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  1. Eclampsia despite strict dietary sodium restriction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delemarre, F.M.C.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Berendes, J.N.

    2001-01-01

    The classic indication for prescribing dietary sodium restriction in pregnancy has been the prevention of eclampsia. We describe a case of intrapartum eclampsia in a 24-year-old nulliparous woman. A strongly sodium restricted diet was prescribed because of pre-eclampsia. Compliance to the diet was

  2. Dietary chlorophyllin abrogates TGFβ signaling to modulate the hallmark capabilities of cancer in an animal model of forestomach carcinogenesis.

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    Thiyagarajan, Paranthaman; Kavitha, Krishnamurthy; Thautam, Avaneesh; Dixit, Madhulika; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2014-07-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF) β signaling pathway plays a central role in the regulation of a wide range of cellular processes involved in the acquisition of the malignant phenotype. The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of chlorophyllin, a semisynthetic derivative of chlorophyll on N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)--induced rat forestomach carcinogenesis based on the modulation of TGFβ signaling and the downstream target genes associated with cell proliferation, apoptosis evasion, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. We determined the effect of dietary chlorophyllin on TGFβ signaling and the downstream events-cell proliferation, apoptosis evasion, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis by semiquantitative and quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemical analyses. We further validated the inhibition of TGFβ signaling by chlorophyllin by performing molecular docking studies. We found that dietary supplementation of chlorophyllin at 4-mg/kg bw inhibits the development of MNNG-induced forestomach carcinomas by downregulating the expression of TGFβ RI, TGFβ RII, and Smad 2 and 4 and upregulating Smad 7, thereby abrogating canonical TGFβ signaling. Docking interactions also confirmed the inhibition of TGFβ signaling by chlorophyllin via inactivating TGFβ RI. Furthermore, attenuation of TGFβ signaling by chlorophyllin also blocked cell proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis, and induced mitochondria-mediated cell death. Dietary chlorophyllin that simultaneously abrogates TGFβ signaling pathway and the key hallmark events of cancer appear to be an ideal candidate for cancer chemoprevention.

  3. Dietary restriction with and without caloric restriction for healthy aging [version 1; referees: 3 approved

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    Changhan Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction is the most effective and reproducible dietary intervention known to regulate aging and increase the healthy lifespan in various model organisms, ranging from the unicellular yeast to worms, flies, rodents, and primates. However, caloric restriction, which in most cases entails a 20–40% reduction of food consumption relative to normal intake, is a severe intervention that results in both beneficial and detrimental effects. Specific types of chronic, intermittent, or periodic dietary restrictions without chronic caloric restriction have instead the potential to provide a significant healthspan increase while minimizing adverse effects. Improved periodic or targeted dietary restriction regimens that uncouple the challenge of food deprivation from the beneficial effects will allow a safe intervention feasible for a major portion of the population. Here we focus on healthspan interventions that are not chronic or do not require calorie restriction.

  4. Effect of dietary protein restriction on renal ammonia metabolism

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    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Osis, Gunars; Handlogten, Mary E.; Guo, Hui; Verlander, Jill W.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary protein restriction has multiple benefits in kidney disease. Because protein intake is a major determinant of endogenous acid production, it is important that net acid excretion change in parallel during protein restriction. Ammonia is the primary component of net acid excretion, and inappropriate ammonia excretion can lead to negative nitrogen balance. Accordingly, we examined ammonia excretion in response to protein restriction and then we determined the molecular mechanism of the changes observed. Wild-type C57Bl/6 mice fed a 20% protein diet and then changed to 6% protein developed an 85% reduction in ammonia excretion within 2 days, which persisted during a 10-day study. The expression of multiple proteins involved in renal ammonia metabolism was altered, including the ammonia-generating enzymes phosphate-dependent glutaminase (PDG) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and the ammonia-metabolizing enzyme glutamine synthetase. Rhbg, an ammonia transporter, increased in expression in the inner stripe of outer medullary collecting duct intercalated cell (OMCDis-IC). However, collecting duct-specific Rhbg deletion did not alter the response to protein restriction. Rhcg deletion did not alter ammonia excretion in response to dietary protein restriction. These results indicate 1) dietary protein restriction decreases renal ammonia excretion through coordinated regulation of multiple components of ammonia metabolism; 2) increased Rhbg expression in the OMCDis-IC may indicate a biological role in addition to ammonia transport; and 3) Rhcg expression is not necessary to decrease ammonia excretion during dietary protein restriction. PMID:25925252

  5. Strong dietary restrictions protect Drosophila against anoxia/reoxygenation injuries.

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    Paul Vigne

    Full Text Available Reoxygenation of ischemic tissues is a major factor that determines the severity of cardiovascular diseases. This paper describes the consequences of anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R stresses on Drosophila, a useful, anoxia tolerant, model organism.Newly emerged adult male flies were exposed to anoxic conditions (<1% O2 for 1 to 6 hours, reoxygenated and their survival was monitored.A/R stresses induced a transient increase in mortality which peaked at the time of reoxygenation. Then flies recovered low mortality rates similar to those of control flies. A/R induced mortality was strongly dependent on dietary conditions during the 48 h that preceded anoxia. Well fed flies were anoxia sensitive. Strong dietary restrictions and starvation conditions protected flies against A/R injuries. The tolerance to anoxia was associated to large decreases in glycogen, protein, and ATP contents. During anoxia, anoxia tolerant flies produced more lactate, less phosphate and they maintained more stable ATP levels than anoxia sensitive flies. Moderate dietary restrictions, which increased the longevity of normoxic flies, did not promote resistance to A/R stresses. Diet dependent A/R injuries were still observed in sigma loss of function mutants and they were insensitive to dietary rapamycin or resveratrol. AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribose-furanoside, an activator AMP kinase decreased A/R injuries. Mutants in the insulin signalling pathway were more anoxia tolerant in a fed state.Long A/R stresses induce a transient increase in mortality in Drosophila. This mortality is highly dependent on dietary conditions prior to the stress. Strong dietary restrictions and starvation conditions protect flies against A/R injuries, probably by inducing a major remodelling of energy metabolism. The results also indicate that mechanistically different responses develop in response to dietary restrictions of different strengths. AMP kinase and the insulin signalling

  6. The reno-protective effects of dietary caloric restriction against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have shown that dietary caloric restriction (CR) without malnutrition can increase longevity. This study aims to evaluate the protective effects of CR on oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and inflammatory cytokines in the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Forty 12-week old male Wistar rats, weighing ...

  7. Physiogenomic analysis of weight loss induced by dietary carbohydrate restriction

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    Wood Richard J

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diets that restrict carbohydrate (CHO have proven to be a successful dietary treatment of obesity for many people, but the degree of weight loss varies across individuals. The extent to which genetic factors associate with the magnitude of weight loss induced by CHO restriction is unknown. We examined associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and weight loss in order to understand the physiological factors influencing body weight responses to CHO restriction. Methods We screened for genetic associations with weight loss in 86 healthy adults who were instructed to restrict CHO to a level that induced a small level of ketosis (CHO ~10% of total energy. A total of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were selected from 15 candidate genes involved in fat digestion/metabolism, intracellular glucose metabolism, lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite regulation. Multiple linear regression was used to rank the SNPs according to probability of association, and the most significant associations were analyzed in greater detail. Results Mean weight loss was 6.4 kg. SNPs in the gastric lipase (LIPF, hepatic glycogen synthase (GYS2, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP and galanin (GAL genes were significantly associated with weight loss. Conclusion A strong association between weight loss induced by dietary CHO restriction and variability in genes regulating fat digestion, hepatic glucose metabolism, intravascular lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite were detected. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic adaptations underlying the body mass response to CHO restriction.

  8. Dietary management of chronic kidney disease: protein restriction and beyond.

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    Goraya, Nimrit; Wesson, Donald E

    2012-11-01

    More kidney protective strategies are needed to reduce the burden of complete kidney failure from chronic kidney disease (CKD). Clinicians sometimes use protein restriction as kidney protection despite its demonstrated lack of effectiveness in the only large-scale study. Small-scale studies support that dietary acid reduction is kidney-protective, including when done with base-inducing foods like fruits and vegetables. We review these studies in light of current kidney-protective recommendations. Animal models of CKD show that acid-inducing dietary protein exacerbates and base-inducing protein ameliorates nephropathy progression, and that increased intake of acid-inducing but not base-inducing dietary protein exacerbates progression. Clinical studies show that dietary acid reduction with Na-based alkali reduces kidney injury and slows nephropathy progression in patients with CKD and reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR); base-inducing fruits and vegetables reduce kidney injury in patients with reduced GFR; and base-inducing fruits and vegetables improve metabolic acidosis in CKD. Protein type rather than amount might more importantly affect nephropathy progression. Base-inducing foods might be another way to reduce dietary acid, a strategy shown in small studies to slow nephropathy progression. Further studies will determine if CKD patients should be given base-inducing food as part of their management.

