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Sample records for dietary soybean meal

  1. Silkworm caterpillar - soybean meal blend as dietary protein source ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the utilization of silkworm caterpillar meat (SCM) blended with soybean meal (SBM) as a dietary protein source in the practical diet of Heterobranchus bidorsalis fingerlings (M±SE=17.04±_0.02g). The fish were fed five isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets containing blends of SCM ...

  2. Replacing dietary soybean meal with canola meal improves production and efficiency of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Glen A; Faciola, Antonio P; Armentano, Louis E

    2015-08-01

    Previous research suggested that crude protein (CP) from canola meal (CM) was used more efficiently than CP from solvent soybean meal (SBM) by lactating dairy cows. We tested whether dietary CP content influenced relative effectiveness of equal supplemental CP from either CM or SBM. Fifty lactating Holstein cows were blocked by parity and days in milk into 10 squares (2 squares with ruminal cannulas) in a replicated 5×5 Latin square trial. Five squares were fed: (1) low (14.5-14.8%) CP with SBM, (2) low CP with CM, (3) low CP with SBM plus CM, (4) high (16.4-16.7%) CP with SBM, and (5) high CP with CM; the other 5 squares were fed the same diets except with rumen-protected Met plus Lys (RPML) added as Mepron (Degussa Corp., Kennesaw, GA) and AminoShure-L (Balchem Corp., New Hampton, NY), which were assumed to provide 8g/d of absorbed dl-Met and 12g/d of absorbed l-Lys. Diets contained [dry matter (DM) basis] 40% corn silage, 26% alfalfa silage, 14 to 23% corn grain, 2.4% mineral-vitamin premixes, and 29 to 33% neutral detergent fiber. Periods were 3wk (total 15wk), and data from the last week of each period were analyzed using the Mixed procedures of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The only effects of RPML were increased DM intake and milk urea N (MUN) and urinary N excretion and trends for decreased milk lactose and solids-not-fat concentrations and milk-N:N intake; no significant RPML × protein source interactions were detected. Higher dietary CP increased milk fat yield and tended to increase milk yield but also elevated MUN, urine volume, urinary N excretion, ruminal concentrations of ammonia and branched-chain volatile fatty acids (VFA), lowered milk lactose concentration and milk-N:N intake, and had no effect on milk true protein yield. Feeding CM instead of SBM increased feed intake, yields of milk, energy-corrected milk, and true protein, and milk-N:N intake, tended to increase fat and lactose yields, and reduced MUN, urine volume, and urinary N

  3. Improvement of broiler meat quality due to dietary inclusion of soybean oligosaccharide derived from soybean meal extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthama, N.; Pramono, Y. B.; Sukamto, B.

    2018-01-01

    Dietary inclusion of antibiotics as growth promoters (AGPs) in poultry production has been applied for decades worldwide, but recently AGPs have been banned due to the negative consequences for health and food safety. Soybean oligosccharide (SOS) derived from soybean meal extract is one of natural compound without carrying-over the residue to product and is consumer’s health friendly. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate dietary inclusion of SOS on broiler meat quality. A total of 120 broilers of 7-day-old were allocated into 3 treatments with 4 replications (10 birds each) in completely randomized design. Treatments applied were D1: diet without SOS, D2: D1 plus 0.15% SOS, and D3: D1 plus 0.30% SOS. Intestinal lactic acid bacteria (LAB), protein digestibility, meat protein and fat depositions, and meat cholesterol were the parameters observed. Data were statistically tested using analysis of variance and Duncan test. Dietary SOS inclusion at 0.30% (D3) significantly (P<0.05) increased LAB population (7.21x104 cfu/g), protein digestibility (72.80%), and meat protein deposition (90.83 g/bird), but it decreased meat fat (8.27 g/bird) and meat cholesterol (37.28 mg/100 g). In conclusion, dietary SOS inclusion at 0.30% improves meat quality of broiler based on the increase in meat protein deposition with lower fat and cholesterol.

  4. Evaluation of dietary soybean meal as fish meal replacer for juvenile whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei reared in biofloc system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeonho Yun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Different levels of dietary soybean meal (SBM as a fish meal (FM replacer, with and without amino acid supplementation, for whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei reared in the biofloc system was examined in eight weeks of feeding trial. Eight experimental diets consisted of a basal diet with 0% FM replacement by SBM provided in clear sea water without biofloc system (S0SW, four diets replacing FM at 0% (S0, 33% (S33, 67% (S67 and 100% (S100 by SBM, and three diets replacing FM at 33% (S33A, 67% (S67A and 100% (S100A by SBM supplemented with amino acids (methionine and lysine in the seawater biofloc system. Results of water quality analyses showed significantly lower total suspended solids and nitrate for S0SW group than all other treatments. Diets S0 and S33A resulted in higher weight gain and specific growth rate among all groups, with no significant differences with S33 group. In addition, whole-body protein and amino acid compositions of shrimp fed S0SW were lower than most biofloc groups. Haemolymph parameters showed significant differences in total protein, cholesterol and triglyceride between groups S0 and S0SW. Also, superoxide dismutase activity showed a decreasing trend with increasing replacement level. In conclusion, based on these results, SBM could replace up to 33% of FM with or without amino acid supplementation in juvenile whiteleg shrimp diets reared in the biofloc system.

  5. Soy-Milk Waste with Soybean Meal Dietary Substitution: Effects on Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Dono

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixty male broiler chickens was used to investigate the effects of dietary soybean meal (SBM with soy-milk waste (SMW substitution using growth performance, protein-energy efficiency ratio, and physical meat quality as response criteria. The birds were given control diet (SMW-0, or a control diets with 5% (SMW-1, 10% (SMW-2, and 15% (SMW-3 soy-milk waste substitutions. Each treatment was replicate 3 times, with 5 birds per replication. The obtained data were subjected to Oneway arrangement of ANOVA, and continued subsequently with Duncan’s new Multiple Range Test. Results showed that substituting SBM with SMW did not influence protein and energy consumption, as well as feed consumption and energy efficiency ratio. However, dietary substitution with 10% SMW improved (P<0.05 protein efficiency ratio, body weight gain, and slaughter weight, resulting in lower (P<0.05 feed conversion ratio. The meat pH, water holding capacity, cooking loss, and tenderness values did not influence by 5-15% SMW substitution.

  6. Effects of dietary fat source and supplemental lysophosphatidylcholine on performance, immune responses, and ileal nutrient digestibility in broilers fed corn/soybean meal- or corn/wheat/soybean meal-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahyari-Bake, S; Jahanian, R

    2017-05-01

    Two separate experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of different fat sources and a supplemental exogenous emulsifier (lysophosphatidylcholine, LPC) on growth performance, antibody production titers, and ileal nutrient digestibility in broiler chicks fed with different basal diets. A total of 288 one-day-old Ross 308 chicks were used for each trial (6 dietary treatments based on 3 × 2 factorial arrangements of treatments in both trials) with 4 replicates of 12 birds each. Dietary treatments consisted of 3 different fat sources (soy oil, SO; soy free fatty acids, SFFA; and palm fat powder, PFP) and 2 LPC levels (0 and 0.1% of diet), which were evaluated with 2 different basal diets (corn/soybean meal-based diets in Exp. 1, or corn/wheat/soybean meal-based diets in Exp. 2). In Exp. 1, average daily feed intake (ADFI) was increased (P Gumboro antibody titer, and the lowest antibody response was allotted to the birds fed PFP diets. The greatest (P < 0.05) EE digestibility was assigned to the birds fed SO and SFFA diets. The present findings showed that birds fed SFFA-containing diets had similar performance as SO birds, and supplemental LPC improved overall performance especially in SFFA-fed birds. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Dietary lysine requirement for 7-16 kg pigs fed wheat-corn-soybean meal-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahindi, R K; Htoo, J K; Nyachoti, C M

    2017-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the lysine requirement of weaned pigs [Duroc × (Yorkshire × Landrace)] with an average initial BW of 7 kg and fed wheat-corn-soybean meal-based diets. The experiments were conducted for 21 days during which piglets had free access to diets and water. Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and gain to feed ratio (G:F) were determined on day 7, 14 and 21. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and 14 to determine plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) concentration. In experiment 1, 96 weaned pigs were housed four per pen and allocated to four dietary treatments with six replicates per treatment. The diets contained 0.99%, 1.23%, 1.51% and 1.81% standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine, respectively, corrected analysed values. The rest of the AA were provided to meet the ideal AA ratio for protein accretion. Increasing dietary lysine content linearly increased (p requirement was determined to be 1.29% and 1.34% respectively. On average, optimal dietary SID lysine content for optimal growth of 7-16 kg weaned piglets fed wheat-corn-SBM-based diets was estimated to be 1.32%; at this level, the ADG and ADFI were 444 and 560 g, respectively, thus representing an SID lysine requirement, expressed on daily intake basis as, 7.4 g/day or 16.76 mg/g gain. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Evaluation of the safety of a genetically modified DAS-444Ø6-6 soybean meal and hulls in a 90-day dietary toxicity study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papineni, Sabitha; Murray, Jennifer A; Ricardo, Ekmay; Dunville, Christina M; Sura, Radha Krishna; Thomas, Johnson

    2017-11-01

    A 90-day sub chronic toxicity study was conducted in rats to evaluate the safety of genetically modified DAS-444Ø6-6 soybeans expressing herbicide tolerant proteins when compared with its conventional comparators (non-transgenic near isoline control soybean and three commercially available non-transgenic line control soybeans). Rats were given diets formulated with either 10% or 20% w/w of soybean meal and 1% or 2% hulls of DAS-444Ø6-6 soybean with an equivalent amount of hulls from an isoline non-transgenic control soybean for at least 90 days. In addition, three separate 20% w/w non-transgenic commercially available soybean varieties were also given to groups of rats to serve as reference controls. Animals were evaluated by cage-side and hand-held detailed clinical observations, ophthalmic examinations, body weights/body weight gains, feed consumption, hematology, prothrombin time, urinalysis, clinical chemistry, selected organ weights, and gross and histopathologic examinations. Under the conditions of this study, the genetically modified DAS-444Ø6-6 diets did not cause any treatment-related effects in rats following 90 days of dietary administration as compared with rats fed diets with soybean of isoline control or commercial reference controls and are considered equivalent to the diets prepared from conventional comparators. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of partially replacing dietary soybean meal or cottonseed meal with completely hydrolyzed feather meal (defatted rice bran as the carrier) on production, cytokines, adhesive gut bacteria, and disease resistance in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus ♀ × Oreochromis aureus ♂).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Xu, Li; Liu, Wenshu; Yang, Yalin; Du, Zhenyu; Zhou, Zhigang

    2014-12-01

    We formulated experimental diets for hybrid tilapia to investigate the effects of replacing dietary soybean meal (SBM) or cottonseed meal (CSM) by completely hydrolyzed feather meal (defatted rice bran as the carrier; abbreviated as CHFM), with emphasis on fish growth, the composition of adhesive gut bacteria, intestinal and hepatic immune responses, and disease resistance. A series of four isonitrogenous (33% crude protein) and isolipidic (6% crude lipid) diets were formulated to replace the isonitrogenous percentages of CSM or SBM by 6% or 12% CHFM. Quadruplicate groups of healthy and uniformly sized hybrid tilapia were assigned to each experimental diet. Fish were hand fed three times a day for 8 weeks at a rearing temperature of 25-28 °C. The growth performance of hybrid tilapia fed diets with partial replacement of dietary SBM or CSM with CHFM was comparable to the group of fish fed the control diet. The CHFM-containing diets affected the intestinal autochthonous bacterial community in similar ways. All CHFM-containing diets stimulated the expression of heat shock protein 70 in the intestine but suppressed its expression in the liver. Only the CHFM6/SBM diet stimulated the expression of interleukin-1β in intestine, and no effects were observed in all diets to the expression of interleukin-1β in liver. Thus, regarding the immune response in the intestine and liver, CHFM is a good alternative protein source that induces less stress in the host. CHFM did not affect disease resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila infection in hybrid tilapia. These data suggest that CHFM is a good alternative to partially replace SBM and CSM in tilapia feed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of the Replacement of Soybean Meal with Pea as Dietary Protein Source on the Serum Protein Fractions of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NT Bingol

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the replacement of different levels of protein derived from soybean meal with that from peas in broiler diets on serum protein fractions. A corn-soybean meal basal diet was formulated as the control diet (Control=C (NRC, 1994, and then pea was added to the control diet to replace 20% (P20 or 40% (P40 of the crude protein of the control diet. The diets were randomly fed to 12 pens per treatment, each housing five birds, for 42 days. Blood samples were collected from 36 birds (3 birds x 4 pens x3 treatments and the serum protein fractions were separated. Gamma-globulin percentage was higher in group P20 compared with C and P40 groups. Total protein, beta-globulin, and gamma-globulin concentrations were significantly higher in group P20 compared with those of both control and P40 group (p<0.05.

  11. Effect Of Replacing Soybean Meal With Cooked Whole Soybean On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... depression of any of the parameters considered. Thus in a humid tropical condition, cooked whole soybeans can be used to replace soybean meal in broiler diets at both starter and finisher phase without a depression on the bird performance. Journal of Applied Chemistry and Agricultural Research Vol. 3 1996: pp. 21-24 ...

  12. Gut-bone axis response to dietary replacement of soybean meal with raw low-tannin faba bean seeds in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Ewa; Dobrowolski, Piotr; Klebaniuk, Renata; Kwiecień, Małgorzata; Tomczyk-Warunek, Agnieszka; Szymańczyk, Sylwia; Kowalik, Sylwester; Milczarek, Anna; Blicharski, Tomasz; Muszyński, Siemowit

    2018-01-01

    It seems that faba bean (FB) seeds could be a good protein-energy component in animal feed, but the presence of anti-nutritional substances limits their use as a substitute of soybean meal. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of different concentrations of raw, low-tannin, FB seeds on the gut-bone axis in Ross 308 broilers. One-day old chickens were randomly subjected to one of the 3 dietary treatments: the control group was fed standard diet based on soybean meal and without FB seeds, and two groups were fed 8%/15% and 16%/22% of raw low-tannin FB seeds in the starter and grower, respectively. On the 35th day, hematological and serum biochemical analyses as well histomorphometry of the small intestine and liver tissue and bone mechanical tests were performed. The diet type had no effect on the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio. However, the basal intestinal structures were significantly reduced in birds fed the lower concentration of FB. The enlargement of nerve plexuses was dependent on the concentration used in the diet and, additionally, on the kind of plexus and location in the intestinal tract. The liver was characterized by an increase in non-hepatocytes. There was no influence of the low-tannin FB seeds on most of the analyzed serum parameters in the 35-day-old broiler chickens, except the decreased concentration of total cholesterol and Ca in both experimental groups, triglycerides in group I, and P and uric acid in group II. Furthermore, the increasing concentration of the dietary low-tannin FB did not influence the activities of AspAT (except the group fed the higher amount of FB), ALAT, and LDH. The broiler chickens had no visible leg lesions and no problem in the locomotor function, but the tibiae were lighter mainly in birds fed the higher concentration of FB seeds. Geometric analysis revealed reduction of the cross section area and wall thickness, indicating a decline in the bone midshaft, which influenced the densitometric

  13. Dietary inclusion of raw faba bean instead of soybean meal and enzyme supplementation in laying hens: Effect on performance and egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Abd El-Hack

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with 160 Hisex Brown laying hens to evaluate the effect of different inclusion levels of faba bean (FB and enzyme supplementation on productive performance and egg quality parameters. The experimental diets consisted of five levels of FB: 0% (control, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, substituting soybean meal (SBM, and two levels of enzyme supplementation (0 or 250 mg/kg. Each dietary treatment was assigned to four replicate groups and the experiment lasted 22 weeks. A positive relationship (P  0.05. The main effect of FB levels replacing for SBM affected (P < 0.05 yolk and shell percentages, yolk index, yolk to albumen ratio, shell thickness and egg shape index. It can be concluded that FB and enzyme supplementation could be included in hens diet at less than 50% instead of SBM to support egg productive performance, however higher raw FB levels negatively affected egg production indices and quality.

  14. Effect of substituting soybean meal and canola cake with dried distillers grains with solubles at 2 dietary crude protein levels on feed intake, milk production, and milk quality in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    Dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) is an alternative source of feed protein for dairy cows. Previous studies found that DDGS, based on grains other than corn, can substitute for soybean meal and canola cake as a dietary protein source without reducing milk production or quality. As socie......Dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) is an alternative source of feed protein for dairy cows. Previous studies found that DDGS, based on grains other than corn, can substitute for soybean meal and canola cake as a dietary protein source without reducing milk production or quality....... As societal concerns exist, and in many areas strict regulation, regarding nitrogen excretion from dairy cows, the dairy industry has focused on reducing dietary protein level and nitrogen excretion. In the present study, we investigated the use of DDGS as a protein source, at a marginally low dietary crude...... protein (CP) levels, in a grass-clover and corn silage-based ration. The experiment involved 24 Holstein cows and 2 protein sources (DDGS or soybean-canola mixture) fed at 2 levels of CP (14 or 16%) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of both protein source...

  15. Use of Sunflower Meal with Enzyme Mixture Substituted for Soybean Meal in Broiler Diets

    OpenAIRE

    KIRKPINAR, Figen; BASMACIOĞLU, Hatice

    2001-01-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the effects of sunflower meal with an enzyme mixture containing a-amylase, ß-glucanase, cellulase, lipase and protease substituted for soybean meal in broiler diets on performance, intestinal weight, viscosity and pH, as well as the frequency of sticky droppings and abdominal fat. In the trial, a total of 960 one-day-old Avian broiler chicks were used. The trial lasted 6 weeks. A total of 12 experimental diets were supplied ad libitum. Dietary treatme...

  16. Effect of substituting soybean meal and canola cake with dried distillers grains with solubles at 2 dietary crude protein levels on feed intake, milk production, and milk quality in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    Dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) is an alternative source of feed protein for dairy cows. Previous studies found that DDGS, based on grains other than corn, can substitute for soybean meal and canola cake as a dietary protein source without reducing milk production or quality...... protein (CP) levels, in a grass-clover and corn silage-based ration. The experiment involved 24 Holstein cows and 2 protein sources (DDGS or soybean-canola mixture) fed at 2 levels of CP (14 or 16%) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of both protein source...... of this experiment, feeding 16% CP compared with 14% CP in the ration can increase feed intake and milk production....

  17. PRODUCTIVE EFFECT OF SOYBEAN MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIMPIA COLIBAR

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems standing before mankind on the threshold of the XXI century is satisfaction of demand in protein. About 70% of world protein stocks have vegetative origin and therefore preparations of this protein it is very important. Importance of soya is connected with following reasons: high content of protein with functionality for food products, good essential amino-acid balance, lipids and other biologically active compounds & micronutrients. Nutritional value of soy bean meal (FFSBM products is limited of ten by high content of antinutritive factors causing different physiologically undesirable effects after usage in food or feed of crude beans. It explains the necessity of development of special technologies of productions of full fat soya products. The objective of this works was to asses the effect of various supplementation in terms of nutritional efficiency, especially about the Ca and P level from feed and bones of broiler chickens.

  18. Determination of processed soybean meal degradability by Pinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of processed soybean meal degradability by Pinus eldarica methanol extract. ... Protected soybean meal is an important part of high producing dairy cow diet and many methods are used for its safe and economic processing. Pinus eldarica contains xylose and resins and results show that these components ...

  19. Ruminal dry matter degradability of treated soybean meal as source ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples for treating soybean meal for 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 48 h in the rumen of three Taleshi male cows were incubated. Soybean meal samples treated with black liquor and microwave radiation decreased water soluble protein fraction (a) and increased slowly protein degradation fraction (b); and treatment with 6% black ...

  20. Use of soybean cake replacing soybean meal in diets of lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth dos Santos Moura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the intake and digestibility, nitrogen balance and ruminal fermentation parameters in sheep fed diets containing levels of substitution of soybean meal for soybean cake. The diets consisted of five levels of protein soybean meal (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % by soybean cake. Diets were formulated with 12.5% CP, respecting the forage-to-concentrate ratio of 40:60.Tifton-85 hay was used as forage and the concentrate was formulated with corn, soybean meal, soybean cake and vitamin mineral supplement. Five crossbred lambs castrated, with average weight of 33.7 ± 5.8 kg were used and distributed in a Latin Square 5 × 5. No differences in intake and digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, total carbohydrate, non-fiber carbohydrates and total digestible nutrients. Increased linearly in ether extract intake by replacing protein from soybean meal by soybean cake in the diet but with no changes in the digestibility of this component. The nitrogen balance, nitrogen content fecal and urinary retained were not influenced by levels of substitution of soybean meal by soybeans cake in diets. For the index pH and concentration of ammonia nitrogen in rumen fluid did not differ between diets. It was concluded that the soybean cake can be used as an alternative food to replace soybean meal up to 100% unless there are changes in the rumen parameters, balance of nitrogen, intake and nutrient digestibility.

  1. Enzyme assisted protein extraction from rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sari, Y.W.; Bruins, M.E.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Oilseed meals that are by-products from oil production are potential resources for protein. The aim of this work is to investigate the use of enzymes in assisting in the extraction of protein from different oilseed meals, namely rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals. In addition, microalgae

  2. Effects of replacing soybean meal with xylose-treated soybean meal on performance of nursing Awassi ewes and fattening lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mofleh S. Awawdeh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing soybean meal with xylose-treated soybean meal (soypass meal; SPM on performance of nursing Awassi ewes and fattening lambs. In Experiment 1, lasting for eight weeks, 39 Awassi ewes and their lambs were randomly assigned to three diets. Diets were formulated by replacing soybean meal from the basal diet (CON-SBM; n=13 with 50% (50% SPM; n=13 and 100% (100% SPM; n=13 SPM. Initial and final weights of the ewes were not different (P>0.55 among diets. Total gain and average daily gain (ADG of lambs were similar (P=0.44 among diets. Ewes fed the CON-SBM diet tended (P0.38 in milk component percentages among diets were observed. In Experiment 2, lasting for 63 days, twenty weaned lambs were used to determine the effects of replacing soybean meal with SPM on growth performance. Diets were either soybean meal (SBM; n=10 or SPM (SPM; n=10. Nutrient intake and digestibility were not different between diets. However, rumen undegradable protein intake was greater (P0.05 between the diets. Results suggest that replacement of soybean meal with soypass meal is not likely to produce any production benefits in nursing Awassi ewes and fattening lambs except for the slight improvement of milk yield.

  3. Effect of microalgae on intestinal inflammation triggered by soybean meal and bacterial infection in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Bravo-Tello

    Full Text Available Soybean meal has been used in many commercial diets for farm fish; despite this component inducing intestinal inflammation. On the other hand, microalgae have increasingly been used as dietary supplements in fish feed. Nevertheless, the vast quantity of microalgae species means that many remain under- or unstudied, thus limiting wide scale commercial application. In this work, we evaluated the effects to zebrafish (Danio rerio of including Tetraselmis sp (Ts; Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Pt; Chlorella sp (Ch; Nannochloropsis oculata (No; or Nannochloropsis gaditana (Ng as additives in a soybean meal-based diet on intestinal inflammation and survival after Edwardsiella tarda infection. In larvae fed a soybean meal diet supplemented with Ts, Pt, Ch, or Ng, the quantity of neutrophils present in the intestine drastically decreased as compared to larvae fed only the soybean meal diet. Likewise, Ts or Ch supplements in soybean meal or fishmeal increased zebrafish survival by more than 20% after being challenged. In the case of Ts, the observed effect correlated with an increased number of neutrophils present at the infection site. These results suggest that the inclusion of Ts or Ch in fish diets could allow the use of SBM and at the same time improve performance against pathogen.

  4. Effect of microalgae on intestinal inflammation triggered by soybean meal and bacterial infection in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís, Camila J.; Ulloa, Pilar E.; Hedrera, Manuel; Pizarro-Guajardo, Marjorie; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Soybean meal has been used in many commercial diets for farm fish; despite this component inducing intestinal inflammation. On the other hand, microalgae have increasingly been used as dietary supplements in fish feed. Nevertheless, the vast quantity of microalgae species means that many remain under- or unstudied, thus limiting wide scale commercial application. In this work, we evaluated the effects to zebrafish (Danio rerio) of including Tetraselmis sp (Ts); Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Pt); Chlorella sp (Ch); Nannochloropsis oculata (No); or Nannochloropsis gaditana (Ng) as additives in a soybean meal-based diet on intestinal inflammation and survival after Edwardsiella tarda infection. In larvae fed a soybean meal diet supplemented with Ts, Pt, Ch, or Ng, the quantity of neutrophils present in the intestine drastically decreased as compared to larvae fed only the soybean meal diet. Likewise, Ts or Ch supplements in soybean meal or fishmeal increased zebrafish survival by more than 20% after being challenged. In the case of Ts, the observed effect correlated with an increased number of neutrophils present at the infection site. These results suggest that the inclusion of Ts or Ch in fish diets could allow the use of SBM and at the same time improve performance against pathogen. PMID:29117213

  5. Determination of degradability of treated soybean meal and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-05

    Jan 5, 2009 ... proteins sub-units fractions by a SDS-PAGE discontinues system. In the experiments, three ruminally ... Key words: Soybean meal, degradability, xylose, moisture heat, SDS-PAGE. INTRODUCTION. Soybean is a .... tent of their residues after rumen incubation by using the proce- dures of AOAC (1984).

  6. Change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Yiran; Wen, Bin

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Four experimental diets were tested, in which Sargassum thunbergii was proportionally replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal. The growth performance, body composition and intestinal digestive enzyme activities in A. japonicus fed these 4 diets were examined. Results showed that the sea cucumber exhibited the maximum growth rate when 20% of S. thunbergii in the diet was replaced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal, while 40% of S. thunbergii in the diet can be replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal without adversely affecting growth performance of A. japonicus. The activities of intestinal trypsin and amylase in A. japonicus can be significantly altered by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Trypsin activity in the intestine of A. japonicus significantly increased in the treatment groups compared to the control, suggesting that the supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might increase the intestinal trypsin activity of A. japonicus. However, amylase activity in the intestine of A. japonicus remarkably decreased with the increasing replacement level of S. thunbergii by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal, suggesting that supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might decrease the intestinal amylase activity of A. japonicus.

  7. Fermented soybean meal exhibits probiotic properties when included in Japanese quail diet in replacement of soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazi, V; Ashayerizadeh, A; Toghyani, M; Shabani, A; Tellez, G; Toghyani, M

    2018-03-15

    This study was conducted to investigate and compare the effect of dietary probiotic mixture (PM) and organic acid (OA) mixture with fermented soybean meal (FSBM) on performance, crop, and ceca microbiota, small intestine morphology, and serum lipid profile in Japanese quails. A total of 800 day-old Japanese quails was randomly allotted to 5 treatments with 8 replicate pens of 20 birds each, for 35 days. The experimental diets consisted of a control corn-soybean meal diet and 4 test diets: 1) control diet + 0.1% PM; 2) control diet + 0.2% OA mixture; 3) control diet + the combination of both PM and OA; and 4) an additives-free diet in which the soybean meal in the control diet was replaced with FSBM. The results indicated that in starter and the entire rearing periods, FSBM, PM, and PM+OA diets had significantly lower FCR compared to control or OA diets (P < 0.05). Birds in the FSBM group gained higher weight than control and OA birds (P < 0.05; 1 to 35 d). At d 21 and 35, birds fed the control diet showed significantly lower numbers of lactic acid bacteria in the crop, while coliforms were higher in the cecal content compared to the other diets (P < 0.05). At d 21, the villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio in the duodenum and jejunum of birds fed PM, PM+OA, and FSBM diets were greater than in other treatments (P < 0.05). The serum concentrations of cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of birds fed PM, PM+OA, and FSBM diets were significantly lower than birds in control and AO groups (P < 0.05). The results obtained herein suggest that FSBM exhibits probiotic properties and, when used in substitution of SBM in Japanese quail diet, can improve growth performance, balance of desirable gastrointestinal microbiota in crop and ceca, small intestinal morphology, and serum lipid profile-likewise, a probiotic supplement.

  8. Suitability of Soybean Meal from Insect-Resistant Soybeans for Broiler Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, María A; Davis, Adam J; Boerma, H Roger; Parrott, Wayne A

    2016-03-23

    Benning(M) and Benning(MGH) are near-isogenic lines (NILs) of the soybean cultivar Benning, which contain insect-resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from the soybean accession PI 229358. Benning(M) contains QTL-M, which confers antibiosis and antixenosis. In addition to QTL-M, Benning(MGH) contains QTL-G, which confers antibiosis, and QTL-H, which confers antixenosis. Soybean meal was produced from Benning and the NILs. Nutritional composition, digestible amino acid content, and nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEN) were equivalent among soybean meals. A 21-day broiler feeding trial was carried out to determine if the QTLs affect soybean meal quality. Weight gain and feed-to-gain ratio were evaluated. No biologically significant differences were detected for broilers fed Benning, Benning(M), and Benning(MGH). This demonstrates that soybean meal produced from the insect-resistant NILs is equivalent to soybean meal produced from their non-insect-resistant parent cultivar for broiler weight gain.

  9. MORPHOPHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT IN PIGLETS FED A SESAME MEAL OR SOYBEAN MEAL DIET

    OpenAIRE

    Araceli Aguilera Barreyro; Tércia Reis de Souza; Gerardo Mariscal-Landín; Guerrero Carrillo María de Jesús; Konisgmar Escobar García; Guadalupe Bernal Santos; Teresa García Gasca

    2014-01-01

    An important indicator to recommend a protein source for piglet nutrition is the absence of intestinal damage. The effects of sesame or soybean meal based diets on Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT) morphophysiology, diarrhea incidence and severity in piglets were studied during the first two weeks post-weaning. Thirty-six piglets weaned at 21 days of age were fed one of three diets: A control casein diet (C), a Sesame Meal diet (SM), or a Soybean Meal Diet (SBM). Diarrhea incidence and fecal score...

  10. Effects of dietary true digestible calcium to phosphorus ratio on growth performance and efficiency of calcium and phosphorus use in growing pigs fed corn and soybean meal-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, M Z; Archbold, T

    2012-12-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine effects of dietary true fecal digestible Ca to true digestible P ratio on growth performance and efficiency of Ca and P use in growing pigs fed corn (Triticum aestivum)-soybean (Glycine max) meal (SBM)-based diets. Experiment 1 was carried out to measure true fecal digestibility of Ca and P as well as the fecal endogenous outputs of these nutrients associated with a corn and SBM-based diet in 12 Yorkshire growing pigs with an average initial BW of 23.2 ± 0.6 kg by the substitution method. True fecal digestibility values (%; n = 6) of Ca (53.6 ± 12.7) and P (43.8 ± 16.7) as well as the fecal endogenous outputs (g/kg DMI; n = 12) of Ca (0.91 ± 0.20) and P (1.31 ± 0.15) associated with the diets were determined. Experiment 2 was conducted with 36 Yorkshire barrows of an average initial BW of 24.2 ± 0.6 kg and the pigs were fed 6 diets according to a completely randomized block design. The 6 diets were corn and SBM based with diet 1 containing 0.2% true digestible Ca and 0.3% true digestible P and were formulated to contain 6 total Ca to total P ratios based on analyzed dietary Ca and P contents (diet 1, 0.6:1; diet 2, 0.7:1; diet 3, 0.8:1; diet 4, 1.3:1; diet 5, 1.0:1; and diet 6, 1.3:1) by supplementing gradient levels of limestone with a constant dietary P content for meeting the recommended requirement. Changes in the dietary Ca to P ratio had no effects (P > 0.05) on ADG. No differences (P > 0.05) in ADFI were observed between the other diets except the lower ADFI (P < 0.05) in diet 3 compared with diet 2. However, G:F was higher (P < 0.05) in diet 2 compared with diets 5 and 6. Changes in the dietary Ca to P ratio had consistent effects on true fecal P digestibility and retention with much lower values (P < 0.05) observed in diet 5 in comparison with the other diets. In summary, true fecal digestible Ca to P ratios of 0.9:1 to 1.0:1 were associated with optimal responses in both G:F as well as true fecal P

  11. Substitution of fishmeal with soybean meal in humpback Grouper, Cromileptes altivelis juvenile diets supplemented with phytase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachman Syah

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing fishmeal with soybean meal in diet on growth of humpback grouper. Fifteen cages of 1 x 1 x 1.2 m3 each stocked with 16 humpback grouper juveniles (61.3 ± 0.4 g/pc were set up randomly in seawater. Fish were fed to satiation twice daily for 112 days. The control diet contained 61.9% fishmeal (63.34% crude protein. Four isonitrogenous (48% crude protein and isocaloric (4.7 kcal/g feed diets supplemented with commercial phytase “Rhonozyme-P” at 0.075% were formulated to contain different levels (8%, 16%, 24%, and 32% soybean meal (43.65% crude protein as a partial replacement for fishmeal. These diets contained total phosphorus levels between 3.6—4.5 (±0.4 % and 0.7—1.5 (±0.04 % available phosphorus. Replacement of fishmeal with soybean meal (8 to 32% replacement was not significantly different (P>0.05 to the control diet on daily growth rate (DGR, food conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER, and daily food consumption (DFC. However, the dietary levels of soybean meal significantly affected (P<0.05 whole body protein and phosphorus retention (Table 1. These data suggest that addition of phytase in diets could improve protein and phosphorus availability and reduce nitrogen and phosphorus loading in the environment. Phytase can therefore play an important role in formulating eco-friendly feed for humpback grouper. Based on P loading, supplementation of phytase enable up to 24% fishmeal replacement with soybean meal.

  12. Ruminal dry matter degradability of treated soybean meal as source ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-03

    Aug 3, 2011 ... source. This due to molecular friction, which results from dipolar rotation of polar solvents and from conductive migration of dissolved ions. ... Sample preparation and treatment. The SBM samples (soybean meal imported from Brazil) were obtained from commercial sources in Iran. SBM was treated with 3.

  13. Effect of Different Levels of Soybean / Glycine Max / Meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, an experiment was carried out using twenty-four yearling male Black Head Ogaden sheep with an initial body weight of 12.95 ± 1.79 kg (mean ± SD) to evaluate the effect of different levels of soybean meal supplementation to natural pasture hay on feed intake, digestibility, average daily body weight gain, and ...

  14. In Vitro assessment of the nutritive value of expanded soybean meal for dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwakeel Eman A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Little information is available about the nutritive value of expanded soybean meal, which is produced by expansion of soybeans prior to solvent extraction of the oil. During processing, expanded soybean meal is subjected to additional heat, which might increase the concentration of ruminally undegraded protein. Processing of soybeans with heat during oil extraction could affect lysine availability by increasing ruminally undegraded protein or by impairing intestinal digestion. Our objective was to compare solvent and expanded soybeans with regard to chemical composition and nutritive value for dairy cattle. Samples of expanded soybean meal (n = 14 and solvent-extracted soybean meal (n = 5 were obtained from People's Republic of China to study effects of the expansion process on nutritive value for dairy cattle. Solvent-extracted soybean meal (n = 2 and mechanically extracted (heated soybean meal (n = 2 from the United States served as references for comparison. Samples were analyzed for crude fat, long-chain fatty acids, crude protein, amino acids, chemically available lysine, in situ ruminal protein degradation, and in vitro intestinal digestibility. No differences were found between solvent-extracted soybean meals from China and expanded soybean meals from China for crude fat, crude protein, amino acids, or chemically available lysine. In situ disappearance of nitrogen, ruminally undegraded protein content, and in vitro intestinal digestion of the ruminally undegraded protein were generally similar between solvent-extracted soybean meals made in China and expanded soybean meals made in China; variation among soybean meals was small. Results indicate that the additional heat from the expansion process was not great enough to affect the nutritive value of soybean meal protein for ruminants. Although expansion may improve the oil extraction process, the impact on the resulting soybean meal is minimal and does not require consideration

  15. Variation in commercial sources of soybean meal influences the severity of enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urán, P.; Schrama, J.W.; Jaafari, S.; Baardsen, G.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Koppe, W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Soybean meal (SBM) is a potential alternative for the replacement of fishmeal in aquafeeds. In Atlantic salmon, however, dietary SBM causes an inflammation of the distal intestine, known as SBM-induced enteritis. The objective of the present study is to verify whether different (geographically

  16. Efficient production of free fatty acids from soybean meal carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Thakker, Chandresh; Liu, Ping; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu

    2015-11-01

    Conversion of biomass feedstock to chemicals and fuels has attracted increasing attention recently. Soybean meal, containing significant quantities of carbohydrates, is an inexpensive renewable feedstock. Glucose, galactose, and fructose can be obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of soluble carbohydrates of soybean meal. Free fatty acids (FFAs) are valuable molecules that can be used as precursors for the production of fuels and other value-added chemicals. In this study, free fatty acids were produced by mutant Escherichia coli strains with plasmid pXZ18Z (carrying acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE) and (3R)-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase) using individual sugars, sugar mixtures, and enzymatic hydrolyzed soybean meal extract. For individual sugar fermentations, strain ML211 (MG1655 fadD(-) fabR(-) )/pXZ18Z showed the best performance, which produced 4.22, 3.79, 3.49 g/L free fatty acids on glucose, fructose, and galactose, respectively. While the strain ML211/pXZ18Z performed the best with individual sugars, however, for sugar mixture fermentation, the triple mutant strain XZK211 (MG1655 fadD(-) fabR(-) ptsG(-) )/pXZ18Z with an additional deletion of ptsG encoding the glucose-specific transporter, functioned the best due to relieved catabolite repression. This strain produced approximately 3.18 g/L of fatty acids with a yield of 0.22 g fatty acids/g total sugar. Maximum free fatty acids production of 2.78 g/L with a high yield of 0.21 g/g was achieved using soybean meal extract hydrolysate. The results suggested that soybean meal carbohydrates after enzymatic treatment could serve as an inexpensive feedstock for the efficient production of free fatty acids. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Effects of dietary soybean meal, inulin and oxytetracycline on gastrointestinal histological characteristics, distal intestine cell proliferation and intestinal microbiota in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bakke-Mckellep, AM; Sperstad, Sigmund; Penn, MH; Salas, PM; Refstie, Ståle; Landsverk, Tor; Ringø, Einar; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2007-01-01

    This is the publishers version/PDF (institutional repository or PubMed Central can publish publishers version after 12 month embargo) Soyabean meal (SBM)-induced enteritis in the distal intestine of the teleost Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and other salmonids may be considered a model for diet-related mucosal disorders in other animals and man. The role of the intestinal microbiota in its pathogenesis was explored. Compared to diets containing fishmeal (FM) as the sole protein so...

  18. Effect of dietary calcium and phosphorus levels on the total tract digestibility of innate and supplemental organic and inorganic microminerals in a corn-soybean meal based diet of grower pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliff, J S; Mahan, D C

    2013-06-01

    The effects of Ca and P (CaP) levels and micromineral sources on mineral digestibility were evaluated in growing pigs. Treatments consisted of 2 levels of CaP and 3 trace mineral (TM) treatments arranged as a 2 × 3 factorial in a randomized complete block design with 8 replicates. The CaP levels evaluated were: 1) 0.65% Ca and 0.55% P [standard CaP (Std CaP)], and 2) 1.00% Ca and 0.85% P (High CaP). The TM treatments were: 1) Basal, without supplemental TM, 2) Basal supplemented with organic TM, and 3) Basal supplemented with inorganic TM. Both organic and inorganic TM premixes added 15 mg Cu, 150 mg Fe, 10 mg Mn, 0.3 mg Se, and 140 mg Zn/kg diet. Diets were formulated using corn soybean meal with a Ca to P ratio of 1.18 in both CaP treatments. Barrows with an initial BW of 45 kg were acclimated to stainless steel metabolism crates where diets were fed for 14 d before a 10-d collection period. Pigs within replicates were fed equivalent amounts of feed at 0800 and 1600 h each day with water provided free choice. Total feces, urine, and feed orts were collected daily. Essential macro- and microminerals were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma analysis. Increasing dietary CaP decreased the digestibility of Ca and Zn. Phosphorus digestibility did not change when the P inclusion level increased from 0.55 to 0.85% Ptotal. The High CaP level resulted in a lower urinary excretion of most minerals, particularly Cu (P < 0.05) and Mn (P < 0.05), as dietary CaP level increased but the others were not statistically significant. A summary of the ATTD for each of the experimental variables was statistically analyzed and averaged for the experiment. Although there were few statistical differences with individual minerals, they generally demonstrated a decline in digestibility when the High CaP was fed, averaging a 3% lower digestibility consistently than when the Std CaP level was fed. Organic TM averaged an approximately 5% greater digestibility than the average inorganic

  19. Effect of dietary protein level (as substitution of maize with soybean meal on growth rate and feed efficiency of the Cinta Senese pig in the growing-fattening period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oreste Franci

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to provide first indications on the protein requirement of Cinta Senese pigs. The effect of various dietary protein contents on in vita performance was tested. Sixty Cinta Senese pigs were equally distributed in four dietary groups, balanced for sex (barrow and gilt and live weight. At the start of the trial, pigs were approximately 130 d old and weighed an average 46.6 kg. Groups were fed four diets with different protein content (approximately 8, 10, 13 and 16%, named 8% P, 10% P, 13% P, 16% P, respectively, obtained by using different maize/soybean meal ratios. Diets were administered to pigs during the entire growing-fattening period in a controlled dose of 90 g/kg W0.75, until a maximum of 2.5 kg/d pro capite. Feed distributed per pen was recorded daily and individual weight and ultrasonic backfat thickness were periodically recorded. The trial lasted approximately 250 d and finished when animals reached the target slaughter weight of 145 kg. The 8% P diet determined a lower growth rate than the other diets; after 250 d, pigs receiving this diet were 20 kg lighter than those receiving the other diets. The 10% P diet determined body weights always lower than the 13% P and 16% P diets, but the difference decreased in the middle of the trial period. The pigs fed 13% P and 16% P diets showed the same growth rate. Moreover, through the whole growth period, the 8% P diet produced higher fat thickness than the other three diets, which showed similar results. The 8% P diet determined the highest FCIs. The 16% P diet showed the best feed conversion until approximately 70 kg of l.w., but after this weight it became progressively less efficient than the 10% P and 13% P diets. Consequently, the cumulative intake of that diet was the lowest only for the first 60 kg of gain. The 10% P diet gave the best FCI starting from 80 kg of l.w. In consideration of the cost of protein feed and the need to reduce N pollution, the 10% P diet could be

  20. Enzymatic extractability of soybean meal proteins and carbohydrates : heat and humidity effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, M.; Kofod, L.V.; Schols, H.A.; Piersma, S.R.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2001-01-01

    To study the incomplete enzymatic extractability of proteins and carbohydrates of thermally treated soybean meals, one unheated and three heat-treated soybean meals were produced. To obtain truly enzyme-resistant material, the meals were extracted by a repeated hydrolysis procedure using excessive

  1. Effect of soybean meal substitution by different concentrations of sunflower meal on egg quality traits of white and coloured dwarf dam lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S K; Biswas, A; Neema, R P; Maity, B

    2010-06-01

    1. The effect of soybean meal substitution by different concentrations of sunflower meal on egg quality traits of white and coloured dwarf dam lines was investigated. 2. A total of 144 dwarf hens (38 weeks of age) from the same hatch were randomly divided into 12 groups of 12 birds (4 dietary treatments x 3 replicates). 3. A 2 x 4 factorial design was used to study the effect of 2 lines (Factor A) and substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with 4 concentrations (0, 10, 15 and 20%) of sunflower meal (SFM) [Factor B] on egg quality traits of dwarf dam line hens. 4. All the diets were designed to be isocaloric (113 MJ ME/kg) and isonitrogenous (180 g/kg crude protein) The duration of the experiment was 12 weeks. 5. Analysis of variance indicated a highly significant line effect. There were non-significant effects of substitution of soybean meal with different concentrations of sunflower meal on egg quality traits except for Haugh unit. 6. White plumaged dwarf broiler breeder dam line produced significantly fewer, but larger, eggs than coloured dwarf dam line hens.

  2. Prebiotic Supplementation Has Only Minimal Effects on Growth Efficiency, Intestinal Health and Disease Resistance of Westslope Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi Fed 30% Soybean Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy M. Sealey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Prebiotics have successfully been used to prevent infectious diseases in aquaculture and there is an increasing amount of literature that suggests that these products can also improve alternative protein utilization and digestion. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine whether prebiotic supplementation increased the growth efficiency, intestinal health and disease resistance of cutthroat trout fed a high level of dietary soybean meal. To achieve this objective, juvenile Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi were fed a practical type formulation with 0 or 30% dietary soybean meal with or without the commercial prebiotic (Grobiotic-A prior to experimental exposure to Flavobacterium psychrophilum. Juvenile Westslope cutthroat trout (initial weight 7.8 g/fish ± standard deviation of 0.5 g were stocked at 30 fish/tank in 75 L tanks with six replicate tanks per diet and fed their respective diets for 20 weeks. Final weights of Westslope cutthroat trout were affected by neither dietary soybean meal inclusion level (P=0.9582 nor prebiotic inclusion (P=0.9348 and no interaction was observed (P=0.1242. Feed conversion ratios were similarly not affected by soybean meal level (P=0.4895, prebiotic inclusion (P=0.3258 or their interaction (P=0.1478. Histological examination of the distal intestine of Westslope cutthroat trout demonstrated increases in inflammation due to both increased soybean meal inclusion level (P=0.0038 and prebiotic inclusion (P=0.0327 without significant interaction (P=0.3370. Feeding dietary soybean meal level at 30% increased mortality of F.psychrophilum cohabitation challenged Westslope cutthroat trout (P=0.0345 while prebiotic inclusion tended to decrease mortality (P=0.0671. These results indicate that subclinical alterations in intestinal inflammation levels due to high dietary inclusion levels of soybean meal could predispose Westslope cutthroat trout to F.psychrophilum infection.

  3. In vivo measurement of flatulence and nutrient digestibility in dogs fed poultry by-product meal, conventional soybean meal, and low-oligosaccharide low-phytate soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamka, Ryan M; Harmon, David L; Schoenherr, William D; Khoo, Christina; Gross, Kathy L; Davidson, Stephen J; Joshi, Dinesh K

    2006-01-01

    To determine an optimal window for determining peak flatulence and evaluate the effects of oligosaccharides and supplemental beta-mannanase in soybean meal-based diets on nutrient availability and flatulence. 6 dogs. Dogs were used in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments in a 6 x 6 Latin square experiment to evaluate the digestibility, flatulence, and fecal odor metabolites of low-oligosaccharide low-phytate soybean meal (LLM), conventional soybean meal (SBM), and poultry by-product (PBP) meal diets with or without supplemental beta-mannanase (5 g/kg). Enzyme supplementation had no effect on total tract dry matter (DM), nitrogen digestibility, or digestible energy; however, differences between protein sources did exist for total tract DM digestibility and digestible energy. The PBP meal had higher DM digestibility and digestible energy (mean, 0.913 and 4,255 cal/g), compared with soy-based diets (mean, 0.870 and 4,049 cal/g). No differences were detected for any treatment regardless of protein source or addition of supplemental enzyme for any flatulence components analyzed. No differences were detected for all fecal odor metabolites regardless of addition of supplemental enzyme; however, differences between protein sources were detected. The PBP meal had lower concentrations of carboxylic acids and esters and higher concentrations of heterocycles, phenols, thio and sulfides, ketones, alcohols, and indoles than LLM and SBM. Diets containing dogs.

  4. Substitution of Soybean Meal with Indigofera zollingeriana Top Leaf Meal on Egg Quality of Cortunix cortunix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Faradillah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the substitution of soybean meal (SBM with Indigofera zollingeriana top leaf meal (ILM in the diet on egg quality of Japanese quails. The experiment used a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications (ten quails of each replication. The dietary treatment contained five combination of SBM and ILM, R0= diets contained 18% SBM without ILM, R1= diet contained 16.2% SBM and 2.66% ILM, R2= diet contained 14.4% SBM and 5.32% ILM, R3= diet contained 12.6% SBM and 7.98% ILM, R4= diet contained 9% SBM and 13.3% ILM. The results showed that the use of 13.3% ILM (R4 significantly (P<0.05 increased feed consumption, egg weight, yolk colour score, egg cholesterol, and reduced malondialdehyde level. The conclusion of this study was I. zollingeriana top leaf meal could be used as much as 13.3% in the diets. The use of I. zollingeriana top leaf meal could improve the quality of eggs physically and chemically.

  5. Replacement of soybean meal with babassu meal in rations for broilers from 22 to 42 days old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Calixto da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective this work was to evaluate the technical and economic viability of the substitution level of soybean meal by babassu meal in rations to broiler from 22 to 42 days old. It was used 80 male broiler chicks at one day of age, distributed into complete random designs with four treatments (0, 10, 20 e 30% substituition of soybean meal by babassu meal and five repetitions of four broilers each. Were evaluated the performance (weight dain, feed intake and feed conversion, carcass and cuts, organ biometry, feed cost per kilogram body weight and gross margin. To verify the relationship of cost of replacing soybean meal with pie babassu, inequalities were established. The substitution level of soybean meal by babassu meal had no influence (P>0,05 any of the performance characteristics, wich showed the technical viability of substituting up to 30%. Similarly, there was no affect on carcass yield, cuts weight and organ biometry. The cust less with feed per kg for chicken produced and the higher gross margin were obtained from chickens fed diets with 0% babassu meal. The increased of substitution level soybean meal by babassu meal in ration for broilers from 22 to 42 days old proved unviable economically, however, the inequalities produced can be useful in practical situations.

  6. Effects of replacing soybean meal with canola meal or treated canola meal on ruminal digestion, fermentation pattern, omasal nutrient flow, and performance in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrusion-treated canola meal (TCM) was produced in an attempt to increase the rumen undegradable protein (RUP) fraction of canola meal (CM). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with CM or TCM on ruminal digestion, fermentation pattern, omasal nutr...

  7. Effects of dietary inclusions of oilseed meals on physical characteristics and feed intake of diets for the Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwasi Adu Obirikorang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of the inclusion of three oilseed by-products (soybean, copra and palm kernel meals on some physical characteristics of pelletized feeds as well as on voluntary feed intake and faecal matter production by the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. The dietary inclusion of soybean meal resulted in a significantly higher feed bulk density relative to the fishmeal control diet. The inclusions of copra and palm kernel meals, however, resulted in lower feed bulk densities. Sinking rates, water stabilities and nutrient retention efficiencies of feed pellets were directly related to feed bulk densities. The soybean meal diet had the fastest sinking velocities, greatest water stability and highest nutrient retention rates. The dietary inclusion of soybean meal, however, significantly impaired feed intake compared to the other three diets. Mean daily feed intakes of the control, palm kernel meal and copra meal diets corresponded to 28.88, 27.01 and 28.31 g during the experimental period and varied significantly from the mean daily intake of the soybean meal diet which corresponded to 20.01 g. Faecal matter production (g dry mass kg−1 ingested feed was significantly higher in the tilapia groups fed the copra and palm kernel meals. The results obtained from this study show that 30% inclusions of unrefined forms of copra and palm kernel meal in Nile tilapia diets is possible, without adversely affecting feed intake or pellet nutrient losses prior to ingestion.

  8. Rat and poultry feeding studies with soybean meal produced from imidazolinone-tolerant (CV127) soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoyun; de Brum, Paulo A R; Chukwudebe, Amechi; Privalle, Laura; Reed, Andrew; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Cui; Wang, Cuiyan; Lu, Jing; Huang, Kunlun; Contri, Daniela; Nakatani, Andreia; de Avila, Valdir S; Klein, Claudete H; de Lima, Gustavo J M M; Lipscomb, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    The safety and nutritional properties of CV127 soybeans were evaluated in rat and broiler feeding studies. Some episodic differences were observed between rats fed CV127, Conquista, and the standard diet for the endpoints examined. None of these differences were considered treatment related, adverse, or biologically meaningful. In general, birds fed diets containing CV127, Conquista, or Monsoy 8001 showed no significant differences in growth and performance response variables. Chickens fed diets containing Coodetec 217 had lower body weight and weight gain for all developmental periods compared to CV127, but no significant differences were found in feed conversion for the two diets during any development period. The results of both feeding studies demonstrate that CV127 soybeans are as safe, wholesome, and nutritionally valuable as the other soybean meals tested, including those varieties for which histories of safe use have been established and well documented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Partial replacement of commercial soybean meal with raw, full-fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mammo Mengesha Erdaw

    2016-12-21

    Dec 21, 2016 ... Partial replacement of commercial soybean meal with raw, full-fat soybean meal supplemented with varying levels of protease in diets of broiler chickens. M.M. Erdaw1, 3#, R.A. Perez-Maldonado2, M. Bhuiyan 1 & P. A. Iji1#. 1School of Environmental and Rural Sciences, University of New England, ...

  10. Chemical, physical and nutritional changes in soybean meal as a result of toasting and extrusion cooking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, G.J.P.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of soybean meal extrusion and the development of shear forces during single-screw extrusion was compared with the toasting process of soybean meal. Attention was focused on chemical, physical and nutritional changes during these thermo-mechanical

  11. Partial replacement of commercial soybean meal with raw, full-fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Partial replacement of commercial soybean meal with raw, full-fat soybean meal supplemented with varying levels of protease in diets of broiler chickens. M.M. Erdaw, R.A. Perez-Maldonado, M. Bhuiyan, P. A. Iji ...

  12. Feed preference of weaned pigs fed diets containing soybean meal, Brassica napus canola meal, or Brassica juncea canola meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landero, Jose L; Wang, Li Fang; Beltranena, Eduardo; Bench, Clover J; Zijlstra, Ruurd T

    2018-03-06

    Brassica napus and Brassica juncea canola meal (CM) may replace soybean meal (SBM) in pig diets, but differ in fiber, glucosinolates content and profile. Preference of weaned pigs provided double-choice selections to diets containing 20% SBM, B. napus CM, or B. juncea CM was evaluated in two studies. In experiment 1, 216 pigs (9.4 ± 1.6 kg initial BW) were housed in 27 pens of 8 pigs (four gilts and four barrows). In experiment 2, 144 pigs (8.9 ± 1.1 kg) were housed in 36 pens of 4 pigs (two gilts and two barrows). Pigs were offered three dietary choices: B. napus CM with SBM as reference (B. napus CM [SBM]), B. juncea CM with SBM as reference (B. juncea CM [SBM]), and B. juncea CM with B. napus CM as reference (B. juncea CM [B. napus CM]) in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square. Diets were formulated to provide 2.4 Mcal NE/kg and 4.5 g standardized ileal digestible Lys/Mcal NE and were balanced using canola oil and crystalline AA. Each pair of diets was offered in two self-feeders per pen as mash (experiment 1) or pellets (experiment 2) during three test-periods of 4-d, followed by a 3-d non-test period when a common diet was offered in both feeders. Feeders with different diets were rotated daily among pens during preference periods for both experiments, and feeder positions (right or left) were switched daily in experiment 2. Prior to the study and between periods, pigs were fed non-test diets containing SBM (experiment 1) or without test feedstuffs (experiment 2). Overall in both experiments, pigs preferred (P 0.05) growth performance in both experiments, except for greater G:F (P < 0.05) for pigs fed the B. juncea CM [B. napus CM] diets than pigs fed the B. napus CM [SBM] or B. juncea CM [SBM] diets in experiment 1. In conclusion, weaned pigs preferred SBM over CM diets when given a choice, and preferred B. napus over the B. juncea diet that contained more total glucosinolates especially gluconapin. Weaned pigs fed the B. juncea CM [B. napus CM] diets in the

  13. Effects of Replacing Soybean Meal with Fermented Rapeseed Meal on Performance, Serum Biochemical Variables and Intestinal Morphology of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Z. Xu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This trial was performed to study the effects of replacing soybean meal (SBM with fermented rapeseed meal (RSM on growth performance, serum biochemistry variable and intestinal morphology of broilers. A total of 640 d-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatments, 4 pens per treatment and 40 birds per pen for a 6-wk feeding trial. In the four treatment groups, fermented RSM replaced soybean meal at 0, 5, 10, and 15%, respectively. On 21 d and 42 d, two birds from each pen were randomly selected and slaughtered. Blood samples and sections of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were collected for measurement of serum biochemical variables and intestinal morphology, respectively. Results showed that body weight gain (BWG and feed conversion (FC were significantly (p<0.01 poorer for birds fed the 15% fermented RSM diet than those fed with 0, 5 and 10% fermented RSM diets during all periods. Compared with 0 and 5% fermented RSM groups, IgG content in the serum of birds in 10 and 15% fermented RSM groups was improved (p<0.01 urea nitrogen content of serum was reduced (p<0.01 during both growing and finishing periods. However, IgM, phosphorus and calcium levels increased (p<0.05 only during the growing period. Increased (p<0.05 villus height was observed in the duodenum and jejunum of broilers fed the diet with 10% fermented RSM. In addition, villus height to crypt depth ratio in the jejunum was significantly higher (p<0.01 for birds fed the diet with 10% fermented RSM than for those fed diets with 0, 5 and 15% fermented RSM. The present results suggest that RSM fermented with Lactobacillus fermentum and Bacillus subtilis is a promising alternative protein source and that it could be safely used replace up to 10% SBM in broiler diets.

  14. Effect of replacing conventional soybean meal with low-oligosaccharide soybean meal on growth performance and carcass characteristics of wean-to-finish pigs1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangeni, D; Jendza, J A; Anil, L; Yang, X; Baidoo, S K

    2017-06-01

    A trial was conducted to determine the effect of replacing conventional soybean meal (CSBM) with low-oligosaccharide soybean meal (LOSBM) on growth performance and carcass characteristics of wean-to-finish pigs. A total of 432 crossbred pigs (19 d and 6.6 ± 1.2 kg BW) were blocked by sex and BW and assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments: 1) CSBM in all phases and fishmeal and spray-dried plasma protein (FM/SDPP) in phases 1 to 3, 2) CSBM in all phases but with no FM/SDPP, 3) LOSBM and FM/SDPP in phases 1 to 3 and CSBM in phases 4 to 6, 4) LOSBM in phases 1 to 3 and CSBM in phases 4 to 6, 5) LOSBM in phases 1 to 6 and FM/SDPP in phases 1 to 3, and 6) LOSBM in phases 1 to 6. The results showed that pig growth performance (ADG, ADFI, and G:F) during the overall period (phases 1 to 6) and carcass traits (HCW, dressing percentage, fat depth, loin depth, and lean percentage) were not affected ( > 0.05) by dietary treatments. Moreover, replacing CSBM with LOSBM in phases 1 to 3 did not affect early phase growth performance in the absence of FM/SDPP but reduced ( ≤ 0.05) ADFI and increased ( replacing CSBM with LOSBM in the early, late, or entire phase of the wean-to-finish period did not improve growth performance and carcass characteristics of pigs.

  15. The effect of soybean meal replacement with raw full-fat soybean in diets for broiler chickens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rada, V.; Lichovníková, M.; Šafařík, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2016), s. 112-117 ISSN 0971-2119 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Raw full-fat soybean * soybean meal * broiler * growth * digestibility Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 0.426, year: 2016

  16. Effects of Bacillus fermentation on the protein microstructure and anti-nutritional factors of soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, L; Li, D; Li, Z-L; Kang, L-N; Jiang, Y-Y; Liu, X-Y; Chi, Y-P; Li, Y-Q; Wang, J-H

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Bacillus fermentation on soybean meal protein (SBMP) microstructure and major anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) in soybean meal (SBM). The Bacillus siamensis isolate JL8 producing high yield of protease at 519·1 U g -1 was selected for the laboratory production of fermented soybean meal (FSBM). After 24 h fermentation, the FSBM showed better properties compared with those of SBM, the ANFs such as glycinin, β-conglycinin and trypsin inhibitor significantly decreased by 86·0, 70·3 and 95·01%, while in vitro digestibility and absorbability increased by 8·7 and 18·9% respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of fermented soybean meal protein showed smaller aggregates and looser network than that of SBMP. Secondary structure examination of proteins revealed fermentation significantly decreased the content of β-sheet structure by 43·2% and increased the random coil structure by 59·9%. It is demonstrated that Bacillus fermentation improved the nutritional quality of SBM through degrading ANFs and changing the microstructure of SBMP. There is limited information about the structural property changes of soybean protein during fermentation. In this study, physicochemical analysis of soybean meal protein showed evidence that the increase in in vitro digestibility and absorbability of fermented soybean meal reflected the decrease in β-conformation and destruction of original structure in soybean meal protein. The results directly gained the understanding of nutritional quality improvement of soybean meal by Bacillus fermentation, and supply the potential use of Bacillus siamensis for fermented soybean meal production. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Nutritional value of raw Canavalia ensiformis and its utilization as partial replacement for soybean meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Shola G; Okomoda, Victor T; Oguche, Obekpa

    2018-01-01

    The nutritional value of raw Jack bean meal ( Canavalia ensiformis ) as a partial substitute for soybeans meal was investigated in this study. Preliminary investigation on nutrient composition revealed that lysine, histidine, and phenylalanine were significantly higher in C .  ensiformis seed meal compared to soybean meal. However, crude protein and other essential amino acids were significantly lower. Feeding trial was then conducted to investigate the effect of replacing about 40% soybeans meal (at 58.8% inclusion) with C .  ensiformis in the diet of Clarias gariepinus . The result obtained after 56 days revealed that fingerlings could tolerate up to 20% replacement without significant effect on growth and nutrient utilization. Beyond this, growth was significantly reduced. Survivals of the fish also follow a similar trend as stated above. It was concluded that dietary inclusion of raw C .  ensiform meal should not be beyond 11% (or 20% replacement for soybeans meal included at 58.8%) in the diet of C .  gariepinus .

  18. Processing of soybean meal into concentrates and testing for Genetically Modified Organism (GMO)

    OpenAIRE

    P. Vindis; B. Mursec; M. Janzekovic; F. Cus

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to show how the soybean meal is processed into the feed concentrate andhow the GMO content is tested when the soybean meal is accepted in the feed concentrate factory.Design/methodology/approach: After acceptance of the soybean meal the analysis for the protein and moisturecontend is made by the use of Inframatic. The average monthly sample is sent to an external laboratory for testingfor GMO content. According to the regulations the GMO content must not e...

  19. Requirement of Digestible Sulfur Amino Acids in Laying Hens Fed Sorghum- and Soybean Meal-Based Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RS Gomez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two experiments were done to evaluate the effect of increasing levels of dietary digestible methionine (Met and Met:cysteine (Met:Cys ratio on the productivity of Hy-Line W-36 laying hens fed sorghum- and soybean meal-based diets. In Exp. 1, 160 hens from 68 to 75 weeks of age were assigned to four dietary levels of digestible Met (0.20 0.24, 0.28 and 0.32%. The digestible total sulfur amino acids:Lysine (TSAA:Lys ratios were: 62, 68, 76 and 84%. In Exp. 2, 192 hens from 76-83 weeks of age were assigned to four dietary digestible Met:Cys ratios (160, 116.7, 85.7 and 62.5%. The digestible TSAA:Lys ratio was kept constant across diets (80%. Results were subjected to ANOVA and linear regression analyses. In Exp. 1, optimal egg production, egg mass, and feed efficiency responses were observed at 0.30 and 0.50% of dietary digestible Met and TSAA, respectively (quadratic effect, p<0.05. Live performance was maximized with digestible Met and TSAA in takes of 288 and 478 mg/hen/d, respectively. In Exp. 2, optimal egg production and feed efficiency responses were observed at 151 and 150% of dietary digestible Met:Cys ratios, respectively (quadratic effect, p<0.05. The digestible Met, Cys and TSAA intake to maximize egg production and feed efficiency were 313, 207 and 510 mg/hen/d, respectively. The requirements for sulfur AA in Hy-Line W-36 hens from 68 to 83 weeks of age fed sorghum- and soybean meal-based diets fell inside the range of the requirements previously estimated in hens fed corn-soybean meal based diets.

  20. Apparent ileal digestibility of nutrients and amino acids in soybean meal, fish meal, spray-dried plasma protein and fermented soybean meal to weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jin Suk; Park, Jae Won; Lee, Sang In; Kim, In Ho

    2016-05-01

    This study sought to determine whether fermentation could increase apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), energy (E) and amino acids (AA) in fermented soybean meal (FSBM) greater than that of soybean meal (SBM) in weaned pigs. Four weaned pigs (10.00 ± 0.30 kg) were surgically equipped with T-cannulas and randomly followed a 4 × 4 Latin square design of treatments (SBM, FSBM, fish meal and spray-dried plasma protein). Overall, the fermentation process was able to reduce the amount of anti-nutritional factors (ANF), including trypsin inhibitors, raffinose and stachyose, in the FSBM diet, which were significantly reduced by 39.4, 92.2, and 92.9%, respectively, as compared to the SBM diet. As a consequence of ANF reduction in FSBM, the AID of DM, N and E as well as AA was significantly greater with FSBM than SBM. Taken all together, the fermentation process improved the nutritional quality of SBM, due to ANF reduction, leading to improvement of digestibility of AA. As such, FSBM can be potentially used as a specialized feed ingredient, especially for young animal diets in an attempt to reduce diet costs. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Blood biochemical parameters of broilers fed differently thermal processed soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Nahavandinejad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. A 42-days feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the influences of differently thermal processed soybean meal on the broilers blood biochemical parameters. Materials and methods. A total of 200 male birds of Ross strain were allocated into five different diets formulated using differently heat-treated soybean meals, with ten birds per treatment and per replicate. Diets contained: raw soybean (controls, autoclaved for a short (121°C, 20 min; Aut1 group or medium length period (121°C, 30 min; Aut2 group soybean meal, micro-waved soybean meal (46°C, 540 Watt, 7 min; McW group and browned soybean meal (120°C, 20 min; Brn group. Results. Blood serum metabolites showed that all treated diets presented lower lipid metabolism makers and higher protein metabolism markers. Broilers showed increased final body weight when fed heat-treated meals compared with control. Results suggested that thermal treatments altered the lipid metabolism in broilers that might originate a decrease in abdominal fat deposition. Conclusions. Comparison of the results for all the treated groups showed the Aut2 treatment is the most suitable method for soybean thermal treatment processing; in contrast, the Aut1 treatment had the closest results to the control group.

  2. Effect of Varying Toasting Time of Soybean Meal on Organ and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ninety Anak broiler chicks were used at four weeks of age in a 28 day feeding trial to assess the effect of toasting time of soybean on organ and carcass characteristics of finisher broiler birds. The birds were assigned to five dietary treatments containing raw soybean as control and full fat soybean toasted for 5, 10, 15 and 20 ...

  3. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for soybean meal, canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal among 3 different bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E J; Utterback, P L; Parsons, C M

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine amino acid digestibility of 4 feedstuffs [soybean meal (SBM), canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM)] using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed precision-fed ileal broiler assay (PFC). For the PFR, cecectomized roosters were precision-fed approximately 30 g of feed sample, and excreta were collected 48 h postfeeding. For the SIAAD, 16-d-old broilers were fed a semipurified diet containing the feed samples as the only source of protein from 17 to 21 d, with ileal digesta collected at 21 d. For the PFC, 22-d-old broilers were precision-fed 10 g of feed sample mixed with chromic oxide, and ileal digesta were collected at 4 h postfeeding. Digestibility coefficients were standardized using a nitrogen-free diet for the SIAAD and PFC and using fasted roosters for the PFR. There were generally no consistent differences in standardized amino acid digestibility values among assays, and values were in general agreement among assays, particularly for SBM and MBM. Differences did occur among methods for amino acid digestibility in fish meal; however, these differences were not consistent among methods or amino acids. The results of the study indicated that all 3 bioassays are acceptable for determining the amino acid digestibility of SBM, canola meal, MBM, and fish meal for poultry.

  4. Development and validation of a Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) to assess the dietary quality of school lunches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne S; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: School lunch programmes are one strategy to promote healthier dietary habits in children, but better evaluation tools for assessing the dietary quality of such programmes are needed. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a simple index to assess the dietary quality...... of school lunches for children aged 7-13 years. DESIGN: A Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) was developed to consist of seven components (nutrients and food groups) based on dietary issues for children aged 7-13 years, which were identified in a national dietary survey. The Meal IQ was validated...... against calculated nutrient contents of school lunches both provided by the school and brought from home. SETTING: At eight public schools from all over Denmark, data were collected on 191 individual lunches brought from home (which is most common in Denmark) and thirty-one lunches provided as part...

  5. Development and validation of a Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) to assess the dietary quality of school lunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabinsky, Marianne S; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus K; Tetens, Inge

    2012-11-01

    School lunch programmes are one strategy to promote healthier dietary habits in children, but better evaluation tools for assessing the dietary quality of such programmes are needed. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a simple index to assess the dietary quality of school lunches for children aged 7-13 years. A Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) was developed to consist of seven components (nutrients and food groups) based on dietary issues for children aged 7-13 years, which were identified in a national dietary survey. The Meal IQ was validated against calculated nutrient contents of school lunches both provided by the school and brought from home. At eight public schools from all over Denmark, data were collected on 191 individual lunches brought from home (which is most common in Denmark) and thirty-one lunches provided as part of a school food programme. In addition thirty-two lunches provided at eighteen other public schools were included. A total of 254 school lunches. A higher Meal IQ score was associated with a higher overall dietary quality, including lower contents of fat, saturated fat and added sugars, higher contents of fibre, various vitamins and minerals, and more fruits, vegetables and fish. The Meal IQ is a valid and useful evaluation tool for assessing the dietary quality of lunches provided by schools or brought to school from home.

  6. Dietary supplementation with olive stone meal in growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerolamo Xiccato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive stone meal is a low-digested fibre source potentially useful in the prevention of digestive troubles in growing rabbit permitting a better balance of dietary fibre fractions. To evaluate its efficacy, three experimental diets containing 0, 3 or 6% olive stone meal were fed to 222 rabbits from weaning (28 d to slaughter (73 d. Olive stone inclusion increased the proportion of large dietary particles while did not affect growth performance, digestive physiology and carcass and meat quality. Due to optimum health status observed in all experimental groups, the preventive action of olive stone meal against the occurrence of digestive troubles was not proven.

