause of pulmonary thromboembolism and sudden death. Thus, it is important to consider the pathophysiology of DVT. Recently, iron has been reported to be associated with thrombotic diseases. Hence, in this study, we investigate the effects of dietary iron restriction on the process of thrombus resolution in a rat model of DVT. We induced DVT in 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats by performing ligations of their inferior venae cavae. The rats were then given either a normal diet (DVT group) or an iron-restricted diet (DVT+IR group). Thrombosed inferior venae cavae were harvested at 5 days after ligation. The iron-restricted diet reduced venous thrombus size compared to the normal diet. Intrathrombotic collagen content was diminished in the DVT+IR group compared to the DVT group. In addition, intrathrombotic gene expression and the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 were increased in the DVT+IR group compared to the DVT group. Furthermore, the DVT+IR group had greater intrathrombotic neovascularization as well as higher gene expression levels of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and tissue-type plasminogen activator than the DVT group. The iron-restricted diet decreased intrathrombotic superoxide production compared to the normal diet. These results suggest that dietary iron restriction affects the process of thrombus resolution in DVT.

  19. Dietary green tea polyphenols do not affect vitamin E status, antioxidant capacity and meat quality of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, K; Blank, R; Boesch-Saadatmandi, C; Frank, J; Wolffram, S; Rimbach, G

    2008-12-01

    Supplementation of pigs with vitamin E, the most important lipid-soluble antioxidant, has been shown to improve meat quality and animal health. Previous studies in cultured cells and laboratory animals indicate synergistic effects between polyphenols and vitamin E. The present feeding trial was undertaken to investigate the effects of dietary green tea polyphenols (GTP) on vitamin E status, antioxidative capacity and parameters of meat quality in growing pigs. Eighteen castrated, crossbred, male pigs received a flavonoid-poor diet based on corn starch, caseinate and rapeseed oil with a total vitamin E content of 17 IU/kg diet over a period of 5 weeks. This basal diet was supplemented with green tea extract to provide daily doses of 0 (control), 10 and 100 mg GTP/kg body weight. Dietary supplementation of growing pigs with GTP did not affect serum, liver, lung and muscle vitamin E (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) concentrations, plasma antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing ability of plasma, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) or parameters of meat quality including meat temperature, pH, conductivity, colour and drip loss. In conclusion, supplementation of pig diets with green tea catechins is not associated with improved antioxidant status and meat quality under practice-oriented conditions.

  20. High-throughput dietary exposure predictions for chemical migrants from food contact substances for use in chemical prioritization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biryol, Derya; Nicolas, Chantel I; Wambaugh, John; Phillips, Katherine; Isaacs, Kristin

    2017-11-01

    Under the ExpoCast program, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) researchers have developed a high-throughput (HT) framework for estimating aggregate exposures to chemicals from multiple pathways to support rapid prioritization of chemicals. Here, we present methods to estimate HT exposures to chemicals migrating into food from food contact substances (FCS). These methods consisted of combining an empirical model of chemical migration with estimates of daily population food intakes derived from food diaries from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). A linear regression model for migration at equilibrium was developed by fitting available migration measurements as a function of temperature, food type (i.e., fatty, aqueous, acidic, alcoholic), initial chemical concentration in the FCS (C 0 ) and chemical properties. The most predictive variables in the resulting model were C 0 , molecular weight, log K ow , and food type (R 2 =0.71, pchemicals identified via publicly-available data sources as being present in polymer FCSs were predicted for 12 food groups (combinations of 3 storage temperatures and food type). The model was parameterized with screening-level estimates of C 0 based on the functional role of chemicals in FCS. By combining these concentrations with daily intakes for food groups derived from NHANES, population ingestion exposures of chemical in mg/kg-bodyweight/day (mg/kg-BW/day) were estimated. Calibrated aggregate exposures were estimated for 1931 chemicals by fitting HT FCS and consumer product exposures to exposures inferred from NHANES biomonitoring (R 2 =0.61, pchemicals), they can provide critical refinement to aggregate exposure predictions used in risk-based chemical priority-setting. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Dietary Restriction Affects Neuronal Response Property and GABA Synthesis in the Primary Visual Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfang Yang

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported inconsistent effects of dietary restriction (DR on cortical inhibition. To clarify this issue, we examined the response properties of neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1 of DR and control groups of cats using in vivo extracellular single-unit recording techniques, and assessed the synthesis of inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA in the V1 of cats from both groups using immunohistochemical and Western blot techniques. Our results showed that the response of V1 neurons to visual stimuli was significantly modified by DR, as indicated by an enhanced selectivity for stimulus orientations and motion directions, decreased visually-evoked response, lowered spontaneous activity and increased signal-to-noise ratio in DR cats relative to control cats. Further, it was shown that, accompanied with these changes of neuronal responsiveness, GABA immunoreactivity and the expression of a key GABA-synthesizing enzyme GAD67 in the V1 were significantly increased by DR. These results demonstrate that DR may retard brain aging by increasing the intracortical inhibition effect and improve the function of visual cortical neurons in visual information processing. This DR-induced elevation of cortical inhibition may favor the brain in modulating energy expenditure based on food availability.

  2. Dietary Restriction Affects Neuronal Response Property and GABA Synthesis in the Primary Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinfang; Wang, Qian; He, Fenfen; Ding, Yanxia; Sun, Qingyan; Hua, Tianmiao; Xi, Minmin

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported inconsistent effects of dietary restriction (DR) on cortical inhibition. To clarify this issue, we examined the response properties of neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) of DR and control groups of cats using in vivo extracellular single-unit recording techniques, and assessed the synthesis of inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA in the V1 of cats from both groups using immunohistochemical and Western blot techniques. Our results showed that the response of V1 neurons to visual stimuli was significantly modified by DR, as indicated by an enhanced selectivity for stimulus orientations and motion directions, decreased visually-evoked response, lowered spontaneous activity and increased signal-to-noise ratio in DR cats relative to control cats. Further, it was shown that, accompanied with these changes of neuronal responsiveness, GABA immunoreactivity and the expression of a key GABA-synthesizing enzyme GAD67 in the V1 were significantly increased by DR. These results demonstrate that DR may retard brain aging by increasing the intracortical inhibition effect and improve the function of visual cortical neurons in visual information processing. This DR-induced elevation of cortical inhibition may favor the brain in modulating energy expenditure based on food availability.

  3. How does the preparation of rye porridge affect molecular weight distribution of extractable dietary fibers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakha, Allah; Aman, Per; Andersson, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Extractable dietary fiber (DF) plays an important role in nutrition. This study on porridge making with whole grain rye investigated the effect of rest time of flour slurries at room temperature before cooking and amount of flour and salt in the recipe on the content of DF components and molecular weight distribution of extractable fructan, mixed linkage (1→3)(1→4)-β-d-glucan (β-glucan) and arabinoxylan (AX) in the porridge. The content of total DF was increased (from about 20% to 23% of dry matter) during porridge making due to formation of insoluble resistant starch. A small but significant increase in the extractability of β-glucan (P = 0.016) and AX (P = 0.002) due to rest time was also noted. The molecular weight of extractable fructan and AX remained stable during porridge making. However, incubation of the rye flour slurries at increased temperature resulted in a significant decrease in extractable AX molecular weight. The molecular weight of extractable β-glucan decreased greatly during a rest time before cooking, most likely by the action of endogenous enzymes. The amount of salt and flour used in the recipe had small but significant effects on the molecular weight of β-glucan. These results show that whole grain rye porridge made without a rest time before cooking contains extractable DF components maintaining high molecular weights. High molecular weight is most likely of nutritional importance.

  4. How Does the Preparation of Rye Porridge Affect Molecular Weight Distribution of Extractable Dietary Fibers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Andersson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Extractable dietary fiber (DF plays an important role in nutrition. This study on porridge making with whole grain rye investigated the effect of rest time of flour slurries at room temperature before cooking and amount of flour and salt in the recipe on the content of DF components and molecular weight distribution of extractable fructan, mixed linkage (1→3(1→4-β-D-glucan (β-glucan and arabinoxylan (AX in the porridge. The content of total DF was increased (from about 20% to 23% of dry matter during porridge making due to formation of insoluble resistant starch. A small but significant increase in the extractability of β-glucan (P = 0.016 and AX (P = 0.002 due to rest time was also noted. The molecular weight of extractable fructan and AX remained stable during porridge making. However, incubation of the rye flour slurries at increased temperature resulted in a significant decrease in extractable AX molecular weight. The molecular weight of extractable β-glucan decreased greatly during a rest time before cooking, most likely by the action of endogenous enzymes. The amount of salt and flour used in the recipe had small but significant effects on the molecular weight of β-glucan. These results show that whole grain rye porridge made without a rest time before cooking contains extractable DF components maintaining high molecular weights. High molecular weight is most likely of nutritional importance.

  5. Commonly consumed and naturally occurring dietary substances affect biomarkers of oxidative stress and DNA damage in healthy rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farombi, E. O.; Hansen, Max; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2004-01-01

    in magnitude to that of the known liver protectant, kolaviron. In rats treated with kolaviron (200 mg/kg body weight), background AAS levels were significantly reduced in both plasma and liver whereas the effect on MDA only reached statistical significance in plasma. Kolaviron was the only extract tested which...

  6. Mineral absorption by albino rats as affected by some types of dietary pectins with different degrees of esterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Zoghbi, M; Sitohy, M Z

    2001-04-01

    Male albino rats were fed diets contained 6.85% mineral salts for 2 weeks (adaptation condition). Then they were fed the dietary pectin administered diet for 6 weeks to evaluate the effect of administration of pectin on the absorption of some monovalent, bivalent and heavy metals in the serum of rats. The experimental parameters included, monovalent minerals (K, Na), bivalent minerals (Zn, Cu, Ca, Fe), heavy metals (Pb, Cd), serum uric acid and serum creatinine. The obtained results indicated that the serum contents of monovalent minerals were negatively affected by pectin administration. The low degree of esterification of pectin was more effective on the absorption of bivalent minerals. Also, the rat serum levels of lead and cadmium were reduced by pectin administration. Serum total proteins were reduced by pectin administration. The level of rat serum of uric acid and creatinine fed different sources of pectin were within normal levels and were insignificantly lower than that recorded for control samples.

  7. Prenatal dietary load of Maillard reaction products combined with postnatal Coca-Cola drinking affects metabolic status of female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurecká, Radana; Koborová, Ivana; Janšáková, Katarína; Tábi, Tamás; Szökő, Éva; Somoza, Veronika; Šebeková, Katarína; Celec, Peter

    2015-04-01

    To assess the impact of prenatal exposure to Maillard reaction products (MRPs) -rich diet and postnatal Coca-Cola consumption on metabolic status of female rats. Diet rich in MRPs and consumption of saccharose/fructose sweetened soft drinks is presumed to impose increased risk of development of cardiometabolic afflictions, such as obesity or insulin resistance. At the first day of pregnancy, 9 female Wistar rats were randomized into two groups, pair-fed either with standard rat chow (MRP-) or MRPs-rich diet (MRP+). Offspring from each group of mothers was divided into two groups and given either water (Cola-) or Coca-Cola (Cola+) for drinking ad libitum for 18 days. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed, and circulating markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, glucose and lipid metabolism were assessed. MRP+ groups had higher weight gain, significantly so in the MRP+/Cola- vs MRP-/Cola-. Both prenatal and postnatal intervention increased carboxymethyllysine levels and semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity, both significantly higher in MRP+/Cola + than in MRP-/Cola-. Total antioxidant capacity was lower in MRP+ groups, with significant decrease in MRP+/Cola + vs MRP-/Cola+. Rats drinking Coca-Cola had higher insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, heart rate, advanced oxidation of protein products, triacylglycerols, and oxidative stress markers measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances compared to rats drinking water, with no visible effect of MRPs-rich diet. Metabolic status of rats was affected both by prenatal and postnatal dietary intervention. Our results suggest that combined effect of prenatal MRPs load and postnatal Coca-Cola drinking may play a role in development of metabolic disorders in later life.

  8. Dietary fat affects heat production and other variables of equine performance, under hot and humid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronfeld, D S

    1996-07-01

    Does dietary fat supplementation during conditioning improve athletic performance, especially in the heat? Fat adaptation has been used to increase energy density, decrease bowel bulk and faecal output and reduce health risks associated with hydrolysable carbohydrate overload. It may also reduce spontaneous activity and reactivity (excitability), increase fatty acid oxidation, reduce CO2 production and associated acidosis, enhance metabolic regulation of glycolysis, improve both aerobic and anaerobic performance and substantially reduce heat production. A thermochemical analysis of ATP generation showed the least heat release during the direct oxidation of long chain fatty acids, which have a 3% advantage over glucose and 20 to 30% over short chain fatty acids and amino acids. Indirect oxidation via storage as triglyceride increased heat loss during ATP generation by 3% for stearic acid, 65% for glucose and 174% for acetic acid. Meal feeding and nutrient storage, therefore, accentuates the advantage of dietary fat. A calorimetric model was based on initial estimates of net energy for competitive work (10.76 MJ for the Endurance Test of an Olympic level 3-day-event), other work (14.4 MJ/day) and maintenance (36 MJ), then applied estimates of efficiencies to derive associated heat productions for the utilisation of 3 diets, Diet A: hay (100), Diet B: hay and oats (50:50) and Diet C: hay, oats and vegetable oil (45:45:10), the difference between the last 2 diets representing fat adaptation. During a 90.5 min speed and stamina test, heat production was estimated as 37, 35.4 and 34.6 MJ for the 3 diets, respectively, an advantage 0.8 MJ less heat load for the fat adapted horse, which would reduce water needed for evaporation by 0.33 kg and reduce body temperature increase by about 0.07 degree C. Total estimated daily heat production was 105, 93 and 88 MJ for the 3 diets, respectively, suggesting a 5 MJ advantage for the fat adapted horse (Diet C vs. Diet B). Estimated

  9. Cyclic fatty acid monomers from dietary heated fats affect rat liver enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamboni, C; Sébédio, J L; Perkins, E G

    1998-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary cyclic fatty acid monomers (CFAM), contained in heated fat from a commercial deep-fat frying operation, on rat liver enzyme activity. A partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSBO) used 7 d (7-DH) for frying foodstuffs, or 0.15% methylated CFAM diets was fed to male weanling rats in comparison to a control group fed a nonheated PHSBO (NH) diet in a 10-wk experiment. All diets were isocaloric with 15% fat. Animals fed either CFAM or 7-DH diets showed increased hepatic content of cytochrome (cyt.) b5 and P450 and increased activity of (E.C. 1.6.2.4) NADPH-cyt. P450 reductase in comparison to the control rats. In addition, the activities of (E.C. 2.3.1.21) carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I and (E.C. 1.1.1.42) isocitrate dehydrogenase were significantly decreased when compared to that of rats fed the NH diet. A significantly depressed activity of (E.C. 1.1.1.49) glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase was also observed for these animals compared to the control rats fed NH diet. Moreover, liver and microsomal proteins were significantly increased when CFAM or 7-DH diets were fed to animals in comparison to controls while liver glycogen was decreased significantly in experimental groups of rats. The results obtained in this study indicate that the CFAM in the diet from either synthetic sources or used fats increase the activity of liver enzyme systems that detoxify them.

  10. Does dietary fluid intake affect skin hydration in healthy humans? A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdeniz, M; Tomova-Simitchieva, T; Dobos, G; Blume-Peytavi, U; Kottner, J

    2018-02-02

    Associations between daily amounts of drinking water and skin hydration and skin physiology receive increasingly attention in the daily life and in clinical practice. However, there is a lack of evidence of dermatological benefits from drinking increased amounts of water. Pubmed and Web of Science were searched without any restrictions of publication dates. References of included papers and related reviews were checked. Eligibility criteria were primary intervention and observational studies investigating the effects of fluid intake on skin properties in English, German, Spanish or Portuguese language, including subjects being healthy and 18+ years. Searches resulted in 216 records, 23 articles were read in full text, and six were included. The mean age of the samples ranged from 24 to 56 years. Overall the evidence is weak in terms of quantity and methodological quality. Disregarding the methodological limitations a slight increase in stratum corneum and "deep" skin hydration was observed after additional water intake, particularly in individuals with lower prior water consumption. Reductions of clinical signs of dryness and roughness were observed. The extensibility and elasticity of the skin increased slightly. Unclear associations were shown between water intake and transepidermal water loss, sebum content, and skin surface pH. Additional dietary water intake may increase stratum corneum hydration. The underlying biological mechanism for this possible relationship is unknown. Whether this association also exists in aged subjects is unclear. Research is needed to answer the question whether increased fluid intake decreases signs of dry skin. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Metabolism of early-lactation dairy cows as affected by dietary starch and monensin supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M M; Yasui, T; Ryan, C M; Pelton, S H; Mechor, G D; Overton, T R

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary starch content and monensin (MON) on metabolism of dairy cows during early lactation. Before parturition, primiparous (n=21) and multiparous (n=49) Holstein cows were fed a common controlled-energy close-up diet with a daily topdress of either 0 or 400mg/d monensin. From d 1 to 21 postpartum, cows were fed a high-starch (HS; 26.2% starch, 34.3% neutral detergent fiber, 22.7% acid detergent fiber, 15.5% crude protein) or low-starch (LS; 21.5% starch, 36.9% neutral detergent fiber, 25.2% acid detergent fiber, 15.4% crude protein) total mixed ration with a daily topdress of either 0mg/d monensin (CON) or 450mg/d monensin (MON), continuing with prepartum topdress assignment. From d 22 through 63 postpartum, all cows were fed HS and continued with the assigned topdress treatment until d 63. Cows fed HS had higher plasma glucose and insulin and lower nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) than cows fed LS during d 1 to 21 postpartum. Cows fed LS had elevated early-lactation β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) compared with cows fed HS. Cows fed HS had greater insulin resistance and increased plasma haptoglobin in the early lactation period. There was no effect of MON on postpartum plasma NEFA. Cows fed MON had higher plasma glucose compared with CON cows, which was driven by a MON × parity interaction in which primiparous cows fed MON had greater plasma glucose concentrations than cows fed CON. Cows fed MON had lower plasma BHBA compared with CON, which was contributed to by a MON × parity interaction in which primiparous cows fed MON had lower BHBA concentrations than CON. Starch treatment had no effect on overall liver triglyceride content. Primiparous cows fed MON had increased liver triglyceride content compared with CON primiparous cows, and multiparous cows fed MON had decreased liver triglyceride content compared with CON cows. Multiparous cows fed LS with MON had higher liver glycogen content than multiparous

  12. An Idiographic Examination of Day-to-Day Patterns of Substance Use Craving, Negative Affect, and Tobacco Use among Young Adults in Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yao; Wiebe, Richard P.; Cleveland, H. Harrington; Molenaar, Peter C. M.; Harris, Kitty S.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological constructs, such as negative affect and substance use cravings that closely predict relapse, show substantial intraindividual day-to-day variability. This intraindividual variability of relevant psychological states combined with the "one day at a time" nature of sustained abstinence warrant a day-to-day investigation of substance…

  13. Feeding frequency, but not dietary water content, affects voluntary physical activity in young lean adult female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, M R C; Ochi, K; de Oliveira Mateus, L F; de Justino, A C C; Swanson, K S

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether increased dietary water content and feeding frequency increased voluntary physical activity of young, lean adult female cats. A replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement (feeding frequency and water content) was used. The 4 treatments consisted of 1 meal daily dry pet food without added water (1D; 12% moisture as is), 1 meal daily dry pet food with added water (1W; 70% total water content), 4 meals daily dry pet food without added water (4D; 12% moisture as is), and 4 meals daily dry pet food with added water (4W; 70% total water content). Eight healthy adult, lean, intact, young, female domestic shorthair cats were used in this experiment. Voluntary physical activity was evaluated using Actical activity monitors placed on collars and worn around the cats' necks for the last 7 d of each experimental period of 14 d. Food anticipatory activity (FAA) was calculated based on 2 h prior to feeding periods and expressed as a percentage of total daily voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency (4 vs. 1 meal daily) resulted in greater average daily activity (P = 0.0147), activity during the light period (P = 0.0023), and light:dark activity ratio (P = 0.0002). In contrast, physical activity during the dark period was not altered by feeding frequency (P > 0.05). Cats fed 4 meals daily had increased afternoon FAA (P= 0.0029) compared with cats fed once daily. Dietary water content did not affect any measure of voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency is an effective strategy to increase the voluntary physical activity of cats. Thus, it may assist in the prevention and management of obesity.

  14. The degree of saturation of fatty acids in dietary fats does not affect the metabolic response to ingested carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, Angela; Hassan, Youssef; Gannon, Mary C; Nuttall, Frank Q

    2009-06-01

    We are interested in the metabolic response to ingested macronutrients, and the interaction between macronutrients in meals. Previously, we and others reported that the postprandial rise in serum glucose following ingestion of 50 g carbohydrate, consumed as potato, was markedly attenuated when butter was ingested with the carbohydrate, whereas the serum insulin response was little affected by the combination. To determine whether a similar response would be observed with three other dietary fats considerably different in fatty acid composition. Nine healthy subjects received lard, twelve received olive oil and eleven received safflower oil as a test meal. The subjects ingested meals of 25 g fat (lard, olive oil or safflower oil), 50 g CHO (potato), 25 g fat with 50 g CHO or water only. Glucose, C peptide, insulin, triacylglycerols and nonesterified fatty acids were determined. Ingestion of lard, olive oil or safflower oil with potato did not affect the quantitative glucose and insulin responses to potato alone. However, the responses were delayed, diminished and prolonged. All three fats when ingested alone modestly increased the insulin concentration when compared to ingestion of water alone. When either lard, olive oil or safflower oil was ingested with the potato, there was an accelerated rise in triacylglycerols. This was most dramatic with safflower oil. Our data indicate that the glucose and insulin response to butter is unique when compared with the three other fat sources varying in their fatty acid composition.

  15. Dietary Resveratrol Does Not Affect Life Span, Body Composition, Stress Response, and Longevity-Related Gene Expression in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Staats

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we tested the effect of the stilbene resveratrol on life span, body composition, locomotor activity, stress response, and the expression of genes encoding proteins centrally involved in ageing pathways in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. Male and female w1118 D. melanogaster were fed diets based on sucrose, corn meal, and yeast. Flies either received a control diet or a diet supplemented with 500 µmol/L resveratrol. Dietary resveratrol did not affect mean, median, and maximal life span of male and female flies. Furthermore, body composition remained largely unchanged following the resveratrol supplementation. Locomotor activity, as determined by the climbing index, was not significantly different between control and resveratrol-supplemented flies. Resveratrol-fed flies did not exhibit an improved stress response towards hydrogen peroxide as compared to controls. Resveratrol did not change mRNA steady levels of antioxidant (catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, NADH dehydrogenase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase 2 and longevity-related genes, including sirtuin 2, spargel, and I’m Not Dead Yet. Collectively, present data suggest that resveratrol does not affect life span, body composition, locomotor activity, stress response, and longevity-associated gene expression in w1118 D. melanogaster.

  16. Dietary Resveratrol Does Not Affect Life Span, Body Composition, Stress Response, and Longevity-Related Gene Expression in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Stefanie; Wagner, Anika E; Kowalewski, Bianca; Rieck, Florian T; Soukup, Sebastian T; Kulling, Sabine E; Rimbach, Gerald

    2018-01-11

    In this study, we tested the effect of the stilbene resveratrol on life span, body composition, locomotor activity, stress response, and the expression of genes encoding proteins centrally involved in ageing pathways in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster . Male and female w 1118 D. melanogaster were fed diets based on sucrose, corn meal, and yeast. Flies either received a control diet or a diet supplemented with 500 µmol/L resveratrol. Dietary resveratrol did not affect mean, median, and maximal life span of male and female flies. Furthermore, body composition remained largely unchanged following the resveratrol supplementation. Locomotor activity, as determined by the climbing index, was not significantly different between control and resveratrol-supplemented flies. Resveratrol-fed flies did not exhibit an improved stress response towards hydrogen peroxide as compared to controls. Resveratrol did not change mRNA steady levels of antioxidant ( catalase , glutathione-S-transferase , NADH dehydrogenase , glutathione peroxidase , superoxide dismutase 2 ) and longevity-related genes, including sirtuin 2 , spargel , and I'm Not Dead Yet . Collectively, present data suggest that resveratrol does not affect life span, body composition, locomotor activity, stress response, and longevity-associated gene expression in w 1118 D. melanogaster .

  17. Rearing Tenebrio molitor in BLSS: Dietary fiber affects larval growth, development, and respiration characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Leyuan; Stasiak, Michael; Li, Liang; Xie, Beizhen; Fu, Yuming; Gidzinski, Danuta; Dixon, Mike; Liu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Rearing of yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) will provide good animal nutrition for astronauts in a bioregenerative life support system. In this study, growth and biomass conversion data of T. molitor larvae were tested for calculating the stoichiometric equation of its growth. Result of a respiratory quotient test proved the validity of the equation. Fiber had the most reduction in mass during T. molitor‧s consumption, and thus it is speculated that fiber is an important factor affecting larval growth of T. molitor. In order to further confirm this hypothesis and find out a proper feed fiber content, T. molitor larvae were fed on diets with 4 levels of fiber. Larval growth, development and respiration in each group were compared and analyzed. Results showed that crude-fiber content of 5% had a significant promoting effect on larvae in early instars, and is beneficial for pupa eclosion. When fed on feed of 5-10% crude-fiber, larvae in later instars reached optimal levels in growth, development and respiration. Therefore, we suggest that crude fiber content in feed can be controlled within 5-10%, and with the consideration of food palatability, a crude fiber of 5% is advisable.

  18. Dietary prebiotics, milk fat globule membrane and lactoferrin affects structural neurodevelopment in the young piglet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin T Mudd

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM and lactoferrin have been identified as two components that have potential to affect neurodevelopment. While concentrations of some MFGM constituents in infant formulas are within human milk range, they may not be present at optimal or clinically effective levels. However, lactoferrin levels of infant formulas are consistently reported to be lower than human milk. This study sought to provide a novel combination of prebiotics, bovine-derived milk fat globule membrane and lactoferrin and assess their influence on neurodevelopment. Methods: Twenty-four male piglets were provided either TEST (n=12 or CONT (n=12 diet from 2 to 31 d of age. Piglets underwent spatial T-maze assessment starting at 17 d of age, were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging at 30 d of age, and were euthanized for tissue collection at 31 d of age. Results: Diffusion tensor imaging revealed differences in radial (P = 0.032 and mean (P = 0.028 diffusivities in the internal capsule, where CONT piglets had higher rates of diffusion compared with TEST piglets. Voxel-based morphometry indicated larger (P < 0.05 differences in cortical grey and white matter concentrations, with CONT piglets having larger tissue clusters in these regions compared with TEST piglets. In the spatial T-maze assessment, CONT piglets exhibited shorter latency to choice compared with TEST piglets on d 2 of acquisition and d 3 and 4 of reversal. Conclusion: Observed differences in microstructure maturation of the internal capsule and cortical tissue concentrations suggest that piglets provided TEST diet were more advanced developmentally than piglets provided CONT diet. Therefore, supplementation of infant formula with prebiotics, milk fat globule membrane and lactoferrin may support neurodevelopment in human infants.

  19. Growth of bean and tomato plants as affected by root absorbed growth substances and atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tognoni, F; Halevy, A H; Wittwer, S H

    1967-01-01

    Bean and tomato plants were grown in solution culture root media containing pre-determined concentrations of gibberellin A/sub 3/ (GA), 1-naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA), N/sup 6/-benzyladenine (BA), (2-chloroethyl)trimethylammonium chloride (CCC), and at atmospheric levels of 300 and 1000 ppm of CO/sub 2/. Net assimilation rates (NAR), relative growth rates (RGR), leaf area ratios (LAR), root to top dry weight ratios (R/T) and changes in dry weight, size, and form of each organ were recorded. Gibberellin had no effect on RGR of either plant species but increased the NAR of tomatoes at 1000 ppm CO/sub 2/. Total dry weight was only slightly affected by GA but root growth and R/T were markedly depressed. CCC had no effect on NAR, but decreased RGR and LAR. Root growth of beans and R/T in both plants were promoted by CCC. NAR and RGR were strongly inhibited by BA and NAA. Inhibition of stem and leaf growth by CCC and NAA was greater than that for roots; thus, R/T ratios were increased. Root branching was promoted by NAA. High (1000 ppm), compared to the low (300 ppm), atmospheric levels of CO/sub 2/ generally promoted root growth and produced an increase in the R/T, both in the absence and presence of chemical treatment. The multiplicity of effects of the root-absorbed chemical growth substances and CO/sub 2/ on growth and photosynthesis is discussed.

  20. Legislation affecting governmental assistance for children of parents with substance use: a policy analysis of social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Phyllis; Williams, Pamela Holtzclaw

    2012-11-01

    There is legislation that withdraws governmental assistance where parents are using drugs. Social justice is an important consideration in any policy that modifies governmental assistance that benefits vulnerable children. The purpose of this policy analysis is to analyze identified legislation that effect governmental assistance for children in response to parents' substance misuse. A selective review of data-driven studies examined findings describing actual or potential effects on children of legislation targeting parental substance misuse. Challenges in design, processes, and implementation contribute to poor child outcomes. Identifiable constructs of social justice were missing in the reviewed legislation. Social injustice is a potential outcome for children when legislative intent focuses solely on addressing parental drug behaviors. Legislative alternatives to withdrawing support can address substance abuse while maintaining health promotion for these vulnerable children.

  1. Corn silage hybrid type and quality of alfalfa hay affect dietary nitrogen utilization by early lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, M S; Neal, K; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Hall, J O; Nestor, K E

    2013-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of corn silage (CS) hybrids and quality of alfalfa hay (AH) in high-forage dairy diets on N utilization, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance by early-lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. The 8 cows (average days in milk = 23 ± 11.2) were surgically fitted with ruminal cannula, and the 2 squares were conducted simultaneously. Within square, cows were randomly assigned to a sequence of 4 diets: conventional CS (CCS) or brown midrib CS (BMR) was combined with fair-quality AH [FAH: 46.7% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 18.4% crude protein (CP)] or high-quality AH (HAH: 39.2% NDF and 20.7% CP) to form 4 treatments: CCS with FAH, CCS with HAH, BMR with FAH, and BMR with HAH. Diets were isonitrogenous across treatments, averaging 15.9% CP. Each period lasted a total of 21 d, with 14 d for treatment adaptation and 7d for data collection and sampling. Intake of DM and milk yield did not differ in response to CS hybrids or AH quality. Although feeding BMR-based diets decreased urinary N output by 24%, it did not affect fecal N output. Feeding HAH decreased urinary N output by 15% but increased fecal N output by 20%. Nitrogen efficiency [milk N (g/d)/intake N (g/d)] tended to increase for BMR treatments. Ruminal ammonia-N concentration was lower for cows fed BMR-based diets than for those fed CCS-based diets but was not affected by quality of AH. Feeding BMR-based diets or HAH decreased milk urea N concentration by 23 or 15%, respectively, compared with CCS-based diets or FAH. Total volatile fatty acid concentration increased with HAH but was not influenced by CS hybrids. Feeding BMR-based diets decreased urinary N-to-fecal N ratio (UN:FN), and it was further reduced by feeding HAH. Although cows fed the BMR-based diets tended to increase milk N-to-manure N ratio, the

  2. Dietary maifanite supplementation did not affect the apparent total tract digestibility of calcium and phosphorus in growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li Bai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary maifanite supplementation and fecal collection method on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD of calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P and blood parameters in growing pigs. Methods Thirty-six growing barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire; 27.0±2.6 kg were allotted to six dietary treatments with 6 pigs per treatment according to body weight in a completely randomized design. The experimental treatments were: i Low Ca+cornstarch (2.25%, ii Low Ca+maifanite (2.25%, iii Medium Ca+cornstarch (1.42%, iv Medium Ca+maifanite (1.42%, v High Ca+cornstarch (0.64%, and vi High Ca+maifanite (0.64%. Feces were collected by the total collection (TC and indicator method (IM. At the beginning and the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected from each pig. Results For the TC method, there were no difference in Ca intake, fecal Ca output, Ca retention and the ATTD of Ca between cornstarch and maifanite diets at the same dietary Ca level. However, urinary Ca excretion was lower (p = 0.01 in pigs fed low Ca diets without maifanite supplementation compared with other dietary treatments. Dietary maifanite supplementation had no effect on the P metabolism in growing pigs. For the IM method, there was no difference in Ca digestibility between cornstarch and maifanite diets at the same dietary Ca level. The ATTD of P was greater (p<0.01 in pigs fed the high Ca diet with maifanite supplementation compared with the high Ca diet with cornstarch treatment. Dietary inclusion of maifanite had no effect on blood parameters in growing pigs. Conclusion Dietary maifanite supplementation had no effect on the ATTD of Ca and P and serum parameters in growing pigs. The IM resulted in lower digestibility values than the TC method.

  3. Early weaning of calves after different dietary regimens affects later rumen development, growth, and carcass traits in Hanwoo cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondreddy Eswar Reddy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of different diets for early-weaned (EW calves on rumen development, and how this affects fat deposition in the longissimus dorsi of adult Korean Hanwoo beef cattle. Methods Three EW groups were established (each n = 12 in which two- week-old Hanwoo calves were fed for ten weeks with milk replacer+concentrate (T1, milk replacer+concentrate+ roughage (T2, or milk replacer+concentrate+30% starch (T3; a control group (n = 12 was weaned as normal. At six months, 5 calves of each group were slaughtered and their organs were assessed and rumen papillae growth rates were measured. The remaining calves (n = 7 in each group were raised to 20 months for further analysis. Results Twenty-month-old EW calves had a higher body weight (BW, backfat thickness (BF, longissimus dorsi muscle area (LMA and intramuscular fat (IMF than the control (p<0.05. Organ growth, rumen histology, and gene expression patterns in the 6-month-old calves were positively related to the development of marbling in the loin, as assessed by ultrasound analysis (p<0.05. In the group fed the starch-enriched diet (T3, higher BW, BF, LMA, and IMF were present. The IMF beef quality score of 20-month-old cattle was 1+ for the T2 and T3 diets and 1 for the T1 diet (p<0.05. Conclusion Papillae development was significantly greater in calves fed on high-concentrate diets and this may have resulted in the improved beef quality in the EW dietary groups compared to the control.

  4. Addition of Aegilops U and M Chromosomes Affects Protein and Dietary Fiber Content of Wholemeal Wheat Flour

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    Marianna Rakszegi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereal grain fiber is an important health-promoting component in the human diet. One option to improve dietary fiber content and composition in wheat is to introduce genes from its wild relatives Aegilops biuncialis and Aegilops geniculata. This study showed that the addition of chromosomes 2Ug, 4Ug, 5Ug, 7Ug, 2Mg, 5Mg, and 7Mg of Ae. geniculata and 3Ub, 2Mb, 3Mb, and 7Mb of Ae. biuncialis into bread wheat increased the seed protein content. Chromosomes 1Ug and 1Mg increased the proportion of polymeric glutenin proteins, while the addition of chromosomes 1Ub and 6Ub led to its decrease. Both Aegilops species had higher proportions of β-glucan compared to arabinoxylan (AX than wheat lines, and elevated β-glucan content was also observed in wheat chromosome addition lines 5U, 7U, and 7M. The AX content in wheat was increased by the addition of chromosomes 5Ug, 7Ug, and 1Ub while water-soluble AX was increased by the addition of chromosomes 5U, 5M, and 7M, and to a lesser extent by chromosomes 3, 4, 6Ug, and 2Mb. Chromosomes 5Ug and 7Mb also affected the structure of wheat AX, as shown by the pattern of oligosaccharides released by digestion with endoxylanase. These results will help to map genomic regions responsible for edible fiber content in Aegilops and will contribute to the efficient transfer of wild alleles in introgression breeding programs to obtain wheat varieties with improved health benefits.Key Message: Addition of Aegilops U- and M-genome chromosomes 5 and 7 improves seed protein and fiber content and composition in wheat.

  5. The accumulation of substances in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) affects embryonic and larval development in common carp Cyprinus carpio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, C.I.; Pristin, M.G.; Ende, S.S.W.; Eding, E.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    The accumulation of substances in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) may impair the growth and welfare of fish. To test the severity of contaminants accumulated in RAS, early-life stages of fish were used. Ultrafiltered water from two Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS), one RAS with a high

  6. Intimate Partner Violence May Be One Mechanism by Which Male Partner Socioeconomic Status and Substance Use Affect Female Partner Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although male partners' socioeconomic status (SES and substance use is associated with worse health of female partners, the mechanism behind this link is still unknown.Objectives: To investigate whether intimate partner violence (IPV is a mechanism by which male partners' SES and substance use influence female partners' self-rated health (SRH as victims and survivors of IPV.Materials and Methods: Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS is an ongoing population-based cohort. Male and female partners' SES, anxiety, depression, and substance use, and their relationship status were measured at baseline. IPV victimization was also asked among female partners' at baseline. Female partners' subjective health was measured 3 times (baseline−1998, 3 years later−2001, and 5 years later−2003. Using AMOS, we fitted two structural equation models (SEM for data analysis. In Model 1 we tested direct paths from male partners' SES and mental health to female partners' SRH, in the absence of IPV. In the Model 2 we conceptualized female partners' IPV victimization between male partners' SES and mental health and female partners' SRH. In both models we controlled for the effect of female partners' SES and mental health.Results: In Model 1, male partners' poor SES and substance use were associated with worse trajectory of SRH of female partner. In Model 2, male to female IPV was the mechanism by which male partners' SES and substance use were associated with female partners' SRH.Conclusions: IPV is one of the mechanisms by which male partners' SES and substance use can influence female partners' health. That is, IPV may operate as a vehicle by which male partners' social and psychological risk factors impact female partners' health. Thus, this study demonstrates how male partners' socio-ecological risk factors such as low SES and substance use impact female partners' health. Therefore, there is a need for broader socio-ecological approach

  7. Dietary n-3 PUFA affect TcR-mediated activation of purified murine T cells and accessory cell function in co-cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHAPKIN, R S; ARRINGTON, J L; APANASOVICH, T V; CARROLL, R J; MCMURRAY, D N

    2002-01-01

    Diets enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) suppress several functions of murine splenic T cells by acting directly on the T cells and/or indirectly on accessory cells. In this study, the relative contribution of highly purified populations of the two cell types to the dietary suppression of T cell function was examined. Mice were fed diets containing different levels of n-3 PUFA; safflower oil (SAF; control containing no n-3 PUFA), fish oil (FO) at 2% and 4%, or 1% purified docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for 2 weeks. Purified (>90%) T cells were obtained from the spleen, and accessory cells (>95% adherent, esterase-positive) were obtained by peritoneal lavage. Purified T cells or accessory cells from each diet group were co-cultured with the alternative cell type from every other diet group, yielding a total of 16 different co-culture combinations. The T cells were stimulated with either concanavalin A (ConA) or antibodies to the T cell receptor (TcR)/CD3 complex and the costimulatory molecule CD28 (αCD3/αCD28), and proliferation was measured after four days. Suppression of T cell proliferation in the co-cultures was dependent upon the dose of dietary n-3 PUFA fed to mice from which the T cells were derived, irrespective of the dietary treatment of accessory cell donors. The greatest dietary effect was seen in mice consuming the DHA diet (P = 0·034 in the anova; P = 0·0053 in the Trend Test), and was observed with direct stimulation of the T cell receptor and CD28 costimulatory ligand, but not with ConA. A significant dietary effect was also contributed accessory cells (P = 0·033 in the Trend Test). We conclude that dietary n-3 PUFA affect TcR-mediated by T cell activation by both direct and indirect (accessory cell) mechanisms. PMID:12296847

  8. Growth performance and certain body measurements of ostrich chicks as affected by dietary protein levels during 2-9 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrose, Kh M; Attia, A I; Ismail, I E; Abou-Kassem, D E; El-Hack, M E Abd

    2015-01-01

    The present work was conducted to examine the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels (18, 21 and 24%) on growth performance (Initial and final body weight, daily body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio) during 2-9 weeks of age and certain body measurements (body height, tibiotarsus length and tibiotarsus girth) at 9 weeks of age. A total of 30 African Black unsexed ostrich chicks were used in the present study in simple randomized design. The results of the present work indicated that initial and final live body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion of ostrich chicks were insignificantly affected by dietary protein level used. Protein efficiency ratio was high in the group of chicks fed diet contained 18% CP. Results obtained indicated that tibiotarsus girth was decreased (P≤0.01) with the increasing dietary protein level, where the highest value of tibiotarsus girth (18.38 cm) was observed in chicks fed 18% dietary protein level. Body height and tibiotarsus length were not significantly different. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that ostrich chicks (during 2-9 weeks of age) could grow on diets contain lower levels of CP (18%).