  9. Metabolomics of dietary fatty acid restriction in patients with phenylketonuria.

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    Ulrike Mütze

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU have to follow a lifelong phenylalanine restricted diet. This type of diet markedly reduces the intake of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids especially long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA. Long-chain saturated fatty acids are substrates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for acetyl-CoA production. LC-PUFA are discussed to affect inflammatory and haemostaseological processes in health and disease. The influence of the long term PKU diet on fatty acid metabolism with a special focus on platelet eicosanoid metabolism has been investigated in the study presented here. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 12 children with PKU under good metabolic control and 8 healthy controls were included. Activated fatty acids (acylcarnitines C6-C18 in dried blood and the cholesterol metabolism in serum were analyzed by liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Fatty acid composition of plasma glycerophospholipids was determined by gas chromatography. LC-PUFA metabolites were analyzed in supernatants by LC-MS/MS before and after platelet activation and aggregation using a standardized protocol. Patients with PKU had significantly lower free carnitine and lower activated fatty acids in dried blood compared to controls. Phytosterols as marker of cholesterol (re- absorption were not influenced by the dietary fatty acid restriction. Fatty acid composition in glycerophospholipids was comparable to that of healthy controls. However, patients with PKU showed significantly increased concentrations of y-linolenic acid (C18:3n-6 a precursor of arachidonic acid. In the PKU patients significantly higher platelet counts were observed. After activation with collagen platelet aggregation and thromboxane B(2 and thromboxane B(3 release did not differ from that of healthy controls. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Long-term dietary fatty acid restriction influenced the intermediates of mitochondrial beta

  10. Metabolomics of Dietary Fatty Acid Restriction in Patients with Phenylketonuria

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    Mütze, Ulrike; Beblo, Skadi; Kortz, Linda; Matthies, Claudia; Koletzko, Berthold; Bruegel, Mathias; Rohde, Carmen; Thiery, Joachim; Kiess, Wieland; Ceglarek, Uta

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) have to follow a lifelong phenylalanine restricted diet. This type of diet markedly reduces the intake of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids especially long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Long-chain saturated fatty acids are substrates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for acetyl-CoA production. LC-PUFA are discussed to affect inflammatory and haemostaseological processes in health and disease. The influence of the long term PKU diet on fatty acid metabolism with a special focus on platelet eicosanoid metabolism has been investigated in the study presented here. Methodology/Principal Findings 12 children with PKU under good metabolic control and 8 healthy controls were included. Activated fatty acids (acylcarnitines C6–C18) in dried blood and the cholesterol metabolism in serum were analyzed by liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Fatty acid composition of plasma glycerophospholipids was determined by gas chromatography. LC-PUFA metabolites were analyzed in supernatants by LC-MS/MS before and after platelet activation and aggregation using a standardized protocol. Patients with PKU had significantly lower free carnitine and lower activated fatty acids in dried blood compared to controls. Phytosterols as marker of cholesterol (re-) absorption were not influenced by the dietary fatty acid restriction. Fatty acid composition in glycerophospholipids was comparable to that of healthy controls. However, patients with PKU showed significantly increased concentrations of y-linolenic acid (C18:3n-6) a precursor of arachidonic acid. In the PKU patients significantly higher platelet counts were observed. After activation with collagen platelet aggregation and thromboxane B2 and thromboxane B3 release did not differ from that of healthy controls. Conclusion/Significance Long-term dietary fatty acid restriction influenced the intermediates of mitochondrial beta-oxidation. No functional

  11. Dietary restriction alters fine motor function in rats.

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    Smith, Lori K; Metz, Gerlinde A

    2005-08-07

    A number of standard behavioral tasks in animal research utilize food rewards for positive reinforcement. In order to enhance the motivation to participate in these tasks, animals are usually placed on a restricted diet. While dietary restriction (DR) has been shown to have beneficial effects on recovery after brain injury, life span and aging processes, it might also represent a stressor. Since stress can influence a broad range of behaviors, the purpose of this study was to assess whether DR may have similar effects on skilled movement. Adult male Long-Evans rats were trained and tested in a skilled reaching task both prior to and during a mild food restriction regimen that maintained their body weights at 90-95% of baseline weight for eight days. The observations revealed that DR decreased reaching success and increased the number of attempts to grasp a single food pellet. The animals appeared to be more frantic when attempting to reach for food pellets, and the time taken to reach for 20 pellets decreased following the onset of DR. A second experiment investigating behaviors that do not require food rewards, including a ladder rung walking task and an open field test, confirmed that rats on DR display deficits in skilled movements and are hyperactive. These findings suggest that results obtained in motor tasks using food rewards need to be interpreted with caution. The findings are discussed with respect to stress associated with DR.

  12. The Sexual Dimorphism of Dietary Restriction Responsiveness in Caenorhabditis elegans

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    Sakiko Honjoh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organismal lifespan is highly plastic in response to environmental cues, and dietary restriction (DR is the most robust way to extend lifespan in various species. Recent studies have shown that sex also is an important factor for lifespan regulation; however, it remains largely unclear how these two factors, food and sex, interact in lifespan regulation. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has two sexes, hermaphrodite and male, and only the hermaphrodites are essential for the short-term succession of the species. Here, we report an extreme sexual dimorphism in the responsiveness to DR in C. elegans; the essential hermaphrodites show marked longevity responses to various forms of DR, but the males show few longevity responses and sustain reproductive ability. Our analysis reveals that the sex determination pathway and the steroid hormone receptor DAF-12 regulate the sex-specific DR responsiveness, integrating sex and environmental cues to determine organismal lifespan.

  13. Self-Reported Dietary Restrictions and Dietary Patterns in Polish Girls: A Short Research Report (GEBaHealth Study

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    Grzegorz Galinski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary restraint is a commonly reported practice observed among young females. The practice remains controversial and can be interpreted as a beneficial self-regulating behavior or the opposite, an eating disorder that may have a detrimental effect on health. The aim of this short report was to investigate if dietary restrictions are associated with dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish girls. Analyses were carried out on data from the Girls’ Eating Behavior and Health (GEBaHealth study. The sample included 1107 girls, ranging in age from 13 to 21 years old. Restrictions regarding food quantities and selected food groups were assessed using a standardized interview. Dietary patterns were identified with Principal Component Analysis (PCA, based on dietary data collected with Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs. Logistic regression analysis was used to study the associations between self-reported restrictions and each dietary pattern. In the total sample, 30.5% of girls reported following some food restrictions. The most common restrictions regarded consumption of sugar and/or sweets (23.7%, high-fat foods (22.4%, and fats (21.3%. Girls who declared following any restrictions, restrictions in food quantity and restrictions in the consumption of sugar and/or sweets, high-fat foods, fats, cereals and/or bread and/or potatoes were more likely to adhere to the “fruit and vegetables” (considered pro-healthy dietary pattern (adjusted odds ratios (ORs: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.14–2.12; 1.61, 95% CI: 1.17–2.21; 1.81, 95% CI: 1.30–2.52; 1.46, 95% CI: 1.04–2.06; 1.96, 95% CI: 1.38–2.80 and 3.25, 95% CI: 1.97–5.37, respectively, and less likely to adhere to the “fast foods and sweets” (unhealthy and “traditional Polish” (rather unhealthy patterns, compared to girls who declared no restrictions. Declared restrictions in the consumption of foods high in sugar, fat, and starch were observed in girls in the “fruit and

  14. Splicing factor 1 modulates dietary restriction and TORC1 pathway longevity in C. elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heintz, Caroline; Doktor, Thomas K; Lanjuin, Anne

    2017-01-01

    via splicing factor 1 (SFA-1; the C. elegans homologue of SF1, also known as branchpoint binding protein, BBP). We show that SFA-1 is specifically required for lifespan extension by dietary restriction and by modulation of the TORC1 pathway components AMPK, RAGA-1 and RSKS-1/S6 kinase. We also...... homeostasis is a biomarker and predictor of life expectancy in Caenorhabditis elegans. Using transcriptomics and in-depth splicing analysis in young and old animals fed ad libitum or subjected to dietary restriction, we find defects in global pre-mRNA splicing with age that are reduced by dietary restriction...

  15. Null effect of dietary restriction on prostate carcinogenesis in the Wistar-Unilever rat.

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    McCormick, David L; Johnson, William D; Haryu, Todd M; Bosland, Maarten C; Lubet, Ronald A; Steele, Vernon E

    2007-01-01

    Chronic dietary restriction inhibits carcinogenesis in several sites in laboratory animals. To determine the effects of dietary restriction on prostate carcinogenesis, prostate cancers were induced in male Wistar-Unilever rats by a sequential regimen of cyproterone acetate (50 mg/day; 21 days); testosterone propionate (100 mg/kg/day; 3 days); N-methyl-N-nitrosourea [MNU; 30 mg/kg; single dose]; and testosterone (subcutaneous implants of 2 pellets containing 40 mg each). Dietary restriction (0% [ad libitum control], 15%, or 30%) was initiated 2 wk post-MNU, and continued until study termination at 12 mo. Dietary restriction induced a rapid suppression of body weight gain but conferred no protection against prostate carcinogenesis. 74% of carcinogen-treated ad libitum controls developed accessory sex gland cancers, versus cancer incidences of 64% and 72% in groups restricted by 15% and 30%, respectively. Similarly, 44% of dietary controls developed cancers limited to the dorsolateral/prostate, versus incidences of 45% and 53% in groups restricted by 15% and 30%. The results of the present study do not support the hypothesis that prostate carcinogenesis can be prevented by reducing caloric intake. Reducing mean body weight by up to 25% through chronic dietary restriction has no effect on the induction of prostate cancers in the Wistar-Unilever rat model.

  16. Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity.

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    Hall, Kevin D; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D; Miller, Bernard V; Prado, Carla M; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C; Walter, Mary; Walter, Peter J; Yannai, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5-day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and net fat oxidation measured while residing in a metabolic chamber. Whereas carbohydrate restriction led to sustained increases in fat oxidation and loss of 53 ± 6 g/day of body fat, fat oxidation was unchanged by fat restriction, leading to 89 ± 6 g/day of fat loss, and was significantly greater than carbohydrate restriction (p = 0.002). Mathematical model simulations agreed with these data, but predicted that the body acts to minimize body fat differences with prolonged isocaloric diets varying in carbohydrate and fat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. CONCENTRATION-DEPENDENT LINKAGE OF DIETARY METHIONINE RESTRICTION TO THE COMPONENTS OF ITS METABOLIC PHENOTYPE

    OpenAIRE

    Forney, Laura A.; Wanders, Desiree; Stone, Kirsten P.; Pierse, Alicia; Gettys, Thomas W.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Restricting dietary methionine to 0.17% produces a series of physiological responses through coordinated transcriptional effects in liver and adipose tissue. The goal of the present work was to determine the threshold concentrations above and below 0.17% at which the beneficial responses to 0.17% dietary methionine are preserved. Methods Diets were formulated to restrict methionine to different degrees, followed by evaluation of the transcriptional and physiological responses to the...

