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Sample records for dietary risk assessment

  1. Dietary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    EGRP's goals in Dietary Assessment are to increase the precision of dietary intake estimates by improving self-report of dietary intake and the analytic procedures for processing reported information.

  2. Health Risk Assessment of Dietary Cadmium Intake: Do Current Guidelines Indicate How Much is Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satarug, Soisungwan; Vesey, David A.; Gobe, Glenda C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cadmium (Cd), a food-chain contaminant, is a significant health hazard. The kidney is one of the primary sites of injury after chronic Cd exposure. Kidney-based risk assessment establishes the urinary Cd threshold at 5.24 μg/g creatinine, and tolerable dietary intake of Cd at 62 μg/day per 70-kg person. However, cohort studies show that dietary Cd intake below a threshold limit and that tolerable levels may increase the risk of death from cancer, cardiovascular disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. Objective: We evaluated if the current tolerable dietary Cd intake guideline and urinary Cd threshold limit provide sufficient health protection. Discussion: Staple foods constitute 40–60% of total dietary Cd intake by average consumers. Diets high in shellfish, crustaceans, mollusks, spinach, and offal add to dietary Cd sources. Modeling studies predict the current tolerable dietary intake corresponding to urinary Cd of 0.70–1.85 μg/g creatinine in men and 0.95–3.07 μg/g creatinine in women. Urinary Cd levels of protection from this pervasive toxic metal. Citation: Satarug S, Vesey DA, Gobe GC. 2017. Health risk assessment of dietary cadmium intake: do current guidelines indicate how much is safe? Environ Health Perspect 125:284–288; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP108 PMID:28248635

  3. Risk assessment of microcystin in dietary Aphanizomenon flos-aquae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, D J; Malpas, P B; Barton, L L

    1999-09-01

    Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, a cyanobacterium that is marketed as a health food supplement, is harvested from natural blooms in Klamath Lake (Oregon) that are occasionally contaminated by Microcystis spp. Regulatory agencies in several countries are developing regulations to control the amount of microcystin in drinking water and other products, including products produced from A. flos-aquae. Regulation of microcystin (MC), a toxin produced by Microcystis spp. that is potentially present in natural culture of A. flos-aquae, should be based on studies in which a test species is exposed to the natural mixture of these cyanobacteria. A 1984 feeding trial to determine the effects of high dietary levels of A. flos-aquae on reproduction and development of mice is reanalyzed in light of recent analyses for microcystin-LR (MCLR) in the diets of those mice. Young adult mice consuming up to 333 microg MCLR/kg body weight (bw)/day exhibited no adverse effects on growth and reproduction, fetal development, and survival and organ weights of neonates. Based on a NOAEL of 333 microg MCLR/kg bw/day, a safety factor of 1000, consumption of 2 g/day of A. flos-aquae by a 60-kg adult, the safe level of MCLR as a contaminant of A. flos-aquae products is calculated to be 10.0 microg MCLR/g. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  4. Food safety risk assessment for estimating dietary intake of sulfites in the Taiwanese population

    OpenAIRE

    Keng-Wen Lien; Hsieh, Dennis P. H.; Hui-Ying Huang; Chiu-Hua Wu; Shih-Pei Ni; Min-Pei Ling

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the health risk associated with dietary intake of sulfites for Taiwanese general consumers by conducting a total diet study (TDS). We evaluated the exposure of Taiwanese to sulfites in the diet and its associated health risk. This study used a list of 128 food items representing 83% of the total daily diet. Among the 128 food items, 59 items may contain sulfites. Samples of the 59 food items were collected and subjected to chemical analysis to determine...

  5. Dietary survey methodology of FINDIET 2007 with a risk assessment perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinivuo, Heli; Hirvonen, Tero; Ovaskainen, Marja-Leena; Korhonen, Tommi; Valsta, Liisa M

    2010-06-01

    A cross-sectional survey, FINDIET 2007, was carried out in Finland. Food intake data was collected by a 48 h recall interview. Additional food intake data was collected by a repeated 3 d food diary, a barcode-based product diary, a food frequency questionnaire and by a supplementary questionnaire on rarely eaten foods. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the methodology of the national dietary survey and to discuss the particular implications for the applications of food consumption data in risk assessment. The food consumption data of the FINDIET 2007 survey can be used in food risk assessment, due thanks to flexible data processing of individual food consumption, and a risk assessment point of view was taken into account. However, international standardisation projects are needed in order to estimate comparable food intakes.

  6. Dietary exposure estimation of benzo[a]pyrene and cancer risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Mu; Shim, Geun Ae

    2007-08-01

    Dietary benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) levels were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) in various foods (e.g., snack, potato chip, bread, vegetable oil, meat, cereal, etc.) to estimate dietary intake levels of BaP for the assessment of BaP related-cancer risk in Koreans. Higher levels of BaP were detected in fried chicken (5.25-5.55 BaP microg/kg) and smoked dried beef (5.47 microg/kg) compared to relatively lower levels measured in sesame oil (0.36 microg/kg) and peanut (0.44 microg/kg). The BaP levels in nonmeat items were generally low in detection, but certain potato chip products showed levels up to 4.06 BaP microg/kg. In terms of chronic daily intake of BaP, fried chicken was shown to be the highest (70.09 ng/person/d) and perilla oil was the lowest (0.05 ng/person/d). The total daily intake of BaP due to the consumption of various food items investigated was estimated to be 124.55 ng/person/d, based on daily food consumption and the contaminant level of BaP. The dietary BaP-related cancer risk using carcinogenic potency factor of BaP as 7.3E + 0 (mg/kg/d)(-1) was assessed to be 1.52 x 10(-5). These data suggest that cancer risk due to dietary exposure to BaP is of concern in Koreans and needs to be reduced either by regulatory efforts or by modifying food manufacturing procedures.

  7. Assessing the Risk of Probiotic Dietary Supplements in the Context of Antibiotic Resistance

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    Min Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic bacteria are known to harbor intrinsic and mobile genetic elements that confer resistance to a wide variety of antibiotics. Their high amounts in dietary supplements can establish a reservoir of antibiotic resistant genes in the human gut. These resistant genes can be transferred to pathogens that share the same intestinal habitat thus resulting in serious clinical ramifications. While antibiotic resistance of probiotic bacteria from food, human and animal sources have been well-documented, the resistant profiles of probiotics from dietary supplements have only been recently studied. These products are consumed with increasing regularity due to their health claims that include the improvement of intestinal health and immune response as well as prevention of acute and antibiotic-associated diarrhea and cancer; but, a comprehensive risk assessment on the spread of resistant genes to human health is lacking. Here, we highlight recent reports of antibiotic resistance of probiotic bacteria isolated from dietary supplements, and propose complementary strategies that can shed light on the risks of consuming such products in the context of a global widespread of antibiotic resistance. In concomitant with a broader screening of antibiotic resistance in probiotic supplements is the use of computational simulations, live imaging and functional genomics to harvest knowledge on the evolutionary behavior, adaptations and dynamics of probiotics studied in conditions that best represent the human gut including in the presence of antibiotics. The underlying goal is to enable the health benefits of probiotics to be exploited in a responsible manner and with minimal risk to human health.

  8. Arsenic: bioaccessibility from seaweed and rice, dietary exposure calculations and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Esther F A; Janssen, Paul J C M; de Wit-Bos, Lianne

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid that occurs in food and the environment in different chemical forms. Inorganic arsenic is classified as a class I carcinogen. The inorganic arsenic intake from food and drinking water varies depending on the geographic arsenic background. Non-dietary exposure to arsenic is likely to be of minor importance for the general population within the European Union. In Europe, arsenic in drinking water is on average low, but food products (e.g. rice and seaweed) are imported from all over the world including from regions with naturally high arsenic levels. Therefore, specific populations living in Europe could also have a high exposure to inorganic arsenic due to their consumption pattern. Current risk assessment is based on exposure via drinking water. For a good estimation of the risks of arsenic in food, it is important to investigate if the bioavailability of inorganic arsenic from food is different from drinking water. The present study further explores the issue of European dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic via rice and seaweed and its associated health risks. The bioavailability of inorganic arsenic was measured in in vitro digestion experiments. The data indicate that the bioavailability of inorganic arsenic is similar for rice and seaweed compared with drinking water. The calculated dietary intake for specific European Union populations varied between 0.44 and 4.51 µg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹. The margins of exposure between the inorganic intake levels and the BMDL0.5 values as derived by JECFA are low. Decreasing the intake of inorganic arsenic via Hijiki seaweed could be achieved by setting legal limits similar to those set for rice by the Codex Alimentarius Commission in July 2014.

  9. Risk assessment of dietary exposure to tryptamine for the Austrian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüst, Nadja; Rauscher-Gabernig, Elke; Steinwider, Johann; Bauer, Friedrich; Paulsen, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Tryptamine acts as a neuromodulator and vasoactive agent in the human body. Dose-response data on dietary tryptamine are scarce and neither a toxicological threshold value nor tolerable levels in foods have been established so far. This paper reviews dose-response characteristics and toxicological effects of tryptamine as well as tryptamine contents in food, estimates dietary exposure of Austrian consumers, and calculates risk-based maximum tolerable limits for food categories. A dose without effect of 8 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) was derived from literature data. Dietary exposure via fish/seafood, beer, cheese and meat products was estimated for Austrian schoolchildren, female and male consumers, based on 543 food samples analysed in Austria 2010-15 and on food consumption data from 2008. Even worst-case estimates based on very high tryptamine contents reported in the literature did not exceed 5.9 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1), and thus were below the dose without effect. Maximum tolerable levels for food commodities were calculated for high-consumption scenarios (95th percentile of female Austrian consumers). For fresh/cooked fish, preserved fish, cheese, raw sausage, condiments, sauerkraut and fermented tofu, maximum tolerable levels were 1650, 3200, 2840, 4800, 14,120, 1740 and 2400 mg kg(-1), respectively. For beer, the maximum tolerable limit of 65 mg kg(-1) included an uncertainty factor of 10. None of the Austrian occurrence data exceeded these levels (in fact, only 3.3% of samples demonstrated measurable amounts of tryptamine), and just one report was found in the literature on a raw fish sample exceeding the respective tolerable level. In sum, dietary intake of tryptamine should not cause adverse health effects in healthy individuals. The assessment did not take into account the combined effects of simultaneously ingested biogenic amines, and increased susceptibility to tryptamine, e.g., due to reduced monoamine oxidase activity.

  10. Food safety risk assessment for estimating dietary intake of sulfites in the Taiwanese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keng-Wen Lien

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the health risk associated with dietary intake of sulfites for Taiwanese general consumers by conducting a total diet study (TDS. We evaluated the exposure of Taiwanese to sulfites in the diet and its associated health risk. This study used a list of 128 food items representing 83% of the total daily diet. Among the 128 food items, 59 items may contain sulfites. Samples of the 59 food items were collected and subjected to chemical analysis to determine the sulfur dioxide concentration. Health risk was assessed by calculating the ratio of exposure level to the acceptable daily intake (ADI level of the analyte. For high-intake consumers, the HI of sulfites was 19.7% ADI for males over the age of three years at the 95th percentile; whereas for females over the age of 66, the HI was 17.8% ADI. The HI for high-intake consumers was above 10% ADI. This suggests that regulatory actions must be continued and that consumers should be advised to be aware of processed foods with relatively high contamination to avoid excessive exposure.

  11. Dietary Risk Assessment of v-ATPase A dsRNAs on Monarch Butterfly Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huipeng; Yang, Xiaowei; Bidne, Keith; Hellmich, Richard L.; Siegfried, Blair D.; Zhou, Xuguo

    2017-01-01

    By suppressing the expression of genes with essential biological functions, in planta RNAi can negatively affect the development and survival of target pests. As a part of a concerted effort to assess the risks of RNAi transgenic crops on non-target organisms, we developed an in vivo toxicity assay to examine the impacts of ingested dsRNAs incurred to the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (L.), an iconic eco-indicator in North America. To create the worst case scenario, the full-length v-ATPase A cDNAs from the target pest, western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, and the non-target D. plexippus were respectively cloned. A 400 bp fragment with the highest sequence similarity between the two species was used as the template to synthesize dsRNAs for the subsequent dietary RNAi toxicity assay. Specifically, newly hatched neonates were provisioned with leaf disks surface-coated with v-ATPase A dsRNAs synthesized from D. v. virgifera and D. plexippus, respectively, a control dsRNA, β-glucoruronidase, from plants, and H2O. The endpoint measurements included gene expressions and life history traits. The 2283 bp D. plexippus v-ATPase A cDNA contains a 99 bp 5′-untranslated region, a 330 bp 3′-untranslated region, and an 1851 bp ORF encoding 617 amino acids. The temporal RNAi study did not detect any impact to D. plexippus v-ATPase A expression by the assay days and treatments. This was reflected in the phenotypic impacts of dietary RNAi, in which both survival rate and development time were not affected by the uptake of ingested dsRNAs. These combined results suggest that D. plexippus larvae are not susceptible to dietary RNAi, therefore, the impact of transgenic RNAi plants on this non-target organism is, likely, negligible. PMID:28275381

  12. Human health risk assessment of DDTs and HCHs through dietary exposure in Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Xia, Zhonghuan; Wu, Minmin; Wang, Liping; Yang, Hao

    2017-06-01

    In a market based study in Nanjing, a typical southeast city in China, the most common consumed 23 kinds of foods from eleven different categories (vegetable, fruit, fish, pork, livestock meat, chicken, egg, milk, oil, rice and flour) were sampled in November 2015. The concentrations of DDTs and HCHs in foods were analyzed using gas chromatography with mass spectrometer detector. The residual amounts of DDTs and HCHs in foods were 0.95-3.53 ng g(-1) and 0.32-1.96 ng g(-1), respectively. The highest residual of ∑10OCPs was 4.75 ng g(-1) in livestock meat and the lowest was 1.31 ng g(-1) in flour. Estimated daily intakes of both DDTs and HCHs for children were higher than other age groups regardless of the gender. With respect to food categories, the consumption of vegetables generated higher dietary exposure of DDTs and HCHs than other food categories for all age categories, which accounted for 20.21%-29.18% of the total. The daily intakes of γ-HCH and DDTs for all population groups were far below the acceptable amounts suggested by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization. Health risk assessment indicated that there was no obvious non-cancer risk for local residents, whereas the cancer risk was estimated to be from 10(-6)∼10(-4), being higher than the acceptable risk level and lower than the priority risk level. Among residents of different gender and age, females showed higher risk than males in all age groups, and children were the most vulnerable age group to health risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh

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    Md. Shakhaoat Hossain

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA was used to determine six organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, parathion, ethion, acephate, fenthion, two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran and one pyrethroid (cypermethrin pesticide residues in twelve samples of three common vegetables (tomato, lady’s finger and brinjal. Pesticide residues ranged from below detectable limit (<0.01 to 0.36 mg/kg. Acephate, chlorpyrifos, ethion, carbaryl and cypermethrin were detected in only one sample, while co-occurrence occurred twice for fenitrothion and parathion. Apart from chlorpyrifos in tomato and cypermethrin in brinjal, all pesticide residues exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL. Hazard risk index (HRI for ethion (10.12 and carbaryl (1.09 was found in lady’s finger and tomato, respectively. Rest of the pesticide residues were classified as not a health risk. A continuous monitoring and strict regulation should be enforced regarding control of pesticide residues in vegetables and other food commodities.

  14. Risk assessment of chronic dietary exposure to the conjugated mycotoxin deoxynivalenol-3-β-glucoside in the Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.M.; Sprong, R.C.; Wester, P.W.; Boevre, de M.; Mengelers, M.J.B.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a risk assessment of dietary exposure to the conjugated mycotoxin deoxynivalenol-3-β-glucoside (DON-3G) in the Dutch population was conducted. Data on DON-3G levels in food products available in the Netherlands are scarce. Therefore, data on co-occurring levels of DON-3G and

  15. Risk assessment of chronic dietary exposure to the conjugated mycotoxin deoxynivalenol-3-β-glucoside in the Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.M.; Sprong, R.C.; Wester, P.W.; Boevre, de M.; Mengelers, M.J.B.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a risk assessment of dietary exposure to the conjugated mycotoxin deoxynivalenol-3-β-glucoside (DON-3G) in the Dutch population was conducted. Data on DON-3G levels in food products available in the Netherlands are scarce. Therefore, data on co-occurring levels of DON-3G and deoxyn

  16. Dietary exposure to aluminium and health risk assessment in the residents of Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Jiang, Lixin; Huang, Huiping; Zeng, Shengbo; Qiu, Fen; Yu, Miao; Li, Xiaorong; Wei, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Although there are great changes of dietary in the past few decades in China, few are known about the aluminium exposure in Chinese diet. The aim of this study is to systematically evaluate the dietary aluminium intake level in residents of Shenzhen, China. A total of 853 persons from 244 household were investigated their diet by three days food records. Finally, 149 kinds of foods in 17 food groups were selected to be the most consumed foods. From them, 1399 food samples were collected from market to test aluminium concentration. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (median, 527.5 mg/kg), fried twisted cruller (median, 466.0 mg/kg), shell (median, 107.1 mg/kg). The Shenzhen residents' average dietary aluminium exposure was estimated at 1.263 mg/kg bw/week which is lower than the PTWI (provisional tolerable weekly intake). But 0-2 and 3-13 age groups have the highest aluminium intake exceeding the PTWI (3.356 mg/kg bw/week and 3.248 mg/kg bw/week) than other age groups. And the main dietary aluminium exposure sources are fried twisted cruller, leaf vegetables and bean products. Our study suggested that even three decades rapid economy development, children in Shenzhen still have high dietary aluminium exposure risk. How to control high dietary aluminium exposure still is a great public health challenge in Shenzhen, China.

  17. Dietary exposure to aluminium and health risk assessment in the residents of Shenzhen, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yang

    Full Text Available Although there are great changes of dietary in the past few decades in China, few are known about the aluminium exposure in Chinese diet. The aim of this study is to systematically evaluate the dietary aluminium intake level in residents of Shenzhen, China. A total of 853 persons from 244 household were investigated their diet by three days food records. Finally, 149 kinds of foods in 17 food groups were selected to be the most consumed foods. From them, 1399 food samples were collected from market to test aluminium concentration. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (median, 527.5 mg/kg, fried twisted cruller (median, 466.0 mg/kg, shell (median, 107.1 mg/kg. The Shenzhen residents' average dietary aluminium exposure was estimated at 1.263 mg/kg bw/week which is lower than the PTWI (provisional tolerable weekly intake. But 0-2 and 3-13 age groups have the highest aluminium intake exceeding the PTWI (3.356 mg/kg bw/week and 3.248 mg/kg bw/week than other age groups. And the main dietary aluminium exposure sources are fried twisted cruller, leaf vegetables and bean products. Our study suggested that even three decades rapid economy development, children in Shenzhen still have high dietary aluminium exposure risk. How to control high dietary aluminium exposure still is a great public health challenge in Shenzhen, China.

  18. Dietary patterns in transition can inform health risk, but detailed assessments are needed to guide recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most research on diet and health has historically focused on single nutrients or foods and their effect on disease outcomes. In recent years, this focus has shifted to include the total dietary pattern as a risk factor in epidemiologic studies. This change has occurred for several reasons. First, as...

  19. Determination of eight pesticides in Lycium barbarum by LC-MS/MS and dietary risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yan; Yang, Ting; Zhao, Jian; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Ruoxia; Wu, Yinliang

    2017-03-01

    A LC-MS/MS method for determination of eight pesticides (triadimefon, sulfoxaflor, flusilazole, tebuconazole, difenoconazole, amitraz, azoxystrobin, and thiophanate-methyl) in Lycium barbarum was established. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile, and then cleaned up by primary secondary amine. The extracts were diluted with 0.1% formic acid in water. The results showed that at the fortified levels of 0.01-10mg/kg, the average recoveries of these pesticides ranged from 82.1% to 96.2% with the relative standard deviations lower than 7%. The half-lives of eight pesticides were 1.3-5.0days in Lycium barbarum fruits. The pre-harvest interval of all pesticides mentioned above were investigated. Tebuconazole (14days), sulfoxaflor (14days) and flusilazole (28days) have longer pre-harvest interval than the others which have 7days. The dietary risks, assessed as hazard quotients, were far below 100%. The results showed that the eight pesticides applied to Lycium barbarum were comparably safe for the consumer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk assessment of dietary exposure to aluminium in the Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Liu, Zhao-Ping; Yang, Da-Jin; Liang, Jiang; Zhu, Jiang-Hui; Xu, Hai-Bin; Li, Feng-Qin; Li, Ning

    2016-10-01

    In order to address the issue of excessive intake of aluminium (Al) from Al-containing food additives in the Chinese diet, this study conducted a dietary exposure assessment of Al in the general population based on the national surveillance data of Al content in foods and national food consumption data. It was found that the mean dietary exposure of the whole Chinese population to Al from Al-containing food additives was 1.795 mg kg(‒1) bw week(‒1), not exceeding the PTWI, while high dietary exposures (e.g., 97.5(th) percentile) to Al were 7.660 and 2.103-2.903 mg kg(‒1) bw week(‒1) for children, respectively, both exceeding the PTWI. It was found that the dietary exposure to Al for 32.5% of the total Chinese population and 42.6% of children aged 4-6 years exceeded the PTWI. Wheat flour and wheat-based products are the main source of dietary A l exposure (85% of the total intake); and puffed foods are the major source of Al intake for children. These findings suggested that consumption of Al-containing food additives could be a health concern for consumers with high food consumption (97.5(th) percentile) and children under the age of 14 years.

  1. A dietary assessment of selenium risk to aquatic birds on a coal mine affected stream in Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayland, M.; Casey, R.; Woodsworth, E. [Environmental Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2007-07-15

    In this article, we present the results of a dietary-based assessment of the risk that selenium may pose to two aquatic bird species, the American Dipper (Cinclus mexicanus) and the Harlequin Duck (Histrionicus histrionicus), on one of the coal mine-affected streams, the Gregg River. The study consisted of (1) a literature-based toxicity assessment, (2) simulation of selenium exposure in the diets and eggs of the two species, and (3) a risk assessment that coupled information on toxicity and exposure. Diet and egg selenium concentrations associated with a 20% hatch failure rate were 6.4 and 17 {mu} g {center_dot} g{sup -1} dry wt, respectively. Simulated dietary selenium concentrations were about 2.0-2.5 {mu} g {center_dot} g{sup -1} higher on the Gregg River than on reference streams for both species. When simulated dietary concentrations were considered, hatch failure rates on the Gregg River were predicted to average 12% higher in American Dippers and 8% higher in Harlequin Ducks than at reference streams. Corresponding values were only 3% for both species when predicted egg concentrations were used. Elevated levels of selenium in insects in some of the reference streams were unexpected and raised a question as to whether aquatic birds have evolved a higher tolerance level for dietary selenium in these areas.

  2. The preventable causes of death in the United States: comparative risk assessment of dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors.

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    Goodarz Danaei

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the number of deaths caused by risk factors is needed for health policy and priority setting. Our aim was to estimate the mortality effects of the following 12 modifiable dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors in the United States (US using consistent and comparable methods: high blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, and blood pressure; overweight-obesity; high dietary trans fatty acids and salt; low dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids (seafood, and fruits and vegetables; physical inactivity; alcohol use; and tobacco smoking. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used data on risk factor exposures in the US population from nationally representative health surveys and disease-specific mortality statistics from the National Center for Health Statistics. We obtained the etiological effects of risk factors on disease-specific mortality, by age, from systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiological studies that had adjusted (i for major potential confounders, and (ii where possible for regression dilution bias. We estimated the number of disease-specific deaths attributable to all non-optimal levels of each risk factor exposure, by age and sex. In 2005, tobacco smoking and high blood pressure were responsible for an estimated 467,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 436,000-500,000 and 395,000 (372,000-414,000 deaths, accounting for about one in five or six deaths in US adults. Overweight-obesity (216,000; 188,000-237,000 and physical inactivity (191,000; 164,000-222,000 were each responsible for nearly 1 in 10 deaths. High dietary salt (102,000; 97,000-107,000, low dietary omega-3 fatty acids (84,000; 72,000-96,000, and high dietary trans fatty acids (82,000; 63,000-97,000 were the dietary risks with the largest mortality effects. Although 26,000 (23,000-40,000 deaths from ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and diabetes were averted by current alcohol use, they were outweighed by

  3. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in foods from China: levels, dietary intake, and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Jingguang; Zhao, Yunfeng; Li, Xiaowei; Wen, Sheng; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Yongning

    2013-07-03

    A national survey of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners in various foodstuffs from the Chinese total diet study (TDS) performed in 2007 was conducted for the first time. Meats and aquatic foods had the highest average sum PBDEs (192.5 and 190.6 pg g⁻¹ fresh weight, respectively). For indicator PCBs, the highest average concentration was found in aquatic foods (628.7 pg g⁻¹ fresh weight). On the basis of measured PBDE and indicator PCB levels, the dietary intake estimate was subsequently calculated for the nonoccupationally exposed population in China. For adults, average estimated dietary intakes of PBDEs and indicator PCBs were 0.76 and 2.34 ng kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹, respectively. Health risk assessment of PBDEs using a MOE approach recommended by EFSA suggested unlikely health concern with respect to current dietary intake of PBDEs in China.

  4. A comparative evaluation of dietary indicators used in food consumption assessments of at-risk populations.

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    Rose, Donald; Chotard, Sophie; Oliveira, Leila; Mock, Nancy; Libombo, Marcella

    2008-06-01

    Easy-to-collect dietary indicators have been used increasingly for planning and evaluation of food security interventions. Various indicators have been employed, but rarely has a full set of indicators been compared using a common framework. This paper evaluates the performance of five dietary indicators for the assessment of household energy consumption using a common framework and recent data from Mozambique. Data were analyzed from a 2004 household survey, Current Vulnerability Analysis in Seven Provinces of Mozambique. Households (n = 4,358) were sampled from 42 rural districts using a two-stage design, and a quantitative 24-hour dietary recall was employed. Household energy intake ratios were calculated as the food energy consumed by household members divided by the sum of the members' recommended intakes. Five proxy indicators of household consumption in the previous day were developed: the number of meals, the number of food groups, the number of food items, a score based on a simple weighting of food groups consumed, and a predicted energy intake ratio based on weighting of food groups consumed with previously estimated regression coefficients. The performance of these indicators was assessed using correlations with energy intake, receiver operator characteristic analysis, efficiency of predictions, and prevalence estimate comparisons. Although the predicted energy intake ratio performed best on all these performance criteria, and the simple food-group-weighted score performed second best, differences among the indicators on many of the criteria were relatively small. New assessment systems could take full advantage of easy-to-collect information by using one of these best-scoring indicators, although established systems could continue to use some of the other indicators explored here, such as the food item count, without much loss in accuracy.

  5. Hormone Use in Food Animal Production: Assessing Potential Dietary Exposures and Breast Cancer Risk.

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    Nachman, Keeve E; Smith, Tyler J S

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the role of hormones in breast cancer etiology, following reports that heightened levels of endogenous hormones and exposure to exogenous hormones and other endocrine-disrupting chemicals through food and the environment are associated with increased breast cancer risk. Seven hormone drugs (testosterone propionate, trenbolone acetate, estradiol, zeranol, progesterone, melengestrol acetate, and bovine somatotropin) are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in food animals. There is concern that these drugs or their biologically active metabolites may accumulate in edible tissues, potentially increasing the risk of exposure for consumers. To date, the potential for human exposure to residues of these compounds in animal products, as well as the risks that may result from this exposure, is poorly understood. In this paper, we discuss the existing scientific evidence examining the toxicological significance of exposure to hormones used in food animal production in relation to breast cancer risk. Through a discussion of U.S. federal regulatory programs and the primary literature, we interpret the state of surveillance for residues of hormone drugs in animal products and discuss trends in meat consumption in relation to the potential for hormone exposure. Given the lack of chronic bioassays of oral toxicity of the seven hormone compounds in the public literature and the limitations of existing residue surveillance programs, it is not currently possible to provide a quantitative characterization of risks that result from the use of hormonal drugs in food animal production, complicating our understanding of the role of dietary hormone exposure in the population burden of breast cancer.

  6. Risk Assessment on Dietary Exposure to Aflatoxin B₁ in Post-Harvest Peanuts in the Yangtze River Ecological Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaoxia; Wu, Linxia; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Zhaowei; Zhou, Haiyan; Bai, Yizhen; Chen, Xiaomei; Jiang, Jun

    2015-10-15

    Based on the 2983 peanut samples from 122 counties in six provinces of China's Yangtze River ecological region collected between 2009-2014, along with the dietary consumption data in Chinese resident nutrition and health survey reports from 2002 and 2004, dietary aflatoxin exposure and percentiles in the corresponding statistics were calculated by non-parametric probability assessment, Monte Carlo simulation and bootstrap sampling methods. Average climatic conditions in the Yangtze River ecological region were calculated based on the data from 118 weather stations via the Thiessen polygon method. The survey results found that the aflatoxin contamination of peanuts was significantly high in 2013. The determination coefficient (R²) of multiple regression reflected by the aflatoxin B₁ content with average precipitation and mean temperature in different periods showed that climatic conditions one month before harvest had the strongest impact on aflatoxin B₁ contamination, and that Hunan and Jiangxi provinces were greatly influenced. The simulated mean aflatoxin B₁ intake from peanuts at the mean peanut consumption level was 0.777-0.790 and 0.343-0.349 ng/(kg·d) for children aged 2-6 and standard adults respectively. Moreover, the evaluated cancer risks were 0.024 and 0.011/(100,000 persons·year) respectively, generally less than China's current liver cancer incidence of 24.6 cases/(100,000 persons·year). In general, the dietary risk caused by peanut production and harvest was low. Further studies would focus on the impacts of peanut circulation and storage on aflatoxin B₁ contamination risk assessment in order to protect peanut consumers' safety and boost international trade.

  7. Risk Assessment on Dietary Exposure to Aflatoxin B1 in Post-Harvest Peanuts in the Yangtze River Ecological Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Ding

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the 2983 peanut samples from 122 counties in six provinces of China’s Yangtze River ecological region collected between 2009–2014, along with the dietary consumption data in Chinese resident nutrition and health survey reports from 2002 and 2004, dietary aflatoxin exposure and percentiles in the corresponding statistics were calculated by non-parametric probability assessment, Monte Carlo simulation and bootstrap sampling methods. Average climatic conditions in the Yangtze River ecological region were calculated based on the data from 118 weather stations via the Thiessen polygon method. The survey results found that the aflatoxin contamination of peanuts was significantly high in 2013. The determination coefficient (R2 of multiple regression reflected by the aflatoxin B1 content with average precipitation and mean temperature in different periods showed that climatic conditions one month before harvest had the strongest impact on aflatoxin B1 contamination, and that Hunan and Jiangxi provinces were greatly influenced. The simulated mean aflatoxin B1 intake from peanuts at the mean peanut consumption level was 0.777–0.790 and 0.343–0.349 ng/(kg·d for children aged 2–6 and standard adults respectively. Moreover, the evaluated cancer risks were 0.024 and 0.011/(100,000 persons·year respectively, generally less than China’s current liver cancer incidence of 24.6 cases/(100,000 persons·year. In general, the dietary risk caused by peanut production and harvest was low. Further studies would focus on the impacts of peanut circulation and storage on aflatoxin B1 contamination risk assessment in order to protect peanut consumers’ safety and boost international trade.

  8. Dietary Pattern and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Aloosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:It has been suggested that nutrition might play a role in the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS. However,dietary patterns associated with MS risk are unknown. This study was conducted to compare the dietary patterns of patients with MS and healthy controls to find the relationship between dietary patterns and MS.Methods:Usual dietary intake of 75 women with relapsing/remitting MS (RRMS and 75 healthy controls were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire consisting of 168 food items. To define major dietary patterns, we used factor analysis. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between dietary patterns and risk of MS.Results:Traditional pattern (high in low-fat dairy products,red meat, vegetable oil, onion, whole grain, soy, refined grains, organ meats, coffee, and legumes was inversely related to the risk of MS [odds ratio (OR = 0.15; 95%confidence interval (CI: 0.03-0.18; P = 0.028]. A similar inverse relationship was noted between MS risk andlacto-vegetarian (high in nuts, fruits, French fries, coffee,sweets and desserts, vegetables, and high-fat dairy products and vegetarian (high in green leafy vegetables, hydrogenated fats, tomato, yellow vegetables, fruit juices, onion, and other vegetablespatterns (OR = 0.31; 95% CI: 0.12-0.82; P = 0.018 and OR = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.19-0.90; P = 0.026, respectively. In contrast, the prevalence of MS was higher in those who had high animal fat dietary pattern (high in animal fats,potato, meat products, sugars, and hydrogenated fats and low in whole grains (OR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.63-2.94;P < 0.005.Conclusion:Our findings showed that the risk of RRMS can be affected by major dietary patterns.

  9. [Quantitative risk assessment of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons dietary exposure from edible fats and oils in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mengsi; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Lishi; Yan, Weixing

    2016-02-01

    To assess the quantitative risk of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) dietary exposure from edible fats and oils in China. One hundred samples of edible fats and oils were collected from the supermarkets and the farmers markets in 11 provinces of China from December in 2013 to May in 2014. Then they were tested for EU15+1 PAHs (16 PAHs were controlled in priority by European Food Safety Authority) by two test methods which were QuECHERS-GC-MS-MS and GPC-HPLC-FLD. Data of PAHs concentration and edible fats and oils consumption which were from Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey in 2002 were combined to evaluate carcinogenic risk of PAHs in edible fats and oils by the method of margin of exposure (MOE). In this process, we divided the population into 6 groups, namely male adults (older than 18 years old), female adults (older than 18), male youths (13-17), female youths (13-17), school-agers (6-12) and preschoolers (2-5), and thought carcinogenicity as the critical toxicity end point of PAHs. Two quantitative risk assessment methods, i.e. point assessment and probability assessment, were used to evaluate the dietary exposure and MOEs. EU15+1 PAHs in one of 100 samples were not detected, other samples were polluted in different degrees; the detection rates were 3%-98% and the average contents were 0.26-3.26 μg/kg. The results of PAHs dietary exposure from both of point assessment and probability assessment were the same. The average exposures of PAH8 were as the following: male adults were 10.03 and (9.34 ± 12.61) ng·kg(-1)·d(-1)(The former was from point assessment and the latter from probability assessment, the same below), female adults were 9.95 and (9.60 ± 15.04) ng · kg(-1)·d (-1), male youths were 11.09 and (10.84 ± 16.54) ng·kg(-1)·d(-1), female youths were 10.06 and (9.58 ± 12.87) ng·kg(-1)·d(-1),school-agers were 15.29 and (15.62 ± 25.54) ng·kg(-1)·d(-1), preschoolers were 19.27 and (19.22 ± 28.91) ng·kg(-1)·d(-1). MOEs

  10. National Children's Study Dietary Assessment Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Children's Study dietary assessment workshop was an opportunity for experts in dietary assessment methodology to gather and discuss the current state of knowledge about methodologies used to assess dietary intake during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

  11. National Children's Study Dietary Assessment Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Children's Study dietary assessment workshop was an opportunity for experts in dietary assessment methodology to gather and discuss the current state of knowledge about methodologies used to assess dietary intake during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

  12. Assessment of potential risks of dietary RNAi to a soil micro-arthropod, Sinella curviseta Brook (Collembola: Entomobryidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huipeng Pan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available RNAi-based genetically engineered (GE crops for the management of insect pests are likely to be commercialized by the end of this decade. Without a workable framework for conducting the ecological risk assessment (ERA and a standardized ERA protocol, however, the utility of RNAi transgenic crops in pest management remains uncertain. The overall goal of this study is to assess the risks of RNAi-based GE crops on a non-target soil micro-arthropod, Sinella curviseta, which could be exposed to plant-protected dsRNAs deposited in crop residues. Based on the preliminary research, we hypothesized that insecticidal dsRNAs targeting at the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, a billion-dollar insect pest, has no adverse impacts on S. curviseta, a soil decomposer. Following a tiered approach, we tested this risk hypothesis using a well-designed dietary RNAi toxicity assay. To create the worst-case scenario, the full-length cDNA of v-ATPase subunit A from S. curviseta were cloned and a 400 bp fragment representing the highest sequence similarity between target pest and non-target arthropods was selected as the template to synthesize insecticidal dsRNAs. Specifically, 10-day old S. curviseta larvae were subjected to artificial diets containing v-ATPase A dsRNAs from both D. v. virgifera (dsDVV and S. curviseta (dsSC, respectively, a dsRNA control, β-glucuronidase, from plant (dsGUS, and a vehicle control, H2O. The endpoint measurements included gene expression profiles, survival, and life history traits, such as developmental time, fecundity, hatching rate, and body length. Although S. curviseta larvae developed significantly faster under the treatments of dsDVV and dsSC than the vehicle control, the combined results from both temporal RNAi effect study and dietary RNAi toxicity assay support the risk hypothesis, suggesting that the impacts of ingested arthropod-active dsRNAs on this representative soil decomposer are negligible.

  13. Estimate of dietary intake of chloropropanols (3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP and health risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pavesi Arisseto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chloropropanols, including 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD and 1,3-dichloropropan-2-ol (1,3-DCP, comprise a group of chemical contaminants with carcinogenic and genotoxic properties. They have been found in a variety of processed foods and food ingredients, such as hydrolyzed vegetable protein, soy sauce, cereal-based products, malt-derived ingredients, and smoked foods. This study aimed to assess the dietary exposure to 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP in Brazil and verify whether the presence of these substances in foods could represent health risks. The intake was calculated by combining data on food consumption, provided by the Consumer Expenditure Survey 2008-2009, with the levels of contaminant occurrence determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The exposure to 3-MCPD ranged from 0.06 to 0.51 µg.kg bw-1.day-1 considering average and high consumers, while the intake of 1,3-DCP was estimated to be 0.0036 µg.kg bw-1.day-1 in the worst case scenario evaluated. Based on these results, it was verified that the Brazilians' exposure to chloropropanols does not present a significant health risk. However, the consumption of specific foods containing high levels of 3-MCPD could exceed the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of 2 µg.kg bw-1 established for this compound and, therefore, represent a potential concern.

  14. Assessing the underlying breast cancer risk of Chinese females contributed by dietary intake of residual DDT from agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mengling; Zhao, Meirong; Zhou, Shanshan; Chen, Kun; Zhang, Chunlong; Liu, Weiping

    2014-12-01

    The greatest concern over DDT exposure in China arose since the early 1990s for the rising breast cancer incidence, and the cause still remains to be elucidated. An extensive survey of DDT background in agricultural soils, covered the entire region of China, was conducted. DDT at concentrations greater than 100 ng/g (the China's Farmland Environmental Quality Evaluation Standards for Edible Agricultural Products) was found to impact 42.3 million Chinese population. Considering the geographical differences with diverse DDT contributions and different diet products and habits, the average daily dietary intake was modeled and estimated to be 0.34 μg/kg p,p'-DDE (the main bioactive constituent in DDT). Population attributable fraction derived from a case-control study from 78 women with breast cancer and 72 controls was used to assess the DDT exposure risk to breast cancer. Based on the estimated population attributable fraction with a median value of 0.6% (IQR 0.23-2.11%), the excess annual breast cancer incidence rate attributable to p,p'-DDE exposure averaged 0.06×10(-5) with significant spatial variations varying from 0.00021×10(-5) to 11.05×10(-5) in Chinese females. Exposure to DDT is a contributor to breast cancer, but the overall limited relative risk and population attributable fraction imply confounding factors for breast cancer in Chinese females. Exposure risk in a regional scale helps understand the cause and prevention of breast cancer. Our mapping and modeling method could be used to assess other environmental carcinogens and related cancer diseases.

  15. Individualized nutritional recommendations: do we have the measurements needed to assess risk and make dietary recommendations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Lenore

    2004-02-01

    Is the information currently available to adjust nutritional recommendations and develop individualized nutrition? No. There is not even the information needed for setting dietary recommendations with confidence now at the group level. Will it be available soon? The answer to this question depends on the drive and will of the nutritional community, the success in recruiting funding to the area, the education of nutritionists and the spawning of great ideas and approaches. The emerging tools of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are enabling the in-depth study of relationships between diet, genetics and metabolism. The advent of technologies can be compared with the discovery of the microscope and the new dimensions of scientific visualization enabled by that discovery. Nutritionists stand at the crest of new waves of data that can be generated, and new methods for their digestion will be required. To date, the study of dietary requirements has been based largely on a black box approach. Subjects are supplemented or depleted and clinical outcomes are observed. Few recommendations are based on metabolic outcomes. Metabolomics and nutrigenomics promise tools with which recommendations can be refined to meet individual requirements and the potential of individualized nutrition can be explored. As yet, these tools are not being widely applied in nutritional research and are rarely being applied by nutritionists. The result is often interesting research that is frequently nutritionally flawed, resulting in inappropriate conclusions. Nutritional education is needed to put nutritionists at the forefront of the development of applications for these technologies, creating a generation of nutrigenomicists. A new generation of nutritionists should be working interdisciplinarily with geneticists, molecular biologists and bioinformaticians in the development of research strategies. The present paper reviews the current status of nutrigenomic research, the current

  16. Dietary exposure to acrylamide from cafeteria foods in Jeddah schools and associated risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Tawila, Mahmoud M; Al-Ansari, Ahmed M; Alrasheedi, Amani A; Neamatallah, Abdulateef A

    2017-10-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is a carcinogenic and genotoxic food contaminant produced at high temperatures in foods that are rich in carbohydrates. Foods sold in schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, are among such carbohydrate-rich foods produced at high cooking temperatures. It is crucial to determine the importance of AA exposure with respect to cafeteria foods and assess the associated risks. The highest mean AA level was measured in chocolate pies (439 µg kg(-1) ), followed by custard pies (435 µg kg(-1) ) and cheese pies (432 µg kg(-1) ). The average and 95th percentile values of AA exposure were 0.51 and 1.17 [µg kg(-1) body weight (BW) school day(-1) ]. The average exposure significantly decreased with an increase in age, from 0.65 (µg kg(-1) BW school day(-1) ) in primary school students to 0.37 in secondary school students. Cheese and chocolate pies are the main contributors in AA intake. The contributions of cheese and chocolate pies to the average exposure among primary, middle and secondary school students were 23.1%, 24.7% and 29.4% and 16.9%, 12.1% and 11.9%, respectively. Other products with significant contributions included cheese sandwiches (10.8%, 8.9% and 12.7%), plain cookies (7.7%, 5.6% and 6.7%) and custard pies (7.7%, 4.8% and 8.9%). Other cafeteria products contributed to AA exposure at much lower percentages. The calculated margins of exposure (MOEs) for the average [356 and 614 for both benchmark dose lower confidence limit (BMDL) 0.18 and 0.31 mg kg(-1) BW day(-1) ] and 95th percentile AA exposure values (154 and 265 for both BMDL 0.18 and 0.31 mg kg(-1) BW day(-1) ) suggest that there is a health concern with respect to school-aged students. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Degradation Dynamics and Dietary Risk Assessments of Two Neonicotinoid Insecticides during Lonicera japonica Planting, Drying, and Tea Brewing Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qingkui; Shi, Yanhong; Cao, Haiqun; Tong, Zhou; Xiao, Jinjing; Liao, Min; Wu, Xiangwei; Hua, Rimao

    2017-03-01

    The degradation dynamics and dietary risk assessments of thiamethoxam and thiacloprid during Lonicera japonica planting, drying, and tea brewing processes were systematically investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography. The half-lives of thiamethoxam and thiacloprid were 1.0-4.1 d in the honeysuckle flowers and leaves, with degradation rate constants k ranging from -0.169 to -0.696. The safety interval time was 7 d. The sun- and oven-drying (70 °C) percent digestions were 59.4-81.0% for the residues, which were higher than the shade- and oven-drying percentages at lower temperatures (30, 40, 50, and 60 °C, which ranged from 37.7% to 57.0%). The percent transfers of thiamethoxam and thiacloprid were 0-48.4% and 0-25.2%, respectively, for the different tea brewing conditions. On the basis of the results of this study, abiding by the safety interval time is important, and using reasonable drying methods and tea brewing conditions can reduce the transfer of thiamethoxam and thiacloprid to humans.

  18. Cognitive aspects of dietary assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wirfält, Elisabeth

    1998-01-01

    Imprecise dietary reports are often cited as one reason for weak or non-existent relations between diet and disease in epidemiological studies. Studies in applied cognitive psychology have contributed to the improved utility of general survey questionnaires. However, only a few studies have examined cognitive processes in diet recall, and the designs of dietary assessment instruments that may enhance recall of habitual diet. This paper briefly summarises some research on cognition in diet rec...

  19. Dose-to-dose variations with single packages of counterfeit medicines and adulterated dietary supplements as a potential source of false negatives and inaccurate health risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venhuis, B J; Zwaagstra, M E; Keizers, P H J; de Kaste, D

    2014-02-01

    In this report, we show three examples of how the variability in dose units in single packages of counterfeit medicines and adulterated dietary supplements may contribute to a false negative screening result and inaccurate health risk assessments. We describe a counterfeit Viagra 100mg blister pack and a box of an instant coffee both containing dose units with and without an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). We also describe a purportedly herbal slimming product with capsules that mutually differed in API and impurities. The adulterated dietary supplements contained sibutramine, benzyl-sibutramine, N-desmethyl-sibutramine (DMS), N,N-didesmethyl-sibutramine (DDMS) and several other related impurities. Counterfeit medicines and adulterated dietary supplements are a health risk because their quality is unreliable. Health risks are even greater when such unreliability extends to fundamental differences between dose units in one package. Because dose-to-dose variability for these products is unpredictable, the confidence interval of a sample size is unknown. Consequently, the analyses of a selection of dose units may not be representative for the package. In the worst case, counterfeit or unauthorised medicines are not recognised as such or a health risk is not identified. In order to reduce erroneous results particular care should be taken when analysing a composite of dose units, when finding no API in a dietary supplement and when finding conformity in a suspect counterfeit medicine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Reasoned opinion on the dietary risk assessment for proposed temporary maximum residue levels (MRLs of didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC and benzalkonium chloride (BAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available EFSA was requested by the European Commission to perform a dietary exposure assessment for the proposed temporary maximum residue levels (MRLs for didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC and benzalkonium chloride (BAC (0.1 mg/kg, respectively, for all food commodities covered by the EU MRL legislation. Based on the information, EFSA did not identify potential consumer health risks for these proposed MRLs. Thus, the proposed MRLs are considered to be sufficiently protective. However, due to the limited data available, the risk assessments are affected by a high degree of uncertainty.

  1. Risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Liselotte; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Elsass, Peter

    2010-01-01

    International research suggests that using formalized risk assessment methods may improve the predictive validity of professionals' predictions of risk of future violence. This study presents data on forensic psychiatric patients discharged from a forensic unit in Denmark in year 2001-2002 (n=107......). All patients were assessed for risk of future violence utilizing a structured professional judgment model: the Historical-Clinical-Risk Management-20 (HCR-20) violence risk assessment scheme. After a follow-up period of 5.6 years, recidivism outcome were obtained from the Danish National Crime...... predictive of violent recidivism compared to static items. In sum, the findings support the use of structured professional judgment models of risk assessment and in particular the HCR-20 violence risk assessment scheme. Findings regarding the importance of the (clinical) structured final risk judgment...

  2. Risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1986-03-01

    The article deals with the calculation of risks, as applied to living near to a) a nuclear reactor or b) an industrial complex. The application of risk assessment techniques to the pressurised water reactor (PWR) is discussed with respect to: containment, frequencies of degraded core accidents, release of radioisotopes, consequences and risk to society, and uncertainties. The risk assessment for an industrial complex concerns the work of the Safety and Reliability Directorate for the chemical complex on Canvey Island. (U.K.).

  3. Probabilistic risk assessment of dietary exposure to single and multiple pesticide residues or contaminants: summary of the work performed within the SAFE FOODS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Klaveren, Jacob D; Boon, Polly E

    2009-12-01

    This introduction to the journal's supplement on probabilistic risk assessment of single and multiple exposure to pesticide residues or contaminants summarizes the objectives and results of the work performed in work package 3 of the EU-funded project SAFE FOODS. Within this work package, we developed an electronic platform of food consumption and chemical concentration databases harmonised at raw agricultural commodity level. In this platform the databases are connected to probabilistic software to allow probabilistic modelling of dietary exposure in a standardised way. The usefulness of this platform is demonstrated in two papers, which describe the exposure to pesticides and glycoalkaloids in several European countries. Furthermore, an integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) model was developed: a new tool to integrate exposure and effect modelling, including uncertainty analyses. The use of this model was shown in a paper on the cumulative exposure to anti-androgen pesticides. Combined with a health impact prioritization system, developed within this work package to compare heath risks between chemicals, the IPRA tool can also be used to compare health risks between multiple chemicals in complex risk assessment situation such as risk-benefit and risk trade-off analyses. Both the electronic platform of databases as the IPRA model may proof to be powerful tools to tackle the challenges risk managers are or will be faced with in the future.

  4. A total diet study and probabilistic assessment risk assessment of dietary mercury exposure among First Nations living on-reserve in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juric, Amanda K; Batal, Malek; David, Will; Sharp, Donald; Schwartz, Harold; Ing, Amy; Fediuk, Karen; Black, Andrew; Tikhonov, Constantine; Chan, Hing Man

    2017-10-01

    Methyl Mercury (MeHg) exposure is a global environmental health concern. Indigenous peoples around the world are susceptible to MeHg exposure from often higher fish consumption compared to general populations. The objective of this study was to estimate dietary exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) among First Nations living on-reserve in the province of Ontario, Canada. A total diet study was constructed based on a 24-h recall from the First Nations Food, Nutrition, and Environment Study (FNFNES), and measured contaminant concentrations from Health Canada for market foods, and FNFNES for traditional foods. A probabilistic assessment of annual and seasonal traditional food consumptions was conducted for 1429 adult participants. Results were compared to exposures in the general Canadian population and reference values from Health Canada for adults and women of childbearing age (ages 19-50). Results indicated traditional foods to be the primary contributor to the dietary total MeHg intake (72%). The average dietary total MeHg exposure in the First Nations population in Ontario (0.039μg/kg/d) was 1.6 times higher than the general Canadian population; however, the majority (97.8%) of the population was below the reference values. Mercury concentrations in participants' hair samples (n = 744) ranged from 0.03 to 13.54µg/g, with an average of 0.64µg/g (geometric average of 0.27µg/g). Less than 1% of the population had a hair mercury value above the 6µg/g level, and 1.3% of women of child bearing age had values greater than 2µg/g. Fish species contributing to the MeHg intake included pickerel-walleye, pike, perch and trout. Only 7.9% of the population met the recommended fish consumption rate of two, 3.5oz servings per week from the American Heart Association. Therefore, consumption of lower trophic level fish can be promoted to provide the maximum nutritional benefit with minimal risk of MeHg exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of the BRAFO tiered approach for benefit-risk assessment to case studies on dietary interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.; Andersen, R.; Antoine, J.-M.; Finglas, P.; Hoekstra, J.; Kardinaal, A.; Nordmann, H.; Pekcan, G.; Pentieva, K.; Sanders, T.A.; Berg, H. van den; Kranen, H. van; Chiodini, A.

    2012-01-01

    The respective examples, described in this paper, illustrate how the BRAFO-tiered approach, on benefit-risk assessment, can be tested on a wide range of case studies. Various results were provided, ranging from a quick stop as the result of non-genuine benefit-risk questions to continuation through

  6. Use and impact of usual intake models on dietary exposure estimate and risk assessment of chemical substances: a practical example for cadmium, acrylamide and sulphites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Francesca Romana; Sirot, Véronique; Busani, Luca; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Hulin, Marion

    2015-01-01

    To estimate of food and nutrient intakes, 24-h recalls are frequently used in dietary assessment. However intake data collected for a short period are a limited estimator of long-term usual intake. An important limitation of such data is that the within-person variability tends to inflate the intake distribution leading to a biased estimation of extreme percentiles. Statistical models, named usual-intake models, that separate the within-person variability from the between-persons variability, have lately been implemented. The main objectives of this study were to highlight the potential impact that usual-intake models can have on exposure estimate and risk assessment and to point out which are the key aspects to be considered in order to run these models properly and be sure to interpret the output correctly. To achieve the goal we used the consumption data obtained by the French dietary survey INCA2 and the concentration data collected during the French TDS2, using Monte Carlo Risk Assessment (MCRA) software, release 8.0. For the three substances included in this study (cadmium, acrylamide and sulphites), the exposure of the upper percentiles was significantly reduced when using usual-intake models in comparison with the results obtained in the observed individual mean models, even if in terms of risk assessment the impact of using usual-intake models was limited. From the results it appears that the key aspects to consider when using usual-intake models are: (1) the normality of the log-transformed intake distribution, (2) the contribution per single food group to the total exposure, and (3) the independency of food consumption data on multiple days. In conclusion, usual-intake models may have an impact on exposure estimates although, referring to the results, it did not bring any changes in terms of risk assessment, but further investigations are needed.

  7. Dietary exposure and health risk assessment for 14 toxic and essential trace elements in Yaoundé: the Cameroonian total diet study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimou, Marie-Madeleine; Pouillot, Régis; Charrondiere, U Ruth; Noël, Laurent; Guérin, Thierry; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2014-01-01

    Dietary exposure to trace elements (aluminium, antimony, barium, cadmium, lead, nickel, vanadium, copper, manganese, molybdenum, germanium, lithium, strontium and tellurium) was assessed by the total diet study (TDS) method. Sixty-four pooled samples representing 96.5% of the diet in Yaoundé, Cameroon, were prepared "as consumed" before analysis. Consumption data were sourced from a households' budget survey. Dietary exposures were compared with health-based guidance or nutritional values and to worldwide TDS results. The health-based guidance value was exceeded by ≤ 0.2% of the study population for aluminium, antimony, barium, cadmium, nickel and vanadium. For lead, the observed 95th percentile of exposure (3.05 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1)) equals the critical value considered by JECFA for cardiovascular effects; therefore, risk to health cannot be excluded for certain consumer groups. The population at risk of excess intake for manganese, copper, molybdenum and nickel was considered to be low (≤ 0.3%). The prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated at 5.9% for copper and was nil for molybdenum. Due to the lack of toxicological and/or nutritional consistent data to perform a risk assessment, dietary exposures to germanium, lithium, strontium and tellurium were provided as supplementary data. The food groups highest contributors to exposure were "tubers and starches" for aluminium (27%), lead (39%) and copper (26%), "cereals and cereal products" for cadmium (54%) and manganese (35%), "fruits, vegetables and oilseeds" for barium (34%), molybdenum (49%) and nickel (31%), "beverages" for antimony (27%) and "fish" for vanadium (43% - lower bound). Measures should be recommended to maintain low levels of exposure before the problem could become an important health or trade issue.

  8. Assessment of potential risks of dietary RNAi to a soil micro-arthropod, Sinella curviseta Brook (Collembola: Entomobryidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Huipeng Pan; Linghua Xu; Jeffrey Edward Noland; Hu Li; Siegfried, Blair D.; Xuguo Zhou

    2016-01-01

    RNAi-based genetically engineered (GE) crops for the management of insect pests are likely to be commercialized by the end of this decade. Without a workable framework for conducting the ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a standardized ERA protocol, however, the utility of RNAi transgenic crops in pest management remains uncertain. The overall goal of this study is to assess the risks of RNAi-based GE crops on a non-target soil micro-arthropod, Sinella curviseta, which could be exposed to ...

  9. Dietary transfatty acids and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinfu; La Vecchia, Carlo; de Groh, Margaret; Negri, Eva; Morrison, Howard; Mery, Les

    2011-11-01

    This study assesses the association between dietary transfatty acid (TFA) intake and the risk of selected cancers. Mailed questionnaires were completed between 1994 and 1997 in eight Canadian provinces by 1182 incident, histologically confirmed cases of the stomach, 1727 of the colon, 1447 of the rectum, 628 of the pancreas, 3341 of the lung, 2362 of the breast, 442 of the ovary, 1799 of the prostate, 686 of the testis, 1345 of the kidney, 1029 of the bladder, 1009 of the brain, 1666 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, 1069 leukemias, and 5039 population controls. Information on dietary habits and nutrition intake was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire, which provided data on eating habits 2 years before the study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidenc530e intervals (CI) were derived by unconditional logistic regression to adjust for total energy intake and other potential confounding factors. Dietary TFA were positively associated with the risk of cancers of the colon (OR: 1.38 for the highest vs. the lowest quartile), breast in premenopause (OR: 1.60), and prostate (OR: 1.42). There were a borderline association for pancreas cancer (OR: 1.38; P=0.06). No significant association was observed for cancers of the stomach, rectum, lung, ovary, testis, kidney, bladder, brain, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, and leukemia, although the ORs for the highest quartile were above unity for all neoplasms considered, except testis. Our findings add evidence that high TFA is associated with an increased risk of various cancers. Thus, a diet low in transfat may play a role in the prevention of several cancers.

  10. Risks of dietary acrylamide exposure: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboldi, Bárbara Pelicioli; Vinhas, Álvaro Marchand; Moreira, Júlia Dubois

    2014-08-15

    Acrylamide (AA) is a probable human carcinogen found in carbohydrate-rich foods that have been heated to high temperatures. AA dietary exposure has been associated to development of health problems. We perform a systematic review to elucidate the association of dietary AA exposure and human health problems. Articles were screened by reading titles and abstracts before the full text of eligible articles was read (κ=0.824). Data were harvested by two reviewers and checked by a third. Forty-one articles were analyzed and assessment of dietary exposure proved to be far from uniform and suffered from limitations that possibly impact on the validity of outcomes with relation to human health. Risk assessment of dietary acrylamide exposure is in need of high quality methods for evaluating dietary exposure and validated acrylamide content databases.

  11. Distribution and Health Risk Assessment on Dietary Exposure of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Vegetables in Nanjing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minmin Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a market basket study made in Nanjing, China, in which the most common consumed nine kinds of vegetables foodstuffs were sampled, the contents of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were analyzed using gas chromatography with mass spectrometer detector (GC-MS. The results showed that the total amount of 16 PAHs was within the range of 60.5~312 ng g−1 (wet weight. The ranking of total concentrations for different types of vegetables in decreasing order was leafy vegetable, fruit vegetable, and rhizome vegetable. Source analysis suggested that coal, oil, or other incomplete combustion of biomass mainly contributed to the concentration of PAHs. The margin of exposure (MOE approach with age/gender group-specific daily dietary exposure level was used to estimate the carcinogenic risk. The calculated total mean MOE in the case of BaP and PAH4 (sum of BaA, CHR, BbF, and BaP was 14960 and 7723, respectively, for local residents. In addition, the MOEs in PAH4 for some groups of both male and female were below the critical limit of 10 000 proposed by EFSA. Therefore, health effect owing to the consumption of vegetables on local residents needs high concern.

  12. Dietary acrylamide and risk of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kathryn M.; Giovannucci, Edward; Stampfer, Meir J.; Mucci, Lorelei A.

    2011-01-01

    Acrylamide has been designated by IARC as a “probable human carcinogen.” High levels are formed during cooking of many commonly consumed foods including French fries, potato chips, breakfast cereal, and coffee. Two prospective cohort studies and two case-control studies in Europe found no association between acrylamide intake and prostate cancer. We examined this association in a large prospective cohort of 47,896 U.S. men in the Health Professionals’ Follow-up Study, using updated dietary acrylamide intake from food frequency questionnaires in 1986, 1990, 1994, 1998, and 2002. From 1986 through 2006, we documented 5025 cases of prostate cancer, and 642 lethal cancers. We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association between acrylamide intake from diet and prostate cancer risk overall as well as risk of advanced or lethal cancer. Acrylamide intake ranged from a mean of 10.5 mcg/day in the lowest quintile to 40.1 mcg/day in the highest quintile; coffee and potato products were largest contributors to intake. The multivariate-adjusted relative risk of prostate cancer was 1.02 (95% confidence interval: 0.92–1.13) for the highest versus lowest quintile of acrylamide intake (p-value for trend=0.90). Results were similar when restricted to never smokers and to men who had PSA tests. There was no significant association for dietary acrylamide and risk of lethal, advanced, or high-grade disease, or for different latency periods ranging from 0–4 years to 12–16 years. We found no evidence that acrylamide intake, within the range of U.S. diets, is associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. PMID:21866549

  13. Toxicity of Pb-contaminated soil to Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and the use of the blood-dietary Pb slope in risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Chen, Yu; Henry, Paula; May, Thomas; Mosby, David; Rattner, Barnett A.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Sprague, Daniel; Weber, John

    2014-01-01

    This study relates tissue concentrations and toxic effects of Pb in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) to the dietary exposure of soil-borne Pb associated with mining and smelting. From 0% to 12% contaminated soil, by weight, was added to 5 experimental diets (0.12 to 382 mg Pb/kg, dry wt) and fed to the quail for 6 weeks. Benchmark doses associated with a 50% reduction in delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity were 0.62 mg Pb/kg in the blood, dry wt, and 27 mg Pb/kg in the diet. Benchmark doses associated with a 20% increase in the concentration of erythrocyte protoporphyrin were 2.7 mg Pb/kg in the blood and 152 mg Pb/kg in the diet. The quail showed no other signs of toxicity (histopathological lesions, alterations in plasma–testosterone concentration, and body and organ weights). The relation of the blood Pb concentration to the soil Pb concentration was linear, with a slope of 0.013 mg Pb/kg of blood (dry wt) divided by mg Pb/kg of diet. We suggest that this slope is potentially useful in ecological risk assessments on birds in the same way that the intake slope factor is an important parameter in risk assessments of children exposed to Pb. The slope may also be used in a tissue-residue approach as an additional line of evidence in ecological risk assessment, supplementary to an estimate of hazard based on dietary toxicity reference values.