  9. Effects of acute exercise on drug craving, self-esteem, mood and affect in adults with poly-substance dependence: Feasibility and preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen, Maren Mikkelsen; Johannesen, Sunniva Launes; Martinsen, Egil W; Hallgren, Mats

    2018-06-04

    Novel treatments for substance use disorders are needed. Acute bouts of exercise can improve mood states in non-clinical populations, but effects in those with poly-substance dependence are understudied. We examined the feasibility and short-term effects of three types of exercise on drug cravings, self-esteem, mood and positive/negative affect in nine poly-drug-dependent inpatients. Using a cross-over design, changes in the four study outcomes were assessed immediately before exercise and on four separate occasions post-exercise (immediately after, then at 1, 2 and 4 h post-exercise) enabling patterns of change over time (analysis of covariance) to be observed. Participants were willing and able to engage in different non-laboratory based exercises. Football was associated with non-significant short-term reductions in drug cravings. A similar trend was seen for circuit-training, but not walking. Football and circuit-training were associated with brief improvements in mood and positive/negative affect. No adverse events were reported. Football, circuit training and walking are feasible therapeutic activities for inpatients with poly-substance dependence. Controlled trials are needed to determine the long-term effects of these activities. © 2018 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  10. Advancing Research to Inform Practice within Community "supporting interventions for young people and families’ affected by substance misuse"

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Denis Dominic

    2017-01-01

    Issues and trends in relation to substance misuse normally develop in the transitional phase of adolescence, as young people begin looking towards their peers for direction and are less subject to parental authority (1.2). Risk factors are predictors of the likelihood that an individual or group will be involved in activity leading to adverse consequences. Research indicates that some young people are beginning to initiate alcohol and drug use earlier than many adults suspect (3). In relation...

  11. Dietary maifanite supplementation did not affect the apparent total tract digestibility of calcium and phosphorus in growing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li Li; Ming, Dong Xu; Dong, Shu Ren; Yang, Zhong Yue; Wang, Wen Hui; Zhang, Shuai; Piao, Xiang Shu

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary maifanite supplementation and fecal collection method on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) and blood parameters in growing pigs. Methods Thirty-six growing barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire; 27.0±2.6 kg) were allotted to six dietary treatments with 6 pigs per treatment according to body weight in a completely randomized design. The experimental treatments were: i) Low Ca+cornstarch (2.25%), ii) Low Ca+maifanite (2.25%), iii) Medium Ca+cornstarch (1.42%), iv) Medium Ca+maifanite (1.42%), v) High Ca+cornstarch (0.64%), and vi) High Ca+maifanite (0.64%). Feces were collected by the total collection (TC) and indicator method (IM). At the beginning and the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected from each pig. Results For the TC method, there were no difference in Ca intake, fecal Ca output, Ca retention and the ATTD of Ca between cornstarch and maifanite diets at the same dietary Ca level. However, urinary Ca excretion was lower (p = 0.01) in pigs fed low Ca diets without maifanite supplementation compared with other dietary treatments. Dietary maifanite supplementation had no effect on the P metabolism in growing pigs. For the IM method, there was no difference in Ca digestibility between cornstarch and maifanite diets at the same dietary Ca level. The ATTD of P was greater (pdigestibility values than the TC method. PMID:28728391

  12. Time related alterations in digestibility and faecal characteristics as affected by dietary composition in the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amirkolaie, A.K.; Schrama, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    After being shifted to a new diet, time related alterations in digestibility, faecal waste production and faeces recovery in Nile tilapia were assessed in relation with dietary ingredient composition. Four experimental diets were formulated according to a 2 by 2 factorial design: two starch

  13. Critical micelle concentrations of allelopathic substances produced by Nannochloris oculata which affect a red tide organism, Gymnodinium breve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, E; Martin, D F

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory cultures of the green algae Nannochloris oculata and Nannochloris eucaryotum are known to cause lysis of Gymnodinium breve, which is Florida's red tide organism. Two cytolytic agents were previously identified as methyl palmitate and methyl stearate. In this study, the critical micelle concentrations of these substances were determined by ultraviolet light and turbidimetric methods to be 3.5 +/- 0.3 ppm (methyl stearate) and 4.3 +/- 0.6 (methyl palmitate). There were no significant differences in results obtained using the two methods.

  14. Dietary magnesium deficiency affects gut microbiota and anxiety-like behaviour in C57BL/6N mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyndt Jørgensen, Bettina; Winther, Gudrun; Kihl, Pernille; Nielsen, Dennis S; Wegener, Gregers; Hansen, Axel K; Sørensen, Dorte B

    2015-10-01

    Magnesium deficiency has been associated with anxiety in humans, and rodent studies have demonstrated the gut microbiota to impact behaviour. We investigated the impact of 6 weeks of dietary magnesium deficiency on gut microbiota composition and anxiety-like behaviour and whether there was a link between the two. A total of 20 C57BL/6 mice, fed either a standard diet or a magnesium-deficient diet for 6 weeks, were tested using the light-dark box anxiety test. Gut microbiota composition was analysed by denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis. We demonstrated that the gut microbiota composition correlated significantly with the behaviour of dietary unchallenged mice. A magnesium-deficient diet altered the gut microbiota, and was associated with altered anxiety-like behaviour, measured by decreased latency to enter the light box. Magnesium deficiency altered behavior. The duration of magnesium deficiency is suggested to influence behaviour in the evaluated test.

  15. Assessment of salient beliefs affecting mothers' intention to adherence to dietary diversity in their children's complementary feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Karimi-Shahanjarini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Providing a variety of foods has been emphasized as one of the most important features of optimal complementary feeding. This study investigated key beliefs that guide mothers' intention to adherence to dietary diversity in their 1–2-year-old children's complementary feeding. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 290 mothers (mean age = 27, standard deviation = 5.32 with child 1–2-year-old attending maternal and child health section of health centers in Rasht, Iran. To represent the socioeconomic status of the participants, 6 centers out of 15 were selected from three different socioeconomic areas (low-, middle-, and high-income areas. Mothers completed a questionnaire assessing intention and belief-based items of theory of planned behavior. Correlations and multiple regression analyses were performed. Results: The mean age of mothers was 27 ± 5.33 (27–43 years. Regression analyses revealed that among behavioral beliefs, the perception that adherence to dietary diversity would lead to improve children's growth was the significant predictor of intention (β = 0.13,P= 0.04. Regarding normative beliefs, perceived social pressure from health-care professionals to adherence to dietary diversity significantly predicted intention (β = 0.15,P= 0.01. Among control beliefs, the perception that daily pressures made difficult adherence to dietary diversity was the key determinant (β = 0.19,P= 0.01. Conclusions: Findings of this study represent the important beliefs that can be addressed in development planning aimed at modifying mothers' child complementary feeding practices.

  16. Assessment of Salient Beliefs Affecting Mothers' Intention to Adherence to Dietary Diversity in their Children's Complementary Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Rahmani, Fatemeh; Roshanei, Ghodratollah; Mahdi Hazavehei, Seyyed M

    2017-01-01

    Providing a variety of foods has been emphasized as one of the most important features of optimal complementary feeding. This study investigated key beliefs that guide mothers' intention to adherence to dietary diversity in their 1-2-year-old children's complementary feeding. This was a cross-sectional study involving 290 mothers (mean age = 27, standard deviation = 5.32) with child 1-2-year-old attending maternal and child health section of health centers in Rasht, Iran. To represent the socioeconomic status of the participants, 6 centers out of 15 were selected from three different socioeconomic areas (low-, middle-, and high-income areas). Mothers completed a questionnaire assessing intention and belief-based items of theory of planned behavior. Correlations and multiple regression analyses were performed. The mean age of mothers was 27 ± 5.33 (27-43 years). Regression analyses revealed that among behavioral beliefs, the perception that adherence to dietary diversity would lead to improve children's growth was the significant predictor of intention (β = 0.13, P = 0.04). Regarding normative beliefs, perceived social pressure from health-care professionals to adherence to dietary diversity significantly predicted intention (β = 0.15, P = 0.01). Among control beliefs, the perception that daily pressures made difficult adherence to dietary diversity was the key determinant (β = 0.19, P = 0.01). Findings of this study represent the important beliefs that can be addressed in development planning aimed at modifying mothers' child complementary feeding practices.

  17. Assessment of Salient Beliefs Affecting Mothers’ Intention to Adherence to Dietary Diversity in their Children's Complementary Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Rahmani, Fatemeh; Roshanei, Ghodratollah; Mahdi Hazavehei, Seyyed M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Providing a variety of foods has been emphasized as one of the most important features of optimal complementary feeding. This study investigated key beliefs that guide mothers’ intention to adherence to dietary diversity in their 1–2-year-old children's complementary feeding. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 290 mothers (mean age = 27, standard deviation = 5.32) with child 1–2-year-old attending maternal and child health section of health centers in Rasht, Iran. To represent the socioeconomic status of the participants, 6 centers out of 15 were selected from three different socioeconomic areas (low-, middle-, and high-income areas). Mothers completed a questionnaire assessing intention and belief-based items of theory of planned behavior. Correlations and multiple regression analyses were performed. Results: The mean age of mothers was 27 ± 5.33 (27–43 years). Regression analyses revealed that among behavioral beliefs, the perception that adherence to dietary diversity would lead to improve children's growth was the significant predictor of intention (β = 0.13, P = 0.04). Regarding normative beliefs, perceived social pressure from health-care professionals to adherence to dietary diversity significantly predicted intention (β = 0.15, P = 0.01). Among control beliefs, the perception that daily pressures made difficult adherence to dietary diversity was the key determinant (β = 0.19, P = 0.01). Conclusions: Findings of this study represent the important beliefs that can be addressed in development planning aimed at modifying mothers’ child complementary feeding practices. PMID:28479970

  18. Addition of aegilops U and M chromosomes affects protein and dietary fiber content of wholemeal wheat flour

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rakszegi, M.; Molnár, I.; Lovegrove, A.; Darkó, É.; Farkas, A.; Láng, L.; Bedő, Z.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Molnár-Láng, M.; Shewry, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, SEP 6 (2017), č. článku 1529. ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Aegilops * Arabinoxylan * Dietary fiber * U and M genomes * Wheat * β-glucan Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 4.298, year: 2016

  19. Dietary Vitamin C, E and β-Carotene Intake Does Not Significantly Affect Plasma or Salivary Antioxidant Indices and Salivary C-Reactive Protein in Older Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron-Skarbek, Anna; Guligowska, Agnieszka; Prymont-Przymińska, Anna; Godala, Małgorzata; Kolmaga, Agnieszka; Nowak, Dariusz; Szatko, Franciszek; Kostka, Tomasz

    2017-07-09

    It is not clear whether habitual dietary intake influences the antioxidant or inflammatory status. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of antioxidative vitamins C, E, and β-carotene obtained from daily food rations on plasma and salivary Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), uric acid and salivary C-reactive protein (CRP). The study involved 80 older subjects (66.9 ± 4.3 years), divided into two groups: group 1 ( n = 43) with lower and group 2 ( n = 37) with higher combined vitamins C, E and β-carotene intake. A 24-h dietary recall was obtained from each individual. TAC was assessed simultaneously with two methods in plasma (Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma-FRAP, 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-DPPH) and in saliva (FRAS and DPPHS test). Lower vitamin C intake corresponded to higher FRAS. There were no other correlations between vitamins C, E or β-carotene intake and antioxidant indices. Salivary CRP was not related to any antioxidant indices. FRAS was decreased in group 2 ( p < 0.01) but no other group differences for salivary or for plasma antioxidant parameters and salivary CRP were found. Habitual, not extra supplemented dietary intake does not significantly affect plasma or salivary TAC and salivary CRP.

  20. Examining the relationship between personality and affect-related attributes and adolescents' intentions to try smoking using the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memetovic, Jasmina; Ratner, Pamela A; Gotay, Carolyn; Richardson, Christopher G

    2016-05-01

    Assessments of adolescents' smoking intentions indicate that many are susceptible to smoking initiation because they do not have resolute intentions to abstain from trying smoking in the future. Although researchers have developed personality and affect-related risk factor profiles to understand risk for the initiation of substance use and abuse (e.g., alcohol), few have examined the extent to which these risk factors are related to the tobacco use intentions of adolescents who have yet to try tobacco smoking. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between personality and affect-related risk factors measured by the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) and smoking intentions in a sample of adolescents who have not experimented with tobacco smoking. Data is based on responses from 1352 participants in the British Columbia Adolescent Substance Use Survey (56% female, 76% in Grade 8) who had never tried smoking tobacco. Of these 1352 participants, 29% (n=338) were classified as not having resolute intentions to not try smoking. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the relationship between each SURPS dimension (Anxiety Sensitivity, Hopelessness, Impulsivity and Sensation Seeking) and the intention to try cigarettes in the future. Hopelessness (AOR 1.06, 95% CI [1.03, 1.10], p<.001), Impulsivity (AOR 1.07 [1.03, 1.11], p<.001) and Sensation Seeking (AOR 1.05 95% CI [1.02, 1.09], p<.01) had independent statistically significant associations with having an intention to try smoking. These findings may be used to inform a prevention-oriented framework to reduce susceptibility to tobacco smoking. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. STYLE OVER SUBSTANCE? THE EFFECT OF PERCEPTIONS OF THE ECONOMY AND AFFECT TOWARD THE PRESIDENT ON TRUST IN GOVERNMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Adam J

    2005-01-01

    This study examines persons' trust in the federal government using data from the National Election Study for the presidential election years 1980 through 2000. I hypothesize that person's perceptions of the national economy's health and their affect toward the incumbent president are both positively correlated with their trust in the federal government. I also hypothesize that a person's level of affect toward the president is a stronger predictor of their trust in the federal government th...

  2. Consumption of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol lowering foods improves blood lipids without affecting concentrations of fat soluble compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasath, Vanu R; Jenkins, David J A; Lamarche, Benoit; Kendall, Cyril W C; Faulkner, Dorothea; Cermakova, Luba; Couture, Patrick; Ireland, Chris; Abdulnour, Shahad; Patel, Darshna; Bashyam, Balachandran; Srichaikul, Korbua; de Souza, Russell J; Vidgen, Edward; Josse, Robert G; Leiter, Lawrence A; Connelly, Philip W; Frohlich, Jiri; Jones, Peter J H

    2014-10-18

    Consumption of a cholesterol lowering dietary portfolio including plant sterols (PS), viscous fibre, soy proteins and nuts for 6 months improves blood lipid profile. Plant sterols reduce blood cholesterol by inhibiting intestinal cholesterol absorption and concerns have been raised whether PS consumption reduces fat soluble vitamin absorption. The objective was to determine effects of consumption of a cholesterol lowering dietary portfolio on circulating concentrations of PS and fat soluble vitamins. Using a parallel design study, 351 hyperlipidemic participants from 4 centres across Canada were randomized to 1 of 3 groups. Participants followed dietary advice with control or portfolio diet. Participants on routine and intensive portfolio involved 2 and 7 clinic visits, respectively, over 6 months. No changes in plasma concentrations of α and γ tocopherol, lutein, lycopene and retinol, but decreased β-carotene concentrations were observed with intensive (week 12: p = 0.045; week 24: p = 0.039) and routine (week 12: p = 0.031; week 24: p = 0.078) portfolio groups compared to control. However, cholesterol adjusted β-carotene and fat soluble compound concentrations were not different compared to control. Plasma PS concentrations were increased with intensive (campesterol:p = 0.012; β-sitosterol:p = 0.035) and routine (campesterol: p = 0.034; β-sitosterol: p = 0.080) portfolio groups compared to control. Plasma cholesterol-adjusted campesterol and β-sitosterol concentrations were negatively correlated (p portfolio diet reduces serum total and LDL-C levels while increasing PS values, without altering fat soluble compounds concentrations. The extent of increments of PS with the current study are not deleterious and also maintaining optimum levels of fat soluble vitamins are of paramount necessity to maintain overall metabolism and health. Results indicate portfolio diet as one of the best options for CVD risk reduction

  3. Soluble Dietary Fibers Can Protect the Small Intestinal Mucosa Without Affecting the Anti-inflammatory Effect of Indomethacin in Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Hiroki; Hirakawa, Tomoe; Wada, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    How to prevent the small intestinal damage induced by NSAIDs is an urgent issue to be resolved. In the present study, we examined the effects of soluble dietary fibers on both anti-inflammatory and ulcerogenic effects of indomethacin in arthritic rats. Male Wistar rats weighing 180-220 g were used. Arthritis was induced by injecting Freund's complete adjuvant (killed M. tuberculosis) into the plantar region of the right hindpaw. The animals were fed a regular powder diet for rats or a diet supplemented with soluble dietary fibers such as pectin or guar gum. Indomethacin was administered once a day for 3 days starting 14 days after the adjuvant injection, when marked arthritis was observed. The volumes of the hindpaw were measured before and after indomethacin treatment to evaluate the effect of indomethacin on edema. The lesions in the small intestine were examined 24 h after the final dosing of indomethacin. Hindpaw volume was increased about 3 times 14 days after injection of the adjuvant. Indomethacin (3-10 mg/kg, p.o.) decreased hindpaw volume dose-dependently, but caused severe lesions in the small intestine at doses of 6 and 10 mg/kg. The addition of pectin (1-10 %) or guar gum (10 %) to the diet markedly decreased the lesion formation without affecting the anti-edema action of indomethacin. The same effects of pectin were observed when indomethacin was administered subcutaneously. It is suggested that soluble dietary fibers can prevent intestinal damage induced by NSAIDs without affecting the anti-inflammatory effect of these agents.

  4. Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) affect neither estrogen and androgen receptor activity nor steroidogenesis in human cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Anne-Cathrin; Lichtenstein, Dajana; Braeuning, Albert; Lampen, Alfonso; Buhrke, Thorsten

    2018-07-01

    The perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are used for the fabrication of water- and dirt-repellent surfaces. The use of PFOS and PFOA was restricted due to their reprotoxic properties and their environmental persistence. Therefore, industry switches to alternative PFAS, however, in contrast to PFOA and PFOS only few toxicological data are available for their substitutes. The molecular mechanism(s) underlying reproductive toxicity of PFOA and PFOS are largely unknown. Here, the endocrine properties of PFOA, PFOS, and of six substitutes including perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), ammonium perfluoro(2-methyl-3-oxahexanoate) (PMOH), and 3H-perfluoro-3-[(3-methoxypropoxy) propanoic acid] (PMPP) were examined in vitro by using human cell lines such as MCF-7, H295R, LNCaP and MDA-kb2. PFOA, PFOS and PMOH enhanced 17β-estradiol-stimulated estrogen receptor β activity, and PFOS, PMOH, PFHxA and PFBA enhanced dihydrotestosterone-stimulated androgen receptor activity. In the H295R steroidogenesis assay, PFOA and PFOS slightly enhanced estrone secretion, and progesterone secretion was marginally increased by PFOA. All these effects were only observed at concentrations above 10 μM, and none of the PFAS displayed any effect on any of the molecular endocrine endpoints at concentrations of 10 μM or below. Thus, as the blood serum concentrations of the different PFAS in the general Western population are in the range of 10 nM or below, the results suggest that PFAS might not exert endocrine effects in humans at exposure-relevant concentrations according to the molecular endpoints examined in this study. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary Selenium Levels Affect Selenoprotein Expression and Support the Interferon-γ and IL-6 Immune Response Pathways in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra A. Tsuji

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is an essential element that is required to support a number of cellular functions and biochemical pathways. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of reduced dietary selenium levels on gene expression to assess changes in expression of non-selenoprotein genes that may contribute to the physiological consequences of selenium deficiency. Mice were fed diets that were either deficient in selenium or supplemented with selenium in the form of sodium selenite for six weeks. Differences in liver mRNA expression and translation were measured using a combination of ribosome profiling, RNA-Seq, microarrays, and qPCR. Expression levels and translation of mRNAs encoding stress-related selenoproteins were shown to be up-regulated by increased selenium status, as were genes involved in inflammation and response to interferon-γ. Changes in serum cytokine levels were measured which confirmed that interferon-γ, as well as IL-6, were increased in selenium adequate mice. Finally, microarray and qPCR analysis of lung tissue demonstrated that the selenium effects on immune function are not limited to liver. These data are consistent with previous reports indicating that adequate selenium levels can support beneficial immune responses, and further identify the IL-6 and interferon-γ pathways as being responsive to dietary selenium intake.

  6. Methane emission and community composition patterns of rumen bacteria and methanogens in Holstein dairy cows as affected by silage type and dietary fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Højberg, Ole; Canibe, Nuria

    ) to investigate effects of silages with different methanogenic potential (early grass, late grass, and maize) combined with a CH4-reducing feed additive (crushed rapeseed) on bacterial and methanogenic communities in the rumen. Bacterial and methanogenic community patterns were evaluated by T-RFLP analysis of 16S...... rRNA and methyl co-enzyme M reductase (mcrA) genes, respectively. Methanogen abundances were evaluated by qPCR using two mcrA-targeting primer sets. Silage type significantly affected CH4 emissions and rumen acetate:propionate ratios, being highest for late grass and lowest for maize. Dietary fat...... significantly reduced the gross energy lost as CH4 regardless of silage type. Silage type significantly affected the bacterial community composition pattern; the grass silages favored potential hemicellulose- and cellulose-degrading bacteria, while the maize silage mainly favored potentially starch...

  7. Increasing Plant Based Foods or Dairy Foods Differentially Affects Nutrient Intakes: Dietary Scenarios Using NHANES 2007–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Cifelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diets rich in plant foods and lower in animal-based products have garnered increased attention among researchers, dietitians and health professionals in recent years for their potential to, not only improve health, but also to lessen the environmental impact. However, the potential effects of increasing plant-based foods at the expense of animal-based foods on macro- and micronutrient nutrient adequacy in the U.S. diet is unknown. In addition, dairy foods are consistently under consumed, thus the impact of increased dairy on nutrient adequacy is important to measure. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to use national survey data to model three different dietary scenarios to assess the effects of increasing plant-based foods or dairy foods on macronutrient intake and nutrient adequacy. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007–2010 for persons two years and older (n = 17,387 were used in all the analyses. Comparisons were made of usual intake of macronutrients and shortfall nutrients of three dietary scenarios that increased intakes by 100%: (i plant-based foods; (ii protein-rich plant-based foods (i.e., legumes, nuts, seeds, soy; and (iii milk, cheese and yogurt. Scenarios (i and (ii had commensurate reductions in animal product intake. In both children (2–18 years and adults (≥19 years, the percent not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR decreased for vitamin C, magnesium, vitamin E, folate and iron when plant-based foods were increased. However the percent not meeting the EAR increased for calcium, protein, vitamin A, and vitamin D in this scenario. Doubling protein-rich plant-based foods had no effect on nutrient intake because they were consumed in very low quantities in the baseline diet. The dairy model reduced the percent not meeting the EAR for calcium, vitamin A, vitamin D, magnesium, and protein, while sodium and saturated fat levels increased. Our modeling shows that

  8. Essential trace elements in milk and blood serum of lactating donkeys as affected by lactation stage and dietary supplementation with trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantuz, F; Ferraro, S; Todini, L; Mariani, P; Piloni, R; Salimei, E

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this trial was to study the concentration of zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), selenium (Se), cobalt (Co) and iodine (I) in milk and blood serum of lactating donkeys, taking into account the effects of lactation stage and dietary supplementation with trace elements. During a 3-month period, 16 clinically healthy lactating donkeys (Martina-Franca-derived population), randomly divided into two homogeneous groups (control (CTL) and trace elements (TE)), were used to provide milk and blood samples at 2-week intervals. Donkeys in both groups had continuous access to meadow hay and were fed 2.5 kg of mixed feed daily, divided into two meals. The mixed feed for the TE group had the same ingredients as the CTL, but was supplemented with a commercial premix providing 163 mg Zn, 185 mg Fe, 36 mg Cu, 216 mg Mn, 0.67 mg Se, 2.78 mg Co and 3.20 mg I/kg mixed feed. The concentrations of Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Se, Co and I were measured in feeds, milk and blood serum by inductively coupled plasma-MS. Data were processed by ANOVA for repeated measures. The milk concentrations of all the investigated elements were not significantly affected by the dietary supplementation with TE. Serum concentrations of Zn, Fe, Cu Mn and Se were not affected by dietary treatment, but TE-supplemented donkeys showed significantly higher concentrations of serum Co (1.34 v. 0.69 μg/l) and I (24.42 v. 21.43 μg/l) than unsupplemented donkeys. The effect of lactation stage was significant for all the investigated elements in milk and blood serum, except for serum manganese. A clear negative trend during lactation was observed for milk Cu and Se concentrations (-38%), whereas that of Mn tended to increase. The serum Cu concentration was generally constant and that of Co tended to increase. If compared with data reported in the literature for human milk, donkey milk showed similarities for Zn, Mn, Co and I. Furthermore, this study indicated that, in the current experimental conditions

  9. Clostridium perfringens challenge and dietary fat type affect broiler chicken performance and fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jozefiak, D; Kieronczyk, B; Rawski, M

    2014-01-01

    fat and lard. In Experiment 2, birds were fed diets containing rapeseed oil, coconut oil, beef tallow and palm oil. In both experiments, the birds were either not challenged or challenged with a mixture of three C. perfringens type A strains. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C...... were carried out, each including 480-day-old male broilers (Ross 308), which were randomly distributed to eight experimental groups using six replicate pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. In Experiment 1, birds were fed diets containing soybean oil, palm kernel fatty acid distillers, rendered pork...... of animal fats tended to improve final BW to a greater extent compared with the inclusion of unsaturated vegetable oils. In Experiment 2, irrespective of the dietary fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge significantly impaired feed conversion ratio in the period from 14 to 28 days (1.63 v...

  10. Intestinal absorption and excretion of zinc in streptozotocin-diabetic rats as affected by dietary zinc and protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.T.; Canfield, W.K.

    1985-01-01

    65 Zn was used to examine the effects of dietary zinc and protein on true zinc absorption and intestinal excretion of endogenous zinc by an isotope dilution technique in streptozotocin-diabetic and control rats. Four groups each of diabetic and control rats were fed diets containing 20 ppm Zn, 20% egg white protein (HMHP); 20 ppm Zn, 10% egg white protein (HMLP); 10 ppm Zn, 20% egg white protein (LMHP); and 10 ppm Zn, 10% egg white protein (LMLP). Measurement of zinc balance was begun 9 d after an i.m. injection of 65 Zn. True zinc absorption and the contribution of endogenous zinc to fecal zinc excretion were calculated from the isotopically labeled and unlabeled zinc in the feces, duodenum and kidney. Results from the isotope dilution study indicated that diabetic rats, but not control rats, absorbed more zinc from 20 ppm zinc diets than from 10ppm zinc diets and that all rats absorbed more zinc from 20% protein diets than from 10% protein diets. Furthermore, all rats excreted more endogenous zinc from their intestines when dietary zinc and protein levels resulted in greater zinc absorption. In diabetic and control rats, consuming equivalent amounts of zinc, the amount of zinc absorbed was not significantly different, but the amount of zinc excreted by the intestine was less in the diabetic rats. Decreased intestinal excretion of endogenous zinc may be a homeostatic response to the increased urinary excretion of endogenous zinc in the diabetic rats and may also lead to the elevated zinc concentrations observed in some organs of the diabetic rats

  11. Affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cetinic, M.; Diamanti, J.; Szeman, I.; Blacker, S.; Sully, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter historicizes four divergent but historically contemporaneous genres of affect theory – romantic, realist, speculative, and materialist. While critics credited with the turn to affect in the 1990s wrote largely in the wake of poststructuralism from the perspective of gender and queer

  12. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Plasma Mineral Chemistry as Affected by Dietary Chloride and Chloride Salts Fed to Broiler Chickens Reared under Phase Feeding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. H. Mushtaq

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Requirements of dietary chloride (dCl and chloride salts were determined by using 4×2 factorial arrangement under four phase feeding program. Four levels (0.31, 0.45, 0.59 and 0.73% and two sources (NH4Cl and CaCl2 of the dCl were allocated to 1,472 chicks in eight dietary treatments in which each treatment was replicated four times with 46 birds per replicate. The four phase feeding program was comprised of four dietary phases: Prestarter (d 1 to 10, Starter (d 11 to 20, Grower (d 21 to 33 and Finisher (d 34 to 42; and diets were separately prepared for each phase. The cations, anions, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO, temperature, electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS and salinity were analyzed in drinking water and were not affected by dietary treatments. BW gain (BWG; p≤0.009 and feed:gain (FG; p≤0.03 were improved in CaCl2 supplemented diets during d 1 to 10. The maximum response of BWG and FG was observed at 0.38% and 0.42% dCl, respectively, for d 34 to 42. However, the level of dCl for BWG during d 21 to 33 (p≤0.04 and d 34 to 42 (p≤0.009 was optimized at 0.60% and 0.42%, respectively. The level of dCl for optimized feed intake (FI; p≤0.006, FG (p≤0.007 and litter moisture (LM; p≤0.001 was observed at 0.60%, 0.38% and 0.73%, respectively, for d 1 to 42. Water intake (DWI was not affected by increasing dCl supplementation (p>0.05; however, the ratio between DWI and FI (DWI:FI was found highest at 0.73% dCl during d 1 to 10 (p≤0.05 and d 21 to 33 (p≤0.009. Except for d 34 to 42 (p≤0.006, the increasing level of dCl did not result in a significant difference in mortality during any phase. Blood pH and glucose, and breast and thigh weights (percentage of dressed weight were improved while dressing percentage (DP and gastrointestinal health were exacerbated with NH4Cl as compared to CaCl2 supplemented diets (p≤0.001. Higher plasma Na+ and HCO3− and lower Cl− and Ca++ were observed in NH4Cl supplemented

  13. Urinary calcium and oxalate excretion in healthy adult cats are not affected by increasing dietary levels of bone meal in a canned diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Passlack

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the impact of dietary calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P, derived from bone meal, on the feline urine composition and the urinary pH, allowing a risk assessment for the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx uroliths in cats. Eight healthy adult cats received 3 canned diets, containing 12.2 (A, 18.5 (B and 27.0 g Ca/kg dry matter (C and 16.1 (A, 17.6 (B and 21.1 g P/kg dry matter (C. Each diet was fed over 17 days. After a 7 dayś adaptation period, urine and faeces were collected over 2×4 days (with a two-day rest between, and blood samples were taken. Urinary and faecal minerals, urinary oxalate (Ox, the urinary pH and the concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH were analyzed. Moreover, the urine was microscopically examined for CaOx uroliths. The results demonstrated that increasing levels of dietary Ca led to decreased serum PTH and Ca and increased faecal Ca and P concentrations, but did not affect the urinary Ca or Ox concentrations or the urinary fasting pH. The urinary postprandial pH slightly increased when the diet C was compared to the diet B. No CaOx crystals were detected in the urine of the cats. In conclusion, urinary Ca excretion in cats seems to be widely independent of the dietary Ca levels when Ca is added as bone meal to a typical canned diet, implicating that raw materials with higher contents of bones are of subordinate importance as risk factors for the formation of urinary CaOx crystals.

  14. Dietary protein sources differentially affect microbiota, mTOR activity and transcription of mTOR signaling pathways in the small intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya K Kar

    Full Text Available Dietary protein sources can have profound effects on host-microbe interactions in the gut that are critically important for immune resilience. However more knowledge is needed to assess the impact of different protein sources on gut and animal health. Thirty-six wildtype male C57BL/6J mice of 35 d age (n = 6/group; mean ± SEM body weight 21.9 ± 0.25 g were randomly assigned to groups fed for four weeks with semi synthetic diets prepared with one of the following protein sources containing (300 g/kg as fed basis: soybean meal (SBM, casein, partially delactosed whey powder, spray dried plasma protein, wheat gluten meal and yellow meal worm. At the end of the experiment, mice were sacrificed to collect ileal tissue to acquire gene expression data, and mammalian (mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR activity, ileal digesta to study changes in microbiota and serum to measure cytokines and chemokines. By genome-wide transcriptome analysis, we identified fourteen high level regulatory genes that are strongly affected in SBM-fed mice compared to the other experimental groups. They mostly related to the mTOR pathway. In addition, an increased (P < 0.05 concentration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was observed in serum of SBM-fed mice compared to other dietary groups. Moreover, by 16S rRNA sequencing, we observed that SBM-fed mice had higher (P < 0.05 abundances of Bacteroidales family S24-7, compared to the other dietary groups. We showed that measurements of genome-wide expression and microbiota composition in the mouse ileum reveal divergent responses to diets containing different protein sources, in particular for a diet based on SBM.

  15. Dietary supplementation with bovine lactoferrampin-lactoferricin produced by Pichia pastoris fed-batch fermentation affects intestinal microflora in weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiang-Shan; Shao, Hua; Li, Tie-Jun; Tang, Zhi-Ru; Huang, Rui-Ling; Wang, Sheng-Ping; Kong, Xiang-Feng; Wu, Xin; Yin, Yu-Long

    2012-10-01

    This work is aimed at investigating the effects of recombinant bovine lactoferrampin-lactoferricin (LFA-LFC) instead of chlortetracycline on intestinal microflora in weaned piglets. The high cost of peptide production from either native digestion or chemical synthesis limits the clinical application of antimicrobial peptides. The expression of recombinant peptides in yeast may be an effective alternative. In the current study, recombinant LFA-LFC was produced via fed-batch fermentation in recombinant strain Pichia pastoris (KM71) XS10. Uniform design U6(6(4)) was used to optimize the fermentation conditions. The target peptide purified via cation-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography was added into the dietary of weaned piglets. After 21 days, the Lactobacilli, Bifidobacteria, and Enterobacteria in the chyme of the gut were quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that approximately 82 mg of LFA-LFC was secreted into 1 L of medium under optimized conditions. Moreover, purified peptide showed strong antimicrobial activities against all the tested microorganisms. Compared with the control group, the LFA-LFC group increased the amount of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria (P<0.05) in the chyme of the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon, and caecum. These results show that dietary supplementation with LFA-LFC can affect intestinal microflora in weaned piglets.

  16. Factors affecting the acceptability and consumption of Corn Soya Blend Plus as a prenatal dietary supplement among pregnant women in rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janmohamed, Amynah; Karakochuk, Crystal D; Boungnasiri, Somchit; Whitfield, Kyly C; Chapman, Gwen E; Janssen, Patricia; McLean, Judy; Green, Timothy J

    2016-07-01

    Undernutrition is prevalent among pregnant women in Cambodia. The provision of fortified dietary supplements is one strategy to help pregnant women meet their nutritional needs. Corn Soya Blend Plus (CSBP) is a widely used prenatal dietary supplement in areas with high rates of undernutrition and food insecurity. However, little is known about its acceptability during pregnancy. The present study aimed to identify factors that affected the acceptability and consumption of CSBP supplements among pregnant women. Women completed a structured interview designed to provide information on facilitators of and barriers to utilization. In addition, six focus groups were conducted with a subset of women (n 70) to further explore attitudes, perceptions and experiences related to CSBP use. Two districts in Kampong Chhnang Province, Cambodia. Pregnant women (n 288) participating in a cluster-randomized trial of CSBP. The acceptability of CSBP was influenced by sensory attributes, family support, peer influences, and attitudes related to diet, nutritional status and weight gain in pregnancy. Attaining adequate nutrition was considered less important than other concerns during pregnancy, particularly anxiety related to the costs of delivery and postpartum care. Acceptance was lower among new mothers due to fears of weight gain. Health benefits were common reasons for continued use and minor side-effects, such as nausea, were not major barriers to consumption. CSBP was generally well accepted in this population. However, organoleptic factors and perceptions regarding nutrition and weight gain in pregnancy, particularly for first-time mothers, were barriers to increasing acceptance among Cambodian women.

  17. A high-fat diet differentially affects the gut metabolism and blood lipids of rats depending on the type of dietary fat and carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgoński, Adam; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2014-02-03

    The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated) and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex). The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet) as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet) as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats.

  18. Gluconeogenesis during starvation and refeeding phase is affected by previous dietary carbohydrates levels and a glucose stimuli during early life in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofang Liang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Gluconeogenesis responses was assessed during a short starvation period and subsequent refeeding in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii previously fed different dietary carbohydrates levels and experienced to a glucose stimuli during early life. The sturgeon larvae were previously fed either a high glucose diet (G or a low glucose diet (F from the first feeding to yolk absorption (8 to 12 d post-hatching [dph]. Each group of fish was sub-divided into 2 treatments at 13 dph and was fed either a high-carbohydrate diet (H or a low carbohydrate diet (L until 20 wk. In the current study, the fish in 4 groups (GL, FL, GH and FH were experienced to starvation for 21 d following by re-feeding of their corresponding diets for 21 d. Fish were sampled at postprandial 6 and 24 h before starvation (P6h and P24h, starvation 7, 14 and 21 d (S7, S14 and S21 and 1, 7, 14 and 21 d during refeeding (R1, R7, R14 and R21. Plasma samples during refeeding were taken at P6h at each time point. Glycaemia levels, liver and muscle glycogen contents, activities and mRNA levels of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes were examined. We found that both dietary carbohydrate levels and early glucose stimuli significantly affected the metabolic responses to starvation and refeeding in Siberian sturgeon (P < 0.05. During prolonged starvation, Siberian sturgeon firstly mobilized the liver glycogen and then improved gluconeogenesis when the dietary carbohydrates were abundant, whereas preserved the liver glycogen stores at a stable level and more effectively promoted gluconeogenesis when the dietary carbohydrates are absent to maintain glucose homoeostasis. During refeeding, as most teleostean, Siberian sturgeon failed controlling the activities and mRNA levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase cytosolic forms (PEPCK-C, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase, but particularly controlled phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mitochondrial forms (PEPCK-M activities and mRNA expression

  19. Does breakfast-club attendance affect schoolchildren's nutrient intake? A study of dietary intake at three schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belderson, Pippa; Harvey, Ian; Kimbell, Rosemary; O'Neill, Jennifer; Russell, Jean; Barker, Margo E

    2003-12-01

    Lack of breakfast has been implicated as a factor contributing to children's poor diets and school performance. Breakfast-club schemes, where children are provided with breakfast in school at the start of the school day, have been initiated by the Department of Health in schools throughout England, UK. The aim of the present study was to compare the energy and nutrient intakes of schoolchildren who attended breakfast clubs (attendee subjects) with those who did not (control subjects). Three different schools were studied, involving a total of 111 children aged between 9 and 15 years. There were fifty-nine attendee and fifty-two control subjects. The two groups were matched for eligibility for school meals. All subjects completed a 3 d weighed food diary for estimation of nutrient intake. Height and weight were measured and BMI calculated. Nutrient intake data were analysed using a general linear model with age as a covariate. The demographic and anthropometric characteristics of the attendee and control subjects were similar. Children who attended breakfast clubs had significantly greater intakes of fat (% energy), saturated fat (% energy) and Na than control subjects. Thus, in these schools breakfast-club participation was not associated with superior nutrient intake or improvements in dietary pattern.

  20. Dietary supplementation of extracts from a halophyte affects the level of the circulating enzymes in irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. G.; Lee, B. H. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. H.; Youn, Y. D. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    Extracts from Salicornia herbacea with two extraction methods (using water or ethanol) were examined for their potential as a radioprotector. This plant accumulates a great amount of salt , Mg, Ca, Fe, and K and thus contains high levels of mineral in its body. It is famous as a remedial material for the constipation and glycosuria in folk medicine. The present study was designed to explore the in vivo antioxidant effects of water - and ethanol- extracts of S. herbacea. Both extracts of the plants were tested for their free radical scavenging activity with the DPPH assay. For the in vivo studies, male F344 rats (3 week- old) received po administration of both extracts 0.5 mg/ml during 5 days before whole- body irradiation. Six hours after irradiation, we measured the body and organ weight and collected blood. The levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) showed a similar pattern six hours after irradiation. In case of the water extract - dietary group after irradiation, the levels of all enzymes had a tendency to decrease toward to the base level. Therefore, the results reflects the antioxidant activity of S. herbacea extracts and its potential to protect against radiation damage.

  1. Probiotic-enriched foods and dietary supplement containing SYNBIO positively affects bowel habits in healthy adults: an assessment using standard statistical analysis and Support Vector Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvi, Stefania; Verdenelli, M Cristina; Cecchini, Cinzia; Coman, M Magdalena; Bernabei, M Simonetta; Rosati, Jessica; De Leone, Renato; Orpianesi, Carla; Cresci, Alberto

    2014-12-01

    A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study assessed in healthy adults how daily consumption of the probiotic combination SYNBIO®, administered in probiotic-enriched foods or in a dietary supplement, affected bowel habits. Primary and secondary outcomes gave the overall assessment of bowel well-being, while a Psychological General Well-Being Index compiled by participants estimated the health-related quality of life as well as the gastrointestinal tolerance determined with the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale. Support Vector Machine models for classification problems were used to validate the total outcomes on bowel well-being. SYNBIO® consumption improved bowel habits of volunteers consuming the probiotic foods or capsules, while the same effects were not registered in the control groups. The recovery of probiotic bacteria from the faeces of a cohort of 100 subjects for each supplemented group showed the persistence of strains in the gastrointestinal tract.