  18. Benefits of dietary sodium restriction in the management of chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikken, Jan A.; Laverman, Gozewijn D.; Navis, Gerjan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review To evaluate the role of restricting dietary sodium intake in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its complications. Recent findings A consistent line of evidence shows that high dietary sodium intake is a determinant of therapy resistance to blockade of the

  19. A role for autophagy in the extension of lifespan by dietary restriction in C. elegans.

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    Malene Hansen

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In many organisms, dietary restriction appears to extend lifespan, at least in part, by down-regulating the nutrient-sensor TOR (Target Of Rapamycin. TOR inhibition elicits autophagy, the large-scale recycling of cytoplasmic macromolecules and organelles. In this study, we asked whether autophagy might contribute to the lifespan extension induced by dietary restriction in C. elegans. We find that dietary restriction and TOR inhibition produce an autophagic phenotype and that inhibiting genes required for autophagy prevents dietary restriction and TOR inhibition from extending lifespan. The longevity response to dietary restriction in C. elegans requires the PHA-4 transcription factor. We find that the autophagic response to dietary restriction also requires PHA-4 activity, indicating that autophagy is a transcriptionally regulated response to food limitation. In spite of the rejuvenating effect that autophagy is predicted to have on cells, our findings suggest that autophagy is not sufficient to extend lifespan. Long-lived daf-2 insulin/IGF-1 receptor mutants require both autophagy and the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO for their longevity, but we find that autophagy takes place in the absence of DAF-16. Perhaps autophagy is not sufficient for lifespan extension because although it provides raw material for new macromolecular synthesis, DAF-16/FOXO must program the cells to recycle this raw material into cell-protective longevity proteins.

  20. Short-term dietary restriction and fasting precondition against ischemia reperfusion injury in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.R. Mitchell (James); M. Verweij (Marielle); K. Brand (Karl); H.W.M. van de Ven (Marieke); N.N.T. Goemaere (Natascha); S. van den Engel (Sandra); T. Chu (Timothy); F. Forrer (Flavio); C. Müller (Cristina); M. de Jong (Marion); W.F.J. van IJcken (Wilfred); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); R.W.F. de Bruin (Ron)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractDietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan and increases resistance to multiple forms of stress, including ischemia reperfusion injury to the brain and heart in rodents. While maximal effects on lifespan require long-term restriction, the kinetics of onset of benefits against acute stress

  1. Effect of a standardised dietary restriction protocol on multiple laboratory strains of Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Richard C Grandison

    Full Text Available Outcomes of lifespan studies in model organisms are particularly susceptible to variations in technical procedures. This is especially true of dietary restriction, which is implemented in many different ways among laboratories.In this study, we have examined the effect of laboratory stock maintenance, genotype differences and microbial infection on the ability of dietary restriction (DR to extend life in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. None of these factors block the DR effect.These data lend support to the idea that nutrient restriction genuinely extends lifespan in flies, and that any mechanistic discoveries made with this model are of potential relevance to the determinants of lifespan in other organisms.

  2. A novel dietary restriction method for group-housed rats: weight gain and clinical chemistry characterization.

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    Kasanen, I H E; Inhilä, K J; Nevalainen, J I; Väisänen, S B; Mertanen, A M O; Mering, S M; Nevalainen, T O

    2009-04-01

    Laboratory rodents are usually fed ad libitum. Moderate dietary restriction decreases mortality and morbidity compared with ad libitum feeding. There are, however, problems in achieving dietary restriction. Traditional methods of restricted feeding may interfere with the diurnal rhythms of the animals and are not compatible with group-housing of rodents. We have invented a novel method, the diet board, for restricting the feed intake of laboratory rats. The use of the diet board moderately decreased weight gain of rats when compared with ad libitum-fed animals. The diet board retarded skeletal growth only minimally, whereas major differences were found in body fat depositions. Serum free fatty acid, triglyceride and cholesterol values were lower in diet-restricted rats, while the opposite was true for serum creatine kinase. There were no differences in total protein, albumin or alanine aminotransferase. Moreover, differences in interindividual variances in parameters were not detected between the groups; hence this study could not combine the diet board with reduction potential. The diet board provides mild to moderate dietary restriction for group-housed rats and is unlikely to interfere with the diurnal eating rhythm. The diet board can also be seen as a cage furniture item, dividing the open cage space and increasing the structural complexity of the environment. In conclusion, the diet board appears to possess refinement potential when compared with traditional methods of dietary restriction.

  3. Nutritional regimens with periodically recurring phases of dietary restriction extend lifespan in Drosophila.

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    Romey-Glüsing, Renja; Li, Yang; Hoffmann, Julia; von Frieling, Jakob; Knop, Mirjam; Pfefferkorn, Roxana; Bruchhaus, Iris; Fink, Christine; Roeder, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    Nutritional interventions such as caloric and dietary restriction increase lifespan in various animal models. To identify alternative and less demanding nutritional interventions that extend lifespan, we subjected fruit flies ( Drosophila melanogaster) to weekly nutritional regimens that involved alternating a conventional diet with dietary restriction. Short periods of dietary restriction (up to 2 d) followed by longer periods of a conventional diet yielded minimal increases in lifespan. We found that 3 or more days of contiguous dietary restriction (DR) was necessary to yield a lifespan extension similar to that observed with persistent DR. Female flies were more responsive to these interventions than males. Physiologic changes known to be associated with prolonged DR, such as reduced metabolic rates, showed the same time course as lifespan extension. Moreover, concurrent transcriptional changes indicative of reduced insulin signaling were identified with DR. These physiologic and transcriptional changes were sustained, as they were detectable several days after switching to conventional diets. Taken together, diets with longer periods of DR extended lifespan concurrently with physiologic and transcriptional changes that may underlie this increase in lifespan.-Romey-Glüsing, R., Li, Y., Hoffmann, J., von Frieling, J., Knop, M., Pfefferkorn, R., Bruchhaus, I., Fink, C., Roeder, T. Nutritional regimens with periodically recurring phases of dietary restriction extend lifespan in Drosophila.

  4. A naturalistic examination of body checking and dietary restriction in women with anorexia nervosa.

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    Lavender, Jason M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott; Peterson, Carol B; Le Grange, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Body checking has been conceptualized as a behavioral manifestation of the core overvaluation of eating, shape, and weight concerns underlying eating disorder psychopathology. Cognitive-behavioral theories suggest that body checking behaviors may function to maintain dietary restriction. The current study examined the association between body checking frequency and dietary restriction among women with anorexia nervosa (AN) in the natural environment. Women (N = 118) with full or partial AN completed baseline clinical interviews and a two-week ecological momentary assessment protocol, during which they reported on body checking behaviors (i.e., checking whether one's thighs touch; checking joints/bones for fat) and dietary restriction (i.e., 8 waking hours without eating; consuming less than 1200 calories per day). Average daily body checking frequency was positively associated with baseline eating disorder symptoms and body mass index. Daily body checking frequency was associated with both forms of dietary restriction on the same day, as well as the following day. Results support the theorized association between body checking and overvaluation of shape and weight, and suggest that targeting such behaviors in treatment may have utility in reducing dietary restriction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Expectancies related to thinness, dietary restriction, eating, and alcohol consumption in women with bulimia nervosa.

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    Bruce, Kenneth; Mansour, Sandra; Steiger, Howard

    2009-04-01

    To investigate behavior-outcome expectancies relating to thinness, dietary restriction, eating, and alcohol consumption in women with bulimia nervosa (BN). Women with BN (N = 29), women with BN and a co-morbid lifetime alcohol use disorder (AUD; N = 18), and control women (N = 24), completed interviews and questionnaires assessing eating- and alcohol-related symptoms, as well as questionnaires measuring expectancies relating to thinness, dietary restriction, eating, and alcohol consumption. Compared with the control group, both bulimic groups reported greater positive expectancies relating to thinness, dietary restriction and eating; expectancy endorsements were also predictive of the severity of eating-related symptoms. Compared with the other groups, the bulimic group with comorbid lifetime AUD had elevated positive alcohol-related expectancies, and alcohol expectancy endorsements predicted severity of alcohol-related symptoms. Women with BN endorsed more positive expectancies relating to thinness, dietary restriction, and eating, whereas women with BN and a lifetime comorbid AUD endorsed more positive alcohol expectancies. The results are consistent with expectancy theory in that positive expectancy endorsements were associated with symptom severity in a syndrome-specific manner. Expectancies related to thinness, dietary restriction, eating, and alcohol consumption in women with BN. (c) 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Dietary sodium restriction: a neglected therapeutic opportunity in chronic kidney disease