  7. Replacement Value of Soybean Meal and Maize with Raw or Boiled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study to determine the replacement value of raw or boiled pigeon pea seed meal (PSM) for soybean meal and maize in the diets of exotic pullets (1-56 d) was conducted with 324 pullet chicks. The experimental design was 2 x 5 factorial in a completely randomized design (CRD). The factors were form (raw and boiled) ...

  8. Increasing intake of soybean protein or casein, but not cod meal, reduces nephrocalcinosis in female rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Beynen, A.C.

    1992-01-01

    Female weanling rats were fed diets with soybean protein, casein or cod meal at 171, 342 or 513 mmol nitrogen/100 g for 3 wk. The diets were isonitrogenous and balanced for fat, cholesterol, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. Cod meal feeding at 171 and 342 mmol nitrogen/100 g diet produced lower

  9. Replacing soybean meal for cottonseed meal on performance of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Hugo; De Souza, Jonas; Batistel, Fernanda; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2016-01-01

    Cottonseed meal (CSM) is an alternative source of protein, and previous studies have been shown that it can replace soybean meal (SBM) without decrease animal performance. However, Brazilian CSM has a different chemical composition compared with the usual CSM reported in the literature. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of replacing SBM for Brazilian CSM on performance and energy balance of mid-lactating dairy cows. Forty-two Holstein cows were used in a replicate 3 × 3 Latin square design. Increasing contents of CSM (0, 15, and 30% of dry matter (DM)) were fed in diets to replace SBM. Milk yield and feed efficiency were linearly reduced with the replacement of CSM for SBM (P = 0.001). Milk fat content tended to increase quadratically (P = 0.07) with CSM addition. Replacing SBM for CSM affected milk protein content quadratically (P = 0.05). Milk urea nitrogen and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) tended to respond quadratically (P = 0.06 and 0.10) when CSM replaced SBM to the diets. Variation in body weight (BW) also responded quadratically as CSM replaced SBM (P = 0.05). Altogether, the findings suggest better performance when cows receive SBM diet compared with the Brazilian CSM diet.

  10. EFFECT OF REPLACING SOYBEAN MEAL BY SOYBEAN MILK WASTE ON CHOLESTEROL LEVEL OF KAMPONG CHICKENS MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Kusmanto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Study was conducted to know effect of replacing soybean meal (SBM by soybean milk waste (SBMW on performance, carcass production, and fat and meat cholesterol of kampong chickens. Six weeks old kampong chickens consist of 40 male and 40 female randomly divided into four groups of treatment in five replications and consisted two male and two female each. Four group of treatment receiving ME 2600 kcal per kg and crude protein 17 percent, supplemented by lysine, methionin, and threonin amino acid. Ration and drinking water were offered ad libitum. Kampong chickens were kept up to 10 weeks old. Meat breast were taken for lipid and cholesterol test. Collected data were analysed by a one way classification of variance analysis (CRD, followed by testing significant means by Duncans Multiple Range Test (DMRT. Significant means of lipid and cholesterol of male and female every replication analysed by t-test. Result: replacing SBM by SBMW supplemented by essential amino acid maintained performance and carcass production, although it does not effectively reduce lipid and cholesterol level of kampong chickens meat.

  11. Comparative efficacy of up to 50% partial fish meal replacement with fermented soybean meal or enzymatically prepared soybean meal on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and fecal microflora in weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jin Suk; Kim, In Ho

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the comparative efficacy of partial fish meal (FM) replacement (up to 50%) with fermented soybean meal (FSBM; SoELAB, PepSoyGen and Soytide) or enzymatically prepared SBM (HP 300) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and fecal microflora in weaned pigs. A total of 100 weaned pigs (body weight 6.59 ± 0.29 kg) were used in experimental feeding trials, lasting for up to 6 weeks, and were randomly allotted to five groups with four block replicates of five pigs per pen serving as one block. Dietary treatments were as follows: (i) 100% FM, (ii) 50% FM + 50% SoELAB-54, (iii) 50% FM + 50% PepSoyGen, (iv) 50% FM + 50% Soytide and (v) 50% FM + 50% HP 300. Concerning growth performance, none of the treated SBM preparations demonstrated any significantly different effect compared with FM treatment. With respect to nutrient digestibility, SoELAB and HP 300 treatments demonstrated no significant difference compared with FM treatment. Lastly, none of the SBM preparations demonstrated any significant differences in animal fecal score and all of the differentially treated SBM increased fecal Lactobacillus counts, while maintaining similar Escherichia coli counts compared with FM treatment. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Effect of the dietary inclusion of soybean components on the innate immune system in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Appelgren, Pamela; Opazo, Rafael; Barros, Luis; Feijoó, Carmen G; Urzúa, Victoria; Romero, Jaime

    2014-02-01

    Some components of plant-based meals, such as saponins and vegetal proteins, have been proposed as inducers of intestinal inflammation in some fish. However, the molecular and cellular bases for this phenomenon have not been reported. In this work, zebrafish were used as a model to evaluate the effects of individual soybean meal components, such as saponins and soy proteins. Zebrafish larvae fed a fish meal feed containing soy components were assessed according to low and high inclusion levels. The granulocytes associated with the digestive tract and the induction of genes related to the immune system were quantitated as markers of the effects of the dietary components. A significant increase in the number of granulocytes was observed after feeding fish diets containing high saponin or soy protein contents. These dietary components also induced the expression of genes related to the innate immune system, including myeloid-specific peroxidase, as well as the complement protein and cytokines. These results reveal the influence of dietary components on the stimulation of the immune system. These observations could be significant to understanding the contributions of saponin and soy protein to the onset of enteritis in aqua-cultured fish, and this knowledge may aid in defining the role of the innate immune system in other inflammatory diseases involving dietary components in mammals.

  13. Effect of phytase supplementation to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on phosphorus and calcium balance in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, W.C.; Cervantes, M.; He, J.M.M.; Schulze, H.

    2003-01-01

    Two metabolism experiments were carried out, to determine the effect of microbial phytase addition to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on P and Ca balance in growing. pigs; In experiment 1, six barrows (29.6kg: initial LW) were fed a barley-canola meal diet, without or. with phytase

  14. Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids in Meat Meal and Soybean Meal Fed to Growing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to determine the concentration and digestibility of crude protein (CP and amino acid (AA in meat meal (MM, and to compare these values with the respective values in soybean meal (SBM. Six barrows (initial body weight = 66.9±3.8 kg surgically fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum were allotted to a replicated 3×3 balanced Latin square design with 3 diets and 3 periods. Two experimental diets containing test ingredients as the sole source of AA were prepared to estimate the apparent ileal digestibility (AID for CP and AA by the direct method. An N-free diet was also prepared to estimate basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. All experimental diets contained 5% chromic oxide as an indigestible index. Each period consisted of a 5-d adaptation period and a 2-d of ileal digesta collection period. Ileal digesta samples were collected from 0900 to 1700 on d 6 and 7 of each period. The concentrations of CP, Lys, Met, and Trp in MM and SBM were analyzed to be 64.1, 3.5, 1.1 and 0.6, and 45.6, 2.8, 0.8, and 0.3%, respectively. The AID of all AA except Gly in MM was less (p<0.05 than in SBM. The AID of Lys, Met, and Trp in MM was estimated to be 56.0, 71.7, and 47.1%, respectively. The SID of all AA in MM was less (p<0.05 than in SBM. The SID of Lys, Met, and Trp was 65.1, 79.2, and 78.5%, respectively. In conclusion, the CP and AA contents in MM were greater than those in SBM whereas the ileal digestibility of all AA in MM was less than in SBM.

  15. Replacement of Soybean Meal with Animal Origin Protein Meals Improved Ramoplanin A2 Production by Actinoplanes sp. ATCC 33076.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan, Deniz; Kayali, Hulya Ayar

    2016-09-01

    Ramoplanin A2 is the last resort antibiotic for treatment of many high morbidity- and mortality-rated hospital infections, and it is expected to be marketed in the forthcoming years. Therefore, high-yield production of ramoplanin A2 gains importance. In this study, meat-bone meal, poultry meal, and fish meal were used instead of soybean meal for ramoplanin A2 production by Actinoplanes sp. ATCC 33076. All animal origin nitrogen sources stimulated specific productivity. Ramoplanin A2 levels were determined as 406.805 mg L(-1) in fish meal medium and 374.218 mg L(-1) in poultry meal medium. These levels were 4.25- and 4.09-fold of basal medium, respectively. However, the total yield of poultry meal was higher than that of fish meal, which is also low-priced. In addition, the variations in pH levels, protein levels, reducing sugar levels, extracellular protease, amylase and lipase activities, and intracellular free amino acid levels were monitored during the incubation period. The correlations between ramoplanin production and these variables with respect to the incubation period were determined. The intracellular levels of L-Phe, D-Orn, and L-Leu were found critical for ramoplanin A2 production. The strategy of using animal origin nitrogen sources can be applied for large-scale ramoplanin A2 production.

  16. Legume seeds and rapeseed press cake as substitutes for soybean meal in sow and piglet feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Hanczakowska

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of replacing soybean meal with mixtures of rapeseed press cake (RPC and legume seeds in sow and piglet diets was evaluated in an experiment on 30 sows and their progeny. Group I (control received standard feed mixture containing soybean meal as the main protein source, group II – RPC mixed with fodder pea, group III – field bean, group IV – blue lupine, group V – yellow lupine. Weaned piglets received mixtures containing RPC and legume mixtures. Considerable differences were found in amino acid composition of proteins. Differences in the apparent digestibility of essential nutrients were statistically insignificant. Sows fed with field bean and yellow lupine gave birth to heaviest piglets. After weaning piglets receiving field bean were characterized by the best weight gains. It is concluded that mixing rapeseed cake with legume seeds allows for the complete replacement of soybean meal in sow diets and for partial replacement in piglet diets.

  17. Cross-Hedging Fishmeal: Exploring Corn and Soybean Meal Futures Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Parcell, Joseph L.; Boessen, Christian R.; Altman, Ira J.; Sanders, Dwight R.

    2008-01-01

    During 2006 the fishmeal price nearly doubled from $500MT to over $900MT. The objective of this research is to determine the optimal cross-hedge ratio between fishmeal and soybean meal and corn, and corresponding hedging weight between corn and soybean. Results indicate all hedging weight should be placed on the corn futures contract. This is an interesting result since prior fishmeal cross-hedging research has not analyzed the corn futures contract as a risk management mechanism.

  18. Replacement of soybean meal by soybean in multiple supplements for beef heifers grazing Urochloa decumbens during the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mageste de Almeida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of replacing soybean meal with soybean in multiple supplements on nutritional parameters, microbial efficiency and productive and reproductive performance of heifers grazing in Urochloa decumbens during the drought period. Were used 39 crossbred heifers of initial age and initial weight of 21 months and 309.5±7 kg, respectively. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments with eight replicates, and a control treatment with seven replications. Two treatments had soybean meal as the protein source and two treatments had soybean as the protein source, containing 25% and 40% crude protein. The amount of supplement offered was 1.0 kg/animal/day. The animals of the control group received only mineral salt ad libitum. The supplemented animals had higher average daily gain (ADG than control animals (P<0.10, and there was no difference in ADG among the supplements (P>0.10. There was an effect of supplementation (P <0.10 on intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC, total digestible nutrients (TDN and neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDF. There were no differences (P>0.10 on intake of OM and DM grazing between the supplemented and non-supplemented. Supplementation improved DM digestibility and all constituents of the diet (P<0.10. It was found that the provision of multiple supplements optimizes the performance of heifers grazing during the dry season, and that the substitution of soybean meal by soybean did not improve productive performance of animals.

  19. Effect of alkaline treated soybean meal on the performance, protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of alkaline treated soybean seeds on the performance, protein and energy efficiency of starter broilers. Soybean seeds were divided into 4 batches. The first batch was autoclaved at 100°C and the other batches soaked in aqueous solution of 3% concentration of sodium ...

  20. Evaluation of Broiler Performance when fed insect-protected, control, or commercial varieties of dehulled Soybean Meal1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.A.; Hartnell, G.F.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the nutritional value of broiler diets containing approximately 35% soybean meal from insect-protected soybean containing Cry1Ac protein, or from a similar nontransgenic control, or from 7 reference commercial soybean varieties. The feeding trial lasted 41 d, and each treatment

  1. Use of black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) to substitute soybean meal in ruminant diet: An in vitro rumen fermentation study

    OpenAIRE

    Anuraga Jayanegara; Briliannanda Novandri; Nover Yantina; Muhammad Ridla

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This experiment aimed to evaluate substitution of soybean meal (SBM) by black soldier fly (BSF) larvae meal in a napier grass diet as performed by an in vitro rumen fermentation system. Materials and Methods: Samples of napier grass, SBM, and BSF larvae age 1 week (BSF1) and 2 weeks (BSF2) were arranged according to the following dietary treatments (dry matter [DM] basis): T1, 100% napier grass; T2, 60% napier grass + 40% SBM; T3, 60% napier grass + 40% BSF1; T4, 60% napier grass + 4...

  2. Use of black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) to substitute soybean meal in ruminant diet: An in vitro rumen fermentation study

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanegara, Anuraga; Novandri, Briliannanda; Yantina, Nover; Ridla, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This experiment aimed to evaluate substitution of soybean meal (SBM) by black soldier fly (BSF) larvae meal in a napier grass diet as performed by an in vitro rumen fermentation system. Materials and Methods: Samples of napier grass, SBM, and BSF larvae age 1 week (BSF1) and 2 weeks (BSF2) were arranged according to the following dietary treatments (dry matter [DM] basis): T1, 100% napier grass; T2, 60% napier grass + 40% SBM; T3, 60% napier grass + 40% BSF1; T4, 60% napier grass + 40% B...

  3. The effects of partial replacement of soybean meal by xylose-treated soybean meal in the starter concentrate on performance, health status, and blood metabolites of Holstein calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Kazemi-Bonchenari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the effects of partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM with xylose-treated SBM (XSBM as a source of rumen undegradable protein (RUP in the starter concentrate of calves on performance, health status and selected blood metabolites. Twenty-one female Holstein dairy calves (body weight=39.6±2.3 kg were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n=7 each: i starter concentrate with 25% SBM [control (CTR]; ii starter concentrate with 17.5% SBM +7.5% XSBM (7.5XSBM; and iii starter concentrate with 12.5% SBM+12.5% XSBM (12.5XSBM. Calves received 2 L of milk twice daily, with ad libitum access to starter concentrates from d 4 until weaning (d 56. Performance and health status were recorded throughout the experiment. Blood samples collected on d 4, 35 and 56 were assayed for concentrations of glucose, total protein (TP, and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN. Starter intake (560, 400, and 420 g/d for CTR, 7.5XSBM, and 12.5XSBM, respectively, average daily gain (0.67, 0.6 and 0.57 kg/d, and feed to gain ratio (0.83, 0.67, and 0.74 were affected by treatments (P<0.05. Hearth girth, height at withers, body length, rectal temperature, faecal score, and respiratory score did not differ among treatments. Mean plasma glucose and TP were not affected by treatments, whereas PUN in the 12.5XSBM group was lower than in the other groups (P<0.05. In conclusion, the present results showed that partial replacement of SBM by XSBM may improve efficiency of dietary protein utilisation in pre-weaned calves, which warrants further studies.

  4. Establishment of a Meal Coding System for the Characterization of Meal-Based Dietary Patterns in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-11-01

    Background: Most studies on dietary patterns to date have focused on the daily intake of individual foods, rather than the combination of foods simultaneously consumed during specific eating occasions (breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks). Objective: We aimed to establish a meal coding system for characterizing meal-based dietary patterns in Japan. Methods: Dietary data used were from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan, in which 1-d weighed dietary records were collected from 26,361 adults aged ≥20 y. The food diary was based on a typical Japanese eating pattern, which comprised breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks; these eating occasions were prescribed in the diary. A total of 94,439 eating occasions (25,187 breakfasts, 25,888 lunches, 26,248 dinners, and 17,116 snacks) were identified. For all meal types, common food group combinations were identified to produce a range of generic meals. These generic meals were then used in principal components analysis to establish meal patterns. Results: In total, 94 generic meals (24 breakfasts, 27 lunches, 26 dinners, and 17 snacks) were identified. The most frequently identified food group combination for all 3 main meals was "rice and vegetables" (9 generic meals for breakfast, 12 for lunch, and 16 for dinner), whereas "confectioneries and nonalcoholic and noncaloric beverages" was the most prevalent combination for snacks (3 generic meals). In total, 19 meal patterns were established by using principal components analysis, which accounted for 24.1% of total variance. Patterns ranged considerably with regard to meal-type inclusion and the selection of staple foods (rice, bread, and noodles) and beverages, as well as with regard to meal constituents. Conclusions: With the use of a meal coding system, we identified a wide range of meal-based dietary patterns in Japanese adults. This meal coding system may be useful in capturing and investigating the complex nature of Japanese meals and food combination

  5. Environmental impact of replacing soybean meal with rapeseed meal in diets of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zanten, H H E; Bikker, P; Mollenhorst, H; Meerburg, B G; de Boer, I J M

    2015-11-01

    The major impact of the livestock sector on the environment may be reduced by feeding agricultural co-products to animals. Since the last decade, co-products from biodiesel production, such as rapeseed meal (RSM), became increasingly available in Europe. Consequently, an increase in RSM content in livestock diets was observed at the expense of soybean meal (SBM) content. Cultivation of SBM is associated with high environmental impacts, especially when emissions related to land use change (LUC) are included. This study aims to assess the environmental impact of replacing SBM with RSM in finishing pig diets. As RSM has a lower nutritional value, we assessed the environmental impact of replacing SBM with RSM using scenarios that differed in handling changes in nutritional level. Scenario 1 (S1) was the basic scenario containing SBM. In scenario 2 (S2), RSM replaced SBM based on CP content, resulting in reduced energy and amino acid content, and hence an increased feed intake to realize the same growth rate. The diet of scenario 3 (S3) was identical to S2; however, we assumed that pigs were not able to increase their feed intake, leading to reduced growth performance. In scenario 4 (S4), the energy and amino acid content were increased to the same level of S1. Pig performances were simulated using a growth model. We analyzed the environmental impact of each scenario using life-cycle assessment, including processes of feed production, manure management, piglet production, enteric fermentation and housing. Results show that, expressed as per kg of BW, replacing SBM with RSM in finishing pig diets marginally decreased global warming potential (GWP) and energy use (EU) but decreased land use (LU) up to 12%. Between scenarios, S3 had the maximum potential to reduce the environmental impact, due to a lower impact per kg of feed and an increased body protein-to-lipid ratio of the pigs, resulting in a better feed conversion ratio. Optimization of the body protein

  6. Development and validation of a Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) to assess the dietary quality of school lunches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus K.

    2012-01-01

    of a school food programme. In addition thirty-two lunches provided at eighteen other public schools were included. Subjects A total of 254 school lunches. Results A higher Meal IQ score was associated with a higher overall dietary quality, including lower contents of fat, saturated fat and added sugars...

  7. Effect of replacing fish meal with extruded soybean meal on growth, feed utilization and apparent nutrient digestibility of juvenile white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qihui; Tan, Beiping; Dong, Xiaohui; Chi, Shuyan; Liu, Hongyu

    2015-10-01

    Extruded soybean meal (ESBM) was evaluated as a protein source for partial replacement of fish meal (FM) in diets of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. In the control diet (Diet 1), FM protein was replaced with increasing dietary levels of ESBM (4.28%, 8.40%, 12.62%, 16.82%, and 25.26%) at 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 60% levels (Diets 2 to 6, respectively). An eight-week feeding trial was conducted on 720 juvenile shrimp (0.67 g ± 0.01 g mean initial weight), and nutrient digestibility of the six diets was determined. ESBM could replace 20% of FM without causing a significant reduction in growth of shrimp, but other dietary treatments strongly affected whole body composition. Crude protein content of the whole body fed Diet 6 was significantly lower than that fed Diet 2 ( P replacement level. This study indicates that 20% FM replacement with ESBM in the basic diet containing 40% protein and 30% FM is optimal for juvenile L. vannamei.

  8. Presence of indigestible peptide aggregates of soybean meal in pig ileal digesta residue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, M.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Piersma, S.R.; Kofod, L.V.; Joergensen, C.I.; Guggenbuhl, P.; Nunes, C.S.; Gruppen, H.

    2007-01-01

    With the purpose of analysing the molecular size and composition, proteinaceous material was extracted from the insoluble components of a digesta sample obtained from pigs fed a feed consisting of only soybean meal. Gel permeation chromatography indicated that the alkali-extractable fraction of the

  9. Productive performance and blood profiles of laying hens fed Hermetia illucens larvae meal as total replacement of soybean meal from 24 to 45 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marono, S; Loponte, R; Lombardi, P; Vassalotti, G; Pero, M E; Russo, F; Gasco, L; Parisi, G; Piccolo, G; Nizza, S; Di Meo, C; Attia, Y A; Bovera, F

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the research was to study the effects of an insect meal from Hermetia illucens larvae (HILM) as complete replacement of soybean meal (SBM) on productive performance and blood profiles of laying hens, from 24 to 45 wk of age. A total of 108 24-week-old Lohmann Brown Classic laying hens was equally divided into 2 groups (54 hens/group, 9 replicates of 6 hens/group). From 24 to 45 wk of age, the groups were fed 2 different isoproteic and isoenergetic diets: the control group (SBM) was fed a corn-soybean meal based diet, while in the HILM group the soybean meal was completely replaced by Hermetia illucens larvae meal. Feed intake, number of eggs produced, and egg weight were recorded weekly along the trial. At 45 wk of age, blood samples were collected from 2 hens per replicate. The use of HIML led to a more favorable (P meal produced a higher percentage of eggs from small (S), medium (M), and extra-large (XL) classes (P meal, while creatinine was higher (P meal can be a suitable alternative protein source for laying hens even if the complete replacement of soybean meal needs further investigation to avoid the negative effects on feed intake. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Bromatological and mycotoxin analysis on soybean meal before and after the industrial process of micronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Daga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins, fumonisins and zearalenone take part of the most studied mycotoxin groups due to their toxic effects on animal and human health. This research evaluated samples of soybeans meal used in animal food industry. A hundred and twenty one soybean meal samples were analyzed, so that 66 were analyzed before the industrial processing of micronization and 55 after it. The bromatological average of samples before micronization showed the following answers: 12.4% moisture; 46.4% protein; 79.5% protein solubility; 5.9% ash content; 2.2% fat; 4.3% fiber and 0.02 (ΔpH of urease activity. The samples of micronization soybean meal showed 7.0% average values for moisture and 48.6% for crude protein. The mycotoxin levels were low in natura soybean meal; therefore, average values were 0.5μg kg-1, 29.6μg kg-1 and 56.8μg kg-1 for aflatoxin, zearelenone and fumonisin, respectively. After micronization, the average values for the studied samples were 1.3μg kg-1, 67.5μg kg-1 and 89.1μg kg-1, respectively for the same mycotoxins. The results for bromatological and mycotoxin analyses indicate similarity with the established patterns according to the Brazilian Compendium for Animal feed and reference literature. However, at least one of the three studied mycotoxin was detected in all of the analyzed samples and there was greater contamination of soybeans meal after the micronization process.

  11. Quantitative replacement of soybean meal with toasted African yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the result, one can conclude that 25% AYB (treatment II) compared favourably with the control diets 0% AYB in starter broiler diets and is hereby recommended as optimal for quantitative replacement of soybean in broiler starter diet. Key words: Broiler Starter diet, African Yam Bean, Soyabean replacement ...

  12. Optimum Replacement Level of the Soybean Meal for Processed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Hence the need to source for alternative but promising feedstuffs. A 28- day feeding trial was therefore conducted to determine the feeding processed horse eye bean meal (HEBM) in finisher broiler ration. Six experimental diets were formulated. Diet 1 was the control, while various quantities of HEBM was used to replace.

  13. Effects of Partial Replacement of Soybean Meal with Cassava Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and fifty (150) four weeks old broilers were raised in eight litter pens for the period of four weeks to observe the effect of cassava leaf meal (CLM) on the comparative body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, feed efficiency and feed cost of the birds. Five experimental broiler finisher diets containing ...

  14. Carcass traits and meat quality of crossbred Boer goats fed peanut cake as a substitute for soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T M; de Medeiros, A N; Oliveira, R L; Gonzaga Neto, S; Queiroga, R de C R do E; Ribeiro, R D X; Leão, A G; Bezerra, L R

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diets of crossbred Boer goats as determined by carcass characteristics and quality and by the fatty acid profile of meat. Forty vaccinated and dewormed crossbred Boer goats were used. Goats had an average age of 5 mo and an average BW of 15.6 ± 2.7 kg. Goats were fed Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate consisting of corn bran, soybean meal, and mineral premix. Peanut cake was substituted for soybean meal at levels of 0.0, 33.33, 66.67, and 100%. Biometric and carcass morphometric measurements of crossbred Boer goats were not affected by replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet. There was no influence of the replacement of soybean meal with peanut cake on weight at slaughter ( = 0.28), HCW ( = 0.26), cold carcass weight ( = 0.23), noncarcass components of weight ( = 0.71), or muscularity index values ( = 0.11). However, regression equations indicated that there would be a reduction of 18 and 11% for loin eye area and muscle:bone ratio, respectively, between the treatment without peanut cake and the treatment with total soybean meal replacement. The weights and yields of the commercial cuts were not affected ( > 0.05) by replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet. Replacing soybean meal with peanut cake did not affect the pH ( = 0.79), color index ( > 0.05), and chemical composition ( > 0.05) of the meat (). However, a quadratic trend for the ash content was observed with peanut cake inclusion in the diet ( = 0.09). Peanut cake inclusion in the diet did not affect the concentrations of the sum of SFA ( = 0.29), the sum of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; = 0.29), or the sum of PUFA ( = 0.97) or the SFA:UFA ratio ( = 0.23) in goat meat. However, there was a linear decrease ( = 0.01) in the sum of odd-chain fatty acids in the meat with increasing peanut cake in the diet. Soybean meal replacement with peanut cake did not affect the n-6:n-3 ratio ( = 0.13) or the

  15. 76 FR 15225 - Incorporating the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Into the Proposed School Meal Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Into the Proposed School Meal Patterns AGENCY: Food and Nutrition... meal patterns and nutrition standards according to the latest dietary recommendations. DATES: The... change in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans that affects the proposed rule ``Nutrition Standards in...

  16. Effect of Replacement of Soybean meal by Dried Tomato Pomace on Rumen Fermentation and Nitrogen Metabolism in Beef Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    C. Yuangklang; K. Vasupen; S. Wongsuthavas; S. Bureenok; P. Panyakaew; A. Alhaidary; H. E. Mohamed; A. C. Beynen

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Dried tomato pomace may be considered as an alternative feedstuff in ruminant nutrition. The limited literature data that are available so far may be interpreted as indirect and suggestive evidence for diminished ruminal fermentation and bacterial synthesis after substitution of dried tomato pomace for soybean meal. Approach: Rumen-fistulated beef steers were used to address the questions whether the replacement of soybean meal by dried tomato pomace would affect feed intak...

  17. In Vitro Ruminal Degradability of Soybean Meal Protein Protected with Natural Tannin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetiyono, B. W. H. E.; Subrata, A.; Tampoebolon, B. I. M.; Surono; Widiyanto

    2018-02-01

    The influence of tannin from tea waste and gambier as natural tannin sources on ruminal protein degradability was studied in this investigation. The soybean meal was used as protein source in this investigation. There were three treatments in this investigation mainly without protection (NT); protection with tea waste (Tt); and protection with gambier (Tg). The measured parameters consisted of in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), and the ruminal fermentation characteristics. Results of this experiment showed that protection with tannin from tea waste as well as gambier increased (ptannin protection (6690 vs 3790 and 5480 microorganism/ml rumen fluid). The Tt treatment group showed the lowest (ptannin increased IVDMD, IVOMD, RUP. The ruminal protozoa population and ammonia concentration, on the other hand, were decreased by tannin protection from those tannin natural sources. The natural tannin from gambier was the most effective protection agent for soybean meal protein.

  18. Corn and soybean meal metabolizable energy with the addition of exogenous enzymes for poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LRB Dourado

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Two metabolism assays were carried out to determine corn and soybean meal metabolizable energy when enzymes were added. In the first trial, 35 cockerels per studied feedstuff (corn and soybean meal were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with four treatments of seven replicates of one bird each. The evaluated treatments were: ingredient (corn and soybean meal with no enzyme addition, with the addition of an enzyme complex (xylanase, amylase, protease - XAP, xylanase, or phytase. Precise feeding method was used to determine true metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (TMEn. The use of enzymes did not result in any differences (p>0.05 in soybean meal TMEn, but phytase improved corn TMEn in 2.3% (p=0.004. In the second trial, 280 seven-day-old broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with seven treatments of five replicates of eight birds each. Treatments consisted of corn with no enzyme addition or with the addition of amylase, xylanase, phytase, XAP complex, XAP+phytase combination, or xylanase/ pectinase/β-glucanase complex (XPBG. Corn was supplemented with macro and trace minerals. Total excreta collection was used to determine apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn. Differences were observed (p=0.08 in AMEn and dry matter metabolizability coefficient (p=0.03. The combination of the XAP complex with phytase promoted a 2.11% increase in corn AMEn values, and the remaining enzymes allowed increased between 0.86% and 1.66%.

  19. Factors affecting antioxidant activity of soybean meal and caseine protein hydrolysates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korczak, J.

    1998-01-01

    Antioxidative activity of protein hydrolysates was dependent on the raw material, condition of hydrolysis and lipid substrate used in model systems. Soybean meal hydrolysate was more active in lard and in linoleic acid emulsion than caseine hydrolysate, whereas caseine was more active in vegetable oils. Antioxidant activity of evaluated protein hydrolysates in all lipid systems, with or without oxidation catalysts, suggests them as natural food additives for lipid stabilization, thus for improvement of its nutritional value and sensory properties

  20. Nutritional parameters of steers receiving different levels of sunflower crushed in partial replacement of soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HELLEN L. LIMA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To evaluate of the sunflower crushed in nutritional parameters in steers, supplemented at pasture, we used four steers in 4×4 Latin square design. The supplements were provided in 6 g/kg of body weight/animal/day, consisting of sunflower crushed, corn, soybean meal and mineral. All the supplements was isonitrogenous and soybean meal was replaced in 0, 20, 40, and 60% for sunflower crushed. The determination of ruminal pH and ammonia was at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h. after feeding and for short-chain fatty acids it was collected at 0 and 6 h. post-feeding. The dry matter intake was not affected (P>0.05 by inclusion of sunflower crushed (mean=6.59 kg/day. There was no significant effect (P>0.05 for pH for the inclusion of sunflower crushed (mean=6.41. For contents of ruminal NH3-N was a significant effect (P <0.05 only for collection time, and ammonia peaks occurred between 2 and 4 h after feeding, with values of 22.56 and 21.40 mg/dL. The total concentration of short chain fatty acids and the C2:C3 ratio was reduced in 9.6 and 15.43%. The ruminal degradability of NDF was not affected by the supplements. The supplementation with sunflower crushed to beef steers grazing, in partial replacement of soybean meal did not alter nutrition parameters.

  1. Nutritional parameters of steers receiving different levels of sunflower crushed in partial replacement of soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Hellen L; Goes, Rafael H T B de; Cerilo, Sara L N; Oliveira, Euclides R de; Gressler, Maria G M; Brabes, Kelly C S

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate of the sunflower crushed in nutritional parameters in steers, supplemented at pasture, we used four steers in 4×4 Latin square design. The supplements were provided in 6 g/kg of body weight/animal/day, consisting of sunflower crushed, corn, soybean meal and mineral. All the supplements was isonitrogenous and soybean meal was replaced in 0, 20, 40, and 60% for sunflower crushed. The determination of ruminal pH and ammonia was at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h. after feeding and for short-chain fatty acids it was collected at 0 and 6 h. post-feeding. The dry matter intake was not affected (P>0.05) by inclusion of sunflower crushed (mean=6.59 kg/day). There was no significant effect (P>0.05) for pH for the inclusion of sunflower crushed (mean=6.41). For contents of ruminal NH₃-N was a significant effect (P replacement of soybean meal did not alter nutrition parameters.

  2. Fermented soybean meal improves the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and microbial flora in piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yuan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase nutritive values of soybean meal (SBM, 3 species of microbes were used to ferment SBM. Through a 3 × 3 orthogonal design and parameter measurements of soybean peptide and anti-nutritional factor contents in the fermented soybean meal (FSBM, it was estimated that the best microbial proportion of Bacillus subtilis, Hansenula anomala and Lactobacillus casei was 2:1:2 for SBM fermentation (P  0.05. However, newly-weaned piglets (d 28–38 fed 10% FSBM and different levels of plasma protein obtained higher average daily gain (ADG and feed conversion ratio (FCR, compared with those without FSBM but with 6% plasma protein (P < 0.05. Piglets (d 38–68 fed diets supplemented with FSBM and soybean protein concentrate (SBPC at 3.75% and 7.5% respectively increased nutrient digestibility, fecal enzyme activity and lactic acid bacteria counts, and decreased fecal Escherichia coli counts (P < 0.05, compared with the control. These data indicated that FSBM had positive effects on nutrient digestibility and fecal microflora for piglets.

  3. Relationships of adolescent's dietary habits with personality traits and food neophobia according to family meal frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Mi Sook; Kim, Miseon; Cho, Wookyoun

    2014-08-01

    A higher frequency of family meals is associated with good dietary habits in young people. This study focused on the relationships of family meal frequency with food neophobia and personality traits in adolescents. For this purpose, we administered a survey to 495 middle school students in Seoul metropolitan city, after which the data were analyzed using the SPSS (18.0) program. Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationships among dietary habits, personality traits, and food neophobia according to frequency of family meals. Dietary habits, personality traits, and food neophobia all showed significant differences according to the frequency of family meals. Further, eating regular family meals was associated with good dietary habits (P food neophobia (P food neophobia showed a negative correlation (P food neophobia showed a negative correlation (P frequency of family meals affects dietary habits, personality traits, and food neophobia in adolescents.

  4. Performance of Clarias gariepinus Fed Dried Brewer's Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Slurry in Replacement for Soybean Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Shola Gabriel; Ataguba, Gabriel Arome; Itodo, Gabriel Enemona

    2017-01-01

    Following disparity of earlier results, this study tested the performance of African catfish Clarias gariepinus fed dried brewer's yeast slurry meal (DBYM) based diets. Fingerlings of C. gariepinus with pooled mean initial weight of 1.58 ± 0.01 g were stocked in hapas (1 m × 1 m × 1 m) immersed in an earthen pond at a density of 15 fish per cage. Five diets with increasing substitution of soybean meal with 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of dried brewer's yeast and a control without dried brewer's yeast (0% substitution) were evaluated for 8 weeks. Palatability of diets reduced with increasing levels of DBYM. Growth and utilization parameters such as weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, and specific growth rate differed significantly ( p meal with DBYM in C. gariepinus feed is between 1% and 14% of dry matter.

  5. Prediction of digestible and metabolisable energy in soybean meals produced from soybeans of different origins fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongchao; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Guo, Panpan; Liu, Ling; Piao, Xiangshu; Stein, Hans H; Li, Defa; Lai, Changhua

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the digestible energy (DE) and metabolisable energy (ME) in 22 sources of soybean meal (SBM) produced from soybeans from different countries and subsequently to establish equations for predicting the DE and ME in SBM based on their chemical composition. The 22 sources of SBM were all processed in Chinese crushing plants, but the soybeans used originated from China (n=6), the US (n=6), Brazil (n=7) or Argentina (n=3). The basal diet was a corn-based diet and 22 additional diets were formulated by mixing corn and 24.3% of each source of SBM. The average DE and ME in SBM from China, the US, Brazil and Argentina were 15.73, 15.93, 15.64 and 15.90 MJ/kg and 15.10, 15.31, 14.97 and 15.42 MJ/kg, respectively, and no differences among countries were observed. From a stepwise regression analysis, a series of DE and ME prediction equations were generated. The best-fit equations for SBM were DE=38.44-0.43 crude fibre -0.98 gross energy +0.11 acid detergent fibre (R2=0.67, pprotein (R2=0.79, psoybean sources used in this experiment. The DE and ME of SBM of different origin can be predicted based on their chemical composition when fed to growing pigs.

  6. Partial Replacement of soybean cake with amaranthus spinosus leaf meal in the diet of nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeniji, C.A.; Fakoya, K.A.; Omamohwo, V.R.

    2007-01-01

    The study, designed to assess the potentials of oven dried Amaranthus spinosus leaf meal as partial replacement for soybean cake in the diet of Nile Tilapia, revealed no significant difference (P>0.05) in feed and protein intake. Fish fed on Amaranthus spinosus leaf meal diets had significant (P<0.05) higher survival percentage, while that on soybean cake meal (control diet) recorded significant (P<0.05) better weight gain, average daily rate of growth, efficient feed and protein utilization as well as average final weight. (author)

  7. Feeding of Dehulled-micronized Faba Bean (Vicia faba var. minor) as Substitute for Soybean Meal in Guinea Fowl Broilers: Effect on Productive Performance and Meat Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Laudadio, Vito

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effect of dietary substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with dehulled-micronized faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor) in guinea fowl broilers on their growth traits, carcass quality, and meat fatty acids composition. In this trial, 120 day-old guinea fowl keets were randomly assigned to two treatments which were fed from hatch to 12 weeks of age. Birds were fed two wheat middlings-based diets comprising of a control treatment which contained SBM (78.3 g/kg) and...

  8. Quantitative relationships between standardized total tract digestible phosphorus and total calcium intakes and their retention and excretion in growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, N A; Serão, N V L; Elsbernd, A J; Hansen, S L; Walk, C L; Bedford, M R; Patience, J F

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the quantitative relationships between standardized total tract digestible P (STTD P) and total Ca intakes with their retention and excretion by growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets. Forty-eight crossbred barrows (BW = 22.7 ± 2.9 kg) were allotted to 1 of 8 diets, housed individually in pens for 3 wk, and then moved to metabolism crates and allowed 4 d for adaptation and 5 d for collection of urine and fecal samples. Eight corn-soybean meal diets were formulated for similar NE, fat, and AA concentrations but to increase the STTD P from 0.16 to 0.62% using monocalcium phosphate. Dietary treatments were formulated for a constant Ca:STTD P ratio (2.2:1). The STTD P intake increased (P urine decreased (P urine was observed but excretion increased linearly at STTD P intake levels above the requirement for maximum growth of growing pigs. The FMC increased with STTD P intake, but a plateau was reached at a STTD P intake level above the requirement. Dietary STTD P was used for growth and accumulated in bones until a plateau was reached and excess was excreted in urine. The predictability of P and Ca excretion in urine from the dietary STTD P and Ca intakes was moderate.

  9. Substitution of soybean meal by meal moringa oleifera leaves in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of the effect of the substitution of the soy bean meal by Moringa oleifera leaf powder in the diet of finish broiler were carry out in the Dschang University Experimental Farm ration completion from December 2003 to January 2004. Two hundred and four twenty eight chicks “Arbor acres” hens, four weeks old were ...

  10. Nutritional value of raw Canavalia ensiformis and its utilization as partial replacement for soybean meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) fingerlings

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon, Shola G.; Okomoda, Victor T.; Oguche, Obekpa

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The nutritional value of raw Jack bean meal (Canavalia ensiformis) as a partial substitute for soybeans meal was investigated in this study. Preliminary investigation on nutrient composition revealed that lysine, histidine, and phenylalanine were significantly higher in C. ensiformis seed meal compared to soybean meal. However, crude protein and other essential amino acids were significantly lower. Feeding trial was then conducted to investigate the effect of replacing about 40% soyb...

  11. Effects of feeding diets based on transgenic soybean meal and soybean hulls to dairy cows on production measures and sensory quality of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W P; Simons, C T; Ekmay, R D

    2015-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine whether feeding meal and hulls derived from genetically modified soybeans to dairy cows affected production measures and sensory qualities of milk. The soybeans were genetically modified (Event DAS-444Ø6-6) to be resistant to multiple herbicides. Twenty-six Holstein cows (13/treatment) were fed a diet that contained meal and hulls derived from transgenic soybeans or a diet that contained meal and hulls from a nontransgenic near-isoline variety. Soybean products comprised approximately 21% of the diet dry matter, and diets were formulated to be nearly identical in crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, energy, and minerals and vitamins. The experimental design was a replicated 2×2 Latin square with a 28-d feeding period. Dry matter intake (21.3 vs. 21.4kg/d), milk yield (29.3 vs. 29.4kg/d), milk fat (3.70 vs. 3.68%), and milk protein (3.10 vs. 3.12%) did not differ between cows fed control or transgenic soybean products, respectively. Milk fatty acid profile was virtually identical between treatments. Somatic cell count was significantly lower for cows fed transgenic soybean products, but the difference was biologically trivial. Milk was collected from all cows in period 1 on d 0 (before treatment), 14, and 28 for sensory evaluation. On samples from all days (including d 0) judges could discriminate between treatments for perceived appearance of the milk. The presence of this difference at d 0 indicated that it was likely not a treatment effect but rather an initial bias in the cow population. No treatment differences were found for preference or acceptance of the milk. Overall, feeding soybean meal and hulls derived from this genetically modified soybean had essentially no effects on production or milk acceptance when fed to dairy cows. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of twin-screw extrusion on soluble dietary fibre and physicochemical properties of soybean residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yan; Chi, Yu-Jie

    2013-06-01

    Extrusion cooking technology was applied for soluble dietary fibre extraction from soybean residue. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimise the effects of extrusion parameters, namely extrusion temperature (90-130°C), feed moisture (25-35%) and screw speed (160-200 rpm) on the content of soluble dietary fibre. According to the regression coefficients significance of the quadratic polynomial model, the optimum extrusion parameters were as follows: extrusion temperature, 115°C; feed moisture, 31%; and screw speed, 180 rpm. Under these conditions, the soluble dietary fibre content of soybean residue could reach to 12.65% which increased 10.60% compared with the unextruded soybean residue. In addition, the dietary fibre in extrude soybean residue had higher water retention capacity, oil retention capacity and swelling capacity than those of dietary fibre in unextruded soybean residue. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. School Meal Program Participation and Its Association with Dietary Patterns and Childhood Obesity. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Philip; Briefel, Ronette; Wilson, Ander; Dodd, Allison Hedley

    2009-01-01

    We used data from the School Nutrition Dietary Assessment III Study to examine the dietary patterns of school meal program participants and nonparticipants and the relationship between school meal participation and children's BMI and risk of overweight or obesity. School Breakfast Program (SBP) participants consumed more low nutrient energy dense…

  14. Replacement of fish meal by protein soybean concentrate in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Soares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of Litopenaeus vannameifed different levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of soybean protein concentrate (63.07% crude protein, CP to replace fish meal-by product (61.24% CP. The study was conducted in clear water in fifteen 800 L tanks equipped with aeration systems, constant heating (29 ºC, and daily water exchange (30%. Each tank was stocked with 37.5 shrimp/m3 (3.03±0.14 g. Feed was supplied four times a day, at 6% of the initial biomass, adjusted daily. After 42 days, the weight gain of shrimp fed diets with 0 and 25% protein replacement was higher than that observed in shrimp fed 100% replacement, and there were no differences among those fed the other diets. Feed efficiency and survival did not differ among shrimp fed different protein replacements. There was a negative linear trend for growth parameters and feed intake as protein replacement with soybean protein concentrate increased. Fish meal by-product can be replaced by up to 75% of soybean protein concentrate, with no harm to the growth of Pacific white shrimp.

  15. Detoxified castor meal in substitution of soybean meal in sheep diet: growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Daniel Ribeiro; Costa, Roberto Germano; de Araújo, Gherman Garcia Leal; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; de Medeiros, Geovergue Rodrigues; Oliveira, Juliana Silva; Nascimento, Thiago Vinicius Costa; de Souza Rodrigues, Rafael Torres; Filho, José Morais Pereira; Busato, Karina Costa

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake, digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of lambs fed different levels of replacement (0, 15, 30, and 45 % based on dry matter, DM) of soybean meal (SM) by detoxified castor meal (DCM). Twenty-four and 32 intact hair lambs of nondescript breed (21.7 ± 2.6 kg of initial average body weight and approximately 10 months old) were used, respectively, in the intake and digestibility and performance experiments. The diets were composed of buffel grass hay, ground corn grain, and different levels of SM, DCM, and urea, in a roughage-to-concentrate ratio of 40:60. There was no effect of treatments on DM intake. However, crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intakes were higher at 30 and 45 % than at 0 and 15 % of DCM, which in turn showed higher intake of non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC) (P replacement of SM by DCM up to 45 % in the feed of lambs did not negatively affect the intake, digestibility, performance, and main carcass features.

  16. Fermented Soybean Meal Increases Lactic Acid Bacteria in Gut Microbiota of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Natalia; Villasante, Alejandro; Wacyk, Jurij; Ramírez, Carolina; Romero, Jaime

    2017-12-22

    The main goal of the present study was to address the effect of feeding fermented soybean meal-based diet to Atlantic salmon on gut microbiota. Further, expression of genes of interest, including cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (cath), mucin 2 (muc2), aquaporin (aqp8ab), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (pcna), in proximal intestine of fish fed either experimental diet was analyzed. Three experimental diets, including a control fishmeal (30% FM), soybean meal (30% SBM), or fermented soybean meal diet (30% FSBM) were randomly assigned to triplicate tanks during a 50-day trial. The PCR-TTGE showed microbiota composition was influenced by experimental diets. Bands corresponding to genus Lactobacillus and Pediococcus were characteristic in fish fed the FSBM-based diet. On the other hand, bands corresponding to Isoptericola, Cellulomonas, and Clostridium sensu stricto were only observed in fish FM-based diet, while Acinetobacter and Altererythrobacter were detected in fish fed SBM-based diet. The expression of muc2 and aqp8ab were significantly greater in fish fed the FSBM-based diet compared with the control group. Our results suggest feeding FSBM to Atlantic salmon may (1) boost health and growth physiology in fish by promoting intestinal lactic acid bacteria growth, having a prebiotic-like effect, (2) promote proximal intestine health by increasing mucin production, and (3) boost intestinal trans-cellular uptake of water. Further research to better understands the effects of bioactive compounds derived from the fermentation process of plant feedstuff on gut microbiota and the effects on health and growth in fish is required.

  17. Effect of Replacing Soybean Meal with Lupin Seed-based Meal in Chicken Diet on Performance, Carcass Value and Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Suchý

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this experimental study was to determine how diets containing lupin meal affect the performance indicators, carcass value, and chemical composition of breast and thigh muscles in broiler chickens. The diets tested in experimental groups E1 and E2 differed as follows: in group E1, one third of nitrogen-containing substances (NSs from extracted soybean meal was replaced with NSs from lupin meal; in group E2, two thirds were replaced compared to the control group. The replacement of soybean meal with lupin meal in experimental diets failed to produce any significant effect on the average live weight of chickens on Day 42 of the fattening period compared to the control group. The replacement of soybean meal with lupin meal resulted in decreased average weight of carcass and breast muscles and in decreased yield of breast muscles. Differences between the control group (C and group E2 were significant (P ⪬ 0.01. Chickens in group E2 also showed a significant increase (P ⪬ 0.01 in the yield of the heart and stomach compared to the control group. The differences in weight and yield of thigh muscles between the control group and the experimental groups (E1 and E2 were not significantly affected. As far as chemical composition is concerned, chickens receiving the lupin-containing feed showed a significant (P ⪬ 0.01 increase in the ash content in breast muscles. On the contrary, in thigh muscles in group E2, the ash content decreased significantly (P ⪬ 0.01. The content of calcium showed an increasing trend in both breast and thigh muscles in both experimental groups. In contrast, the content of magnesium in chicken muscles in both experimental groups decreased. These differences were significant (P ⪬ 0.01 only in thigh muscles. Our results show that lupin seed is a suitable substitute for NSs contained in soybean extracted meal. It is considered optimal to replace up to one third of NSs contained in

  18. Amino acid utilization and body composition of growing pigs fed processed soybean meal or rapeseed meal with or without amino acid supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, T.G.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Hendriks, W.H.; Bikker, P.

    2017-01-01

    Feed ingredients used in swine diets are often processed to improve nutritional value. However, (over-)processing may result in chemical reactions with amino acids (AAs) that decrease their ileal digestibility. This study aimed to determine effects of (over-)processing of soybean meal (SBM) and

  19. Replacement of soybean meal with maize steep liquor in the diets of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ferreira

    2015-12-14

    Dec 14, 2015 ... http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sajas.v45i5.9. Replacement of soybean meal with maize steep liquor in the diets of feedlot lambs. A.P.D. de Freitas, M.deA. Ferreira, J.P.F. de Oliveira, Á.E.M. da Silva, L.F.P. Soares,. J.deL. Silva#, L.E. Salla & A.R.D.L. Souza. Department of Animal Science, Federal Rural University ...

  20. Effects of sheep breed and soybean meal supplementation on rumen environment and degradation kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenço, A.L.; Cone, J.W.; Fontes, P.; Dias-da-Silva, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if the in vivo digestibility and intake differences, observed in previous studies, between Ile-de-France (IF) and Churra-da-Terra-Quente (CTQ) sheep breeds, were due to rumen environment and degradability differences. The intake, digestibility, rumen environment and degradability and urinary allantoin-nitrogen excretion were evaluated in 8 adult cannulated ewes (4 CTQ and 4 IF ewes). The animals were fed ad libitum hay – with and without a soybean meal su...

  1. Soybean level and probiotics in first feeding fry diets alter the ability of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to utilize high levels of soybean meal during grow-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inclusion rates of soybean meal in salmonid diets are currently kept low to minimize detrimental effects on growth, enteritis and immune responses. Probiotics have been used to treat both infectious and noninfectious enteritis in humans and other terrestrial animals and may represent a feasible met...

  2. Digestible protein requirement for Nile tilapia fed with rations based on soybean meal and corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Franco Carneiro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to determine the requirement of digestible protein (DP for Nile tilapia fed with diets based on soybean meal and corn. Two hundred Nile tilapia juveniles, sexually reversed, were used for a trial period of 100 days. The animals were distributed in 20 boxes of 1000 L-1 in a random design with five treatments and four replications, the boxes were connected to a water recirculation system. Five isoenergetic diets were tested with different levels of digestible protein (DP: 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40%. At the end of the experimental period were evaluated the zootechnical performance data. A quadratic effect (p < 0.05 was shown to parameters of final weight, weight gain, final length, fillet yield and visceral fat with the best points that ranged from 28.3 to 29.9% of DP. The largest area of hepatocytes was found to the lowest levels of DP in the diet (20 and 25% compared to the other levels, which were similar. Thus, Nile tilapia has adequate performance for the consumption of diets based on soybean and corn meal and the recommended level is 28.3% of PD in these conditions.

  3. PEROXIDASE FROM SOYBEAN MEAL: OBTENTION, PURIFICATION AND APPLICATION IN REDUCTION OF DEOXYNIVALENOL LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Penteado Feltrin

    Full Text Available This study established the conditions for the extraction of the enzyme peroxidase (PO from soybean meal (SBM. An experimental design methodology was carried out in order to evaluate the effects of stirring rate time, pH and extracting solvent volume on the enzyme extraction. By using 5 g SBM and 50 mL phosphate buffer 10 mmol L-1 pH 4.7, 60 min stirring rate at 100 rpm, an enzyme with specific activity of 100 U mg-1 for SBM was obtained. Two techniques of purification were tested and compared for purification of peroxidase from soybean meal: triphasic partition (TPP and molecular exclusion chromatography. TPP showcased a greater efficiency with 50% recuperation and a purification factor of 13.6. Peroxidase in crude and pure forms was characterized for kinetics, thermodynamics and biochemistry. The parameter of thermal inactivation indicates high stability to exposure time and temperature increase, showing that enzyme activity is not altered by the presence of constituents of the reaction medium. Peroxidase in crude form represented a greater upkeep in activity, keeping 50% activity for 114 days at 0 °C. Peroxidase in pure form had greater affinity for substrate and reduced Deoxynivalenol levels by 80%, 20% more than the crude form.

  4. Energy concentration and phosphorus digestibility in yeast products produced from the ethanol industry, and in brewers' yeast, fish meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B G; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2014-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the DE, ME, and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in 2 novel sources of yeast (C-yeast and S-yeast) and in brewers' yeast, fish meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs. The 2 new sources of yeast are coproducts from the dry-grind ethanol industry. The concentrations of DM, GE, and P were 94.8%, 5,103 kcal/kg, and 1.07% in C-yeast; 94.4%, 4,926 kcal/kg, and 2.01% in S-yeast; 93.6%, 4,524 kcal/kg, and 1.40% in brewers' yeast; 91.4%, 4,461 kcal/kg, and 3.26% in fish meal; and 87.7%, 4,136 kcal/kg, and 0.70% in soybean meal, respectively. The DE and ME in each of the ingredients were determined using 42 growing barrows (28.9±2.18 kg BW). A corn-based basal diet and 5 diets containing corn and 24% to 40% of each test ingredient were formulated. The total collection method was used to collect feces and urine, and the difference procedure was used to calculate values for DE and ME in each ingredient. The concentrations of DE in corn, C-yeast, S-yeast, brewers' yeast, fish meal, and soybean meal were 4,004, 4,344, 4,537, 4,290, 4,544, and 4,362 kcal/kg DM (SEM=57), respectively, and the ME values were 3,879, 3,952, 4,255, 3,771, 4,224, and 4,007 kcal/kg DM (SEM=76), respectively. The ME in S-yeast and fish meal were greater (P<0.05) than the ME in corn and brewers' yeast, whereas the ME in C-yeast and soybean meal were not different from those of any of the other ingredients. The STTD of P in the 5 ingredients was determined using 42 barrows (28.3±7.21 kg BW) that were placed in metabolism cages. Five diets were formulated to contain each test ingredient as the sole source of P, and a P-free diet was used to estimate the basal endogenous loss of P. Feces were collected for 5 d using the marker to marker method after a 5-d adaptation period. The STTD of P in brewers' yeast (85.2%) was greater (P<0.05) than the STTD of P in all the other ingredients except S-yeast (75.7%). The STTD of P in C-yeast (73.9%) was

  5. The effects of rapeseed meal and legume seeds as substitutes for soybean meal on productivity and gastrointestinal function in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugołek, Andrzej; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Strychalski, Janusz; Zwoliński, Cezary; Żary-Sikorska, Ewa; Konstantynowicz, Małgorzata

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of soybean meal (SBM) substitution by a mixture of rapeseed meal (RSM), white lupine seeds (WLS) and pea seeds (PS) on productivity, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen retention and gastrointestinal function in Hyplus rabbits. The Control diet (SBM 15 ) contained 15% SBM, whereas Diet SBM 7.5 contained 7.5% SBM, 5% RSM, 4% WLS and 3% PS. In Diet SBM 0, SBM was completely replaced by RSM, WLS and PS (10%, 8% and 6%, respectively). A production trial was performed on 90 Hyplus rabbits aged from 35 to 84 d (45 each sex; 953 ± 4.6 g). A digestion and balance trial was conducted on 30 rabbits. Additionally, several parameters of the gastrointestinal tracts from eight animals from each group were analysed, where special attention was paid to the enzymatic activity of microbiota and the short-chain fatty acids concentration in caecum and colon. The experimental diets did not cause significant differences regarding performance parameters evaluated in vivo and post-mortem, and in the nutrient and energy digestibility or nitrogen retention. The observed changes in the enzymatic activity of large gut microbiota, including the selective increase in secretion of glycoside hydrolases by bacterial cells, seem to be responsible for the unchanged growth performance of rabbits fed diets where SBM was substituted by a mixture of RSM, WLS and PS. The obtained results indicate that in rabbit diets SBM may be, partially or completely, successfully replaced by a feed mixture of RSM, WLS and PS.

  6. Use of black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) to substitute soybean meal in ruminant diet: Anin vitrorumen fermentation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanegara, Anuraga; Novandri, Briliannanda; Yantina, Nover; Ridla, Muhammad

    2017-12-01

    This experiment aimed to evaluate substitution of soybean meal (SBM) by black soldier fly (BSF) larvae meal in a napier grass diet as performed by an in vitro rumen fermentation system. Samples of napier grass, SBM, and BSF larvae age 1 week (BSF1) and 2 weeks (BSF2) were arranged according to the following dietary treatments (dry matter [DM] basis): T1, 100% napier grass; T2, 60% napier grass + 40% SBM; T3, 60% napier grass + 40% BSF1; T4, 60% napier grass + 40% BSF2; T5, 60% napier grass + 20% SBM + 20% BSF1; and T6, 60% napier grass + 20% SBM + 20% BSF2. The samples were determined for their chemical composition and were incubated in vitro using buffered rumen fluid for 48 h at 39°C. In vitro incubation was carried out in three runs and represented by two incubation bottles per run. Supplementation of BSF, both BSF1 and BSF2, increased ether extract, neutral- and acid-detergent insoluble crude protein contents of T3-T6 diets. The T3 or T4 diet resulted in lower ruminal ammonia concentration, in vitro DM digestibility, and in vitro organic matter (OM) digestibility as compared to those in T2 (p<0.05). Diet supplemented with BSF produced lower methane emission in comparison to that of supplemented with SBM (p<0.05). Diet containing BSF2 produced lower methane and methane per digestible OM than that containing BSF1 (p<0.05). Substitution of SBM by BSF in ruminant diet results in a lower nutritional value in vitro but with an advantage of lowering ruminal methane emission.

  7. Structural and Interpersonal Characteristics of Family Meals: Associations with Adolescent BMI and Dietary Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Berge, Jerica M.; Jin, Seok Won; Hannan, Peter; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    The last decade of research has suggested that family meals play an important role in promoting healthful dietary intake in youth. However, little is known about the structural characteristics and interpersonal dynamics of family meals that may help to inform why family meals are protective for youth. The current mixed methods, cross-sectional study conducted in 2010–2011 includes adolescents and parents who participated in two linked population-based studies. Participants included 40 parents...

  8. Minimizing use of fish meal in sunshine bass diets using standard and new varieties of non-genetically modified soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improved plant ingredients are needed to support sustainable culture of carnivorous fish, such as hybrid striped bass (HSB). We are evaluating meals made from new strains of non-genetically-modified soybeans (non-GMO) with high protein and reduced anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) on HSB nutrient dige...

  9. The CDTA-soluble pectic substances from soybean meal are composed of rhamnogalacturonan and xylogalacturonan but not homogalacturonan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Huisman, M.M.H.; Kamerling, J.P.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2001-01-01

    Structural characteristics of pectic substances extracted from soybean meal cell walls (water unextractable solids) with a chelating agent-containing buffer (0.05M 1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid (CDTA) and 0.05M NH4-oxalate in 0.05M NaOAc buffer) were studied. The arabinogalactans

  10. Effect of dietary levels of a modified meat meal on performance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 100 g feather meal and 150 g zeolite per kg. Experimentally, this leads to an improvement in physical texture and preservation characteristics. In this experiment, six hundred 3-week-old Cobb 500 broiler chicks of both sexes were assigned randomly to 24 floor pens with 25 chicks in each pen. Dietary modified meat meal

  11. The contribution of the USDA school breakfast and lunch program meals to student daily dietary intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Weber Cullen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, the National School Breakfast (SBP and School Lunch Program (NSLP meals are provided for free or at a reduced price to eligible children, and are a nutrition safety net for low income children. Consuming both meals could provide 58% of daily intake. This paper evaluates the contribution of SBP and NSLP meals to the dietary intakes of 5–18 year old children participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES from 2007 through 2012. The participants completed 24-hour dietary recalls. Least-square means and standard errors of the mean for energy and food group intakes for the total day and by school meal, and the percent of daily energy and food groups contributed by school meals were computed by analysis of covariance, with BMI, ethnicity, sex, age and poverty level as covariates. Of the 7800 participating children aged 5–18 years in the entire dataset, 448 consumed both SBP-NSLP meals on a weekday. Almost one-half (47% of the day's energy intake was provided by the two school meals. For the major food groups, the contribution of school meals ranged from between 40.6% for vegetables to 77.1% for milk. Overall, these results provide important information on contribution of the SBP and NSLP meals to low income children's daily dietary intake.

  12. Proteomic comparison by iTRAQ combined with mass spectrometry of egg white proteins in laying hens (Gallus gallus) fed with soybean meal and cottonseed meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tao; Zhang, Haijun; Wang, Jing; Wu, Shugeng; Yue, Hongyuan; Qi, Guanghai

    2017-01-01

    Cottonseed meal (CSM) is commonly used in hens’ diets to replace soybean meal (SBM). However, the molecular consequences of this substitution remains unclear. To investigate the impact of this substitution at the molecular level, iTRAQ combined with biochemical analysis was performed in Hy-Line W-36 hens supplemented with a mixed diet of CSM and SBM. Egg weight, albumen height, and Haugh unit were significantly reduced in the CSM100 group (100% crude protein of SBM replaced by CSM) compared with the SBM group (Phen diet. PMID:28813468

  13. Replacing soybean meal with gelatin extracted from cow skin and corn protein concentrate as a protein source in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaji, S; Manafi, M; Olfati, Z; Hedyati, M; Latifi, M; Veysi, A

    2016-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of replacing soybean meal with gelatin extracted from cow skin and corn protein concentrate as a protein source in broiler diets. Experiments were carried out as a completely randomized design where each experiment involved 4 treatments of 6 replicates and 10 chicks in each pen. Soybean meal proteins in a corn-soy control diet were replaced with 15, 30, and 45% of cow skin gelatin (CSG) or corn protein concentrate (CPC), respectively, in experiments 1 and 2. BW and cumulative feed intake were measured at 7, 21, and 42 d of age. Blood characteristics, relative organs weight and length, ileal digesta viscosity, ileal morphology, and cecal coliform and Salmonella population were measured at 42 d of age. Apparent total tract digestibility of protein was determined during 35 to 42 d of age. Replacement of soybean meal with CSG severely inhibited BW gain, decreased feed intake, and increased FCR in broilers during the experimental period (P ≤ 0.01). The inclusion of CPC reduced BW and increased FCR significantly (P ≤ 0.05) at 21 and 42 d of age without any consequence in feed intake. Protein digestibility was reduced and ileal digesta viscosity was increased linearly by increasing the amount of CSG and CPC in the control diet (P ≤ 0.01). Replacement of soybean meal with CSG and CPC did not significantly alter blood cell profile and plasma phosphorus, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, Aspartate transaminase, and HDL and LDL cholesterol concentration. The inclusion of CSG linearly (P ≤ 0.05) increased plasma uric acid concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels were decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) when the amount of CSG replacement was 15%. The results of this experiment showed that using CSG and CPC negatively affects broiler performance and therefore is not a suitable alternative to soybean meal in commercial diets. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. A comparison of methionine sources for broiler chickens fed corn-soybean meal diets under simulated commercial grow-out conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, R G; Hester, P Y

    1983-10-01

    Two experiments, involving 5,760 birds each, were conducted under simulated commercial grow-out conditions to determine the relative response of broiler chicks to two supplemental levels each of DL-methionine (DL-MET), L-methionine (L-MET), and methionine hydroxy analogue-free acid (MHA-FA) fed on an equimolar basis in corn-soybean meal diets. MHA-FA was shown to support 49-day weight gains comparable to those of chicks fed DL-MET, and both sources were superior to L-MET in this regard. However, there were no significant differences due to MET sources in the efficiency of feed utilization. When compared to basal-fed chicks, birds fed supplemental L-MET, DL-MET, or MHA-FA had elevated plasma free MET levels, whereas cyst(e)ine and taurine concentrations were not affected by dietary treatment. There were no effects of diet on either mortality or the incidence of leg abnormalities. The results of these studies suggest that MHA-FA is an acceptable source of MET for broiler chicks fed corn-soybean meal diets from day-old to market weight.

  15. Effects of replacing soybean meal with chickpea seeds in the diet on mechanical and thermal properties of tendon tissue in broiler chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszynski, S; Kwiecien, M; Swietlicki, M; Dobrowolski, P; Tatarczak, J; Gladyszewska, B

    2018-02-01

    The efficiency of the musculoskeletal system of broiler chickens, in particular during locomotion and in ensuring its supportive function, depends directly on the adequate function and mechanical endurance of soft tissues, including tendons. However, little is known whether the properties of musculoskeletal soft tissues can be influenced by changes of dietary protein. We substituted soybean meal with raw chickpea seeds as the primary protein source in the diet and studied the effects it had on the mechanical and thermal properties of drumstick tendons in broiler Ross 308 chickens. In the experiment, 160 chicks were divided into 2 groups, receiving in their diet either soybean meal (n = 80) or chickpea seeds (n = 80). The experiment lasted 42 days. The physical condition of the drumstick tendons was analyzed on the basis of a tensile test and the results of thermal denaturation as measured by a differential scanning calorimetry. The mechanical evaluation of tendon tensile strength of the broilers fed with chickpea seeds demonstrated an increase in the ultimate strain (for over 22%, P Thermal analysis demonstrated alterations in tendon collagen cross-linking as transition onset temperature decreased (from 63.8 to 61.8°C, P properties of tendons and showed that thermal analysis can be a useful tool for studying the effect of nutrition on the development and structural changes in tendons of broiler chickens. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Effect of particle size and microbial phytase on phytate degradation in incubated maize and soybean meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of screen size (1, 2 and 3 mm) and microbial phytase (0 and 1000 FTU/kg as-fed) on phytate degradation in maize (100% maize), soybean meal (100% SBM) and maize–SBM (75% maize and 25% SBM) incubated in water for 0, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h at 38°C....... Samples were analysed for pH, dry matter and phytate phosphorus (P). Particle size distribution (PSD) and average particle size (APS) of samples were measured by the Laser Diffraction and Bygholm method. PSD differed between the two methods, whereas APS was similar. Decreasing screen size from 3 to 1 mm...... by 88% in maize, 84% in maize–SBM and 75% in SBM after 2 h of incubation (Peffect...

  17. Role of Fermentation in Improving Nutritional Quality of Soybean Meal — A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runni Mukherjee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Soybean meal (SBM, a commonly used protein source for animal feed, contains anti-nutritional factors such as trypsin inhibitor, phytate, oligosaccharides among others, which limit its utilization. Microbial fermentation using bacteria or fungi has the capability to improve nutritional value of SBM by altering the native composition. Both submerged and solid state fermentation processes can be used for this purpose. Bacterial and fungal fermentations result in degradation of various anti-nutritional factors, an increase in amount of small-sized peptides and improved content of both essential and non-essential amino acids. However, the resulting fermented products vary in levels of nutritional components as the two species used for fermentation differ in their metabolic activities. Compared to SBM, feeding non-ruminants with fermented SBM has several beneficial effects including increased average daily gain, improved growth performance, better protein digestibility, decreased immunological reactivity and undesirable morphological changes like absence of granulated pinocytotic vacuoles.

  18. Application of soybean meal, soy protein concentrate and isolate differing in α-galactosides content to low- and high-fibre diets in growing turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zduńczyk, Z; Jankowski, J; Juśkiewicz, J; Lecewicz, A; Slominski, B

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this experiment was to investigate the physiological and growth response of young turkeys (up to 8 weeks of age) to dietary replacement of soybean meal (SBM) by soy protein concentrate (PC) or protein isolate (PI). This replacement resulted in a differentiated dietary concentration of α-galactosides of over 2.5% in the SBM diet, approximately 2% with a mixture SBM and PC, 1% with a PC diet and 0.1% with a PI diet. Each treatment was applied in two ways: with lower (3.5%) or higher (5.3%) dietary crude fibre content, made by supplementation with soybean hulls. The highest and lowest body weight of turkeys was recorded both after the first and second 4-week half of the study in the PC and PI-type diets respectively. A gradual withdrawal of α-galactosides from a diet was accompanied by a decline in ileal tissue mass, ileal viscosity and activity of endogenous maltase (the latter was found to be significant at 4 weeks of age). At the same time, two-way anova revealed that an elevated level of crude fibre (HF treatment) caused an increase in ileal tissue mass (p diet, in contrast to dietary crude fibre level, significantly affected the caecal metabolism. The rate of bacterial production of short-chain fatty acids in the caeca was distinctly diminished by dietary withdrawal of α-galactosides. In conclusion, the soy protein concentrate, in contrast to the protein isolate preparation, exerted positive effects on the turkeys' growth and gastrointestinal tract physiology and should be considered as an effective SBM substitute. © 2009 The Authors. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Fostering sustainable dietary habits through optimized school meals in Sweden – OPTIMAT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eustachio Colombo, Patricia; Schäfer-Elinder, Liselotte; Parlesak, Alexandr

    2017-01-01

    The fulfilment of commitments to international agreements that relate to sustainable development requires fundamental changes in food consumption. This project aims to promote healthy and sustainable dietary habits in Sweden through optimized school meals. Several studies are planned. The first...... is an analysis of children’s dietary intake in relation to school meal quality. The second is a modelling study where nutritious, affordable and theoretically acceptable food baskets, optimized for low emissions of greenhouse gases, are developed. Menus based on these baskets will be developed and tested...... for acceptability in schools. Lastly, challenges in the implementation of climate-friendlier school meals will be studied. Currently, the collection of data on dietary habits and school meal quality has been finalised. Preliminary optimisation analyses have also been performed. This project has the potential...

  20. Effect of partial replacement of dietary maize with cassava peel meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of dietary cassava peel meal (CPM) inclusion in partial replacement for maize on egg quality characteristics during storage was investigated in this study. In a completely randomized design, ISA brown pullets (n=3,000) aged 20-week were assigned to three dietary treatments. Diets A, B, C contained CPM at 0, 10 and ...