  2. Dynamics and sources of reduced sulfur, humic substances and dissolved organic carbon in a temperate river system affected by agricultural practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Lauriane; Pernet-Coudrier, Benoît; Waeles, Matthieu; Gabon, Marine; Riso, Ricardo

    2015-12-15

    Although reduced organic sulfur substances (RSS) as well as humic substances (HS) are widely suspected to play a role in, for example, metal speciation or used as a model of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in laboratory studies, reports of their quantification in natural waters are scarce. We have examined the dynamics and sources of reduced sulfur, HS and DOC over an annual cycle in a river system affected by agricultural practices. The new differential pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry was successfully applied to measure glutathione-like compounds (GSHs), thioacetamide-like compounds (TAs) and the liquid chromatography coupled to organic detector to analyze HS and DOC at high frequency in the Penzé River (NW France). The streamflow-concentration patterns, principal components analysis and flux analysis allowed discrimination of the source of each organic compound type. Surprisingly, the two RSS and HS detected in all samples, displayed different behavior. As previously shown, manuring practice is the main source of DOC and HS in this watershed where agricultural activity is predominant. The HS were then transferred to the river systems via runoff, particularly during the spring and autumn floods, which are responsible of >60% of the annual flux. TAs had a clear groundwater source and may be formed underground, whereas GSHs displayed two sources: one aquagenic in spring and summer probably linked to the primary productivity and a second, which may be related to bacterial degradation. High sampling frequency allowed a more accurate assessment of the flux values which were 280 tC y(-1) for DOC representing 20 kg C ha(-1) y(-1). HS, TAs and GSHs fluxes represented 60, 13, and 4% of the total annual DOC export, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Affective differences in Iowa Gambling Task performance associated with sexual risk taking and substance use among HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Sarit A.; Thompson, Louisa I.; Kowalczyk, William J.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between emotional distress and decision-making in sexual risk and substance use behavior among 174 (ages 25 to 50, 53% black) men who have sex with men (MSM), a population at increased risk for HIV. The sample was stratified by HIV status. Measures of affective decision-making (Iowa Gambling Task, IGT, Bechara et al., 1994), depression, anxiety, sex acts, and substance use during the past 60 days were collected at our research center. Negative binomial regression models were used to examine the relationship between age, HIV status, anxiety, depression, and IGT performance in the prediction of number of risky sex acts and substance use days. Among those without anxiety or depression, both number of risky sex acts and drug use days decreased with better performance during risky trials (i.e., last two blocks) of the IGT. For those with higher rates of anxiety, but not depression, IGT risk trial performance and risky sex acts increased concomitantly. Anxiety also interacted with IGT performance across all trials to predict substance use, such that anxiety was associated with greater substance use among those with better IGT performance. The opposite was true for those with depression, but only during risk trials. HIV-positive participants reported fewer substance use days than HIV-negative participants, but there was no difference in association between behavior and IGT performance by HIV status. Our findings suggest that anxiety may exacerbate risk-taking behavior when affective decision-making ability is intact. The relationship between affective decision-making and risk taking may be sensitive to different profiles of emotional distress, as well as behavioral context. Investigations of affective decision-making in sexual risk taking and substance use should examine different distress profiles separately, with implications for HIV prevention efforts. PMID:26745769

  4. Does Sodium Knowledge Affect Dietary Choices and Health Behaviors? Results From a Survey of Los Angeles County Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, George; Wickramasekaran, Ranjana N; Kuo, Tony; Robles, Brenda

    2017-11-22

    In 2010, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health launched a local sodium-reduction initiative to address the rising prevalence of high blood pressure (hypertension) and related cardiovascular conditions in the population. To inform this effort, we evaluated self-reported knowledge and health behaviors related to sodium intake among Los Angeles County residents. We administered 3 cross-sectional Internet panel surveys on knowledge about dietary sodium to a sample of Los Angeles County adults, at intervals from December 2014 through August 2016. Multinomial and logistic regression models were constructed to describe associations between sodium knowledge and self-reported health behaviors. A total of 7,067 panel subjects clicked into the online survey, and 2,862 completed the survey (adjusted response rate = 40.5%). Only 102 respondents (3.6%) were able to accurately report the recommended milligrams of sodium that an average adult should consume daily (1,500 mg to 2300 mg). Knowing about daily sodium intake recommendations was associated with increased odds of using Nutrition Facts labels to make food purchase decisions (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.59-7.60) and with decreased odds of taking measures to prevent hypertension (AOR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.19-0.74). Los Angeles County residents had a limited knowledge of recommended daily sodium intake. Efforts to increase understanding of these recommendations may encourage wider engagement in healthy behaviors. Health agencies should integrate sodium reduction messages in their diet and nutrition educational efforts.

  5. Dietary fat sources affect feed intake, digestibility, rumen microbial populations, energy partition and methane emissions in different beef cattle genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpila, C; Sommart, K; Mitsumori, M

    2018-03-20

    The mitigation of enteric methane emission in beef cattle production is important for reducing feed energy loss and increasing environmental sustainability. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different oilseeds included in fermented total mixed rations (whole soyabean seed (SBS, control), whole kapok seed (KPS) and cracked oil palm fruit (OPF)) on feed intake, digestibility, rumen microbial populations, energy partition and methane emissions in different cattle genotypes (Charolais crossbred v. Japanese Black crossbred). Three Charolais crossbred and three Japanese Black crossbred bulls were studied in a replicated 3×3 Latin square experimental design; genotypes were analysed in separate squares including three periods of 21 days each and three dietary oilseed treatments fed ad libitum. The cattle were placed in a metabolic cage equipped with a ventilated head box respiration system for evaluating digestibility and energy balance. As compared with Charolais crossbred individuals, Japanese Black crossbred bulls showed consistently lower dry matter intake (15.5%, P0.05) or diet (P>0.05) under the experimental conditions and ranged from 5.8% to 6.0% of gross energy intake. This value is lower than that reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (6.5%) for cattle fed with low-quality crop residues or by-products. Thus, our results imply that the Japanese Black crossbred cattle consume less feed and emits less enteric methane than the Charolais crossbred does, mainly owing to its lower ME requirement for maintenance. The OPF diet could be used to replace SBS for high beef production, although further studies are required to evaluate their application across a wide range of beef production systems.

  6. Lifetime history of traumatic events in a young adult Mexican American sample: Relation to substance dependence, affective disorder, acculturation stress, and PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Kim, Corinne; Gilder, David A; Stouffer, Gina M; Caetano, Raul; Yehuda, Rachel

    2016-12-01

    Mexican Americans comprise one of the most rapidly growing populations in the United States, and within this population, trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with physical and mental health problems. Therefore, efforts to delineate factors that may uniquely contribute to increased likelihood of trauma, PTSD, and substance use disorders over the lifetime in Mexican Americans are important to address health disparities and to develop treatment and prevention programs. Six hundred fourteen young adults (age 18-30 yrs) of Mexican American heritage, largely second generation, were recruited from the community and assessed with the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism and an acculturation stress scale. More males (51.2%) reported experiencing traumas than females (41.1%), however, a larger proportion of females received a PTSD diagnosis (15%) than males (8%). Alcohol dependence and affective disorders, but not anxiety disorders, antisocial disorders, nicotine, marijuana, or stimulant dependence, were significantly comorbid with PTSD. Endorsing higher levels of acculturation stress was also significantly associated with both trauma exposure and a diagnosis of PTSD. Logistic regression revealed that female gender, having an affective disorder, alcohol dependence, higher levels of acculturation stress, and lower levels of education were all predictors of PTSD status. Additionally, alcohol dependence generally occurred after the PTSD diagnosis in early adulthood in this high-risk population. These studies suggest that treatment and prevention efforts should particularly focus on young adult second generation Mexican American women with higher levels of acculturation stress, who may be at higher risk for PTSD, affective disorder, and alcohol dependence following trauma exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lifetime history of traumatic events in a young adult Mexican American sample: relation to substance dependence, affective disorder, acculturation stress, and PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Kim, Corinne; Gilder, David A.; Stouffer, Gina M.; Caetano, Raul; Yehuda, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Mexican Americans comprise one of the most rapidly growing populations in the United States, and within this population, trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with physical and mental health problems. Therefore, efforts to delineate factors that may uniquely contribute to increased likelihood of trauma, PTSD, and substance use disorders over the lifetime in Mexican Americans are important to address health disparities and to develop treatment and prevention programs. Six hundred fourteen young adults (age 18–30 yrs) of Mexican American heritage, largely second generation, were recruited from the community and assessed with the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism and an acculturation stress scale. More males (51.2%) reported experiencing traumas than females (41.1%), however, a larger proportion of females received a PTSD diagnosis (15%) than males (8%). Alcohol dependence and affective disorders, but not anxiety disorders, antisocial disorders, nicotine, marijuana, or stimulant dependence, were significantly comorbid with PTSD. Endorsing higher levels of acculturation stress was also significantly associated with both trauma exposure and a diagnosis of PTSD. Logistic regression revealed that female gender, having an affective disorder, alcohol dependence, higher levels of acculturation stress, and lower levels of education were all predictors of PTSD status. Additionally, alcohol dependence generally occurred after the PTSD diagnosis in early adulthood in this high-risk population. These studies suggest that treatment and prevention efforts should particularly focus on young adult second generation Mexican American women with higher levels of acculturation stress, who may be at higher risk for PTSD, affective disorder, and alcohol dependence following trauma exposure. PMID:27569652

  8. A High-Fat Diet Differentially Affects the Gut Metabolism and Blood Lipids of Rats Depending on the Type of Dietary Fat and Carbohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Jurgoński

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex. The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats.

  9. Dietary Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 and Zinc Oxide Stimulate Immune Reactions to Trivalent Influenza Vaccination in Pigs but Do Not Affect Virological Response upon Challenge Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenya; Burwinkel, Michael; Chai, Weidong; Lange, Elke; Blohm, Ulrike; Breithaupt, Angele; Hoffmann, Bernd; Twardziok, Sven; Rieger, Juliane; Janczyk, Pawel; Pieper, Robert; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIV) regularly cause significant disease in pigs worldwide. Since there is no causative treatment of SIV, we tested if probiotic Enterococcus (E.) faecium NCIMB 10415 or zinc (Zn) oxide as feed supplements provide beneficial effects upon SIV infection in piglets. Seventy-two weaned piglets were fed three different diets containing either E. faecium or different levels of Zn (2500 ppm, Znhigh; 50 ppm, Znlow). Half of the piglets were vaccinated intramuscularly (VAC) twice with an inactivated trivalent SIV vaccine, while all piglets were then infected intranasally with H3N2 SIV. Significantly higher weekly weight gains were observed in the E. faecium group before virus infection, and piglets in Znhigh and E. faecium groups gained weight after infection while those in the control group (Znlow) lost weight. Using ELISA, we found significantly higher H3N2-specific antibody levels in the E. faecium+VAC group 2 days before and at the day of challenge infection as well as at 4 and 6 days after challenge infection. Higher hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers were also observed in the Znhigh+VAC and E. faecium+VAC groups at 0, 1 and 4 days after infection. However, there were no significant differences in virus shedding and lung lesions between the dietary groups. Using flow cytometry analysis significantly higher activated T helper cells and cytotoxic T lymphocyte percentages in the PBMCs were detected in the Znhigh and E. faecium groups at single time points after infection compared to the Znlow control group, but no prolonged effect was found. In the BAL cells no influence of dietary supplementation on immune cell percentages could be detected. Our results suggest that feeding high doses of zinc oxide and particularly E. faecium could beneficially influence humoral immune responses after vaccination and recovery from SIV infection, but not affect virus shedding and lung pathology. PMID:24489827

  10. Dietary Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 and zinc oxide stimulate immune reactions to trivalent influenza vaccination in pigs but do not affect virological response upon challenge infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenya; Burwinkel, Michael; Chai, Weidong; Lange, Elke; Blohm, Ulrike; Breithaupt, Angele; Hoffmann, Bernd; Twardziok, Sven; Rieger, Juliane; Janczyk, Pawel; Pieper, Robert; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIV) regularly cause significant disease in pigs worldwide. Since there is no causative treatment of SIV, we tested if probiotic Enterococcus (E.) faecium NCIMB 10415 or zinc (Zn) oxide as feed supplements provide beneficial effects upon SIV infection in piglets. Seventy-two weaned piglets were fed three different diets containing either E. faecium or different levels of Zn (2500 ppm, Zn(high); 50 ppm, Zn(low)). Half of the piglets were vaccinated intramuscularly (VAC) twice with an inactivated trivalent SIV vaccine, while all piglets were then infected intranasally with H3N2 SIV. Significantly higher weekly weight gains were observed in the E. faecium group before virus infection, and piglets in Zn(high) and E. faecium groups gained weight after infection while those in the control group (Zn(low)) lost weight. Using ELISA, we found significantly higher H3N2-specific antibody levels in the E. faecium+VAC group 2 days before and at the day of challenge infection as well as at 4 and 6 days after challenge infection. Higher hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers were also observed in the Zn(high)+VAC and E. faecium+VAC groups at 0, 1 and 4 days after infection. However, there were no significant differences in virus shedding and lung lesions between the dietary groups. Using flow cytometry analysis significantly higher activated T helper cells and cytotoxic T lymphocyte percentages in the PBMCs were detected in the Zn(high) and E. faecium groups at single time points after infection compared to the Zn(low) control group, but no prolonged effect was found. In the BAL cells no influence of dietary supplementation on immune cell percentages could be detected. Our results suggest that feeding high doses of zinc oxide and particularly E. faecium could beneficially influence humoral immune responses after vaccination and recovery from SIV infection, but not affect virus shedding and lung pathology.

  11. Dietary Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 and zinc oxide stimulate immune reactions to trivalent influenza vaccination in pigs but do not affect virological response upon challenge infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenya Wang

    Full Text Available Swine influenza viruses (SIV regularly cause significant disease in pigs worldwide. Since there is no causative treatment of SIV, we tested if probiotic Enterococcus (E. faecium NCIMB 10415 or zinc (Zn oxide as feed supplements provide beneficial effects upon SIV infection in piglets. Seventy-two weaned piglets were fed three different diets containing either E. faecium or different levels of Zn (2500 ppm, Zn(high; 50 ppm, Zn(low. Half of the piglets were vaccinated intramuscularly (VAC twice with an inactivated trivalent SIV vaccine, while all piglets were then infected intranasally with H3N2 SIV. Significantly higher weekly weight gains were observed in the E. faecium group before virus infection, and piglets in Zn(high and E. faecium groups gained weight after infection while those in the control group (Zn(low lost weight. Using ELISA, we found significantly higher H3N2-specific antibody levels in the E. faecium+VAC group 2 days before and at the day of challenge infection as well as at 4 and 6 days after challenge infection. Higher hemagglutination inhibition (HI titers were also observed in the Zn(high+VAC and E. faecium+VAC groups at 0, 1 and 4 days after infection. However, there were no significant differences in virus shedding and lung lesions between the dietary groups. Using flow cytometry analysis significantly higher activated T helper cells and cytotoxic T lymphocyte percentages in the PBMCs were detected in the Zn(high and E. faecium groups at single time points after infection compared to the Zn(low control group, but no prolonged effect was found. In the BAL cells no influence of dietary supplementation on immune cell percentages could be detected. Our results suggest that feeding high doses of zinc oxide and particularly E. faecium could beneficially influence humoral immune responses after vaccination and recovery from SIV infection, but not affect virus shedding and lung pathology.

  12. The TAS-20 more likely measures negative affects rather than alexithymia itself in patients with major depression, panic disorder, eating disorders and substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesi, Carlo; Ossola, Paolo; Tonna, Matteo; De Panfilis, Chiara

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluates whether the difference in Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 item (TAS-20) between patients with major depression (MD), panic disorder (PD), eating disorders (ED), and substance use disorders (SUD) and healthy controls persisted after controlling for the severity of anxiety and depression. Thirty-eight patients with MD, 58 with PD, 52 with ED, and 30 with SUD and 78 healthy controls (C) completed the TAS-20, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (Ham-A), the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Ham-D). The differences in TAS-20 scores observed between patient groups, regardless of the type of their disorders, and controls disappeared after controlling for the effect of anxiety and depression severity. In contrast, the differences in severity of anxiety and depression between patients and controls were still present, after excluding the effect of alexithymic levels. Our data suggest that alexithymic levels, as measured by the TAS-20, are modulated by the severity of symptoms, supporting the view that alexithymia can represent a state phenomenon in patients with MD, PD, ED and SUD, because the TAS-20 seems overly sensitive to a general distress syndrome, and it is more likely to measure negative affects rather than alexithymia itself. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Affected family members' experience of, and coping with, aggression and violence within the context of problematic substance use: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Terence V; Lubman, Dan I; Boardman, Gayelene; Flood, Mollie

    2017-06-02

    Families have an important role supporting a family member with problematic substance use (PSU), although this can often be challenging and confronting. Previous research has identified high rates of family aggression and violence within the context of PSU, although few studies have examined this issue from the perspective of affected family members (AFMs) supporting a member with PSU. The aims of the current study were to understand AFMs' experience of aggression and violence while supporting a member with PSU, and to explicate the strategies they used to prevent and cope with this behaviour. Semi-structured, audio-recorded qualitative interviews were conducted with 31 AFMs from the state of Victoria in Australia. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to guide data collection and analysis. Almost 70% of participants experienced PSU-related family aggression and/or violence. Two main themes and related sub-themes were abstracted from the data capturing their experiences of this behaviour and the strategies they used to try to prevent and cope in this situation. Aggression and/or violence were variable, changeable and unpredictable; and aggression and/or violence altering social interactions and family dynamics. As a consequence, it was upsetting, stressful and emotionally exhausting to AFMs. In response to this experience, and largely through trial and error, they used several direct strategies to try to prevent and cope with the behaviour; however, most continued to struggle in these circumstances. They also highlighted additional indirect measures, which, if adopted, would enhance their existing direct strategies. More effective primary, secondary and tertiary preventive measures are needed to address family aggression and violence within the context of PSU. More support is needed for family members affected by PSU to enable them to 'stand up to,' to prevent and cope effectively with this behaviour, and to increase their help-seeking and access to

  14. Does diet intervention in line with nutrition recommendations affect dietary carbon footprint? Results from a weight loss trial among lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huseinovic, E; Ohlin, M; Winkvist, A; Bertz, F; Sonesson, U; Brekke, H K

    2017-10-01

    Results from studies evaluating the sustainability of diets combining environmental and nutritional aspects have been diverse; thus, greenhouse gas emissions (that is, carbon footprint (CF)) of diets in line with dietary recommendations in free-living individuals warrants further examination. Here, changes in dietary CF related to changes in food choice during a weight loss trial among lactating women who received a 12-week diet intervention based on the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) 2004 were analyzed. The objective of this study was to examine if a diet intervention based on NNR 2004 results in reduced dietary CF. Changes in dietary CF were analyzed among 61 lactating women participating in a weight loss trial. Food intake data from 4-day weighed diet records and results from life cycle analyses were used to examine changes in dietary CF across eight food groups during the intervention, specified in the unit carbon dioxide equivalent (CO 2 eq/day). Differences in changes in dietary CF between women receiving diet treatment (D-group) and women not receiving it (ND-group) were compared. There was no difference in change in dietary CF of the overall diet between D- and ND-group (P>0.05). As for the eight food groups, D-group increased their dietary CF from fruit and vegetables (+0.06±0.13 kg CO 2 eq/day) compared with a decrease in ND-group (-0.01±0.01 kg CO 2 eq/day) during the intervention, P=0.01. A diet intervention in line with NNR 2004 produced clinically relevant weight loss, but did not reduce dietary CF among lactating women with overweight and obesity. Dietary interventions especially designed to decrease dietary CF and their coherence with dietary recommendations need further exploration.

  15. Substance use - prescription drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance use disorder - prescription drugs; Substance abuse - prescription drugs; Drug abuse - prescription drugs; Drug use - prescription drugs; Narcotics - substance use; Opioid - substance use; Sedative - substance ...

  16. Dietary fat source affects metabolism of fatty acids in pigs as evaluated by altered expression of lipogenic genes in liver and adipose tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duran-Montge, P; Theil, Peter Kappel; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about pig gene expressions related to dietary fatty acids (FAs) and most work have been conducted in rodents. The aim of this study was to investigate how dietary fats regulate fat metabolism of pigs in different tissues. Fifty-six crossbred gilts (62 ± 5.2 kg BW) were fed one of ...

  17. Somatostatin, substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide-positive intramural nerve structures of the human large intestine affected by carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kaleczyc

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the arrangement and chemical coding of enteric nerve structures in the human large intestine affected by cancer. Tissue samples comprising all layers of the intestinal wall were collected during surgery form both morphologically unchanged and pathologically altered segments of the intestine (n=15, and fixed by immersion in buffered paraformaldehyde solution. The cryostat sections were processed for double-labelling immunofluorescence to study the distribution of the intramural nerve structures (visualized with antibodies against protein gene-product 9.5 and their chemical coding using antibodies against somatostatin (SOM, substance P (SP and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP. The microscopic observations revealed distinct morphological differences in the enteric nerve system structure between the region adjacent to the cancer invaded area and the intact part of the intestine. In general, infiltration of the cancer tissue resulted in the gradual (depending on the grade of invasion first decomposition and reduction to final partial or complete destruction and absence of the neuronal elements. A comparative analysis of immunohistochemically labeled sections (from the unchanged and pathologically altered areas revealed a statistically significant decrease in the number of CGRP-positive neurons and nerve fibres in both submucous and myenteric plexuses in the transitional zone between morphologically unchanged and cancer-invaded areas. In this zone, a decrease was also observed in the density of SP-positive nerve fibres in all intramural plexuses. Conversely, the investigations demonstrated statistically insignificant differences in number of SP- and SOM-positive neurons and a similar density of SOM-positive nerve fibres in the plexuses of the intact and pathologically changed areas. The differentiation between the potential adaptive changes in ENS or destruction of its elements by cancer invasion should be

  18. Dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and the hierarchy of energy metabolic pathways in growing pigs differing in feed efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondret, F; Louveau, I; Mourot, J; Duclos, M J; Lagarrigue, S; Gilbert, H; van Milgen, J

    2014-11-01

    The use and partition of feed energy are key elements in productive efficiency of pigs. This study aimed to determine whether dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and tissue biochemical pathways of energy use between pigs differing in feed efficiency. Forty-eight barrows (pure Large White) from two divergent lines selected for residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, were compared. From 74 d to 132 ± 0.5 d of age, pigs (n = 12 by line and by diet) were offered diets with equal protein and ME contents. A low fat, low fiber diet (LF) based on cereals and a high fat, high fiber diet (HF) where vegetal oils and wheat straw were used to partially substitute cereals, were compared. Irrespective of diet, gain to feed was 10% better (P energy sources modified the partition of energy between liver, adipose tissue, and muscle in a way that was partly dependent of the genetics for feed efficiency, and changed the activity levels of biochemical pathways involved in lipid and glucose storage in tissues.

  19. Dietary boron does not affect tooth strength, micro-hardness, and density, but affects tooth mineral composition and alveolar bone mineral density in rabbits fed a high-energy diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakki, Sema S; SiddikMalkoc; Dundar, Niyazi; Kayis, Seyit Ali; Hakki, Erdogan E; Hamurcu, Mehmet; Baspinar, Nuri; Basoglu, Abdullah; Nielsen, Forrest H; Götz, Werner

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary boron (B) affects the strength, density and mineral composition of teeth and mineral density of alveolar bone in rabbits with apparent obesity induced by a high-energy diet. Sixty female, 8-month-old, New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned for 7 months into five groups as follows: (1) control 1, fed alfalfa hay only (5.91 MJ/kg and 57.5 mg B/kg); (2) control 2, high energy diet (11.76 MJ and 3.88 mg B/kg); (3) B10, high energy diet + 10 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h; (4) B30, high energy diet + 30 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h; (5) B50, high energy diet + 50 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h. Maxillary incisor teeth of the rabbits were evaluated for compression strength, mineral composition, and micro-hardness. Enamel, dentin, cementum and pulp tissue were examined histologically. Mineral densities of the incisor teeth and surrounding alveolar bone were determined by using micro-CT. When compared to controls, the different boron treatments did not significantly affect compression strength, and micro-hardness of the teeth, although the B content of teeth increased in a dose-dependent manner. Compared to control 1, B50 teeth had decreased phosphorus (P) concentrations. Histological examination revealed that teeth structure (shape and thickness of the enamel, dentin, cementum and pulp) was similar in the B-treated and control rabbits. Micro CT evaluation revealed greater alveolar bone mineral density in B10 and B30 groups than in controls. Alveolar bone density of the B50 group was not different than the controls. Although the B treatments did not affect teeth structure, strength, mineral density and micro-hardness, increasing B intake altered the mineral composition of teeth, and, in moderate amounts, had beneficial effects on surrounding alveolar bone.

  20. Dietary exposure to cadmium at close to the current provisional tolerable weekly intake does not affect renal function among female Japanese farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, Hyogo; Oguma, Etsuko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Miyamoto, Kayoko; Ikeda, Yoko; Machida, Munehito; Kayama, Fujio

    2004-01-01

    Dietary cadmium (Cd) exposure and renal tubular function were investigated in 1381 female farmers from five districts in Japan (Japanese Multi-centered Environmental Toxicant Study project; JMETS). Dietary Cd exposure of the five populations was assessed from the individual Cd concentrations of the rice consumed by the study participants and the quantities of rice consumed daily. The populations showed a sequential difference in dietary Cd exposure, ranging from a level as low as that of the general Japanese population to one close to the current provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI). The levels of urinary Cd excretion, an indicator of Cd accumulation in the kidneys, increased along the same sequential pattern as dietary Cd exposure. However, no differences were observed among the populations in levels of urinary α 1 -microglobulin and β 2 -microglobulin excretion, which are indicators of renal tubular function. These results indicate that the current PTWI is sufficient to prevent Cd-induced renal dysfunction among the general population

  1. Dead Pericarps of Dry Fruits Function as Long-Term Storage for Active Hydrolytic Enzymes and Other Substances That Affect Germination and Microbial Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Godwin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly assumed that dead pericarps of dry indehiscent fruits have evolved to provide an additional physical layer for embryo protection and as a means for long distance dispersal. The pericarps of dry fruits undergo programmed cell death (PCD during maturation whereby most macromolecules such DNA, RNA, and proteins are thought to be degraded and their constituents remobilized to filial tissues such as embryo and endosperm. We wanted to test the hypothesis that the dead pericarp represents an elaborated layer that is capable of storing active proteins and other substances for increasing survival rate of germinating seeds. Using in gel assays we found that dead pericarps of both dehiscent and indehiscent dry fruits of various plant species including Arabidopsis thaliana and Sinapis alba release upon hydration multiple active hydrolytic enzymes that can persist in an active form for decades, including nucleases, proteases, and chitinases. Proteomic analysis of indehiscent pericarp of S. alba revealed multiple proteins released upon hydration, among them proteases and chitinases, as well as proteins involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS detoxification and cell wall modification. Pericarps appear to function also as a nutritional element-rich storage for nitrate, potassium, phosphorus, sulfur, and others. Sinapis alba dehiscent and indehiscent pericarps possess germination inhibitory substances as well as substances that promote microbial growth. Collectively, our study explored previously unknown features of the dead pericarp acting also as a reservoir of biological active proteins, and other substances capable of “engineering” the microenvironment for the benefit of the embryo.

  2. Bioactive substances

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.

    Chemistry related to certain bioactive molecules, from Indian Ocean Region, developed into drugs or which served as models for the synthesis of more effective bioactive substances or in use in fundamental studies of physiological and biochemical...

  3. Psychotoxic Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-11-16

    halluci- nations , disturbances of body perception, depersonalization symptoms, and a "psychotic" status. Also with the derivatives, the individual...the substance had also local anesthetic properties. After clinical testing, ibogaine was then used as stimulans for neurasthenics and convalescents1 1 3...con- siderably disturbed by this group of substances. The optic halluci- nations consist to a small extent in scenic proceedings of actions, more

  4. Lifetime history of traumatic events in a young adult Mexican American sample: relation to substance dependence, affective disorder, acculturation stress, and PTSD

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Kim, Corinne; Gilder, David A.; Stouffer, Gina M.; Caetano, Raul; Yehuda, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Mexican Americans comprise one of the most rapidly growing populations in the United States, and within this population, trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with physical and mental health problems. Therefore, efforts to delineate factors that may uniquely contribute to increased likelihood of trauma, PTSD, and substance use disorders over the lifetime in Mexican Americans are important to address health disparities and to develop treatment and prevention programs....

  5. VEGF and GLUT1 are highly heritable, inversely correlated and affected by dietary fat intake: Consequences for cognitive function in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Schüler

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Reduction of brain glucose transporter GLUT1 results in severe neurological dysfunction. VEGF is required to restore and maintain brain glucose uptake across the blood brain barrier via GLUT1, which was shown to be acutely diminished in response to a high fat diet (HFD in mice. The genetic and HFD-related regulation and association of VEGF and GLUT1 (SLC2A1 in humans was investigated in the NUtriGenomic Analysis in Twins (NUGAT study. Methods: 92 healthy and non-obese twins were standardized to a high-carbohydrate low-fat diet for 6 weeks before switched to a 6-week HFD under isocaloric conditions. Three clinical investigation days were conducted: after 6 weeks of low-fat diet and after 1 and 6 weeks of HFD. Serum VEGF and other cytokine levels were measured using ELISA. Gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue was assessed by quantitative Real-Time PCR. Genotyping was performed using microarray. The Auditory Verbal Learning Task was conducted to measure cognitive performance. Results: In this human study, we showed that the environmental regulation of SLC2A1 expression and serum VEGF by HFD was inversely correlated and both factors showed strong heritability (>90%. In response to the HFD containing 45% fat, serum VEGF levels increased (P = 0.002 while SLC2A1 mRNA expression in adipose tissue decreased (P = 0.001. Higher BMI was additionally associated with lower SLC2A1 expression. AA-genotypes of the rs9472159 polymorphism, which explained ∼39% of the variation in circulating VEGF concentrations, showed significantly reduced serum VEGF levels (P = 6.4 × 10−11 but higher SLC2A1 expression (P = 0.009 in adipose tissue compared to CC/CA-genotypes after 6 weeks of HFD. Memory performance in AA-genotypes declined in response to the HFD compared to CC- and CA-genotypes. Conclusions: The results provide evidence to suggest the translatability of the dietary regulation of VEGF and GLUT1 from mouse models to humans. Our

  6. Impact of mothers' negative affectivity, parental locus of control and child-feeding practices on dietary patterns of 3-year-old children: the MoBa Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ystrom, Eivind; Barker, Mary; Vollrath, Margarete E

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to (1) identify dietary patterns in 3-year-old children; (2) investigate the extent to which negative affectivity, external parental locus of control and control-oriented child-feeding practices (pressure to eat and restriction) relate to these dietary patterns; and (3) to examine to what extent external parental locus of control and control-oriented child-feeding practices serve as mediators for these effects. This study was part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, comprising 14,122 mothers completing assessments at 6 months, 18 months and 3 years post-partum. Factor analysis of the children's diet identified two weakly correlated dietary patterns, labeled 'unhealthy' and 'wholesome'. Mothers high in negative affectivity perceived they had little control over their child's behaviour, which in turn was associated with both pressuring their child to eat and restricting the child's food intake and a less wholesome and a more unhealthy diet in the child. Pressuring the child to eat was independently associated with a less wholesome and a more unhealthy diet. Restricting the child's diet was associated with a more wholesome and a less unhealthy diet. These findings held after controlling for maternal smoking, education, age, body mass index, marital status, homemaker status and child gender. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Dietary nutrient composition affects digestible energy utilisation for growth: a study on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and a literature comparison across fish species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, J.W.; Subramanian, S.; Geurden, I.; Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Kaushik, S.J.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the type of non-protein energy (NPE) on energy utilisation in Nile tilapia was studied, focusing on digestible energy utilisation for growth (kgDE). Furthermore, literature data on kgDE across fish species were analysed in order to evaluate the effect of dietary macronutrient

  8. Dietary cranberry, blueberry, and black raspberry affects the development of dyslipidemia and insulin insensitivity associated with metabolic syndrome in high fructose fed rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of feeding cranberry, blueberry, and black raspberry powder on selected parameters of metabolic syndrome were investigated in 40 growing male Sprague Dawley rats. Animals were divided into five dietary treatments of 1) control AIN93G diet, 2) high fructose (65% by weight, HF) diet, and 3-5) ...

  9. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  10. Saturated fat stimulates obesity and hepatic steatosis and affects gut microbiota composition by an enhanced overflow of dietary fat to the distal intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de N.J.W.; Derrien, M.; Bosch-Vermeulen, H.; Oosterink, E.; Keshtkar, S.; Duval, C.N.C.; Vogel-van den Bosch, de H.M.; Kleerebezem, M.; Muller, M.R.; Meer, van der R.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effect of dietary fat type, varying in polyunsaturated-to-saturated fatty acid ratios (P/S), on development of metabolic syndrome. C57Bl/6J mice were fed purified high-fat diets (45E% fat) containing palm oil (HF-PO; P/S 0.4), olive oil (HF-OO; P/S 1.1), or safflower oil (HF-SO; P/S

  11. Saturated fat stimulates obesity and hepatic steatosis and affects gut microbiota composition by an enhanced overflow of dietary fat to the distal intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de Nicole; Oosterink, Els; Bosch-Vermeulen, Hanneke; Keshtkar, Shohreh; Duval, C.N.C.; Vogel-van den Bosch, de Johan; Muller, Michael; Meer, van der Roelof

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effect of dietary fat type, varying in polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio's (P/S) on development of metabolic syndrome. C57Bl/6J mice were fed purified high-fat diets (45E% fat) containing palm oil (HF-PO; P/S 0.4), olive oil (HF-OO; P/S 1.1) or safflower oil (HF-SO; P/S 7.8)

  12. Growth performance and certain body measurements of ostrich chicks as affected by dietary protein levels during 2–9 weeks of age

    OpenAIRE

    Kh.M. Mahrose; A.I. Attia; I.E. Ismail; D.E. Abou-Kassem; M.E. Abd El-Hack

    2015-01-01

    The present work was conducted to examine the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels (18, 21 and 24%) on growth performance (Initial and final body weight, daily body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio) during 2-9 weeks of age and certain body measurements (body height, tibiotarsus length and tibiotarsus girth) at 9 weeks of age. A total of 30 African Black unsexed ostrich chicks were used in the present study in simple randomized design. The res...

  13. High dietary biotin levels affect the footpad and hock health of broiler chickens reared at different stocking densities and litter conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z W; Fan, Q H; Wang, X X; Guo, Y M; Wang, H J; Dong, X

    2017-06-01

    Responses to stocking density (SD), dietary biotin concentration and litter condition were evaluated on 2016 Ross 308 male broilers in the fattening period (day 22-day 42). The birds were placed in 48 pens with either dry or wet litter to simulate the final stocking density of 30 kg (12 broilers/m 2 ; normal stocking density, NSD) and 40 kg (16 broilers/m 2 ; high stocking density, HSD) of body weight (BW)/m 2 floor space. A corn-soybean meal-based diet was supplemented with biotin to provide a normal (NB; 155 μg/kg) or high (HB, 1521 μg/kg) level of dietary biotin. There were six repetitions per treatment. The inappropriate moisture content of litter associated with HSD was avoided (p  0.05) for growth and processing yield. In HSD, the biotin effect (gains, FCR) was significantly higher (p chickens, and a significant interaction (p density, biotin supplementation and litter condition existed from 35 to 42 days of age. Taken together, increasing dietary biotin improves the performance and well-being of broiler chickens stocked at high densities in litter-independent and litter-dependent manners respectively. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Increasing levels of dietary crystalline methionine affect plasma methionine profiles, ammonia excretion, and the expression of genes related to the hepatic intermediary metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolland, Marine; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Larsen, Bodil Katrine

    2016-01-01

    Strictly carnivorous fish with high requirements for dietary protein, such as rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are interesting models for studying the role of amino acids as key regulators of intermediary metabolism. Methionine is an essential amino acid for rainbow trout, and works as a signa......Strictly carnivorous fish with high requirements for dietary protein, such as rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are interesting models for studying the role of amino acids as key regulators of intermediary metabolism. Methionine is an essential amino acid for rainbow trout, and works...... as a signalling factor in different metabolic pathways. The study investigated the effect of increasing dietary methionine intake on the intermediary metabolism in the liver of juvenile rainbow trout. For this purpose, five diets were formulated with increasing methionine levels from 0.60 to 1.29% dry matter....... The diets were fed in excess for six weeks before three sampling campaigns carried out successively to elucidate (i) the hepatic expression of selected genes involved in lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism; (ii) the postprandial ammonia excretion; and (iii) the postprandial plasma methionine...

  15. Ratio of dietary rumen degradable protein to rumen undegradable protein affects nitrogen partitioning but does not affect the bovine milk proteome produced by mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacoma, R; Fields, J; Ebenstein, D B; Lam, Y-W; Greenwood, S L

    2017-09-01

    Little is known about the bovine milk proteome or whether it can be affected by diet. The objective of this study was to determine if the dietary rumen degradable protein (RDP):rumen undegradable protein (RUP) ratio could alter the bovine milk proteome. Six Holstein cows (parity: 2.5 ± 0.8) in mid lactation were blocked by days in milk (80 ± 43 d in milk) and milk yield (57.5 ± 6.0 kg) and randomly assigned to treatment groups. The experiment was conducted as a double-crossover design consisting of three 21-d periods. Within each period, treatment groups received diets with either (1) a high RDP:RUP ratio (RDP treatment: 62.4:37.6% of crude protein) or (2) a low RDP:RUP ratio (RUP treatment: 51.3:48.7% of crude protein). Both diets were isonitrogenous and isoenergetic (crude protein: 18.5%, net energy for lactation: 1.8 Mcal/kg of dry matter). To confirm N and energy status of cows, dry matter intake was determined daily, rumen fluid samples were collected for volatile fatty acid analysis, blood samples were collected for plasma glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, urea nitrogen, and fatty acid analysis, and total 24-h urine and fecal samples were collected for N analysis. Milk samples were collected to determine the general milk composition and the protein profile. Milk samples collected for high-abundance protein analysis were subjected to HPLC analysis to determine the content of α-casein, β-casein, and κ-casein, as well as α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin. Samples collected for low-abundance protein analysis were fractionated, enriched using ProteoMiner treatment, and separated using sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. After excision and digestion, the peptides were analyzed using liquid chromatography (LC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The LC-MS/MS data were analyzed using PROC GLIMMIX of SAS (version 9.4, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) and adjusted using the MULTTEST procedure. All other parameters were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS. No treatment differences

  16. Shared Substance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerlufsen, Tony; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted; Eagan, James

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel middleware for developing flexible interactive multi-surface applications. Using a scenario-based approach, we identify the requirements for this type of applications. We then introduce Substance, a data- oriented framework that decouples functionality from data, and S...

  17. Antigenotoxicity of Dietary Coconut Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Lim-Sylianco

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzo(apyrene, dimethylnitrosamine, methylmethanesulfonate and tetracycline induced formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes indicating that these substances are genotoxic to bone marrow cells of the experimental mice.Genotoxicity of these substances to germ cells was also observed when low fertility index and high percentage dead implants were induced in experimental mice.When each genotoxin was administered to mice fed with diets containing 18 % coconut oil for 23 days, the formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes was greatly reduced. Antigenotoxic activity of dietary coconut oil was very much greater than dietary soybean oil.Germ cell genotoxicity of each genotoxin was also reduced when male mice fed the 18 % coconut oil diet were used. When male mice treated with the genotoxin was mated with virgin females, fertility index was increased in the group fed with coconut oil diet. Percentage dead implants was reduced. The antigenotoxic activity of dietary coconut oil on germ cells far exceeds that of dietary soybean oil.Dietary restriction of coconut oil diets enhanced the antigenotoxic activity of coconut oil in bone marrow cells and germs cells.Among the triacylglycerols of coconut oil, trilaurin gave the best antigenotoxic activity in bone marrow cells. Trilaurin is the major triacylglycerol in coconut oil.

  18. Dietary structured triacylglycerols containing docosahexaenoic acid given from birth affect visual and auditory performance and tissue fatty acid profiles of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M. M.; Lund, S. P.; Simonsen, L.

    1998-01-01

    To examine whether it is possible to enhance the level of 22:6(n-3) in the central nervous system, newborn rats were fed dietary supplements containing oils with either specific or random triacylglycerol structure, but similar concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the specific structu...... in differences in learning ability, but caused changes in visual function, evidenced by higher latency of the b-wave and lower oscillatory potential, and in auditory brainstem response, evidenced by generally greater amplitude of wave la in the group fed specific structured oil....

  19. Oxidative stability of chilled broiler breast meat as affected by?dietary supplementation with rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) powder and vitamin E

    OpenAIRE

    Rostami, Hossein; Seidavi, Alireza; Dadashbeiki, Mohammad; Asadpour, Yadollah; Sim?es, Jo?o; Laudadio, Vito; Milis, Chrysostomos; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) powder and vitamin E, as feed additives combined at different levels, on oxidative stability of broiler meat up to 14th day after chilling. A total of 270 1?day?old male chicks of Ross 308 strain were randomly assigned to nine dietary groups with three replicates having 10 birds each. Diets were supplemented with 0, 0.5, or 1.0% of rosemary (R) powder and 0, 100, or 200?mg/kg of vitamin E ...

  20. Reduction of high levels of internal radio-contamination by dietary intervention in residents of areas affected by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant disaster: a case series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaharu Tsubokura

    Full Text Available Maintaining low levels of chronic internal contamination among residents in radiation-contaminated areas after a nuclear disaster is a great public health concern. However, the efficacy of reduction measures for individual internal contamination remains unknown. To reduce high levels of internal radiation exposure in a group of individuals exposed through environmental sources, we performed careful dietary intervention with identification of suspected contaminated foods, as part of mass voluntary radiation contamination screenings and counseling program in Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital and Hirata Central Hospital. From a total of 30,622 study participants, only 9 residents displayed internal cesium-137 (Cs-137 levels of more than 50 Bq/kg. The median level of internal Cs-137 contamination in these residents at the initial screening was 4,830 Bq/body (range: 2,130-15,918 Bq/body and 69.6 Bq/kg (range: 50.7-216.3 Bq/kg. All these residents with high levels of internal contamination consumed homegrown produce without radiation inspection, and often collected mushrooms in the wild or cultivated them on bed-logs in their homes. They were advised to consume distributed food mainly and to refrain from consuming potentially contaminated foods without radiation inspection and local produces under shipment restrictions such as mushrooms, mountain vegetables, and meat of wild life. A few months after the intervention, re-examination of Cs levels revealed remarkable reduction of internal contamination in all residents. Although the levels of internal radiation exposure appear to be minimal amongst most residents in Fukushima, a subset of the population, who unknowingly consumed highly contaminated foodstuffs, experienced high levels of internal contamination. There seem to be similarities in dietary preferences amongst residents with high internal contamination levels, and intervention based on pre- and post-test counseling and dietary advice from

  1. Abortion Legalization and Adolescent Substance Use

    OpenAIRE

    Charles, Kerwin Kofi; Stephens, Melvin, Jr

    2006-01-01

    We assess whether in utero exposure to legalized abortion in the early 1970's affected individuals' propensities to use controlled substances as adolescents. We exploit the fact that some states legalized abortion before national legalization in 1973 to compare differences in substance use for adolescents across birth cohorts in different states. We find that persons exposed to early legalization were, on average, much less likely to use controlled substances. We also assess how substance use...