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    Humalda, Jelmer K.; Navis, Gerjan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Restriction of dietary sodium is recommended at a population level as well as for groups at high cardiovascular risk, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review addresses recent evidence for the protective effect of dietary sodium restriction in CKD patients specifically. Recent findings Sodium intake in CKD populations is generally high, and often above population average. Recent data demonstrated that moderately lower sodium intake in CKD patients is associated with substantially better long-term outcome of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS)-blockade, in diabetic and nondiabetic CKD, related to better effects of RAAS-blockade on proteinuria, independent of blood pressure. This is in line with better short-term efficacy of RAAS-blockade during moderate sodium restriction in diabetic and nondiabetic CKD. This effect of sodium restriction is likely mediated by its effects on volume status. Sustainable sodium restriction can be achieved by approaches on the basis of behavioral sciences. Summary Moderate restriction of dietary sodium can substantially improve the protective effects of RAAS-blockade in CKD, by specific renal effects apparent from proteinuria reduction. The latter precludes straightforward extrapolation of data from nonrenal populations to CKD. Concerns regarding the adverse effects of a very low sodium intake should not distract from the protective effects of moderate sodium restriction. Prospective studies should assess the efficacy and sustainability of different strategies to target high sodium intake in CKD, along with measures at population level. Video abstract http://links.lww.com/CONH/A14 PMID:25222815

  7. Exercise coupled with dietary restriction reduces oxidative stress in male adolescents with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyan; Feng, Feihu; Xiong, Xiaoling; Li, Rui; Chen, Ning

    2017-04-01

    The increased oxidative stress is usually observed in obese population, but the control of body weight by calorie restriction and/or exercise training can ameliorate oxidative stress. In order to evaluate oxidative stress in response to exercise and dietary restriction in obese adolescents, a total of 20 obese volunteers were enrolled in a 4-week intervention program including exercise training and dietary restriction. Body compositions and blood samples were analysed before and after 4-week intervention, and biomarkers associated with oxidative stress were examined. After 4-week exercise training coupled with dietary restriction, physical composition parameters including body mass, body mass index (BMI), lean body mass, body fat mass and fat mass ratio had obvious reduction by 12.43%, 13.51%, 5.83%, 25.05% and 14.52%, respectively. In addition, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) revealed a remarkable enhancement. On the other hand, protein carbonyls (PC) exhibited an obvious reduction. Moreover, total thiols and nitrites with respect to baseline revealed a reducing trend although no significant difference was observed. Therefore, the 4-week exercise intervention coupled with dietary restriction is benefit for the loss of body weight and the mitigation of oxidative stress in obese population so that it can be a recommendable intervention prescription for the loss of body weight.

  8. The clinical efficacy of dietary fat restriction in treatment of dogs with intestinal lymphangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanishi, H; Yoshioka, R; Kagawa, Y; Watari, T

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL), a type of protein-losing enteropathy (PLE), is a dilatation of lymphatic vessels within the gastrointestinal tract. Dietary fat restriction previously has been proposed as an effective treatment for dogs with PLE, but limited objective clinical data are available on the efficacy of this treatment. To investigate the clinical efficacy of dietary fat restriction in dogs with IL that were unresponsive to prednisolone treatment or showed relapse of clinical signs and hypoalbuminemia when the prednisolone dosage was decreased. Twenty-four dogs with IL. Retrospective study. Body weight, clinical activity score, and hematologic and biochemical variables were compared before and 1 and 2 months after treatment. Furthermore, the data were compared between the group fed only an ultra low-fat (ULF) diet and the group fed ULF and a low-fat (LF) diet. Nineteen of 24 (79%) dogs responded satisfactorily to dietary fat restriction, and the prednisolone dosage could be decreased. Clinical activity score was significantly decreased after dietary treatment compared with before treatment. In addition, albumin (ALB), total protein (TP), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration were significantly increased after dietary fat restriction. At 2 months posttreatment, the ALB concentrations in the ULF group were significantly higher than that of the ULF + LF group. Dietary fat restriction appears to be an effective treatment in dogs with IL that are unresponsive to prednisolone treatment or that have recurrent clinical signs and hypoalbuminemia when the dosage of prednisolone is decreased. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  9. Effect of dietary restriction and hay inclusion in the diet of slow-growing broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla P. Picoli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary restriction and inclusion of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. and Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon cv Coastal hays in the diets of ISA Label JA57 slow-growing male broilers on performance, gastrointestinal tract characteristics, and economic viability. A total of 272 broilers at 21 days old were distributed in a randomized experimental design with four treatments, four replicates, and 17 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of ad libitum concentrated feed (control intake, feed restriction (80% of the control intake, and feed restrictions with supplementation of alfalfa hay (80% of the control intake+20% alfalfa or Bermudagrass hay (80% control intake+20% Bermuda. Dietary restriction, with and without hay inclusion, negatively affected (P<0.05 the weight gain of the birds; however, feed conversion was improved (P<0.05 for animals that underwent only restricted feeding, which also had the best economic indices. Birds subjected to dietary restriction and inclusion of hays showed changes (P<0.05 in the gastrointestinal organs and intestinal morphology.

  10. Role of Dietary Restriction in the Prevention of Infection in Leukaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-09-28

    Sep 28, 1974 ... to compare the results with the bacterial content of cooked foods as supplied in a general medical ward in our hospital. in order to assess the validity of strict dietary restriction. METHODS. A spot test sample of a variety of cooked food was taken from the food trolley usually used for distribution of meals to the ...

  11. Dietary restriction of rodents decreases aging rate without affecting initial mortality rate a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, Mirre J. P.; Koch, Wouter; Verhulst, Simon

    Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan in multiple species from various taxa. This effect can arise via two distinct but not mutually exclusive ways: a change in aging rate and/or vulnerability to the aging process (i.e. initial mortality rate). When DR affects vulnerability, this lowers

  12. Adipose gene expression response of lean and obese mice to short-term dietary restriction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, Evert M van; Keijer, Jaap; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Opperhuizen, Antoon; Brom, Charissa E van den; Kohl, Thomas; Franssen-van Hal, Nicole L W; Hoebee, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Overweight and obesity lead to higher morbidity risks, which are alleviated even by mild weight loss. To gain insight in the molecular effects of weight loss in adipose tissue, we analyzed the effects of short-term dietary restriction (DR) on mice fed a low-fat diet (lean mice) or a high-fat diet

  13. Protective effects of short-term dietary restriction in surgical stress and chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Sebastian; Harputlugil, Eylul; Mitchell, James R; Longo, Valter D

    2017-10-01

    Reduced caloric intake including fasting, as well as the dietary composition or the timing of food intake, impact longevity, likely through a modification in the onset or the severity of chronic aging-related diseases such as cancer. As with pre- and post-operative dietary recommendations, evidence-based nutritional advice from healthcare professionals during and after cancer treatment is often vague or conflicting. We hypothesize that preventive dietary recommendations can help in the context of both chronic cancer treatment efficacy and the avoidance of development of secondary malignancies, as well as in the context of protection from the acute stress of surgery. In this perspective review, we will discuss the latest findings on the potential role of short-term dietary restriction in cancer treatment and improvement of surgical outcome. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Discriminating between energetic content and dietary composition as an explanation for dietary restriction effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellers, J.; Ruhe, B.; Visser, B.

    2011-01-01

    A reduction in dietary calories has been shown to prolong life span in a wide variety of taxa, but there has been much debate about confounding factors such as nutritional composition of the diet, or reallocation of nutrients from reduced reproduction. To disentangle the contribution of these

  15. Insulin secretion and signaling in response to dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Kate; Kenny, David A; Kelly, Alan K; Waters, Sinéad M

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine systemic insulin response to a glucose tolerance test (GTT) and transcript abundance of genes of the insulin signaling pathway in skeletal muscle, during both dietary restriction and re-alimentation-induced compensatory growth. Holstein Friesian bulls were blocked to one of two groups: 1) restricted feed allowance for 125 days (period 1) (RES, n = 15) followed by ad libitum feeding for 55 days (period 2) or 2) ad libitum access to feed throughout (periods 1 and 2) (ADLIB, n = 15). On days 90 and 36 of periods 1 and 2, respectively, a GTT was performed. M. longissimus dorsi biopsies were harvested from all bulls on days 120 and 15 of periods 1 and 2, respectively, and RNA-Seq analysis was performed. RES displayed a lower growth rate during period 1 (RES: 0.6 kg/day, ADLIB: 1.9 kg/day; P alimentation (RES: 2.5 kg/day, ADLIB: 1.4 kg/day; P alimentation (P > 0.05). Genes differentially expressed in the insulin signaling pathway suggested a greater sensitivity to insulin in skeletal muscle, with pleiotropic effects of insulin signaling interrupted during dietary restriction. Collectively, these results indicate increased sensitivity to glucose clearance and skeletal muscle insulin signaling during dietary restriction; however, no overall role for insulin was apparent in expressing compensatory growth. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. The effect of dietary restriction on reproduction: a meta-analytic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Walling, Craig; Moatt, Joshua; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Lagisz, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Background Dietary restriction (DR), a reduction in the amount of food or particular nutrients eaten, is the most consistent environmental manipulation to extend lifespan and protect against age related diseases. Current evolutionary theory explains this effect as a shift in the resolution of the trade-off between lifespan and reproduction. However, recent studies have questioned the role of reproduction in mediating the effect of DR on longevity and no study has quantitatively investigated t...

  17. Dietary restriction of choline reduces hippocampal acetylcholine release in rats: in vivo microdialysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, A; Suzuki, Y; Umegaki, H; Ikari, H; Tajima, T; Endo, H; Iguchi, A

    2001-12-01

    We fed rats with a diet deficient in choline for 12 weeks and studied how dietary choline deficiency affected their behavior and their ability to release acetylcholine in discrete regions of rat brain using step-through passive avoidance task and in vivo microdialysis. In comparison with the control, rats fed the choline-deficient diet showed poorer retention of nociceptive memory in the passive avoidance task. Average choline level in cerebrospinal fluid in the choline-deficient group was significantly less (33.1%) than that of control rats. In vivo microdialysis showed no difference in the pattern of acetylcholine release enhanced by intraperitoneal administration of scopolamine hydrochloride (2 mg/kg) in the striatum between the two groups, whereas in the hippocampus, the maximum and subsequent increase of acetylcholine from the baseline by scopolamine injection was significantly lower in the choline-deficient group than in the control. From the results of our study, we speculate that long-term dietary restriction of choline can affect extra- and intracellular sources of substrates required for acetylcholine synthesis, and eventually limit the ability to release acetylcholine in the hippocampus. Reduced capacity to release acetylcholine in the hippocampus implies that the mechanism, maintaining acetylcholine synthesis on increased neuronal demand, may vary in discrete regions of the brain in response to dietary manipulation. The vulnerability of the mechanism in the hippocampus to dietary choline restriction is indicated by impaired mnemonic performance we observed.