  14. Total dietary antioxidant capacity, individual antioxidant intake and breast cancer risk: The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantavos, A.; Ruiter, R.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Keyser, de C.E.; Hofman, A.; Stricker, B.H.C.; Franco, O.H.; Kiefte-de Jong, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Some studies suggest a favorable role of antioxidants on breast cancer risk but this is still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to assess whether overall dietary antioxidant capacity, as assessed by dietary ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), and individual dietary antioxidant intake

  15. Dietary fiber consumption and risk of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhizhong; Xu, Gelin; Liu, Dezhi; Zhu, Wusheng; Fan, Xinying; Liu, Xinfeng

    2013-02-01

    Observational studies suggest an association between dietary fiber consumption and risk of stroke, but the results are inconclusive. The authors conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to evaluate the relation between dietary fiber consumption and stroke risk and mortality. Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, and ISI Web of Science through February 2013. We included prospective studies that reported relative risks (RRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between dietary fiber consumption and stroke risk and mortality. Both fixed- and random-effects models were used to calculate the summary risk estimates. Eleven prospective studies involving 325,627 participants were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled RR of stroke for the highest compared with the lowest dietary fiber consumption was 0.83 (95 % CI 0.74, 0.93). In addition, the increment in dietary fiber consumption was associated with decreased stroke risk in a dose-response manner. Sensitivity analysis restricted to studies with control for conventional risk factors yielded similar results, and omission of any single study had little effect on the combined risk estimate. Moreover, there was a trend toward an inverse association between higher fiber consumption and stroke mortality (RR 0.85; 95 % CI 0.60, 1.20), although it is not significant. This meta-analysis indicated that dietary fiber consumption is inversely associated with stroke risk, and the effect is probably independent of conventional risk factors. Our results support recommendations for higher consumption of fiber-rich foods to prevent stroke.

  16. Technology-assisted dietary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fengqing; Mariappan, Anand; Boushey, Carol J.; Kerr, Deb; Lutes, Kyle D.; Ebert, David S.; Delp, Edward J.

    2008-02-01

    Dietary intake provides valuable insights for mounting intervention programs for prevention of disease. With growing concern for adolescent obesity, the need to accurately measure diet becomes imperative. Assessment among adolescents is problematic as this group has irregular eating patterns and have less enthusiasm for recording food intake. Preliminary studies among adolescents suggest that innovative use of technology may improve the accuracy of diet information from young people. In this paper, we propose a novel food record method using a mobile device that will provide an accurate account of daily food and nutrient intake among adolescents. Our approach includes the use of image analysis tools for identification and quantification of food consumption. Images obtained before and after food is consumed can be used to estimate the diet of an individual. In this paper we describe our initial results and indicate the potential of the proposed system.

  17. Risk Assessment of Arsenic in Rice Cereal and Other Dietary Sources for Infants and Toddlers in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Tomoyuki; Meng, Can; Umoren, Josephine; West, Heidi

    2016-03-25

    Currently, there are no set standards or quantitative guidelines available in the U.S. for arsenic levels in rice cereal, one of the most common first solid foods for infants. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the detected levels of inorganic arsenic (As(i)) in rice cereal in the U.S. market are safe for consumption by infants and toddlers. A risk assessment was conducted based on literature reviews of the reported As(i) in rice cereal from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) survey and the recommended daily intake of rice cereal by body weight, for infants and toddlers between four and 24 months old. As a part of risk management, a maximum contaminant level (MCL) for Asi in rice cereal was computed considering overall exposure sources including drinking water, infant formula, and other infant solid foods. Hazard quotients (HQs) for acute and chronic exposures were calculated based on the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's (ATSDR) Minimal Risk Level (MRL)(acute) (5.0 × 10(-3) mg/kg/day) and MRL(chronic) (3.0 × 10(-4) mg/kg/day). A cancer slope or potency factor of 1.5 mg/kg/day was used to predict an incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). Exposure assessment showed that the largest source of As(i) for infants and toddlers between four and 24 months old was rice cereal (55%), followed by other infant solid food (19%), and drinking water (18%). Infant formula was the smallest source of As(i) for babies (9%) at the 50th percentile based on Monte Carlo simulations. While HQ(acute) were consistently below 1.0, HQ(chronic) at the 50 and 75th percentiles exceeded 1.0 for both rice cereal and total sources. ILCR ranged from 10(-6) (50th) to 10(-5) (75th percentile). MCLs for As(i) in rice cereal ranged from 0.0 (chronic) to 0.4 mg/kg (acute exposures).

  18. Dietary Factors Affecting Thyroid Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Ae; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors are proposed to affect thyroid carcinogenesis, but previous studies have reported inconsistent findings. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis, including 18 eligible studies, to clarify the role of dietary factors in the risk of thyroid cancer. The relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated to assess the association and heterogeneity tests and subgroup and sensitivity analyses, and bias assessments were performed. When the results from all studies were combined, dietary iodine, fish, and cruciferous vegetable intake were not associated with thyroid cancer. However, when the data were divided by geographic location based on iodine availability, a slight increase in the risk of thyroid cancer was observed among those consuming a high total amount of fish in iodine nondeficient areas (RR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.03-1.35; P for heterogeneity = 0.282). When excluding the studies examining a single food item and hospital-based controls, a high intake of cruciferous vegetables was associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer in iodine-deficient areas (RR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.18-1.74; P for heterogeneity = 0.426). This meta-analysis implies that the role of dietary factors, such as fish and cruciferous vegetables, in thyroid cancer risk can differ based on iodine availability.

  19. Health risk assessment of trace elements via dietary intake of 'non-piscine protein source' foodstuffs (meat, milk and egg) in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Nazma; Ahmed, Md Kawser; Islam, Md Saiful; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Tukun, Avonti Basak; Islam, Saiful; M A Rahim, Abu Torab

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of six trace elements [chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and arsenic (As)] were assessed in 'non-piscine protein source' foodstuffs (meat, milk and eggs) to evaluate contamination level and human health risks in Bangladesh. The range of Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, Pb and As in the investigated foodstuffs was 1.24-2.17, 1.29-2.56, 0.92-2.31, 0.12-0.44, 0.15-0.48 and 0.14-0.57 mg kg fresh weight(-1), respectively. The estimated mean levels of most of the elements were higher than the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) for dietary foods. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of Cr and Cd were higher than the maximum tolerable daily intake (MTDI) for children, indicating that they are more susceptible to toxic elements through food consumption. The target hazard quotients (THQs) and target carcinogenic risk (TCR) of As (THQ > 1 and TCR > 10(-4)) for both the adults and children suggest that the consumers of non-piscine foodstuffs (especially cow milk and chicken meat) are exposed chronically to metal pollution with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health consequences.

  20. Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Aleyamma

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption of dietary fat and risk of breast cancer published from January 1990 through December 2003 was carried out. Results Increased consumption of total fat and saturated fat were found to be positively associated with the development of breast cancer. Even though an equivocal association was observed for the consumption of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and the risk of breast cancer, there exists an inverse association in the case of oleic acid, the most abundant MUFA. A moderate inverse association between consumption of n-3 fatty acids and breast cancer risk and a moderate positive association between n-6 fatty acids and breast cancer risk were observed. Conclusion Even though all epidemiological studies do not provide a strong positive association between the consumption of certain types of dietary fat and breast cancer risk, at least a moderate association does seem to exist and this has a number of implications in view of the fact that breast cancer is an increasing public health concern.

  1. Short Tools to Assess Young Children's Dietary Intake: A Systematic Review Focusing on Application to Dietary Index Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda K. Bell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary indices evaluate diet quality, usually based on current dietary guidelines. Indices can therefore contribute to our understanding of early-life obesity-risk dietary behaviours. Yet indices are commonly applied to dietary data collected by onerous methods (e.g., recalls or records. Short dietary assessment instruments are an attractive alternative to collect data from which to derive an index score. A systematic review of studies published before April 2013 was conducted to identify short (≤50 items tools that measure whole-of-diet intake of young children (birth-five years and are applicable to dietary indices, in particular screening obesogenic dietary behaviours. The search identified 3686 papers of which 16, reporting on 15 tools (n=7, infants and toddlers birth-24 months; n=8, preschoolers 2–5 years, met the inclusion criteria. Most tools were food frequency questionnaires (n=14, with one innovative dietary questionnaire identified. Seven were tested for validity or reliability, and one was tested for both. Six tools (n=2, infants and toddlers; n=4, preschoolers are applicable for use with current dietary indices, five of which screen obesogenic dietary behaviours. Given the limited number of brief, valid and reliable dietary assessment tools for young children to which an index can be applied, future short tool development is warranted, particularly for screening obesogenic dietary behaviours.

  2. Merging dietary assessment with the adolescent lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schap, T E; Zhu, F; Delp, E J; Boushey, C J

    2014-01-01

    The use of image-based dietary assessment methods shows promise for improving dietary self-report among children. The Technology Assisted Dietary Assessment (TADA) food record application is a self-administered food record specifically designed to address the burden and human error associated with conventional methods of dietary assessment. Users would take images of foods and beverages at all eating occasions using a mobile telephone or mobile device with an integrated camera [e.g. Apple iPhone, Apple iPod Touch (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA, USA); Nexus One (Google, Mountain View, CA, USA)]. Once the images are taken, the images are transferred to a back-end server for automated analysis. The first step in this process is image analysis (i.e. segmentation, feature extraction and classification), which allows for automated food identification. Portion size estimation is also automated via segmentation and geometric shape template modeling. The results of the automated food identification and volume estimation can be indexed with the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies to provide a detailed diet analysis for use in epidemiological or intervention studies. Data collected during controlled feeding studies in a camp-like setting have allowed for formative evaluation and validation of the TADA food record application. This review summarises the system design and the evidence-based development of image-based methods for dietary assessment among children.

  3. Application of the BRAFO tiered approach for benefit–risk assessment to case studies on dietary interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhagen, Hans; Andersen, Rikke; Antoine, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    for the individual effects done by others; no new risk or benefit evaluations were made. The following case studies were thoroughly analysed: an example of food fortification, folic acid fortification of flour, macronutrient replacement/food substitution; the isocaloric replacement of saturated fatty acids...

  4. Evidence review of technology and dietary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, JoAnn D; Littlefield, Laurel A; Estep, Gary; Martin, Hope; Rogers, Toby J; Boswell, Carol; Shriver, Brent J; Roman-Shriver, Carmen R

    2010-12-01

    Diets high in fruit and vegetable consumption are associated with a decrease in chronic diseases. Dietary factors are linked to 4 of the 10 leading noncommunicable causes of death: cardiovascular disease, some cancers, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. Accurately measuring dietary patterns has many challenges. Dietary intake measurement has traditionally relied on self-report instruments such as 24-hour recall, food record, and food frequency questionnaires to record consumption history. These methods have inherent limitations in detecting small but important changes in fruit and vegetable consumption patterns. Promising advances in technology have made more sophisticated techniques for recording dietary intake possible. Computers and Web-based programs, handheld personal digital assistants with cameras and telephone cards, smart phones, cameras, and video recorders options may reduce the burden of recording what has been consumed. Furthermore, technology-based methods of dietary assessment may provide a higher degree of reliability and validity in visually determining fruit and vegetable consumption, and additional study is warranted. The purpose of this article is to present a review of the evidence on the effectiveness of technology-based methods for dietary assessment, which included fruit and vegetable consumption. One hundred and eighty-seven articles published between 1998 and 2008 were initially identified. Fifteen met the study inclusion criteria and were evaluated by an interdisciplinary team using the Stetler Strength of Evidence Scale. Six technology-based methods for dietary assessment were identified. Findings from validity and reliability testing of technology-based methods are encouraging and need replication. Clinically important features offered through technology may reduce reporting burden and offer behavioral feedback to users. Methodologically sound, empirical research into using technology-based application for dietary assessment in a variety of

  5. Probabilistic acute risk assessment of cumulative exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides from dietary vegetables and fruits in Shanghai populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Yuan, Yaqun; Meng, Pai; Wu, Min; Li, Shuguang; Chen, Bo

    2017-05-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and carbamate pesticides (CPs) are among the most widely used pesticides in China, playing a major role in protecting agricultural commodities. In this study, we determined the cumulative acute exposure to OPs and CPs of Shanghai residents from vegetables and fruits (VFs). The food consumption data were obtained from the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey (SHFCS) of 2012-14 including a total of 1973 participants aged 2-90 years. The pesticide residue data were obtained from the Shanghai monitoring programme during 2008-11 with 34 organophosphates and 11 carbamates analysed in a total of 5335 samples of VFs. A probabilistic approach was performed as recommended by the EFSA, using the optimistic model with non-detects set as zero and with processing factors (PFs) being used and the pessimistic model with non-detects replaced by limit of detection (LOD) and without PFs. We used the relative potency factor (RPF) method to normalise the various pesticides to the index compound (IC) of methamidophos and chlorpyrifos separately. Only in the pessimistic model using methamidophos as the IC was there was small risk of exposure exceeding the ARfD (3 µg kg(-)(1) bw day(-)(1)) in the populations of preschool children (0.029%), school-age children (0.022%) and adults (0.002%). There were no risk of exposure exceeding the ARfD of methamidophos in the optimistic model and of chlorpyrifos (100 µg kg(-)(1) bw day(-)(1)) in both optimistic and pessimistic models in all three populations. Considering the Chinese habits of overwhelmingly eating processed food (vegetables being cooked, and fruits being washed or peeled), we conclude that little acute risk was found for the exposure to VF-sourced OPs and CPs in Shanghai.

  6. Dietary Patterns and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Pei-Ying; Shu, Long; Shen, Shan-Shan; Chen, Xu-Jiao; Zhang, Xiao-Yan

    2017-01-05

    A number of studies have examined the associations between dietary patterns and pancreatic cancer risk, but the findings have been inconclusive. Herein, we conducted this meta-analysis to assess the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of pancreatic cancer. MEDLINE (provided by the National Library of Medicine) and EBSCO (Elton B. Stephens Company) databases were searched for relevant articles published up to May 2016 that identified common dietary patterns. Thirty-two studies met the inclusion criteria and were finally included in this meta-analysis. A reduced risk of pancreatic cancer was shown for the highest compared with the lowest categories of healthy patterns (odds ratio, OR = 0.86; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.77-0.95; p = 0.004) and light-moderate drinking patterns (OR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.83-0.98; p = 0.02). There was evidence of an increased risk for pancreatic cancer in the highest compared with the lowest categories of western-type pattern (OR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.06-1.45; p = 0.008) and heavy drinking pattern (OR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.10-1.48; p = 0.002). The results of this meta-analysis demonstrate that healthy and light-moderate drinking patterns may decrease the risk of pancreatic cancer, whereas western-type and heavy drinking patterns may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. Additional prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  7. Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk among women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karimi, Zeinab; Jessri, Mahsa; Houshiar-Rad, Anahita; Mirzaei, Hamid-Reza; Rashidkhani, Bahram

    2014-01-01

    ... pathogenesis but fewer investigations have addressed the role of dietary patterns. Our main objective was to identify the relationship between major dietary patterns and breast cancer risk among Iranian women...

  8. Methods and validity of dietary assessments in four Scandinavian populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingham, S; Wiggins, H S; Englyst, H;

    1982-01-01

    the survey, thereby implying that dietary habits had not changed as a result of the investigative technique. It is concluded that the dietary data are indicative of current patterns of food consumption and are sufficiently valid for comparison with data on cancer risk in the 4 areas.......Average intakes of nonstarch polysaccharides (dietary fiber), foods, and nutrients were measured in representative samples of 30 men aged 50-59 in 4 Scandinavian populations with a 3-4 fold difference in risk for large bowel cancer. The assessment technique, a 4-day weighed record of food consumed...... between estimates of fat and protein intake obtained by food-table calculations of the 4-day weighed record and the chemically analyzed duplicates. Urinary plus fecal nitrogen excretion was equal to estimated nitrogen intake during the survey, and no discernable changes in urinary output occurred after...

  9. Dietary Intake and Cardiometabolic Risk in Ethnically Diverse Urban Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Lauren E.; Economos, Christina D.; Goodman, Elizabeth; Houser, Robert F.; Must, Aviva; Chomitz, Virginia R.; Morgan, Emily H.; Sacheck, Jennifer M.

    2017-01-01

    Dietary factors vary widely among ethnic groups. However, the effect of specific nutrients on cardiometabolic risk is not well understood, especially in children. Four dietary factors known to influence cardiometabolic risk (ie, carbohydrate, saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fat intake) were assessed by the Block Kids 2004 Food Frequency Questionnaire in a cross-sectional sample of racially diverse fourth- through eighth-grade students (n=148) in a Boston-area school district studied between January and April 2010. Fasting total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, and body mass index z scores were measured. Differences in dietary factors and cardiometabolic risk factors were examined among the following racial/ethnic groups: white (39%), Hispanic (32%), black (8%), Asian (10%), and multiracial/other (11%). In bivariate analyses, total, saturated, and polyunsaturated fat intakes differed by race/ethnicity (Psaturated fat intakes above the recommended level. Forty-seven percent of children had at least one suboptimal cardiometabolic risk factor. HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and IL-6 concentrations differed by race/ethnicity (P<0.05, P<0.01, and P<0.01, respectively), with Hispanics having low HDL cholesterol levels and high triglyceride levels, whereas Asians had high IL-6 levels. In multivariate analyses controlling for demographic characteristics, none of the dietary factors examined explained racial/ethnic differences in lipid profiles or inflammatory markers. Body mass index z score was associated with lower HDL cholesterol, higher triglyceride, higher CRP, and higher IL-6 levels (P<0.0001). Further research is warranted to determine the influence of dietary recommendations at a young age among different racial/ethnic groups on cardiometabolic health. PMID:23102181

  10. Personal dietary assessment using mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariappan, Anand; Bosch, Marc; Zhu, Fengqing; Boushey, Carol J.; Kerr, Deborah A.; Ebert, David S.; Delp, Edward J.

    2009-02-01

    Dietary intake provides valuable insights for mounting intervention programs for prevention of disease. With growing concern for adolescent obesity, the need to accurately measure diet becomes imperative. Assessment among adolescents is problematic as this group has irregular eating patterns and have less enthusiasm for recording food intake. Preliminary studies among adolescents suggest that innovative use of technology may improve the accuracy of diet information from young people. In this paper we describe further development of a novel dietary assessment system using mobile devices. This system will generate an accurate account of daily food and nutrient intake among adolescents. The mobile computing device provides a unique vehicle for collecting dietary information that reduces burden on records that are obtained using more classical approaches. Images before and after foods are eaten can be used to estimate the amount of food consumed.

  11. Dependence of dietary intake estimates on the time frame of assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löwik, M.R.H.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Brussaard, J.H.; Kistemaker, C.

    1999-01-01

    Food chemical risk management needs, among other things, assessment of exposure. For dietary intake food consumption surveys are the data source to be used. One complicating factor in the usage of these data is the dependence of dietary intake estimates on the time frame of assessment. Central to th

  12. [Assessment of control of cardiovascular risk factors in obese posmenopausal women after monitoring a structured dietary education and exercise program. (SÍSIFO Program)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Soto, Z M; Montoro García, S; Leal Hernández, M; Abellán Alemán, J

    2016-01-01

    Evaluate the influence of a specific program of physical exercise on cardiovascular risk, quality of life and eating habits of menopausal women. Prospective, intervention study previous-after without control group for three months. 66 menopausal women were included. The intervention consisted of a structured diet and exercise program. Biochemical, anthropometric, dietary and life quality parameters were determined before and three months after surgery. After the intervention a decrease in weight (4.4±2,3kg) and BMI (1.83±0.84kg/m(2)) (p<.05) occurs. A decrease in SBP (p<.05) was also observed. The fasting glucose went down 13.75±11.11mg/dl and HbA1c fell by 0.19±0,12%, both with p<.05. The lipid profile follows a similar behavior, highlighting a decline of 8± 6.2mg/dl in LDL cholesterol values (p<.05). The score on the measured cardiovascular risk by the Framingham tables decreases by 3% postoperatively (p<.05). Regarding the quality of life, it is significantly improved in all analyzed areas. The application of a structured exercise and diet program improves close monitoring parameters associated with cardiovascular risk of the women studied. It also improves the quality of life and dietary habits. Copyright © 2016 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of technology in children's dietary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boushey, C J; Kerr, D A; Wright, J; Lutes, K D; Ebert, D S; Delp, E J

    2009-02-01

    Information on dietary intake provides some of the most valuable insights for mounting intervention programmes for the prevention of chronic diseases. With the growing concern about adolescent overweight, the need to accurately measure diet becomes imperative. Assessment among adolescents is problematic as this group has irregular eating patterns and they have less enthusiasm for recording food intake. We used qualitative and quantitative techniques among adolescents to assess their preferences for dietary assessment methods. Dietary assessment methods using technology, for example, a personal digital assistant (PDA) or a disposable camera, were preferred over the pen and paper food record. There was a strong preference for using methods that incorporate technology such as capturing images of food. This suggests that for adolescents, dietary methods that incorporate technology may improve cooperation and accuracy. Current computing technology includes higher resolution images, improved memory capacity and faster processors that allow small mobile devices to process information not previously possible. Our goal is to develop, implement and evaluate a mobile device (for example, PDA, mobile phone) food record that will translate to an accurate account of daily food and nutrient intake among adolescents. This mobile computing device will include digital images, a nutrient database and image analysis for identification and quantification of food consumption. Mobile computing devices provide a unique vehicle for collecting dietary information that reduces the burden on record keepers. Images of food can be marked with a variety of input methods that link the item for image processing and analysis to estimate the amount of food. Images before and after the foods are eaten can estimate the amount of food consumed. The initial stages and potential of this project will be described.

  14. Dietary microbes modulate transgenerational cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poutahidis, Theofilos; Varian, Bernard J; Levkovich, Tatiana; Lakritz, Jessica R; Mirabal, Sheyla; Kwok, Caitlin; Ibrahim, Yassin M; Kearney, Sean M; Chatzigiagkos, Antonis; Alm, Eric J; Erdman, Susan E

    2015-04-01

    Environmental factors are suspected in the increase of obesity and cancer in industrialized countries but are poorly understood. Here, we used animal models to test how future generations may be affected by Westernized diets. We discover long-term consequences of grandmothers' in utero dietary exposures, leading to high rates of obesity and frequent cancers of lung and liver in two subsequent generations of mice. Transgenerational effects were transplantable using diet-associated bacteria communities alone. Consequently, feeding of beneficial microbes was sufficient to lower transgenerational risk for cancer and obesity regardless of diet history. Targeting microbes may be a highly effective population-based approach to lower risk for cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Risk assessment for carnitine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathcock, John N; Shao, Andrew

    2006-10-01

    Carnitine is a conditionally essential amino acid-like compound involved in the transport of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria during the beta-oxidation process. Carnitine has become an increasingly popular ingredient in dietary supplements, especially weight loss and some sports nutrition products. A number of clinical trials have been conducted examining the effect of carnitine supplementation on weight loss and energy balance. Regarding safety, systematic evaluation of the research designs and data do not provide a basis for risk assessment and the usual safe upper level of intake (UL) derived from it unless the newer methods described as the observed safe level (OSL) or highest observed intake (HOI) are utilized. The OSL risk assessment method indicates that the evidence of safety is strong at intakes up to 2000mg/day l-carnitine equivalents for chronic supplementation, and this level is identified as the OSL. Although much higher levels have been tested without adverse effects and may be safe, the data for intakes above 2000mg/day are not sufficient for a confident conclusion of long-term safety.

  16. 厦门市居民食品塑化剂暴露风险评估%Exposure risk assessment of plasticizer in dietary food in Xiamen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄群瑛; 杨月; 苏艳华; 吕婵雯; 王素梅; 喻欢; 秦梦婷; 李燕妮; 赵本华

    2014-01-01

    )均小于美国环境保护署提出的经口摄入参考剂量(RfD)(800、100、20 μg· kg-1·d-1),风险指数分别为0.02%、4.20%、90.50%.水产品为DEP膳食暴露的首要来源,暴露量和贡献率分别为0.18 μg·kg-1·d-1、94.74%.蔬菜类为DBP和DEHP的主要暴露来源,暴露量和贡献率分别为1.48 μg·kg-1·d-1、35.24%和6.07 μg· kg-1·d-1、33.54%.结论 厦门市居民膳食整体处于安全水平,存在一定程度的DEHP暴露风险.%Objective To understand the dietary consumption of residents in Xiamen and the content of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in food,and to assess the plasticizer exposure risk of diet in Xiamen.Methods The survey was conducted by stratified cluster random sampling method in Xiamen from September to October in 2010.According to the Xiamen administrative division,six neighborhood communities were selected as sampling units,then 25 families were randomly chosen from each sampling units.From the above 150 families,the permanent residents over the age of six were permitted to our study.The survey included 495 residents totally.These participants' information,such as basic personal information,physical activity levels,meal frequency and the average consumption of 33 kinds of food in 13 categories were collected using questionnaires.Thirteen categories included cereal and tubers,beans,vegetables,fungi and algae,fruits,dairy products,meat,seafood,eggs,snacks,beverages,cooking oil and spices.The height and weight of residents were measured and the average daily dietary intake was calculated.Thirty-three kinds of food in 13 categories were collected in supermarkets in Xiamen.According to the annual sales ranking,the top three-five brands of each kinds of food were selected and numbered,then two or three brands were chosen by random number table method from them; three completely individual packed samples in the same batch of each brand were detected; 243 samples were included in our study.100-500 g solid

  17. A dietary pattern associated with LINE-1 methylation alters the risk of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piyathilake, Chandrika J; Badiga, Suguna; Kabagambe, Edmond K; Azuero, Andres; Alvarez, Ronald D; Johanning, Gary L; Partridge, Edward E

    2012-03-01

    There is a paucity of research examining the relationships between dietary patterns and risk of developing precancerous lesions as well as biomarkers associated with such dietary patterns. The purpose of the current study was to identify dietary patterns that are associated with higher grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2+) and to determine whether these dietary patterns are associated with the degree of DNA methylation in the long interspersed nucleotide elements (L1s) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), a biomarker associated with risk of developing CIN 2+. Study population consisted of 319 child-bearing age women. Dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. The degree of PBMC L1 methylation was assessed by pyrosequencing. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations between dietary patterns and CIN 2+. Similar models were used to evaluate the associations between dietary patterns and degree of PBMC L1 methylation in women free of CIN 2+. Women with the unhealthiest dietary pattern were 3.5 times more likely to be diagnosed with CIN 2+ than women with the healthiest dietary pattern [OR = 3.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2-10.1; P = 0.02]. Women at risk for developing CIN 2+ with the healthiest dietary pattern were 3.3 times more likely to have higher PBMC L1 methylation than women with the unhealthiest dietary pattern (OR = 3.3; 95% CI, 1.0-10.6; P = 0.04). Our findings suggest that human papilloma virus associated risk of developing CIN 2+ may be reduced by improving dietary patterns. The degree of PBMC L1 methylation may serve as a biomarker for monitoring the effectiveness of dietary modifications needed for reducing the risk of CIN 2+.

  18. Dietary Fat Intake and Lung Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jae Jeong; Yu, Danxia; Takata, Yumie

    2017-01-01

    . Results Among 1,445,850 participants, 18,822 incident cases were identified (mean follow-up, 9.4 years). High intakes of total and saturated fat were associated with an increased risk of lung cancer (for highest v lowest quintile: HR, 1.07 and 1.14, respectively; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.15 and 1.07 to 1...... with lung cancer risk. Methods Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs in each cohort. Study-specific risk estimates were pooled by random- or fixed-effects meta-analysis. The first 2 years of follow-up were excluded to address potential influence of preclinical dietary changes.......40, respectively; 95% CI, 1.38 to 1.88 and 1.17 to 1.67, respectively; P for trend for both risk of lung cancer (HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.98 for highest v lowest...

  19. Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids are protective against metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillingham, Leah G; Harris-Janz, Sydney; Jones, Peter J H

    2011-03-01

    Over 50 years of research has sought to define the role dietary fat plays in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Although optimal dietary fat quantity has been keenly pursued over past decades, attention has recently centered on the value of dietary fat quality. The purpose of the present review is to provide a critical assessment of the current body of evidence surrounding efficacy of dietary monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) for reduction of traditional risk factors defining metabolic syndrome (MetS) and CVD. Due to existing and emerging research on health attributes of MUFA rich diets, and to the low prevalence of chronic disease in populations consuming MUFA rich Mediterranean diets, national dietary guidelines are increasingly recommending dietary MUFA, primarily at the expense of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Consumption of dietary MUFA promotes healthy blood lipid profiles, mediates blood pressure, improves insulin sensitivity and regulates glucose levels. Moreover, provocative newer data suggest a role for preferential oxidation and metabolism of dietary MUFA, influencing body composition and ameliorating the risk of obesity. Mounting epidemiological and human clinical trial data continue to demonstrate the cardioprotective activity of the MUFA content of dietary fat. As the debate on the optimal fatty acid composition of the diet continues, the benefit of increasing MUFA intakes, particularly as a substitute for dietary SFA, deserves considerable attention.

  20. Dietary Patterns and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Pei-Ying; Shu, Long; Shen, Shan-Shan; Chen, Xu-Jiao; Zhang, Xiao-Yan

    2017-01-01

    A number of studies have examined the associations between dietary patterns and pancreatic cancer risk, but the findings have been inconclusive. Herein, we conducted this meta-analysis to assess the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of pancreatic cancer. MEDLINE (provided by the National Library of Medicine) and EBSCO (Elton B. Stephens Company) databases were searched for relevant articles published up to May 2016 that identified common dietary patterns. Thirty-two studies met the inclusion criteria and were finally included in this meta-analysis. A reduced risk of pancreatic cancer was shown for the highest compared with the lowest categories of healthy patterns (odds ratio, OR = 0.86; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.77–0.95; p = 0.004) and light–moderate drinking patterns (OR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.83–0.98; p = 0.02). There was evidence of an increased risk for pancreatic cancer in the highest compared with the lowest categories of western-type pattern (OR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.06–1.45; p = 0.008) and heavy drinking pattern (OR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.10–1.48; p = 0.002). The results of this meta-analysis demonstrate that healthy and light–moderate drinking patterns may decrease the risk of pancreatic cancer, whereas western-type and heavy drinking patterns may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. Additional prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:28067765

  1. Dietary intake of carotenoids and risk of type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, I.; Cadier, E.; Beulens, J. W J; van der A, D. L.; Spijkerman, A. M W; van der Schouw, Y. T.

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims: Carotenoids may reduce diabetes risk, due to their antioxidant properties. However, the association between dietary carotenoids intake and type 2 diabetes risk is still unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine whether higher dietary carotenoid intakes assoc

  2. Dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease: possible effect modification by gender and age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Overvad, Kim; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    In a 16-year follow-up study (ending in 1998) of 3,686 Danish men and women aged 30–71 years at recruitment, the association between energy intake from dietary fat and the risk of coronary heart disease was evaluated while assessing the possible modifying role of gender and age. In the models used...... not significantly. In conclusion, the present study suggests that coronary heart disease risk relates to both the quantity and the quality of dietary fats....

  3. Dietary fiber and risk of coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Mark A; O'Reilly, Eilis; Augustsson, Katarina

    2004-01-01

    of coronary heart disease. METHODS: We analyzed the original data from 10 prospective cohort studies from the United States and Europe to estimate the association between dietary fiber intake and the risk of coronary heart disease. RESULTS: Over 6 to 10 years of follow-up, 5249 incident total coronary cases......BACKGROUND: Few epidemiologic studies of dietary fiber intake and risk of coronary heart disease have compared fiber types (cereal, fruit, and vegetable) or included sex-specific results. The purpose of this study was to conduct a pooled analysis of dietary fiber and its subtypes and risk...... associated with risk of coronary heart disease....

  4. Dietary Isoflavones and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Samira; Halaby, Reginald

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the deadliest neoplasm in women globally, resulting in a significant health burden. In many cases, breast cancer becomes resistant to chemotherapy, radiation, and hormonal therapies. It is believed that genetics is not the major cause of breast cancer. Other contributing risk factors include age at first childbirth, age at menarche, age at menopause, use of oral contraceptives, race and ethnicity, and diet. Diet has been shown to influence breast cancer incidence, recurrence, and prognosis. Soy isoflavones have long been a staple in Asian diets, and there appears to be an increase, albeit modest, compared to Asian populations, in soy consumption among Americans. Isoflavones are phytoestrogens that have antiestrogenic as well as estrogenic effects on breast cancer cells in culture, in animal models, and in clinical trials. This study will investigate anticancer and tumor promoting properties of dietary isoflavones and evaluate their effects on breast cancer development. Furthermore, this work seeks to elucidate the putative molecular pathways by which these phytochemicals modulate breast cancer risk by synergizing or antagonizing the estrogen receptor (ER) and in ER-independent signaling mechanisms. PMID:28930233

  5. Pipeline risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kariyawasam, S. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Weir, D. [Enbridge Pipelines Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)] (comps.)

    2009-07-01

    Risk assessments and risk analysis are system-wide activities that include site-specific risk and reliability-based decision-making, implementation, and monitoring. This working group discussed the risk management process in the pipeline industry, including reliability-based integrity management and risk control processes. Attendants at the group discussed reliability-based decision support and performance measurements designed to support corporate risk management policies. New developments and technologies designed to optimize risk management procedures were also presented. The group was divided into 3 sessions: (1) current practice, strengths and limitations of system-wide risk assessments for facility assets; (2) accounting for uncertainties to assure safety; and (3) reliability based excavation repair criteria and removing potentially unsafe corrosion defects. Presentations of risk assessment procedures used at various companies were given. The role of regulators, best practices, and effective networking environments in ensuring the success of risk assessment policies was discussed. Risk assessment models were also reviewed.

  6. Dietary restraint moderates genetic risk for binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Sarah E; Burt, S Alexandra; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt; Klump, Kelly L

    2011-02-01

    Dietary restraint is a prospective risk factor for the development of binge eating and bulimia nervosa. Although many women engage in dietary restraint, relatively few develop binge eating. Dietary restraint may increase susceptibility for binge eating only in individuals who are at genetic risk. Specifically, dietary restraint may be a behavioral exposure factor that activates genetic predispositions for binge eating. We investigated this possibility in 1,678 young adolescent and adult same-sex female twins from the Minnesota Twin Family Study and the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Twin moderation models were used to examine whether levels of dietary restraint moderate genetic and environmental influences on binge eating. Results indicated that genetic and nonshared environmental factors for binge eating increased at higher levels of dietary restraint. These effects were present after controlling for age, body mass index, and genetic and environmental overlap among dietary restraint and binge eating. Results suggest that dietary restraint may be most important for individuals at genetic risk for binge eating and that the combination of these factors could enhance individual differences in risk for binge eating.

  7. Dietary patterns as risk factors of differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwira Przybylik-Mazurek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional factors are known to be important in the development of different metabolic diseases. The history of nodular or diffuse goiter is closely related to risk of thyroid carcinoma. On account of the function of the thyroid gland, many studies focus on iodine intake.The aim of the study was to assess whether dietary patterns could be risk factors of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.Material/Methods:The case-control study was based on a questionnaire, which included information about dietary patterns and was carried out on 284 patients comprising 30 males (mean age 58.4±13.7 years, and 254 females (mean age 52.1±13.8 years, as well as 345 randomly selected controls: 58 males (mean age 60.2±12 years and 287 females (mean age 53.4±14.3 years randomly selected from the Population Register and adjusted by age and gender to the group of TC. The main groups of nutritional products, i.e. starchy foods, meat, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, and beverages, were analyzed.Results:Consumption of vegetables, fruits, saltwater fish and cottage cheese was significantly lower in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma than in controls, quite the contrary to starchy foods, especially white bread.Conclusions:Dietary patterns appear to modify the risk of thyroid carcinoma. A diet rich in vegetables and fruit, as well as saltwater fish (a source of iodine and low-fat meat, could be an important protective factor.

  8. Probabilistic risk assessment of dietary exposure to single and multiple pesticide residues or contaminants: Summary of the work performed within the SAFE FOODS project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaveren, van J.D.; Boon, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    This introduction to the journal's supplement on probabilistic risk assessment of single and multiple exposure to pesticide residues or contaminants summarizes the objectives and results of the work performed in work package 3 of the EU-funded project SAFE FOODS. Within this work package, we develop

  9. Dietary cholesterol, heart disease risk and cognitive dissonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Donald J

    2014-05-01

    In the 1960s, the thesis that dietary cholesterol contributes to blood cholesterol and heart disease risk was a rational conclusion based on the available science at that time. Fifty years later the research evidence no longer supports this hypothesis yet changing the dietary recommendation to limit dietary cholesterol has been a slow and at times contentious process. The preponderance of the clinical and epidemiological data accumulated since the original dietary cholesterol restrictions were formulated indicate that: (1) dietary cholesterol has a small effect on the plasma cholesterol levels with an increase in the cholesterol content of the LDL particle and an increase in HDL cholesterol, with little effect on the LDL:HDL ratio, a significant indicator of heart disease risk, and (2) the lack of a significant relationship between cholesterol intake and heart disease incidence reported from numerous epidemiological surveys. Over the last decade, many countries and health promotion groups have modified their dietary recommendations to reflect the current evidence and to address a now recognised negative consequence of ineffective dietary cholesterol restrictions (such as inadequate choline intake). In contrast, health promotion groups in some countries appear to suffer from cognitive dissonance and continue to promote an outdated and potentially hazardous dietary recommendation based on an invalidated hypothesis. This review evaluates the evidence for and against dietary cholesterol restrictions and the potential consequences of such restrictions.

  10. Dietary screening tool identifies nutritional risk in older adults123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paige E; Mitchell, Diane C; Hartman, Terryl J; Lawrence, Frank R; Sempos, Christopher T; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Background: No rapid methods exist for screening overall dietary intakes in older adults. Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a scoring system for a diet screening tool to identify nutritional risk in community-dwelling older adults. Design: This cross-sectional study in older adults (n = 204) who reside in rural areas examined nutrition status by using an in-person interview, biochemical measures, and four 24-h recalls that included the use of dietary supplements. Results: The dietary screening tool was able to characterize 3 levels of nutritional risk: at risk, possible risk, and not at risk. Individuals classified as at nutritional risk had significantly lower indicators of diet quality (Healthy Eating Index and Mean Adequacy Ratio) and intakes of protein, most micronutrients, dietary fiber, fruit, and vegetables. The at-risk group had higher intakes of fats and oils and refined grains. The at-risk group also had the lowest serum vitamin B-12, folate, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin concentrations. The not-at-nutritional-risk group had significantly higher lycopene and β-carotene and lower homocysteine and methylmalonic acid concentrations. Conclusion: The dietary screening tool is a simple and practical tool that can help to detect nutritional risk in older adults. PMID:19458013

  11. Assessment of cardiovascular risk.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-10-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death worldwide. Usually atherosclerosis is caused by the combined effects of multiple risk factors. For this reason, most guidelines on the prevention of CVD stress the assessment of total CVD risk. The most intensive risk factor modification can then be directed towards the individuals who will derive the greatest benefit. To assist the clinician in calculating the effects of these multiple interacting risk factors, a number of risk estimation systems have been developed. This review address several issues regarding total CVD risk assessment: Why should total CVD risk be assessed? What risk estimation systems are available? How well do these systems estimate risk? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the current systems? What are the current limitations of risk estimation systems and how can they be resolved? What new developments have occurred in CVD risk estimation?

  12. Vegetarian Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Colorectal Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlich, Michael J.; Singh, Pramil N.; Sabaté, Joan; Fan, Jing; Sveen, Lars; Bennett, Hannelore; Knutsen, Synnove F.; Beeson, W. Lawrence; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Butler, Terry L.; Herring, R. Patti; Fraser, Gary E.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Colorectal cancers are a leading cause of cancer mortality, and their primary prevention by diet is highly desirable. The relationship of vegetarian dietary patterns to colorectal cancer risk is not well established. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between vegetarian dietary patterns and incident colorectal cancers. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2) is a large, prospective, North American cohort trial including 96 354 Seventh-Day Adventist men and women recruited between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2007. Follow-up varied by state and was indicated by the cancer registry linkage dates. Of these participants, an analytic sample of 77 659 remained after exclusions. Analysis was conducted using Cox proportional hazards regression, controlling for important demographic and lifestyle confounders. The analysis was conducted between June 1, 2014, and October 20, 2014. EXPOSURES Diet was assessed at baseline by a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire and categorized into 4 vegetarian dietary patterns (vegan, lacto-ovo vegetarian, pescovegetarian, and semivegetarian) and a nonvegetarian dietary pattern. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The relationship between dietary patterns and incident cancers of the colon and rectum; colorectal cancer cases were identified primarily by state cancer registry linkages. RESULTS During a mean follow-up of 7.3 years, 380 cases of colon cancer and 110 cases of rectal cancer were documented. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) in all vegetarians combined vs nonvegetarians were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.64–0.95) for all colorectal cancers, 0.81 (95%CI, 0.65–1.00) for colon cancer, and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.47–1.06) for rectal cancer. The adjusted HR for colorectal cancer in vegans was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.59–1.19); in lacto-ovo vegetarians, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.65–1.02); in pescovegetarians, 0.57 (95% CI, 0.40–0.82); and in semivegetarians, 0.92 (95% CI, 0.62–1.37) compared with

  13. Vegetarian dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlich, Michael J; Singh, Pramil N; Sabaté, Joan; Fan, Jing; Sveen, Lars; Bennett, Hannelore; Knutsen, Synnove F; Beeson, W Lawrence; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Butler, Terry L; Herring, R Patti; Fraser, Gary E

    2015-05-01

    Colorectal cancers are a leading cause of cancer mortality, and their primary prevention by diet is highly desirable. The relationship of vegetarian dietary patterns to colorectal cancer risk is not well established. To evaluate the association between vegetarian dietary patterns and incident colorectal cancers. The Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2) is a large, prospective, North American cohort trial including 96,354 Seventh-Day Adventist men and women recruited between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2007. Follow-up varied by state and was indicated by the cancer registry linkage dates. Of these participants, an analytic sample of 77,659 remained after exclusions. Analysis was conducted using Cox proportional hazards regression, controlling for important demographic and lifestyle confounders. The analysis was conducted between June 1, 2014, and October 20, 2014. Diet was assessed at baseline by a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire and categorized into 4 vegetarian dietary patterns (vegan, lacto-ovo vegetarian, pescovegetarian, and semivegetarian) and a nonvegetarian dietary pattern. The relationship between dietary patterns and incident cancers of the colon and rectum; colorectal cancer cases were identified primarily by state cancer registry linkages. During a mean follow-up of 7.3 years, 380 cases of colon cancer and 110 cases of rectal cancer were documented. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) in all vegetarians combined vs nonvegetarians were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.64-0.95) for all colorectal cancers, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.65-1.00) for colon cancer, and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.47-1.06) for rectal cancer. The adjusted HR for colorectal cancer in vegans was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.59-1.19); in lacto-ovo vegetarians, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.65-1.02); in pescovegetarians, 0.57 (95% CI, 0.40-0.82); and in semivegetarians, 0.92 (95% CI, 0.62-1.37) compared with nonvegetarians. Effect estimates were similar for men and women and for black and nonblack individuals. Vegetarian diets are

  14. GM Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Penny A. C.

    GM risk assessments play an important role in the decision-making process surrounding the regulation, notification and permission to handle Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Ultimately the role of a GM risk assessment will be to ensure the safe handling and containment of the GMO; and to assess any potential impacts on the environment and human health. A risk assessment should answer all ‘what if’ scenarios, based on scientific evidence.

  15. The perils of picky eating: dietary breadth is related to extinction risk in insectivorous bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin G Boyles

    Full Text Available Several recent papers evaluate the relationship between ecological characteristics and extinction risk in bats. These studies report that extinction risk is negatively related to geographic range size and positively related to habitat specialization. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis that extinction risk is also related to dietary specialization in insectivorous vespertilionid bats using both traditional and phylogenetically-controlled analysis of variance. We collected dietary data and The World Conservation Union (IUCN rankings for 44 Australian, European, and North American bat species. Our results indicate that species of conservation concern (IUCN ranking near threatened or above are more likely to have a specialized diet than are species of least concern. Additional analyses show that dietary breadth is not correlated to geographic range size or wing morphology, characteristics previously found to correlate with extinction risk. Therefore, there is likely a direct relationship between dietary specialization and extinction risk; however, the large variation in dietary breadth within species of least concern suggests that diet alone cannot explain extinction risk. Our results may have important implications for the development of predictive models of extinction risk and for the assignment of extinction risk to insectivorous bat species. Similar analyses should be conducted on additional bat families to assess the generality of this relationship between niche breadth and extinction risk.

  16. Mediterranean dietary pattern and cancer risk in the EPIC cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couto, E.; Boffetta, P.; Lagiou, P.; Ferrari, P.; Buckland, G.; Overvad, K.; Dahm, C. C.; Tjonneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Boutron-Ruault, M-C; Cottet, V.; Trichopoulos, D.; Naska, A.; Benetou, V.; Kaaks, R.; Rohrmann, S.; Boeing, H.; von Ruesten, A.; Panico, S.; Pala, V.; Vineis, P.; Palli, D.; Tumino, R.; May, A.; Peeters, P. H.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Buchner, F. L.; Lund, E.; Skeie, G.; Engeset, D.; Gonzalez, C. A.; Navarro, C.; Rodriguez, L.; Sanchez, M-J; Amiano, P.; Barricarte, A.; Hallmans, G.; Johansson, I.; Manjer, J.; Wirfart, E.; Allen, N. E.; Crowe, F.; Khaw, K-T; Wareham, N.; Moskal, A.; Slimani, N.; Jenab, M.; Romaguera, D.; Mouw, T.; Norat, T.; Riboli, E.; Trichopoulou, A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although several studies have investigated the association of the Mediterranean diet with overall mortality or risk of specific cancers, data on overall cancer risk are sparse. METHODS: We examined the association between adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern and overall cancer risk

  17. Assessing parents' attitudes towards ketogenic dietary therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeler, Natasha E; MacDonald, Lindsay; Champion, Helena; Cross, J Helen; Sander, Josemir W; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Horne, Rob

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to assess and quantify parental beliefs regarding ketogenic dietary therapies (KDTs). We also aimed to determine whether beliefs were related to response to KDTs. Adapted versions of the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire were completed by parents of children following KDTs for epilepsy. Demographic and clinical data were collected from hospital records. Ketogenic dietary therapy response was defined as ≥50% seizure reduction compared to baseline. Many parents had a positive perception of KDTs and were convinced of the necessity of KDTs for their children, although beliefs were wide-ranging. Over half of parents reported concerns about the potential long-term effects of KDTs. Parental beliefs about KDTs were significantly correlated with patient response. This was an attempt to quantify parents' beliefs regarding the use of KDTs for their child's epilepsy. The questionnaire may be used to identify individuals with a less positive attitude towards KDTs and who may be less likely to report a favorable response to KDTs. It is unknown whether people who have positive beliefs about KDTs engage in less nonadherent behavior or whether beliefs regarding KDTs simply reflect outcomes. The evidence behind the long-term side effects of KDTs should be emphasized when counseling patients and their families.

  18. Dietary carotenoids are associated with cardiovascular disease risk biomarkers mediated by serum carotenoid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Chung, Sang-Jin; McCullough, Marjorie L; Song, Won O; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2014-07-01

    Hyperlipidemia and elevated circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) and total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations are cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Previous studies indicated that higher serum carotenoid concentrations were inversely associated with some of these biomarkers. However, whether dietary carotenoid intake is inversely associated with these CVD risk biomarkers is not well known. We assessed the associations between individual dietary carotenoid intake and CVD risk biomarkers and tested whether the serum carotenoid concentrations explain (mediate) or influence the strength of (moderate) the associations, if any association exists. Dietary data collected from 2 24-h dietary recalls and serum measurements in adult men (n = 1312) and women (n = 1544) from the NHANES 2003-2006 were used. Regression models designed for survey analysis were used to examine the associations between individual dietary carotenoids and log-transformed blood cholesterol, CRP, and tHcy. The corresponding individual serum carotenoid concentration was considered as mediator (and moderator if applicable). After adjustment for covariates, significant inverse associations with LDL cholesterol were observed for dietary β-carotene (P carotenoids (P carotenoid concentrations, indicating the complete mediation effects of serum carotenoids. Serum β-carotene significantly moderated the associations between dietary β-carotene and CRP (P-interaction 0.43 μmol/L. In this population-based cross-sectional study, serum carotenoids were mediators of dietary carotenoids and CVD risk biomarker associations. Serum β-carotene was also a moderator of the dietary β-carotene and CRP association. These findings may help in the design of future intervention studies on dietary carotenoids in the prevention of CVD.

  19. Total dietary antioxidant capacity, individual antioxidant intake and breast cancer risk: the Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantavos, Athanasios; Ruiter, Rikje; Feskens, Edith F; de Keyser, Catherine E; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H; Franco, Oscar H; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C

    2015-05-01

    Some studies suggest a favorable role of antioxidants on breast cancer risk but this is still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to assess whether overall dietary antioxidant capacity, as assessed by dietary ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), and individual dietary antioxidant intake were associated with breast cancer risk. Data was used from women participating in the Rotterdam Study, a prospective cohort study among subjects aged 55 years and older (N = 3,209). FRAP scores and antioxidant intake (i.e., vitamin A, C, E, selenium, flavonoids and carotenoids) was assessed at baseline by a food frequency questionnaire. Incident cases of breast cancer were confirmed through medical reports. During a median follow-up of 17 years, 199 cases with breast cancer were identified. High dietary FRAP score was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer [hazard ratio (HR): 0.68; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.49, 0.96]. No overall association between individual antioxidant intake and breast cancer risk was found. However, low intake of alpha carotene and beta carotene was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer among smokers (HR: 2.48; 95% CI: 1.21, 5.12 and HR: 2.31; 95% CI: 1.12, 4.76 for alpha and beta carotene, respectively) and low intake of flavonoids was associated with breast cancer risk in women over the age of 70 (HR: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.99). These results suggest that high overall dietary antioxidant capacity is associated with a lower risk of breast cancer. Individual effects of dietary carotenoids and dietary flavonoids may be restricted to subgroups such as smokers and elderly.

  20. Dietary consumption patterns and laryngeal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastarakos, Petros V; Vassileiou, Andrianna; Delicha, Evie; Kikidis, Dimitrios; Protopapas, Dimosthenis; Nikolopoulos, Thomas P

    2016-06-01

    intake of riboflavin (p = 0.045). We conclude that the differences in dietary consumption patterns between LC patients and controls indicate a possible role for lifestyle modifications involving nutritional factors as a means of decreasing the risk of laryngeal cancer.

  1. Glycemic index, glycemic load, dietary carbohydrate, and dietary fiber intake and risk of liver and biliary tract cancers in Western Europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedirko, V; Lukanova, A; Bamia, C; Trichopolou, A; Trepo, E; Nöthlings, U; Schlesinger, S; Aleksandrova, K; Boffetta, P; Tjønneland, A; Johnsen, N F; Overvad, K; Fagherazzi, G; Racine, A; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Grote, V; Kaaks, R; Boeing, H; Naska, A; Adarakis, G; Valanou, E; Palli, D; Sieri, S; Tumino, R; Vineis, P; Panico, S; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Siersema, P D; Peeters, P H; Weiderpass, E; Skeie, G; Engeset, D; Quirós, J R; Zamora-Ros, R; Sánchez, M J; Amiano, P; Huerta, J M; Barricarte, A; Johansen, D; Lindkvist, B; Sund, M; Werner, M; Crowe, F; Khaw, K T; Ferrari, P; Romieu, I; Chuang, S C; Riboli, E; Jenab, M

    2013-02-01

    The type and quantity of dietary carbohydrate as quantified by glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), and dietary fiber may influence the risk of liver and biliary tract cancers, but convincing evidence is lacking. The association between dietary GI/GL and carbohydrate intake with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; N = 191), intrahepatic bile duct (IBD; N = 66), and biliary tract (N = 236) cancer risk was investigated in 477 206 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Dietary intake was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated from proportional hazard models. HBV/HCV status was measured in a nested case-control subset. Higher dietary GI, GL, or increased intake of total carbohydrate was not associated with liver or biliary tract cancer risk. For HCC, divergent risk estimates were observed for total sugar = 1.43 (1.17-1.74) per 50 g/day, total starch = 0.70 (0.55-0.90) per 50 g/day, and total dietary fiber = 0.70 (0.52-0.93) per 10 g/day. The findings for dietary fiber were confirmed among HBV/HCV-free participants [0.48 (0.23-1.01)]. Similar associations were observed for IBD [dietary fiber = 0.59 (0.37-0.99) per 10 g/day], but not biliary tract cancer. Findings suggest that higher consumption of dietary fiber and lower consumption of total sugars are associated with lower HCC risk. In addition, high dietary fiber intake could be associated with lower IBD cancer risk.

  2. Quantitative microbiological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoornstra, E; Notermans, S

    2001-05-21

    The production of safe food is being increasingly based on the use of risk analysis, and this process is now in use to establish national and international food safety objectives. It is also being used more frequently to guarantee that safety objectives are met and that such guarantees are achieved in a cost-effective manner. One part of the overall risk analysis procedure-risk assessment-is the scientific process in which the hazards and risk factors are identified, and the risk estimate or risk profile is determined. Risk assessment is an especially important tool for governments when food safety objectives have to be developed in the case of 'new' contaminants in known products or known contaminants causing trouble in 'new' products. Risk assessment is also an important approach for food companies (i) during product development, (ii) during (hygienic) process optimalization, and (iii) as an extension (validation) of the more qualitative HACCP-plan. This paper discusses these two different types of risk assessment, and uses probability distribution functions to assess the risks posed by Escherichia coli O157:H7 in each case. Such approaches are essential elements of risk management, as they draw on all available information to derive accurate and realistic estimations of the risk posed. The paper also discusses the potential of scenario-analysis in simulating the impact of different or modified risk factors during the consideration of new or improved control measures.

  3. Risks from occupational and dietary exposure to mevinphos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, R C; Formoli, T A; Silva, M H; Kellner, T P; Lewis, C M; Pfeifer, K F

    1996-01-01

    Mevinphos (trade name, Phosdrin), a category 1 organophosphorus insecticide, has been used mainly as a cleanup pesticide for vegetable crops. A risk assessment for occupational and dietary exposure to mevinphos was initiated because of the high acute toxicity of the compound. Repetitive dosing with mevinphos did not cause any discernible histopathological effects in mice or rats, nor was it oncogenic in either species. The principal toxic effects of mevinphos, both short- and long term, were due to inhibition of cholinesterase activity. Consequently, potential adverse effects from short-term exposures were the primary concern. A human no-observed-effect level (0.025 mg/kg) for cholinergic signs was used as the regulatory basis for calculating margins of safety (MOSs) for potential acute dietary and short-term occupational exposures. Estimates of exposure to mixer/loaders, pilots, and flaggers associated with aerial application of mevinphos were based on passive dosimetry. Because no acceptable exposure studies for work tasks associated with ground application of mevinphos were available, surrogate data based on ground application of oxydemeton-methyl were used. Exposure estimates for field workers and harvesters relied on measured dislodgeable foliar residues of mevinphos and transfer factors generated from studies of other active ingredients. MOSs for mean acute occupational exposure of mixer/loader/applicators associated with ground application and of harvesters working in fruit trees were less than the value conventionally recommended to protect people from the toxic effects of mevinphos. MOSs for the 95th percentile of short-term worker exposure for all mixer/loader work categories associated with mevinphos application were also inadequate. Calculated MOSs for potential acute dietary exposure to measured residue levels of mevinphos were adequate for the various population subgroups. However, 25 of the USEPA tolerances for mevinphos on agricultural commodities

  4. Risk Assessment Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prassinos, Peter G.; Lyver, John W., IV; Bui, Chinh T.

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment is used in many industries to identify and manage risks. Initially developed for use on aeronautical and nuclear systems, risk assessment has been applied to transportation, chemical, computer, financial, and security systems among others. It is used to gain an understanding of the weaknesses or vulnerabilities in a system so modification can be made to increase operability, efficiency, and safety and to reduce failure and down-time. Risk assessment results are primary inputs to risk-informed decision making; where risk information including uncertainty is used along with other pertinent information to assist management in the decision-making process. Therefore, to be useful, a risk assessment must be directed at specific objectives. As the world embraces the globalization of trade and manufacturing, understanding the associated risk become important to decision making. Applying risk assessment techniques to a global system of development, manufacturing, and transportation can provide insight into how the system can fail, the likelihood of system failure and the consequences of system failure. The risk assessment can identify those elements that contribute most to risk and identify measures to prevent and mitigate failures, disruptions, and damaging outcomes. In addition, risk associated with public and environment impact can be identified. The risk insights gained can be applied to making decisions concerning suitable development and manufacturing locations, supply chains, and transportation strategies. While risk assessment has been mostly applied to mechanical and electrical systems, the concepts and techniques can be applied across other systems and activities. This paper provides a basic overview of the development of a risk assessment.

  5. Biosafety Risk Assessment Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, Susan Adele [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Gaudioso, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Salerno, Reynolds Mathewson [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Wagner, Stefan M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Canadian Science Centre for Human and Animal Health (CSCHAH); Shigematsu, Mika [National Inst. of Infectious Diseases (NIID), Tokyo (Japan); Risi, George [Infectious Disease Specialists, P.C, Missoula, MT (United States); Kozlovac, Joe [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA)., Beltsville, MD (United States); Halkjaer-Knudsen, Vibeke [Statens Serum Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark); Prat, Esmeralda [Bayer CropScience, Monheim am Rhein (Germany)

    2010-10-01

    Laboratories that work with biological agents need to manage their safety risks to persons working the laboratories and the human and animal community in the surrounding areas. Biosafety guidance defines a wide variety of biosafety risk mitigation measures, which include measures which fall under the following categories: engineering controls, procedural and administrative controls, and the use of personal protective equipment; the determination of which mitigation measures should be used to address the specific laboratory risks are dependent upon a risk assessment. Ideally, a risk assessment should be conducted in a manner which is standardized and systematic which allows it to be repeatable and comparable. A risk assessment should clearly define the risk being assessed and avoid over complication.

  6. Offshore risk assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Vinnem, Jan-Erik

    2014-01-01

      Offshore Risk Assessment was the first book to deal with quantified risk assessment (QRA) as applied specifically to offshore installations and operations. Risk assessment techniques have been used for more than three decades in the offshore oil and gas industry, and their use is set to expand increasingly as the industry moves into new areas and faces new challenges in older regions.   This updated and expanded third edition has been informed by a major R&D program on offshore risk assessment in Norway and summarizes research from 2006 to the present day. Rooted with a thorough discussion of risk metrics and risk analysis methodology,  subsequent chapters are devoted to analytical approaches to escalation, escape, evacuation and rescue analysis of safety and emergency systems.   Separate chapters analyze the main hazards of offshore structures: fire, explosion, collision, and falling objects as well as structural and marine hazards. Risk mitigation and control are discussed, as well as an illustrat...

  7. Prospective Association between Dietary Fiber Intake and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschasaux, Mélanie; Zelek, Laurent; Pouchieu, Camille; His, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Latino-Martel, Paule; Touvier, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    Background Mechanistic hypotheses suggest a potential effect of dietary fiber on breast carcinogenesis through the modulation of insulin-like growth factor bioactivity, estrogen metabolism and inflammation. An association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk has been suggested in epidemiological studies but remains inconclusive. In particular, data is lacking regarding the different types of dietary fibers. Objective The objective was to investigate the prospective relationship between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk, taking into account different types of dietary fiber (overall, insoluble, soluble and from different food sources: cereals, vegetables, fruits and legumes). Design 4684 women from the SU.VI.MAX cohort were included in this analysis as they completed at least three 24h-dietary records within the first two years of follow-up. Among them, 167 incident invasive breast cancers were diagnosed during a median follow-up of 12.6 years (between 1994 and 2007). The associations between quartiles of dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk were characterized using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Results Total fiber intake was not associated with breast cancer risk (HRQuartile4vs.Quartile1 = 1.29 (95%CI 0.66–2.50), P-trend = 0.5), nor was fiber intake from cereals (P-trend = 0.1), fruits (P-trend = 0.9) and legumes (P-trend = 0.3). In contrast, vegetable fiber intake was related to a decreased risk of breast cancer (HRQ4vs.Q1 = 0.50 (0.29-0.88), P-trend = 0.03). Overall vegetable intake (in g/day) was not associated with breast cancer risk (P-trend = 0.2). Conclusion This prospective study suggests that vegetable fiber intake may contribute to reduce breast cancer risk, in line with experimental mechanistic data. PMID:24244548

  8. Effect of dietary fiber intake on breast cancer risk according to estrogen and progesterone receptor status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C-X; Ho, S C; Cheng, S-Z; Chen, Y-M; Fu, J-H; Lin, F-Y

    2011-08-01

    There is few data on the association between dietary fiber intake and estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR)-defined breast cancer risk. The present study aimed to investigate the associations between total dietary fiber and dietary fiber fractions intake and breast cancer risk by ER and PR status in a hospital-based case-control study among Chinese women. Four hundred and thirty-eight cases with primary breast cancer were consecutively recruited from June 2007 to August 2008 and frequency matched to 438 controls by age (5-year interval) and residence (rural/urban). A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the dietary intake through a face-to-face interview. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) after adjusting for various potential confounders. A statistically significant inverse association was found between total dietary fiber and fiber fractions intake and breast cancer risk. The adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for the highest versus the lowest quartile of intake were 0.31 (0.20-0.47) for total dietary fiber, 0.73 (0.48-1.11) for soy fiber, 0.48 (0.22-0.97) for vegetable fiber and 0.54 (0.31-0.92) for fruit fiber. No association was observed for cereal fiber intake and risk. An inverse association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk was observed in ER+, ER-, PR+, ER+PR+ and ER-PR+ tumors. Our results suggest that consumption of total dietary fiber and fiber from vegetable and fruit was inversely associated with breast cancer risk. These inverse associations were more prominent in some subtypes of ER and PR breast cancers.