  1. The Effect of Replacing Fish Meal in the Diet with Enzyme-Treated Soybean Meal (HP310) on Growth and Body Composition of Rainbow Trout Fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghbayan, Samira; Shamsaie Mehrgan, Mehdi

    2015-11-26

    The potential of enzyme-treated soybean meal powder (HP310) as fish meal alternative in diets for rainbow trout weighing 1.17 ± 0.3 g was evaluated for 60 days. Fish meal was replaced with HP310 at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of experimental diets. A control group was also considered. The results showed that diets containing 75% and 100% HP310 had significantly higher feed conversion ratio and lower feed intake, weight gain and specific growth rate compared to fish feed diets containing higher levels of fish protein ingredients (p replacement levels of diet (p > 0.05). However increasing in level of HP310 in the diet caused a significant increase of the white blood cells (p replaced by HP310 showed the highest values of ash and moisture content among the diets and showed significantly different levels when compared with the control and other feeding treatments (p < 0.05).

  2. Casein Supplementation Does Not Affect the Estimates of True Total Tract Digestibility of Phosphorus in Soybean Meal for Growing Pigs Determined by the Regression Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight barrows with an average initial body weight of 25.5±0.3 kg were assigned to 6 dietary treatments arranged in a 3×2 factorial of 3 graded levels of P at 1.42, 2.07, or 2.72 g/kg, and 2 levels of casein at 0 or 50 g/kg to compare the estimates of true total tract digestibility (TTTD of P in soybean meal (SBM for pigs fed diets with or without casein supplementation. The SBM is the only source of P in diets without casein, and in the diet with added casein, 1.0 to 2.4 g/kg of total dietary P was supplied by SBM as dietary level of SBM increased. The experiment consisted of a 5-d adjustment period and a 5-d total collection period with ferric oxide as a maker to indicate the initiation and termination of fecal collection. There were interactive effects of casein supplementation and total dietary P level on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD and retention of P (p0.05. In summary, our results demonstrate that the estimates of TTTD of P in SBM for pigs were not affected by constant casein inclusion in the basal diets.

  3. Feeding of Dehulled-micronized Faba Bean (Vicia faba var. minor) as Substitute for Soybean Meal in Guinea Fowl Broilers: Effect on Productive Performance and Meat Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Laudadio, Vito

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effect of dietary substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with dehulled-micronized faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor) in guinea fowl broilers on their growth traits, carcass quality, and meat fatty acids composition. In this trial, 120 day-old guinea fowl keets were randomly assigned to two treatments which were fed from hatch to 12 weeks of age. Birds were fed two wheat middlings-based diets comprising of a control treatment which contained SBM (78.3 g/kg) and a test diet containing dehulled-micronized faba bean (130 g/kg) as the main protein source. Substituting SBM with faba bean had no adverse effect on growth traits, dressing percentage, or breast and thigh muscles relative weight of the guinea fowls. Conversely, a decrease (pMeat from guinea fowls fed faba bean had less total lipids (pmeat and decreased the saturated fatty acid levels. Moreover, dietary faba bean improved the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes in guinea fowl breast meat. Results indicated that substitution of SBM with faba bean meal in guinea fowl diet can improve carcass qualitative traits, enhancing also meat lipid profile without negatively affecting growth performance. PMID:26323403

  4. Effect of dietary mannan-oligosaccharides from copra meal on intestinal microbes and blood profile of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. S. Putri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS is a common prebiotics used as a feed additives. The use of antibiotic can be replaced by MOS to reduce the number of pathogenic bacteria in small intestines of chickens. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of MOS extracted from copra meal on intestinal microbial population and blood profile of broiler chickens. The study was conducted by using 150 day-old male broiler chickens (average body weight 46.00 +  1.41 g. The design of this experiment was a completely randomized design (CRD with 3 dietary treatments, 5 replications and 10 birds in each replication. The dietary treatments consisted of control diet (corn-soybean meal diet without supplementation of antibiotic and prebiotic, control + 0.1% antibiotic bambermycin, and control + 0.035% MOS. For the first 4 weeks the birds were fed treatment diets, followed by commercial feed for 2 weeks. The parameters observed in this study were intestinal microbes population and blood profiles. The results showed that the administration of 0,035% MOS increased the lactic acid bacteria (LAB number compared with antibiotics feed (P0.05 with the control group. The total aerobic and coliform bacteria were higher in MOS and antibiotic treatment compared than control group. The supplementation of 0.035% MOS from copra meal in diet increased the level of leucocytes which is important to immune response of broilers and its usage was safe because the level of chicken blood profile were within the normal range.

  5. Effects of Protease Addition and Replacement of Soybean Meal by Corn Gluten Meal on the Growth of Broilers and on the Environmental Performances of a Broiler Production System in Greece.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Giannenas

    Full Text Available An experimental study was conducted to examine the combined effects of adding a dietary protease, reducing the levels of soybean meal (SBM and introducing corn gluten meal (CGM in the ration of a group of broilers reared on a commercial Greek farm. Five hundred forty chicks were divided into three dietary treatments with six replicates of thirty birds each. The first group (Control was fed a conventional diet based on corn and soybean meal, containing 21% w/w crude protein (CP. The second group (Soy-Prot was supplied a corn and SBM-based diet containing a lower level of CP (20% w/w and 200 mg of the protease RONOZYME® Proact per kg of feed. The third group (Gluten-Prot was fed a diet without soybean-related constituents which was based on corn and CGM and with CP and protease contents identical to those of the diet of the Soy-Prot group. Body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR, intestinal microbiota populations and morphology, meat quality and cost were evaluated. Furthermore, a partial life cycle assessment (LCA was performed in order to assess the potential environmental performance of the systems defined by these three dietary treatments and identify their environmental hot-spots. The growth performance of the broilers supplied the Soy-Prot diet was similar to the broilers supplied the Control diet. However, the broilers which were fed the Gluten-Prot diet at the end of the trial showed a tendency (P≤0.010 for lower weight gain and feed intake compared to those of the Control diet. When compared to the Control group, lower counts of C. perfringens (P≤0.05 were detected in the ileum and cecum parts, and lower counts of F. necrophorum (P≤0.001 were detected in the cecum part of the birds from the Gluten-Prot group. The evaluation of intestinal morphometry showed that the villus height and crypt depth values were not significantly different (P>0.05 among the experimental groups for the duodenum, jejunum and ileum parts. No

  6. Effects of Protease Addition and Replacement of Soybean Meal by Corn Gluten Meal on the Growth of Broilers and on the Environmental Performances of a Broiler Production System in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannenas, Ilias; Bonos, Eleftherios; Anestis, Vasileios; Filioussis, Georgios; Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K; Bartzanas, Thomas; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Tzora, Athina; Skoufos, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to examine the combined effects of adding a dietary protease, reducing the levels of soybean meal (SBM) and introducing corn gluten meal (CGM) in the ration of a group of broilers reared on a commercial Greek farm. Five hundred forty chicks were divided into three dietary treatments with six replicates of thirty birds each. The first group (Control) was fed a conventional diet based on corn and soybean meal, containing 21% w/w crude protein (CP). The second group (Soy-Prot) was supplied a corn and SBM-based diet containing a lower level of CP (20% w/w) and 200 mg of the protease RONOZYME® Proact per kg of feed. The third group (Gluten-Prot) was fed a diet without soybean-related constituents which was based on corn and CGM and with CP and protease contents identical to those of the diet of the Soy-Prot group. Body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), intestinal microbiota populations and morphology, meat quality and cost were evaluated. Furthermore, a partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed in order to assess the potential environmental performance of the systems defined by these three dietary treatments and identify their environmental hot-spots. The growth performance of the broilers supplied the Soy-Prot diet was similar to the broilers supplied the Control diet. However, the broilers which were fed the Gluten-Prot diet at the end of the trial showed a tendency (P≤0.010) for lower weight gain and feed intake compared to those of the Control diet. When compared to the Control group, lower counts of C. perfringens (P≤0.05) were detected in the ileum and cecum parts, and lower counts of F. necrophorum (P≤0.001) were detected in the cecum part of the birds from the Gluten-Prot group. The evaluation of intestinal morphometry showed that the villus height and crypt depth values were not significantly different (P>0.05) among the experimental groups for the duodenum, jejunum and ileum parts. No

  7. The effect of partial substitution of roasted soybean seed with graded levels of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaf meal on growth performances and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melesse, Aberra; Alemu, Temesgen; Banerjee, Sandip; Berihun, Kefyalew

    2016-06-30

    This study was designed to assess the effects of partial substitution of roasted soybean seed with sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaf meal (SPLM) on growth performances and carcass components of broiler chickens. The experiment was a completely randomized design consisting of five dietary treatments replicated four times with ten chicks each. The control diet (treatment 1, T1) contained roasted soybean seed as the major protein source without SPLM and treatment diets containing SPLM at the levels of 30 g/kg (treatment 2, T2), 60 g/kg (treatment 3, T3), 90 g/kg (treatment 4, T4) and 120 g/kg (treatment 5, T5) by partially substituting the roasted soybean seed in the control diet. The results indicated that the body weight gain in chickens reared in T1 was (p<0.01) higher than those fed on T3, T4 and T5 diets. The individual feed intake in chickens reared in T1 was (p<0.001) higher than those fed on other treatment diets. The feed conversion ratio (kg feed/kg gain) of chickens fed on T1 was (p<0.05) lower than those reared in T4 and T5 diets. Chickens fed with T2 diet had numerically higher values of slaughter, dressed carcass and breast than those reared in T4 and T5 diets. It can be concluded that the partial substitution of roasted soybean seed with sweet potato leaf might be economically feasible feeding strategy of broiler chickens in smallholder poultry farm settings.

  8. Production of Hypoallergenic Antibacterial Peptides from Defatted Soybean Meal in Membrane Bioreactor: A Bioprocess Engineering Study with Comprehensive Product Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Arijit; Szécsi, Gábor; Csehi, Barbara; Mednyánszky, Zsuzsa; Kiskó, Gabriella; Bányai, Éva; Dernovics, Mihály; Koris, András

    2017-09-01

    Hypoallergenic antibacterial low-molecular-mass peptides were produced from defatted soybean meal in a membrane bioreactor. In the first step, soybean meal proteins were digested with trypsin in the bioreactor, operated in batch mode. For the tryptic digestion of soybean meal protein, optimum initial soybean meal concentration of 75 g/L, temperature of 40 °C and pH=9.0 were determined. After enzymatic digestion, low-molecular-mass peptides were purified with cross-flow flat sheet membrane (pore size 100 µm) and then with tubular ceramic ultrafiltration membrane (molecular mass cut-off 5 kDa). Effects of transmembrane pressure and the use of a static turbulence promoter to reduce the concentration polarization near the ultrafiltration membrane surface were examined and their positive effects were proven. For the filtration with ultrafiltration membrane, transmembrane pressure of 3·10 5 Pa with 3-stage discontinuous diafiltration was found optimal. The molecular mass distribution of purified peptides using ultrafiltration membrane was determined by a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry setup. More than 96% of the peptides (calculated as relative frequency) from the ultrafiltration membrane permeate had the molecular mass M ≤1.7 kDa and the highest molecular mass was found to be 3.1 kDa. The decrease of allergenic property due to the tryptic digestion and membrane filtration was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and it was found to exceed 99.9%. It was also found that the peptides purified in the ultrafiltration membrane promoted the growth of Pediococcus acidilactici HA6111-2 and they possessed antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus .

  9. Production of Hypoallergenic Antibacterial Peptides from Defatted Soybean Meal in Membrane Bioreactor: A Bioprocess Engineering Study with Comprehensive Product Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arij it Nath

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoallergenic antibacterial low-molecular-mass peptides were produced from defatted soybean meal in a membrane bioreactor. In the fi rst step, soybean meal proteins were digested with trypsin in the bioreactor, operated in batch mode. For the tryptic digestion of soybean meal protein, optimum initial soybean meal concentration of 75 g/L, temperature of 40 °C and pH=9.0 were determined. Aft er enzymatic digestion, low-molecular-mass peptides were purifi ed with cross-fl ow fl at sheet membrane (pore size 100 μm and then with tubular ceramic ultrafi ltration membrane (molecular mass cut-off 5 kDa. Eff ects of transmembrane pressure and the use of a static turbulence promoter to reduce the concentration polarization near the ultrafi ltration membrane surface were examined and their positive eff ects were proven. For the fi ltration with ultrafi ltration membrane, transmembrane pressure of 3•105 Pa with 3-stage discontinuous diafi ltration was found optimal. The molecular mass distribution of purifi ed peptides using ultrafi ltration membrane was determined by a liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-fl ight mass spectrometry setup. More than 96 % of the peptides (calculated as relative frequency from the ultrafi ltration membrane permeate had the molecular mass M≤1.7 kDa and the highest molecular mass was found to be 3.1 kDa. The decrease of allergenic property due to the tryptic digestion and membrane fi ltration was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and it was found to exceed 99.9 %. It was also found that the peptides purifi ed in the ultrafi ltration membrane promoted the growth of Pediococcus acidilactici HA6111-2 and they possessed antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus.

  10. Effects of replacing extracted soybean meal with rapeseed cake in corn grass silage-based diet for dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska, Jarosława; Białek, Małgorzata; Bagnicka, Emilia; Jarczak, Justyna; Tambor, Krzysztof; Strzałkowska, Nina; Jóźwik, Artur; Krzyżewski, Józef; Adamska, Agata; Rutkowska, Ewa

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effects of partial replacement of soybean meal with a protein-equivalent amount of rapeseed cake in the diet on milking parameters and fatty acid (FA) composition of milk in dairy cows. Two groups of Holstein-Friesian cows, 8 each, consisting of randomised blocks were studied: a control group (C) was given a traditional high-protein supplement (extracted soybean meal) and the experimental group (E), had part of extracted soybean meal replaced with rapeseed cake. Dry matter intake and milk yield in both groups were not affected by the diet but milk fat percentage and yield were decreased in both groups. Rapeseed cake had no effect on milk acidity or on protein (including casein) and lactose contents. A lower concentration of urea in milk in E group indicated a proper ratio of protein to energy in the fodder. Health condition of mammary gland and indicators of metabolic profile were not affected by rapeseed cake supplementation. In E group, the share of atherogenic saturated fatty acids (FA) was reduced after 11 weeks: palmitic, by 26% and myristic, by 22%; moreover, as compared with control cows, the content of monounsaturated FA in milk increased by 44% after 3 weeks and by 68% after 11 weeks, t-18:1 and c-9 t-11 isomer of CLA increased about 2.5-fold after 11 weeks. In E group, the atherogenic index (AI) was significantly (P < 0.001) lower than in C (by 54% on average) and the decrease with time was considerable (by 29%, P < 0.001). Contents of odd- and branched- chain FA in milk were not significantly affected thus reflecting proper rumen function. Partial replacement of soybean meal with rapeseed cake in the diet of cows may improve both milking indices and FA profile of milk.

  11. Fate of transgenic deoxyribonucleic acid fragments in digesta and tissues of rabbits fed genetically modified soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morera, P; Basiricò, L; Ronchi, B; Bernabucci, U

    2016-03-01

    Numerous animal feeding studies have investigated the presence of DNA from transgenic plants in tissues from different animal species, but the data reported are sometimes controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of transgenic DNA (tDNA) in the digesta and tissues of a meat rabbit breed fed genetically modified (GM) soybean meal. Fifteen male New Zealand White rabbits were used for the experimental trial. Ten rabbits (treated group [TG]) were fed a mixed feed containing 10% GM soybean meal and 5 rabbits (control group [CG]) received a mixed feed containing conventional soybean meal, both from weaning (28 d of age) to slaughter (80 ± 3 d). Samples of blood, liver, kidney, heart, stomach, intestine (jejunum), lateral quadricep muscle, longissimus muscle, and perirenal adipose tissue were collected to assess the possible DNA transfer from GM feed to animal tissues. Samples of stomach contents and feces were also taken to study the degradability of ingested tDNA from feed in the digestive tract of rabbit. Moreover, samples of hair were collected to determine the possible environmental contamination from feed powders present on the farm. The DNA extraction was performed using specific genomic DNA kits. All samples were monitored, by using real-time PCR, for oligonucleotide primers and probes specific for the transgenic Roundup Ready soybean 40-3-2 and for the endogenous () gene. As an internal control of rabbit tissues, the presence of the () gene was used. In this study, no fragments of tDNA were detectable in tissue DNA samples of rabbits except in the extracted DNA from stomach digesta, feces, and hair of rabbits fed with GM soybean. Similar results were found for the reference gene, whereas the presence of the gene was detected in all rabbit tissues. The lack of tDNA of soybean in rabbit tissues represents an important result, which demonstrates that meat from rabbits fed a diet containing GM feed is as that derived from rabbits fed

  12. Detection of Melamine in Soybean Meal Using Near-Infrared Microscopy Imaging with Pure Component Spectra as the Evaluation Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengling Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean meal was adulterated with melamine with the purpose of boosting the protein content for unlawful interests. In recent years, the near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy technique has been widely used for guaranteeing food and feed security for its fast, nondestructive, and pollution-free characteristics. However, there are problems with using near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy for detecting samples with low contaminant concentration because of instrument noise and sampling issues. In addition, methods based on NIR are indirect and depend on calibration models. NIR microscopy imaging offers the opportunity to investigate the chemical species present in food and feed at the microscale level (the minimum spot size is a few micrometers, thus avoiding the problem of the spectral features of contaminants being diluted by scanning. The aim of this work was to investigate the feasibility of using NIR microscopy imaging to identify melamine particles in soybean meal using only the pure component spectrum. The results presented indicate that using the classical least squares (CLS algorithm with the nonnegative least squares (NNLS algorithm, without needing first to develop a calibration model, could identify soybean meal that is both uncontaminated and contaminated with melamine particles at as low a level as 50 mg kg−1.

  13. Replacing Soybean Meal with Alternative Protein Sources in Diets for Pond-raised hybrid catfish, ¿ Ictalurus punctatus × ¿ Ictalurus furcatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study investigated the replacement of soybean meal with combinations of two or three alternative protein sources in diets for pond-raised hybrid catfish, ' Ictalurus punctatus × ' Ictalurus furcatus. Alternative protein sources evaluated included cottonseed meal, distillers dried grains ...

  14. Structural and interpersonal characteristics of family meals: associations with adolescent body mass index and dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Jin, Seok Won; Hannan, Peter; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-06-01

    The last decade of research has suggested that family meals play an important role in promoting healthful dietary intake in youth. However, little is known about the structural characteristics and interpersonal dynamics of family meals that might help to inform why family meals are protective for youth. The current mixed methods, cross-sectional study conducted in 2010-2011 includes adolescents and parents who participated in two linked population-based studies. Participants included 40 parents (91.5% female) and adolescents (57.5% female) from the Minneapolis/St Paul, MN, area participating in EAT (Eating and Activity Among Teens) 2010 and F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity Among Teens). The structural (eg, length of the meal, types of foods served) and interpersonal characteristics (eg, communication, emotion/affect management) of family meals were described, and associations between interpersonal dynamics at family meals and adolescent body mass index and dietary intake were examined via direct observational methods. Families were videorecorded during two mealtimes in their homes. Results indicated that family meals were approximately 20 minutes in length, included multiple family members, were typically served family style (70%), and occurred in the kitchen 62% of the time and 38% of the time in another room (eg, family room, office). In addition, significant associations were found between positive interpersonal dynamics (ie, communication, affect management, interpersonal involvement, overall family functioning) at family meals and lower adolescent body mass index and higher vegetable intake. These findings add to the growing body of literature on family meals by providing a better understanding of what is happening at family meals in order to inform obesity-prevention studies and recommendations for providers working with families of youth. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Structural and Interpersonal Characteristics of Family Meals: Associations with Adolescent BMI and Dietary Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; Jin, Seok Won; Hannan, Peter; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    The last decade of research has suggested that family meals play an important role in promoting healthful dietary intake in youth. However, little is known about the structural characteristics and interpersonal dynamics of family meals that may help to inform why family meals are protective for youth. The current mixed methods, cross-sectional study conducted in 2010–2011 includes adolescents and parents who participated in two linked population-based studies. Participants included 40 parents (91.5% female) and adolescents (57.5% female) from the Minneapolis/St. Paul area participating in EAT 2010 and F-EAT. The structural (e.g. length of the meal, types of foods served) and interpersonal characteristics (e.g., communication, emotion/affect management) of family meals were described and associations between interpersonal dynamics at family meals and adolescent body mass index (BMI) and dietary intake were examined via direct observational methods. Families were video-recorded during two mealtimes in their homes. Results indicated that family meals were approximately 20 minutes in length, included multiple family members, were typically served family style (70%) and occurred in the kitchen 62% of the time and 38% of the time in another room (e.g., family room, office). Additionally, significant associations were found between positive interpersonal dynamics (i.e., communication, affect management, interpersonal involvement, overall family functioning) at family meals and lower adolescent BMI and higher vegetable intake. These findings add to the growing body of literature on family meals by providing a better understanding of what is happening at family meals in order to inform obesity prevention studies and recommendations for providers working with families of youth. PMID:23567247

  16. Associations between adult perception of body weight, diet, preparing meals and dietary patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezewska-Zychowicz, Marzena; Guzek, Dominika

    The links between dietary patterns, the perception of one’s body weight and diet as well preparing meals are poorly recognised in the literature. In order to develop effective nutritional education and focused interventions, more of such information is thereby required to improve the nation’s health To identify dietary patterns based on declared food consumption rates and subject responses on whether dieting, perception of body weight and diet and preparing meals are linked to such dietary patterns The survey was conducted in 2016 on 344 consumers chosen for age (20-65 years) and their consent for study participation. Rates of eating the foods selected were measured using a 7-point scale. Cluster analysis was used to identify three dietary patterns of behaviour: ‘potentially beneficial to health’, ‘potentially unfavourable for health; deficient’ and ‘potentially unfavourable for health; excessive’. The analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 23.0 There were significantly more subjects showing ‘potentially beneficial for health’ behaviour, normal body weight, those dieting (whether now or in the past) and those who evaluated their diet as being very good or good compared to other groups. They were also more involved in preparing their meals at home. Differences were found between the ‘unfavourable for health’ dietary patterns concerning subject’s involvement in meal preparation. The dietary pattern for ‘deficient’ behaviour found lower rates of those preparing their meals at home The pattern of potentially beneficial dietary habits was linked to weight control through a slimming diet and greater involvement in the preparation of food for consumption. The results show the need to develop food choice skills rather than just transferring knowledge in the nutrition education process

  17. Effect of dietary substitution of feather meal for fish meal on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also significant differences (p<0.05) were observed in daily feed intake, daily weight gain and feed cost/kg weight gain. Considering the results of final live weight and daily weight gain, it appeared that the 7.5% level of FEM is the optimal replacement level for FM. Keywords: Feather meal, fishmeal, poultry feed, broiler chick ...

  18. Dietary influence of Daniellia oliveri leaf meal (Dolm) on the growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the dietary influence of Daniellia Oliveri Leaf Meal (DOLM) on the growth and digestibility of Savannah Brown goats. Forty five does with average initial weight of 10.66kg were used in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) which lasted for 90 days with the last 7days for digestibility ...

  19. The effectiveness of dietary sunflower meal and exogenous enzyme on growth, digestive enzymes, carcass traits, and blood chemistry of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagawany, Mahmoud; Attia, Adel I; Ibrahim, Zenat A; Mahmoud, Reda A; El-Sayed, Sabry A

    2017-05-01

    High costs of conventional protein feed sources including soybean meal (SBM) generated the need for finding other alternatives. Thus, the present study was designed to evaluate the impact of graded replacements of SBM by sunflower seed meal (SFM) with or without enzyme supplementation on growth performance, digestive enzymes, carcass traits, and blood profile of broiler chickens. A total of 240 unsexed 1-week-old broiler chicks (Hubbard) were randomly divided into eight treatment groups of 30 chicks each in five replicates each of six chicks in a factorial design (4 × 2) arrangement, including four levels of SFM (0, 25, 50, and 75% replacing SBM) and two levels of enzyme (0- or 0.1-g/kg diet) supplementation. Performance traits including feed conversion ratio, body weight, and weight gain were significantly (P enzyme supplementation in broiler diet during the experiment. However, feed intake of broiler chicks was decreased with enzyme supplementation (P enzymes (protease and amylase) were significantly (P enzyme inclusion in diets, respectively. The activities of protease and amylase were improved with SFM diet supplemented with 0.1 g/kg enzyme in comparison with those with the un-supplemented diet. The evaluated carcass traits were not statistically (P > 0.05) influenced by feeding SFM meal or enzyme addition. Biochemical blood parameters were significantly (P enzyme, or their interaction in broiler diets, except for globulin that was not affected by dietary enzyme. It is concluded that increasing SFM level in the diet up to 50% replacing SBM with the supplementation of enzyme improved the growth performance and enhanced positively carcass traits as well as the activity of digestive enzymes in broiler chickens.

  20. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid, fish oil and soybean oil on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted on broiler chickens to study the effects of dietary fats rich in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), fish oil (n-3 rich oil), soybean oil (n-6 rich oil), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) alone or in dual mixtures, as well as palm oil as a more saturated fat on tissue fat deposition and serum lipid ...

  1. Yellow mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor, L.) as a possible alternative to soybean meal in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovera, F; Piccolo, G; Gasco, L; Marono, S; Loponte, R; Vassalotti, G; Mastellone, V; Lombardi, P; Attia, Y A; Nizza, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with Tenebrio molitor larvae (TML) meal in broiler diets. A total of 80 30-d-old male Shaver brown broilers were divided into two groups fed on two isoproteic and isoenergetic diets differing for protein source (SBM vs. TML). Up to 62 d of age, body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly and body weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and European efficiency factor (EEF) were calculated. At 62 d, blood samples were collected from 16 birds/group for evaluation of blood profiles. Feed intake was not different between groups considering the entire period of the trial. The FCR was more favourable in the TML than SBM group from 46 d of age and in the entire period of the trial (4.13 vs. 3.62). The PER was higher in the SBM than in the TML group (1.92 vs. 1.37) while the EEF was higher in broilers fed on the TML diet (132.6 vs. 156.2). Albumin-to-globulin ratio was higher in broilers fed on SBM than in the other group (0.44 vs. 0.30). aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were higher in TML than SBM (195.1 vs. 178.6 U/l and 82.07 vs. 46.71 U/l, respectively). Uric acid was higher in broilers fed on SBM than TML (5.40 vs. 4.16 mg/dl). TML did not affect feed intake and growth rate of broilers from 30 to 62 d of age when compared to an isoproteic and isoenergetic SBM diet, but FCR of the TML group was more favourable than that of the SBM group. The lowest albumin-to-globulin ratio in broilers fed on TML suggests a higher immune response, probably due to the prebiotic effects of chitin.

  2. Changes in leucine kinetics during meal absorption: effects of dietary leucine availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissen, S.; Haymond, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    Whole-body leucine and α/-ketoisocaproate (KIC) metabolism were estimated in mature dogs fed a complete meal, a meal devoid of branched-chain amino acids, and a meal devoid of all amino acids. Using a constant infusion of [4,5- 3 H]leucine and α-[1- 14 C]ketoisocaproate (KIC), combined with dietary [5,5,5- 2 H 3 ]leucine, the rate of whole-body proteolysis, protein synthesis, leucine oxidation, and interconversion leucine and KIC were estimated along with the rate of leucine absorption. Digestion of the complete meal resulted in a decrease in the rate of endogenous proteolysis, a small increase in the estimated rate of leucine entering protein, and a twofold increase in the rate of leucine oxidation. Ingestion of either the meal devoid of branched-chain amino acids or devoid of all amino acids resulted in a decrease in estimates of whole-body rates of proteolysis and protein synthesis, decreased leucine oxidation, and a decrease in the interconversion of leucine and KIC. The decrease in whole-body proteolysis was closely associated with the rise in plasma insulin concentrations following meal ingestion. Together these data suggest that the transition from tissue metabolism to anabolism is the result, at least in part, of decreased whole-body proteolysis. This meal-related decrease in proteolysis is independent of the dietary amino acid composition or content. In contrast, the rate of protein synthesis was sustained only when the meal complete in all amino acids was provided, indicating an overriding control of protein synthesis by amino acid availability

  3. Performance of Clarias gariepinus Fed Dried Brewer’s Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Slurry in Replacement for Soybean Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shola Gabriel Solomon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Following disparity of earlier results, this study tested the performance of African catfish Clarias gariepinus fed dried brewer’s yeast slurry meal (DBYM based diets. Fingerlings of C. gariepinus with pooled mean initial weight of 1.58±0.01 g were stocked in hapas (1 m × 1 m × 1 m immersed in an earthen pond at a density of 15 fish per cage. Five diets with increasing substitution of soybean meal with 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of dried brewer’s yeast and a control without dried brewer’s yeast (0% substitution were evaluated for 8 weeks. Palatability of diets reduced with increasing levels of DBYM. Growth and utilization parameters such as weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, and specific growth rate differed significantly (p<0.05 among treated groups. Specific growth rate decreased with increasing substitution while the best feed conversion ratio was obtained in the diet devoid of DBYM. Protein efficiency and utilization decreased with increasing levels of DBYM. Body composition was also affected by inclusion of DBYM with significant differences (p<0.05 being observed across the diets. The trend in body composition follows the utilization of the diets. We conclude that the optimal range of inclusion and substitution of soybean meal with DBYM in C. gariepinus feed is between 1% and 14% of dry matter.

  4. Effects of replacing soybean meal with rubber seed meal on growth, antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Junming; Mai, Kangsen; Chen, Liqiao; Mi, Haifeng; Zhang, Lu

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with rubber seed meal (RSM) on growth, antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × Oreochromis aureus). Five experimental diets were formulated with 0 (control), 10, 20, 30, and 40% RSM replacing graded levels of SBM, respectively. Fish were fed one of the five experimental diets for eight weeks, and then challenged by A. hydrophila via intraperitoneal injection and kept for seven days. Dietary RSM inclusion level up to 30% did not affect the weight gain and daily growth coefficient, whereas these were depressed by a further inclusion. Fish fed diet with 40% RSM showed the lowest serum total antioxidant capacity, lysozyme, alternative complement pathway, respiratory burst and phagocytic activities. Dietary RSM inclusion gradually depressed the post-challenge survival rate, and that was significantly lower in fish fed diet with 40% RSM compared to fish fed the control diet. Conversely, the inclusion of RSM generally increased the serum total cholesterol level, the plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and these were significantly higher in fish fed diet with 40% RSM compared to fish fed the control diet. The results indicated that RSM can be included at level up to 30% in diet for tilapia without obvious adverse effects on the growth, antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response and resistance to A. hydrophila infection, whereas these were depressed by a further inclusion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Perkiraan Pasokan Nitrogen Mikrob pada Domba Ekor Tipis yang Diberi Bungkil Kedelai Terproteksi Tanin (ESTIMATION OF MICROBIAL NITROGEN SUPPLY IN THIN-TAILED SHEEP FED WITH TANNIN PROTECTED SOYBEAN MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husnaeni .

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to study the effect of soybean meal protection mangrove leaf tannin onpurine derivative (PD excretion, estimated microbial nitrogen (MN supply, and estimated efficiency MNsuplay based on DOMR in thin-tailed sheep. A total of 16 thin-tailed sheep aged eight months withaverage body weight of 11.81±1.65 kg, and were randomly fed with complete feed with tannin-protectedsoybean meal in different levels. The research was conducted according to completely randomized designwith four treatments and four replications. T0 (soybean meal without tannin, T1 (protected soybean meal0.5% tannin, T2 (protected soybean meal 1% tannin, and T3 (protected soybean meal 1.5% tannin.Research finding indicated that organic matter consumption (OMC, organic matter digestibility (OMD,and digestible organic matter in rumen (DOMR were not affected (P> 0.05 by the treatment, however thetreatment had significant effects (P<0.05 against PD, estimated MN supply, and estimatedMN supply based on DOMR. Purine derivative, estimated MN supply, and estimated MN supply basedDOMR markedly decreased in the treatment of soybean meal protection 1.5% tannins. It was concludedthat soybean meal protection with mangrove leaf tannins was not significant against OMC, OMD andDOMR thin-tailed sheep, but protected soybean meal with tannins 1.5% affected on decreasing purinederivative excretion, estimated MN supply and estimated MN supply based on DOMR.

  6. Short communication. Effect of soybean meal heat procedures on growth performance of broiler chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tousi-Mojarradi, M.; Seidavi, A.; Dadashbeiki, M.; Roca-Fernandez, A. I.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of soybean meal (SBM) heat procedures on growth performance of broiler chickens. A trial was carried out using 200 male Ross 308 strain chickens during 3 feeding periods (starter, grower and finisher, 42 days). The experiment was based on a completely randomized design with 5 treatments giving 4 replications of 10 broilers per treatment. Treatments consisted on: T1 (control, un-processed SBM), T2 (autoclaved SBM: 121 degree centigrade, 20 min), T3 (autoclaved SBM: 121 degree centigrade, 30 min), T4 (roasted SBM: 120 degree centigrade, 20 min) and T5 (microwaved SBM: 46 degree centigrade, 540 watt, 7 min). Growth performance of animals was examined by determining body weight (BW), body weight grain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion rate (FCR). Higher BW (p<0.05) and BWG (p<0.05) and lower FCR (p<0.05) were found in broiler chickens fed heat processed SBM diets compared to those fed a raw SBM diet, probably due to higher nutrient availability. However, no differences were found among heat SBM procedures (autoclaving, roasting and microwaving) on growth performance of animals for the starter, grower and finisher periods. From the results of this experiment, it is concluded that further research needs to be developed to establish the effect of temperature-time heat procedures on nutritive value of SBM in terms of levels of anti-nutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor activity and phytic acid) and amino acids profile and its influence on growth performance of broilers. (Author)

  7. An evaluation of replacing fish meal with fermented soybean meal in the diet of Macrobrachium nipponense: Growth, nonspecific immunity, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhili; Zhang, Yixiang; Ye, Jinyun; Du, Zhenyu; Kong, Youqin

    2015-05-01

    Partial or complete replacement of fish meal (FM) with fermented soybean meal (FSM) was examined in Macrobrachium nipponense over an 8-week growth trial. Growth and immune characteristics were evaluated. Fermented soybean meal replaced 0 (FM, control), 25% (R25), 50% (R50), 75% (R75), or 100% of the FM (R100) in five isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. Each diet was fed to juvenile prawns (mean weight, 0.103 ± 0.0009 g) twice daily to apparent satiation in five replicates. Weight gain and specific growth rate of M. nipponense were significantly higher in prawns fed the R25 diet than that of prawns fed the FM diet. No significant differences were observed among the other treatments. Total hemocyte count and hemolymph phagocytic activity decreased as the proportion of FSM increased. Total antioxidant activity competence and malondialdehyde level in the hepatopancreas were highest in prawns fed the R100 diet. mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase, heat shock cognate protein 70, and heat shock protein 90 were significantly differentially regulated in the prawn hepatopancreas. In addition, percent mortality increased after challenge with live Aeromonas hydrophila. Percent mortality of prawns fed the R100 diet was significantly higher than that of prawns fed the FM and R25 diets. These findings demonstrate that (1) M. nipponense growth performance was not affected by including a high proportion of FSM in the diet, and the best growth performance was obtained when 25% of the FM was replaced with FSM; (2) nonspecific immunity was impaired when all of the FM was replaced with FSM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluating the suitability of field beans as a substitute for soybean meal in early-lactating dairy cow: production and metabolic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Khan, Rifat Ullah; Laudadio, Vito

    2012-02-01

    Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were utilized in a completely randomized design to examine the effect of feeding field beans (FB, Vicia faba L. var. minor) as substitute for soybean meal (SBM) on lactation performance and metabolic response during the early lactation period. Cows were individually divided into two equal groups and fed for 16 weeks on one each of the two experimental diets. The controls were fed pelleted concentrate contained 150 g/kg dry matter (DM) of SBM as the main protein source, whereas the experimental concentrate contained 345 g/kg DM of FB. Oat hay was offered ad libitum to cows and water was freely available. Blood samples were assayed for their content of: urea, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, calcium and phosphorus, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA). Inclusion of FB had no detectable effects on DM intake (DMI), body weight (BW), or body condition score (BCS). Neither milk yield nor quality were influenced by dietary treatment, except for milk urea nitrogen (MU) that was reduced in cows fed the FB diet (P milk were not affected adversely by added dietary FB. Concentration of blood urea (BU) was lower in cows fed the FB diet than in those fed the control SBM diet (P cows fed traditional SBM-based diet, and the results may elicit great interest for countries where soybean utilization is adversely influenced by high supply costs. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Evaluation of biochemical parameters and productive performance of japanese quail in response to the replacement of soybean meal with canola meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Saki

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluation the different levels canola meal (CM replacement by soybean meal (SBM in Japanese quails diets on productive performance, egg quality trails and blood parameters including blood protein, minerals concentration, liver enzymes and thyroid hormones. In this study, 160 of Japanese quails in second laying phase from 46 to 56 weeks of age were divided in four treatments with four replicates and 10 quail in each per replicate, on a completely randomized design (CRD.Treatments consisted:T1 control (without CM, T2, T3 and T4 replacing 30, 60 and 90% of SBM with CM respectively. The results were shown no significant variation in body weight between treatments in initial and end of the experiment (p > 0.05. There was significant decrease in feed intake by increasing level of CM (p 0.05. However, the egg shell thickness showed significantly decreased with increasing levels of canola meal in the diet  (p < 0.05. According to this study results, 30% replacement of SBM by CM in the diet (contained 10% CM has no adverse effect on quail’s performance.

  10. Feeding of Dehulled-micronized Faba Bean ( var. minor as Substitute for Soybean Meal in Guinea Fowl Broilers: Effect on Productive Performance and Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Tufarelli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess the effect of dietary substitution of soybean meal (SBM with dehulled-micronized faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor in guinea fowl broilers on their growth traits, carcass quality, and meat fatty acids composition. In this trial, 120 day-old guinea fowl keets were randomly assigned to two treatments which were fed from hatch to 12 weeks of age. Birds were fed two wheat middlings-based diets comprising of a control treatment which contained SBM (78.3 g/kg and a test diet containing dehulled-micronized faba bean (130 g/kg as the main protein source. Substituting SBM with faba bean had no adverse effect on growth traits, dressing percentage, or breast and thigh muscles relative weight of the guinea fowls. Conversely, a decrease (p<0.05 of abdominal fat was found in guinea fowls fed the faba bean-diet. Breast muscle of birds fed faba bean had higher L* score (p<0.05 and water-holding capacity (p<0.05 than the SBM control diet. Meat from guinea fowls fed faba bean had less total lipids (p<0.05 and cholesterol (p<0.01, and higher concentrations of phospholipids (p<0.01. Feeding faba bean increased polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in breast meat and decreased the saturated fatty acid levels. Moreover, dietary faba bean improved the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes in guinea fowl breast meat. Results indicated that substitution of SBM with faba bean meal in guinea fowl diet can improve carcass qualitative traits, enhancing also meat lipid profile without negatively affecting growth performance.

  11. Effects of total replacement of soybean meal and corn on ruminal fermentation, volatile fatty acids, protozoa concentration, and gas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bahri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of total replacement of soybean meal and corn with triticale and faba bean or field pea on rumen fermentation, protozoa counts, and gas production of lactating ewes. A total of 30 Sicilo-Sarde ewes were randomly allocated into three groups and were fed 1.8 kg drymatter of oat hay plus 500 g of one of three concentrates: the first concentrate (CS was mainly composed of soybean meal, corn, and barley; the second (TFB was formed by triticale and faba bean; and the third (TFP was composed of triticale and field pea. The type of concentrate did not affect ruminal pH or ammonia nitrogen concentration (P  >  0.05. The individual concentrations of volatile fatty acids showed a significant interaction between the type of concentrate and sampling time (P  <  0.05, except for Butyric and Isobutyric acids. Within a post-feeding time, the pattern of evolution of total volatile fatty, acetic, and propionic acids differed significantly at 2 h post feeding (P  <  0.05, while butyric and valeric acid changed at 0 and 4 h post feeding. The type of concentrate affected the total number of ciliate protozoa and the Isotricha species (P  <  0.05, whereas Entodinium, Ophryoscolex, and Polyplastron were similar among concentrates (P  >  0.05. The cumulative gas production from the in vitro fermentation, the time of incubation, and their interaction was affected by concentrate (P  <  0.001. The substitution of soybean meal and corn in the concentrate with faba bean or field peas and triticale might maintain rumen parameters of dairy ewes.

  12. Effects of replacing soybean meal with canola meal or treated canola meal on ruminal digestion, and omasal nutrient flow in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treated canola meal (TCM) was produced as an attempt to increase the rumen undegradable protein (RUP) fraction of canola meal (CM) with the goal of enhancing amino acid (AA) availability for absorption in the small intestine of dairy cows. The objective of this study was to measure nutrient and micr...

  13. EFFECT OF THE DIETARY PELLET:MEAL RATIO ON THE PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF LAYING HENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Armando Sarmiento-Franco

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary pellet:meal ratio on the performance of laying hens was evaluated using 60 Plymouth Barred Rock 30 week old hens. Hens were distributed at random to three treatments: 100:0, 75:25 and 50:50% of pellet:meal ratio in the diet along 49 days, with 20 replicates each. Final body weight of hens, polar and ecuatorial diameters of the egg, eggshell weight, eggshell thickness, and yolk colour were not different between treatments (p>0.05. However, egg production, egg weight, egg mass, food consumption, food conversion and production cost were affected by treatments (p

  14. PRICE RISK MANAGEMENT FOR PEANUT MEAL

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Ecio de Farias; Turner, Steven C.

    2001-01-01

    Peanut meal is cross-hedged with soybean meal using peanut meal cash prices and soybean meal futures prices. Hedge rations are obtained for short- vs. long-term data sets. Evaluation indicates positive gains for cross-hedged poultry/peanut producers, and that soybean meal futures can be used as a cross-hedging vehicle for peanut meal.

  15. Dietary effects of introducing school meals based on the New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Christensen, Tue

    2014-01-01

    The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (NND)) School Meal Study investigated the effects on the intake of foods and nutrients of introducing school meals based on the principles of the NND covering lunch and all snacks during the...... to the higher fish intake. In conclusion, the present study showed that the overall dietary intake at the food and nutrient levels was improved among children aged 8-11 years when their habitual packed lunches were replaced by school meals following the principles of the NND.......The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (NND)) School Meal Study investigated the effects on the intake of foods and nutrients of introducing school meals based on the principles of the NND covering lunch and all snacks during...... the school day in a cluster-randomised cross-over design. For two 3-month periods, 834 Danish children aged 8-11 years from forty-six school classes at nine schools received NND school meals or their usual packed lunches brought from home (control) in random order. The whole diet of the children was recorded...

  16. [Design and implementation of a questionnaire to evaluate the dietary quality of school meals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mateo Silleras, Beatriz; Camina Martín, M Alicia; Ojeda Sainz, Berta; Carreño Enciso, Laura; de la Cruz Marcos, Sandra; Marugán de Miguelsanz, José Manuel; Redondo del Río, Paz

    2014-10-03

    The school canteen provides a substantial proportion of the daily nutritional intake for many children. There are nutritional standards for school meals, however, it is still difficult to assess the dietary quality. To design a questionnaire for assessing the dietary quality of school meals, quickly and easily. A dietary questionnaire (COMES) was designed on the basis of the current recommendations. COMES consist of 15 items related to the food-frequency and to other characteristics of school meals. Then, a longitudinal prospective study was performed in order to analyze, with COMES, 36 school meals of 4 catering companies from Castilla y León during the academic years 2006-2007 to 2010-2011. Differences in dietary quality menus according to the management system of catering companies (in situ vs. transported) were analyzed by using the Mann-Whitney and the Kruskal-Wallis tests. The significance was reached at p products was higher to the recommended in 97,2%, 94,4% and 27,8% of the analyzed menus, respectively. By contrast, the frequency intake of fish, fruit, legume, and vegetable garnishes were lower to the recommended in 83,3%, 94,4%, 91,7% and 75% of menus, respectively. Nevertheless, recommendations established by our consensus document for school meals are complied for all food groups, except for dairy and fruits. The variety of foods and culinary techniques were appropriate. No significant differences were found in the COMES score according to the management system (p=0,87), although catering system provides higher dietary quality. A new tool to assess quickly and easily the nutritional quality of school meals has been proposed. The assessment of the frequency intake of the most problematic foods for schoolchildren with this scale is much more demanding than the current recommendations. Even so, menus analyzed showed an acceptable quality in terms of variety of foods and culinary techniques, although milk frequency in the menus was excessive at the expense

  17. Effect of enzyme supplementation on nutritive values of fermented palm kernel cake used to substitute soybean meal in broiler diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold P. Sinurat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments was designed to improve nutritional values of palm kernel cake (PKC by biofermentation process, followed by enzyme supplementation to substitute soybean meal (SBM in broilers diet. A factorial of 2 x 2 design was applied in the first experiment, i.e. fermentation process (non fermented PKC and fermented PKC and enzyme supplementation (no enzyme and +BS4 enzyme. Dry matter (DM digestibility, AME and amino acids ileal digestibility (IAAD of the treatment ingredients were measured in broiler chickens. Seven replications were applied for the DM and AME assays and 3 replications for IAAD assay. Second experiment was designed to study the effect of SBM substitution with enzyme supplemented FPKC (EFPKC. Four diets were formulated, i.e., control diet without EFPKC, 10%, 20 and 40% SBM substituted with EFPKC. All diets were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements of broilers. Each diet was fed to broilers from 1 to 35 d. Body weight, feed consumption, FCR and mortalities were measured. Carcass yield, abdominal fat and weight of liver and gizzard were measured at the end of experiment. Results showed that fermentation of PKC increased the DM digestibility, the AME was also increased but not significant. Enzyme supplementation did not affect the DM digestibility and AME of PKC. Fermentation process significantly (P<0.05 decreased IAAD of some indispensable amino acids. However, supplementation of enzyme did not affect the IAAD of indispensable amino acids. Substitution of soybean meal with EFPKC reduced the feed intake and growth rate of broilers.

  18. Dietary diversity and meal frequency among infant and young children: a community based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belew, Aysheshim Kassahun; Ali, Bekrie Mohammed; Abebe, Zegeye; Dachew, Berihun Assefa

    2017-08-15

    Insufficient quantities, frequencies, and inadequate quality of complementary feedings have a negative effect on child health and growth, especially in the first two years of life. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the minimum dietary diversity, meal frequency and its associated factors among infants and young children aged 6-23 months at Dabat District, northwest, Ethiopia. A community- based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 15 to March 10, 2016. The simple random sampling method was used to select study participants. An interviewer- administered structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Both Crude and Adjusted Odds Ratio with the corresponding 95% confidence interval were calculated to show the strength of association. In the multivariable analysis, variables with less than 0.05 P-value were considered statistically significant. The proportion of children who met the minimum dietary diversity and meal frequency were 17% (95% CI: 14.9, 19.4%) and 72.2% (95% CL: 69.3, 75%), respectively. Satisfactory media exposure (AOR = 2.79; 95% CI: 1.74, 4.47), postnatal care visits (AOR = 1.96; 95% CI: 1.32, 2.88), participation in child growth and monitoring follow ups (AOR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.39), age of children (AOR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.33, 4.11) and age of mothers (AOR = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.27) were positively associated with dietary diversity. Similarly, age of children (AOR = 2.38; 95% CI: 1.56, 3.65), household wealth status (AOR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.27, 2.68), residence (AOR = 3.02; 95% CI: 1.41, 6.48), sources of information (AOR = 1.72; 95% CI:1.14, 2.59) and participation in child growth monitoring folow ups (AOR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.13, 2.19) were significantly associated with meal frequency. In this study, the proportion of children who received the minimum dietary diversity and meal frequency were low. Media exposure, age of children, postnatal care visits, and participation in child growth and monitoring

  19. Nutritive value of meals, dietary habits and nutritive status in Croatian university students according to gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colić Barić, Irena; Satalić, Zvonimir; Lukesić, Zeljka

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate daily menus at students' restaurants and to report dietary habits and other health-related behaviour of Croatian university students (n=2075) according to gender. A specially designed self-administered questionnaire was used. One hundred and twenty daily menus were chosen by random sampling, and the nutritive value was calculated using food composition tables. Daily menus on average provide an adequate amount of energy, protein and most micronutrients: 88.2% of daily menus provide a balanced intake of protein, fat and carbohydrates, 22.5% of daily menus provide more than 300 mg of cholesterol, and 58.8% have more than 25 g dietary fibre. On average, students had 2.4 meals and 1.3 snacks per day. Breakfast was the most often skipped meal. Red meat, cereals and fast food were consumed more often by males (Pconsumption it was vice versa: 88.9 and 84.8% of males and females, respectively. A total of 80.4% of students were well nourished. This study showed that meals offered at students' restaurants are adequate. Dietary and other health-related behaviour differed according to gender. Clustering of some behaviours was observed.

  20. Effects of feeding processed kidney bean meal (Phaseolus vulgaris by replacing soybean meal on egg fertility and qualities of chicks of white leghorn hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisay Fikru

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding processed kidney bean meal (PKBM by replacing soybean meal (SBM on fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality and chick quality of white leghorn (WL hens. A total of 225 white leghorn hens (195 layers and 30 cocks with uniform body weight (BW and age were randomly distributed into 15 pens and assigned to five treatments (i.e., T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5. A total of 360 eggs collected from all the treatment birds were used for the analysis. The feeds of the treatments were SBM substituted by PKBM at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels for T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively. Replacement of SBM with PKBM in the diet did not affect the fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality, chick length, chick weight, and chick quality by visual score. As no difference is observed, 100% replacement of SBM by PKBM (dosed at 100 g/kg concentrate diet is possible.

  1. Effects of mannan oligosaccharide and inulin on sharpsnout seabream (Diplodus puntazzo in the context of partial fish meal substitution by soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Piccolo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available One hundred forty-four sharpsnout seabream of about 100 g initial body weight were randomly stocked in 12 experiment tanks (180 L. Testing conditions included 12 fish per tank, with triplicate tanks for treatment. The experimental period lasted 150 days. Average water temperature was 21.9±1.6°C, salinity was 30.0‰ and pH ranged from 7 to 8, throughout the experiment. A control diet (FM was made from fish meal. One similar diet (SBM was made with approximately 40% of the protein supplied by soybean meal. The remaining two diets (SBM-MOS and SBM-INU were formulated adding 8 g of mannanoligosaccharide (MOS and inulin (INU per kg of the SBM diet, respectively. The results showed that mean final weight (average values 234.4 g, specific growth rate (average values 0.585, feed conversion rate (average values 2.05 and protein efficiency ratio (average values 1.01 were unaffected by MOS or INU supplementation to SBM diet. Body proximate composition was affected by MOS and INU supplementation. Fish fed SBM-MOS and SBM-INU diets showed the highest moisture level and the lowest lipid content. Also the total polyunsaturated fatty of the lipids was reduced by MOS and INU in comparison to SBM diet alone.

  2. Effects of brown fish meal replacement with fermented soybean meal on growth performance, feed efficiency and enzyme activities of Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yurong; Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Zhang, Yanjiao; Xu, Wei

    2012-06-01

    A 120-day feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of partial replacement of brown fish meal (BFM) by fermented soybean meal (FSBM) in diets of Chinese soft-shelled turtle ( Pelodiscus sinensis). The turtles (initial mean body weight, (115.52 ± 1.05) g) were fed with three experimental diets, in which 0%, 4.72% and 9.44% BFM protein was replaced by 0%, 3% and 6% FSBM, respectively. Results showed that the feeding rate (FR), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed efficiency ratio (FER) of turtles fed with the diet containing 3% FSBM were not significantly different from the control group (0% FSBM) ( P > 0.05). However, FR, SGR and FER of turtles fed with the diet containing 6% FSBM were significantly lower than those of the control group ( P 0.05). However, the uric acid concentration in turtles fed with the diet containing 3% or 6% FSBM was significantly lower than that in the control group ( P 0.05). The results suggested that FSBM could replace 4.72% BFM protein in turtle diets without exerting adverse effects on turtle growth, feed utilization and measured immune parameters.

  3. STUDY ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND FEED CONVERSION RATIO OF LABEO ROHITA FED ON SOYBEAN MEAL, BLOOD MEAL AND CORN GLUTEN 60%

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saeed, M. Salim and U. Noreen

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A seven weeks study was conducted to find out the growth performance and feed conversion ratio (FCR for Labeo rohita fingerlings fed on reference and three test diets; test diet-1 (soybean meal, test diet-2 (blood meal, test diet-3 (corn gluten 60%. All the diets were iso-nitrogenous (30% crude protein and iso-caloric (2700 kcal/kg. Fish were fed on 4% of wet body weight daily. Average body weight gain by Labeo rohita was highest for test diet-3 (10.1875  0.8839g, followed by test diet-2 (9.9762  0.859g, test diet-1 (8.83  1.442g and reference diet (9.390  0.9226g. The best FCR value was (2.3167  0.872 for test diet-3, followed by test diet-1 (3.4636  0.697, test diet-3 (5.00  1.2728 and reference diet (3.927  0.1862.

  4. Predicting methionine and lysine contents in soybean meal and fish meal using a group method of data handling-type neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mottaghitalab, M.; Nikkhah, N.; Darmani-Kuhi, H.; López, S.; France, J.

    2015-07-01

    Artificial neural network models offer an alternative to linear regression analysis for predicting the amino acid content of feeds from their chemical composition. A group method of data handling-type neural network (GMDH-type NN), with an evolutionary method of genetic algorithm, was used to predict methionine (Met) and lysine (Lys) contents of soybean meal (SBM) and fish meal (FM) from their proximate analyses (i.e. crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, ash and moisture). A data set with 119 data lines for Met and 116 lines for Lys was used to develop GMDH-type NN models with two hidden layers. The data lines were divided into two groups to produce training and validation sets. The data sets were imported into the GEvoM software for training the networks. The predictive capability of the constructed models was evaluated by their abilities to estimate the validation data sets accurately. A quantitative examination of goodness of fit for the predictive models was made using a number of precision, concordance and bias statistics. The statistical performance of the models developed revealed close agreement between observed and predicted Met and Lys contents for SBM and FM. The results of this study clearly illustrate the validity of GMDH-type NN models to estimate accurately the amino acid content of poultry feed ingredients from their chemical composition . (Author)

  5. Supplementation of broiler diets with high levels of microbial protease and phytase enables partial replacement of commercial soybean meal with raw, full-fat soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdaw, M M; Perez-Maldonado, R A; Iji, P A

    2018-02-22

    A 3 × 3 + 1 factorial, involving three levels of protease (0, 15,000 or 30,000 PROT/kg) and three levels of phytase (1,000, 2,000 or 3,000 FYT/kg), was used to evaluate the effect of replacing commercial soybean meal (SBM) with raw, full-fat soybean (RFSB) at 75 g/kg of diet for broilers. A control diet was used for comparison. Each treatment was replicated six times, with nine birds per replicate. The concentration of trypsin inhibitors (TIs) in the test diets was approximately 10,193.4 TIU/kg. Regardless of enzyme supplementation, feed intake (FI) and body weight gain (BWG) of birds in the control group were superior to those on the test diets. Birds that received the protease-free test diets had reduced FI and BWG, but when supplemented with protease, were similar to the control diet in BWG, FI (except 0-35 days) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). When the test diet was supplemented with elevated levels (extradose) of protease and phytase, the BWG was improved during 0-10 days (p = .05) and 0-24 days (p replace SBM in broiler diets, provided the diets are supplemented with elevated levels of protease and phytase. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Relationship between family meal frequency and individual dietary intake among diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhee, Divya; Mahomoodally, Fawzi

    2015-01-01

    Notoriously, the island of Mauritius has one of the highest prevalence of diabetes in the world. Management of the disease is very important and family meals are undoubtedly beneficial to patients as they promote the development of healthy eating behaviours and food choices. This study has aimed to probe into potential relationship(s) between family meal frequency and individual dietary intake among diabetic patients and to establish whether family cohesion may be a plausible mediator of this relationship. A cross-sectional survey was carried out with a random sample of 384 diabetic patients. The Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale III was used to obtain information on two general aspects of family functioning, that is, cohesiveness and adaptability. Chi-squared (χ (2)) tests, independent sample t-tests and one-way ANOVA were used to determine statistical significance. Pearson correlation was used to examine associations between family meal frequency, individual dietary intake and family cohesion. Hierarchical linear regression models were performed for the mediation analysis. Family meal frequency (breakfast, lunch and dinner) was observed to be positively associated with intake of fish, raw vegetables, dried and fresh fruits, low-fat milk, cheese, yogurt, nuts and light butter and negatively associated with intake of red meat, white rice, white bread, whole egg fried, chocolates, fried cakes, burgers, chips, and fried noodles/rice. Average mediation (52.6 %) was indicated by family cohesion for the association between family meal frequency and individual dietary intake among diabetic patients. Sobel's test further confirmed the trend towards complete mediation (z = 15.4; P family meal frequency and individual dietary intake among diabetic patients was recorded. The present study is one of the few studies that have examined family cohesion as a mediator of the relationship and to our best knowledge is the first work to demonstrate a trend

  7. The Metabolizable Energy Value, Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids in Soybean Meal, Soy Protein Concentrate and Fermented Soybean Meal, and the Application of These Products in Early-weaned Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the metabolizable energy (ME value, standardized ileal digestibility (SID of amino acids (AA of soybean meal (SBM, soy protein concentrate (SPC and fermented soybean meal (FSBM, and the application of these products in early-weaned piglets. In Exp. 1, four barrows with initial body weight (BW of 14.2±1.4 kg were used in a 4×4 Latin square design. The diet 1 contained corn as the only energy source. The other three diets replaced 25% of corn in diet 1 with one of the three soybean products, and the digestable energy (DE and ME contents were determined by difference. In Exp. 2, four barrows (initial BW of 18.2±1.5 kg were fitted with ileal T-cannulas and allotted to a 4×4 Latin square design. Three cornstarch-based diets were formulated using each of the soybean products as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was also formulated to measure endogenous losses of AA. In Exp. 3, ninety six piglets (initial BW of 5.6±0.9 kg weaned at 21±2 d were blocked by weight and assigned to one of three treatments for a 21-d growth performance study. The control diet was based on corn and SBM, the two treatments’ diets contained either 10% SPC or FSBM and were formulated to same SID lysine to ME ratio of 3.6 g/Mcal. The results showed that the ME content of SPC was greater than SBM (p<0.05. The SID of most AA in SPC was greater than the SID of AA in SBM (p<0.05. For the essential AA, the SID of histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine and threonine in FSBM were greater than in SBM (p<0.05. Even though they were fed same SID lysine to ME ratio of 3.6 g/Mcal diets, pigs fed SPC and FSBM diets had greater weight gain, G:F (p<0.05 and better fecal score (p<0.05 than pigs fed SBM diet. In conclusion, SPC showed a higher ME content and SID of AA than the SBM. SID of some essential AA in FSBM was higher than SBM and was similar with SPC. But the lower antigenic proteins and anti-nutritional factors content in SPC

  8. Use of black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens to substitute soybean meal in ruminant diet: An in vitro rumen fermentation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuraga Jayanegara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This experiment aimed to evaluate substitution of soybean meal (SBM by black soldier fly (BSF larvae meal in a napier grass diet as performed by an in vitro rumen fermentation system. Materials and Methods: Samples of napier grass, SBM, and BSF larvae age 1 week (BSF1 and 2 weeks (BSF2 were arranged according to the following dietary treatments (dry matter [DM] basis: T1, 100% napier grass; T2, 60% napier grass + 40% SBM; T3, 60% napier grass + 40% BSF1; T4, 60% napier grass + 40% BSF2; T5, 60% napier grass + 20% SBM + 20% BSF1; and T6, 60% napier grass + 20% SBM + 20% BSF2. The samples were determined for their chemical composition and were incubated in vitro using buffered rumen fluid for 48 h at 39°C. In vitro incubation was carried out in three runs and represented by two incubation bottles per run. Results: Supplementation of BSF, both BSF1 and BSF2, increased ether extract, neutral- and acid-detergent insoluble crude protein contents of T3-T6 diets. The T3 or T4 diet resulted in lower ruminal ammonia concentration, in vitro DM digestibility, and in vitro organic matter (OM digestibility as compared to those in T2 (p<0.05. Diet supplemented with BSF produced lower methane emission in comparison to that of supplemented with SBM (p<0.05. Diet containing BSF2 produced lower methane and methane per digestible OM than that containing BSF1 (p<0.05. Conclusion: Substitution of SBM by BSF in ruminant diet results in a lower nutritional value in vitro but with an advantage of lowering ruminal methane emission.

  9. Effect of Quantum phytase on nutrient digestibility and bone ash in White Leghorn laying hens fed corn-soybean meal-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, A L; Dahiya, J P; Wyatt, C L; Classen, H L

    2009-06-01

    The efficacy of an Escherichia coli 6-phytase supplementation (Quantum) on nutrient digestibility-retention and bone ash in laying hens fed corn-soybean meal (CSM) diets was investigated. White Leghorn hens (Shaver and Bovan strains) were fed CSM diets containing 0.35% (positive control, PC), 0.25% (negative control 1, NC1), or 0.15% (negative control 2, NC2) nonphytate P from 21 to 61 wk of age. Six more diets were manufactured by supplementing the negative control diets with 200, 400, and 600 units per kilogram of exogenous phytase resulting in a total of 9 treatments. Each dietary treatment x strain subclass was replicated twice with 6 hens per replication. Fecal and ileal digesta samples were collected at 42 wk of age to determine apparent nutrient digestibility or retention. Left tibiae were collected at 42 and 61 wk of age to determine bone ash. The coefficients for ileal digestibility and fecal retention for protein were higher (P ash percentage was higher (P < 0.05) in 61-wk-old hens fed 200 or 400 units per kilogram of phytase-supplemented NC2 diets. Significantly higher diet AME and fecal protein retention were demonstrated for Shaver hens in comparison to the Bovan hens. Overall, the Quantum phytase was not efficacious at improving nutrient digestibility-retention in laying hens fed CSM diets deficient in nonphytate P.

  10. Relative partitioning of N from alfalfa silage, corn silage, corn grain and soybean meal into milk, urine, and feces, using stable 15N isotope

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the relative partitioning of nitrogen (N) in alfalfa silage (AS), corn silage (CS), corn grain (CG) and soybean meal (SBM) in milk, urinary and fecal N in lactating dairy cows. For eleven days, twelve multiparous late-lactation Holstein cows (means ± SD; ...

  11. Effect of fiber removal from ground corn, distillers dried grains with solubles and soybean meal using the Elusieve process on broiler performance and processing yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Elusieve process, a combination of sieving and elutriation (air classification), has been found to be effective in fiber separation from ground corn, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and soybean meal (SBM). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of removing fiber fro...

  12. A review of associations between family or shared meal frequency and dietary and weight status outcomes across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Larson, Nicole; Horning, Melissa; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    To summarize the research literature on associations between family meal frequency and dietary outcomes as well as weight status across the lifespan. Reviewed literature of family or shared meals with dietary and weight outcomes in youth, adults, and older adults. Across the lifespan, eating with others, particularly family, is associated with healthier dietary outcomes. Among children and adolescents, these findings appear to be consistent for both boys and girls, whereas mixed findings are seen by gender for adult men and women. The findings of associations between family or shared meals and weight outcomes across the lifespan are less consistent and more complicated than those of dietary outcomes. Now is the time for the field to improve understanding of the mechanisms involved in the positive associations seen with family meal frequency, and to move forward with implementing interventions aimed at increasing the frequency of, and improving the quality of, food served at family meals, and evaluating their impact. Given the more limited findings of associations between family or shared meals and weight outcomes, capitalizing on the positive benefits of family and shared meals while addressing the types of foods served, portion sizes, and other potential mechanisms may have a significant impact on obesity prevention and reduction. Future research recommendations are provided. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Eating School Meals Daily Is Associated with Healthier Dietary Intakes: The Healthy Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Lauren E; Gurzo, Klara; Gosliner, Wendi; Webb, Karen L; Crawford, Patricia B; Ritchie, Lorrene D

    2018-03-16

    Research on the association between school meal consumption and overall dietary intake post-Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act implementation is limited. This study examines the association between frequency of participating in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs and children's dietary intakes. The Healthy Communities Study was a cross-sectional observational study conducted between 2013 and 2015. US children aged 4 to 15 years (n=5,106) were included. Dietary measures were assessed using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Dietary Screener Questionnaire. Dietary intake included fruit and vegetables, fiber, whole grains, dairy, calcium, total added sugar, sugar-sweetened beverages, and energy-dense foods of minimal nutritional value. Multivariate statistical models assessed associations between frequency of eating school breakfast or lunch (every day vs not every day) and dietary intake, adjusting for child- and community-level covariates. Children who ate school breakfast every day compared with children who ate 0 to 4 days/wk, reported consuming more fruits and vegetables (0.1 cup/day, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.1), dietary fiber (0.4 g/day, 95% CI: 0.2, 0.7), whole grains (0.1 oz/day, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.1), dairy (0.1 cup/day, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.1), and calcium (34.5 mg/day, 95% CI: 19.1, 49.9). Children who ate school lunch every day, compared with those who ate less frequently, consumed more dairy (0.1 cup/day, 95% CI: 0.1, 0.2) and calcium (32.4 mg/day, 95% CI: 18.1, 46.6). No significant associations were observed between school meal consumption and energy-dense nutrient-poor foods or added sugars. Eating school breakfast and school lunch every day by US schoolchildren was associated with modestly healthier dietary intakes. These findings suggest potential nutritional benefits of regularly consuming school meals. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Farelo de soja na alimentação de tilápias-do-nilo durante o período de reversão sexual Soybean meal in Nile tilapia diets during the sexual reversion period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Meurer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 800 larvas com 2 dias de idade com o objetivo de testar o uso de farelo de soja em rações para tilápias-do-nilo durante o período de reversão sexual (30 dias. O experimento foi conduzido segundo delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições, no qual um tanque-rede com 50 larvas correspondeu a uma unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram de rações isoprotéicas e isoenergéticas (38,6% de proteína digestível e 3.800 kcal/kg de energia digestível com 0, 16, 34 ou 42% de farelo de soja. O aumento no nível de farelo de soja teve efeito linear positivo sobre os valores de peso e comprimento finais médios, mas não afetou a condição corporal e os índices de sobrevivência. Recomenda-se incluir o farelo de soja em níveis de até 42% na ração de tilápias-do-nilo na fase de reversão.Eight hundred Nile tilapia larvae with two days old were used to evaluate the inclusion of soybean meal in diets fed Nile tilapia during the sex reversion period (30 days. The experiment was analyzed as a completely randomized blocks, with four treatments and four replications. A net tank with 50 larvae was considered an experimental unit. The treatments were formulated to be isoprotein and isonitrogenous (38.6% of digestible protein and 3,800 kcal/kg of digestible energy, with increasing levels of soybean meal inclusion 0, 16, 34 and 42%. Average final weight and length linearly increased as the dietary soybean meal levels increased. No treatment effect on survival and body condition was observed. It is recommend to include up to 42% of soybean meal in Nile tilapia diets in the sexual reversion phase.

  15. Effect of substituting soybean meal and canola cake with grain-based dried distillers grains with solubles as a protein source on feed intake, milk production, and milk quality in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    by the proportion of gDDGS in the diet or when milk was stored for 7 d. Linoleic acid and conjugated linoleic acid cis-9,trans-11 in milk increased with increasing proportion of gDDGS. To conclude, gDDGS can replace soybean meal and canola cake as a protein source in the diet of dairy cows. Up to 13.5% of the diet...... quality. The present experiment involved 48 Holstein cows in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 grass-based dietary treatments consisting of 4, 13.5, and 23% gDDGS on a dry matter (DM) basis (L, M, and H, respectively) as a replacement for a concentrate mix. The concentrate mix consisted...... of soybean meal, canola cake, and beet pulp. Dry matter intake and energy-corrected milk yield were not affected by the proportion of gDDGS in the diet. Daily milk yield decreased with the H diet compared with the L and M diets. The percentage of fat in milk was higher when cows were fed the H diet compared...

  16. Dietary diversity, meal frequency and associated factors among infant and young children in Northwest Ethiopia: a cross- sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Melkamu; Worku, Abebaw Gebeyehu; Wassie, Molla Mesele

    2015-10-03

    Inappropriate feeding practice increases risk of under nutrition, illness, and mortality amongst children less than 2 years of age. The objective of this study is to assess minimum dietary diversity, meal frequency and its associated factors among infant and young children aged 6-23 months in Dangila Town, Northwest Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional study was conducted. Simple random sampling technique was used to select study participants. Interviewer administered questionnaire were used. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses was employed to identify factors associated with minimum dietary diversity and meal frequency. A total of 920 children 6-23 months were included. Proportion of children who met the minimum dietary diversity and meal frequency was 12.6 and 50.4 %, respectively. Mothers education [AOR =2.52], age of a child [AOR = 2.05], birth order of index child [AOR = 2.08], living in urban area [AOR = 2.09], having home gardening [AOR = 2.03], and media exposure [AOR = 2.74] were positively associated with dietary diversity. Moreover, age of the child [AOR = 3.03], birth order of index child [AOR = 1.58], mothers involvement in decision making [AOR = 1.51], media exposure [AOR = 2.62], and having postnatal visit [AOR = 2.30] were positively associated with meal frequency. The proportion of children who received minimum dietary diversity and meal frequency was low. Being at younger age, first birth order, and lack of media exposure affect both dietary diversity and meal frequency. Increasing mother's education, home gardening, mass media promotion and empowering women in decision making are highly recommended to increase dietary diversity and meal frequency.

  17. Physico-Chemical Properties of Soybean Meal-Based Adhesives Reinforced by Ethylene Glycol Diglycidyl Ether and Modified Nanocrystalline Cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaona Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An eco-friendly soybean meal-based adhesive (SM adhesive was developed by incorporating ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDE and nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC. In order to introduce epoxy groups, NCC was modified by KH560 (denoted as MNCC. The functional groups, thermal stability, and cross section of the resultant adhesive were characterized. Three-ply plywood was fabricated to measure the dry and wet shear strength of the adhesive. The experimental results showed that the epoxy groups on MNCC reacted with the carboxyl group of SM protein molecules, forming a crosslinking network and a ductile adhesive layer. As a result, compared with the SM adhesive modified by EGDE, the thermal stability of the adhesive with MNCC was improved and the wet shear strength was increased to 1.08 MPa.