  18. Biochemical responses to dietary α-linolenic acid restriction proceed differently among brain regions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Daisuke; Yasui, Yuko; Yamada, Kazuyo; Ohara, Naoki; Okuyama, Harumi

    2011-08-01

    Previously, we noted that the dietary restriction of α-linolenic acid (ALA, n-3) for 4 weeks after weaning brought about significant decreases in the BDNF content and p38 MAPK activity in the striatum of mice, but not in the other regions of the brain, compared with an ALA- and linoleic acid (LNA, n-6)-adequate diet. In this study, we examined whether a prolonged dietary manipulation induces biochemical changes in other regions of the brain as well. Mice were fed a safflower oil (SAF) diet (ALA-restricted, LNA-adequate) or a perilla oil (PER) diet (containing adequate amounts of ALA and LNA) for 8 weeks from weaning. The docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) contents and p38 MAPK activities in the cerebral cortex, striatum and hippocampus were significantly lower in the SAF group. The BDNF contents and protein kinase C (PKC) activities in the cerebral cortex as well as in the striatum, but not in the hippocampus, were significantly lower in the SAF group. These data indicate that the biochemical changes induced by the dietary restriction of ALA have a time lag in the striatum and cortex, suggesting that the signal is transmitted through decreased p38 MAPK activity and BDNF content and ultimately decreased PKC activity.

  19. Dietary restrictions in healing among speakers of Iquito, an endangered language of the Peruvian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernigan Kevin A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnobotanical research was carried out with speakers of Iquito, a critically endangered Amazonian language of the Zaparoan family. The study focused on the concept of "dieting" (siyan++ni in Iquito, a practice involving prohibitions considered necessary to the healing process. These restrictions include: 1 foods and activities that can exacerbate illness, 2 environmental influences that conflict with some methods of healing (e.g. steam baths or enemas and 3 foods and activities forbidden by the spirits of certain powerful medicinal plants. The study tested the following hypotheses: H1 - Each restriction will correlate with specific elements in illness explanatory models and H2 - Illnesses whose explanatory models have personalistic elements will show a greater number and variety of restrictions than those based on naturalistic reasoning. Methods The work was carried out in 2009 and 2010 in the Alto Nanay region of Peru. In structured interviews, informants gave explanatory models for illness categories, including etiologies, pathophysiologies, treatments and dietary restrictions necessary for 49 illnesses. Seventeen botanical vouchers for species said to have powerful spirits that require diets were also collected. Results All restrictions found correspond to some aspect of illness explanatory models. Thirty-five percent match up with specific illness etiologies, 53% correspond to particular pathophysiologies, 18% correspond with overall seriousness of the illness and 18% are only found with particular forms of treatment. Diets based on personalistic reasoning have a significantly higher average number of restrictions than those based on naturalistic reasoning. Conclusions Dieting plays a central role in healing among Iquito speakers. Specific prohibitions can be explained in terms of specific aspects of illness etiologies, pathophysiologies and treatments. Although the Amazonian literature contains few studies focusing on

  20. Dietary -carbamylglutamate and rumen-protected -arginine supplementation ameliorate fetal growth restriction in undernourished ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Sun, L W; Wang, Z Y; Deng, M T; Zhang, G M; Guo, R H; Ma, T W; Wang, F

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted with an ovine intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) model to test the hypothesis that dietary -carbamylglutamate (NCG) and rumen-protected -Arg (RP-Arg) supplementation are effective in ameliorating fetal growth restriction in undernourished ewes. Beginning on d 35 of gestation, ewes were fed a diet providing 100% of NRC-recommended nutrient requirements, 50% of NRC recommendations (50% NRC), 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 20 g/d RP-Arg (providing 10 g/d of Arg), and 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 5 g/d NCG product (providing 2.5 g/d of NCG). On d 110, maternal, fetal, and placental tissues and fluids were collected and weighed. Ewe weights were lower ( ewes compared with adequately fed ewes. Maternal RP-Arg or NCG supplementation did not alter ( = 0.26) maternal BW in nutrient-restricted ewes. Weights of most fetal organs were increased ( ewes compared with 50% NRC-fed ewes. Supplementation of RP-Arg or NCG reduced ( ewes but had no effect on concentrations of lactate and GH. Maternal RP-Arg or NCG supplementation markedly improved ( ewes. These novel results indicate that dietary NCG and RP-Arg supplementation to underfed ewes ameliorated fetal growth restriction, at least in part, by increasing the availability of AA in the conceptus and provide support for its clinical use to ameliorate IUGR in humans and sheep industry production.

  1. Effects of dietary restriction on adipose mass and biomarkers of healthy aging in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettieri-Barbato, Daniele; Giovannetti, Esmeralda; Aquilano, Katia

    2016-11-29

    In developing countries the rise of obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes, reflects the changes in lifestyle habits and wrong dietary choices. Dietary restriction (DR) regimens have been shown to extend health span and lifespan in many animal models including primates. Identifying biomarkers predictive of clinical benefits of treatment is one of the primary goals of precision medicine. To monitor the clinical outcomes of DR interventions in humans, several biomarkers are commonly adopted. However, a validated link between the behaviors of such biomarkers and DR effects is lacking at present time. Through a systematic analysis of human intervention studies, we evaluated the effect size of DR (i.e. calorie restriction, very low calorie diet, intermittent fasting, alternate day fasting) on health-related biomarkers. We found that DR is effective in reducing total and visceral adipose mass and improving inflammatory cytokines profile and adiponectin/leptin ratio. By analysing the levels of canonical biomarkers of healthy aging, we also validated the changes of insulin, IGF-1 and IGFBP-1,2 to monitor DR effects. Collectively, we developed a useful platform to evaluate the human responses to dietary regimens low in calories.

  2. Effects of dietary caffeine on mood when rested and sleep restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jack E; Gregg, M Elizabeth

    2004-07-01

    Prolonged use of caffeine can lead to physical dependence evidenced by characteristic withdrawal symptoms during abstinence. Debate exists as to whether mood enhancement by caffeine represents a net effect or merely the restoration of abstinence-induced mood decrements. One aim of this study was to determine the net effects on mood of dietary caffeine compared with prolonged abstinence. In addition, the study aimed to determine whether caffeine restores mood degraded by a non-caffeine source, namely, sleep restriction. A double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design was employed in which 48 male and female volunteers alternated weekly between ingesting placebo and caffeine (1.75 mg/kg) three times daily for 4 consecutive weeks, while being either rested or sleep restricted. Mood was assessed using a computerized version of the profile of mood states (POMS), giving scores for overall mood and six mood dimensions. Gender had small effects on mood, whereas all mood dimensions were markedly adversely affected by sleep restriction. Caffeine had no significant net enhancing effects on mood when participants were rested, and produced no net restorative effects when mood was degraded by sleep restriction. On the contrary, caffeine-induced decrements in mood were observed during both conditions of rest and sleep restriction. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Dietary and fluid restrictions in CKD: a thematic synthesis of patient views from qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Suetonia C; Hanson, Camilla S; Craig, Jonathan C; Strippoli, Giovanni F M; Ruospo, Marinella; Campbell, Katrina; Johnson, David W; Tong, Allison

    2015-04-01

    Managing the complex fluid and diet requirements of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is challenging for patients. We aimed to summarize patients' perspectives of dietary and fluid management in CKD to inform clinical practice and research. Systematic review of qualitative studies. Adults with CKD who express opinions about dietary and fluid management. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Google Scholar, reference lists, and PhD dissertations were searched to May 2013. Thematic synthesis. We included 46 studies involving 816 patients living in middle- to high-income countries. Studies involved patients treated with facility-based and home hemodialysis (33 studies; 462 patients), peritoneal dialysis (10 studies; 112 patients), either hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis (3 studies; 73 patients), kidney transplant recipients (9 studies; 89 patients), and patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD stages 1 to 5 (5 studies; 80 patients). Five major themes were identified: preserving relationships (interference with roles, social limitations, and being a burden), navigating change (feeling deprived, disrupting held truths, breaking habits and norms, being overwhelmed by information, questioning efficacy, and negotiating priorities), fighting temptation (resisting impositions, experiencing mental invasion, and withstanding physiologic needs), optimizing health (accepting responsibility, valuing self-management, preventing disease progression, and preparing for and protecting a transplant), and becoming empowered (comprehending paradoxes, finding solutions, and mastering change and demands). Limited data in non-English languages and low-income settings and for adults with CKD not treated with hemodialysis. Dietary and fluid restrictions are disorienting and an intense burden for patients with CKD. Patient-prioritized education strategies, harnessing patients' motivation to stay well for a transplant or to avoid dialysis, and viewing adaptation to restrictions as a collaborative