  9. A dietary pattern rich in lignans, quercetin and resveratrol decreases the risk of oesophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yulan; Yngve, Agneta; Lagergren, Jesper; Lu, Yunxia

    2014-12-28

    Dietary lignans, quercetin and resveratrol have oestrogenic properties, and animal studies suggest that they synergistically decrease cancer risk. A protective effect of lignans on the development of oesophageal cancer in humans has recently been demonstrated, and the present study aimed to test whether these three phytochemicals synergistically decrease the risk of oesophageal cancer. Data from a Swedish nationwide population-based case-control study that recruited 181 cases of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC), 158 cases of oesophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC), 255 cases of gastro-oesophageal junctional adenocarcinoma (JAC) and 806 controls were analysed. Exposure data were collected through face-to-face interviews and questionnaires. The intake of lignans, quercetin and resveratrol was assessed using a sixty-three-item FFQ. Reduced-rank regression was used to assess a dietary pattern, and a simplified dietary pattern score was categorised into quintiles on the basis of the distribution among the control subjects. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression provided OR with 95% CI, adjusted for all the potential risk factors. A dietary pattern rich in lignans, quercetin and resveratrol was mainly characterised by a high intake of tea, wine, lettuce, mixed vegetables, tomatoes, and whole-grain bread and a low intake of milk. There were dose-dependent associations between simplified dietary pattern scores and all types of oesophageal cancer (all P for trend dietary pattern characterised by the intake of lignans, quercetin and resveratrol may play a protective role in the development of oesophageal cancer in the Swedish population.

  10. Dietary glycemic load and gastric cancer risk in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Bertuccio, P.; Praud, D; Chatenoud, L.; Lucenteforte, E.; Bosetti, C.; Pelucchi, C; Rossi, M.; Negri, E; La Vecchia, C

    2009-01-01

    We investigated gastric cancer risk in relation to dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), which represent indirect measures of carbohydrate absorption and consequently of dietary insulin demand, in a case-control study conducted in northern Italy between 1997 and 2007, including 230 patients with the incident, histologically confirmed gastric cancer and 547 frequency matched controls, admitted to the same hospitals as cases with acute non-neoplastic conditions. We used conditiona...

  11. Segmentation Assisted Food Classification for Dietary Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fengqing; Bosch, Marc; Schap, Tusarebecca; Khanna, Nitin; Ebert, David S; Boushey, Carol J; Delp, Edward J

    2011-01-24

    Accurate methods and tools to assess food and nutrient intake are essential for the association between diet and health. Preliminary studies have indicated that the use of a mobile device with a built-in camera to obtain images of the food consumed may provide a less burdensome and more accurate method for dietary assessment. We are developing methods to identify food items using a single image acquired from the mobile device. Our goal is to automatically determine the regions in an image where a particular food is located (segmentation) and correctly identify the food type based on its features (classification or food labeling). Images of foods are segmented using Normalized Cuts based on intensity and color. Color and texture features are extracted from each segmented food region. Classification decisions for each segmented region are made using support vector machine methods. The segmentation of each food region is refined based on feedback from the output of classifier to provide more accurate estimation of the quantity of food consumed.

  12. Association of a Dietary Score with Incident Type 2 Diabetes: The Dietary-Based Diabetes-Risk Score (DDS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia J Dominguez

    Full Text Available Strong evidence supports that dietary modifications may decrease incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Numerous diabetes risk models/scores have been developed, but most do not rely specifically on dietary variables or do not fully capture the overall dietary pattern. We prospectively assessed the association of a dietary-based diabetes-risk score (DDS, which integrates optimal food patterns, with the risk of developing T2DM in the SUN ("Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" longitudinal study.We assessed 17,292 participants initially free of diabetes, followed-up for a mean of 9.2 years. A validated 136-item FFQ was administered at baseline. Taking into account previous literature, the DDS positively weighted vegetables, fruit, whole cereals, nuts, coffee, low-fat dairy, fiber, PUFA, and alcohol in moderate amounts; while it negatively weighted red meat, processed meats and sugar-sweetened beverages. Energy-adjusted quintiles of each item (with exception of moderate alcohol consumption that received either 0 or 5 points were used to build the DDS (maximum: 60 points. Incident T2DM was confirmed through additional detailed questionnaires and review of medical records of participants. We used Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for socio-demographic and anthropometric parameters, health-related habits, and clinical variables to estimate hazard ratios (HR of T2DM.We observed 143 T2DM confirmed cases during follow-up. Better baseline conformity with the DDS was associated with lower incidence of T2DM (multivariable-adjusted HR for intermediate (25-39 points vs. low (11-24 category 0.43 [95% confidence interval (CI 0.21, 0.89]; and for high (40-60 vs. low category 0.32 [95% CI: 0.14, 0.69]; p for linear trend: 0.019.The DDS, a simple score exclusively based on dietary components, showed a strong inverse association with incident T2DM. This score may be applicable in clinical practice to improve dietary habits of subjects at high risk of T2DM

  13. Dietary fiber intake reduces risk of inflammatory bowel disease: result from a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoqin; Wu, Yili; Li, Fang; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2015-09-01

    Several epidemiological investigations have been conducted to evaluate the relationship between dietary fiber intake and inflammatory bowel diseases, but the results are inconsistent. This meta-analysis was performed to quantitatively summarize the evidence from observational studies. PubMed, Embase, and Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant articles published up to November 2014. The combined relative risks were calculated with the fixed- or random-effects model. Dose-response relationship was assessed using restricted cubic spline model. We hypothesized that the meta-analysis could yield a summary effect, which would indicate that dietary fiber intake could decrease the risk of ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease (CD). Overall, 8 articles involving 2 cohort studies, 1 nested case-control study, and 5 case-control studies were finally included in this study. The pooled relative risks with 95% confidence intervals of ulcerative colitis and CD for the highest vs lowest categories of dietary fiber intake were 0.80 (0.64-1.00) and 0.44 (0.29-0.69), respectively. A linear dose-response relationship was found between dietary fiber and CD risk, and the risk of CD decreased by 13% (P fiber intake. The results from this meta-analysis indicated that the intake of dietary fiber was significantly associated with a decreased risk of inflammatory bowel disease.

  14. Dietary Patterns Predict Subsequent Coronary Heart Disease Risk In Postmenopausal Women : The Women’s Health Initiative Observational Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Evidence suggests that dietary patterns predispose to the development of coronary heart disease (CHD). The relationship between dietary patterns and CHD risk was assessed in postmenopausal women participating in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS). Methods: Case-co...

  15. Dietary fiber, kidney function, inflammation, and mortality risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong; Huang, Xiaoyan; Risérus, Ulf; Krishnamurthy, Vidya M; Cederholm, Tommy; Arnlöv, Johan; Lindholm, Bengt; Sjögren, Per; Carrero, Juan Jesús

    2014-12-05

    In the United States population, high dietary fiber intake has been associated with a lower risk of inflammation and mortality in individuals with kidney dysfunction. This study aimed to expand such findings to a Northern European population. Dietary fiber intake was calculated from 7-day dietary records in 1110 participants aged 70-71 years from the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (examinations performed during 1991-1995). Dietary fiber was adjusted for total energy intake by the residual method. Renal function was estimated from the concentration of serum cystatin C, and deaths were registered prospectively during a median follow-up of 10.0 years. Dietary fiber independently and directly associated with eGFR (adjusted difference, 2.6 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) per 10 g/d higher; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.3 to 4.9). The odds of C-reactive protein >3 mg/L were lower (linear trend, P=0.002) with higher fiber quartiles. During follow-up, 300 participants died (incidence rate of 2.87 per 100 person-years at risk). Multiplicative interactions were observed between dietary fiber intake and kidney dysfunction in the prediction of mortality. Higher dietary fiber was associated with lower mortality in unadjusted analysis. These associations were stronger in participants with kidney dysfunction (eGFRdietary fiber was associated with better kidney function and lower inflammation in community-dwelling elderly men from Sweden. High dietary fiber was also associated with lower (cancer) mortality risk, especially in individuals with kidney dysfunction. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  16. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and their relationship to cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Zhu, Yanna; Cai, Li; Ma, Lu; Jing, Jin; Guo, Li; Jin, Yu; Ma, Yinghua; Chen, Yajun

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cross-sectional associations between dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Chinese children. A total of 234 Chinese schoolchildren aged 8-11 years in Guangdong participated in the study. Dietary intake was assessed via a 3-day dietary record. Seven established cardiovascular indicators were analyzed in this study: fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. Higher dietary GI was significantly associated with higher TG levels (P = 0.037) and lower HDL-C levels (P = 0.005) after adjusting for age, sex, nutritional intake, physical activity, and body mass index z score. LDL-C was found to differ across tertiles of dietary GL. The middle tertile tended to show the highest level of LDL-C. TC, FPG, and blood pressure were independent of both dietary GI and GL. Our findings suggest that higher dietary GI is differentially associated with some CVD risk factors, including lower HDL-C and higher TG, in school-aged children from south China.

  17. Assessment of Radiation and Heavy Metals Risk due to the Dietary Intake of Marine Fishes (Rastrelliger kanagurta) from the Straits of Malacca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, M U; Asaduzzaman, Kh; Nawi, S M; Usman, A R; Amin, Y M; Daar, E; Bradley, D A; Ahmed, H; Okhunov, A A

    2015-01-01

    The environment of the Straits of Malacca receives pollution as a result of various industrial and anthropogenic sources, making systematic studies crucial in determining the prevailing water quality. Present study concerns concentrations of natural radionuclides and heavy metals in marine fish (Rastrelliger kanagurta) collected from the Straits of Malacca, since aquatic stock form an important source of the daily diet of the surrounding populace. Assessment was made of the concentrations of key indicator radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th, 40K) and heavy metals (As, Mn, Fe, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Co, Sr, Al, Hg and Pb) together with various radiation indices linked to the consumption of seafish. The annual effective dose for all detected radionuclides for all study locations has been found to be within UNSCEAR acceptable limits as has the associated life-time cancer risk. The overall contamination of the sampled fish from heavy metals was also found to be within limits of tolerance.

  18. Assessment of Radiation and Heavy Metals Risk due to the Dietary Intake of Marine Fishes (Rastrelliger kanagurta from the Straits of Malacca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M U Khandaker

    Full Text Available The environment of the Straits of Malacca receives pollution as a result of various industrial and anthropogenic sources, making systematic studies crucial in determining the prevailing water quality. Present study concerns concentrations of natural radionuclides and heavy metals in marine fish (Rastrelliger kanagurta collected from the Straits of Malacca, since aquatic stock form an important source of the daily diet of the surrounding populace. Assessment was made of the concentrations of key indicator radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th, 40K and heavy metals (As, Mn, Fe, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Co, Sr, Al, Hg and Pb together with various radiation indices linked to the consumption of seafish. The annual effective dose for all detected radionuclides for all study locations has been found to be within UNSCEAR acceptable limits as has the associated life-time cancer risk. The overall contamination of the sampled fish from heavy metals was also found to be within limits of tolerance.

  19. Dietary acrylamide intake and risk of endometrial cancer in prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Je, Youjin

    2015-06-01

    Acrylamide has been associated with carcinogenicity in experimental animals, but potential health risks of dietary acrylamide intake and endometrial cancer in human are inconclusive. Thus, a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies was conducted to provide a quantitative assessment of the association between dietary acrylamide intake and endometrial cancer risk. PubMed database was used to identify prospective cohort studies on dietary acrylamide intake and endometrial cancer risk published up to June 2014. Since smoking is an important source of acrylamide and is inversely associated with endometrial cancer risk, the association was examined in women who never smoked as well. Multivariable relative risks (RR) adjusting for potential confounders were combined using random effects models. Four large prospective cohort studies were identified, which included 453,355 female participants and 2,019 endometrial cancer cases. There was no association between dietary acrylamide intake and endometrial cancer risk overall [pooled RR for high vs. low intake = 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-1.34]. High acrylamide intake, however, was significantly associated with increased risk of endometrial cancer among women who never smoked (pooled RR for high vs. low intake = 1.39; 95% CI 1.09-1.77). In dose-response analyses, pooled RRs for an increase of 10 µg/day were 1.04 (95% CI 0.97-1.11) among all women and 1.11 (95% CI 1.04-1.19) among never-smoking women. Endometrial cancer risk was not associated with dietary acrylamide intake overall. Among women who never smoked, however, there was a significantly increased endometrial cancer risk in women who consumed high dietary acrylamide.

  20. 典型膳食来源亚硝酸钠暴露对我国人群健康风险的研究%Study of risk assessment for typical dietary exposure to sodium nitrite in Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宁; 梁江; 曹佩; 高芃; 徐海滨

    2013-01-01

    目的 评估中国居民膳食因素亚硝酸钠摄入量及对健康影响的潜在风险,为食品安全风险管理提供科学依据.方法 应用典型食品(酱类、肉制品和腌菜)中亚硝酸钠含量的实际监测结果和我国居民对含亚硝酸钠食品实际的膳食消费量数据,采用简单分布模型方法,对我国居民全人群的膳食亚硝酸钠摄入量进行估计,并与国际组织JECFA制定的亚硝酸钠每日允许摄入量(ADI)进行比较.结果 全人群的亚硝酸钠平均摄入量为0.021 mg/kgBW/day,占ADI的30.0%,而高暴露人群(亚硝酸钠摄入量的P97.5)的亚硝酸钠摄入量为0.150 mg/kg BW/day,是ADI的2.1倍;各性别-年龄组人群的膳食亚硝酸钠平均摄入量均未超过ADI,但就各组高暴露人群而言,亚硝酸钠摄入量范围为0.124 8 ~0.275 0 mg/kg BW/day,是ADI的1.8~3.9倍;酱/咸菜是我国居民膳食亚硝酸钠摄入的主要来源,占总摄入量的61.9%.结论 我国全人群平均膳食亚硝酸钠摄入量处于安全水平,但高暴露人群摄入的亚硝酸钠具有较高的健康风险,需予以重点关注;调整饮食习惯和行为,改进食品加工工艺,最大限度地减少外源性亚硝酸盐的添加和内源性亚硝酸钠的产生是降低我国居民膳食亚硝酸钠摄入的有效手段.%Objective To assess the potential risk of dietary exposure to sodium nitrite in Chinese population and provide scientific basis for food safety risk management.Methods Food consumption data combined with concentration of sodium nitrite in foods were employed for exposure assessment.The amount of sodium nitrite intake obtained in the present study was compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.Results The average estimates of sodium nitrite dietary exposure of whole Chinese population was 0.021 mg/kg BW/day (accounted for 30.0% of ADI),while high dietary exposures (e.g.97.5 th

  1. Landslide risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessing, P.; Messina, C.P.; Fonner, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    Landslide risk can be assessed by evaluating geological conditions associated with past events. A sample of 2,4 16 slides from urban areas in West Virginia, each with 12 associated geological factors, has been analyzed using SAS computer methods. In addition, selected data have been normalized to account for areal distribution of rock formations, soil series, and slope percents. Final calculations yield landslide risk assessments of 1.50=high risk. The simplicity of the method provides for a rapid, initial assessment prior to financial investment. However, it does not replace on-site investigations, nor excuse poor construction. ?? 1983 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  2. Patient caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Fontana, Margherita

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessment is an essential component in the decision-making process for the correct prevention and management of dental caries. Multiple risk factors and indicators have been proposed as targets in the assessment of risk of future disease, varying sometimes based on the age group at which...... for prediction purposes, as measured until now in the literature, is at best questionable in schoolchildren, adolescents and adults. That is not to say these additional factors should not be assessed to help understand the strength of their associations with the disease experience in a particular patient......, and aid in the development of an individualized and targeted preventive and management plan....

  3. Dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease: possible effect modification by gender and age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Overvad, Kim; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    In a 16-year follow-up study (ending in 1998) of 3,686 Danish men and women aged 30–71 years at recruitment, the association between energy intake from dietary fat and the risk of coronary heart disease was evaluated while assessing the possible modifying role of gender and age. In the models used...

  4. Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk: Results from three cohort studies in the DIETSCAN project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Männistö, S.; Dixon, L.B.; Balder, H.F.; Virtanen, M.J.; Krogh, V.; Khani, B.R.; Berrino, F.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Hartman, A.M.; Pietinen, P.; Tan, F.; Wolk, A.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Only a few consistent findings on individual foods or nutrients that influence breast cancer risk have emerged thus far. Since people do not consume individual foods but certain combinations of them, the analysis of dietary patterns may offer an additional aspect for assessing

  5. Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk: Results from three cohort studies in the DIETSCAN project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Männistö, S.; Dixon, L.B.; Balder, H.F.; Virtanen, M.J.; Krogh, V.; Khani, B.R.; Berrino, F.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Hartman, A.M.; Pietinen, P.; Tan, F.; Wolk, A.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Only a few consistent findings on individual foods or nutrients that influence breast cancer risk have emerged thus far. Since people do not consume individual foods but certain combinations of them, the analysis of dietary patterns may offer an additional aspect for assessing association

  6. Adherence to dietary guidelines and cardiovascular disease risk in the EPIC-NL cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijk, E.A.; May, A.M.; Wezenbeek, N.L.W.J.; Fransen, H.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Geelen, A.; Boer, J.; Schouw, van der Y.T.; Bueno de Mesquita, H.B.; Beulens, J.W.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Global and national dietary guidelines have been created to lower chronic disease risk. The aim of this study was to assess whether greater adherence to the WHO guidelines (Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI)); the Dutch guidelines for a healthy diet (Dutch Healthy Diet-index (DHD-index)); and t

  7. 广东省居民主要膳食镉暴露风险的初步评估%Preliminary risk assessment on the dietary exposure of Cd in Guangdong residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂安; 杨杏芬; 梁春穗; 黄琼; 闻剑; 胡曙光; 李海; 戴昌芳; 王立斌; 张永慧

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析主要食物中镉含量水平,对广东省居民通过膳食途径暴露镉的健康风险进行初步的评估.方法 2009年在全省21地市采集15类食物共2 200份,用石墨炉原子吸收光谱法测定食物中镉的含量,结合居民膳食消费数据,比照镉的暂定每月耐受摄入量(PTMI)及安全限值(MOS)初步评估广东省居民主要食物的镉暴露风险.结果 15类食物中紫菜中镉含量最高,为1 830.0 μg/kg.城乡居民通过大米、蔬菜类、鱼虾类、动物内脏类四类食物每月膳食镉暴露量分别为1 314.6和1 394.3 μg.大米对城市和农村居民膳食镉的贡献率最高,分别为50.1%和64.9%,且以粤北地区最高.结论 主要食品对居民膳食镉的平均贡献水平未超过PTMI值,MOS值大于1,居民膳食镉暴露水平总体上安全.由于我国南方地区居民大米的消费量大及其对居民膳食镉贡献率最高,有必要加强大米可能的镉污染问题研究,并从源头上预防污染.%Objective To analyze the cadmium level of main food, and preliminarily assess the risk of dietary cadmium exposure of people in Guangdong province. Methods In 2009, 2 200 samples of 15 food groups were collected from 21 cities of the province. Cadmium contents in food were determined by using graphite furnace atomic absorption method and then the cadmium exposure from main food was estimated by combining the concentration of cadmium in foods with food consumption data. The health risk was assessed by comparing the cadmium exposure with provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI) and the margins of safety (MOS) of cadmium. Results The concentration of cadmium in seaweed was 1830 μg/kg, which was the highest among the 15 food groups being tested. Rice, vegetable, fish, shrimp and animal offal contributed totally 1 314. 6 and 1 394. 3μg cadmium exposure per month in urban and rural residents respectively. Rice, as a most important contributor, contributed 50. 1% and 64

  8. Dietary flavonoid intake and risk of stomach and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hae Dong; Kim, Jeongseon

    2013-02-21

    Stomach and colorectal cancers are common cancers and leading causes of cancer deaths. Because the alimentary tract can interact directly with dietary components, stomach and colorectal cancer may be closely related to dietary intake. We systematically searched published literature written in English via PubMed by searching for terms related to stomach and colorectal cancer risk and dietary flavonoids up to June 30, 2012. Twenty-three studies out of 209 identified articles were finally selected for the analysis. Log point effect estimates and the corresponding standard errors were calculated using covariate-adjusted point effect estimates and 95%CIs from the selected studies. Total dietary flavonoid intake was not associated with a reduced risk of colorectal or stomach cancer [odds ratio (OR) (95%CI) = 1.00 (0.90-1.11) and 1.07 (0.70-1.61), respectively]. Among flavonoid subclasses, the intake of flavonols, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanidins, and proanthocyanidins showed a significant inverse association with colorectal cancer risk [OR (95%CI) = 0.71 (0.63-0.81), 0.88 (0.79-0.97), 0.68 (0.56-0.82), and 0.72 (0.61-0.85), respectively]. A significant association was found only between flavonols and stomach cancer risk based on a limited number of selected studies [OR (95%CI) = 0.68 (0.46-0.99)]. In the summary estimates from case-control studies, all flavonoid subclasses except flavones and flavanones were inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk, whereas neither total flavonoids nor any subclasses of flavonoids were associated with colorectal cancer risk in the summary estimates based on the cohort studies. The significant association between flavonoid subclasses and cancer risk might be closely related to bias derived from the case-control design. There was no clear evidence that dietary flavonoids are associated with reduced risk of stomach and colorectal cancer.

  9. Dietary zinc, copper and selenium, and risk of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabir, Somdat; Spitz, Margaret R; Barrera, Stephanie L; Beaver, Shao Hua; Etzel, Carol; Forman, Michele R

    2007-03-01

    Zinc, copper and selenium are important cofactors for several enzymes that play a role in maintaining DNA integrity. However, limited epidemiologic research on these dietary trace metals and lung cancer risk is available. In an ongoing study of 1,676 incident lung cancer cases and 1,676 matched healthy controls, we studied the associations between dietary zinc, copper and selenium and lung cancer risk. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of lung cancer for all subjects by increasing quartiles of dietary zinc intake were 1.0, 0.80 (0.65-0.99), 0.64 (0.51-0.81), 0.57 (0.42-0.75), respectively (p trend = 0.0004); similar results were found for men. For dietary copper, the ORs and 95% CI for all subjects were 1.0, 0.59 (0.49-0.73), 0.51 (0.41-0.64), 0.34 (0.26-0.45), respectively (p trend cancer with increased dietary zinc intake were also found for all ages, BMI > 25, current smokers, pack-years copper intake was associated with protective trends (p copper intakes are associated with reduced risk of lung cancer. Given the known limitations of case-control studies, these findings must be interpreted with caution and warrant further investigation.

  10. Introduction - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    To assist in the planning of the National Children's Study, investigators at the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements, NCI and Johns Hopkins University contracted with Westat to conduct a comprehensive review of the scientific literature.

  11. Validation of the MEDFICTS dietary questionnaire: A clinical tool to assess adherence to American Heart Association dietary fat intake guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindeman Jody

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary assessment tools are often too long, difficult to quantify, expensive to process, and largely used for research purposes. A rapid and accurate assessment of dietary fat intake is critically important in clinical decision-making regarding dietary advice for coronary risk reduction. We assessed the validity of the MEDFICTS (MF questionnaire, a brief instrument developed to assess fat intake according to the American Heart Association (AHA dietary "steps". Methods We surveyed 164 active-duty US Army personnel without known coronary artery disease at their intake interview for a primary prevention cardiac intervention trial using the Block food frequency (FFQ and MF questionnaires. Both surveys were completed on the same intake visit and independently scored. Correlations between each tools' assessment of fat intake, the agreement in AHA step categorization of dietary quality with each tool, and the test characteristics of the MF using the FFQ as the gold standard were assessed. Results Subjects consumed a mean of 36.0 ± 13.0% of their total calories as fat, which included saturated fat consumption of 13.0 ± 0.4%. The majority of subjects (125/164; 76.2% had a high fat (worse than AHA Step 1 diet. There were significant correlations between the MF and the FFQ for the intake of total fat (r = 0.52, P 70 [high fat diet] was negligible (kappa statistic = 0.036. The MF was accurate at the extremes of fat intake, but could not reliably identify the 3 AHA dietary classifications. Alternative MF cutpoints of 50 (high fat diet were highly sensitive (96%, but had low specificity (46% for a high fat diet. ROC curve analysis identified that a MF score cutoff of 38 provided optimal sensitivity 75% and specificity 72%, and had modest agreement (kappa = 0.39, P Conclusions The MEDFICTS questionnaire is most suitable as a tool to identify high fat diets, rather than discriminate AHA Step 1 and Step 2 diets. Currently recommended

  12. Cardiac Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk Assessment Related tests: Lipid Profile , VLDL Cholesterol , hs-CRP , Lp(a) Overview | Common Questions | Related Pages What ... cardiac risk include: High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) : Studies have shown that measuring CRP with a ...

  13. A high dietary glycemic index increases total mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itandehui Castro-Quezada

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Different types of carbohydrates have diverse glycemic response, thus glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL are used to assess this variation. The impact of dietary GI and GL in all-cause mortality is unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between dietary GI and GL and risk of all-cause mortality in the PREDIMED study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The PREDIMED study is a randomized nutritional intervention trial for primary cardiovascular prevention based on community-dwelling men and women at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Dietary information was collected at baseline and yearly using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. We assigned GI values of each item by a 5-step methodology, using the International Tables of GI and GL Values. Deaths were ascertained through contact with families and general practitioners, review of medical records and consultation of the National Death Index. Cox regression models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR and their 95% CI for mortality, according to quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary GI/GL. To assess repeated measures of exposure, we updated GI and GL intakes from the yearly FFQs and used Cox models with time-dependent exposures. RESULTS: We followed 3,583 non-diabetic subjects (4.7 years of follow-up, 123 deaths. As compared to participants in the lowest quartile of baseline dietary GI, those in the highest quartile showed an increased risk of all-cause mortality [HR = 2.15 (95% CI: 1.15-4.04; P for trend  = 0.012]. In the repeated-measures analyses using as exposure the yearly updated information on GI, we observed a similar association. Dietary GL was associated with all-cause mortality only when subjects were younger than 75 years. CONCLUSIONS: High dietary GI was positively associated with all-cause mortality in elderly population at high cardiovascular risk.

  14. Dietary patterns and non-communicable disease risk in Indian adults: secondary analysis of Indian Migration Study data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Edward Jm; Green, Rosemary; Agrawal, Sutapa; Aleksandrowicz, Lukasz; Bowen, Liza; Kinra, Sanjay; Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Haines, Andy; Dangour, Alan D

    2017-08-01

    Undernutrition and non-communicable disease (NCD) are important public health issues in India, yet their relationship with dietary patterns is poorly understood. The current study identified distinct dietary patterns and their association with micronutrient undernutrition (Ca, Fe, Zn) and NCD risk factors (underweight, obesity, waist:hip ratio, hypertension, total:HDL cholesterol, diabetes). Data were from the cross-sectional Indian Migration Study, including semi-quantitative FFQ. Distinct dietary patterns were identified using finite mixture modelling; associations with NCD risk factors were assessed using mixed-effects logistic regression models. India. Migrant factory workers, their rural-dwelling siblings and urban non-migrants. Participants (7067 adults) resided mainly in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh. Five distinct, regionally distributed, dietary patterns were identified, with rice-based patterns in the south and wheat-based patterns in the north-west. A rice-based pattern characterised by low energy consumption and dietary diversity ('Rice & low diversity') was consumed predominantly by adults with little formal education in rural settings, while a rice-based pattern with high fruit consumption ('Rice & fruit') was consumed by more educated adults in urban settings. Dietary patterns met WHO macronutrient recommendations, but some had low micronutrient contents. Dietary pattern membership was associated with several NCD risk factors. Five distinct dietary patterns were identified, supporting sub-national assessments of the implications of dietary patterns for various health, food system or environment outcomes.

  15. Optimal Dietary and Plasma Magnesium Statuses Depend on Dietary Quality for a Reduction in the Risk of All-Cause Mortality in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Chen; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Kao, Mei-Ding; Wang, Jui-Lien; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

    2015-07-13

    The association between dietary or plasma magnesium (Mg) with diabetes incidence and with mortality in free-living elderly was investigated. A total of 1400 participants from the Taiwanese Nutrition Survey, aged ≥ 65 years, and diabetes-free from the 1999-2000 were assessed. The dietary intake and plasma Mg concentration were obtained through 24h dietary recall and health examination at baseline. Participants were classified by quartiles (Q) of dietary Mg or by the plasma Mg normal range (0.75-0.95 mmol/L). Dietary diversity score (DDS, range 1-6) represented the dietary quality. During 8 and 10 years, 231 incident diabetes cases and 475 deaths were identified. Cox's proportional-hazards regression was used to evaluate the association between Mg and health outcomes. The hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for death in Q2 and Q3 of Mg intakes with DDS > 4 were 0.57 (0.44-0.74) and 0.59 (0.39-0.88), respectively, compared with the lowest intake and DDS ≤ 4 participants. Participants with normal and high plasma Mg in conjunction with high DDS had relative risks of 0.58 (0.37-0.89) and 0.46 (0.25-0.85) in mortality compared with low plasma Mg and lower DDS. Optimal dietary Mg intake and plasma Mg depend on dietary quality to reduce the mortality risk in older adults.

  16. Human health risk assessment and dietary intake of organochlorine pesticides through air, soil and food crops (wheat and rice) along two tributaries of river Chenab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Adeel; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2014-09-01

    To assess the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) contamination and their probable hazardous effects on human health; cereal crops (wheat and rice; n=28) agricultural soil (n=28) and air (n=6) samples were collected from Gujranwala division, Punjab Province, Pakistan. ∑OCPs concentration ranged between 123 and 635 pg m(-3), 31 and 365 ng g(-1) (dw), 2.72 and 36.6 ng g(-1) (dw), 0.55 and 15.2 ng g(-1) (dw) for air, soil, rice and wheat samples, respectively. DDTs were the predominant over other OCPSs detected from screened samples while the source apportionment analysis suggested the new inputs of DDTs in the study area. EDI (estimated daily intake) of ∑OCPs through rice and wheat was found 39 and 40 ng kg(-1) day(-1), respectively. Hazard ratios (HRs) on the basis 95th percentile concentrations were exceeding the integrity for most of the investigated OCP in rice and wheat. The results revealed that there is a severe risk to the human population of the study area through consumption of contaminated cereal crops. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Preschool Age Populations Research Needs - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawing conclusions from the validation studies on preschool populations discussed in this chapter is difficult because of the varied study designs, the relatively small study populations, and limited number of studies on each dietary assessment method.

  18. Adolescent Populations Research Needs - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    As with school age children, it is difficult to make conclusions about the validity of available dietary assessment instruments for adolescents because of the differences in instruments, research designs, reference methods, and populations in the validation literature.

  19. School Age Populations Research Needs - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawing conclusions about the validity of available dietary assessment instruments in school age children is hampered by the differences in instruments, research design, reference methods, and populations in the validation literature.

  20. Pregnant & Lactating Populations Research - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identifying and studying additional biomarkers of energy and nutrient intake will advance validation efforts and lead to a better understanding of the biases and sources of measurement error in dietary assessment instruments in pregnant or lactating populations.

  1. Dietary assessment in Africa: Integration with innovative technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary assessment in Africa: Integration with innovative technology. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... an opportunity for exploring the benefits and general acceptance of using technology to improve health.

  2. Vitamins, carotenoids, dietary fiber, and the risk of gastric carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botterweck, A.A.M.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Numerous components of fruit and vegetables are considered to decrease the risk of gastric carcinoma. In the current prospective study, the authors examined the association between the intake of vitamins, carotenoids, and dietary fiber and vitamin supplement use and the incidence rate of

  3. Dietary flavonoids and gastric cancer risk in a Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hae Dong; Lee, Jeonghee; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Chan Gyoo; Lee, Jong Yeul; Kwon, Oran; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-11-10

    Gastric cancer is the most common cancer among men in Korea, and dietary factors are closely associated with gastric cancer risk. We performed a case-control study using 334 cases and 334 matched controls aged 35-75 years. Significant associations were observed in total dietary flavonoids and their subclasses, with the exception of anthocyanidins and isoflavones (OR (95% CI): 0.49 (0.31-0.76), p trend = 0.007 for total flavonoids). However, these associations were not significant after further adjustment for fruits and vegetable consumption (OR (95% CI): 0.62 (0.36-1.09), p trend = 0.458 for total flavonoids). Total flavonoids and their subclasses, except for isoflavones, were significantly associated with a reduced risk gastric cancer in women (OR (95% CI): 0.33 (0.15-0.73), p trend = 0.001 for total flavonoids) but not in men (OR (95% CI): 0.70 (0.39-1.24), p trend = 0.393 for total flavonoids). A significant inverse association with gastric cancer risk was observed in flavones, even after additional adjustment for fruits and vegetable consumption in women. No significantly different effects of flavonoids were observed between H. pylori-positive and negative subjects. In conclusion, dietary flavonoids were inversely associated with gastric cancer risk, and these protective effects of dietary flavonoids were prominent in women. No clear differences were observed in the subgroup analysis of H. pylori and smoking status.

  4. Dietary mineral intake and lung cancer risk: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Muka (Taulant); B. Kraja (Bledar); R. Ruiter (Rikje); L. Lahousse (Lies); C.E. de Keyser (Catherina Elisabeth); A. Hofman (Albert); O.H. Franco (Oscar); G.G. Brusselle (Guy); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); J.C. Kiefte-de Jong (Jessica)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Limited data are available on the role of mineral intake in the development of lung cancer (LC). We investigated whether dietary calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, selenium and zinc intake were associated with LC risk. Methods: We analyzed data from 5435 participants of the Rot

  5. Vitamins, carotenoids, dietary fiber, and the risk of gastric carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botterweck, A.A.M.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Numerous components of fruit and vegetables are considered to decrease the risk of gastric carcinoma. In the current prospective study, the authors examined the association between the intake of vitamins, carotenoids, and dietary fiber and vitamin supplement use and the incidence rate of

  6. Lung cancer risk in relation to dietary acrylamide intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Schouten, L.J.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2009-01-01

    Background : Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen that is present in several heat-treated foods. In epidemiological studies, positive associations between dietary acrylamide intake and the risks of endometrial, ovarian, estrogen receptor-positive breast, and renal cell cancers have been observe

  7. Dietary mineral intake and lung cancer risk: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Muka (Taulant); B. Kraja (Bledar); R. Ruiter (Rikje); L. Lahousse (Lies); C.E. de Keyser (Catherina Elisabeth); A. Hofman (Albert); O.H. Franco (Oscar); G.G. Brusselle (Guy); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); J.C. Kiefte-de Jong (Jessica)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Limited data are available on the role of mineral intake in the development of lung cancer (LC). We investigated whether dietary calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, selenium and zinc intake were associated with LC risk. Methods: We analyzed data from 5435 participants of the Rot

  8. Lung cancer risk in relation to dietary acrylamide intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Schouten, L.J.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2009-01-01

    Background : Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen that is present in several heat-treated foods. In epidemiological studies, positive associations between dietary acrylamide intake and the risks of endometrial, ovarian, estrogen receptor-positive breast, and renal cell cancers have been

  9. New mobile methods for dietary assessment: review of image-assisted and image-based dietary assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boushey, C J; Spoden, M; Zhu, F M; Delp, E J; Kerr, D A

    2016-12-12

    For nutrition practitioners and researchers, assessing dietary intake of children and adults with a high level of accuracy continues to be a challenge. Developments in mobile technologies have created a role for images in the assessment of dietary intake. The objective of this review was to examine peer-reviewed published papers covering development, evaluation and/or validation of image-assisted or image-based dietary assessment methods from December 2013 to January 2016. Images taken with handheld devices or wearable cameras have been used to assist traditional dietary assessment methods for portion size estimations made by dietitians (image-assisted methods). Image-assisted approaches can supplement either dietary records or 24-h dietary recalls. In recent years, image-based approaches integrating application technology for mobile devices have been developed (image-based methods). Image-based approaches aim at capturing all eating occasions by images as the primary record of dietary intake, and therefore follow the methodology of food records. The present paper reviews several image-assisted and image-based methods, their benefits and challenges; followed by details on an image-based mobile food record. Mobile technology offers a wide range of feasible options for dietary assessment, which are easier to incorporate into daily routines. The presented studies illustrate that image-assisted methods can improve the accuracy of conventional dietary assessment methods by adding eating occasion detail via pictures captured by an individual (dynamic images). All of the studies reduced underreporting with the help of images compared with results with traditional assessment methods. Studies with larger sample sizes are needed to better delineate attributes with regards to age of user, degree of error and cost.

  10. Microbiological Quantitative Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Silvia; Schaffner, Donald W.

    The meat and poultry industry faces ongoing challenges due to the natural association of pathogens of concern (e.g., Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157:H7) with a variety of domesticated food animals. In addition, pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes pose a significant cross-contamination risk during further meat and poultry processing, distribution, and storage. Furthermore, the meat and poultry industries are constantly changing with the addition of new products, use of new raw materials, and targeting of new consumer populations, each of which may give rise to potential new risks. National and international regulations are increasingly using a “risk-based” approach to food safety (where the regulatory focus is driven by the magnitude of the risk), so risk assessment is becoming a valuable tool to systematically organize and evaluate the potential public health risk posed by food processing operations.

  11. Dietary exposure and screening-level risk assessment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dechloran plus (DP) in wheat, rice, soil and air along two tributaries of the River Chenab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Adeel; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2015-01-01

    No scientific report is available for screening level-risk assessment of newly emerging contaminants, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dechloran plus (DP) in food crops and environmental compartments of Pakistan. Dietary exposure of PBDEs and DP via food crops; screening levels, spatial distribution pattern of PBDEs and DP in air, soil, wheat and rice were assessed along the stretch of upstream feeding tributaries (Nullah Aik and Nullah Palkhu), River Chenab, Pakistan. ∑PBDE levels in air, soil, wheat and rice ranged between 0.59 and 7.80pgm(-3), 6.88 and 37.7ngg(-1), 0.30ngg(-1) and 1.43ngg(-1) and 0.07 and 46.0ngg(-1), respectively. ∑DP concentrations calculated in air, soil, wheat and rice ranged between 0.80 and 0.10pgm(-3), 0.17 and 2.61ngg(-1), 0.90 and 0.49ngg(-1) and 0.00 and 12.5ngg(-1), respectively. The trend of PBDEs and DP distribution pattern was found as follows; industrial/urban areas>industrial/peri-urban areas>agricultural/rural areas. Estimated daily intake (EDI) for wheat and rice was ranged between 0.002 and 0.035pgkg(-1)d(-1) and 0.033 and 0.680pgkg(-1)d(-1). Human health risks for adults on the basis of EDI were lower than the recommended MRL (minimal risk level) and lowest observed adverse effect of level (LOAEL).

  12. A Prospective Study of Different Types of Dietary Fiber and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Bahadoran, Zahra; Khalili Moghadam, Sajad; Zadeh Vakili, Azita; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-11-07

    This study was designed to examine the hypothesis that dietary of intake different types of fiber could modify the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a large prospective cohort among Iranian adults. In 2006-2008, we used a validated food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake among 2295 health professionals with no previous history of heart disease. Subjects were subsequently followed until 2012 for incidence of CVD events. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models, adjusted for potential confounders were used to estimate the risk of CVD across tertiles of total dietary fiber and different types of fiber. Linear regression models were also used to indicate the association of dietary fiber intakes with changes of cardiovascular risk factors during the follow-up. Mean age of participants (42.8% men) was 38.2 ± 13.4, at baseline. Mean (SD) dietary intake of total fiber was 23.4 (8.9) g/day. After adjustment for cardiovascular risk score and dietary confounders, a significant inverse association was observed between intakes of total, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber and CVD risk, in the highest compared to the lowest tertiles (HR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.18-0.83, HR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.09-0.41, and HR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.14-0.69, respectively). Inverse relations were observed between risk of CVD and dietary fiber from legumes, fruits and vegetables; however, dietary fiber intake from grain and nut sources was not related to risk of CVD. Our findings confirmed that higher intakes of dietary fiber from different sources is associated with CVD events and modify its major risk-related factors.

  13. Dietary fiber, carbohydrate quality and quantity, and mortality risk of individuals with diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koert N J Burger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dietary fiber, carbohydrate quality and quantity are associated with mortality risk in the general population. Whether this is also the case among diabetes patients is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess the associations of dietary fiber, glycemic load, glycemic index, carbohydrate, sugar, and starch intake with mortality risk in individuals with diabetes. METHODS: This study was a prospective cohort study among 6,192 individuals with confirmed diabetes mellitus (mean age of 57.4 years, and median diabetes duration of 4.4 years at baseline from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline (1992-2000 with validated dietary questionnaires. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, while adjusting for CVD-related, diabetes-related, and nutritional factors. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 9.2 y, 791 deaths were recorded, 306 due to CVD. Dietary fiber was inversely associated with all-cause mortality risk (adjusted HR per SD increase, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.75-0.91] and CVD mortality risk (0.76[0.64-0.89]. No significant associations were observed for glycemic load, glycemic index, carbohydrate, sugar, or starch. Glycemic load (1.42[1.07-1.88], carbohydrate (1.67[1.18-2.37] and sugar intake (1.53[1.12-2.09] were associated with an increased total mortality risk among normal weight individuals (BMI≤25 kg/m(2; 22% of study population but not among overweight individuals (P interaction≤0.04. These associations became stronger after exclusion of energy misreporters. CONCLUSIONS: High fiber intake was associated with a decreased mortality risk. High glycemic load, carbohydrate and sugar intake were associated with an increased mortality risk in normal weight individuals with diabetes.

  14. An estrogen-associated dietary pattern and breast cancer risk in the Swedish Mammography Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Holly R; Bergkvist, Leif; Wolk, Alicja

    2015-11-01

    High endogenous hormone levels have been associated with breast cancer and dietary factors have the potential to influence breast cancer risk through effects on hormone levels. Dietary patterns derived from reduced rank regression provide a way to identify food groups correlated with hormones and subsequently examine food patterns that may be associated with breast cancer risk. We investigated whether a dietary pattern previously correlated with estradiol and estrone sulfate was associated with breast cancer in the prospective Swedish Mammography Cohort. Among 37,004 primarily postmenopausal women diet was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). During 15 years of follow-up 1,603 cases of breast cancer were identified. A higher estrogen dietary pattern score was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Women in the highest quartile of estrogen pattern score had a 29% (95% CI = 1.08-1.55) increased risk of breast cancer compared to women in the lowest quartile (p(trend) = 0.006). When the association was examined by estrogen-receptor status, it was only significant for those with estrogen-receptor-positive tumors; however, in the competing risk analysis there were no significant differences in the effect estimates by receptor subtype (p(heterogeneity) = 0.65). Our findings suggest that a dietary pattern associated with higher estrogen levels may increase breast cancer risk. However, whether the influence of this dietary pattern is through a direct effect on estrogen levels deserves further study.

  15. Dietary cadmium intake and the risk of cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Ae Cho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diet is a major source of cadmium intake among the non-smoking general population. Recent studies have determined that cadmium exposure may produce adverse health effects at lower exposure levels than previously predicted. We conducted a meta-analysis to combine and analyze the results of previous studies that have investigated the association of dietary cadmium intake and cancer risk. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and MEDLINE database for case-control and cohort studies that assessed the association of dietary cadmium intake and cancer risk. We performed a meta-analysis using eight eligible studies to summarize the data and summary relative risks (RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using a random effects model. RESULTS: Overall, dietary cadmium intake showed no statistically significant association with cancer risk (RR = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.99-1.22, for highest vs. lowest dietary cadmium group. However, there was strong evidence of heterogeneity, and subgroup analyses were conducted using the study design, geographical location, and cancer type. In subgroup analyses, the positive associations between dietary cadmium intake and cancer risk were observed among studies with Western populations (RR = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.08-1.23 and studies investigating some hormone-related cancers (prostate, breast, and endometrial cancers. CONCLUSION: Our analysis found a positive association between dietary cadmium intake and cancer risk among studies conducted in Western countries, particularly with hormone-related cancers. Additional experimental and epidemiological studies are required to verify our findings.

  16. Dietary Flavonoids and Gastric Cancer Risk in a Korean Population

    OpenAIRE

    Hae Dong Woo; Jeonghee Lee; Il Ju Choi; Chan Gyoo Kim; Jong Yeul Lee; Oran Kwon; Jeongseon Kim

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the most common cancer among men in Korea, and dietary factors are closely associated with gastric cancer risk. We performed a case-control study using 334 cases and 334 matched controls aged 35–75 years. Significant associations were observed in total dietary flavonoids and their subclasses, with the exception of anthocyanidins and isoflavones (OR (95% CI): 0.49 (0.31–0.76), p trend = 0.007 for total flavonoids). However, these associations were not significant after furthe...

  17. Dietary patterns and risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal women and men over 50 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Teresa T.; Feskanich, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We examined the association between predominant dietary patterns and risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal women and men over 50 years. Methods We used data from 74,540 women in the Nurses’ Health Study followed between 1980 and 2010, and 35,451 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study followed between 1986 and 2012 for this analysis. Health and lifestyle information was assessed every two years. Diet was assessed approximately every four years with a food frequency questionnaire. Two major dietary patterns were previously derived using principal component analysis. The Prudent pattern is characterized by higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and poultry, and the Western pattern is characterized by higher intakes of red and processed meats, sweets, and refined grains. We computed relative risks (RR) for hip fracture by dietary pattern scores using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders. Results During follow-up, there were 1891 hip fractures in women and 596 in men. No association was observed between the Prudent or Western pattern and risk of hip fractures in either men or women. We also did not find an association among lean (BMI=25) individuals or among those with higher or lower levels of physical activity. Conclusion Neither the Prudent nor the Western dietary pattern was associated with risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal women or men over 50 years of age. PMID:25731807

  18. Northwest Climate Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mote, P.; Dalton, M. M.; Snover, A. K.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the US National Climate Assessment, the Northwest region undertook a process of climate risk assessment. This process included an expert evaluation of previously identified impacts, their likelihoods, and consequences, and engaged experts from both academia and natural resource management practice (federal, tribal, state, local, private, and non-profit) in a workshop setting. An important input was a list of 11 risks compiled by state agencies in Oregon and similar adaptation efforts in Washington. By considering jointly the likelihoods, consequences, and adaptive capacity, participants arrived at an approximately ranked list of risks which was further assessed and prioritized through a series of risk scoring exercises to arrive at the top three climate risks facing the Northwest: 1) changes in amount and timing of streamflow related to snowmelt, causing far-reaching ecological and socioeconomic consequences; 2) coastal erosion and inundation, and changing ocean acidity, combined with low adaptive capacity in the coastal zone to create large risks; and 3) the combined effects of wildfire, insect outbreaks, and diseases will cause large areas of forest mortality and long-term transformation of forest landscapes.

  19. Assessment of fracture risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanis, John A. [WHO Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: w.j.pontefract@sheffield.ac.uk; Johansson, Helena; Oden, Anders [WHO Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX (United Kingdom); McCloskey, Eugene V. [WHO Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX (United Kingdom); Osteoporosis Centre, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    Fractures are a common complication of osteoporosis. Although osteoporosis is defined by bone mineral density at the femoral neck, other sites and validated techniques can be used for fracture prediction. Several clinical risk factors contribute to fracture risk independently of BMD. These include age, prior fragility fracture, smoking, excess alcohol, family history of hip fracture, rheumatoid arthritis and the use of oral glucocorticoids. These risk factors in conjunction with BMD can be integrated to provide estimates of fracture probability using the FRAX tool. Fracture probability rather than BMD alone can be used to fashion strategies for the assessment and treatment of osteoporosis.

  20. Microbial Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. M.; Mena, K. D.; Nickerson, C.A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, microbiological spaceflight requirements have been established in a subjective manner based upon expert opinion of both environmental and clinical monitoring results and the incidence of disease. The limited amount of data, especially from long-duration missions, has created very conservative requirements based primarily on the concentration of microorganisms. Periodic reevaluations of new data from later missions have allowed some relaxation of these stringent requirements. However, the requirements remain very conservative and subjective in nature, and the risk of crew illness due to infectious microorganisms is not well defined. The use of modeling techniques for microbial risk has been applied in the food and potable water industries and has exceptional potential for spaceflight applications. From a productivity standpoint, this type of modeling can (1) decrease unnecessary costs and resource usage and (2) prevent inadequate or inappropriate data for health assessment. In addition, a quantitative model has several advantages for risk management and communication. By identifying the variable components of the model and the knowledge associated with each component, this type of modeling can: (1) Systematically identify and close knowledge gaps, (2) Systematically identify acceptable and unacceptable risks, (3) Improve communication with stakeholders as to the reasons for resource use, and (4) Facilitate external scientific approval of the NASA requirements. The modeling of microbial risk involves the evaluation of several key factors including hazard identification, crew exposure assessment, dose-response assessment, and risk characterization. Many of these factors are similar to conditions found on Earth; however, the spaceflight environment is very specialized as the inhabitants live in a small, semi-closed environment that is often dependent on regenerative life support systems. To further complicate modeling efforts, microbial dose

  1. Dietary acrylamide intake and brain cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Schouten, L.J.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2009-01-01

    Background: Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen, which is present in several heat-treatedfood s. In epidemiologic studies, positive associations with endometrial, ovarian, and renal cell cancer risk have been observed. The incidence of central nervous system tumors was increased upon acrylamid

  2. Dietary acrylamide intake and brain cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Schouten, L.J.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2009-01-01

    Background: Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen, which is present in several heat-treatedfood s. In epidemiologic studies, positive associations with endometrial, ovarian, and renal cell cancer risk have been observed. The incidence of central nervous system tumors was increased upon

  3. Atherogenic Dyslipidemia: Cardiovascular Risk and Dietary Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Musunuru, Kiran

    2010-01-01

    Atherogenic dyslipidemia comprises a triad of increased blood concentrations of small, dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles, decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles, and increased triglycerides. A typical feature of obesity, the metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, atherogenic dyslipidemia has emerged as an important risk factor for myocardial infarction and cardiovascular disease. A number of genes have now been linked to this pattern of l...

  4. Generalizability of dietary patterns of the inverse association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiology of dietary components and disease risk limits interpretability due to potential residual confounding by correlated dietary components. Dietary pattern analyses by factor analysis or partial least squares may overcome this limitation. To examine confounding by dietary pattern as well as ...

  5. Confounding by dietary pattern of the inverse association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiology of dietary components and disease risk limits interpretability due to potential residual confounding by correlated dietary components. Dietary pattern analyses by factor analysis or partial least squares may overcome the limitation. To examine confounding by dietary pattern as well as ...

  6. Confounding by dietary patterns of the inverse association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiology of dietary components and disease risk limits interpretability due to potential residual confounding by correlated dietary components. Dietary pattern analyses by factor analysis or partial least squares may overcome this limitation. To examine confounding by dietary pattern as well as ...

  7. Dietary mutagen exposure and risk of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Donghui; Day, Rena Sue; Bondy, Melissa L; Sinha, Rashmi; Nguyen, Nga T; Evans, Douglas B; Abbruzzese, James L; Hassan, Manal M

    2007-04-01

    To investigate the association between dietary exposure to food mutagens and risk of pancreatic cancer, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center during June 2002 to May 2006. A total of 626 cases and 530 noncancer controls were frequency matched for race, sex and age (+/-5 years). Dietary exposure information was collected via personal interview using a meat preparation questionnaire. A significantly greater portion of the cases than controls showed a preference to well-done pork, bacon, grilled chicken, and pan-fried chicken, but not to hamburger and steak. Cases had a higher daily intake of food mutagens and mutagenicity activity (revertants per gram of daily meat intake) than controls did. The daily intakes of 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), as well as the mutagenic activity, were significant predictors for pancreatic cancer (P = 0.008, 0.031, and 0.029, respectively) with adjustment of other confounders. A significant trend of elevated cancer risk with increasing DiMeIQx intake was observed in quintile analysis (P(trend) = 0.024). A higher intake of dietary mutagens (those in the two top quintiles) was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of pancreatic cancer among those without a family history of cancer but not among those with a family history of cancer. A possible synergistic effect of dietary mutagen exposure and smoking was observed among individuals with the highest level of exposure (top 10%) to PhIP and BaP, P(interaction) = 0.09 and 0.099, respectively. These data support the hypothesis that dietary mutagen exposure alone and in interaction with other factors contribute to the development of pancreatic cancer.

  8. Dietary Fiber Intake in Young Adults and Breast Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farvid, Maryam S; Eliassen, A Heather; Cho, Eunyoung; Liao, Xiaomei; Chen, Wendy Y; Willett, Walter C

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated fiber intake during adolescence and early adulthood in relation to breast cancer (BC) risk in the Nurses' Health Study II. Among 90,534 premenopausal women who completed a dietary questionnaire in 1991, we documented 2833 invasive BC cases during 20 years of follow-up. In 1998, 44,263 of these women also completed a questionnaire about their diet during high school; among these women, we documented 1118 cases of BC by end of follow-up. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for BC across categories of dietary fiber. Among all women, early adulthood total dietary fiber intake was associated with significantly lower BC risk (RR for highest versus lowest quintile 0.81; 95% CI 0.72-0.91; Ptrend = .002). Higher intakes of soluble fiber (RR for highest versus lowest quintile 0.86; 95% CI 0.77-0.97; Ptrend = .02) and insoluble fiber (RR for highest versus lowest quintile 0.80; 95% CI 0.71-0.90; Ptrend dietary fiber intake in adolescence was also associated with lower BC risk (RR for highest versus lowest quintile 0.84; 95% CI 0.70-1.01; Ptrend = .04). For the average of fiber intake during adolescence and early adult life, the RR comparing highest with lowest quintiles was 0.75 (95% CI 0.62-0.91, Ptrend = .004). Our findings support the hypothesis that higher fiber intakes reduce BC risk and suggest that intake during adolescence and early adulthood may be particularly important. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Comparisons of four dietary assessment methods during pregnancy in Taiwanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ching Lyu

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The combinations of 24-hour recalls for the short-term dietary changes and the CFFQ for long-term dietary patterns are suggested as appropriate dietary assessment methods during pregnancy in Taiwan.

  10. A Western Dietary Pattern Increases Prostate Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Fabiani; Liliana Minelli; Gaia Bertarelli; Silvia Bacci

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns were recently applied to examine the relationship between eating habits and prostate cancer (PC) risk. While the associations between PC risk with the glycemic index and Mediterranean score have been reviewed, no meta-analysis is currently available on dietary patterns defined by “a posteriori” methods. A literature search was carried out (PubMed, Web of Science) to identify studies reporting the relationship between dietary patterns and PC risk. Relevant dietary patterns wer...

  11. High dietary glycemic load and glycemic index increase risk of cardiovascular disease among middle-aged women : a population-based follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, Joline W. J.; de Bruijne, Leonie M.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Bots, Michiel L.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this work was to assess whether high dietary glycemic load and glycemic index are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Background The associations of dietary glycemic index and glycemic load with risk of CVD are not well established, particularly

  12. High dietary glycemic load and glycemic index increase risk of cardiovascular disease among middle-aged women - A population-based follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, Joline W. J.; de Bruijne, Leonie M.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Bots, Michiel L.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this work was to assess whether high dietary glycemic load and glycemic index are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Background The associations of dietary glycemic index and glycemic load with risk of CVD are not well established, particularly

  13. Dietary Flavonoids and Gastric Cancer Risk in a Korean Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Dong Woo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is the most common cancer among men in Korea, and dietary factors are closely associated with gastric cancer risk. We performed a case-control study using 334 cases and 334 matched controls aged 35–75 years. Significant associations were observed in total dietary flavonoids and their subclasses, with the exception of anthocyanidins and isoflavones (OR (95% CI: 0.49 (0.31–0.76, p trend = 0.007 for total flavonoids. However, these associations were not significant after further adjustment for fruits and vegetable consumption (OR (95% CI: 0.62 (0.36–1.09, p trend = 0.458 for total flavonoids. Total flavonoids and their subclasses, except for isoflavones, were significantly associated with a reduced risk gastric cancer in women (OR (95% CI: 0.33 (0.15–0.73, p trend = 0.001 for total flavonoids but not in men (OR (95% CI: 0.70 (0.39–1.24, p trend = 0.393 for total flavonoids. A significant inverse association with gastric cancer risk was observed in flavones, even after additional adjustment for fruits and vegetable consumption in women. No significantly different effects of flavonoids were observed between H. pylori-positive and negative subjects. In conclusion, dietary flavonoids were inversely associated with gastric cancer risk, and these protective effects of dietary flavonoids were prominent in women. No clear differences were observed in the subgroup analysis of H. pylori and smoking status.

  14. Dietary intakes and risk of lymphoid and myeloid leukemia in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi Hosnijeh, Fatemeh; Peeters, Petra; Romieu, Isabelle; Kelly, Rachel; Riboli, Elio; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Fagherazzi, Guy; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Dossus, Laure; Nieters, Alexandra; Teucher, Birgit; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Valanou, Elisavet; Mattiello, Amalia; Sieri, Sabina; Parr, Christine L; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Sánchez, Maria-José; Ericson, Ulrika; Sonestedt, Emily; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ros, Martine M; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J; Vineis, Paolo; Vermeulen, Roel

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of leukemias cannot entirely be explained by known risk factors, including ionizing radiation, benzene exposure, and infection with human T cell leukemia virus. A number of studies suggested that diet influences the risk of adult leukemias. However, results have been largely inconsistent. We examined the potential association between dietary factors and risk of leukemias among participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Among the 477,325 participants with mean follow-up of 11.34 yr (SD = 2.47), 773 leukemias (373 and 342 cases of lymphoid and myeloid leukemia, respectively) were identified. Diet over the previous 12 mo was assessed at baseline using a validated country-specific dietary questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to explore the association between dietary factors that have previously been associated with leukemia risk, including red and processed meat, poultry, offal, fish, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, and seeds/nuts, and risk of both lymphoid and myeloid leukemias. No significant associations were observed between dietary measures and total, lymphoid, and myeloid leukemias. Additional subtype analyses showed no dietary association with risk of major subtypes of leukemias. In summary, this study did not support a possible link between selected dietary factors and risk of leukemias.

  15. Methylmercury risk assessment issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Saroff, L. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-07-01

    This paper reviews the general background of health risks associated with mercury (Hg), primarily methylmercury (MeHg), with a view towards application to advanced technologies that could reduce any contributions from coal combustion. The need for accurate assessment of such risks is discussed, since Hg is now widely dispersed in the environment and cannot easily be eliminated. The primary pathway of MeHg intake is through eating contaminated fish. The issues of concern include identification of critical health outcomes (various neurological indices) and their confounding factors, accurate assessment of MeHg intake rates, and appropriate use of dose-response functions. Ultimately, such information will be used to evaluate alternative coal combustion systems.

  16. Dietary intake of vitamin d and calcium and breast cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, S.; Linseisen, J.; Rohrmann, S.; Chang-Claude, J.; Peeters, P.H.; Engel, P.; Brustad, M.; Lund, E.; Skeie, G.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Studies assessing the effects of vitamin D or calcium intake on breast cancer risk have been inconclusive. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated them jointly. This study is the largest so far examining the association of dietary vitamin D and calcium intake with breast cancer risk in the European

  17. Dietary intake of vitamin d and calcium and breast cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, S.; Linseisen, J.; Rohrmann, S.; Chang-Claude, J.; Peeters, P.H.; Engel, P.; Brustad, M.; Lund, E.; Skeie, G.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Studies assessing the effects of vitamin D or calcium intake on breast cancer risk have been inconclusive. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated them jointly. This study is the largest so far examining the association of dietary vitamin D and calcium intake with breast cancer risk in the European

  18. Dietary salt intake, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, and obesity risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A; Riddell, Lynn J; Campbell, Karen J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2013-01-01

    To determine the association among dietary salt, fluid, and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and weight status in a nationally representative sample of Australian children aged 2 to 16 years. Cross-sectional data from the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Consumption of dietary salt, fluid, and SSB was determined via two 24-hour dietary recalls. BMI was calculated from recorded height and weight. Regression analysis was used to assess the association between salt, fluid, SSB consumption, and weight status. Of the 4283 participants, 62% reported consuming SSBs. Older children and those of lower socioeconomic status (SES) were more likely to consume SSBs (both Ps consumption (r = 0.42, P consumption (r = 0.35, P consumption and SSB consumption within consumers of SSBs. Furthermore, SSB consumption was associated with obesity risk. In addition to the known benefits of lowering blood pressure, salt reduction strategies may be useful in childhood obesity prevention efforts.

  19. Dietary fiber intake is inversely associated with risk of pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qi-Qi; Lin, Yi-Wei; Chen, Hong; Qin, Jie; Zheng, Xiang-Yi; Xu, Xin; Xie, Li-Ping

    2017-01-01

    The association between fiber intake and pancreatic cancer risk is conflicting and poorly explored. The aim of study was to investigate the association between dietary fiber intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer by conducting a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. Systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases up to April 2015 were conducted to identify relevant studies. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were combined using random-effects models to assess the risk of pancreatic cancer when comparing extreme categories of fiber intake. Dose-response meta-analysis was performed for studies reporting categorical risk estimates for at least 3 exposure levels. One cohort and thirteen case-control studies were identified. The overall analysis revealed a strong inverse association between risk of pancreatic cancer and high fiber intake (OR 0.52; 95% CI 0.44-0.61). No publication bias was detected by Egger's or Begg's test. The dose-response analyses showed that the summary OR for an increment of 10 g daily intake of fiber was 0.88 (0.84 to 0.92). A high intake of dietary fiber was associated with a reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Further well-designed prospective studies are warranted to confirm the inverse association and to identify the dietary fiber types involved.