  2. Dietary supplements for football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L

    2006-07-01

    Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed

  3. Acute topiramate differentially affects human aggressive responding at low vs. moderate doses in subjects with histories of substance abuse and antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Scott D; Gowin, Joshua L; Green, Charles E; Steinberg, Joel L; Moeller, F Gerard; Cherek, Don R

    2009-04-01

    Anticonvulsant drugs have demonstrated efficacy in the management of irritability and aggression in a variety of psychiatric populations. We examined the acute effects of topiramate on aggression using a laboratory model of human aggression (PSAP) in individuals at high risk for aggressive and violent behavior.Twelve subjects, on parole/probation and with an Axis-II personality disorder and/or a substance use disorder, received 100, 200, 300, and 400 mg in an ascending sequence, with intervening placebo doses.Subjects participated 2-3 days per week over 4-6 weeks. Due to cognitive side effects at 300 mg, two subjects only completed through the 200 mg dose. Topiramate produced an inverted U-shaped dose response curve, with increases in aggression peaking at 200 mg and a modest decrease at 400 mg. Statistical analysis revealed a polynomial trend for dose (p=0.001). The observed inverted U-shaped function in aggressive responding is consistent with non-human aggression studies of GABA-A modulators. Acute topiramate doses >400 mg may have anti-aggressive effects, but dose levels in the 200-300 mg range may produce increases in aggression and side effects.

  4. Personality and Affect When the Central Nervous System is Sensitized: An Analysis of Central Sensitization Syndromes in a Substance Use Disorder Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, Lindsey C; Finn, Michael T M; Carr, Erika R

    2017-01-01

    Functional somatic syndromes, or more recently termed central sensitivity syndromes (CSS), comprise a significant portion of the chronic pain population. Although it is evident that personality is intricately related to the pain experience, it has not been widely studied. This article examines the impact of CSS on the clinical presentation of individuals presenting to treatment for a substance use disorder (SUD), with an emphasis on personality and emotional functioning. We examined personality profiles of individuals presenting to treatment with SUD between three groups: those with a CSS (n = 30), non-CSS chronic pain (n = 79), and no pain (n = 232). Based on previous research and a psychodynamic conceptualization of CSS, we hypothesized that predictors of the presence of a CSS in this sample would be higher rates of overall anxiety, traumatic stress, perfectionistic traits, and a need for interpersonal closeness. Logistic regression analyses did not support our hypothesis. Exploratory analyses indicated which personality traits most strongly predicted the presence of CSS. We discuss these findings using descriptive psychopathology literature, with recommendations for future research.

  5. Genetic polymorphisms of antioxidant enzymes CAT and SOD affect the outcome of clinical, biochemical, and anthropometric variables in people with obesity under a dietary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Guerrero, César; Parra-Carriedo, Alicia; Ruiz-de-Santiago, Diana; Galicia-Castillo, Oscar; Buenrostro-Jáuregui, Mario; Díaz-Gutiérrez, Carmen

    2018-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms of antioxidant enzymes CAT, GPX, and SOD are involved in the etiology of obesity and its principal comorbidities. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of aforementioned SNPs over the output of several variables in people with obesity after a nutritional intervention. The study included 92 Mexican women, which received a dietary intervention by 3 months. Participants were genotyped and stratified into two groups: (1) carriers; mutated homozygous plus heterozygous (CR) and (2) homozygous wild type (WT). A comparison between CR and WT was done in clinical (CV), biochemical (BV), and anthropometric variables (AV), at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Participants ( n  = 92) showed statistically significant differences ( p  T GPX1 (rs1050450), - 251A>G SOD1 (rs2070424), and - 262C>T CAT (rs1001179). (B) Only CR showed statistically changes ( p  T CAT (rs7943316) and 47C>T SOD2 (rs4880). The dietary intervention effect was statistically significantly between the polymorphisms of 47C>T SOD2 and BMI, SBP, TBARS, total cholesterol, and C-LCL ( p  T CAT (rs7943316) and SBP, DBP, total cholesterol, and atherogenic index ( p  CAT enzymes.

  6. Does diet-beverage intake affect dietary consumption patterns? Results from the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piernas, Carmen; Tate, Deborah F; Wang, Xiaoshan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is understood about the effect of increased consumption of low-calorie sweeteners in diet beverages on dietary patterns and energy intake. Objective: We investigated whether energy intakes and dietary patterns were different in subjects who were randomly assigned to substitute caloric beverages with either water or diet beverages (DBs). Design: Participants from the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday randomized clinical trial (a 6-mo, 3-arm study) were included in the analysis [water groups: n = 106 (94% women); DB group: n = 104 (82% women)]. For energy, macronutrient, and food and beverage intakes, we investigated the main effects of time, treatment, and the treatment-by-time interaction by using mixed models. Results: Overall, the macronutrient composition changed in both groups without significant differences between groups over time. Both groups reduced absolute intakes of total daily energy, carbohydrates, fat, protein, saturated fat, total sugar, added sugar, and other carbohydrates. The DB group decreased energy from all beverages more than the water group did only at month 3 (P-group-by-time dessert intake than the water group did at month 6 (P-group-by-time beverages and specifically reduced more desserts than the water group did. Our study does not provide evidence to suggest that a short-term consumption of DBs, compared with water, increases preferences for sweet foods and beverages. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01017783. PMID:23364015

  7. Does diet-beverage intake affect dietary consumption patterns? Results from the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piernas, Carmen; Tate, Deborah F; Wang, Xiaoshan; Popkin, Barry M

    2013-03-01

    Little is understood about the effect of increased consumption of low-calorie sweeteners in diet beverages on dietary patterns and energy intake. We investigated whether energy intakes and dietary patterns were different in subjects who were randomly assigned to substitute caloric beverages with either water or diet beverages (DBs). Participants from the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday randomized clinical trial (a 6-mo, 3-arm study) were included in the analysis [water groups: n = 106 (94% women); DB group: n = 104 (82% women)]. For energy, macronutrient, and food and beverage intakes, we investigated the main effects of time, treatment, and the treatment-by-time interaction by using mixed models. Overall, the macronutrient composition changed in both groups without significant differences between groups over time. Both groups reduced absolute intakes of total daily energy, carbohydrates, fat, protein, saturated fat, total sugar, added sugar, and other carbohydrates. The DB group decreased energy from all beverages more than the water group did only at month 3 (P-group-by-time dessert intake than the water group did at month 6 (P-group-by-time beverages and specifically reduced more desserts than the water group did. Our study does not provide evidence to suggest that a short-term consumption of DBs, compared with water, increases preferences for sweet foods and beverages. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01017783.

  8. Stroke And Substance Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    A Chitsaz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: stroke in recreational substance users can be an indirect complication, like endocarditis and cardio embolism in parenteral drug users. With some drug like cocaine, stroke appear to be the result of a direct effect. In young subjects without other risk factors provide persuasive evidence for causality . OPIATES: Heroine is the most abused opiate drug, which is administered by injection, by snorting or by smoking. Stroke affects heroin users by diverse mechanisms,. Injec...

  9. Do perfluoroalkyl substances affect metabolic function and plasma lipids?--Analysis of the 2007-2009, Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) Cycle 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Mandy; Arbuckle, Tye E; Wade, Mike; Haines, Douglas A

    2013-02-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are man-made chemicals that are heat stable, non-flammable and able to repel both water and oils. Biomonitoring research shows global distribution in human, animal and aquatic environments of these chemicals. PFCs have been shown to activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors which play a large role in metabolism and the regulation of energy homeostasis. Previous epidemiological research has also suggested a potential role of PFCs on lipid and glucose metabolism. The objectives of this study were to examine the association between the levels of perfluorinated compounds perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) in plasma and metabolic function and plasma lipid levels. Using cross-sectional data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (Cycle 1 2007-2009) we examined the association in adults between plasma levels of PFOA, PFOS and PFHxS (n=2700) on cholesterol outcomes, metabolic syndrome and glucose homeostasis using multivariate linear and logistic regression models. We found some evidence of a significant association between perfluoroalkyl substances, notably PFHxS, with total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TC/HDL) and non-HDL cholesterol as well as an elevated odds of high cholesterol. We found some associations with PFOA and PFOS in our unweighted models but these results did not remain significant after weighting for sampling strategy. We found no association with metabolic syndrome, or glucose homeostasis parameters. This study showed lower levels of PFOA and PFOS and slightly higher levels of PFHxS than other published population studies. Our results did not give significant evidence to support the association with cholesterol outcomes with PFOS and PFOA. However, we did observe several significant associations with the PFHxS and cholesterol outcomes (LDL, TC, NON

  10. Dietary fibre in foods: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Dhingra, Devinder; Michael, Mona; Rajput, Hradesh; Patil, R. T.

    2011-01-01

    Dietary fibre is that part of plant material in the diet which is resistant to enzymatic digestion which includes cellulose, noncellulosic polysaccharides such as hemicellulose, pectic substances, gums, mucilages and a non-carbohydrate component lignin. The diets rich in fibre such as cereals, nuts, fruits and vegetables have a positive effect on health since their consumption has been related to decreased incidence of several diseases. Dietary fibre can be used in various functional foods li...

  11. Short-Term and Sub-Chronic Dietary Exposure to Aspalathin-Enriched Green Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) Extract Affects Rat Liver Function and Antioxidant Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Johanna Debora; de Beer, Dalene; Joubert, Elizabeth; Gelderblom, Wentzel C A

    2015-12-18

    An aspalathin-enriched green rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) extract (GRE) was fed to male Fischer rats in two independent studies for 28 and 90 days. The average dietary total polyphenol (TP) intake was 756 and 627 mg Gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/kg body weight (bw)/day over 28 and 90 days, respectively, equaling human equivalent doses (HEDs) of 123 and 102 GAE mg/kg bw/day. Aspalathin intake of 295 mg/kg bw/day represents a HED of 48 mg/kg bw/day (90 day study). Consumption of GRE increased feed intake significantly (p stress related genes, indicative, among others, of an underlying oxidative stress related to changes in the GSH redox pathway and possible biliary dysfunction.

  12. Dietary contaminant exposure affects plasma testosterone, but not thyroid hormones, vitamin A, and vitamin E, in male juvenile arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallanger, Ingeborg G; Jørgensen, Even H; Fuglei, Eva; Ahlstrøm, Øystein; Muir, Derek C G; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro

    2012-01-01

    Levels of persistent organic pollutants (POP), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), are high in many Arctic top predators, including the Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus). The aim of this study was to examine possible endocrine-disruptive effects of dietary POP exposure in male juvenile Arctic foxes in a controlled exposure experiment. The study was conducted using domesticated farmed blue foxes (Vulpes lagopus) as a model species. Two groups of newly weaned male foxes received a diet supplemented with either minke whale (Baleneoptera acutorostrata) blubber that was naturally contaminated with POP (exposed group, n = 5 or 21), or pork (Sus scrofa) fat (control group, n = 5 or 21). When the foxes were 6 mo old and had received the 2 diets for approximately 4 mo (147 d), effects of the dietary exposure to POP on plasma concentrations of testosterone (T), thyroid hormones (TH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), retinol (vitamin A), and tocopherol (viramin E) were examined. At sampling, the total body concentrations of 104 PCB congeners were 0.1 ± 0.03 μg/g lipid weight (l.w.; n = 5 [mean ± standard deviation]) and 1.5 ± 0.17 μg/g l.w. (n = 5) in the control and exposed groups, respectively. Plasma testosterone concentrations in the exposed male foxes were significantly lower than in the control males, being approximately 25% of that in the exposed foxes. There were no between-treatment differences for TH, TSH, retinol, or tocopherol. The results suggest that the high POP levels experienced by costal populations of Arctic foxes, such as in Svalbard and Iceland, may result in delayed masculine maturation during adolescence. Sex hormone disruption during puberty may thus have lifetime consequences on all aspects of reproductive function in adult male foxes.

  13. Dietary sources and sociodemographic and lifestyle factors affecting vitamin D and calcium intakes in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julián, Cristina; Mouratidou, Theodora; Vicente-Rodriguez, Germán; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Valtueña, Jara; González-Gross, Marcela; Ferrari, Marika; Gottrand, Frederic; Manios, Yannis; de la O, Alejandro; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnár, Dénes; Kafatos, Antonios; Sjöström, Michael; Kersting, Mathilde; Gunter, Marc J; De Henauw, Stefaan; Moreno, Luis A; Huybrechts, Inge

    2017-06-01

    To investigate dietary sources of Ca and vitamin D (VitD) intakes, and the associated sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, among European adolescents. Linear regression mixed models were used to examine sex-specific associations of Ca and VitD intakes with parental education, family affluence (FAS), physical activity and television (TV) watching while controlling for age, Tanner stage, energy intake and diet quality. The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA)Cross-Sectional Study. Adolescents aged 12·5-17·5 years (n 1804). Milk and cheese were the main sources of Ca (23 and 19 % contribution to overall Ca intake, respectively). Fish products were the main VitD source (30 % contribution to overall VitD intake). Ca intake was positively associated with maternal education (β=56·41; 95 % CI 1·98, 110·82) and negatively associated with TV viewing in boys (β=-0·43; 95 % CI -0·79, -0·07); however, the significance of these associations disappeared when adjusting for diet quality. In girls, Ca intake was positively associated with mother's (β=73·08; 95 % CI 34·41, 111·74) and father's education (β=43·29; 95 % CI 5·44, 81·14) and FAS (β=37·45; 95 % CI 2·25, 72·65). This association between Ca intake and mother's education remained significant after further adjustment for diet quality (β=41·66; 95 % CI 0·94, 82·38). Girls with high-educated mothers had higher Ca intake. Low-educated families with poor diet quality may be targeted when strategizing health promotion programmes to enhance dietary Ca.

  14. Prohibited Contaminants in Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Neilson M

    With the increasing use of unregulated dietary supplements, athletes are at continued risk from adverse medical events and inadvertent doping. A review of Clinical Key, MEDLINE, and PubMed databases from 2012 to 2017 was performed using search terms, including dietary supplement, contamination, doping in athletes, inadvertent doping, and prohibited substances. The references of pertinent articles were reviewed for other relevant sources. Clinical review. Level 3. Poor manufacturing processes and intentional contamination with many banned substances continue to occur in dietary supplements sold in the United States. Certain sectors, such as weight loss and muscle-building supplements, pose a greater threat because they are more likely to be contaminated. Athletes will continue to be at risk for adverse events and failed doping tests due to contaminated dietary supplements until legislation changes how they are regulated. In the interim, there are several steps that can be taken to mitigate this risk, including improved education of medical staff and athletes and use of third party-certified products.

  15. Gene-environment interaction affects substance P and neurokinin A in the entorhinal cortex and periaqueductal grey in a genetic animal model of depression: implications for the pathophysiology of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husum, Henriette; Wörtwein, Gitta; Andersson, Weronika

    2008-01-01

    Evidence implies a role for corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and tachykinins, e.g. substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) in the pathophysiology of depression. We have previously shown that SP- and NKA-like immunoreactivity (-LI) concentrations were altered in the frontal cortex and striatum...... of the congenitally 'depressed' Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) compared to the Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) control rats. It is also known that environmental stress may affect brain levels of tachykinins. In view of these results we decided to superimpose maternal deprivation, an early life environmental stressor......, onto the genetically predisposed 'depressed' FSL rats and the FRL control rats and use this paradigm as a model of gene-environment interaction. The adult animals were sacrificed, adrenal glands and brains dissected out and SP-, NKA- and CRH-LI levels were determined in ten discrete brain regions...

  16. Quantitative determination of vinpocetine in dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John M. T.; King, Matthew D.

    2017-01-01

    Current United States regulatory policies allow for the addition of pharmacologically active substances in dietary supplements if derived from a botanical source. The inclusion of certain nootropic drugs, such as vinpocetine, in dietary supplements has recently come under scrutiny due to the lack of defined dosage parameters and yet unproven short- and long-term benefits and risks to human health. This study quantified the concentration of vinpocetine in several commercially available dietary supplements and found that a highly variable range of 0.6–5.1 mg/serving was present across the tested products, with most products providing no specification of vinpocetine concentrations. PMID:27319129

  17. Dietary Whey and Casein Differentially Affect Energy Balance, Gut Hormones, Glucose Metabolism, and Taste Preference in Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezeshki, Adel; Fahim, Andrew; Chelikani, Prasanth K

    2015-10-01

    Dietary whey and casein proteins decrease food intake and body weight and improve glycemic control; however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. We determined the effects of dietary whey, casein, and a combination of the 2 on energy balance, hormones, glucose metabolism, and taste preference in rats. In Expt. 1, Obesity Prone CD (OP-CD) rats were fed a high-fat control diet (33% fat energy) for 8 wk, and then randomly assigned to 4 isocaloric dietary treatments (n = 12/group): the control treatment (CO; 14% protein energy from egg white), the whey treatment (WH; 26% whey + 14% egg white), the casein treatment (CA; 26% casein + 14% egg white), or the whey plus casein treatment (WHCA; 13% whey + 13% casein + 14% egg white) for 28 d. Measurements included food intake, energy expenditure, body composition, metabolic hormones, glucose tolerance and key tissue markers of glucose and energy metabolism. In Expt. 2, naïve OP-CD rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 8/group). During an 8 d conditioning period, each group received on alternate days either the CO or WH, CO or CA, or CO or WHCA. Subsequently, preferences for the test diets were assessed on 2 consecutive days with food intake measurements at regular intervals. In Expt. 1, food intake was decreased by 17-37% for the first 14 d in the WH and CA rats, and by 18-34% only for the first 4 d in the WHCA compared with the CO rats. Fat mass decreased by 21-28% for the WH rats and 17-33% for the CA rats from day 14 onward, but by 30% only on day 28 in WHCA rats, relative to CO rats. Thus, food intake, body weight, and fat mass decreased more rapidly in WH and CA rats than in WHCA rats. Energy expenditure in WH rats decreased for the first 4 d compared with CA and WHCA rats, and for the first 7 d compared with the CO rats. Circulating leptin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, interleukin 6, and glucose concentrations were lower in WH, CA, and WHCA rats than in CO rats. Plasma glucagon

  18. Dietary fibre in foods: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Devinder; Michael, Mona; Rajput, Hradesh; Patil, R T

    2012-06-01

    Dietary fibre is that part of plant material in the diet which is resistant to enzymatic digestion which includes cellulose, noncellulosic polysaccharides such as hemicellulose, pectic substances, gums, mucilages and a non-carbohydrate component lignin. The diets rich in fibre such as cereals, nuts, fruits and vegetables have a positive effect on health since their consumption has been related to decreased incidence of several diseases. Dietary fibre can be used in various functional foods like bakery, drinks, beverages and meat products. Influence of different processing treatments (like extrusion-cooking, canning, grinding, boiling, frying) alters the physico- chemical properties of dietary fibre and improves their functionality. Dietary fibre can be determined by different methods, mainly by: enzymic gravimetric and enzymic-chemical methods. This paper presents the recent developments in the extraction, applications and functions of dietary fibre in different food products.

  19. CHALLENGES IN IDENTIFYING THE NEW-GENERATION PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCES

    OpenAIRE

    SALKIM IŞLEK, Dilek; CENGIZ, Salih; RAYIMOĞLU, Gülten; ÇAVUŞ, Fatma; YÜKSELOĞLU, Emel Hülya

    2018-01-01

    A psychoactivesubstance is a substance that affects the central nervous system, alters brainfunctions, and leads to changes in perception, mood and behavior.Apart fromwell-known psychoactive substances, there are some substances callednew-generation psychoactive substances that have risen in recent years. Suchsubstances may be divided into 4 categories: Synthetic cannabinoids, cathinonederivatives, phenylethylamine derivatives, and others including tryptamines,piperazines, hallucinogenic mush...

  20. Dietary Administration of Banana (Musa acuminata) Peel Flour Affects the Growth, Antioxidant Status, Cytokine Responses, and Disease Susceptibility of Rohu, Labeo rohita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Jun, Jin Woo; Sukumaran, Venkatachalam; Park, Se Chang

    2016-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of Musa acuminata (banana) peels as a feed additive, effects of banana peel flour (BPF) on the growth and immune functions of Labeo rohita were evaluated. Diets containing five different concentrations of BPF (0% [basal diet], 1% [B1], 3% [B3], 5% [B5], and 7% [B7]) were fed to the fish (average weight: 15.3 g) for 60 days. The final weight gain and specific growth rate were higher (P < 0.05) in the B5 group. The most significant improvements in immune parameters such as lysozyme, alternative complement pathway, leukocyte phagocytic, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were observed in the B5 group. However, the B5 group exhibited the lowest malondialdehyde activity. IgM and glutathione peroxidise activities were significantly elevated in the treatment groups, except in B1, after only 30 days of feeding. Of the examined cytokine-related genes, IL-1β, TNF-α, and HSP70 were upregulated in the head kidney and hepatopancreas, and expressions were generally higher in the B3 and B5 groups. Moreover, B5 group challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila 60 days after feeding exhibited the highest survival rate (70%; P < 0.05). These results suggest that dietary BPF at 5% could promote growth performance and strengthen immunity in L. rohita.

  1. Dietary Administration of Banana (Musa acuminata Peel Flour Affects the Growth, Antioxidant Status, Cytokine Responses, and Disease Susceptibility of Rohu, Labeo rohita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sib Sankar Giri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the feasibility of Musa acuminata (banana peels as a feed additive, effects of banana peel flour (BPF on the growth and immune functions of Labeo rohita were evaluated. Diets containing five different concentrations of BPF (0% [basal diet], 1% [B1], 3% [B3], 5% [B5], and 7% [B7] were fed to the fish (average weight: 15.3 g for 60 days. The final weight gain and specific growth rate were higher (P<0.05 in the B5 group. The most significant improvements in immune parameters such as lysozyme, alternative complement pathway, leukocyte phagocytic, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were observed in the B5 group. However, the B5 group exhibited the lowest malondialdehyde activity. IgM and glutathione peroxidise activities were significantly elevated in the treatment groups, except in B1, after only 30 days of feeding. Of the examined cytokine-related genes, IL-1β, TNF-α, and HSP70 were upregulated in the head kidney and hepatopancreas, and expressions were generally higher in the B3 and B5 groups. Moreover, B5 group challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila 60 days after feeding exhibited the highest survival rate (70%; P<0.05. These results suggest that dietary BPF at 5% could promote growth performance and strengthen immunity in L. rohita.

  2. Phenolic profile and in vitro antioxidant capacity of insoluble dietary fiber powders from citrus (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) pomace as affected by ultrafine grinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Bingbing; Ye, Fayin; Li, Hang; Hu, Qiang; Xue, Shan; Zhao, Guohua

    2014-07-23

    The effects of mechanical and jet grindings on the proximate composition, phenolics, and antioxidant capacity of insoluble antioxidant dietary fiber powder from citrus pomace (IADFP-CP) were investigated in comparison with ordinary grinding. IADFP-CP from jet grinding showed higher levels of crude fat, total sugar, and free phenolics and lower levels of crude protein and bound phenolics than that from ordinary grinding. Totally, 14 phenolics (9 free, 1 bound, and 4 free/bound) in IADFP-CP were identified by RP-HPLC-DAD/ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS. Hesperidin accounted for >57% of total phenolics in IADFP-CP. Among IADFP-CPs, the jet-ground presented the highest free phenolics but the lowest bound phenolics. The IADFP-CP from jet grinding presented the highest antioxidant capacity of free phenolics (by DPPH and FRAP assays), followed by the ones from mechanical and then ordinary grinding. The present study suggests that jet grinding could improve the extraction of phenolic compounds from IADFP-CP and increase the antioxidant capacities of free phenolics and the resultant powder.

  3. Satisfaction with dietary life affects oral health-related quality of life and subjective well-being in very elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iinuma, Toshimitsu; Arai, Yasumichi; Takayama, Midori; Takayama, Michiyo; Abe, Yukiko; Osawa, Yusuke; Fukumoto, Motoko; Fukui, Yusuke; Shioda, Yohei; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Komiyama, Kazuo; Gionhaku, Nobuhito

    2017-01-01

    Age-related deterioration in physical and oral health reduces healthy life expectancy and is thus an important problem for very elderly people. We investigated the effects of satisfaction with dietary life (SDL) in everyday life on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and subjective well-being and examined associations between these factors. We evaluated 426 elders aged 85 years or older. All participants completed a questionnaire that inquired about age, gender, drinking status, body mass index, cognitive function, disability, and comorbidities, among other covariates. Oral, physical, and mental health conditions were also examined. Associations of questionnaire results for SDL with items on subjective well-being (Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale [PGC] and World Health Organization-5 [WHO-5]) and OHRQoL (Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index [GOHAI]) were confirmed with multiple logistic regression analysis. In a multivariate model adjusted for various confounders, participants with self-reported "enjoyable" SDL had significantly lower risks for having the lowest scores on the GOHAI, PGC, and WHO-5 (odds ratio [OR] = 0.460, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.277-0.762; OR = 0.589, 95% CI = 0.348-0.996; and OR = 0.452, 95% CI = 0.263-0.775, respectively). These associations remained after further adjustment for number of teeth.

  4. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...

  5. High rates of Unintended Pregnancies among Young Women Sex Workers in Conflict-affected Northern Uganda: The Social Contexts of Brothels/Lodges and Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Putu; Muzaaya, Godfrey; Muldoon, Katherine; Dobrer, Sabina; Akello, Monika; Birungi, Josephine; Shannon, Kate

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the correlates of unintended pregnancies among young women sex workers in conflict-affected northern Uganda. Data were drawn from the Gulu Sexual Health Study, a cross-sectional study of young women engaged in sex work. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the correlates of ever having an unintended pregnancy. Among 400 sex workers (median age=20 years; IQR 19-25), 175 (43.8%) reported at least one unintended pregnancy. In multivariable analysis, primarily servicing clients in lodges/brothels [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR= 2.24; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.03-4.84)], hormonal contraceptive usage [AOR=1.68; 95%CI 1.11-2.59] and drug/alcohol use while working [AOR= 1.64; 95%CI 1.04-2.60] were positively correlated with previous unintended pregnancy. Given that unintended pregnancy is an indicator of unmet reproductive health need, these findings highlight a need for improved access to integrated reproductive health and HIV services, catered to sex workers' needs. Sex work-led strategies (e.g., peer outreach) should be considered, alongside structural strategies and education targeting brothel/lodge owners and managers.

  6. Growth Performance, Carcass Traits and Serum Mineral Chemistry as Affected by Dietary Sodium and Sodium Salts Fed to Broiler Chickens Reared under Phase Feeding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. H. Mushtaq

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A basal diet (0.8 g/kg dNa was formulated in which each of the two sources (NaHCO3 and Na2SO4 were supplemented in such a way to attain four levels (1.7, 2.6, 3.5, and 4.4 g/kg of total dNa, respectively, under 4×2 factorial arrangement. Eight dietary treatments were replicated four times, with 40 birds in each replicate (n = 1,280. The diets supplemented with Na2SO4 to attain higher levels of dNa showed highest BW gain and feed intake (FI during d 1 to 10 (interaction effects while 2.6 g/kg dNa exhibited improved BW gain and gain:feed (FG during d 11 to 20. Linear rise in daily water intake (DWI was associated with diets containing increasing dNa during d 1 to 42 (p≤0.036. During the first 10 d, DWI:FI was found highest in NaHCO3 diets while Na2SO4 diets showed highest DWI:FI during last 10 d of the experiment (p≤0.036. Increasing dNa and changing Na2SO4 with NaHCO3 salt increased pH and resulted in poor growth performance. Dressing weight (p≤0.001 and abdominal fat (p≤0.001; quadratic effect were reduced, whereas breast (p≤0.001 and thigh (p<0.001 weights were aggravated with increasing dNa (linear effects. Present findings suggested higher levels of dNa from Na2SO4 as the supplemental salt in broiler diets would produce better growth performance, especially in first ten days of life, and improve carcass and body organ characteristics.

  7. Substance Identification Information from EPA's Substance Registry

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Substance Registry Services (SRS) is the authoritative resource for basic information about substances of interest to the U.S. EPA and its state and tribal...

  8. Assessing patients' attitudes towards dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzejska, Regina; Jarosz, Mirosław; Siuba, Magdalena; Rambuszek, Michał

    2014-01-01

    There is currently many over the counter products on the market that exert nutritional or physiological effects on the human body. The differences between dietary supplements and non-prescription drugs are however poorly understood by the average consumer and may thus affect their expectations as to the desired effect produced on the body. To evaluate patients' knowledge and attitudes towards dietary supplements as compared to non-prescription drugs. Subjects were 335 patients of the Mazowiecki Voivodeship Hospital in Warsaw, Poland. The data were collected from a face-to-face interview using a single and multiple choice questionnaire with 10 questions on dietary supplements. Statistical analysis used the Chi-square (χ2) test. The majority of respondents were found to be familiar with the term 'dietary supplements', but had difficulties in classifying these products into appropriate categories. Over 55% do not consider dietary supplements to be foodstuffs and more than 40% considered such products to be drugs. Most respondents thought that the main purpose of taking dietary supplements is to improve nutrition, but over one third expected them to also treat disease. Over 70% declared taking notice to which category the non-prescription products they bought belongs to ie. whether non-prescription drugs (medicinal products) or dietary supplements. Many patients mistakenly believe that dietary supplements are drugs and can be used to treat disease and health disorders. dietary supplements, opinion on dietary supplements, nutrition, dietary supplement vs. medicinal product.

  9. The composition of readily available carbon sources produced by fermentation of fish faeces is affected by dietary protein:energy ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Letelier-Gordo, Carlos Octavio; Larsen, Bodil Katrine; Dalsgaard, Johanne

    2017-01-01

    , 17, 19, 21 and 23 g/MJ) to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) on the production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and ethanol during 7 days fermentation of the produced fish faeces. The total yields of VFAs and ethanol obtained (expressed as chemical oxygen demand (COD)) ranged between 0.21–0.24 g...... of acetic and valeric acid. Changing the diet composition thus affects the composition of readily available carbon that can be derived from the faeces. This can be applied to enhance on-farm single sludge denitrification and reduce the need for adding external carbon sources such as e.g. methanol....

  10. Dietary DHA/EPA ratio affected tissue fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity, hematological characteristics and expression of lipid-related genes but not growth in juvenile black seabream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Min; Monroig, Óscar; Lu, You; Yuan, Ye; Li, Yi; Ding, Liyun; Tocher, Douglas R; Zhou, Qicun

    2017-01-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary docosahexaenoic to eicosapentaenoic acid ratio (DHA/EPA) on growth performance, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity, hematological characteristics and expression of some lipid metabolism related genes of juvenile black seabream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii) of initial weight 9.47 ± 0.03 g. Five isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets (45% crude protein and 14% crude lipid) were formulated to contain graded DHA/EPA ratios of 0.65, 1.16, 1.60, 2.03 and 2.67. There were no differences in growth performance and feed utilization among treatments. Fish fed higher DHA/EPA ratios had higher malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in serum than lower ratios. Serum triacylglycerol (TAG) content was significantly higher in fish fed the lowest DHA/EPA ratio. Tissue fatty acid profiles reflected the diets despite down-regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis genes, fatty acyl desaturase 2 (fads2) and elongase of very long-chain fatty acids 5 (elovl5), by high DHA/EPA ratios. Expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha (accα) and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1A (cpt1a) were up-regulated by high DHA/EPA ratio, whereas sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (srebp-1) and hormone-sensitive lipase (hsl) were down-regulated. Fatty acid synthase (fas), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6pgd) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (pparα) showed highest expression in fish fed intermediate (1.16) DHA/EPA ratio. Overall, this study indicated that dietary DHA/EPA ratio affected fatty acid profiles and significantly influenced lipid metabolism including LC-PUFA biosynthesis and other anabolic and catabolic pathways, and also had impacts on antioxidant capacity and hematological characteristics.

  11. Mechanisms linking dietary fiber, gut microbiota and colon cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Lazarova, Darina L; Bordonaro, Michael

    2014-02-15

    Many epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that dietary fiber plays an important role in colon cancer prevention. These findings may relate to the ability of fiber to reduce the contact time of carcinogens within the intestinal lumen and to promote healthy gut microbiota, which modifies the host's metabolism in various ways. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which dietary fiber-dependent changes in gut microbiota enhance bile acid deconjugation, produce short chain fatty acids, and modulate inflammatory bioactive substances can lead to a better understanding of the beneficial role of dietary fiber. This article reviews the current knowledge concerning the mechanisms via which dietary fiber protects against colon cancer.

  12. Contextual Factors in Adolescent Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhauser, Mark; And Others

    Research on adolescent substance use has focused on prevalence and incidence; however, contextual factors have been largely ignored. A survey of 155 adolescents from a Minneapolis suburb was conducted to assess contextual factors affecting adolescent substance use. Subjects reported their use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marihuana with respect to…

  13. Medicines, excipients and dietary intolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Medicinal products contain not only active drugs but also other ingredients included for a variety of purposes and collectively known as excipients.(1) People who wish to avoid a specific substance because of an allergy or intolerance may ask a healthcare professional about the constituents of a medicine and whether an alternative is available. In a previous article we discussed the issues facing people who wish to avoid certain substances for religious or cultural reasons.(2) Here, we provide an overview of several dietary conditions and the pharmaceutical issues that need to be considered by healthcare professionals advising on the suitability of a medicine. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Dietary oxidized poultry offal fat: broiler performance and oxidative stability of thigh meat during chilled storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMC Racanicci

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary oxidized poultry offal fat on the performance of broilers and on the oxidative stability of dark chicken meat. One hundred and sixty male chicks were fed a corn-soybean meal diet containing 4% fresh or oxidized poultry fat from 10 to 47 days of age. Fresh fat was stored frozen until diets were produced, and oxidized fat was obtained by electrical heating (110 to 120 ºC. Birds were slaughtered at 47 days of age, and carcass characteristics were measured. Skinless and deboned thigh meat was stored chilled during 12 days, and samples were periodically collected to assess their quality and oxidative stability. Dietary oxidized fat did not affect bird performance or carcass characteristics. During chilled storage, meat color (L*, a* and b* was not affected by dietary treatments; however, TBARS (Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances values were higher (P<0.05 in thigh meat from chickens fed the oxidized fat, indicating that oxidative stability was adversely affected.

  15. Glycaemic and insulinemic response to dietary carbohydrates in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøkner, Christine; Austbø, Dag; Næsset, Jon A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dietary sugar and starch affect plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. Little information is available about the effect of dietary fibre on plasma glucose and insulin concentration. It is hypothesized that different dietary fibre compositions will alter post-prandial glycaemic- an...

  16. TSCA Chemical Substance Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Section 8 (b) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requires EPA to compile, keep current, and publish a list of each chemical substance that is manufactured or processed in the United States for TSCA uses.

  17. Effect of dietary vitamin C on the growth performance and innate immunity of juvenile cobia (Rachycentron canadum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qicun; Wang, Ligai; Wang, Hualang; Xie, Fengjun; Wang, Tuo

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin C on growth performance, hematologic parameters and innate immune responses in juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum. Seven practical diets were formulated to contain 0.0 (as the basal diet), 13.6, 27.2, 54.4, 96.6, 193.4 and 386.5 mg ascorbic acid equivalent kg(-1) diet. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of juvenile cobia with initial body weight of 5.5 g in 500-L cylindrical fiberglass tank. The results of 8 weeks feeding trial showed that typical vitamin C-deficient signs such as spinal deformation and body nigrescence were observed in the fish fed the basal diet. Fish fed the basal diet had significantly lower weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and feed efficiency (FE) than those fed the diets supplemented with vitamin C, but no significant differences were observed among diets supplemented with vitamin C. However, survival rate was significantly affected by the dietary vitamin C levels, fish fed the basal diet had lower survival rate than those fed the diets supplemented with vitamin C. The ascorbic acid concentration in liver was correlated positively with the dietary vitamin C levels, however, the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentrations in liver was not significantly affected by the dietary vitamin C levels, although, fish fed the basal diet had the highest TBARS values among all treatments. The activities of serum lysozyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD), alkaline phophatase (AKP) and total immunoglobulin (Ig) were significantly influenced by the dietary vitamin C levels, fish fed the basal diet had lower lysozyme, SOD, AKP and total Ig than those fed diets supplemented with vitamin C. The serum glucose and triglyceride concentrations were significantly affected by the dietary vitamin C levels. Fish fed the basal diet had lower red blood cell and hemoglobin values than those fed the vitamin C supplemented diets. The challenge

  18. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Pregnancy Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuyang; Zhao, Diqi; Mao, Xun; Xia, Yinyin; Baker, Philip N.; Zhang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy will affect the outcomes for the mother and the baby. Many analyses of the relationship between diet and outcome are often based on a single or a few food items or nutrients. However, foods are not consumed in isolation and dietary patterns can be used to assess the whole diet consumed. The use of dietary pattern analysis to understand nutritional intake and pregnancy outcome is becoming more and more popular. Many published studies have showed the association between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. This review examined articles about the relationship between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. As a modifiable factor, dietary patterns may be more applicable to clinical and pregnant health interventions. PMID:27338455

  19. Daily dietary intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    As part of study on ''Reference Asian Man'' to strengthen radiation protection, the data on the dietary consumption patterns of the Asian region were collected. Eight provided dietary data - Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, Philippines, and Viet Nam. Whereas the dietary information from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Pakistan and Viet Nam are preliminary in nature, the dietary information from China, India, Japan and Philippines, on the other hand, is quite substantial. The population of the countries from which sufficient dietary data are available represents more than 2/3 of the population of the Asian region. The details of the individual data available on dietary parameters from different Asian countries are listed below

  20. Dietary Crude Lecithin Increases Systemic Availability of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid with Combined Intake in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Nick; Balvers, Martin; Cansev, Mehmet; Maher, Timothy J; Sijben, John W C; Broersen, Laus M

    2016-07-01

    Crude lecithin, a mixture of mainly phospholipids, potentially helps to increase the systemic availability of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Nevertheless, no clear data exist on the effects of prolonged combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin on RBC and plasma PUFA levels. In the current experiments, levels of DHA and choline, two dietary ingredients that enhance neuronal membrane formation and function, were determined in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) from rats after dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils with and without concomitant dietary supplementation of crude lecithin for 2-3 weeks. The aim was to provide experimental evidence for the hypothesized additive effects of dietary lecithin (not containing any DHA) on top of dietary DHA on PUFA levels in plasma and RBC. Dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils, either as vegetable algae oil or as fish oil, increased DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and total n-3 PUFA, and decreased total omega-6 PUFA levels in plasma and RBC, while dietary lecithin supplementation alone did not affect these levels. However, combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin increased the changes induced by DHA supplementation alone. Animals receiving a lecithin-containing diet also had a higher plasma free choline concentration as compared to controls. In conclusion, dietary DHA-containing oils and crude lecithin have synergistic effects on increasing plasma and RBC n-3 PUFA levels, including DHA and EPA. By increasing the systemic availability of dietary DHA, dietary lecithin may increase the efficacy of DHA supplementation when their intake is combined.

  1. The Effects of Dietary Factors on Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Lawrence J

    2017-05-01

    Evidence supports that multiple dietary factors affect blood pressure (BP). Dietary changes that effectively lower BP are weight loss, reduced sodium intake, increased potassium intake, moderation of alcohol intake, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension-style and vegetarian dietary patterns. In view of the increasing levels of BP in children and adults and the continuing epidemic of BP-related cardiovascular and renal diseases, efforts to reduce BP in both nonhypertensive and hypertensive individuals are warranted. The challenge to health care providers, researchers, government officials, and the general public is developing and implementing clinical and public health strategies that lead to sustained dietary changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dietary fibres in the regulation of appetite and food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mette; Jensen, Morten Møller Georg

    2011-01-01

    of satiety. Particularly the ability of some dietary fibres to increase viscosity of intestinal contents offers numerous opportunities to affect appetite regulation. This may be linked to increased chyme viscosity, as linseed dietary fibre has water holding capacity and intrinsic viscosity which...... it is essential to have an understanding of individual dietary fibre viscosity characteristics. The goal of this paper is to provide a brief overview on the role of dietary fibres in appetite regulation highlighting the importance of viscosity and also include new findings on the role of linseed dietary fibre...... on appetite regulation....

  3. Herbivore-plant interactions: mixed-function oxidases and secondary plant substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattsten, L B; Wilkinson, C F; Eisner, T

    1977-06-17

    The mixed-function oxidases of a polyphagous insect larva (the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania) were found to be induced by a diversity of secondary plant substances. The induction proceeds rapidly and in response to a small quantity of secondary substance. Following induction, the larva is less susceptible to dietary poisoning. It is argued that mixed-function oxidases play a major role in protecting herbivores against chemical stress from secondary plant substances.

  4. Children and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...

  5. The digestion of dietary triacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2004-01-01

    Dietary triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the major lipid components in the human diet and they are carriers of energy as well as important fatty acids. Many factors affect the digestion and absorption of TAGs. Evidence is accumulating that, in addition to the overall fatty acid profile, the TAG......, or one may speculate additionally on the possibilities of modifying the structure of fats to affect their absorption and the distribution of the fatty acids in the body after digestion and uptake. In this review we will summarize diverse aspects of TAG digestion and absorption, as well as the influences...... of the fatty acid composition and the intramolecular structure of dietary TAGs on their digestion and absorption....