  4. Dietary sodium restriction and β2-adrenergic receptor polymorphism modulate cardiovascular function in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenach, John H; Schroeder, Darrell R; Pike, Tasha L; Johnson, Christopher P; Schrage, William G; Snyder, Eric M; Johnson, Bruce D; Garovic, Vesna D; Turner, Stephen T; Joyner, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    Dietary Na+ intake influences β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) responsiveness. While receiving a normal Na+ diet (150 mmol day−1), subjects homozygous for glycine at amino acid 16 (Gly16) have greater forearm β2AR-mediated vasodilatation than subjects homozygous for arginine (Arg16), an effect that is mediated by endothelial NO. We tested the hypothesis that dietary Na+ restriction eliminates genotype differences in forearm and systemic β2AR-mediated dilatation in these groups. We measured heart rate, mean arterial pressure and cardiac output (CO, acetylene breathing) responses to administration of intravenous terbutaline (TRB) before and after 5 days of low dietary Na+ intake (10 mmol day−1) in healthy Gly16 (n = 17; age, 31 ± 7 year) and Arg16 homozygotes (n = 15; age, 29 ± 8 year). After the low-Na+ diet, a catheter was placed in the brachial artery to measure forearm blood flow (FBF, plethysmography) responses to administration of isoprenaline (isoproterenol) before and after NO inhibition with NG-mono-methyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA). In the Gly16 group, the low-Na+ diet decreased baseline CO from 6.4 ± 1.4 to 5.5 ± 1.2 l min−1 (P = 0.003, paired t test), tended to decrease stroke volume from 97.0 ± 20.6 to 86.9 ± 21.7 ml (P = 0.06) and increased peripheral resistance from 1106 ± 246 to 1246 ± 222 dynes s cm−5 (P = 0.02); significant effects of the low-Na+ diet were not observed in Arg16 subjects. In a repeated measures ANOVA, the responses of all cardiovascular measures to systemic administration of TRB were not influenced by genotype or diet. Additionally, the FBF response to incremenetal doses of isoprenaline did not differ between genotype groups before or after administration of l-NMMA. We conclude that dietary Na+ restriction blunted the increased forearm NO-mediated β2AR responsiveness in Gly16 homozygotes observed in a previous study after normal dietary Na+ intake, while baseline CO decreased and peripheral resistance increased in this

  5. Dietary salt restriction improves cardiac and adipose tissue pathology independently of obesity in a rat model of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Takuya; Murase, Tamayo; Takatsu, Miwa; Nagasawa, Kai; Matsuura, Natsumi; Watanabe, Shogo; Murohara, Toyoaki; Nagata, Kohzo

    2014-12-02

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) enhances salt sensitivity of blood pressure and is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The effects of dietary salt restriction on cardiac pathology associated with metabolic syndrome remain unclear. We investigated whether dietary salt restriction might ameliorate cardiac injury in DahlS.Z-Lepr(fa)/Lepr(fa) (DS/obese) rats, which are derived from a cross between Dahl salt-sensitive and Zucker rats and represent a model of metabolic syndrome. DS/obese rats were fed a normal-salt (0.36% NaCl in chow) or low-salt (0.0466% NaCl in chow) diet from 9 weeks of age and were compared with similarly treated homozygous lean littermates (DahlS.Z-Lepr(+)/Lepr(+), or DS/lean rats). DS/obese rats fed the normal-salt diet progressively developed hypertension and showed left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction at 15 weeks. Dietary salt restriction attenuated all of these changes in DS/obese rats. The levels of cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation and the expression of cardiac renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system genes were increased in DS/obese rats fed the normal-salt diet, and dietary salt restriction downregulated these parameters in both DS/obese and DS/lean rats. In addition, dietary salt restriction attenuated the increase in visceral adipose tissue inflammation and the decrease in insulin signaling apparent in DS/obese rats without reducing body weight or visceral adipocyte size. Dietary salt restriction did not alter fasting serum glucose levels but it markedly decreased the fasting serum insulin concentration in DS/obese rats. Dietary salt restriction not only prevents hypertension and cardiac injury but also ameliorates insulin resistance, without reducing obesity, in this model of metabolic syndrome. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  6. Urinary prostaglandin excretion in pregnancy: the effect of dietary sodium restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delemarre, F M; Thomas, C M; van den Berg, R J; Jongsma, H W; Steegers, E A

    2000-10-01

    Dietary sodium restriction results in activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system. In the non-pregnant situation renin release in response to a low sodium diet is mediated by prostaglandins. We studied the effect of dietary sodium restriction on urinary prostaglandin metabolism in pregnancy. In a randomized, longitudinal study the excretion of urinary metabolites of prostacyclin (6-keto-PGF(1 alpha)and 2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1 alpha)) and thromboxane A(2)(TxB(2)and 2,3-dinor-TxB(2)) was determined throughout pregnancy and post partum in 12 women on a low sodium diet and in 12 controls. In pregnancy the excretion of all urinary prostaglandins is increased. The 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha)/ TxB(2)-ratio as well as the 2, 3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1 alpha)/ 2,3-dinor-TxB(2)-ratio did not significantly change in pregnancy. CONCLUISION Prostacyclin and thromboxane do not seem to play an important role in sodium balance during pregnancy. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  7. Cultural factors influencing dietary and fluid restriction behaviour: perceptions of older Chinese patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Xiaoshan; Peng, Youqing; Yu, Hai-Ping; Li, Dan

    2017-03-01

    To explore the cultural factors related to dietary and fluid restriction behaviours among older Chinese patients. Excess dietary sodium and fluid intake are risk factors contributing to the worsening and rehospitalisation for heart failure in older patients. Managing the complex fluid and diet requirements of heart failure patients is challenging and is made more complicated by cultural variations in self-management behaviours in response to a health threat. Qualitative study using semi-structured in interviews and framework analysis. The design of this study is qualitative descriptive. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 heart failure patients. Data were analysed through content analysis. Seven cultural themes emerged from the qualitative data: the values placed on health and illness, customary way of life, preference for folk care and the Chinese healthcare system, and factors related to kinship and social ties, religion, economics and education. Dietary change and management in response to illness, including heart failure, is closely related to individuals' cultural background. Healthcare providers should have a good understanding of cultural aspects that can influence patients' conformity to medical recommendations. Heart failure patients need support that considers their cultural needs. Healthcare providers must have a good understanding of the experiences of people from diverse cultural backgrounds. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Components of an Anticancer Diet: Dietary Recommendations, Restrictions and Supplements of the Bill Henderson Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Heilman Bell

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of complementary and alternative medicines including dietary supplements, herbals and special diets to prevent or treat disease continues to be popular. The following paper provides a description of an alternative dietary approach to the self-management and treatment of cancer, the Bill Henderson Protocol (BHP. This diet encourages daily intake of raw foods, a combination of cottage cheese and flaxseed oil and a number of supplements. Some foods and food groups are restricted (e.g., gluten, meat, dairy. Early background theory that contributed to the protocol’s development is presented as is a summary of relevant evidence concerning the anti-cancer fighting properties of the individual components. Supplement intake is considered in relation to daily recommended intakes. Challenges and risks to protocol adherence are discussed. As with many complementary and alternative interventions, clear evidence of this dietary protocol’s safety and efficacy is lacking. Consumers of this protocol may require guidance on the ability of this protocol to meet their individual nutritional needs.

  9. Evaluation of a Theory-Based Intervention Aimed at Reducing Intention to Use Restrictive Dietary Behaviors Among Adolescent Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laramée, Catherine; Drapeau, Vicky; Valois, Pierre; Goulet, Claude; Jacob, Raphaëlle; Provencher, Véronique; Lamarche, Benoît

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a theory-based intervention to reduce the intention to use restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight among adolescent female athletes involved in aesthetic sports. Cluster-randomized controlled trial. Aesthetic sport teams of adolescent female athletes aged 12-17 years. Two teams (n = 37 athletes) in the intervention group and 3 teams (n = 33) in the comparison group. The 2 groups received nutrition education during 3 weekly 60-minute sessions. The intervention group was further exposed to a theory-based intervention targeting the specific determinant of intention to use restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight, namely attitude. Difference over time between groups in intention to use restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight and in nutrition knowledge. Mixed models for repeated measures. The theory-based intervention contributed to maintaining a low intention of using restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight over time in the intervention group compared with the comparison group (P theory-based behavior change intervention may help maintain a low intention of using restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight among female high school athletes involved in aesthetic sports. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Dietary Sodium Restriction and Association with Urinary Marinobufagenin, Blood Pressure, and Aortic Stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, Olga V.; Racine, Matthew L.; Geolfos, Candace J.; Gates, Phillip E.; Chonchol, Michel; Fleenor, Bradley S.; Lakatta, Edward G.; Bagrov, Alexei Y.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Systolic BP and large elastic artery stiffness both increase with age and are reduced by dietary sodium restriction. Production of the natriuretic hormone marinobufagenin, an endogenous α1 Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitor, is increased in salt-sensitive hypertension and contributes to the rise in systolic BP during sodium loading. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The hypothesis was that dietary sodium restriction performed in middle-aged/older adults (eight men and three women; 60±2 years) with moderately elevated systolic BP (139±2/83±2 mmHg) would reduce urinary marinobufagenin excretion as well as systolic BP and aortic pulse-wave velocity (randomized, placebo-controlled, and crossover design). This study also explored the associations among marinobufagenin excretion with systolic BP and aortic pulse-wave velocity across conditions of 5 weeks of a low-sodium (77±9 mmol/d) and 5 weeks of a normal-sodium (144±7 mmol/d) diet. Results Urinary marinobufagenin excretion (weekly measurements; 25.4±1.8 versus 30.7±2.1 pmol/kg per day), systolic BP (127±3 versus 138±5 mmHg), and aortic pulse-wave velocity (700±40 versus 843±36 cm/s) were lower during the low- versus normal-sodium condition (all Psodium excretion (slope=0.46, Psodium condition (both Psodium restriction reduces urinary marinobufagenin excretion and that urinary marinobufagenin excretion is positively associated with systolic BP, aortic stiffness (aortic pulse-wave velocity), and endothelial cell expression of the oxidant enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. Importantly, marinobufagenin excretion is positively related to systolic BP over ranges of sodium intake typical of an American diet, extending previous observations in rodents and humans fed experimentally high-sodium diets. PMID:23929930