  20. Dietary acrylamide and cancer risk: an updated meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelucchi, Claudio; Bosetti, Cristina; Galeone, Carlotta; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2015-06-15

    The debate on the potential carcinogenic effect of dietary acrylamide is open. In consideration of the recent findings from large prospective investigations, we conducted an updated meta-analysis on acrylamide intake and the risk of cancer at several sites. Up to July 2014, we identified 32 publications. We performed meta-analyses to calculate the summary relative risk (RR) of each cancer site for the highest versus lowest level of intake and for an increment of 10 µg/day of dietary acrylamide, through fixed-effects or random-effects models, depending on the heterogeneity test. Fourteen cancer sites could be examined. No meaningful associations were found for most cancers considered. The summary RRs for high versus low acrylamide intake were 0.87 for oral and pharyngeal, 1.14 for esophageal, 1.03 for stomach, 0.94 for colorectal, 0.93 for pancreatic, 1.10 for laryngeal, 0.88 for lung, 0.96 for breast, 1.06 for endometrial, 1.12 for ovarian, 1.00 for prostate, 0.93 for bladder and 1.13 for lymphoid malignancies. The RR was of borderline significance only for kidney cancer (RR = 1.20; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.00-1.45). All the corresponding continuous estimates ranged between 0.95 and 1.03, and none of them was significant. Among never-smokers, borderline associations with dietary acrylamide emerged for endometrial (RR = 1.23; 95% CI, 1.00-1.51) and ovarian (RR = 1.39; 95% CI, 0.97-2.00) cancers. This systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies indicates that dietary acrylamide is not related to the risk of most common cancers. A modest association for kidney cancer, and for endometrial and ovarian cancers in never smokers only, cannot be excluded. © 2014 UICC.

  1. Dietary Boron and Hormone Replacement Therapy as Risk Factors for Lung Cancer in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabir, S.; Spitz, M. R.; Barrera, S. L.; Dong, Y. Q.; Eastham, C.; Forman, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may reduce lung cancer risk. Dietary boron may have actions similar to those of HRT; however, no previous study has reported the associations between dietary boron intake and lung cancer risk or the joint effects of boron intake and HRT use on lung cancer risk. The authors examined the associations between boron intake and the joint effects of boron intake and HRT on lung cancer risk in women. In an ongoing case-control study in Houston, Texas (July 1995 through April 2005, end date for this analysis), 763 women were diagnosed with lung cancer, and 838 were matched healthy controls with data on both diet and HRT. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the associations between dietary boron and HRT with lung cancer risk. After adjustment for potential confounders, the odds ratios for lung cancer with decreasing quartiles of dietary boron intake were 1.0, 1.39 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.90), 1.64 (95% CI: 1.20, 2.24), and 1.95 (95% CI: 1.42, 2.68) mg/day, respectively, for all women (ptrend boron intake who used HRT, the odds ratio for lung cancer for low dietary boron intake and no HRT use was 2.07 (95% CI: 1.53, 2.81). Boron intake was inversely associated with lung cancer in women, whereas women who consumed low boron and did not use HRT were at substantial increased odds. PMID:18343880

  2. Dietary intake assessment using integrated sensors and software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Junqing; Pepin, Eric; Johnson, Eric; Hazel, David; Teredesai, Ankur; Kristal, Alan; Mamishev, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    The area of dietary assessment is becoming increasingly important as obesity rates soar, but valid measurement of the food intake in free-living persons is extraordinarily challenging. Traditional paper-based dietary assessment methods have limitations due to bias, user burden and cost, and therefore improved methods are needed to address important hypotheses related to diet and health. In this paper, we will describe the progress of our mobile Diet Data Recorder System (DDRS), where an electronic device is used for objective measurement on dietary intake in real time and at moderate cost. The DDRS consists of (1) a mobile device that integrates a smartphone and an integrated laser package, (2) software on the smartphone for data collection and laser control, (3) an algorithm to process acquired data for food volume estimation, which is the largest source of error in calculating dietary intake, and (4) database and interface for data storage and management. The estimated food volume, together with direct entries of food questionnaires and voice recordings, could provide dietitians and nutritional epidemiologists with more complete food description and more accurate food portion sizes. In this paper, we will describe the system design of DDRS and initial results of dietary assessment.

  3. Dietary fiber intake and risk of colorectal cancer: A pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Y.; Hunter, D.J.; Spiegelman, D.; Bergkvist, L.; Berrino, F.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Buring, J.E.; Colditz, G.A.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Fuchs, C.S.; Giovannucci, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Graham, S.; Harnack, L.; Hartman, A.M.; Jacobs, D.R.; Kato, I.; Krogh, V.; Leitzmann, M.F.; McCullough, M.L.; Miller, A.B.; Pietinen, P.; Rohan, T.E.; Schatzkin, A.; Willett, W.C.; Wolk, A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A.; Zhang, S.M.; Smith-Warner, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Context: Inconsistent findings from observational studies have continued the controversy over the effects of dietary fiber on colorectal cancer. Objective: To evaluate the association between dietary fiber intake and risk of colorectal cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: From 13 prospective

  4. Mediterranean dietary pattern and risk of breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Couto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A Mediterranean diet has a recognized beneficial effect on health and longevity, with a protective influence on several cancers. However, its association with breast cancer risk remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate whether adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern influences breast cancer risk. DESIGN: The Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort study includes 49,258 women aged 30 to 49 years at recruitment in 1991-1992. Consumption of foods and beverages was measured at enrollment using a food frequency questionnaire. A Mediterranean diet score was constructed based on the consumption of alcohol, vegetables, fruits, legumes, cereals, fish, the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fat, and dairy and meat products. Relative risks (RR for breast cancer and specific tumor characteristics (invasiveness, histological type, estrogen/progesterone receptor status, malignancy grade and stage associated with this score were estimated using Cox regression controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS: 1,278 incident breast cancers were diagnosed. Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was not statistically significantly associated with reduced risk of breast cancer overall, or with specific breast tumor characteristics. A RR (95% confidence interval for breast cancer associated with a two-point increment in the Mediterranean diet score was 1.08 (1.00-1.15 in all women, and 1.10 (1.01-1.21 and 1.02 (0.91-1.15 in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively. When alcohol was excluded from the Mediterranean diet score, results became not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern did not decrease breast cancer risk in this cohort of relatively young women.

  5. Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids intake and risk of skin photoaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Latreille

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intake of monounsaturated fatty acids has been reported to reduce oxidative stress, insulin resistance and related inflammatory processes and may thus protect from skin photoaging. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the risk of photoaging, monounsaturated fatty acids intake and the sources of monounsaturated fatty acids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross sectional study was conducted within the framework of the SUVIMAX cohort. The survey included 1264 women and 1655 men aged between 45 and 60 years old. Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids intakes were estimated by dietary source through at least ten 24-h diet records completed during the first 2.5 years of the follow-up period. Severity of facial skin photoaging was graded by trained investigators at baseline during a clinical examination using a 6-grade scale illustrated by photographs. A lower risk of severe photoaging was associated with higher intakes of monounsaturated fatty acids from olive oil in both sexes. Strikingly, no association was found with intake of monounsaturated fatty acids from animal sources whether from dairy products, meat or processed meat. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings support the beneficial effect of dietary olive oil or healthy diet habits associated with olive oil consumption on the severity of facial photoaging.

  6. 中国居民膳食油脂多环芳烃暴露的定量风险评估%Quantitative risk assessment of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons dietary exposure from edible fats and oils in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹梦思; 王君; 张立实; 严卫星

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the quantitative risk of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) dietary exposure from edible fats and oils in China. Methods One hundred samples of edible fats and oils were collected from the supermarkets and the farmers markets in 11 provinces of China from December in 2013 to May in 2014. Then they were tested for EU15+1 PAHs (16 PAHs were controlled in priority by European Food Safety Authority) by two test methods which were QuECHERS-GC-MS-MS and GPC-HPLC-FLD. Data of PAHs concentration and edible fats and oils consumption which were from Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey in 2002 were combined to evaluate carcinogenic risk of PAHs in edible fats and oils by the method of margin of exposure (MOE). In this process, we divided the population into 6 groups, namely male adults (older than 18 years old), female adults (older than 18), male youths (13-17), female youths (13-17), school-agers (6-12) and preschoolers (2-5), and thought carcinogenicity as the critical toxicity end point of PAHs. Two quantitative risk assessment methods, i.e. point assessment and probability assessment, were used to evaluate the dietary exposure and MOEs. Results EU15+1 PAHs in one of 100 samples were not detected, other samples were polluted in different degrees;the detection rates were 3%-98%and the average contents were 0.26-3.26μg/kg. The results of PAHs dietary exposure from both of point assessment and probability assessment were the same. The average exposures of PAH8 were as the following:male adults were 10.03 and (9.34±12.61) ng·kg-1·d-1(The former was from point assessment and the latter from probability assessment, the same below), female adults were 9.95 and (9.60 ± 15.04) ng · kg-1·d-1, male youths were 11.09 and (10.84 ± 16.54) ng·kg-1·d-1, female youths were 10.06 and (9.58 ± 12.87) ng·kg-1·d-1,school-agers were 15.29 and (15.62±25.54) ng·kg-1·d-1, preschoolers were 19.27 and (19.22± 28.91) ng·kg-1·d-1. MOEs of mean

  7. Dietary fiber intake and risk of renal cell carcinoma: evidence from a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tian-bao; Ding, Pei-pei; Chen, Jian-feng; Yan, Yang; Zhang, Long; Liu, Huan; Liu, Peng-cheng; Che, Jian-ping; Zheng, Jun-hua; Yao, Xu-dong

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible relationships between dietary fiber intake and risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched to find eligible studies. Random-effects relative risk (RR) and its corresponding 95 % confidence interval (CI) were used. Besides, random-effects dose-response analyses were also performed to clarify the dose-response relations. Finally, publication bias was assessed by Egger's test and Begg's test. All p values were two tailed. Seven studies, including two cohort studies and five case-control studies, were eligible and included in this meta-analysis. Overall analysis in highest versus lowest level revealed that total dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced RCC risk (RR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.74-0.96). In addition, pooled estimated data showed that risk of RCC was significantly associated with vegetable and legume fiber intake (RR 0.70, RR 0.80, respectively), but not with fruit and cereal fiber intake (RR 0.92, RR 1.04, respectively). However, in dose-response analysis, no significant association was reported. Finally, no publication bias was detected by Egger's or Begg's test. The dietary fiber intake, especially vegetable and legume fiber, may be associated with reduced RCC risk. Considering the limitations of the included studies, more well-designed prospective studies will be needed to confirm our findings.

  8. Exploring genome-wide - dietary heme iron intake interactions and the risk of type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Robert Pasquale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims/hypothesis: Genome-wide association studies have identified over 50 new genetic loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D. Several studies conclude that higher dietary heme iron intake increases the risk of T2D. Therefore we assessed whether the relation between genetic loci and type 2 diabetes is modified by dietary heme iron intake. Methods: We used Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human 6.0 array data (681,770 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and dietary information collected in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (n=725 cases; n=1,273 controls and the Nurses’ Health Study (n=1,081 cases; n=1,692 controls. We assessed whether genome-wide SNPs or iron metabolism SNPs interacted with dietary heme iron intake in relation to T2D, testing for associations in each cohort separately and then meta-analyzing to pool the results. Finally, we created 1,000 synthetic pathways matched to an iron metabolism pathway on number of genes, and number of SNPs in each gene. We compared the iron metabolic pathway SNPs with these synthetic SNP assemblies in their relation to T2D to assess if the pathway as a whole interacts with dietary heme iron intake.Results: Using a genomic approach, we found no significant gene-environment interactions with dietary heme iron intake in relation to T2D (top SNP in pooled analysis: intergenic rs10980508; p=1.03E-06 > Bonferroni corrected p=7.33E-08. Furthermore, no SNP in the iron metabolic pathway significantly interacted with dietary heme iron intake (top SNP in pooled analysis: rs1805313; p=1.14E-03 > Bonferroni corrected p=2.10E-04. Finally, neither the main genetic effects (pooled empirical p by SNP=0.41, nor gene – dietary heme-iron interactions (pooled empirical p value for the interactions=0.72 were significant for the iron metabolic pathway as a whole. Conclusions: We found no significant interactions between dietary heme iron intake and common SNPs in relation to T2D.

  9. Surgery Risk Assessment (SRA) Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Surgery Risk Assessment (SRA) database is part of the VA Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP). This database contains assessments of selected surgical...

  10. Framework for Metals Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Framework for Metals Risk Assessment is a science-based document that addresses the special attributes and behaviors of metals and metal compounds to be considered when assessing their human health and ecological risks.

  11. Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first step in a long-term effort to develop risk assessment guidelines for ecological effects. Its primary purpose is to offer a simple, flexible structure for conducting and evaluating ecological risk assessment within EPA.

  12. Objective assessment of dietary patterns by use of metabolic phenotyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Perez, Isabel; Posma, Joram M; Gibson, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Accurate monitoring of changes in dietary patterns in response to food policy implementation is challenging. Metabolic profiling allows simultaneous measurement of hundreds of metabolites in urine, the concentrations of which can be affected by food intake. We hypothesised that metabo......BACKGROUND: Accurate monitoring of changes in dietary patterns in response to food policy implementation is challenging. Metabolic profiling allows simultaneous measurement of hundreds of metabolites in urine, the concentrations of which can be affected by food intake. We hypothesised...... that metabolic profiles of urine samples developed under controlled feeding conditions reflect dietary intake and can be used to model and classify dietary patterns of free-living populations. METHODS: In this randomised, controlled, crossover trial, we recruited healthy volunteers (aged 21-65 years, BMI 20...... controlled environment can classify groups of free-living people into consumers of diets associated with lower or higher non-communicable disease risk on the basis of multivariate metabolite patterns. This approach enables objective monitoring of dietary patterns in population settings and enhances...

  13. Optimal Dietary and Plasma Magnesium Statuses Depend on Dietary Quality for a Reduction in the Risk of All-Cause Mortality in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chen Huang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The association between dietary or plasma magnesium (Mg with diabetes incidence and with mortality in free-living elderly was investigated. A total of 1400 participants from the Taiwanese Nutrition Survey, aged ≥ 65 years, and diabetes-free from the 1999–2000 were assessed. The dietary intake and plasma Mg concentration were obtained through 24h dietary recall and health examination at baseline. Participants were classified by quartiles (Q of dietary Mg or by the plasma Mg normal range (0.75–0.95 mmol/L. Dietary diversity score (DDS, range 1–6 represented the dietary quality. During 8 and 10 years, 231 incident diabetes cases and 475 deaths were identified. Cox’s proportional-hazards regression was used to evaluate the association between Mg and health outcomes. The hazard ratios (95% confidence interval for death in Q2 and Q3 of Mg intakes with DDS > 4 were 0.57 (0.44–0.74 and 0.59 (0.39–0.88, respectively, compared with the lowest intake and DDS ≤ 4 participants. Participants with normal and high plasma Mg in conjunction with high DDS had relative risks of 0.58 (0.37–0.89 and 0.46 (0.25–0.85 in mortality compared with low plasma Mg and lower DDS. Optimal dietary Mg intake and plasma Mg depend on dietary quality to reduce the mortality risk in older adults.

  14. DIETARY RISK FACTORS OF METABOLIC SYNDROME IN DIBRUGARH DISTRICT OF ASSAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Goswami Mahanta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND As India is considered as the diabetic capital of the world, a huge burden of undiagnosed Metabolic Syndrome (MetS is a possibility. Early intervention can be planned if MetS can be detected early along with risk factor assessment to avert cardiovascular morbidities. The aim of this study was to assess the dietary risk factor of metabolic syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS Community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Dibrugarh District of Assam with multistep sampling. Study area, i.e. four rural sub-centres and two urban electoral blocks were selected randomly. From the list of population of selected area, the consenting eligible were included. Sample size was 1700 population with MetS. Socio-demographic information, World Health Organisation’s STEPS questionnaire for behavioural risk factors along with dietary history, anthropometric assessment and laboratory investigations were conducted in three stages. Food frequency questionnaire was used for dietary assessment. Statistical analysis was done using rates, ratio, proportion, univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS MetS was 47.6% (1606 of 3372 screened. Mean age of study population was 47.1 ± 10.9 years. Behavioural risk factors like tobacco, alcohol consumption was high and significantly associated with metabolic syndrome (p= 0.000. Similarly financial stress, feeling stressed in last one year (p=0.034, lower physical activity level were also significantly associated with metS (p=0.000. Consumption of meat (p=0.000, egg (p=0.000, fast food (p=0.000, pickled vegetable (p=0.000 and sweet snacks (p=0.000 was found significantly higher amongst those with metabolic syndrome. Significant association was also seen with number of meals served per day and metS (p=0.000. CONCLUSION Dietary risk factors of cardiovascular diseases were rampant amongst persons with MetS. Dietary risk factor survey and counselling on healthy diet can be implemented in these population to give

  15. Dietary magnesium intake and coronary heart disease risk: A study from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica Stevanović

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim To assess the relationship between dietary magnesium intakeand the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD. Methods A conducted case-control study included 290 randomly selected cases (mean age 59.98 +/- 10.03 years with first event of an acute coronary syndrome and 290 selected controls paired by sex, age and region (mean age 59.43 +/- 10.10 years admitted to the same hospitals without any suspicion of coronary disease. A diet was assessed by an interviewer-administered semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and magnesium intake was derived from the nutrient database. Results Subjects with coronary heart disease had significantly lower intake of foods containing high levels of magnesium like whole grain (p<0.0001, legumes (p<0.05 and nuts (p<0.05. Lower dietary magnesium intake was found to be positively associated with risk of coronary heart disease (0.027. Conclusion Our findings suggest that dietary intake of magnesium was associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease among Serbian population.

  16. Dietary omega-3 fatty acid intake and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psota, Tricia L; Gebauer, Sarah K; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2006-08-21

    Dietary omega-3 fatty acids decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Both epidemiologic and interventional studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids on many CVD end points, including all CVD (defined as all coronary artery disease [CAD], fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction [MI], and stroke combined), all CAD, fatal and nonfatal MI, stroke, sudden cardiac death, and all-cause mortality. Much of the evidence comes from studies with fish oil and fish; to a lesser extent, data relate to plant-derived omega-3 fatty acids. Cardioprotective benefits have been observed with daily consumption of as little as 25 to 57 g (approximately 1 to 2 oz) of fish high in omega-3 fatty acids, an intake equivalent to >or=1 fish meal weekly or even monthly, with greater intakes decreasing risk further in a dose-dependent manner, up to about 5 servings per week. Fish, including farm-raised fish and their wild counterparts, are the major dietary sources of the longer-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Sources of plant-derived omega-3 fatty acids include flaxseed, flaxseed oil, walnuts, canola oil, and soybean oil. Because of the remarkable cardioprotective effects of omega-3 fatty acids, consumption of food sources that provide omega-3 fatty acids--especially the longer-chain fatty acids (>or=20 carbons) from marine sources--should be increased in the diet to decrease CVD risk significantly.

  17. Dietary fruits and vegetables and cardiovascular diseases risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alissa, Eman M; Ferns, Gordon A

    2017-06-13

    Diet is likely to be an important determinant of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. In this article, we will review the evidence linking the consumption of fruit and vegetables and CVD risk. The initial evidence that fruit and vegetable consumption has a protective effect against CVD came from observational studies. However, uncertainty remains about the magnitude of the benefit of fruit and vegetable intake on the occurrence of CVD and whether the optimal intake is five portions or greater. Results from randomized controlled trials do not show conclusively that fruit and vegetable intake protects against CVD, in part because the dietary interventions have been of limited intensity to enable optimal analysis of their putative effects. The protective mechanisms of fruit and vegetables may not only include some of the known bioactive nutrient effects dependent on their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and electrolyte properties, but also include their functional properties, such as low glycemic load and energy density. Taken together, the totality of the evidence accumulated so far does appear to support the notion that increased intake of fruits and vegetables may reduce cardiovascular risk. It is clear that fruit and vegetables should be eaten as part of a balanced diet, as a source of vitamins, fiber, minerals, and phytochemicals. The evidence now suggests that a complicated set of several nutrients may interact with genetic factors to influence CVD risk. Therefore, it may be more important to focus on whole foods and dietary patterns rather than individual nutrients to successfully impact on CVD risk reduction. A clearer understanding of the relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and cardiovascular risk would provide health professionals with significant information in terms of public health and clinical practice.

  18. [Calcium pros and cons significance and risk of phosphorus supplementation. The risk of dietary phosphorus intake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohi, Akiko; Nomura, Kengo; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi

    2011-12-01

    Dietary intake of phosphorus (Pi) is an important determinant of Pi balance in patients who have chronic kidney disease (CKD) and a reduced GFR. High dietary Pi burden may promote vascular calcification and cardiovascular events. Recently, Ohnishi and Razzaque suggest that phosphate toxicity accelerates the mammalian aging process and that reducing the phosphate burden can delay the aging (FASEB J 24, 3562, 2010) . Dietary Pi is derived largely from foods with high protein content or food additives. Accurate information on the Pi content of foods is needed to achieve a low Pi intake and effectively manage CKD and the aging. In this review, we discuss the risk of dietary Pi intake in CKD and the aging.

  19. Risk assessment in travel medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggat, Peter A

    2006-01-01

    Risk assessment is an integral part of pre-travel and post- assessment. Risk assessment largely determines what health and safety advice and interventions are given within the relevant prevailing travel health guidelines. Risk assessment needs time and depends on information, including that given by the traveller. Risk assessment also needs to be documented. Risk assessment of the traveller preferably starts before they enter the consulting room, where travellers may complete a pre-travel health questionnaire. Armed with this information, risk assessment may be assisted by access to computerised travel health databases and the published literature. Experience of travel to the destination may also assist in risk assessment and the tour operator, overseas employer or agency, the traveller or even the travel health advisers themselves may provide this information.

  20. Dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of cancer among Finnish male smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, T; Kontto, J; Jestoi, M; Valsta, L; Peltonen, K; Pietinen, P; Virtanen, SM; Sinkko, H; Kronberg-Kippilä, C; Albanes, D; Virtamo, J

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of cancer among male smokers. Methods The study consisted of 27,111 male smokers, aged 50–69 years, without history of cancer. They were participants of the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study in Finland. The men completed a validated dietary questionnaire and a questionnaire on general background characteristics (including smoking habits) at baseline. Incident cases of cancer were identified through the national Finnish Cancer Registry. Results During an average 10.2 year follow-up 1703 lung cancers, 799 prostate cancers, 365 urothelial cancers, 316 colorectal cancers, 224 stomach cancers, 192 pancreatic cancers, 184 renal cell cancers, and 175 lymphomas were diagnosed. Dietary acrylamide intake was positively associated with the risk of lung cancer; relative risk (RR) in the highest vs. the lowest quintile in the multivariate-adjusted model was 1.18 ((95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01–1.38, p for trend 0.11). Other cancers were not associated with acrylamide intake. Conclusions High acrylamide intake is associated with increased risk of lung cancer but not with other cancers in male smokers. PMID:20859673

  1. Dietary carbohydrate intake, glycemic index, and glycemic load and endometrial cancer risk: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Helen G; Kitahara, Cari M; Murray, Liam J; Dodd, Kevin W; Black, Amanda; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Cantwell, Marie M

    2014-01-01

    Endometrial cancer risk has been directly associated with glycemic load. However, few studies have investigated this link, and the etiological role of specific dietary carbohydrate components remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate associations of carbohydrate intake, glycemic index, and glycemic load with endometrial cancer risk in the US Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Recruitment took place in 1993-2001. Over a median of 9.0 years of follow-up through 2009, 386 women developed endometrial cancer among 36,115 considered in the analysis. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 124-item diet history questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards models were applied to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Significant inverse associations were detected between endometrial cancer risk and total available carbohydrate intake (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.90), total sugars intake (HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.96), and glycemic load (HR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.84) when women in the highest quartile of intake were compared with those in the lowest. These inverse associations were strongest among overweight and obese women. No associations with endometrial cancer risk were observed for glycemic index or dietary fiber. Our findings contrast with previous evidence and suggest that high carbohydrate intakes and glycemic loads are protective against endometrial cancer development. Further clarification of these associations is warranted.

  2. Risk assessment and risk management of mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Risk assessment is the process of quantifying the magnitude and exposure, or probability, of a harmful effect to individuals or populations from certain agents or activities. Here, we summarize the four steps of risk assessment: hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Risk assessments using these principles have been conducted on the major mycotoxins (aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone) by various regulatory agencies for the purpose of setting food safety guidelines. We critically evaluate the impact of these risk assessment parameters on the estimated global burden of the associated diseases as well as the impact of regulatory measures on food supply and international trade. Apart from the well-established risk posed by aflatoxins, many uncertainties still exist about risk assessments for the other major mycotoxins, often reflecting a lack of epidemiological data. Differences exist in the risk management strategies and in the ways different governments impose regulations and technologies to reduce levels of mycotoxins in the food-chain. Regulatory measures have very little impact on remote rural and subsistence farming communities in developing countries, in contrast to developed countries, where regulations are strictly enforced to reduce and/or remove mycotoxin contamination. However, in the absence of the relevant technologies or the necessary infrastructure, we highlight simple intervention practices to reduce mycotoxin contamination in the field and/or prevent mycotoxin formation during storage.

  3. Evaluation of Risk Perception and Risk-Comparison Information Regarding Dietary Radionuclides after the 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Michio; Nakatani, Jun; Oki, Taikan

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, to facilitate evidence-based risk communication we need to understand radiation risk perception and the effectiveness of risk-comparison information. We measured and characterized perceptions of dread risks and unknown risks regarding dietary radionuclides in residents of Fukushima, Tokyo, and Osaka to identify the primary factors among location, evacuation experience, gender, age, employment status, absence/presence of spouse, children and grandchildren, educational background, humanities/science courses, smoking habits, and various types of trustworthy information sources. We then evaluated the effects of these factors and risk-comparison information on multiple outcomes, including subjective and objective understanding, perceived magnitude of risk, perceived accuracy of information, backlash against information, and risk acceptance. We also assessed how risk-comparison information affected these multiple outcomes for people with high risk perception. Online questionnaires were completed by people (n = 9249) aged from 20 to 69 years in the three prefectures approximately 5 years after the accident. We gave each participant one of 15 combinations of numerical risk data and risk-comparison information, including information on standards, smoking-associated risk, and cancer risk, in accordance with Covello's guidelines. Dread-risk perception among Fukushima residents with no experience of evacuation was much lower than that in Osaka residents, whereas evacuees had strikingly higher dread-risk perception, irrespective of whether their evacuation had been compulsory or voluntary. We identified location (distance from the nuclear power station), evacuation experience, and trust of central government as primary factors. Location (including evacuation experience) and trust of central government were significantly associated with the multiple outcomes above. Only information on "cancer risk from

  4. Trading off dietary choices, physical exercise and cardiovascular disease risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisolía, José M; Longo, Alberto; Boeri, Marco; Hutchinson, George; Kee, Frank

    2013-09-01

    Despite several decades of decline, cardiovascular diseases are still the most common causes of death in Western societies. Sedentary living and high fat diets contribute to the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. This paper analyses the trade-offs between lifestyle choices defined in terms of diet, physical activity, cost, and risk of cardiovascular disease that a representative sample of the population of Northern Ireland aged 40-65 are willing to make. Using computer assisted personal interviews, we survey 493 individuals at their homes using a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) questionnaire administered between February and July 2011 in Northern Ireland. Unlike most DCE studies for valuing public health programmes, this questionnaire uses a tailored exercise, based on the individuals' baseline choices. A "fat screener" module in the questionnaire links personal cardiovascular disease risk to each specific choice set in terms of dietary constituents. Individuals are informed about their real status quo risk of a fatal cardiovascular event, based on an initial set of health questions. Thus, actual risks, real diet and exercise choices are the elements that constitute the choice task. Our results show that our respondents are willing to pay for reducing mortality risk and, more importantly, are willing to change physical exercise and dietary behaviours. In particular, we find that to improve their lifestyles, overweight and obese people would be more likely to do more physical activity than to change their diets. Therefore, public policies aimed to target obesity and its related illnesses in Northern Ireland should invest public money in promoting physical activity rather than healthier diets.

  5. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls is associated with increased risk of stroke in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergkvist, C; Kippler, M; Larsson, S C; Berglund, M; Glynn, A; Wolk, A; Åkesson, A

    2014-09-01

    The potentially beneficial effects of fish consumption on stroke may be modified by major food contaminants in fish. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in particular are proposed to play a role in the aetiology of stroke. The aim of this study was to assess the association between dietary PCB exposure and stroke risk with the intake of long-chain omega-3 fish fatty acids and fish consumption. The prospective population-based Swedish Mammography Cohort was examined. It was comprised of 34,591 women free of cardiovascular diseases and cancer at baseline in 1997 and followed up for 12 years. Validated estimates of dietary PCB exposure were obtained via a food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Incident cases of stroke were ascertained through register linkage. During 12 years of follow-up (397,309 person-years), there were 2015 incident cases of total stroke (1532 ischaemic strokes, 216 intracerebral haemorrhages, 94 subarachnoid haemorrhages and 173 unspecified strokes). Multivariable-adjusted relative risks (RR), controlled for known stroke risk factors and fish consumption, were 1.67 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.29-2.17] for total stroke, 1.61 (95% CI, 1.19-2.17) for ischaemic stroke and 2.80 (95% CI, 1.42-5.55) for haemorrhagic stroke for women in the highest quartile of dietary PCB exposure (median 288 ng day(-1) ) compared with women in the lowest quartile (median 101 ng day(-1) ). Dietary exposure to PCBs was associated with an increased stroke risk in women, especially haemorrhagic stroke. The results provide important information regarding the risk-benefit analysis of fish consumption, particularly for cerebrovascular disease prevention. © 2014 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  6. Evaluation of Risk Perception and Risk-Comparison Information Regarding Dietary Radionuclides after the 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Michio; Nakatani, Jun; Oki, Taikan

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, to facilitate evidence-based risk communication we need to understand radiation risk perception and the effectiveness of risk-comparison information. We measured and characterized perceptions of dread risks and unknown risks regarding dietary radionuclides in residents of Fukushima, Tokyo, and Osaka to identify the primary factors among location, evacuation experience, gender, age, employment status, absence/presence of spouse, children and grandchildren, educational background, humanities/science courses, smoking habits, and various types of trustworthy information sources. We then evaluated the effects of these factors and risk-comparison information on multiple outcomes, including subjective and objective understanding, perceived magnitude of risk, perceived accuracy of information, backlash against information, and risk acceptance. We also assessed how risk-comparison information affected these multiple outcomes for people with high risk perception. Online questionnaires were completed by people (n = 9249) aged from 20 to 69 years in the three prefectures approximately 5 years after the accident. We gave each participant one of 15 combinations of numerical risk data and risk-comparison information, including information on standards, smoking-associated risk, and cancer risk, in accordance with Covello’s guidelines. Dread-risk perception among Fukushima residents with no experience of evacuation was much lower than that in Osaka residents, whereas evacuees had strikingly higher dread-risk perception, irrespective of whether their evacuation had been compulsory or voluntary. We identified location (distance from the nuclear power station), evacuation experience, and trust of central government as primary factors. Location (including evacuation experience) and trust of central government were significantly associated with the multiple outcomes above. Only information on “cancer risk from

  7. Caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejàre, I; Axelsson, S; Dahlén, G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of multivariate models and single factors to correctly identify future caries development in pre-school children and schoolchildren/adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion criteria....... Seven studies had high quality, 35 moderate and the rest poor quality. The accuracy of multivariate models was higher for pre-school children than for schoolchildren/adolescents. However, the models had seldom been validated in independent populations, making their accuracy uncertain. Of the single...... predictors, baseline caries experience had moderate/good accuracy in pre-school children and limited accuracy in schoolchildren/adolescents. The period of highest risk for caries incidence in permanent teeth was the first few years after tooth eruption. In general, the quality of evidence was limited...

  8. Tools for microbiological risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Bassett, J; Nauta, M; Lindqvist, R.; Zwietering, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) has emerged as a comprehensive and systematic approach for addressing the risk of pathogens in specific foods and/or processes. At government level, MRA is increasingly recognised as a structured and objective approach to understand the level of risk in a given food/pathogen scenario. Tools developed so far support qualitative and quantitative assessments of the risk that a food pathogen poses to a particular population. Risk can be expressed as absolute ...

  9. Risk assessment of soybean-based phytoestrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwack, Seung Jun; Kim, Kyu-Bong; Kim, Hyung Sik; Yoon, Kyung Sil; Lee, Byung Mu

    2009-01-01

    Koreans generally consume high quantities of soybean-based foods that contain a variety of phytoestrogens, such as, daidzein, zenistein, and biochalin A. However, phytoestrogens are considered to be potential endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC), which interfere with the normal function of the hormonal and reproductive systems. Therefore, dietary exposure to soybean-based phytoestrogens is of concern for Koreans, and comparative dietary risk assessments are required between Japanese (high consumers) versus Americans (low consumers). In this study, a relative risk assessment was conducted based upon daily intake levels of soybean-based foods and phytoestrogens in a Korean cohort, and the risks of photoestrogens were compared with those posed by estradiol and other EDC. Koreans approximately 30-49 yr of age consume on average a total of 135.2 g/d of soy-based foods including soybean, soybean sauce, soybean paste, and soybean oil, and 0.51 mg/kg body weight (bw)/d of phytoestrogens such as daidzein and genistein. Using estimated daily intakes (EDI) and estrogenic potencies (EP), margins of safety (MOS) were calculated where 0.05 is for estradiol (MOS value estrogenic effect); thus, MOS values of 1.89 for Japanese, 1.96 for Koreans, and 5.55 for Americans indicate that consumption of soybean-based foods exerted no apparent estrogenic effects, as all MOS values were all higher than 1. For other synthetic EDC used as reference values, MOS values were dieldrin 27, nonylphenol 250, butyl benzyl phthalate 321, bisphenol A 1000, biochanin A 2203, and coumesterol 2898. These results suggest that dietary exposure to phytoestrogens, such as daidzein and genistein, poses a relatively higher health risk for humans than synthetic EDC, although MOS values were all greater than 1.

  10. Practical Approaches to Risk Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The importance of using risk assessment in developing foodregulations is growing with the globalization of our food supply. The World Trade Organization has entrenched the principles of science-based risk assessment in the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. The relevant international organization for food standards, the Codex Alimentarius Commission, recognises risk analysis, and its component parts risk assessment, risk management and risk communication, as the basis for scientific decision-making. Risk assessment comprises two activities: hazard evaluation; and exposure estimation. A hazard may be chemical, microbiological or nutritional in origin. The practical application of risk assessment in Australia is illustrated in this presentation by four examples involving: (1) food additives, (2) microbiological safety of imported raw milk cheeses, (3) genetically modified foods and (4) imported food inspection.

  11. Practical Approaches to Risk Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SIMONBROOKE-TAYLOR

    2001-01-01

    The importance of using risk assessment in developing food regulations is growing with the globalization of our food supple,The World Trade Oranization has entrenched the principles of science-based risk assessment in the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures.The relevant international organization for food standards,the Codex Alimentarius Commission,recognises risk analysis,and its component parts risk assessment,risk management and risk communication as the basis for scientific decision-making,Risk assessment comprises two activities:hazard evaluation;and exposure estimation.A hazard may be chemical,microbiological or nutritional in origin,The practical application of risk assessment in Australia is illustrated in this presentation y four examples involving:(1) food additives,(2) microiological safety of imported raw milk cheeses,(3) genetically modified foods and (4) imported food inspection.

  12. Dietary Intake Is Related to Multifactor Cardiovascular Risk Score in Obese Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Tracy L.; Burrows, Tracy L.; Cliff, Dylan P.; Jones, Rachel A.; Okely, Anthony D.; Baur, Louise A.; Morgan, Philip J.; Callister, Robin; Boggess, May M.; Collins, Clare E.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) originates in childhood and early identification of risk factors provides an early intervention opportunity. The aim was to identify children at higher risk using a CVD risk score, developed from factors known to cluster in childhood. Risk was scored as very high (≥97.5th centile), high (≥95th), moderate (≥90th) or threshold (<90th) using normal pediatric reference ranges for 10 common biomedical risk factors. These were summed in a multifactor CVD risk score and applied to a sample of 285 observations from 136 overweight Australian children (41% male, aged 7–12 years). Strength of associations between CVD risk score and individual biomedical and dietary variables were assessed using univariate logistic regression. High waist circumference (Odds Ratio: 5.48 [95% CI: 2.60–11.55]), body mass index (OR: 3.22 [1.98–5.26]), serum insulin (OR: 3.37 [2.56–4.42]) and triglycerides (OR: 3.02 [2.22–4.12]) were all significantly related to CVD risk score. High intakes of total fat (OR: 4.44 [1.19–16.60]), sugar (OR: 2.82 [1.54–5.15]) and carbohydrate (OR 1.75 [1.11–2.77]) were significantly related to CVD risk score in boys only. This multifactor CVD risk score could be a useful tool for researchers to identify elevated risk in children. Further research is warranted to examine sex-specific dietary factors related to CVD risk in children. PMID:27429277

  13. Dietary Intake Is Related to Multifactor Cardiovascular Risk Score in Obese Boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy L. Schumacher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD originates in childhood and early identification of risk factors provides an early intervention opportunity. The aim was to identify children at higher risk using a CVD risk score, developed from factors known to cluster in childhood. Risk was scored as very high (≥97.5th centile, high (≥95th, moderate (≥90th or threshold (<90th using normal pediatric reference ranges for 10 common biomedical risk factors. These were summed in a multifactor CVD risk score and applied to a sample of 285 observations from 136 overweight Australian children (41% male, aged 7–12 years. Strength of associations between CVD risk score and individual biomedical and dietary variables were assessed using univariate logistic regression. High waist circumference (Odds Ratio: 5.48 [95% CI: 2.60–11.55], body mass index (OR: 3.22 [1.98–5.26], serum insulin (OR: 3.37 [2.56–4.42] and triglycerides (OR: 3.02 [2.22–4.12] were all significantly related to CVD risk score. High intakes of total fat (OR: 4.44 [1.19–16.60], sugar (OR: 2.82 [1.54–5.15] and carbohydrate (OR 1.75 [1.11–2.77] were significantly related to CVD risk score in boys only. This multifactor CVD risk score could be a useful tool for researchers to identify elevated risk in children. Further research is warranted to examine sex-specific dietary factors related to CVD risk in children.

  14. Baseline dietary glutamic acid intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: The Rotterdam study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana Veloso, Gilson G; Franco, Oscar H; Ruiter, Rikje; de Keyser, Catherina E; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno C; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C

    2016-03-15

    Animal studies have shown that glutamine supplementation may decrease colon carcinogenesis, but any relation with glutamine or its precursors has not been studied in humans. The primary aim of this study was to assess whether dietary glutamic acid intake was associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in community-dwelling adults. A secondary aim was to evaluate whether the association could be modified by the body mass index (BMI). This study was embedded in the Rotterdam study, which included a prospective cohort from 1990 onward that consisted of 5362 subjects who were 55 years old or older and were free of CRC at the baseline. Glutamic acid was calculated as a percentage of the total protein intake with a validated food frequency questionnaire at the baseline. Incident cases of CRC were pathology-based. During follow-up, 242 subjects developed CRC. Baseline dietary glutamic acid intake was significantly associated with a lower risk of developing CRC (hazard ratio [HR] per percent increase in glutamic acid of protein, 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62-0.99). After stratification for BMI, the risk reduction for CRC by dietary glutamic acid was 42% for participants with a BMI ≤ 25 kg/m(2) (HR per percent increase in glutamic acid of protein, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40-0.85), whereas no association was found in participants with a BMI > 25 kg/m(2) (HR per percent increase in glutamic acid of protein, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.73-1.31). Our data suggest that baseline dietary glutamic acid intake is associated with a lower risk of developing CRC, but this association may be mainly present in nonoverweight subjects. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  15. Association between dietary fiber intake and risk of coronary heart disease: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yihua; Qian, Yufeng; Pan, Yiwen; Li, Peiwei; Yang, Jun; Ye, Xianhua; Xu, Geng

    2015-08-01

    The association between coronary heart disease (CHD) and dietary fiber intake is not consistent, especially for the subtypes of dietary fiber. The aim of our study was to conduct a meta-analysis of existing cohort published studies assessing the association between dietary fiber intake and risk of CHD, and quantitatively estimating their dose-response relationships. We searched PubMed and EMBASE before May 2013. Random-effect model was used to calculate the pool relative risk (RRs) for the incidence and mortality of CHD. Dose-response, subgroup analyses based on fiber subtypes, heterogeneity and publication bias were also carried out. Eighteen studies involving 672,408 individuals were finally included in the present study. The pooled-adjusted RRs of coronary heart disease for the highest versus lowest category of fiber intake were 0.93 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.91-0.96, P fiber subtypes (cereal, fruit, and vegetable fiber), indicated that RRs were 0.92 (95% CI, 0.85-0.99, P = 0.032), 0.92 (95% CI, 0.86-0.98, P = 0.01), 0.95 (95% CI, 0.89-1.01, P = 0.098) respectively for all coronary event and 0.81 (95% CI, 0.72-0.92, P = 0.001), 0.68 (95% CI, 0.43-1.07, P = 0.094), 0.91 (95% CI, 0.74-1.12, P = 0.383) for mortality. In addition, a significant dose-response relationship was observed between fiber intake and the incidence and mortality of CHD (P dietary fiber is inversely associated with risk of coronary heart disease, especially for fiber from cereals and fruits. Besides, soluble and insoluble fibers have the similar effect. A significant dose-response relationship is also observed between fiber intake and CHD risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary magnesium intake and risk of metabolic syndrome: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibaba, D. T.; Xun, P.; Fly, A. D.; Yokota, K.; He, K.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To estimate quantitatively the association between dietary magnesium intake and risk of metabolic syndrome by combining the relevant published articles using meta-analysis. Methods We reviewed the relevant literature in PubMed and EMBASE published up until August 2013 and obtained additional information through Google or a hand search of the references in relevant articles. A random-effects or fixed-effects model, as appropriate, was used to pool the effect sizes on metabolic syndrome comparing individuals with the highest dietary magnesium intake with those having the lowest intake. The dose–response relationship was assessed for every 100-mg/day increment in magnesium intake and risk of metabolic syndrome. Result Six cross-sectional studies, including a total of 24 473 individuals and 6311 cases of metabolic syndrome, were identified as eligible for the meta-analysis. A weighted inverse association was found between dietary magnesium intake and the risk of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio 0.69, 95% CI 0.59, 0.81) comparing the highest with the lowest group. For every 100-mg/day increment in magnesium intake, the overall risk of having metabolic syndrome was lowered by 17% (odds ratio 0.83, 95% CI 0. 77, 0.89). Conclusion Findings from the present meta-analysis suggest that dietary magnesium intake is inversely associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Further studies, in particular well-designed longitudinal cohort studies and randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials, are warranted to provide solid evidence and to establish causal inference. PMID:24975384

  17. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and the risk of type 2 diabetes in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahyoun, Nadine R; Anderson, Amy L; Tylavsky, Frances A; Lee, Jung Sun; Sellmeyer, Deborah E; Harris, Tamara B

    2008-01-01

    It is unclear whether immediate dietary effects on blood glucose influence the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to examine whether the dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) were associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes in older adults. The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study is a prospective cohort study of 3075 adults who were 70-79 y old at baseline (n=1898 for this analysis). The intakes of specific nutrients and food groups and the risk of type 2 diabetes over a 4-y period were examined according to dietary GI and GL. Dietary GI was positively associated with dietary carbohydrate and negatively associated with the intakes of protein, total fat, saturated fat, alcohol, vegetables, and fruit. Dietary GL was positively associated with dietary carbohydrate, fruit, and fiber and negatively associated with the intakes of protein, total fat, saturated fat, and alcohol. Persons in the higher quintiles of dietary GI or GL did not have a significantly greater incidence of type 2 diabetes. These findings do not support a relation between dietary GI or GL and the risk of type 2 diabetes in older adults. Because dietary GI and GL show strong nutritional correlates, the overall dietary pattern should be considered.

  18. Dietary pattern and its association with the prevalence of obesity, hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors among Chinese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas J; Hills, Andrew P

    2014-04-10

    This article examined the association between dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese older adults. For this study, older adults with one or more cardiovascular risk factors or a history of cardiovascular disease were randomly selected using health check medical records from the Changshu and Beijing Fangshan Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Exploratory factor analysis and cluster analysis was used to extract dietary pattern factors. Log binomial regression analysis was used to analyse the association between dietary patterns and chronic disease related risk factors. Four factors were found through factor analysis. A high level of internal consistency was obtained, with a high Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.83. Cluster analysis identified three dietary patterns: healthy diet, Western diet, and balanced diet. Findings in this sample of Chinese adults correspond to those reported in previous studies, indicating that a Western diet is significantly related to likelihood of having obesity, hypertension and the metabolic syndrome. The identification of distinct dietary patterns among Chinese older adults and the nutritional status of people with chronic diseases suggest that the three dietary patterns have a reasonable level of discriminant validity. This study provides evidence that a FFQ is a valid and reliable tool to assess the dietary patterns of individuals with chronic diseases in small- to medium-size urban and rural settings in China. It also validates the significant association between dietary pattern and cardiovascular disease risk factors, including body mass index, blood pressure, triglycerides, and metabolic conditions. Clinical diagnosis of chronic disease further confirmed this relationship in Chinese older adults.

  19. Dietary Pattern and Its Association with the Prevalence of Obesity, Hypertension and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Chinese Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Sun

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This article examined the association between dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese older adults. Methods: For this study, older adults with one or more cardiovascular risk factors or a history of cardiovascular disease were randomly selected using health check medical records from the Changshu and Beijing Fangshan Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Exploratory factor analysis and cluster analysis was used to extract dietary pattern factors. Log binomial regression analysis was used to analyse the association between dietary patterns and chronic disease related risk factors. Results: Four factors were found through factor analysis. A high level of internal consistency was obtained, with a high Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.83. Cluster analysis identified three dietary patterns: healthy diet, Western diet, and balanced diet. Findings in this sample of Chinese adults correspond to those reported in previous studies, indicating that a Western diet is significantly related to likelihood of having obesity, hypertension and the metabolic syndrome. The identification of distinct dietary patterns among Chinese older adults and the nutritional status of people with chronic diseases suggest that the three dietary patterns have a reasonable level of discriminant validity. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that a FFQ is a valid and reliable tool to assess the dietary patterns of individuals with chronic diseases in small- to medium-size urban and rural settings in China. It also validates the significant association between dietary pattern and cardiovascular disease risk factors, including body mass index, blood pressure, triglycerides, and metabolic conditions. Clinical diagnosis of chronic disease further confirmed this relationship in Chinese older adults.

  20. Information needs for risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRosa, C.T.; Choudhury, H.; Schoeny, R.S.

    1990-12-31

    Risk assessment can be thought of as a conceptual approach to bridge the gap between the available data and the ultimate goal of characterizing the risk or hazard associated with a particular environmental problem. To lend consistency to and to promote quality in the process, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published Guidelines for Risk Assessment of Carcinogenicity, Developmental Toxicity, Germ Cell Mutagenicity and Exposure Assessment, and Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures. The guidelines provide a framework for organizing the information, evaluating data, and for carrying out the risk assessment in a scientifically plausible manner. In the absence of sufficient scientific information or when abundant data are available, the guidelines provide alternative methodologies that can be employed in the risk assessment. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Estimated dietary dioxin exposure and breast cancer risk among women from the French E3N prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danjou, Aurélie M N; Fervers, Béatrice; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Philip, Thierry; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Dossus, Laure

    2015-03-17

    Dioxins are environmental and persistent pollutants mostly emitted from combustion facilities (e.g. waste incinerators, metal and cement industries). Known to be endocrine disrupting chemicals, dioxins are suspected to increase breast cancer (BC) risk. Although diet is considered the primary source of dioxin exposure, no previous study has been published on dietary dioxin exposure in relation to BC risk. We aimed to assess dietary dioxin exposure among women from the E3N cohort and estimate BC risk associated with this exposure. The study included 63,830 women from the E3N cohort who completed a diet history questionnaire (DHQ) in 1993 and were followed until 2008. Dietary dioxin exposure was estimated by combining consumption data from the E3N DHQ and food dioxin contamination data from a French national monitoring program. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by Cox models adjusted for BC risk factors. Mean dietary dioxin exposure was estimated at 1.3 ± 0.4 pg/kg body weight (BW)/day. A 0.4 pg/kg BW/d increase in dioxin intake was not associated with overall BC risk (HR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.05). A significant decrease in risk of estrogen receptor negative (ER-)/progesterone receptor negative (PR-) tumors was observed among post-menopausal women in the upper quartile of estimated dioxin intake (HR for Q4 vs. Q1: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.96; P for trend across quartiles = 0.0463). Overall, no association between estimated dietary dioxin exposure and BC risk was found among E3N women. Further studies should include both dietary and environmental exposures to determine whether low-dose dioxin exposure is associated with BC risk.

  2. Avaliação de risco crônico da ingestão de resíduos de pesticidas na dieta brasileira Chronic dietary risk assessment for pesticide residues in Brazilian food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Dutra Caldas

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o risco crônico da ingestão de pesticidas pela dieta, em compostos registrados no Brasil para uso agrícola até 1999. MÉTODOS: Foi calculada a Ingestão Diária Máxima Teórica (IDMT para cada pesticida, utilizando limites máximos de resíduos estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira e dados de consumo alimentar. A caracterização do risco foi feita comparando-se a IDMT com as doses diárias aceitáveis (IDA de vários países e do Codex Alimentarius. RESULTADOS: A IDTM ultrapassou a IDA (%IDA>100 em pelo menos uma região metropolitana brasileira para 23 pesticidas. Dezesseis compostos com maior %IDA são inseticidas organofosforados, sendo o paration metílico o composto cuja ingestão mais excedeu o parâmetro toxicológico (%IDA N=9.300. O arroz, o feijão, as frutas cítricas e o tomate foram os alimentos que mais contribuíram para a ingestão. Dos compostos que apresentaram maior risco, apenas 6 foram registrados de acordo com o Decreto 98.816/90, que dispõe sobre o uso de pesticidas no País. CONCLUSÕES: Os compostos identificados como sendo de potencial risco de exposição crônica para a população brasileira, e os alimentos que mais contribuíram para a sua ingestão, devem ser priorizados pelos órgãos de saúde em programas de monitoramento de resíduos de pesticidas. Adicionalmente, dados sobre resíduos em alimentos prontos para o consumo, fatores de processamento e dados sobre consumo alimentar devem ser gerados para possibilitar o refinamento do estudo.OBJECTIVE: To conduct a chronic dietary risk assessment of the pesticides registered in Brazil up until 1999. METHODS: The Theoretical Maximum Daily Intake (TMDI for each pesticide was calculated using the Brazilian maximum residue limits and food consumption data from IBGE, the Brazilian Statistical Institute. The risk characterization was done comparing the TMDI with the acceptable daily intakes (ADI from other countries and from the Codex

  3. Exploration Health Risks: Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer; Charles, John; Hayes, Judith; Wren, Kiley

    2006-01-01

    Maintenance of human health on long-duration exploration missions is a primary challenge to mission designers. Indeed, human health risks are currently the largest risk contributors to the risks of evacuation or loss of the crew on long-duration International Space Station missions. We describe a quantitative assessment of the relative probabilities of occurrence of the individual risks to human safety and efficiency during space flight to augment qualitative assessments used in this field to date. Quantitative probabilistic risk assessments will allow program managers to focus resources on those human health risks most likely to occur with undesirable consequences. Truly quantitative assessments are common, even expected, in the engineering and actuarial spheres, but that capability is just emerging in some arenas of life sciences research, such as identifying and minimize the hazards to astronauts during future space exploration missions. Our expectation is that these results can be used to inform NASA mission design trade studies in the near future with the objective of preventing the higher among the human health risks. We identify and discuss statistical techniques to provide this risk quantification based on relevant sets of astronaut biomedical data from short and long duration space flights as well as relevant analog populations. We outline critical assumptions made in the calculations and discuss the rationale for these. Our efforts to date have focussed on quantifying the probabilities of medical risks that are qualitatively perceived as relatively high risks of radiation sickness, cardiac dysrhythmias, medically significant renal stone formation due to increased calcium mobilization, decompression sickness as a result of EVA (extravehicular activity), and bone fracture due to loss of bone mineral density. We present these quantitative probabilities in order-of-magnitude comparison format so that relative risk can be gauged. We address the effects of

  4. Chronic dietary risk for pesticide residues in food in Brazil: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, E D; Souza, L C K R

    2004-11-01

    The objective was to conduct a dietary risk assessment of pesticides registered in Brazil up to 14 January 2004. The theoretical maximum daily intake (TMDI) was calculated for 275 compounds using the Brazilian maximum residue limits (MRL) and food consumption. The chronic dietary risk assessment was conducted by comparing the TMDI with the Brazilian acceptable daily intake (ADI) or, when not available, with the ADI from other sources. The TMDI was higher than the ADI (%ADI>100) in at least one Brazilian region for eight pesticides, including five organophosphorus insecticides. For these compounds, the higher TMDI (expressed as %ADI) ranged from 140 (metam sodium) to 14,000 (methyl bromide). Rice, beans, citrus and tomato were the commodities that contributed most to ingestion. Change in pesticide use patterns and the establishment of ADIs by the Brazilian government have reduced the number of compounds for which the TMDI exceeded the ADI in the last 4 years. Risk assessment methodology based on TMDI calculation, however, is conservative as it assumes that the food supply is always treated with all the registered pesticides for that crop and that one always consumes food containing residues at the tolerance level. Furthermore, for six compounds with TMDI exceeding the ADI, a more realistic estimation of the pesticide daily intake was conducted using monitoring residue data from the Brazilian National Pesticide Residue Program. For these compounds, the higher refined intakes ranged from 2% (dimethoate) to 180% (fenitrothion) of the ADIs. The implementation of a national pesticide residue monitoring programme by the government was important to allow the refinement of the risk assessment. However, adequate daily food consumption data are still needed to assess better the public health risk to Brazilian consumers from food produced from crops treated with pesticides.

  5. [Forensic assessment of violence risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol Robinat, Amadeo; Mohíno Justes, Susana; Gómez-Durán, Esperanza L

    2014-03-01

    Over the last 20 years there have been steps forward in the field of scientific research on prediction and handling different violent behaviors. In this work we go over the classic concept of "criminal dangerousness" and the more current of "violence risk assessment". We analyze the evolution of such assessment from the practice of non-structured clinical expert opinion to current actuarial methods and structured clinical expert opinion. Next we approach the problem of assessing physical violence risk analyzing the HCR-20 (Assessing Risk for Violence) and we also review the classic and complex subject of the relation between mental disease and violence. One of the most problematic types of violence, difficult to assess and predict, is sexual violence. We study the different actuarial and sexual violence risk prediction instruments and in the end we advise an integral approach to the problem. We also go through partner violence risk assessment, describing the most frequently used scales, especially SARA (Spouse Assault Risk Assessment) and EPV-R. Finally we give practical advice on risk assessment, emphasizing the importance of having maximum information about the case, carrying out a clinical examination, psychopathologic exploration and the application of one of the described risk assessment scales. We'll have to express an opinion about the dangerousness/risk of future violence from the subject and some recommendations on the conduct to follow and the most advisable treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary Carbohydrate, Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, and Breast Cancer Risk Among Mexican Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadou, Amina; Degoul, Julie; Hainaut, Pierre; Chajes, Veronique; Biessy, Carine; Torres Mejia, Gabriela; Huybrechts, Inge; Moreno Macia, Hortensia; Ortega, Caro; Angeles-Llerenas, Anjélica; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-11-01

    Very few studies have focused on the relationship among dietary carbohydrates, glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and breast cancer risk in Latin American women. Our objective was to assess the associations among dietary carbohydrate, GI, GL, and risk of breast cancer, and to further investigate these associations by levels of overweight/obesity and physical activity. We used data from a Mexican population-based case-control study. We recruited a 1,000 women with incident breast cancer and 1,074 matched control women ages 35 to 69 years between 2004 and 2007. We used conditional logistic regression models and energy-adjusted carbohydrates, GI, and GL using the residual method. Total carbohydrate intake was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer among premenopausal women. The odds ratio in the highest versus the lowest quartile was 1.3 (95% confidence interval = 1.0, 1.7; P trend = 0.03). In stratified analyses by body mass index (BMI), the positive association between carbohydrate and risk of premenopausal breast cancer was only observed among overweight women. The odds ratio comparing the top with the bottom quartile was 1.9 (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.0; P trend = 0.01) among women with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m. No association was observed among women with BMI carbohydrate diets are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer among premenopausal Mexican women.

  7. Using risk assessment in periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Alan J

    2014-08-01

    Risk assessment has become a regular feature in both dental practice and society as a whole, and principles used to assess risk in society are similar to those used in a clinical setting. Although the concept of risk assessment as a prognostic indicator for periodontal disease incidence and activity is well established in the management of periodontitis, the use of risk assessment to manage the practical treatment of periodontitis and its sequelae appears to have less foundation. A simple system of initial risk assessment - building on the use of the Basic Periodontal Examination (BPE), clinical, medical and social factors - is described, linked to protocols for delivering care suited to general dental practice and stressing the role of long-term supportive care. The risks of not treating the patient are considered, together with the possible causes of failure, and the problems of successful treatment are illustrated by the practical management of post-treatment recession.

  8. Dietary fiber intake and cardiometabolic risks among US adults, NHANES 1999-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooms, Kya N; Ommerborn, Mark J; Pham, Do Quyen; Djoussé, Luc; Clark, Cheryl R

    2013-12-01

    Dietary fiber may decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors. We examined trends in dietary fiber intake among diverse US adults between 1999 and 2010, and investigated associations between dietary fiber intake and cardiometabolic risks including metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular inflammation, and obesity. Our cross-sectional analysis included 23,168 men and nonpregnant women aged 20+ years from the 1999-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We used weighted multivariable logistic regression models to estimate predicted marginal risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the risks of having the metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and obesity associated with quintiles of dietary fiber intake. Consistently, dietary fiber intake remained below recommended adequate intake levels for total fiber defined by the Institute of Medicine. Mean dietary fiber intake averaged 15.7-17.0 g. Mexican Americans (18.8 g) consumed more fiber than non-Hispanic whites (16.3 g) and non-Hispanic blacks (13.1 g). Comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles of dietary fiber intake, adjusted predicted marginal risk ratios (95% confidence interval) for the metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and obesity were 0.78 (0.69-0.88), 0.66 (0.61-0.72), and 0.77 (0.71-0.84), respectively. Dietary fiber was associated with lower levels of inflammation within each racial and ethnic group, although statistically significant associations between dietary fiber and either obesity or metabolic syndrome were seen only among whites. Low dietary fiber intake from 1999-2010 in the US, and associations between higher dietary fiber and a lower prevalence of cardiometabolic risks suggest the need to develop new strategies and policies to increase dietary fiber intake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary Fiber Intake and Cardiometabolic Risks among US Adults, NHANES 1999–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooms, Kya N.; Ommerborn, Mark J.; Pham, Do Quyen; Djousse, Luc; Clark, Cheryl R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary fiber may decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors. We examined trends in dietary fiber intake among diverse US adults between 1999 and 2010, and investigated associations between dietary fiber intake and cardiometabolic risks including metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular inflammation, and obesity. Methods Our cross-sectional analysis included 23,168 men and non-pregnant women aged 20+ years from 1999–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We used weighted multivariable logistic regression models to estimate predicted marginal risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risks of having the metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and obesity associated with quintiles of dietary fiber intake. Results Dietary fiber intake remained consistently below recommended adequate intake levels for total fiber defined by the Institute of Medicine. Mean dietary fiber intake averaged 15.7g–17.0g. Mexican-Americans (18.8 g) consumed more fiber than non-Hispanic Whites (16.3 g) and non-Hispanic Blacks (13.1 g). Comparing the highest to lowest quintiles of dietary fiber intake, adjusted predicted marginal risk ratios (95% CI) for the metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and obesity were 0.78 (0.69–0.88), 0.66 (0.61–0.72), and 0.77 (0.71–0.84), respectively. Dietary fiber was associated with lower levels of inflammation within each racial and ethnic group, though statistically significant associations between dietary fiber and either obesity or metabolic syndrome were seen only among whites. Conclusions Low dietary fiber intake from 1999–2010 in the US, and associations between higher dietary fiber and a lower prevalence of cardiometabolic risks suggest the need to develop new strategies and policies to increase dietary fiber intake. PMID:24135514

  10. Confounding by Dietary Patterns of the Inverse Association Between Alcohol Consumption and Type 2 Diabetes Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Imamura, Fumiaki; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Dallal, Gerard E; Meigs, James B; Jacques, Paul F

    2009-01-01

    .... To examine confounding by dietary pattern as well as standard risk factors and selected nutrients, the authors modeled the longitudinal association between alcohol consumption and 7-year risk of type...