  18. Evaluation of cassava leaf meal protein in fish and soybean meal-based diets for young pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siaka Seriba Diarra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The unavailability and high cost of traditional ingredients calls for more research into alternative sources for pig feeding in the South Pacific region. The effect of replacing feed protein with cassava leaf meal (CLM protein in weaner and growing pigs’ diets was investigated in two experiments. In experiment 1, three diets in which CLM protein replaced 0, 15 and 30% of feed protein were fed each to five replicate pens of weaner pigs. Feed intake (FI, body weight gain (BWG and feed conversion ratio (FCR were improved and feed cost of gain reduced (P<0.05 on 30% while dressing percentage was maximized (P<0.05 on 15% protein replacement diets. In experiment 2, three diets containing 0, 30 and 45% CLM protein as replacement for feed protein were fed as in experiment 1 to grower pigs. FI and BWG were reduced while FCR and feed cost of gain were increased (P<0.05 above 30% protein replacement. Dressing percentage assumed the highest value (P<0.05 on 30% replacement. It was concluded that replacing 30% of feed protein with sun-dried CLM protein will maintain growth and reduce cost of pork production. Efficient use of CLM in the diet will be an alternative way of value addition to this by-product.

  19. Utilization of leucaena leaf meal as a protein supplement in broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ninety finisher broiler birds averaging 586.06g and 28-days old were randomly assigned into three dietary treatments in which a multipurpose tree (MPTs) Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal (LLM) replaced soybean meal (SBM) at levels of 0.00, 5.25 and 10.50% for a period of 42 days using performance characteristics and ...

  20. Valor nutricional da casca do grão de soja, farelo de soja, milho moído e farelo de trigo para bovinos Nutritional value of soybean hulls, soybean meal, ground corn and wheat meal for cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Toledo da Silva

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada análise bromatológica da casca do grão de soja (CGS, farelo de soja, milho moído e farelo de trigo; ensaio de digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS e da parede celular (DIVPC dos referidos alimentos; e degradabilidade in situ da matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO e energia bruta (EB, da CGS moída (CSM ou peletizada (CSP. Para a determinação da DIVMS e DIVPC, foram realizadas três coletas de líquido ruminal, com intervalos de uma semana. Para a determinação da degradabilidade in situ da MS, MO e EB, foram utilizadas três vacas munidas de fistula ruminal. Os tempos de incubação foram: 3, 6, 12, 24 e 48 horas, sendo que o tempo zero foi realizado no laboratório. Foram determinadas as percentagens de degradação e das degradabilidades efetivas para MS, MO e EB. A partir dos resultados encontrados, conclui-se que a CGS pode ser utilizada como um alimento alternativo nas rações de bovinos.The experiment was divided into three parts: composition analysis of soybean hulls (SH, soybean meal, ground corn and wheat meal; in vitro digestibility of dry matter (IVDDM and cellular wall (IVDCW of the feeds mentioned above; in situ degradation of dry matter (ISDDM, organic matter (ISDOM and gross energy (ISDGE, of milled (MSH or pelleted (PSH soybean hulls. Three collections of rumen liquid were undertaken for IVDDM and IVDCW at weekly intervals. Three rumen fistulated cows were utilized for the estimates of ISDDM, ISDOM and ISDGE. Incubation periods were 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 hours, whereas zero time was achieved in the laboratory. Degradation percentages and the percentages of real degradability for dry matter, organic matter and gross energy were reported. Results showed that SH could be used as an alternative food in cattle rations.

  1. Evaluation of soybean meal replacement with sesame seed meal using activated charcoal as an additive in the diet of African catfish juveniles, Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muyideen Owonire Lawal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of 0.25% activated charcoal added to sesame seed meal (SSM in partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM of juvenile Clarias gariepinus diet on growth and haematological parameters for 70 day experimental period. Six experimental diets were formulated as: control diet 1 (100% SSM without activated charcoal, control diet 2 (100% SSM plus 0.25% activated charcoal, diet 3 (50% SMB+50% SSM, diet 4 (50% SBM+50% SSM+0.25% AC, diet 5 (30% SBM+70% SSM and diet 6 (30% SBM+70% SSM+0.25AC. The inclusion of activated charcoal recorded significant improvement in mean weight gain, mean feed intake, specific growth rate (SGR, protein intake (PI and protein efficiency ratio (PER. The control diet 2 recorded the highest values for growth and nutrient utilization parameters while diet 5 recorded the least values for these parameters. The best values for mean weight gain (65.33±5.57 g, specific growth rate (2.56±0.12% / day and feed conversion ratio (0.71±0.05 were recorded in fish fed control diet 2 while the worst values (41.30±3.82 g, 1.92±0.11% / day, and 1.07±0.07, respectively for these parameters were observed with diet 5. However, haematological parameters did not differ significantly across the diets. Thus, from this study 0.25% activated charcoal could favorably be added to the feed of C. gariepinusfor optimum performance without any adverse effect on the health status of the fish.

  2. Examining the relationship between family meal frequency and individual dietary intake: does family cohesion play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Ericka M; French, Simone A; Wall, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    To confirm previously reported associations between family meal frequency and dietary intake, and to examine family cohesion as a potential mediator of this relationship. Cross-sectional observational study. Data collected at baseline via questionnaire. Randomized, controlled household weight gain prevention trial. Participants were 152 adults and 75 adolescents from 90 community households. Family meal frequency assessed with a single question. Perceived family cohesion measured by the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale-III. Usual intake of targeted food items assessed with modified food frequency questionnaire. Hierarchical linear regression with mediation analysis. Statistical significance set at α-level .05. Family meal frequency was associated with intake of fruits and vegetables in adults, and sweets and sugar-sweetened beverages in adolescents. Family meal frequency was positively correlated with perceived family cohesion (r = 0.41, P family cohesion was observed for family meal frequency and sweets intake in adolescents. Results suggest that family cohesion is not a consistent mediator of relationship between family meal frequency and individual dietary intake. Future studies should assess additional plausible mediators of this relationship in order to better understand the effect of family meals on dietary intake. Copyright © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Buckwheat bran (Fagopyrum esculentum as partial replacement of corn and soybean meal in the laying hen diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bagliacca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of partial substitution of corn (-20% and soybean meal (-10% with buckwheat bran (+30% (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench in the diet of ISA-Brown hens was investigated in sixteen 74-week old hens, housed in couple wire cages and submitted to a 16 h light:8 h dark photoperiod. The following traits were measured: body weight, egg production, egg mass, egg quality, feed intake, feed conversion, comparative palatability of ingredients and digestibility of diet. χ2 and non-parametric tests were used for production rate and yolk color score, respectively. ANOVA was used for all other parameters. Comparative choice of buckwheat, corn and soy was checked under different forms in 3 free choice tests. Results show that egg production rate (43.3% vs 50.5%; Pvs 87.8±0.68 eggs/hen d; Pvs 10.1 MJ/kg , due to the high fibre content of buckwheat bran (263 g/kg. Maize was always the most preferred ingredient, buckwheat bran was consumed more than expected in absence of any preference, and soybean was the food least chosen. Buckwheat bran can be used as an ingredient feed for low-producing laying hens; it induces a feed-intake increase, partially balanced by improved egg-production rates and a tendency to better albumen Haugh units.

  4. Nutrient intake, rumen fermentation and growth performance of dairy calves fed extruded full-fat soybean as a replacement for soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZeidAli-Nejad, A; Ghorbani, G R; Kargar, S; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Pezeshki, A; Ghaffari, M H

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of extruded full-fat soybean (ESB) as a replacement for soybean meal (SBM) on nutrient intake, rumen fermentation, and growth performance of dairy calves. A total of 45 male Holstein dairy calves (42.0±0.5 kg of BW) were randomly assigned to one of three experimental diets: (1) 0% ESB (Control): 35.3% SBM no ESB; (2) 25% ESB: 27.0% SBM+9.0% ESB; and (3) 50% ESB: 19.0% SBM+19.0% ESB. All calves were weaned on day 56 of age and remained in the study until day 70 of age. During the pre-weaning and overall periods, substituting of SBM with ESB had no effect on intake of starter feed, metabolizable energy (ME), CP and non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC). Compared with the control, 50% ESB resulted in a decrease in starter feed intake, and intakes of other nutrients including CP, NFC and ME during the post-weaning period. Substituting SBM with ESB decreased intake of C16 : 0 and increased intakes of n-9 C18 : 1, n-6 C18 : 2 and n-3 C18 : 3 during the pre-weaning, post-weaning and overall periods. Using ESB as a replacement for SBM did not affect average daily gain, feed efficiency, rectal temperature and fecal score over the trial periods. Compared with control, the rumen concentration of NH3-N decreased for 50% ESB on days 35 and 56 of age but not when compared with 25% ESB. Rumen pH, total volatile fatty acids concentrations, and the molar proportions of ruminal acetate, propionate and butyrate were not different among treatments. Body measurements were not affected by the treatments. In conclusion, substitution of SBM with ESB may improve nitrogen utilization efficiency in dairy calves but slightly reduce post-weaning starter intake with no negative outcomes on growth performance and rumen fermentation.

  5. Replacement of soybean meal in compound feed by European protein sources : effects on carbon footprint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de H.C.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Blonk, H.; Tyszler, M.

    2014-01-01

    The overall aim was to investigate if soybean products from South American can be replaced by protein sources produced in Europe in a sustainable way. Based on data from literature, and based on the systematics of the FeedPrint programme, the nutritional value and the carbon footprint (CFP) of these

  6. New sources of soybean seed meal and oil composition traits identified through TILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilyeu Kristin D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several techniques are available to study gene function, but many are less than ideal for soybean. Reverse genetics, a relatively new approach, can be utilized to identify novel mutations in candidate genes; this technique has not produced an allelic variant with a confirmed phenotype in soybean. Soybean raffinose synthase genes and microsomal omega-6 fatty acid desaturase genes were screened for novel alleles in mutagenized soybean populations. Results Four mutations in independent lines were identified in the raffinose synthase gene RS2; two mutations resulted in amino acid mutations and one resulted in an altered seed oligosaccharide phenotype. The resulting phenotype was an increase in seed sucrose levels as well as a decrease in both raffinose and stachyose seed oligosaccharide levels. Three mutations in independent lines were identified in the omega-6 fatty acid desaturase gene FAD2-1A; all three mutations resulted in missense amino acid mutations and one resulted in an altered seed fatty acid profile that led to an increase in oleic acid and a decrease in linoleic acid in the seed oil. Conclusion The oligosaccharide phenotype controlled by the novel RS2 allele is similar to previously observed seed oligosaccharide phenotypes in RS2 mutant (PI 200508 allele-containing lines. Due to the anti-nutritional characteristics of raffinose and stachyose, this represents a positive change in seed composition. The fatty acid phenotype controlled by the novel FAD2-1A allele controls an increase in oleic acid in the seed oil, a phenotype also observed in a line previously characterized to have a null allele of the FAD2-1A gene. Molecular marker assays were developed to reliably detect the inheritance of the mutant alleles and can be used in efficient breeding for these desired seed phenotypes. Our results serve as the first demonstration of the identification of soybean mutants controlling seed phenotypes discovered through the

  7. Feeding dairy cows with full fat extruded or toasted soybean seeds as replacement of soybean meal and effects on milk yield, fatty acid profile and CLA content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bittante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the replacement of about 70% of soybean meal (SBM with extruded(ES or toasted (TS full-fat soybean seeds in diets for lactating cows on milk quality, fatty acid profile, and conjugatedlinoleic acid (CLA content. Eighteen lactating cows were assigned to 3 groups which received a basal diet, supplementedwith 1.8, 2.1 and 2.1 kg/head, respectively, of SBM, ES and TS. There was no significant effect on milk yield,calculated as the difference between daily yield during the experimental period and the mean of the last 5 days of adaptation(-1.65, -1.29 and -0.20 kg/d, respectively, for SBM, ES and TS; P>0.10 and milk quality parameters (fat, protein,urea and cheese making parameters among treatments. In the ES group there was a decrease in the short chainFA content (from C4 to C13 in milk fat (9.2 vs 11.0 and 10.8 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, SBM and TS; PMedium chain FA (from C14 to C17 content in milk fat was lower for ES and TS groups compared with SBM (46.8 and48.0 vs 54.8 g/100 g lipids respectively; PSBM group compared to the others (34.3 vs 44.2 and 41.2 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for SBM, ES and TS; PThe replacement of SBM with ES enhanced oleic and linoleic acid and, particularly, CLA content. Intermediate values wereobserved for the TS group. CLA content (0.91, 0.62 and 0.56 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, TS and SBM; Pincreased throughout the trial in all groups. ES also reduced the proportion of SFA with respect to SBM (65.2, 68.2 and70.9 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, TS and SBM; Pin the same order; Pimproving the health-quality of milk. The various soybean products did not affect either metabolic profile (protein, urea,glucose, cholesterol, NEFA, triglycerides, liver parameters and mineral serum content or rumen parameters (pH, ammoniaand VFAs. The replacement of SBM with ES and TS permitted an improvement in the nutritional properties of milkwithout negatively

  8. Appetitive and Dietary Effects of Consuming an Energy-Dense Food (Peanuts with or between Meals by Snackers and Nonsnackers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Devitt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Energy-dense foods are inconsistently implicated in elevated energy intake (EI. This may stem from other food properties and/or differences in dietary incorporation, that is, as snacks or with meals. Objective. Assess intake pattern and food properties on acute appetitive ratings (AR and EI. Design. 201 normal and overweight adults consuming a standard lunch. Test loads of 1255.2 kJ (300 kcal were added to the lunch or provided as snack. Loads (peanuts, snack mix, and snack mix with peanuts were energy, macronutrient, and volumetrically matched with a lunch portion as control. Participants completed meal and snack sessions of their randomly assigned load. Results. No differences were observed in daily EI or AR for meal versus snack or treatment versus control. Consumption of peanuts as a snack tended to strengthen dietary compensation compared to peanuts or other loads with a meal. Conclusions. Inclusion of an energy-dense food as a snack or meal component had comparable influence on AR and EI. Peanuts tended to elicit stronger dietary compensation when consumed as a snack versus with a meal. If substantiated, this latter observation suggests that properties other than those controlled here (energy, macronutrient content, and volume modify AR and EI.

  9. Food variety in commercial and homemade complementary meals for infants in Germany. Market survey and dietary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesch, Christina M; Stimming, Madlen; Foterek, Kristina; Hilbig, Annett; Alexy, Ute; Kersting, Mathilde; Libuda, Lars

    2014-05-01

    Already infants do not meet the recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake although the complementary feeding period offers the possibility to expose the infant to a variety of flavours from fruits and vegetables. The objective of the present analysis was to identify differences in the vegetable variety in commercial vs. homemade complementary meals and to describe fish and meat variety in these meals in dietary practice in Germany. A further objective was to provide an overview of the food variety in commercial complementary vegetable-potato-meat/fish meals available on the German baby food market in 2012. 3-day weighed dietary records from the German DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study were used to describe the fish and meat variety and to compare the vegetable variety in commercial and homemade meals using a vegetable variety score (VegVS). The online data base 'Nutrichild' served to describe the food variety on the market. The vegetable variety was low in homemade as well as in commercial meals without any differences in total variety at 6 and 9months of age. At 12months of age infants fed with commercial meals got a higher vegetable variety than those fed with homemade meals. In homemade and commercial meals most often carrot was used, whereas other vegetables were far below this frequency. In both meals, poultry and beef were most often used whereas fish meals were rarely offered. The market survey showed the same low vegetable variety and low fish offer as the results of the DONALD study. The data show that it is necessary to promote the advantages of a vegetable variety and fish consumption in Germany, already in early infancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. EFFECT OF DIETARY RAW CHICKPEA (Cicer arietinum L.) SEEDS REPLACEMENT GROUNDNUT MEAL, SESAME MEAL ON BROILER PERFORMANCE AND BLOOD CONSTITUENTS

    OpenAIRE

    T.A. Algam; Kh.A. Abdel Atti; B.M. Dousa; S.M. Elawad; B.A. Atta Elmanan

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of chickpea seeds on performance and blood constituents of broilers. One hundred and twenty eight unsexed one day old (Ross) broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four approximately isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets labeled as follows: Diet (F0) containing 0% chickpea (control diet), diet (F1) 10% chickpea substitute same levels of sesame meal and groundnuts meal, diet (F2) 10% chickpea substitute from groundnuts meal only and diet (F3) ...

  11. Effect of replacing ground corn and soybean meal with licuri cake on the performance, digestibility, nitrogen metabolism and ingestive behavior in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, A C; Vieira, J F; Barbosa, A M; Silva, T M; Bezerra, L R; Nascimento, N G; de Freitas, J E; Jaeger, S M P L; Oliveira, P de A; Oliveira, R L

    2017-11-01

    Licuri (Syagrus coronate) cake is a biodiesel by-product used in ruminant feed as a beneficial energy source for supplementation in managed pastures. The objective was to evaluate the performance, digestibility, nitrogen balance, blood metabolites, ingestive behavior and diet profitability of eight crossbred Holstein (3/4)×Gyr (5/8) multiparous cows (480±25 kg BW and 100 days milking) grazing and supplemented with licuri cake partially replacing ground corn and soybean meal in concentrate (0, 200, 400 and 600 g/kg in dry matter (DM)), distributed in an experimental duplicated 4×4 Latin square design. Licuri cake partially replacing ground corn and soybean meal increased (Pcorn and soybean meal in concentrate did not affect the intake; fecal, urinary and mammary excretions; N balance; and triglycerides concentrations. However, the blood urea nitrogen (P=0.04) concentration decreased with the licuri cakes inclusion in cow supplementation. There was an increasing trend for serum creatinine (P=0.07). Licuri cake inclusion did not affect body condition score, production, yield, protein, lactose, total solids and solid non-fat contents of milk and Minas frescal cheese. There was a linear decrease in average daily weight gain (g/day). The milk fat concentration and cheese fat production (Pcorn and soybean meal with licuri cakes. The addition of licuri cake did not alter the time spent feeding, ruminating or idling. There was an increasing trend in NDF feeding efficiency (P=0.09). The replacing of ground corn and soybean meal with licuri cake up to 600 g/kg decreased the concentrate cost by US$0.45/cow per day. Licuri cake replacing corn and soybeans (400 g/kg) in concentrate promoted a profit of US$0.07/animal per day. Licuri cake is indicated to concentrate the supplementation of dairy cows with average productions of 10 kg/day at levels up to 400 g/kg in the concentrate supplement because it provides an additional profit of US$0.07/animal per day and increased milk

  12. Dietary nucleotide supplementation enhances immune responses and survival to Streptococcus iniae in hybrid tilapia fed diet containing low fish meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Yen Shiau

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of nucleotide (NT supplementation in diet on immune responses and disease resistance of juvenile hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus × Oreochromis aureus. Nucleotide was added at 0, 120, 240, 360, 480 and 600 mg NT/kg to low fish meal (6% and high soybean meal (56% basal diet for a total of 6 experimental diets. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of tilapia (initial body weight 0.15 ± 0.005 g in a recirculated freshwater rearing system for 10 weeks. Head kidney leukocyte superoxide anion production ratio was higher (P 80% were observed in fish fed diets supplemented with NT than fish fed the NT unsupplemented control diet (56.7%. These results suggest that nucleotides supplemented at 120–240 mg NT/kg in diet enhances immune responses and survival of tilapia fed low fish meal and high soybean meal diet.

  13. Production traits, blood metabolic profile and fatty acids of meat and tallow in response to the partial replacement of soybean meal with peas in organic lambs' feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Antunović

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the production traits, blood metabolic profile and fatty acids of meat and tallow in response to the partial replacement of soybean meal with peas in lambs' feed. The research was conducted on 30 Merinolandschaf lambs of 90 days' age over 30 days. Lambs were fed with feed mixture (1000 g day−1 lamb−1. In the control group protein supplement was soybean meal (SC, while in the experimental groups soybean meal was partially replaced with 13 % peas (P13 and 26 % peas (P26. In the haematological parameters of lambs' blood, concentrations of minerals (Ca, P, Mg and Fe and biochemical parameters (urea, glucose, total protein, albumin, globulins, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglyceride, β-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids as well as enzyme activity (ALT, AST, ALP, GGT and CK were determined. After slaughter, carcass development was measured. Samples of m. semimembranosus and tallow were taken in which concentrations of fatty acids were analysed. Values of meat pH and colour were taken 45 min 24 h post mortem, and water-holding capacity was calculated. By analysing the production properties of lamb, we found that slaughtering characteristics of lamb carcasses, haematological and most of the biochemical indicators did not differ. Urea concentrations were reduced in the blood of lambs in P13 and P26. Concentration of C18:2 n-6 increased in tallow of lambs of group SC compared to group P26 of lambs. The above-mentioned results indicate the possibility of partial replacement of soybean meal with peas in lambs' diets in organic farming without changes in production.

  14. Effect of Biostimulation Using Sewage Sludge, Soybean Meal, and Wheat Straw on Oil Degradation and Bacterial Community Composition in a Contaminated Desert Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kindi, Sumaiya; Abed, Raeid M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Waste materials have a strong potential in the bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites, because of their richness in nutrients and their economical feasibility. We used sewage sludge, soybean meal, and wheat straw to biostimulate oil degradation in a heavily contaminated desert soil. While oil degradation was assessed by following the produced CO2 and by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), shifts in bacterial community composition were monitored using illumina MiSeq. The addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw to the desert soil stimulated the respiration activities to reach 3.2–3.4 times higher than in the untreated soil, whereas the addition of soybean meal resulted in an insignificant change in the produced CO2, given the high respiration activities of the soybean meal alone. GC–MS analysis revealed that the addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw resulted in 1.7–1.8 fold increase in the degraded C14 to C30 alkanes, compared to only 1.3 fold increase in the case of soybean meal addition. The degradation of ≥90% of the C14 to C30 alkanes was measured in the soils treated with sewage sludge and wheat straw. MiSeq sequencing revealed that the majority (76.5–86.4% of total sequences) of acquired sequences from the untreated soil belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Multivariate analysis of operational taxonomic units placed the bacterial communities of the soils after the treatments in separate clusters (ANOSIM R = 0.66, P = 0.0001). The most remarkable shift in bacterial communities was in the wheat straw treatment, where 95–98% of the total sequences were affiliated to Bacilli. We conclude that sewage sludge and wheat straw are useful biostimulating agents for the cleanup of oil-contaminated desert soils. PMID:26973618

  15. What's Being Served for Dinner? An Exploratory Investigation of the Associations between the Healthfulness of Family Meals and Child Dietary Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofholz, Amanda C; Tate, Allan D; Draxten, Michelle L; Rowley, Seth S; Schulte, Anna K; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; MacLehose, Richard F; Berge, Jerica M

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the healthfulness of foods offered at family meals or the relationship between the food's healthfulness and child overall dietary intake. This exploratory study uses a newly developed Healthfulness of Meal Index to examine the association between the healthfulness of foods served at family dinners and child dietary intake. Direct observational, cross-sectional study. Primarily low-income, minority families (n=120) video recorded 8 days of family dinners and completed a corresponding meal screener. Dietary recalls were completed on the target child (6 to 12 years old). The Healthfulness of Meal Index was used to measure meal healthfulness and included component scores for whole fruit, 100% juice, vegetables, dark green vegetables, dairy, protein, added sugars, and high-sodium foods. Child dietary intake measured by three 24-hour dietary recalls. Linear regression models estimated the association between the healthfulness of foods served at dinner meals and overall child HEI. The majority of coded meals included foods from protein and high-sodium components; more than half included foods from dairy and vegetable components. Nearly half of the meals had an added-sugar component food (eg, soda or dessert). Few meals served foods from fruit, 100% juice, or dark green vegetable components. Many components served at family dinner meals were significantly associated with child daily intake of those same foods (ie, dark green vegetable, non-dark green vegetables, dairy, and added sugars). The Healthfulness of Meal Index total score was significantly associated with child HEI score. This study represents the first report of a new methodology to collect data of foods served at family dinners. Results indicated a significant association between the majority of components served at family dinner meals and child overall dietary intake. Validation of the Healthfulness of Meal Index and video-recorded family meal methodology is needed to strengthen these

  16. Buckwheat bran (Fagopyrum esculentum as partial replacement of corn and soybean meal in the laying hen diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Gatta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of partial substitution of corn (-20% and soybean meal (-10% with buckwheat bran (+30% (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench in the diet of ISA-Brown hens was investigated in sixteen 74-week old hens, housed in couple wire cages and submitted to a 16 h light:8 h dark photoperiod. The following traits were measured: body weight, egg production, egg mass, egg quality, feed intake, feed conversion, comparative palatability of ingredients and digestibility of diet. χ2 and non-parametric tests were used for production rate and yolk color score, respectively. ANOVA was used for all other parameters. Comparative choice of buckwheat, corn and soy was checked under different forms in 3 free choice tests. Results show that egg production rate (43.3% vs 50.5%; P<0.05 and feed intake (78.3±0.68 eggs/hen d vs 87.8±0.68 eggs/hen d; P<0.05 increased with the partial introduction of buckwheat bran in the diet. There was no difference in feed conversion between treatments. Nutrient balance confirmed that AMEn of diet was deeply lowered by the buckwheat bran use (6.5 MJ/kg vs 10.1 MJ/kg , due to the high fibre content of buckwheat bran (263 g/kg. Maize was always the most preferred ingredient, buckwheat bran was consumed more than expected in absence of any preference, and soybean was the food least chosen. Buckwheat bran can be used as an ingredient feed for low-producing laying hens; it induces a feed-intake increase, partially balanced by improved egg-production rates and a tendency to better albumen Haugh units.

  17. Nutritional value of soybean meal produced from conventional, high-protein, or low-oligosaccharide varieties of soybeans and fed to broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, K M; Utterback, P L; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H

    2011-02-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the feeding value to broiler chicks of soybean meal (SBM) produced from high-protein (SBM-HP), low-oligosaccharide (SBM-LO), or conventional (SBM-CV) varieties of soybeans. The 3 SBM contained 54.9, 53.6, and 47.5% CP, respectively. The standardized digestibility (SDD) of amino acids (AA) in the 3 ingredients was measured using a precision-fed rooster assay with cecectomized Single Comb White Leghorn roosters. Results indicated that the SDD of AA was not different among the 3 sources of SBM, with the exception that the SDD of Lys in SBM-HP tended to be greater (P = 0.07) than that in SBM-CV. In the second experiment, a precision-fed rooster assay was used to measure the concentration of TME(n) in each source of SBM. Results indicated that the TME(n) in SBM-HP was greater (P < 0.001) than those in SBM-LO and SBM-CV (3,104 vs. 2,984 and 2,963 kcal/kg of DM). A 14-d growth performance experiment was also conducted using 120 Ross 308 male commercial broiler chicks (mean initial BW = 102.6 g) that were allotted to a completely randomized design. There were 5 chicks/pen and 8 replicate pens/diet. Three corn- and SBM-based diets were formulated based on the data for digestible AA and TME(n) that were measured in the previous experiments. Each source of SBM was used in 1 diet, but because of the greater concentrations of digestible AA in SBM-HP and SBM-LO than in SBM-CV, the inclusion of SBM-HP and SBM-LO were 31.21 and 32.60%, respectively, whereas an inclusion of 38.21% SBM-CV was used. There were no differences among the 3 diets for BW gain or feed efficiency, which indicated that the reduced inclusion rates of SBM-HP and SBM-LO compared with SBM-CV were not detrimental to broiler chick growth performance. It was concluded that, compared with SBM-CV, SBM-HP and SBM-LO are needed in lower concentrations in diets fed to broiler chicks because these 2 sources of SBM have a greater nutritional value than does SBM-CV.

  18. Growth Performance of Clarias Gariepinus Fed Soaked Moringa Oleifera Leaf Meal

    OpenAIRE

    Ayegba, E. O

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluates the nutritional potential of soaked-dried Moringa oleifera leaf meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous (35% crude protein) diets were formulated with Moringa leaf replacing soybean meal at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. Result obtained revealed declined in weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and apparent net protein utilization as dietary replacement of Moringa leaf meal increased beyond 10%. It is con...

  19. Effects of Increasing Levels of Dietary Cooked and Uncooked Banana Meal on Growth Performance and Carcass Parameters of Broiler Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S.B.M Atapattu* and T.S.M.S. Senevirathne

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Discarded banana is a valuable feed ingredient for poultry feed formulations. However, due to the presence of resistant starches, inclusion of more than 10% banana meal in poultry rations reduces the growth performance. The objective of this study was to determine whether higher levels of banana meal could be included in broiler diets if raw banana is cooked before being processed into meal. Discarded banana (Cavendish collected at harvesting was processed into two types of banana meals. Cooked banana meal was prepared by cooking banana at 100oC for 15 minutes and subsequent drying. Uncooked banana meal was prepared by drying at 800C for three days. Giving a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, 144 broiler chicks in 48 cages received one of the eight experimental diets containing either cooked or uncooked banana meal at 0, 10, 20 or 30% ad libitum from day 21-42. Birds fed cooked banana meal were significantly heavier on day 28 and 35. Live weight on day 42, weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion efficiency were not affected either by the type or level of banana meal and their interaction. Cooked banana meal increased the weights of the crop and liver significantly. Weight of the small intestine, proventriculus, gizzard abdominal fat pad and the fat free tibia ash contents were not affected by the dietary treatments. It was concluded that uncooked banana meal produced using peeled raw banana can be included up to 30% in nutritionally balanced broiler finisher diets without any adverse effects on performance.

  20. Ingestive and metabolic behavior of beef cattle fed diets with different levels of turnip forage (Rhaphanus sativus cake in replacement to soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdecir de Souza Castro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effects of five substitution levels of soybean meal by turnip forage cake in the concentrate, on dry matter intake (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF, pH and ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3 in the rumen liquid and plasmatic urea nitrogen (PUN in beef steer. The diets were isoprotein (6.5 % CP and isoenergetic (50.0% TDN, using in natura sugarcane silage as the only forage (85,5 %DM. Five castrated males were used, 1/2 Simental x Nelore cross, with average weight of 610 kg and 36 months old, all fistulated in the rumen. The different levels of replacement were: 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%, based on CP responsible of soybean meal of ration. Each experimental period lasted 19 days. The experiment was carried out in a 5x5 latin square experimental design, with five animals and five periods. The potential of dry matter intake (%BW and g/kg BW0,75 of turnip forage cake forage was obtained with 27% of replacement in the protean basis in relation to soybean meal, promoting, a maximum intake of 0,217 kg/animal/day, not proportionating alterations in the ruminal dynamic and in the blood.

  1. Butyrate and taurine exert a mitigating effect on the inflamed distal intestine of European sea bass fed with a high percentage of soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Rimoldi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the paucity of oceanic resources utilized in the preparation of diets for cultured fish, commercial feed producers have been trying to replace fishmeal (FM using alternative protein sources such as vegetable protein meals (VMs. One of the main drawbacks of using VMs in fish feed is related to the presence of a variety of anti-nutritional factors, which could trigger an inflammation process in the distal intestine. This reduces the capacity of the enterocytes to absorb nutrients leading to reduced fish growth performances. Methods We evaluated the mitigating effects of butyrate and taurine used as feed additives on the morphological abnormalities caused by a soybean meal (SBM-based diet in the distal intestine of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax. We used three experimental diets, containing the same low percentage of FM and high percentage of SBM; two diets were supplemented with either 0.2% sodium butyrate or taurine. Histological changes in the intestine of fish were determined by light and transmission electron microscopy. Infiltration of CD45+ leucocytes in the lamina propria and in the submucosa was assessed by immunohistochemistry. We also quantified by One-Step Taqman® real-time RT-PCR the messenger RNA (mRNA abundance of a panel of genes involved in the intestinal mucosa inflammatory response such as TNFα (tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukins: IL-8, IL-1β, IL-10, and IL-6. Results Fish that received for 2 months the diet with 30% soy protein (16.7% SBM and 12.8% full-fat soy developed an inflammation in the distal intestine, as confirmed by histological and immunohistochemistry data. The expression of target genes in the intestine was deeply influenced by the type of fish diet. Fish fed with taurine-supplemented diet displayed the lowest number of mRNA copies of IL-1β, IL-8, and IL-10 genes in comparison to fish fed with control or butyrate-supplemented diets. Dietary butyrate caused an upregulation

  2. Addition of soluble soybean polysaccharides to dairy products as a source of dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenpu; Duizer, Lisa; Corredig, Milena; Goff, H Douglas

    2010-08-01

    Increasing consumption of dietary fiber in food leads to many important health benefits: for example, reduction in blood cholesterol, reduced risk of diabetes, and improved laxation. Water soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS) is a dietary fiber extracted and refined from okara, a byproduct of soy manufacturing. It was incorporated into 3 categories of dairy-based products, thickened milkshake-style beverages, puddings, and low-fat ice cream, to the maximum amount without over-texturing the food. Rheological measurements and sensory tests were used to develop desirable SSPS-fortified products. From the rheological data, 4% SSPS-fortified dairy beverages and 4% SSPS -fortified puddings were in the range of commercial products. From sensory analyses, 4% SSPS-fortified dairy beverage with 0.015%kappa-carrageenan, 4% SSPS-fortified pudding with 0.1%kappa-carrageenan, and 2% SSPS-fortified low-fat ice cream gained the highest scores in consumer hedonic rating. Panelists also indicated their willingness to consume those products if they were available commercially. Practical Application: Since the dietary fiber intake of many people is below their suggested adequate intake values, strategies to successfully fortify foods with fiber may help alleviate this gap. We have developed 3 dairy products, a beverage, a pudding, and a low-fat ice cream, that have been fortified with soluble soybean polysaccharide at levels of 4%, 4%, and 2%, respectively. These products were within acceptable ranges of rheological parameters and other physical stability measurements and were judged to be acceptable by sensory analyses.

  3. Circulating blood metabolites in early-lactation dairy cows fed canola or soybean meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    A successful transition from pregnancy to lactation is imperative for dairy cows to maximize milk production potential. Altering the dietary protein source can change the availability of energy to the cow. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of crude protein (CP) source canol...

  4. Examining the Relationship between Family Meal Frequency and Individual Dietary Intake: Does Family Cohesion Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Ericka M.; French, Simone A.; Wall, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To confirm previously reported associations between family meal frequency and dietary intake, and to examine family cohesion as a potential mediator of this relationship. Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Data collected at baseline via questionnaire. Setting: Randomized, controlled household weight gain prevention trial.…

  5. Determining whether transgenic and endogenous plant DNA and transgenic protein are detectable in muscle from swine fed Roundup Ready soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, J C; Kolwyck, D C; Kays, S B; Whetsell, A J; Surber, J B; Cromwell, G L; Lirette, R P; Glenn, K C

    2003-06-01

    Questions regarding the digestive fate of DNA and protein from transgenic feed have been raised in regard to human consumption and commercial trade of animal products (e.g., meat, milk, and eggs) from farm animals fed transgenic crops. Using highly sensitive, well-characterized analytical methods, pork loin samples were analyzed for the presence of fragments of transgenic and endogenous plant DNA and transgenic protein from animals fed meal prepared from conventional or glyphosate-tolerant Roundup Ready (RR) soybeans. Pigs were fed diets containing 24, 19, and 14% RR or conventional soybean meal during grower, early-finisher, and late-finisher phases of growth, respectively, and longissimus muscle samples were collected (12 per treatment) after slaughter. Total DNA was extracted from the samples and analyzed by PCR, followed by Southern blot hybridization for the presence of a 272-bp fragment of the cp4 epsps coding region (encoding the synthetic enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase derived from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4) and a 198-bp fragment of the endogenous soybean gene le1 (encoding soy lectin). Using 1 microgram of input DNA per reaction, none of the extracted samples was positive for cp4 epsps or le1 at the limit of detection (LOD) for these PCR/Southern blot assays. The LOD for these assays was shown to be approximately one diploid genome equivalent of RR soybean DNA, even in the presence of 10 micrograms of pork genomic DNA. A 185-bp fragment of the porcine preprolactin (prl) gene, used as a positive control, was amplified from all samples showing that the DNA preparations were amenable to PCR amplification. Using a competitive immunoassay with an LOD of approximately 94 ng of CP4 EPSPS protein/g of pork muscle, neither the CP4 EPSPS protein nor the immunoreactive peptide fragments were detected in loin muscle homogenates from pigs fed RR soybean meal. Taken together, these results show that neither small fragments of transgenic DNA nor

  6. Influence of different processing treatments on the detectability of nucleic acid and protein targets in transgenic soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fang; Guan, Qingfeng; Wang, Xiumin; Teng, Da; Wang, Jianhua

    2014-04-01

    Influences of dry heating, wet heating, and extrusion on the degradation of DNA and protein from transgenic soybean meal (TSM) were analyzed using qualitative PCR, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA), and Western blot. The 414-bp Lectin gene was thoroughly degraded after dry heating between 75 and 90 °C for 30 min, wet heating, and extrusion at 165 °C with 39 % moisture content. The 483-bp CP4-EPSPS gene was not detected after dry heating, wet heating, and extrusion at 120 °C with 39 % moisture content. The degradation ratios of both Lectin and CP4-EPSPS genes increased from 0.4 to 92.1 % and 6.1 to 84.0 % as temperatures rose from 90 to 165 °C. iELISA results of the extruded TSM showed that the CP4-EPSPS protein content was reduced from 4.19 to 0.54 % as temperatures rose from 90 to 150 °C and was not detectable at 165 °C. Western blot results also showed the degradation of CP4-CPSPS protein after extrusion. Our results showed that temperature played an essential role in DNA and protein degradation, and the content of genetically modified organism (GMO) products may be changed after processing and could not reflect the initial content of the products.

  7. Production of Biomass-Degrading Multienzyme Complexes under Solid-State Fermentation of Soybean Meal Using a Bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitcosque, Gabriela L; Fonseca, Rafael F; Rodríguez-Zúñiga, Ursula Fabiola; Bertucci Neto, Victor; Couri, Sonia; Farinas, Cristiane S

    2012-01-01

    Biomass-degrading enzymes are one of the most costly inputs affecting the economic viability of the biochemical route for biomass conversion into biofuels. This work evaluates the effects of operational conditions on biomass-degrading multienzyme production by a selected strain of Aspergillus niger. The fungus was cultivated under solid-state fermentation (SSF) of soybean meal, using an instrumented lab-scale bioreactor equipped with an on-line automated monitoring and control system. The effects of air flow rate, inlet air relative humidity, and initial substrate moisture content on multienzyme (FPase, endoglucanase, and xylanase) production were evaluated using a statistical design methodology. Highest production of FPase (0.55 IU/g), endoglucanase (35.1 IU/g), and xylanase (47.7 IU/g) was achieved using an initial substrate moisture content of 84%, an inlet air humidity of 70%, and a flow rate of 24 mL/min. The enzymatic complex was then used to hydrolyze a lignocellulosic biomass, releasing 4.4 g/L of glucose after 36 hours of saccharification of 50 g/L pretreated sugar cane bagasse. These results demonstrate the potential application of enzymes produced under SSF, thus contributing to generate the necessary technological advances to increase the efficiency of the use of biomass as a renewable energy source.

  8. Production of Biomass-Degrading Multienzyme Complexes under Solid-State Fermentation of Soybean Meal Using a Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela L. Vitcosque

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass-degrading enzymes are one of the most costly inputs affecting the economic viability of the biochemical route for biomass conversion into biofuels. This work evaluates the effects of operational conditions on biomass-degrading multienzyme production by a selected strain of Aspergillus niger. The fungus was cultivated under solid-state fermentation (SSF of soybean meal, using an instrumented lab-scale bioreactor equipped with an on-line automated monitoring and control system. The effects of air flow rate, inlet air relative humidity, and initial substrate moisture content on multienzyme (FPase, endoglucanase, and xylanase production were evaluated using a statistical design methodology. Highest production of FPase (0.55 IU/g, endoglucanase (35.1 IU/g, and xylanase (47.7 IU/g was achieved using an initial substrate moisture content of 84%, an inlet air humidity of 70%, and a flow rate of 24 mL/min. The enzymatic complex was then used to hydrolyze a lignocellulosic biomass, releasing 4.4 g/L of glucose after 36 hours of saccharification of 50 g/L pretreated sugar cane bagasse. These results demonstrate the potential application of enzymes produced under SSF, thus contributing to generate the necessary technological advances to increase the efficiency of the use of biomass as a renewable energy source.

  9. The contribution of school meals to energy and nutrient intake of Swedish children in relation to dietary guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Persson Osowski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Sweden, school meals are served free of charge and Swedish law states that school meals must be nutritious. Nevertheless, data on children's energy and nutrient intake from school meals are scarce. Objective: The aim was to describe the contribution of school meals to Swedish children's nutrient and energy intake during weekdays and compare this to the reference values based on the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR, which have been adopted as the official Swedish recommendations. Design: A cross-sectional food consumption survey was performed on 1,840 Swedish children attending Grade 2 (mean age 8.6 and Grade 5 (mean age 11.7. The children's nutrient and energy intake was compared to the reference values based on the NNR. Results: The mean intake from school meals of energy, carbohydrates, dietary fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, and vitamins D and E did not reach the reference values and the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA and sodium exceeded the reference values in both age groups (significant differences, all p≤0.001. Additionally, the pupils in Grade 5 did not reach the reference values for folate, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, selenium, and zinc (significant differences, all p≤0.001. Standardized for energy, dietary fiber, PUFA, and vitamins D and E did not reach the reference values, whereas the reference values for SFA and sodium were exceeded in both age groups (significant differences, all p≤0.001. Conclusions: The study pointed to some central nutrients in need of improvement as regards school meals in Sweden, namely the quality of fat, dietary fiber, sodium, vitamin D, and iron. Some of these results may be attributed to the children not reporting eating the recommended number of calories, the children omitting some components of the meal, or underreporting, as a consequence of which the reference values for several nutrients were not met.

  10. Dietary supplementation with soybean lecithin increases pulmonary PAF bioactivity in asthmatic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlmann, Luis A; Zanatta, Ana L; Farias, Carolina L A; Bieberbach, Eloyse W; Mazzonetto, Ana C; Michellotto, Pedro V; Fernandes, Luiz C; Nishiyama, Anita

    2010-06-01

    The prevalence of asthma has risen over the last few decades, and some studies correlate this with the greater consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Dietary PUFAs are known to increase the susceptibility of biological structures to lipid peroxidation, a process by which platelet-activating factor (PAF)-like lipids can be generated. These lipids functionally mimic the bioactivity of PAF, a potent proinflammatory mediator that exerts several deleterious effects on asthma. Thus, this work aimed to investigate if dietary supplementation with soybean lecithin (SL), a source of PUFAs, increases lipid peroxidation and PAF bioactivity in lungs of asthmatic Wistar rats. Animals were separated into groups: control, supplemented, asthmatic, asthmatic supplemented with SL (2 g/kg body weight), asthmatic supplemented with SL (2 g/kg body weight) and DL-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (100 mg/kg body weight). Asthmatic inflammation increased pulmonary lipid peroxidation, PAF bioactivity, alveolar-capillary barrier permeability and production of nitric oxide. In asthmatics, dietary supplementation with SL promoted an increase in pulmonary lipid peroxidation and PAF bioactivity, and an increase in the permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier. Moreover, the treatment of asthmatic rats with DL-alpha-tocopheryl acetate inhibited the lipid peroxidation and decreased the PAF bioactivity. Therefore, the increase in pulmonary PAF bioactivity in asthmatic individuals elicited by the dietary supplementation with SL probably involves the generation of PAF-like lipids. This finding suggests that PAF-like lipids may account for the deleterious effects of dietary PUFAs on asthma. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. How we eat what we eat: identifying meal routines and practices most strongly associated with healthy and unhealthy dietary factors among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laska, Melissa N; Hearst, Mary O; Lust, Katherine; Lytle, Leslie A; Story, Mary

    2015-08-01

    (i) To examine associations between young adults' meal routines and practices (e.g. food preparation, meal skipping, eating on the run) and key dietary indicators (fruit/vegetable, fast-food and sugar-sweetened beverage intakes) and (ii) to develop indices of protective and risky meal practices most strongly associated with diet. Cross-sectional survey. Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area, Minnesota (USA). A diverse sample of community college and public university students (n 1013). Meal routines and practices most strongly associated with healthy dietary patterns were related to home food preparation (i.e. preparing meals at home, preparing meals with vegetables) and meal regularity (i.e. routine consumption of evening meals and breakfast). In contrast, factors most strongly associated with poor dietary patterns included eating on the run, using media while eating and purchasing foods/beverages on campus. A Protective Factors Index, summing selected protective meal routines and practices, was positively associated with fruit/vegetable consumption and negatively associated with fast-food and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (PMeal routines and practices were significantly associated with young adults' dietary patterns, suggesting that ways in which individuals structure mealtimes and contextual characteristics of eating likely influence food choice. Thus, in addition to considering specific food choices, it also may be important to consider the context of mealtimes in developing dietary messaging and guidelines.

  12. Effects of age and dietary soybean oil level on eggshell quality, bone strength and blood biochemistry in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S; Cui, L Y; Hou, J F; Shi, C; Ke, X; Yang, L C; Ma, X P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the differences in eggshell quality, bone quality and serum bone biochemistry markers associated with changes in age and dietary soybean oil levels in laying hens. A total of 54, 19-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were housed in 18 battery cages (3 birds/cage) and randomly divided into three diet treatments for 90 d: control-fat (CF, 1.9% soybean oil), moderate-fat (MF, 7% soybean oil) and high-fat (HF, 10% soybean oil). The hens' body weights (BW), egg production, egg weights, eggshell thickness and femoral diameter were higher at d 90 than at d 60 or d 30. Meanwhile, feed intake, relative bone weights, all bone strength parameters and serum Ca were lower at d 90 or 60 than at d 30. Compared to the CF hens, the feed intake, BW, abdominal fat pad weights and serum alkaline phosphatase activity were elevated in MF or HF hens. The eggshell thickness, relative femoral and tibial weight, femoral stiffness, femoral modulus, tibial mixed force and serum calcium and phosphorus levels were lower in MF or HF hens than CF hens. These findings suggest that bone loss in caged hens starts from an early stage of the laying period, and dietary oil (particularly with diets over 10% soybean oil) has harmful effects on eggshell quality, bone strength and bone mineralisation from an early stage of the laying period.

  13. Dietary sources of polyphenols in the Mediterranean healthy Eating, Aging and Lifestyle (MEAL) study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godos, Justyna; Marventano, Stefano; Mistretta, Antonio; Galvano, Fabio; Grosso, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the dietary intake and major food sources of polyphenols in the Mediterranean healthy Eating, Aging and Lifestyles (MEAL) study cohort. A total of 1937 individuals (18 + y) of urban population of Catania, Italy, completed a validated 110-item food frequency questionnaire; Phenol-Explorer database was used to estimate polyphenol intake. Mean intake of polyphenols was 663.7 mg/d; the most abundant classes were phenolic acids (362.7 mg/d) and flavonoids (258.7 mg/d). The main dietary sources of total polyphenols were nuts, followed by tea and coffee as source of flavanols and hydroxycinnamic acids, respectively, fruits (i.e. cherries were sources of anthocyanins and citrus fruits of flavanones) and vegetables (i.e. artichokes and olives were sources of flavones and spinach and beans of flavonols); chocolate, red wine and pasta contributed to flavanols and tyrosols, respectively. These findings will be useful to assess the potential benefits of foods with high polyphenol content.

  14. Effects of replacing soybean meal with canola meal differing in rumen-undegradable protein content on ruminal fermentation and gas production kinetics using 2 in vitro systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, E M; Monteiro, H F; Silva, L G; Benedeti, P D B; Daniel, J L P; Shenkoru, T; Broderick, G A; Faciola, A P

    2017-07-01

    Previous research indicated that there were significant differences in rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) among canola meals (CM), which could influence the nutritional value of CM. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the effects of feeding CM with different RUP contents on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestion, and microbial growth using a dual-flow continuous culture system (experiment 1) and (2) evaluate ruminal gas production kinetics, in vitro organic matter (OM) digestibility, and methane (CH 4 ) production of soybean meal (SBM) and CM with low or high RUP in the diet or as a sole ingredient using a gas production system (experiments 2 and 3). In experiment 1, diets were randomly assigned to 6 fermentors in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square. The only ingredient that differed among diets was the protein supplement. The treatments were (1) solvent-extracted SBM, (2) low-RUP solvent-extracted CM (38% RUP as a percentage of crude protein), and (3) high-RUP solvent-extracted CM (50% RUP). Diets were prepared as 3 concentrate mixtures that were combined with 25% orchardgrass hay and 15% wheat straw (dry matter basis). Experiments 2 and 3 had the same design with 24 bottles incubated 3 times for 48 h each. During the 48-h incubation, the cumulative pressure was recorded to determine gas production kinetics, in vitro OM digestibility, and CH 4 production. In experiment 1, N flow (g/d), efficiency of N use, efficiency of bacterial N synthesis, total volatile fatty acids (mM), and molar proportion of acetate, propionate, and isobutyrate were not affected by treatments. There were tendencies for a decrease in ruminal NH 3 -N and an increase in molar proportion of butyrate for the SBM diet compared with both CM diets. The molar proportion of valerate was greater in both CM diets, whereas the molar proportion of isovalerate and total branched-chain volatile fatty acids was lower for the CM diets compared with the SBM diet. In experiments 2 and 3, the SBM

  15. Skipping of meals has a significant impact on dietary intake and nutritional status of old (65+ y) nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, A M; Ovesen, L

    2004-01-01

    In spite of a high prevalence of undernutrition among old nursing home residents, studies have generally reported a mean intake of energy sufficient to cover the mean estimated energy requirement. This discrepancy could be due to skipping of meals and hence periods of insufficient energy intake too intermittent to be identified, when mean results are presented. To examine the significance of skipping of (part of) meals on dietary intake and nutritional status of old (65+y) nursing home residents. Participants were 132 nursing home residents (84 (82-85) y). They were characterised according to activity of daily living-functions (ADL-functions), cognitive performance, intake of energy and protein (4-days dietary record), skipping of meals, energy and protein balance, and nutritional status (body mass index (BMI)). The participants had an energy intake, which was significantly higher than the estimated energy requirement (p eat or only had desert at one or more meals during the 4-day registration period. Participants who were skipping meals had a lower BMI, energy and protein intake (all p <0.001) and a higher prevalence of negative protein balance (p <0.01), than the other residents. More focus should be given to individualized nutritional assessment in order to discover the cause to this problem and target individuals who could be helped by nutritional intervention.

  16. Effects of dietary inclusions of oilseed meals on physical characteristics and feed intake of diets for the Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obirikorang, Kwasi Adu; Amisah, Stephen; Fialor, Simon Cudjoe

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the inclusion of three oilseed by-products (soybean, copra and palm kernel meals) on some physical characteristics of pelletized feeds as well as on voluntary feed intake and faecal matter production by the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. The die......The present study investigated the effects of the inclusion of three oilseed by-products (soybean, copra and palm kernel meals) on some physical characteristics of pelletized feeds as well as on voluntary feed intake and faecal matter production by the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus......) was significantly higher in the tilapia groups fed the copra and palm kernel meals. The results obtained from this study show that 30% inclusions of unrefined forms of copra and palm kernel meal in Nile tilapia diets is possible, without adversely affecting feed intake or pellet nutrient losses prior to ingestion....

  17. Evaluation of elevated dietary corn fiber from corn germ meal in growing female pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, T E; Trabue, S L; Ziemer, C J; Kerr, B J

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of dietary hemicellulose from corn on growth and metabolic measures, female pigs (n = 48; initial BW 30.8 kg) were fed diets containing 0 to 38.6% solvent-extracted corn germ meal for 28 d. Increasing the hemicellulose level had no impact on ADG or ADFI, but resulted in a quadratic response (P dietary hemicellulose, blood, colon contents, and tissue samples from the liver and intestine were obtained from a subset (n = 16; 8 pigs/treatment) of pigs fed the least and greatest hemicellulose levels. The abundance of phospho-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the mitochondrial respiratory protein, cytochrome C oxidase II (COXII) were determined in liver, jejunum, ileum, and colon by Western blotting. The mRNA expression levels of AMPKalpha1, AMPKalpha2, PPAR coactivator 1alpha (PGC1-alpha), PPARgamma2, and sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) were determined in liver and intestinal tissues. When compared with pigs fed the control diet, pigs fed the high hemicellulose diet had increased (P alkaline phosphatase activity was increased (P effect on phospho-AMPK, AMPK mRNA, or colonic VFA, but in pigs consuming the high fiber diet there was a greater (P dietary fiber in liver, jejunum, or ileum tissue. In colon tissue from pigs fed the high fiber diet there was an increase (P < 0.09) in Sirt1 mRNA and a trend (P < 0.12) toward increased of PGC1-alpha mRNA. These data suggest that alterations in metabolism involved in adaptation to a diet high in hemicellulose are associated with increased colonic Sirt1 mRNA and COXII expression, indicating an increased propensity for oxidative metabolism by the intestine.

  18. Effect of substituting soybean meal and canola cake with grain-based dried distillers grains with solubles as a protein source on feed intake, milk production, and milk quality in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, C; Sørensen, M T; Vestergaard, M; Weisbjerg, M R; Basar, A; Larsen, M K; Martinussen, H; Kidmose, U; Sehested, J

    2017-10-01

    The growth of the bioethanol industry is leading to an increase in the production of coproducts such as dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Both corn-based DDGS and grain-based DDGS (gDDGS; defined as originating from grain sources such as barley, wheat, triticale, or a mix, excluding corn) appear to be relevant sources of feed and protein for dairy cows. To date, most of the studies investigating DDGS have been performed with corn-based DDGS. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of the proportion of gDDGS in the diet on feed intake, milk production, and milk quality. The present experiment involved 48 Holstein cows in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 grass-based dietary treatments consisting of 4, 13.5, and 23% gDDGS on a dry matter (DM) basis (L, M, and H, respectively) as a replacement for a concentrate mix. The concentrate mix consisted of soybean meal, canola cake, and beet pulp. Dry matter intake and energy-corrected milk yield were not affected by the proportion of gDDGS in the diet. Daily milk yield decreased with the H diet compared with the L and M diets. The percentage of fat in milk was higher when cows were fed the H diet compared with the L and M diets, whereas milk fat yield was not affected by dietary treatment. The M diet had a higher percentage of protein in milk compared with the L and H diets. Milk protein yield was similar for the L and M diets; however, it decreased for the H diet. Milk taste was not affected by the proportion of gDDGS in the diet or when milk was stored for 7 d. Linoleic acid and conjugated linoleic acid cis-9,trans-11 in milk increased with increasing proportion of gDDGS. To conclude, gDDGS can replace soybean meal and canola cake as a protein source in the diet of dairy cows. Up to 13.5% of the diet may consist of gDDGS without negatively affecting milk production, milk quality, or milk taste. When gDDGS represents 23% of dietary DM, milk production is reduced by 1.6 kg

  19. Chemical composition and amino acid digestibility of soybean meal produced in the United States, China, Argentina, Brazil, or India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, L V; Stein, H H

    2017-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare nutritional composition of soybean meal (SBM) produced in China, Argentina, Brazil, the U.S., or India and the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in these SBM when fed to growing pigs. Five sources of SBM from China, Argentina, Brazil, and the U.S., and 4 sources from India were collected for a total of 24 sources of SBM. All samples were analyzed for energy, DM, and nutrients, and each source was included in a cornstarch based diet in which SBM was the only AA contributing ingredient. An N-free diet was also formulated. Twenty-five barrows (initial BW: 30.53 ± 1.73 kg) were equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and randomly allotted to a 25 × 8 Youden square design with 25 diets and 8 periods. Results indicate that the concentration of CP was greater ( India (49.3 and 49.5%, respectively) than in SBM from China, Argentina, or the U.S. (45.1, 46.7, and 47.3%, respectively, as-fed basis). The concentration of most indispensable AA followed the same pattern as CP with the exception that SBM from the U.S. contained more ( India contained more ( India, but there were no differences between SBM from the U.S. and SBM from China. However, because of the lower concentration of AA in SBM from China, the concentration of standardized ileal digestible AA in SBM from China was less ( India. In conclusion, the SID of CP and AA is dependent on the country where the SBM is produced. This difference and the variability within each country should be evaluated when formulating diets for pigs.

  20. Ontogeny of the Digestive System of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) and Effects of Soybean Meal from Start-Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlmann, Christian; Gu, Jinni; Kortner, Trond M.; Lein, Ingrid; Krogdahl, Åshild; Bakke, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Despite a long history of rearing Atlantic salmon in hatcheries in Norway, knowledge of molecular and physiological aspects of juvenile development is still limited. To facilitate introduction of alternative feed ingredients and feed additives during early phases, increased knowledge regarding the ontogeny of the digestive apparatus in salmon is needed. In this study, we characterized the development of the gastrointestinal tract and accessory digestive organs for five months following hatch by using histological, biochemical and molecular methods. Furthermore, the effects of a diet containing 16.7% soybean meal (SBM) introduced at start-feeding were investigated, as compared to a fishmeal based control diet. Salmon yolk sac alevins and fry were sampled at 18 time points from hatch until 144 days post hatch (dph). Histomorphological development was investigated at 7, 27, 46, 54 and 144 dph. Ontogenetic expression patterns of genes encoding key digestive enzymes, nutrient transporters, gastrointestinal peptide hormones and T-cell markers were analyzed from 13 time points by qPCR. At 7 dph, the digestive system of Atlantic salmon alevins was morphologically distinct with an early stomach, liver, pancreas, anterior and posterior intestine. About one week before the yolk sac was internalized and exogenous feeding was started, gastric glands and developing pyloric caeca were observed, which coincided with an increase in gene expression of gastric and pancreatic enzymes and nutrient transporters. Thus, the observed organs seemed ready to digest external feed well before the yolk sac was absorbed into the abdominal cavity. In contrast to post-smolt Atlantic salmon, inclusion of SBM did not induce intestinal inflammation in the juveniles. This indicates that SBM can be used in compound feeds for salmon fry from start-feeding to at least 144 dph and/or 4-5 g body weight. PMID:25923375

  1. Effects of Corn and Soybean Meal Types on Rumen Fermentation, Nitrogen Metabolism and Productivity in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Shen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Twelve multiparous Holstein dairy cows in mid-lactation were selected for a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2 ×2 factorial arrangement to investigate the effects of corn and soybean meal (SBM types on rumen fermentation, N metabolism and lactation performance in dairy cows. Two types of corn (dry ground [DGC] and steam-flaked corn [SFC] and two types of SBM (solvent-extracted and heat-treated SBM with different ruminal degradation rates and extents were used to formulate four diets with the same basal ingredients. Each period lasted for 21 days, including 14 d for adaptation and 7 d for sample collection. Cows receiving SFC had a lower dry matter (DM and total N intake than those fed DGC. However, the milk yield and milk protein yield were not influenced by the corn type, resulting in higher feed and N utilization efficiency in SFC-fed cows than those receiving DGC. Ruminal acetate concentrations was greater and total volatile fatty acids concentrations tended to be greater for cows receiving DGC relative to cows fed SFC, but milk fat content was not influenced by corn type. The SFC-fed cows had lower ruminal ammonia-N, less urea N in their blood and milk, and lower fecal N excretion than those on DGC. Compared with solvent-extracted SBM-fed cows, cows receiving heat-treated SBM had lower microbial protein yield in the rumen, but similar total tract apparent nutrient digestibility, N metabolism measurements, and productivity. Excessive supply of metabolizable protein in all diets may have caused the lack of difference in lactation performance between SBM types. Results of the present study indicated that increasing the energy degradability in the rumen could improve feed efficiency, and reduce environmental pollution.

  2. Effects of Corn and Soybean Meal Types on Rumen Fermentation, Nitrogen Metabolism and Productivity in Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, J. S.; Song, L. J.; Sun, H. Z.; Wang, B.; Chai, Z.; Chacher, B.; Liu, J. X.

    2015-01-01

    Twelve multiparous Holstein dairy cows in mid-lactation were selected for a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2 ×2 factorial arrangement to investigate the effects of corn and soybean meal (SBM) types on rumen fermentation, N metabolism and lactation performance in dairy cows. Two types of corn (dry ground [DGC] and steam-flaked corn [SFC]) and two types of SBM (solvent-extracted and heat-treated SBM) with different ruminal degradation rates and extents were used to formulate four diets with the same basal ingredients. Each period lasted for 21 days, including 14 d for adaptation and 7 d for sample collection. Cows receiving SFC had a lower dry matter (DM) and total N intake than those fed DGC. However, the milk yield and milk protein yield were not influenced by the corn type, resulting in higher feed and N utilization efficiency in SFC-fed cows than those receiving DGC. Ruminal acetate concentrations was greater and total volatile fatty acids concentrations tended to be greater for cows receiving DGC relative to cows fed SFC, but milk fat content was not influenced by corn type. The SFC-fed cows had lower ruminal ammonia-N, less urea N in their blood and milk, and lower fecal N excretion than those on DGC. Compared with solvent-extracted SBM-fed cows, cows receiving heat-treated SBM had lower microbial protein yield in the rumen, but similar total tract apparent nutrient digestibility, N metabolism measurements, and productivity. Excessive supply of metabolizable protein in all diets may have caused the lack of difference in lactation performance between SBM types. Results of the present study indicated that increasing the energy degradability in the rumen could improve feed efficiency, and reduce environmental pollution. PMID:25656206

  3. Effect of replacing soybean protein with protein from porcupine joint vetch (Aeschynomene histrix BRA 9690) and stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis Composite) leaf meal on growth performance of native (Moo Lath) Lao pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phengsavanh, Phonepaseuth; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-11-01

    The effect of replacing soybean crude protein (CP) with legume leaf meal (LLM) CP on feed intake, growth performance and carcass traits was studied in native female Moo Lath Lao pigs. The diets comprised one traditional diet (T) without soybean meal, one control diet (C) with soybean meal and six diets iso-nitrogenous with diet C in which soybean protein was replaced (33, 66 and 100 % of CP) with LLM CP from porcupine joint vetch (PLM) or Stylosanthes (SLM). Feed and water were offered ad libitum. Replacing soybean CP with LLM CP reduced (P  0.05) on feed conversion ratio (FCR). Increasing the replacement rate of soybean CP with LLM CP had a negative linear effect (P < 0.001) on DMI, CPI, MEI, final BW and ADG, and on all carcass traits except lean meat percentage. There were no differences in dressing percentage or organ weight and length between treatments. Supplementing diet T with soybean meal resulted in higher (P < 0.05) DMI, CPI and MEI, lower (P < 0.05) FCR, and higher (P < 0.05) final BW and ADG. Slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, eye muscle thickness, back fat, fat in carcass and lean meat were lower (P < 0.05) with diet T than diet C. In conclusion, LLM from stylo and porcupine joint vetch can be used as a CP source to partially replace soybean meal CP in the diet of growing native female Moo Lath Lao pigs.

  4. Effects of xylanase supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood parameters, fecal microbiota, fecal score and fecal noxious gas emission of weaning pigs fed corn-soybean meal-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ruixia; Li, Tianshui; Kim, Inho

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of xylanase supplementation on nutrient digestibility, growth performance, blood parameters, fecal microflora shedding, fecal score and fecal noxious gas emission of weaning pigs fed corn-soybean meal based diet. A total of 150 weaning pigs with an average initial body weight (BW) of 7.85 ± 0.93 kg were randomly allocated to three treatments based on BW and sex (10 replicate pens with five pigs, two gilts and three barrows) were used in this 42-day trial. Dietary treatments were: (1) CON, basal diet; (2) X1, basal diet +0.005% xylanase; (2) X2, basal diet +0.01% xylanase. The xylanase supplementation linearly increased (P < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG), and gain : feed ratio (G:F) from days 29 to 42 and the in overall period, dry matter, nitrogen and energy digestibility, and fecal Lactobacilli counts, and linearly decreased (P < 0.05) blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration, fecal NH 3 and H 2 S emission. Additionally, at weeks 5 and 6, there was a linear decrease in fecal score with xylanase supplementation. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of xylanase improved growth performance, nutrient digestibility, shifted microbiota by increasing fecal Lactobacillus counts, decreased BUN concentration, fecal score, and fecal NH 3 and H 2 S emission in weaning pigs. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Dietary effects of introducing school meals based on the New Nordic Diet - a randomised controlled trial in Danish children. The OPUS School Meal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Rikke; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Christensen, Tue; Andersen, Elisabeth W; Ege, Majken; Thorsen, Anne V; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F; Tetens, Inge

    2014-06-14

    The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (NND)) School Meal Study investigated the effects on the intake of foods and nutrients of introducing school meals based on the principles of the NND covering lunch and all snacks during the school day in a cluster-randomised cross-over design. For two 3-month periods, 834 Danish children aged 8-11 years from forty-six school classes at nine schools received NND school meals or their usual packed lunches brought from home (control) in random order. The whole diet of the children was recorded over seven consecutive days using a validated Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children. The NND resulted in higher intakes of potatoes (130 %, 95 % CI 2·07, 2·58), fish (48 %, 95 % CI 1·33, 1·65), cheese (25 %, 95 % CI 1·15, 1·36), vegetables (16 %, 95 % CI 1·10, 1·21), eggs (10 %, 95 % CI 1·01, 1·19) and beverages (6 %, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·09), and lower intakes of bread (13 %, 95 % CI 0·84, 0·89) and fats (6 %, 95 % CI 0·90, 0·98) were found among the children during the NND period than in the control period (all, Pmeals following the principles of the NND.

  6. Effects of dietary Tenebrio molitor meal inclusion in free-range chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasato, I; De Marco, M; Rotolo, L; Renna, M; Lussiana, C; Dabbou, S; Capucchio, M T; Biasibetti, E; Costa, P; Gai, F; Pozzo, L; Dezzutto, D; Bergagna, S; Martínez, S; Tarantola, M; Gasco, L; Schiavone, A

    2016-12-01

    Insects are currently being considered as a novel protein source for animal feeds, because they contain a large amount of protein. The larvae of Tenebrio molitor (TM) have been shown to be an acceptable protein source for broiler chickens in terms of growth performance, but till now, no data on histological or intestinal morphometric features have been reported. This study has had the aim of evaluating the effects of dietary TM inclusion on the performance, welfare, intestinal morphology and histological features of free-range chickens. A total of 140 medium-growing hybrid female chickens were free-range reared and randomly allotted to two dietary treatments: (i) a control group and (ii) a TM group, in which TM meal was included at 75 g/kg. Each group consisted of five pens as replicates, with 14 chicks per pen. Growth performance, haematological and serum parameters and welfare indicators were evaluated, and the animals were slaughtered at the age of 97 days. Two birds per pen (10 birds/treatment) were submitted to histological (liver, spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, kidney, heart, glandular stomach and gut) and morphometric (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) investigations. The inclusion of TM did not affect the growth performance, haematological or serum parameters. The morphometric and histological features were not significantly affected either, thus suggesting no influence on nutrient metabolization, performance or animal health. Glandular stomach alterations (chronic flogosis with epithelial squamous metaplasia) were considered paraphysiological in relation to free-range farming. The observed chronic intestinal flogosis, with concomitant activation of the lymphoid tissue, was probably due to previous parasitic infections, which are very frequently detected in free-range chickens. In conclusion, the findings of this study show that yellow mealworm inclusion does not affect the welfare, productive performances or morphological features of free-range chickens

  7. Twin- or single-screw extrusion of raw soybeans and preconditioned soybean meal and corn as individual ingredients or as corn-soybean product blends in diets for weanling swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veum, T L; Serrano, X; Hsieh, F H

    2017-03-01

    Two 28-d experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of extrusion of ground yellow corn, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM), and cracked whole soybeans (CWS) individually or as corn-soybean product blends on growth performance of weanling pigs. For Exp. 1, ground corn, SBM, and the corn-SBM blend were extruded at 137.5°C, 131.5°C, and 135.0°C, respectively, in a twin-screw extruder. Transit time was 60 s. Water was injected at 125 gmin during extrusion. The 5 treatments were the corn-SBM control diet and the diets with extruded (EX) corn + SBM, EX-SBM + corn, EX-corn + EX-SBM, and the EX-blend of corn-SBM. Ninety crossbred pigs with an initial average BW of 5.98 kg were allotted to 9 treatment replications with a barrow and gilt per pen. For Exp. 2, ground corn was preconditioned with water (10.0% of corn weight), and SBM was preconditioned with water and soybean oil (each at 20.0% of SBM weight) before extrusion. Raw CWS were not preconditioned. The corn, SBM, CWS, corn-SBM blend, and corn-CWS blend were extruded at 113.0°C, 132.0°C, 132.0°C, 88.0°C, and 102°C, respectively, with a single-screw extruder. Transit time was 30 s. The 8 isocaloric treatments were the corn-SBM control diet and the diets with EX-corn + SBM, EX-SBM + corn, EX-corn + EX-SBM, the EX-blend of corn-SBM, EX-CWS + corn, EX-CWS + EX-corn, and the EX-blend of corn-CWS. A total of 296 crossbred pigs with an initial average BW of 6.56 kg were allotted to 10 treatment replications. Sex and pigs per pen (3 or 4) were equalized within replication. Results for both experiments indicate that single- or twin-screw extrusion of ground corn or SBM as individual ingredients or as corn-SBM blends in diets for weanling pigs did not improve 28-d growth performance. However, for Exp. 2 weanling pigs fed the diets with EX-CWS + corn and EX-CWS + EX-corn had greater ( < 0.01) ADG and G:F, respectively, than pigs fed the corn-SBM control diet. The extrusion temperature of 102°C for the corn

  8. Dietary diversity, meal frequency and associated factors among infant and young children in Northwest Ethiopia: a cross- sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Beyene, Melkamu; Worku, Abebaw Gebeyehu; Wassie, Molla Mesele

    2015-01-01

    Background Inappropriate feeding practice increases risk of under nutrition, illness, and mortality amongst children less than 2 years of age. The objective of this study is to assess minimum dietary diversity, meal frequency and its associated factors among infant and young children aged 6–23 months in Dangila Town, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional study was conducted. Simple random sampling technique was used to select study participants. Interviewer administere...