  11. Short-term dietary restriction and fasting precondition against ischemia reperfusion injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James R; Verweij, Mariëlle; Brand, Karl; van de Ven, Marieke; Goemaere, Natascha; van den Engel, Sandra; Chu, Timothy; Forrer, Flavio; Müller, Cristina; de Jong, Marion; van IJcken, Wilfred; IJzermans, Jan N M; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; de Bruin, Ron W F

    2010-02-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan and increases resistance to multiple forms of stress, including ischemia reperfusion injury to the brain and heart in rodents. While maximal effects on lifespan require long-term restriction, the kinetics of onset of benefits against acute stress is not known. Here, we show that 2-4 weeks of 30% DR improved survival and kidney function following renal ischemia reperfusion injury in mice. Brief periods of water-only fasting were similarly effective at protecting against ischemic damage. Significant protection occurred within 1 day, persisted for several days beyond the fasting period and extended to another organ, the liver. Protection by both short-term DR and fasting correlated with improved insulin sensitivity, increased expression of markers of antioxidant defense and reduced expression of markers of inflammation and insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling. Unbiased transcriptional profiling of kidneys from mice subject to short-term DR or fasting revealed a significant enrichment of signature genes of long-term DR. These data demonstrate that brief periods of reduced food intake, including short-term daily restriction and fasting, can increase resistance to ischemia reperfusion injury in rodents and suggest a rapid onset of benefits of DR in mammals.

  12. The thioredoxin TRX-1 regulates adult lifespan extension induced by dietary restriction in Caenorhabditis elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fierro-Gonzalez, Juan Carlos; Gonzalez-Barrios, Maria; Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio; Swoboda, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → First in vivo data for thioredoxin in dietary-restriction-(DR)-induced longevity. → Thioredoxin (trx-1) loss suppresses longevity of eat-2 mutant, a genetic DR model. → trx-1 overexpression extends wild-type longevity, but not that of eat-2 mutant. → Longevity by dietary deprivation (DD), a non-genetic DR model, requires trx-1. → trx-1 expression in ASJ neurons of aging adults is increased in response to DD. -- Abstract: Dietary restriction (DR) is the only environmental intervention known to extend adult lifespan in a wide variety of animal models. However, the genetic and cellular events that mediate the anti-aging programs induced by DR remain elusive. Here, we used the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to provide the first in vivo evidence that a thioredoxin (TRX-1) regulates adult lifespan extension induced by DR. We found that deletion of the gene trx-1 completely suppressed the lifespan extension caused by mutation of eat-2, a genetic surrogate of DR in the worm. However, trx-1 deletion only partially suppressed the long lifespan caused by mutation of the insulin-like receptor gene daf-2 or by mutation of the sensory cilia gene osm-5. A trx-1::GFP translational fusion expressed from its own promoter in ASJ neurons (Ptrx-1::trx-1::GFP) rescued the trx-1 deletion-mediated suppression of the lifespan extension caused by mutation of eat-2. This rescue was not observed when trx-1::GFP was expressed from the ges-1 promoter in the intestine. In addition, overexpression of Ptrx-1::trx-1::GFP extended lifespan in wild type, but not in eat-2 mutants. trx-1 deletion almost completely suppressed the lifespan extension induced by dietary deprivation (DD), a non-genetic, nutrient-based model of DR in the worm. Moreover, DD upregulated the expression of a trx-1 promoter-driven GFP reporter gene (Ptrx-1::GFP) in ASJ neurons of aging adults, but not that of control Pgpa-9::GFP (which is also expressed in ASJ neurons). We propose that DR activates TRX-1

  13. The thioredoxin TRX-1 regulates adult lifespan extension induced by dietary restriction in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fierro-Gonzalez, Juan Carlos [Karolinska Institute, Center for Biosciences at NOVUM, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, S-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden); Gonzalez-Barrios, Maria [Centro Andaluz de Biologia del Desarrollo (CABD-CSIC), Departamento de Fisiologia, Anatomia y Biologia Celular, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, E-41013 Sevilla (Spain); Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio, E-mail: amirviz@upo.es [Centro Andaluz de Biologia del Desarrollo (CABD-CSIC), Departamento de Fisiologia, Anatomia y Biologia Celular, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, E-41013 Sevilla (Spain); Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio/CSIC/Universidad de Sevilla, E-41013 Sevilla (Spain); Swoboda, Peter, E-mail: peter.swoboda@ki.se [Karolinska Institute, Center for Biosciences at NOVUM, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, S-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden)

    2011-03-18

    Highlights: {yields} First in vivo data for thioredoxin in dietary-restriction-(DR)-induced longevity. {yields} Thioredoxin (trx-1) loss suppresses longevity of eat-2 mutant, a genetic DR model. {yields} trx-1 overexpression extends wild-type longevity, but not that of eat-2 mutant. {yields} Longevity by dietary deprivation (DD), a non-genetic DR model, requires trx-1. {yields} trx-1 expression in ASJ neurons of aging adults is increased in response to DD. -- Abstract: Dietary restriction (DR) is the only environmental intervention known to extend adult lifespan in a wide variety of animal models. However, the genetic and cellular events that mediate the anti-aging programs induced by DR remain elusive. Here, we used the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to provide the first in vivo evidence that a thioredoxin (TRX-1) regulates adult lifespan extension induced by DR. We found that deletion of the gene trx-1 completely suppressed the lifespan extension caused by mutation of eat-2, a genetic surrogate of DR in the worm. However, trx-1 deletion only partially suppressed the long lifespan caused by mutation of the insulin-like receptor gene daf-2 or by mutation of the sensory cilia gene osm-5. A trx-1::GFP translational fusion expressed from its own promoter in ASJ neurons (Ptrx-1::trx-1::GFP) rescued the trx-1 deletion-mediated suppression of the lifespan extension caused by mutation of eat-2. This rescue was not observed when trx-1::GFP was expressed from the ges-1 promoter in the intestine. In addition, overexpression of Ptrx-1::trx-1::GFP extended lifespan in wild type, but not in eat-2 mutants. trx-1 deletion almost completely suppressed the lifespan extension induced by dietary deprivation (DD), a non-genetic, nutrient-based model of DR in the worm. Moreover, DD upregulated the expression of a trx-1 promoter-driven GFP reporter gene (Ptrx-1::GFP) in ASJ neurons of aging adults, but not that of control Pgpa-9::GFP (which is also expressed in ASJ neurons). We propose

  14. Mannan-Binding Lectin Is Involved in the Protection against Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Dietary Restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shushimita Shushimita

    Full Text Available Preoperative fasting and dietary restriction offer robust protection against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/RI in mice. We recently showed that Mannan-binding lectin (MBL, the initiator of the lectin pathway of complement activation, plays a pivotal role in renal I/RI. Based on these findings, we investigated the effect of short-term DR (30% reduction of total food intake or three days of water only fasting on MBL in 10-12 weeks old male C57/Bl6 mice. Both dietary regimens significantly reduce the circulating levels of MBL as well as its mRNA expression in liver, the sole production site of MBL. Reconstitution of MBL abolished the protection afforded by dietary restriction, whereas in the fasting group the protection persisted. These data show that modulation of MBL is involved in the protection against renal I/RI induced by dietary restriction, and suggest that the mechanisms of protection induced by dietary restriction and fasting may be different.

  15. Food cravings discriminate between anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Implications for "success" versus "failure" in dietary restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Silvia; Warren, Cortney S; Rodríguez, Sonia; Fernández, M Carmen; Cepeda-Benito, Antonio

    2009-06-01

    Food cravings are subjective, motivational states thought to induce binge eating among eating disorder patients. This study compared food cravings across eating disorders. Women (N=135) diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, restrictive (ANR) or binge-purging (ANBP) types, or bulimia nervosa, non-purging (BNNP) or purging (BNP) types completed measures of food cravings. Discriminant analysis yielded two statistically significant functions. The first function differentiated between all the four group pairs except ANBP and BNNP, with levels of various food-craving dimensions successively increasing for ANR, ANBP, BNNP, and BNP participants. The second function differentiated between ANBP and BNNP participants. Overall, the functions improved classification accuracy above chance level (44% fewer errors). The findings suggest that cravings are more strongly associated with loss of control over eating than with dietary restraint tendencies.