  11. A Snack Dietary Pattern Increases the Risk of Hypercholesterolemia in Northern Chinese Adults: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Na

    Full Text Available The evidence about the effect of dietary patterns on blood cholesterol from cohort studies was very scarce. The study was to identify the association of dietary patterns with lipid profile, especially cholesterol, in a cohort in north China. Using a 1-year food frequency questionnaire, we assessed the dietary intake of 4515 adults from the Harbin People's Health Study in 2008, aged 20-74 years. Principle component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. The follow-up was completed in 2012. Fasting blood samples were collected for the determination of blood lipid concentrations. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association of dietary patterns with the incidence of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and low-HDL cholesterolemia. Five dietary patterns were identified ("staple food", "vegetable, fruit and milk", "potato, soybean and egg", "snack", and "meat". The relative risk (RR between the extreme tertiles of the snack dietary pattern scores was 1.72 (95% CI = 1.14, 2.59, P = 0.004 for hypercholesterolemia, 1.39 (1.13, 1.75, P = 0.036 for hypertriglyceridemia, after adjustment for age, sex, education, body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, energy intake, exercise and baseline lipid concentrations. There was a significant positive association between the snack dietary pattern scores and fasting serum total cholesterol (SRC (standardized regression coefficient = 0.262, P = 0.025, LDL-c (SRC = 0.324, P = 0.002 and triglycerides (SRC = 0.253, P = 0.035, after adjustment for the multiple variables above. Moreover, the adjusted RR of hypertriglyceridemia between the extreme tertiles was 0.73 (0.56, 0.94, P = 0.025 for the vegetable, fruit and milk dietary pattern, and 1.86 (1.33, 2.41, P = 0.005 for the meat dietary pattern. The snack dietary pattern was a newly emerged dietary pattern in northern Chinese adults. It appears conceivable that the risk of hypercholesterolemia can be reduced by changing the snack

  12. Overcoming Dietary Assessment Challenges in Low-Income Countries: Technological Solutions Proposed by the International Dietary Data Expansion (INDDEX) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Jennifer C; Colaiezzi, Brooke A; Bell, Winnie; Charrondiere, U Ruth; Leclercq, Catherine

    2017-03-16

    An increasing number of low-income countries (LICs) exhibit high rates of malnutrition coincident with rising rates of overweight and obesity. Individual-level dietary data are needed to inform effective responses, yet dietary data from large-scale surveys conducted in LICs remain extremely limited. This discussion paper first seeks to highlight the barriers to collection and use of individual-level dietary data in LICs. Second, it introduces readers to new technological developments and research initiatives to remedy this situation, led by the International Dietary Data Expansion (INDDEX) Project. Constraints to conducting large-scale dietary assessments include significant costs, time burden, technical complexity, and limited investment in dietary research infrastructure, including the necessary tools and databases required to collect individual-level dietary data in large surveys. To address existing bottlenecks, the INDDEX Project is developing a dietary assessment platform for LICs, called INDDEX24, consisting of a mobile application integrated with a web database application, which is expected to facilitate seamless data collection and processing. These tools will be subject to rigorous testing including feasibility, validation, and cost studies. To scale up dietary data collection and use in LICs, the INDDEX Project will also invest in food composition databases, an individual-level dietary data dissemination platform, and capacity development activities. Although the INDDEX Project activities are expected to improve the ability of researchers and policymakers in low-income countries to collect, process, and use dietary data, the global nutrition community is urged to commit further significant investments in order to adequately address the range and scope of challenges described in this paper.

  13. Overcoming Dietary Assessment Challenges in Low-Income Countries: Technological Solutions Proposed by the International Dietary Data Expansion (INDDEX) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Jennifer C.; Colaiezzi, Brooke A.; Bell, Winnie; Charrondiere, U. Ruth; Leclercq, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of low-income countries (LICs) exhibit high rates of malnutrition coincident with rising rates of overweight and obesity. Individual-level dietary data are needed to inform effective responses, yet dietary data from large-scale surveys conducted in LICs remain extremely limited. This discussion paper first seeks to highlight the barriers to collection and use of individual-level dietary data in LICs. Second, it introduces readers to new technological developments and research initiatives to remedy this situation, led by the International Dietary Data Expansion (INDDEX) Project. Constraints to conducting large-scale dietary assessments include significant costs, time burden, technical complexity, and limited investment in dietary research infrastructure, including the necessary tools and databases required to collect individual-level dietary data in large surveys. To address existing bottlenecks, the INDDEX Project is developing a dietary assessment platform for LICs, called INDDEX24, consisting of a mobile application integrated with a web database application, which is expected to facilitate seamless data collection and processing. These tools will be subject to rigorous testing including feasibility, validation, and cost studies. To scale up dietary data collection and use in LICs, the INDDEX Project will also invest in food composition databases, an individual-level dietary data dissemination platform, and capacity development activities. Although the INDDEX Project activities are expected to improve the ability of researchers and policymakers in low-income countries to collect, process, and use dietary data, the global nutrition community is urged to commit further significant investments in order to adequately address the range and scope of challenges described in this paper. PMID:28300759

  14. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ETHYLENE OXIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  15. Association between dietary vitamin C intake and risk of esophageal cancer: A dose-response meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Yacong; Lu, Yan; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Erjiang; Yuan, Ling; Lu, Weiquan; Cui, Lingling; Lu, Quanjun

    2016-04-15

    While several epidemiological studies have investigated the association between vitamin C and risk of esophageal cancer, the results remain inconsistent. In the present study, a meta-analysis was conducted to assess the impact of dietary vitamin C intake on esophageal cancer risk. Online databases were searched up to March 29, 2015, for studies on the association between dietary vitamin C intake and esophageal cancer risk. Pooled risk ratios (RRs) or odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model. Dose-response analyses were performed using the method of restricted cubic splines with four knots at percentiles of 5, 35, 65 and 95% of the distribution. Publication bias was estimated using Egger's tests and funnel plots. In all, 15 articles were included in this meta-analysis, including 20 studies, containing 7063 controls and 3955 cases of esophageal cancer. By comparing the highest vs. the lowest categories of vitamin C intake, we found that vitamin C was inversely associated with the risk of esophageal cancer [overall OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.49-0.68, I(2) = 56%]. A linear dose-response relationship was found. With an increase in dietary vitamin C intake of 50 mg/day, the risk of esophageal cancer statistically decreased by 13% (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.80-0.93, p(linearity) = 0.0002). In conclusion, our analysis suggested that the higher intake of dietary vitamin C might have a protective effect against esophageal cancer.

  16. Vegetarian dietary patterns and the risk of breast cancer in a low-risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penniecook-Sawyers, Jason A; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fan, Jing; Beeson, Larry; Knutsen, Synnove; Herring, Patti; Fraser, Gary E

    2016-05-28

    Among cancers in American women, breast cancer (BC) has the second highest incidence and mortality. The association of BC with diet has been inconsistent. Studies that evaluate associations with dietary patterns are less common and reflect an individual's whole diet. We associated dietary patterns with the risk of BC in American women of the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2), a prospective cohort of 96 001 subjects recruited between 2002 and 2007. Answers to a previously validated FFQ were used to classify subjects to vegan, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian and non-vegetarian dietary patterns. Incident BC were identified by matching AHS-2 subjects to data from forty-eight state cancer registries. Statistical analyses used proportional hazard regression analyses with covariates that were chosen a priori. From 50 404 female participants (26 193 vegetarians), we identified 892 incident BC cases, with 478 cases among vegetarians. As compared with non-vegetarians, all vegetarians combined did not have a significantly lower risk (hazard ratio (HR) 0·97; CI 0·84, 1·11; P=0·64). However, vegans showed consistently lower (but non-significant) point estimates when compared with non-vegetarians (all cases: HR 0·78; CI 0·58, 1·05; P=0·09). In summary, participants in this cohort who follow a vegetarian dietary pattern did not experience a lower risk of BC as compared with non-vegetarians, although lower risk in vegans is possible. These findings add to the very limited literature associating vegetarian diets with BC risk and can assist nutritionists when evaluating the impact of these diets. The findings will also motivate further evaluation of vegan diets and their special characteristics.

  17. Dietary B Vitamins and a 10-Year Risk of Dementia in Older Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Lefèvre-Arbogast

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available B vitamins may lower the risk of dementia, yet epidemiological findings, mostly from countries with folic acid fortification, have remained inconsistent. We evaluated in a large French cohort of older persons the associations between dietary B vitamins and long-term incident dementia. We included 1321 participants from the Three-City Study who completed a 24 h dietary recall, were free of dementia at the time of diet assessment, and were followed for an average of 7.4 years. In Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for multiple potential confounders, including overall diet quality, higher intake of folate was inversely associated with the risk of dementia (p for trend = 0.02, with an approximately 50% lower risk for individuals in the highest compared to the lowest quintile of folate (HR = 0.47; 95% CI 0.28; 0.81. No association was found for vitamins B6 and B12. In conclusion, in a large French cohort with a relatively low baseline folate status (average intake = 278 µg/day, higher folate intakes were associated with a decreased risk of dementia.

  18. Nanomaterials: Regulation and Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Grieger, Khara Deanne; Baun, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The topics of regulation and risk assessment of nanomaterials have never been more relevant and controversial in Europe than they are at this point in time. In this entry, we present and discuss a number of major pieces of legislation relevant for the regulation of nanomaterials, including REACH...... Regulation. Chemical risk assessment provides a fundamental element in support of existing legislation. Risk assessment is normally said to consist of four elements, i.e., hazard identification, dose–response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Each of these four elements hold......, the Water Framework Directive, pharmaceuticals regulation, and the Novel Foods Regulation. Current regulation of nanomaterials entail three overall challenges: 1) limitations in regard to terminology and definitions of key terms such as a “substance,” “novel food,” etc.; 2) safety assessment requirements...

  19. Dietary Fat and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: Recent Controversies and Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong D; Hu, Frank B

    2017-08-21

    Health effects of dietary fats have been extensively studied for decades. However, controversies exist on the effects of various types of fatty acids, especially saturated fatty acid (SFA), on cardiovascular disease (CVD). Current evidence supports that different types of dietary fatty acids have divergent effects on CVD risk, and the effects also depend strongly on the comparison or replacement macronutrient. A significant reduction in CVD risk can be achieved if SFAs are replaced by unsaturated fats, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids. Intake of industrially produced trans fat is consistently associated with higher CVD risk. Both n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are associated with lower CVD risk, although the effects of fish oil supplementation remains inconsistent. The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans place greater emphasis on types of dietary fat than total amount of dietary fat and recommend replacing SFAs with unsaturated fats, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids for CVD prevention.

  20. Dietary pattern and risk of hodgkin lymphoma in a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Mara M; Chang, Ellen T; Zhang, Yawei; Fung, Teresa T; Batista, Julie L; Ambinder, Richard F; Zheng, Tongzhang; Mueller, Nancy E; Birmann, Brenda M

    2015-09-01

    Classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) has few known modifiable risk factors, and the relationship between diet and cHL risk is unclear. We performed the first investigation of an association between dietary pattern and cHL risk in 435 cHL cases and 563 population-based controls from Massachusetts and Connecticut (1997-2000) who completed baseline diet questionnaires. We identified 4 major dietary patterns ("vegetable," "high meat," "fruit/low-fat dairy," "desserts/sweets") using principal components analysis. We computed multivariable odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations of dietary pattern score (quartiles) with younger-adult (age dietary patterns were not clearly associated with cHL. We report the first evidence for a role of dietary pattern in cHL etiology. Diets featuring high intake of meat or desserts and sweets may increase cHL risk.

  1. Determination of caffeine and identification of undeclared substances in dietary supplements and caffeine dietary exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Diana Brito da Justa; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2017-07-01

    Caffeine is one of the most consumed stimulants in the world, and is a frequent ingredient of dietary supplements. The aims of this work were to validate a GC-MS method for the quantitation of caffeine and identification of other substances in supplements, mainly weight loss products, and to estimate the caffeine intake by consumers. Sample preparation included extraction with chloroform:water in ultrasonic bath, centrifugation and analysis of the organic layer for caffeine quantitation, and extraction with methanol for identification of other substances. A total of 213 samples of 52 supplement products not registered in Brazil and seized by the Brazilian Federal Police were analyzed. From the 109 samples that declared the amount of caffeine present, 26.6% contained more than 120% of the specified content. Considering the maximum recommended dose stated on the product labels, the consumption of 47.9% of the samples would lead to a daily intake of caffeine above the safe limit of 400 mg. Undeclared drugs, including sibutramine, phenolphthalein, amphepramone and femproporex were found in 28 samples. These results show that consumers of dietary supplements should be aware that these products might contain caffeine at levels that could represent potential health risks, in addition to undeclared pharmaceutical drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Dietary exposure assessment of aflatoxin of foodstuff and edible oil from Shenzhen residents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Qiu, Fen; Jiang, Lixin; Yang, Mei

    2014-07-01

    To assess the dietary exposure aflatoxin B1 and total aflatoxins of foodstuff and edible oil in Shenzhen residents. Aflatoxins in the samples were determined by the immuno-affinity column clean-up plus UPLC. The aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxins dietary exposure were calculated by the level of aflatoxins contamination in the food and consumption of dietary. The average diary aflatoxin B1 dietary exposure of the man of the 2 to 6, 7 to 14, 15 to 50 and > 50 age group in Shenzhen were 0.320, 0.385, 0.401 and 0.398 ng/(kg BW x d), the results of the woman were 0.282, 0.222, 0.367 and 0.470 ng/(kg BW x d) respectively. The total average daily dietary aflatoxin B1 exposure of the man were 0.012, 0.015, 0.016 and 0.016 ng/(kg BW x d) about each age group. The results of the woman were 78.4, 167, 113 and 103 ng/(kg BW d). According to the the average levels of consumption and the high levels of consumption, the risk of AFB, of the man were 0.012,0.015, 0.016, 0. 016 and 3.0, 8.2, 4.1, 4.4 cancer patient per one hundred thousand, respectively. The results of the woman were 0.010, 0.009, 0.014, 0.018 and 2.9, 6.7, 4.4, 4.0 cancer patient per one hundred thousand, respectively. 7 to 14 age group compared with adults age group face higher exposure levels. The rice and peanut oil are most primary aflatoxin dietary exposure sources in Shenzhen.

  3. Development and validation of a Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) to assess the dietary quality of school lunches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus K.

    2012-01-01

    of school lunches for children aged 7–13 years. Design A Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) was developed to consist of seven components (nutrients and food groups) based on dietary issues for children aged 7–13 years, which were identified in a national dietary survey. The Meal IQ was validated...... of a school food programme. In addition thirty-two lunches provided at eighteen other public schools were included. Subjects A total of 254 school lunches. Results A higher Meal IQ score was associated with a higher overall dietary quality, including lower contents of fat, saturated fat and added sugars......, higher contents of fibre, various vitamins and minerals, and more fruits, vegetables and fish. Conclusions The Meal IQ is a valid and useful evaluation tool for assessing the dietary quality of lunches provided by schools or brought to school from home....

  4. Associations between dietary fiber and colorectal polyp risk differ by polyp type and smoking status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhenming; Shrubsole, Martha J; Smalley, Walter E; Ness, Reid M; Zheng, Wei

    2014-05-01

    The association of dietary fiber intake with colorectal cancer risk is established. However, the association may differ between cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. We evaluated this hypothesis in a large colonoscopy-based case-control study. Dietary fiber intakes were estimated by self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs with adjustment for potential confounders. Analysis also was stratified by cigarette smoking and sex. High dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced risk of colorectal polyps (P-trend = 0.003). This association was found to be stronger among cigarette smokers (P-trend = 0.006) than nonsmokers (P-trend = 0.21), although the test for multiplicative interaction was not statistically significant (P = 0.11). This pattern of association was more evident for high-risk adenomatous polyps (ADs), defined as advanced or multiple ADs (P-interaction smoking and dietary fiber intake = 0.09). Among cigarette smokers who smoked ≥23 y, a 38% reduced risk of high-risk ADs was found to be associated with high intake of dietary fiber compared with those in the lowest quartile fiber intake group (P-trend = 0.004). No inverse association with dietary fiber intake was observed for low-risk ADs, defined as single nonadvanced ADs. Cigarette smoking may modify the association of dietary fiber intake with the risk of colorectal polyps, especially high-risk ADs, a well-established precursor of colorectal cancer.

  5. Associations between Dietary Fiber and Colorectal Polyp Risk Differ by Polyp Type and Smoking Status12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhenming; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Smalley, Walter E.; Ness, Reid M.; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The association of dietary fiber intake with colorectal cancer risk is established. However, the association may differ between cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. We evaluated this hypothesis in a large colonoscopy-based case-control study. Dietary fiber intakes were estimated by self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs with adjustment for potential confounders. Analysis also was stratified by cigarette smoking and sex. High dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced risk of colorectal polyps (P-trend = 0.003). This association was found to be stronger among cigarette smokers (P-trend = 0.006) than nonsmokers (P-trend = 0.21), although the test for multiplicative interaction was not statistically significant (P = 0.11). This pattern of association was more evident for high-risk adenomatous polyps (ADs), defined as advanced or multiple ADs (P-interaction smoking and dietary fiber intake = 0.09). Among cigarette smokers who smoked ≥23 y, a 38% reduced risk of high-risk ADs was found to be associated with high intake of dietary fiber compared with those in the lowest quartile fiber intake group (P-trend = 0.004). No inverse association with dietary fiber intake was observed for low-risk ADs, defined as single nonadvanced ADs. Cigarette smoking may modify the association of dietary fiber intake with the risk of colorectal polyps, especially high-risk ADs, a well-established precursor of colorectal cancer. PMID:24572038

  6. Glycemic index, glycemic load, dietary carbohydrate, and dietary fiber intake and risk of liver and biliary tract cancers in Western Europeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedirko, V.; Lukanova, A.; Bamia, C.; Trichopolou, A.; Trepo, E.; Noethlings, U.; Schlesinger, S.; Aleksandrova, K.; Boffetta, P.; Tjonneland, A.; Johnsen, N. F.; Overvad, K.; Fagherazzi, G.; Racine, A.; Boutron-Ruault, M. C.; Grote, V.; Kaaks, R.; Boeing, H.; Naska, A.; Adarakis, G.; Valanou, E.; Palli, D.; Sieri, S.; Tumino, R.; Vineis, P.; Panico, S.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B(as).; Siersema, P. D.; Peeters, P. H.; Weiderpass, E.; Skeie, G.; Engeset, D.; Quiros, J. R.; Zamora-Ros, R.; Sanchez, M.J.; Amiano, P.; Huerta, J. M.; Barricarte, A.; Johansen, D.; Lindkvist, B.; Sund, M.; Crowe, F.; Khaw, K. T.; Ferrari, P.; Romieu, I.; Chuang, S. C.; Riboli, E.; Jenab, M.; Werner, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The type and quantity of dietary carbohydrate as quantified by glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), and dietary fiber may influence the risk of liver and biliary tract cancers, but convincing evidence is lacking. The association between dietary GI/GL and carbohydrate intake with hepatocellula

  7. Implications of probabilistic risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullingford, M.C.; Shah, S.M.; Gittus, J.H. (eds.)

    1987-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is an analytical process that quantifies the likelihoods, consequences and associated uncertainties of the potential outcomes of postulated events. Starting with planned or normal operation, probabilistic risk assessment covers a wide range of potential accidents and considers the whole plant and the interactions of systems and human actions. Probabilistic risk assessment can be applied in safety decisions in design, licensing and operation of industrial facilities, particularly nuclear power plants. The proceedings include a review of PRA procedures, methods and technical issues in treating uncertainties, operating and licensing issues and future trends. Risk assessment for specific reactor types or components and specific risks (eg aircraft crashing onto a reactor) are used to illustrate the points raised. All 52 articles are indexed separately. (U.K.).

  8. FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING RISKS OF ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Framework for Children's Health Risk Assessment report can serve as a resource on children's health risk assessment and it addresses the need to provide a comprehensive and consistent framework for considering children in risk assessments at EPA. This framework lays out the process, points to existing published sources for more detailed information on life stage-specific considerations, and includes web links to specific online publications and relevant Agency science policy papers, guidelines and guidance. The document emphasizes the need to take into account the potential exposures to environmental agents during preconception and all stages of development and focuses on the relevant adverse health outcomes that may occur as a result of such exposures. This framework is not an Agency guideline, but rather describes the overall structure and the components considered important for children's health risk assessment. The document describes an approach that includes problem formulation, analysis, and risk characterization, and also builds on Agency experience assessing risk to susceptible populations. The problem formulation step focuses on the life stage-specific nature of the analysis to include scoping and screening level questions for hazard characterization, dose response and exposure assessment. The risk characterization step recognizes the need to consider life stage-specific risks and explicitly describes the uncertainties and variability in the d

  9. Instant noodle intake and dietary patterns are associated with distinct cardiometabolic risk factors in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun Joon; Cho, Eunyoung; Lee, Hae-Jeung; Fung, Teresa T; Rimm, Eric; Rosner, Bernard; Manson, JoAnn E; Wheelan, Kevin; Hu, Frank B

    2014-08-01

    The consumption of instant noodles is relatively high in Asian populations. It is unclear whether a higher intake of instant noodles is associated with cardiometabolic risk independent of overall dietary patterns. We therefore investigated the association using the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV 2007-2009, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the Korean population with a clustered, multistage, stratified, and rolling sampling design. A total of 10,711 adults (54.5% women) 19-64 y of age were analyzed, with adjustment for sampling design complexity. Diet was assessed by using a 63-item food-frequency questionnaire. We identified 2 major dietary patterns with the use of principal components analysis: the "traditional dietary pattern" (TP), rich in rice, fish, vegetables, fruit, and potatoes, and the "meat and fast-food pattern" (MP), with less rice intake but rich in meat, soda, fried food, and fast food including instant noodles. The highest MP quintile was associated with increased prevalence of abdominal obesity (OR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.90), LDL cholesterol ≥130 mg/dL (1.3 g/L) (OR: 1.57, 95% CI 1.26, 1.95), decreased prevalence of low HDL cholesterol (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.80), and high triglycerides [≥150 mg/dL (1.5 g/L); OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.93]. The highest quintile for the TP was associated with decreased prevalence of elevated blood pressure (OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.90) and marginally lower trends for abdominal obesity (OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.98; P-trend = 0.06), but neither of the dietary patterns was associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The consumption of instant noodles ≥2 times/wk was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (OR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.55) in women but not in men (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.58, 1.49; P-interaction = 0.04). The 2 major dietary patterns were associated with distinct cardiometabolic risk factors. The consumption of instant noodles was

  10. Risk Assessment and Integration Team (RAIT) Portfolio Risk Analysis Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Impact at management level: Qualitative assessment of risk criticality in conjunction with risk consequence, likelihood, and severity enable development of an "investment policy" towards managing a portfolio of risks. Impact at research level: Quantitative risk assessments enable researchers to develop risk mitigation strategies with meaningful risk reduction results. Quantitative assessment approach provides useful risk mitigation information.

  11. Quantitative risk assessment of CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, J.; Spruijt, M.; Molag, M.; Ramírez, A.; Turkenburg, W.; Faaij, A.

    2010-01-01

    A systematic assessment, based on an extensive literature review, of the impact of gaps and uncertainties on the results of quantitative risk assessments (QRAs) for CO2 pipelines is presented. Sources of uncertainties that have been assessed are: failure rates, pipeline pressure, temperat

  12. Tools for Microbiological risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassett, john; Nauta, Maarten; Lindqvist, Roland

    Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) has emerged as a comprehensive and systematic approach for addressing the risk of pathogens in specific foods and/or processes. At government level, MRA is increasingly recognised as a structured and objective approach to understand the level of risk in a given...... can increase the understanding of microbiological risks in foods. It is timely to inform food safety professionals about the availability and utility of MRA tools. Therefore, the focus of this report is to aid the food safety manager by providing a concise summary of the tools available for the MRA...... food/pathogen scenario. Tools developed so far support qualitative and quantitative assessments of the risk that a food pathogen poses to a particular population. Risk can be expressed as absolute numbers or as relative (ranked) risks. The food industry is beginning to appreciate that the tools for MRA...

  13. [Risk assessment of chemical agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottica, Danilo; Grignani, Elena; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista

    2011-01-01

    The risk assessment of chemical agents is a well known and applied process carried out by Industrial Hygienists and Occupational Physicians based on exposure evaluation. The application of REACH (CE 1907/2006), CLP (CE 1272/2008) and SDS (UE 453/2010) introduces some changes and instruments to carry out the occupational exposure assessment, like new classification of substances, Exposure Scenario, suggested control measures that the Industrial Hygienist and the Occupational Physician must evaluate. If there is not a similar Exposure Scenario to apply a new risk assessment must carried out also by recommended software (ECETOC Targeted Risk Assessment; Easy to use workplace EMKG; Stoffenmanager). Looking at the relevance of the control measures and evaluation of Exposure Scenario we report the flowchart of risk assessment and management by the Method of Organisational Congruencies carried out with the Prevention and Protection Service and Occupational Physician Office of the Health Service of the Azienda Provinciale of Trento.

  14. Dietary magnesium intake is inversely associated with mortality in adults at high cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Bulló, Mònica; Estruch, Ramon; Corella, Dolores; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Ros, Emilio; Covas, Maribel; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Babio, Nancy; Pintó, Xavier; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    The relation between dietary magnesium intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or mortality was evaluated in several prospective studies, but few of them have assessed the risk of all-cause mortality, which has never been evaluated in Mediterranean adults at high cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to assess the association between magnesium intake and CVD and mortality risk in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk with high average magnesium intake. The present study included 7216 men and women aged 55-80 y from the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study, a randomized clinical trial. Participants were assigned to 1 of 2 Mediterranean diets (supplemented with nuts or olive oil) or to a control diet (advice on a low-fat diet). Mortality was ascertained by linkage to the National Death Index and medical records. We fitted multivariable-adjusted Cox regressions to assess associations between baseline energy-adjusted tertiles of magnesium intake and relative risk of CVD and mortality. Multivariable analyses with generalized estimating equation models were used to assess the associations between yearly repeated measurements of magnesium intake and mortality. After a median follow-up of 4.8 y, 323 total deaths, 81 cardiovascular deaths, 130 cancer deaths, and 277 cardiovascular events occurred. Energy-adjusted baseline magnesium intake was inversely associated with cardiovascular, cancer, and all-cause mortality. Compared with lower consumers, individuals in the highest tertile of magnesium intake had a 34% reduction in mortality risk (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.95; P magnesium intake was inversely associated with mortality risk in Mediterranean individuals at high risk of CVD. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639.

  15. Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool for environmental assessment of product and systems – over the whole life cycle from acquisition of raw materials to the end-of-life of the product – and encompassing all environmental impacts of emissions and resource usage, e.g. global warming, acidification...... and toxicity. Whereas Risk Assessment (RA) aims to identify absolute risks, LCA assess potential or relative impacts. LCA is readily applicable to nanotechnologies and several studies have been carried out, but LCA faces large problems when addressing toxic impacts of nanomaterials emitted during the life...... cycle. The models for assessing toxic impacts in LCA are to a large extent based on those developed for RA, e.g. EUSES, and require basic information about the inherent properties of the emissions like solubility, LogKow,ED50 etc. Additionally, it is a prerequisite to know how to characterize...

  16. Building better environmental risk assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond eLayton

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment is a reasoned, structured approach to address uncertainty based on scientific and technical evidence. It forms the foundation for regulatory decision making, which is bound by legislative and policy requirements, as well as the need for making timely decisions using available resources. In order to be most useful, environmental risk assessments (ERA for genetically modified (GM crops should provide consistent, reliable, and transparent results across all types of GM crops, traits, and environments. The assessments must also separate essential information from scientific or agronomic data of marginal relevance or value for evaluating risk and complete the assessment in a timely fashion. Challenges in conducting ERAs differ across regulatory systems – examples are presented from Canada, Malaysia, and Argentina. One challenge faced across the globe is the conduct of risk assessments with limited resources. This challenge can be overcome by clarifying risk concepts, placing greater emphasis on data critical to assess environmental risk (for example, phenotypic and plant performance data rather than molecular data, and adapting advances in risk analysis from other relevant disciplines.

  17. Assessment on Dietary Melamine Exposure from Tainted Infant Formula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU-DONG JIA; NING LI; ZHU-TIAN WANG; YUN-FENG ZHAO; YONG-NING WU; WEI-XING YAN

    2009-01-01

    Objective To estimate the dietary melamine exposure in Chinese infants and young children from the consumption of melamine adulterated Sanlu infant formula. Methods Four age groups of infants and young children (3, 6, 12, and 24 months) were chosen as the assessed subjects and the maximum amount of infant formula consumption was estimated based on the recommended usage level in the package insert of Sanlu infant formula and other brands. Melamine was analyzed in 111 Sanlu infant formula samples collected from the markets in Beijing and Gansu province using the LC-MS-MS with a limit of quantification of 0.05 mg/kg. Four levels of melamine concentration were chosen to estimate the dietary intakes, including the mean, median, 90th percentile, and maximum. Results The infants of 3 months had the highest intake of melamine, and with the increase of the age (month), the intake decreased. Based on the median melamine concentration (1 000 mg/kg) as an example, the melamine intakes for the infants of 3, 6, 12, and 24 months were 23.4, 21.4, 15.0, and 8.6 mg/kg bw/d, respectively. Conclusion Dietary melamine intakes from tainted Sanlu infant formula significantly exceeded the TDI level (0.2 mg/kg bw/d) recommended by the WHO Expert Meeting in 2008. However, the present assessment has some limitations including the poor representative samples, the varied melamine concentrations in the adulterated Sanlu infant formula, and other brand infant formula possibly consumed by these infants.

  18. Increased Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) Is Associated With Increased Risk of Prostate Cancer in Jamaican Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivappa, Nitin; Jackson, Maria D.; Bennett, Franklyn; Hébert, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin malignancy; and it accounts for the most cancer deaths among Jamaican males. Diet has been implicated in the etiology of prostate cancer, including through its effects on inflammation. Method We examined the association between a newly developed dietary inflammatory index (DII) and prostate cancer in a case-control study of 40-80 year-old Jamaican males. A total of 229 incident cases and 250 controls attended the same urology out-patient clinics at 2 major hospitals and private practitioners in the Kingston, Jamaica Metropolitan area between March 2005 and July 2007. The DII was computed based on dietary intake assessed using a previously validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that was expanded to assess diet and cancer in this Jamaican population. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios, with DII as continuous and expressed as quartiles. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, total energy intake, education, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, physical activity and family history of prostate cancer. Results Men in the highest quartile of the DII were at higher risk of prostate cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 2.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) =1.14–5.04 (Ptrend = 0.08)] compared to men in the lowest DII quartile. Conclusion These data suggest a pro-inflammatory diet, as indicated by increasing DII score, may be a risk factor for prostate cancer in Jamaican men. PMID:26226289

  19. Gender Differences in Coronary Artery Disease: Correlational Study on Dietary Pattern and Known Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Najafi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between diet and cardiovascular risk factors in men and women with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD has been the subject of recent studies. We studied a group of Iranian CAD patients to analyze any relationship between diet and CAD risk factors based on gender. Methods: In this study, 461 consecutive patients were assessed before their planned isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery. They were interviewed to obtain the quantity and components of nutrients and micronutrients based on a validated food frequency questionnaire. Diet scores were calculated in each dietary group and the total score was reported as the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (Med-DQI. Physical activity was assessed using International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. Functional class, EuroSCORE and the frequency of the known risk factors in the men and women were recorded as well. Results: The women were more likely than the men to present with obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension (all Ps < 0.001. Also, the women had higher functional class and mean of EuroSCORE (P < 0.001 and P = 0.03. Only six women (5.7% reported to have regular physical activity. In addition, Women’s energy intake was more likely to be supplied through fat. Cereals, fruit, and vegetable consumption in both genders was within the safe recommended range, while olive and fish consumption was low in both sexes. MedDQI score was different between men and women with hypertension (P = 0.018 and obesity (P = 0.048. Conclusions: Modifiable classical risk factors for CAD, except for smoking, were more prevalent in women and were associated with their diet. Therefore, women probably need to maintain low calorie intake while improving physical activity and dietary patterns to decrease the frequency and severity of modifiable cardiac risk factors.

  20. Dietary Nitrates, Nitrites, and Nitrosamines Intake and the Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Song

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The potential associations between dietary consumption of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines and gastric cancer risk have been investigated by several studies, but yielded inconclusive results. We conducted a meta-analysis to provide a quantitative assessment of their relationships. Relevant articles were identified by a systematic literature searching of PubMed and Embase databases prior to August 2015. Random-effects models were employed to pool the relative risks. A total of 22 articles consisting of 49 studies—19 studies for nitrates, 19 studies for nitrites, and 11 studies for N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA—were included. The summary relative risk of stomach cancer for the highest categories, compared with the lowest, was 0.80 (95% confidence interval (CI, 0.69–0.93 for dietary nitrates intake, 1.31 (95% CI, 1.13–1.52 for nitrites, and 1.34 (95% CI, 1.02–1.76 for NDMA (p for heterogeneity was 0.015, 0.013 and <0.001, respectively. The study type was found as the main source of heterogeneity for nitrates and nitrites. The heterogeneity for NDMA could not be eliminated completely through stratified analysis. Although significant associations were all observed in case-control studies, the cohort studies still showed a slight trend. The dose-response analysis indicated similar results as well. High nitrates intake was associated with a weak but statistically significant reduced risk of gastric cancer. Whereas increased consumption of nitrites and NDMA seemed to be risk factors for cancer. Due to the lack of uniformity for exposure assessment across studies, further prospective researches are warranted to verify these findings.

  1. Hazard classification or risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    The EU classification of substances for e.g. reproductive toxicants is hazard based and does not to address the risk suchsubstances may pose through normal, or extreme, use. Such hazard classification complies with the consumer's right to know. It is also an incentive to careful use and storage...... and to substitute with less toxic compounds. Actually, if exposure is constant across product class, producersmay make substitution decisions based on hazard. Hazard classification is also useful during major accidents where there is no time for risk assessment and the exposure is likely to be substantial enough...... be a poor substitute for a proper risk assessment as low potency substances can constitute a risk if the exposure is high enough and vice versa. Examples illustrating the strength and limitations of hazard classification, risk assessment and toxicological potency will be presented with focus on reproductive...

  2. The mediterranean dietary pattern and breast cancer risk in Greek-Cypriot women: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetriou Christiana A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diet has long been suspected to impact on breast cancer risk. In this study we evaluated whether the degree of adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern modifies breast cancer risk amongst Greek-Cypriot women. Methods Subjects included 935 cases and 817 controls, all participating in the MASTOS case-control study in Cyprus. The study was approved by the Cyprus National Bioethics Committee. Information on dietary intakes was collected using an interviewer administered 32-item Food Frequency Questionnaire. Information on demographic, anthropometric, lifestyle, and other confounding factors was also collected. Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet pattern was assessed using two a-priory defined diet scores. In addition, dietary patterns specific to our population were derived using Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association between the dietary patters and breast cancer risk. Results There was no association with breast cancer risk for either score, however, higher consumptions of vegetables, fish and olive oil, were independently associated with decreased risk. In addition, the PCA derived component which included vegetables, fruit, fish and legumes was shown to significantly reduce risk of breast cancer (ORs across quartiles of increasing levels of consumption: 0.89 95%CI: 0.65-1.22, 0.64 95%CI: 0.47-0.88, 0.67 95%CI: 0.49-0.92, P trend Conclusions Our results suggest that adherence to a diet pattern rich in vegetables, fish, legumes and olive oil may favorably influence the risk of breast cancer. This study is the first investigation of dietary effects on breast cancer risk in Cyprus, a country whose population has traditionally adhered to the Mediterranean diet.

  3. Deterministic quantitative risk assessment development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Jane; Colquhoun, Iain [PII Pipeline Solutions Business of GE Oil and Gas, Cramlington Northumberland (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Current risk assessment practice in pipeline integrity management is to use a semi-quantitative index-based or model based methodology. This approach has been found to be very flexible and provide useful results for identifying high risk areas and for prioritizing physical integrity assessments. However, as pipeline operators progressively adopt an operating strategy of continual risk reduction with a view to minimizing total expenditures within safety, environmental, and reliability constraints, the need for quantitative assessments of risk levels is becoming evident. Whereas reliability based quantitative risk assessments can be and are routinely carried out on a site-specific basis, they require significant amounts of quantitative data for the results to be meaningful. This need for detailed and reliable data tends to make these methods unwieldy for system-wide risk k assessment applications. This paper describes methods for estimating risk quantitatively through the calibration of semi-quantitative estimates to failure rates for peer pipeline systems. The methods involve the analysis of the failure rate distribution, and techniques for mapping the rate to the distribution of likelihoods available from currently available semi-quantitative programs. By applying point value probabilities to the failure rates, deterministic quantitative risk assessment (QRA) provides greater rigor and objectivity than can usually be achieved through the implementation of semi-quantitative risk assessment results. The method permits a fully quantitative approach or a mixture of QRA and semi-QRA to suit the operator's data availability and quality, and analysis needs. For example, consequence analysis can be quantitative or can address qualitative ranges for consequence categories. Likewise, failure likelihoods can be output as classical probabilities or as expected failure frequencies as required. (author)

  4. Consumption of dietary fat and meat and risk of ovarian cancer in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilsing, A.M.J.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Schouten, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Evidence that links dietary factors to ovarian cancer is conflicting, but several epidemiologic studies suggested that consumption of dietary fat and meat may increase risk of ovarian cancer. Objective: We studied associations of intakes of total fat and sources and subtypes of fat, fres

  5. Dietary fiber intake and risk of colorectal cancer: A pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Y.; Hunter, D.J.; Spiegelman, D.; Bergkvist, L.; Berrino, F.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Buring, J.E.; Colditz, G.A.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Fuchs, C.S.; Giovannucci, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Graham, S.; Harnack, L.; Hartman, A.M.; Jacobs, D.R.; Kato, I.; Krogh, V.; Leitzmann, M.F.; McCullough, M.L.; Miller, A.B.; Pietinen, P.; Rohan, T.E.; Schatzkin, A.; Willett, W.C.; Wolk, A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A.; Zhang, S.M.; Smith-Warner, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Context: Inconsistent findings from observational studies have continued the controversy over the effects of dietary fiber on colorectal cancer. Objective: To evaluate the association between dietary fiber intake and risk of colorectal cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: From 13 prospective c

  6. Consumption of dietary fat and meat and risk of ovarian cancer in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilsing, A.M.J.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Schouten, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Evidence that links dietary factors to ovarian cancer is conflicting, but several epidemiologic studies suggested that consumption of dietary fat and meat may increase risk of ovarian cancer. Objective: We studied associations of intakes of total fat and sources and subtypes of fat, fres

  7. Dietary Flavonols and Flavonol-rich foods intake and the risk of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adebamowo, C.A.; Sampson, L.; Katan, M.B.; Spiegelman, D.; Willett, W.C.; Holmes, M.D.; Cho, E.

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory and animal studies suggest that dietary flavonols may reduce breast cancer risk but there are limited epidemiological studies. We computed flavonol intakes from dietary data collected by validated food frequency questionnaires in 1991 and 1995 from 90,630 women in the Nurses Health Study

  8. Consumption of dietary fat and meat and risk of ovarian cancer in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilsing, A.M.J.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Schouten, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Evidence that links dietary factors to ovarian cancer is conflicting, but several epidemiologic studies suggested that consumption of dietary fat and meat may increase risk of ovarian cancer. Objective: We studied associations of intakes of total fat and sources and subtypes of fat,

  9. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezioso, Domenico; Strazzullo, Pasquale; Lotti, Tullio; Bianchi, Giampaolo; Borghi, Loris; Caione, Paolo; Carini, Marco; Caudarella, Renata; Ferraro, Manuel; Gambaro, Giovanni; Gelosa, Marco; Guttilla, Andrea; Illiano, Ester; Martino, Marangella; Meschi, Tiziana; Messa, Piergiorgio; Miano, Roberto; Napodano, Giorgio; Nouvenne, Antonio; Rendina, Domenico; Rocco, Francesco; Rosa, Marco; Sanseverino, Roberto; Salerno, Annamaria; Spatafora, Sebastiano; Tasca, Andrea; Ticinesi, Andrea; Travaglini, Fabrizio; Trinchieri, Alberto; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Zattoni, Filiberto

    2015-07-07

    Diet interventions may reduce the risk of urinary stone formation and its recurrence, but there is no conclusive consensus in the literature regarding the effectiveness of dietary interventions and recommendations about specific diets for patients with urinary calculi. The aim of this study was to review the studies reporting the effects of different dietary interventions for the modification of urinary risk factors in patients with urinary stone disease. A systematic search of the Pubmed database literature up to July 1, 2014 for studies on dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for urinary stone formation was conducted according to a methodology developed a priori. Studies were screened by titles and abstracts for eligibility. Data were extracted using a standardized form and the quality of evidence was assessed. Evidence from the selected studies were used to form evidence-based guideline statements. In the absence of sufficient evidence, additional statements were developed as expert opinions. General measures: Each patient with nephrolithiasis should undertake appropriate evaluation according to the knowledge of the calculus composition. Regardless of the underlying cause of the stone disease, a mainstay of conservative management is the forced increase in fluid intake to achieve a daily urine output of 2 liters. HYPERCALCIURIA: Dietary calcium restriction is not recommended for stone formers with nephrolithiasis. Diets with a calcium content ≥ 1 g/day (and low protein-low sodium) could be protective against the risk of stone formation in hypercalciuric stone forming adults. Moderate dietary salt restriction is useful in limiting urinary calcium excretion and thus may be helpful for primary and secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis. A low-normal protein intake decrease calciuria and could be useful in stone prevention and preservation of bone mass. Omega-3 fatty acids and bran of different origin decreases calciuria, but their impact on the urinary

  10. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Prezioso

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diet interventions may reduce the risk of urinary stone formation and its recurrence, but there is no conclusive consensus in the literature regarding the effectiveness of dietary interventions and recommendations about specific diets for patients with urinary calculi. The aim of this study was to review the studies reporting the effects of different dietary interventions for the modification of urinary risk factors in patients with urinary stone disease. Materials and Methods: A systematic search of the Pubmed database literature up to July 1, 2014 for studies on dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for urinary stone formation was conducted according to a methodology developed a priori. Studies were screened by titles and abstracts for eligibility. Data were extracted using a standardized form and the quality of evidence was assessed. Results: Evidence from the selected studies were used to form evidencebased guideline statements. In the absence of sufficient evidence, additional statements were developed as expert opinions. Conclusions: General measures: Each patient with nephrolithiasis should undertake appropriate evaluation according to the knowledge of the calculus composition. Regardless of the underlying cause of the stone disease, a mainstay of conservative management is the forced increase in fluid intake to achieve a daily urine output of 2 liters. Hypercalciuria: Dietary calcium restriction is not recommended for stone formers with nephrolithiasis. Diets with a calcium content ≥ 1 g/day (and low protein-low sodium could be protective against the risk of stone formation in hypercalciuric stone forming adults. Moderate dietary salt restriction is useful in limiting urinary calcium excretion and thus may be helpful for primary and secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis. A low-normal protein intake decrease calciuria and could be useful in stone prevention and preservation of bone mass. Omega-3 fatty acids and bran of

  11. Usual dietary glycemic load is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in physically active Brazilian middle-aged men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula G. Cocate

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effects of dietary glycemic load (GL on cardiometabolic risk factors in physically active subjects are not completely known. Objective: This cross-sectional study assessed the association of habitual dietary GL with cardiometabolic risk factors in physically active Brazilian middle-aged men. Methods: One-hundred seventy-six subjects (Age: 50.6 ± 5.0 years, BMI: 25.5 ± 3.6 kg/m² were evaluated. Anthropometry, lifestyle features, insulin resistance, oxidative stress biomarkers (8-iso-prostaglandin F2α; 8-iso-PGF2α and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine; 8-OHdG and lipid profile were assessed. Dietary intake was estimated through a quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Results: The dietary GL was positively associated with free fatty acid concentrations (β = 0.311, r² = 0.13, P-value = 0.034 and triglycerides/HDL cholesterol ratio (β = 0.598, r² = 0.19, P-value = 0.028 regardless of confounding factors (central obesity, red meat consumption, age and energy intake. The oxidative stress biomarker, 8-OHdG, was associated with habitual dietary GL (β = 0.432, r² = 0.11, P-value = 0.004, regardless of previous confounding factors plus excessive alcohol consumption, iron intake and current smoking status. Conclusions: The dietary GL was positively associated with lipid profile (free fatty acid concentrations and triglycerides/HDL cholesterol ratio and oxidative stress biomarker (8-OHdG. These results indicate potential harmfulness of diet with higher GL to cardiometabolic risk factors in middle-aged men, even in physically active individuals.

  12. Modern biogeochemistry environmental risk assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Bashkin, Vladimir N

    2006-01-01

    Most books deal mainly with various technical aspects of ERA description and calculationsAims at generalizing the modern ideas of both biogeochemical and environmental risk assessment during recent yearsAims at supplementing the existing books by providing a modern understanding of mechanisms that are responsible for the ecological risk for human beings and ecosystem

  13. Cloud computing assessing the risks

    CERN Document Server

    Carstensen, Jared; Golden, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Cloud Computing: Assessing the risks answers these questions and many more. Using jargon-free language and relevant examples, analogies and diagrams, it is an up-to-date, clear and comprehensive guide the security, governance, risk, and compliance elements of Cloud Computing.

  14. Test reactor risk assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, R.H.; Rawlins, J.K.; Stewart, M.E.

    1976-04-01

    A methodology has been developed for the identification of accident initiating events and the fault modeling of systems, including common mode identification, as these methods are applied in overall test reactor risk assessment. The methods are exemplified by a determination of risks to a loss of primary coolant flow in the Engineering Test Reactor.

  15. Risk assessment future cash flows

    OpenAIRE

    Chachina H. G.

    2012-01-01

    This article is about risk assessment in planning future cash flows. Discount rate in DCF-model must include four factors: risk cash flow, inflation, value of investments, turnover assets. This has an influence net present value cash flow and make his incomparable.

  16. Risk assessment future cash flows

    OpenAIRE

    Chachina H. G.

    2012-01-01

    This article is about risk assessment in planning future cash flows. Discount rate in DCF-model must include four factors: risk cash flow, inflation, value of investments, turnover assets. This has an influence net present value cash flow and make his incomparable.

  17. Dietary acid load and risk of hypertension: The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberink, M.F.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Brink, E.J.; Baak, van M.A.; Rooij, van F.J.A.; Hofman, A.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mild metabolic acidosis, which can be caused by diet, may result in elevated blood pressure (BP). Design: The analyses included 2241 participants aged =55 y who were free of hypertension at baseline (1990–1993) and who had complete dietary and BP data. Dietary data were obtained from a 1

  18. SEISMIC RISK ASSESSMENT OF LEVEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Rosidi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A seismic risk assessment procedure for earth embankments and levees is presented. The procedure consists of three major elements: (1 probability of ground motion at the site, (2 probability of levee failure given a level of ground motion has occurred and (3 expected loss resulting from the failure. This paper discusses the first two elements of the risk assessment. The third element, which includes economic losses and human casualty, will not be presented herein. The ground motions for risk assessment are developed using a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. A two-dimensional finite element analysis is performed to estimate the dynamic responses of levee, and the probability of levee failure is calculated using the levee fragility curve. The overall objective of the assessment is to develop an analytical tool for assessing the failure risk and the effectiveness of various levee strengthening alternatives for risk reduction. An example of the procedure, as it applies to a levee built along the perimeter of an island for flood protection and water storage, is presented. Variations in earthquake ground motion and soil and water conditions at the site are incorporated in the risk assessment. The effects of liquefaction in the foundation soils are also considered.

  19. The Interaction between Dietary Fiber and Fat and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the Women’s Health Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Sandi L.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Tinker, Lesley F.; Shikany, James M.; Snetselaar, Linda; Martinez, Jessica A.; Kato, Ikuko; Beresford, Shirley A. A.; Chapkin, Robert S.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2016-01-01

    Combined intakes of specific dietary fiber and fat subtypes protect against colon cancer in animal models. We evaluated associations between self-reported individual and combinations of fiber (insoluble, soluble, and pectins, specifically) and fat (omega-6, omega-3, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), specifically) and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in the Women’s Health Initiative prospective cohort (n = 134,017). During a mean 11.7 years (1993–2010), 1952 incident CRC cases were identified. Cox regression models computed multivariate adjusted hazard ratios to estimate the association between dietary factors and CRC risk. Assessing fiber and fat individually, there was a modest trend for lower CRC risk with increasing intakes of total and insoluble fiber (p-trend 0.09 and 0.08). An interaction (p = 0.01) was observed between soluble fiber and DHA + EPA, with protective effects of DHA + EPA with lower intakes of soluble fiber and an attenuation at higher intakes, however this association was no longer significant after correction for multiple testing. These results suggest a modest protective effect of higher fiber intake on CRC risk, but not in combination with dietary fat subtypes. Given the robust results in preclinical models and mixed results in observational studies, controlled dietary interventions with standardized intakes are needed to better understand the interaction of specific fat and fiber subtypes on colon biology and ultimately CRC susceptibility in humans. PMID:27916893

  20. The Interaction between Dietary Fiber and Fat and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Sandi L; Neuhouser, Marian L; Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Tinker, Lesley F; Shikany, James M; Snetselaar, Linda; Martinez, Jessica A; Kato, Ikuko; Beresford, Shirley A A; Chapkin, Robert S; Lampe, Johanna W

    2016-11-30

    Combined intakes of specific dietary fiber and fat subtypes protect against colon cancer in animal models. We evaluated associations between self-reported individual and combinations of fiber (insoluble, soluble, and pectins, specifically) and fat (omega-6, omega-3, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), specifically) and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in the Women's Health Initiative prospective cohort (n = 134,017). During a mean 11.7 years (1993-2010), 1952 incident CRC cases were identified. Cox regression models computed multivariate adjusted hazard ratios to estimate the association between dietary factors and CRC risk. Assessing fiber and fat individually, there was a modest trend for lower CRC risk with increasing intakes of total and insoluble fiber (p-trend 0.09 and 0.08). An interaction (p = 0.01) was observed between soluble fiber and DHA + EPA, with protective effects of DHA + EPA with lower intakes of soluble fiber and an attenuation at higher intakes, however this association was no longer significant after correction for multiple testing. These results suggest a modest protective effect of higher fiber intake on CRC risk, but not in combination with dietary fat subtypes. Given the robust results in preclinical models and mixed results in observational studies, controlled dietary interventions with standardized intakes are needed to better understand the interaction of specific fat and fiber subtypes on colon biology and ultimately CRC susceptibility in humans.

  1. Integrated climate change risk assessment:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Halsnæs, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Risk assessments of flooding in urban areas during extreme precipitation for use in, for example, decision-making regarding climate adaptation, are surrounded by great uncertainties stemming from climate model projections, methods of downscaling and the assumptions of socioeconomic impact models....... enables the relative importance of the different factors (i.e. degree of climate change, assets value, discount rate etc.) to be determined, thus influencing the overall output of the assessment.......Risk assessments of flooding in urban areas during extreme precipitation for use in, for example, decision-making regarding climate adaptation, are surrounded by great uncertainties stemming from climate model projections, methods of downscaling and the assumptions of socioeconomic impact models...... to address the complex linkages between the different kinds of data required in assessing climate adaptation. It emphasizes that the availability of spatially explicit data can reduce the overall uncertainty of the risk assessment and assist in identifying key vulnerable assets. The usefulness...

  2. Dietary Acrylamide Intake and Risk of Premenopausal Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucci, Lorelei A.; Cho, Eunyoung; Hunter, David J.; Chen, Wendy Y.; Willett, Walter C.

    2009-01-01

    Acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, is formed during high-temperature cooking of many commonly consumed foods. It is widespread; approximately 30% of calories consumed in the United States are from foods containing acrylamide. In animal studies, acrylamide causes mammary tumors, but it is unknown whether the level of acrylamide in foods affects human breast cancer risk. The authors studied the association between acrylamide intake and breast cancer risk among 90,628 premenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study II. They calculated acrylamide intake from food frequency questionnaires in 1991, 1995, 1999, and 2003. From 1991 through 2005, they documented 1,179 cases of invasive breast cancer. They used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association between acrylamide and breast cancer risk. The multivariable-adjusted relative risk of premenopausal breast cancer was 0.92 (95% confidence interval: 0.76, 1.11) for the highest versus the lowest quintile of acrylamide intake (Ptrend = 0.61). Results were similar regardless of smoking status or estrogen and progesterone receptor status of the tumors. The authors found no associations between intakes of foods high in acrylamide, including French fries, coffee, cereal, potato chips, potatoes, and baked goods, and breast cancer risk. They found no evidence that acrylamide intake, within the range of US diets, is associated with increased risk of premenopausal breast cancer. PMID:19224978

  3. Avalanche risk assessment in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarov, Anton; Seliverstov, Yury; Sokratov, Sergey; Glazovskaya, Tatiana; Turchaniniva, Alla

    2017-04-01

    The avalanche prone area covers about 3 million square kilometers or 18% of total area of Russia and pose a significant problem in most mountain regions of the country. The constant growth of economic activity, especially in the North Caucasus region and therefore the increased avalanche hazard lead to the demand of the large-scale avalanche risk assessment methods development. Such methods are needed for the determination of appropriate avalanche protection measures as well as for economic assessments during all stages of spatial planning of the territory. The requirement of natural hazard risk assessments is determined by the Federal Law of Russian Federation. However, Russian Guidelines (SP 11-103-97; SP 47.13330.2012) are not clearly presented concerning avalanche risk assessment calculations. A great size of Russia territory, vast diversity of natural conditions and large variations in type and level of economic development of different regions cause significant variations in avalanche risk values. At the first stage of research the small scale avalanche risk assessment was performed in order to identify the most common patterns of risk situations and to calculate full social risk and individual risk. The full social avalanche risk for the territory of country was estimated at 91 victims. The area of territory with individual risk values lesser then 1×10(-6) covers more than 92 % of mountain areas of the country. Within these territories the safety of population can be achieved mainly by organizational activities. Approximately 7% of mountain areas have 1×10(-6) - 1×10(-4) individual risk values and require specific mitigation measures to protect people and infrastructure. Territories with individual risk values 1×10(-4) and above covers about 0,1 % of the territory and include the most severe and hazardous mountain areas. The whole specter of mitigation measures is required in order to minimize risk. The future development of such areas is not recommended

  4. Cancer risk assessment of toxaphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buranatrevedh, Surasak

    2004-07-01

    The primary purpose is to do cancer risk assessment of toxaphene by using four steps of risk assessment proposed by the United States National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council (NAS/NRC). Four steps of risk assessment including hazard identification, dose-response relationship, exposure assessment, and risk characterization were used to evaluate cancer risk of toxaphene. Toxaphene was the most heavily used insecticide in many parts of the world before it was banned in 1982. It increased incidence of neoplasms of liver and uterus in mice and increased incidence of neoplasms of endocrine organs, thyroid, pituitary, adrenal, mammary glands, and reproductive systems in rats. From mice's and rats' study, slope factor for toxaphene is 0.8557 (mg/ kg/day)(-1). Lifetime average daily dose (LADD) of toxaphene from ambient air, surface water, soil, and fish were 1.08 x 10(-6), 5.71 x 10(-6), 3.43 x 10(-7), and 7.96 x 10(-5) mg/kg/day, respectively. Cancer risk of toxaphene for average exposure is 7.42 x 10(-5). From this study, toxaphene might have carcinogenic risk among humans.

  5. Qualitative methods for assessing risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahn, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hannaman, G.W. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Kryska, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) non-nuclear facilities generally require only a qualitative accident analysis to assess facility risks in accordance with DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System. Achieving a meaningful qualitative assessment of risk necessarily requires the use of suitable non-numerical assessment criteria. Typically, the methods and criteria for assigning facility-specific accident scenarios to the qualitative severity and likelihood classification system in the DOE order requires significant judgment in many applications. Systematic methods for more consistently assigning the total accident scenario frequency and associated consequences are required to substantiate and enhance future risk ranking between various activities at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). SNL`s Risk Management and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Department has developed an improved methodology for performing qualitative risk assessments in accordance wi the DOE order requirements. Products of this effort are an improved set of qualitative description that permit (1) definition of the severity for both technical and programmatic consequences that may result from a variety of accident scenarios, and (2) qualitative representation of the likelihood of occurrence. These sets of descriptions are intended to facilitate proper application of DOE criteria for assessing facility risks.

  6. Qualitative methods for assessing risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahn, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hannaman, G.W. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Kryska, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) non-nuclear facilities generally require only a qualitative accident analysis to assess facility risks in accordance with DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System. Achieving a meaningful qualitative assessment of risk necessarily requires the use of suitable non-numerical assessment criteria. Typically, the methods and criteria for assigning facility-specific accident scenarios to the qualitative severity and likelihood classification system in the DOE order requires significant judgment in many applications. Systematic methods for more consistently assigning the total accident scenario frequency and associated consequences are required to substantiate and enhance future risk ranking between various activities at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). SNL`s Risk Management and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Department has developed an improved methodology for performing qualitative risk assessments in accordance wi the DOE order requirements. Products of this effort are an improved set of qualitative description that permit (1) definition of the severity for both technical and programmatic consequences that may result from a variety of accident scenarios, and (2) qualitative representation of the likelihood of occurrence. These sets of descriptions are intended to facilitate proper application of DOE criteria for assessing facility risks.

  7. Dietary Patterns and Risk of Frailty in Chinese Community-Dwelling Older People in Hong Kong: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Chan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dietary pattern analysis is an emerging approach to investigate the association between diet and frailty. This study examined the association of dietary patterns with frailty in 2724 Chinese community-dwelling men and women aged > 65 years. Baseline dietary data were collected using a food frequency questionnaire between 2001 and 2003. Adherence to a priori dietary patterns, including the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I and the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS was assessed. Factor analysis identified three a posteriori dietary patterns, namely “vegetables-fruits”, “snacks-drinks-milk products”, and “meat-fish”. Incident frailty was defined using the FRAIL scale. Binary logistic regression was applied to examine the associations between dietary patterns and four-year incident frailty. There were 31 (1.1% incident frailty cases at four years. Every 10-unit increase in DQI-I was associated with 41% reduced risk of frailty in the sex- and age-adjusted model (odds ratio (OR (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.59 (0.42–0.85, p = 0.004. The association attenuated in the multivariate adjusted model (0.69 (0.47–1.02, p = 0.056. No association between other dietary patterns and incident frailty was observed. Our study showed that a better diet quality as characterized by higher DQI-I was associated with lower odds of developing frailty. The contribution of MDS or a posteriori dietary patterns to the development of frailty in Chinese older people remains to be explored.

  8. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and cardiovascular disease risk factors: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour-Niazi, Somayeh; Sohrab, Golbon; Asghari, Golaleh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Moslehi, Nazanin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2013-07-01

    Data available on the effect of quality (glycemic index [GI]) and quantity (glycemic load [GL]) of carbohydrates on the risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are inconsistent. The objective of this study was to examine the association between dietary GI, GL, and CVD risk factors among Tehranian adults, the participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. This population- based cross-sectional study was conducted on 2457 subjects (46% men and 54% women), aged 19 to 84 years. Dietary GI and GL were measured using a validated 168- item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometrics, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and lipid profiles were measured. The mean intakes of GI and GL were 68.3 and 244.8, respectively. Rice (26.6%) and bread (19.0%) were the major contributors to dietary GI and GL, respectively. Higher dietary GI and GL were associated with high intakes of carbohydrate, fiber, refined grain, fruits, simple sugar, snack, and desserts. After adjustment for lifestyle and dietary variables, a higher dietary GI was positively associated with triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations among obese subjects. Dietary GL was positively associated with fasting and 2-h blood glucose among nonobese subjects, after adjustment for confounders.   Dietary GI and GL were associated with a few CVD risk factors, and body mass index levels may modulate these associations.

  9. Dietary pattern classifications with nutrient intake and health-risk factors in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Eun; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Son, Say Jin; Ahn, Younjhin; Lee, Juyoung; Park, Chan; Lee, Lilha; Erickson, Kent L; Jung, In-Kyung

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to identify dietary patterns in Korean men and to determine the associations among dietary patterns, nutrient intake, and health-risk factors. Using baseline data from the Korean Health and Genome Study, dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis of data from a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and associations between these dietary patterns and health-risk factors were analyzed. Three dietary patterns were identified: 1) the "animal-food" pattern (greater intake of meats, fish, and dairy products), 2) the "rice-vegetable" pattern (greater intake of rice, tofu, kimchi, soybean paste, vegetables, and seaweed), and 3) the "noodle-bread" pattern (greater intake of instant noodles, Chinese noodles, and bread). The animal-food pattern (preferred by younger people with higher income and education levels) had a positive correlation with obesity and hypercholesterolemia, whereas the rice-vegetable pattern (preferred by older people with lower income and educational levels) was positively associated with hypertension. The noodle-bread pattern (also preferred by younger people with higher income and education levels) had a positive association with abdominal obesity and hypercholesterolemia. This study identifies three unique dietary patterns in Korean men, which are independently associated with certain health-risk factors. The rice-vegetable dietary pattern, modified for a low sodium intake, might be a healthy dietary pattern for Korean men. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Instant noodle intake and dietary patterns are associated with distinct cardiometabolic risk factors in Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shin, Hyun Joon; Cho, Eunyoung; Lee, Hae-Jeung; Fung, Teresa T; Rimm, Eric; Rosner, Bernard; Manson, JoAnn E; Wheelan, Kevin; Hu, Frank B

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of instant noodles is relatively high in Asian populations. It is unclear whether a higher intake of instant noodles is associated with cardiometabolic risk independent of overall dietary patterns...