  9. Flaxseed meal and oat hulls supplementation modulates growth performance, blood lipids, intestinal fermentation, bile acids, and neutral sterols in growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndou, S P; Kiarie, E; Thandapilly, S J; Walsh, M C; Ames, N; Nyachoti, C M

    2017-07-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of flaxseed meal and oat hulls supplementation on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of fat, serum lipids, and concentrations of VFA, bile acids (BA), and neutral sterols (NS) in digesta and feces in growing pigs. Forty-eight Genesus [(Duroc boar × Yorkshire-Landrace sows] barrows (25.0 ± 0.32 kg initial BW) were housed in pairs. Pigs were assigned to 1 of the 3 corn-soybean meal-based diets-a basal corn-soybean meal-containing diet (control), a flaxseed meal-containing diet (FM), or an oat hulls-containing diet (OH)-in a completely randomized design. All diets were formulated to be isoenergetic and to contain similar standardized ileal digestible AA contents and meet other nutrient requirements for growing pigs. The experiment lasted for 28 d. Average daily feed intake; ADG; G:F; ATTD of fat, serum lipids, and digesta; and fecal VFA, BA, and NS concentrations were determined. Pigs fed the control or OH had greater final BW ( < 0.001), ADFI ( = 0.005), and ADG ( < 0.001) than FM-fed pigs. The ATTD of fat in the FM was lowest at 70.1% followed by 79.2% in OH and was greatest at 92.4% in the control ( = 0.020). Total serum cholesterol content was 2.25 and 1.99 mmol/L and lower ( < 0.001) in pigs fed FM and OH, respectively, than the 2.36 mmol/L in pigs fed the control. Pigs fed the FM and OH had greater ileal and cecal total VFA ( < 0.001), ileal deoxycholic acid ( < 0.01), and cecal ( < 0.001) and fecal cholesterol ( = 0.002) concentrations than those fed the control. Pigs fed the FM excreted more fecal lithocholic acid ( = 0.002) and ursodeoxycholic acid ( = 0.001) compared with those that consumed the control and OH. The concentrations of coprostanol in cecal digesta ( < 0.001) and feces ( = 0.011) were higher in pigs fed the FM and OH than in pigs fed the control. In conclusion, feeding flaxseed meal and oat hulls induced intestinal fermentation; however, the former depressed

  10. Bacterial protein meal in diets for pigs and minks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2007-01-01

    containing no BPM served as controls, i.e. for minks diet M1, for pigs P1; the experimental diets contained increasing levels of BPM to replace fish meal (minks) or soybean meal (pigs), so that up to 17% (P2), 20% (M2), 35% (P3), 40% (M3), 52% (P4), and 60% (M4) of digestible N was BPM derived. Protein......The effect of increasing the dietary content of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on protein turnover rate, and on nucleic acid and creatinine metabolism in growing minks and pigs was investigated in two experiments. In each experiment, 16 animals were allocated to four experimental diets. The diets...

  11. Effect of Soybean Meal and Soluble Starch on Biogenic Amine Production and Microbial Diversity Using Rumen Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Dae Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of soybean meal (SM and soluble starch (SS on biogenic amine production and microbial diversity using in vitro ruminal fermentation. Treatments comprised of incubation of 2 g of mixture (expressed as 10 parts containing different ratios of SM to SS as: 0:0, 10:0, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7, or 0:10. In vitro ruminal fermentation parameters were determined at 0, 12, 24, and 48 h of incubation while the biogenic amine and microbial diversity were determined at 48 h of incubation. Treatment with highest proportion of SM had higher (p<0.05 gas production than those with higher proportions of SS. Samples with higher proportion of SS resulted in lower pH than those with higher proportion of SM after 48 h of incubation. The largest change in NH3-N concentration from 0 to 48 h was observed on all SM while the smallest was observed on exclusive SS. Similarly, exclusive SS had the lowest NH3-N concentration among all groups after 24 h of incubation. Increasing methane (CH4 concentrations were observed with time, and CH4 concentrations were higher (p<0.05 with greater proportions of SM than SS. Balanced proportion of SM and SS had the highest (p<0.05 total volatile fatty acid (TVFA while propionate was found highest in higher proportion of SS. Moreover, biogenic amine (BA was higher (p<0.05 in samples containing greater proportions of SM. Histamines, amine index and total amines were highest in exclusive SM followed in sequence mixtures with increasing proportion of SS (and lowered proportion of SM at 48 h of incubation. Nine dominant bands were identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and their identity ranged from 87% to 100% which were mostly isolated from rumen and feces. Bands R2 (uncultured bacterium clone RB-5E1 and R4 (uncultured rumen bacterium clone L7A_C10 bands were found in samples with higher proportions of SM while R3 (uncultured Firmicutes bacterium clone NI_52, R7 (Selenomonas sp

  12. Differential effects of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammation after a single high fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herzig Karl-Heinz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with the pathophysiology of both type-2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Prevention or reduction of chronic low-grade inflammation may be advantageous in relation to obesity related co-morbidity. In this study we investigated the acute effect of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammatory markers after a high-fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects. Methods We conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study in a crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins - cod protein, whey isolate, gluten or casein. 11 obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, BMI: 30.3-42.0 kg/m2 participated and blood samples were drawn in the 4 h postprandial period. Adiponectin was estimated by ELISA methods and cytokines were analyzed by multiplex assay. Results MCP-1 and CCL5/RANTES displayed significant postprandial dynamics. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals, but overall CCL5/RANTES incremental area under the curve (iAUC was significantly lower after the whey meal compared with the cod and casein meals (P = 0.0053. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all protein meals. However, the iAUC was significantly higher after whey meal compared to the cod and gluten meals (P = 0.04. Conclusion We have demonstrated acute differential effects on postprandial low grade inflammation of four dietary proteins in obese non-diabetic subjects. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals but the smallest overall postprandial increase was observed after the whey meal. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all 4 protein meals and the whey meal caused the smallest overall postprandial suppression. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00863564

  13. Soybean meal enriched with microelements by biosorption--a new biological feed supplement for laying hens. Part I. Performance and egg traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska, Z; Chojnacka, K; Korczyński, M; Świniarska, M; Saeid, A; Opaliński, S; Dobrzański, Z

    2014-05-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of soybean meal enriched with Cu(II), Zn(II), Fe(II) and Cr(III) by biosorption on egg traits (egg weight, eggshell strength, eggshell thickness, yolk colour, albumen height) and performance of laying hens. Also, the effect of increased microelement doses in biological form on egg quality parameters and hens performance was investigated. A consumer questionnaire was undertaken to evaluate the organoleptic parameters of the eggs. Generally, our study showed that in the groups fed with the new biological supplement, egg quality parameters improved, including eggshell strength, eggshell thickness, albumen height and yolk colour. The biological form of microelements also improved the feed conversion rate, especially in the group fed with a biological form of Cr(III). Moreover, the new supplement improved organoleptic parameters of the eggs, in comparison to the inorganic form of microelements as well as to chelate. Enriched soybean meal could constitute an alternative for currently used feed additives with microelements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of feeding level and feeding frequency on growth, feed efficiency and nitrogen and phosphorus loss in seabass (Lates calcarifer Bloch) fed diets with defatted soybean meal partially replacing fishmeal

    OpenAIRE

    Srisook, S.; Mahankich, S.; Tantikitti, C.; Onkong, S.

    2007-01-01

    Satun Coastal Fisheries Research and Development Center, Muang, Satun 3Feeding management is crucial for feed efficiency, nutrient utilization, growth of cultured aquatic species and the amount of organic waste produced. This study aimed at investigating effects of two levels offeeding at two feeding frequencies on growth performance, feed efficiency and nitrogen and phosphorus loss in Asian seabass when fed diets with defatted soybean meal (SBM) replacing fish meal. Three diets were formulat...

  15. Amino acid digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in soybean meal produced from conventional, high-protein, or low-oligosaccharide varieties of soybeans and fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, K M; Stein, H H

    2009-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine AA digestibility and the concentration of DE and ME in 5 sources of soybean meal (SBM). The 5 sources included hexane-extracted SBM produced from high-protein soybeans (SBM-HP) and conventional soybeans (SBM-CONV), and mechanically extruded-expelled SBM produced from high-protein soybeans (EE-SBM-HP), low-oligosaccharide soybeans (EE-SBM-LO), and conventional soybeans (EE-SBM-CONV). Five diets that each contained 1 source of SBM and a N-free diet were used in Exp. 1 to determine AA digestibility in each meal. Twelve growing barrows (initial BW: 67.7 +/- 1.34 kg) were allotted to a replicated 6 x 6 Latin square design with 6 periods and 6 diets in each square. Each period lasted 7 d, and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. Results of the experiment showed that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of all AA except Trp was similar for SBM-HP and SBM-CONV, but EE-SBM-HP and EE-SBM-LO had greater (P < 0.05) SID of His, Ile, Lys, Thr, and Val than EE-SBM-CONV. The SID of all indispensable AA in EE-SBM-HP was greater (P < 0.05) than in SBM-HP. The SID of Arg, Ile, Leu, and Phe in EE-SBM-CONV was greater (P < 0.05) than in SBM-CONV, but the SID of Trp was also greater (P < 0.05) in SBM-CONV than in EE-SBM-CONV. Experiment 2 was conducted to measure DE and ME in the same 5 sources of SBM as used in Exp. 1. Forty-eight growing barrows (initial BW: 38.6 +/- 3.46 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and randomly allotted to 6 diets with 8 replicates per diet. A corn-based diet and 5 diets based on a mixture of corn and each source of SBM were formulated. Urine and feces were collected during a 5-d collection period, and values for DE and ME in each source of SBM were calculated using the difference procedure. Results showed that the ME in SBM-HP tended to be greater (P = 0.10) than in SBM-CONV (4,074 vs. 3,672 kcal/kg of DM). The ME in EE-SBM-HP also tended to be greater (P = 0.10) than in EE-SBM-CONV and

  16. Solid-state fermentation of corn-soybean meal mixed feed withBacillus subtilisandEnterococcus faeciumfor degrading antinutritional factors and enhancing nutritional value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Changyou; Zhang, Yu; Lu, Zeqing; Wang, Yizhen

    2017-01-01

    Corn and soybean meal (SBM) are two of the most common feed ingredients used in pig feeds. However, a variety of antinutritional factors (ANFs) present in corn and SBM can interfere with the bioavailability of nutrients and have negative health effects on the pigs. In the present study, two-stage fermentation using Bacillus subtilis followed by Enterococcus faecium was carried out to degrade ANFs and improve the nutritional quality of corn and SBM mixed feed. Furthermore, the microbial composition and in vitro nutrient digestibility of inoculated mixed feed were determined and compared those of the uninoculated controls. During the fermentation process, B. subtilis and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were the main dominant bacteria in the solid-state fermented inoculated feed, and fermentation produced a large amount of lactic acid (170 mmoL/kg), which resulted in a lower pH (5.0 vs. 6.4) than the fermented uninoculated feed. The amounts of soybean antigenic proteins (β-conglycinin and glycinin) in mixed feed were significantly decreased after first-stage fermentation with B. subtilis . Inoculated mixed feed following two-stage fermentation contained greater concentratioin of crude protein (CP), ash and total phosphorus (P) compared to uninoculated feed, whereas the concentrations of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), hemicellulose and phytate P in fermendted inoculated feed declined ( P  fermentation. There was no difference in the total AA content between fermented inoculated and uninoculated feed. However, aromatic AAs (Phe and Tyr) and Lys in inoculated feed increased, and some polar AAs, including Arg, Asp, and Glu, decreased compared with the uninoculated feed. In vitro dry matter and CP digestibility of inoculated feed improved ( P  fermentation using B. subtilis followed by E. faecium is an effective approach to improve the quality of corn-soybean meal mixed feed.

  17. Replacement of soybean meal by cottonseed meal 38% in multiple supplements for grazing beef heifers Substituição do farelo de soja por farelo de algodão 38% em suplementos múltiplos para novilhas de corte em pastejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Barros

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of using multiple supplements with different levels of cottonseed meal 38% on intake, total apparent digestibility of dietary components, efficiency of microbial synthesis and productive performance of beef heifers in Brachiaria decumbens pasture during the rainy season. It was used 25 Nellore heifers and 10 crossbred heifers with predominance of Zebu breed at 16 months of age and with 249.8 ± 0.6 kg of body weight. It was used a complete random experimental design with five treatments and seven replicates. Supplements contained approximately 30% of crude protein (CP and soybean meal replaced by cottonseed meal 38% at the levels 0; 33; 67 and 100%, (CS0, CS33, CS67 and CS100, respectively evaluated in relation to a control group, which received only mineral mixture (MM ad libitum. Daily weight gain was 397, 546, 570, 525 and 542 g, respectively, for the groups MM, CS0, CS33, CS67 and CS100. There was no effect of the levels of cottonseed meal 38% on daily weight gain, which differed among animals fed supplement and control group, however. Intakes of crude protein and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC in kg/day were greater in groups under supplementation. Coefficients of total apparent digestibility of CP and NFC were greater in animals fed supplements in relation to the control group. Increase on the replacement level of soybean meal by cottonseed meal had a positive linear effect on coefficients of total apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter and CP. There was no difference on microbial efficiency, expressed as g of crude protein per kg of TDN consumed by the animals under supplements and the ones of the control group, neither it was observed difference among levels of replacement of soybean meal by cottonseed meal. The use of cottonseed meal 38% replacing soybean meal in the diet does not harm performance of grazing beef heifers.Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do uso de suplementos m

  18. Nutritional assessment for primary school children in tehran: an evaluation of dietary pattern with emphasis on snacks and meals consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Maryam; Dadkhah-Piraghaj, Monireh; Abtahi, Mitra; Abdollahi, Morteza; Houshiarrad, Anahita; Kimiagar, Masoud

    2014-05-01

    In order to provide better advice for prevention of obesity and eating disorders among children, there is a need to have more knowledge of their dietary patterns. This study examined meal and snacking patterns of primary school children in Tehran. A total of 761 male and female primary school children from all educational areas in Tehran were recruited in a cross-sectional survey. The data was collected by interviewing the students and their mothers or caregivers. Information on food consumption patterns was collected by one 24-h-recall and one snack-oriented food frequency questionnaire which covered a period of 1 month. Means, standard deviations, frequencies, percentages, energy and nutrient analyzes and nutrient densities were reported. All of the students snacked at least once on the day of the survey. Snacks provided 38% of total energy intake by the students. Fruits and sweet snacks were consumed by almost all of the students during a week. Energy and most nutrient intakes from meals were greater than those consumed from snacks. Snacks had a higher density of fiber, carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamin C, riboflavin and thiamin and had a lower density of protein, fat and niacin, compared with main meals. Salty snacks such as extruded cheese curls (Cheetos) and chips were not consumed so often. Results provide detailed information about dietary patterns, which in turn enable development of targeted messages and/or interventions to improve nutritional status of school children.

  19. Effect of elevated dietary amino acid levels in high canola meal diets on productive traits and cecal microbiota population of broiler chickens in a pair-feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toghyani, M; Girish, C K; Wu, S B; Iji, P A; Swick, R A

    2017-05-01

    A pair-feeding study was conducted to determine if reduced feed intake (FI) in broiler chickens fed high canola meal (CM) diets per se accounts for reduced growth performance and whether this lower growth rate can be mitigated by increasing dietary amino acid (AA) levels. Five experimental wheat-based diets were formulated as follows: soybean meal (SBM) diet, high CM diet with normal AA concentration, and high CM diets with 3, 6, or 9% additional AA concentration (Lys, Met+Cys, Thr, Ile, Arg, and Val). Another group of birds was pair-fed with SBM diet to the consumption levels of birds fed CM diet with normal AA. There were 6 replicates of 17 male 10-day-old Ross 308 chicks per treatment over grower and finisher periods. Birds fed the CM diets had reduced FI and BWG, but improved FCR (P < 0.01) compared to SBM ad libitum fed birds. The SBM pair-fed birds gained the same weight and exhibited similar FCR compared to CM fed birds. Additional 9% AA improved FCR (P < 0.01) compared to SBM and CM diets with normal AA. No significant differences were observed in ileal digestibility of DM, energy, crude protein, and AA between CM with normal AA and SBM diets. The additional 6 and 9% AA in CM diets increased digestibility of crude protein and some AA (P < 0.05). SBM ad libitum and CM + 6 and 9% AA fed birds had the highest and lowest relative weight of abdominal fat, respectively (P < 0.05). Addition of 6 and 9% AA in CM diets increased relative carcass and breast yields (P < 0.01). Serum triglyceride level was higher in SBM ad libitum fed birds (P < 0.05). The composition of microbiota in the ceca was not affected by treatments. This study showed that reduced growth of birds fed high CM diets is primarily mediated through reduced FI. This growth depression could partially be ameliorated by increasing dietary AA levels. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Postprandial nutrient-sensing and metabolic responses after partial dietary fishmeal replacement by soyabean meal in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dandan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei; Song, Fei

    2016-02-14

    In this study, we chose a carnivorous fish, turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.), to examine its nutrient-sensing and metabolic responses after ingestion of diets with fishmeal (FM), or 45% of FM replaced by soyabean meal (34·6% dry diet) balanced with or without essential amino acids (EAA) to match the amino acid profile of FM diet for 30 d. After a 1-month feeding trial, fish growth, feed efficiency and nutrient retention were markedly reduced by soyabean meal-incorporated (SMI) diets. Compared with the FM diet, SMI led to a reduction of postprandial influx of free amino acids, hypoactivated target of rapamycin signalling and a hyperactivated amino acid response pathway after refeeding, a status associated with reduced protein synthesis, impaired postprandial glycolysis and lipogenesis. These differential effects were not ameliorated by matching an EAA profile of soyabean meal to that of the FM diet through dietary amino acid supplementation. Therefore, this study demonstrated that the FM diet and SMI diets led to distinct nutrient-sensing responses, which in turn modulated metabolism and determined the utilisation efficiency of diets. Our results provide a new molecular explanation for the role of nutrient sensing in the inferior performance of aquafeeds in which FM is replaced by soyabean meal.

  1. The contribution of the USDA school breakfast and lunch program meals to student daily dietary intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States, the National School Breakfast (SBP) and School Lunch Program (NSLP) meals are provided for free or at a reduced price to eligible children, and are a nutrition safety net for low income children. Consuming both meals could provide 58% of daily intake. This paper evaluates the c...

  2. Evaluation of Peanut Meal as an Alternative Dietary Protein Source for Channel Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of peanut meal as an alternative protein source in diets for channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated in a 9-week study under controlled laboratory conditions. Five practical diets (28% crude protein and 6% crude lipid) were formulated to contain 0, 10, 15, 20, and 25% peanut meal as a ...

  3. Fourth-grade children's dietary reporting accuracy by meal component: Results from a validation study that manipulated retention interval and prompts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Suzanne D; Hitchcock, David B; Royer, Julie A; Smith, Albert F; Guinn, Caroline H

    2017-06-01

    We examined reporting accuracy by meal component (beverage, bread, breakfast meat, combination entrée, condiment, dessert, entrée, fruit, vegetable) with validation-study data on 455 fourth-grade children (mean age = 9.92 ± 0.41 years) observed eating school meals and randomized to one of eight dietary recall conditions (two retention intervals [short, long] crossed with four prompts [forward, meal-name, open, reverse]). Accuracy category (match [observed and reported], omission [observed but unreported], intrusion [unobserved but reported]) was a polytomous nominal item response variable. We fit a multilevel cumulative logit model with item variables meal component and serving period (breakfast, lunch) and child variables retention interval, prompt and sex. Significant accuracy category predictors were meal component (p meal-component × serving-period (p meal-component × retention-interval (p = 0.001). The relationship of meal component and accuracy category was much stronger for lunch than breakfast. For lunch, beverages were matches more often, omissions much less often and intrusions more often than expected under independence; fruits and desserts were omissions more often. For the meal-component × retention-interval interaction, for the short retention interval, beverages were intrusions much more often but combination entrées and condiments were intrusions less often; for the long retention interval, beverages were matches more often and omissions less often but fruits were matches less often. Accuracy for each meal component appeared better with the short than long retention interval. For lunch and for the short retention interval, children's reporting was most accurate for entrée and combination entrée meal components, whereas it was least accurate for vegetable and fruit meal components. Results have implications for conclusions of studies and interventions assessed with dietary recalls obtained from children. Copyright © 2017

  4. Konsentrasi Asam Lemak Terbang dan Glukosa Darah Domba Ekor Tipis yang Diberi Bungkil Kedelai Terproteksi Tanin (VOLATILE FATTY ACID CONCENTRATION AND BLOOD GLUCOSE ON THIN-TAILED SHEEP GIVEN WITH TANINE-PROTECTED SOYBEAN MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nuraliah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the influence of tannin-protected protein source feed to livestock productivitybased on its influence on methane production, Volatile fatty acids (VFA production, and blood glucose inthe use of tannin-protected protein on complete feed in thin-tailed ram. The study uses thin-tailed ramaged about 8 months, as many as 16 rams with body weight of 11.81±1.65 kg. The researchusesa completerandomized design(CRD withfour treatmentsandfourreplications. The treatments areP0:15% soybeanmeals without tannin protection in complete feed, P1:15% soybean meals with 0.5% tannin protection incomplete feed, P2:15% soybean meals with 1% tannin protection in complete feed and P3:15% soybeanmeals with 1.5% tannin protection in complete feed. The results indicates that administration of tanninsin soybean meal in complete feed showed significant effect (P 0.05. The conclusion is that 15% protected soybean meal with 1% oftannin in the complete feed is able to contribute to the proportion of propionate and contribute to increasedblood glucose on a thin-tailed ram but can not to reduce methane production.

  5. Konsentrasi Asam Lemak Terbang dan Glukosa Darah Domba Ekor Tipis yang Diberi Bungkil Kedelai Terproteksi Tanin (VOLATILE FATTY ACID CONCENTRATION AND BLOOD GLUCOSE ON THIN-TAILED SHEEP GIVEN WITH TANINE-PROTECTED SOYBEAN MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nuraliah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the influence of tannin-protected protein source feed to livestock productivitybased on its influence on methane production, Volatile fatty acids (VFA production, and blood glucose inthe use of tannin-protected protein on complete feed in thin-tailed ram. The study uses thin-tailed ramaged about 8 months, as many as 16 rams with body weight of 11.81±1.65 kg. The researchusesa completerandomized design(CRD withfour treatmentsandfourreplications. The treatments areP0:15% soybeanmeals without tannin protection in complete feed, P1:15% soybean meals with 0.5% tannin protection incomplete feed, P2:15% soybean meals with 1% tannin protection in complete feed and P3:15% soybeanmeals with 1.5% tannin protection in complete feed. The results indicates that administration of tanninsin soybean meal in complete feed showed significant effect (P <0.05 on blood glucose, the production ofpropionic acid in the 3rd hour, but the VFA production at hour 0, hour 6, as well as methane productionshowed no significant effect (P> 0.05. The conclusion is that 15% protected soybean meal with 1% oftannin in the complete feed is able to contribute to the proportion of propionate and contribute to increasedblood glucose on a thin-tailed ram but can not to reduce methane production.

  6. Farelo de algodão como sucedâneo do farelo de soja em rações para tilápia do Nilo Cottonseed meal as a substitute for soybean meal in Nile tilapia diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Padovani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste experimento avaliar a substituição parcial do farelo de soja pelo farelo de algodão e dois métodos de processamento, peletização e extrusão, em rações para a tilápia do Nilo. As rações foram formuladas para conter 30% de proteína digestível e 3200kcal/kg de energia digestível e a suplementação de aminoácidos foi baseada no conceito de proteína ideal. A proteína do farelo de soja foi gradualmente substituída pela proteína do farelo de algodão (0; 12,5; 25 e 50%, o que correspondeu a 0, 8, 16 e 32% de inclusão de farelo de algodão nas rações, respectivamente. O farelo de algodão não apresentou gossipol livre e 0,0987% de gossipol total. Foram distribuídos em 32 tanques-rede cilíndricos (200L em sistema de recirculação de água, 192 alevinos de tilápia do Nilo com peso médio inicial de 4,600,23g, alimentados até a saciedade aparente quatro vezes ao dia, durante 95 dias. A experimentação foi conduzida em esquema fatorial (4x2, no delineamento inteiramente casualizado balanceado com quatro repetições. Após 95 dias, não foram observadas diferenças nos parâmetros de desempenho produtivo e respostas fisiológicas dos peixes alimentados com as rações contendo farelo de algodão, em comparação aos peixes alimentados com as rações à base de farelo de soja. O farelo de algodão (0% de gossipol livre pode compor 32,0% da ração para tilápia do Nilo, em substituição a 50,0% da proteína do farelo de soja, quando suplementado com lisina, sem afetar o desempenho, hematologia e morfologia intestinal dos animais em crescimentoThis feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of soybean meal by cottonseed meal and the effects of two feed processing methods, pelleting and extrusion, in Nile tilapia feeds. The cottonseed meal was solvent-processed and contained no amount of free gossypol and 0.0987% of total gossypol. The diets were formulated to contain 30

  7. Family food involvement and frequency of family dinner meals among Australian children aged 10-12years. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Rebecca M; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David A; Campbell, Karen J; Pearson, Natalie; Timperio, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Involvement in meal preparation and eating meals with the family are associated with better dietary patterns in adolescents, however little research has included older children or longitudinal study designs. This 3-year longitudinal study examines cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between family food involvement, family dinner meal frequency and dietary patterns during late childhood. Questionnaires were completed by parents of 188 children from Greater Melbourne, Australia at baseline in 2002 (mean age=11.25years) and at follow-up in 2006 (mean age=14.16years). Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify dietary patterns. Factor analysis (FA) was used to determine the principal factors from six indicators of family food involvement. Multiple linear regression models were used to predict the dietary patterns of children and adolescents at baseline and at follow-up, 3years later, from baseline indicators of family food involvement and frequency of family dinner meals. PCA revealed two dietary patterns, labeled a healthful pattern and an energy-dense pattern. FA revealed one factor for family food involvement. Cross-sectionally among boys, family food involvement score (β=0.55, 95% CI: 0.02, 1.07) and eating family dinner meals daily (β=1.11, 95% CI: 0.27, 1.96) during late childhood were positively associated with the healthful pattern. Eating family dinner meals daily was inversely associated with the energy-dense pattern, cross-sectionally among boys (β=-0.56, 95% CI: -1.06, -0.06). No significant cross-sectional associations were found among girls and no significant longitudinal associations were found for either gender. Involvement in family food and eating dinner with the family during late childhood may have a positive influence on dietary patterns of boys. No evidence was found to suggest the effects on dietary patterns persist into adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Narasin effects on energy, nutrient, and fiber digestibility in corn-soybean meal or corn-soybean meal-dried distillers grains with soluble diets fed to 16-, 92-, and 141-kg pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three experiments were conducted determine the effect of narasin on growth performance, and on GE and nutrient digestibility in nursery, grower, and finishing pigs fed either a corn-soybean (CSBM) diet or a CSBM diet supplemented with distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), in combination with...

  9. Amino acid digestibility by weanling pigs of processed ingredients originating from soybeans, 00-rapeseeds, or a fermented mixture of plant ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, D M D L; Liu, Y; Bruun, T S; Stein, H H

    2017-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in 4 sources of processed soybean products, in conventional dehulled soybean meal (SBM-CV), in conventional 00-rapeseed expellers (RSE), and in a fermented coproduct mixture (FCM) that contained rapeseed meal, wheat, soy molasses, and potato peel fed to weanling pigs. The 4 processed soybean products included 2 sources of enzyme-treated soybean meal (ESBM-1 and ESBM-2), extruded soybean meal, and soy protein concentrate (SPC). Twenty-seven weanling barrows (9.29 ± 0.58 kg initial BW) were surgically equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum. Pigs were randomly allotted to three 9 × 5 Youden squares with 9 pigs and five 7-d periods in each square. Seven cornstarch-based diets were prepared using each of the protein sources as the sole source of CP and AA. A N-free diet was prepared to calculate basal endogenous losses of CP and AA, and this diet was fed to 2 groups of pigs, which resulted in a total of 9 dietary treatments. Results indicate that the SID of CP was greater ( soybean products, but the SID of total dispensable AA in ESBM-1 was greater ( soybean meal (SBM) products. The SID of most AA in RSE and the SID of all AA in FCM were less ( soybean products.

  10. The effect of dietary inclusion of meat and bone meal on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the inclusion of meat and bone meal (MBM) in the diet of old laying hens on their egg production and the quality of their eggs was investigated. Meat and bone meal containing a high concentration of ash and a low concentration of crude protein was included at levels of 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0% in the diets and fed for ...

  11. Effect of Replacing Soybean Meal by Raw or Extruded Pea Seeds on Growth Performance and Selected Physiological Parameters of the Ileum and Distal Colon of Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuśnio, Anna; Taciak, Marcin; Barszcz, Marcin; Święch, Ewa; Bachanek, Ilona; Skomiał, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    The use of pea seeds is limited due to the content of antinutritional factors that may affect gut physiology. Heat treatment such as extrusion may reduce heat-labile antinutritional factors and improve the nutritional value of pea seeds. This study determined the effect of partial replacement of soybean meal in pig diets by raw or extruded pea seeds on growth performance, nitrogen balance and physiology of the ileum and distal colon. The experiment was carried out in 18 castrated male piglets of initial body weight of 11 kg, divided into three groups. The animals were fed cereal-based diets with soybean meal (C), which was partly replaced by raw (PR) or extruded pea (PE) seeds. Nitrogen balance was measured at about 15 kg body weight. After 26 days of feeding, tissue samples were taken from the ileum and distal colon for histological measurements, and colonic digesta samples for analyses of microbial activity indices. The animals fed the PE diet had a significantly greater average daily gain than those fed the C diet and better apparent protein digestibility than those on the PR diet. Pigs fed the PR diet had a significantly greater butyric acid concentration and lower pH in the colon than pigs fed PE and C diets. There was no significant effect of the diet on other indices of microbial activity or morphological parameters. In conclusion, feeding a diet with extruded pea seeds improved growth performance of pigs, did not affect intestinal morphology and had a negligible effect on microbial activity in the distal colon.

  12. Nonruminant Nutrition Symposium: Potential of defatted microalgae from the biofuel industry as an ingredient to replace corn and soybean meal in swine and poultry diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatrell, S; Lum, K; Kim, J; Lei, X G

    2014-04-01

    While feeding food-producing animals with microalgae was investigated several decades ago, this research has been reactivated by the recent exploration of microalgae as the third generation of feedstocks for biofuel production. Because the resultant defatted biomass contains high levels of protein and other nutrients, it may replace a portion of corn and soybean meal in animal diets. Our laboratory has acquired 4 types of full-fat and defatted microalgal biomass from biofuel production research (Cellana, Kailua-Kona, HI) that contain 13.9 to 38.2% crude protein and 1.5 to 9.3% crude fat. This review summarizes the safety and efficacy of supplementing 2 types of the biomass at 7.5 to 15% in the diets of weanling pigs, broiler chicks, and laying hens. Based on their responses of growth performance, egg production and quality, plasma and tissue biochemical indicators, and/or fecal chemical composition, all 3 types of animals were able to tolerate the microalgal biomass incorporation into their diets at 7.5% (on as-fed basis). Holistic analysis is also provided to explore the global potential of using the defatted microalgal biomass as a new feed ingredient in offsetting the biofuel production cost, reducing the dependence on staple crops such as corn and soybeans, decreasing greenhouse gas production of animal agriculture, and developing health value-added animal products.

  13. Quantification of nitrogen in the liquid fraction and in vitro assessment of lysine bioavailability in the solid fraction of soybean meal hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luján-Rhenals, D; Morawicki, R; Shi, Z; Ricke, S C

    2018-01-02

    Soybean meal (SBM) is a product generated from the manufacture of soybean oil and has the potential for use as a source of fermentable sugars for ethanol production or as a protein source for animal feeds. Knowing the levels of nitrogen available from ammonium is a necessary element of the ethanolic fermentation process while identifying the levels of essential amino acids such as lysine is important in determining usage as a feed source. As such the purpose of this study was to quantify total nitrogen and ammonium in the liquid fraction of hydrolyzed SBM and to evaluate total and bioavailable lysine in the solid fraction of the hydrolyzed SBM. The effects of acid concentration, cellulase and β-glucosidase on total and ammonium nitrogen were studied with analysis indicating that higher acid concentrations increased nitrogen compounds with ammonium concentrations ranging from 0.20 to 1.24 g L -1 while enzymatic treatments did not significantly increase nitrogen levels. Total and bioavailable lysine was quantified by use of an auxotrophic gfpmut3 E.coli whole-cell bioassay organism incapable of lysine biosynthesis. Acid and enzymatic treatments were applied with lysine bioavailability increasing from a base of 82% for untreated SBM to up to 97%. Our results demonstrated that SBM has the potential to serve in ethanolic fermentation and as an optimal source essential amino acid lysine.

  14. Effects of mannan oligosaccharide and inulin on sharpsnout seabream (Diplodus puntazzo) in the context of partial fish meal substitution by soybean meal

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Piccolo; Gerardo Centoducati; Fulvia Bovera; Raffaele Marrone; Antonino Nizza

    2013-01-01

    One hundred forty-four sharpsnout seabream of about 100 g initial body weight were randomly stocked in 12 experiment tanks (180 L). Testing conditions included 12 fish per tank, with triplicate tanks for treatment. The experimental period lasted 150 days. Average water temperature was 21.9±1.6°C, salinity was 30.0‰ and pH ranged from 7 to 8, throughout the experiment. A control diet (FM) was made from fish meal. One similar diet (SBM) was made with approximately 40% of the protein supplied by...

  15. Effects of dietary Tenebrio molitor meal on the growth performance, immune response and disease resistance of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jingzhi; Gong, Yulong; Cao, Shenping; Lu, Fei; Han, Dong; Liu, Haokun; Jin, Junyan; Yang, Yunxia; Zhu, Xiaoming; Xie, Shouqi

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluated the influence of diets containing mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) meal in partial substitution of fishmeal on growth performance and immune responses of juvenile yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco). Four diets were formulated to contain 0 (the control diet), 9, 18 and 27 g mealworm meal per 100 g diet with 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% of fishmeal replacement, respectively. Yellow catfish were randomly divided into 4 groups with 3 replicates in each group. The fish in each group were fed with one of the four experimental diets for 5 weeks. Growth performance, plasma parameters (SOD, MDA, IgM, C3, lysozyme) and immune related genes (MHC II, IL-1, CypA, IgM, HE) of yellow catfish were determined at the end of the feeding trial, as well as 24 h post bacterial (Edwardsiella ictaluri) challenge. The present results showed that dietary inclusion of mealworm meal (MW) had no negative effects on the growth performance of the juvenile yellow catfish, compared to the control group. At the end of the feeding trial, plasma MDA contents of MW supplemented groups were significant lower than the control group. Plasma SOD activities increased significantly with the increasing dietary MW contents at the end of feeding trial (pre-challenge) and 24 h post challenge with E. ictaluri. Significant increase of plasma lysozyme activity was found in MW supplemented groups compared to the control group 24 h post bacterial challenge. Plasma IgM levels increased significantly with the increasing dietary MW contents at the end of feeding trial. Compared with the control group, the immune related genes of MHC II, IL-1, IgM and HE of the fish in the MW supplemented groups significantly upregulated pre-challenge or 24 h post bacterial challenge. Finally, it was observed that the survival rate of the 27% MW group was significant higher (P < 0.05) than the control group but was not significantly differed from the 18% MW group. The present results indicated that dietary

  16. The Association of Meal Practices and Other Dietary Correlates With Dietary Intake Among High School Students in the United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Zewditu; Eaton, Danice K; Lowry, Richard; Kim, Sonia A; Park, Sohyun; Grimm, Kirsten A; Merlo, Caitlin; Harris, Diane M

    2015-01-01

    To examine behavioral and environmental factors that may be related to dietary behaviors among U.S. high school students. Data were obtained from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study, a cross-sectional study. The study was school-based. Study subjects were a nationally representative sample of students in grades 9 to 12 (n = 11,458). Variables of interest included meal practices, in-home snack availability, and intakes of healthful foods/beverages (fruits, vegetables, water, and milk) and less healthful foods/beverages (fried potatoes, pizza, and sugar-sweetened beverages). Sex-stratified logistic regression models were used to examine associations of meal practices and snack availability with dietary intake. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for race/ethnicity and grade. Eating breakfast daily, frequent family dinners, and bringing lunch from home were associated with higher odds of consuming at least three healthful foods or beverages. High fast-food intake was associated with lower odds of healthful dietary intake and higher odds of sugar-sweetened beverage intake (female OR = 3.73, male OR = 4.60). Students who mostly/always had fruits and vegetables available at home had increased odds of fruits (female OR = 3.04, male OR = 2.24), vegetables (female OR = 2.12, male OR = 1.65), water (female OR = 1.82, male OR = 1.85), and milk intake (female OR = 1.45, male OR = 1.64). Encouraging daily breakfast consumption, frequent family dinners, and fruit and vegetable availability at home may lead to higher intakes of healthful foods among high school students.

  17. Dietary Diversity and Meal Frequency Practices among Infant and Young Children Aged 6–23 Months in Ethiopia: A Secondary Analysis of Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melkam Aemro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Appropriate complementary feeding practice is essential for growth and development of children. This study aimed to assess dietary diversity and meal frequency practice of infants and young children in Ethiopia. Methods. Data collected in the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS from December 2010 to June 2011 were used for this study. Data collected were extracted, arranged, recoded, and analyzed by using SPSS version 17. A total of 2836 children aged 6–23 months were used for final analysis. Both bivariate and multivariate analysis were done to identify predictors of feeding practices. Result. Children with adequate dietary diversity score and meal frequency were 10.8% and 44.7%, respectively. Children born from the richest households showed better dietary diversity score (OR = 0.256. Number of children whose age less than five years was important predictor of dietary diversity (OR = 0.690. Mothers who had exposure to media were more likely to give adequate meal frequency to their children (OR = 0.707. Conclusion. Dietary diversity and meal frequency practices were inadequate in Ethiopia. Wealth quintile, exposure to media, and number of children were affecting feeding practices. Improving economic status, a habit of eating together, and exposure to media are important to improve infant feeding practices in Ethiopia.

  18. Komposisi Tubuh Domba Ekor Tipis yang Diberikan Pakan Bungkil Kedelai Terproteksi Tanin dengan Kadar Berbeda (THE BODY COMPOSITION OF THIN TAIL RAMSFED WITH PROTECTED TANNIN-SOYBEAN MEAL IN DIFFERENT LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wa Laili Salido

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study were to evaluate the effect of tannin concentration in protein protection ofsoybean meal and its influence on the change of body composition with urea space method (estimationand cutting (direct. Sixteen male thin tail rams of eight month old with an average body weight of 11.81±1.65kg were used in this study. Treatment Groups of different tannin level were allotted according to a completelyrandomized design with four replicates for each treatment. The treatmen groups were T0 (complete feed +soybean meal not protected, T1 (complete feed + tannins protected soybean meal 0.5%, T2 (complete feed+ tannins protected soybean meal 1%, and T3 (complete feed + tannins protected soybean meal 1.5%.The treatment was performed in 10 weeks. However, In the week 0, fifth and tenth the rams body compositionwere measured with urea space technique. Result of the study showed that the feeding protected proteinwith different tannin levels did not significantly influence (P> 0.05 body composition of the samples. Theaverage content of body composition measured with the urea space method for body water, body proteinand body fat were 58.53%, 11.01%, and 20.74% respectively. Where as, the body composition measurementafter slaughtered for the body water, body protein and body fat were 3.08 kg, 0.50 kg and 0.89 kg respectively.The average increase of body protein and body fat that occurred during the 10-week study period were 0.37kg and 0.51 kg respectively. Based on these results it can be concluded that feeding protected proteincontained with tannin up to 1.5% may not be able to improve body composition of thin tail rams.

  19. Mixtures of oilseed meals as dietary protein sources in diets of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CSM) and groundnut cake (GNC) as ingredients to replace fish meal in the diets of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.), was evaluated over a 56-day growth period. Nine isonitrogenous (320g.kg-1), isolipidic (100 g.kg-1) and isoenergetic (18 ...

  20. A theory-based newsletter nutrition education program reduces nutritional risk and improves dietary intake for congregate meal participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sarah L; MacNab, Lindsay; Shelley, Mack

    2014-01-01

    At-risk older adults need community-based nutrition programs that improve nutritional status and practices. This 6-month study assessed the impact of the traditional Chef Charles (CC) program (Control) compared to a theory-based CC program (Treatment) on nutritional risk (NR), dietary intakes, self-efficacy (SE), food security (FS), and program satisfaction for congregate meal participants. Participants were mostly educated, single, "food secure" White females. NR change for the treatment group was significantly higher (P = 0.042) than the control group. No differences were noted for SE or FS change and program satisfaction between groups. The overall distribution classification levels of FS changed significantly (P < .001) from pre to post. Over half (n = 46, 76.7%) reported making dietary changes and the majority (n = 52, 86.7%) rated CC as good to excellent. Results suggest the theory-based CC program (treatment) is more effective in reducing NR and dietary practices than the traditional CC program (control).

  1. [Dietary exposure assessment of substances in foods : The BfR MEAL study - the first German total diet study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvan, Irmela; Bürgelt, Michaela; Lindtner, Oliver; Greiner, Matthias

    2017-07-01

    The dietary exposure of a population to chemical substances is estimated based on representative consumption data and data on the occurrence of substances in foods. Consumption data in Germany for different age groups are provided by the National Nutrition Survey ll, VELS, EsKiMo and the ongoing KiESEL study. The data for the levels of substances in foods is currently obtained from the German food monitoring programme (Lebensmittel-Monitoring) and the German Food Composition Table (Bundeslebensmittelschlüssel) and is not sufficient for a comprehensive evaluation of dietary exposure in Germany. More data is needed and, in particular, the range of analysed substances should be broadened to reduce the uncertainties of the exposure assessment. A representative data basis for concentrations of substances in foods will be established with the first German total diet study, called the BfR MEAL study. The study will markedly reduce major uncertainties in the dietary exposure assessment through its wide coverage of substances in food groups, the inclusion of prepared foods, the orientation on low measurement limits as well as the analysis of substances without a reliable data basis.

  2. Effect of meals with milk on body iron stores and improvement of dietary habit during weight loss in female rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Yukari; Ishizaki, Sakuko; Sasamoto, Shigeko; Katoh, Youko; Kobayashi, Shuhei

    2002-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of different timings of milk intake on body iron stores and improvement in the dietary habit of female collegiate rhythmic gymnasts. Subjects took iron tablets at both breakfast and dinner times during a weight-loss period. In addition, subjects ingested low-fat milk twice a day either at breakfast or dinner (group I; n = 7), or between meals (group II; n = 6) for 3 mo. Blood was collected four times. Red blood cell count, hemoglobin, serum iron, ferritin and erythropoietin concentrations were measured. Subjects completed a dietary survey for three consecutive days before each blood sampling. The mean body fat in both groups I and II was significantly lower after 3 mo than at the start of the study (p meals. In conclusion, iron-supplemented meals via milk ingestion did not decrease body iron stores and maintained higher body iron stores compared to a diet that included milk intake between meals. Further, milk intake with meals is related to keeping regular meal times and frequency.

  3. Comparative Effect of Dietary Soybean Oil, Fish Oil, and Coconut Oil on Performance, Egg Quality and Some Blood Parameters in Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X F; Liu, S; Tong, J M

    2018-04-14

    Two hundred and sixteen 28-wk-old Hy-line laying hens were randomly distributed to three dietary treatments and fed 1of 3 diets containing 8% soybean oil, fish oil, or coconut oil from 28 to 47 wk of age to investigate comparative effect of dietary soybean oil, fish oil, and coconut oil on the performance, egg quality and blood malondialdehyde (MDA), aspartate transaminase (AST) and uric acid (UA). Hens fed fish oil showed poor performance compared with soybean oil or coconut oil, and especially egg weight throughout the trial was significantly and consistently decreased (P oil. Unexpectedly, shell reflectivity throughout the majority of the trial was consistently and significantly higher (P oil than that when fed soybean oil or coconut oil. Dietary treatments affected (P oil treatment was higher (P coconut oil group. Albumen height, Haugh unit and yolk color were influenced by dietary treatments only at 1 or 2 time points. However, average albumen height and Haugh unit in fish oil treatment were higher (P oil or coconut oil treatments and average yolk color in coconut oil treatment was higher (P oil group. Serum MDA, AST and UA concentrations were increased (P oil during the majority of the first 2 mo of the trial. These data suggested that the inclusion of fish oil into feed may reduce the performance of laying hens, especially the egg weight, decrease the intensity of egg brown color and increase blood MDA, AST and UA levels compared with soybean oil or coconut oil. As a result, hens fed fish oil may lay smaller, longer and lighter-brown eggs whereas those fed coconut oil produce blunter and darker-brown eggs relative to soybean oil.

  4. Functional Feed Assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei Using 100% Fish Meal Replacement by Soybean Meal, High Levels of Complex Carbohydrates and Bacillus Probiotic Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalia Contreras

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds have been evaluated using four dietary treatments: Treatment 1 (B + Bs; Bacillus subtilis potential probiotic strain was supplemented to a soybeanmeal (SBM—carbohydrates (CHO basal feed. Treatment 2 (B + Bm; Bacillus megaterium potential probiotic strain was supplemented to the same SBM-CHO basal feed. In Treatment 3 (B; SBM-CHO basal feed was not supplemented with probiotic strains. Treatment 4 (C; fishmeal commercial feed (FM was utilized as positive control. Feeding trials evaluated the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio and stress tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone Pacific white shrimp. Best overall shrimp performance was observed for animals fed with Treatment 1 (B+Bs; additionally, stress tolerance and hemolymph metabolites also showed the best performance in this treatment. SBM-CHO basal feed not supplemented with probiotic strains (B presented smaller growth and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR. Shrimps fed with the fishmeal commercial feed (C presented the lowest stress tolerance to high ammonia and low oxygen levels. Specifically selected B. subtilis strains are recommended to formulate functional and economical feeds containing high levels of vegetable; protein and carbohydrates as main dietary sources in L. vannamei cultures.

  5. Functional feed assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei using 100% fish meal replacement by soybean meal, high levels of complex carbohydrates and Bacillus probiotic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, Jorge; Ochoa, Leonel; Paniagua-Michel, Jesus; Contreras, Rosalia

    2011-01-01

    Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids) and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds have been evaluated using four dietary treatments: Treatment 1 (B + Bs); Bacillus subtilis potential probiotic strain was supplemented to a soybeanmeal (SBM)-carbohydrates (CHO) basal feed. Treatment 2 (B + Bm); Bacillus megaterium potential probiotic strain was supplemented to the same SBM-CHO basal feed. In Treatment 3 (B); SBM-CHO basal feed was not supplemented with probiotic strains. Treatment 4 (C); fishmeal commercial feed (FM) was utilized as positive control. Feeding trials evaluated the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio and stress tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) Pacific white shrimp. Best overall shrimp performance was observed for animals fed with Treatment 1 (B+Bs); additionally, stress tolerance and hemolymph metabolites also showed the best performance in this treatment. SBM-CHO basal feed not supplemented with probiotic strains (B) presented smaller growth and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR). Shrimps fed with the fishmeal commercial feed (C) presented the lowest stress tolerance to high ammonia and low oxygen levels. Specifically selected B. subtilis strains are recommended to formulate functional and economical feeds containing high levels of vegetable; protein and carbohydrates as main dietary sources in L. vannamei cultures.

  6. Replacement of soybean meal by linseed meal in diets for piava (Leporinus obtusidensSubstituição do farelo de soja pelo farelo de linhaça em dietas para a piava (Leporinus obtusidens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirleise Pianesso

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluate the replacement of soybean meal by linseed meal on growth of piava juveniles. The experiment was carried on fish farming laboratory of UFSM/CESNORS, on March to April, 2011. They were used 360 fish, (initial weight = 9.0 ± 2.5 g, which placed in a water re-use system composed by 15 tanks (250L, with mean temperature in the morning = 20.3 ± 1.62ºC and in the afternoon = 21.4 ± 1.42ºC, during 30 days. It were testes five diets with volumetric levels of soybean meal replace (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100%. The use of the linseed meal provided same performance to the fish. The weight, total length, standard length, relative weight gain, condition factor and specific growth rate of the piavas were not affected by treatments (P > 0.05. Similarly, the plasmatic glucose, body protein deposition and chymotrypsin enzyme no showed differences. The body lipid deposition was best expressed by the cubic polynomial regression model (P O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a substituição do farelo de soja pelo de linhaça no crescimento de juvenis de piava. O experimento foi realizado no laboratório de piscicultura da UFSM/CESNORS, no período de março a abril de 2011. Foram utilizados 360 peixes (peso inicial = 9,0 ± 2,5 g, sendo estes acondicionados em um sistema de recirculação de água composto por 15 tanques (250L, com temperatura média da manhã = 20,3 ± 1,62ºC e da tarde = 21,4 ± 1,42ºC, durante 30 dias. Foram testadas cinco dietas, com níveis volumétricos de substituição do farelo de soja (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100%. A utilização de farelo de linhaça como fonte proteica proporcionou aos peixes o mesmo desempenho. O peso, comprimento total, comprimento padrão, ganho em peso relativo, fator de condição e taxa de crescimento específico das piavas não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos (P > 0,05. Da mesma forma, a glicose plasmática, deposição de proteína corporal e a enzima quimiotripsina n

  7. Alfalfa leaf meal in beef steer receiving diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, C.M.; DiCostanzo, A.; Smith, L.B.

    1998-06-01

    Two trials were conducted to study the effects of alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) in receiving diets of steers. In trial one, ninety-six medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 500 lb) were allotted to a heavy or light weight block and then randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a 29-day receiving trial. In trial two, sixty medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 518 lb) were allotted to one of ten dietary treatments. Trial two was divided into two periods, defined as a receiving period, 29 days, and a step-up period, 33 days. In trial one, treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) providing 33%, 66%, or 100% of supplemental protein; the balance was soybean meal. Receiving diets were formulated to contain .54 Mcal NE{sub g} /lb dry matter, 14% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P. In study two, treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), ALM providing 33%, 66%7 100% of supplemental protein, the balance was soybean meal and urea or a blend of ALM and blood meal (93 % ALM and 7 % blood meal) to provide supplemental protein. Each protein treatment was fed in diets consisting of cracked or whole corn. Trial two receiving diets were formulated to contain .54 Mcal NE{sub g} /lb dry matter, 14% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P, step-up diets were formulated to contain .58 Mcal NE9 /lb dry matter, 11.3% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P.

  8. The Impact of a Home-Delivered Meal Program on Nutritional Risk, Dietary Intake, Food Security, Loneliness, and Social Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Lauri; Vance, Lauren; Sudduth, Christina; Epps, James B

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining independence and continuing to live at home is one solution to manage the rising health care costs of aging populations in the United States; furthermore, seniors are at risk of malnutrition and food insecurity. Home-delivered meal programs are a tool to address food, nutrition, and well-being concerns of this population. Few studies have identified outcomes from these programs; this pilot study reviews the nutritional status, dietary intake, well-being, loneliness, and food security levels of seniors participating in a Meals on Wheels delivery service. Clients, new to the meal program, participated in pre- and postphone interviews, and 51 seniors completed the study. The survey was composed of five scales or questionnaires, and statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS. Improvements across all five measures were statistically significant after participating two months in the home-delivered meal program. Implications for further research, practice, and the Older Americans Act are discussed.

  9. Prevalence of consumption and nutritional content of breakfast meal among adolescents from the Brazilian National Dietary Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jaqueline L; Castro, Michelle A de; Hopkins, Sinead; Gugger, Carolyn; Fisberg, Regina M; Fisberg, Mauro

    2017-11-06

    To estimate the prevalence of breakfast consumption and describe the foods and nutrients consumed at this meal and throughout the day by Brazilian adolescents. A total of 7276 adolescents aged 10-19 years were evaluated in the Brazilian National Dietary Survey 2008-9, a population-based cross-sectional study. Individuals' information was collected at home. Dietary data were obtained by two food records. Breakfast was defined as the first eating occasion of the day that occurred between 6 and 9:59am. Differences between breakfast consumers, occasional consumers, and skippers were tested through Pearson's chi-squared test or F-test of regression analysis. Breakfast was consumed by 93% of adolescents and it was associated with age, income, geographic region and household area. The most frequently consumed foods at breakfast were white bread, coffee, butter/margarine, refined cookies and crackers, and whole milk. The mean daily intakes of total energy, sugar, and calcium were higher among occasional consumers and skippers. Breakfast consumers had higher intake of vitamins B12, C, and D. Breakfast contributed more to total intake of calcium, phosphorus, thiamin, riboflavin, and vitamins A, B6, and D (17-32%), trans fat and sodium (about 30%) and less to folate, vitamin C, iron, zinc, and fiber (8-12%) and energy intake (16%). Although the prevalence of breakfast consumption among Brazilian adolescents was high, the overall nutritional quality of this meal is suboptimal, highlighting the need to support adolescents and their families to make more nutrient-dense food choices. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  10. Oligosaccharides are a key factor in prediction of amino acid digestibility in soybean meal of different origins when fed to growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongchao Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this experiment was to determine apparent ileal digestibility (AID and standardized ileal digestibility (SID of crude protein (CP and amino acid (AA in 15 sources of soybean meal (SBM produced from soybeans from different countries and subsequently to establish equations for predicting the AID and SID in SBM based on their chemical composition. Methods Eighteen barrows (57.9±6.1 kg fitted with a simple T-cannula were allotted into three 6×6 Latin square designs. Each period comprised a 6-d adaption period followed by a 2-d collection of ileal digesta. The 15 test diets included SBM as a sole source of AA in the diet. Another nitrogen-free diet was used to measure basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. Chromic oxide (0.3% was used as an inert marker in each diet. Results The AID of lysine in SBM from China and USA tended to be greater than in SBM from Brazil (p<0.10. The SID of valine and proline in SBM from China was greater than in SBM from Brazil (p<0.05. The SID of lysine, threonine, cysteine and glycine in SBM from China tended to be greater than in SBM from Brazil (p<0.10. From a stepwise regression analysis, a series of AID and SID prediction equations were generated. The best fit equations for lysine in SBM were: AID lysine = 1.16 sucrose−1.81 raffinose+82.10 (R2 = 0.69, p<0.01 and SID lysine = 1.14 sucrose−1.93 raffinose−0.99 ether extract (EE+85.26 (R2 = 0.77, p<0.01. Conclusion It was concluded that under the conditions of this experiment, the oligosaccharides (such as sucrose and raffinose can be used to predict the AID and SID of AA in SBM with reasonable accuracy.

  11. Effects of a randomized intervention promoting healthy children's meals on children's ordering and dietary intake in a quick-service restaurant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Braun, Abbey C; Ehrenberg, Sarah; Epstein, Leonard H; Gampp, April; Leone, Lucia A; Singh, Anita; Tauriello, Sara

    2018-01-31

    Children's consumption of restaurant foods is associated with higher energy intake and lower nutritional quality compared to foods prepared at home. The aim of this pilot study was to test whether an in-restaurant intervention promoting healthy children's meals (i.e. two meals that met nutrition recommendations and were thus healthier than typical children's meal offerings across leading restaurants) affected children's meal selection and intake. Families with 4-to-8-year-old children were recruited from one location of Anderson's Frozen Custard, a regional quick-service restaurant chain. Families were randomly assigned to return to the restaurant during an intervention or control period and were blinded to group assignment. All families received free meals. During the intervention period families also received placemats featuring two healthy "Kids' Meals of the Day" upon restaurant entry. After families finished dining, researchers recorded children's orders and collected leftovers for quantifying dietary intake via weighed plate waste. Poisson regression and chi-square tests were used to compare children's orders between study groups, and t-tests were used to test for differences in dietary intake among children ordering a promoted healthy entrée (main dish) versus those who did not. Fifty-eight families participated. Children who were exposed to the study placemats prior to ordering ordered a significantly greater number of healthy food components compared to controls (p = 0.03). Overall, in the intervention group, 21% of children ordered a healthy entrée or side dish, versus 7% of controls. Children who ordered one of the promoted healthy entrées consumed less saturated fat across the total meal compared to those who did not (p = 0.04). Manipulating the prominence of healthy choices in restaurants may shift children's meal selections. Future research should build on these initial promising results, aiming to increase the potency of the intervention

  12. Effects of partial dietary supplementation of fish meal with soymeal on the stress and apoptosis response in the digestive system of common dentex (Dentex dentex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulou, Efthimia; Chouri, Eleni; Feidantsis, Konstantinos; Lazou, Antigone; Chatzifotis, Stavros

    2017-12-01

    Soybean is a common alternative protein source of plant origin in aquafeeds as it has a reasonably balanced amino acid profile and is widely available. This study aimed to investigate the influence of partial substitution of fish meal with soy meal on cytoprotective pathways and apoptosis in the digestive system of common dentex ( Dentex dentex ), using the activation of Hsp70, p38 MAPK, Bcl-2 and caspase-3. The experimental approach involved feeding of common dentex with three isoprotein and isoenergetic diets that contained fish meal as a protein source (FM), partial replacement of fish meal by soy meal 25% (SM25) and 40% (SM40) for 3 months. The SM40 diet induced Hsp70 activation only in the middle part of intestine. On the other hand, both SM25 and SM40 diets diminished the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in the anterior and the middle part of intestine, whereas only SM25 induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation in the stomach. Moreover, a decrease in the levels of caspase-3 activity was observed in the middle and posterior intestine, as well as in the stomach after feeding with SM25 diets. Furthermore, Bcl-2 levels were increased by SM40 in the anterior and by SM25 in the middle part of intestine. SM25 and SM40 diets elicited a tissue and soy concentration specific cellular and cell protective response in the different parts of the digestive tract in common dentex.

  13. Interactions between levels of heat-treated soybean meal and prilled fat on growth, rumen fermentation, and blood metabolites of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Mirzaei, M; Jahani-Moghadam, M; Soltani, A; Mahjoubi, E; Patton, R A

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the interaction of RUP and fat levels on growth, rumen fermentation, and blood metabolites of Holstein calves. Forty 3-d-old calves (20 females and 20 males) with a starting BW of 40.6 ± 2.8 kg were used in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Within sex treatments were: (1) high RUP and low fat (HRUP-LF); (2) low RUP and high fat (LRUP-HF); (3) high RUP and low fat (HRUP-LF); and high RUP and high fat (HRUP-HF). Low-RUP starter contained 21.5%, whereas high RUP starter contained 34.3% RUP as % of CP, whereas low fat starter contained 2.9% and high starter contained 5.8% crude fat based on DM. Isonitrogenous levels in the starter grain were maintained by replacing solvent soybean meal with heat treated soybean meal while fat levels were increased by the addition of prilled fatty acids. Calves were housed individually and had ad libitum access to water and calf starter throughout the study. All calves were weaned on d 60 of age but remained in the study until d 70 for final measurements. Overall, there was no interaction between RUP and fat levels for measured variables. Starter intake tended ( = 0.09) to be greater for calves fed low fat starter during the postweaning period, although over the whole experiment and during the preweaning period, differences in starter intake were not different. Although there were no differences for most VFA concentrations, the molar proportion of butyrate tended ( < 0.08) to be greater in the rumen of calves fed low-fat starter compared to those fed high-fat starter. Serum total protein was lower ( < 0.05) and serum cholesterol was greater ( < 0.01) for calves fed high-fat starter by d 65 of life. The concentration of alanine aminotransferase was also lower ( < 0.05) for calves fed high-fat starter compared to those fed low-fat starter on d 65, and these levels tended to increase with the addition of RUP ( < 0.07). In conclusion, no effects were attributable to

  14. Effect of dietary cottonseed meal on growth performance, physiological response, and gossypol accumulation in pre-adult grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haokun; Yan, Quangen; Han, Dong; Jin, Junyan; Zhu, Xiaoming; Yang, Yunxia; Xie, Shouqi

    2016-09-01

    Cottonseed meal (CM) was used at up to 36.95% content in the diet (replacing 60% of dietary fish meal protein) without any negative eff ects on growth performance of pre-adult grass carp (initial body weight, 761 g) under outdoor conditions. A culture trial was conducted in net cages installed in a large concrete pond. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing a gradient of CM concentrations (0, 12.2%, 24.4%, 36.6%, 48.8%, 54.8%, and 61.0%) as replacement for dietary fish meal protein (0, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 90%, and 100%) were formulated. Dietary non-resistant starch (from maize) was inverse to dietary CM. Growth performance and feed utilization of fish fed the diets containing CM replacing 0-40% fishmeal protein were not aff ected after the 6-week feeding trial. Accumulation of hepatopancreatic total gossypol in the hepatopancreas was significantly correlated with free gossypol content in the diets (HTG=88.6+1.5×DFG, R 2=0.89, Preplacement). Increasing dietary CM content increased serum alanine aminotransferase levels but decreased serum alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and albumin ( P<0.05).

  15. Giant Taro (Alocasia macrorrhiza Root Meal with or without Coconut Oil Slurry as Source of Dietary Energy for Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diarra, S.S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of feeding Alocasia macrorrhiza root meal (AMRM with or without added coconut oil slurry (COS on egg production and egg qualities was investigated in a 20-week experiment. A control diet based on maize and 4 other diets containing 10 and 20% AMRM with or without COS were fed each to 4 replicates of 10 birds in a completely randomized design. There were no significant dietary effects on feed intake (FI and the intake of lysine, methionine and metabolizable energy (ME. Birds fed the 20% AMRM_COS added significantly less weight during the experimental period compared to the control fed group. Body weight change (BWC did not differ among the AMRM fed birds. Per cent hen-day and feed conversion ratio were depressed on 20% AMRM and egg weight on 10% AMRM but these depressing effects were overcome by COS addition. Egg shape index, Haugh unit and per cent shell were not affected by the diet. It is concluded that AMRM can replace 10% dietary maize without adverse effect on laying performance but 20% replacement negatively impacts on hen-day and egg weight. These adverse effects are however, overcome by treating AMRM with COS at the ratio of 9: 1. More research into higher levels of COS treated AMRM in the diet is warranted.

  16. Replacing soybean meal with Upland cottonseed, Pima cottonseed, or extruded Pima cottonseed cake on production of lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottonseed is an important dietary ingredient for dairy cows and is fed principally as upland cottonseed. However, Pima cotton production is growing in the U.S. Pima cottonseed contains greater levels of protein, oil and gossypol, a potentially toxic compound. Heating cottonseed promotes the gossypo...

  17. The influence of dietary and supplemental calcium on postprandial effects of a high-fat meal on lipaemia, glycaemia, C-reactive protein and adiponectin in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Thaís da S; Antunes, Vanessa P; Leal, Priscila M; Sanjuliani, Antonio F; Klein, Márcia R S T

    2017-10-01

    Non-fasting hypertriacylglycerolaemia is a risk factor for CVD and the amount of fat in a meal seems to be the main factor influencing postprandial lipaemia. Although several studies suggest that Ca can increase faecal fat excretion, it is not known whether Ca can decrease postprandial TAG. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of dietary Ca (DC) and supplemental Ca (SC) on lipaemia, glucose metabolism, C-reactive protein (CRP) and adiponectin during postprandial period in obese women challenged with a high-fat meal. In this cross-over controlled trial, sixteen obese women aged 20-50 years were randomly assigned to receive three test meals (approximately 2900 kJ; 48 % fat): high DC (547 mg DC), high SC (HSCM; 500 mg SC-calcium carbonate) and low Ca (42 mg DC). Blood samples were collected in the fasting period and at minutes 120 and 240 after meals to evaluate total cholesterol and fractions, TAG, glucose, insulin, high-sensitivity CRP and adiponectin. Serum levels of TAG and insulin increased significantly after all test meals. Only after HSCM total cholesterol did not present a significant increase and LDL-cholesterol had a significant decrease. Postprandial glucose, HDL-cholesterol, CRP and adiponectin did not present significant changes after the three test meals. The comparative analysis of the effects of the three test meals on serum lipids, glucose, insulin, CRP and adiponectin revealed no significant meal-by-time interaction. These results suggest that in obese women challenged with a high-fat meal DC and SC do not interfere with postprandial lipaemia, glucose metabolism, CRP and adiponectin.

  18. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid, fish oil and soybean oil on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dear User!

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... oil or fish oil as the only dietary fat deposited more fat in breast tissue compared with other groups (P < ... lipid analysis. Lipids content of liver, breast and thigh tissues were measured by the method of Folch et al. (1957). The serum lipoprotein fractions were ..... Effects of dietary fatty acids on blood pressure:.

  19. Effect of dietary soybean oil and antioxidants on fatty acids and volatile compounds of tail subcutaneous and perirenal fat tissues in fattening lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yongjia; Wang, Jiakun; Lin, Jia; Liu, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Fat is the primary source of the volatiles that determine the characteristic flavors of animal products. Because unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) contribute to changes in flavor as a result of the oxidation process, a feeding trial was performed to investigate the effects of dietary soybean oil or antioxidants on the fatty acid and volatile profiles of the tail subcutaneous (SF) and perirenal fat tissues (PF) of fattening lambs. Thirty-six Huzhou lambs were assigned to four dietary treatments in a randomized block design. The lambs' diets were supplemented with soybean oil (0 or 3 % of DM) or antioxidants (0 or 0.025 % of DM). Neither soybean oil nor antioxidant supplementation had an effect on lamb growth (P > 0.05). In regard to tail SF, soybean oil supplementation increased the 18:2n6t (P < 0.05) and the total amount of volatile acids, whereas antioxidant supplementation increased the content of C18:2n6c and C18:3n3 (P < 0.05) but had no effect on the volatiles profile. In regard to PF, dietary soybean oil supplementation increased the C18:0 content (P < 0.01); decreased the C18:1 (P = 0.01), C22:1 n9 (P < 0.01) and total UFA (P = 0.03) contents; and tended to decrease the E-2-octenal (P = 0.08), E, E-2, 4-decadienal (P = 0.10), 2-undecenal (P = 0.14) and ethyl 9-decenoate (P = 0.10) contents. Antioxidant supplementation did not affect either the fatty acid content or the volatiles profile in the PF. Tail SF and PF responded to dietary soybean oil and antioxidant supplementation in different ways. For SF, both soybean oil and antioxidant supplementation increased the levels of unsaturated fatty acids but triggered only a slight change in volatiles. For PF, soybean oil supplementation decreased the levels of unsaturated fatty acids and oxidative volatiles, but supplementation with antioxidants had little effect on PF fatty acids and the volatiles profile.

  20. Effect of dietary supplementation of sea buckthorn and giloe leaf meal on the body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, biochemical attributes, and meat composition of turkey poults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aditya; Shukla, Pankaj Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Amitav; Kumar, Upendra; Roy, Debashis; Yadav, Brijesh; Prakash, Atul

    2018-01-01

    In the recent past, few studies have been carried out about sea buckthorn (SBT) and giloe in chicken as a part of the quest for suitable alternatives to antibiotics. However, studies in turkeys are lacking. Hence, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of SBT and giloe leaf meal by dietary feed supplementation in turkey poults. A total of 1-day-old turkey poults (n=84) of small white variety were distributed into four dietary treatments having three replicates each with seven birds. The study was conducted in turkey poults during 0-8 weeks of age. During the experiment, the poults were fed basal ration (28% crude protein [CP], 2800 Kcal/kg ME) T1, T2-basal ration was supplemented with SBT leaf meal powder at 0.5%, T3-basal ration was supplemented with giloe leaf meal powder at 0.5%, and T4-basal ration was fed along with supplementation of both SBT at 0.5% and giloe leaf meal powder at 0.5%. T2 turkey poults had a significantly higher (pturkey poults. Supplementation of 0.5% SBT leaf meal may result in higher levels of zinc and EE in the breast and thigh cuts of turkey poults.

  1. Effect of polyethylene glycol 4000 supplementation on the performance of yearling male Pedi goats fed dietary mixture levels of Acacia karroo leaf meal and Setaria verticillata grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David; Ng'ambi, Jones W

    2017-06-01

    Eighteen yearling male Pedi goats weighing 21.7 ± 3.1 kg were used in a 42-day trial in a 2 (Acacia karroo leaf meal levels) × 3 (levels of PEG 4000) factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design to determine PEG 4000 supplementation levels for optimal productivity of indigenous Pedi goats fed different mixture levels of A. karroo leaf meal and Setaria verticillata (L.) P.Beauv. grass hay. Each goat was supplemented with 0, 23 or 30 g of PEG 4000 per day in addition to dietary mixture of A. karroo and S. verticillata hay. Polyethylene glycol 4000 supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on nutrient intake of goats. However, a diet × PEG (P optimized at PEG 4000 supplementation levels of 19.62, 19.62, 19.61 and 19.53 g/goat/day, respectively, for diets containing 20% A. karroo leaf meal. Polyethylene glycol 4000 supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on the apparent digestibility of all nutrients. The dietary inclusion level of A. karroo leaf meal at 20% improved (P optimized at a PEG 4000 supplementation level of 15.78 g/goat/day. Dietary mixture level and PEG 4000 supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on final weights of Pedi goats. Similar results were observed for blood urea and glucose concentrations of yearling male Pedi goats. However, daily body weight gain was higher (P < 0.05) in goats fed 50% A. karroo leaf meal than those on 20% inclusion level. Polyethylene glycol 4000 has potential to improve the feeding value of tanninifeorus A. karroo leaf meal.

  2. Effect of partial substitution of wheat flour by soybean meal in technological and sensory characteristics of cupcakes for children of school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Paucar-Menacho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was evaluate the effect of the partial substitution of wheat flour by soybean meal (HS in the technological and sensory characteristics of cupcakes, in order to develop a high-protein food for school-age students. Common wheat flour was replaced with four different percentages of HS: 5% (F1, 10% (F2, 15% (F3 and 20% (F4, these were compared with a control sample with 0% (F0 of HS. The technological characteristics evaluated were weight loss, water activity (Aw, instrumental color, bulk and texturometria samples, for 12 days. The results showed that the substitution of HS improves firmness of cupcakes and helps moisture retention, a substitution until F2 was not significantly different from F0. A test to 45 panelists with a hedonic scale for sensory evaluation was used; three sensory characteristics (color, flavor and texture and purchase intent were evaluated. The cupcakes with HS presented significant differences in color in relation to F0; the results indicated that this ingredient could replace wheat flour F0 up to 10%, without significantly altering its sensory quality. As for the intention to purchase, F2 obtained a score of 4.20 ± 0.53 on a scale of 5 points, which does not differ significantly from F0.