  6. Substance use - cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance abuse - cocaine; Drug abuse - cocaine; Drug use - cocaine ... thinking clearly Mood and emotional problems, such as aggressive or violent behavior Restlessness and tremors Sleep problems ...

  7. Substance use - phencyclidine (PCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PCP; Substance abuse - phencyclidine; Drug abuse - phencyclidine; Drug use - phencyclidine ... a result, you may act strangely or become aggressive and violent. PCP's other harmful effects include: It ...

  8. Dietary integration with natural extract in rabbit: effects on growth performances and meat quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Chiapparini

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In many countries of Europe rabbit meat is consumed for its nutritional characteristics, (Dalle Zotte, 2014; Hernández and Gondret, 2006. Since the ban of the use of antibiotic as growth promoter, natural substances have been studied as alternative with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobic and antiviral properties. The aim was to evaluate the effect of a dietary supplementation with natural extract mixture in growing rabbit on growth performances, carcass characteristics and Longissimus lumborum (LL muscle parameters. The trial was performed at the Research Institute for Animal Production (Nitra, Slovak Republic and lasted 42 days. At 35 days of age, 144 New Zealand White rabbits were randomly selected and divided in 3 experimental groups (4 rabbits/cage. The first fed a basal diet, the second (T1 and the third one (T2 received 0.3% and 0.6% of natural extract mixture, containing polyphenols from plants and seaweeds.  Dietary integration with natural extract improve (P<0.05 growth performances (ADG, FI and FC in T1 group. The fatty acid composition of LL muscle was positively affected (P=0.037 by natural extract supplementation with an increase of n-3 FA in T2 group than other treatments. Cholesterol content tended to be lower in T2 group (P=0.082 than T1 and C group (24.8 mg/100g T2 vs 34.6 mg/100g T1 vs 33.2 mg/100g C. Sensory analysis revealed that only the aroma was affected (P<0.05 by dietary treatments. Overall these results highlight that dietary supplementation with natural extract mixture, containing polyphenols from plants and seaweeds enhance growth performances, carcass weight, improving LL muscle nutritional parameters.

  9. Dietary methionine level affects growth performance and hepatic gene expression of GH-IGF system and protein turnover regulators in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed plant protein-based diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolland, Marine; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Holm, Jorgen

    2015-01-01

    The effects of dietary level of methionine were investigated in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed five plant-based diets containing increasing content of crystalline methionine (Met), in a six week growth trial. Changes in the hepatic expression of genes related to i...

  10. Radioactive Substances Act 1948

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1948-01-01

    This Act regulates the use of radioactive substances and radiation producing devices in the United Kingdom. It provides for the control of import, export, sale, supply etc. of such substances and devices and lays down the safety regulations to be complied with when dealing with them. (NEA) [fr

  11. Transport of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  12. A Review of Plant Growth Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Agboola

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth substances are compounds, either natural or synthetic that modifies or controls through physiological action, the growth and maturation of plants. If the compound is produced within the plant, it is called a plant hormone or phytohormone. In general, it is accepted that there are five major classes of plant hormones. They are Auxins (IAA, Cytokinins, Gibberellins, Ethylene and Abscisic Acid. However, there are still many plant growth substances that cannot be grouped under these classes, though they also perform similar functions, inhibiting or promoting plant growth. These substances include Brassinosteroids (Brassins, Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid, Fusicoccin, Batasins, Strigolactones, Growth stimulants (e.g. Hymexazol and Pyripropanol, Defoliants (e.g. Calcium Cyanamide, Dimethipin. Researchers are still working on the biosynthetic pathways of some of these substances. Plant growth substances are very useful in agriculture in both low and high concentrations. They affect seed growth, time of flowering, the sex of flowers, senescence of leaves and fruits, leaf formation, stem growth, fruit development and ripening, plant longevity, and even plant death. Some synthetic regulators are also used as herbicides and pesticides. Therefore, attention should be paid to the production and synthesis of these substances so that they affect plants in a way that would favour yield.

  13. Dietary fats and prevention of type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Risérus, Ulf; Willett, Walter C.; Hu, Frank B.

    2008-01-01

    Although type 2 diabetes is determined primarily by lifestyle and genes, dietary composition may affect both its development and complications. Dietary fat is of particular interest because fatty acids influence glucose metabolism by altering cell membrane function, enzyme activity, insulin signaling, and gene expression. This paper focuses on the prevention of type 2 diabetes and summarizes the epidemiologic literature on associations between types of dietary fat and diabetes risk. It also s...

  14. Substance misuse in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracey, M

    1998-01-01

    Australia's Aborigines lived in isolation from the rest of humanity as successful hunter-gatherers for tens of thousands of years. That isolation ended abruptly with British colonization in the late 18th century and was followed by a traumatic 200 years for Aborigines who are now seriously disadvantaged, socio-economically and in terms of their health standards. It has often been assumed that the Aborigines had no access to psychotropic substances before permanent European contact but several pieces of evidence dispute this view. The history of Aboriginal contact with and usage of intoxicating substances, including alcohol, is extremely complex and affected by a maze of restrictive government policies. These interact with a wide range of other Federal and State policies which have changed rapidly since the late 1960s when Aborigines were first granted the franchise; access to unrestricted drinking followed soon afterwards. Today Aborigines suffer disproportionately to other Australians from the physical and social consequences of excess alcohol consumption, tobacco usage, petrol and other solvent sniffing, usage of marijuana, amphetamines, cocaine and heroin, as well as other drugs. The Aboriginal population is dispersed in cities, towns, fringe settlements, rural and remote areas over this vast continent and there are different patterns of drug usage from place to place. This review attempts to synthesize some of this information in order to give an overview to the history, background, current status of substance misuse by Aborigines as well as some strategies being used to try to overcome this serious problem.

  15. Pricing hazardous substance emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staring, Knut; Vennemo, Haakon

    1998-12-31

    This report discusses pricing of emissions to air of several harmful substances. It combines ranking indices for environmentally harmful substances with economic valuation data to yield price estimates. The ranking methods are discussed and a relative index established. Given the relative ranking of the substances, they all become valued by assigning a value to one of them, the `anchor` substance, for which lead is selected. Valuations are provided for 19 hazardous substances that are often subject to environmental regulations. They include dioxins, TBT, etc. The study concludes with a discussion of other categories of substances as well as uncertainties and possible refinements. When the valuations are related to CO, NOx, SOx and PM 10, the index system undervalues these pollutants as compared to other studies. The scope is limited to the outdoor environment and does not include global warming and eutrophication. The indices are based on toxicity and so do not apply to CO{sub 2} or other substances that are biologically harmless. The index values are not necessarily valid for all countries and should be considered as preliminary. 18 refs., 6 tabs.

  16. Pricing hazardous substance emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staring, Knut; Vennemo, Haakon

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses pricing of emissions to air of several harmful substances. It combines ranking indices for environmentally harmful substances with economic valuation data to yield price estimates. The ranking methods are discussed and a relative index established. Given the relative ranking of the substances, they all become valued by assigning a value to one of them, the `anchor` substance, for which lead is selected. Valuations are provided for 19 hazardous substances that are often subject to environmental regulations. They include dioxins, TBT, etc. The study concludes with a discussion of other categories of substances as well as uncertainties and possible refinements. When the valuations are related to CO, NOx, SOx and PM 10, the index system undervalues these pollutants as compared to other studies. The scope is limited to the outdoor environment and does not include global warming and eutrophication. The indices are based on toxicity and so do not apply to CO{sub 2} or other substances that are biologically harmless. The index values are not necessarily valid for all countries and should be considered as preliminary. 18 refs., 6 tabs.

  17. Dietary inadequacy in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquin, C G; Hernandez, M I; Hernandez, B M; Mancia, I Y

    1992-01-01

    Researchers conducted a dietary survey of 59 households selected at random in the marginal community of Peralta in San Salvador, El Salvador to ascertain nutritional needs of the families and identify factors which affect intrafamilial distribution and consumption of food. A nutritionist weighed all the food consumed by each family member in 1 day. 50% of the family members consumed just grain, sugar, oil, and/or beans. 93% of the people ate 90% of the required quantity of vitamin A. 88% ate inadequate amounts of riboflavin, 77% iron, and 40% protein. Moreover 58% of the households spent 61-100% of their income on food. No association occurred between caloric sufficiency and family size and between age and dietary adequacy. Therefore each family evenly distributed food among family members. Further poorer families consumed less food than the families of the higher socioeconomic group.

  18. [Immunotoxicity and environmental substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshima, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    A well functioning immune system is essential in maintaining integrity of the organism, and malfunction may have severe health consequences. Environmental substances may pose direct toxicity to components of the immune system, often leading to immunosuppression and resulting reduced resistance to infections and tumors. Alternatively, such substances may be recognized by the immune system in a specific fashion, which may result in allergy and autoimmunity. A proper risk assessment of environmental substances in terms of immunotoxicity is necessary. In this manuscript, I reviewed recent three topics about immunotoxicity: (1) IPCS/WHO Guidance for immunotoxicity risk assessment for chemicals, (2) Intestinal immunotoxicity, and (3) Epicutaneous sensitization of food proteins.

  19. Carcinogenic Substances Naturrally Occuring in the Human Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogos Viorel T.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Oncogenesis is a result of the combined action of numerous factors peculiar to the body and the environment (the latter are more effective. Among dietary factors directly implied in the occurrence of malignant tumors we can mention: food additives, contaminated food, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrosamines and some components which are naturally present in food. Moreover, food-related malignancies are a consequence of the increased consumption of fats, proteins, alcohol in parallel with decreases in the consumption of dietary fibers and some micronutrients. Carcinogenic substances naturally present in food are of a particular interest for both nutritionist’s and patient’s, usually not being perceived as being harmful.

  20. Stroke And Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Chitsaz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: stroke in recreational substance users can be an indirect complication, like endocarditis and cardio embolism in parenteral drug users. With some drug like cocaine, stroke appear to be the result of a direct effect. In young subjects without other risk factors provide persuasive evidence for causality . OPIATES: Heroine is the most abused opiate drug, which is administered by injection, by snorting or by smoking. Stroke affects heroin users by diverse mechanisms,. Injectors are at risk of infections endocarditis, which carries risk for both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Cerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage usually occurs after rupture of a septic (mycotic aneurysm. Heroine users can are also at risk for hemorrhagic stroke secondary to liver failure with deranged clotting and to heroin nephropathy with uremia or malignant hypertension. In some heroin users the drug it self is directly causal due to vasculitis, hypersensitivity and immunologic changes. Embolization of foreign material to brain due to mixed of heroine with quinine can cause cerebral embolism. AMPHETAMINE AND other psychostimulants: In abuser of amphetamine hemorrhagic stroke can occur, oral, intravenous, nasal, and inhalational routes of administration have been reported. Most were chronic user, but in several patients, stroke followed a first exposure. Some of amphetamine induced intracranial hemorrhages are secondary to acute hypertension, some to cerebral vacuities, and some to a combination of two. Decongestants and diet pills: Phenylpropanolamine (PPA, an amphetamine – like drug, in decongestants and diet pills, induce acute hypertension, sever headache, psychiatric symptoms, seizures and hemorrhagic stroke. Ephedrine and pseudo ephedrine are present in decongestants and bronchodilators and induce headache, tachyarrhythmia, hypertensive emergency, and hemorrhagic and occlusive stroke. Ecstasy, 3,4 Methylenedioxymethamphetamin (MDMA with amphetamine like can

  1. Demographic, reproductive, and dietary determinants of perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentrations in human colostrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jusko, T.A.; Oktapodas, M.; Palkovičová Murinová, L.; Babjaková, J.; Verner, M.A.; DeWitt, J.C.; Babinská, K.; Thevenet-Morrison, K.; Čonka, K.; Drobná, B.; Thurston, S.W.; Lawrence, B.P.; Dozier, A.M.; Jarvinen-Seppo, K.M.; Patayová, H.; Trnovec, T.; Legler, J.; Hertz-Picciotto, I.; Lamoree, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    To determine demographic, reproductive, and maternal dietary factors that predict perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) concentrations in breast milk, we measured perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentrations, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, in 184

  2. EFFECT OF SUBSTANCE (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OF HEALTH OFFICER AND MEDICAL STUDENTS OF JIMMA. UNIVERSITY ... cannabis or marihuana and khat (2, 3). Reports showed that these substances ... mainly through cancer especially lung cancer, of which about 90% of cases are ...

  3. Toxic substances handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, T. L.

    1979-01-01

    Handbook, published in conjunction with Toxic Substances Alert Program at NASA Lewis Research Center, profiles 187 toxic chemicals in their relatively pure states and include 27 known or suspected carcinogens.

  4. Toxic substances alert program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    A toxicity profile is provided, of 187 toxic substances procured by NASA Lewis Research Center during a 3 1/2 year period, including 27 known or suspected carcinogens. The goal of the program is to assure that the center's health and safety personnel are aware of the procurement and use of toxic substances and to alert and inform the users of these materials as to the toxic characteristics and the control measures needed to ensure their safe use. The program also provides a continuing record of the toxic substances procured, who procured them, what other toxic substances the user has obtained in the past, and where similar materials have been used elsewhere at the center.

  5. Illness perceptions of addiction and substance use patterns among psychology students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayu, A.P.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Pinxten, W.J.L.; Schellekens, A.F.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Negative attitudes towards patients with substance use disorders (SUDs) are common among psychologists. Perceptions of addiction might affect professionals’ attitudes towards patients. Personal substance use is associated with perceptions. Objective: To explore perceptions of addiction

  6. The role of biotransformation in dietary (anti)carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, M.L.P.S. van; Verhagen, H.; Bladeren, P.J. van

    1999-01-01

    The fact that dietary compounds influence the susceptibility of human beings to cancer, is widely accepted. One of the possible mechanisms that is responsible for these (anti)carcinogenic effects is that dietary constituents may modulate biotransformation enzymes, thereby affecting the

  7. Prenatal Maternal Substance Use and Offspring Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from both human and preclinical studies seems to indicate that maternal smoking, alcohol drinking, or other drug use during pregnancy can affect offspring outcomes. It also suggests that maternal substance use during pregnancy is a major preventable cause of adverse infant outcomes.

  8. Sociodemographic and substance use correlates of repeated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... Substance abuse affects above 50 million people worldwide. Abuse of legally ... use alcohol while 57% of the male and 10.8% of the female drug users ..... the contradictions of addiction. Behav and Brain Sc. 1996; 19: 561-74.

  9. Dietary supplements and team-sport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David

    2010-12-01

    A well designed diet is the foundation upon which optimal training and performance can be developed. However, as long as competitive sports have existed, athletes have attempted to improve their performance by ingesting a variety of substances. This practice has given rise to a multi-billion-dollar industry that aggressively markets its products as performance enhancing, often without objective, scientific evidence to support such claims. While a number of excellent reviews have evaluated the performance-enhancing effects of most dietary supplements, less attention has been paid to the performance-enhancing claims of dietary supplements in the context of team-sport performance. Dietary supplements that enhance some types of athletic performance may not necessarily enhance team-sport performance (and vice versa). Thus, the first aim of this review is to critically evaluate the ergogenic value of the most common dietary supplements used by team-sport athletes. The term dietary supplements will be used in this review and is defined as any product taken by the mouth, in addition to common foods, that has been proposed to have a performance-enhancing effect; this review will only discuss substances that are not currently banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Evidence is emerging to support the performance-enhancing claims of some, but not all, dietary supplements that have been proposed to improve team-sport-related performance. For example, there is good evidence that caffeine can improve single-sprint performance, while caffeine, creatine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have all been demonstrated to improve multiple-sprint performance. The evidence is not so strong for the performance-enhancing benefits of β-alanine or colostrum. Current evidence does not support the ingestion of ribose, branched-chain amino acids or β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, especially in well trained athletes. More research on the performance-enhancing effects of the dietary supplements

  10. An analysis of the composition of gain and growth of primal cuts of Iberian pigs of 10 to 150 kg body weight as affected by the level of feeding and dietary protein concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Nieto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A meta-analysis was made of data from a total of 211 growing-finishing Iberian (IB pigs from four separate and independent sets of trials. Within each set of trials, a factorial arrangement of treatments was used, involving several concentrations of ideal protein in the diets and two or three levels of feed intake. Pigs were slaughtered at several stages of growth from 10 to 150 kg body weight (BW. The partition of dietary protein in the body of the pigs, the empty-body gain (EBG, the chemical composition of EBG, growth of primal cuts in the cold eviscerated carcass (without head, feet, and tail, and mass of dissected tissues in trimmed shoulder and ham were determined. Linear regression equations allowed estimating N requirements for maintenance as 175 mg/(kg BW0.75 · kg dry-matter intake · d-1 and an average value for the net efficiency of utilization of the dietary protein apparently absorbed of 0.386. In pigs offered adequate protein to energy diets, EBG was predicted as a function of average BW and feeding level (p<0.001. Multiple regression equations were constructed, which derived nutrient (g kg-1 or energy (MJ kg-1 composition of EBG as a function of empty-body weight (EBW, dietary protein to energy ratio, and level of feeding (p<0.001. These predictive equations, not applicable to pigs of lean and conventional genotypes, can contribute to the design of optimal feeding strategies to improve the efficiency of IB pig production systems and to achieve high quality standards in end products for the market.

  11. Narrative Dietary Counseling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard Jakobsen, Nina; Kaufmann, Lisbeth; Hennesser, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Using cases and empirical data from a research and development project at a Danish prevention center, this study explores whether and how the use of narrative dietary counseling can strengthen dietitians' relationships and collaboration with clients who are chronically ill. The results of the study...... dietary counseling empowered clients and improved relationship building and collaboration between client and dietitian....

  12. Dietary determinants of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly

  13. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The

  14. Issues in Nutrition: Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margaret E; Noel, Mary Barth

    2017-01-01

    The majority of American adults report use of one or more dietary supplements every day or occasionally. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 defines dietary supplements and regulates their manufacture and distribution. One of the most commonly used supplements is vitamin D. Measurement of serum levels of vitamin D must be undertaken with the caveats that different laboratories define normal levels differently, and that there is rarely a clinical correlation with the actual level. Patients should understand that supplements should not be used to excess, as there are toxicities and other adverse effects associated with most of them. There currently is considerable research being performed on probiotics and how the gut microbiome affects health and disease states. Protein supplements may be useful in reducing mortality rates in elderly patients but they do not appear to increase quality of life. If used, protein supplements should contain essential amino acids. Casein and whey supplements, derived from dairy sources, help transport essential amino acids to tissues. Although there have been many studies investigating the role of vitamin supplements in disease prevention, there have been few conclusive positive results. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  15. The Impact of Culinary Skills Training on the Dietary Attitudes and Behaviors of Children and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Brook E.; Smith, Nicole; Pirkey, Paige; Beets, Michael W.; Blake, Christine E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Summer camps can serve as a modality for dietary interventions. However, camp-based strategies that improve dietary behaviors of children are unclear. Poor diet disproportionately affects low-income and minority children, making the examination of camp-based dietary interventions an important focus. Purpose: To assess the impact of a…

  16. The effects of various sources of dietary fibre on cholesterol metabolism and colonic function in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stasse-Wolthuis, M.

    1980-01-01

    This thesis deals with the influence of several types of dietary fibre on cholesterol metabolism and colonic function in young healthy subjects. Dietary fibre has been defined as those plant polysaccharides (cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectic substances) and lignin which are resistant to hydrolysis

  17. Dietary macronutrient recommendations for optimal Dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both resistance and endurance-trained athletes have a higher dietary protein requirement of between 1.2 and 1.8 g protein/kg body weight (BW)/day, with an upper limit of 2 g protein/kg BW/day. To increase the rate of protein synthesis during the recovery period, immediate ingestion of protein postexercise is recommended ...

  18. Survey of Anthropometric Indices Addicts due to the History of Addiction and Substance Abuse in Qom Province, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hozoori

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Substance abuse has significant impact on nutritional status. Due to the increased malnutrition during drug use and withdrawal, this study aimed at assessing the anthropometric indices in individuals referring to drug treatment centers in Qom. Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, 329 addicted individuals referring to addiction centers in Qom were randomly selected. A questionnaire was used with three parts including demographic characteristics, drug abuse history, and anthropometric indices including measurement of height, weight, waist circumference, arm circumference, and skinfold thickness in triceps and calf muscles. Results: The participants consisted of 328 men and only one woman, 29% of whom were in detoxification. The participants' mean age was 39.0 ± 7.1 years. The first and most-frequently used drug was opium. All anthropometric indices were associated with the consumption of opium substances and drug use was associated significantly with some parameters. With the exception of skinfold thickness in the calf, all the indices were affected by the type of consumed substances. The opium addicts had a higher body mass index compared with other drug users. Conclusions: Due to the importance of nutrition status in drug abusers' health and their lack of self-care, careful monitoring and evaluation of dietary intake, as well as nutrition status can play important roles in the rehabilitation of these individuals and help to prevent from reappearance of these habits.

  19. Elimination diets and dietary interventions for the management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food allergy may be the cause of faltering growth in young ... avoidance may affect nutritional status and quality of life. ... regarding safe, cost-effective and freely available substitutes for the ... The recommended feed of choice for the dietary.

  20. Effects of dietary mannanoligosaccharide (Bio-Mos®) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Halis

    Effects of dietary mannanoligosaccharide on performance of Japanese quail affected by ... and can occur as natural contaminants of poultry feeds. Aflatoxins may ..... Detoxification of mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed by microorganisms.

  1. Dietary supplements and disease prevention: a global overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undernutrition and micronutrient malnutrition are prevalent conditions that affect global public health. Dietary supplements are widely used in many developed countries. However, it remains unclear whether supplementation with individual or combined vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients are effe...

  2. Substance abuse in anaesthetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Guasch, Roser; Roigé, Jaume; Padrós, Jaume

    2012-04-01

    Anaesthesiologists have a significantly higher frequency of substance abuse by a factor of nearly 3 when compared with other physicians. This is still a current problem that must be reviewed. Many hypotheses have been formulated to explain why anaesthesiologists appear to be more susceptible to substance abuse than other medical professionals (genetic differences in sensitivity to opioids, stress, the association between chemical dependence and other psychopathology or the second-hand exposure hypothesis). Environmental exposure and sensitization may be an important risk factor in physician addiction. There is a long debate about returning to work for an anaesthetist who has been depending on opioid drugs, and recent debates are discussed. Institutional efforts have been made in many countries and physician health programmes have been developed. As drug abuse among anaesthesiologists has continued, new studies have been conducted to know the theories about susceptibility. Written substance abuse policies and controls must be taken in place and in all countries.

  3. Detection of diffusible substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warembourg, M [Lille-1 Univ., 59 - Villeneuve-d' Ascq (France)

    1976-12-01

    The different steps of a radioautographic technique for the detection of diffusible substances are described. Using this radioautographic method, the topographic distribution of estradiol-concentrating neurons was studied in the nervous system and pituitary of the ovariectomized mouse and guinea-pig. A relatively good morphological preservation of structures can be ascertained on sections from unfixed, unembedded tissues prepared at low temperatures and kept-under relatively low humidity. The translocation or extraction of diffusible substances is avoided by directly mounting of frozen sections on dried photographic emulsion. Since no solvent is used, this technique excludes the major sources of diffusion artifacts and permits to be in favourable conditions for the localization of diffusible substances.

  4. Substance abuse and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussas, G I; Papadopoulou, A G

    2017-01-01

    Substance abuse is a health problem with serious psychological and psychiatric dimensions and multiple social and economic consequences. Cancer is a disease that threatens not only life and physical integrity but mental health as well. Oncology patients suffer from mental disorders in high rates, especially from depression and anxiety. The role of substance abuse in the pathogenesis of cancer is studied systematically, since there are research data supporting the mutagenic effects of certain substances. It has been supported that a possible dysregulation of the immune system is linked to the oncogenic processes induced by substances of abuse. Specifically, opioids are the first addictive substances that have been identified as oncogenic factors. However, conflicting results have been offered by experimental animal studies, which showed that opioids, such as morphine, depending on the dosage administered, may not only enhance the process of tumor growth, but also inhibit it. Additionally, research data indicate that the use of cannabis may be associated with cancer, either as an independent factor or in relation to other mutagenics, although it is not yet clear to which extent these effects may be connected to the disease, especially once the consumption of tobacco and alcohol by these patients are taken into account. However, it has been argued that certain cannabinoids may have biological -anticancer- activities which could be used therapeutically without being accompanied by the corresponding 9-tetrahydrocannabinol psychoactive effects. It is well known that alcohol is a risk factor for developing head and neck cancer, and epidemiological studies indicate that the higher the consumption of alcohol, the more mortality due to cancer increases. In addition, it is suggested that there is no safety level for alcohol consumption regarding the risk of developing cancer; that is even a minimum daily consumption is associated with the occurrence of certain types of cancer

  5. Characteristics and trends of drug and dietary supplement inquiries by college athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Peter J; Tsourounis, Candy; Uryasz, Frank D; Patterson, Eric

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the types of drug and dietary supplement inquiries submitted to the National Center for Drug Free Sport through the Resource Exchange Center (REC). Cross-sectional study. United States, from July 2009 through June 2010. Athletes and athletic personnel associated with the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). Tabulation and classification of drugs and dietary supplement inquiries. Characteristics and trends of drug and dietary supplement inquiries. Inquiries for prescription medications for albuterol inhalers, methylphenidate, amphetamines, and prednisone were the most common using a drug lookup function. The most common inquiries for over-the-counter medications included pseudoephedrine, loratadine, cetirizine, and caffeine. Among dietary supplements, inquiries for amino acids/metabolites, vitamins and minerals, and herbal products occurred most frequently. One dietary supplement, N.O.-Xplode (Bio-Engineered Supplements and Nutrition, Inc.), accounted for the majority of individual dietary supplement inquiries. Banned substances accounted for 30% of all inquiries submitted to the REC and 18% of medications searched in a drug lookup database. Almost 25,000 inquiries were submitted to the REC. Pharmacists can use this information to advise, counsel, and refer NCAA athletes regarding the use of banned and permitted substances. Education programs regarding stimulants, dietary supplements, and the risk of using substances such as animal byproducts are needed, and pharmacists can participate in these programs.

  6. Comprehensive European dietary exposure model (CEDEM) for food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, David R

    2016-05-01

    European methods for assessing dietary exposures to nutrients, additives and other substances in food are limited by the availability of detailed food consumption data for all member states. A proposed comprehensive European dietary exposure model (CEDEM) applies summary data published by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in a deterministic model based on an algorithm from the EFSA intake method for food additives. The proposed approach can predict estimates of food additive exposure provided in previous EFSA scientific opinions that were based on the full European food consumption database.

  7. Neural Circuitry of Impaired Emotion Regulation in Substance Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Claire E; Pommy, Jessica M; Adinoff, Bryon

    2016-04-01

    Impaired emotion regulation contributes to the development and severity of substance use disorders (substance disorders). This review summarizes the literature on alterations in emotion regulation neural circuitry in substance disorders, particularly in relation to disorders of negative affect (without substance disorder), and it presents promising areas of future research. Emotion regulation paradigms during functional magnetic resonance imaging are conceptualized into four dimensions: affect intensity and reactivity, affective modulation, cognitive modulation, and behavioral control. The neural circuitry associated with impaired emotion regulation is compared in individuals with and without substance disorders, with a focus on amygdala, insula, and prefrontal cortex activation and their functional and structural connectivity. Hypoactivation of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (rACC/vmPFC) is the most consistent finding across studies, dimensions, and clinical populations (individuals with and without substance disorders). The same pattern is evident for regions in the cognitive control network (anterior cingulate and dorsal and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices) during cognitive modulation and behavioral control. These congruent findings are possibly related to attenuated functional and/or structural connectivity between the amygdala and insula and between the rACC/vmPFC and cognitive control network. Although increased amygdala and insula activation is associated with impaired emotion regulation in individuals without substance disorders, it is not consistently observed in substance disorders. Emotion regulation disturbances in substance disorders may therefore stem from impairments in prefrontal functioning, rather than excessive reactivity to emotional stimuli. Treatments for emotion regulation in individuals without substance disorders that normalize prefrontal functioning may offer greater efficacy for substance disorders

  8. Overcoming consumer inertia to dietary guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Densie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2015-07-01

    Despite 35 y of dietary guidance, there has been no substantial shift in consumer compliance. Consumers report that they seek information on nutrition and healthy eating, but most are not paying attention to dietary recommendations. For guidance to be effective, it must be realistic. Even with increasingly detailed nutrition information and evidence that diet affects health outcomes, convenience and taste remain the strongest determinants of food choices. It is up to health educators to clear up confusion and give consumers control with nutrition messages that are realistic, positive, easy to understand, and actionable without an expectation that consumers will surrender foods they love. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Overcoming Consumer Inertia to Dietary Guidance12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Densie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Despite 35 y of dietary guidance, there has been no substantial shift in consumer compliance. Consumers report that they seek information on nutrition and healthy eating, but most are not paying attention to dietary recommendations. For guidance to be effective, it must be realistic. Even with increasingly detailed nutrition information and evidence that diet affects health outcomes, convenience and taste remain the strongest determinants of food choices. It is up to health educators to clear up confusion and give consumers control with nutrition messages that are realistic, positive, easy to understand, and actionable without an expectation that consumers will surrender foods they love. PMID:26178023

  10. Dietary shifts and implications for US agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, P

    1995-06-01

    Changes to healthier dietary patterns similar to those of traditional Mediterranean diets or those of the US government's dietary guidelines and food guide pyramid would require significant changes in American agricultural practices. The volume, mix, production, and marketing of agricultural commodities would need to be modified. Because differences between actual and recommended intakes for major food groups are quite large and affect a broad range of products, adjustments in supply and demand could overshadow past experience in dealing with such changes. New food and agriculture policies may well be needed to ease and accelerate agricultural adjustments, to improve nutritional characteristics of popular foods, and to promote desirable changes in consumers' food choices.

  11. Prosocial coping and substance use during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechman, E A; Lowell, E S; Garrett, J

    1999-01-01

    In structured interviews of pregnant inner-city residents, 38 substance users reported more current liking of drugs and polysubstance use, disengagement coping, depressive symptoms, negative affect, and antisocial behavior than did 45 nonusers. During videotaped interviews, trained observers coded less warmth and less prosocial information exchange (e.g., self-disclosure, question asking) among users. Factor analysis of measures of coping and its concomitants yielded a three-factor (prosocial, antisocial, asocial) solution, with asocial and antisocial coping predominating among substance users. These results suggest that coping has emotional, social, and cognitive elements. This study is the first to demonstrate an association between a substance-using lifestyle and limited prosocial information exchange.

  12. Yellow substance (gelbstoff)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, A.

    1988-04-01

    The different values of the mean slope (S) of the absorption coefficient a(λ) of gelbstoff (yellow substance) for each region under the same hydrological conditions and the correlation between the quantity of absorption (CA) of gelbstoff and sea water parameter is discussed. 12 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  13. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  14. Incontinence Treatment: Dietary Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... helpful, please consider supporting IFFGD with a small tax-deductible donation. Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel ... arises requiring an expert’s care. © Copyright 1998-2018 International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, Inc. (IFFGD). All ...

  15. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Primary Mitochondrial Disorders Weight Loss A Acai Aloe Vera Anabolic Steroids Antioxidants (see Exercise and Athletic Performance ) ... Pills (see Weight Loss ) Dietary Supplements Vitamin D E Echinacea Ephedra Essiac/Flor-Essence European Elder Evening ...

  16. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  17. Aversion substance(s) of the rat coagulating glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawienowski, Anthony M.; Berry, Iver J.; Kennelly, James J.

    1982-01-01

    The aversive substance(s) present in adult male urine were not found in castrate rat urine. Removal of the coagulating glands also resulted in a loss of the aversion compounds. The aversion substances were restored to the urine after androgen treatment of the castrate rats.

  18. Effect of dietary incorporation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids rich oil sources on fatty acid profile, keeping quality and sensory attributes of broiler chicken meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Kalakuntla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of dietary replacement of commonly used vegetable oil (sunflower oil, SFO with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA rich oil sources on broiler chicken performance, carcass yield, meat fatty acid composition, keeping quality and sensory attributes of meat. In the current experiment, 300 day-old Krishibro broiler chicks were randomly distributed to 5 dietary groups (50 replicates with 6 chicks in each prepared by replacing SFO (2% and 3% of diet during starter and finisher periods, respectively with n-3 PUFA rich soybean oil (SO, mustard oil (MO, linseed oil (LO or fish oil (FO on weight basis. Variation in oil sources had no influence (P > 0.05 on performance and carcass yield. Supplementation of MO, LO or FO significantly (P < 0.01 increased the n-3 PUFA, lowered the n-6 PUFA deposition and n-6:n-3 ratio in breast and thigh without affecting the organoleptic characters (appearance, flavour, juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability of meat. However, thiobarbituric acid reacting substances concentration in meat was increased (P < 0.01 with LO and FO supplementation compared with SFO. It is concluded that, dietary incorporation of MO, LO or FO at 2% and 3% levels during starter and finisher phase can enrich broiler chicken meat with n-3 PUFA without affecting the bird's performance and sensory characters of meat.

  19. Dietary broccoli sprouts protect against myocardial oxidative damage and cell death during ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Masoumeh; Bandy, Brian

    2010-09-01

    Cruciferous vegetables are known for antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic effects. In the current study we asked whether dietary broccoli sprouts can protect the heart from ischemia-reperfusion. Rats were fed either control diet (sham and control groups) or a diet mixed with 2% dried broccoli sprouts for 10 days. After 10 days the isolated hearts were subjected to ischemia for 20 min and reperfusion for 2 h, and evaluated for cell death, oxidative damage, and Nrf2-regulated phase 2 enzyme activities. Broccoli sprouts feeding inhibited markers of necrosis (lactate dehydrogenase release) and apoptosis (caspase-3 activity) by 78-86%, and decreased indices of oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and aconitase inactivation) by 82-116%. While broccoli sprouts increased total glutathione and activities of the phase 2 enzymes glutamate cysteine ligase and quinone reductase in liver, they did not affect these in ischemic-reperfused heart. While the mechanism is not clear, the results show that a relatively short dietary treatment with broccoli sprouts can strongly protect the heart against oxidative stress and cell death caused by ischemia-reperfusion.

  20. Are Dietary Intakes Related to Obesity in Children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Papandreou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The purpose of this study was to report obesity status and identify any dietary substances that may be related to obesity in healthy school children from Northern Greece. METHODS: Four hundred and twenty-five (n = 425 children were randomly selected to participate in the study. A 24-h recall of three days (two weekdays and one weekend day was used to analyze the dietary data of the subjects. RESULTS: Out of 425 subjects, 146 (34.3% of them were found to be overweight and obese. Energy, protein, carbohydrate and thiamin intake was statistically positively correlated with obesity while dietary iron intake was statistically negatively correlated with obesity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the children with dietary iron deficiency were 1.128 (95% CI: 0.002, 0.161 P < 0.031 times more likely of being obese compared to the normal group after adjustment for energy intake. CONCLUSIONS: Although most of the dietary intakes of our subjects were adequate, special consideration should be given to energy, carbohydrate, protein, and sugar and iron intake especially and its relation to obesity. Furthermore, additional studies are required to investigate any possible relation of low dietary iron consumption and obesity.

  1. Toxic Substances Control Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  2. Dietary fibres in the regulation of appetite and food intake. Importance of viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Mette; Jensen, Morten Georg

    2011-02-01

    Dietary fibres have many functions in the diet, one of which may be to promote control of energy intake and reduce the risk of developing obesity. This is linked to the unique physico-chemical properties of dietary fibres which aid early signalling of satiation and prolonged or enhanced sensation of satiety. Particularly the ability of some dietary fibres to increase viscosity of intestinal contents offers numerous opportunities to affect appetite regulation. Few papers on the satiating effect of dietary fibres include information on the physico-chemical characteristics of the dietary fibres being tested, including molecular weight and viscosity. For viscosity to serve as a proxy for soluble dietary fibres it is essential to have an understanding of individual dietary fibre viscosity characteristics. The goal of this paper is to provide a brief overview on the role of dietary fibres in appetite regulation highlighting the importance of viscosity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Adolescent Suicidal Behavior and Substance Use: Developmental Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald M. Dougherty

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent suicidal behaviors and substance use are disturbingly common. Research suggests overlap of some of the etiological mechanisms for both adolescent suicidal behavior and substance use, yet clear understanding of the complex relations between these behaviors and their causal underpinnings is lacking. A growing body of evidence and a diathesis model (Mann et al. 1999; Mann, 2003 highlight the importance of impulse control as a proximal risk factor for adolescent suicidal and substance use behaviors. This literature review extends current theory on the relationships between adolescent suicidal behavior and substance use by: (1 examining how, when, and to what extent adolescent development is affected by poor impulse control, stressful life events, substance use behavior, and biological factors; (2 presenting proposed causal mechanisms by which these risk factors interact to increase risk for suicidal behaviors and substance use; and (3 proposing specific new hypotheses to extend the diathesis model to adolescents at risk for suicide and substance use. More specifically, new hypotheses are presented that predict bidirectional relationships between stressful life events and genetic markers of 5-HT dysregulation; substance use behavior and impulsivity; and substance use behavior and suicide attempts. The importance of distinguishing between different developmental trajectories of suicidal and substance use behaviors, and the effects of specific risk and protective mechanisms are discussed. Use of new statistical approaches that provide for the comparison of latent growth curves and latent class models is recommended to identify differences in developmental trajectories of suicidal behavior and substance use. Knowledge gained from these prospective longitudinal methods should lead to greater understanding on the timing, duration, and extent to which specific risk and protective factors influence the outcomes of suicidal behavior and substance

  4. FDA 101: Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to get the agency's approval before producing or selling these products. It is not legal to market ... when used in combination with certain other drugs, substances, or foods. Do not self-diagnose any health ...

  5. Dietary Neurotransmitters: A Narrative Review on Current Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Briguglio

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Foods are natural sources of substances that may exert crucial effects on the nervous system in humans. Some of these substances are the neurotransmitters (NTs acetylcholine (ACh, the modified amino acids glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, and the biogenic amines dopamine, serotonin (5-HT, and histamine. In neuropsychiatry, progressive integration of dietary approaches in clinical routine made it necessary to discern the more about some of these dietary NTs. Relevant books and literature from PubMed and Scopus databases were searched for data on food sources of Ach, glutamate, GABA, dopamine, 5-HT, and histamine. Different animal foods, fruits, edible plants, roots, and botanicals were reported to contain NTs. These substances can either be naturally present, as part of essential metabolic processes and ecological interactions, or derive from controlled/uncontrolled food technology processes. Ripening time, methods of preservation and cooking, and microbial activity further contributes to NTs. Moreover, gut microbiota are considerable sources of NTs. However, the significance of dietary NTs intake needs to be further investigated as there are no significant data on their bioavailability, neuronal/non neuronal effects, or clinical implications. Evidence-based interventions studies should be encouraged.

  6. Affects and Affect Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    MONSEN, JON T.; EILERTSEN, DAG ERIK; MELGÅRD, TROND; ØDEGÅRD, PÅL

    1996-01-01

    Affect consciousness (AC) was operationalized as degrees of awareness, tolerance, nonverbal expression, and conceptual expression of nine specific affects. A semistructured interview (ACI) and separate scales were developed to assess these aspects of affect integration. Their psychometric properties were preliminarily explored by having 20 former psychiatric outpatients complete the interview. Concurrent validity was assessed by using DSM-III-R Axis I and II diagnoses, the Health-Sickness Rating Scale, SCL-90-R, and several indexes from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Satisfactory interrater reliability and high levels of internal consistency supported the construct validity of the measure. Results suggest the most meaningful use of this instrument is in measuring specific affect and overall AC. Clinically, the ACI has provided highly specific and relevant qualitative data for use in planning psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:22700292

  7. Dietary ecology of human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minagawa, Masao

    1990-01-01

    The dietary life of humans varies with the environment where they live and has been changing with time. It has become possible to examine such changes by using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition as a chemical tool. The present report outlines recent developments in the application of this tool and compares the dietary ecologies of various human groups from the viewpoint of isotope geochemistry. The history of the application of this tool to dietary analysis is summarized first, and features of the carbon and nitrogen isotope composition in animals and their relations with the food chain are outlined. The dietary ecology of the current people is then discussed in relation to the isotope composition in food, the isotope composition in hair of the current people, and determination of food habit of specific groups of people from such isotope compositions. For prediction of dietary composition, the report presents a flow chart for an algorism which is based on the Monte Carlo method. It also outlines processes for analyzing food habits of people in the prehistoric age, focusing on distribution of isotope composition in humans over the world. (N.K.)

  8. Anemia in postmenopausal women: dietary inadequacy or non-dietary factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postmenopausal women are disproportionately affected by anemia, and the prevalence in females > 65 years of age in the United States is approximately 10%. The manifestation of anemia in older populations is associated with dietary inadequacy, blood loss, genetics, alterations in bioavailability, ren...