  11. Association between dietary phylloquinone intake and peripheral metabolic risk markers related to insulin resistance and diabetes in elderly subjects at high cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanola-Falgarona Martí

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin K has been related to glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and diabetes. Because inflammation underlies all these metabolic conditions, it is plausible that the potential role of vitamin K in glucose metabolism occurs through the modulation of cytokines and related molecules. The purpose of the study was to assess the associations between dietary intake of vitamin K and peripheral adipokines and other metabolic risk markers related to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods Cross-sectional and longitudinal assessments of these associations in 510 elderly participants recruited in the PREDIMED centers of Reus and Barcelona (Spain. We determined 1-year changes in dietary phylloquinone intake estimated by food frequency questionnaires, serum inflammatory cytokines and other metabolic risk markers. Results In the cross-sectional analysis at baseline no significant associations were found between dietary phylloquinone intake and the rest of metabolic risk markers evaluated, with exception of a negative association with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. After 1-year of follow-up, subjects in the upper tertile of changes in dietary phylloquinone intake showed a greater reduction in ghrelin (−15.0%, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (−12.9%, glucagon-like peptide-1 (−17.6%, IL-6 (−27.9%, leptin (−10.3%, TNF (−26.9% and visfatin (−24.9% plasma concentrations than those in the lowest tertile (all p Conclusion These results show that dietary phylloquinone intake is associated with an improvement of cytokines and other markers related to insulin resistance and diabetes, thus extending the potential protection by dietary phylloquinone on chronic inflammatory diseases. Trial registration http://www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639

  12. Usual choline and betaine dietary intake and incident coronary heart disease: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeisel Steven H

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low dietary intake of the essential nutrient choline and its metabolite betaine may increase atherogenesis both through effects on homocysteine methylation pathways as well as through choline's antioxidants properties. Nutrient values for many common foods for choline and betaine have recently become available in the U.S. nutrient composition database. Our objective was to assess the association of dietary intake of choline and betaine with incident coronary heart disease (CHD, adjusting for dietary intake measurement error. Methods We conducted a prospective investigation of the relation between usual intake of choline and betaine with the risk of CHD in 14,430 middle-aged men and women of the biethnic Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess nutrient intake. Proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the risk of incident CHD. A regression calibration method was used to adjust for measurement error. Results During an average 14 years of follow-up (1987–2002, 1,072 incident CHD events were documented. Compared with the lowest quartile of intake, incident CHD risk was slightly and non-significantly higher in the highest quartile of choline and choline plus betaine, HR = 1.22 (0.91, 1.64 and HR = 1.14 (0.85, 1.53, controlling for age, sex, education, total energy intake, dietary intakes of folate, methionine and vitamin B6. No association was found between dietary choline intake and incident CHD when correcting for measurement error. Conclusion Higher intakes of choline and betaine were not protective for incident CHD. Similar investigations in other populations are of interest.

  13. Like Mother, Like Daughter? Dietary and Non-Dietary Bone Fracture Risk Factors in Mothers and Their Daughters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila SOBAS

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to demonstrate similarities and differences between mothers and daughters regarding dietary and non-dietary risk factors for bone fractures and osteoporosis.Methods: The study was carried out in 2007-2010 on 712 mothers (29-59 years and daughters (12-21 years family pairs. In the sub-sample (170 family pairs bone mineral density (BMD was measured for the forearm by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. The consumption of dairy products was determined with a semi-quantitative food fre-quency questionnaire (ADOS-Ca and calcium intake from the daily diet was calculated.Results: The presence of risk factors for bone fractures in mothers and daughters was significantly correlated. The Spearman rank coefficient for dietary factors of fracture risk was 0.87 (P<0.05 in whole sub-sample, 0.94 (P<0.05 in bottom tercile of BMD, 0.82 (P<0.05 in middle tercile of BMD, 0.54 (P>0.05 in upper tercile of BMD and for non-dietary factors of fracture risk was 0.83 (P<0.05 in whole sub-sample, 0.86 (P<0.05 in bottom tercile of BMD, 0.93 (P<0.05 in middle tercile of BMD, 0.65 (P<0.05 in upper tercile of BMD.Conclusions: Our results confirm the role of the family environment for bone health and document the stronger ef-fect of negative factors of the family environment as compared to other positive factors on bone fracture risk.

  14. DOSE-RESPONSE MODELING FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF CUMULATIVE RISK DUE TO EXPOSURE TO N-METHYL CARBAMATE PESTICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPAs N-Methyl Carbamate Cumulative Risk Assessment (NMCRA) assesses the effect on acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity of exposure to 10 N-methyl carbamate (NMC) pesticides through dietary, drinking water, and residential exposures.

  15. [Renal risks of dietary complements: a forgotten cause].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dori, Olympia; Humbert, Antoine; Burnier, Michel; Teta, Daniel

    2014-02-26

    The use of dietary complements like vitamins, minerals, trace elements, proteins, aminoacids and plant-derived agents is prevalent in the general population, in order to promote health and treat diseases. Dietary complements are considered as safe natural products and are easily available without prescription. However, these can lead to severe renal toxicity, especially in cases of unknown pre-existing chronic kidney disease (CKD). In particular, Chinese herbs including aristolochic acid, high doses of vitamine C, creatine and protein complements may lead to acute and chronic renal failure, sometimes irreversible. Dietary complement toxicity should be suspected in any case of unexplained renal impairement. In the case of pre-existing CKD, the use of potentially nephrotoxic dietary complements should be screened for.

  16. The traditional Japanese dietary pattern and longitudinal changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors in apparently healthy Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Kaijun; Momma, Haruki; Kobayashi, Yoritoshi; Guan, Lei; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Ouchi, Eriko; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2016-02-01

    Few epidemiological studies have assessed the relationship between the traditional Japanese dietary pattern and longitudinal changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors among Japanese people. We designed a 3-year longitudinal study of 980 subjects living in Japan to evaluate how the Japanese dietary pattern is related to longitudinal changes in well-recognized risk factors for cardiovascular disease among apparently healthy Japanese adults. Dietary consumption was assessed via a validated food frequency questionnaire. Principal component analysis was used to derive three major dietary patterns-"Japanese," "sweets-fruits-cooked wheaten food," and "Izakaya (Japanese Pub)" from 39 food groups. After adjustment for potential confounders, the mean (95% confidence interval) for the change per year in diastolic blood pressure for men, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure for women related to the "Japanese" dietary pattern factor score tertiles were 0.89 (0.10, 1.68), 2.25 (0.19, 4.31), and 0.75 (-1.00, 2.50) for the lowest tertile, 0.77 (-0.02, 1.56), 1.01 (-1.13, 3.15), and 0.44 (-1.38, 2.26) for the middle tertile and - 0.04 (-0.81, 0.72), -0.48 (-2.52, 1.56), and -0.77 (-2.51, 0.96) for the highest tertile (trend P value = 0.03, triglyceride concentration only in men (trend P value = 0.02). Greater adherence to a traditional Japanese diet was independently related to a decreased change every year in diastolic blood pressure in men and women and in systolic blood pressure in women over a 3-year follow-up period. The findings suggest that the "Japanese" dietary pattern appeared to be related to a fall in blood pressure, which might have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular disease. A randomized trial is required to clarify the underlying mechanism.

  17. Dietary acrylamide intake and estrogen and progesterone receptor-defined postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedersen, G.S.; Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Schouten, L.J.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2010-01-01

    Acrylamide, a potential human carcinogen, has been discovered in a variety of heat-treated carbohydrate-rich food products. Previously, dietary acrylamide intake was shown to be associated with endocrine-related cancers in humans. We assessed the association between dietary acrylamide intake and

  18. Dietary acrylamide intake and estrogen and progesterone receptor-defined postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedersen, G.S.; Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Schouten, L.J.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2010-01-01

    Acrylamide, a potential human carcinogen, has been discovered in a variety of heat-treated carbohydrate-rich food products. Previously, dietary acrylamide intake was shown to be associated with endocrine-related cancers in humans. We assessed the association between dietary acrylamide intake and ris

  19. Impact of dietary fiber intake on glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fukuoka Diabetes Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hiroki; Iwase, Masanori; Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Ogata-Kaizu, Shinako; Ide, Hitoshi; Kikuchi, Yohei; Idewaki, Yasuhiro; Joudai, Tamaki; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Uchida, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Nakamura, Udai; Kitazono, Takanari

    2013-12-11

    Dietary fiber is beneficial for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, although it is consumed differently in ethnic foods around the world. We investigated the association between dietary fiber intake and obesity, glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 4,399 patients were assessed for dietary fiber intake using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. The associations between dietary fiber intake and various cardiovascular risk factors were investigated cross-sectionally. Body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, triglyceride and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein negatively associated with dietary fiber intake after adjusting for age, sex, duration of diabetes, current smoking, current drinking, total energy intake, fat intake, saturated fatty acid intake, leisure-time physical activity and use of oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin. The homeostasis model assessment insulin sensitivity and HDL cholesterol positively associated with dietary fiber intake. Dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced prevalence of abdominal obesity, hypertension and metabolic syndrome after multivariate adjustments including obesity. Furthermore, dietary fiber intake was associated with lower prevalence of albuminuria, low estimated glomerular filtration rate and chronic kidney disease after multivariate adjustments including protein intake. Additional adjustments for obesity, hypertension or metabolic syndrome did not change these associations. We demonstrated that increased dietary fiber intake was associated with better glycemic control and more favorable cardiovascular disease risk factors including chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetic patients should be encouraged to consume more dietary fiber in daily life.

  20. Dietary fiber and the risk of precancerous lesions and cancer of the esophagus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Helen G; Murray, Liam J; Hicks, Blanaid; Bhat, Shivaram K; Kubo, Ai; Corley, Douglas A; Cardwell, Chris R; Cantwell, Marie M

    2013-07-01

    Dietary fiber has several anticarcinogenic effects and is thought to be protective against esophageal cancer. The aim of this systematic review was to quantify the association between dietary fiber and the risk of esophageal cancer by investigating histological subtypes of esophageal cancer and the stage at which fiber may influence the carcinogenic pathway. Systematic search strategies were used to identify relevant studies, and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were combined using random-effects meta-analyses to assess the risk of cancer when comparing extreme categories of fiber intake. Ten relevant case-control studies were identified within the timeframe searched. Pooled estimates from eight studies of esophageal adenocarcinoma revealed a significant inverse association with the highest fiber intakes (OR 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.44-0.98). Two studies also identified protective effects of dietary fiber against Barrett's esophagus. Similar, though nonsignificant, associations were observed when results from five studies of fiber intake and risk of squamous cell carcinoma were combined (OR 0.61; 95%CI 0.31-1.20). Dietary fiber is associated with protective effects against esophageal carcinogenesis, most notably esophageal adenocarcinoma. Potential methods of action include modification of gastroesophageal reflux and/or weight control.

  1. Dietary Patterns Are Associated with Predicted Cardiovascular Disease Risk in an Urban Mexican Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Tucker, Katherine L; Flores, Mario; Barquera, Simón; Salmerón, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns may predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk more accurately than does consumption of specific nutrients or foods. We evaluated the association between Mexican adults' dietary patterns and development of a >10% risk of 10-y CVD (using the Framingham risk score) over 7 y of follow-up. This prospective cohort study included 1196 men and women aged 20-80 y with a 10-y predicted risk risk of elevated 10-y CVD (RR: 2.98; 95% CI: 1.46, 6.10; P-trend = 0.020) than did those in the lowest quintile. Finally, the meat/fish dietary pattern was not significantly associated with 10-y CVD. Our data suggest that the prudent pattern is associated with a reduced risk of 10-y CVD, whereas the refined-foods pattern may increase 10-y CVD in Mexican adults. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. An approach to risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L.; Lund, S. P.; Hass, Ulla

    1998-01-01

    indicate that numerous persons are exposed in the working as well as in the general environment to several chemicals, for which almost no data on the effect on subtle neurophysiological functions are available. Development of an approach to risk assessment dealing with this problem is a major challenge...... in the nineties. Different approaches to risk assessment are discussed, the quality of the databases available for hazard assessment are evaluated, and the needs for further research are identified. (C) 1996 Intox Press, Inc.......A strategy for delineating risk factors from use of neurotoxic chemicals was applied to the Danish working environment. An analysis using this strategy disclosed the need for internationally adopted criteria for neurotoxicity, and consequently a working group was established by the Nordic Council...

  3. Army Independent Risk Assessment Guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    AMSAA Kadry Rizk, TARDEC Lisa Graf, TARDEC Klaus Sanford, TRAC Elyse Krezmien, TRAC Jerry Scriven, ALU Igor Linkov, ERDC Alison Tichenor...Engineering ATEC - Army Test and Evaluation Command BCA - Business Case Analysis C - Consequence Level C- BA - Cost Benefit Analysis CDD...the AMSAA Risk Team has completed 12 technical and schedule risk assessments to support AoAs and Cost-Benefit Analyses (C- BAs ). AMSAA also developed

  4. ANTHROPIC RISK ASSESSMENT ON BIODIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for risk assessment of anthropic activities on habitats and species. The method has been developed for Veneto Region, in order to simplify and improve the quality of EIA procedure (VINCA). Habitats and species, animals and plants, are protected by European Directive 92/43/EEC and 2009/147/EC but they are subject at hazard due to pollution produced by human activities. Biodiversity risks may conduct to deterioration and disturbance in ecological niche...

  5. Effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on cardiometabolic risk factors and risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwab, Ursula; Lauritzen, Lotte; Tholstrup, Tine

    2014-01-01

    of this systematic review (SR) was to assess the evidence of an effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on body weight (BW), risk factors, and risk of non-communicable diseases, that is, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and cancer in healthy subjects or subjects at risk for these diseases...... were also included when limited or no data were available from other study types. Altogether 607 articles were quality graded and the observed effects in these papers were summarized. Convincing evidence was found that partial replacement of saturated fat (SFA) with polyunsaturated fat (PUFA......The effects of both the amount and quality of dietary fat have been studied intensively during the past decades. Previously, low-fat diets were recommended without much attention to the quality of fat, whereas there is general emphasis on the quality of fat in current guidelines. The objective...

  6. Tsunami risk assessment in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Strunz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS the assessment of tsunami risk is an essential part of the overall activities. The scientific and technical approach for the tsunami risk assessment has been developed and the results are implemented in the national Indonesian Tsunami Warning Centre and are provided to the national and regional disaster management and spatial planning institutions in Indonesia.

    The paper explains the underlying concepts and applied methods and shows some of the results achieved in the GITEWS project (Rudloff et al., 2009. The tsunami risk assessment has been performed at an overview scale at sub-national level covering the coastal areas of southern Sumatra, Java and Bali and also on a detailed scale in three pilot areas. The results are provided as thematic maps and GIS information layers for the national and regional planning institutions. From the analyses key parameters of tsunami risk are derived, which are integrated and stored in the decision support system of the national Indonesian Early Warning Centre. Moreover, technical descriptions and guidelines were elaborated to explain the developed approach, to allow future updates of the results and the further development of the methodologies, and to enable the local authorities to conduct tsunami risk assessment by using their own resources.

  7. Association between dietary fiber and lower risk of all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhao, Long-Gang; Wu, Qi-Jun; Ma, Xiao; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2015-01-15

    Although in vitro and in vivo experiments have suggested that dietary fiber might have beneficial effects on health, results on the association between fiber intake and all-cause mortality in epidemiologic studies have been inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to quantitatively assess this association. Pertinent studies were identified by searching articles in PubMed and Web of Knowledge through May 2014 and reviewing the reference lists of the retrieved articles. Study-specific risk estimates were combined using random-effects models. Seventeen prospective studies (1997-2014) that had a total of 67,260 deaths and 982,411 cohort members were included. When comparing persons with dietary fiber intakes in the top tertile with persons whose intakes were in the bottom tertile, we found a statistically significant inverse association between fiber intake and all-cause mortality, with an overall relative risk of 0.84 (95% confidence interval: 0.80, 0.87; I(2) = 41.2%). There was a 10% reduction in risk for per each 10-g/day increase in fiber intake (relative risk = 0.90; 95% confidence interval: 0.86, 0.94; I(2) = 77.2%). The combined estimate was robust across subgroup and sensitivity analyses. No publication bias was detected. A higher dietary fiber intake was associated with a reduced risk of death. These findings suggest that fiber intake may offer a potential public health benefit in reducing all-cause mortality.

  8. Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis Discovered a Dietary Pattern Inversely Associated with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yen-Li; Pan, Wen-Harn; Hsu, Wan-Lun; Chien, Yin-Chu; Chen, Jen-Yang; Hsu, Mow-Ming; Lou, Pei-Jen; Chen, I-How; Hildesheim, Allan; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Evidence on the association between dietary component, dietary pattern and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is scarce. A major challenge is the high degree of correlation among dietary constituents. We aimed to identify dietary pattern associated with NPC and to illustrate the dose-response relationship between the identified dietary pattern scores and the risk of NPC. Taking advantage of a matched NPC case-control study, data from a total of 319 incident cases and 319 matched controls were analyzed. Dietary pattern was derived employing partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) performed on energy-adjusted food frequencies derived from a 66-item food-frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated with multiple conditional logistic regression models, linking pattern scores and NPC risk. A high score of the PLS-DA derived pattern was characterized by high intakes of fruits, milk, fresh fish, vegetables, tea, and eggs ordered by loading values. We observed that one unit increase in the scores was associated with a significantly lower risk of NPC (ORadj = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.60-0.88) after controlling for potential confounders. Similar results were observed among Epstein-Barr virus seropositive subjects. An NPC protective diet is indicated with more phytonutrient-rich plant foods (fruits, vegetables), milk, other protein-rich foods (in particular fresh fish and eggs), and tea. This information may be used to design potential dietary regimen for NPC prevention.

  9. The Impact of Dietary and Metabolic Risk Factors on Cardiovascular Diseases and Type 2 Diabetes Mortality in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia C de Oliveira Otto

    Full Text Available Trends in food availability and metabolic risk factors in Brazil suggest a shift toward unhealthy dietary patterns and increased cardiometabolic disease risk, yet little is known about the impact of dietary and metabolic risk factors on cardiometabolic mortality in Brazil.Based on data from Global Burden of Disease (GBD Study, we used comparative risk assessment to estimate the burden of 11 dietary and 4 metabolic risk factors on mortality due to cardiovascular diseases and diabetes in Brazil in 2010. Information on national diets and metabolic risks were obtained from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey, the Food and Agriculture Organization database, and large observational studies including Brazilian adults. Relative risks for each risk factor were obtained from meta-analyses of randomized trials or prospective cohort studies; and disease-specific mortality from the GBD 2010 database. We quantified uncertainty using probabilistic simulation analyses, incorporating uncertainty in dietary and metabolic data and relative risks by age and sex. Robustness of findings was evaluated by sensitivity to varying feasible optimal levels of each risk factor.In 2010, high systolic blood pressure (SBP and suboptimal diet were the largest contributors to cardiometabolic deaths in Brazil, responsible for 214,263 deaths (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 195,073 to 233,936 and 202,949 deaths (95% UI: 194,322 to 211,747, respectively. Among individual dietary factors, low intakes of fruits and whole grains and high intakes of sodium were the largest contributors to cardiometabolic deaths. For premature cardiometabolic deaths (before age 70 years, representing 40% of cardiometabolic deaths, the leading risk factors were suboptimal diet (104,169 deaths; 95% UI: 99,964 to 108,002, high SBP (98,923 deaths; 95%UI: 92,912 to 104,609 and high body-mass index (BMI (42,643 deaths; 95%UI: 40,161 to 45,111.suboptimal diet, high SBP, and high BMI are major causes of

  10. Assessing Dietary Intake in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Food Frequency Questionnaire Versus 24-Hour Diet Recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Roberts, Susan B; Must, Aviva; Wong, William W; Gilhooly, Cheryl H; Kelly, Michael J; Parsons, Susan K; Saltzman, Edward

    2015-10-01

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet recalls (24HRs) against total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using the doubly labeled water method in 16 childhood cancer survivors. Dietary underreporting, assessed by (EI-TEE)/TEE × 100%, was 22% for FFQ and 1% for repeated 24HRs. FFQ significantly underestimates dietary intake and should not be used to assess the absolute intake of foods and nutrients in childhood cancer survivors.

  11. Dynamical systems probabilistic risk assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, Matthew R.; Ames, Arlo Leroy

    2014-03-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is the primary tool used to risk-inform nuclear power regulatory and licensing activities. Risk-informed regulations are intended to reduce inherent conservatism in regulatory metrics (e.g., allowable operating conditions and technical specifications) which are built into the regulatory framework by quantifying both the total risk profile as well as the change in the risk profile caused by an event or action (e.g., in-service inspection procedures or power uprates). Dynamical Systems (DS) analysis has been used to understand unintended time-dependent feedbacks in both industrial and organizational settings. In dynamical systems analysis, feedback loops can be characterized and studied as a function of time to describe the changes to the reliability of plant Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs). While DS has been used in many subject areas, some even within the PRA community, it has not been applied toward creating long-time horizon, dynamic PRAs (with time scales ranging between days and decades depending upon the analysis). Understanding slowly developing dynamic effects, such as wear-out, on SSC reliabilities may be instrumental in ensuring a safely and reliably operating nuclear fleet. Improving the estimation of a plant's continuously changing risk profile will allow for more meaningful risk insights, greater stakeholder confidence in risk insights, and increased operational flexibility.

  12. Dynamical systems probabilistic risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, Matthew R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ames, Arlo Leroy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is the primary tool used to risk-inform nuclear power regulatory and licensing activities. Risk-informed regulations are intended to reduce inherent conservatism in regulatory metrics (e.g., allowable operating conditions and technical specifications) which are built into the regulatory framework by quantifying both the total risk profile as well as the change in the risk profile caused by an event or action (e.g., in-service inspection procedures or power uprates). Dynamical Systems (DS) analysis has been used to understand unintended time-dependent feedbacks in both industrial and organizational settings. In dynamical systems analysis, feedback loops can be characterized and studied as a function of time to describe the changes to the reliability of plant Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs). While DS has been used in many subject areas, some even within the PRA community, it has not been applied toward creating long-time horizon, dynamic PRAs (with time scales ranging between days and decades depending upon the analysis). Understanding slowly developing dynamic effects, such as wear-out, on SSC reliabilities may be instrumental in ensuring a safely and reliably operating nuclear fleet. Improving the estimation of a plant's continuously changing risk profile will allow for more meaningful risk insights, greater stakeholder confidence in risk insights, and increased operational flexibility.

  13. Assessment of dietary habits of patients with recurrent depressive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefańska, Ewa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was evaluation of selected dietary habits of patients with recurrent depressive disorders. Methods. The study included 150 patients (75 patients suffering from recurrent depressive disorders. and 75 healthy people aged 18-64 years. The assessment of dietary habits was carried out by using a food frequency questionnaire. Results. It has been shown that in the compared groups of women, patients with depression consumed significantly less groats (p<0.001, rice (p= 0.02, red meat (p<0.01, fish (p<0.01, vegetables (p<0.001, fruits (p<0.01 and wine (p<0.001 in comparison with women without depression, and they were significantly more likely to consume wheat-rye bread (p= 0.03, cheese (p=0.02, butter (p=0.03, cream (p<0.01, lard (p <0.001, coffee (p=0.03 and sugar (p=0.02 in comparison with women without depression. Statistically significant differences between the two groups of men were diagnosed in the frequent intake of lard (p<0.001 and less frequent vegetable oils (p<0.01, beer (p= 0.01, and fast food (p<0.01 for men with depression compared with men in the control group. Conclusions. In the treatment of patients with depression during the declared change of diet, the need for nutrition education on the principles of rational nutrition should be taken into attention, including the selection of appropriate food groups in order to ensure an optimal supply of all necessary to the proper functioning of the body’s nutrients.

  14. Monetary cost of dietary energy is negatively associated with BMI and waist circumference, but not with other metabolic risk factors, in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2009-08-01

    Little is known about the relationship of dietary cost to health status. The present cross-sectional study examined the association between the monetary cost of dietary energy (Japanese yen/4184 kJ) and several metabolic risk factors. Monetary cost of dietary energy was estimated based on dietary intake assessed by a self-administered diet history questionnaire and retail food prices. Body height and weight, from which BMI was derived, waist circumference and blood pressure were measured and fasting blood samples were collected for biochemical measurements. A total of fifteen universities and colleges in Japan. A total of 1136 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18-22 years. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, monetary cost of dietary energy was significantly and negatively associated with BMI (P for trend = 0.0024). Monetary cost of dietary energy also showed a significant and negative association with waist circumference independently of potential confounding factors, including BMI (P for trend = 0.0003). No significant associations were observed for other metabolic risk factors examined (P for trend = 0.10-0.88). The monetary cost of dietary energy was independently and negatively associated with both BMI and waist circumference, but not other metabolic risk factors, in a group of young Japanese women.

  15. Integrated Disposal Facility Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MANN, F. M.

    2003-06-03

    An environmental risk assessment associated with the disposal of projected Immobilized Low-Activity Waste, solid wastes and failed or decommissioned melters in an Integrated Disposal Facility was performed. Based on the analyses all performance objectives associated with the groundwater, air, and intruder pathways were met.

  16. Harmonisation of food categorisation systems for dietary exposure assessments among European children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Neve, Melissa; Sioen, Isabelle; Boon, Polly

    2010-01-01

    Within the European project called EXPOCHI (Individual Food Consumption Data and Exposure Assessment Studies for Children), 14 different European individual food consumption databases of children were used to conduct harmonised dietary exposure assessments for lead, chromium, selenium and food co...

  17. Caries risk assessment in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S

    2016-01-01

    (recommendation levels A-D). RESULTS: Three SR, three guidelines, and five papers, not considered in previous SR, were identified and formed the base for the present summary and recommendations. One of the systematic reviews and three of the primary publications were of moderate risk of bias, while the rest......PURPOSE: To summarise the findings of recent systematic reviews (SR) covering caries risk assessment in children, updated with recent primary studies. METHODS: A search for relevant papers published 2012-2014 was conducted in electronic databases. The systematic reviews were quality assessed...... with the AMSTAR tool and the primary publications according to the Cochrane handbook. The quality was rated as low, moderate, or high risk of bias. The findings were descriptively synthesised and the quality of evidence was graded according to GRADE. For the recommendations of practice, the SIGN scores were used...

  18. Dietary fat, cooking fat, and breast cancer risk in a multiethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; John, Esther M; Horn-Ross, Pamela L; Ingles, Sue Ann

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the association between dietary fat intake, cooking fat usage, and breast cancer risk in a population-based, multiethnic, case-control study conducted in the San Francisco Bay area. Intake of total fat and types of fat were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire among 1,703 breast cancer cases diagnosed between 1995 and 1999 and 2,045 controls. In addition, preferred use of fat for cooking was assessed. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). High fat intake was associated with increased risk of breast cancer (highest vs. lowest quartile, adjusted OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.10-1.65, P(trend) < 0.01). A positive association was found for oleic acid (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.14-2.10, P(trend) < 0.01) but not for linoleic acid or saturated fat. Risk was increased for women cooking with hydrogenated fats (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.20-2.10) or vegetable/corn oil (rich in linoleic acid; OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.06-1.58) compared to women using olive/canola oil (rich in oleic acid). Our results suggest that a low-fat diet may play a role in breast cancer prevention. We speculate that monounsaturated trans fats may have driven the discrepant associations between types of fat and breast cancer.

  19. Effect of dietary B vitamins on BMD and risk of fracture in elderly men and women: the Rotterdam study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanpanah, Nahid; Zillikens, M Carola; Rivadeneira, Fernando; de Jong, Robert; Lindemans, Jan; Uitterlinden, André G; Pols, Huibert A P; van Meurs, Joyce B J

    2007-12-01

    A mildly elevated homocysteine (Hcy) level is a novel and potentially modifiable risk factor for age-related osteoporotic fractures. Elevated Hcy levels can have a nutritional cause, such as inadequate intake of folate, riboflavin, pyridoxine or cobalamin, which serve as cofactors or substrates for the enzymes involved in the Hcy metabolism. We examined the association between intake of Hcy-related B vitamin (riboflavin, pyridoxine, folate and cobalamin) and femoral neck bone mineral density BMD (FN-BMD) and the risk of fracture in a large population-based cohort of elderly Caucasians. We studied 5304 individuals aged 55 years and over from the Rotterdam Study. Dietary intake of nutrients was obtained from food frequency questionnaires. Incident non-vertebral fractures were recorded during a mean follow-up period of 7.4 years, and vertebral fractures were assessed by X-rays during a mean follow-up period of 6.4 years. We observed a small but significant positive association between dietary pyridoxine (beta = 0.09, p = 1 x 10(-8)) and riboflavin intake (beta = 0.06, p = 0.002) and baseline FN-BMD. In addition, after controlling for gender, age and BMI, pyridoxine intake was inversely correlated to fracture risk. As compared to the three lowest quartiles, individuals in the highest quartile of age- and energy-adjusted dietary pyridoxine intake had a decreased risk of non-vertebral fractures (HR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.65-0.92, p = 0.005) and of fragility fractures (HR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.40-0.77, p = 0.0004). Further adjustments for other dietary B vitamins (riboflavin, folate and cobalamin), dietary intake of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin A and vitamin K, protein and energy intake, smoking and BMD did not essentially modify these results. We conclude that increased dietary riboflavin and pyridoxine intake was associated with higher FN-BMD. Furthermore, we found a reduction in risk of fracture in relation to dietary pyridoxine intake independent of BMD. These findings

  20. 24 CFR 35.315 - Risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Risk assessment. 35.315 Section 35... Provided by a Federal Agency Other Than HUD § 35.315 Risk assessment. Each owner shall complete a risk assessment in accordance with 40 CFR 745.227(d). Each risk assessment shall be completed in accordance with...

  1. Dietary Exposure Assessment of Danish Consumers to Dithiocarbamate Residues in Food: a Comparison of the Deterministic and Probabilistic Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Andersen, Jens Hinge; Petersen, Annette;

    2008-01-01

    Probabilistic and deterministic estimates of the acute and chronic exposure of the Danish populations to dithiocarbamate residues were performed. The Monte Carlo Risk Assessment programme (MCRA 4.0) was used for the probabilistic risk assessment. Food consumption data were obtained from the natio......Probabilistic and deterministic estimates of the acute and chronic exposure of the Danish populations to dithiocarbamate residues were performed. The Monte Carlo Risk Assessment programme (MCRA 4.0) was used for the probabilistic risk assessment. Food consumption data were obtained from...... the nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000-02. Residue data for 5721 samples from the monitoring programme conducted in the period 1998-2003 were used for dithiocarbamates, which had been determined as carbon disulphide. Contributions from 26 commodities were included in the calculations. Using...

  2. Dietary Calcium and Framingham Risk Score in Vitamin D Deficient Male (KNHANES 2009-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung-Jin; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Park, Soo-Jung; Choi, Beomhee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The association between excess calcium intake and cardiovascular mortality has already been reported. In the present study, we investigated the relation between dietary calcium intake and Framingham Risk Score (FRS) according to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] status. Materials and Methods A total of 7809 subjects (3452 males and 4357 female) aged over 40 years were selected for this cross-sectional study from data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2011). Daily dietary calcium intake was categorized into 1200 mg/day and serum 25(OH)D concentration classified into 75 mmol/L. The FRS was compared by the daily dietary calcium intake categories according to 25(OH)D concentration after adjustment with relevant variables in both genders. Results Higher FRS was observed in males with both 1200 mg of dietary calcium intake and females with 1200 mg of dietary calcium intake groups in both genders after adjustments for relevant variables. FRS was significantly higher in the group with >1200 mg of dietary calcium intake and serum 25(OH)D 1200 mg/day) dietary calcium intake were related with higher FRS in both genders. In particular, higher FRS was observed in the excess (>1200 mg/day) dietary calcium intake male group under vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/L). PMID:25837195

  3. Risk factors of low dietary vitamin A intake among children in the Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzi, W W; Herrera, M G; Nestel, P; el Amin, A; Mohammed, K A

    1997-04-01

    We examined the determinants of dietary vitamin A intake among Sudanese children, information which is important for designing effective interventions based on the dietary approach. Children under the age of two years were at greater risk of consuming a diet low in vitamin A compared with children who were five years or older. Compared with children from relatively affluent households, those from poorer households were about twice as likely to consume low levels of carotenoid or preformed vitamin A. Low vitamin A intake was also significantly associated with lack of running water, a latrine, radio, or television in the household, and inversely associated with maternal or paternal illiteracy and with cleanliness of the child subjectively assessed by the interviewer. As expected, breastfed children in the first two years of life were likely to consume lower levels of preformed vitamin A and carotenoid from food (excluding breast milk) compared with non-breastfed children. Low vitamin A intake was more prevalent in the dry months of the year. Efforts to increase accessibility to vitamin A containing food, combined with nutrition education campaigns and public health programmes directed at improving sanitation and reducing infection are necessary as part of the long-term solution to the problem of vitamin A deficiency.

  4. Mycotoxins in Plant-Based Dietary Supplements: Hidden Health Risk for Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veprikova, Zdenka; Zachariasova, Milena; Dzuman, Zbynek; Zachariasova, Alena; Fenclova, Marie; Slavikova, Petra; Vaclavikova, Marta; Mastovska, Katerina; Hengst, Daniel; Hajslova, Jana

    2015-07-29

    Mycotoxin contamination of dietary supplements represents a possible risk for human health, especially in the case of products intended for people suffering from certain health conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of this problem based on analyses of a wide set of herbal-based dietary supplements intended for various purposes: (i) treatment of liver diseases (milk thistle); (ii) reduction of menopause effects (red clover, flax seed, and soy); and (iii) preparations for general health support (green barley, nettle, goji berries, yucca, etc.) The analytical method including 57 mycotoxins was based on a QuEChERS-like (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe) approach and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The main mycotoxins determined were Fusarium trichothecenes, zearalenone and enniatins, and Alternaria mycotoxins. Co-occurrence of enniatins, HT-2/T-2 toxins, and Alternaria toxins was observed in many cases. The highest mycotoxin concentrations were found in milk thistle-based supplements (up to 37 mg/kg in the sum).

  5. Dietary fatty acids and cardiovascular disease risk in observational studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praagman, Jaike

    2017-01-01

    Dietary fat is a valuable component of the diet and essential for the human body. Over time it has become clear that certain types of fat(ty acids) are also potentially harmful for our health. For example, we know from intervention studies that saturated fat and trans-fat have unfavourable effects

  6. Dietary acid load and risk of hypertension : the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberink, Marielle F.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Brink, Elizabeth J.; van Baak, Marleen A.; van Rooij, Frank J. A.; Hofman, Albert; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mild metabolic acidosis, which can be caused by diet, may result in elevated blood pressure (BP). Objective: The objective was to examine whether dietary acid load was associated with incident hypertension in a cohort of older Dutch adults from the Rotterdam Study. Design: The analyses i

  7. Dietary acid load and risk of hypertension: The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Engberink (Marielle); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan); E.J. Brink (Elizabeth); M.A. van Baak (Marleen); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); A. Hofman (Albert); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); J.M. Geleijnse (Marianne)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Mild metabolic acidosis, which can be caused by diet, may result in elevated blood pressure (BP). Objective: The objective was to examine whether dietary acid load was associated with incident hypertension in a cohort of older Dutch adults from the Rotterdam Study. Design: Th

  8. Dietary acid load and risk of hypertension: The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberink, M.F.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Brink, E.J.; Baak, M.A. van; Rooij, F.J.A. van; Hofman, A.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mild metabolic acidosis, which can be caused by diet, may result in elevated blood pressure (BP). Objective: The objective was to examine whether dietary acid load was associated with incident hypertension in a cohort of older Dutch adults from the Rotterdam Study. Design: The analyses i

  9. Dietary acid load and risk of hypertension : the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberink, Marielle F.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Brink, Elizabeth J.; van Baak, Marleen A.; van Rooij, Frank J. A.; Hofman, Albert; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.

    Background: Mild metabolic acidosis, which can be caused by diet, may result in elevated blood pressure (BP). Objective: The objective was to examine whether dietary acid load was associated with incident hypertension in a cohort of older Dutch adults from the Rotterdam Study. Design: The analyses

  10. Evaluation of methodologies for assessing the overall diet: dietary quality scores and dietary pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocké, Marga C

    2013-05-01

    This paper aims to describe different approaches for studying the overall diet with advantages and limitations. Studies of the overall diet have emerged because the relationship between dietary intake and health is very complex with all kinds of interactions. These cannot be captured well by studying single dietary components. Three main approaches to study the overall diet can be distinguished. The first method is researcher-defined scores or indices of diet quality. These are usually based on guidelines for a healthy diet or on diets known to be healthy. The second approach, using principal component or cluster analysis, is driven by the underlying dietary data. In principal component analysis, scales are derived based on the underlying relationships between food groups, whereas in cluster analysis, subgroups of the population are created with people that cluster together based on their dietary intake. A third approach includes methods that are driven by a combination of biological pathways and the underlying dietary data. Reduced rank regression defines linear combinations of food intakes that maximally explain nutrient intakes or intermediate markers of disease. Decision tree analysis identifies subgroups of a population whose members share dietary characteristics that influence (intermediate markers of) disease. It is concluded that all approaches have advantages and limitations and essentially answer different questions. The third approach is still more in an exploration phase, but seems to have great potential with complementary value. More insight into the utility of conducting studies on the overall diet can be gained if more attention is given to methodological issues.

  11. Dietary assessment of a group of elderly Spanish people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, R M; Andrés, P; Redondo, M R; Zamora, M J; López-Sobaler, A M; Encinas-Sotillos, A

    1995-05-01

    The dietary patterns of 60 elderly from Spain (37 women and 23 men) were examined by analysis of the food, energy and nutrient intake during 5 days. The caloric profile was somewhat unbalanced, since the percentage of total energy intake from proteins and lipids was above the recommended limit whereas the proportion of energy derived from carbohydrates was slightly deficient. The degree of underreporting derived by subtracting predicted total daily energy expenditure from self-reported energy intake obtained from a diet control during 5 days is 120 kcal/day in men and 334 kcal/day in women. More than 50% of the population showed intakes of pyridoxine, folates, vitamin A (only in men), vitamin D, vitamin E. zinc, magnesium and iron (only in women) lower than those recommended. Although it is likely that the real intakes of these micronutrients are higher than the levels measured considering the underreporting, the obtained results show the existence of a risk of deficiency of several nutrients. An increase in the energy intake of the group with a parallel increase in physical activity with a view to avoiding weight gain may be of use in improving the nutritional status of the group. This measure, together with increased consumption of vegetables and milk products especially, may lead to a striking reduction in illness, a finding that is of considerable clinical and public health importance.

  12. An approach to risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L.; Lund, S. P.; Hass, Ulla

    1998-01-01

    A strategy for delineating risk factors from use of neurotoxic chemicals was applied to the Danish working environment. An analysis using this strategy disclosed the need for internationally adopted criteria for neurotoxicity, and consequently a working group was established by the Nordic Council...... in the nineties. Different approaches to risk assessment are discussed, the quality of the databases available for hazard assessment are evaluated, and the needs for further research are identified. (C) 1996 Intox Press, Inc.......A strategy for delineating risk factors from use of neurotoxic chemicals was applied to the Danish working environment. An analysis using this strategy disclosed the need for internationally adopted criteria for neurotoxicity, and consequently a working group was established by the Nordic Council...... indicate that numerous persons are exposed in the working as well as in the general environment to several chemicals, for which almost no data on the effect on subtle neurophysiological functions are available. Development of an approach to risk assessment dealing with this problem is a major challenge...

  13. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and risk of myocardial infarction - a population-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergkvist, Charlotte; Berglund, Marika; Glynn, Anders; Wolk, Alicja; Åkesson, Agneta

    2015-03-15

    Fish consumption may promote cardiovascular health. The role of major food contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) common in fatty fish, is unclear. We assessed the association between dietary PCB exposure and risk of myocardial infarction taking into account the intake of long-chain omega-3 fish fatty acids. In the prospective population-based Swedish Mammography Cohort, 33,446 middle-aged and elderly women, free from cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes at baseline (1997) were followed-up for 12 years. Validated estimates of dietary PCB exposure and intake of fish fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid; EPA-DHA) were obtained via a food frequency questionnaire at baseline. During follow-up 1386 incident cases of myocardial infarction were ascertained through register-linkage. Women in the highest quartile of dietary PCB exposure (median 286 ng/day) had a multivariable-adjusted RR of myocardial infarction of 1.21 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.45) compared to the lowest quartile (median 101 ng/day) before, and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.10-2.25) after adjusting for EPA-DHA. Stratification by low and high EPA-DHA intake, resulted in RRs 2.20 (95% CI, 1.18-4.12) and 1.73 (95% CI, 0.81-3.69), respectively comparing highest PCB tertile with lowest. The intake of dietary EPA-DHA was inversely associated with risk of myocardial infarction after but not before adjusting for dietary PCB. Exposure to PCBs was associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction, while some beneficial effect was associated with increasing EPA and DHA intake. To increase the net benefits of fish consumption, PCB contamination should be reduced to a minimum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary iron and risk of myocardial infarction in the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klipstein-Grobusch, K.; Grobbee, D.E.; Breeijen, J.H. den; Boeing, H.; Hofman, A.; Witteman, J.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Free iron has been implicated in lipid peroxidation and ischemic myocardial damage, and it has been suggested that iron is an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction. The authors investigated whether dietary iron is associated with an increased risk of fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarct

  15. Dietary folate and folate vitamers and the risk of prostate cancer in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhage, B.A.J.; Cremers, P.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to examine the association between intake of folate, and specific folate vitamers, and the risk of advanced and total prostate cancer. Methods: The association between dietary folate and prostate cancer risk was evaluated in The Netherlands Cohort Study (NLC

  16. Dietary iron and risk of myocardial infarction in the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klipstein-Grobusch, K.; Grobbee, D.E.; Breeijen, J.H. den; Boeing, H.; Hofman, A.; Witteman, J.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Free iron has been implicated in lipid peroxidation and ischemic myocardial damage, and it has been suggested that iron is an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction. The authors investigated whether dietary iron is associated with an increased risk of fatal and nonfatal myocardial

  17. Dietary fatty acids and risk factors for coronary heart disease: controlled studies in healthy volunteers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zock, P.L.

    1995-01-01

    High levels of LDL cholesterol, blood pressure and Lp(a), and low levels of HDL cholesterol increase the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). This thesis describes the effects of dietary fatty acids on these risk factors. In each of three trials we fed diets with tailored fatty acid composition to

  18. The role of family in a dietary risk reduction intervention for cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet is an essential strategy for the prevention of primary and secondary cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. The objectives were to examine: how families at increased risk of CVD perceived personal risk, their motivations to make dietary changes, their understanding of diet, and the influence of o...

  19. Dietary fiber and fiber fraction intakes and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiao; Fang, Yu-Jing; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Lu, Min-Shan; Zheng, Mei-Chun; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have been conducted in Chinese adults to investigate the effect of fiber intake on colorectal cancer risk. The present study aimed to examine the associations of dietary fiber and fiber fraction intakes with colorectal cancer risk in Chinese adults. A total of 613 cases with colorectal cancer were consecutively recruited between July 2010 and October 2012 and frequency matched to 613 controls by age (5-yr interval) and gender. Dietary information was collected through a validated food frequency questionnaire by face-to-face interviews. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjustment for potential confounders. Total dietary fiber and fiber fraction intakes were found to be inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. Compared with the lowest quartile, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for the highest quartile were 0.38 (0.27-0.55) for total dietary fiber, 0.45 (0.32-0.64) for vegetable fiber, and 0.41 (0.28-0.58) for fruit fiber, respectively. In addition, no significant association was found between soy fiber intake and colorectal cancer risk. This study showed that a high intake of dietary fiber, particularly derived from vegetables and fruit, was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in Chinese adults.

  20. Dietary magnesium intake and risk of cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hae Jin; Youn, Chang Ho; Kim, Hyo Min; Cho, Yoon Jeong; Lee, Geon Ho; Lee, Won Kee

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dietary magnesium and the risk of overall cancer using a meta-analysis. We searched PubMed, SCOPUS, and the Cochrane Review through November 2012. All the articles searched were independently reviewed by 3 authors based on predetermined selection criterion. A total of 13 epidemiologic studies, 6 case-control studies, and 7 prospective cohort studies involving 1,236,004 participants were included in the final analysis. When all studies were pooled, the relative risk (RR) of overall cancer for the highest level of dietary magnesium intake was 0.801 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.664-0.966) compared with the lowest level of dietary magnesium intake. In subgroup meta-analyses by study design, there was a significant inverse association between dietary magnesium and the risk of cancer in case-control studies (RR = 0.663, 95% CI: 0.475-0.925), whereas there was no significant association in prospective cohort studies (RR = 0.888, 95% CI: 0.745-1.060). Furthermore, there was a significant preventive effect of dietary magnesium for colorectal cancer (RR = 0.775, 95% CI: 0.655-0.919), but not for other cancer. Our meta-analysis showed that higher dietary magnesium intake seems to have a protective effect for cancer, especially colorectal cancer and in females.

  1. A perspective on vegetarian dietary patterns and risk of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaté, Joan; Wien, Michelle

    2015-04-01

    The vegetarian dietary pattern is traditionally a plant-based diet that includes fruits, vegetables, cereals, legumes, nuts, vegetable oils, soya, and possibly dairy products and/or eggs. Vegetarians and other populations who follow a plant-based dietary pattern enjoy longevity. Specifically, vegetarian dietary patterns have been associated with a lower risk for developing IHD, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, specific cancers, lower all-cause mortality and reduction in cause-specific mortality. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the USA is approximately 20 % and is currently increasing in developing countries in line with the obesity epidemic. The health care costs associated with the MetS are on a magnitude of 1.6 overall compared with healthy individuals, which makes it an important public health problem. Current evidence from several cross-sectional and case-control studies shows an association between consumption of a vegetarian dietary pattern and a reduced prevalence or risk of developing the MetS. There is a need for further research to be conducted, particularly prospective cohort studies to evaluate the effect of vegetarian dietary patterns on reducing the incidence of the MetS and, clinical trials should be designed to explore vegetarian dietary patterns for the reversal of the MetS in high-risk populations. This research could contribute to reduce the societal and economic burdens associated with the disorder.

  2. [Dietary habits of adolescents and associated cardiovascular risk factors: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, David Franciole de Oliveira; Lyra, Clélia de Oliveira; Lima, Severina Carla Vieira Cunha

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this study was to conduct a systematic review to establish the major dietary habits of adolescents and the corresponding association with cardiovascular risk factors. Research was performed in the LILACS, SciELO, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases in addition to a manual search for original articles published between 2005 and 2014. Of the 371 entries identified; 26 fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were covered in the review. The main dietary habits observed were Western (61%) Healthy (42%) and Traditional (38%). Western dietary habits were positively associated with total cholesterol and SM, while Healthy dietary habits were inversely associated with fasting glycaemia, DBP and SM and positively with HDL-C, all of the aforementioned associations with very low (D) quality of evidence in accordance with the GRADE rating. The Traditional dietary habits were considered a risk factor for hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hypertriglyceridemia and protection for physical activity and eutrophic BMI. Although these results need to be analyzed with caution, due to the low quality of evidence, there is a clear need for actions aimed at promoting healthy dietary habits in adolescents in order to contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular risk factors.

  3. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Association Between Dietary Potassium and Risk of Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Khalili

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:Recent animal studies have identified that dietary salt intake may modify the risk and progression of autoimmune disorders through modulation of the IL23/TH17 pathway, which is critical in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn’s disease (CD. Methods:We conducted a prospective study of U.S. women enrolled in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS and NHSII who provided detailed and validated information on diet and lifestyle beginning in 1984 in NHS and 1991 in NHSII. We confirmed incident cases of UC and CD reported through 2010 in NHS and 2011 in NHSII. We used Cox proportional hazards models to calculate hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. In a case-control study nested within these cohorts, we evaluated the interaction between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in genes involved in TH17 pathway and dietary potassium on risk of CD and UC. In a cohort of healthy volunteers, we also assessed the effect of supplemental potassium on development of naïve and memory T cells, differentiated with TGFβ1 or TH17 conditions.Results:Among a total of 194,711 women over a follow up of 3,220,247 person-years, we documented 273 cases of CD and 335 cases of UC. Dietary intake of potassium (Ptrend = 0.005 but not sodium (Ptrend = 0.44 was inversely associated with risk of CD. Although, both dietary potassium and sodium were not significantly associated with risk of UC, there was a suggestion of an inverse association with dietary potassium (Ptrend = 0.08. The association of potassium with risk of CD and UC appeared to be modified by loci involved in the TH17 pathway that have previously been associated with susceptibility to CD, particularly SNP rs7657746 (IL21 (Pinteraction = 0.004 and 0.01, respectively. In vitro, potassium enhanced the expression of Foxp3 in both naïve and memory CD4+ T cells via activating Smad2/3 and inhibiting Smad7 in TH17 cells. Conclusion:Dietary potassium is inversely associated with risk

  4. Metabolic syndrome and dietary components are associated with coronary artery disease risk score in free-living adults: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi Mauro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary artery disease (CAD is among the main causes of death in developed countries, and diet and lifestyle can influence CAD incidence. Objective To evaluate the association of coronary artery disease risk score with dietary, anthropometric and biochemical components in adults clinically selected for a lifestyle modification program. Methods 362 adults (96 men, 266 women, 53.9 ± 9.4 years fulfilled the inclusion criteria by presenting all the required data. The Framingham score was calculated and the IV Brazilian Guideline on Dyslipidemia and Prevention of Atherosclerosis was adopted for classification of the CAD risks. Anthropometric assessments included waist circumference (WC, body fat and calculated BMI (kg/m2 and muscle-mass index (MMI kg/m2. Dietary intake was estimated through 24 h dietary recall. Fasting blood was used for biochemical analysis. Metabolic Syndrome (MS was diagnosed using NCEP-ATPIII (2001 criteria. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds of CAD risks according to the altered components of MS, dietary, anthropometric, and biochemical components. Results For a sample with a BMI 28.5 ± 5.0 kg/m2 the association with lower risk ( Conclusion Recommended intake of saturated fat and dietary fiber, together with proper muscle mass, are inversely associated with CAD risk score. On the other hand, the presence of MS and high plasma uric acid are associated with CAD risk score.

  5. Dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer defined by estrogen and progesterone receptor status: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Saki; Inoue, Manami; Saito, Eiko; Abe, Sarah K; Sawada, Norie; Ishihara, Junko; Iwasaki, Motoki; Yamaji, Taiki; Shimazu, Taichi; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Shibuya, Kenji; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested a protective effect of dietary fiber intake on breast cancer risk while the results have been inconsistent. Our study aimed to investigate the association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk and to explore whether this association is modified by reproductive factors and hormone receptor status of the tumor. A total of 44,444 women aged 45 to 74 years from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study were included in analyses. Dietary intake assessment was performed using a validated 138-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer incidence were calculated by multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models. During 624,423 person-years of follow-up period, 681 breast cancer cases were identified. After adjusting for major confounders for breast cancer risk, inverse trends were observed but statistically non-significant. Extremely high intake of fiber was associated with decreased risk of breast cancer but this should be interpreted with caution due to limited statistical power. In stratified analyses by menopausal and hormone receptor status, null associations were observed except for ER-PR- status. Our findings suggest that extreme high fiber intake may be associated with decreased risk of breast cancer but the level of dietary fiber intake among Japanese population might not be sufficient to examine the association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk.

  6. Assessment of Dietary Practice Among Diabetic Patients in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kaabi, Juma; Al-Maskari, Fatma; Saadi, Hussein; Afandi, Bachar; Parkar, Hasratali; Nagelkerke, Nicolaas

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess dietary practices and risk profile (hypertension, obesity, lipid profile and glycemic control) among people with diabetes in Al-Ain District, United Arab Emirates (UAE). METHODS: During 2006, we performed a cross-sectional study of diabetic patients attending diabetic outpatient clinics at Tawam Hospital and primary health care centers in Al-Ain District. Subjects completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire, blood pressure, body mass index, percentage body fat and abdominal circumference were measured and recorded and the most recent HbA1c levels and fasting lipid profile were identified. RESULTS: A sample of 409 diabetic patients was recruited, 50% of whom were illiterate. Only 24% read food labeling. 76% reported being unable to distinguish clearly between low and high carbohydrate index food items and no one reported counting calorie intake. 46% reported that they had never been seen by dietician since their diagnosis. Their overall risk profile, notably body weight, lipid profile and blood pressure, was very unfavorable; more than half of the study sample had uncontrolled hypertension and uncontrolled lipid profile and the majority was overweight (36%) or obese (45%). Abdominal obesity was particularly common (59%). Only 31% had an HbA1c of less than 7%. CONCLUSIONS: The dietary practices of diabetic patients in the UAE are inadequate and need improvement. PMID:18795213

  7. The Association between Dietary Vitamin A and Carotenes and the Risk of Primary Liver Cancer: A Case–Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Qiu-Ye; Zhang, Yao-Jun; Liao, Gong-Cheng; Zhou, Rui-Fen; Zhou, Zhong-Guo; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhu, Hui-Lian

    2016-01-01

    Dietary intake of vitamin A (VA) and carotenes has shown beneficial effects for decreasing the risk of some types of cancer, but findings on the risk of primary liver cancer (PLC) are inconsistent. This case–control study explored the associations between the dietary intake of VA and carotenes and the risk of PLC. We recruited 644 incident PLC patients (diagnosed within one month of each other) and 644 age- and gender-matched controls in Guangzhou, China. A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess habitual dietary intake. Logistic regression analyses found that higher intakes of VA and carotenes were independently associated with decreased PLC risk (all P-trend < 0.001). The multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CI) of PLC for the highest (vs. lowest) quartile were 0.34 (0.24–0.48) for vitamin A and 0.35 (0.25–0.49) for carotenes. The associations were not significantly modified by smoking, alcohol, or tea drinking (P-interactions: 0.062–0.912). Dose–response analysis showed a U-shaped VA–PLC relationship, with sharply decreased risks at the intakes of about 1000 μg retinol equivalent (RE)/day, and then slowly went down toward the flat-bottomed risks with the lowest risk at 2300 μg RE/day. Our findings suggest that greater intake of retinol, carotenes, and total VA may decrease PLC risk among the Chinese population at an intake of 1000 μg RE/day or greater from food sources. PMID:27727160

  8. Uncertainties in risk assessment at USDOE facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Rowe, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) has embarked on an ambitious program to remediate environmental contamination at its facilities. Decisions concerning cleanup goals, choices among cleanup technologies, and funding prioritization should be largely risk-based. Risk assessments will be used more extensively by the USDOE in the future. USDOE needs to develop and refine risk assessment methods and fund research to reduce major sources of uncertainty in risk assessments at USDOE facilities. The terms{open_quote} risk assessment{close_quote} and{open_quote} risk management{close_quote} are frequently confused. The National Research Council (1983) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 1991a) described risk assessment as a scientific process that contributes to risk management. Risk assessment is the process of collecting, analyzing and integrating data and information to identify hazards, assess exposures and dose responses, and characterize risks. Risk characterization must include a clear presentation of {open_quotes}... the most significant data and uncertainties...{close_quotes} in an assessment. Significant data and uncertainties are {open_quotes}...those that define and explain the main risk conclusions{close_quotes}. Risk management integrates risk assessment information with other considerations, such as risk perceptions, socioeconomic and political factors, and statutes, to make and justify decisions. Risk assessments, as scientific processes, should be made independently of the other aspects of risk management (USEPA, 1991a), but current methods for assessing health risks are based on conservative regulatory principles, causing unnecessary public concern and misallocation of funds for remediation.

  9. Uncertainties in risk assessment at USDOE facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Rowe, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) has embarked on an ambitious program to remediate environmental contamination at its facilities. Decisions concerning cleanup goals, choices among cleanup technologies, and funding prioritization should be largely risk-based. Risk assessments will be used more extensively by the USDOE in the future. USDOE needs to develop and refine risk assessment methods and fund research to reduce major sources of uncertainty in risk assessments at USDOE facilities. The terms{open_quote} risk assessment{close_quote} and{open_quote} risk management{close_quote} are frequently confused. The National Research Council (1983) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 1991a) described risk assessment as a scientific process that contributes to risk management. Risk assessment is the process of collecting, analyzing and integrating data and information to identify hazards, assess exposures and dose responses, and characterize risks. Risk characterization must include a clear presentation of {open_quotes}... the most significant data and uncertainties...{close_quotes} in an assessment. Significant data and uncertainties are {open_quotes}...those that define and explain the main risk conclusions{close_quotes}. Risk management integrates risk assessment information with other considerations, such as risk perceptions, socioeconomic and political factors, and statutes, to make and justify decisions. Risk assessments, as scientific processes, should be made independently of the other aspects of risk management (USEPA, 1991a), but current methods for assessing health risks are based on conservative regulatory principles, causing unnecessary public concern and misallocation of funds for remediation.

  10. Automating Spreadsheet Discovery & Risk Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Perry, Eric

    2008-01-01

    There have been many articles and mishaps published about the risks of uncontrolled spreadsheets in today's business environment, including non-compliance, operational risk, errors, and fraud all leading to significant loss events. Spreadsheets fall into the realm of end user developed applications and are often absent the proper safeguards and controls an IT organization would enforce for enterprise applications. There is also an overall lack of software programming discipline enforced in how spreadsheets are developed. However, before an organization can apply proper controls and discipline to critical spreadsheets, an accurate and living inventory of spreadsheets across the enterprise must be created, and all critical spreadsheets must be identified. As such, this paper proposes an automated approach to the initial stages of the spreadsheet management lifecycle - discovery, inventory and risk assessment. Without the use of technology, these phases are often treated as a one-off project. By leveraging techn...

  11. Usability of mobile phone food records to assess dietary intake in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobile technologies are emerging as a valuable tool to collect and assess dietary intake. Adolescents readily accept and adopt new technologies, hence, a food record application (FRapp) may provide an accurate mechanism to monitor dietary intake. We examined the usability of a FRapp in 17 free-livin...

  12. A critical assessment of some biomarker approaches linked with dietary intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crews, H.; Alink, G.; Andersen, R.; Braesco, V.; Holst, B.; Maiani, G.; Ovesen, L.; Scotter, M.; Solfrizzo, M.; Berg, R. van den; Verhagen, H.; Williamson, G.

    2001-01-01

    In this review many examples are given of the complexities involved in using some biomarkers in relation to assessing the effects of dietary exposure, when there is frequently a need to determine changes following long-term low level exposure to dietary components. These range from understanding why

  13. Risk Assessment Terminology: Risk Communication Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuzzo, Gaetano; Bentley, Stefano; Giacometti, Federica; Piva, Silvia; Serraino, Andrea

    2016-04-19

    The paper describes the terminology of risk communication in the view of food safety: different aspects of risk perception (perceived risk, media triggers, the psychometric paradigm, fright factors and cultural determinants of risk perception) are described. The risk profile elements are illustrated in the manuscript: hazard-food commodity combination(s) of concern; description of the public health problem; food production, processing, distribution and consumption; needs and questions for the risk assessors; available information and major knowledge gaps and other risk profile elements.

  14. Risk assessment terminology: risk communication part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Liuzzo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the terminology of risk communication in the view of food safety: different aspects of risk perception (perceived risk, media triggers, the psychometric paradigm, fright factors and cultural determinants of risk perception are described. The risk profile elements are illustrated in the manuscript: hazard-food commodity combination(s of concern; description of the public health problem; food production, processing, distribution and consumption; needs and questions for the risk assessors; available information and major knowledge gaps and other risk profile elements.

  15. Dairy Products, Dietary Calcium, and Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opstelten, Jorrit L; Leenders, Max; Dik, Vincent K

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dairy products may be involved in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease by modulating gut microbiota and immune responses, but data from epidemiological studies examining this relationship are limited. We investigated the association between prediagnostic intake of these foods...... and dietary calcium, and the subsequent development of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: In total, 401,326 participants were enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. At recruitment, consumption of total and specific dairy products (milk...... intervals (CIs), adjusted for total energy intake and smoking. RESULTS: Compared with the lowest quartile, the ORs for the highest quartile of total dairy products and dietary calcium intake were 0.61 (95% CI, 0.32-1.19, p trend = 0.19) and 0.63 (95% CI, 0.28-1.42, p trend = 0.23) for CD, and 0.80 (95% CI...