  3. Effect of heat-treatment, phytase, xylanase and soaking time on inositol phosphate degradation in vitro in wheat, soybean meal and rapeseed cake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Karoline; Carlsson, N G; Hansen-Møller, Jens

    2010-01-01

    An in vitro method was used to evaluate the degradation of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) in non-heat-treated wheat (NHW), heat-treated wheat (HW), soybean meal (SBM) or rapeseed cake (RSC) soaked separately or in combination. The feedstuffs were soaked in water (20 °C) and samples were......P6 degradation, and (4) soaking of SBM or RSM together with NHW (ratio 1:1) stimulates InsP6 degradation from SBM or RSC due to the activity of wheat phytases, whereby phytase addition results in no further InsP6 degradation. Additionally, degradation of lower inositol phosphates (myo-inositol...... pentakisphosphate-myo-inositol bisphosphate or InsP5-InsP2) was studied to verify if InsP6 degradation leads to an accumulation of InsP5-InsP2. In NHW or HW addition of phytase alone or with xylanase had no significant effect on InsP6 degradation. However, InsP6 degradation was influenced by the interaction between...

  4. Meal-Specific Dietary Changes From Squires Quest! II: A Serious Video Game Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Karen W; Liu, Yan; Thompson, Debbe I

    2016-05-01

    Squire's Quest! II: Saving the Kingdom of Fivealot, an online video game, promotes fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption. An evaluation study varied the type of implementation intentions used during the goal-setting process (none, action, coping, or both action and coping plans). Participants who created action plans reported higher FV consumption 6 months after baseline. This study assessed changes by specific meal in that study. A total of 400 fourth- and fifth-grade children completed 3 24-hour recalls at baseline and 6 months later. These were averaged to obtain FV intake. Analyses used repeated-measures ANCOVA. There was a significant group by time effect for vegetables at 6 months (P = .01); Action (P = .01) and coping (P = .04) group participants reported higher vegetable intake at dinner. There were significant increases in fruit intake at breakfast (P = .009), lunch (P = .01), and snack (P < .001). Setting meal-specific goals and action or coping plans may enable children to overcome barriers and consume FV. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of oregano essential oil with or without feed enzymes on growth performance, digestive enzyme, nutrient digestibility, lipid metabolism and immune response of broilers fed on wheat-soybean meal diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basmacioğlu Malayoğlu, H; Baysal, S; Misirlioğlu, Z; Polat, M; Yilmaz, H; Turan, N

    2010-02-01

    1. The study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplementation of enzyme and oregano essential oil at two levels, alone or together, on performance, digestive enzyme, nutrient digestibility, lipid metabolism and immune response of broilers fed on wheat-soybean meal based diets. 2. The following dietary treatments were used from d 0 to 21. Diet 1 (control, CONT): a commercial diet containing no enzyme or oregano essential oil, diet 2 (ENZY): supplemented with enzyme, diet 3 (EO250): supplemented with essential oil at 250 mg/kg feed, diet 4 (EO500): supplemented with essential oil at 500 mg/kg feed, diet 5 (ENZY + EO250): supplemented with enzyme and essential oil at 250 mg/kg, and diet 6 (ENZY + EO500): supplemented with enzyme and essential oil at 500 mg/kg. 3. Birds fed on diets containing ENZY, EO250 and ENZY + EO250 had significantly higher weight gain than those given CONT diet from d 0 to 7. No significant effects on feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality, organ weights except for jejunum weight and intestinal lengths was found with either enzyme or essential oil, alone or in combination, over the 21-d growth period. The supplementation of essential oil together with enzyme decreased jejunum weight compared with essential oil alone. 4. Supplementation with enzyme significantly decreased viscosity and increased dry matter of digesta, but did not alter pH of digesta. There was no effect of essential oil alone at either concentration on viscosity, dry matter or pH of digesta. A significant decrease in viscosity of digesta appeared when essential oil was used with together enzyme. 5. The supplementation of essential oil at both levels with or without enzyme significantly increased chymotrypsin activity in the digestive system, and improved crude protein digestibility. 6. The higher concentration of essential oil with and without enzyme significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentrations. No significant effect on immune response

  6. Effects of feeding level and feeding frequency on growth, feed efficiency and nitrogen and phosphorus loss in seabass (Lates calcarifer Bloch fed diets with defatted soybean meal partially replacing fishmeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srisook, S.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Satun Coastal Fisheries Research and Development Center, Muang, Satun 3Feeding management is crucial for feed efficiency, nutrient utilization, growth of cultured aquatic species and the amount of organic waste produced. This study aimed at investigating effects of two levels offeeding at two feeding frequencies on growth performance, feed efficiency and nitrogen and phosphorus loss in Asian seabass when fed diets with defatted soybean meal (SBM replacing fish meal. Three diets were formulated to contain defatted SBM to replace fish meal at 0, 10 and 20% of fish meal protein. Each diet wasgiven to the fish at either 4% of body weight (BW or to satiation. At each feeding level, the fish were fed at two feeding frequencies, once and twice daily. Fish with an average initial weight of 2.04±0.06 g/fish werereared for twelve weeks in the flow through system. Growth of fish reduced with an increasing amount of defatted SBM incorporated in diets as observed in other carnivorous species. Within groups of fish fed thesame diet, different growth performance and feed efficiency differed due to both feeding level and frequency. Weight gain of fish that were fed diet with defatted SBM replacing 10% of fish meal protein (diet 2until satiation was not significantly different from fish fed fish meal based diet at 4% BW. Furthermore, feeding fish the former diet twice daily resulted in an improvement of FCR, PER and PPV of fish to those ofthe fish fed fish meal based diet at satiation twice daily. Nitrogen and phosphorus loss was affected by diet, feeding level and frequency. Fish fed diet 2 until satiation twice daily lost nitrogen and phosphorus in theamount similar to that of fish fed fish meal based diet until satiation.

  7. MANNAN OLIGOSACCHARIDES AND ENZYMES IN CORN AND SOYBEAN MEAL BASED-DIETS FOR BROILERS MANANOLIGOSSACARÍDEOS E ENZIMAS EM DIETAS À BASE DE MILHO E FARELO DE SOJA PARA AVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Maria Barbosa de Moraes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Mannan oligosaccharides, as an alternative to an-tibiotics, show promising results related to bird perfor-mance, immunity stimulus and improvement of intestinal mucosa. Enzyme inclusion in diets containing mannan oli-gosaccharides could improve these results. Poultry diets consist of corn and soybean meal, and approximately 30% of the phosphorus (P in these ingredients is bound to phytic acid. Phytase is capable of release not only the P but also other nutrients that can be better used by the birds while corn is relatively free of viscosous nonstarch poly-saccharides (NSP, soybean has about 20% of NSP, whose digestibility is almost null. NSP`s insoluble component of corn and soybean encapsulate nutrients and are responsive to exogenous enzymes. Negative environmental and nutri-tional consequences of dietary phytic acid are reduced by phytase inclusion in monogastric diets. Additionally, the enzymatic complex supplementation improves the nutri-tional value of feedstuffs through higher digestibility in birds. Finally, the use of exogenous enzymes allows re-duction in feed costs.

    KEY-WORDS: Animal nutrition, enzymatic supplementation, prebiotic.

    Os mananoligossacarídeos, como alternativa aos antibióticos, têm apresentado resultados promissores no que se refere tanto ao desempenho das aves quanto ao estímulo da imunidade e à melhora da mucosa intestinal. A inclusão de enzimas nas dietas contendo mananoligossacarídeos poderia melhorar ainda mais esses resultados. As dietas para aves são compostas de milho e farelo de soja, principalmente, e cerca de 30% do fósforo (P desses in-gredientes estão ligados ao ácido fítico. A fitase libera não só o P, mas também outros nutrientes para que sejam me-lhor utilizados pelas aves. O milho é relativamente isento de polissacarídeos não-amiláceos (PNAs viscosos e a soja apresenta cerca de 20% de PNAs, com digestibilidade praticamente nula. Os componentes insolúveis dos PNAs do

  8. School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study-III: Volume I: School Food Service, School Food Environment, and Meals Offered and Served.

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Gordon; Mary Kay Crepinsek; Renée Nogales; Elizabeth Condon

    2007-01-01

    SNDA-III provides detailed information on the operation of school meal programs, the school environment that affects these programs, the nutrient content of school meals, and the contribution of school meals to students’ diets. Mathematica collected data for the study during school year 2004-2005 from a nationally representative sample of districts, schools, and students. This summary report notes that in a typical week, more than 70 percent of schools served meals that met standards for key ...

  9. Beneficial metabolic effects of regular meal frequency on dietary thermogenesis, insulin sensitivity, and fasting lipid profiles in healthy obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshchi, Hamid R; Taylor, Moira A; Macdonald, Ian A

    2005-01-01

    Although a regular meal pattern is recommended for obese people, its effects on energy metabolism have not been examined. We investigated whether a regular meal frequency affects energy intake (EI), energy expenditure, or circulating insulin, glucose, and lipid concentrations in healthy obese women. Ten women [x +/- SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 37.1 +/- 4.8] participated in a randomized crossover trial. In phase 1 (14 d), the subjects consumed their normal diet on 6 occasions/d (regular meal pattern) or followed a variable meal frequency (3-9 meals/d, irregular meal pattern). In phase 2 (14 d), the subjects followed the alternative pattern. At the start and end of each phase, a test meal was fed, and blood glucose, lipid, and insulin concentrations were determined before and for 3 h after (glucose and insulin only) the test meal. Subjects recorded their food intake on 3 d during each phase. The thermogenic response to the test meal was ascertained by indirect calorimetry. Regular eating was associated with lower EI (P thermogenesis (P meal pattern, but peak insulin concentrations and area under the curve of insulin responses to the test meal were lower after the regular than after the irregular meal pattern (P thermogenesis.

  10. Processing soybeans of different origins : response of a Chinese and a western pig breed to dietary inclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, G.

    1996-01-01


    Soybeans (Glycine max) have high nutritional value for domestic animals, due to their protein and energy contents. The feeding effects of full-fat soybeans for non-ruminant and immature ruminant animals, however, are limited by the presence of some antinutritional factors (ANFs). Therefore, processing is needed to inactivate these ANFs before the soybeans are used to feed animals. The nature and levels of ANFs may be quite variable between soybeans of different...

  11. Effects of dietary replacement of fishmeal by mealworm meal on muscle quality of farmed shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panini, Roseane L; Pinto, Stephanie S; Nóbrega, Renata O; Vieira, Felipe N; Fracalossi, Débora M; Samuels, Richard I; Prudêncio, Elane S; Silva, Carlos P; Amboni, Renata D M C

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the muscle quality of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed on a diet containing different proportions of mealworm meal (MW) (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) as a substitute for fishmeal, which is the normal diet used in shrimp commercial production. The proximate composition, fatty acid profile, colour and texture of the shrimps were evaluated. Moisture, protein, and ash content of shrimp muscle were not significantly altered when fishmeal was replaced by MW (p>0.05). However, the replacement resulted in a linear increase in lipid content (p<0.05). The fatty acid composition of the experimental diets directly mirrored the fatty acid composition of shrimp muscle. The absence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in MW composition resulted in a linear decrease in eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic fatty acids in shrimp muscle with increasing levels of MW in the diet. The n-3/n-6 ratio ranged from 0.50 to 0.67. Colour and firmness were unchanged between the treatments. Although the use of MW as a fishmeal substitute in L. vannamei diets has affected the lipid and fatty acid composition of shrimp muscle, from a human nutritional perspective, the lipid content of the shrimps is considered low and the n-3/n-6 ratio remained within the human dietary requirements. Therefore the use of a mealworm diet for shrimp production is a viable alternative to increasingly expensive fishmeal based diets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of dietary intake of total arsenic, inorganic arsenic and total mercury in the Chilean school meal program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastías, J M; Bermúdez, M; Carrasco, J; Espinoza, O; Muñoz, M; Galotto, M J; Muñoz, O

    2010-10-01

    The dietary intake of total arsenic (tAs), inorganic arsenic (iAs) and total mercury (tHg) in lunch and breakfast servings provided by the Chilean School Meal Program (SMP) was estimated, using the duplicate-portion variant of the total diet study. Lunch and breakfast samples were collected from 65 schools throughout the country in 2006. The population sample was a group of girls and boys between 6 and 18 years old. The tAs concentration was measured via hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry. The total mercury concentration was measured via cold-vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. The estimated iAs intake was 12.5% (5.4 μg/day) of the Provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) as proposed by the FAO/WHO, and the tHg intake was 13.2% (1.9 μg/day) of the PTDI as proposed by the FAO/WHO. It was therefore concluded that tAs, iAs and tHg intake from food provided by the SMP do not pose risks to student health.

  13. Optimal Cultivation Time for Yeast and Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fermented Milk and Effects of Fermented Soybean Meal on Rumen Degradability Using Nylon Bag Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyorach, S; Poungchompu, O; Wanapat, M; Kang, S; Cherdthong, A

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine an optimal cultivation time for populations of yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) co-cultured in fermented milk and effects of soybean meal fermented milk (SBMFM) supplementation on rumen degradability in beef cattle using nylon bag technique. The study on an optimal cultivation time for yeast and LAB growth in fermented milk was determined at 0, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h post-cultivation. After fermenting for 4 days, an optimal cultivation time of yeast and LAB in fermented milk was selected and used for making the SBMFM product to study nylon bag technique. Two ruminal fistulated beef cattle (410±10 kg) were used to study on the effect of SBMFM supplementation (0%, 3%, and 5% of total concentrate substrate) on rumen degradability using in situ method at incubation times of 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h according to a Completely randomized design. The results revealed that the highest yeast and LAB population culture in fermented milk was found at 72 h-post cultivation. From in situ study, the soluble fractions at time zero (a), potential degradability (a+b) and effective degradability of dry matter (EDDM) linearly (pmilk with yeast and LAB was at 72 h-post cultivation and supplementation of SBMFM at 5% of total concentrate substrate could improve rumen degradability of beef cattle. However, further research on effect of SBMFM on rumen ecology and production performance in meat and milk should be conducted using in vivo both digestion and feeding trials.

  14. Optimal Cultivation Time for Yeast and Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fermented Milk and Effects of Fermented Soybean Meal on Rumen Degradability Using Nylon Bag Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Polyorach

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine an optimal cultivation time for populations of yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB co-cultured in fermented milk and effects of soybean meal fermented milk (SBMFM supplementation on rumen degradability in beef cattle using nylon bag technique. The study on an optimal cultivation time for yeast and LAB growth in fermented milk was determined at 0, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h post-cultivation. After fermenting for 4 days, an optimal cultivation time of yeast and LAB in fermented milk was selected and used for making the SBMFM product to study nylon bag technique. Two ruminal fistulated beef cattle (410±10 kg were used to study on the effect of SBMFM supplementation (0%, 3%, and 5% of total concentrate substrate on rumen degradability using in situ method at incubation times of 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h according to a Completely randomized design. The results revealed that the highest yeast and LAB population culture in fermented milk was found at 72 h-post cultivation. From in situ study, the soluble fractions at time zero (a, potential degradability (a+b and effective degradability of dry matter (EDDM linearly (p<0.01 increased with the increasing supplemental levels and the highest was in the 5% SBMFM supplemented group. However, there was no effect of SBMFM supplement on insoluble degradability fractions (b and rate of degradation (c. In conclusion, the optimal fermented time for fermented milk with yeast and LAB was at 72 h-post cultivation and supplementation of SBMFM at 5% of total concentrate substrate could improve rumen degradability of beef cattle. However, further research on effect of SBMFM on rumen ecology and production performance in meat and milk should be conducted using in vivo both digestion and feeding trials.

  15. Effects of substitution of soybean meal-alfalfa-maize by a combination of field bean or pea with hard wheat bran on digestion and growth performance in rabbits in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Lounaouci-Ouyed, G.; Berchiche, M.; Gidenne, T.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the trial was to study the effects of replacement of a soybean meal-alfalfa-maize based diet by a mixture of field bean (g/kg as fed: 257 crude protein [CP], 139 neutral detergent fibre [NDF]) or pea (g/kg as fed: 203 CP, 122 NDF) combined with hard wheat bran (g/kg as fed: 140 CP, 396 NDF) and without supplementation of synthetic DL-methionine, on diet digestibility, growth and slaughter traits of growing rabbits. Three diets were formulated: a control diet mainly consisting of 15...

  16. Qualitative aspects of elephantgrass silage with corn meal and soybean hullsAspectos qualitativos da silagem de capim-elefante com fubá de milho e casca de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Santos Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of corn meal and soybean hulls in silage Pennisetum purpureum cv. Roxo Botucatu. The experiment has adopted a completely randomized design in a split-plot, with seven treatments (elephant grass pure soy cone (5 and 10% and corn meal (5 and 10% alone or in joint same proportions totaling 5 to 10%, three open times and three replications. We used a randomized design in a split-plot, with seven treatments (elephant grass pure, soybean hulls (5 and 10% and corn meal (5 and 10% of isolated form or together in the same proportions totalizing 5 and 10%, three open times and three replications. There were used experimental silos made of bucket of 20 L. Silos were opened at 7, 14 and 28 days after ensiling, and evaluated the effluent losses, dry matter, pH, total titratable acidity (TTA and aerobic stability of silage. The use of additives in ensiling reduced the effluent losses. Dry matter varied with the use of additives, obtaining higher values for the silage with 10% soybean hulls or corn meal, in relation to elephant grass pure silage. The results of pH present interaction between treatment and time of opening, with the desired values 7 days after ensiling.The breaking of aerobic stability occurred 48 hours after opening the silo for the treatments containing corn meal alone or together with soybean hulls for both levels. The use of corn meal, either individually or in combination with soybean hulls, was effective in improving the standard of silage fermentation elephant grass, however, additional care should be taken about management after opening the silo. Objetivou-se com este trabalho, avaliar os efeitos do fubá de milho e da casca de soja na silagem de Pennisetum purpureum cv. Roxo Botucatu. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema de parcela subdividida, com sete tratamentos (capim-elefante puro, casca de soja (5 e 10% e fubá de milho (5 e 10% de forma isolada ou

  17. Influence of Dietary Supplementation of Condensed Tannins through Leaf Meal Mixture on Intake, Nutrient Utilization and Performance of Infected Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Pathak

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the effect of dietary supplementation of leaf meal mixture (LMM containing condensed tannins (CT on feed intake, nutrient utilization and performance of sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus. Eighteen adult sheep of similar age and body weight (25.03±1.52 were included in this study and out of these, 12 sheep were infected with single dose of infective third stage larvae of H. contortus at 2,000 larvae per sheep. The experimental sheep were allocated in three different groups’ i.e. negative control (NC; no infection, control (C; H. contortus infected and treatment (T; H. contortus infected+CT at 1.5% of the DM through LMM and the experiment was conducted for a period of 90 d. The intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM and digestibility of DM, OM, neutral detergent fibre (NDF and acid detergent fibre (ADF were comparable among three animal groups. However, digestibility of crude protein (CP and ether extract (EE were significantly (p<0.05 higher in NC group as compared to both C and T groups. Nitrogen (N retention (g/d or % of N intake was significantly (p = 0.038 lower in C group as compared to T and NC groups. Daily intake (g/kg W0.75 of digestible crude protein (DCP, digestible organic matter (DOM and total digestible nutrient (TDN did not differ significantly (p<0.05 in the three groups. Haemoglobin (Hb and packed cell volume (PCV were significantly (p<0.001 higher in treatment group as compared to control. The level of Hb and PCV reduced (p<0.001 after 30 days of experimental feeding. CT significantly (p<0.001 reduced serum urea in T group as compared to NC and C groups. Serum proteins differed significantly (p<0.01 among the three groups. The activity of serum enzymes AST, ALT, ALP and LDH were also statistically non significant (p<0.05 among treatments. The weight of abomasal lymph nodes (ALN in T group was higher (p<0.05 than in C group. Treatment group had lower (p<0.05 total worms and fecal egg count

  18. Coefficients of apparent absorption of the dietary nutrients from broiler feeds that include oil industry by-products (rapeseeds, grapes, buckthorn, flax and pumpkin meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Dumitra PANAITE

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A 42-day feeding trial was conducted on 120, day-old ROSS 308 chicks assigned to 4 (C; E1; E2; E3 groups. The broilers were housed in three-tier digestibility cages (5 broilers/cage which allowed the daily recording of the feed intake and excreta located in an experimental hall with controlled environmental conditions (27.07±2.750 C; humidity 64,80±9,57%; light regimen 23h. During the starter stage (1-10 days all chicks received a conventional compound feed (C. During the grower and finisher stages, compared to C formulation, the experimental diets different proportions, varying with the stage of development, of rapeseeds and grape meals (E1, buckthorn and flax meals (E2, pumpkin meal (lot E3. The balance study was conducted for 5 days, during weeks 4 and 6. During this period, average weights from each two cages (6 samples/group of feed consumed and excreta voided (dry matter basis were recorded and sampled for: dry matter, nitrogen, fat, fibre, ash and gross energy analysis. The chicks from E1 group had a lower (P≤0.05 coefficient of dietary nitrogen absorption than E2 chicks. The coefficients of apparent absorption of the dietary fat varied with the period of development. During the finishing stage, E3 chicks had a higher (P≤0.05 coefficient of fibre absorption than groups C, E1 and E2.

  19. Digestibility of energy, amino acids, and phosphorus in a novel source of soy protein concentrate and in soybean meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M S; Stein, H H

    2016-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA, DE and ME, and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in a new source of soy protein concentrate (SPC) and in soybean meal (SBM). In Exp. 1, 9 barrows (initial BW: 13.08 ± 1.98 kg) were prepared with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a triplicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 diets and 3 periods. A nitrogen-free diet and 2 diets that contained corn starch and SPC or SBM as the sole source of CP and AA were formulated. Each period lasted 7 d, and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. The SID for Ile, Leu, Phe, Pro, and Tyr was greater ( urine samples were collected using the marker to marker method with 5-d adaptation and 5-d collection periods. The DE and ME in SPC and SBM were calculated using the difference procedure. Results indicated that the ATTD of GE was lower ( < 0.05) in SBM than in corn and the DE and ME in SPC were greater ( < 0.01) than in corn and SBM. In Exp. 3, 40 barrows (initial BW: 14.12 ± 2.08 kg) were placed in metabolism crates and allotted to 4 diets in a randomized complete block design with 10 pigs per diet. Two diets were based on SPC or SBM as the sole source of P. Two additional diets were formulated by adding microbial phytase to diets that were otherwise similar to the 2 initial diets. Feces were collected for 5 d after a 5-d adaptation period and values for ATTD and STTD of P were calculated. No differences were observed in ATTD and STTD of P between SPC and SBM, but the ATTD and STTD of P of both SPC and SBM were greater ( < 0.01) if microbial phytase was added to the diets. In conclusion, the concentrations of DE and ME are greater in SPC than in SBM, but the SID of most AA and the STTD of P are not different between SPC and SBM.

  20. Substituição do farelo de soja pela farinha de glúten de milho na alimentação de cabras leiteiras Substitution of soybean meal protein by corn gluten meal protein in dairy goat feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Pego de Macedo

    2003-08-01

    the effect of substitution of soybean meal (SM protein by the protein from the corn gluten flour (CGF, in the milk production, milk composition, voluntary intake and plasmatic urea. The experimental design was the triple Latin square 4x4, with four periods of 21 days, being 14 days of adaptation to the diet and seven days for samples collection. The goats were fed and milked in the morning and afternoon. The substitution levels studied were: 0, 10, 30 and 50% of CGF (based in the crude protein. The substitution of the soybean meal by CGM did not affect the intake (kg/day and %BW of dry matter, crude protein and acid detergent fiber, but there was quadratic effect for neutral detergent fiber intake (kg/day and %BW. There was effect on the levels of plasmatic urea nitrogen (PUN, where the smallest values were in the intermediate levels of substitution, being the biggest values for the treatment with only SM. The milk production decreased lineally with the inclusion of CGM. The substitution levels resulted in lineal decrease in the fat production (kg/day, in the milk fat content (% and milk total solids content (%. There was quadratic effect for lactose production, being the smallest value for 31.6% of substitution level. It was no effect on in crude protein in the milk, which average was .083 kg/day. The crude protein content, lactose and total solids did not suffer effect of the substitution levels, being the average values of 2.98, 4.35 and 11.51%, respectively.

  1. Dietary High-Oleic Acid Soybean Oil Dose Dependently Attenuates Egg Yolk Content of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Laying Hens Fed Supplemental Flaxseed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, Robert G; Kukorowski, Alexandra N; Ying, Yun; Harvatine, Kevin J

    2018-02-01

    Chickens can hepatically synthesize eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) from α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 n-3); however, the process is inefficient and competitively inhibited by dietary linoleic acid (LNA; 18:2 n-6). In the present study, the influence of dietary high-oleic acid (OLA; 18:1 n-9) soybean oil (HOSO) on egg and tissue deposition of ALA and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) synthesized from dietary ALA was investigated in laying hens fed a reduced-LNA base diet supplemented with high-ALA flaxseed oil (FLAX). We hypothesized that reducing the dietary level of LNA would promote greater hepatic conversion of ALA to very long-chain (VLC; >20C) n-3 PUFA, while supplemental dietary HOSO would simultaneously further enrich eggs with OLA without influencing egg n-3 PUFA contents. Nine 51-week-old hens each were fed 0, 10, 20, or 40 g HOSO/kg diet for 12 weeks. Within each group, supplemental dietary FLAX was increased every 3 weeks from 0 to 10 to 20 to 40 g/kg diet. Compared to controls, dietary FLAX maximally enriched the total n-3 and VLC n-3 PUFA contents in egg yolk by 9.4-fold and 2.2-fold, respectively, while feeding hens 40 g HOSO/kg diet maximally attenuated the yolk deposition of ALA, VLC n-3 PUFA, and total n-3 PUFA by 37, 15, and 32%, respectively. These results suggest that dietary OLA is not neutral with regard to the overall process by which dietary ALA is absorbed, metabolized, and deposited into egg yolk, either intact or in the form of longer-chain/more unsaturated n-3 PUFA derivatives. © 2018 AOCS.

  2. Meal Distribution of Dietary Protein and Leucine Influences Long-Term Muscle Mass and Body Composition in Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Layne E; Wilson, Gabriel J; Moulton, Christopher J; Layman, Donald K

    2017-02-01

    Protein quantity and quality at a meal affect muscle protein synthesis (MPS); however, long-term effects of protein distribution at individual meals on adult muscle mass remain unknown. We used a precise feeding protocol in adult rats to determine if optimizing postmeal MPS response by modifying the meal distribution of protein, and the amino acid leucine (Leu), would affect muscle mass. Two studies were conducted with the use of male Sprague-Dawley rats (∼300 g) trained to consume 3 meals/d, then assigned to diet treatments with identical macronutrient contents (16% of energy from protein, 54% from carbohydrates, and 30% from fat) but differing in protein quality or meal distribution. Study 1 provided 16% protein at each meal with the use of whey, egg white, soy, or wheat gluten, with Leu concentrations of 10.9%, 8.8%, 7.7%, and 6.8% (wt:wt), respectively. Study 2 used whey protein with 16% protein at each meal [balanced distribution (BD)] or meals with 8%, 8%, and 27% protein [unbalanced distribution (UD)]. MPS and translation factors 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and ribosomal protein p70S6 (S6K) were determined before and after breakfast meals at 2 and 11 wk. Muscle weights and body composition were measured at 11 wk. In study 1, the breakfast meal increased MPS and S6K in whey and egg treatments but not in wheat or soy treatments. Gastrocnemius weight was greater in the whey group (2.20 ± 0.03 g) than the soy group (1.95 ± 0.04 g) (P 20% more body fat than the soy, egg, or whey groups (P protein and Leu influences MPS and long-term changes in adult muscle mass. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Dietary emulsifiers from milk and soybean differently impact adiposity and inflammation in association with modulation of colonic goblet cells in high-fat fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Manon; Couëdelo, Leslie; Meugnier, Emmanuelle; Plaisancié, Pascale; Létisse, Marion; Benoit, Bérengère; Gabert, Laure; Penhoat, Armelle; Durand, Annie; Pineau, Gaëlle; Joffre, Florent; Géloën, Alain; Vaysse, Carole; Laugerette, Fabienne; Michalski, Marie-Caroline

    2016-03-01

    Enhanced adiposity and metabolic inflammation are major features of obesity that could be impacted by dietary emulsifiers. We investigated in high-fat fed mice the effects of using a new polar lipid (PL) emulsifier from milk (MPL) instead of soybean lecithin (soybean PL [SPL]) on adipose tissue and intestinal mucosa function. Four groups of C57BL6 mice received for 8 wks a low-fat (LF) diet or a high-fat diet devoid of PLs or an high-fat diet including MPL (high-fat-MPL) or SPL (high-fat-SPL). Compared with high-fat diet, high-fat-SPL diet increased white adipose tissue (WAT) mass (p fat-MPL diet despite similar dietary intakes and increased expression of fatty acid transport protein 4 and microsomal TG transfer protein, involved in lipid absorption, in upper intestine (p fat-MPL mice had a lower expression in WAT of cluster of differentiation 68, marker of macrophage infiltration, versus high-fat and high-fat-SPL mice (p cells in the colon (p fat diet did not induce WAT hypertrophy and inflammation but increased colonic goblet cells. This supports further clinical exploration of different sources of dietary emulsifiers in the frame of obesity outbreak. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Processing soybeans of different origins : response of a Chinese and a western pig breed to dietary inclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, G.

    1996-01-01


    Soybeans (Glycine max) have high nutritional value for domestic animals, due to their protein and energy contents. The feeding effects of full-fat soybeans for non-ruminant and immature ruminant animals, however, are limited by the presence of some antinutritional

  5. Copper hydroxychloride improves growth performance and reduces diarrhea frequency of weanling pigs fed a corn-soybean meal diet but does not change apparent total tract digestibility of energy and acid hydrolyzed ether extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, C D; Fry, R S; Usry, J L; Stein, H H

    2017-12-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine effects of Cu hydroxychloride on DE and ME, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and acid hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE), and growth performance of pigs fed a diet based on corn and soybean meal (SBM). In Exp. 1, 80 weanling pigs (6.80 ± 1.69 kg) were allotted to 2 treatments with 4 pigs per pen and 10 pen replicates per diet. Pigs were fed a corn-SBM control diet that had Cu added to meet the requirement. A second diet was formulated by adding 150 mg Cu/kg from Cu hydroxychloride to the control diet. Both diets were fed for 4 wk. Results indicated that ADG, G:F, and final BW were greater ( ≤ 0.05) and fecal scores were reduced ( ≤ 0.05) for pigs fed the diet containing150 mg Cu/kg as hydroxychloride compared with pigs fed the control diet. In Exp. 2, 36 barrows (9.89 ± 1.21 kg) were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments and placed in metabolism crates. The control diet was based on corn and SBM and contained 20 mg Cu/kg. Two additional diets were formulated by adding 100 or 200 mg Cu/kg from Cu hydroxychloride to the control diet. Diets were fed for 28 d, with feces and urine being collected from d 9 to 14, d 16 to 21, and d 23 to 28. The DE and ME of diets and the ATTD of GE and AEE were not affected by dietary Cu concentrations, but increased ( < 0.01) by collection period. In Exp. 3, 150 pigs (10.22 ± 1.25 kg) were fed the same 3 diets as used in Exp. 2. Diets were provided on an ad libitum basis for 4 wk. Fecal scores were recorded, and on the last day of the experiment, blood samples were collected and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IgA, blood urea N, total protein, and albumin were measured. Phase 1 ADG and G:F and final BW on d 28 were greater ( ≤ 0.05) for pigs fed diets containing 100 or 200 mg Cu/kg supplemented by Cu hydroxychloride compared with pigs fed the control diet. Pigs fed the diets supplemented with Cu hydroxychloride also had reduced ( ≤ 0.05) overall fecal scores

  6. Meal frequency and dietary diversity feeding practices among children 6-23 months of age in Wolaita Sodo town, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Tefera Chane; Workie, Shimelash Bitew; Yimer, Tesfa Mekonen; Mersha, Wubalem Fekadu

    2017-05-19

    Child feeding practices are multidimensional, and they change rapidly within short age intervals. Suboptimal complementary feeding practices contribute to a rapid increase in the prevalence of undernutrition in children in the age of 6-23 months. Information on child feeding practices among urban resident is limited in Ethiopia. The aim was to measure minimum meal frequency and dietary diversity and associated factors among children 6-23 months of age in Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out to select 623 mothers/caregivers with 6-23 months of children reside in Wolaita Sodo town using systematic sampling from March 02 to 20, 2015. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to gather information on socio-demographic, child feeding practices and health-related characteristics. Data were entered to Epi-Data version 3.02 and transported to SPSS version 21 for further analysis. Binary logistic regression was used to see the association between the outcome variables and explanatory variables, and multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify independent predictors of minimum dietary diversity and meal frequency. The study revealed that the percentage of 6-23 months of children who meet the recommended level of minimum dietary diversity and meal frequency were 27.3 and 68.9%, respectively. Mothers/caregivers who were housewives and government employees feed their children more diversified foods as compared to mothers who were private workers. As compared to children 17-23 months of age, children in the age group of 6-8 and 9-11 months had better probability to meet minimum dietary diversity. Government-employed and illiterate mothers were less likely to feed their children to fulfil the minimum requirement of meal frequency. Children in the age of 9-11 months were also less likely to be fed frequently. Even though the study showed better progress as compared to the national prevalence of complementary

  7. The dietary effect of serving school meals based on the new Nordic diet – A randomised controlled trial in Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Christensen, Tue

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives: The OPUS study is a school-based intervention study testing selected health effects of New Nordic Diet (NND). Children are served lunch and snacks based on NND. The hypothesis is that Danish school children eat a healthier diet when receiving NND school meals as compared....... Results: 834 children from 9 schools were included and 96%, 89% and 80% filled out the first, second and third dietary assessment sufficiently (4-7 days), respectively. The preliminary results showed that the effect of serving NND resulted in a reduction in fat E% (P... and household education. Conclusions: Danish school children’s dietary intake of total and saturated fat decreased, fat E% decreased and protein E% increased when eating NND lunch and snacks compared to packed lunch brought from home. The OPUS project (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish...

  8. Effect of Substitution of Melon with Soybean on the Nutrient Content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional cakes were prepared from a blend of melon and soybean meal. The blended meal contained 10% and 20% soybean respectively while unblended meal contained 100% melon meal which served as control. Cakes obtained from the blends were analysed for proximate composition, amino acid content and ...

  9. Influence of dietary inclusion of untreated or heat-treated Jatropha meal on productive and reproductive performances and biochemical blood parameters of laying Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Hack, M E; Alagawany, M; El-Sayed, S A A; Fowler, J

    2017-08-01

    Jatropha meal (JM) has been characterized as a potential animal feedstuff due to its high crude protein content and high levels of essential amino acids. However, it contains anti-nutritive and toxic compounds that may hinder its use. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a dietary inclusion of raw Jatropha meal (RJM) and heat-treated Jatropha meal on the growth and production of laying Japanese quail using productive, reproductive, and biochemical blood parameters. A total number of 180 mature Japanese quail at 2 months of age (120 females and 60 males) was randomly divided into 4 treatment groups: control (0% JM); 3.5% RJM; 3.5% JM heated in an oven at 100°C for 24 h (JM24); and 3.5% JM heated in oven at 100°C for 48 h (JM48). After 8 wk on treatment diets, the inclusion of RJM to quail diets reduced (P quail diets led to significant decrease (P Japanese quail diets without detrimental effects on production, reproductive performance, and health status. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Effects of dietary corn gluten meal on growth performance and protein metabolism in relation to IGF-I and TOR gene expression of juvenile cobia ( Rachycentron canadum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yiwen; Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2013-09-01

    A growth experiment was conducted on cobia ( Rachycentron canadum, initial weight 108.2 g ± 3.0 g) to investigate the effects of dietary corn gluten meal (CGM) levels on the fish growth, whole body composition and protein metabolism in relation to specific gene expression. Five isonitrogenous (crude protein 45%) and isoenergetic (gross energy 20 kJ g-1) practical diets were formulated by replacing 0% (the control), 17.5%, 35.0%, 52.5%, and 70.0% of fish meal (FM) protein with CGM protein. No significant differences were observed in the survival, feed intake (FI), specific growth rate (SGR), feed efficiency (FE) and protein productive value (PPV) among fish fed diets with 0%, 17.5%, 35.0%, and 52.5% of CGM protein. However, these indices were significantly lower in fish fed the diet with 70.0% of CGM protein than those in fish fed the control diet ( P replaced by CGM, plasma total protein and cholesterol contents were significantly lower than those in the control group ( P replaced by CGM in the diets without significant influences on the growth, feed utilization and protein metabolism of juvenile cobia. The present results might be useful for developing cost effective and sustainable cobia dietary formulations.

  11. Does dietary insect meal affect the fish immune system? The case of mealworm, Tenebrio molitor on European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, M A; Gasco, L; Chatzifotis, S; Piccolo, G

    2018-04-01

    Feeding small European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, for 6 weeks with Tenebrio molitor larval meal showed significant anti-inflammatory responses (ceruloplasmin, myeloperoxidase and nitric oxide). Serum bacteriolytic activity against a Gram negative bacterium was not significantly affected by dietary Tenebrio, while both lysozyme antibacterial activity and serum trypsin inhibition usually linked to the anti-parasite activity of the fish, were significantly enhanced. The latter may be due to the similarities in the composition of the exoskeleton of parasites and insects that may therefore act as an immunostimulant potentially increasing the anti-parasitic activity. The addition of exogenous proteases significantly decreased both trypsin-inhibition and serum bacteriolytic activity probably through direct inhibition of the proteins responsible for these immune functions. Further investigation involving bacterial or parasitic challenges will be necessary to assess if the effects of dietary mealworm meal on the immune system observed in the present study are translated into an improved resistance to diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of substitution of soybean meal-alfalfa-maize by a combination of field bean or pea with hard wheat bran on digestion and growth performance in rabbits in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lounaouci-Ouyed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the trial was to study the effects of replacement of a soybean meal-alfalfa-maize based diet by a mixture of field bean (g/kg as fed: 257 crude protein [CP], 139 neutral detergent fibre [NDF] or pea (g/kg as fed: 203 CP, 122 NDF combined with hard wheat bran (g/kg as fed: 140 CP, 396 NDF and without supplementation of synthetic DL-methionine, on diet digestibility, growth and slaughter traits of growing rabbits. Three diets were formulated: a control diet mainly consisting of 15% of soybean meal, alfalfa and maize (SBM15 diet; g/kg as fed: 161 CP and 267 NDF and 2 experimental diets based on 26% of field bean (FB26 diet; g/kg as fed: 167 CP and 250 NDF or 30% of pea (P30 diet; g/kg as fed: 167 CP and 255 NDF as main protein source, and completed with hard wheat bran (34 and 40%, respectively for FB26 and P30 diets partly replacing alfalfa and maize. Diets were distributed ad libitum to 3 groups of 40 mixed-sex growing rabbits of Algerian white population, placed in collective cages (4 rabbits/cage from weaning (28 d, mean weight: 614±112 g until 77 d of age (slaughter. Faecal digestibility was measured between 42 and 46 d of age in 7 rabbits/group. Gross energy and crude protein digestibility coefficients were similar for SBM15 and FB26 diets (78.6 and 86.4%, respectively and lower for P30 diet (75.1 and 83.6%, respectively; P≤0.03. Treatments had no effect (P=0.12 on mortality rate, which was on av. 9.2%. Treatments did not affect growth performance from 28 to 77 d of age (30.8 g/d or feed intake (mean 94.6 g/d, but feed conversion ratio was higher for rabbits fed FB26 and P30 diets compared to those fed SBM15 diet (3.13 vs. 2.94; P=0.006. The dressing out percentages (mean 66.6% and the muscle/bone ratio (6.8 were similar for the 3 groups of rabbits. In conclusion, the substitution of soybean meal-alfalfa-maize by a combination of field bean or pea with hard wheat bran, without methionine supplementation, does not seem to affect

  13. Passage and absorption of dietary and endogenous nitrogen in different regions of the digestive tract of rats given a single meal of 15N-labelled barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, I.G.; Simon, O.; Bergner, H.

    1985-01-01

    Young male Wistar rats (86.9 +- 0.96 g) were fasted for 24 hours and then offered a single meal (intake of 1 to 2.5 g) of 15 N-labelled barley (5.34 atom% 15 N excess). The test meal also contained Cr 2 O 3 (20 mg/g). Groups of five animals were killed 0.5; 1; 1.5; 2; 2.5; 4; 6 and 8 hours after removal of food. The contents of different regions of the digestive tract (stomach, proximal, middle and distal third of small intestine, large intestine) and feces were analyzed for Cr 2 O 3 and for N and 15 N abundance in both a TCA soluble and a TCA precipitable fraction. The distribution patterns of Cr 2 O 3 and 15 N along the digestive tract were very similar. If the disappearance of 15 N from the contents of the small and of the large intestines was expressed as a proportion of the gastric outflow of 15 N, a disappearance rate of 90% was found. On the basis of isotopic dilution the proportion of dietary nitrogen in digesta was calculated. The results illustrated the intensive dilution of dietary nitrogen by endogenous secretions in all regions of the digestive tract. In the distal small intestine endogenous nitrogen accounted for 70% of total nitrogen. 17 mg endogenous N were produced by the stomach within 8 hours after the single meal. The results show the value of the method in determining the true digestibility of nitrogen in 15 N-labelled feedstuffs more accurately than with classical methods and in providing an insight into the dynamics of nitrogen absorption and secretion in the digestive tract. (author)

  14. Effect of dietary energy density and meal size on growth performance, eating pattern, and carcass and meat quality in Holstein steers fed high-concentrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, S; Pérez, M; Aris, A; Bach, A; Devant, M

    2014-08-01

    A total of 121 steers (162 ± 3.0 kg BW and 148 ± 2.7 d old) were used to study the effect of dietary energy density and meal size (limiting the amount of concentrate delivered at each feeder visit) on performance, hormones associated with the regulation of intake, and carcass and meat quality. Steers were allocated by BW to 6 pens. Each pen had the same BW mean and CV, and pens were randomly assigned to 3 treatments (2 pens/treatment): a concentrate of moderate energy density (3.23 Mcal ME/kg, 6.2% ether extract) fed for ad libitum intake with no control on meal size (CTR), a concentrate of high-energy density (3.43 Mcal ME/kg, 8.3% ether extract) fed for ad libitum intake with no control on meal size (HE), and the same high-energy concentrate offered for ad libitum intake but with meal size limited to a maximum concentrate delivery of 0.6 kg DM/visit (HELM). Body weight was recorded every 14 d; concentrate consumption and eating pattern were recorded daily. On d 163, blood samples were collected to determine serum concentrations of leptin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK), glucose, and insulin. After slaughter (on d 166 to 170), the 9-10-11 rib section was removed to estimate separable bone, lean, and fat. Meat quality of LM was analyzed. Data were analyzed using a mixed-effects model with repeated measures. Steers in the HELM treatment had a lower (P hormones related to intake compared with CTR and HE, but no effect on rib fat distribution and meat quality was observed.

  15. Effects of a soybean-free diet supplied to Italian heavy pigs on fattening performance, and meat and dry-cured ham quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Sardi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a diet containing non-conventional (i.e. alternative to soybean meal vegetable protein sources on fattening performance, and meat and dry-cured ham quality of heavy pigs. Fifty-six (Landrace x Large White castrated males with an initial average body weight of 50 kg were allocated to two experimental groups: a control group in which pigs received a traditional soybean meal-based diet, and a treatment group in which soybean meal was replaced by vegetable protein sources (i.e. sunflower meal, potato protein, corn gluten feed, faba beans and dehydrated alfalfa meal, mainly locally grown and not genetically modified. Pigs were slaughtered at approximately 160 kg body weight. Dietary treatment had no significant effect on fattening performance, or meat, fat or dry-cured ham properties. Results suggest that it is possible to feed heavy pigs a soybean-free diet without impairing fattening performance or the quality of meat and Italian PDO (Protected Designation of Origin hams.

  16. Nutrient adequacy during weight loss interventions: a randomized study in women comparing the dietary intake in a meal replacement group with a traditional food group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bovee Vicki

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safe and effective weight control strategies are needed to stem the current obesity epidemic. The objective of this one-year study was to document and compare the macronutrient and micronutrient levels in the foods chosen by women following two different weight reduction interventions. Methods Ninety-six generally healthy overweight or obese women (ages 25–50 years; BMI 25–35 kg/m2 were randomized into a Traditional Food group (TFG or a Meal Replacement Group (MRG incorporating 1–2 meal replacement drinks or bars per day. Both groups had an energy-restricted goal of 5400 kJ/day. Dietary intake data was obtained using 3-Day Food records kept by the subjects at baseline, 6 months and one-year. For more uniform comparisons between groups, each diet intervention consisted of 18 small group sessions led by the same Registered Dietitian. Results Weight loss for the 73% (n = 70 completing this one-year study was not significantly different between the groups, but was significantly different (p ≤ .05 within each group with a mean (± standard deviation weight loss of -6.1 ± 6.7 kg (TFG, n = 35 vs -5.0 ± 4.9 kg (MRG, n = 35. Both groups had macronutrient (Carbohydrate:Protein:Fat ratios that were within the ranges recommended (50:19:31, TFG vs 55:16:29, MRG. Their reported reduced energy intake was similar (5729 ± 1424 kJ, TFG vs 5993 ± 2016 kJ, MRG. There was an improved dietary intake pattern in both groups as indicated by decreased intake of saturated fat (≤ 10%, cholesterol ( Conclusion In this one-year university-based intervention, both dietitian-led groups successfully lost weight while improving overall dietary adequacy. The group incorporating fortified meal replacements tended to have a more adequate essential nutrient intake compared to the group following a more traditional food group diet. This study supports the need to incorporate fortified foods and/or dietary supplements while following an energy

  17. Substituição do farelo de soja pela mistura raspa de mandioca e uréia em dietas para vacas mestiças em lactação Replacement of soybean meal with urea plus cassava scrapings in diets for crossbred lactating cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pimentel Ramalho

    2006-06-01

    , the increasing dietary levels of urea plus cassava sacrapings did not affetc the intakes of NDF (% BW, ADF, NFC, and TDN. Apparent digestibilities of all nutrients showed significant quadratic effects with increasing urea plus cassava scrapings. Milk yield, milk yield corrected for 4.0% fat and milk fat yield all decreased linearly by 30, 20 and, 0.8 g/day, respectively, while fat content and feed efficiency, expressed as kg of 4.0% fat corrected milk/kg of DM, were not changed by decreasing soybean meal in the diet.

  18. Urinary calcium and oxalate excretion in healthy adult cats are not affected by increasing dietary levels of bone meal in a canned diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Passlack

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the impact of dietary calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P, derived from bone meal, on the feline urine composition and the urinary pH, allowing a risk assessment for the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx uroliths in cats. Eight healthy adult cats received 3 canned diets, containing 12.2 (A, 18.5 (B and 27.0 g Ca/kg dry matter (C and 16.1 (A, 17.6 (B and 21.1 g P/kg dry matter (C. Each diet was fed over 17 days. After a 7 dayś adaptation period, urine and faeces were collected over 2×4 days (with a two-day rest between, and blood samples were taken. Urinary and faecal minerals, urinary oxalate (Ox, the urinary pH and the concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH were analyzed. Moreover, the urine was microscopically examined for CaOx uroliths. The results demonstrated that increasing levels of dietary Ca led to decreased serum PTH and Ca and increased faecal Ca and P concentrations, but did not affect the urinary Ca or Ox concentrations or the urinary fasting pH. The urinary postprandial pH slightly increased when the diet C was compared to the diet B. No CaOx crystals were detected in the urine of the cats. In conclusion, urinary Ca excretion in cats seems to be widely independent of the dietary Ca levels when Ca is added as bone meal to a typical canned diet, implicating that raw materials with higher contents of bones are of subordinate importance as risk factors for the formation of urinary CaOx crystals.

  19. Digestibilidade de nutrientes em dietas de bovinos contendo uréia ou amiréia em substituição ao farelo de soja Nutrient digestibility in cattle diet with urea or starea replacing soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Cunha de Oliveira Junior

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar efeitos da substituição do farelo de soja por uréia ou amiréia na digestibilidade de nutrientes e alguns parâmetros ruminais em bovinos. Seis novilhos da raça Nelore, com massa média inicial de 420 kg, foram utilizados em um delineamento de quadrado latino 3x3 duplicado. O farelo de soja foi utilizado em uma dieta deficiente em proteína degradável no rúmen, e a uréia e amiréia, em uma dieta adequada em proteína degradável no rúmen. O bagaço de cana-de-açúcar in natura foi a única fonte de volumoso (20% da matéria seca. O farelo de soja promoveu menor (P0,05 entre os tratamentos. A digestibilidade da fibra em detergente ácido e fibra em detergente neutro foi superior (P0,05 nos valores de pH, ácidos graxos voláteis total, acetato, propionato, butirato e relação acetato:propionato do fluido ruminal. Observou-se maior (P0,05 entre os tratamentos com uréia e amiréia. A substituição total do farelo de soja por uréia ou amiréia, ajustando a proteína degradável no rúmen na dieta de bovinos de corte, é viável.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of replacement of soybean meal by urea or starea on nutrient digestibility and ruminal parameters in bulls. Six Nellore bulls, with 420 kg of initial body mass, were used to evaluate the effects of replacing a true protein source (soybean meal, in a ruminal degradability protein deficient diet, by urea or starea, both in a ruminal degradability protein adjusted diets, on nutrient digestibility and ruminal parameters in beef cattle. In natura sugarcane bagasse was the only source of forage (20% of dry matter. Soybean meal treatment reduced (P0.05 in dry matter, organic matter, non-fiber carbohydrates, ether extract and crude protein apparent digestibility (% among treatments. Acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber digestibilities (% were higher (P0.05 for pH values, total rumen volatile fatty acid molar

  20. Meeting the Dietary Goals for School Meals by the Year 2000: The CATCH Eat Smart School Nutrition Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, Theresa A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Provides an overview of the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) Eat Smart School Nutrition Program, an elementary school health promotion program. The article examines components of the CATCH kitchen visits and intervention materials, including the School Meal Program Guide, Fat and Sodium Criteria, Recipe File Box, Vendor…

  1. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauson Anne-Helene

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets. The control diet was based on soybean meal. In the other three diets soybean meal was replaced with increasing levels of BPM, approximately 17%, 35%, and 50% of the nitrogen being derived from BPM. Blood samples from the jugular vein were taken when the body weights of the pigs were approximately 10 kg, 21 kg, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver function were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended to increase (P = 0.07 with increasing dietary BPM content. It was concluded that up to 50% of the nitrogen could be derived from BPM without affecting metabolic function, as reflected in the measured blood parameters.

  2. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise F; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets. The control diet was based on soybean meal. In the other three diets soybean meal was replaced with increasing levels of BPM, approximately 17%, 35%, and 50% of the nitrogen being derived from BPM. Blood samples from the jugular vein were taken when the body weights of the pigs were approximately 10 kg, 21 kg, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver function were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively) with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended to increase (P = 0.07) with increasing dietary BPM content. It was concluded that up to 50% of the nitrogen could be derived from BPM without affecting metabolic function, as reflected in the measured blood parameters. PMID:17996082

  3. Effects of dietary supplementation with krill meal on pigmentation and quality of flesh of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sirri

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of administration of krill meal and synthetic astaxanthin during the finisher phase of the fattening cycle of rainbow trout on flesh pigmentation and quality traits were studied. The inclusion of krill meal increased the body weight and size and decreased the peri-visceral fat and visceral weight indices. The astaxanthin diet produced the highest accumulation of total carotenoids in the fillet compared to the krill meal diet: the difference was significant after 15 days of feeding (2.50 vs 2.10 mg/kg till the end of the trial (5.00 vs 4.80 mg/kg. The same pattern was observed for astaxanthin concentration with the highest values in the fillets of fish fed the astaxanthin diet. Fillet lightness (L* was not affected by trout diets whereas redness (a* and yellowness (b* were significantly higher in fish fed the astaxanthin diet until day 30 of the trial. Hue was not affected by feeding, whereas chroma was significantly higher in the fish fed astaxanthin throughout the trial except on day 45 of sampling. Trout fed the krill meal diet had a paler pink-red colour on the SalmoFan scale than those receiving the astaxanthin diet. No significant differences emerged in proximate composition and cholesterol content of trout in the two groups. The fatty acid profile of the fillets reflected the fatty acids of the diets administered to the trout: eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic and docosapentaenoic acids and total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were significantly higher in the fish fed the krill meal.

  4. Changes in oxygen content and acid-base balance in arterial and portal blood in response to the dietary electrolyte balance in pigs during a 9-h period after a meal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dersjant-Li, Y.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Jansman, A.; Schulze, H.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of two dietary electrolyte balance (dEB, Na K - Cl-) levels on arterial and portal blood oxygen content, blood pH, and acid-base status in pigs was studied during a 9-h period after a meal, using a crossover experimental design. The dEB levels were established by changing the Cl- level in

  5. Nutritional evaluation of soybean meal after fermentation with two fish gut bacterial strains, Bacillus cereus LRF5 and Staphylococcus caprae CCF2 in for-mulated diets for Labeo rohita fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhas Kumar Dan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Twelve isonitrogenous (35 % crude protein and isocaloric (18.0 kJ/g diets were formulated incorporating raw and fermented soybean meal (SBM at 15%, 30%, 45% and 60% levels by weight. Two phytase-producing bacterial strains, Bacillus cereus LRF5 and Staphylococcus caprae CCF2 isolated from the gut of adult Labeo rohita and Catla catla, respectively were used for fermentation of SBM. Fermentation of SBM was effective in reducing the anti-nutritional factors, trypsin inhibitor and phytic acid and enhancing protein, lipid and mineral concentration. The response of L. rohita, fingerlings (initial weight 3.33±0.07 g fed the experimental diets for 100 days was compared with fish fed a fish meal based diet. In terms of growth, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio, diet S7 containing 45% SBM fermented with B. cereus LRF5 resulted in a significantly (P<0.05 better performance of fish. The overall performance of L. rohita fed fermented SBM incorporated diets was better in comparison to those fed raw SBM incorporated diets. The apparent digestibility of nutrients and minerals was significantly (P<0.05 higher in fish fed diet S7. The maximum deposition of protein in the carcass was recorded in fish fed diet S7. Diets containing fermented SBM reduced fecal P levels. The use of this fermented feed will definitely increase the production in fish farm. Furthermore, it will also reduce the production cost, as fish meal protein is costly in the market.

  6. Effect of dietary supplementation of sea buckthorn and giloe leaf meal on the body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, biochemical attributes, and meat composition of turkey poults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Sharma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In the recent past, few studies have been carried out about sea buckthorn (SBT and giloe in chicken as a part of the quest for suitable alternatives to antibiotics. However, studies in turkeys are lacking. Hence, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of SBT and giloe leaf meal by dietary feed supplementation in turkey poults. Materials and Methods: A total of 1-day-old turkey poults (n=84 of small white variety were distributed into four dietary treatments having three replicates each with seven birds. The study was conducted in turkey poults during 0-8 weeks of age. During the experiment, the poults were fed basal ration (28% crude protein [CP], 2800 Kcal/kg ME T1, T2-basal ration was supplemented with SBT leaf meal powder at 0.5%, T3-basal ration was supplemented with giloe leaf meal powder at 0.5%, and T4-basal ration was fed along with supplementation of both SBT at 0.5% and giloe leaf meal powder at 0.5%. Results: T2 turkey poults had a significantly higher (p<0.01 body weight gain than T3 and T4 at 7th week of age. Weekly body weight gain was significantly higher (p<0.05 in T2 than T3 during 5th-8th week and 0-8th week of the growth phase. Feed conversion ratio (FCR was significantly better (p<0.01 in T2 than other treatment groups during 4th-8th week phase of growth (2.09 vs. 2.36, 2.29 and 2.31. Further, FCR was significantly better (p<0.01 in T2 group as compared to other treatment groups during 0-8th week of growth phase (1.95 vs. 2.21, 2.21 and 2.12. Plasma uric acid was found significantly increased (p<0.05 in T1 than T3 and T4, and alkaline phosphatase value was significantly higher (p<0.05 in T1 and T3 than T2. Zinc content of breast (pectoralis major muscles was significantly higher (p<0.05 in T2 and T4 as compared to T1, while ether extract (EE in thigh (ilio tibialis muscles was significantly higher (p<0.05 in T2 as compared to the other treatment groups. Conclusion: It may be concluded that

  7. Dietary supplementation with soybean oligosaccharides increases short-chain fatty acids but decreases protein-derived catabolites in the intestinal luminal content of weaned Huanjiang mini-piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Li; Kong, Xiang-Feng; Lian, Guo-Qi; Blachier, Francois; Geng, Mei-Mei; Yin, Yu-Long

    2014-09-01

    The improvement of gut health and function with prebiotic supplements after weaning is an active area of research in pig nutrition. The present study was conducted to test the working hypothesis that medium-term dietary supplementation with soybean oligosaccharides (SBOS) can affect the gut ecosystem in terms of microbiota composition, luminal bacterial short-chain fatty acid and ammonia concentrations, and intestinal expression of genes related to intestinal immunity and barrier function. Ten Huanjiang mini-piglets, weaned at 21 days of age, were randomly assigned to 2 groups. Each group received a standard diet containing either dietary supplementation with 0.5% corn starch (control group) or 0.5% SBOS (experimental group). The results showed that dietary supplementation with SBOS increased the diversity of intestinal microflora and elevated (P supplementation also increased the concentration of short-chain fatty acid in the intestinal lumen, and it reduced (P protein-derived catabolites (e.g., isobutyrate, isovalerate, and ammonia). In addition, SBOS supplementation increased (P supplementation modifies the intestinal ecosystem in weaned Huanjiang mini-piglets and has potentially beneficial effects on the gut. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of dietary soybean isoflavones on non-specific immune responses and hepatic antioxidant abilities and mRNA expression of two heat shock proteins (HSPs) in juvenile golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus under pH stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuanpeng; Lin, Heizhao; Huang, Zhong; Wang, Jun; Wang, Yun; Yu, Wei

    2015-12-01

    This study determined the effect of dietary soybean isoflavones on non-specific immunity and on mRNA expression of two HSPs in juvenile golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus under pH stress. Six diets were formulated to contain 0, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/kg of soybean isoflavones. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish in cylindrical tanks. After 56 days of feeding, 15 fish per tank were exposed to pH stress (pH ≈ 9.2) for 24 h. Serum total protein (TP), respiratory burst activity (RBA), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), lysozyme (LYZ), complement 3 (C3), complement 4 (C4), cortisol, hepatic total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and the relative mRNA expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and 90 (HSP90) were investigated. The results showed that after pH stress, serum TP, RBA, LYZ, C4, hepatic T-AOC and CAT levels were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) while serum ALT, hepatic MDA and HSP70 and HSP90 mRNA expression levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05). On the other hand, supplementation with soybean isoflavones significantly reduced levels of serum ALT (20, 40, 60 mg/kg soybean isoflavones groups) and hepatic MDA (40, 60 and 80 mg/kg soybean isoflavones groups). Supplemented groups had increased serum TP content (40 mg/kg soybean isoflavones groups), RBA (20 and 40 mg/kg soybean isoflavones groups), LYZ (40 and 60 mg/kg soybean isoflavones groups), C3(20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/kg soybean isoflavones groups), hepatic SOD activity (40, 60 and 80 mg/kg soybean isoflavones groups) as well as increased relative mRNA expression of hepatic HSP70 (40, 60 and 80 mg/kg soybean isoflavones groups) and HSP90 (40 and 60 mg/kg soybean isoflavones groups) (P < 0.05). These results indicate that ingestion of a basal diet supplemented with 40-60 mg/kg soybean isoflavones could enhance resistance against pH stress in T. Ovatus to some degree

  9. Effect of dietary fish meal replacement by red algae, Gracilaria arcuata, on growth performance and body composition of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, El-Sayed M; Al-Quffail, Abdullah S; Al-Asgah, Nasser A; Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A; Al-Hafedh, Yousef S

    2018-02-01

    A 12-week long feeding experiment was initiated to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of red algae, Gracilaria arcuata , on the growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758). The fish were fed with an algae-free control diet (C) and three experimental diets which replaced conventional fish meal with varying levels of dried G. arcuata (20%, 40% and 60%, represented as G20, G40 and G60, respectively). The growth parameters of final weight (FW), weight gain (WG), percentage of weight gain (WG%), daily growth rate (DGR) and specific growth rate (SGR) were significantly reduced (P algae incorporation compared to the control diet. Moreover, the negative impact of Gracilaria meal on the growth performance of Nile tilapia increased as the proportion of algae in the diet increased, with fish on diet G20 exhibiting a significantly higher growth performance than the fish on either of the G40 and G60 diets. On the other hand, the feed utilization parameters feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) did not show significant differences between the fish in the control group and those on diet G20, although poorer FCR and PER outcomes were achieved in the case of fish on diet G60. The content of moisture, protein and ash in muscle and carcass increased as the proportion of Gracilaria meal in the diets increased, but the reverse was true for lipid level. These results indicate that incorporation of less than 20% red algae, Gracilaria arcuata , could be feasible in the diet of Nile tilapia and further studies are recommended to optimize the level of algae to improve growth performance.

  10. No difference in acute effects of supplemental v. dietary calcium on blood pressure and microvascular function in obese women challenged with a high-fat meal: a cross-over randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Thaís da Silva; Leal, Priscila Mansur; Antunes, Vanessa Parada; Sanjuliani, Antonio Felipe; Klein, Márcia Regina Simas Torres

    2016-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that supplemental Ca (SC) increases the risk of cardiovascular events, whereas dietary Ca (DC) decreases the risk of cardiovascular events. Although frequently consumed with meals, it remains unclear whether Ca can mitigate or aggravate the deleterious effects of a high-fat meal on cardiovascular risk factors. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of SC or DC on blood pressure (BP) and microvascular function (MVF) in the postprandial period in obese women challenged with a high-fat meal. In this cross-over controlled trial, sixteen obese women aged 20-50 years were randomly assigned to receive three test meals (2908 kJ (695 kcal); 48 % fat): high DC (HDCM; 547 mg DC), high SC (HSCM; 500 mg SC-calcium carbonate) and low Ca (LCM; 42 mg DC). BP was continuously evaluated from 15 min before to 120 min after meals by digital photoplethysmography. Before and 120 min after meals, participants underwent evaluation of serum Ca and microvascular flow after postocclusive reactive hyperaemia (PORH) by laser speckle contrast imaging. Ionised serum Ca rose significantly only after HSCM. Systolic BP increased after the three meals, whereas diastolic BP increased after LCM and HDCM. Hyperaemia peak, hyperaemia amplitude and AUC evaluated after PORH decreased with LCM. After HDCM, there was a reduction in hyperaemia peak and hyperaemia amplitude, whereas HSCM decreased only hyperaemia peak. However, comparative analyses of the effects of three test meals on serum Ca, BP and MVF revealed no significant meal×time interaction. This study suggests that in obese women SC and DC do not interfere with the effects of a high-fat meal on BP and MVF.

  11. Screening of leaf meals as feed supplements in the culture of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protein content (26.3%) followed by Gliricidia leaf meal (22.9%) and Stylosanthes leaf meal (19.5%). All the four diets (A – D) were formulated with maize flour, soybean, fish meal, blood meal and the respective leaf meals and crude protein content ranged from 30.57 – 36.42 %. The diets were distributed randomly to twelve ...

  12. Effects of dietary sweet potato leaf meal on the growth, non-specific immune responses, total phenols and antioxidant capacity in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmann, Rebecca T; Islam, Shahidul; Phillips, Harold; Adam, Zelalem; Everette, Jace

    2013-04-01

    Traditional energy sources in catfish diets have become costly, and economical alternatives are needed. Sweet potato leaves are underutilised agricultural by-products that provide energy and substantial amounts of phenols, which affect animal and human health. There is little information on the effects of these compounds on catfish, or the capacity of catfish to accumulate dietary phenols. Catfish enriched with phenols have marketing potential as functional foods. This study investigated the effects of diets with sweet potato leaf meal (SPLM) on growth performance, health and total phenolic compounds in catfish. SPLM was substituted for wheat middlings in three diets fed to groups of juvenile catfish for 10 weeks. Weight gain, feed conversion, survival, alternative complement activity and lysozyme activity were similar among diets. Haematocrit was lower in fish fed diets with SPLM, but within the normal range. Total phenols and antioxidant capacity in the whole body were similar among treatments. SPLM was an effective energy source for catfish up to the maximum level tested (230 g kg(-1) diet). SPLM did not enhance total phenols in catfish, but there were no apparent antinutritional effects of the meal on catfish growth, health or survival. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Improving effect of dietary soybean phospholipids supplement on hepatic and serum indexes relevant to fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Ruan, Jiming; Wang, Tiancheng; Luo, Junrong; Cao, Huabin; Song, Yalu; Huang, Jianzhen; Hu, Guoliang

    2017-11-01

    In order to investigate the effect of dietary soybean phospholipid supplement on hepatic and serum indexes relevant to fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) in layers, 135 300-day-old Hyline Brown layers were randomly divided into three groups (control, pathology and prevention), and each group had 45 layers with three replicates. Birds in the three groups were respectively fed the control diet, high-energy low-protein diet and high-energy high-protein diet affixed with 3% soybean phospholipid instead of maize. Results showed in the 30th day, birds' livers in the pathology group became yellowish, enlarged in size and had hemorrhagic spots, while the prevention and control groups' layers did not have such pathological changes. Contents of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein - cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acid and malondialdehyde in serum or liver homogenate in prevention and control groups were remarkably lower than those in the pathology group (P fatty liver disease. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Enzymatic solubilisation and degradation of soybean fibre demonstrated by viscosity, fibre analysis and microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Jonas Laukkonen; Martens, Helle Juel; Pettersson, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The effect of a commercial multienzyme product obtained by fermentation from Aspergillus aculeatus on soybean and soybean meal was investigated using viscosity measurements, dietary fibre component analysis and different microscopy techniques utilizing histochemical dyes and antibody labelling......-starch polysaccharide analysis of the insoluble dietary fibre constituents before and after enzyme treatment corroborated the visualized mode of action demonstrated by microscopy. The combination of techniques provided visual and quantitative measurements of the solubilisation and degradation of hemicellulose pectic....... The results obtained demonstrated a strong viscosity reducing effect of the enzyme preparation on soluble galactomannan and xyloglucan polysaccharides and in addition non-starch polysaccharide analysis demonstrated a notable solubilisation of all polysaccharide constituents. The degradation...

  15. Hazelnut meal in diets for seawater farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss: effects on growth performance and body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Bilen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 77-day feeding trial was designed in order to assess the effect of partial or total replacement of soybean meal by hazelnut meal (HNM on feed intake, growth performance, nutrient utilization and body composition of rainbow trout (initial mean body weight: 80.0±3.5 g in seawater conditions. A control and three experimental diets were formulated in which soybean meal level (25.5% in the control diet was replaced by hazelnut meal at 39.2 (HN 39, 78.4 (HN 78 and 100% (HN 100 to provide 44% crude protein and 20% crude lipid diets. Diets were fed to 125 rainbow trout to apparent satiation by hand twice daily at 09.00 and 16.00 hours under natural photoperiod conditions. At the end of the feeding trial, fish of all groups almost tripled their body weight and no significant difference (P>0.05 was revealed in final weight or specific growth rate between treatments. However, feed conversion ratio (FCR of the HN100 group was significantly higher than other treatments (P<0.05. There was a slightly decreasing trend in protein efficiency ratio (PER and net protein utilization (NPU with increasing level of dietary hazelnut meal, but it was only significant in groups of fish fed HN100. All groups of fish displayed similar carcass and muscle compositions. According to the results of the present study, it can be stated that hazelnut meal can replace soybean meal at up to 200 g kg-1 in grow-out diets of rainbow trout without any detrimental effects on growth performance.

  16. Effects of dietary vitamin C and soybean lecithin in the nutrition of brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus L. fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Aničić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different forms of vitamin C and soybean lecithin on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus, Lesuer 1819 were evaluated during a 9-week growth trial. A special interest was to investigate a possible combine effect of these nutritional components. The diets used contained three forms of vitamin C (crystallized ascorbic acid, encapsulated L-ascorbic acid and Ca-L-threonate (100 mg/kg with and without the combination of soybean lecithin. Besides control diet (K, one more diet was supplemented with soybean lecithin (L only. One-hundred-ninety-two brown bullhead of about 45 g initial body weight was randomly divided in 24 tanks (115 L each. Testing conditions included 8 fish per tank, with triplicate tanks for treatment. All diets with supplemented components had higher final weight. Specific growth rate, feed conversion rate and condition factor were significantly higher with encapsulated vitamin C diets (CC, CCL, followed by the results of enriched ascorbic acid diets. Vitamin C and lecithin supplementation showed positive influence on significantly higher number of erythrocytes, haematocrit, triglycerides and total protein. Vitamin C content of muscle and liver tissue was not uniform and was significantly higher in AAL, CCL, CC and AA feeding groups. The fatty acids profile of muscle and liver tissue showed that phospholipids from soybean lecithin and vitamin C diets enhanced the quality of usable part of the fish body. Combine supplementation of vitamin C and soy lecithin indicated positive production effects, but did not cause a statistically significant difference.