  9. Substance use in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Suzanne; Ordean, Alice; Kahan, Meldon

    2011-04-01

    To improve awareness and knowledge of problematic substance use in pregnancy and to provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of this challenging clinical issue for all health care providers. This guideline reviews the use of screening tools, general approach to care, and recommendations for clinical management of problematic substance use in pregnancy. Evidence-based recommendations for screening and management of problematic substance use during pregnancy and lactation. Medline, PubMed, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library were searched for articles published from 1950 using the following key words: substance-related disorders, mass screening, pregnancy complications, pregnancy, prenatal care, cocaine, cannabis, methadone, opioid, tobacco, nicotine, solvents, hallucinogens, and amphetamines. Results were initially restricted to systematic reviews and randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials. A subsequent search for observational studies was also conducted because there are few RCTs in this field of study. Articles were restricted to human studies published in English. Additional articles were located by hand searching through article reference lists. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline up to December 2009. Grey (unpublished) literature was also identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on the Preventive Health Care. Recommendations for practice were ranked according to the method described in that report (Table 1). This guideline is intended to increase the knowledge and comfort level of health care providers caring for pregnant women who have substance use disorders. Improved access to

  10. Perfluorinated alkylated substances in vegetables collected in four European countries; raw and processed products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herzke, D.; Huber, S.; Bervoets, L.; D'Hollander, W.; Hajslova, J.; Pulkrabova, J.; Brambilla, G.; De Filippis, S.P.; Klenow, S.; Heinemeyer, G.; de Voogt, P.

    2013-01-01

    The human diet is recognised as one possible major exposure route to the overall perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS) burden of the human population, resulting directly from contamination of dietary food items, as well as migration of PFAS from food packaging or cookware. Most European

  11. Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in home and commercially produced chicken eggs from the Netherlands and Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Costopoulou, Danae; Vassiliadou, Irene; Leondiadis, Leondios; Dassenakis, Emmanouil; Hoogenboom, R.L.A.P.; Leeuwen, van S.P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary intake is a major route of human exposure to perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs). However, the available information on PFAS levels in food, including chicken eggs, is limited. In the present study, home produced and commercially produced eggs (organic, battery and free range eggs) were

  12. Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Zhi Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients who undergo surgery appear to use dietary supplements significantly more frequently than the general population. Because they contain pharmacologically active compounds, dietary supplements may affect coagulation and platelet function during the perioperative period through direct effects, pharmacodynamic interactions, and pharmacokinetic interactions. However, in this regard, limited studies have been conducted that address the pharmacological interactions of dietary supplements. To avoid possible bleeding risks during surgery, information about the potential complications of dietary supplements during perioperative management is important for physicians. Methods: Through a systematic database search of all available years, articles were identified in this review if they included dietary supplements and coagulation/platelet function, while special attention was paid to studies published after 1990. Results: Safety concerns are reported in commercially available dietary supplements. Effects of the most commonly used natural products on blood coagulation and platelet function are systematically reviewed, including 11 herbal medicines (echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and valerian and four other dietary supplements (coenzyme Q10, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, fish oil, and vitamins. Bleeding risks of garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and fish oil are reported. Cardiovascular instability was observed with ephedra, ginseng, and kava. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary supplements and drugs used in the perioperative period are discussed. Conclusions: To prevent potential problems associated with the use of dietary supplements, physicians should be familiar with the perioperative effects of commonly used dietary supplements. Since the effects of dietary supplements on coagulation and platelet

  13. Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Moss, Jonathan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients who undergo surgery appear to use dietary supplements significantly more frequently than the general population. Because they contain pharmacologically active compounds, dietary supplements may affect coagulation and platelet function during the perioperative period through direct effects, pharmacodynamic interactions, and pharmacokinetic interactions. However, in this regard, limited studies have been conducted that address the pharmacological interactions of dietary supplements. To avoid possible bleeding risks during surgery, information about the potential complications of dietary supplements during perioperative management is important for physicians. Methods Through a systematic database search of all available years, articles were identified in this review if they included dietary supplements and coagulation/platelet function, while special attention was paid to studies published after 1990. Results Safety concerns are reported in commercially available dietary supplements. Effects of the most commonly used natural products on blood coagulation and platelet function are systematically reviewed, including 11 herbal medicines (echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and valerian) and four other dietary supplements (coenzyme Q10, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, fish oil, and vitamins). Bleeding risks of garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and fish oil are reported. Cardiovascular instability was observed with ephedra, ginseng, and kava. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary supplements and drugs used in the perioperative period are discussed. Conclusions To prevent potential problems associated with the use of dietary supplements, physicians should be familiar with the perioperative effects of commonly used dietary supplements. Since the effects of dietary supplements on coagulation and platelet function are

  14. Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Moss, Jonathan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2015-09-01

    Patients who undergo surgery appear to use dietary supplements significantly more frequently than the general population. Because they contain pharmacologically active compounds, dietary supplements may affect coagulation and platelet function during the perioperative period through direct effects, pharmacodynamic interactions, and pharmacokinetic interactions. However, in this regard, limited studies have been conducted that address the pharmacological interactions of dietary supplements. To avoid possible bleeding risks during surgery, information of potential complications of dietary supplements during perioperative management is important for physicians. Through a systematic database search of all available years, articles were identified in this review if they included dietary supplements and coagulation/platelet function, while special attention was paid to studies published after 1990. Safety concerns are reported in commercially available dietary supplements. Effects of the most commonly used natural products on blood coagulation and platelet function are systematically reviewed, including 11 herbal medicines (echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, St John's wort, and valerian) and 4 other dietary supplements (coenzyme Q 10 , glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, fish oil, and vitamins). Bleeding risks of garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, saw palmetto, St John's wort, and fish oil are reported. Cardiovascular instability was observed with ephedra, ginseng, and kava. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary supplements and drugs used in the perioperative period are discussed. To prevent potential problems associated with the use of dietary supplements, physicians should be familiar with the perioperative effects of commonly used dietary supplements. Since the effects of dietary supplements on coagulation and platelet function are difficult to predict, it is prudent to advise their

  15. Dietary antioxidants and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott K; DeRuisseau, Keith C; Quindry, John; Hamilton, Karyn L

    2004-01-01

    Muscular exercise promotes the production of radicals and other reactive oxygen species in the working muscle. Growing evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species are responsible for exercise-induced protein oxidation and contribute to muscle fatigue. To protect against exercise-induced oxidative injury, muscle cells contain complex endogenous cellular defence mechanisms (enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants) to eliminate reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, exogenous dietary antioxidants interact with endogenous antioxidants to form a cooperative network of cellular antioxidants. Knowledge that exercise-induced oxidant formation can contribute to muscle fatigue has resulted in numerous investigations examining the effects of antioxidant supplementation on human exercise performance. To date, there is limited evidence that dietary supplementation with antioxidants will improve human performance. Furthermore, it is currently unclear whether regular vigorous exercise increases the need for dietary intake of antioxidants. Clearly, additional research that analyses the antioxidant requirements of individual athletes is needed.

  16. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    A healthy diet is essential for healthy growth and development during childhood and may prevent obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases throughout life. Traditionally, diet has been investigated as single nutrients. However, people do not eat one single nutrient and they do not even eat one...... single food. People consume meals and these meals vary during a day, over a year and during a life time. To comprehend some of this complexity it could be advantageous to investigate dietary patterns representing the whole diet as patterns might be better markers of growth and health than single...... childhood. These associations might contribute to the identification of families, who would benefit from guidance to help them establish healthy dietary patterns for their infants. Finding tracking for some infants and changes in adherence to dietary patterns for others as well as the association between...

  17. Dietary hyperthyroidism in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, B; Stengel, C; Neiger, R

    2012-03-01

    Evaluation of dogs with elevated plasma thyroxine concentration fed raw food before and after changing the diet. Between 2006 and 2011 all dogs presented with an elevated plasma thyroxine concentration and a dietary history of feeding raw food were included. Thyroxine (reference interval: 19·3 to 51·5 nmol/L) and in many cases also thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations (reference interval: weight loss, aggressiveness, tachycardia, panting and restlessness while six dogs had no clinical signs. After changing the diet eight dogs were examined: thyroxine concentration normalised in all dogs and clinical signs resolved. Dietary hyperthyroidism can be seen in dogs on a raw meat diet or fed fresh or dried gullets. Increased plasma thyroxine concentration in a dog, either with or without signs of hyperthyroidism, should prompt the veterinarian to obtain a thorough dietary history. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  18. Dietary Reference Values for choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for choline. In this Opinion, the Panel considers dietary choline including choline compounds (e.g. glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine...

  19. Lichen substances prevent lichens from nutrient deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Markus; Willenbruch, Karen; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    The dibenzofuran usnic acid, a widespread cortical secondary metabolite produced by lichen-forming fungi, was shown to promote the intracellular uptake of Cu(2+) in two epiphytic lichens, Evernia mesomorpha and Ramalina menziesii, from acidic, nutrient-poor bark. Higher Cu(2+) uptake in the former, which produces the depside divaricatic acid in addition to usnic acid, suggests that this depside promotes Cu(2+) uptake. Since Cu(2+) is one of the rarest micronutrients, promotion of Cu(2+) uptake by lichen substances may be crucial for the studied lichens to survive in their nutrient-poor habitats. In contrast, study of the uptake of other metals in E. mesomorpha revealed that the intracellular uptake of Mn(2+), which regularly exceeds potentially toxic concentrations in leachates of acidic tree bark, was partially inhibited by the lichen substances produced by this species. Inhibition of Mn(2+) uptake by lichen substances previously has been demonstrated in lichens. The uptake of Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+), which fail to reach toxic concentrations in acidic bark at unpolluted sites, although they are more common than Cu(2+), was not affected by lichen substances of E. mesomorpha.

  20. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tayyem, Reema F.; Bawadi, Hiba A.; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M.; AbuMweis, Suhad S.; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Bani-Hani, Kamal E.; Heath, Dennis D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background & aimsDietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of action of dietary factors in CRC disease is unclear. The aim of this study is the examination of several dietary choices and their potential association with the risk of developing CRC. MethodsDietary data was collected from 220 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 281 control subjects (matched by age, g...

  1. Psychiatric comorbidity and acculturation stress among Puerto Rican substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Kevin P; Swendsen, Joel D; Dierker, Lisa; Canino, Glorisa; Merikangas, Kathleen R

    2007-06-01

    Although acculturation to the United States has been associated with an increase in substance, mood, and anxiety disorders in Latino populations, few studies have examined this concept relative to comorbidity among these syndromes. This study compares the prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity among Puerto Ricans with substance use disorders living in San Juan (Puerto Rico) to those who have migrated to New Haven (Connecticut) and examines the association between acculturation-related stress and the prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity among those who have migrated to New Haven. Lifetime levels of nearly all comorbid psychiatric disorders among respondents with substance use disorders were generally similar across sites. However, the risk of any co-occurring psychiatric disorder was higher among substance use disorder cases in New Haven who reported high levels of total acculturation stress and family-specific acculturation stress. These findings were generally accounted for by associations between affective disorders and high scores on these indicators of acculturation stress. The overall prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity are remarkably similar among Puerto Rican substance abusers whether they live in San Juan or have migrated to New Haven, thereby demonstrating robustness to differences in geographic location. Nevertheless, the degree of acculturation-related family stress is positively associated with co-occurring substance and psychiatric disorders, particularly affective disorders. Intervention in family strain related to the acculturation process may diminish the development of comorbid mental disorders and assist in implementing successful treatment of substance abuse.

  2. From substance use to homelessness or vice versa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVicar, Duncan; Moschion, Julie; van Ours, Jan C

    2015-07-01

    Homelessness is associated with substance use, but whether substance use precedes or follows homelessness is unclear. We investigate the nature of the relationship between homelessness and substance use using data from the unique Australian panel dataset Journeys Home collected in 4 surveys over the period from October 2011 to May 2013. Our data refer to 1325 individuals who were homeless or at risk of becoming homeless. We investigate dynamics in homelessness and substance use over the survey period. We find that the two are closely related: homeless individuals are more likely to be substance users and substance users are more likely to be homeless. These relationships, however, are predominantly driven by observed and unobserved individual characteristics which cause individuals to be both more likely to be homeless and to be substance users. Once we take these personal characteristics into account it seems that homelessness does not affect substance use, although we cannot rule out that alcohol use increases the probability that an individual becomes homeless. These overall relationships also hide some interesting heterogeneity by 'type' of homelessness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. General Strain Theory and Substance Use among American Indian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Despite the well-established finding that American Indian adolescents are at a greater risk of illicit substance use and abuse than the general population, few generalist explanations of deviance have been extended to American Indian substance use. Using a popular generalist explanation of deviance, General Strain Theory, we explore the predictive utility of this model with a subsample of American Indian adolescents from waves one and two of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add-Health). Overall, we find mixed support for the utility of General Strain Theory to account for American Indian adolescent substance use. While exposure to recent life events, a common measure of stress exposure, was found to be a robust indicator of substance use, we found mixed support for the thesis that negative affect plays a key role in mediating the link between strain and substance use. However, we did find evidence that personal and social resources serve to condition the link between stress exposure and substance use, with parental control, self-restraint, religiosity, and exposure to substance using peers each serving to moderate the association between strain and substance use, albeit in more complex ways than expected.

  4. Dietary behaviour, psychological well-being and mental distress among adolescents in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seo Ah; Peltzer, Karl

    2017-01-01

    Dietary intake is important for physical and mental health. The aim of this investigation was to assess associations between dietary behaviours and psychological well-being and distress among school-going adolescents in Korea. In a cross-sectional nationally representative survey, 65,212 students (Mean age = 15.1 years, SE = 0.02 and 52.2% male and 47.8% female) responded to a questionnaire that included measures of dietary behaviour, psychological well-being and mental distress. In logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, school level, school types, Body Mass Index, physical activity, and substance use, positive dietary behaviours (regular breakfast, fruit, vegetable, and milk consumption) were positively and unhealthy dietary behaviours (intake of caffeine, soft drinks, sweet drinks and fast food consumption) were negatively associated with self-reported health, happiness and sleep satisfaction. Positive dietary behaviours (regular breakfast, fruit, vegetable, and milk consumption) were negatively associated with perceived stress and depression symptoms. Unhealthy dietary behaviours (consumption of fast food, caffeine, sweetened drinks and soft drinks) were associated with perceived stress and depression symptoms. The study found strong cross-sectional evidence that healthy dietary behaviours were associated with lower mental distress and higher psychological well-being. It remains unclear, if a healthier dietary behaviour is the cause or the sequela of a more positive well-being.

  5. Pathways from acculturation stress to substance use among latino adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Rachel Lee; Smokowski, Paul Richard

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the link between acculturation stress and substance use among Latino adolescents. In-home interviews were completed with the participants at four time-points between 2005 and 2007. Path analysis was completed using longitudinal data from 286 Latino adolescents living in North Carolina and Arizona (65% foreign-born). Results indicate that acculturation stress influences family and friend relationships, which in turn affect adolescent mental health problems, and finally, substance use. Key mediators in the pathway from acculturation stress to substance use were parent-adolescent conflict, internalizing, and externalizing problems. Implications for practice and research have been discussed here.

  6. Aquatic Humic Substances: Relationship Between Origin and Complexing Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Guadarrama, María de Jesús; Armienta-Hernández, Ma Aurora; Rosa, André H

    2018-05-01

    Aiming to determine the relationship between source and complexing capacity, humic substances obtained from three sites (Sorocaba and Itapanhau Brasilian rivers, and Xochimilco Lake in Mexico) were studied. Copper, manganese, zinc and arsenic complexing capacity were determined for the three substances under various pH conditions. Results showed similar complexing capacity for the three elements depending on the chemistry of each one and on the physico-chemical conditions. Speciation diagrams showed that these conditions affect both, the humic substances, and the transition metals and arsenic.

  7. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At

  8. Protecting military personnel from high risk dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuster, Patricia A; Lieberman, Harris R

    2016-01-01

    It is legal tomarketmost naturally occurring substances as dietary supplements in the USA without manufacturers demonstrating they are safe or effective, and an endless variety of ingredients, from esoteric botanicals to unapproved pharmaceuticals, can be found in dietary supplements. Use of certain supplements can pose a risk, but since a robust reporting systemdoes not exist in the USA it is difficult to know which are problematic and the number of adverse events (AE) resulting from their use. Certain populations, includingmilitary personnel, aremore likely to use dietary supplements than the general population. Approximately 70% of military personnel take dietary supplements while about 50% of civilians do. Service members prefer supplements purported to enhance physical performance such as supposedly natural stimulants, protein and amino acids, and combination products. Since some of thesemay be problematic, Servicemembers are probably at higher risk of injury than the general population. Ten percent of military populations appear to be taking potentially risky supplements, and the US Department of Defense (DoD) has taken variousmeasures to protect uniformed personnel including education, policy changes, and restricting sales. Actions taken include launching Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS), introducing a High Risk Supplement list, educating health care professionals on reporting AE thatmight be associated with dietary supplements, recommending policy for reporting AE, and developing an online AE reporting system. OPSS is a DoD-wide effort to educate service members, leaders, health care providers, military families, and retirees on how to safely select supplements

  9. Effect of dietary plant extract on meat quality and sensory parameters of meat from Equidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Raffaella; Ratti, Sabrina; Pastorelli, Grazia; Maghin, Federica; Martemucci, Giovanni; Casamassima, Donato; D'Alessandro, Angela Gabriella; Corino, Carlo

    2017-11-01

    Plant extracts as Lippia spp. have been proven antioxidant properties. Recent studies have been shown that dietary supplementation with plant extracts is able to enhance meat quality parameters. Studies regarding meat quality in Equidae are limited. The effect of dietary plant extract (PE), containing verbascoside, on meat quality, oxidative stability and sensory parameters of Longissimus Lumborum (LL) muscle in Equidae was studied. Dietary treatment did not affect (P > 0.05) pH, colour indices and chemical parameters of muscle in both donkey and horse. Dietary PE improved (P meat and to affect the sensory attributes of Equidae meat. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Dietary Vitamin C in Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Matthew; Eck, Peter

    Vitamin C is essential to prevent scurvy in humans and is implicated in the primary prevention of common and complex diseases such as coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer. This chapter reviews the latest knowledge about dietary vitamin C in human health with an emphasis on studies of the molecular mechanisms of vitamin C maintenance as well as gene-nutrient interactions modifying these relationships. Epidemiological evidence indicates 5% prevalence for vitamin C deficiency and 13% prevalence for suboptimal status even in industrialized countries. The daily intake (dose) and the corresponding systemic concentrations (response) are related in a saturable relationship, and low systemic vitamin C concentrations in observational studies are associated with negative health outcomes. However, there is no evidence that vitamin C supplementation impacts the risks for all-cause mortality, impaired cognitive performance, reduced quality of life, the development of eye diseases, infections, cardiovascular disease, and cancers. This might be related to the fact that prevention would not be realized by supplementation in populations already adequately supplied through dietary sources. Recent genetic association studies indicate that the dietary intake might not be the sole determinant of systemic concentrations, since variations in genes participating in redox homeostasis and vitamin C transport had been associated with lowered plasma concentrations. However, impact sizes are generally low and these phenomena might only affect individual of suboptimal dietary supply. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of dietary alpha-tocopherol supplementation and gamma-irradiation on alpha-tocopherol retention and lipid oxidation in cooked minced chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvin, K.; Morrissey, P.A.; Buckley, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of dietary alpha-tocopherol supplementation and gamma-irradiation on alpha-tocopherol retention and lipid oxidation in cooked minced chicken during refrigerated storage were studied. Minced breast and thigh meat from broilers fed diets supplemented with 100, 200 or 400 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed was irradiated at 2.5 or 4.0 kGy. Cooked irradiated and unirradiated meat was stored at 4 degrees C for 5 days. alpha-Tocopherol concentrations increased with increasing dietary supplementation. Concentrations decreased during storage, but retention was not affected by irradiation. Lipid stability was determined by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) during storage. TBARS and COPs increased during storage and were reduced by increasing levels of dietary alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation. Irradiation accelerated TBARS formation during storage, but this was prevented by supplementation with 200 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed. Irradiation tended to increase COPs during storage, although no consistent effects were observed. In general supplementation with over 400 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed may be required to control cholesterol oxidation in minced chicken. The results suggest that, overall, irradiation had little effect on lipid stability in alpha-tocopherol-supplemented meat following cooking and storage

  12. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2015-12-22

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block's Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  13. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persephone Vargas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ. Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA. Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA and dietary intake was determined using the Block’s Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ. Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208 = 0.193, p < 0.01, percentage fat intake (r(208 = 0.154, p < 0.05, percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208 = −0.172, p < 0.05, Body Mass Index (BMI (r(208 = 0.216, p < 0.01 and waist circumference (r(208 = 0.161, p < 0.01. There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  14. Substance use - marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may not be able to concentrate or pay attention at work or at school. Your memory may weaken. Your coordination may be affected such as with driving a car. Your judgment and decision making can also be affected. As a result, you ...

  15. Radioactive substance solidifying device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakoda, Kotaro.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To easily solidify radioactive substances adhering to the surfaces of solid wastes without scattering in the circumference by paints, and further to reduce surface contamination concentrations. Constitution: Solid wastes are placed on a hanging plate, and dipped in paints within a paint dipping treatment tank installed at the lower part of a treatment tank by means of a monorail hoist, and the surfaces of said solid wastes are coated with paints, thereby to solidify the radioactivity on the surfaces of the solid wastes. After dipping, the solid wastes are suspended up to a paint spraying tank to dry the paints. After drying, non-contaminated paints are atomized to apply through an atomizing tube onto the solid wastes. After drying the atomized paints, the solid wastes are carried outside the treatment tank by means of the monorail hoist. (Yoshino, Y.)

  16. Dietary fish protein hydrolysates containing bioactive motifs affect serum and adipose tissue fatty acid compositions, serum lipids, postprandial glucose regulation and growth in obese Zucker fa/fa rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drotningsvik, Aslaug; Mjøs, Svein A; Pampanin, Daniela M; Slizyte, Rasa; Carvajal, Ana; Remman, Tore; Høgøy, Ingmar; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A

    2016-10-01

    The world's fisheries and aquaculture industries produce vast amounts of protein-containing by-products that can be enzymatically hydrolysed to smaller peptides and possibly be used as additives to functional foods and nutraceuticals targeted for patients with obesity-related metabolic disorders. To investigate the effects of fish protein hydrolysates on markers of metabolic disorders, obese Zucker fa/fa rats consumed diets with 75 % of protein from casein/whey (CAS) and 25 % from herring (HER) or salmon (SAL) protein hydrolysate from rest raw material, or 100 % protein from CAS for 4 weeks. The fatty acid compositions were similar in the experimental diets, and none of them contained any long-chain n-3 PUFA. Ratios of lysine:arginine and methionine:glycine were lower in HER and SAL diets when compared with CAS, and taurine was detected only in fish protein hydrolysate diets. Motifs with reported hypocholesterolemic or antidiabetic activities were identified in both fish protein hydrolysates. Rats fed HER diet had lower serum HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, and higher serum TAG, MUFA and n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio compared with CAS-fed rats. SAL rats gained more weight and had better postprandial glucose regulation compared with CAS rats. Serum lipids and fatty acids were only marginally affected by SAL, but adipose tissue contained less total SFA and more total n-3 PUFA when compared with CAS. To conclude, diets containing hydrolysed rest raw material from herring or salmon proteins may affect growth, lipid metabolism, postprandial glucose regulation and fatty acid composition in serum and adipose tissue in obese Zucker rats.

  17. Dietary Proteins and Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Medina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both defective and persistent angiogenesis are linked to pathological situations in the adult. Compounds able to modulate angiogenesis have a potential value for the treatment of such pathologies. Several small molecules present in the diet have been shown to have modulatory effects on angiogenesis. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the potential modulatory roles of dietary proteins on angiogenesis. There is currently limited available information on the topic. Milk contains at least three proteins for which modulatory effects on angiogenesis have been previously demonstrated. On the other hand, there is some scarce information on the potential of dietary lectins, edible plant proteins and high protein diets to modulate angiogenesis.

  18. [Dietary counseling in obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Nathalie; Haslebacher, Yvonne; Teuscher-Sick, Patricia; Fischer, Beatrice

    2013-02-01

    Information on weight management and a healthy eating is accessible to anyone. However, recommendations are inconsistent. This often leads to confusion rather than to real changes in eating behavior. The principle of a long-term weight reduction is based on the idea of achieving negative energy balance with a healthy, balanced and slightly hypocaloric diet. The regimen is neither supposed to be rigid nor should it ban any food products or food products. Changes in eating patterns come about step by step and the counseling approach should be based on the patient's habits and capabilities. The basic requirement to successfully treat obese patients is their own motivation Therefore, the timing of launching the therapy needs to be well chosen. Apart from goals directly concerning weight loss, goals related to well-being, general health and exercise should be set and pursued. However, the main focus should be on changes of dietary behavior. Dietary counseling is preferably embedded in a multidisciplinary treatment concept.

  19. Substance abuse in first-episode non-affective psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor K; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    Abuse of alcohol and drugs is an important and clinically challenging aspect of first-episode psychosis. Only a few studies have been carried out on large-sized and reliably characterized samples. These are reviewed, and the results are compared with a sample of 300 first-episode psychosis patients...... recruited for the TIPS (Early Treatment and Identification of Psychosis) study from Norway and Denmark. Prevalence rates from the literature vary from 6% to 44% for drugs and 3% to 35% for alcohol. In our sample, 23% abused drugs and 15% abused alcohol during the last 6 months. When compared to non......-abusers, the drug-abusing group is characterized by the following: male gender, younger age, better premorbid social, poor premorbid academic functioning, and more contact with friends in the last year before onset. Alcohol abusers were the oldest group and they had the least contact with friends. A group...

  20. Integration of metabolic and gene regulatory networks modulates the C. elegans dietary response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Emma; MacNeil, Lesley T; Arda, H Efsun; Zhu, Lihua Julie; Walhout, Albertha J M

    2013-03-28

    Expression profiles are tailored according to dietary input. However, the networks that control dietary responses remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we combine forward and reverse genetic screens to delineate a network of 184 genes that affect the C. elegans dietary response to Comamonas DA1877 bacteria. We find that perturbation of a mitochondrial network composed of enzymes involved in amino acid metabolism and the TCA cycle affects the dietary response. In humans, mutations in the corresponding genes cause inborn diseases of amino acid metabolism, most of which are treated by dietary intervention. We identify several transcription factors (TFs) that mediate the changes in gene expression upon metabolic network perturbations. Altogether, our findings unveil a transcriptional response system that is poised to sense dietary cues and metabolic imbalances, illustrating extensive communication between metabolic networks in the mitochondria and gene regulatory networks in the nucleus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effecting dietary change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Ashley J; Mathers, John C

    2004-11-01

    A world epidemic of diet-related chronic disease is currently being faced. In the UK incidence of obesity alone has tripled in the last 20 years and this trend is predicted to continue. Consensus exists for the urgent need for a change in diet and other lifestyle factors and for the direction and targets for this change. The evidence for how this change can be achieved is less certain. It has been established that disease processes begin in childhood. Recent evidence indicates that dietary habits too are established in childhood but that these habits are amenable to change. While establishing a healthy lifestyle in childhood is paramount, interventions have the potential to promote positive change throughout the life course. Success in reversing current trends in diet-related disease will depend on commitment from legislators, health professionals, industry and individuals, and this collaboration must seek to address not only the food choices of the individual but also the environment that influences such choices. Recent public health policy development in England, if fully supported and implemented, is a positive move towards this goal. Evidence for effective strategies to promote dietary change at the individual level is emerging and three reviews of this evidence are discussed. In addition, three recent dietary intervention studies, in three different settings and with different methods and aims, are presented to illustrate methods of effecting dietary change. Further work is required on what factors influence the eating behaviour and physical activity of individuals. There is a need for further theory-based research on which to develop more effective strategies to enable individuals to adopt healthier lifestyles.

  2. Dietary treatment of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Pita Lottenberg

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The fast global increased prevalence of obesity has been classifiedas an epidemics by the World Health Organization. The etiology ofobesity is very complex and involves genetic and environmentalfactors. One of the main factors that trigger obesity is sedentarylife, as well as the great availability of fat-rich foods that present ahigh energy density. According to the NHANES II, although thepopulation has decreased the ingestion of fat, the total consumptionof food has increased. The main factors that influence in choice offood are flavor, followed by cost, convenience and, finally, itsnutritional value. The dietary treatment of obesity should haverealistic goals concerning weight loss rate and amount. It issuggested to prescribe a balanced low-calorie diet, emphasizingmostly the quality of foods by using the food pyramid. Therefore,patients may learn the appropriate criteria to select food and makehealthy choices. The dietary treatment of obesity also includesthe use of behavioral techniques directed at dietary education,thus resulting in choice of healthy foods with adequate energyvalue.

  3. Natural Dietary Phytosterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Susan B; Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    Most clinical phytosterol studies are performed by adding purified supplements to smaller phytosterol amounts present in the natural diet. However, natural dietary phytosterols themselves may also have important effects on cholesterol metabolism. Epidemiological work using food frequency questionnaires to estimate dietary intake suggest that extremes of normal consumption may be associated with 3-14% changes in LDL cholesterol. Standardized food databases do not have enough phytosterol values to allow calculation of phytosterol intake for individuals outside of specialized studies. Natural diets contain phytosterol amounts ranging from less than 60 mg/2000 kcal to over 500 mg/2000 kcal. Physiological studies in which whole body cholesterol metabolism is investigated show large effects of natural dietary phytosterols on cholesterol absorption efficiency, cholesterol biosynthesis and cholesterol excretion which exceed the magnitude of changes in LDL cholesterol. The dual effects of natural phytosterols on both LDL-C and whole body cholesterol metabolism need to be considered in relating them to potential protection from coronary heart disease risk.

  4. Dietary methanol and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Ralph G; Monte, Woodrow C

    2015-10-01

    The authors sought to establish whether maternal dietary methanol during pregnancy was a factor in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders. A seven item questionnaire was given to women who had given birth to at least one child after 1984. The subjects were solicited from a large primary care practice and several internet sites and separated into two groups - mothers who had given birth to a child with autism and those who had not. Average weekly methanol consumption was calculated based on questionnaire responses. 550 questionnaires were completed by women who gave birth to a non-autistic child. On average these women consumed 66.71mg. of methanol weekly. 161 questionnaires were completed by women who had given birth to an autistic child. The average estimated weekly methanol consumption for this group was 142.31mg. Based on the results of the Wilcoxon rank sum-test, we see a significant difference between the reported methanol consumption rates of the two groups. This study suggests that women who have given birth to an autistic child are likely to have had higher intake of dietary sources of methanol than women who have not. Further investigation of a possible link of dietary methanol to autism is clearly warranted. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Substance Use and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Alcohol Tobacco Learn More Substance Use and Mental Health Drugs and Alcohol Did you know that addiction ... Plus – also en Español Treatment Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration (SAMHSA): SAMHSA’s National Helpline: 1-800-662- ...

  6. High dietary fat-induced obesity in Wistar rats and type 2 diabetes in nonobese Goto-Kakizaki rats differentially affect retinol binding protein 4 expression and vitamin A metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Tomomi; Shichi, Yuta; Sato, Miyuki; Tanioka, Yuri; Furusho, Tadasu; Ota, Toru; Tadokoro, Tadahiro; Suzuki, Tsukasa; Kobayashi, Ken-Ichi; Yamamoto, Yuji

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, which is caused mainly by insulin resistance. Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is the only specific transport protein for retinol in the serum. RBP4 level is increased in the diabetic state and high-fat condition, indicating that retinol metabolism may be affected under these conditions. However, the precise effect of diabetes and high fat-induced obesity on retinol metabolism is unknown. In this study, we examined differences in retinol metabolite levels in rat models of diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes (Goto-Kakizaki [GK] rat). Four-week-old male Wistar and GK rats were given either a control diet (AIN-93G) or a high-fat diet (HFD, 40% fat kJ). After 15 weeks of feeding, the RBP4 levels increased by 2-fold in the serum of GK rats but not HFD-fed rats. The hepatic retinol concentration of HFD-fed rats was approximately 50% that of the controls (P type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Determinants of dietary supplement use - healthy individuals use dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2015-01-01

    influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54 948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements...... and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation...... to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher...

  8. Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and its association with substance use and substance use disorders in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, N; Dey, M; Eich-Höchli, D; Foster, S; Gmel, G; Mohler-Kuo, M

    2016-06-01

    suggest that adult ADHD is significantly associated with a propensity to experiment with licit and illicit substances, especially at earlier ages, to exhibit risky substance use patterns, and to subsequently develop SUDs. Preventive strategies that include early intervention and addressing co-morbidity with ASPD may be crucial to reducing substance use and the development of pathological substance use patterns in young men affected by ADHD and, thus, helping to prevent further illness burden later in life.

  9. When acute-stage psychosis and substance use co-occur: differentiating substance-induced and primary psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, C L; Samet, S; Hasin, D S

    2000-09-01

    Substances such as alcohol, cocaine, amphetamine, and cannabis can produce psychotic reactions in individuals who are otherwise free of serious mental illness. However, persons with primary psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, who use these substances often present for treatment with signs and symptoms similar to those whose psychosis resulted from the use of drugs alone. While it is often difficult to distinguish substance-induced from primary psychoses, especially early in the course of treatment, this differential diagnosis has important implications for treatment planning. To help clinicians distinguish these two types of presentations, the authors first review the types of psychotic symptoms that can co-occur with substance use. They discuss the prevalence and patterns of substance use that have been found in patients with schizophrenia and other primary psychotic disorders and review the negative outcomes associated with substance use in this population. The prevalence of and types of symptoms and problems associated with psychotic symptoms that occur as a result of substance use alone are also reviewed. The authors describe assessment procedures for differentiating substance-induced and primary psychotic disorders. They stress the importance of accurately establishing the temporal relationship between the substance use and the onset and continuation of psychotic symptoms in making a differential diagnosis, as well as the importance of being familiar with the types of psychological symptoms that can occur with specific substances. The authors review the utility and limitations of a number of diagnostic instruments for assessing patients with co-occurring psychosis and substance use problems, including The Addiction Severity Index, The Michigan Alcohol Screening Test, and diagnostic interviews such as the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM. They then discuss the

  10. Dietary folate deficiency blocks prostate cancer progression in the TRAMP model

    OpenAIRE

    Bistulfi, Gaia; Foster, Barbara A; Karasik, Ellen; Gillard, Bryan; Miecznikowski, Jeff; Dhiman, Vineet K; Smiraglia, Dominic J

    2011-01-01

    Dietary folate is essential in all tissues to maintain several metabolite pools and cellular proliferation. Prostate cells, due to specific metabolic characteristics, have increased folate demand to support proliferation and prevent genetic and epigenetic damage. Although several studies found that dietary folate interventions can affect colon cancer biology in rodent models, impact on prostate is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if dietary folate manipulation, possibly bei...

  11. Dietary sodium and health: more than just blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, William B; Edwards, David G; Jurkovitz, Claudine T; Weintraub, William S

    2015-03-17

    Sodium is essential for cellular homeostasis and physiological function. Excess dietary sodium has been linked to elevations in blood pressure (BP). Salt sensitivity of BP varies widely, but certain subgroups tend to be more salt sensitive. The mechanisms underlying sodium-induced increases in BP are not completely understood but may involve alterations in renal function, fluid volume, fluid-regulatory hormones, the vasculature, cardiac function, and the autonomic nervous system. Recent pre-clinical and clinical data support that even in the absence of an increase in BP, excess dietary sodium can adversely affect target organs, including the blood vessels, heart, kidneys, and brain. In this review, the investigators review these issues and the epidemiological research relating dietary sodium to BP and cardiovascular health outcomes, addressing recent controversies. They also provide information and strategies for reducing dietary sodium. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dietary salt reduction for control of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Tjan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In developed as well as developing countries, the four main factors affecting blood pressure are high salt intake, low potassium intake, overweight, and low physical activity level. This is also true for the increase in blood pressure with advancing age, occurring in all societies. It is now accepted that excess dietary salt raises blood pressure levels, whereas dietary salt reduction reduces blood pressure and prevents vascular complications.(1 The effect of salt on blood pressure is presumably due to the inability of the kidneys to excrete large amounts of salt, as humans are evolutionary adapted to ingest and excrete less than 1 gram of salt per day.(2 In this connection it should be noted that the more important element in common salt (sodium chloride is the sodium ion, and any restrictions applying to common salt also apply to all food items that contain sodium ions, such as sodium glutamate and baking soda.

  13. Consumers' dietary patterns and desires for change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Land, Birgit

    of the results of a questionnaire survey (Jelsøe, Land & Lassen, 1994), so that their ways of life, age, number of children, distance to etc., were known in advance. Their dietary patterns, as revealed by the questionnaire survey, had no influence on the selection. 3. Not unexpectedly, the questionnaire survey...... living at home and where the children had left home. In order to illustrate how dietary patterns affect the various daily practices of different ways of life another important selection criterion was to choose four families within each way of life: the wage earner w life, the career way of life...... explain how Ziehe's work can be linked to changes in food consumption. 5. The in-depth interviews were analysed across the twelve families around eleven focus points: * division of labour in the family and the time available * economic resources * consumers' perception of quality * ecological products...

  14. Peripheral Mechanisms of Dental Pain: The Role of Substance P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Sacerdote

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Current evidence supports the central role of neuropeptides in the molecular mechanisms underlying dental pain. In particular, substance P, a neuropeptide produced in neuron cell bodies localised in dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia, contributes to the transmission and maintenance of noxious stimuli and inflammatory processes. The major role of substance P in the onset of dental pain and inflammation is increasingly being recognised. Well-grounded experimental and clinical observations have documented an increase in substance P concentration in patients affected by caries, pulpitis, or granulomas and in those undergoing standard orthodontic or orthodontic/dental care procedures. This paper focuses on the role of substance P in the induction and maintenance of inflammation and dental pain, in order to define future lines of research for the evaluation of therapeutic strategies aimed at modulating the complex effects of this mediator in oral tissues.

  15. Integrated Counselling Strategies for Children in the Substance Abused Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temitayo Serah Abijo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the fact that substance abuse remains a public health challenge and social problem of enormous magnitudes, with many adolescents and families involved and affected by substance abuse disarrays the issue of proper counselling still requires more attention. In view of this therefore, this study has explored and appraised conceptually the desirability as well as applicable integrated strategies for counselling of the children in the substance abused family. Based on the appraisal of existing strategies for counseling of substance abused family then this study has been able to establish that if people involved as well as the victims of the abused will be able to learn about concepts such as inner strength, self-praise, and group praise, which may prompt setting up of goals for positive decision on their addiction. Similarly, the strategies will encourage the target family to generate more and more positive self-portraits and, as these may inspire making positive lifestyle changes.

  16. A Study of personality profile and criminal behavior in substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Atul; Vaish, Supriya; Sharma, D K; Sushil, C S; Usman, Nashat; Sudarsanan, S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to study the personality characteristics and criminal behavior in the substance abusers. The role of various sociodemographic variables in substance abusers, which affected their criminal behavior was also studied. Moreover, in the present study, the personality profile of substance users and nonusers was compared using psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism (PEN) inventory. A total of 50 consecutive subjects diagnosed as per International Classification of Diseases-10 criteria for substance abuse, fulfilling the inclusive and exclusive criteria were taken. A well-matched control was also assessed to compare the studied subject using a well-designed semi-structured proforma and PEN inventory. Most of the substance abusers were Hindus, married, belonged to 21-30 age group and urban domicile, and were presently unemployed, educated up to middle class, and belonged to lower socioeconomic status. Family history of substance use was significant in the subjects, and the chief substance of use was opioids. Scores for psychoticism and neuroticism, as well as the criminal behavior was significantly higher in studied subjects. Thus, conclusions drawn were that personality characteristics of the substance abusers differed significantly from the control group and second, the number of variables including occupational status, socioeconomic status, family history of substance use, and type of substance of abuse significantly correlated with the criminal behavior in the substance abusers. Identifying these variables can be the first step in the intervention in substance abusers in order to reduce their future criminal behavior.

  17. Radioiodination of humic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, K.; Kupsch, H. [Inst. of Interdisciplinary Isotope Research, Leipzig (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The known IODO-GEN trademark -method was adapted for radiolabeling of humic and fulvic acids with {sup 131}I. The water insoluble oxidizing agent 1,3,4,6tetrachloro-3{alpha},6{alpha}-diphenylglycoluril (IODO-GEN trademark) forms an iodous ion species (I{sup +}), which undergoes an electrophilic I/H-substitution on aromatic moieties of the humic and fulvic acids. This method offers mild conditions with a lesser extent of oxidative alterations of the target molecule, accompanied by an easy handling due to the virtual water-insolubility of the oxidizing agent. The method was optimized and different techniques were tested for the purification of the radioiodinated humic material. The yield of the labeling procedure varies between 45 and 75% depending on the provenance of the humic material and the applied purification method. A specific activity up to 40 MBq/mg was achieved. Furthermore, the known inherent photo-susceptibility of the iodinated humic substance and the influence of reducing agents were verified. An additional release of {sup 131}I up to 20% and up to 35%, respectively were observed. (orig.)

  18. Distillation of bituminous substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    du Buisson, M A.B.B.

    1845-06-23

    New and improved methods are described for the distillation of bituminous schistus and other bituminous substances, as well as for the purification, rectification, and preparation necessary for the employment of the productions obtained by such distillation for various useful purposes. This invention consists, first, in the arrangement and construction of furnace or apparatus for the distillation of schistus, and (any) other bituminous rocks. This furnace is made of circular brick-work, and is provided with the requisite number of fires placed round the circumference. The retort is of a conical or funnel shape, and when ready for use, has the appearance of one inverted cone being placed within a larger cone, in such a manner as to leave a space between the two cones for the reception of the schistus. Both cones are capable of being closed at their apexes, and their mouths, which are placed upwards, are connected together, and hermetically closed by a flat ring. The flame draft is caused to impinge against the lower portion of the outer cone and ascending, turns over the upper edge and descends within the inner cone to the mouth of the chimney, which is placed in the interior, and as low as may be convenient. A third cone is so placed within the inner cone as to cause the flame draft, in its descent, to bind against the surface of the retort.