  16. Survey of mental health nurses' attitudes towards risk assessment, risk assessment tools and positive risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, C; Gill, A; Doyle, L; Morrissey, J; Higgins, A

    2016-04-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Risk assessment and safety planning are a core aspect of the role of the mental health nurse. Conflicting views exist on the value of risk assessment tools. Few studies have examined mental health nurses' attitudes towards risk, including use of tools and the role of positive risk in recovery. WHAT THE PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Mental health nurses view risk assessment as a core dimension of their role and not merely an exercise to fulfil organizational clinical safety and governance obligations. The majority of nurses hold positive attitudes towards therapeutic or positive risk, and consider creative risk taking as vital to people's recovery. The majority of nurses believe that risk assessment tools facilitate professional decision making, however, some are concerned that tools may negatively impact upon therapeutic relationships. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Ongoing education on the use of risk assessment tools is required to minimize views that their use is incompatible with therapeutic engagement, and to enable nurses to develop confidence to engage with positive risk and to allow service users make decisions and take responsibility. Introduction Risk assessment and safety planning are considered core components of the role of the mental health nurse; however, little is known about nurses' attitudes towards risk assessment, use of tools to assess risk or therapeutic risk taking. Aim This study aimed to explore mental health nurses' attitudes towards completing risk assessments, use of tools as an aid, and therapeutic or positive risk. Method An anonymous survey which included 13 attitudinal statements, rated on a five-point Likert scale, was completed by 381 mental health nurses working in adult services in Ireland. Findings Findings indicate strong support for the practice of risk assessment in mental health practice. The vast majority of nurses believe that risk assessment tools facilitate professional

  17. Risk Assessment of Shellfish Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex Munday

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Complex secondary metabolites, some of which are highly toxic to mammals, are produced by many marine organisms. Some of these organisms are important food sources for marine animals and, when ingested, the toxins that they produce may be absorbed and stored in the tissues of the predators, which then become toxic to animals higher up the food chain. This is a particular problem with shellfish, and many cases of poisoning are reported in shellfish consumers each year. At present, there is no practicable means of preventing uptake of the toxins by shellfish or of removing them after harvesting. Assessment of the risk posed by such toxins is therefore required in order to determine levels that are unlikely to cause adverse effects in humans and to permit the establishment of regulatory limits in shellfish for human consumption. In the present review, the basic principles of risk assessment are described, and the progress made toward robust risk assessment of seafood toxins is discussed. While good progress has been made, it is clear that further toxicological studies are required before this goal is fully achieved.

  18. Assessing infant exposure to persistent organic pollutants via dietary intake in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toms, Leisa-Maree Leontjew; Hearn, Laurence; Mueller, Jochen F; Harden, Fiona A

    2016-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs); organochlorine pesticides (OCPs); and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) persist in the environment, bioaccumulate, and pose a risk of causing adverse human health effects. Typically, exposure assessments undertaken by modeling existing intake data underestimate the concentrations of these chemicals in infants. This study aimed to determine concentrations of POPs in infant foods, assess exposure via dietary intake and compare this to historical exposure. Fruit purees, meat and vegetables, dairy desserts, cereals and jelly foods (n = 33) purchased in 2013 in Brisbane, Australia were analyzed. For OCPs and PCBs, concentrations ranged up to 95 pg/g fw and for PBDEs up to 32 pg/g fw with most analytes below the limit of detection. Daily intake is dependent on type and quantity of foods consumed. Consumption of a 140 g meal would result in intake ranging from 0 to 4.2 ng/day, 4.4 ng/day and 13.3 ng/day, for OCPs, PBDEs and PCBs, respectively. PBDEs were detected in 3/33 samples, OCPs in 9/33 samples and PCBs in 13/33 samples. Results from this study indicate exposure for infants via dietary (in contrast to dust and breast milk) intake in Australia contribute only a minor component to total exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Overview of computerized dietary assessment programs for research and practice in nutrition education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Yasmine C; Tapsell, Linda C

    2005-01-01

    Computerized dietary assessment programs are often used for nutrition education research and practice. This article provides an informal overview of 29 dietary assessment programs mentioned in the literature covered by MEDLINE from 1996 to 2003, along with the components and capabilities of these programs derived from additional sources as needed. According to the literature, the advantages of using computers for dietary assessment include standardization of the questioning sequence, fast and easy processing, immediate results, and increased flexibility. The disadvantages include the need for typing skills and computer literacy, as well as potential bias in the responses if an interviewer is required.

  20. A changing landscape: web-based methods for dietary assessment in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Kate E

    2015-09-01

    Adolescents' dietary intake is an important determinant of health and well-being and is influenced by a complex interaction of environmental, social, psychological, and physiological factors. The complexity of the adolescent diet makes its assessment prone to error, which has prompted researchers and clinicians to turn to technology to reduce this error. Previous reviews have been conducted regarding the use of technology in dietary assessment for adults; however, there are no known reviews for adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to describe the practical considerations for web-based dietary assessment methods and to evaluate recent evidence on their validity and implications. There are numerous web-based dietary assessment methods that are available, valid, and reliable for use in the adolescent population. Web-based methods include both native and web-based applications (or 'apps'), and have been developed for use as food records, 24-h dietary recalls, and food frequency questionnaires. Web-based methods provide an efficient, cost-effective and practical solution to assess dietary intake; they are less burdensome to respondents and reduce errors and bias. Furthermore, adolescents are technologically savvy and often prefer the use of technology. Web-based methods should be considered when assessing adolescents' dietary intake.

  1. Total cardiovascular disease risk assessment: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2011-09-01

    The high risk strategy for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) requires an assessment of an individual\\'s total CVD risk so that the most intensive risk factor management can be directed towards those at highest risk. Here we review developments in the assessment and estimation of total CVD risk.

  2. Heavy Metal Dietary Intake and Potential Health Risks for University Hostel Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Abdel-Rahim H A; Zeinhom, Mohamed M A; Abdel-Wahab, Mariam A; Tolba, Mona H

    2016-03-01

    The study was conducted to determine the residual concentration of Cd, Pb, Asand Hg in some foodstuffs served to university students living at hostels of Beni-Suef University (BSU), Egypt, and to estimate the dietary intake of such metals, as well as to assess the potential health risks associated with the consumption of such foods. Therefore, a total of 200 samples, 50 each of, soft cheese, UHT milk, raw broiler carcasses and canned tuna, were periodically collected from university hostels of BSU and examined for the residual levels of these metals using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The obtained results revealed that the mean residual levels of Cd in soft cheese, UHT milk, broiler's meat and canned tuna samples were 0.37, 0.26, 0.089 and 0.093 mg/kg, respectively, while those of Pb were 0.187, 0.20, 0.181 and 0.164 mg/kg, respectively. Regarding As, they were 0.196, 0.24, 0.14 and 0.201 mg/kg, respectively, and Hg mean residual concentration accounted for 0.05, 0.05, 0.117 and 0.235 mg/kg, respectively. Some of the examined food samples had heavy metals' concentrations above the international standards. The total weekly dietary intakes of Cd, Pb, As and Hg were 4.99, 5.38, 4.77 and 2.76 μg/kg bw/week, respectively, that were comparable to the provisional tolerable weekly intake recommended by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The total target hazard quotient (TTHQ) of broiler's meat was over 1 (1.686), thus indicating possible health risks in contrast to the TTHQs of other foodstuffs that were below one.

  3. [Risk assessment in pain therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeffel, D; Casser, H R; Bach, M; Kress, H G; Likar, R; Locher, H; Steinleitner, W; Strohmeier, M; Brunner, H; Treede, R D; Zieglgänsberger, W; Sandkühler, J

    2008-10-01

    Analgesic therapy is not without risk. However, the risk of most analgesic interventions is minor compared to the risk of the inadequate treatment of pain and insufficient treatment may lead to chronic pain.A correct diagnosis should be the basis of any specific treatment of pain disorders. Only a diagnosis which implicates a multi-disciplinary assessment and which considers both the pathoanatomical, functional and biopsychosocial dysfunctions can lead to an adequate therapeutic intervention. Furthermore, therapeutic planning should include the personal needs of the patient and should have realistic aims.Pharmacological treatment is guided by the WHO pain ladder. The risks of the relevant substance groups must be considered. NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) which are included in all steps of the WHO pain ladder carry specific risks for the gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and renal systems and are contraindicated in many patients in need of analgesic therapy, e.g. in many elderly patients. Opioids which are recommended at steps 2 and 3 of the WHO pain ladder have less organ toxicity but they are still used reluctantly. Coanalgetics, especially antidepressants bear specific risks and the discussion on suicide rates under antidepressant medication is ongoing.Invasive methods such as the intrathecal application of analgesics are valuable procedures if the indication is correct and the treating physician has sufficient experience. Pain therapy is essential and the risks of the procedures are manageable. Considering the current knowledge on the mechanisms of pain sensitisation, the lack of adequate pain control can lead to chronic pain with severe consequences for the patient.

  4. Dietary flavonoid intake and smoking-related cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Dong Woo

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To systematically investigate the effects of dietary flavonoids and flavonoid subclasses on the risk of smoking-related cancer in observational studies. METHODS: Summary estimates and corresponding standard errors were calculated using the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR or relative risk (RR and 95% CI of selected studies and weighted by the inverse variance. RESULTS: A total of 35 studies, including 19 case-controls (9,525 cases and 15,835 controls and 15 cohort studies (988,082 subjects and 8,161 cases, were retrieved for the meta-analysis. Total dietary flavonoids and most of the flavonoid subclasses were inversely associated with smoking-related cancer risk (OR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.72-0.93. In subgroup analyses by cancer site, significant associations were observed in aerodigestive tract and lung cancers. Total dietary flavonoid intake was significantly associated with aerodigestive tract cancer risk (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.54-0.83 marginally associated with lung cancer risk (OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.71-1.00. Subgroup analyses by smoking status showed significantly different results. The intake of total flavonoids, flavonols, flavones, and flavanones, as well as the flavonols quercetin and kaempferol was significantly associated with decreased risk of smoking-related cancer in smokers, whereas no association was observed in non-smokers, except for flavanones. In meta-analysis for the effect of subclasses of dietary flavonoids by cancer type, aerodigestive tract cancer was inversely associated with most flavonoid subclasses. CONCLUSION: The protective effects of flavonoids on smoking-related cancer risk varied across studies, but the overall results indicated that intake of dietary flavonoids, especially flavonols, was inversely associated with smoking-related cancer risk. The protective effects of flavonoids on smoking-related cancer risk were more prominent in smokers.

  5. Dietary glycemic load and glycemic index and risk of cerebrovascular disease in the EPICOR cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Sieri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies on the association of stroke risk to dietary glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL have produced contrasting results. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation of dietary GI and GL to stroke risk in the large EPIC-Italy cohort (EPICOR recruited from widely dispersed geographic areas of Italy. DESIGN: We studied 44099 participants (13,646 men and 30,453 women who completed a dietary questionnaire. Multivariable Cox modeling estimated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs of stroke with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI. Over 11 years of follow-up, 355 stroke cases (195 ischemic and 83 hemorrhagic were identified. RESULTS: Increasing carbohydrate intake was associated with increasing stroke risk (HR = 2.01, 95%CI = 1.04-3.86 highest vs. lowest quintile; p for trend 0.025. Increasing carbohydrate intake from high-GI foods was also significantly associated with increasing stroke risk (HR 1.87, 95%CI = 1.16-3.02 highest vs. lowest, p trend 0.008, while increasing carbohydrate intake from low-GI foods was not. Increasing GL was associated with significantly increasing stroke risk (HR 2.21, 95%CI = 1.16-4.20, highest vs. lowest; p trend 0.015. Dietary carbohydrate from high GI foods was associated with increased both ischemic stroke risk (highest vs. lowest HR 1.92, 95%CI = 1.01-3.66 and hemorrhagic stroke risk (highest vs. lowest HR 3.14, 95%CI = 1.09-9.04. GL was associated with increased both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke risk (HR 1.44, 95%CI = 1.09-1.92 and HR 1.56, 95%CI = 1.01-2.41 respectively, continuous variable. CONCLUSIONS: In this Italian cohort, high dietary GL and carbohydrate from high GI foods consumption increase overall risk of stroke.

  6. Patterns of dietary intake and serum carotenoid and tocopherol status are associated with biomarkers of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Adrian D; Strachan, Anna A; Thies, Frank; Aucott, Lorna S; Reid, David M; Hardcastle, Antonia C; Mavroeidi, Alexandra; Simpson, William G; Duthie, Garry G; Macdonald, Helen M

    2014-10-28

    Dietary modification may affect inflammatory processes and protect against chronic disease. In the present study, we examined the relationship between dietary patterns, circulating carotenoid and tocopherol concentrations, and biomarkers of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation in a 10-year longitudinal study of Scottish postmenopausal women. Diet was assessed by FFQ during 1997-2000 (n 3237, mean age 54·8 (SD 2·2) years). Participants (n 2130, mean age 66·0 (SD 2·2) years) returned during 2007-11 for follow-up. Diet was assessed by FFQ (n 1682) and blood was collected for the analysis of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), IL-6, serum amyloid A, E-selectin, lipid profile and dietary biomarkers (carotenoids, tocopherols and retinol). Dietary pattern and dietary biomarker (serum carotenoid) components were generated by principal components analysis. A past 'prudent' dietary pattern predicted serum concentrations of hs-CRP and IL-6 (which decreased across the quintiles of the dietary pattern; P= 0·002 and P= 0·001, respectively; ANCOVA). Contemporary dietary patterns were also associated with inflammatory biomarkers. The concentrations of hs-CRP and IL-6 decreased across the quintiles of the 'prudent' dietary pattern (P= 0·030 and P= 0·006, respectively). hs-CRP concentration increased across the quintiles of a 'meat-dominated' dietary pattern (P= 0·001). Inflammatory biomarker concentrations decreased markedly across the quintiles of carotenoid component score (Pfruit and vegetable consumption) and a serum carotenoid profile characteristic of a fruit and vegetable-rich diet are associated with lower concentrations of intermediary markers that are indicative of CVD risk reduction.

  7. Dietary proportions of carbohydrates, fat, and protein and risk of oesophageal cancer by histological type.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Lagergren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dietary habits influence the risk of cancer of the oesophagus and oesophago-gastric junction, but the role of proportions of the main dietary macronutrients carbohydrates, fats and proteins is uncertain. METHODS: Data was derived from a nationwide Swedish population-based case-control study conducted in 1995-1997, in which case ascertainment was rapid, and all cases were uniformly classified. Information on the subjects' history of dietary intake was collected in personal interviews. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using logistic regression, with adjustment for potentially confounding factors. RESULTS: Included were 189 oesophageal adenocarcinomas, 262 oesophago-gastric adenocarcinomas, 167 oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas, and 820 control subjects. Regarding oesophageal or oesophago-gastric junctional adenocarcinoma, a high dietary proportion of carbohydrates decreased the risk (OR 0.50, CI 0.34-0.73, and a high portion of fat increased the risk (OR 1.96, CI 1.34-2.87, while a high proportion of protein did not influence the risk (OR 1. 08, 95% CI 0.75-1.56. Regarding oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, the single macronutrients did not influence the risk statistically significantly. CONCLUSIONS: A diet with a low proportion of carbohydrates and a high proportion of fat might increase the risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

  8. Dietary lignan intake and postmenopausal breast cancer risk by estrogen and progesterone receptor status

    OpenAIRE

    Touillaud, Marina; Thiébaut, Anne,; Fournier, Agnès; Niravong, Maryvonne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies conducted in Asian populations have suggested that high consumption of soy-based foods that are rich in isoflavone phytoestrogens is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer. However, the potential associations of other dietary phytoestrogens--i.e., the lignans or their bioactive metabolites, the enterolignans--with the risk of breast cancer are unclear. METHODS: We prospectively examined associations between the risk of postmenopausal invasive breast cancer and die...

  9. Development and validation testing of a short nutrition questionnaire to identify dietary risk factors in preschoolers aged 12–36 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niamh Rice

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although imbalances in dietary intakes can have short and longer term influences on the health of preschool children, few tools exist to quickly and easily identify nutritional risk in otherwise healthy young children. Objectives: To develop and test the validity of a parent-administered questionnaire (NutricheQ as a means of evaluating dietary risk in young children (12–36 months. Design: Following a comprehensive development process and internal reliability assessment, the NutricheQ questionnaire was validated in a cohort of 371 Irish preschool children as part of the National Preschool Nutrition Survey. Dietary risk was rated on a scale ranging from 0 to 22 from 11 questions, with a higher score indicating higher risk. Results: Children with higher NutricheQ scores had significantly (p<0.05 lower mean daily intakes of key nutrients such as iron, zinc, vitamin D, riboflavin, niacin, folate, phosphorous, potassium, carotene, retinol, and dietary fibre. They also had lower (p<0.05 intakes of vegetables, fish and fish dishes, meat and infant/toddler milks and higher intakes of processed foods and non-milk beverages, confectionery, sugars and savoury snack foods indicative of poorer dietary quality. Areas under the curve values of 84.7 and 75.6% were achieved for ‘medium’ and ‘high’ dietary risk when compared with expert risk ratings indicating good consistency between the two methods. Conclusion: NutricheQ is a valid method of quickly assessing dietary quality in preschoolers and in identifying those at increased nutritional risk.In ContextAnalysis of data from national food and nutrition surveys typically identifies shortfalls in dietary intakes or quality of young children. This can relate to intakes of micronutrients such as iron or vitamin D as well as to the balance of macronutrients they consume (e.g. fat or sugar. Alongside this lie concerns regarding overweight and obesity and physical inactivity. This combination of

  10. 78 FR 17201 - Pesticide Chemicals; Registration Review; Draft Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Chemicals; Registration Review; Draft Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessments... environment, or a human dietary risk from residues that result from the use of a pesticide in or on food. III... these pesticides can still be used without unreasonable adverse effects on human health or the...

  11. A review of the use of information and communication technologies for dietary assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, J.; Engelen, A.; Molag, M.L.; Roesle, J.; Serra-Majem, L.

    2009-01-01

    Presently used dietary-assessment methods often present difficulties for researchers and respondents, and misreporting errors are common. Methods using information and communication technologies (ICT) may improve quality and accuracy. The present paper presents a systematic literature review describ

  12. A review of the use of information and communication technologies for dietary assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, J.; Engelen, A.; Molag, M.L.; Roesle, J.; Serra-Majem, L.

    2009-01-01

    Presently used dietary-assessment methods often present difficulties for researchers and respondents, and misreporting errors are common. Methods using information and communication technologies (ICT) may improve quality and accuracy. The present paper presents a systematic literature review

  13. Can Public Health Risk Assessment Using Risk Matrices Be Misleading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatanpour, Shabnam; Hrudey, Steve E; Dinu, Irina

    2015-08-14

    The risk assessment matrix is a widely accepted, semi-quantitative tool for assessing risks, and setting priorities in risk management. Although the method can be useful to promote discussion to distinguish high risks from low risks, a published critique described a problem when the frequency and severity of risks are negatively correlated. A theoretical analysis showed that risk predictions could be misleading. We evaluated a practical public health example because it provided experiential risk data that allowed us to assess the practical implications of the published concern that risk matrices would make predictions that are worse than random. We explored this predicted problem by constructing a risk assessment matrix using a public health risk scenario-Tainted blood transfusion infection risk-That provides negative correlation between harm frequency and severity. We estimated the risk from the experiential data and compared these estimates with those provided by the risk assessment matrix. Although we validated the theoretical concern, for these authentic experiential data, the practical scope of the problem was limited. The risk matrix has been widely used in risk assessment. This method should not be abandoned wholesale, but users must address the source of the problem, apply the risk matrix with a full understanding of this problem and use matrix predictions to inform, but not drive decision-making.

  14. Adherence to the Western, Prudent and Mediterranean dietary patterns and breast cancer risk: MCC-Spain study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló, Adela; Boldo, Elena; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Lope, Virginia; Altzibar, Jone M; Martín, Vicente; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Guevara, Marcela; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Tardón, Adonina; Moreno, Víctor; Puig-Vives, Montserrat; Llorens-Ivorra, Cristóbal; Alguacil, Juan; Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Castilla, Jesús; Gràcia-Lavedán, Esther; Dávila-Batista, Verónica; Kogevinas, Manolis; Aragonés, Nuria; Amiano, Pilar; Pollán, Marina

    2017-09-01

    To externally validate the previously identified effect on breast cancer risk of the Western, Prudent and Mediterranean dietary patterns. MCC-Spain is a multicase-control study that collected epidemiological information on 1181 incident cases of female breast cancer and 1682 healthy controls from 10 Spanish provinces. Three dietary patterns derived in another Spanish case-control study were analysed in the MCC-Spain study. These patterns were termed Western (high intakes of fatty and sugary products and red and processed meat), Prudent (high intakes of low-fat dairy products, vegetables, fruits, whole grains and juices) and Mediterranean (high intake of fish, vegetables, legumes, boiled potatoes, fruits, olives, and vegetable oil, and a low intake of juices). Their association with breast cancer was assessed using logistic regression models with random province-specific intercepts considering an interaction with menopausal status. Risk according to tumour subtypes - based on oestrogen (ER), progesterone (PR) and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) receptors (ER+/PR+ & HER2-; HER2+; ER-/PR- & HER2-) - was evaluated with multinomial regression models. Breast cancer and histological subtype. Our results confirm most of the associations found in the previous case-control study. A high adherence to the Western dietary pattern seems to increase breast cancer risk in both premenopausal women (OR4(th)vs.1(st)quartile (95% CI):1.68 (1.02;2.79); OR1SD-increase (95% CI):1.19 (1.02;1.40)) and postmenopausal women (OR4(th)vs.1(st)quartile(95% CI):1.48(1.07;2.05); OR1SD-increase(95% CI): 1.14 (1.01;1.29)). While high adherence to the Prudent pattern did not show any effect on breast cancer, the Mediterranean dietary pattern seemed to be protective, but only among postmenopausal women (OR4(th)vs.1(st)quartile (95% CI): 0.72 (95% CI 0.53;0.98); p-int=0.075). There were no significant differences by tumour subtype. Dietary recommendations based on a departure from the Western

  15. Assessment of Pre-Pregnancy Dietary Intake with a Food Frequency Questionnaire in Alberta Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Ramage

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Pre-pregnancy is an under-examined and potentially important time to optimize dietary intake to support fetal growth and development as well as maternal health. The purpose of the study was to determine the extent to which dietary intake reported by non-pregnant women is similar to pre-pregnancy dietary intake reported by pregnant women using the same assessment tool. Methods: The self-administered, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ was adapted from the Canadian version of the Diet History Questionnaire, originally developed by the National Cancer Institute in the United States. Pregnant women (n = 98 completed the FFQ which assessed dietary intake for the year prior to pregnancy. Non-pregnant women (n = 103 completed the same FFQ which assessed dietary intake for the previous year. Energy, macronutrients, and key micronutrients: long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, calcium, vitamin D and iron were examined. Results: Dietary intake between groups; reported with the FFQ; was similar except for saturated fat; trans fat; calcium; and alcohol. Pregnant women reported significantly higher intakes of saturated fat; trans fat; and calcium and lower intake of alcohol in the year prior to pregnancy compared to non-pregnant women who reported intake in the previous year. Conclusions: Despite limitations; a FFQ may be used to assist with retrospective assessment of pre-pregnancy dietary intake.

  16. A Western Dietary Pattern Increases Prostate Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Fabiani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dietary patterns were recently applied to examine the relationship between eating habits and prostate cancer (PC risk. While the associations between PC risk with the glycemic index and Mediterranean score have been reviewed, no meta-analysis is currently available on dietary patterns defined by “a posteriori” methods. A literature search was carried out (PubMed, Web of Science to identify studies reporting the relationship between dietary patterns and PC risk. Relevant dietary patterns were selected and the risks estimated were calculated by a random-effect model. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs, for a first-percentile increase in dietary pattern score, were combined by a dose-response meta-analysis. Twelve observational studies were included in the meta-analysis which identified a “Healthy pattern” and a “Western pattern”. The Healthy pattern was not related to PC risk (OR = 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.88–1.04 while the Western pattern significantly increased it (OR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.08–1.65. In addition, the “Carbohydrate pattern”, which was analyzed in four articles, was positively associated with a higher PC risk (OR = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.35–2.00. A significant linear trend between the Western (p = 0.011 pattern, the Carbohydrate (p = 0.005 pattern, and the increment of PC risk was observed. The small number of studies included in the meta-analysis suggests that further investigation is necessary to support these findings.

  17. A Western Dietary Pattern Increases Prostate Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiani, Roberto; Minelli, Liliana; Bertarelli, Gaia; Bacci, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns were recently applied to examine the relationship between eating habits and prostate cancer (PC) risk. While the associations between PC risk with the glycemic index and Mediterranean score have been reviewed, no meta-analysis is currently available on dietary patterns defined by “a posteriori” methods. A literature search was carried out (PubMed, Web of Science) to identify studies reporting the relationship between dietary patterns and PC risk. Relevant dietary patterns were selected and the risks estimated were calculated by a random-effect model. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs), for a first-percentile increase in dietary pattern score, were combined by a dose-response meta-analysis. Twelve observational studies were included in the meta-analysis which identified a “Healthy pattern” and a “Western pattern”. The Healthy pattern was not related to PC risk (OR = 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88–1.04) while the Western pattern significantly increased it (OR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.08–1.65). In addition, the “Carbohydrate pattern”, which was analyzed in four articles, was positively associated with a higher PC risk (OR = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.35–2.00). A significant linear trend between the Western (p = 0.011) pattern, the Carbohydrate (p = 0.005) pattern, and the increment of PC risk was observed. The small number of studies included in the meta-analysis suggests that further investigation is necessary to support these findings. PMID:27754328

  18. Development of Dietary Patterns Spanning Infancy and Toddlerhood: Relation to Body Size, Composition and Metabolic Risk Markers at Three Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B. B.; Mølgaard, Christian; Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher;

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the development of dietary patterns during toddlerhood and the relation to growth and health. The study objective was to characterise the development of dietary patterns from 9-36 mo of age and investigate the association to body size, body composition and metabolic risk...... markers at 36 mo. Food records were filled out at 9, 18 and 36 mo of age (n = 229). Dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis (PCA). Three dietary patterns were identified: Transition Food, Healthy Food and Traditional Food. The course of development in dietary patterns from 9-36 mo...... total cholesterol and LDL. Hence, this could represent undesirable development of dietary patterns in toddlers. In conclusion, development of dietary patterns can be exploratory characterised by PCA and related to potential cardiovascular risk markers in toddlers even within a relatively homogeneous...

  19. Assessing dietary exposure to cadmium in a metal recycling community in Vietnam: Age and gender aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minh, Ngo Duc [Vietnamese Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Soils and Fertilizers Research Institute (SFRI), Tu Liem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hough, Rupert Lloyd, E-mail: rupert.hough@hutton.ac.uk [The James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen, AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Thuy, Le Thi [Vietnamese Academy of Agriculture Science, Institute of Agricultural Environment (IAE), Tu Liem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nyberg, Ylva [Department of Crop Production Ecology, PO Box 7043, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Mai, Le Bach [National Institute of Nutrition, 48b Tang Bat Ho, Hoan Kiem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Vinh, Nguyen Cong [Vietnamese Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Soils and Fertilizers Research Institute (SFRI), Tu Liem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Khai, Nguyen Manh [Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Ha Noi University of Science (HUS-VNU), 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Oeborn, Ingrid [Department of Crop Production Ecology, PO Box 7043, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2012-02-01

    This study estimates the dietary exposure to cadmium (Cd), and associated potential health risks, for individuals living and working in a metal recycling community (n = 132) in Vietnam in comparison to an agricultural (reference) community (n = 130). Individual-level exposure to Cd was estimated through analysis of staple foodstuffs combined with information from a food frequency questionnaire. Individual-level exposure estimates were compared with published 'safe' doses to derive a Hazard Quotient (HQ) for each member of the study population. Looking at the populations as a whole, there were no significant differences in the diets of the two villages. However, significantly more rice was consumed by working age adults (18-60 years) in the recycling village compared to the reference village (p < 0.001). Rice was the main staple food with individuals consuming 461 {+-} 162 g/d, followed by water spinach (103 {+-} 51 kg/d). Concentrations of Cd in the studied foodstuffs were elevated in the metal recycling village. Values of HQ exceeded unity for 87% of adult participants of the metal recycling community (39% had a HQ > 3), while 20% of adult participants from the reference village had an HQ > 1. We found an elevated health risk from dietary exposure to Cd in the metal recycling village compared to the reference community. WHO standard of 0.4 mg Cd/kg rice may not be protective where people consume large amounts of rice/have relatively low body weight. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First individual-level risk assessment of cadmium in recycling villages of Vietnam. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dietary analysis undertaken for a recycling community and an agricultural community. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant differences were found between the diets of the two populations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 87% of people in the recycling community had elevated health risk. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer WHO standard (0.4 mg Cd/kg rice) may

  20. Dietary fiber intake and risk of colorectal cancer and incident and recurrent adenoma in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzmann, Andrew T; Coleman, Helen G; Huang, Wen-Yi; Kitahara, Cari M; Cantwell, Marie M; Berndt, Sonja I

    2015-10-01

    Dietary fiber has been associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer. However, it remains unclear at which stage in the carcinogenic pathway fiber may act or which food sources of dietary fiber may be most beneficial against colorectal cancer development. The objective was to prospectively evaluate the association between dietary fiber intake and the risk of incident and recurrent colorectal adenoma and incident colorectal cancer. Study participants were identified from the intervention arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Participants received flexible sigmoidoscopy at baseline and 3 or 5 y after. Dietary fiber intake was measured by using a self-reported dietary questionnaire. The colorectal cancer, incident adenoma, and recurrent adenoma analyses were based on 57,774, 16,980, and 1667 participants, respectively. Unconditional logistic regression was used to assess the risk of incident and recurrent adenoma, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the risk of colorectal cancer across categories of dietary fiber intake, with adjustment for potential confounders. Elevated total dietary fiber intake was associated with a significantly reduced risk of incident distal colorectal adenoma (ORhighest vs. lowest tertile of intake: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.91; P-trend = 0.003) but not recurrent adenoma (P-trend = 0.67). Although the association was not statistically significant for colorectal cancer overall (HR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.70, 1.03; P-trend = 0.10), a reduced risk of distal colon cancer was observed with increased total fiber intake (HR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.94; P-trend = 0.03). Protective associations were most notable for fiber originating from cereals or fruit. This large, prospective study within a population-based screening trial suggests that individuals consuming the highest intakes of dietary fiber have reduced risks of incident colorectal adenoma and distal colon cancer and that this effect of dietary

  1. Dietary fiber intake and risk of colorectal cancer and incident and recurrent adenoma in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzmann, Andrew T; Coleman, Helen G; Huang, Wen-Yi; Kitahara, Cari M; Cantwell, Marie M; Berndt, Sonja I

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dietary fiber has been associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer. However, it remains unclear at which stage in the carcinogenic pathway fiber may act or which food sources of dietary fiber may be most beneficial against colorectal cancer development. Objective: The objective was to prospectively evaluate the association between dietary fiber intake and the risk of incident and recurrent colorectal adenoma and incident colorectal cancer. Design: Study participants were identified from the intervention arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Participants received flexible sigmoidoscopy at baseline and 3 or 5 y after. Dietary fiber intake was measured by using a self-reported dietary questionnaire. The colorectal cancer, incident adenoma, and recurrent adenoma analyses were based on 57,774, 16,980, and 1667 participants, respectively. Unconditional logistic regression was used to assess the risk of incident and recurrent adenoma, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the risk of colorectal cancer across categories of dietary fiber intake, with adjustment for potential confounders. Results: Elevated total dietary fiber intake was associated with a significantly reduced risk of incident distal colorectal adenoma (ORhighest vs. lowest tertile of intake: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.91; P-trend = 0.003) but not recurrent adenoma (P-trend = 0.67). Although the association was not statistically significant for colorectal cancer overall (HR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.70, 1.03; P-trend = 0.10), a reduced risk of distal colon cancer was observed with increased total fiber intake (HR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.94; P-trend = 0.03). Protective associations were most notable for fiber originating from cereals or fruit. Conclusions: This large, prospective study within a population-based screening trial suggests that individuals consuming the highest intakes of dietary fiber have reduced risks of incident colorectal adenoma and

  2. Prepregnancy low-carbohydrate dietary pattern and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Wei; Bowers, Katherine; Tobias, Deirdre K

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-carbohydrate diets (LCDs) have been vastly popular for weight loss. The association between a low-carbohydrate dietary pattern and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to prospectively examine the association of 3 prepregnancy low......-carbohydrate dietary patterns with risk of GDM. DESIGN: We included 21,411 singleton pregnancies in the Nurses' Health Study II. Prepregnancy LCD scores were calculated from validated food-frequency questionnaires, including an overall LCD score on the basis of intakes of carbohydrate, total protein, and total fat......, and it indicated closer adherence to a low-carbohydrate dietary pattern. RRs and 95% CIs were estimated by using generalized estimating equations with log-binomial models. RESULTS: We documented 867 incident GDM pregnancies during 10 y follow-up. Multivariable-adjusted RRs (95% CIs) of GDM for comparisons...

  3. RISK MANAGEMENT: AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO RISK MANAGEMENT AND ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabo Alina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this paper is to offer an overview over risk management cycle by focusing on prioritization and treatment, in order to ensure an integrated approach to risk management and assessment, and establish the ‘top 8-12’ risks report within the organization. The interface with Internal Audit is ensured by the implementation of the scoring method to prioritize risks collected from previous generated risk report. Methodology/approach: Using evidence from other research in the area and the professional expertise, this article outlines an integrated approach to risk assessment and risk management reporting processes, by separating the risk in two main categories: strategic and operational risks. The focus is on risk prioritization and scoring; the final output will comprise a mix of strategic and operational (‘top 8-12’ risks, which should be used to establish the annual Internal Audit plan. Originality/value: By using an integrated approach to risk assessment and risk management will eliminate the need for a separate Internal Audit risk assessment over prevailing risks. It will reduce the level of risk assessment overlap by different functions (Tax, Treasury, Information System over the same risk categories as a single methodology, is used and will align timings of risk assessment exercises. The risk prioritization by usage of risk and control scoring criteria highlights the combination between financial and non-financial impact criteria allowing risks that do not naturally lend themselves to a financial amount to be also assessed consistently. It is emphasized the usage of score method to prioritize the risks included in the annual audit plan in order to increase accuracy and timelines.

  4. The relation of risk assessment and health impact assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ádám, Balázs; Gulis, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    their relationship. The experiences accumulated during the preparation of several case studies in a large scale international project (RAPID) are used for argumentation and formulation of recommendations on how risk assessment can be systematically integrated into the HIA process. Risk assessment uses well...... than assessing a present situation. As part of this process, however, methods applied in risk assessment are used. Risk assessment typically characterises relation of a well-defined risk factor to a well-defined health outcome. Within HIA usually several individual risk assessments are needed...... in the risk appraisal phase to describe effects of various factors on different health outcomes. Consequently, HIA is typically led by a large, preferably intersectoral steering group with representatives of communities at risk. Risk assessment, in contrary, is mainly a licensed scientific process completed...

  5. [Study of dietary habits and its relation with cardiovascular disease risk factors with help of specialization computers programme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontsevaia, A V; Eganian, R A; Kalinina, A M; Romanenko, T S; Omel'ianenko, M G

    2008-01-01

    Specialization computers programme investigation of dietary risk factors in organized population of universities employers revealed high abundance of this behavior chronic disease risk factors: disturbances of dietary regimen, high salt intake, high intake of saturated fats (butter) and eggs. The study showed significant relationship between abdominal obesity and high blood pressure, total plasma cholesterol also was significantly higher in persons with abdominal obesity.

  6. Dietary pattern and its association with the prevalence of obesity and related cardiometabolic risk factors among Chinese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwen Shang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association of dietary pattern with chronic diseases has been investigated widely in western countries. However, information is quite limited among children in China. Our study is aimed to identify the dietary patterns of Chinese children and examine their association with obesity and related cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS: A total of 5267 children were selected using multistage random sampling from 30 primary schools of 5 provincial capital cities in China. Dietary intake was derived from 24 hour dietary recall for three consecutive days. Anthropometric measurements, glucose and lipid profiles were obtained. Factor analysis combined with cluster analysis was used for identifying major dietary patterns. The associations of dietary patterns with obesity and related cardiometabolic risk factors were examined by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Three mutually exclusive dietary patterns were identified, which were labeled as the healthy dietary pattern, the transitive dietary pattern, and the Western dietary pattern. Compared with children of the healthy dietary pattern, the multiple-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval (CI of obesity were 1.11 (0.89-1.38 for children with the transitive dietary pattern and 1.80 (1.15-2.81 for children with the Western dietary pattern, which was 1.31 (95%CI 1.09-1.56 and 1.71 (95%CI: 1.13-2.56, respectively, for abdominal obesity. The Western dietary pattern was associated with significantly higher concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P<.001, triglycerides (P<.001, systolic blood pressure (P = 0.0435 and fasting glucose (P = 0.0082 and a lower concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.0023, as compared with the healthy dietary pattern. CONCLUSIONS: The Western dietary pattern characterized by red meat, eggs, refined grain and products, was positively associated with odds of obesity, the levels of plasma glucose, low-density lipoprotein

  7. A framework for combining social impact assessment and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoudi, Hossein; Renn, Ortwin; Vanclay, Frank; Hoffmann, Volker; Karami, Ezatollah

    2013-01-01

    An increasing focus on integrative approaches is one of the current trends in impact assessment. There is potential to combine impact assessment with various other forms of assessment, such as risk assessment, to make impact assessment and the management of social risks more effective. We identify

  8. An assessment of dietary exposure to glyphosate using refined deterministic and probabilistic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, C L; Harris, C A

    2016-09-01

    Glyphosate is a herbicide used to control broad-leaved weeds. Some uses of glyphosate in crop production can lead to residues of the active substance and related metabolites in food. This paper uses data on residue levels, processing information and consumption patterns, to assess theoretical lifetime dietary exposure to glyphosate. Initial estimates were made assuming exposure to the highest permitted residue levels in foods. These intakes were then refined using median residue levels from trials, processing information, and monitoring data to achieve a more realistic estimate of exposure. Estimates were made using deterministic and probabilistic methods. Exposures were compared to the acceptable daily intake (ADI)-the amount of a substance that can be consumed daily without an appreciable health risk. Refined deterministic intakes for all consumers were at or below 2.1% of the ADI. Variations were due to cultural differences in consumption patterns and the level of aggregation of the dietary information in calculation models, which allows refinements for processing. Probabilistic exposure estimates ranged from 0.03% to 0.90% of the ADI, depending on whether optimistic or pessimistic assumptions were made in the calculations. Additional refinements would be possible if further data on processing and from residues monitoring programmes were available.

  9. Risk assessment terminology: risk communication part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Liuzzo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the terminology of risk communication in the view of food safety: the theory of stakeholders, the citizens’ involvement and the community interest and consultation are reported. Different aspects of risk communication (public communication, scientific uncertainty, trust, care, consensus and crisis communication are discussed.

  10. Cross-Sectional Associations between Empirically-Derived Dietary Patterns and Indicators of Disease Risk among University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy A. Blondin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The transition from adolescence to adulthood is a unique period during which lifelong dietary habits are shaped. Dietary patterns (DPs among young adults attending college have not been adequately described, and associations between DPs and indicators of disease risk are not well understood in this age group. Dietary data were collected from undergraduates participating in the Tufts Longitudinal Health Study (TLHS; 1998–2007 by Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ; n = 1323. DPs were derived using principal components analysis with varimax rotation. Scree plots; eigenvalues; factor loadings; and previous studies were used to determine and label the DPs retained. Cross-sectional relationships between DP scores and anthropometric measures (percent body fat (PBF and (BMI and lipid biomarkers (total; HDL and LDL cholesterol; and triglycerides were assessed with multivariable regression models; adjusted for demographics; physical activity; smoking; intention to gain/lose weight; and total energy intake. Effect modification by sex was tested. Three DPs were identified: Prudent; Western; and Alcohol. Greater adherence to the Prudent DP was associated with favorable anthropometric outcomes. The Alcohol DP was associated with a favorable lipid profile. Associations between the Western DP and blood lipids differed by sex; with unfavorable impact observed only among males. Our findings add to the literature linking DPs in young adults with measurable adiposity and cardiometabolic outcomes; suggesting that improving nutrition among college students could reduce chronic disease risk.

  11. Cross-Sectional Associations between Empirically-Derived Dietary Patterns and Indicators of Disease Risk among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondin, Stacy A.; Mueller, Megan P.; Bakun, Peter J.; Choumenkovitch, Silvina F.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Economos, Christina D.

    2015-01-01

    The transition from adolescence to adulthood is a unique period during which lifelong dietary habits are shaped. Dietary patterns (DPs) among young adults attending college have not been adequately described, and associations between DPs and indicators of disease risk are not well understood in this age group. Dietary data were collected from undergraduates participating in the Tufts Longitudinal Health Study (TLHS; 1998–2007) by Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ; n = 1323). DPs were derived using principal components analysis with varimax rotation. Scree plots; eigenvalues; factor loadings; and previous studies were used to determine and label the DPs retained. Cross-sectional relationships between DP scores and anthropometric measures (percent body fat (PBF) and (BMI) and lipid biomarkers (total; HDL and LDL cholesterol; and triglycerides) were assessed with multivariable regression models; adjusted for demographics; physical activity; smoking; intention to gain/lose weight; and total energy intake. Effect modification by sex was tested. Three DPs were identified: Prudent; Western; and Alcohol. Greater adherence to the Prudent DP was associated with favorable anthropometric outcomes. The Alcohol DP was associated with a favorable lipid profile. Associations between the Western DP and blood lipids differed by sex; with unfavorable impact observed only among males. Our findings add to the literature linking DPs in young adults with measurable adiposity and cardiometabolic outcomes; suggesting that improving nutrition among college students could reduce chronic disease risk. PMID:26712784

  12. Cross-Sectional Associations between Empirically-Derived Dietary Patterns and Indicators of Disease Risk among University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondin, Stacy A; Mueller, Megan P; Bakun, Peter J; Choumenkovitch, Silvina F; Tucker, Katherine L; Economos, Christina D

    2015-12-24

    The transition from adolescence to adulthood is a unique period during which lifelong dietary habits are shaped. Dietary patterns (DPs) among young adults attending college have not been adequately described, and associations between DPs and indicators of disease risk are not well understood in this age group. Dietary data were collected from undergraduates participating in the Tufts Longitudinal Health Study (TLHS; 1998-2007) by Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ; n = 1323). DPs were derived using principal components analysis with varimax rotation. Scree plots; eigenvalues; factor loadings; and previous studies were used to determine and label the DPs retained. Cross-sectional relationships between DP scores and anthropometric measures (percent body fat (PBF) and (BMI) and lipid biomarkers (total; HDL and LDL cholesterol; and triglycerides) were assessed with multivariable regression models; adjusted for demographics; physical activity; smoking; intention to gain/lose weight; and total energy intake. Effect modification by sex was tested. Three DPs were identified: Prudent; Western; and Alcohol. Greater adherence to the Prudent DP was associated with favorable anthropometric outcomes. The Alcohol DP was associated with a favorable lipid profile. Associations between the Western DP and blood lipids differed by sex; with unfavorable impact observed only among males. Our findings add to the literature linking DPs in young adults with measurable adiposity and cardiometabolic outcomes; suggesting that improving nutrition among college students could reduce chronic disease risk.

  13. A theory-based newsletter nutrition education program reduces nutritional risk and improves dietary intake for congregate meal participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sarah L; MacNab, Lindsay; Shelley, Mack

    2014-01-01

    At-risk older adults need community-based nutrition programs that improve nutritional status and practices. This 6-month study assessed the impact of the traditional Chef Charles (CC) program (Control) compared to a theory-based CC program (Treatment) on nutritional risk (NR), dietary intakes, self-efficacy (SE), food security (FS), and program satisfaction for congregate meal participants. Participants were mostly educated, single, "food secure" White females. NR change for the treatment group was significantly higher (P = 0.042) than the control group. No differences were noted for SE or FS change and program satisfaction between groups. The overall distribution classification levels of FS changed significantly (P < .001) from pre to post. Over half (n = 46, 76.7%) reported making dietary changes and the majority (n = 52, 86.7%) rated CC as good to excellent. Results suggest the theory-based CC program (treatment) is more effective in reducing NR and dietary practices than the traditional CC program (control).

  14. Major dietary factors and prostate cancer risk: a prospective multicenter case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Sepehr; Salahi, Mona; Mohseni, Mona; Ahmadi, Hamed; Mehrsai, Abdolrasoul; Jahani, Yunes; Pourmand, Gholamreza

    2011-01-01

    The association between diet and prostate cancer (PC) risk, although suggestive, still remains largely elusive particularly in the Asian population. This study sought to further evaluate the possible effects of different dietary factors on risk of PC in Iran. Using data from a prospective hospital-based multicenter case-control study, dietary intakes of red meat, fat, garlic, and tomato/tomato products, as well as thorough demographic and medical characteristics, were determined in 194 cases with the newly diagnosed, clinicopathologically confirmed PC and 317 controls, without any malignant disease, admitted to the same network of hospitals. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained after adjustment for major potential confounders, including age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol, education, occupation, family history of PC, and total dietary calories. Comparing the highest with the lowest tertile, a significant trend of increasing risk with more frequent consumption was found for dietary fat (OR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.71-4.51), whereas inverse association was observed for tomato/tomato products (OR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.16-0.65). A nonsignificant increase in PC risk was revealed for dietary red meat (OR: 1.69, 95% CI: 0.93-3.06). For garlic consumption, a borderline reduction in risk was observed (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.32-1.01; P = 0.05). In conclusion, our study supports the hypothesis that total fat may increase PC risk and tomatoes/tomato products and garlic may protect patients against PC.

  15. Risks, risk assessment and risk competence in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlmann, Ralf; Horvath, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the toxic effects of xenobiotics requires sound knowledge of physiology and biochemistry. The often described lack of understanding pharmacology/toxicology is therefore primarily caused by the general absence of the necessary fundamental knowledge. Since toxic effects depend on exposure (or dosage) assessing the risks arising from toxic substances also requires quantitative reasoning. Typically public discussions nearly always neglect quantitative aspects and laypersons tend to disregard dose-effect-relationships. One of the main reasons for such disregard is the fact that exposures often occur at extremely low concentrations that can only be perceived intellectually but not by the human senses. However, thresholds in the low exposure range are often scientifically disputed. At the same time, ignorance towards known dangers is wide-spread. Thus, enhancing the risk competence of laypersons will have to be initially restricted to increasing the awareness of existing problems.

  16. Risks, risk assessment and risk competence in toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stahlmann, Ralf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the toxic effects of xenobiotics requires sound knowledge of physiology and biochemistry. The often described lack of understanding pharmacology/toxicology is therefore primarily caused by the general absence of the necessary fundamental knowledge. Since toxic effects depend on exposure (or dosage assessing the risks arising from toxic substances also requires quantitative reasoning. Typically public discussions nearly always neglect quantitative aspects and laypersons tend to disregard dose-effect-relationships. One of the main reasons for such disregard is the fact that exposures often occur at extremely low concentrations that can only be perceived intellectually but not by the human senses. However, thresholds in the low exposure range are often scientifically disputed. At the same time, ignorance towards known dangers is wide-spread. Thus, enhancing the risk competence of laypersons will have to be initially restricted to increasing the awareness of existing problems.

  17. Dietary Carotenoids and Risk of Lung Cancer in a Pooled Analysis of Seven Cohort Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Männistö, S.; Smith-Warner, S.A.; Spiegelman, D.; Albanes, D.; Anderson, K.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Cerhan, J.R.; Colditz, G.; Feskanich, D.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Giovannucci, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Graham, S.; Miller, A.B.; Rohan, T.E.; Virtamo, J.; Willett, W.C.; Hunter, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Intervention trials with supplemental β-carotene have observed either no effect or a harmful effect on lung cancer risk. Because food composition databases for specific carotenoids have only become available recently, epidemiological evidence relating usual dietary levels of these carotenoids with l

  18. Dietary carotenoids and risk of colorectal cancer in a pooled analysis of 11 cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Männistö, S.; Yaun, S.S.; Hunter, D.J.; Spiegelman, D.; Adami, H.O.; Albanes, D.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Buring, J.E.; Cerhan, J.R.; Colditz, G.A.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Fuchs, C.S.; Giovannucci, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Harnack, L.; Leitzmann, M.; McCullough, M.L.; Miller, A.B.; Rohan, T.E.; Schatzkin, A.; Virtamo, J.; Willett, W.C.; Wolk, A.; Zhang, S.M.; Smith-Warner, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Dietary carotenoids have been hypothesized to protect against epithelial cancers. The authors analyzed the associations between intakes of specific carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein + zeaxanthin, and lycopene) and risk of colorectal cancer using the primary data

  19. Effects of Fear Appeals on Communicating Potential Health Risks of Unregulated Dietary Supplements to College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyang-Sook; Sheffield, Donna; Almutairi, Talal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fear appeals are commonly used in health communication to reduce risk. It is not clear, however, whether familiarity with a health topic can lessen the threat intended. The use of unregulated dietary supplements among young adults is one such area that needs study. Purpose: The study examined the effect of fear appeals on…

  20. Prospective study on dietary intakes of folate, betaine, and choline and cardiovascular disease risk in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalmeijer, G.W.; Olthof, M.R.; Verhoef, P.; Bots, M.L.; Schouw, van der Y.T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between dietary intakes of folate, betaine and choline and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Design: Prospective cohort study. Subjects: A total of 16 165 women aged 49¿70 years without prior CVD. Subjects were breast cancer screening participants in

  1. Dietary Patterns, Alcohol Consumption and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Adults: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Shu, Long; Si, Cai-Juan; Yu, Xiao-Long; Liao, Dan; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Lun; Zheng, Pei-Fen

    2015-08-07

    Previous studies reported the potential associations between dietary patterns and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in adulthood, however a consistent perspective has not been established to date. Herein, we carried out this meta-analysis to evaluate the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of CHD. MEDLINE and EBSCO were searched for relevant articles published up to April 2015. A total of 35 articles (reporting 37 original studies) met the inclusion criteria and were included in the present meta-analysis. The decreased risk of CHD was shown for the highest compared with the lowest categories of healthy/prudent dietary patterns (odds ratio (OR) = 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60, 0.75; p consumption (OR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.78; p patterns (OR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.01; p = 0.02). The results of this meta-analysis indicate that different dietary patterns may be associated with the risk of CHD.

  2. Dietary folate and folate vitamers and the risk of pancreatic cancer in the Netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keszei, A.P.; Verhage, B.A.J.; Heinen, M.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2009-01-01

    An association between high intake of folate and reduced risk of cancer has been suggested by previous research. However, epidemiologic data from cohort studies regarding the relationship between dietary folate and pancreatic cancer are sparse and inconsistent. We examined the association between di

  3. Dietary carotenoids and risk of colorectal cancer in a pooled analysis of 11 cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Männistö, S.; Yaun, S.S.; Hunter, D.J.; Spiegelman, D.; Adami, H.O.; Albanes, D.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Buring, J.E.; Cerhan, J.R.; Colditz, G.A.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Fuchs, C.S.; Giovannucci, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Harnack, L.; Leitzmann, M.; McCullough, M.L.; Miller, A.B.; Rohan, T.E.; Schatzkin, A.; Virtamo, J.; Willett, W.C.; Wolk, A.; Zhang, S.M.; Smith-Warner, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Dietary carotenoids have been hypothesized to protect against epithelial cancers. The authors analyzed the associations between intakes of specific carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein + zeaxanthin, and lycopene) and risk of colorectal cancer using the primary data

  4. Effect modification by population dietary folate on the association between MTHFR genotype, homocysteine, and stroke risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, Michael V; Newcombe, Paul; Hubacek, Jaroslav A;

    2011-01-01

    The MTHFR 677C→T polymorphism has been associated with raised homocysteine concentration and increased risk of stroke. A previous overview showed that the effects were greatest in regions with low dietary folate consumption, but differentiation between the effect of folate and small-study bias wa...

  5. Dietary intake of fiber and risk of knee osteoarthritis in two U.S. prospective cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: Dietary fiber reduces body weight and inflammation both of which are linked with knee osteoarthritis (OA). We examined the association between fiber intake and risk of knee OA. Methods: We used data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) of 4796 participants and Framingham Offspring Os...

  6. Comparison of 3 methods for identifying dietary patterns associated with risk of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBello, Julia R; Kraft, Peter; McGarvey, Stephen T; Goldberg, Robert; Campos, Hannia; Baylin, Ana

    2008-12-15

    Reduced rank regression and partial least-squares regression (PLS) are proposed alternatives to principal component analysis (PCA). Using all 3 methods, the authors derived dietary patterns in Costa Rican data collected on 3,574 cases and controls in 1994-2004 and related the resulting patterns to risk of first incident myocardial infarction. Four dietary patterns associated with myocardial infarction were identified. Factor 1, characterized by high intakes of lean chicken, vegetables, fruit, and polyunsaturated oil, was generated by all 3 dietary pattern methods and was associated with a significantly decreased adjusted risk of myocardial infarction (28%-46%, depending on the method used). PCA and PLS also each yielded a pattern associated with a significantly decreased risk of myocardial infarction (31% and 23%, respectively); this pattern was characterized by moderate intake of alcohol and polyunsaturated oil and low intake of high-fat dairy products. The fourth factor derived from PCA was significantly associated with a 38% increased risk of myocardial infarction and was characterized by high intakes of coffee and palm oil. Contrary to previous studies, the authors found PCA and PLS to produce more patterns associated with cardiovascular disease than reduced rank regression. The most effective method for deriving dietary patterns related to disease may vary depending on the study goals.

  7. Stability of dietary patterns assessed with reduced rank regression; the Zutphen Elderly Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jankovic, N.; Steppel, M.T.; Kampman, E.; Groot, L.C.P.G.M. de; Boshuizen, H.C.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Kromhout, D.; Feskens, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduced rank regression (RRR) combines exploratory analysis with a-priori knowledge by including risk factors in the model. Dietary patterns, derived from RRR analysis, can be interpreted by the chosen risk factor profile and give an indication of positive or adverse health effects for a

  8. Dietary acrylamide intake is not associated with gastrointestinal cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Schouten, L.J.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2008-01-01

    Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen that was detected in several heat-treated foods, such as French fries and crisps, in 2002. Prospective studies are needed on acrylamide and human cancer risk. We prospectively investigated the association between acrylamide and gastrointestinal cancer risk.

  9. Dietary acrylamide intake is not associated with gastrointestinal cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Schouten, L.J.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2008-01-01

    Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen that was detected in several heat-treated foods, such as French fries and crisps, in 2002. Prospective studies are needed on acrylamide and human cancer risk. We prospectively investigated the association between acrylamide and gastrointestinal cancer risk.

  10. Intake of dietary folate vitamers and risk of colorectal carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brants, H.A.M.; Saris, W.H.M.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Several studies have reported inverse associations between folate intake and colorectal carcinoma risk. Few were prospective studies and none evaluated the association between the intake of individual folate vitamers and colorectal carcinoma risk. METHODS. The aim of the current study wa

  11. Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular Disease–Related Risks in Chinese Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing eSun

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractStudies of Western populations demonstrate a relationship between dietary patterns and cardiovascular-related risk factors. Simiar research regarding Chinese populations is limited. This study explored the dietary patterns of Chinese older adults and their association with cardiovascular-related risk factors, including hypertension, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Data were collected using a 34-item Chinese food frequency questionnaire from 750 randomly selected older adults aged 50–88 who participated in the study in 2012. Factor analysis revealed four dietary patterns: a ‘traditional food pattern’, consisting of vegetable, fruit, rice, pork and fish; a ‘fast and processed food pattern’ consisting of fast or processed food products, sugar and confectionery; a ‘soybean, grain and flour food pattern’; and a ‘dairy, animal liver and other animal food pattern’. These patterns explained 17.48%, 9.52%, 5.51% and 4.80% of the variances in food intake, respectively. This study suggests that specific dietary patterns are evident in Chinese older adults. Moderate intake of ‘traditional Chinese food’ is associated with decreased blood pressure and cholesterol level. A dietary pattern rich in soybeans, grains, potatoes and flour is associated with reduced metabolic factors including reduced triglycerides, fasting glucose, waist circumference, and waist–hip ratio, and a high level of dairy, animal liver and other animal intake food pattern is associated with increased level of Body Mass Index. In conclusion, this study revealed identifiable dietary patterns among Chinese older adults that are significantly related to blood pressure and metabolic biomarkers. Further study using prospective cohort or intervention study should be used to confirm the association between dietary patterns and blood pressure and metabolic factors.

  12. Prospective association between alcohol intake and hormone-dependent cancer risk: modulation by dietary fiber intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhim, Anne-Sophie; Fassier, Philippine; Latino-Martel, Paule; Druesne-Pecollo, Nathalie; Zelek, Laurent; Duverger, Lucie; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Touvier, Mathilde

    2015-07-01

    Alcohol intake is associated with increased circulating concentrations of sex hormones, which in turn may increase hormone-dependent cancer risk. This association may be modulated by dietary fiber intake, which has been shown to decrease steroid hormone bioavailability (decreased blood concentration and increased sex hormone-binding globulin concentration). However, this potential modulation has not been investigated in any prospective cohort. Our objectives were to study the relation between alcohol intake and the risk of hormone-dependent cancers (breast, prostate, ovarian, endometrial, and testicular) and to investigate whether dietary fiber intake modulated these associations. This prospective observational analysis included 3771 women and 2771 men who participated in the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants study (1994-2007) and completed at least 6 valid 24-h dietary records during the first 2 y of follow-up. After a median follow-up of 12.1 y, 297 incident hormone-dependent cancer cases, including 158 breast and 123 prostate cancers, were diagnosed. Associations were tested via multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Overall, alcohol intake was directly associated with the risk of hormone-dependent cancers (tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: HR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.84; P-trend = 0.02) and breast cancer (HR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.61; P-trend = 0.04) but not prostate cancer (P-trend = 0.3). In stratified analyses (by sex-specific median of dietary fiber intake), alcohol intake was directly associated with hormone-dependent cancer (tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: HR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.82; P-trend = 0.002), breast cancer (HR: 2.53; 95% CI: 1.30, 4.95; P-trend = 0.02), and prostate cancer (HR: 1.37; 95% CI: 0.65, 2.89; P-trend = 0.02) risk among individuals with low dietary fiber intake but not among their counterparts with higher dietary fiber intake (P-trend = 0.9, 0.8, and 0.6, respectively). The P-interaction between alcohol and dietary fiber

  13. Bioavailability evaluation, uptake of heavy metals and potential health risks via dietary exposure in urban-industrial areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Balal; Liu, Guijian; Wang, Ruwei; Imtiaz, Muhammad; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Munir, Mehr Ahmed Mujtaba; Niu, Zhiyuan

    2016-11-01

    A verity of human activities i.e. urbanization and industrialization have been resulted serious environmental contaminations by heavy metals in all over the world. The settlement of populations in urban and nearby industrial areas for economic development has significant share in their exposure to these metallic contaminants. Depending on the nature and type of the pollutants, targeted urban-industrial environments can have harmful and chronic health risk impacts on exposed local inhabitants and may require detoxification, healing and remedial therapy. Consequently, environmental monitoring as well as human health risk assessments of urban environments under industrial influence are key dominant features. We believe this work will provide new insights into the studies of metals exposure and associated health risks in emerging industrials cities of developing countries. Present study aimed to study the bioavailability of metals, quantify the changeability in soil and vegetable metal concentrations and estimation of human health risks via dietary exposure, focusing on urban-industrial environment. Soil and vegetable samples were collected in six random sites within the urban, periurban and industrial areas and analyzed for metal concentrations. In addition, risk assessment model proposed by US-EPA was employed to estimate the potential health risk of heavy metals via dietary intake. Results indicated that the heavy metal concentrations were noteworthy in periurban and urban-industrial areas. However, contamination levels varied with the type of vegetable, and the point source pollution such as traffic, urban wastes and industrial effluent. According to the estimated THQ and HI values for non-carcinogenic risk, little or no negative impact of heavy metals was observed on local inhabitants. However, the concentrations of Cr, Cd, Pb and Ni were nearly closed to the permissible limits described by US-EPA in urban-industrial areas. Conclusively, some efficient remedial

  14. Reporting accuracy of population dietary sodium intake using duplicate 24 h dietary recalls and a salt questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyzer, de W.; Dofkova, M.; Lillegaard, I.T.L.; Maeyer, de M.; Frost Andersen, L.; Ruprich, J.; Rehurkova, I.; Geelen, Anouk; Veer, van 't P.; Henauw, de S.; Crispim, S.P.; Boer, de Evelien; Ocke, M.C.; Slimani, N.; Huybrechts, I.

    2015-01-01

    High dietary Na intake is associated with multiple health risks, making accurate assessment of population dietary Na intake critical. In the
    present study, reporting accuracy of dietary Na intake was evaluated by 24 h urinary Na excretion using the EPIC-Soft 24 h dietary recall
    (24-HDR). Par

  15. Dietary Assessment in the MetaCardis Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verger, Eric O; Armstrong, Patrice; Nielsen, Trine

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European study MetaCardis aims to investigate the role of the gut microbiota in health and cardiometabolic diseases in France, Germany, and Denmark. To evaluate long-term diet-disease relationships, a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was found to be the most relevant dietary ass...

  16. Dietary cadmium intake and breast cancer risk in Japanese women: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Hiroaki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sawada, Norie; Takachi, Ribeka; Kasuga, Yoshio; Yokoyama, Shiro; Onuma, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Hideki; Kusama, Ritsu; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium, an environmental pollutant, may act like an estrogen and be a potential risk factor for estrogen-dependent diseases such as breast cancer. We examined the hypothesis that higher dietary cadmium intake is associated with risk of overall and hormone receptor-defined breast cancer in Japanese women, a population with a relatively high cadmium intake. The study was conducted under a case-control design in 405 eligible matched pairs from May 2001 to September 2005 at four hospitals in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. Dietary cadmium intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of breast cancer and its hormone-receptor-defined subtypes were calculated by tertile of dietary cadmium intake. We found no significant association between dietary cadmium and risk of total breast cancer in either crude or multivariable-adjusted analysis. Adjusted ORs for tertiles of cadmium intake were 1.00, 1.19, and 1.23 (95% CI, 0.76-2.00; P for trend=0.39) for whole breast cancer. Further, no significant associations were seen across strata of menopausal status, smoking, and diabetes in multivariable-adjusted models except for adjusted OR for continuous cadmium intake in postmenopausal women. A statistically significant association was found for estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) tumors among postmenopausal women (adjusted OR=1.00, 1.16, and 1.94 [95% CI, 1.04-3.63; P for trend=0.032]). Although the present study found no overall association between dietary cadmium intake and breast cancer risk, higher cadmium intake was associated with increased risk of ER+ breast cancer in postmenopausal women, at least at regular intake levels in Japanese women in the general population. Further studies are needed to confirm this association.