  17. Effect of dietary protein source on piglet meat quality characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis E Simitzis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of different dietary protein sources (soybean meal vs whey protein on piglet meat quality characteristics. Eighteen castrated male Large White × Duroc × Landrace piglets were randomly assigned to 2 groups. Piglets were kept in individual metabolic cages and fed ad libitum over a period of 38 days the following 2 diets: diet SB, which was formulated to meet the nutrient requirements of piglets using soybean meal as the main crude protein source and diet WP, where SB was totally replaced by a mixture of whey proteins on equal digestible energy and crude protein basis. At the end of the experiment, piglets were weighed and slaughtered. After overnight chilling, samples of Longissimus dorsi muscle were taken and were used for meat quality measurements.          No significant differences were observed in the values of pH, colour, water holding capacity, shear force and intramuscular fat content of L. dorsi muscle between the dietary treatments. Measurement of lipid oxidation values showed that dietary supplementation with different protein sources did not influence meat antioxidant properties during refrigerated storage. The SB piglets had lower 14:0 (P<0.01 and higher 18:3n-3 (P<0.001 levels in intramuscular fat in comparison with WP piglets. However, these changes were attributed to background differences in the dietary FA profile and not to a direct protein source effect. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the examined dietary protein sources (soybean meal or whey protein do not have a significant effect on meat quality characteristics of piglets.

  18. FARELO DE SOJA EM SUBSTITUIÇÃO À UREIA EM DIETAS PARA BOVINOS DE CORTE EM CRESCIMENTO SOYBEAN MEAL AS A REPLACEMENT FOR UREA ON GROWING BEEF STEERS DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano José de Resende Fernandes

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar se novilhos machos não castrados destinados à engorda em regime de confinamento durante a fase de crescimento responderiam ao incremento de proteína metabolizável calculado pelo NCR (1996, Nível I, por meio da adição de farelo de soja à dieta, em substituição parcial ou total à ureia. Utilizaram-se vinte e quatro novilhos da raça Nelore e doze da raça Canchim, com peso vivo inicial médio de 230 kg e idade inicial média de quinze meses. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso. Formularam-se as dietas de modo a se obter um balanço de proteína degradável no rúmen (PDR positivo e energia metabolizável suficiente para ganho de peso diário de 1,3 kg/animal/dia em todos os tratamentos, sendo: ureia (U, farelo de soja + ureia (FSU e farelo de soja (FS. Não se detectou diferença no consumo de matéria seca (MS entre os tratamentos (P>0,05. O ganho de peso médio diário (GPD no tratamento U (1,14 kg/animal/dia foi menor (P<0,05 que os observados para nos tratamentos FSU (1,26 kg/animal/dia e FS (1,28 kg/animal/dia. Apesar da diferença entre os valores preditos pelo NRC (1996, Nível I e os efetivamente observados em relação ao GPD, concluiu-se que há necessidade da inclusão de fonte suplementar de proteína verdadeira na dieta de bovinos machos não castrados em fase crescimento.

    PALAVRAS- CHAVES: Canchim, desempenho animal, Nelore, novilhos, proteína. The aim of this trial was to evaluate if non-castrated growing beef steers in feedlot systems would respond to increasing levels of metabolizable protein in the diet estimated by NRC (1996, Level I, through the addition of soybean meal in substitution of urea. Thirty-six steers (24 Nelore and 12 Canchim with liveweight of 230 kg and 15 months of age were assigned in a completely randomized block design. Diets were formulated according to NRC (1996, Level I in order to obtain a positive rumen degradable protein

  19. Contribution of lead in wine to the total dietary intake of lead in humans with and without a meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulson, B.L.; Gray, B.; Mizon, K.J.; Patison, N.

    2000-01-01

    We have undertaken a case-control study using high precision lead isotopes to evaluate the contribution to blood lead when a normal quantity of wine is consumed with a meal and compared this with consumption under fasting conditions. White wine dosed with a 207 Pb tracer was consumed with a meal by a male subject and blood, urine and faeces monitored for up to four months. In addition to the spiked wine, the male subject and a female control subject residing in the same household consumed approximately equal proportions of unspiked red and white wine from the same vintage and vineyard over the four months. On a succeeding occasion, the male subject consumed 207 Pb-spiked wine under fasting conditions. As the 207 Pb/ 204 Pb ratio in blood and urine prior to the experiment was 15.48 compared with a value of 355 in the doped wine, changes in the 207 Pb/ 204 Pb ratio would be easily discernible. Over the four months of the trial, the results confirmed that there is a minimal uptake of lead from vine when consumed with food

  20. Feed intake, body weight changes and haematology of West African dwarf goats fed dietary levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwuba Peter-Damian Chukwunomso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A 90-day study was carried out with 36 West African Dwarf goats to determine the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM on feed intake, body weight changes and haematology of WAD does. Four diets were formulated such that diets T1, T2, T3 and T4 contained MOLM at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15%, respectively. The diets were offered to the goats, which were randomly divided into four groups of nine goats each in a completely randomized design. Average daily feed intake (ADFI, average daily weight gain (ADWG, feed conversion ratio (FCR and heamatology of the animals were determined and statistically analyzed. Results showed that ADFI, ADWG differed significantly (P<0.05 with T4 goats having better values. FCR was however best for does fed T4 diet. PCV, RBC, MCV and WBC differed (P<0.05 significantly among the treatments. Packed cell volume (29.50-32.75% was improved (p<0.05 by MOLM supplementation at 15% inclusion level. White blood cell counts for goats in treatment groups were significantly (p<0.05 higher and better than the control. Incorporation of 15% MOLM in diets of WAD does enhanced their performance and heamatological profile. Moringa oleifera leaf meal supplementation level at 15% was recommended for optimum West African Dwarf goat production.

  1. Evaluation of standardized ileal digestible valine:lysine, total lysine:crude protein, and replacing fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct meal with crystalline amino acids on growth performance of nursery pigs from seven to twelve kilograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemechek, J E; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; DeRouchey, J M

    2014-04-01

    Five experiments were conducted to evaluate replacing fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct meal with crystalline AA for 7- to 12-kg pigs. In all experiments, pigs (PIC TR4 × 1050) were fed a common diet for 3 d postweaning, treatment diets for 14 d (d 0 to 14), and, again, a common diet for 14 d (d 14 to 28). Treatment diets were corn-soybean meal based and formulated to contain 1.30% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys. Experiment 1 evaluated replacing dietary fish meal with crystalline AA. For the 6 treatments, crystalline Lys, Met, Thr, Trp, Ile, Val, Gln, and Gly all increased to maintain minimum AA ratios as fish meal decreased (4.50, 3.60, 2.70, 1.80, and 0.90 to 0.00%). There was no difference in ADG, ADFI, or G:F among treatments, validating a low-CP, AA-fortified diet for subsequent experiments. Experiment 2 evaluated deleting crystalline AA from a low-CP, AA-fortified diet with 6 treatments: 1) a positive control similar to the diet validated in Exp. 1, 2) positive control with l-Ile deleted, 3) positive control with l-Trp deleted, 4) positive control with l-Val deleted, 5) positive control with l-Gln and l-Gly deleted, and 6) positive control with l-Ile, l-Trp, l-Val, l-Gln, and l-Gly deleted (NC). Pigs fed the positive control or Ile deleted diet had improved (P meat and bone meal, or poultry byproduct meal). Low- and high-crystalline AA diets contained 4.5 or 1% fish meal, 6 or 1.2% meat and bone meal, and 6 or 1% poultry byproduct meal, respectively. No AA × protein source interactions were observed. From d 0 to 14, no differences in growth performance among protein sources was found, whereas increasing crystalline AA improved (P = 0.04) ADG. In conclusion, crystalline AA can replace fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct meal when balanced for SID AA ratios of Met and Cys:Lys (58%), Thr:Lys (62%), Trp:Lys (16.5%), Val:Lys (65%), and Ile:Lys (52%).

  2. The effects of dietary soybean isoflavones on growth, innate immune responses, hepatic antioxidant abilities and disease resistance of juvenile golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuanpeng; Lin, Heizhao; Ge, Xianping; Niu, Jin; Wang, Jun; Wang, Yun; Chen, Lixiong; Huang, Zhong; Yu, Wei; Tan, Xiaohong

    2015-03-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary soybean isoflavones (SI) supplementation on growth performance, innate immune responses, hepatic antioxidant abilities, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene expression and resistance to the pathogen Vibrio harveyi in Trachinotus ovatus. A basal diet was supplemented with SI at 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 mg kg(-1) feed for 8 weeks. Significantly maximum weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) were observed in treatment with 40 mg kg(-1) SI supplement (P alkaline phosphatase activity, hepatic total antioxidative capacity, catalase activity and superoxide dismutase activity were also noticed in fish fed SI at 40 or 60 mg kg(-1) (P dietary intake containing SI could enhance the immune ability of fish and improve its resistance to infection by V. harveyi. Especially supplementation with 40 mg kg(-1) SI to the fish for 8 weeks showed remarkable improvement in the growth, non-specific immune responses, hepatic antioxidant abilities and HSP70 gene expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Substituição da farinha de peixe por farelo de soja em dietas práticas para o camarão-rosa (Farfantepenaeus paulensis Fishmeal replacement by soybean meal in practical diets for shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Paulo Abe

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a substituição da farinha de peixe (FP por farelo de soja (FS em dietas práticas na sobrevivência e crescimento do camarão-rosa Farfantepenaeus paulensis. Seis dietas isoprotéicas e isoenergéticas, contendo diferentes proporções de FP e FS, foram fornecidas aos camarões durante 28 dias. Os níveis de substituição da FP por FS foram 0 (controle, 12, 24, 36, 48 e 60%. Pós-larvas com peso inicial de 1,22mg (± 0,44 foram distribuídas ao acaso em tanques com 40L de água. A sobrevivência variou entre 70 e 80%, não apresentando diferenças (P>0,05. O peso final variou (PA feeding trial evaluated the replacement of fishmeal by soybean meal in practical diets on the survival and growth of the shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis. Six iso-energetic and iso-proteic diets were fed to shrimp for 28 days. Replacement levels of fishmeal were 0 (control, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60%. Post-larvae with mean initial weight of 1.22mg (±0.44 were stocked at random in 40-L tanks. Survival ranged between 70 and 80% and were not different (P>0.05 between treatments. Feeding the diet with 60% of fishmeal replacement resulted in the highest weight gain (P<0.05, while the control diet (no replacement had the lowest weight gain among all treatments. Similarly, specific growth rate (SGR was also higher for the 60% diet and lower for the control. Mean final weight ranged from 20.84 to 27.37mg, while SGR varied between 9.1 and 10.7% day-1. The replacement of 60% of fishmeal by soybean meal is recommended in practical diets for F. paulensis as it results in higher weight gain and growth rates, with no effect on survival.

  4. Nutritional status, dietary habits and social and health profile of home meal service users for elderly of Vitoria-Gasteiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gómez-Busto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The home meals service (HMS is a little-developed resource in the Basque Country, and is dependent on social services. The aim of this study is to establish the nutritional status, eating habits and main social and healthcare characteristics of the users of this service.Material and Methods: A descriptive and transversal study carried out in 2 phases: (a phase 1: an assessment of nutritional status and eating habits using an abbreviated version of the Mini Nutritional Assessment and a questionnaire on food consumption. (b phase 2: the assessment of the dependency risk at home and quality of life related to health by means of Barber and EuroQoL-5D questionnaires.Results: Eighty users (35 men, 45 women fulfilled the criteria for inclusion; average age: 83.62 years (± 5.53. Nutritional status: the prevalence of malnutrition was 11% and that of risk of malnutrition 39%. Eating habits: the meal provided guaranteed a minimal provision of legumes, pasta, rice or potatoes (once or twice a week, fish (once or twice a week, and meat (three or four times a week. In spite of this, the frequency of consumption of vegetables, fish, rice, eggs or meat was less than recommended in over 70% of the group. Social and healthcare profile: 127 users (60 men, 67 women took part; average age: 83.82 years (± 6.17. Barber’s questionnaire: living alone: 48%; housebound through illness: 20%. Poor hearing: 44%; poor sight: 34%; although: 30% needed help, 95% were receiving support. EuroQoL-5D: Serious problems reported: 4.7% had difficulties with mobility; 7.9% with personal care; 23.6% had problems with carrying out daily activities; 15% reported pain or discomfort; 3.9% anxiety/depression. Perceived health status: 32.3% considered their health to be good or very good, 34,6% fair, and 33% bad or very bad.Conclusions: The group studied consists of a vulnerable people, with social and health problems and more malnutrition than the older population living at

  5. Evaluation of Soybean Hulls in Grower Turkey Diets | Etuk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 42 day study was carried out to evaluate the effect of soybean hulls (SBH) in diets of grower turkeys. Four experimental turkey grower diets were formulated such that soybean hulls made up of 0.0 (control diet), 10.0, 20.0 and 30.0% of the diets respectively replacing maize and soybean meal. These diets were offered ...

  6. Short-Term and Mid-Term Effects of Fasting and Downset Meal Pattern on Dietary Intakes, Anthropometric Parameters, and Glycemic and Lipid Profile in Fasting Women

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    Narsis Afghari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: This study assessed the mid-term changes in anthropometrical and biochemical factors as well as nutritional status and physical activity level with regard to nocturnal eating during Ramadan, for the first time.Materials and Methods: Via an easy sampling, the cohort study was conducted in 49 women aged between 20 and 45 years who were recruited from Shahid Motahari Hospital in Isfahan. The subjects were divided into two groups based on their nocturnal eating pattern. Anthropometrical and biochemical parameters were measured three days before Ramadan, on the third day of Ramadan, and thirty days after the end of Ramadan. A 147 food items frequency questionnaire was used for the assessment of nutritional status t. Repeated measure test was employed to determine changes over time, and the interaction effects between times and nocturnal eating status. Results: The body weight and body mass index of the women who consumed the nocturnal meal was significantly different from those of the subjects who did not consume the downset meal (p value =0.006. There were significant differences in energy, carbohydrate, and fat intake as well as serum triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and physical activity levels between the three time periods. Serum glucose, cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were not significantly different between the two groups.Conclusion: Ramadan fasting has beneficial effects on the body weight and body mass index. Fasting causes some changes in the lipid profile; these changes can be attributed to changes in dietary habits and physical activity level during Ramadan, rather than nocturnal eating status.

  7. Effect of dietary Ximenia caffra kernel meal on blood and liver metabolic substrate content and the general clinical biochemistry of Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivandi, E; Moyo, D; Dangarembizi, R; Erlwanger, K

    2016-06-01

    We investigated (at the University of the Witwatersrand: GPS coordinates 26°10' 52.96″S; 28°2' 33.61″E) the effects of substituting soya bean meal (SBM) with Ximenia caffra kernel meal (XCKM) as a dietary protein source on blood and liver metabolic substrates content, serum markers of liver and kidney function and the general clinical biochemistry of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Five diets with similar energy and protein content were formulated (D1-D5) where XCKM replaced SBM on a crude protein basis at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. Forty weanling male SD rats were randomly assigned to diets D1-D5, fed for 37 days and weighed twice weekly. The rats were then fasted overnight, and fasting blood glucose and triglyceride concentrations were determined from tail-vein-drawn blood. Immediately thereafter, the rats were euthanised and blood was collected via cardiac puncture. Serum was used to assay for markers of the general health profile. Livers were removed and weighed, and samples were used to determine lipid and glycogen content. Rats fed D4 (75% substitution level) had significantly lower (p  0.05) fasting blood glucose and cholesterol concentrations, liver glycogen and lipid content. Additionally, it had no effect (p > 0.05) on serum activity/concentration of surrogate markers of liver (alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity and urea, total bilirubin, globulin and albumin concentrations) and kidney (phosphorus, calcium and creatinine concentrations) function and the general clinical biochemistry of the rats. Defatted XCKM could substitute SBM in rat diets without compromising blood glucose and cholesterol homeostasis, liver and kidney function and the general clinical biochemistry of growing male Sprague Dawley rats. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Effects of Graded Levels of Pigeon Pea Meal on Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The birds were fed on 0, 50, 75 and 100% dietary inclusions of toasted pigeon pea as replacement for soybean in a 28 day feeding trial. Significant interaction between dietary levels of pigeon pea and soybean were observed on feed efficiency and weight gain (p<0.05). Increase in dietary levels of pigeon pea reduced feed ...

  9. Effects of a 6-phytase on the apparent ileal digestibility of minerals and amino acids in ileorectal anastomosed pigs fed on a corn-soybean meal-barley diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenbuhl, P; Waché, Y; Simoes Nunes, C; Fru, F

    2012-12-01

    Phosphorus of plant-based feedstuffs for monogastric animals is mainly in the form of phytic P, which has a very low bioavailability. The nondigested phytic P may contribute to P pollution. Furthermore, phytic acid may reduce digestibility of other minerals and protein. This study evaluated effects of the microbial 6-phytase RONOZYME HiPhos on apparent ileal digestibility of P, phytic acid, Ca, CP, energy, and AA in six 60-d-old ileorectal anastomosed pigs. In a duplicated 3 × 3 Latin square design, pigs had free access to alternatively a corn (Zea mays)-soybean (Glycine max) meal-barley (Hordeum vulgare)-based diet or this diet supplemented with RONOZYME HiPhos at either 500 units/kg (RH500) or 1000 units/kg (RH1000). Pigs fed diets supplemented with RH500 or RH1000 increased (P digestibility of P, Ca, and Lys. Pigs fed diet RH1000 increased (P digestibility of CP, total AA, indispensable AA, Glu + Gln, His, Gly, Ala, Tyr, Leu, Phe, and Met. Similar to growth trials with increased total tract digestibility of P and Ca, phytase increased apparent ileal digestibility of these indispensable minerals and phytate. The phytase increased digestibility of CP and indispensable AA indicating a better availability of plant-based proteins.

  10. Utilização do farelo de soja centrifugado visando à produção do superprecoce Utilization of centrifugeted soybean meal for feeding of calves in feedlot

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    Mikael Neumann

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve por objetivo avaliar a utilização do farelo de soja centrifugado (FSC como substituto ao farelo de soja (FS na fração concentrada da dieta de bezerros de corte em confinamento, sendo testados os seguintes tratamentos: T1 - 100% de FS; T2 - 66% de FS + 34% de FSC; T3 - 34% de FS + 66% de FSC; e T4 - 100% de FSC. Foram utilizados 36 bezerros machos da raça Braford, com idade média de sete meses e peso vivo médio inicial de 202kg. O confinamento compreendeu 168 dias de avaliação, sendo dividido em quatro períodos de 42 dias cada. A relação volumoso:concentrado foi de 60:40 para o 1° e 2° períodos, de 50:50 para o 3° período e de 45:55 para o 4° período. Não houve interação (P>0,05 entre nível de substituição da fonte protéica e período de avaliação em confinamento para os parâmetros relativos aos consumos diários de matéria seca (CMS, proteína bruta (CPB e energia digestível (CED, respectivamente, expressos em kg animal-1 (CMSD e CPBD ou Mcal/animal (CEDD, por 100kg de peso vivo (CMSP, CPBP e CEDP e por unidade de tamanho metabólico (CMSM, CPBM e CEDM, ao ganho de peso médio diário (GMD e a eficiência da transformação da matéria seca consumida (CA e da proteína bruta consumida (EPB em ganho de peso. A utilização de farelo de soja centrifugado como fonte protéica em substituição parcial ou integral ao farelo de soja na fração concentrada da dieta alimentar de bezerros de corte, visando à produção do superprecoce, não comprometeu (P>0,05 o consumo de alimentos, o ganho de peso médio diário e a eficiência da transformação da matéria seca consumida e da proteína bruta consumida em ganho de peso.The experiment was conducted with the objective to evaluate the use of soybean meal centrifugeted (SMC as substitution for soybean meal (SM in the concentrate fraction of the diet of confined steer calves, being tested the following treatments: T1 - 100% of SM; T2 - 66% of SM + 34

  11. The effectiveness of healthy meals at work on reaction time, mood and dietary intake: a randomised cross-over study in daytime and shift workers at an university hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leedo, Eva; Beck, Anne Marie; Astrup, Arne

    2017-01-01

    Our dietary habits affect both cognitive performance and mood. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of increased availability of healthy meals and water at work on healthcare staff. The study used an 8-week randomised cross-over design. A total of sixty physicians, nurses and nursing...... assistants, including sixteen working on shifts, were recruited. The participants received a self-selected keyhole-labelled (Nordic nutrition label) lunch, snack and bottled water during each shift throughout the intervention period. Reaction time (Go/No-Go test), mood-related scores (POMS) and dietary...

  12. Substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do glúten de milho em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.1991 Replacement of soybean meal protein by corn gluten meal protein in diets for Nile tilapia fingerlings - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeisson Emerson Casimiro Ferrari

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do glúten de milho em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com 5 tratamentos 0%; 25%; 50%; 75% e 100% de substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do glúten de milho e, com 4 repetições. Os níveis adotados corresponderam a 11,75%; 23%; 35,78% e 47,28% de inclusão de glúten de milho nas rações, as quais foram formuladas para serem isoprotéicas em proteína digestível (PD, isocalóricas em energia digestível (ED e com a mesma quantidade de fibra bruta, lisina e metionina. Foram utilizados 100 alevinos com peso médio de 7,47±1,61g, distribuídos em 20 aquários (250L, em sistema de recirculação de água dotado de controle de temperatura. Foi observado efeito quadrático para o ganho de peso, conversão alimentar e taxa de eficiência protéica, sendo os respectivos valores ótimos estimados em 30,69%; 48% e 46,25% de substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do glúten de milho e, para o consumo de ração, foi verificado efeito linear. Em função da média referente aos valores estimados para os diferentes parâmetros avaliados, pôde-se concluir que a proteína do glúten de milho pode substituir até 42% (19,82% de inclusão na ração da proteína do farelo de soja em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo.The research was carried out aiming to evaluate the replacement of soybean meal protein by corn gluten meal protein in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae diets. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of replacement of soybean protein by corn gluten meal protein and 4 replicates. The used levels corresponded to 11.75%, 23%, 35.78% and 42.28% of corn gluten meal inclusion in diets, formulated to be

  13. Digestibilidade dos aminoácidos do milho, farelo de soja e gérmen integral de milho em galos e frangos de corte cecectomizados Digestibility of amino acids from corn, soybean meal and corn germ meal in cecectomized roosters and broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Barbosa de Brito

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a digestibilidade dos aminoácidos do milho, farelo de soja e gérmen integral de milho em galos e frangos de corte cecectomizados. Foram utilizados 16 galos Lohmann-LSL com 45 semanas de idade, 40 frangos de corte machos AgRoss 508, sendo 20 com 21 dias de idade e outros 20 com 42 dias de idade, todos cecectomizados. Adotou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três categorias animais (galos; frangos aos 21 dias; e frangos aos 42 dias de idade para cada alimento avaliado e cada ave considerada uma unidade experimental. O ensaio durou 84 horas: nas 36 horas iniciais, as aves foram submetidas a jejum e nas 48 horas subsequentes, à ingestão forçada dos alimentos, feita com sonda esofágica introduzida diretamente no inglúvio das aves. As excretas produzidas foram colhidas duas vezes ao dia nas 48 horas subseqüentes. Os valores de aminoácidos digestíveis verdadeiros determinados para o milho e gérmen integral de milho determinados com frangos submetidos ao procedimento experimental aos 21 dias de idade foram inferiores aos do grupo controle (galos. Contudo, os mesmos resultados não foram observados para o farelo de soja. O aproveitamento de aminoácidos foi maior nos frangos submetidos ao procedimento experimental aos 42 dias de idade em comparação aos do grupo controle (galos adultos, independentemente do alimento avaliado. O teor de aminoácidos digestíveis verdadeiros totais obtidos foi de 7,24; 6,25 e 7,33% para o milho, 9,66; 9,14 e 9,91% para o gérmen integral de milho e 41,82; 41,78 e 42,02% para o farelo de soja, valores determinados com galos, frangos aos 21 e aos 42 dias de idade, respectivamente. Observou-se que, com o amadurecimento do trato digestório, aumenta o aproveitamento proteico em aves que consomem milho e gérmen integral de milho.This experiment was carried out to evaluate the digestibility of the amino acids from corn, soybean meal and corn germ meal in

  14. Effects of broccoli stem and leaf meal on broiler performance, skin pigmentation, antioxidant function, and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, C H; Wang, D G; Pan, H Y; Zheng, W B; Zuo, A Y; Liu, J X

    2012-09-01

    Three hundred sixty 1-d-old Ross 308 male broilers were used to study the effects of broccoli stem and leaf meal (BSLM) on growth performance, skin pigmentation, antioxidant function, and meat quality. The chicks were fed 4 diets containing different levels (0, 4.0, 8.0, and 12.0%) of BSLM as partial replacement for corn and soybean meal for a period of 42 d. The results showed that dietary supplementation of BSLM had no effect (P > 0.05) on growth performance. As compared with control, dietary 4%, 8%, and 12% BSLM increased (P poultry products quality with the more skin pigmentation and the less drip loss percentage of breast meat. The more skin pigmentation mainly related to the high amount of xanthophylls in BSLM. The decreased meat drip loss fed BSLM may be caused by the antioxidative function of BSLM.

  15. Desempenho de bezerros da raça Holandesa alimentados com proteína de soja sólida ou líquida Performance of Holstein calves fed soybean meal protein in solid or liquid form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos de Sousa Lucci

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da substituição de metade do total de proteína da dieta na forma sólida (farelo de soja por proteína na forma líquida (leite de soja, com relações sólidos:líquidos de 100,0:0%; 87,5:12,5%; e 75,0:25,0%. Utilizaram-se 24 bezerros machos da raça Holandesa com 60 dias de idade, distribuídos em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com três dietas à base de concentrado (80% e feno de capim coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon (20%, balanceadas para nitrogênio e energia. Nas dietas com partes líquidas, o intuito foi manter o reflexo de formação da goteira esofagiana no período experimental de 10 meses, no qual os animais foram mantidos em confinamento, sendo abatidos ao atingirem pesos corporais superiores a 400 kg. Em alguns dos animais, dotados de cânulas de rúmen, foi possível detectar neste órgão apenas pequenas quantidades do leite de soja ingerido, confirmando sucesso na formação da goteira esofagiana. Os ganhos de peso diários apresentaram redução linear (1,399; 1,341; e 1,191 kg à medida que foram fornecidas maiores quantidades de leite de soja. As conversões de matéria seca e proteína bruta em ganhos de peso, durante os últimos 60 dias experimentais, pioraram conforme aumentaram as quantidades de proteína na forma líquida. O fornecimento de proteína na forma líquida na dieta não altera os rendimentos de carcaça em bezerros holandeses.The effects were assessed of substituting half the total diet protein in solid form (soybean meal with liquid form (soybean milk at solid:liquid ratios of: 100.0:0% L; 87.5:12.5% L; 75.0:25.0% L. Twenty-four Holstein breed 60-d male calf steers were assigned to a randomized block design, with three concentrate (80% diets and 20% coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon hay, balanced for nitrogen and energy. In the diets with liquid parts, the intention was to keep the functional reflex of the esophageal groove throughout the 10 months of the experimental period, in which

  16. Changes in concentrations of trace minerals in lambs fed sericea lespedeza leaf meal pellets with or without dietary sodium molybdate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, M; Burke, J M; Coffey, K P; Kegley, E B; Miller, J E; Smyth, E; Welborn, M G; Terrill, T H; Mosjidis, J A; Rosenkrans, C

    2016-04-01

    Prolonged feeding of sericea lespedeza (SL) previously led to reduced serum concentrations of Mo, a cofactor in an enzyme complex that may be involved in weight gain. The current objective was to determine the effect of Mo supplementation on changes in serum, fecal, urine, and liver concentrations of trace minerals in lambs fed SL leaf meal pellets. Thirty ram lambs weaned in May (84 ± 1.5 d of age and 27 ± 1.1 kg; D 0) were blocked by BW, breed type (full or three-fourths Katahdin), and EBV of parasite resistance and randomly assigned to be fed 900 g/d of an alfalfa-based supplement (CON; = 10) or a SL-based supplement ( = 20) for 103 d. Supplements were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric and to meet trace mineral requirements. Within the SL group, individual lambs were administered either 5 mL water or 5 mL of water with 163.3 mg of sodium molybdate (SLMO). Serum was collected on d 28, 56, and 104; a liver sample was collected by biopsy on d 104 to determine concentrations of trace minerals. Data were analyzed using a mixed model and orthogonal contrasts. Serum concentrations of Mo increased in response to the drench and were greatest in SLMO lambs and then CON lambs and lowest in SL lambs ( trace minerals associated with metalloproteins-Mo, copper, selenium, and zinc-were reduced in the liver of SL- and/or SLMO-fed lambs. These reductions could be associated with the lower weight gains previously observed after prolonged feeding of SL.

  17. Ileal digestibility of sunfl ower meal, pea, rapeseed cake, and lupine in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto; Jørgensen, Henry

    2012-01-01

    .05) for soybean meal and pea compared to sunfl ower meal, rapeseed cake, and lupine. The SID of Lys and His were lowest (P soybean meal and pea to be a high-digestible protein source relative to sunfl ower......The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA was evaluated in soybean (Glycine max) meal, sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus) meal, rapeseed cake, and fi eld pea (Pisum sativum) using 10 pigs and in lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) using 7 pigs. Pigs were fi tted with either a T...

  18. Consumption of the Soluble Dietary Fibre Complex PolyGlycopleX® Reduces Glycaemia and Increases Satiety of a Standard Meal Postprandially

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky A. Solah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of consumption of PolyGlycopleX® (PGX® was compared to wheat dextrin (WD in combination with a standard meal, on postprandial satiety and glycaemia in a double-blind, randomised crossover trial, of 14 healthy subjects trained as a satiety panel. At each of six two-hour satiety sessions, subjects consumed one of three different test meals on two separate occasions. The test meals were: a standard meal plus 5 g PGX; a standard meal plus 4.5 g of PGX as softgels; and a standard meal plus 5 g of WD. Subjects recorded fullness using a labelled magnitude scale at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min and the total area under the curve (AUC, mean fullness vs. time was calculated. The meals with PGX (in granular and softgel form gave higher satiety (AUC (477 ± 121 and 454 ± 242 cm·min, than the meal with WD (215 ± 261 cm·min (p < 0.001. Subjects had blood glucose levels measured after the meals with PGX (granules and WD. Glucose response (AUC was significantly lower (p < 0.001 after the PGX meal than for the WD meal.  The high viscosity reported for PGX is a likely mechanism behind the significant satiety and blood glucose modulating effects observed in this study.

  19. Replacement of soybean meal by cottonseed meal in diets based on spineless cactus for lactating cows Substituição do farelo de soja pelo farelo de algodão em dietas à base de palma forrageira para vacas em lactação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Maria da Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the replacement of soybean meal by cottonseed meal in the diet of dairy cows fed diets based on spineless cactus. Five Girolando lactating cows were used, with average live weight of 490 kg and average production of 11.5 kg of milk/day, distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square design (5 animals, 5 treatments and 5 experimental periods. Each experimental period lasted 15 days, 10 days being for the adaptation of the animals to the diet and 5 days for data collection. The experimental diet consisted of spineless cactus (53%, sorghum silage (32% and concentrate (15%. The cottonseed meal replaced 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of soybean meal in the concentrate. The intake, milk yield and composition were evaluated. The nutrients intake and digestibility were not affected by the treatments, with an average of 15.55 and 56.05; 13.8 and 59.31, 0.37 and 49.40, 5.32 and 30.95, 1.79 and 48.14; 9.94 and 54.31, 4.43 kg/day and 80.99%, for the dry matter, organic matter, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, crude protein, total carbohydrates and non-fibrous carbohydrates, respectively. The total digestible nutrients were not affected (average of 8.30 kg/day. Similarly, the milk yield and composition, fat corrected milk yield (4%, lactose, total solids, fat and protein were not affected by replacement (11.56, 11.41 kg milk/day and 4.45, 12.75, 3.95 and 3.42%, respectively. Recommended the replacement of soybean meal by cottonseed meal for low production dairy cows.Objetivou-se avaliar a substituição do farelo de soja pelo farelo de algodão em dietas à base de palma forrageira para vacas em lactação. Foram utilizadas cinco vacas da raça Girolando (peso vivo médio de 490 kg e produção média de 11,5 kg de leite/dia, distribuídas em um quadrado latino 5 × 5, composto de cinco animais, cinco níveis de farelo de algodão (0; 25; 50; 75 e 100% em substituição ao farelo de soja e cinco períodos experimentais, cada

  20. Ruminal Degradability of Dry Matter and Crude Protein from Moist Dehulled Lupin and Extruded Rapeseed Meal Degradabilidad Ruminal de la Materia Seca y de la Proteína Cruda de Lupino Descascarado y Torta de Raps Extruidos

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Barchiesi-Ferrari; René Anrique

    2011-01-01

    The flow of ruminal undegradable protein (RUP) to the small intestine can be increased if ruminal degradation of dietary protein is reduced. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion on ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) from dehulled lupin (Lupinus albus L.) (DL) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) meal (RM). Unextruded soybean (Glicine max L.) meal (SBM) was used as a control. The DL was extruded at 130 ºC with 20% moisture and RM was extr...

  1. Effect of graded levels of fiber from alfalfa meal on intestinal nutrient and energy flow, and hindgut fermentation in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Zhang, H F; Gao, L X; Zhao, F; Lu, Q P; Sa, R N

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of fiber level from alfalfa meal and collection period on intestinal nutrient and energy flow, and hindgut fermentation in growing pigs. Twenty-four pigs (initial BW = 21.4 ± 1.5 kg) were prepared by T-cannula insertion into the distal ileum and allotted to 4 treatments. The pigs were provided a corn-soybean meal control diet or a diet in which corn and soybean meal were partly replaced by 5%, 10%, or 20% alfalfa meal to give the graded levels of dietary fiber during two 10-d collection periods. The BW of pigs at the start of periods 1 and 2 were 32.2 ± 2.4 and 37.7 ± 4.2 kg, respectively. The final BW at the end of period 2 was 46.8 ± 4.0 kg. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients and energy were measured. The VFA concentration was also determined in the ileal and fecal samples. Nutrient digestibility was not affected by inclusion of 5% alfalfa meal in the diet. The AID, ATTD, and hindgut fermentation of DM, carbohydrates (CHO), and GE decreased (linear, P soluble dietary fiber and insoluble dietary fiber intake, explained the variation (P fiber level and 10-d exposure to the experimental diets. Soluble and insoluble fibers from alfalfa meal have differential roles in nutrient digestion, which may help explain the variation observed in the intestinal flow of nutrients.

  2. Effects of dietary cellulose levels on the estimation of endogenous amino acid losses and amino acid digestibility for growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengqun Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary cellulose levels on the determination of the ileal endogenous losses (IEL of amino acids (AA, apparent ileal digestibility (AID and standardized ileal digestibility (SID of AA in corn-soybean meal diets for growing pigs. In the first experiment, 28 pigs (BW, 45.1 ± 2.0 kg that were fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum were fed 4 nitrogen-free diets consisting of 4 dietary cellulose levels (0, 3%, 6% and 9% in a randomized complete block design. In the second experiment, 28 pigs (BW, 45.6 ± 2.0 kg fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum were fed 4 corn-soybean meal diets consisting of 4 dietary cellulose levels (0, 3%, 6% and 9% in a randomized complete block design. There were 7 replicates per diet with 1 pig as a replicate in each treatment. Both experiments consisted of a 7-d adjustment period and a 2-d ileal digesta collection period on d 8 and 9. Chromic oxide was used as an indigestible marker to calculate IEL and digestibility of AA. The results showed that the IEL of AA for growing pigs was not influenced by dietary cellulose supplementation (P > 0.05. The AID of Thr, Ser, Glu, Cys, Ile, Tyr, Phe, Lys and His decreased with increasing cellulose supplementation levels for pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets (P < 0.05. The SID of Thr, Ser, Cys, Val, Ile, Tyr, Phe, Lys and His decreased with increasing cellulose supplementation levels in corn-soybean meal diets (P < 0.05. In summary, dietary cellulose levels had no effect on the estimation of IEL of AA for growing pigs. The AID and SID of most AA in corn-soybean meal diets decreased with increasing levels of dietary cellulose supplementation.

  3. Dietary fat source affects metabolism of fatty acids in pigs as evaluated by altered expression of lipogenic genes in liver and adipose tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duran-Montge, P; Theil, Peter Kappel; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about pig gene expressions related to dietary fatty acids (FAs) and most work have been conducted in rodents. The aim of this study was to investigate how dietary fats regulate fat metabolism of pigs in different tissues. Fifty-six crossbred gilts (62 ± 5.2 kg BW) were fed one...... of seven dietary treatments (eight animals per treatment): a semi-synthetic diet containing a very low level of fat (no fat (NF)) and six fat-supplemented diets (ca. 10%) based on barley and soybean meal. The supplemental fat sources were tallow (T), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSF), sunflower oil (SFO...

  4. Effects of rapeseed and soybean oil dietary supplementation on bovine fat metabolism, fatty acid composition and cholesterol levels in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenhofer, Christian; Spornraft, Melanie; Kienberger, Hermine; Rychlik, Michael; Herrmann, Julia; Meyer, Heinrich H D; Viturro, Enrique

    2014-02-01

    The main goal of this experiment was to study the effect of milk fat depression, induced by supplementing diet with plant oils, on the bovine fat metabolism, with special interest in cholesterol levels. For this purpose 39 cows were divided in three groups and fed different rations: a control group (C) without any oil supplementation and two groups with soybean oil (SO) or rapeseed oil (RO) added to the partial mixed ration (PMR). A decrease in milk fat percentage was observed in both oil feedings with a higher decrease of -1·14 % with SO than RO with -0·98 % compared with the physiological (-0·15 %) decline in the C group. There was no significant change in protein and lactose yield. The daily milk cholesterol yield was lower in both oil rations than in control ration, while the blood cholesterol level showed an opposite variation. The milk fatty acid pattern showed a highly significant decrease of over 10 % in the amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in both oil feedings and a highly significant increase in mono (MUFA) and poly (PUFA) unsaturated fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) included. The results of this experiment suggest that the feeding of oil supplements has a high impact on milk fat composition and its significance for human health, by decreasing fats with a potentially negative effect (SFA and cholesterol) while simultaneously increasing others with positive (MUFA, PUFA, CLA).

  5. Age-related energy values of bakery meal for broiler chickens determined using the regression method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Xue, P; Ajuwon, K M; Adeola, O

    2016-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the ileal digestible energy (IDE), ME, and MEn contents of bakery meal using the regression method and to evaluate whether the energy values are age-dependent in broiler chickens from zero to 21 d post hatching. Seven hundred and eighty male Ross 708 chicks were fed 3 experimental diets in which bakery meal was incorporated into a corn-soybean meal-based reference diet at zero, 100, or 200 g/kg by replacing the energy-yielding ingredients. A 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of 3 ages (1, 2, or 3 wk) and 3 dietary bakery meal levels were used. Birds were fed the same experimental diets in these 3 evaluated ages. Birds were grouped by weight into 10 replicates per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Apparent ileal digestibility and total tract retention of DM, N, and energy were calculated. Expression of mucin (MUC2), sodium-dependent phosphate transporter (NaPi-IIb), solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, Y(+) system, SLC7A2), glucose (GLUT2), and sodium-glucose linked transporter (SGLT1) genes were measured at each age in the jejunum by real-time PCR. Addition of bakery meal to the reference diet resulted in a linear decrease in retention of DM, N, and energy, and a quadratic reduction (P bakery meal did not affect jejunal gene expression. Expression of genes encoding MUC2, NaPi-IIb, and SLC7A2 linearly increased (P bakery meal linearly increased (P bakery meal was included and increased with age of broiler chickens. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Effects of a multi-strain Bacillus species-based direct-fed microbial on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profile, and gut health in nursery pigs fed corn-soybean meal-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, L; Indrakumar, S; Kiarie, E; Kim, I H

    2015-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of a spp.-based direct-fed microbial (DFM) on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), blood profile, intestinal histomorphology, and fecal gas emission in piglets fed corn and soybean meal-based diets. The DFM product was based on 1 strain of and 2 strains of and formulated to supply 1.5 × 10 cfu/g of feed. A total of 128 piglets ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc; 6.8 ± 0.6 kg BW; weaning age: 24 d) were housed in groups (4 pigs/pen, 2 barrows and 2 gilts) and fed diets ( = 16) without or with DFM in a 2-phase feeding program: d 0 to 14 (phase I) and 15 to 42 (phase II). Feed intake and BW were measured weekly. At the end of each phase, samples for blood urea nitrogen (BUN), blood creatinine, ATTD, and fecal noxious gas emission were taken. At termination, 12 piglets per treatment were killed to access intestinal tissues for histomorphology. Overall, pigs fed DFM had a greater ( < 0.05) G:F than pigs fed the control diet. In phase I, pigs fed DFM showed a greater ( < 0.05) ADG and lower ( < 0.05) concentration of BUN and fecal ammonia emission than the control group. In phase II, a greater ( < 0.05) ATTD of nitrogen and longer ( < 0.05) duodenum and jejunum villi were observed in pigs fed the DFM diet compared with the control group. In conclusion, inclusion of DFM improved growth performance and villi length of the duodenum and jejunum in nursery pigs. Furthermore, DFM enhanced protein utilization as demonstrated by increased nitrogen digestibility, lower BUN, and lower fecal ammonia release.

  7. Bovine meat and bone meal is an economically viable alternative in quail feeding in the initial phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla C. Pizzolante

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Quail egg production has experienced a steep rise in the last decade. Nutrition is the main factor affecting productive potential in the poultry industry, as appropriate nutritional management is necessary to ensure the maintenance of optimal physical conditions, growth and the production of high quality products. Meat and bone meal (MBM has often been used in the poultry industry as an alternative and cost-effective source of protein in partial replacement of corn and soybean meal. However, there have been no studies to date that have investigated the effect of dietary MBM on the performance of quail or on the costs of production in the starter phase. This is particularly important considering that this phase is characterized by large investments by producers, without immediate economic return. In this study, we investigated whether partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM by meat and bone meal (MBM in the diet of Japanese quail during the starter phase is a viable alternative that would maintain or improve their productive and economic performance. Our results show that the inclusion of MBM in the diet of quail reduces feeding costs by up to 6% without impairing productive performance.

  8. Bovine meat and bone meal is an economically viable alternative in quail feeding in the initial phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzolante, Carla C; Kakimoto, Sérgio K; Moraes, José E; Saccomani, Ana Paula O; Soares, Daniela F; Paschoalin, Gustavo C; Budiño, Fábio E L

    2016-05-31

    Quail egg production has experienced a steep rise in the last decade. Nutrition is the main factor affecting productive potential in the poultry industry, as appropriate nutritional management is necessary to ensure the maintenance of optimal physical conditions, growth and the production of high quality products. Meat and bone meal (MBM) has often been used in the poultry industry as an alternative and cost-effective source of protein in partial replacement of corn and soybean meal. However, there have been no studies to date that have investigated the effect of dietary MBM on the performance of quail or on the costs of production in the starter phase. This is particularly important considering that this phase is characterized by large investments by producers, without immediate economic return. In this study, we investigated whether partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM) by meat and bone meal (MBM) in the diet of Japanese quail during the starter phase is a viable alternative that would maintain or improve their productive and economic performance. Our results show that the inclusion of MBM in the diet of quail reduces feeding costs by up to 6% without impairing productive performance.

  9. The effect of dietary flaxseed meal on liver and egg yolk fatty acid profiles, immune response and antioxidant status of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek M. Shafey

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of supplementing laying hen diets with 0, 50, or 100 g flaxseed meal (FSM/kg over a 12-week period on liver and egg yolk fatty acids (FA composition, liver and serum lipid peroxidation [thiobarbituric acid reactant substances (TBARS, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx], serum lipids (triglyerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, proteins (total protein, globulin and albumin, and immune response [serum antibody titres to sheep red blood cells (SRBC and white blood cell count (WBC and differential (heterophils (H, lymphocytes (L, monocytes (M, eosinophils (E and basophils (B] of laying hens were studied. The FSM diets increased total polyunsaturated FA (PUFA and omega-3 FA of α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3, docosapentanoic (C22:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic (C22:6n-3, and they reduced total monounsaturated FA (MUFA and total omega- 3/total omega-6 FA (Σn-6:Σn-3 ratio in the liver and egg yolk. Hens fed the FSM diets had a higher serum anti-SRBC and a lower blood H:L ratio. The 100 g FSM/kg diet increased liver TBARS level when compared with the control diet. Dietary FSM did not influence levels of TBARS, SOD, lipids and proteins in the serum, SOD and GPx in the liver, and blood count of M, E, B and total WBC. It was concluded that the addition of FSM to the diet of laying hens enhanced immune response of birds, increased omeg-3 FA and PUFA, and reduced MUFA and Σn-6:Σn-3 ratio in the liver and egg yolk, and that of 100 g FSM/kg diet increased hepatic lipid peroxidation.

  10. Effects of dietary inclusion of macaúba seed cake meal on performance, caecotrophy traits and in vitro evaluations for growing rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Walter Motta; Ferreira, Felipe Norberto Alves; Inácio, Diogo Felipe da Silva; Mota, Katiuscia Cristina das Neves; Costa Júnior, Martolino Barbosa da; Silva Neta, Clarice Speridião; Rocha, Leonardo Francisco da; Miranda, Estêvão Ribeiro de

    2018-04-01

    The objective was to evaluate the inclusion of macaúba seed cake (MSC) meal in diets for growing rabbits by assessing their growth and slaughtering performance, haematological traits, nutritional contribution of caecotrophs, in vitro digestibility, degradability and fermentation parameters. A total of 88 rabbits were distributed to four groups with 22 animals each and fed diets containing 0, 50, 100 and 150 g/kg of MSC, respectively. The in vitro assays were conducted employing cecum inoculum on the same dietary treatments. The inclusion of MSC yielded a quadratic effect on in vitro dry matter digestibility (p protein (p = 0.014), live weight at 51 d (p = 0.024), body weight gain (p = 0.039), average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p = 0.001) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) (p = 0.007) in the first period evaluated (30-50 d); furthermore the ADFI and FCR the second (51-72 d) and whole period (30-72 d) (p < 0.001). MSC addition caused a quadratic effect on white blood cells count (p = 0.026) and a linear decrease of eosinophils (p = 0.045). In conclusion, the inclusion of up to 150 g/kg of MSC improves the in vitro digestibility and fermentation potential of the diets, reflecting on the ADFI and FCR of the animals, although adverse effects are observed on the weight of the commercial carcass and nutritive contribution of the caecotrophs.

  11. Effects of Dietary Coconut Oil as a Medium-chain Fatty Acid Source on Performance, Carcass Composition and Serum Lipids in Male Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Jianhong Wang; Xiaoxiao Wang; Juntao Li; Yiqiang Chen; Wenjun Yang; Liying Zhang

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary coconut oil as a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) source on performance, carcass composition and serum lipids in male broilers. A total of 540, one-day-old, male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatments with each treatment being applied to 6 replicates of 18 chicks. The basal diet (i.e., R0) was based on corn and soybean meal and was supplemented with 1.5% soybean oil during the starter phase (d 0 to 21) and ...

  12. Soja integral processada (fermentada e extrusada e farelo de soja em substituição ao leite em pó em dieta de leitões desmamados aos 14 dias de idade Whole processed (fermented and extruded soybean and soybean meal in replacement of dried milk in diet of piglets weaned at 14 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Soares

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da utilização de soja integral fermentada (SIF, soja integral extrusada (SIE e farelo de soja (FS, em substituição ao leite em pó (LP da dieta, sobre desempenho e alterações morfológicas do sistema digestivo de leitões dos 14 aos 35 dias e dos 14 aos 56 dias e o seu efeito residual dos 36 aos 56 dias de idade. Foram utilizados 96 leitões machos, mestiços (Landrace x Large White, desmamados aos 14 dias de idade, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos, quatro repetições e seis animais por unidade experimental. A fonte de proteína influenciou o desempenho dos leitões dos 14 aos 35 e dos 14 aos 56 dias de idade. Os animais que receberam dieta com LP apresentaram maior ganho de peso nas três primeiras semanas após o desmame e no período total. No entanto, no período de 36 aos 56 dias, não se observou influência dos tratamentos sobre o desempenho dos animais. Verificou-se efeito da fonte de proteína na altura de vilosidade (AV, na relação vilosidade: cripta dos leitões abatidos aos 21 dias de idade e na AV dos animais abatidos com 35 dias de idade. Os animais que receberam dieta com LP apresentaram maior AV que os dos demais tratamentos. Concluiu-se que o LP pode ser substituído pela SIE e pelo FS nas dietas de leitões desmamados aos 14 dias de idade e os altos níveis de fatores antitripsina na SIF comprometeram os resultados.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of the use of whole fermented soybean (WFS, whole extruded soybean (WES and soybean meal (SBM in replacement to the dried milk (MD of the diet on the performance, feed intake and morphological alterations on the digestive system of piglets from 14 to 35 day and from 14 to 56 days, and its residual effects from 36 to 56 days of age. Ninety-six crossbreed (Landrace x Large White piglets weaned at 14 days of age were allotted to a completely randomized experimental design with

  13. The effects of steroid implant and dietary soybean hulls on estrogenic activity of sera of steers grazing toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy W. Shappell

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soybean hulls (SBHs have been fed to cattle pasturing on endophyte-infected tall fescue in attempts to increase rate of gain. Literature reports indicated some symptoms associated with fescue toxicosis were ameliorated by the use of steroidal implants containing estradiol (E2 and progesterone (IMP, feeding SBHs, or the combination of the two. While the mechanism for amelioration was unclear, the SBHs were postulated as acting as a diluent of the toxic factors of the fescue. Alternatively, estradiol and phytoestrogens of SBHs might be acting through relaxation of the persistent vasoconstriction found in animals ingesting ergot alkaloids of endophyte-infected fescue. If so, estrogenic activity of serum of steers receiving SBHs, IMP, or a combination of the two should be elevated. Using the cellular proliferation assay of estrogenicity (E-Screen, estradiol equivalents (E2Eqs were determined on both SBHs and the serum of steers from a previously reported study. Range of SBHs was 5.0 to 8.5 ng Eqs g-1 DM (mean 6.5, n=4 different commercial sources of SBHs. At the rate fed, theoretical calculated blood E2Eq could be physiologically relevant (~ 80 pg mL-1, based on 2.3 kg SBHs d-1, 300 kg steer, 5.7% blood volume, and 10% absorption. Serum E2Eqs did increase in steers (P ≤ 0.05 with steroidal implants or fed SBHs by 56 and 151% over control respectively, and treatments were additive (211% increase. Serum prolactin was also greatest for the SBH+IMP group (188 ng mL-1, P < 0.05, concentrations comparable to values reported for steers grazing endophyte-free fescue. Prolactin in the SBH group was higher than IMP or control groups (146 vs 76 and 60 ng mL-1, respectively. Still unknown is if additional E2Eqs from dietary phytoestrogens or exogenous sources of estradiol can further reduce symptoms of fescue toxicosis. The E-Screen assay was an effective tool in monitoring serum for estrogenic effects of dietary supplementation with SBHs or estrogenic

  14. The effectiveness of healthy meals at work on reaction time, mood and dietary intake: a randomised cross-over study in daytime and shift workers at an university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leedo, Eva; Beck, Anne Marie; Astrup, Arne; Lassen, Anne D

    2017-07-01

    Our dietary habits affect both cognitive performance and mood. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of increased availability of healthy meals and water at work on healthcare staff. The study used an 8-week randomised cross-over design. A total of sixty physicians, nurses and nursing assistants, including sixteen working on shifts, were recruited. The participants received a self-selected keyhole-labelled (Nordic nutrition label) lunch, snack and bottled water during each shift throughout the intervention period. Reaction time (Go/No-Go test), mood-related scores (POMS) and dietary intake were assessed at run-in, and at the end of the intervention and the control periods. The intake of fat (P=0·030) and PUFA (P=0·003) was lower, and the intake of carbohydrate (P=0·008), dietary fibre (P=0·031) and water (Pmood-related scores in the group as a whole. In shift-working participants, the intervention period resulted in a 31·1 % lower Fatigue-Inertia Score (P=0·003), a 15·3 % higher Vigour-Activity Score (P=0·041) and a 42·7 % lower Total Mood Disturbance Score (P=0·017), whereas the only dietary component that significantly improved was water intake (P=0·034), when compared with the control period. Providing healthy meals, snacks and water during working hours seems to be an effective way of improving employees' dietary intake. Moreover, increased intake of water may be associated with beneficial effects on fatigue, vigour and total mood in shift-working healthcare staff.

  15. Inclusion of various amounts of steam-flaked soybeans in lactating dairy cattle diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, H R; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F; Schingoethe, D J

    2015-10-01

    Whereas most soybean feedstuffs have been extensively investigated for use in ruminant diets, a lack of information exists regarding steam-flaked soybeans (SFSB). This research evaluated various inclusion rates of SFSB in diets for lactating dairy cattle. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (103 ± 39 d in milk) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experiment consisting of 28-d periods, 14 d for diet transitioning followed by a 14-d sampling period. Treatments were inclusion of SFSB at 0, 5, 10, and 15% of dietary dry matter (DM), replacing a mixture of soybean meal, soy hulls, calcium salts of fatty acids, and choice white grease. Animals were fed lactating dairy cow diets formulated to be isonitrogenous and isoenergetic, containing 60% of DM as forage and 40% of DM as concentrate. Dry matter intake (mean = 28.8 kg/d), milk production (42.2 kg/d), milk fat percentage (3.52%), and feed efficiency (1.43 kg of energy-corrected milk/kg of DM intake) were similar across all treatments. Milk protein (2.98%) and lactose (4.87%) were also unaffected by the amount of SFSB in the diet. Milk urea nitrogen concentration decreased linearly as the amount of SFSB in the diet increased. Unlike some other soybean supplements, feeding SFSB did not increase trans-11 C18:1 or cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid, but instead resulted in increased cis-9,cis-12 C18:2 and α-C18:3. Body weights (752 kg) and body condition scores (3.17) were similar with all diets. This research demonstrated that SFSB can be substituted for soybean meal and commercial fat sources while maintaining milk and milk component production and decrease milk urea nitrogen concentration. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Efecto del nivel de inclusión de soya en la digestibilidad in vitro de la harina de piscidium de Moringa oleifera Effect of the soybean inclusion rate on the in vitro digestibility of the meal from Moringa oleifera pods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L Montejo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar el efecto de la inclusión de harina de soya, en forma de reactivo para simular el efecto de un concentrado proteínico, en la digestibilidad in vitro de la harina de piscidium (vainas de moringa. Se evaluaron nueve tratamientos de piscidium de moringa:soya (100:0; 90:10; 80:20; 70:30; 60:40; 50:50; 40:60; 20:80 y 0:100, con un diseño completamente aleatorizado y tres réplicas por cada tratamiento. Se observó un incremento en la producción de gas con el aumento del porcentaje de inclusión de soya; la digestibilidad verdadera tuvo un comportamiento similar. En cambio, la producción de biomasa microbiana alcanzó su mayor valor con la inclusión de la soya al 10%. Se concluye que la adición de la soya mejora la digestibilidad de las vainas de moringa, y que la eficiencia óptima de aprovechamiento de esta dieta se alcanza con la inclusión del 10% de soya.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of soybean meal, in this case in a way of a lab reactive, simulating a conventional protein concentrate, on the in vitro digestibility of the meal from Moringa oleifera pods. Nine treatments of M. oleifera pods:soybean were evaluated (100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100, with a completely randomized design and three replications per treatment. An increase was observed in gas production with the increase of the soybean inclusion percentage; the true digestibility had a similar performance. On the contrary, the production of microbial biomass reached its higher value with the inclusion of 10% soybean. The addition of soybean is concluded to improve the digestibility of the M. oleifera pods, and the optimum utilization efficiency of this diet is reached with the inclusion of 10% soybean.

  17. Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Sharon I; Hoerr, Sharon L; Mendoza, Jason A; Tsuei Goh, Eugenia

    2008-11-01

    Exposure of children to kids meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, ie, "kids meals." The nutrient quality of kids meals was assessed primarily by using criteria from the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). Analysis compared the nutrient values of meals offered by major fast food companies with restaurants in Houston, TX, with complete publicly available data. Data described every combination of meals offered in the target market. For each meal combination, the following were analyzed: total energy, percentage of energy from fat, total fat, saturated fat, sodium, total carbohydrates, dietary fiber, added sugars, protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, iron, energy density (food only), and the number of NSLP nutrient criteria met. Three percent of kids meals met all NSLP criteria. Those that met all criteria offered a side of fruit plus milk. Most were deli-sandwich-based meals. Meals that met the criteria had about one-third the fat, one-sixth the added sugars, twice the iron, and 3 times the amount of vitamin A and calcium as did kids meals that did not meet the criteria (P Kids meals that met the NSLP criteria are uncommon and are lower in energy density. These meals may contribute to the nutritional status of children.

  18. Evaluating the safety and efficacy of sodium-restricted/Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet after acute decompensated heart failure hospitalization: design and rationale for the Geriatric OUt of hospital Randomized MEal Trial in Heart Failure (GOURMET-HF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessler, Jeffrey D; Maurer, Mathew S; Hummel, Scott L

    2015-03-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a major public health problem affecting predominantly older adults. Nonadherence to diet remains a significant contributor to acute decompensated HF (ADHF). The sodium-restricted Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH/SRD) eating plan reduces cardiovascular dysfunction that can lead to ADHF and is consistent with current HF guidelines. We propose that an intervention that promotes adherence to the DASH/SRD by home-delivering meals will be safe and improve health-related quality of life (QOL) in older adults after hospitalization for ADHF. This is a 3-center, randomized, single-blind, controlled trial of 12-week duration designed to determine the safety and efficacy of home-delivered DASH/SRD-compliant meals in older adults after discharge from ADHF hospitalization. Sixty-six subjects will be randomized in a 1:1 stratified fashion by gender and left ventricular ejection fraction (DASH/SRD-compliant meals or usual dietary advice for 4weeks after hospital discharge. Investigators will be blinded to group assignment, food diaries, and urinary electrolyte measurements until study completion. The primary efficacy end point is the change in the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire summary scores for health-related QOL from study enrollment to 4weeks postdischarge. Safety evaluation will focus on hypotension, renal insufficiency, and hyperkalemia. Exploratory end points include echocardiography, noninvasive vascular testing, markers of oxidative stress, and salt taste sensitivity. This randomized controlled trial will test the efficacy, feasibility, and safety of 4weeks of DASH/SRD after ADHF hospitalization. By testing a novel dietary intervention supported by multiple levels of evidence including preliminary data in outpatients with stable HF, we will address a critical evidence gap in the care of older patients with ADHF. If effective and safe, this intervention could be scaled to assess effects on readmission and healthcare costs in

  19. The Small Rice Bowl-Based Meal Plan was Effective at Reducing Dietary Energy Intake, Body Weight, and Blood Glucose Levels in Korean Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hee Jung; Han, Kyung Ah; Kwon, Hwi Ryun

    2010-01-01

    Background The typical Korean diet includes rice, which is usually served in a rice bowl. We investigated the effects of a meal plan using rice bowls of varying sizes on dietary energy intake (EI), body weight (BW), and blood glucose levels. Methods Forty-two obese women with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly assigned to use either a 200 mL small rice bowl (SB), a 380 mL regular rice bowl (RB), or to a control group (C). Both intervention groups were asked to reduce their EI by 500 kcal/day for 12 weeks and simple instructions for using the assigned bowl were provided. Dietary EI and proportion of macronutrients (PMN) were estimated from 3-day dietary records. Results Reduction of EI was more prominent in the SB group compared to the RB and C group, although EI decreased significantly from baseline in all groups. Carbohydrate and fat intakes of the SB group were decreased greater than those of the RB and C group. However, changes in PMN were not significant across the 3 groups. Reduction of BW and HbA1c levels in the SB group was more prominent compared to the C group. Although, BW and HbA1c were decreased significantly from baseline in both bowl groups. There was no statistical difference between the two groups. Conclusion The small rice bowl-based meal plan was effective at reducing EI, BW, and blood glucose levels, and the observed reductions in EI, carbohydrate, and fat intake were greater than those of the regular rice bowl-based meal plan. PMID:21246007

  20. Effects of dietary cellulose levels on the estimation of endogenous amino acid losses and amino acid digestibility for growing pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhengqun; Lv, Shuaibing; Zhang, Shiyuan; Liu, Jingbo; Zhang, Hongfu

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary cellulose levels on the determination of the ileal endogenous losses (IEL) of amino acids (AA), apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in corn-soybean meal diets for growing pigs. In the first experiment, 28 pigs (BW, 45.1 ± 2.0 kg) that were fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum were fed 4 nitrogen-free diets consisting of 4 dietary cellulose levels (0, 3%, 6% and 9%)...

  1. Casein Compared with Whey Proteins Affects the Organization of Dietary Fat during Digestion and Attenuates the Postprandial Triglyceride Response to a Mixed High-Fat Meal in Healthy, Overweight Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, François; Valette, Marion; Lopez, Christelle; Fouillet, Hélène; Famelart, Marie-Hélène; Mathé, Véronique; Airinei, Gheorghe; Benamouzig, Robert; Gaudichon, Claire; Tomé, Daniel; Tsikas, Dimitrios; Huneau, Jean François

    2015-12-01

    Postprandial lipemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The potential impacts of the type/nature of dietary protein on postprandial lipemia and associated dysregulations have been insufficiently investigated. We investigated the postprandial effect of including in a high-fat meal some milk protein fractions that markedly differ in their physicochemical properties and composition [either casein (CAS), whey protein (WHE), or α-lactalbumin-enriched whey protein (LAC)]. The protein fractions were incorporated as 15% energy in a high-fat meal in a 3-period, crossover postprandial study of 10 healthy overweight men with an elevated waist circumference (>94 cm). We measured postprandial changes in plasma lipids, amino acids, glucose, and oxidative stress markers, vascular function (using pulse contour analysis), and low-grade inflammation (using plasma markers). We also characterized in vitro the meal structures, including the size of the fat globule, and possible changes during digestion. The type of protein did not affect postprandial plasma glucose, amino acids, insulin, or nonesterified fatty acids, but, compared with WHE and LAC, which did not differ, CAS markedly reduced postprandial triglycerides (TGs), achieving a 22 ± 10% reduction in the 6-h area under the curve (P postprandial oxidative stress (plasma hydroperoxides and malondialdehyde), endothelial dysfunction (salbutamol-induced changes in pulse contour analysis), or low-grade inflammation. In vitro studies showed that when the pH of the meal decreased to stomach pH values, the reduction in the solubility of casein resulted in a phase separation between fat and protein, whereas the proteins in the other meals remained suspended with fat globules. In healthy overweight men, casein has specific physical interactions with fat that affect postprandial TGs, leading to the formation of fewer chylomicrons or an increase in chylomicron clearance. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  2. Bt-maize (MON810) and Non-GM Soybean Meal in Diets for Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) Juveniles – Impact on Survival, Growth Performance, Development, Digestive Function, and Transcriptional Expression of Intestinal Immune and Stress Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jinni; Bakke, Anne Marie; Valen, Elin C.; Lein, Ingrid; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2014-01-01

    Responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) juveniles (fry) fed diets containing genetically modified maize (Bt-maize, MON810) expressing Cry1Ab protein from first-feeding were investigated during a 99-day feeding trial. Four experimental diets were made; each diet contained ∼20% maize, either Bt-maize or its near-isogenic maternal line (non-GM maize). One pair was fishmeal-based while the other pair included standard (extracted) soybean meal (SBM; 16.7% inclusion level), with the intention of investigating responses to the maize varieties in healthy fish as well as in immunologically challenged fish with SBM-induced distal intestinal inflammation, respectively. Three replicate tanks of fry (0.17±0.01 g; initial mean weight ± SEM) were fed one of the four diets and samples were taken on days 15, 36, 48 and 99. Survival, growth performance, whole body composition, digestive function, morphology of intestine, liver and skeleton, and mRNA expression of some immune and stress response parameters in the distal intestine were evaluated. After 99 days of feeding, survival was enhanced and the intended SBM-induced inflammatory response in the distal intestine of the two groups of SBM-fed fish was absent, indicating that the juvenile salmon were tolerant to SBM. Mortality, growth performance and body composition were similar in fish fed the two maize varieties. The Bt-maize fed fish, however, displayed minor but significantly decreased digestive enzyme activities of leucine aminopeptidase and maltase, as well as decreased concentration of gut bile salts, but significantly increased amylase activity at some sampling points. Histomorphological, radiographic and mRNA expression evaluations did not reveal any biologically relevant effects of Bt-maize in the gastrointestinal tract, liver or skeleton. The results suggest that the Cry1Ab protein or other compositional differences in GM Bt-maize may cause minor alterations in intestinal responses in juvenile salmon, but

  3. Low-fiber alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) meal in the laying hen diet: effects on productive traits and egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Introna, M; Tufarelli, V

    2014-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects on laying performance and egg quality resulting from partial substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber alfalfa (LFA; Medicago sativa L.) meal in the diet of early-phase laying hens. ISA Brown layers, 18 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were fed 2 wheat middling-based diets: a control diet, which contained SBM (15% of diet), and a test diet containing LFA (15% of diet) as the main protein source. Low-fiber alfalfa meal was obtained by a combination of sieving and air-classification processes. Feed intake was recorded daily, and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were weekly collected to evaluate egg components and quality. The partial substitution of SBM with LFA had no adverse effect on growth performance of early-phase laying hens. Egg production and none of the egg-quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P alfalfa meal in the laying-hen diet can positively influence yolk quality without adversely affecting productive traits. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Effects of sesame meal on intake, digestibility, rumen characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were carried out to determine ruminal degradability of sesame meal (SSM) and its effects on intake, digestibility, rumen parameters, chewing activity, and lamb performance when it replaced soybean meal (SBM). Degradability of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) were determined with the nylon bag ...

  5. Feeding value of processed horse eye bean ( Mucuna urens ) meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to evaluate the performance of pullet chicks fed graded levels of processed horse eye bean meal (HEBM) as partial replacement for soybean meal. The cracked beans were subjected to three processing methods viz: soaking in plain water for 48 hours, cooking for 90 minutes, and toasting on open ...

  6. Effect of feeding low-fiber fraction of air-classified sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) meal on laying hen productive performance and egg yolk cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Tufarelli, V

    2014-11-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effect on laying performance and egg quality resulting from total substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber sunflower meal (SFM; Helianthus annus L.) meal in diet of hens. ISA Brown layers, 28 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were kept in a free-range environment and fed 2 wheat middling-based diets consisting of a control diet, which contained SBM (153 g/kg of diet), and a test diet containing low-fiber SFM (160 g/kg of diet) as the main protein source. Each dietary treatment was replicated 4 times. Low-fiber SFM was obtained by a combination of sieving and air classification processes. Feed consumption was recorded daily and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were collected weekly to evaluate egg components and quality. The total substitution of SBM with low-fiber SFM had no adverse effect on growth performance of laying hens. Egg production and none of egg quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P sunflower meal may be a valid alternative in diets for laying hens to improve egg quality and to develop low-cholesterol eggs. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Improved Soybean Oil for Biodiesel Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Clemente; Jon Van Gerpen

    2007-11-30

    The goal of this program was to generate information on the utility of soybean germplasm that produces oil, high in oleic acid and low in saturated fatty acids, for its use as a biodiesel. Moreover, data was ascertained on the quality of the derived soybean meal (protein component), and the agronomic performance of this novel soybean germplasm. Gathering data on these later two areas is critical, with respect to the first, soybean meal (protein) component is a major driver for commodity soybean, which is utilized as feed supplements in cattle, swine, poultry and more recently aquaculture production. Hence, it is imperative that the resultant modulation in the fatty acid profile of the oil does not compromise the quality of the derived meal, for if it does, the net value of the novel soybean will be drastically reduced. Similarly, if the improved oil trait negative impacts the agronomics (i.e. yield) of the soybean, this in turn will reduce the value of the trait. Over the course of this program oil was extruded from approximately 350 bushels of soybean designated 335-13, which produces oil high in oleic acid (>85%) and low in saturated fatty acid (<6%). As predicted improvement in cold flow parameters were observed as compared to standard commodity soybean oil. Moreover, engine tests revealed that biodiesel derived from this novel oil mitigated NOx emissions. Seed quality of this soybean was not compromised with respect to total oil and protein, nor was the amino acid profile of the derived meal as compared to the respective control soybean cultivar with a conventional fatty acid profile. Importantly, the high oleic acid/low saturated fatty acids oil trait was not impacted by environment and yield was not compromised. Improving the genetic potential of soybean by exploiting the tools of biotechnology to improve upon the lipid quality of the seed for use in industrial applications such as biodiesel will aid in expanding the market for the crop. This in turn, may

  8. Effect Of Replacing Soybean Meal With Lima Bean Meal On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) was processed by soaking and toasting before usage to feed 75 broiler birds for 28 days. The birds were randomly assigned to five treatment diets with each treatment being replicated three times and containing five birds per replicate in a completely randomized design. The bean was ...

  9. Effects of feeding high protein or conventional canola meal on dry cured and conventionally cured bacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, K L; Bohrer, B M; Stein, H H; Boler, D D

    2015-05-01

    Objectives were to compare belly, bacon processing, bacon slice, and sensory characteristics from pigs fed high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or conventional canola meal (CM-CV). Soybean meal was replaced with 0 (control), 33, 66, or 100% of both types of canola meal. Left side bellies from 70 carcasses were randomly assigned to conventional or dry cure treatment and matching right side bellies were assigned the opposite treatment. Secondary objectives were to test the existence of bilateral symmetry on fresh belly characteristics and fatty acid profiles of right and left side bellies originating from the same carcass. Bellies from pigs fed CM-HP were slightly lighter and thinner than bellies from pigs fed CM-CV, yet bacon processing, bacon slice, and sensory characteristics were unaffected by dietary treatment and did not differ from the control. Furthermore, testing the existence of bilateral symmetry on fresh belly characteristics revealed that bellies originating from the right side of the carcasses were slightly (P≤0.05) wider, thicker, heavier and firmer than bellies from the left side of the carcass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular mapping and genomics of soybean seed protein: A review and perspective for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meal protein derived from soybean [Glycine max (L) Merr.] seed is the primary source of protein in poultry and livestock feed. Protein is a key factor that determines the nutritional and economical value of soybean. Genetic improvement of soybean seed protein content is highly desirable, and major q...