  19. Reactions to dietary tartrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, T J

    1987-02-01

    Double blind challenges with tartrazine and benzoic acid were performed in hospital in 24 children whose parents gave a definite history of a purely behavioural immediate adverse reaction to one of these substances. The patients, whose ages ranged from 1.6 to 12.4 years, were on a diet that avoided these items, and in all there was a clear history that any lapse of the diet caused an obvious adverse behavioural reaction within two hours. In no patient was any change in behaviour noted either by the parents or the nursing staff after the administration of placebo or active substances. Twenty two patients returned to a normal diet without problems, but the parents of two children insisted on continuing the diet. While popular belief has it that additives may have harmful behavioural effects, objective verification is required to prevent overdiagnosis.

  20. Reactions to dietary tartrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, T J

    1987-01-01

    Double blind challenges with tartrazine and benzoic acid were performed in hospital in 24 children whose parents gave a definite history of a purely behavioural immediate adverse reaction to one of these substances. The patients, whose ages ranged from 1.6 to 12.4 years, were on a diet that avoided these items, and in all there was a clear history that any lapse of the diet caused an obvious adverse behavioural reaction within two hours. In no patient was any change in behaviour noted either by the parents or the nursing staff after the administration of placebo or active substances. Twenty two patients returned to a normal diet without problems, but the parents of two children insisted on continuing the diet. While popular belief has it that additives may have harmful behavioural effects, objective verification is required to prevent overdiagnosis. PMID:3548601

  1. A method and apparatus for preparing the storage of noxious substances, in particular radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to the storage of radioactive substances. It deals with a method for storing a substance, in particular a noxious or radioactive substance, comprising trapping said substance in a solid substance by bombarding said solid substance with ions of the above substance, so that the latter reaches a certain concentration level in the solid substance. This is applicable to the storage of radioactive wastes [fr

  2. Alexithymia in Egyptian Substance Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rasheed, Amany Haroun

    2001-03-01

    Alexithymia is thought of as a trait that predisposes to drug abuse. Moreover, it is suggested to be related to type of the substance abused, with the worst-case scenario including a worse prognosis as well as tendency to relapse or even not to seek treatment at all. To address this important subject in Egyptian patients, a sample of 200 Egyptian substance abusers was randomly selected from inpatients in the Institute of Psychiatry, Ain Shams University, Egypt. The study also included 200 group-matched controls. DSM-IV criteria were used for assessment of substance use disorders, and toxicologic urine analysis was used to confirm the substances of abuse. Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS)-Arabic version was used for assessment of alexithymia. It was found that alexithymia was significantly more prevalent in the substance use disorders group as compared to healthy controls. It was also found that among the substance use disorders group, alexithymics reported more polysubstance abuse, more opiate use (other than heroin IV), lower numbers of hospitalizations, lower numbers of reported relapses, and a lower tendency to relapse as a result of internal cues compared to patients without alexithymia. Statistically significant associations were also found between alexithymia and more benzodiazepine abuse and nonpersistence in treatment. The results suggest that alexithymia should be targeted in a treatment setting for substance use disorders.

  3. Dietary Determinants of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, Lisa W

    2005-01-01

    .... Epidemiologic studies suggest that dietary factors may be important in the etiology of PCa. The objective of our research is to determine how nutritional compounds genistein, betasitosterol (STT...

  4. The modulatory effect of substance P on rat pineal norepinephrine release and melatonin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukda, Sujira; Møller, Morten; Ebadi, Manuchair

    2009-01-01

    innervate the pineal gland. Some of these peptidergic nerve fibers contain substance P. Previously, we have characterized neurokinin 1 type substance P receptors in the pineal gland. However, the function of this receptor in the pineal gland remains unclear. Here, we examined the modulatory effect...... of substance P on rat pineal NE transmission. We show that at the presynaptic level, substance P stimulates the KCl-induced [(3)H]NE release from the pineal nerve ending. However, we found that substance P did not affect the basal levels of either arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) activity...... or melatonin secretion in rat pineal organ cultures. However, in the presence of NE, substance P inhibited the NE-induced increase in AANAT activity and melatonin secretion. This is the first time that a function for substance P in the mammalian pineal gland has been demonstrated....

  5. Definition of Substance and Non-substance Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhiling; Wang, Huijun; d'Oleire Uquillas, Federico; Wang, Xiaomei; Ding, Jianrui; Chen, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Substance addiction (or drug addiction) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by a recurring desire to continue taking the drug despite harmful consequences. Non-substance addiction (or behavioral addiction) covers pathological gambling, food addiction, internet addiction, and mobile phone addiction. Their definition is similar to drug addiction but they differ from each other in specific domains. This review aims to provide a brief overview of past and current definitions of substance and non-substance addiction, and also touches on the topic of diagnosing drug addiction and non-drug addiction, ultimately aiming to further the understanding of the key concepts needed for a foundation to study the biological and psychological underpinnings of addiction disorders.

  6. Isomalto/Malto-polysaccharide, a novel soluble dietary fiber made via enzymatic conversion of starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemhuis, Hans; Dobruchowska, Justyna M.; Ebbelaar, Monique; Faber, Folkert; Buwalda, Pieter L; van der Maarel, Marc J.E.C.; Kamerling, Johannis P; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fibers are at the forefront of nutritional research because they positively contribute to human health. Much of our processed foods contain, however, only small quantities of dietary fiber, because their addition often negatively affects the taste, texture, and mouth feel. There is thus an

  7. Isomalto/Malto-Polysaccharide, A Novel Soluble Dietary Fiber Made Via Enzymatic Conversion of Starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemhuis, H.; Dobruchowska, J.M.; Ebbelaar, M.; Faber, F.; Buwalda, P.L.; Maarel, M.J.E.J.; Kamerling, J.P.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fibers are at the forefront of nutritional research because they positively contribute to human health. Much of our processed foods contain, however, only small quantities of dietary fiber, because their addition often negatively affects the taste, texture, and mouth feel. There is thus an

  8. Impact of dietary cation anion difference in fish and pigs: a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dersjant-Li, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Dietary cation anion difference (CAD, Na + K - Cl, mEq kg -1 ) determines the pH and acid base status of a diet, consequently affecting the acid base balance in the body compartments of animals. After feeding, a low dietary CAD will contribute more acids to the

  9. Terrorism, civil war and related violence and substance use disorder morbidity and mortality: A global analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley T. Kerridge

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Terrorism, war and one-sided violence may influence morbidity and mortality attributable to substance use disorders in the longer-term suggests that more attention to be given to rapid assessment and treatment of substance use disorders in conflict-affected populations with due consideration of gender and age differences that may impact treatment outcomes in these settings. Priorities should be established to rebuild substance abuse treatment infrastructures and treat the many physical and mental comorbid disorders.

  10. Gender identity and substance use among students in two high schools in Monterrey, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Lingard, Erin Chase; Nieri, Tanya; Nagoshi, Julieann

    2008-01-01

    This study explored relationships between several hypothesized dimensions of gender identity and substance use outcomes within a non-probability sample of adolescents in Monterrey, Mexico. Based on Mexican concepts of machismo and marianismo, four gender identity constructs were measured: aggressive masculinity, assertive masculinity, affective femininity and submissive femininity. The study assessed how well these gender identity measures predicted substance use behaviors, substance use inte...

  11. Central nervous system affecting drugs and road traffic accidents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central nervous system affecting drugs and road traffic accidents among commercial motorcyclists. ... including driving under the influence of drugs that affect the central nervous system (CNS). ... Keywords: Brain, influence, riders, substances ...

  12. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Introduction and Vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Melvin H

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sports success is dependent primarily on genetic endowment in athletes with morphologic, psychologic, physiologic and metabolic traits specific to performance characteristics vital to their sport. Such genetically-endowed athletes must also receive optimal training to increase physical power, enhance mental strength, and provide a mechanical advantage. However, athletes often attempt to go beyond training and use substances and techniques, often referred to as ergogenics, in attempts to gain a competitive advantage. Pharmacological agents, such as anabolic steroids and amphetamines, have been used in the past, but such practices by athletes have led to the establishment of anti-doping legislation and effective testing protocols to help deter their use. Thus, many athletes have turned to various dietary strategies, including the use of various dietary supplements (sports supplements, which they presume to be effective, safe and legal.

  13. Methylsulfonylmethane: Applications and Safety of a Novel Dietary Supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Butawan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM has become a popular dietary supplement used for a variety of purposes, including its most common use as an anti-inflammatory agent. It has been well-investigated in animal models, as well as in human clinical trials and experiments. A variety of health-specific outcome measures are improved with MSM supplementation, including inflammation, joint/muscle pain, oxidative stress, and antioxidant capacity. Initial evidence is available regarding the dose of MSM needed to provide benefit, although additional work is underway to determine the precise dose and time course of treatment needed to provide optimal benefits. As a Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS approved substance, MSM is well-tolerated by most individuals at dosages of up to four grams daily, with few known and mild side effects. This review provides an overview of MSM, with details regarding its common uses and applications as a dietary supplement, as well as its safety for consumption.

  14. National Children's Study Dietary Assessment Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Children's Study dietary assessment workshop was an opportunity for experts in dietary assessment methodology to gather and discuss the current state of knowledge about methodologies used to assess dietary intake during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

  15. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Home Food Resources for You Consumers Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know Share Tweet Linkedin ... and nutrients you personally need. What are dietary supplements? Dietary supplements include such ingredients as vitamins, minerals, ...

  16. Ozone-depleting Substances (ODS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This site includes all of the ozone-depleting substances (ODS) recognized by the Montreal Protocol. The data include ozone depletion potentials (ODP), global warming...

  17. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount

  18. Dietary Therapies for Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H Kossoff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since their introduction in 1921, high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diets have been used worldwide for refractory childhood epilepsy. Approximately half of the children have at least half their seizures reduced, including 15% who are seizure free. The mechanisms of action of dietary therapies are under active investigation and appear to involve mitochondria. Once perceived as a last resort, modifications to initiation and maintenance, as well as the widespread use of pre-made ketogenic formulas have allowed dietary treatment to be used earlier in the course of epilepsy. For infantile spasms (West syndrome specifically, the ketogenic diet is successful about 50% of the time as a first-line treatment. New "alternative" diets such as the modified Atkins diet were created in 2003 and can be started more easily and are less restrictive. They may have particular value for countries in Asia. Side effects include constipation, dyslipidemia, growth slowing, acidosis, and kidney stones. Additionally, neurologists are studying ketogenic diets for conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer's disease, autism, and brain tumors.

  19. Law regulations concerning food supplements, dietetic food and novel food containing herbal substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baraniak Justyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Food supplements are concentrated sources of nutrients and/or other substances with a nutritional or physiological effect. However, they often contain herbal substances or their preparations. Food supplements belong to category of food and for that reason are regulated by food legislation. European Union regulations and directives established general directions for dietary supplements, dietetic food, which due to their special composition or manufacturing process are prepared for specific groups of people with special nutritional needs, and novel food/novel food ingredients to ensure product safety, suitability and appropriate consumer information.

  20. Complex Dietary Supplements from Raw Plants Provide Nutrition for Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy M. Uvarov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of mechanically activated complexes from plant substances to enhance athletes’ adaptability to intense physical activity. Methods: The object of the study was the dietary supplement Kladorod, which is based on the reindeer lichen Cladonia rangiferina and Rhodiola rosea in weight ratio of 10:1. To test the dietary supplement, we developed a special scheme for the experiment and selected 10 elite athletes (boxers and mixfighters. Athletes were divided into 2 groups and were under the same conditions (nutrition, medical monitoring, living conditions and training process. Athletes of the experimental group were given the dietary supplement Kladorod (capsule of 0.4 g by mouth between meals 4 times a day for 28 days. The control group was given placebo (Ringer-Locke powder capsules in the same terms in a similar way. During the experiment, the athletes were medically examined 3 times: at the beginning, in the middle, and after the course of intervention. We measured muscle performance, fat mass, muscle mass, and serum concentrations of cortisol and total testosterone. Results: It was established that during the intensive training of boxers and mixfighters for rating fights, administration of the dietary supplement Kladorod for 28 days stabilized the absolute and relative muscle mass, preventing its reduction, in comparison with the placebo group. At the same time, indicators of fat mass decreased significantly in the experimental group. After administering the course of Kladorod, we did not observe a significant decrease in testosterone/cortisol ratio, compared to the control group Thus, the use of biologically active supplements based on lichen raw materials and complexes of lichen raw materials with different plant substances enables the body to increase its adaptive potential and physical capacity.

  1. Dietary polyphenols and chromatin remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Gian Luigi; Vastolo, Viviana; Ciccarelli, Marco; Albano, Luigi; Macchia, Paolo Emidio; Ungaro, Paola

    2017-08-13

    Polyphenols are the most abundant phytochemicals in fruits, vegetables, and plant-derived beverages. Recent findings suggest that polyphenols display the ability to reverse adverse epigenetic regulation involved in pathological conditions, such as obesity, metabolic disorder, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and various forms of cancer. Epigenetics, defined as heritable changes to the transcriptome, independent from those occurring in the genome, includes DNA methylation, histone modifications, and posttranscriptional gene regulation by noncoding RNAs. Sinergistically and cooperatively, these processes regulate gene expression by changing chromatin organization and DNA accessibility. Such induced epigenetic changes can be inherited during cell division, resulting in permanent maintenance of the acquired phenotype, but they may also occur throughout an individual life-course and may ultimately influence phenotypic outcomes (health and disease risk). In the last decade, a number of studies have shown that nutrients can affect metabolic traits by altering the structure of chromatin and directly regulate both transcription and translational processes. In this context, dietary polyphenol-targeted epigenetics becomes an attractive approach for disease prevention and intervention. Here, we will review how polyphenols, including flavonoids, curcuminoids, and stilbenes, modulate the establishment and maintenance of key epigenetic marks, thereby influencing gene expression and, hence, disease risk and health.

  2. Substance use and duration of untreated psychosis in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen P. Davis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Substance use and psychiatric disorders cause significant burden of disease in low- and middle-income countries. Co-morbid psychopathology and longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP can negatively affect treatment outcomes. Objectives: The study assessed substance use amongst adults with severe mental illness receiving services at a regional psychiatric hospital in KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa. We describe the prevalence and correlates of lifetime substance use and examine the association between substance use and DUP. Methods: A cross-sectional survey recruited adults diagnosed with severe mental illness and assessed lifetime and past 3-month substance use using the World Health Organization Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test. Regression analyses were conducted to determine associations between lifetime substance use (other than alcohol and tobacco and DUP as measured by the World Health Organization Encounter Form. Results: Amongst 87 participants, alcohol (81.6%, tobacco (75.6% and cannabis (49.4% were the most common substances reported for lifetime use. Risk of health-related problems (health, social, financial, legal and relationship of cannabis use was associated with younger age, single marital status and lower education. Adjusted regression analyses indicated that use of amphetamines and methaqualone is associated with longer DUP. Conclusions: Substance use is prevalent amongst psychiatric patients in KwaZulu-Natal and may contribute to longer DUP. Mental health services in this region should address co-morbid substance use and psychiatric disorders. Keywords: Substance Use; Psychosis; KwaZulu-Natal

  3. Reactions to dietary tartrazine.

    OpenAIRE

    David, T J

    1987-01-01

    Double blind challenges with tartrazine and benzoic acid were performed in hospital in 24 children whose parents gave a definite history of a purely behavioural immediate adverse reaction to one of these substances. The patients, whose ages ranged from 1.6 to 12.4 years, were on a diet that avoided these items, and in all there was a clear history that any lapse of the diet caused an obvious adverse behavioural reaction within two hours. In no patient was any change in behaviour noted either ...

  4. Nutritional biomarkers for objective dietary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnle, Gunter G C

    2012-04-01

    The accurate assessment of dietary exposure is important in investigating associations between diet and disease. Research in nutritional epidemiology, which has resulted in a large amount of information on associations between diet and chronic diseases in the last decade, relies on accurate assessment methods to identify these associations. However, most dietary assessment instruments rely to some extent on self-reporting, which is prone to systematic bias affected by factors such as age, gender, social desirability and approval. Nutritional biomarkers are not affected by these and therefore provide an additional, alternative method to estimate intake. However, there are also some limitations in their application: they are affected by inter-individual variations in metabolism and other physiological factors, and they are often limited to estimating intake of specific compounds and not entire foods. It is therefore important to validate nutritional biomarkers to determine specific strengths and limitations. In this perspective paper, criteria for the validation of nutritional markers and future developments are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment: Organizational Change and Quality of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieckmann, Traci; Fussell, Holly; Doyle, Kevin; Ford, Jay; Riley, Katherine J.; Henderson, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse treatment agencies serving youth face unique barriers to providing quality care. Interviews with 17 adolescent programs found that family engagement, community involvement, and gender and diversity issues affected treatment delivery. Programs report organizational change efforts with implications for future process improvement…

  6. Danish Dietary Recommandations for the Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann

    1993-01-01

    and 2) sick elderly people resident at home and in institutions. The majority of the elderly enjoy generally good health. The diet-related diseases are the same as those affecting the rest of the population, and they are caused by an excessively high energy content of a diet which is poorly balanced...... in terms of macro-nutrients. While Danes receive adequate supplies of most vitamins and minerals, their fat intake is too high. Danish nutritional recommendations for healthy pensioners include a daily vitamin D intake of 10 microgrammes. Sick pensioners or small-eaters should follow the dietary...

  7. Dietary Factors Affect Food Reward and Motivation to Eat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandit, Rahul; Mercer, Julian G.; Overduin, Joost; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Adan, Roger A. H.

    2012-01-01

    The propensity to indulge in unhealthy eating and overconsumption of palatable food is a crucial determinant in the rising prevalence of obesity in today's society. The tendency to consume palatable foods in quantities that exceed energy requirements has been linked to an addiction-like process.

  8. How Substance Users With ADHD Perceive the Relationship Between Substance Use and Emotional Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John T; Weisner, Thomas S; Jensen, Peter S; Murray, Desiree W; Molina, Brooke S G; Arnold, Eugene L; Hechtman, Lily; Swanson, James M; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Victor, Elizabeth C; Kollins, Scott H; Wells, Karen C; Belendiuk, Katherine A; Blonde, Andrew; Nguyen, Celeste; Ambriz, Lizeth; Nguyen, Jenny L

    2017-02-01

    Although substance use (SU) is elevated in ADHD and both are associated with disrupted emotional functioning, little is known about how emotions and SU interact in ADHD. We used a mixed qualitative-quantitative approach to explore this relationship. Narrative comments were coded for 67 persistent (50 ADHD, 17 local normative comparison group [LNCG]) and 25 desistent (20 ADHD, 5 LNCG) substance users from the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA) adult follow-up (21.7-26.7 years-old). SU persisters perceived SU positively affects emotional states and positive emotional effects outweigh negative effects. No ADHD group effects emerged. Qualitative analysis identified perceptions that cannabis enhanced positive mood for ADHD and LNCG SU persisters, and improved negative mood and ADHD for ADHD SU persisters. Perceptions about SU broadly and mood do not differentiate ADHD and non-ADHD SU persisters. However, perceptions that cannabis is therapeutic may inform ADHD-related risk for cannabis use.

  9. Dietary intake of Croatian lactating women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Krešić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional inadequacies during lactation may affect the well-being of both the mother and the infant. For this reason, breast-feeding women usually pay attention to their dietary practice during the breast-feeding period. The aim of this study was to examine changes in dietary intake of Croatian lactating women during six months postpartum. The study sample consisted of 83 lactating women whose diet records were collected at three measurements rounds: at 1 ± 0.25, 3 ± 0.25 and 6 ± 0.25 months postpartum. The mothers´ diets were investigated using two consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Energy and nutrient intakes were estimated using a nutritional database. The obtained results have shown that the diet of Croatian lactating women is hypocaloric (65.73 – 79.52 % DRI, p < 0.001 and deficient in magnesium, zinc, vitamins A, B1, B6, D and folate. Also evident was a moderate imbalance in the distribution of energy percentages from macronutrients. During six months postpartum, lactating women continuously decreased food intake resulting in a gradual decrease in energy intake (p < 0.001 and in the intake of all micronutrients. However, during six months postpartum, lactating women increased the share of total fat in energy intake (p = 0.006 and the share of saturated fatty acids (p = 0.048, while the share of monounsaturated fatty acids in total energy intake decreased (p = 0.004. It could be concluded that it is worthwhile to further study the nutritional status of Croatian lactating women during this vulnerable period especially regarding their micronutrients intake in order to achieve the recommended dietary requirements.

  10. Dietary intervention in acne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the endocrine signaling of Western diet, a fundamental environmental factor involved in the pathogenesis of epidemic acne. Western nutrition is characterized by high calorie uptake, high glycemic load, high fat and meat intake, as well as increased consumption of insulin- and IGF-1-level elevating dairy proteins. Metabolic signals of Western diet are sensed by the nutrient-sensitive kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which integrates signals of cellular energy, growth factors (insulin, IGF-1) and protein-derived signals, predominantly leucine, provided in high amounts by milk proteins and meat. mTORC1 activates SREBP, the master transcription factor of lipogenesis. Leucine stimulates mTORC1-SREBP signaling and leucine is directly converted by sebocytes into fatty acids and sterols for sebaceous lipid synthesis. Over-activated mTORC1 increases androgen hormone secretion and most likely amplifies androgen-driven mTORC1 signaling of sebaceous follicles. Testosterone directly activates mTORC1. Future research should investigate the effects of isotretinoin on sebocyte mTORC1 activity. It is conceivable that isotretinoin may downregulate mTORC1 in sebocytes by upregulation of nuclear levels of FoxO1. The role of Western diet in acne can only be fully appreciated when all stimulatory inputs for maximal mTORC1 activation, i.e., glucose, insulin, IGF-1 and leucine, are adequately considered. Epidemic acne has to be recognized as an mTORC1-driven disease of civilization like obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. These new insights into Western diet-mediated mTORC1-hyperactivity provide a rational basis for dietary intervention in acne by attenuating mTORC1 signaling by reducing (1) total energy intake, (2) hyperglycemic carbohydrates, (3) insulinotropic dairy proteins and (4) leucine-rich meat and dairy proteins. The necessary dietary changes are opposed to the evolution of

  11. 78 FR 48051 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    .... Potentially affected entities may include: Manufacturers or processors of one or more subject chemical... chemical substance. The extent to which a use changes the type or form of exposure of human beings or the... the regulatory text section of this rule. This rule includes PMN substances, P-09-198 and P-09-199...

  12. 78 FR 27048 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    .... Potentially affected entities may include: Manufacturers, importers, or processors of one or more subject... of manufacturing and processing of a chemical substance. The extent to which a use changes the type...). CFR citation assigned in the regulatory text section of this rule. This rule includes a PMN substance...

  13. Substance use and duration of untreated psychosis in KwaZulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Substance use and psychiatric disorders cause significant burden of disease in low- and middle-income countries. Co-morbid psychopathology and longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) can negatively affect treatment outcomes. Objectives: The study assessed substance use amongst adults with ...

  14. 76 FR 70105 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List: Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List: Partial Deletion of the... appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA and the State... property PINs listed above. The deletion of these two parcels from the Site affects all surface soils...

  15. Objective assessment of dietary patterns by use of metabolic phenotyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Perez, Isabel; Posma, Joram M; Gibson, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Accurate monitoring of changes in dietary patterns in response to food policy implementation is challenging. Metabolic profiling allows simultaneous measurement of hundreds of metabolites in urine, the concentrations of which can be affected by food intake. We hypothesised that metabo...

  16. Dietary supplements and disease prevention — a global overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary supplements are widely used and offer the potential to improve health if appropriately targeted to those in need. Inadequate nutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent conditions that adversely affect global health. Although improvements in diet quality are essential to address t...

  17. Medical marijuana users in substance abuse treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swartz Ronald

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rise of authorized marijuana use in the U.S. means that many individuals are using cannabis as they concurrently engage in other forms of treatment, such as substance abuse counseling and psychotherapy. Clinical and legal decisions may be influenced by findings that suggest marijuana use during treatment serves as an obstacle to treatment success, compromises treatment integrity, or increases the prevalence or severity of relapse. In this paper, the author reviews the relationship between authorized marijuana use and substance abuse treatment utilizing data from a preliminary pilot study that, for the first time, uses a systematic methodology to collect data examining possible effects on treatment. Methods Data from the California Outcomes Measurement System (CalOMS were compared for medical (authorized marijuana users and non-marijuana users who were admitted to a public substance abuse treatment program in California. Behavioral and social treatment outcomes recorded by clinical staff at discharge and reported to the California Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs were assessed for both groups, which included a sample of 18 reported medical marijuana users. Results While the findings described here are preliminary and very limited due to the small sample size, the study demonstrates that questions about the relationship between medical marijuana use and involvement in drug treatment can be systematically evaluated. In this small sample, cannabis use did not seem to compromise substance abuse treatment amongst the medical marijuana using group, who (based on these preliminary data fared equal to or better than non-medical marijuana users in several important outcome categories (e.g., treatment completion, criminal justice involvement, medical concerns. Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that medical marijuana is consistent with participation in other forms of drug treatment and may not adversely affect

  18. Dietary iron controls circadian hepatic glucose metabolism through heme synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcox, Judith A; Mitchell, Thomas Creighton; Gao, Yan; Just, Steven F; Cooksey, Robert; Cox, James; Ajioka, Richard; Jones, Deborah; Lee, Soh-Hyun; King, Daniel; Huang, Jingyu; McClain, Donald A

    2015-04-01

    The circadian rhythm of the liver maintains glucose homeostasis, and disruption of this rhythm is associated with type 2 diabetes. Feeding is one factor that sets the circadian clock in peripheral tissues, but relatively little is known about the role of specific dietary components in that regard. We assessed the effects of dietary iron on circadian gluconeogenesis. Dietary iron affects circadian glucose metabolism through heme-mediated regulation of the interaction of nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group d member 1 (Rev-Erbα) with its cosuppressor nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCOR). Loss of regulated heme synthesis was achieved by aminolevulinic acid (ALA) treatment of mice or cultured cells to bypass the rate-limiting enzyme in hepatic heme synthesis, ALA synthase 1 (ALAS1). ALA treatment abolishes differences in hepatic glucose production and in the expression of gluconeogenic enzymes seen with variation of dietary iron. The differences among diets are also lost with inhibition of heme synthesis with isonicotinylhydrazine. Dietary iron modulates levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), a transcriptional activator of ALAS1, to affect hepatic heme. Treatment of mice with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine diminishes PGC-1α variation observed among the iron diets, suggesting that iron is acting through reactive oxygen species signaling. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  19. Dietary Advice on Prescription: A novel approach to dietary counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Johansson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a novel approach to giving dietary advice, which is called “Dietary Advice on Prescription” (DAP; Matordning på Recept [MoR] in Swedish. It is the same principle as prescription on medicine and “Physical Activity on Prescription” (PAP; Fysisk aktivitet på Recept [FaR] in Swedish. The main idea is that a written prescription will strengthen the oral advice and emphasize certain aspects of the dietary recommendation. The DAP is on the brink of being tested in a planned study.

  20. An assessment of the acute dietary exposure to glyphosate using deterministic and probabilistic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, C L; Harris, C A; Clarke, R

    2018-02-01

    Use of glyphosate in crop production can lead to residues of the active substance and related metabolites in food. Glyphosate has never been considered acutely toxic; however, in 2015 the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) proposed an acute reference dose (ARfD). This differs from the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) who in 2016, in line with their existing position, concluded that an ARfD was not necessary for glyphosate. This paper makes a comprehensive assessment of short-term dietary exposure to glyphosate from potentially treated crops grown in the EU and imported third-country food sources. European Union and global deterministic models were used to make estimates of short-term dietary exposure (generally defined as up to 24 h). Estimates were refined using food-processing information, residues monitoring data, national dietary exposure models, and basic probabilistic approaches to estimating dietary exposure. Calculated exposures levels were compared to the ARfD, considered to be the amount of a substance that can be consumed in a single meal, or 24-h period, without appreciable health risk. Acute dietary intakes were Probabilistic exposure estimates showed that the acute intake on no person-days exceeded 10% of the ARfD, even for the pessimistic scenario.

  1. Herb-drug interactions among commonly used psychoactive substances by healthcare students

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, André; Caetano, Liliana Aranha

    2014-01-01

    The concurrent use of herbs and/or nutritional supplements with psychoactive effect and prescription medications is common among college students. College students are a particularly vulnerable population, for they are under less social/familiar surveillance and seek greater independence, as well as under greater intellectual effort, stress, anxiety and depression, which predispose them to a higher consumption of psychoactive substances. Herbs, vitamins, and other dietary supplements may infl...

  2. Substance Use in Healthcare Workers: Importance of Stress Perception, Smoking Temptation, Social Support, and Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Stephen Daniel; Kelly, Morgan; Schepis, Ty

    2018-04-16

    Research indicates healthcare workers' personal substance use may affect quality of care. Investigating factors that correlate with coping through substance use may provide insight into improving quality care. This study aims to examine potential correlates of coping through substance use among healthcare workers, with a particular focus on humor, social support, stress perception, and smoking temptation. Participants, recruited from healthcare facilities, anonymously completed a 30-minute questionnaire of psychometrically valid measurements. In a sample of primarily female (75.7%), age 20-39 (74.8%), floor staff (i.e., doctors, nurses, technicians/assistants; 61.2%), perceived stress [β = .036, t(98) = 2.55, p = .012], smoking temptation [β = .036, t(98) = 2.21, p = .030], and coping through humor [β = .163, t(98) = 2.033, p = .045] were significant correlates of the coping through substance use, with all relationships positively co-varying. Social support at work did not predict coping through substance use [β = -.032, t(98) = -.814, p > .05]. Furthermore, negative affect/situation smoking temptation was associated with increased coping through substance use [β = .246, t(99) = 2.859, p = .005] and habit/craving temptation was associated with decreased coping through substance use [β = -.260, t(99) = -2.201, p = .030; however, positive affect/social temptation was not [β = .054, t(99) = -.553, p > .05]. Conclusions/Importance: These findings suggest that coping with humor may relate to coping through substance use, while social support at work is either unrelated to coping through substance use in this sample or may not be adequately assessed with the measure used. Consistent with the literature, negative affect/situation was associated with increased coping through substance use. However, habit/craving was negatively predictive. Further research should explore the variables related to coping through substance use among healthcare workers.

  3. Revised dietary guidelines for Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Young Ai; Lee, Haeng Shin; Kim, Bok Hee; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Hae Jeung; Moon, Jae Jin; Kim, Cho-il

    2008-01-01

    With rapidly changing dietary environment, dietary guidelines for Koreans were revised and relevant action guides were developed. First, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was established with experts and government officials from the fields of nutrition, preventive medicine, health promotion, agriculture, education and environment. The Committee set dietary goals for Koreans aiming for a better nutrition state of all after a thorough review and analysis of recent information related to nutritional status and/or problems of Korean population, changes in food production/supply, disease pattern, health policy and agricultural policy. Then, the revised dietary guidelines were proposed to accomplish these goals in addition to 6 different sets of dietary action guides to accommodate specific nutrition and health problems of respective age groups. Subsequently, these guidelines and guides were subjected to the focus group review, consumer perception surveys, and a public hearing for general and professional comments. Lastly, the language was clarified in terms of public understanding and phraseology. The revised Dietary guidelines for Koreans are as follows: eat a variety of grains, vegetables, fruits, fish, meat, poultry and dairy products; choose salt-preserved foods less, and use less salt when you prepare foods; increase physical activity for a healthy weight, and balance what you eat with your activity; enjoy every meal, and do not skip breakfast; if you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation; prepare foods properly, and order sensible amounts; enjoy our rice-based diet.

  4. In vitro effect of dietary protein level and nondigestible oligosaccharides on feline fecal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, C; Stefanelli, C; Biagi, G

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of some prebiotic substances and 2 dietary protein levels on the composition and activity of feline fecal microbiota. Two in vitro studies were conducted. First, 6 nondigestible oligosaccharides were studied; treatments were control diet (CTRL), gluconic acid (GA), carrot fiber (CF), fructooligosaccharides (FOS), galactooligosaccharides (GOS), lactitol (LAC), and pectins from citrus fruit (PEC). Substrates were added to feline fecal cultures at 2 g/L for 24 h incubation. Compared with the CTRL, ammonia had been reduced (Pmicrobiota and that high dietary protein levels in a cat's diet can have negative effects on the animal intestinal environment.

  5. Dietary Intake of Competitive Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendlove, Jessica; Mitchell, Lachlan; Gifford, Janelle; Hackett, Daniel; Slater, Gary; Cobley, Stephen; O'Connor, Helen

    2015-07-01

    Competitive bodybuilders are well known for extreme physique traits and extremes in diet and training manipulation to optimize lean mass and achieve a low body fat. Although many of the dietary dogmas in bodybuilding lack scientific scrutiny, a number, including timing and dosing of high biological value proteins across the day, have more recently been confirmed as effective by empirical research studies. A more comprehensive understanding of the dietary intakes of bodybuilders has the potential to uncover other dietary approaches, deserving of scientific investigation, with application to the wider sporting, and potential health contexts, where manipulation of physique traits is desired. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of dietary intake practices of competitive bodybuilders, evaluate the quality and currency of the existing literature, and identify research gaps to inform future studies. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted from the earliest record until March 2014. The search combined permutations of the terms 'bodybuilding', 'dietary intake', and 'dietary supplement'. Included studies needed to report quantitative data (energy and macronutrients at a minimum) on habitual dietary intake of competitive bodybuilders. The 18 manuscripts meeting eligibility criteria reported on 385 participants (n = 62 women). Most studies were published in the 1980-1990s, with three published in the past 5 years. Study methodological quality was evaluated as poor. Energy intake ranged from 10 to 24 MJ/day for men and from 4 to 14 MJ/day for women. Protein intake ranged from 1.9 to 4.3 g/kg for men and from 0.8 to 2.8 g/kg for women. Intake of carbohydrate and fat was 6 months from competition) or immediate post-competition period and lowest during competition preparation (≤6 months from competition) or competition week. The most commonly reported dietary supplements were protein powders/liquids and amino acids. The studies failed to provide

  6. Role of endogenous substances in enhancing radioresistance background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharenko, E.N.; Gorskaya, T.G.; Gudz', T.I.; Zolotareva, L.T.; Kovaleva, Z.I.; Peshkova, E.N.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of ''wild type'' diploid cells (more radioresistant than haploid ones) are characterized by a higher content of endogenous biologically active substances, which possess a radioprotective ability (biogenous amines and SOD), and a lower level of radiosensitizing substances (hydroperoxides of higher unsaturated fatty acids). With Saccharomyces cerevisiae, bearing mutation rad 51, not all the components of the radioresistance background shoW this dependence, which is indicative of the presence of additional factors affecting radioresistance of these cells

  7. Effect of past and current dietary Zn intake on Zn absorption and endogenous excretion in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Hunt, J.R.; Ralston, N.V.

    1988-01-01

    Effects of previous dietary Zn (or body Zn stores) and current dietary Zn intake on absorption and endogenous excretion of Zn were studied by using radioisotope dilution. Rats were fed diets containing 1.5, 12.6 or 50.3 mg Zn/kg for 19 d (dietary period I). Total body Zn in the three groups was 1870 +/- 340, 3953 +/- 698 and 4126 +/- 844 micrograms Zn/rat. Each group was divided into four subgroups fed 3.6, 12.6, 20.5 or 50.3 mg Zn/kg diet for 3 wk (dietary period II). Rats were injected intramuscularly with 65Zn after 7 d of dietary period II. True absorption and endogenous excretion were calculated by isotope dilution. Zinc intake, urinary and fecal excretion, balance and percent Zn absorption were significantly affected only by dietary Zn in dietary period II (P less than 0.01). Endogenous excretion was affected by both past dietary Zn deficiency (body Zn stores) and by dietary Zn in dietary period II (P = 0.0001). Total body Zn at the end of the experiment was significantly affected by both periods of dietary treatment (P less than 0.001), but total body Zn concentration was affected only by the final dietary treatment (P less than 0.05). These results show that Zn absorption is affected by the current diet, but that turnover of Zn (endogenous excretion) is regulated by both current Zn intake and past Zn intake, probably through an effect on body Zn stores

  8. Humic substances in ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paxeus, N.; Allard, B.; Olofsson, U.; Bengtsson, M.

    1986-01-01

    The presence of naturally occurring complexing agents that may enhance the migration of disposed radionuclikes and thus facilitate their uptake by plantsis a problem associated with the underground disposal of radioactive wastes in bedrock. The main purpose of this work is to characterized humic substances from ground water and compare them with humic substances from surface water. The humic materials isolated from ground waters of a borehole in Fjaellveden (Sweden) were characterized by elemental and functional group analyses. Spectroscopic properties, molecular weight distributions as well as acid-base properties of the fulvic and humic fractions were also studied. The ground water humic substances were found to be quite similar in many respects (but not identical) to the Swedish surface water humics concentrated from the Goeta River but appeared to be quite different from the American ground water humics from Biscayne Florida Aquifer or Laramie Fox-Hills in Colorado. The physico-chemical properties of the isolated humic materials are discussed

  9. Dietary adherence in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    This article describes adherence to a low-fat dietary pattern (less than 20% energy from fat, five or more fruit/vegetable and six or more grain servings daily) in Years 1 and 5 of the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial, which was designed to examine the effects of a low-fat dietary pattern on risk of breast and colorectal cancers and other chronic diseases in postmenopausal women. Participants were randomly assigned to a low-fat dietary intervention arm (40%, n=19,542) or a usual diet control arm (60%, n=29,294). Women in the intervention arm completed 18 group sessions during the first year, followed by quarterly annual maintenance sessions. Adherence was assessed as control minus intervention (C-I) group differences in percent total energy from fat as estimated by a food frequency questionnaire. Based on these self-reported dietary data, mean C-I was 10.9 percentage points of energy from fat at Year 1, decreasing to 9.0 at Year 5. Factors associated with poorer adherence were being older, being African American or Hispanic (compared with white), having low income, and being obese. Group session attendance was strongly associated with better dietary adherence. There are many limitations of self-reported dietary data, particularly related to social desirability and intervention-associated bias. Nonetheless, these data indicate that long-term dietary change was achieved in this clinical trial setting and reinforce the potential of the ongoing trial to answer questions of public health importance.

  10. IOC Consensus Statement: Dietary Supplements and the High-Performance Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Ronald J; Burke, Louise M; Dvorak, Jiri; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Peeling, Peter; Phillips, Stuart M; Rawson, Eric S; Walsh, Neil P; Garthe, Ina; Geyer, Hans; Meeusen, Romain; van Loon, Luc; Shirreffs, Susan M; Spriet, Lawrence L; Stuart, Mark; Vernec, Alan; Currell, Kevin; Ali, Vidya M; Budgett, Richard G M; Ljungqvist, Arne; Mountjoy, Margo; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Soligard, Torbjørn; Erdener, Uğur; Engebretsen, Lars

    2018-03-01

    Nutrition usually makes a small but potentially valuable contribution to successful performance in elite athletes, and dietary supplements can make a minor contribution to this nutrition program. Nonetheless, supplement use is widespread at all levels of sport. Products described as supplements target different issues, including the management of micronutrient deficiencies, supply of convenient forms of energy and macronutrients, and provision of direct benefits to performance or indirect benefits such as supporting intense training regimens. The appropriate use of some supplements can offer benefits to the athlete, but others may be harmful to the athlete's health, performance, and/or livelihood and reputation if an anti-doping rule violation results. A complete nutritional assessment should be undertaken before decisions regarding supplement use are made. Supplements claiming to directly or indirectly enhance performance are typically the largest group of products marketed to athletes, but only a few (including caffeine, creatine, specific buffering agents and nitrate) have good evidence of benefits. However, responses are affected by the scenario of use and may vary widely between individuals because of factors that include genetics, the microbiome, and habitual diet. Supplements intended to enhance performance should be thoroughly trialed in training or simulated competition before implementation in competition. Inadvertent ingestion of substances prohibited under the anti-doping codes that govern elite sport is a known risk of taking some supplements. Protection of the athlete's health and awareness of the potential for harm must be paramount, and expert professional opinion and assistance is strongly advised before embarking on supplement use.

  11. Dietary supplementation with olive stone meal in growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerolamo Xiccato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive stone meal is a low-digested fibre source potentially useful in the prevention of digestive troubles in growing rabbit permitting a better balance of dietary fibre fractions. To evaluate its efficacy, three experimental diets containing 0, 3 or 6% olive stone meal were fed to 222 rabbits from weaning (28 d to slaughter (73 d. Olive stone inclusion increased the proportion of large dietary particles while did not affect growth performance, digestive physiology and carcass and meat quality. Due to optimum health status observed in all experimental groups, the preventive action of olive stone meal against the occurrence of digestive troubles was not proven.

  12. Identifying the substance abuse treatment needs of caregivers involved with child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca; Bellettiere, John; Cross, Theodore P

    2013-07-01

    Parental substance use significantly increases risk of child maltreatment, but is often under-identified by child protective services. This study examined how agency use of standardized substance use assessments and child welfare investigative caseworker education, experience, and caseload affected caseworkers' identification of parental substance abuse treatment needs. Data are from a national probability sample of permanent, primary caregivers involved with child protective services whose children initially remained at home and whose confidential responses on two validated instruments indicated harmful substance use or dependence. Investigative caseworkers reported use of a formal assessment in over two thirds of cases in which substance use was accurately identified. However, weighted logistic regression indicated that agency provision of standardized assessment instruments was not associated with caseworker identification of caregiver needs. Caseworkers were also less likely to identify substance abuse when their caseloads were high and when caregivers were fathers. Implications for agency practice are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Chemical Substances which are the Subject of Certain TSCA Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides guidance for people who may be subject to the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule on how their requirements for reporting for 2016 may be affected when chemical substances are the subject of certain TSCA actions.