  17. No association between dietary vitamin K intake and fracture risk in chinese community-dwelling older men and women: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, R; Leung, J; Woo, J

    2012-05-01

    Data on the association between dietary vitamin K intake and fracture risk are limited among Chinese. This study examined such an association in community-dwelling elderly in Hong Kong. We present data from 2,944 subjects (1,605 men, 1,339 women) who participated in a prospective cohort study. Baseline dietary intakes of energy, protein, calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin K were assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire. Data on incident hip fracture and nonvertebral fracture during a median of 6.9 follow-up years were collected from a hospital database. Cox regression analyses were performed with adjustments for age, education attainment, smoking status, alcohol use, body mass index, hip bone mineral density, physical activity, use of calcium supplement, and energy-adjusted nutrient intakes. There were 29 (1.8 %) men and 19 (1.4 %) women with incident hip fractures and 97 (6.0 %) men and 88 (6.6 %) women with nonvertebral fractures. The median (interquartile range) of dietary vitamin K intake was 241.8 (157.5-360.8) and 238.9 (162.4-343.6) μg/day in men and women, respectively. Similar dietary vitamin K intakes were observed between subjects with hip or nonvertebral fractures and subjects without hip or nonvertebral fractures. In both men and women, dietary vitamin K intake was not associated with fracture risks at all measured sites in either crude or adjusted models. In Chinese community-dwelling elderly, hip or nonvertebral fracture risk was not associated with dietary vitamin K intake. The high dietary vitamin K intake of the studied group may have limited the ability to detect the association between vitamin K intake and fracture risk.

  18. Lack of association between dietary fructose and hyperuricemia risk in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williamson-Hughes Patricia S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High serum uric acid concentration (hyperuricemia has been studied for its relationship with multiple adverse health outcomes, such as metabolic syndrome. Intervention studies have produced inconsistent outcomes for the relationship between fructose intake and serum uric acid concentration. Methods The association of dietary fructose intake with hyperuricemia risk in adults was examined using logistic regression and U.S. NHANES 1999-2004 databases. A total of 9,384 subjects, between the ages 20 and 80 years, without diabetes, cancer, or heart disease, were included. Results The highest added or total fructose intake (quartiles by grams or % energy was not associated with an increase of hyperuricemia risk compared to the lowest intake with or without adjustment (odds ratios = 0.515-0.992. The associations of alcohol and fiber intakes with the risk were also determined. Compared to the lowest intake, the highest alcohol intake was associated with increased mean serum uric acid concentration (up to 16%, P P = 0.057- P P = 0.001- Conclusions The data show that increased dietary fructose intake was not associated with increased hyperuricemia risk; while increased dietary alcohol intake was significantly associated with increased hyperuricemia risk; and increased fiber intake was significantly associated with decreased hyperuricemia risk. These data further suggest a potential effect of fructose consumption in an ordinary diet on serum uric acid differs from results found in some short-term studies using atypical exposure and/or levels of fructose administration.

  19. Measurement of low dietary fiber intake as a risk factor for chronic constipation in children

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, Mauro B. [UNIFESP; Vitolo, Marcia R.; Aguirre, Andrea NC [UNIFESP; Fagundes-Neto, Uyssis [UNIFESP

    1999-01-01

    Background: Scarce information exists regarding dietary fiber intake in children with chronic constipation. the objective of this case-control study was to evaluate the intake of fiber as a risk factor for chronic constipation.Methods: Fifty-two children with a mean age of 6.8 +/- 3.2 years who had chronic constipation were age and gender matched with 52 children with normal intestinal habits. the fiber content of the diet was evaluated with a 24-hour dietary recall. Two tables of fiber compo...

  20. Diet and prostate cancer risk with specific focus on dairy products and dietary calcium: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Sara; Mabrouk, Jihène Ben; Shatenstein, Bryna; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Ghadirian, Parviz

    2010-07-01

    Despite the prevalence of prostate cancer worldwide, only a few risk factors have been well-established. The role of diet, especially of dairy products, in the etiology of prostate cancer is still controversial. This study assessed the association of dietary components, particularly dairy products and dietary calcium, on prostate cancer risk in a case-control study of 197 cases and an equal number of individually matched controls recruited in Montreal, Canada. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was administered in which the usual consumption frequency and amounts consumed of more than 200 food items were recorded. We found a twofold increased risk of prostate cancer associated with an increased intake of dairy products {Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.19; 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) 1.22-3.94}. A significant trend of decreasing prostate cancer risk with higher intake was found for legumes, nuts, finfish/shellfish and for alpha-tocopherol after adjustment for calcium intake. Milk was the only dairy product significantly associated with prostate cancer risk, with OR = 2.27; 95% CI (1.25-4.09) for the highest versus lowest quartiles of consumption. Calcium, the main micronutrient contained in dairy products, showed only a borderline association with prostate cancer risk (P = 0.09), with slightly higher risk for higher calcium intake. In conclusion, this study supports the hypothesis that dairy products, especially milk, are involved in the etiology of prostate cancer. However, the mechanisms by which the various nutrients in dairy products and total diet may interact to influence this risk remain unknown.

  1. Risk assessment and risk management in managed aquifer recharge

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Page, D

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This chapter presents the methodologies used for risk assessment and risk management in MAR in Australia and the European Union, qualitative and quantitative approaches adopted within the RECLAIM Water project and case studies where the outcomes...

  2. Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 11/12/2014 Risk Calculator About the Tool Colorectal Cancer Risk Factors Download SAS and Gauss Code Page ... Rectal Cancer: Prevention, Genetics, Causes Tests to Detect Colorectal Cancer and Polyps Cancer Risk Prediction Resources Update November ...

  3. From Hazard to Risk - Assessing the Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madsen, C.B.; Houben, G.; Hattersley, S.; Crevel, R.W.R.; Remington, B.C.; Baumert, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory thresholds for allergenic foods have not yet been developed. This means that public and industrial risk managers do not have regulatory thresholds to decide if a content or level of contamination is acceptable or not. For a long time, data have been inadequate to define safe thresholds fo

  4. Dietary intake polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and associated cancer risk in a cohort of Chinese urban adults: Inter- and intra-individual variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoli; Shen, Guofeng; Yang, Hongbiao; Tian, Jing; Wei, Fusheng; Gong, Jicheng; Zhang, Junfeng Jim

    2016-02-01

    Dietary intake is one of the major exposure pathways of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), especially in Chinese people because foods are often prepared with grilling and/or frying that would produce high levels of PAHs. In this paper, we assessed daily dietary intakes (DDI) of PAHs, using a "duplicate plate method", among 100 Chinese urban residents. The DDI of benzo(a)pyrene ranged from 0.06 µg per day to 13.5 µg per day with a median of 0.69 µg per day, varying largely across subjects. The median Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) attributable to PAH dietary intake was 6.65 × 10(-5) (4.41 × 10(-5) to 1.02 × 10(-4) as inter-quartile range). The contribution of several high-PAH containing foods like barbecued, smoked or deep-fried meats to the overall DDIs was about 13%. The use of raw foods may underestimate dietary intake of PAHs and associated exposure risk considerably. Results from foods sampled in different seasons suggested that seasonal variability within an individual may contribute notably to overall variability measured in a population and more future studies with longer-term investigation on food ingestion and pollutant exposure are needed. The study indicates that measuring actually consumed foods is more appropriate for dietary intake exposure assessment, and intra-individual variance should be taken into account during study design and data analysis.

  5. Fuzzy based risk register for construction project risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchta, Dorota; Ptaszyńska, Ewa

    2017-07-01

    The paper contains fuzzy based risk register used to identify risks which appear in construction projects and to assess their attributes. Risk is considered here as a possible event with negative consequences for the project [4]. We use different risk attributes in the proposed risk register. Values of risk attributes are generated by using fuzzy numbers. Specific risk attributes have different importance for project managers of construction projects. To compare specific risk attributes we use methods of fuzzy numbers ranking. The main strengths of the proposed concept in managing construction projects are also presented in the paper.

  6. Advances in the assessment of suicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Craig J; Rudd, M David

    2006-02-01

    This article reviews and integrates empirically grounded advances in the assessment of suicidality. The practices discussed are consistent with existing standards of care, practice guidelines, and applicable research. The authors differentiate between risk assessment and prediction and then emphasize the important role of time in risk assessment. We present and illustrate a continuum of suicidality for risk assessment and offer practical recommendations for clinical decision making and treatment. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Measuring children's diets: evaluation of dietary assessment techniques in infancy and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, L A; Carlgren, G

    1984-12-01

    Epidemiological studies of dietary habits in infancy and childhood face a number of difficulties, which are more or less specific for these ages. In connection with studies on dietary habits of Swedish infants and children an evaluation of different dietary assessment techniques was performed. Breastfeeding data obtained in retrospective interviews at six months had good validity. The reliability of breastfeeding and weaning data decreased over time. Short questions on food frequencies, often used in research and clinical practice, were shown to be a poor screening instrument and suffered from biases when used in groups of four- and eight-year-old children. Group mean estimations of dietary intake of four- and eight-year-old children obtained by 24-hour recalls were close to those of seven-day records from the same individuals. Dietary intake in a 13-year-old group according to 24-hour recall and dietary history differed significantly; the dietary history gave much higher estimations. The reliability of dietary history in a small group of 13-year-old boarding school children was fairly good. The internal validity of food recording was examined by use of chemical analysis of duplicate portions. Generally, there was good agreement between the records and the analysed duplicates. The intake of a number of nutrients varied during the week, often showing a maximum towards the weekend. The intake of vitamin C was higher in winter time, otherwise no seasonal variation was found. The intra-individual variation in dietary intake is illustrated and its consequences for dietary studies are discussed.

  8. Adolescent and young adult vegetarianism: better dietary intake and weight outcomes but increased risk of disordered eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-O'Brien, Ramona; Perry, Cheryl L; Wall, Melanie M; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2009-04-01

    Examine characteristics of current and former adolescent and young adult vegetarians and investigate the relationships between vegetarianism, weight, dietary intake, and weight-control behaviors. Cross-sectional analysis using data from a population-based study in Minnesota (Project EAT-II: Eating Among Teens). Participants completed a mailed survey and food frequency questionnaire in 2004. Males and females (n=2,516), ages 15-23 years. Weight status, dietary intake (fruit, vegetables, fat, calories), unhealthful weight-control behaviors. Multiple regression models controlling for socioeconomic status and sex were used to test for significant differences between current, former, and never vegetarians within the younger and older cohort. Participants were identified as current (4.3%), former (10.8%), and never (84.9%) vegetarians. Current vegetarians in the younger and older cohorts had healthier dietary intakes than nonvegetarians with regard to fruits, vegetables, and fat. Among young adults, current vegetarians were less likely than never vegetarians to be overweight or obese. Adolescent and young adult current vegetarians were more likely to report binge eating with loss of control when compared to nonvegetarians. Among adolescents, former vegetarians were more likely than never vegetarians to engage in extreme unhealthful weight-control behaviors. Among young adults, former vegetarians were more likely than current and never vegetarians to engage in extreme unhealthful weight-control behaviors. Adolescent and young adult vegetarians may experience the health benefits associated with increased fruit and vegetable intake and young adults may experience the added benefit of decreased risk for overweight and obesity. However, current vegetarians may be at increased risk for binge eating with loss of control, while former vegetarians may be at increased risk for extreme unhealthful weight-control behaviors. It would be beneficial for clinicians to inquire about

  9. Using Two Different Approaches to Assess Dietary Patterns: Hypothesis-Driven and Data-Driven Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágatha Nogueira Previdelli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of dietary patterns to assess dietary intake has become increasingly common in nutritional epidemiology studies due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the diet. Currently, two main approaches have been widely used to assess dietary patterns: data-driven and hypothesis-driven analysis. Since the methods explore different angles of dietary intake, using both approaches simultaneously might yield complementary and useful information; thus, we aimed to use both approaches to gain knowledge of adolescents’ dietary patterns. Food intake from a cross-sectional survey with 295 adolescents was assessed by 24 h dietary recall (24HR. In hypothesis-driven analysis, based on the American National Cancer Institute method, the usual intake of Brazilian Healthy Eating Index Revised components were estimated. In the data-driven approach, the usual intake of foods/food groups was estimated by the Multiple Source Method. In the results, hypothesis-driven analysis showed low scores for Whole grains, Total vegetables, Total fruit and Whole fruits, while, in data-driven analysis, fruits and whole grains were not presented in any pattern. High intakes of sodium, fats and sugars were observed in hypothesis-driven analysis with low total scores for Sodium, Saturated fat and SoFAA (calories from solid fat, alcohol and added sugar components in agreement, while the data-driven approach showed the intake of several foods/food groups rich in these nutrients, such as butter/margarine, cookies, chocolate powder, whole milk, cheese, processed meat/cold cuts and candies. In this study, using both approaches at the same time provided consistent and complementary information with regard to assessing the overall dietary habits that will be important in order to drive public health programs, and improve their efficiency to monitor and evaluate the dietary patterns of populations.

  10. Using Two Different Approaches to Assess Dietary Patterns: Hypothesis-Driven and Data-Driven Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previdelli, Ágatha Nogueira; de Andrade, Samantha Caesar; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Marchioni, Dirce Maria

    2016-01-01

    The use of dietary patterns to assess dietary intake has become increasingly common in nutritional epidemiology studies due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the diet. Currently, two main approaches have been widely used to assess dietary patterns: data-driven and hypothesis-driven analysis. Since the methods explore different angles of dietary intake, using both approaches simultaneously might yield complementary and useful information; thus, we aimed to use both approaches to gain knowledge of adolescents’ dietary patterns. Food intake from a cross-sectional survey with 295 adolescents was assessed by 24 h dietary recall (24HR). In hypothesis-driven analysis, based on the American National Cancer Institute method, the usual intake of Brazilian Healthy Eating Index Revised components were estimated. In the data-driven approach, the usual intake of foods/food groups was estimated by the Multiple Source Method. In the results, hypothesis-driven analysis showed low scores for Whole grains, Total vegetables, Total fruit and Whole fruits), while, in data-driven analysis, fruits and whole grains were not presented in any pattern. High intakes of sodium, fats and sugars were observed in hypothesis-driven analysis with low total scores for Sodium, Saturated fat and SoFAA (calories from solid fat, alcohol and added sugar) components in agreement, while the data-driven approach showed the intake of several foods/food groups rich in these nutrients, such as butter/margarine, cookies, chocolate powder, whole milk, cheese, processed meat/cold cuts and candies. In this study, using both approaches at the same time provided consistent and complementary information with regard to assessing the overall dietary habits that will be important in order to drive public health programs, and improve their efficiency to monitor and evaluate the dietary patterns of populations. PMID:27669289

  11. Using Two Different Approaches to Assess Dietary Patterns: Hypothesis-Driven and Data-Driven Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previdelli, Ágatha Nogueira; de Andrade, Samantha Caesar; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Marchioni, Dirce Maria

    2016-09-23

    The use of dietary patterns to assess dietary intake has become increasingly common in nutritional epidemiology studies due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the diet. Currently, two main approaches have been widely used to assess dietary patterns: data-driven and hypothesis-driven analysis. Since the methods explore different angles of dietary intake, using both approaches simultaneously might yield complementary and useful information; thus, we aimed to use both approaches to gain knowledge of adolescents' dietary patterns. Food intake from a cross-sectional survey with 295 adolescents was assessed by 24 h dietary recall (24HR). In hypothesis-driven analysis, based on the American National Cancer Institute method, the usual intake of Brazilian Healthy Eating Index Revised components were estimated. In the data-driven approach, the usual intake of foods/food groups was estimated by the Multiple Source Method. In the results, hypothesis-driven analysis showed low scores for Whole grains, Total vegetables, Total fruit and Whole fruits), while, in data-driven analysis, fruits and whole grains were not presented in any pattern. High intakes of sodium, fats and sugars were observed in hypothesis-driven analysis with low total scores for Sodium, Saturated fat and SoFAA (calories from solid fat, alcohol and added sugar) components in agreement, while the data-driven approach showed the intake of several foods/food groups rich in these nutrients, such as butter/margarine, cookies, chocolate powder, whole milk, cheese, processed meat/cold cuts and candies. In this study, using both approaches at the same time provided consistent and complementary information with regard to assessing the overall dietary habits that will be important in order to drive public health programs, and improve their efficiency to monitor and evaluate the dietary patterns of populations.

  12. Insights and perspectives on dietary modifications to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, David J; Rice Bradley, Beth H; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Mente, Andrew; de Oliveira Otto, Marcia

    2014-09-01

    This article summarizes presentations from “Insights and Perspectives on Dietary Modifications to Reduce the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease,” a symposium held at the ASN Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions in conjunction with Experimental Biology 2014 in San Diego, CA on 26 April 2014. Presenters reviewed historic and current evidence on the relation between diet and cardiovascular disease (CVD) to identify gaps in knowledge, discuss the promises and pitfalls of macronutrient replacement strategies in the diet, and suggest various options for issuing dietary guidance aimed at reducing the burden of CVD morbidity and mortality. Observational studies and clinical trials indicate that overall diet quality have a marked impact on health benefits, which is shifting the emphasis on recommending healthful dietary patterns to focusing only on single nutrients or foods.

  13. Gender differences in risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine R. Harris

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Across many real-world domains, men engage in more risky behaviors than do women. To examine some of the beliefs and preferences that underlie this difference, 657 participants assessed their likelihood of engaging in various risky activities relating to four different domains (gambling, health, recreation, and social, and reported their perceptions of (1 probability of negative outcomes, (2 severity of potential negative outcomes, and (3 enjoyment expected from the risky activities. Women's greater perceived likelihood of negative outcomes and lesser expectation of enjoyment partially mediated their lower propensity toward risky choices in gambling, recreation, and health domains. Perceptions of severity of potential outcomes was a partial mediator in the gambling and health domains. The genders did not differ in their propensity towards taking social risks. A fifth domain of activities associated with high potential payoffs and fixed minor costs was also assessed. In contrast to other domains, women reported being more likely to engage in behaviors in this domain. This gender difference was partially mediated by women's more optimistic judgments of the probability of good outcomes and of

  14. Dietary patterns and risk of colorectal adenoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godos, J; Bella, F; Torrisi, A; Sciacca, S; Galvano, F; Grosso, G

    2016-12-01

    Current evidence suggests that dietary patterns may play an important role in colorectal cancer risk. The present study aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies exploring the association between dietary patterns and colorectal adenomas (a precancerous condition). Pubmed and EMBASE electronic databases were systematically searched to retrieve eligible studies. Only studies exploring the risk or association with colorectal adenomas for the highest versus lowest category of exposure to a posteriori dietary patterns were included in the quantitative analysis. Random-effects models were applied to calculate relative risks (RRs) of colorectal adenomas for high adherence to healthy or unhealthy dietary patterns. Statistical heterogeneity and publication bias were explored. Twelve studies were reviewed. Three studies explored a priori dietary patterns using scores identifying adherence to the Mediterranean, Paleolithic and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet and reported an association with decreased colorectal adenoma risk. Two studies tested the association with colorectal adenomas between a posteriori dietary patterns showing lower odds of disease related to plant-based compared to meat-based dietary patterns. Seven studies identified 23 a posteriori dietary patterns and the analysis revealed that higher adherence to healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns was significantly associated risk of colorectal adenomas (RR = 0.81, 95% confidence interval = 0.71, 0.94 and RR = 1.24, 95% confidence interval = 1.13, 1.35, respectively) with no evidence of heterogeneity or publication bias. The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis indicate that dietary patterns may be associated with the risk of colorectal adenomas. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  15. Objective assessment of dietary patterns by use of metabolic phenotyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Perez, Isabel; Posma, Joram M; Gibson, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    that metabolic profiles of urine samples developed under controlled feeding conditions reflect dietary intake and can be used to model and classify dietary patterns of free-living populations. METHODS: In this randomised, controlled, crossover trial, we recruited healthy volunteers (aged 21-65 years, BMI 20......, and diet-discriminatory metabolites were identified. We developed urinary metabolite models for each diet and identified the associated metabolic profiles, and then validated the models using data and samples from the INTERMAP UK cohort (n=225) and a healthy-eating Danish cohort (n=66). This study...... study stays between Oct 2, 2013, and July 29, 2014, and consumed all the food provided. Analysis of (1)H-NMR spectroscopy data indicated that urinary metabolic profiles of the four diets were distinct. Significant stepwise differences in metabolite concentrations were seen between diets with the lowest...

  16. Technology-driven dietary assessment: a software developer's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buday, R; Tapia, R; Maze, G R

    2014-01-01

    Dietary researchers need new software to improve nutrition data collection and analysis, although the creation of information technology is difficult. Software development projects may be unsuccessful as a result of an inadequate understanding of needs, management problems, technology barriers or legal hurdles. Cost over-runs and schedule delays are common. Barriers facing scientific researchers developing software include workflow, cost, schedule and team issues. Different methods of software development and the role that intellectual property rights play are discussed. A dietary researcher must carefully consider multiple issues to maximise the likelihood of success when creating new software. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  17. Socioeconomic status and risk factors for cardiovascular disease: impact of dietary mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Hatzis, George; Papageorgiou, Nikolaos; Androulakis, Emmanuel; Briasoulis, Alexandros; Tousoulis, Dimitris

    2017-02-01

    It is well known that cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the western societies. A number of risk factors such as family history, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, smoking and physical inactivity are responsible for a significant proportion of the overall cardiovascular risk. Interestingly, recent data suggest there is a gradient in the incidence, morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease across the spectrum of socioeconomic status, as this is defined by educational level, occupation or income. Additionally, dietary mediators seem to play significant role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, mediating some of the discrepancies in atherosclerosis among different socioeconomic layers. Therefore, in the present article, we aim to review the association between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular disease risk factors and the role of different dietary mediators.

  18. Dietary Flavonol Intake May Lower Stroke Risk in Men and Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollman, P.C.H.; Geelen, A.; Kromhout, D.

    2010-01-01

    Flavonols are strong antioxidants in plant foods and tea is a major dietary source. There is evidence from prospective cohort studies that tea and flavonols are inversely related to stroke incidence. We conducted a metaanalysis of prospective cohort studies to assess quantitatively the strength of

  19. Methodology of environmental risk assessment management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša T. Bakrač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Successful protection of environment is mostly based on high-quality assessment of potential and present risks. Environmental risk management is a complex process which includes: identification, assessment and control of risk, namely taking measures in order to minimize the risk to an acceptable level. Environmental risk management methodology: In addition to these phases in the management of environmental risk, appropriate measures that affect the reduction of risk occurrence should be implemented: - normative and legal regulations (laws and regulations, - appropriate organizational structures in society, and - establishing quality monitoring of environment. The emphasis is placed on the application of assessment methodologies (three-model concept, as the most important aspect of successful management of environmental risk. Risk assessment methodology - European concept: The first concept of ecological risk assessment methodology is based on the so-called European model-concept. In order to better understand this ecological risk assessment methodology, two concepts - hazard and risk - are introduced. The European concept of environmental risk assessment has the following phases in its implementation: identification of hazard (danger, identification of consequences (if there is hazard, estimate of the scale of consequences, estimate of consequence probability and risk assessment (also called risk characterization. The European concept is often used to assess risk in the environment as a model for addressing the distribution of stressors along the source - path - receptor line. Risk assessment methodology - Canadian concept: The second concept of the methodology of environmental risk assessment is based on the so-called Canadian model-concept. The assessment of ecological risk includes risk arising from natural events (floods, extreme weather conditions, etc., technological processes and products, agents (chemical, biological, radiological, etc

  20. Risks and benefits of dietary isoflavones for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Susanne; Abraham, Klaus; Appel, Klaus Erich; Lampen, Alfonso

    2011-07-01

    A high intake of fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower risk of cancer. In this context, considerable attention is paid to Asian populations who consume high amounts of soy and soy-derived isoflavones, and have a lower risk for several cancer types such as breast and prostate cancers than populations in Western countries. Hence, interest focuses on soyfoods, soy products, and soy ingredients such as isoflavones with regard to their possible beneficial effects that were observed in numerous experiments and studies. The outcomes of the studies are not always conclusive, are often contradictory depending on the experimental conditions, and are, therefore, difficult to interpret. Isoflavone research revealed not only beneficial but also adverse effects, for instance, on the reproductive system. This is also the case with tumor-promoting effects on, for example, breast tissue. Isoflavone extracts and supplements are often used for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and for the prevention of age-associated conditions such as cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. In relation to this, questions about the effectiveness and safety of isoflavones have to be clarified. Moreover, there are concerns about the maternal consumption of isoflavones due to the development of leukemia in infants. In contrast, men may benefit from the intake of isoflavones with regard to reducing the risk of prostate cancer. Therefore, this review examines the risks but also the benefits of isoflavones with regard to various kinds of cancer, which can be derived from animal and human studies as well as from in vitro experiments.

  1. Dietary intake and urinary level of cadmium and breast cancer risk: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinbo; Zhang, Fang; Lei, Yixiong

    2016-06-01

    Cadmium, a human carcinogenic heavy metal, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer risk; however, the results from the epidemiological studies are not always consistent. The objective of this study was to quantitatively summarize the current evidence for the relationship between cadmium exposure and breast cancer risk using meta-analysis methods. Six studies determining the dietary cadmium intake level and five studies evaluating the urinary cadmium level were identified in a systematic search of MEDLINE and PubMed databases, and the associations between these levels and breast cancer risk were analysed. The pooled estimates under the random-effects model suggested that higher urinary cadmium levels were associated with an increased risk for breast cancer (highest versus lowest quantile, pooled odds ratio [OR]=2.24, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]=1.49-3.35) and a 1μg/g creatinine increase in urinary cadmium led to a 1.02-fold increment of breast cancer (pooled OR=2.02, 95%CI=1.34-3.03); however, pooled estimates for dietary cadmium intake found no significant association between cadmium exposure and breast cancer risk (highest versus lowest quantile, pooled relative risk [RR]=1.01, 95%CI=0.89-1.15). These results suggest that cadmium exposure may lead to an increased risk of breast cancer, and urinary cadmium levels can serve as a reliable biomarker for long-term cadmium exposure and may predict the breast cancer risk.

  2. Pressure sore risk assessment in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, J

    2000-01-01

    Pressure sore prevention in palliative care is recognized as being an essential element of holistic care, with the primary goal of promoting quality of life for patient and family. Little is known about the incidence of pressure sore development and the use of pressure sore risk assessment tools in palliative care settings. The development of a risk assessment tool specifically for palliative care patients in a 41-bedded specialist palliative care unit is described. The risk assessment tool was developed as part of a tissue viability practice development initiative. The approach adopted in the validation of the Hunters Hill Marie Curie Centre pressure sore risk assessment tool was the comparative analysis of professional judgment of experienced palliative care nurses with the numerical scores achieved during the assessment of risk on 291 patients (529 risk assessment events). This comparative analysis identified the threshold for different degrees of risk for the patient group involved: low risk, medium risk, high risk and very high risk. Further work is being undertaken to evaluate the inter-rater reliability of the new tool. A number of issues are explored in this paper in relation to pressure sore prevention in palliative care: the role of risk assessment tools, the sometimes conflicting aims of trying to ensure comfort and prevent pressure sore damage, and the uncertainties faced by palliative care nurses when they are trying to maintain quality of life for the dying.

  3. Dietary Acrylamide and the Risk of Endometrial Cancer: An Italian Case-Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelucchi, Claudio; Galeone, Carlotta; Negri, Eva; Bosetti, Cristina; Serraino, Diego; Montella, Maurizio; Talamini, Renato; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The role of dietary acrylamide on the risk of hormone-related, and specifically endometrial, cancers is debated. Epidemiological data are scanty. Thus, we examined the relation between acrylamide intake and endometrial cancer risk in a case-control study conducted between 1992 and 2006 in 3 Italian areas. Cases were 454 women with incident, histologically confirmed endometrial cancer. Controls were 908 age-matched women admitted to the same network of hospitals of cases for acute, non-neoplastic conditions. We calculated multivariate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using logistic regression models. The OR of endometrial cancer for increasing quintiles of dietary acrylamide, as compared to the lowest one, were 1.02 (95% CI: 0.67-1.54), 1.20 (95% CI: 0.80-1.80), 1.00 (95% CI: 0.65-1.54) and 1.17 (95% CI: 0.73-1.85). The OR for an increase of 10 μg/day of dietary acrylamide was 1.00 (95% CI: 0.91-1.10). In subgroup analyses, the ORs for high vs. low acrylamide intake were 1.28 (95% CI: 0.73-2.25) in never smokers and 1.14 (95% CI: 0.45-2.90) in ever smokers. Our data do not support an association between dietary acrylamide intake and endometrial cancer.

  4. Dietary intake and prospective changes in cardiometabolic risk factors in children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setayeshgar, Solmaz; Ekwaru, John Paul; Maximova, Katerina; Majumdar, Sumit R; Storey, Kate E; McGavock, Jonathan; Veugelers, Paul J

    2017-01-01

    Only few studies examined the effect of diet on prospective changes in cardiometabolic (CM) risk factors in children and youth despite its importance for understanding the role of diet early in life for cardiovascular disease in adulthood. To test the hypothesis that dietary intake is associated with prospective changes in CM risk factors, we analyzed longitudinal observations made over a period of 2 years among 448 students (aged 10-17 years) from 14 schools in Canada. We applied mixed effect regression to examine the associations of dietary intake at baseline with changes in body mass index, waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), and insulin sensitivity score between baseline and follow-up while adjusting for age, sex, and physical activity. Dietary fat at baseline was associated with increases in SBP and DBP z scores (per 10 g increase in dietary fat per day: β = 0.03; p hypertension in children and youth, and their cardiometabolic sequelae later in life.

  5. A prospective study of dietary selenium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laclaustra Martin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing evidence raises concern about possible associations of high selenium exposure with diabetes in selenium-replete populations such as the US. In countries with lower selenium status, such as Italy, there is little epidemiological evidence on the association between selenium and diabetes. This study examined the prospective association between dietary selenium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes. Methods The ORDET cohort study comprised a large sample of women from Northern Italy (n = 7,182. Incident type 2 diabetes was defined as a self-report of a physician diagnosis, use of antidiabetic medication, or a hospitalization discharge. Dietary selenium intake was measured by a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire at the baseline examination (1987-1992. Participants were divided in quintiles based on their baseline dietary selenium intake. Results Average selenium intake at baseline was 55.7 μg/day. After a median follow-up of 16 years, 253 women developed diabetes. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, the odds ratio for diabetes comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of selenium intake was 2.39, (95% CI: 1.32, 4.32; P for linear trend = 0.005. The odds ratio for diabetes associated with a 10 μg/d increase in selenium intake was 1.29 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.52. Conclusions In this population, increased dietary selenium intake was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. These findings raise additional concerns about the association of selenium intake above the Recommended Dietary Allowance (55 μg/day with diabetes risk.

  6. [Application of three risk assessment models in occupational health risk assessment of dimethylformamide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z J; Xu, B; Jiang, H; Zheng, M; Zhang, M; Zhao, W J; Cheng, J

    2016-08-20

    Objective: To investigate the application of United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) inhalation risk assessment model, Singapore semi-quantitative risk assessment model, and occupational hazards risk assessment index method in occupational health risk in enterprises using dimethylformamide (DMF) in a certain area in Jiangsu, China, and to put forward related risk control measures. Methods: The industries involving DMF exposure in Jiangsu province were chosen as the evaluation objects in 2013 and three risk assessment models were used in the evaluation. EPA inhalation risk assessment model: HQ=EC/RfC; Singapore semi-quantitative risk assessment model: Risk= (HR×ER) (1/2); Occupational hazards risk assessment index=2(Health effect level)×2(exposure ratio)×Operation condition level. Results: The results of hazard quotient (HQ>1) from EPA inhalation risk assessment model suggested that all the workshops (dry method, wet method and printing) and work positions (pasting, burdening, unreeling, rolling, assisting) were high risk. The results of Singapore semi-quantitative risk assessment model indicated that the workshop risk level of dry method, wet method and printing were 3.5 (high) , 3.5 (high) and 2.8 (general) , and position risk level of pasting, burdening, unreeling, rolling, assisting were 4 (high) , 4 (high) , 2.8 (general) , 2.8 (general) and 2.8 (general) . The results of occupational hazards risk assessment index method demonstrated that the position risk index of pasting, burdening, unreeling, rolling, assisting were 42 (high) , 33 (high) , 23 (middle) , 21 (middle) and 22 (middle) . The results of Singapore semi-quantitative risk assessment model and occupational hazards risk assessment index method were similar, while EPA inhalation risk assessment model indicated all the workshops and positions were high risk. Conclusion: The occupational hazards risk assessment index method fully considers health effects, exposure, and operating conditions

  7. [Urban ecological risk assessment: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-E; Chen, Wei-Ping; Peng, Chi

    2014-03-01

    With the development of urbanization and the degradation of urban living environment, urban ecological risks caused by urbanization have attracted more and more attentions. Based on urban ecology principles and ecological risk assessment frameworks, contents of urban ecological risk assessment were reviewed in terms of driven forces, risk resources, risk receptors, endpoints and integrated approaches for risk assessment. It was suggested that types and degrees of urban economical and social activities were the driven forces for urban ecological risks. Ecological functional components at different levels in urban ecosystems as well as the urban system as a whole were the risk receptors. Assessment endpoints involved in changes of urban ecological structures, processes, functional components and the integrity of characteristic and function. Social-ecological models should be the major approaches for urban ecological risk assessment. Trends for urban ecological risk assessment study should focus on setting a definite protection target and criteria corresponding to assessment endpoints, establishing a multiple-parameter assessment system and integrative assessment approaches.

  8. Assessing Human Health Risk from Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA protects human health and the environment by evaluating the risk associated with pesticides before allowing them to be used in the United States. Learn about the tools and processes used in risk assessment for pesticides.

  9. Colon Cancer Risk Assessment - Gauss Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    An executable file (in GAUSS) that projects absolute colon cancer risk (with confidence intervals) according to NCI’s Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (CCRAT) algorithm. GAUSS is not needed to run the program.

  10. Risk assessment theory, methods, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rausand, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    With its balanced coverage of theory and applications along with standards and regulations, Risk Assessment: Theory, Methods, and Applications serves as a comprehensive introduction to the topic. The book serves as a practical guide to current risk analysis and risk assessment, emphasizing the possibility of sudden, major accidents across various areas of practice from machinery and manufacturing processes to nuclear power plants and transportation systems. The author applies a uniform framework to the discussion of each method, setting forth clear objectives and descriptions, while also shedding light on applications, essential resources, and advantages and disadvantages. Following an introduction that provides an overview of risk assessment, the book is organized into two sections that outline key theory, methods, and applications. * Introduction to Risk Assessment defines key concepts and details the steps of a thorough risk assessment along with the necessary quantitative risk measures. Chapters outline...

  11. Correlates among Perceived Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Physical Activity, And Dietary Intake in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischetti, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades, the number of new cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among U.S. adolescents has increased (Fagot-Campagna et al., 2000; SEARCH Study Group, 2006), which may be related to the lack of health-promoting behaviors, such as a balanced diet and adequate physical exercise. This descriptive correlational study examined the relationship between perceived risk for T2DM, dietary intake, and physical activity in adolescents (N = 80) 13 to 18 years of age. The Children's Health Belief Model (Bush & lannotti, 1990) was the conceptual framework used for testing the theoretical relationships. Participants completed the following instruments: 1) Knowledge of Risk Factors for T2DM, 2) Health Beliefs for T2DM, 3) Godin-Shepard Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (Godin & Shepard, 1997), and 4) the Demographic/Medical Questionnaire. Significant relationships were found between perceived risk, a subset of the Health Beliefs for T2DM scale, and the health promoting behaviors of dietary intake and physical activity. Implications for health-promoting nursing practice related to adolescent perception of risk and health-promoting behaviors of dietary intake and physical activity are addressed.

  12. Dietary patterns and the risk of rhinitis in primary school children: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xudong; Wong, Claudie Chiu-Yi; Yu, Ignatius T. S.; Zhang, Zilong; Tan, Lixing; Lau, Arthur P. S.; Lee, Albert; Yeoh, Eng Kiong; Lao, Xiang Qian

    2017-01-01

    This study was to investigate the association between dietary patterns and rhinitis in primary school children. 1,599 students without rhinitis at baseline survey were selected from a primary school children cohort. Information on food consumption, respiratory symptoms, and confounders was collected using questionnaires. Dietary patterns were defined using principal component analysis. Logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The incidence of rhinitis during 12 months follow-up was 21.2%. Three patterns were extracted and labeled as pattern I, II and III. Dietary pattern II which had higher factor loadings of legumes, butter, nuts and potatoes was associated with an increased risk of rhinitis (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.01–1.87) when the highest tertile of pattern score was compared to the lowest tertile, after adjusted for confounders. Besides, every 1-unit increase of score of pattern II was also associated with an increased risk of rhinitis (OR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.05–1.35). Neither pattern I nor Pattern III was observed to be associated with risk of rhinitis. A diet with higher levels of consumption of legumes, butter, nuts and potatoes may increase the risk of allergic rhinitis in primary school children. PMID:28294150

  13. Ecological food web analysis for chemical risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preziosi, Damian V; Pastorok, Robert A

    2008-12-01

    Food web analysis can be a critical component of ecological risk assessment, yet it has received relatively little attention among risk assessors. Food web data are currently used in modeling bioaccumulation of toxic chemicals and, to a limited extent, in the determination of the ecological significance of risks. Achieving more realism in ecological risk assessments requires new analysis tools and models that incorporate accurate information on key receptors in a food web paradigm. Application of food web analysis in risk assessments demands consideration of: 1) different kinds of food webs; 2) definition of trophic guilds; 3) variation in food webs with habitat, space, and time; and 4) issues for basic sampling design and collection of dietary data. The different kinds of food webs include connectance webs, materials flow webs, and functional (or interaction) webs. These three kinds of webs play different roles throughout various phases of an ecological risk assessment, but risk assessors have failed to distinguish among web types. When modeling food webs, choices must be made regarding the level of complexity for the web, assignment of species to trophic guilds, selection of representative species for guilds, use of average diets, the characterization of variation among individuals or guild members within a web, and the spatial and temporal scales/dynamics of webs. Integrating exposure and effects data in ecological models for risk assessment of toxic chemicals relies on coupling food web analysis with bioaccumulation models (e.g., Gobas-type models for fish and their food webs), wildlife exposure models, dose-response models, and population dynamics models.

  14. Approaches to risk assessment in food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Hattersley, S.; Buck, J.;

    2009-01-01

    the area forward. Three possible approaches to safety assessment and risk assessment for allergenic foods were presented and discussed: safety assessment using NOAEL/LOAEL and uncertainty factors, safety assessment using Benchmark Dose and Margin of Exposure (MoE), and risk assessment using probabilistic...... models. The workshop concluded that all the three approaches to safety and risk assessment of allergenic foods should continue to be considered. A particular strength of the MoE and probabilistic approaches is that they do not rely on low-dose extrapolations with its inherent issues. Probabilistic...

  15. Dietary acrylamide intake and estrogen and progesterone receptor-defined postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Grete S; Hogervorst, Janneke G F; Schouten, Leo J

    2010-01-01

    Acrylamide, a potential human carcinogen, has been discovered in a variety of heat-treated carbohydrate-rich food products. Previously, dietary acrylamide intake was shown to be associated with endocrine-related cancers in humans. We assessed the association between dietary acrylamide intake...... breast cancer cases were ascertained, with hormone receptor status information for 43%. Cox proportional hazards analysis was applied to determine hazard ratios in quintiles of dietary acrylamide intake stratifying on estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) and smoking status...... ratios were 1.31 (95% CI: 0.87-1.97, P (trend) = 0.26) for ER+, 1.47 (0.86-2.51, P (trend) = 0.14) for PR+, and 1.43 (0.83-2.46, P (trend) = 0.16) for ER+PR+, when comparing women in the highest quintile of acrylamide intake (median 36.8 microg/day) to women in the lowest (median 9.5 microg...

  16. RISK ASSESSMENT PROCEDURE FOR CIVIL AIRPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Distefano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A practical problem in air transport is how to manage risk and safety. In recent years have been developed special technical and managerial skills to the systematic, forward looking identification and control of hazards throughout the life cycle of a project, program, or activity. Safety Management System (SMS involves identifying, evaluating, and addressing of hazards or risk. Its sole purpose is to prevent accidents. Safety risk assessment is defined as the systematic identification and evaluation of the risk posed by the complete spectrum of possible accident scenarios. Risk assessment is a tool that supports decision making and as such supports risk management. Risk management comprises the safety optimization of the system, the verification process and risk acceptance, which support airport operations. This paper proposed a quantitative methodology for the risk assessment for a civil airport, which is based on historical data of aircraft accidents, contained in the Aviation Safety Network database, from 1 January 1980 to 31 December 2010.

  17. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake assessment from 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hexiang; Tang, Jun; Huang, Lichun; Shen, Xianghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Chen, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Aluminium was measured in 2580 samples of 15 food groups and dietary exposure was estimated. Samples were purchased and analysed during 2010 to 2014. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (mean 4862 mg/kg), laver (mean 455.2 mg/kg) and fried twisted cruller (mean 392.4 mg/kg). Dietary exposure to aluminium was estimated for Zhejiang residents. The average dietary exposure to aluminium via 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province was 1.15 mg/kg bw/week, which is below the provisional tolerable weekly intake of 2 mg/kg bw /week. Jellyfish is the main Al contributor, providing 37.6% of the daily intake via these 15 food groups. This study provided new information on aluminium levels and assessment of aluminium (Al) dietary exposure in Zhejiang Province of China.

  18. Risk communication in environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahm-Crites, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Germantown, MD (United States). Washington Operations Office

    1996-08-26

    Since the enactment of NEPA and other environmental legislation, the concept of `risk communication` has expanded from simply providing citizens with scientific information about risk to exploring ways of making risk information genuinely meaningful to the public and facilitating public involvement in the very processes whereby risk is analyzed and managed. Contemporary risk communication efforts attempt to find more effective ways of conveying increasingly complex risk information and to develop more democratic and proactive approaches to community involvement, in particular to ensuring the participation of diverse populations in risk decisions. Although considerable progress has been made in a relatively short time, risk communication researchers and practitioners currently face a number of challenges in a time of high expectations, low trust, and low budgets.

  19. Dietary supplement use and colorectal cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heine-Bröring, R.C.; Winkels, R.M.; Renkema, J.M.S.; Kragt, L.; Orten-Luiten, van A.C.B.; Tigchelaar, E.F.; Chan, D.S.M.; Norat, T.; Kampman, E.

    2015-01-01

    Use of dietary supplements is rising in countries where colorectal cancer is prevalent. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies on dietary supplement use and colorectal cancer risk. We identified relevant studies in Medline, Embase and Cochrane up

  20. Dietary supplement use and colorectal cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heine-Bröring, R.C.; Winkels, R.M.; Renkema, J.M.S.; Kragt, L.; Orten-Luiten, van A.C.B.; Tigchelaar, E.F.; Chan, D.S.M.; Norat, T.; Kampman, E.

    2015-01-01

    Use of dietary supplements is rising in countries where colorectal cancer is prevalent. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies on dietary supplement use and colorectal cancer risk. We identified relevant studies in Medline, Embase and Cochrane up

  1. Dietary carbohydrates, glycemic index, glycemic load, and endometrial cancer risk within the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cust, Anne E.; Slimani, Nadia; Kaaks, Rudolf; van Bakel, Marit; Biessy, Carine; Ferrari, Pietro; Laville, Martine; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Lajous, Martin; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Noethlings, Ute; Boeing, Heiner; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Skeie, Guri; Engeset, Dagrun; Gram, Inger Torhild; Quiros, J. Ramon; Jakszyn, Paula; Sanchez, Maria Jose; Larranaga, Nerea; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Wirfalt, Elisabet; Berglund, Goran; Lundin, Eva; Hallmans, Goeran; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Du, Huaidong; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Bingham, Shelia; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Allen, Naomi E.; Key, Timothy J.; Jenab, Mazda; Riboli, Elio

    2007-01-01

    The associations of dietary total carbohydrates, overall glycemic index, total dietary glycemic load, total sugars, total starch, and total fiber with endometrial cancer risk were analyzed among 288,428 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort (1992-2004), inc

  2. The Role of Family in a Dietary Risk Reduction Intervention for Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy L. Schumacher

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Diet is an essential strategy for the prevention of primary and secondary cardiovascular disease (CVD events. The objectives were to examine: how families at increased risk of CVD perceived personal risk, their motivations to make dietary changes, their understanding of diet, and the influence of other family members. Individuals (>18 years who completed an Australian family-based CVD risk reduction program were invited to a semi-structured telephone interview. Responses were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a systematic deductive approach with coding derived from key concepts developed as part of the interview structure. Seventeen participants from eight families were interviewed (aged 18–70 years, 47% male, five with CVD diagnosis. Key themes indicated both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations to improve heart health, variations in risk perception, recognition of the role diet plays in heart health, and the extent of family influences on eating patterns. Discrepancies between perceived and actual CVD risk perception impacted on perceived “need” to modify current dietary patterns towards heart health recommendations. Therefore, strategies not reliant on risk perception are needed to engage those with low risk perception. This could involve identifying and accessing the family “ringleader” to influence involvement and capitalising on personal accountability to other family members.

  3. The Role of Family in a Dietary Risk Reduction Intervention for Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Tracy L; Burrows, Tracy L; Thompson, Deborah I; Callister, Robin; Spratt, Neil J; Collins, Clare E

    2016-09-30

    Diet is an essential strategy for the prevention of primary and secondary cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. The objectives were to examine: how families at increased risk of CVD perceived personal risk, their motivations to make dietary changes, their understanding of diet, and the influence of other family members. Individuals (>18 years) who completed an Australian family-based CVD risk reduction program were invited to a semi-structured telephone interview. Responses were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a systematic deductive approach with coding derived from key concepts developed as part of the interview structure. Seventeen participants from eight families were interviewed (aged 18-70 years, 47% male, five with CVD diagnosis). Key themes indicated both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations to improve heart health, variations in risk perception, recognition of the role diet plays in heart health, and the extent of family influences on eating patterns. Discrepancies between perceived and actual CVD risk perception impacted on perceived "need" to modify current dietary patterns towards heart health recommendations. Therefore, strategies not reliant on risk perception are needed to engage those with low risk perception. This could involve identifying and accessing the family "ringleader" to influence involvement and capitalising on personal accountability to other family members.

  4. Subsite-Specific Dietary Risk Factors for Colorectal Cancer: A Review of Cohort Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Hjartåker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. A shift in the total incidence from left- to right-sided colon cancer has been reported and raises the question as to whether lifestyle risk factors are responsible for the changing subsite distribution of colon cancer. The present study provides a review of the subsite-specific risk estimates for the dietary components presently regarded as convincing or probable risk factors for colorectal cancer: red meat, processed meat, fiber, garlic, milk, calcium, and alcohol. Methods. Studies were identified by searching PubMed through October 8, 2012 and by reviewing reference lists. Thirty-two prospective cohort studies are included, and the estimates are compared by sex for each risk factor. Results. For alcohol, there seems to be a stronger association with rectal cancer than with colon cancer, and for meat a somewhat stronger association with distal colon and rectal cancer, relative to proximal colon cancer. For fiber, milk, and calcium, there were only minor differences in relative risk across subsites. No statement could be given regarding garlic. Overall, many of the subsite-specific risk estimates were nonsignificant, irrespective of exposure. Conclusion. For some dietary components the associations with risk of cancer of the rectum and distal colon appear stronger than for proximal colon, but not for all.

  5. Using skin carotenoids to assess potential dietary changes after one academic year in the Shaping Healthy Choices Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reported dietary intake is often used in community interventions to assess intake of fruits and vegetables (F/V); however, dietary assessment methods are inaccurate, and time and labor intensive. Skin carotenoids are a potential biomarker to assess F/V intake given that carotenoids are predominately...

  6. Dietary histidine requirement to reduce the risk and severity of cataracts is higher than the requirement for growth in Atlantic salmon smolts, independently of the dietary lipid source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remø, S C; Hevrøy, E M; Olsvik, P A; Fontanillas, R; Breck, O; Waagbø, R

    2014-05-28

    The present study was carried out to investigate whether the dietary histidine requirement to reduce cataract development is higher than that for growth in Atlantic salmon smolts (Salmo salar L.) after seawater transfer and whether dietary vegetable oils contribute to cataractogenesis. Duplicate groups of salmon smolts were fed ten experimental diets with either fish oil (FO) or a vegetable oil (VO) mix replacing 70 % FO and histidine at five target levels (10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 g His/kg diet) for 13 weeks after seawater transfer. The VO diet-fed fish exhibited somewhat inferior growth and feed intakes compared with the FO diet-fed fish, irrespective of the dietary histidine concentration. Both cataract prevalence and severity were negatively correlated with the dietary histidine concentration, while lens N-acetyl-histidine (NAH) concentrations were positively correlated with it. The fatty acid profiles of muscle, heart and lens reflected that of the dietary oils to a descending degree and did not affect the observed cataract development. Muscle, heart and brain histidine concentrations reflected dietary histidine concentrations, while the corresponding tissue imidazole (anserine, carnosine and NAH) concentrations appeared to saturate differently with time. The expression level of liver histidase was not affected by the dietary histidine concentration, while the liver antioxidant response was affected in the VO diet-fed fish on a transcriptional level. The lowest severity of cataracts could be achieved by feeding 13·4 g His/kg feed, independently of the dietary lipid source. However, the present study also suggests that the dietary histidine requirement to minimise the risk of cataract development is 14·4 g His/kg feed.

  7. Assessing usual dietary intake in complex sample design surveys: the National Dietary Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia dos Santos Barbosa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The National Cancer Institute (NCI method allows the distributions of usual intake of nutrients and foods to be estimated. This method can be used in complex surveys. However, the user must perform additional calculations, such as balanced repeated replication (BRR, in order to obtain standard errors and confidence intervals for the percentiles and mean from the distribution of usual intake. The objective is to highlight adaptations of the NCI method using data from the National Dietary Survey. The application of the NCI method was exemplified analyzing the total energy (kcal and fruit (g intake, comparing estimations of mean and standard deviation that were based on the complex design of the Brazilian survey with those assuming simple random sample. Although means point estimates were similar, estimates of standard error using the complex design increased by up to 60% compared to simple random sample. Thus, for valid estimates of food and energy intake for the population, all of the sampling characteristics of the surveys should be taken into account because when these characteristics are neglected, statistical analysis may produce underestimated standard errors that would compromise the results and the conclusions of the survey.

  8. Dietary fiber intake is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression and cardiovascular risk, but not protein nutritional status, in adults with CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Huang, Yan-Feng; Wang, Ming-Qing; Chen, De-Xiu; Wan, Heng; Wei, Lian-Bo; Xiao, Wei

    Evidence suggests that dietary fiber benefits patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, this conclusion requires further validation. In this study, we examined the effects of dietary fiber on kidney function, inflammation, indoxyl sulfate, nutritional status, and cardiovascular risk in patients with advanced CKD. We performed linear regressions to assess the association between dietary fiber intake and CKD parameters. The aforementioned parameters were compared over an 18-month follow- up period. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to investigate the association between fiber intake and Cardiac vascular disease (CVD). In total, 157 patients were included in this study. Dietary fiber and inflammatory indices were associated (interleukin [IL]-6: β=-0.024, p=0.035). The differential estimated glomerular filtration rate (ΔeGFR) as well as levels of C-reactive protein, IL-6, indoxyl sulfate, and serum cholesterol in the higher fiber intake (>=25 g/day) group were lower than those in the lower fiber intake (Dietary fiber intake may be a protective factor associated with CVD (hazard ratio=0.537 and 0.305- 0.947). The protein nutritional status was not different between the two groups (p>0.05). Our results suggest that increasing fiber intake can retard the decrease in the eGFR; can reduce the levels of proinflammatory factors, indoxyl sulfate, and serum cholesterol; and is negatively associated with cardiovascular risk, but does not disrupt the nutritional status of patients with CKD.

  9. Validation of triple pass 24-hour dietary recall in Ugandan children by simultaneous weighed food assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olupot-Olupot, Peter; Engoru, Charles; Ssenyondo, Tonny; Nteziyaremye, Julius; Amorut, Denis; Nakuya, Margaret; Arimi, Margaret; Frost, Gary; Maitland, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Background Undernutrition remains highly prevalent in African children, highlighting the need for accurately assessing dietary intake. In order to do so, the assessment method must be validated in the target population. A triple pass 24 hour dietary recall with volumetric portion size estimation has been described but not previously validated in African children. This study aimed to establish the relative validity of 24-hour dietary recalls of daily food consumption in healthy African children living in Mbale and Soroti, eastern Uganda compared to simultaneous weighed food records. Methods Quantitative assessment of daily food consumption by weighed food records followed by two independent assessments using triple pass 24-hour dietary recall on the following day. In conjunction with household measures and standard food sizes, volumes of liquid, dry rice, or play dough were used to aid portion size estimation. Inter-assessor agreement, and agreement with weighed food records was conducted primarily by Bland-Altman analysis and secondly by intraclass correlation coefficients and quartile cross-classification. Results 19 healthy children aged 6 months to 12 years were included in the study. Bland-Altman analysis showed 24-hour recall only marginally under-estimated energy (mean difference of 149kJ or 2.8%; limits of agreement -1618 to 1321kJ), protein (2.9g or 9.4%; -12.6 to 6.7g), and iron (0.43mg or 8.3%; -3.1 to 2.3mg). Quartile cross-classification was correct in 79% of cases for energy intake, and 89% for both protein and iron. The intraclass correlation coefficient between the separate dietary recalls for energy was 0.801 (95% CI, 0.429-0.933), indicating acceptable inter-observer agreement. Conclusions Dietary assessment using 24-hour dietary recall with volumetric portion size estimation resulted in similar and acceptable estimates of dietary intake compared with weighed food records and thus is considered a valid method for daily dietary intake assessment of

  10. Exposição humana a substâncias químicas potencialmente tóxicas na dieta e os riscos para saúde Chemical dietary exposure and the risks to human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Nunes Oliveira Jardim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans are exposed to a variety of chemicals from the consumption of food, including undesirable compounds such as pesticides and mycotoxins. Chemical human risk assessment is a process intended to estimate the risk to a given population from the exposure to a chemical (or to a chemical group having the same mechanism of action. The process consists of four steps, namely hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment and risk characterization. Chemical dietary risk assessment is an essential procedure to establish safe food standards. In this review the tools and data sources currently used in the risk assessment process will be discussed.

  11. Dietary Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, and Risk of Cancer: A Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    George, Stephanie Materese; Mayne, Susan T.; Leitzmann, Michael F; Park, Yikyung; Schatzkin, Arthur; Flood, Andrew; Hollenbeck, Albert; Subar, Amy F

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have provided limited evidence for a harmful effect of high glycemic index and dietary glycemic load on cancer. The authors analyzed associations among glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of cancer in women and men in the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study. Published glycemic index values were assigned to 225 foods/food groups. Glycemic load was calculated by multiplying the glycemic index, carbohydrate content, and intake frequency of individual foo...

  12. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment Tutorial - Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides a Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) primer that organizes QMRA tutorials. The tutorials describe functionality of a QMRA infrastructure, guide the user through software use and assessment options, provide step-by-step instructions for implementi...

  13. Revised Human Health Risk Assessment on Chlorpyrifos

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have revised our human health risk assessment and drinking water exposure assessment for chlorpyrifos that supported our October 2015 proposal to revoke all food residue tolerances for chlorpyrifos. Learn about the revised analysis.

  14. Utility of Braden Scale Nutrition Subscale Ratings as an Indicator of Dietary Intake and Weight Outcomes among Nursing Home Residents at Risk for Pressure Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennerly, Susan; Boss, Lisa; Yap, Tracey L; Batchelor-Murphy, Melissa; Horn, Susan D; Barrett, Ryan; Bergstrom, Nancy

    2015-09-24

    The Braden Scale for Pressure Sore Risk(©) is a screening tool to determine overall risk of pressure ulcer development and estimate severity of specific risk factors for individual residents. Nurses often use the Braden nutrition subscale to screen nursing home (NH) residents for nutritional risk, and then recommend a more comprehensive nutritional assessment as indicated. Secondary data analysis from the Turn for Ulcer ReductioN (TURN) study's investigation of U.S. and Canadian NH residents (n = 690) considered at moderate or high pressure ulcer (PrU) risk was used to evaluate the subscale's utility for identifying nutritional intake risk factors. Associations were examined between Braden Nutritional Risk subscale screening, dietary intake (mean % meal intake and by meal timing, mean number of protein servings, protein sources, % intake of supplements and snacks), weight outcomes, and new PrU incidence. Of moderate and high PrU risk residents, 61.9% and 59.2% ate a mean meal % of nutrition subscale risk or in mean number protein servings per meal (1.4 (SD = 0.58) versus 1.3 (SD = 0.53)) for moderate versus high PrU risk residents. The nutrition subscale approximates subsequent estimated dietary intake and can provide insight into meal intake patterns for those at either moderate or high PrU risk. Findings support the Braden Scale's use as a preliminary screening method to identify focused areas for potential intervention.

  15. Comparison of a Medication Inventory and a Dietary Supplement Interview in Assessing Dietary Supplement Use in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurot, Keturah R.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Gardiner, Paula; Rivera, José O.; Young, Laura A.; Poole, Charles; Whitsel, Eric A.; González, Hector M.; Chirinos-Medina, Diana A.; Talavera, Gregory A.; Castañeda, Sheila F.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Barnhart, Janice; Giacinto, Rebeca E.; Van Horn, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Although dietary supplement use is common, its assessment is challenging, especially among ethnic minority populations such as Hispanics/Latinos. Using the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) (n = 16,415), this report compares two strategies for capturing dietary supplement use over a 30-day period: a medication-based inventory and a nutrition-based dietary supplement interview. Age-standardized prevalence was calculated across multiple dietary supplement definitions, adjusted with survey/nonresponse weights. The prevalence of dietary supplement use was substantially higher as measured in the dietary supplement interview, compared to the medication inventory: for total dietary supplements (39% vs 26%, respectively), for nonvitamin, nonmineral supplements (24% vs 12%), and for botanicals (9.2% vs 4.5%). Concordance between the two assessments was fair to moderate (Cohen’s kappa: 0.31–0.52). Among women, inclusion of botanical teas increased the prevalence of botanical supplement use from 7% to 15%. Supplement assessment that includes queries about botanical teas yields more information about patient supplement use. PMID:26917949

  16. Relationship between adhering to dietary guidelines and the risk of obesity in Korean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Soo Hyun; Song, YoonJu; Park, Mijung; Kim, Shin Hye; Shin, Sangah; Joung, Hyojee

    2014-12-01

    Dietary guidelines for Korean children were released in 2009. The goal of the present study was to examine diet quality in terms of adherence to these dietary guidelines as well as explore the association between guideline adherence and risk of obesity in Korean children. Children aged 5-11 years (mean age = 8.9 years old, n = 191, 80.6% girls) were recruited from a university hospital in Seoul, Korea. Adherence to dietary guidelines for Korean children was calculated using the Likert scale (1-5), and children were then categorized into low, moderate, and high groups based on adherence scores. Obesity or being overweight was determined based on an age- and gender- specific percentile for body mass index (BMI) of the 2007 Korean National Growth Charts. Diet quality was evaluated from 3 days of dietary intake data. Children in the high adherence group were characterized by significantly lower BMI percentiles and paternal BMIs as well as higher percentages of fathers with a high level of education and higher household incomes compared to those in the low or moderate group. Children in the high adherence group consumed significantly higher amounts of milk and dairy products, were less likely to consume lower than the EAR of phosphorus and iron, and had higher NARs for calcium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, and MAR than those in low groups. The ORs for obesity (BMI ≥ 95(th) percentile) or being overweight including obesity (BMI ≥ 85(th) percentile) were significantly lower in the high adherence group compared to the low adherence group (OR: 0.33, 95% CI = 0.13-0.82, P for trend = 0.019; OR: 0.26, 95% CI: 0.11-0.61 P for trend = 0.002). Korean children who adhered to dietary guidelines displayed better diet quality and a reduced risk of obesity.

  17. Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool for environmental assessment of product and systems – over the whole life cycle from acquisition of raw materials to the end-of-life of the product – and encompassing all environmental impacts of emissions and resource usage, e.g. global warming, acidification...... the emissions, how should they be defined and classified and what should be measured? LCA have many of these issues in common with RA. There is a need to understand which properties of nanomaterials are crucial for the assessment of their potential transformation and fate as well as their ability to cause...... adverse effects on target organisms or systems. If we want to be able to assess toxic impacts both in LCA and in RA these issues need to be addressed by the RA community and the LCA community must follow closely the progress made....

  18. Assessing reservoir operations risk under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, L.D.; Maurer, E.P.; Anderson, J.D.; Dettinger, M.D.; Townsley, E.S.; Harrison, A.; Pruitt, T.

    2009-01-01

    Risk-based planning offers a robust way to identify strategies that permit adaptive water resources management under climate change. This paper presents a flexible methodology for conducting climate change risk assessments involving reservoir operations. Decision makers can apply this methodology to their systems by selecting future periods and risk metrics relevant to their planning questions and by collectively evaluating system impacts relative to an ensemble of climate projection scenarios (weighted or not). This paper shows multiple applications of this methodology in a case study inv