  11. Nutrient digestibility and growth performance of pigs fed diets with different levels of canola meal from Brassica napus black and Brassica juncea yellow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjayan, N; Heo, J M; Nyachoti, C M

    2014-09-01

    Nutrient digestibility and the effect of high dietary inclusion of canola meals from Brassica napus black (BNB) and Brassica juncea yellow (BJY) on growing and weaned pigs performance were determined. In Exp.1, 6 ileal cannulated barrows (initial BW = 20.7 ± 1.5 kg) were used to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in BNB and BJY. Pigs were allotted to diets containing either BNB or BJY as the sole source of protein in a crossover design to give 6 replicates per diet. The SID of all AA in BNB and BJY were similar. In Exp. 2, 168 weaned pigs (initial BW = 7.61 ± 0.76 kg) were assigned in a randomized complete block design to 7 diets (n = 24) consisting of a wheat-soybean meal-based control diet and 6 diets containing 5, 10 or 15% of canola meal derived from either BNB or BJY to determine the effect of different dietary inclusion on growth performance over a 28-d period postweaning. Diets were formulated to contain similar NE and SID of Lys. There were no differences in growth performance among treatments. In Exp. 3, 162 weaned pigs (initial BW = 7.26 ± 0.70 kg) were used to determine the effect of high BNB and BJY inclusion level without or with multicarbohydrase supplementation on growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of CP, DM, and GE. A wheat-soybean meal-based control diet and 8 diets containing 20 and 25% of either BNB or BJY without or with added multi-carbohydrase were formulated (n = 18) to contain comparable NE and similar SID of Lys contents. Feeding the diets containing 25% of BNB or BJY supported similar growth performance as those containing 20%. The multi-carbohydrase had no effect on growth performance but improved (P canola meal type. Diets containing 25% canola meal had lower (P canola meal type compared with the 20% canola meal diets. There was an interaction (P canola meal type and inclusion level on ATTD of DM in which ATTD of DM decreased with increasing

  12. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moosavi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (P<0.05 high NEL intakes when compared to control with no fat. Supplemental fat, whether tallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; P<0.01 and FCM production (1.05-2.79; P<0.01. Milk fat yield and percentage of cows fed fat-supplemented diets were significantly (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively higher than control. Between fat-supplemented diets, roasted soybean caused highest milk fat yield and extruded soybean caused lowest milk fat yield. There was no significant effect of supplemental fat on the milk protein and lactose content and yield. Feed efficiency of fat-supplemented diets was significantly (P<0.01 higher than control. Body weight, body weight change and BCS (body condition score of cows, as well as energy balance and energy efficiency were similar between treatments. In conclusion, while there was no significant effect of fat sources on production response of cows, fat originating from heat-treated soybean help to minimize imported RUP (rumen undegradable protein sources level as fish meal in comparison with tallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.

  13. Utilization Of Diets Containing Cashew-Nut Reject Meal By Weaner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A trial was conducted to assess the performance and digestibility of weaner pigs fed diets containing cashew nut reject meal (CNM). A control diet was formulated without cashew nut reject meal while two other diets were also formulated to contain either 50g or 100g/kg diet. The CNM replaced soybean meal in the control ...

  14. Effects of Diets with Graded Levels of Canola Meal on the Growth Performance, Meat Qualities, Relative Organ Weights, and Blood Characteristics of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BK An

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted to evaluate the dietary supplementation of canola meal (CM on the growth performance, carcass characteristics, antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus and Infectious bronchitis virus, and blood profiles of broiler chickens. In total 600 day-old feather-sexed Ross male broiler chicks were randomly assigned into five treatments with six replicates of 20 birds each for 35 days. Treatments consisted of five experimental diets containing 0 (control, 3, 5, 10, or 15% canola meal (CM. Final body weight (BW was not affected by the dietary treatments. Daily BW gain (DWG and feed intake linearly decreased as dietary CM inclusion increased during the starter phase (p<0.0001, but not during the grower and total rearing periods. Chicks fed the diet with 15% CM presented the lowest DWG during the starter phase. Breast meat yield of CM-fed chicks linearly decreased as CM inclusion level increased (p=0.0014. Dietary CM supplementation did not influence organ relative weights, except for the spleen, meat quality, or blood profile. The results suggest that the CM may replace soybean meal (SBM with no detrimental effects on overall growth performance or physiological responses of broiler chickens. However, it is recommended that supplementing excess amount of CM into broilers' diet should be taken into account in practical diet formulation as it could impair growth performance at early age and lower breast meat yields.

  15. Dietary intervention of cow ghee and soybean oil on expression of cell cycle and apoptosis related genes in normal and carcinogen treated rat mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Rita; Kansal, Vinod Kumar; Kaushal, Deepti; De, Sachinandan

    2011-06-01

    The present study investigated the effect of cow ghee (clarified butter fat) versus soybean oil on the expression of cyclins A and D1, and apoptosis regulating Bax, Bcl-2 and PKC-α genes in mammary gland of normal and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) treated rats. Two groups of 21 days old female rats were fed for 44 weeks diet containing cow ghee or soybean oil (10%). The animals were given DMBA (30 mg/kg body weight) through oral intubation after 5 weeks feeding. Another two groups fed similarly but not given DMBA served as respective controls. In control groups, the expression of cyclin A was similar on both cow ghee and soybean oil, but that of cyclin D1 was more on soybean oil diet. However, in DMBA treated groups, the expression levels of cyclins A and D1 were significantly greater on soybean oil than on cow ghee. The expression levels of Bax, Bcl-2 and PKC-α were similar in two control groups. However, in tumor tissue expression levels of Bcl-2 and PKC-α were significantly lower in cow ghee fed rats than in soybean oil fed ones, but Bax was similarly expressed in both DMBA treated groups. The pro-apoptotic ratio Bax/Bcl-2 increased and the anti-apoptotic ratio PKC-α(Bcl-2/Bax) decreased in cow ghee group compared to soybean oil group in DMBA treated rats. Hence, the decreased expressions of cyclins A and D1, Bcl-2 and PKC-α mediate the mechanism by which cow ghee protects from mammary carcinogenesis.

  16. Substituição parcial e total da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína dos farelos de canola e algodão em dietas para alevinos de piavuçu, Leporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski, 1988 Partial and total replacement of soybean meal protein by canola or cottonseed meal protein in diets of Leporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski, 1988 fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Christina Esper Amaro de Faria

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a substituição da proteína do farelo de soja (FS pela proteína do farelo de canola (FC e farelo de algodão (FA, em dietas para alevinos de piavuçu, Leporinus macrocephalus (Characiformes, Anostomidae, realizou-se um experimento com duração de 60 dias, utilizando-se 300 alevinos, com peso inicial médio de 0,10 g distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com seis tratamentos e cinco repetições. As dietas isoprotéicas foram formuladas de forma a terem o FS, FC, FA, FS+FC, FS+FA e FC+FA como fonte protéica. Os alevinos, alimentados com dietas contendo FS e FS+FA, apresentaram valores de peso final e taxa de eficiência protéica superiores (p 0,05 pelo uso das diferentes dietas. Observou-se redução linear dos valores de peso final, da taxa de eficiência protéica e aumento linear (p The effects of soybean meal (SB protein replacement by canola meal (CN or cottonseed meal (CT protein in diets of Leporinus macrocephalus (Characiformes, Anostomidae fingerlings are provided. Assay was carried out during 60 days. Three hundred fingerlings with mean initial weight of 1.00g were distributed in a block randomized design with six treatments and five replicates. Isoprotein diets contained SB, CN, CT, SB+CN, SB+CT and CN+CT as protein source. Fingerlings fed on diets with SB, SB+CN, SB+CT showed better final mean weight and protein efficiency rate values (p 0.05 by different diets linear reduction (p macrocephalus fingerlings, replacing 50.00% of SB protein.

  17. The effect of dietary cricket meal (Gryllus bimaculatus) on growth performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, and haematological response of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufek, Norhidayah Mohd; Aspani, Firdaus; Muin, Hasniyati; Raji, Ameenat Abiodun; Razak, Shaharudin Abdul; Alias, Zazali

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the growth performance, biomarkers of oxidative stress, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) as well as the haematological response of African catfish after being fed with fish feed containing different levels of cricket meal. The juvenile fish were assigned to three different treatments with isonitrogenous (35 %) and isoenergetic (19 kJ g(-1)) diets containing 100 % cricket meal (100 % CM), 75 % cricket meal (75 % CM), and 100 % fishmeal (100 % FM) as control groups for 7 weeks. The results indicated that a diet containing 100 % CM and 75 % CM improved growth performance in terms of body weight gain and specific growth rate, when compared to 100 % FM. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) did not differ significantly between all diets, but reduced FCR and increased PER were observed with a higher inclusion of cricket meal. A haematological examination of fish demonstrated no significant difference of red blood cells in all diets and white blood cells showed a significantly higher value in fishmeal-fed fish. On the other hand, haemoglobin and haematocrit significantly increased with increasing amounts of cricket meal in the diet. Antioxidant activity of CAT was higher in the 100 % CM group compared to fish fed other diets, whereas GST and SOD showed increasing trends with a higher incorporation of cricket, although insignificant differences were observed between all diets. These results suggest that cricket meal could be an alternative to fishmeal as a protein source in the African catfish diet.

  18. Effects of differently processed soybean substituted diets on nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and nutrient studies was carried out on Clarias gariepinus Juveniles of mean weight 7.00-8.00g stocked into rectangular plastic aquarium tanks 30cm x 15cm for 120 days fed with differently processed soya bean meal. There were eight treatments labeled as diet T1-T8, diet T1 (control diet; contains no soybean meal ...

  19. Cafeteria Staff Perceptions of the New USDA School Meal Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz, Brenda; Cullen, Karen Weber

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The new nutrition standards for the school meal programs implemented in 2012 align the school meal patterns with the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans, including more fruit, vegetable and whole grain offerings and minimum and maximum amount of calories per meal averaged over a week. The purpose of this study was to assess…

  20. Evaluation of Microdesmis puberula leaf meal as feed ingredient in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The material was milled using a hammer mill to produce the leaf meal. Microdesmis puberula leaf meal contain 17.32% crude protein, 6.52% ether extract, 12.25% total ash, 24.84% crude fibre, 24.06% NFE and an appreciable percent of minerals. Three broiler starter diets were formulated to contain the meal at dietary ...

  1. Substituição do farelo de soja por farelo de algodão de alta energia em dietas para vacas leiteiras em produção: consumo, digestibilidade dos nutrientes, balanço de nitrogênio e produção leiteira Replacing soybean meal with high energy cottonseed meal in diets for dairy yielding cows: intake, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen efficiency and milk yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Ferreira Alves

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da inclusão de níveis crescentes de farelo de algodão alta energia (0; 8,7; 17,4; 26,1 e 34,8% da matéria seca em substituição ao farelo de soja no concentrado de vacas no terço final de lactação sobre o consumo e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes, a eficiência na utilização do nitrogênio e a produção de leite. Foram utilizadas cinco vacas mestiças 5/8 Holandês × 3/8 Gir, em um delineamento quadrado latino 5 × 5, com cinco períodos de 18 dias (oito dias para adaptação e 10 dias para determinação do consumo e coleta de amostras. As dietas foram calculadas para terem teores proteicos semelhantes (14% de proteína bruta, com 60% de silagem de milho e 40% de concentrado na MS. Não houve efeito da inclusão de farelo de algodão alta energia sobre os consumos de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, carboidratos totais e nutrientes digestíveis totais. O consumo de extrato etéreo aumentou com os níveis de 26,1 e 34,8% de farelo de algodão alta energia, enquanto o consumo de carboidratos não-fibrosos foi maior para os níveis de 0, 8,7 e 26,1%. A digestibilidade dos nutrientes não diferiu entre os níveis de farelo de algodão alta energia. A substituição do farelo de soja pelo farelo de algodão não influenciou a eficiência de utilização e o balanço de nitrogênio, ou o teor de nitrogênio ureico no leite e de nitrogênio ureico no soro. A produção média de leite (14,03 kg/dia e a produção média de leite corrigida para 3,5% de gordura (14,68 kg/dia não foram influenciadas pelos níveis de farelo de algodão alta energia na dieta nem houve diferença na eficiência alimentar. O farelo de algodão alta energia tem potencial para substituição do farelo de soja na dieta de vacas com capacidade de produção de 15 kg/dia.The effect of replacing increasing levels of high-energy cottonseed meal (0, 8.7, 17.4, 26.1 and 34,8% DM with soybean meal in concentrate for cows in the

  2. Substituição da Proteína do Farelo de Soja pela Proteína do Farelo de Canola em Rações para Alevinos de Curimbatá (Prochilodus lineatus V. Replacement of Soybean Meal Protein by Canola Meal Protein in "Curimbatá" (Prochilodus lineatus V. Fingerling Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Maria Galdioli

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando verificar a influência da substituição da proteína do farelo de soja (FS pela proteína do farelo de canola (FC, em rações para alevinos de curimbatá, foram utilizados 120 animais com peso médio de 1,88 ± 0,82 g e comprimento total médio de 5,40 ± 0,99 cm, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições em aquários de vidro (50 L, com cinco alevinos por unidade experimental. As rações foram formuladas para serem isoprotéicas (26,00%, isocálcicas (0,90% e isofosfóricas (0,70%, com níveis crescentes de substituição da proteína do FS pela do FC (0,00; 20,00; 40,00; 60,00; 80,00 e 100,00%, o que correspondeu a 0,00; 8,03; 16,10; 24,10; 32,15 e 43,12% de inclusão do FC nas rações e fornecidas por um período de 30 dias. Os parâmetros físico-químicos da água foram medidos a cada sete dias. Observou-se redução linear do ganho de peso e da taxa de eficiência protéica e aumento linear da taxa de conversão alimentar, com aumento da inclusão do FC nas rações. A taxa de sobrevivência e o custo de ração/kg ganho não foram afetados com o uso do FC nas rações. Os valores da temperatura da água, do pH e da condutividade elétrica permaneceram dentro dos níveis adequados. Concluiu-se que o aumento dos níveis de inclusão da proteína do farelo de canola nas rações para alevinos de curimbatá acarretou redução no desempenho dos mesmos.The influence of the substitution of soybean meal protein (SM by canola meal protein (CM in Prochilodus lineatus fingerling diets was verified. One hundred and twenty specimens, averaging weight 1.88±0.82g and total length 5.40±0.99cm, was assigned to a completely randomized randomized design, with six treatments and four replicates, in a 50 L glass aquarium, with five fingerlings in each experimental unit. Isoprotein (26.00%, isocalcium (0.90% and isophosphorus (0.70% diets were formulated with increasing replacement

  3. Variações em metabólitos no plasma e hormônios no soro sangüíneo de coelhas alimentadas com farelo de canola em substituição gradual ao farelo de soja Changes in metabolic plasma and serum hormones in female rabbits fed on diets with canola meal gradually replacing soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Vieira Lage

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as possíveis variações dos níveis plasmáticos de glicose, triglicerídeos, colesterol total, uréia e os níveis do soro sanguíneo de estradiol, progesterona, insulina, T3 e T4 em coelhas alimentadas com dietas em que o farelo de canola substituiu em 00%, 33%, 66% e 100% o farelo de soja, no período de 43 aos 225 dias de idade (final da primeira lactação. Foram utilizadas quarenta coelhas da raça Nova Zelândia Branca, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 4 tratamentos e 10 repetições. As coelhas foram cobertas aos 150 dias de idade. Aos 43, 80, 150, 184 e 225 dias, foram realizadas as coletas de sangue por punção cardíaca. Os níveis plasmáticos de glicose, triglicerídeos, colesterol total e uréia não foram alterados pelos níveis de substituição do farelo de soja pelo farelo de canola. No entanto, houve efeito quadrático em relação à idade dos animais. Os níveis no soro sanguíneo de estradiol, progesterona, insulina, T3 e T4 não apresentaram efeito de tratamento. Os níveis de progesterona e T4 apresentaram efeito quadrático em relação à idade das coelhas. As variações encontradas em função da idade dos animais poderiam ser atribuídas às variações ambientais ou fisiológicas durante o período de realização do experimento.Possible changes in plasma levels of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, urea, serum levels of estradiol, progesterone, insulin, T3 and T4 in female rabbits are evaluated. Rabbits were fed on soybean meal in a gradual substitution (00%, 33%, 66% and 100% by canola meal. Rabbits aged 43 to 225 days, on completing first pregnancy and lactation. Forty White New Zealand rabbits female were used in a completely randomized design, with four treatments and 10 replications. At 43, 80, 150, 184 and 225 days old the animals underwent heart puncture for blood collection. Females were mated at 150 days. Levels of glucose plasma

  4. Histological analysis of ovaries of female rabbits fed on canola meal gradually substituting soybean meal Análises histológicas do ovário de coelhas alimentadas com farelo de canola em substituição gradativa ao farelo de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Vieira Lage

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available A histological study of New Zealand White female rabbits’ ovaries was undertaken. Rabbits were fed on canola meal as an increasing substitute (00, 33, 66 and 100% for soybean meal so that the tissue’s general aspects could be verified and the number of ovarian follicles from each experimental group could be obtained. Forty-eight female rabbits were slaughtered at 43, 150 and 225 days of age and their ovaries were fixed in Bouin’s liquid, washed and conserved in 70% ethanol and embedded in paraffin. 5µm-thick histological sections were undertaken and stained by HE and Azan techniques. The ovaries were bound by a predominantly simple cubic epithelium followed by the tunica albuginea. Ovarian follicles were observed in different stages of development in the cortical tissue. Interstitial gland cells, blood and lymphatic vessels and nerves were observed in the medullar tissue. Small cysts were also reported. Histological preparations didn’t show any change between groups either in the general morphology of the tissue or in follicle number. This fact suggests that the use of canola as a food of rabbits didn’t interfere in reproduction.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a histologia de ovário de coelhas da raça Nova Zelândia Branca. As coelhas foram alimentadas com farelo de canola em substituição gradativa (00, 33, 66 e 100% ao farelo de soja. Foram estudados os aspectos histológicos gerais dos ovários, assim como a contagem de folículos. Um grupo de 48 coelhas foi dividido ao acaso e abatido aos 43, 150 e 225 dias de idade, e os ovários foram fixados em Bouin, lavados e conservados em solução de etanol a 70% e embebidos em parafina. Cortes histológicos foram realizados com 5µm de espessura e corados com HE e técnica de Azan. Os ovários apresentavam predominantemente epitélio simples cúbico seguidos de túnica albugínea. Os folículos foram observados em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento no estroma cortical. C

  5. Replacement Value of Palm Kernel Meal for Maize on Carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing maize with palm kernel meal on nutrient composition, fatty acid profile and sensory qualities of the meat of turkeys fed the dietary treatments. Six dietary treatments were formulated using palm kernel meal to replace maize at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 percent.

  6. Dietary intake in infants with complex congenital heart disease: a case-control study on macro- and micronutrient intake, meal frequency and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, L; Öhlund, I; Lind, T; Stecksén-Blicks, C; Rydberg, A

    2016-02-01

    Children with severe congenital heart disease (CHD) need considerable nutritional support to reach normal growth. The actual intake of macro- and micronutrients in outpatient CHD infants over a 6-month period in infancy is not described in the literature. The present study aimed to prospectively investigate the distribution between macro- and micronutrient intake, meal frequency and growth in children with CHD. At 6, 9 and 12 months of age, a 3-day food diary and anthropometric data were collected in 11 infants with severe CHD and 22 healthy age- and feeding-matched controls. Macro- and micronutrient intake, meal frequency and growth were calculated. Compared to the healthy controls, CHD infants had a statistically significantly higher intake of fat at 9 months of age (4.8 versus 3.6 g kg(-1) day(-1) ), a higher percentage energy (E%) from fat, (40.6% versus 34.5%) and a lower E% from carbohydrates (46.1% versus 39.6%) at 12 months of age, and a lower intake of iron (7.22 versus 9.28 mg day(-1) ) at 6 months of age. Meal frequency was significantly higher at 6 and 9 months of age (P meal frequency, the intake does not meet the needs for growth, and the results may indicate a low intake of micronutrients in CHD infants. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  7. Desempenho de leitões submetidos a diferentes níveis de substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do ovo desidratado = Performance of piglets submitted to different replacement levels of soybean meal protein by dehydrated egg protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína de Cássia Braga Arruda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar o ganho de peso, o consumo de ração e a conversão alimentar de suínos em fase inicial (15 a 30 kg de peso alimentados com quatro diferentes níveis de substituição (0, 3, 6 e 9% da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do ovo desidratado. Foram utilizados 32 suínos (16 machos castrados e 16 fêmeas em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições cada, em que a unidade experimental foi composta por um macho e uma fêmea. Os tratamentos foram 0, 3, 6 e 9% de proteína do ovo desidratado em substituição à proteína do farelo de soja. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à regressão linear para os níveis de 3, 6 e 9% de ovo desidratado, e o tratamento-testemunha (0% foi comparado com os demais aplicando o teste Dunnet a 5% de probabilidade. Os níveis de substituição da proteína do farelo de sojapela proteína do ovo desidratado não influenciaram as variáveis de desempenho dos animais na fase inicial, até 9%. Entretanto, avaliando a relação custo-benefício, o tratamentocontrole foi o mais rentável.This study aimed to determine the average daily weight gain, daily feed intake and the feed conversion ratio of pigs in initialphase (15 to 30 kg of weight fed with four different levels of substitution (0, 3, 6 and 9% of soybean meal protein by dehydrated egg protein. Thirty-two pigs (16 castrated males and 16 females were used in a completely randomized blocks statistical design, with fourtreatments and four repetitions each; the experimental unit was composed by a male and a female. The treatments were 0, 3, 6 and 9% of dehydrated egg protein in replacement of soybean meal protein. The data obtained were subjected to linear regression for the levels 3,6 and 9% of dehydrated egg; the witness (0% was compared with the other treatments applying Dunnett’s test at 5% probability. The replacement levels of soybean meal protein by dehydrated egg protein did not influence

  8. Efeito da combinação de dietas contendo milho ou triticale e farelo de soja ou levedura sobre o desempenho de novilhas nelore terminadas em confinamento Effect of diet synchronization based on ground corn or triticale and soybean meal or yeast on feedlot Nelore heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Takae Iwayama

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado para comparar o efeito da combinação de quatro dietas contendo silagem de sorgo, milho ou triticale e farelo de soja ou levedura, em 48 novilhas nelore com peso médio de 235kg e idade aproximada de 18 meses, confinadas durante 84 dias, divididos em 3 períodos (PI, PII, PIII de 28 dias. Avaliaram-se o ganho médio diário (GMD, rendimento de carcaça (RC, conversão alimentar e consumo (ingestão para cada 100kg de peso vivo de MS, PB, MO, EB, FDN e FDA. Não houve interação (p > 0,05 entre os alimentos. O GMD das rações com levedura no PI foi superior (p 0,05 no GMD entre rações com levedura e farelo de soja. Por outro lado, não foram observadas diferenças (p > 0,05 para o GMD, nos PI e PII entre as rações à base de triticale e milho. No entanto, no PIII e na média geral, o triticale promoveu maior (p 0,05 entre os alimentos. O consumo de PB foi maior (p The aim of this work was to compare the effect of diet synchronization based on sorghum silage, ground corn or triticale and soybean meal and yeast on the performance of 48 18-month-old Nelore heifers with 235 kg average weight, stabled for 84 days, divided into three periods (PI, PII and PIII of 28 days. The average daily weight gain (ADG, carcass yield (CY, feed intake and conversion (intake ratio to 100 kg live weight of DM, CP, OM, GE, NDF and ADF were evaluated. There was no interaction (p > 0.05 between diets. The ADG of yeast in PI was higher (p 0.05 in ADG between yeast and soybean meal. There were no differences observed (p > 0.05 as for ADG in PI and PII between triticale and ground corn. However in PIII and in final average period triticale presented a higher (p 0.05 between diets. Conversion of CP was higher (p < 0.05 for diets with triticale than with corn and for diets with soybean meal than with yeast.

  9. Composição química, avaliação físico-química e nutricional e efeito da expansão do milho e do farelo de soja para suínos em crescimento Chemical composition, physical-chemical and nutritional evaluation and effect of expanded corn and soybean meal on growing swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.F. Veloso

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Determinaram-se a composição química e as propriedades físico-químicas, a digestibilidade fecal dos nutrientes e os valores energéticos do milho, do milho expandido, do farelo de soja e do farelo de soja expandido, em suínos em crescimento. Foram feitas análises de rotina (análise proximal e de energia bruta e análises específicas, como gelatinização do amido, nitrogênio insolúvel em detergente ácido, atividade ureática, solubilidade protéica em KOH 0,2% e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Na determinação da digestibilidade, usaram-se 20 leitões machos castrados, com peso inicial médio de 33,630±1,011kg, distribuídos em delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições por tratamento. Uma dieta basal foi substituída por 40% dos alimentos energéticos ou por 20% dos protéicos. Nos alimentos expandidos, houve modificações no perfil químico e nas propriedades físico-químicas que influenciaram a digestibilidade dos nutrientes, em relação aos alimentos in natura. Ocorreu gelatinização do amido, incrementando (P0,05. O processo da expansão atuou diferentemente nas avaliações de laboratório e de digestibilidade dos nutrientes do milho e do farelo de soja expandidos.Growing pigs were used in a trial to evaluate chemical composition, physical-chemical properties, fecal digestibility of nutrients and energetic values for corn, expanded corn, soybean meal and expanded soybean meal. Proximate analyses, crude energy and specific analyses, as starch gelatinization, acid detergent insoluble nitrogen, urea activity, 0.2% KOH protein solubility and scanning electronic microscopy were performed. Twenty growing castrated pigs averaging 33.630±1.011kg of live weight were used in a digestibility assay. The pigs were allotted to different metabolic cages, in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replicates. The energetic feed substituted 40% and the proteic

  10. Impact of improving dietary amino acid balance for lactating sows on efficiency of dietary amino acid utilization and transcript abundance of genes encoding lysine transporters in mammary tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, L; de Lange, C F M; Ernst, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    Lactating multiparous Yorkshire sows (n = 64) were used in 2 experiments to test the hypothesis that reducing dietary CP intake and improving AA balance through crystalline AA (CAA) supplementation improves apparent dietary AA utilization efficiency for milk production and increases transcript...... abundance of genes encoding Lys transporter proteins in mammary tissue. In Exp. 1, 40 sows were assigned to 1 of 4 diets: 1) high CP (HCP; 16.0% CP, as-fed basis; analyzed concentration), 2) medium-high CP (MHCP; 15.7% CP), 3) medium-low CP (MLCP; 14.3% CP), and 4) low CP (LCP; 13.2% CP). The HCP diet...... was formulated using soybean meal and corn as the only Lys sources. The reduced-CP diets contained CAA to meet estimated requirements for essential AA that became progressively limiting with reduction in CP concentration, that is, Lys, Ile, Met + Cys, Thr, Trp, and Val. Dietary standardized ileal digestible (SID...

  11. TIME-VARYING MULTIPRODUCT HEDGE RATIO ESTIMATION IN THE SOYBEAN COMPLEX: A SIMPLIFIED APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Manfredo, Mark R.; Garcia, Philip; Leuthold, Raymond M.

    2000-01-01

    In developing optimal hedge ratios for the soybean processing margin, many authors have illustrated the importance of considering the interactions between the cash and futures prices for soybeans, soybean oil, and soybean meal. Conditional as well as time-varying hedge ratios have been examined, but in the case of multiproduct time-varying hedge ratios, the difficulty in estimation has been found to often outweigh any improvement in hedging effectiveness. This research examines the hedging ef...

  12. Requested meals versus scheduled meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciampolini M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mario CiampoliniPreventive Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Università di Firenze, Florence, ItalyBackground: Scheduled meals are considered to be equivalent to those requested by the infant (null hypothesis. In adults, we have found high blood glucose before scheduled meals and low blood glucose after recognition of validated initial hunger. Low preprandial blood glucose is associated with a decrease in energy intake and body weight both in adults who are overtly overweight and in those who are of normal weight with insulin resistance (hidden overweight. In this study, we investigated the validity of the null hypothesis between scheduled and requested meals in 2-year-old infants with chronic nonspecific diarrhea.Methods: We trained a "recognizing request" meal pattern in 70 mother-infant pairs. The trained meal pattern consisted of administering food after a first request that we validated by blood glucose measurement in the hospital laboratory. Using a 7-day food diary, mothers reported preprandial blood glucose measurements for their infants three times a day. We assessed mean preprandial blood glucose, daily energy intake, days with diarrhea, blood parameters, and anthropometry before training and 4 months after training, and compared the results with measurements in 73 randomly selected untrained controls.Results: In the trained group, there was a decrease in mean blood glucose from 86.9 ± 9.4 mg/dL to 76.4 ± 6.7 mg/dL (P < 0.0001, as well as a decrease in energy intake and days with diarrhea in comparison with control infants who maintained scheduled meals. Only two of 21 infants who had a mean blood glucose lower than 81.2 mg/dL at recruitment showed a statistically significant decrease in mean blood glucose, whereas 36 of 49 infants above this cutoff level showed a statistically significant decrease after training (Chi-square test, P < 0.0001.Conclusion: Requested meals are associated with low preprandial blood

  13. Associations of family meal frequency with family meal habits and meal preparation characteristics among families of youth with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornides, M L; Nansel, T R; Quick, V; Haynie, D L; Lipsky, L M; Laffel, L M B; Mehta, S N

    2014-05-01

    While benefits of family mealtimes, such as improved dietary quality and increased family communication, have been well-documented in the general population, less is known about family meal habits that contribute to more frequent family meals in youth with type 1 diabetes. This cross-sectional study surveyed 282 youth ages 8-18 years with type 1 diabetes and their parents on measures regarding diabetes-related and dietary behaviours. T-tests determined significant differences in youth's diet quality, adherence to diabetes management and glycaemic control between those with and without regular family meals (defined as ≥ 5 meals per week). Logistic regression analyses determined unadjusted and adjusted associations of age, socio-demographics, family meal habits, and family meal preparation characteristics with regular family meals. 57% of parents reported having regular family meals. Families with regular family meals had significantly better diet quality as measured by the Healthy Eating Index (P family meals were each associated with regular family meals (P family meals, while convenience and fast foods were negatively associated (P Families in which at least one parent worked part-time or stayed at home were significantly more likely to have regular family meals than families in which both parents worked full-time (P family mealtimes (P family meals; adjusting for parent work status and other family meal habits. Strategies for promoting families meals should not only highlight the benefits of family meals, but also facilitate parents' skills for and barriers to home-prepared meals. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Dieta hiperlipídica com farinha de soja como fonte proteica: utilização na seleção de ratos propensos e resistentes à obesidade High-fat diet using soybean meal as protein source: use for selecting rats prone and resistant to obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludimila Canuto Cabeço

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Desenvolver uma dieta hiperlipídica de baixo custo, tendo farinha de soja como fonte proteica, que seja eficiente na seleção de ratos propensos e resistentes à obesidade e que permita alcançar fenótipo obeso nos animais propensos. Além desses requisitos, a dieta deve ser palatável e não rejeitada a curto prazo pelo animal. MÉTODOS: A dieta proposta foi obtida misturando-se leite condensado (15,5%, amendoim (18,5%, farinha de soja (20,0%, óleo de milho (6,0%, ração Bio Tec (30,0% e bolacha wafer de chocolate (10,0%. A mistura foi peletizada e submetida à análise bromatológica. A dieta foi ofertada a ratos Wistar durante uma semana; posteriormente, os animais foram divididos em três grupos, de acordo com o ganho de peso. O terço superior foi considerado propenso à obesidade e o terço inferior, resistente à obesidade. Após 80 dias de oferta da dieta, os animais foram sacrificados e foram quantificados o peso corpóreo, consumo alimentar, gorduras retroperitoneal, periepididimal, de carcaça e gorduras totais. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se que a dieta apresentava 5,31kcal/g, com a seguinte composição: 22,3% de gordura, 22,2% de proteína, 15,9% de fibra, estimando-se 35,7% de carboidrato. Ratos propensos à obesidade, alimentados por 87 dias com a dieta hipercalórica, apresentaram peso corpóreo, gorduras retroperitoneal, periepididimal e totais significativamente maiores do que animais resistentes à obesidade (pOBJECTIVE: The objective was to develop a high-fat, low cost diet, using soybean meal as protein source. This diet should effectively discriminate between rats prone and resistant to obesity and allow the obese phenotype to be achieved in the animals that are prone to obesity. Furthermore, the diet must be palatable and not be rejected by the animal in the short run. METHODS: The chow was obtained by mixing the following ingredients: condensed milk (15.5%, peanuts (18.5%, soybean meal (20.0%, corn oil (6

  15. Soybean oil and beef tallow in the diet of semi-heavy laying hens reared in hot climate regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Martins

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the productive performance and physical quality of eggs from semi-heavy laying hens reared in hot climate regions and fed diets containing soybean oil or beef tallow. The experiment had a duration of 63 days divided into three cycles of 21 days each. A total of 160 semi-heavy Hisex Brown laying hens at 50 weeks of age and with an initial weight of 1.755 ± 0.172 kg were used. The birds were reared in a floor system and housed in boxes. A completely randomized design consisting of two treatments and five replicates was used, with 16 birds per experimental unit (box. Two experimental diets based on corn and soybean meal were formulated and soybean oil or beef tallow was added, corresponding to treatments 1 and 2, respectively. The following parameters were evaluated: egg production (%, feed intake (g/bird/day, egg mass (g/bird/day, feed conversion per egg mass (kg/kg, feed conversion per dozen eggs (kg/dozen, egg weight, percentage of yolk, egg white and shell (%, specific gravity (g/cm3, animal viability (%, and body weight variation (g. No differences (P>0.05 were observed in any of the parameters studied. The dietary inclusion of soybean oil or beef tallow does not influence the productive performance or egg quality of semi-heavy laying hens reared in hot climate regions.

  16. Balanço de nitrogênio em fêmeas leiteiras em confinamento alimentadas com concentrado à base de farelo de soja ou farelo de algodão Nitrogen use efficiency of growing dairy heifers fed concentrate rations based on soybean or cottonseed meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Alvarenga Santos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência do fornecimento de concentrados à base de farelo de soja ou farelo de algodão em dietas com silagem de milho sobre o balanço de nitrogênio e a produção de proteína microbiana em fêmeas leiteiras em crescimento. As dietas foram constituídas da combinação de dois níveis de concentrado (1 ou 2 kg e duas fontes proteicas (farelo de soja ou farelo de algodão. Os animais que consumiram concentrado na quantidade de 2 kg/dia apresentaram maior consumo de nitrogênio total, entretanto não houve efeito significativo sobre o N-fecal, N-urinário e o balanço de nitrogênio. A interação entre o nível de concentrado e a fonte proteica influenciou o nitrogênio ureico na urina (N-urina, mas não alterou os níveis de nitrogênio ureico no plasma. Os níveis de concentrado e as fontes proteicas não afetaram as concentrações de purinas totais e alantoína na urina, a porcentagem de alantoína em relação às purinas totais, os níveis de ácido úrico na urina e nitrogênio microbiano nem a eficiência microbiana. O fornecimento de 1 ou 2 kg de concentrado contendo farelo de soja ou farelo de algodão como fontes proteicas para novilhas leiteiras em crescimento não afeta a eficiência microbiana, entretanto o fornecimento de 2 kg de concentrado aumenta a excreção de nitrogênio nas fezes.The objective of this work was to evaluate effect of based-soybean or cottonseed meal concentrate rations in diets with corn silage on nitrogen balance (NB and microbial protein production in growing dairy females. diets consisted of the combination of two levels of concentrate ration, 1 or 2 kg, and two protein sources, soybean meal or cottonseed meal. The animals that consumed 2 kg of concentrate ration showed greater total nitrogen intake, however, there was no significant effect on fecal-N, urine-N and nitrogen balance. The interaction among the concentrade levels and the protein source affected the urine uric N (N-urine but

  17. Meal mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Kügler, Jens; Olsen, Nina Veflen

    2013-01-01

    probabilities are subjected to multiple correspondence analysis and mapped into low-dimensional space. In a third step, the principal coordinates representing meal centres and side components in the correspondence analysis solution are subjected to cluster analysis to identify distinct groups of compatible...

  18. Serum Biochemistry, Organ Weight, Carcass Characteristics, Organoleptic Properties and Villi Morphometry of Nera Black Cocks fed Varying Levels of Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo Kayode Ojediran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A total number of sixty-four (28 weeks old matured Nera black cocks were randomly allotted to 4 dietary groups. Diet T1 (control had no Moringa Oleifera leaf meal (MOLM inclusion while diets T2, T3 and T4 contained graded levels of MOLM at 10%, 20% and 30% replacement for soya bean meal (w/w respectively  in a completely randomized design. All the serum biochemistry parameters evaluated differs significantly (P≤0.05 except albumin and cholesterol (P>0.05 among the dietary treatments. The weight of the kidney, heart, pancrease, proventriculus and spleen were influenced by the dietary treatments (P≤0.05. The weights of breast and empty gizzard increased (P≤0.05 linearly with MOLM inclusion while the wings, thigh and drum stick compared (P≤0.05 with those fed the control diet. The villi length and muscle thickness were significantly (P≤0.05 influenced by MOLM inclusion. The MOLM supplemented birds had longer villi than birds in the control group. The result of the this study showed that replacement of soybean meal with MOLM up to 30% inclusion in the diets of Nera black cocks was not detrimental to organ weights, carcass characteristics, sensory attributes and villi morphometrics. However, some serum parameters were adversely affected.

  19. Environmental Stability of Seed Carbohydrate Profiles in Soybeans Containing Different Alleles of the Raffinose Synthase 2 (RS2) Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilyeu, Kristin D; Wiebold, William J

    2016-02-10

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is important for the high protein meal used for livestock feed formulations. Carbohydrates contribute positively or negatively to the potential metabolizable energy in soybean meal. The positive carbohydrate present in soybean meal consists primarily of sucrose, whereas the negative carbohydrate components are the raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFOs), raffinose and stachyose. Increasing sucrose and decreasing raffinose and stachyose are critical targets to improve soybean. In three recently characterized lines, variant alleles of the soybean raffinose synthase 2 (RS2) gene were associated with increased sucrose and decreased RFOs. The objective of this research was to compare the environmental stability of seed carbohydrates in soybean lines containing wild-type or variant alleles of RS2 utilizing a field location study and a date of planting study. The results define the carbohydrate variation in distinct regional and temporal environments using soybean lines with different alleles of the RS2 gene.

  20. Effects of Dietary Coconut Oil as a Medium-chain Fatty Acid Source on Performance, Carcass Composition and Serum Lipids in Male Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhong; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Juntao; Chen, Yiqiang; Yang, Wenjun; Zhang, Liying

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary coconut oil as a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) source on performance, carcass composition and serum lipids in male broilers. A total of 540, one-day-old, male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatments with each treatment being applied to 6 replicates of 18 chicks. The basal diet (i.e., R0) was based on corn and soybean meal and was supplemented with 1.5% soybean oil during the starter phase (d 0 to 21) and 3.0% soybean oil during the grower phase (d 22 to 42). Four experimental diets were formulated by replacing 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% of the soybean oil with coconut oil (i.e., R25, R50, R75, and R100). Soybean oil and coconut oil were used as sources of long-chain fatty acid and MCFA, respectively. The feeding trial showed that dietary coconut oil had no effect on weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. On d 42, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were linearly decreased as the coconut oil level increased (pcoconut oil level increased (poil in diets with coconut oil is the optimum level to reduce fat deposition and favorably affect lipid profiles without impairing performance in broilers.

  1. Supplementing enzymes to extruded, soybean based diet improves breakdown of non-starch polysaccharides in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Verlhac, Viviane

    2016-01-01

    Plant-based feed ingredients typically contain remnants of dietary fibres [DF; non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and lignin] that have various antinutritive effects in carnivorous fish. Exogenous enzymes have been shown to improve the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of plant-based diets...... presumably by assisting in the breakdown of NSP. This study examined the effects on NSP degradation when supplementing β-glucanase, xylanase, protease or a mix of the three enzymes to an extruded, juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) diet containing 344 g kg−1 de-hulled, solvent-extracted soybean...... meal (SBM). The NSP content in the non-supplemented control diet and in faecal samples from the dietary treatment groups was analysed to determine the recovery/apparent digestibility of cellulose and total non-cellulosic polysaccharide (T-NCP) sugar monomers. The enzymes had significant, positive...

  2. Analytical strategies for the early quality and safety assurance in the global feed chain. Approaches for nitrogen adulterants in soybean meal and mineral and transformer oils in vegetable oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Jacob; Lopez Sanchez, Patricia; Mol, Hans

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, several major food safety crises originated from problems with feed. Consequently, there is an urgent need for early detection of fraudulent adulteration and contamination in the feed chain. Strategies are presented for two specific cases, viz. adulterations of (i) soybean

  3. A generic coding approach for the examination of meal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolhead, Clara; Gibney, Michael J; Walsh, Marianne C; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Eileen R

    2015-08-01

    Meal pattern analysis can be complex because of the large variability in meal consumption. The use of aggregated, generic meal data may address some of these issues. The objective was to develop a meal coding system and use it to explore meal patterns. Dietary data were used from the National Adult Nutrition Survey (2008-2010), which collected 4-d food diary information from 1500 healthy adults. Self-recorded meal types were listed for each food item. Common food group combinations were identified to generate a number of generic meals for each meal type: breakfast, light meals, main meals, snacks, and beverages. Mean nutritional compositions of the generic meals were determined and substituted into the data set to produce a generic meal data set. Statistical comparisons were performed against the original National Adult Nutrition Survey data. Principal component analysis was carried out by using these generic meals to identify meal patterns. A total of 21,948 individual meals were reduced to 63 generic meals. Good agreement was seen for nutritional comparisons (original compared with generic data sets mean ± SD), such as fat (75.7 ± 29.4 and 71.7 ± 12.9 g, respectively, P = 0.243) and protein (83.3 ± 26.9 and 80.1 ± 13.4 g, respectively, P = 0.525). Similarly, Bland-Altman plots demonstrated good agreement (<5% outside limits of agreement) for many nutrients, including protein, saturated fat, and polyunsaturated fat. Twelve meal types were identified from the principal component analysis ranging in meal-type inclusion/exclusion, varying in energy-dense meals, and differing in the constituents of the meals. A novel meal coding system was developed; dietary intake data were recoded by using generic meal consumption data. Analysis revealed that the generic meal coding system may be appropriate when examining nutrient intakes in the population. Furthermore, such a coding system was shown to be suitable for use in determining meal-based dietary patterns. © 2015

  4. Meta-analysis of phosphorus utilisation by broilers receiving corn-soyabean meal diets: influence of dietary calcium and microbial phytase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létourneau-Montminy, M P; Narcy, A; Lescoat, P; Bernier, J F; Magnin, M; Pomar, C; Nys, Y; Sauvant, D; Jondreville, C

    2010-11-01

    Pollution relative to phosphorus excretion in poultry manure as well as the soaring prices of phosphate, a non-renewable resource, remain of major importance. Thus, a good understanding of bird response regarding dietary phosphorus (P) is a prerequisite to optimise the utilisation of this essential element in broiler diets. A database built from 15 experiments with 203 treatments was used to predict the response of 21-day-old broilers to dietary non-phytate P (NPP), taking into account the main factors of variation, calcium (Ca) and microbial phytase derived from Aspergillus niger, in terms of average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), gain to feed (G:F) and tibia ash concentration. All criteria evolve linearly (P < 0.001) and quadratically (P < 0.001) with dietary NPP concentration. Dietary Ca affected the intercept and linear component for ADG (P < 0.01), G:F (P < 0.05) and tibia ash concentration (P < 0.001), whereas for ADFI, it affected only the intercept (P < 0.01). Microbial phytase addition impacted on the intercept, the linear and the quadratic coefficient for ADFI (P < 0.01), ADG (P < 0.001) and G:F (P < 0.05), and on the intercept and the linear component (P < 0.001) for tibia ash concentration. An evaluation of these models was then performed on a database built from 28 experiments and 255 treatments that were not used to perform the models. Results showed that ADFI, ADG and Tibia ash concentration were predicted fairly well (slope and intercept did not deviate from 0 to 1, respectively), whereas this was not the case for G:F. The increase in dietary Ca concentration aggravated P deficiency for all criteria while phytase addition had a positive effect. The more P deficiency was marked, the more the bird response to ADFI, ADG, G:F and tibia ash concentration was exacerbated. It must also be considered that even if the decrease in dietary Ca may improve P utilisation, it could in turn become limiting for bone mineralisation. In conclusion

  5. Dietas à base de milho e farelo de soja suplementadas com enzimas na alimentação de frangos de corte Corn and soybean meal based diets supplemented with enzymes in feed of broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delma Maria Torres

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar o efeito da adição de enzimas digestivas exógenas em dietas à base de milho e farelo de soja sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte, conduziu-se este experimento. Foram utilizados 819 pintos Hubbard em DIC e esquema fatorial 3 x 2 x 2 + 1 (enzimas, proteínas, níveis de energia e um tratamento testemunha com 3 repetições de 21 aves por parcela. Os níveis de enzimas foram 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5 g/kg de dieta, e os de proteína foram normais (21,18, 19,95 e 19,43% PB e reduzidos (20,54, 19,35 e 18,46% PB; os de energia também foram normais (3000, 3100 e 3200 kcal/kg de EM e reduzidos (2910, 3007 e 3040 kcal/kg de EM, respectivamente, para as fases inicial, de crescimento e final da criação, e para o testemunha, a ração continha níveis normais de EM e PB, sem enzimas. Os fatores avaliados foram ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar e fator europeu de produção. Pelos resultados, verificou-se manutenção do desempenho zootécnico das aves em razão da aplicação de enzimas, constatado pela não significância desses fatores aos 42 dias de idade e pela melhora na conversão alimentar, redução do consumo de ração e maior fator europeu de produção aos 21 dias de idade. O estudo da interação dos níveis de enzima x proteína mostrou que a adição de 0,5 g/kg de enzima na dieta com nível de proteína reduzido resultou em maior ganho de peso das aves. Conclui-se que é viável o uso de enzimas exógenas adicionadas em rações para frangos de corte.The objective of the experiment was verify the effect of the addition of exogen digestive enzymes in corn and soybean meal based diets on performance of broiler chickens. Were used 819 Hubbard chickens in completely randomized design, and 3 x 2 x 2 + 1 check factorial (enzyme, protein and energy levels and one treatment check with 3 replications, of the 21 birds by replicate. Enzyme levels were 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/kg of diet, energy levels were

  6. The response of meat ducks from 15 to 35 d of age to gossypol from cottonseed meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q. F.; Bai, P.; Wang, J. P.; Ding, X. M.; Luo, Y. H.; Bai, S. P.; Xuan, Y.; Su, Z. W.; Lin, S. Q.; Zhao, L. J.; Zhang, K. Y.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the responses of meat ducks of 15 to 35 d of age to free gossypol (FG) from cottonseed meal (CSM) and to establish the maximum limits of dietary FG concentration based on growth performance, blood parameters, and tissue residues of gossypol. Nine hundred 15-d-old ducks were randomly allocated to 5 treatments with 10 cages/treatment and 18 ducks/cage on the basis of BW. Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric experimental diets were formulated on a digestible amino acid basis to produce diets in which 0% (without FG), 25% (36 mg FG/kg), 50% (75 mg FG/kg), 75% (111 mg FG/kg), and 100% (153 mg FG/kg) of protein from soybean meal were replaced by that from CSM. Increasing dietary FG content, BW, and ADG decreased (linearly, P residue of gossypol in liver, kidney, heart, breast, and leg muscle linearly increased (P residue of gossypol. The maximum limit of dietary FG concentration was estimated to range from a low of 36 mg/kg to maximize serum globulin concentration to a high of 124 mg/kg to minimize feed intake for 22 to 28d on the basis of a quadratic broken-line model. PMID:25834247

  7. Associations between meal and snack frequency and diet quality and adiposity measures in British adults: findings from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-06-01

    To examine how different definitions of meals and snacks can affect the associations of meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) with dietary intake and adiposity measures. Based on 7 d weighed dietary record data, all eating occasions providing ≥210 kJ of energy were divided into meals or snacks based on contribution to energy intake (≥15 % or meals and sex.

  8. The Hospitable Meal Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Overgaard, Svend Skafte

    2017-01-01

    -ended approach towards meal experiences. The underlying purpose of The Hospitable Meal Model is to provide the basis for creating value for the individuals involved in institutional meal services. The Hospitable Meal Model was developed on the basis of an empirical study on hospital meal experiences explored......This article presents an analytical model that aims to conceptualize how meal experiences are framed when taking into account a dynamic understanding of hospitality: the meal model is named The Hospitable Meal Model. The idea behind The Hospitable Meal Model is to present a conceptual model...... that can serve as a frame for developing hospitable meal competencies among professionals working within the area of institutional foodservices as well as a conceptual model for analysing meal experiences. The Hospitable Meal Model transcends and transforms existing meal models by presenting a more open...

  9. The Hospitable Meal Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Overgaard, Svend Skafte

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an analytical model that aims to conceptualize how meal experiences are framed when taking into account a dynamic understanding of hospitality: the meal model is named The Hospitable Meal Model. The idea behind The Hospitable Meal Model is to present a conceptual model...... that can serve as a frame for developing hospitable meal competencies among professionals working within the area of institutional foodservices as well as a conceptual model for analysing meal experiences. The Hospitable Meal Model transcends and transforms existing meal models by presenting a more open......-ended approach towards meal experiences. The underlying purpose of The Hospitable Meal Model is to provide the basis for creating value for the individuals involved in institutional meal services. The Hospitable Meal Model was developed on the basis of an empirical study on hospital meal experiences explored...

  10. Desempenho de novilhos Nelore alimentados com casca de soja ou farelo de gérmen de milho em substituição parcial ao milho moído Effects of partial replacement of ground corn with soybean hulls or corn germ meal on production of Nellore steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maria Bertocco Ezequiel

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho estudar a substituição parcial (70% do milho moído pela casca de soja ou pelo farelo de gérmen de milho em dietas contendo farelo de girassol e uréia (fontes nitrogenadas e silagem de milho (volumoso para novilhos Nelore em confinamento. Avaliaram-se o consumo, o ganho de peso, a conversão alimentar e o rendimento de carcaça de 21 animais (25 meses de idade e peso inicial de 343 kg alimentados com as dietas-teste, fornecidas na proporção 60:40 volumoso:concentrado. O período de avaliação do consumo e do ganho de peso foi de 97 dias. Os consumos de MS (10,78; 9,73 e 10,62 kg/dia, PB (1,40; 1,22 e 1,41 kg/dia e FDN (3,41; 3,89 e 3,60 kg/dia não foram influenciados pelas dietas com milho moído, casca de soja e farelo de gérmen de milho, respectivamente. O consumo de FDA (0,56; 0,71 e 0,55% PV apresentou efeito significativo, observando-se maior valor quando a casca de soja substituiu 70% do milho moído. O ganho de peso não foi influenciado pelas dietas, registrando-se valores de 1,35; 1,29 e 1,32 kg/dia para as dietas contendo milho moído, casca de soja e farelo de gérmen de milho, respectivamente. Não houve efeito, também, sobre a conversão alimentar (7,88 kg de MS ingerida/kg ganho, a eficiência alimentar (0,12 kg ganho/kg MS ingerida e o rendimento de carcaça (54,52%. A substituição parcial do milho moído pela casca de soja e pelo farelo de gérmen de milho em dietas para novilhos em confinamento não afeta o desempenho e o rendimento de carcaça.The objective of this trial was to study the partial replacement of ground corn with soybean hulls or corn germ meal in diets containing sunflower meal and urea as nitrogen sources and corn silage as forage for confined Nellore steers. Twenty-one steers averaging 25 months of age and 343 kg of initial body weight were assigned to diets containing a forage:concentrate ratio of 60:40. The period for measurements of intake and weight gain lasted 97

  11. Effect of Soybean Sprouting and Beta-Glucanase Treatment of Wet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Soybean Sprouting and Beta-Glucanase Treatment of Wet Milled Soybean on the Chemical Properties of Soymilk from Different Varieties of Soybean. ... Sugars were also qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed with thin layer chromatography and spectrophotometry respectively. Proximate composition and dietary ...

  12. Bioavailability of manganese sulfate and manganese monoxide in chicks as measured by tissue uptake of manganese from conventional dietary levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, P R; Ammerman, C B; Miles, R D

    1986-05-01

    The biological availability of reagent grade manganese sulfate and manganese monoxide was determined in broiler chicks fed conventional dietary Mn levels. A basal corn-soybean meal diet (35 ppm Mn) was supplemented with 40, 80, or 120 ppm Mn from the two sources and fed ad libitum for 21 days. There were no differences in average daily feed intake, daily gain, or feed conversion among treatments. There was a linear (P less than .001) increase in bone, kidney, and liver Mn as dietary Mn increased. Manganese monoxide averaged 66% of the availability of manganese sulfate as determined by a combination of linear regression, multiple linear regression and tissue Mn increase. Bioavailability was similar to that obtained when sources were fed at high dietary levels in a previous study.

  13. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    single food. People consume meals and these meals vary during a day, over a year and during a life time. To comprehend some of this complexity it could be advantageous to investigate dietary patterns representing the whole diet as patterns might be better markers of growth and health than single...... nutrients. However, little is known about the development of dietary patterns in childhood both in relation to possible indicators and to obesity related outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this PhD thesis was to make exploratory analyses of dietary patterns in childhood using the method principal component...... of the complexity in child nutrition both in observational and intervention designs as well as for investigating development of dietary patterns over time. Explorative analyses of indicators for dietary patterns showed that parental, household and child characteristics are associated with dietary patterns in early...

  14. Redução do amido dietético, utilizando óleo de soja, em dietas para coelhos em crescimento Dietary starch reduction, using soybean oil, in diets for growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Frederico Lui

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido para avaliar os efeitos da redução do amido dietético, utilizando óleo de soja, em dietas para coelhos Nova Zelândia Branco em crescimento sobre o desempenho e rendimento de carcaça dos animais. Os coelhos foram desmamados aos 30 dias e abatidos aos 60 dias de idade. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com quatro tratamentos (2,2, 3,3, 4,4 e 5,5% de adição de óleo de soja às dietas e cinco repetições com 15 animais por tratamento. Foram avaliados os ganhos de peso diário, a ingestão de alimentos diária, a conversão alimentar, a mortalidade e o rendimento de carcaça. Não houve efeito (P>0,05 dos tratamentos sobre os parâmetros avaliados. Concluiu-se que, nas condições realizadas neste trabalho, a adição de óleo de soja em dietas para coelhos em crescimento até o nível de 5,5% não afetou o desempenho produtivo.This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of dietary starch reduction, in diets for growing White New Zealand rabbits, using soybean oil, on the performance and carcass yield of the animals. The rabbits were weaned at 30 days and slaughtered at 60 days of age. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with four treatments (2.2, 3.3, 4.4 and 5.5% of soybean oil addition to the diets and five replicates, with 15 animals per treatment. Daily weight gain, daily feed intake, feed conversion rate, mortality and carcass yield were evaluated. There was no effect (P>0.05 due the treatments on the evaluated parameters. It was concluded that, at the conditions of this work, the addition of soybean oil in growing rabbit diets up to the level of 5.5% did not affect the productive performance.

  15. Determination of net energy content of soybean oil fed to growing pigs using indirect calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Enkai; Lv, Zhiqian; Liu, Hu; Liu, Ling; Li, Yakui; Li, Zhongchao; Wang, Fenglai; Li, Defa; Zhang, Shuai

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment were: (i) to determine the net energy (NE) of soybean oil (SBO) fed to growing pigs using indirect calorimetry (IC); and (ii) to evaluate the effects of inclusion rate of SBO on heat production, oxidative status and nutrient digestibility in growing pigs. Eighteen growing barrows were allotted to three diets based on completely randomized design with six replicate pigs (period) per diet. Diets included a corn-soybean meal basal diet and two test diets containing 5% or 10% SBO at the expense of corn and soybean meal. During each period, pigs were individually housed in metabolism crates for 14 days, including 7 days to adapt to feed, metabolism crate and environmental conditions. On day 8, pigs were transferred to the open-circuit respiration chambers for measurement of daily O 2 consumption and CO 2 and CH 4 production. During this time, pigs were fed one of the three diets at 2.4 MJ metabolizable energy/kg body weight (BW) 0.6 /day. Total feces and urine were collected and daily total heat production (THP) was measured from days 9 to 13 and fasted on day 14 to evaluate their fasting heat production (FHP). The results show that trends of decreased apparent total tract digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (linear, P = 0.09) and acid detergent fiber (linear, P = 0.07) were observed as the content of dietary lipids increased. The average THP for the three diets were 1326, 1208 and 1193 kJ/kg BW 0.6 /day, respectively. The FHP of pigs averaged 843 kJ/kg BW 0.6 /day and was not affected by diet characteristics. A reduction of the respiratory quotients in the fed state as the inclusion level of SBO increased was observed. In conclusion, the NE values of SBO we determined by indirect calorimetry were 33.45 and 34.05 MJ/kg dry matter under two inclusion levels. THP could be largely reduced when SBO is added in the feed, but the THP of SBO included at 5% in a corn-soybean meal diet is not different from the THP of SBO included

  16. The Healthy Meal Index: A tool for measuring the healthfulness of meals served to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Nicole; Mandell, Cami; Ball, Sarah; Miller, Alison L; Lumeng, Julie; Peterson, Karen E

    2016-08-01

    Family meals have been associated with higher diet quality and reduced risk of obesity in children. Observational studies of the family meal have been employed with increasing frequency, yet there is currently no tool available for measuring the healthfulness of food served during the meal. Here we present the development and validation of the Healthy Meal Index (HMI), a novel tool for scoring the healthfulness of foods served to children during a meal, as well as sociodemographic predictors of meal scores. Parents of 233 children, aged 4-8 years, self-recorded three home dinners. A research assistant obtained a list of foods available during the meal (meal report) via phone call on the night of each video-recorded meal. This meal report was coded into component food groups. Subsequently, meals were scored based on the availability of more healthy "Adequacy foods" and the absence of "Moderation foods", (of which reduced consumption is recommended, according to pediatric dietary guidelines). Adjusted linear regression tested the association of sociodemographic characteristics with HMI scores. A validation study was conducted in a separate sample of 133 children with detailed meal data. In adjusted models, female children had higher HMI Moderation scores (p = 0.02), but did not differ in HMI Adequacy or Total scores. Parents with more education served meals with higher HMI Adequacy (p = 0.001) and Total scores (p = 0.001), though no significant difference was seen in HMI Moderation score (p = 0.21). The validation study demonstrated that the HMI was highly correlated with servings of foods and nutrients estimated from observations conducted by research staff. The HMI is a valuable tool for measuring the quality of meals served to children. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Digestibilidade de dietas contendo silagem de capim-elefante amonizado e farelo de cacau ou torta de dendê em ovinos Digestibility of nutrients in diets containing ammoniated elephantgrass and cocoa meal or palm kernel cake fed to sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herymá Giovane de Oliveira Silva

    2007-04-01

    concentrate mixture: 1 corn and soybean meal, 2 corn, soybean meal and cocoa meal, or 3 corn, soybean meal and palm kernel cake. Ammoniation and replacement of 40% of corn and soybean meal in the concentrate with cocoa meal or palm kernel cake did not significantly change the dietary digestibility of nutrients. It is recommended the partial replacement of corn and soybean meal with cocoa meal or palm kernel in diets of sheep.

  18. Níveis de bagaço de cana e uréia como substituto ao farelo de soja em dietas para bovinos leiteiros em crescimento Sugar cane bagasse and urea as replacement of soybean meal in the growing dairy cattle diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Brandão Torres

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes níveis de bagaço e uréia como substituto ao farelo de soja em dietas para bovinos leiteiros em crescimento, dois experimentos foram realizados. No primeiro, 20 bezerros mestiços Holandês x Zebu foram distribuídos em quatro tratamentos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Os animais receberam dietas à base de palma forrageira e bagaço de cana em níveis de 5,5; 14,4; 24,4 e 34% da matéria seca total. O ganho de peso diminuiu, enquanto a conversão alimentar, e os consumos de FDN e FDA aumentaram linearmente com a inclusão de bagaço. O consumo máximo de MS foi estimado em 2,73% do peso vivo com 30% de bagaço de cana. No segundo experimento foi avaliada a substituição do farelo de soja (FS por uréia mais milho moído (UM, em dietas à base de palma forrageira, sobre o desempenho de novilhas mestiças Holandês x Zebu. Vinte animais foram alimentados de acordo com os níveis de substituição do FS por UM (0, 20, 40 e 60% distribuídos em blocos ao acaso. Não houve efeito da substituição parcial do farelo de soja por milho e uréia sobre o desempenho de novilhas mestiças.In order to evaluate different levels of sugar cane bagasse and urea as replacement of soybean meal in growing dairy cattle diets, two trials were conducted. In the first, twenty crossbreed bull calves (Holstein x Zebu were allotted in a completely randomized design with four treatments. The animals were fed forage cactus based diets, containing levels of 5.5, 14.4, 24.4 and 34% of sugar cane bagasse on the dry matter basis. The liveweight gain decreased while the feed: gain ratio, FDN and FDA intakes increased linearly in function of the increased level of sugar cane bagasse. The maximum daily dry matter intake of 2.73% of LW was estimated with 30% of sugar cane bagasse in the diet. In the second, was evaluated the partial replacement of soybean meal (SM by urea plus corn cracked (UC in forage cactus based diets on the

  19. Desempenho produtivo de fêmeas leiteiras alimentadas com silagem de milho e concentrado à base de farelo de soja ou farelo de algodão Productive performance of growing dairy heifers fed corn silage and soybean or cottonseed meal based concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Alvarenga Santos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas dietas com silagem de milho e concentrado à base de farelo de soja ou farelo de algodão para fêmeas leiteiras. Quatro dietas experimentais foram constituídas da combinação de dois níveis de concentrado (1 ou 2 kg e duas fontes proteicas (farelo de soja ou farelo de algodão. Observou-se efeito da interação nível de concentrado × fonte proteica no consumo de matéria seca (MS, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e no consumo de nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT. A quantidade de concentrado influenciou os consumos de proteína bruta (PB, FDN, extrato etéreo (EE, carboidratos nãofibrosos (CNF, matéria orgânica (MO e de PB por kg de NDT. Não houve efeito nas digestibilidades da MS, FDN, MO e para NDT, porém a fonte proteica influenciou as digestibilidades de PB, EE e CNF. Houve efeito da quantidade de concentrado sobre o ganho de peso (GP e da interação quantidade de concentrado × fonte proteica sobre o ganho de peso por cm de ganho em altura da cernelha. A dieta com 1 kg de concentrado à base de farelo de algodão foi insuficiente para ganho de peso de 800 g/dia, enquanto as dietas com 2 kg de concentrado propiciaram o maior ganho de peso. Entretanto, a dieta constituída de 2 kg de concentrado à base de farelo de soja foi mais eficiente, pois propiciou maior crescimento linear das novilhas, com ganho médio de 820 g por dia. Equações de predição do peso corporal com base no perímetro torácico apresentam maior acurácia em relação a equações baseadas em outras medidas lineares.Diets for dairy heifers were assessed with corn silage and soybean or cotton seed based concentrate. Four experimental diets consisting of the combination of two concentrate levels, 1 or 2 kg, and two protein sources, soybean meal or cotton seed meal. The effect of the interaction was observed for intake of dry matter (DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF in % live weight and total digestible nutrient intake (TDN. The quantity of

  20. A First Law Thermodynamic Analysis of Biodiesel Production from Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzek, Tad W.

    2009-01-01

    A proper First Law energy balance of the soybean biodiesel cycle shows that the overall efficiency of biodiesel production is 0.18, i.e., only 1 in 5 parts of the solar energy sequestered as soya beans, plus the fossil energy inputs, becomes biodiesel. Soybean meal is produced with an overall energetic efficiency of 0.38, but it is not a fossil…

  1. Fluid Intake and Beverage Consumption Description and Their Association with Dietary Vitamins and Antioxidant Compounds in Italian Adults from the Mediterranean Healthy Eating, Aging and Lifestyles (MEAL Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Platania

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the total water intake (TWI from drinks and foods and to evaluate the correlation between the different types of drinks on energy and antioxidant intake. The cohort comprised 1602 individuals from the city of Catania in Southern Italy. A food frequency questionnaire was administered to assess dietary and water intake. The mean total water intake was 2.7 L; more than about two thirds of the sample met the European recommendations for water intake. Water and espresso coffee were the most consumed drinks. Alcohol beverages contributed about 3.0% of total energy intake, and sugar sweetened beverages contributed about 1.4%. All antioxidant vitamins were significantly correlated with TWI. However, a higher correlation was found for water from food rather than water from beverages, suggesting that major food contributors to antioxidant vitamin intake might be fruits and vegetables, rather than beverages other than water. A mild correlation was found between fruit juices and vitamin C; coffee, tea and alcohol, and niacin and polyphenols; and milk and vitamin B12. The findings from the present study show that our sample population has an adequate intake of TWI and that there is a healthy association between beverages and dietary antioxidants.

  2. Evaluation and utilization of blood meal diets by weaner pigs reared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effects on growth and cost benefits of substituting soybean meal (SBM) with blood meal (BM) in diets of weaner pigs. Possible pathogenic bacteria contamination and nutritional contents of the BM were determined prior to feed formulation. Four weaner diets (A, B, C, and D) were formulated such ...

  3. Sesame meal as the first protein source in piglet starter diets and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean meal (SBM) is the protein source that is used most in feeding piglets, but its high price has prompted a search for alternatives. One option is sesame meal (SM), a by-product of sesame oil. This study evaluated the effects of SM and phytase on the intestinal morphology, total trypsin activity (TTA) and specific trypsin ...

  4. Optimizing fish meal-free commercial diets for Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed recirculating aquaculture system with Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus juveniles (mean weight, 6.81 g) to examine the response to a practical diet containing protein primarily from menhaden fish meal (FM) and soybean meal (SBM) (control, Diet 1) or to diet...

  5. Alfalfa leaf meal in wintering beef cow diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, C.M.; Hall, J.M.; Brown, D.B.; DiCostanzo, A.

    1998-06-01

    One hundred dry pregnant cows (1389 lb) and twenty-four pregnant heifers (1034 lb) were assigned by calving date and body condition to one of four dietary treatments for a wintering period during their late gestation. Dietary treatments consisted of supplementing crude protein (CP) at 100 % or 120 % of the recommended intake using either soybean meal or alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) as the supplemental protein source. Cows were group fed (two replicate pens/treatment) while heifers were individually fed for the duration of the study. The study lasted 70 (early) or 85 (late) days for cows and ended when the first cow in each replicate calved. For heifers, the study lasted for 100 days and ended accordingly when each heifer calved. Heifers fed ALM had consumed less (P < .05) hay and corn dry matter (DM). Overall diet DM intakes were unaffected (P > .05) by protein source. Feeding 120 % of recommended protein (2.38 vs 2.07 lb/day) to heifers increased (P < .05) their rate of gain by almost .5 lb/head/day. Cows fed ALM had faster (P < .05) rates of gain when gain was measured 22 days before calving. Once cows calved, weight change was similar (P > .05) for each protein source. However, cows fed alfalfa leaf meal consumed more (P = .054) total dry matter (DM). Calving traits were not affected by protein source or intake. Wintering heifers or cows on ALM-based supplements had no detrimental effect on performance of heifers or cows or their calves at birth. Additional protein may be required by heifers to ensure that they continue gaining weight during late gestation.

  6. Processed soybean in diets for pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Regina Stech

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Changes in development and in physiological parameters of fingerlings of the pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus fed on diets with high levels of integral crude, extruded, toasted soybean and soybean meal were assessed. The products were evaluated in practical diets for pacu, initially weighing 70 ± 2.19 g, during 82 days. Nine treatments were studied in a 2 × 4 + 1 factorial scheme which corresponded to two fish meal protein replacement levels (50 and 100% and four soybean products, plus control (100% of fish meal - FM. Development, organosomatic indexes and physiological parameters were evaluated. No differences were reported with regard to weight gain, food intake, food conversion, protein efficiency ratio and specific growth rate. A significant interaction was registered for plasma protein between the evaluated ingredients and replacement percentage of fish meal protein. Results showed that the ingredients assessed did not affect the development of the pacu when compared to fish fed on control diet. Protein retention was favored when toasted soybean and when 50% of the diet’s protein fraction from fish meal were employed.

  7. Heat treated soybeans in the nutrition of high producing dairy cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this research was to study the effect of rations containing full-fat extruded soybeans or fat-extracted heat treated soybean meal, in the nutrition of dairy cows during the period of middle lactation. The study was carried out with two groups of 15 Holstein cows. The animal's health was controlled on the ...

  8. Soybean seed compostion and quality: interactions of enviroment genotype and management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean seed is a major source of protein, oil, carbohydrates, isoflavones, and minerals for human and animal nutrition. Soybean seed contains approximately 40% protein, 20% oil, and 33% carbohydrates, 9% crude fiber. About one-third of the world's edible oils and two-thirds of its protein meal are ...

  9. Process technology for refining crude soybean oil – a product from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Process technology for refining crude soybean oil – a product from soycake meal production in Ghana. ... yield of 83.3 per cent was recorded. Results of quality assessment of the final laboratory refined oil compared favourably with Ghana Standards Board's specification for edible soybean oil. Ghana Journal of Science Vol.

  10. Effects of dietary soyabean meal, inulin and oxytetracycline on intestinal microbiota and epithelial cell stress, apoptosis and proliferation in the teleost Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke-McKellep, Anne Marie; Penn, Michael H; Salas, Patricia Mora; Refstie, St