  14. Nutrition and dopamine: An intake of tyrosine in royal jelly can affect the brain levels of dopamine in male honeybees (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Ken

    2016-04-01

    Precursors of neuroactive substances can be obtained from dietary sources, which can affect the resulting production of such substances in the brain. In social species, an intake of the precursor in food could be controlled by social interactions. To test the effects of dietary tyrosine on the brain dopamine levels in social insect colonies, male and worker honeybees were fed tyrosine or royal jelly under experimental conditions and the brain levels of dopamine and its metabolite were then measured. The results showed that the levels of dopamine and its metabolite in the brains of 4- and 8-day-old workers and 8-day-old males were significantly higher in tyrosine-fed bees than in control bees, but the levels in 4-day-old males were not. The brain levels of dopamine and its metabolite in 4- and 8-day-old males and workers were significantly higher in royal jelly-fed bees than in control bees, except for one group of 4-day-old workers. Food exchanges with workers were observed in males during 1-3 days, but self-feedings were also during 5-7 days. These results suggest that the brain levels of dopamine in males can be controlled by an intake of tyrosine in food via exchanging food with nestmates and by self-feeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Process of treating carbonaceous substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-12-16

    A process is described of removing halogens or halogen compounds (or both) from the products which form when carbonaceous substances are treated thermally in the presence of halogens or halogen compounds, consisting of passing the reaction products at the same temperature with a substance able to fix halogens or acid halides through an apparatus included between the receiver and the heat exchanger, which contains, in a relatively restricted space, internal elements obliquely disposed in relation to the direction of the flow, stretched in this direction and constituted preferably of helicoidal passages.

  16. Dietary polyphenol intake in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Rothwell, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    were collected using a standardized 24-h dietary recall software administered to 36,037 adult subjects. Dietary data were linked with Phenol-Explorer, a database with data on 502 individual polyphenols in 452 foods and data on polyphenol losses due to cooking and food processing. RESULTS: Mean total....... The current cross-sectional analysis aimed at estimating dietary intakes of all currently known individual polyphenols and total intake per class and subclass, and to identify their main food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. METHODS: Dietary data at baseline...... polyphenol intake was the highest in Aarhus-Denmark (1786 mg/day in men and 1626 mg/day in women) and the lowest in Greece (744 mg/day in men and 584 mg/day in women). When dividing the subjects into three regions, the highest intake of total polyphenols was observed in the UK health-conscious group...

  17. Evolutionary adaptations to dietary changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, F; Perry, G H; Di Rienzo, A

    2010-08-21

    Through cultural innovation and changes in habitat and ecology, there have been a number of major dietary shifts in human evolution, including meat eating, cooking, and those associated with plant and animal domestication. The identification of signatures of adaptations to such dietary changes in the genome of extant primates (including humans) may shed light not only on the evolutionary history of our species, but also on the mechanisms that underlie common metabolic diseases in modern human populations. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the major dietary shifts that occurred during hominin evolution, and we discuss the methods and approaches used to identify signals of natural selection in patterns of sequence variation. We then review the results of studies aimed at detecting the genetic loci that played a major role in dietary adaptations and conclude by outlining the potential of future studies in this area.

  18. Should You Take Dietary Supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2013 Print this issue Should You Take Dietary Supplements? A Look at Vitamins, Minerals, Botanicals and More ... Gut in Check Wise Choices Safe Use of Supplements Tell all of your health care providers about ...

  19. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyem, Reema F; Bawadi, Hiba A; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M; AbuMweis, Suhad S; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Heath, Dennis D

    2017-06-01

    Dietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of action of dietary factors in CRC disease is unclear. The aim of this study is the examination of several dietary choices and their potential association with the risk of developing CRC. Dietary data was collected from 220 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 281 control subjects (matched by age, gender, occupation and marital status). The data was collected between January 2010 and December 2012, using interview-based questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between dietary choices and risk of developing colorectal cancer. Factor analysis revealed three major dietary patterns. The first pattern we identified as the "Healthy Pattern", the second was identified as "High Sugar/High Tea Pattern" and the third as "Western Pattern". In the Healthy Pattern group we found a 10.54% variation in food intake, while the intake variation was 11.64% in the Western Pattern. After adjusting for confounding factors, the Western Pattern food choice was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of developing CRC (OR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.12-3.16). The results for the Healthy and High-Sugar/High Tea Patterns showed a decrease, but the statistic was not significant for the risk of CRC development. The Western Pattern of dietary choice was directly associated with CRC. The association between the dietary food choice in the Healthy and High-Sugar/High Tea Patterns and colorectal cancer needs further study in our Jordanian population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  20. Illicit substance use among adolescents: a matrix of prospective predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraitis, J; Flay, B R; Miller, T Q; Torpy, E J; Greiner, B

    1998-11-01

    This paper reviews findings from 58 prospective studies of illicit substance use (ISU) among adolescents. It arranges 384 findings according to three types of influence (viz., social, attitudinal, and intrapersonal) and four levels of influence (viz., ultimate, distal, proximal, and immediate). The bulk of evidence reconfirms the importance of several predictors of ISU (e.g., intentions and prior substance-related behavior, friendship patterns and peer behaviors, absence of supportive parents, psychological temperament), reveals that a few variables thought to be well-established predictors may not be (e.g., parental behaviors, parental permissiveness, depression, low self-esteem), and uncovers several variables where findings were either sparse or inconsistent (e.g., the role of public policies concerning ISU, mass media depictions of ISU, certain parenting styles, affective states, perceptions of parental disapproval for ISU, and substance-specific refusal skills). Directions for future research are discussed.

  1. Hazardous substances in Europe's fresh and marine waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collins, Robert; Brack, Werner; Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten

    Chemicals are an essential part of our daily lives. They are used to produce consumer goods, to protect or restore our health and to boost food production, to name but a few examples — and they are also involved in a growing range of environmental technologies. Europe's chemical and associated...... on their pattern of use and the potential for exposure. Certain types of naturally occurring chemicals, such as metals, can also be hazardous. Emissions of hazardous substances to the environment can occur at every stage of their life cycle, from production, processing, manufacturing and use in downstream...... regarding chemical contamination arising from the exploitation of shale gas has grown recently. Hazardous substances in water affect aquatic life… Hazardous substances are emitted to water bodies both directly and indirectly through a range of diffuse and point source pathways. The presence of hazardous...

  2. [A cross-sectional study on the changes in dietary behavior stages in resident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang-wen; Ma, Hai-yan; Yang, Ting-zhong; Liu, Ting-jie

    2004-05-01

    To explore the possibility of applying the concept of various stages of dietary behavior changes in Hangzhou residents. The dietary behavior was surveyed and analyzed in 1 388 Hangzhou residents with 18 year-old and older using the various dietary behavior change model model and stages of change. The proportion of Hangzhou residents with unhealthy dietary behavior was high and associated with gender and education level. The changes of dietary behavior could be divided into 5 stages, i.e. preintention, intention, preparation, action and maintenance. These stages of change happen consecutively. The changes of unhealthy dietary behavior do not match the improvement of health knowledge. Although a significant proportion of the residents understand that it is unhealthy to eat too much fat, pickles and high salt food, there are only a few of them really take action to reduce the consumption of these foods and to consume more milk, fruit and vegetable. There are multiple factors that affect the changes of dietary behavior in people. The changes of dietary behavior occur in various consecutive stages. Different intervention measures should be applied to people in different dietary behavior changes.

  3. Dietary carbohydrates and triacylglycerol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, H M

    1999-02-01

    There is a growing body of scientific evidence which demonstrates that plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentration, especially in the postprandial state, is an important risk factor in relation to the development of CHD. Postprandial hypertriacylglycerolaemia is associated with a number of adverse metabolic risk factors, including the preponderance of small dense LDL, low HDL-cholesterol concentrations and elevated factor VII activity. Traditionally, a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet was used to prevent CHD because it effectively reduces plasma cholesterol concentrations, but this dietary regimen increases plasma TAG concentrations and reduces HDL-cholesterol concentrations. There is substantial epidemiological evidence which demonstrates that high plasma TAG and low plasma HDL concentrations are associated with an increased risk of CHD. Thus, there is reason for concern that the adverse effects of low-fat high-carbohydrate diets on TAG and HDL may counteract or negate the beneficial effect of reducing LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Although there have been no prospective studies to investigate whether reduced fat intake has an adverse effect on CHD, there is strong epidemiological evidence that reducing total fat intake is not protective against CHD. On the other hand, high-fat diets predispose to obesity, and central obesity adversely affects TAG metabolism. There is substantial evidence that in free-living situations low-fat high-carbohydrate diets lead to weight loss, which in turn will correct insulin resistance and plasma TAG metabolism. Clearly there is a need for prospective studies to resolve the issue as to whether low-fat high-carbohydrate diets play an adverse or beneficial role in relation to the development of CHD.

  4. Substance Abuse and the Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John P.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the effect that a substance abuser may have on the family system and the maladaptive roles sometimes assumed by family members. Discusses dysfunctional family phases and therapeutic issues and presents 11 guidelines for counselors working with chemically dependent families. (JAC)

  5. Substance Use as Impression Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Mark J.; Getz, J. Greg

    1996-01-01

    Examines the function of substance use as an impression management tactic. Introductory psychology students (n=377) responded to a survey instrument measuring self-monitoring, perceived success in impression management, interaction anxiety, and self-esteem. Results suggest that alcohol use may serve an impression management function. (JPS)

  6. Comparison of subjective wellbeing in substance users and the parents or partners of substance users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Robert J

    2018-04-01

    There is growing interest in the impact of substance use on both the individual consumer's subjective wellbeing (SWB) and the reduced SWB of those closely connected to him or her. The study aimed to compare SWB among substance users ('consumers') and the parents or partners affected by another's substance use, and to evaluate the effect of counselling on changed SWB to 6 months. The study used longitudinal data from a not-for-profit treatment service based in Perth, Australia. Subjective wellbeing was assessed with the Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI) at baseline and 6 months. Data were compared to national norms (mean 75.97) with one sample t tests. Change in PWI scores was assessed with generalised linear mixed models, controlling for age, gender, group (consumers versus parents or partners), psychological distress (Kessler-10) and social connectedness (Lubben). Of 220 participants, 136 (62%) were consumers and 84 (38%) were parents or partners. At 6 months 123 (56%) were re-interviewed. At baseline, both consumers (mean 53.7) and parents or partners (mean 66.1) had significantly lower PWI scores than national norms. At 6 months, only the substance users' PWI scores remained significantly lower (mean 67.8). Subjective wellbeing significantly increased with time (β = 5.52; 95% confidence interval 3.15, 7.90), with no significant time by group interaction. Both groups showed significant decrements in SWB compared with the general population but with improvements over the study period. However, the lack of a control group prevents definitive assertions on causality for improved SWB. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  7. [Acting out and psychoactive substances: alcohol, drugs, illicit substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, C; Polard, E; Mauduit, N; Allain, H

    2001-01-01

    In humans, some psychotropic agents (alcohol, drugs, illicit substances) have been suggested to play a role in the occurrence of major behavioural disorders, mainly due to the suppression of psychomotor inhibition. Behavioural disinhibition is a physiological mechanism which allows humans to behave appropriately according to a given environmental situation. The behavioural disinhibition induced by either therapeutic dosage or misuse involves the loss of restraint over certain types of social behaviour and may increase the risk of auto or hetero-aggression and acting out. The increased use of psychotropic agents in recent years and the occurrence of unwanted effects are worrying and must be detected and evaluated. The objective of the present study was to establish a causal relationship between psychoactive substance use and occurrence of major behavioural disorders, such as paradoxical rage reactions and suicidal behaviour, based on a literature analysis. It consisted of reviewing reports of drug-induced violent reactions in healthy volunteers and demonstrating, where possible, a cause-effect relationship. Patients with schizophrenia and psychopathic personalities were not included in our study since psychiatric comorbidity could influence behavioural responses. Psychotropic agents included drugs, licit and illicit substances already associated with violence in the past. Many reports used the "Go/No Go test" to evaluate the disinhibiting effect of psychotropic substances; this allows the "cognitive mapping" of drugs. The results suggest that only alcohol, antidepressants, benzodiazepines and cocaïne are related to aggressive behaviour. The best known precipitant of behavioural disinhibition is alcohol, which induces aggressive behaviour. However, there are large differences between individuals, and attentional mechanisms are now recognised as being important in mediating the effects of alcohol. Suicidal tendency as an adverse antidepressant reaction is rare

  8. Changes in Atherogenic Dyslipidemia Induced by Carbohydrate Restriction in Men Are Dependent on Dietary Protein Source1234

    OpenAIRE

    Mangravite, Lara M.; Chiu, Sally; Wojnoonski, Kathleen; Rawlings, Robin S.; Bergeron, Nathalie; Krauss, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that multiple features of atherogenic dyslipidemia are improved by replacement of dietary carbohydrate with mixed sources of protein and that these lipid and lipoprotein changes are independent of dietary saturated fat content. Because epidemiological evidence suggests that red meat intake may adversely affect cardiovascular disease risk, we tested the effects of replacing dietary carbohydrate with beef protein in the context of high- vs. low-saturated fat intake i...

  9. The Role of Dietary Fat throughout the Prostate Cancer Trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie M. Di Sebastiano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer diagnosed world-wide; however, patients demonstrate exceptionally high survival rates. Many lifestyle factors, including obesity and diet, are considered risk factors for advanced prostate cancer. Dietary fat is a fundamental contributor to obesity and may be specifically important for prostate cancer patients. Prostate cancer treatment can result in changes in body composition, affecting quality of life for survivors by increasing the risk of co-morbidities, like cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We aim to examine dietary fat throughout the prostate cancer treatment trajectory, including risk, cancer development and survivorship. Focusing on one specific nutrient throughout the prostate cancer trajectory provides a unique perspective of dietary fat in prostate cancer and the mechanisms that may exacerbate prostate cancer risk, progression and recurrence. Through this approach, we noted that high intake of dietary fat, especially, high intake of animal and saturated fats, may be associated with increased prostate cancer risk. In contrast, a low-fat diet, specifically low in saturated fat, may be beneficial for prostate cancer survivors by reducing tumor angiogenesis and cancer recurrence. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF/Akt signaling pathway appears to be the key pathway moderating dietary fat intake and prostate cancer development and progression.

  10. Dietary fats and prevention of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risérus, Ulf; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B

    2009-01-01

    Although type 2 diabetes is determined primarily by lifestyle and genes, dietary composition may affect both its development and complications. Dietary fat is of particular interest because fatty acids influence glucose metabolism by altering cell membrane function, enzyme activity, insulin signaling, and gene expression. This paper focuses on the prevention of type 2 diabetes and summarizes the epidemiologic literature on associations between types of dietary fat and diabetes risk. It also summarizes controlled feeding studies on the effects of dietary fats on metabolic mediators, such as insulin resistance. Taken together, the evidence suggests that replacing saturated fats and trans fatty acids with unsaturated (polyunsaturated and/or monounsaturated) fats has beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and is likely to reduce risk of type 2 diabetes. Among polyunsaturated fats, linoleic acid from the n-6 series improves insulin sensitivity. On the other hand, long-chain n-3 fatty acids do not appear to improve insulin sensitivity or glucose metabolism. In dietary practice, foods rich in vegetable oils, including non-hydrogenated margarines, nuts, and seeds, should replace foods rich in saturated fats from meats and fat-rich dairy products. Consumption of partially hydrogenated fats should be minimized. Additional controlled, long-term studies are needed to improve our knowledge on the optimal proportion of different types of fats to prevent diabetes.

  11. Dietary management of chronic kidney disease: protein restriction and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraya, Nimrit; Wesson, Donald E

    2012-11-01

    More kidney protective strategies are needed to reduce the burden of complete kidney failure from chronic kidney disease (CKD). Clinicians sometimes use protein restriction as kidney protection despite its demonstrated lack of effectiveness in the only large-scale study. Small-scale studies support that dietary acid reduction is kidney-protective, including when done with base-inducing foods like fruits and vegetables. We review these studies in light of current kidney-protective recommendations. Animal models of CKD show that acid-inducing dietary protein exacerbates and base-inducing protein ameliorates nephropathy progression, and that increased intake of acid-inducing but not base-inducing dietary protein exacerbates progression. Clinical studies show that dietary acid reduction with Na-based alkali reduces kidney injury and slows nephropathy progression in patients with CKD and reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR); base-inducing fruits and vegetables reduce kidney injury in patients with reduced GFR; and base-inducing fruits and vegetables improve metabolic acidosis in CKD. Protein type rather than amount might more importantly affect nephropathy progression. Base-inducing foods might be another way to reduce dietary acid, a strategy shown in small studies to slow nephropathy progression. Further studies will determine if CKD patients should be given base-inducing food as part of their management.

  12. Amphetamine Containing Dietary Supplements and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Perez-Downes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight loss is one of the most researched and marketed topics in American society. Dietary regimens, medications that claim to boost the metabolism, and the constant pressure to fit into society all play a role in our patient’s choices regarding new dietary products. One of the products that are well known to suppress appetite and cause weight loss is amphetamines. While these medications suppress appetite, most people are not aware of the detrimental side effects of amphetamines, including hypertension, tachycardia, arrhythmias, and in certain instances acute myocardial infarction. Here we present the uncommon entity of an acute myocardial infarction due to chronic use of an amphetamine containing dietary supplement in conjunction with an exercise regimen. Our case brings to light further awareness regarding use of amphetamines. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion of use of these substances when young patients with no risk factors for coronary artery disease present with acute arrhythmias, heart failure, and myocardial infarctions.

  13. Effect of dietary fiber on properties and acceptance of meat products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Suman

    2015-01-01

    Meat is an important source of all essential nutritional components of our daily diet as it content most of the essential amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals which are lack in plant based food, but it is devoid of dietary fiber, which is very essential component for normal physiological/biochemical process. During meat products processing, its functional values can be improved by supplementation of dietary fiber rich vegetative substances like cereal and pulse flour, vegetable and fruits pulp, etc. by this process, a significant proportion of required daily allowance of dietary fiber can be fulfilled for the frequent meat consumers. The consumption of meat products fortified with of dietary fiber can lead to the prevention of diseases like coronary heart disease, diabetes, irritable bowel disease, obesity, etc. On the other hand, the dietary fiber can effectively be incorporated in the processed meat products as binders, extender, and filler, they can significantly replace the unhealthy fat components from the products; increase acceptability by improving nutritional components, pH, water-holding capacity, emulsion stability, shear press value, sensory characters, etc. of finished products. Addition of dietary fiber in the meat products can increase the cooking yield therefore the economic gain as well.

  14. Control substances and alcohol use and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przybylski, J.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act was signed into law in October of 1991. The Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act of 1991 required the United States Department of Transportation (DOT) to enact regulations requiring the testing of employees that perform ``safety sensitive functions`` for illegal controlled substance use and alcohol misuse. The Transportation Management Division, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (TMD/EM-261), United States Department of Energy (DOE), Training Program Manager is committed to promoting the availability of the necessary information to those affected members of the Department of Energy (DOE) community in an effort to attain the highest possible level of regulatory compliance and to enhance the safety of each individual in the workplace.

  15. [Dietary behaviours of volleyball and basketball players].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepańska, Elzbieta; Spałkowska, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    In sports, such as basketball and volleyball, players must demonstrate the speed, strength, stamina and concentration. Correct nutrition affects the strength of the muscles and the extension of capacity. It is also necessary for the proper functioning of the nervous system and determines the rate of regeneration after physical effort. The aim of this study was to assess dietary behaviours of professional volleyball and basketball players and compare the prevalence of correct behaviours in both groups. 209 professional volleyball and basketball players from sports clubs localized in six Silesian cities were survived with the mean of author questionnaire. The chi-square test was used to examine differences in the prevalence of the correct behaviours among players. Analysis of the results obtained showed that 52% of the players had 4-5 meals a day. 35% of respondents had wholemeal bread and/or groats daily. Milk and dairy products daily ate 71% of surveyed players, meat and sausages 70% respectively. 41% of respondents had cottage cheese and 28% had fish several times a week. Vegetables and fruit were eaten by 21% and respectively 23% of respondents. Sweets were eaten daily by 40% of surveyed, while fast-food were eaten several times a week by 17% of players. Nutrients for athletes were used by 32%, and vitamin supplementation by 48% of respondents. Prevalence of correct dietary behaviour in the group of professional volleyball and basketball players differed. Basketball players statistically more frequently than volleyball players had 4-5 meals a day, had wholemeal bread and/or thick groats, milk and dairy products, meat and sausages, especially poultry. They had raw vegetables and fruit several times a day. They drank more than 2.5 liters of fluids per day. They also significantly more frequently than volleyball players consumed the fast-food occasionally or never. Dietary behaviours of surveyed players were incorrect. Comparison of prevalence of proper behaviours

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLES An epidemiological perspective of substance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-09-06

    Sep 6, 2002 ... advertising linking alcohol with the glamour of sport. This inculcates values that ... of substance use is a useful preventive strategy, hence the importance of ... substance use and associated factors (including age, gender,.

  17. Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a term for when someone experiences a mental illness and a substance use disorder simultaneously. Either disorder—substance use or mental illness—can develop first. People experiencing a mental health ...

  18. EPA Linked Open Data: Substance Registry Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Substance Registry Services (SRS) is the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) central system for information about substances that are tracked or regulated by EPA...

  19. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z # Search Form Controls Search The CDC submit Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Note: Javascript ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) , based ...

  20. Relationships of adolescent's dietary habits with personality traits and food neophobia according to family meal frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Mi Sook; Kim, Miseon; Cho, Wookyoun

    2014-08-01

    A higher frequency of family meals is associated with good dietary habits in young people. This study focused on the relationships of family meal frequency with food neophobia and personality traits in adolescents. For this purpose, we administered a survey to 495 middle school students in Seoul metropolitan city, after which the data were analyzed using the SPSS (18.0) program. Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationships among dietary habits, personality traits, and food neophobia according to frequency of family meals. Dietary habits, personality traits, and food neophobia all showed significant differences according to the frequency of family meals. Further, eating regular family meals was associated with good dietary habits (P food neophobia (P food neophobia showed a negative correlation (P food neophobia showed a negative correlation (P frequency of family meals affects dietary habits, personality traits, and food neophobia in adolescents.

  1. Effects of dietary nutrient composition on de novo lipogenesis in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Kim Schøn

    rate of 18.7 to 123.7 mg/kg biomass/day, when feeding iso-DP and iso-DE diets ranging between 6 and 24% dietary starch, respectively. Additionally, up to 68.8% of the hepatic glycogen pool could be attributed to dietary starch, while the same was true for up to 38.8% of the whole body glycogen pool...... (using diets otherwise iso-DP and iso-DE). The apparent retention of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) and mono unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were positively related to dietary starch level (and negatively related to dietary lipid level), exceeding 100% in fish fed high starch diets. These findings...... and the PUFA content to decrease when increasing dietary starch level, adversely affecting the overall FA quality of the final product. Considering lipogenesis results, nutrient retention efficiencies and body composition results obtained in the three trials collectively, gilthead sea bream appear to endeavour...

  2. Binding of bile acids by pastry products containing bioactive substances during in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Górecka, Danuta; Szwengiel, Artur; Smoczyńska, Paulina; Czaczyk, Katarzyna; Komolka, Patrycja

    2015-03-01

    The modern day consumer tends to choose products with health enhancing properties, enriched in bioactive substances. One such bioactive food component is dietary fibre, which shows a number of physiological properties including the binding of bile acids. Dietary fibre should be contained in everyday, easily accessible food products. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine sorption capacities of primary bile acid (cholic acid - CA) and secondary bile acids (deoxycholic - DCA and lithocholic acids - LCA) by muffins (BM) and cookies (BC) with bioactive substances and control muffins (CM) and cookies (CC) in two sections of the in vitro gastrointestinal tract. Variations in gut flora were also analysed in the process of in vitro digestion of pastry products in a bioreactor. Enzymes: pepsin, pancreatin and bile salts: cholic acid, deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid were added to the culture. Faecal bacteria, isolated from human large intestine, were added in the section of large intestine. The influence of dietary fibre content in cookies and concentration of bile acids in two stages of digestion were analysed. Generally, pastry goods with bioactive substances were characterized by a higher content of total fibre compared with the control samples. These products also differ in the profile of dietary fibre fractions. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the bile acid profile after two stages of digestion depends on the quality and quantity of fibre. The bile acid profile after digestion of BM and BC forms one cluster, and with the CM and CC forms a separate cluster. High concentration of H (hemicellulose) is positively correlated with LCA (low binding effect) and negatively correlated with CA and DCA contents. The relative content of bile acids in the second stage of digestion was in some cases above the content in the control sample, particularly LCA. This means that the bacteria introduced in the 2nd stage of digestion synthesize the LCA.

  3. Examining Nutritional Adequacy and Dietary Diversity Among Women in Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisse-Egbuonye, Nafissatou; Ishdorj, Ariun; McKyer, E L J; Mkuu, Rahma

    2017-06-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the nutritional adequacy and dietary composition among women residing in Zinder and Maradi of Niger, and the factors that affect the variety of their dietary intake. Methods Data from 3360 women of ages 15-49 were used in the analysis. The variable of interest was the Women Dietary Diversity Score (WDDS), which is the simple sum of scores of the 9 categorized food groups, ranging from 0 to 9. Lower values for WDDS indicate nutritionally inadequate dietary diversity. Analysis included descriptive, Mann-Whitney U test and linear regression. Results The majority of the participants were residing in the Maradi Region (56.7%) and were living in households with both male and female adults (94.9%). The mean WDDS was 3.5 in Zinder compared to 2.5 in Maradi (p Hunger Scale (HHS) had a negative and significant effect on WDDS. Conclusion Niger has one of the highest concentrations of malnutrition in the world. In 2012, approximately 2.5 million Nigeriens were affected by malnutrition. Our study results reinforce the importance to conduct more studies that examine the nutritional intake of women in Niger.

  4. Substance involvement among juvenile murderers: comparisons with older offenders based on interviews with prison inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendrich, M; Mackesy-Amiti, M E; Goldstein, P; Spunt, B; Brownstein, H

    1995-09-01

    We evaluated substance involvement among incarcerated juvenile offenders convicted of murder of manslaughter. Patterns of substance involvement among juvenile offenders were compared with patterns found in older offenders. Irrespective of age group, close to one-third of all homicide perpetrators reported that they were affected by alcohol prior to the offense. In every age group, alcohol was the substance showing the highest rate of "regular" lifetime use and the highest rate of ingestion in the week preceding the homicide. In many respects, the reported substance use patterns in the 16-17-year-old age group were closer to the patterns demonstrated by the oldest (36+) age group than they were to the adjacent 18-20-year-old group. Juvenile offenders were generally less substance involved than all but the oldest group of offenders. Almost all of the juveniles who were substance involved prior to the homicide attributed the homicide to the effects of those substances. Narrative accounts suggest that substances (almost always alcohol) escalated impulsive, spontaneous violent outbursts. Implications for the interpretation of self-reports about substance use provided by murderers are also discussed.

  5. Impact of humic substances and nitrogen fertilising on the fruit quality and yield of custard apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo dos Santos Cunha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The custard apple (Annona squamosa L., also known as the sugar apple, is a fruit species native to Brazil that has been poorly studied, especially in relation to the effect of humic substances on its fruit quality and yield. An experiment was conducted from December 2010 to November 2011 to evaluate the fruit quality and yield of the custard apple as a function of nitrogen fertilising and the use of humic substances. The experimental design consisted of randomised blocks, with treatments distributed in a factorial arrangement (4 x 2, using four nitrogen doses (0, 100, 175 and 250 g of N plant-1 and two humic substance applications (with and without humic substances, with four replications. The fruit yield and fruit characteristics, such as fruit mass, titratable acidity (TA, soluble solids (SS, pulp pH and SS/TA ratio, were recorded. The humic substances and the nitrogen levels significantly affected the soluble solids, titratable acidity and SS/TA ratio, while the pH pulp was only influenced by the humic substances. The humic substances promoted a quantitative increase in the fruit yield of 0.63 ton ha-1. The fruit quality and yield of the custard apple depend on the nitrogen fertiliser and the interaction of the humic substances. Nitrogen fertilising of 100 g per plant, associated with humic substances, could be recommended for use in the production of custard apples.

  6. Antigenotoxicity of Dietary Coconut Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Lim-Sylianco; A.P. Guevara; L. Sylianco-Wu

    1992-01-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene, dimethylnitrosamine, methylmethanesulfonate and tetracycline induced formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes indicating that these substances are genotoxic to bone marrow cells of the experimental mice.Genotoxicity of these substances to germ cells was also observed when low fertility index and high percentage dead implants were induced in experimental mice.When each genotoxin was administered to mice fed with diets containing 18 % coconut oil for 23 days, the f...

  7. Substance Abuse in Aging Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Jazayeri

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available substance abuse' specially opiates and prescribed drugs are spreading among the older adults. Most of the time it begins as an attempt to medicate chronic pains, medical conditions and loneliness. In other instances, it simply is the continuation of a problem that begun in young adulthood. But scholars and specialists in both fields of Addiction and Gerontology, rather neglected this fast growing problem, to the extent that we almost have no data on the epidemiology, prevention and treatment modalities among the substance abusing old adults in Iran. This paper reflects the necessity of designing age specific programs to identify and treat this group. Besides, some of the most effictive methods of treatment in other countries are reviewed.

  8. Psychotropic substances in indoor environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecinato, Angelo; Romagnoli, Paola; Perilli, Mattia; Patriarca, Claudia; Balducci, Catia

    2014-10-01

    The presence of drugs in outdoor air has been established, but few investigations have been conducted indoors. This study focused on psychotropic substances (PSs) at three schools, four homes and one office in Rome, Italy. The indoor drug concentrations and the relationships with the outdoor atmosphere were investigated. The optimised monitoring procedure allowed for the determination of cocaine, cannabinoids and particulate fractions of nicotine and caffeine. In-field experiments were performed during the winter, spring and summer seasons. Psychotropic substances were observed in all indoor locations. The indoor concentrations often exceeded those recorded both outdoors at the same sites and at the atmospheric pollution control network stations, indicating that the drugs were released into the air at the inside sites or were more persistent. During winter, the relative concentrations of cannabinol, cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabinol depended on site and indoor/outdoor location at the site. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. TOXICOLOGICAL ENDPOINTS OF DOPING SUBSTANCES

    OpenAIRE

    BASARAN, A. Ahmet

    2018-01-01

    Athletes and non athletes weighlifters have tried to gain an unfairadvantage through the use doping substances since ancient times. Dopingsubstances although enhance sports performance, represent a risk to the healthof individuals and violate the sprit of competition. The use of prohibitedperformance enhancing drugs (PED’s) or methods to improve results incompetitive sports is referred as doping. Among the PED’s used areandrogenic-anabolic steroids (AASs), diuretics and masking agents, narkot...

  10. The administration of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdillon, P.J.; Godfrey, B.E.; O'Brien, R.

    1983-01-01

    A brief history is given of the evolution of a system to approve the licensing of doctors and dentists to use radioactive medicinal products in man. Currently, the Administration of Radioactive Substances Advisory Committee (ARSAC) is appointed by UK Health Ministers to advise them on the granting, renewal, suspension, revocation and variation of certificates. The type of information requested on the application form for a certificate is outlined. (UK)

  11. A Study of personality profile and criminal behavior in substance abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Aggarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to study the personality characteristics and criminal behavior in the substance abusers. The role of various sociodemographic variables in substance abusers, which affected their criminal behavior was also studied. Moreover, in the present study, the personality profile of substance users and nonusers was compared using psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism (PEN inventory. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 consecutive subjects diagnosed as per International Classification of Diseases-10 criteria for substance abuse, fulfilling the inclusive and exclusive criteria were taken. A well-matched control was also assessed to compare the studied subject using a well-designed semi-structured proforma and PEN inventory. Results: Most of the substance abusers were Hindus, married, belonged to 21-30 age group and urban domicile, and were presently unemployed, educated up to middle class, and belonged to lower socioeconomic status. Family history of substance use was significant in the subjects, and the chief substance of use was opioids. Scores for psychoticism and neuroticism, as well as the criminal behavior was significantly higher in studied subjects. Conclusion: Thus, conclusions drawn were that personality characteristics of the substance abusers differed significantly from the control group and second, the number of variables including occupational status, socioeconomic status, family history of substance use, and type of substance of abuse significantly correlated with the criminal behavior in the substance abusers. Identifying these variables can be the first step in the intervention in substance abusers in order to reduce their future criminal behavior.

  12. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount importance. The extent and significance of dermal absorption of eight petroleum substances, representing different classes of hydrocarbons, was evaluated. Literature data on the steady-state flux and permeability coefficient of these substances were evaluated and compared to those predicted by mathematical models. Reported results spanned over 5-6 orders of magnitude and were largely dependent on experimental conditions in particular on the type of the vehicle used. In general, aromatic hydrocarbons showed higher dermal absorption than more lipophilic aliphatics with similar molecular weight. The results showed high variation and were largely influenced by experimental conditions emphasizing the need of performing the experiments under "in use" scenario. The predictive models overestimated experimental absorption. The overall conclusion is that, based on the observed percutaneous penetration data, dermal exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, even of aromatics with highest dermal absorption is limited and highly unlikely to be associated with health risks under real use scenarios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Substance misuse and substance use disorders in sex offenders: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraanen, F.L.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse has often been associated with committing sex offenses. In this article, the following will be reviewed: 1) studies that assessed substance abuse in sex offenders; 2) differences in substance abuse among different types of sex offenders; 3) differences in substance abuse between sex

  14. 21 CFR 172.510 - Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors. 172.510 Section 172.510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION....510 Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors. Natural...

  15. Dietary patterns as compared with physical activity in relation to metabolic syndrome among Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y; Li, Y; Lai, J; Wang, D; Zhang, J; Fu, P; Yang, X; Qi, L

    2013-10-01

    To examine the nationally-representative dietary patterns and their joint effects with physical activity on the likelihood of metabolic syndrome (MS) among 20,827 Chinese adults. CNNHS was a nationally representative cross-sectional observational study. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Joint Interim Statement definition. The "Green Water" dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of rice and vegetables and moderate intakes in animal foods was related to the lowest prevalence of MS (15.9%). Compared to the "Green Water" dietary pattern, the "Yellow Earth" dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of refined cereal products, tubers, cooking salt and salted vegetable was associated with a significantly elevated odds of MS (odds ratio 1.66, 95%CI: 1.40-1.96), after adjustment of age, sex, socioeconomic status and lifestyle factors. The "Western/new affluence" dietary pattern characterized by higher consumption of beef/lamb, fruit, eggs, poultry and seafood also significantly associated with MS (odds ratio: 1.37, 95%CI: 1.13-1.67). Physical activity showed significant interactions with the dietary patterns in relation to MS risk (P for interaction = 0.008). In the joint analysis, participants with the combination of sedentary activity with the "Yellow Earth" dietary pattern or the "Western/new affluence" dietary pattern both had more than three times (95%CI: 2.8-6.1) higher odds of MS than those with active activity and the "Green Water" dietary pattern. Our findings from the large Chinese national representative data indicate that dietary patterns affect the likelihood of MS. Combining healthy dietary pattern with active lifestyle may benefit more in prevention of MS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of dietary calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) on phosphorus retention in chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheideler, S.E.; Sell, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Experiment 1 was a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement with 3 levels of dietary Ca (3.0, 3.5, and 4.0%) and 3 P feeding programs fed to laying hens for 336 days. The P programs tested were: .64% P fed continuously for 48 weeks; .64, .54, and .44% P; and .56, .49, and .39% P fed when hens were 24 to 36, 36 to 52, and 52 to 72 weeks of age, respectively. In addition to production traits, measurements of P retention were made at 34, 42, 50, 62, and 72 weeks of age. None of the production traits measured showed any dietary effects. Dietary Ca affected P retention at 50, 62, and 72 weeks of age. None of the production traits measured showed any dietary effects. Dietary Ca affected P retention at 50, 62, and 72 weeks of age. Average P retention for the experiment was 104, 148, and 178 mg/day in hens fed 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0% Ca. Dietary P affected P retention at 42 and 72 weeks, with P retention being greater in hens fed .64% P. Ca x P interactions were measured at 42, 62, and 72 weeks of age. Experiment 2 involved 2 levels of dietary Ca (.8 and 1.2%) fed to one-week-old broiler chicks for 8 days during which time 50 uCi 33 P/chick were administered. Serum, femurs, and excreta were collected 48 hours following 33 P dosing. Serum inorganic P and excreted 33 P activity were greater in chicks fed .8% Ca; whereas femur 33 P activity was greater when chicks received the 1.2% Ca diet. These data indicate increased P retention and greater bone deposition of P in chicks fed 1.2% dietary Ca. These results support those of Experiment 1 in which P retention of hens increased as dietary Ca increased

  17. Impact of Dietary Cholesterol on the Pathophysiology of Infectious and Autoimmune Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J. Andersen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellular cholesterol metabolism, lipid raft formation, and lipoprotein interactions contribute to the regulation of immune-mediated inflammation and response to pathogens. Lipid pathways have been implicated in the pathogenesis of bacterial and viral infections, whereas altered lipid metabolism may contribute to immune dysfunction in autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Interestingly, dietary cholesterol may exert protective or detrimental effects on risk, progression, and treatment of different infectious and autoimmune diseases, although current findings suggest that these effects are variable across populations and different diseases. Research evaluating the effects of dietary cholesterol, often provided by eggs or as a component of Western-style diets, demonstrates that cholesterol-rich dietary patterns affect markers of immune inflammation and cellular cholesterol metabolism, while additionally modulating lipoprotein profiles and functional properties of HDL. Further, cholesterol-rich diets appear to differentially impact immunomodulatory lipid pathways across human populations of variable metabolic status, suggesting that these complex mechanisms may underlie the relationship between dietary cholesterol and immunity. Given the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015–2020 revision to no longer include limitations on dietary cholesterol, evaluation of dietary cholesterol recommendations beyond the context of cardiovascular disease risk is particularly timely. This review provides a comprehensive and comparative analysis of significant and controversial studies on the role of dietary cholesterol and lipid metabolism in the pathophysiology of infectious disease and autoimmune disorders, highlighting the need for further investigation in this developing area of research.

  18. Dietary diversity scores: an indicator of micronutrient inadequacy instead of obesity for Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenzhi; Yu, Kai; Tan, Shengjie; Zheng, Yingdong; Zhao, Ai; Wang, Peiyu; Zhang, Yumei

    2017-05-12

    Micronutrient malnutrition affects the well-being of both adults and children. Dietary diversity score (DDS) is a useful evaluation index with a relatively well-developed guideline by FAO. It's meaningful to assess and predict inadequate micronutrient intakes using DDS in Chinese children, after ruling out the risk of obesity coming with more dietary diversity. Data for evaluation were extracted from the Nutrition Study of Preschool Children and School Children, which is a cross-sectional study covering 8 cities of China, including 1694 children in kindergartens and primary schools. This study applied DDS to Chinese children to test the validity for micronutrient inadequacy, and then explored the relationship between dietary diversity and obesity. It reveals that dietary diversity varied with age and place of residence; the older ones and the ones living in rural areas tend to have poorer dietary diversity. Another discovery is that DDS is positively correlated with indicators of micronutrient adequacy, with a score of 6-8 indicating the lowest risk of micronutrient inadequacy in different groups of children. In our study population, dietary diversity is not related with obesity. Dietary diversity score is a valid indicator to evaluate micronutrient inadequacy in Chinese children, though there is still room for improvement of the method. Besides, the relationship between increase of dietary diversity and risk of obesity should be treated circumspectly.

  19. Dietary reference values for thiamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived dietary reference values (DRVs) for thiamin (vitamin B1). The Panel considers that data from depletion–repletion studies in adults on the amount of dietary thiamin intake...... were measured. Results from other depletion–repletion studies are in agreement with this value. The Panel agrees on the coefficient of variation of 20% used by the SCF to cover uncertainties related to distribution of thiamin requirements in the general population, and endorses the population reference...

  20. [Reconsideration of nicotine and other substance dependence: a clue from dependence-related mentation including reward, motivation, learning, delusion and hallucination toward understanding the concept of non-substance-related addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Hisatsugu

    2013-11-01

    Nicotine produces core symptoms of substance dependence (craving and withdrawal) without any psychotic symptoms. The psychopharmacological structure of craving is hypothesized to be constituted by three components: the primary reinforcing property of a substance, the secondary reinforcing property of that substance (conditioned aspects of the environment, such as contextual or specific cues associated with substance taking), and the negative affective motivational property during withdrawal (i.e. the desire to avoid the dysphoric withdrawal symptoms elicits craving). Among the three components, the primary reinforcing property of a substance forms the most fundamental factor for establishing substance dependence. Sensitization or reverse tolerance observed in locomotor activity of animals, which had been believed to be a methamphetamine psychosis model, is demonstrated to reflect the establishment of conditioned reinforcement. Finally, non-substance-related addiction such as gambling, internet, and sex is discussed. From the aspect of the above hypothetical psychopharmacological structure of craving, the most significant difference between substance dependence and non-substance-related addiction is that the primary reinforcing property of non-substance reward is relatively intangible in comparison with that of a substance of abuse.