  16. The Influence of Dietary Fat Source on Life Span in Calorie Restricted Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Domínguez, José A; Ramsey, Jon J; Tran, Dianna; Imai, Denise M; Koehne, Amanda; Laing, Steven T; Griffey, Stephen M; Kim, Kyoungmi; Taylor, Sandra L; Hagopian, Kevork; Villalba, José M; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Navas, Plácido; McDonald, Roger B

    2015-10-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) without malnutrition extends life span in several animal models. It has been proposed that a decrease in the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and especially n-3 fatty acids, in membrane phospholipids may contribute to life span extension with CR. Phospholipid PUFAs are sensitive to dietary fatty acid composition, and thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the influence of dietary lipids on life span in CR mice. C57BL/6J mice were assigned to four groups (a 5% CR control group and three 40% CR groups) and fed diets with soybean oil (high in n-6 PUFAs), fish oil (high in n-3 PUFAs), or lard (high in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids) as the primary lipid source. Life span was increased (p Life span was also increased (p life span in mice on CR, and suggest that a diet containing a low proportion of PUFAs and high proportion of monounsaturated and saturated fats may maximize life span in animals maintained on CR. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Effect of dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation on the transcriptional profile of bovine jejunal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Kate; Waters, Sinead M; Cormican, Paul; Kelly, Alan K; Kenny, David A

    2018-01-01

    Compensatory growth (CG), an accelerated growth phenomenon which occurs following a period of dietary restriction is utilised worldwide in animal production systems as a management practise to lower feed costs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of jejunal epithelial to CG in cattle through transcriptional profiling following a period of dietary restriction as well as subsequent re-alimentation induced CG. Sixty Holstein Friesian bulls were separated into two groups; RES and ADLIB, with 30 animals in each. RES animals were offered a restricted diet for 125 days (Period 1) followed by ad libitum feeding for 55 days (Period 2). ADLIB animals had ad libitum access to feed across both periods 1 and 2. At the end of each period, 15 animals from each treatment group were slaughtered, jejunal epithelium collected and RNAseq analysis performed. Animals that were previously diet restricted underwent CG, gaining 1.8 times the rate of their non-restricted counterparts. Twenty-four genes were differentially expressed in RES compared to ADLIB animals at the end of Period 1, with only one gene, GSTA1, differentially expressed between the two groups at the end of Period 2. When analysed within treatment (RES, Period 2 v Period 1), 31 genes were differentially expressed between diet restricted and animals undergoing CG. Dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation were associated with altered expression of genes involved in digestion and metabolism as well as those involved in cellular division and growth. Compensatory growth was also associated with greater expression of genes involved in cellular protection and detoxification in jejunal epithelium. This study highlights some of the molecular mechanisms regulating the response to dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation induced CG in cattle; however the gene expression results suggest that most of the CG in jejunal epithelium had occurred by day 55 of re-alimentation.

  18. Short-term weight loss and hepatic triglyceride reduction: evidence of a metabolic advantage with dietary carbohydrate restriction123

    OpenAIRE

    Browning, Jeffrey D; Baker, Jonathan A; Rogers, Thomas; Davis, Jeannie; Satapati, Santhosh; Burgess, Shawn C

    2011-01-01

    Background: Individuals with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have excess intrahepatic triglycerides. This is due, in part, to increased hepatic synthesis of fat from carbohydrates via lipogenesis. Although weight loss is currently recommended to treat NAFLD, little attention has been given to dietary carbohydrate restriction.

  19. Mannan-binding lectin is involved in the protection against renal ischemia/ reperfusion injury by dietary restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shushimita; P. van der Pol (Pieter); R.W.F. de Bruin (Ron); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan); C. van Kooten (Cees); F.J.M.F. Dor (Frank)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPreoperative fasting and dietary restriction offer robust protection against renal ischemia/ reperfusion injury (I/RI) in mice.We recently showed that Mannan-binding lectin (MBL), the initiator of the lectin pathway of complement activation, plays a pivotal role in renal I/RI. Based on

  20. Target of rapamycin signalling mediates the lifespan-extending effects of dietary restriction by essential amino acid alteration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emran, S.; Yang, M.Y.; He, X.L.; Zandveld, J.; Piper, M.D.W.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR), defined as a moderate reduction in food intake short of malnutrition, has been shown to extend healthy lifespan in a diverse range of organisms, from yeast to primates. Reduced signalling through the insulin/IGF-like (IIS) and Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signalling pathways

  1. Intermittent fasting dissociates beneficial effects of dietary restriction on glucose metabolism and neuronal resistance to injury from calorie intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, R. Michael; Guo, Zhihong; de Cabo, Rafael; Iyun, Titilola; Rios, Michelle; Hagepanos, Adrienne; Ingram, Donald K.; Lane, Mark A.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2003-01-01

    Dietary restriction has been shown to have several health benefits including increased insulin sensitivity, stress resistance, reduced morbidity, and increased life span. The mechanism remains unknown, but the need for a long-term reduction in caloric intake to achieve these benefits has been assumed. We report that when C57BL/6 mice are maintained on an intermittent fasting (alternate-day fasting) dietary-restriction regimen their overall food intake is not decreased and their body weight is maintained. Nevertheless, intermittent fasting resulted in beneficial effects that met or exceeded those of caloric restriction including reduced serum glucose and insulin levels and increased resistance of neurons in the brain to excitotoxic stress. Intermittent fasting therefore has beneficial effects on glucose regulation and neuronal resistance to injury in these mice that are independent of caloric intake. PMID:12724520

  2. Extension of Drosophila lifespan by Rhodiola rosea through a mechanism independent from dietary restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel E Schriner

    Full Text Available Rhodiola rosea has been extensively used to improve physical and mental performance and to protect against stress. We, and others, have reported that R. rosea can extend lifespan in flies, worms, and yeast. However, its molecular mechanism is currently unknown. Here, we tested whether R. rosea might act through a pathway related to dietary restriction (DR that can extend lifespan in a range of model organisms. While the mechanism of DR itself is also unknown, three molecular pathways have been associated with it: the silent information regulator 2 (SIR2 proteins, insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS, and the target of rapamycin (TOR. In flies, DR is implemented through a reduction in dietary yeast content. We found that R. rosea extract extended lifespan in both sexes independent of the yeast content in the diet. We also found that the extract extended lifespan when the SIR2, IIS, or TOR pathways were genetically perturbed. Upon examination of water and fat content, we found that R. rosea decreased water content and elevated fat content in both sexes, but did not sensitize flies to desiccation or protect them against starvation. There were some sex-specific differences in response to R. rosea. In female flies, the expression levels of glycolytic genes and dSir2 were down-regulated, and NADH levels were decreased. In males however, R. rosea provided no protection against heat stress and had no effect on the major heat shock protein HSP70 and actually down-regulated the mitochondrial HSP22. Our findings largely rule out an elevated general resistance to stress and DR-related pathways as mechanistic candidates. The latter conclusion is especially relevant given the limited potential for DR to improve human health and lifespan, and presents R. rosea as a potential viable candidate to treat aging and age-related diseases in humans.

  3. Dietary phosphate restriction normalizes biochemical and skeletal abnormalities in a murine model of tumoral calcinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Shoji; Austin, Anthony M; Gray, Amie K; Allen, Matthew R; Econs, Michael J

    2011-12-01

    Mutations in the GALNT3 gene cause tumoral calcinosis characterized by ectopic calcifications due to persistent hyperphosphatemia. We recently developed Galnt3 knockout mice in a mixed background, which had hyperphosphatemia with increased bone mineral density (BMD) and infertility in males. To test the effect of dietary phosphate intake on their phenotype, Galnt3 knockout mice were generated in the C57BL/6J strain and fed various phosphate diets: 0.1% (low), 0.3% (low normal), 0.6% (normal), and 1.65% (high). Sera were analyzed for calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, blood urine nitrogen, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, osteocalcin, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b, and fibroblast growth factor 23 (Fgf23). Femurs were evaluated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, dynamic histomorphometry, and/or microcomputed tomography. Galnt3 knockout mice in C57BL/6J had the same biochemical phenotype observed in our previous study: hyperphosphatemia, inappropriately normal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D level, decreased alkaline phosphatase activity, and low intact Fgf23 concentration but high Fgf23 fragments. Skeletal analyses of their femurs revealed significantly high BMD with increased cortical bone area and trabecular bone volume. On all four phosphate diets, Galnt3 knockout mice had consistently higher phosphorus levels and lower alkaline phosphatase and intact Fgf23 concentrations than littermate controls. The low-phosphate diet normalized serum phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and areal BMD but failed to correct male infertility in Galnt3 knockout mice. The high-phosphate diet did not increase serum phosphorus concentration in either mutant or control mice due to a compensatory increase in circulating intact Fgf23 levels. In conclusion, dietary phosphate restriction normalizes biochemical and skeletal phenotypes of Galnt3 knockout mice and, thus, can be an effective therapy for tumoral calcinosis.

  4. The thioredoxin TRX-1 regulates adult lifespan extension induced by dietary restriction in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro-González, Juan Carlos; González-Barrios, María; Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio; Swoboda, Peter

    2011-03-18

    Dietary restriction (DR) is the only environmental intervention known to extend adult lifespan in a wide variety of animal models. However, the genetic and cellular events that mediate the anti-aging programs induced by DR remain elusive. Here, we used the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to provide the first in vivo evidence that a thioredoxin (TRX-1) regulates adult lifespan extension induced by DR. We found that deletion of the gene trx-1 completely suppressed the lifespan extension caused by mutation of eat-2, a genetic surrogate of DR in the worm. However, trx-1 deletion only partially suppressed the long lifespan caused by mutation of the insulin-like receptor gene daf-2 or by mutation of the sensory cilia gene osm-5. A trx-1::GFP translational fusion expressed from its own promoter in ASJ neurons (Ptrx-1::trx-1::GFP) rescued the trx-1 deletion-mediated suppression of the lifespan extension caused by mutation of eat-2. This rescue was not observed when trx-1::GFP was expressed from the ges-1 promoter in the intestine. In addition, overexpression of Ptrx-1::trx-1::GFP extended lifespan in wild type, but not in eat-2 mutants. trx-1 deletion almost completely suppressed the lifespan extension induced by dietary deprivation (DD), a non-genetic, nutrient-based model of DR in the worm. Moreover, DD upregulated the expression of a trx-1 promoter-driven GFP reporter gene (Ptrx-1::GFP) in ASJ neurons of aging adults, but not that of control Pgpa-9::GFP (which is also expressed in ASJ neurons). We propose that DR activates TRX-1 in ASJ neurons during aging, which in turn triggers TRX-1-dependent mechanisms to extend adult lifespan in the worm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Dietary Restriction and Subsequent Re-Alimentation on the Transcriptional Profile of Bovine Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Kate; Kenny, David A; Cormican, Paul; McCabe, Matthew S; Kelly, Alan K; Waters, Sinead M

    2016-01-01

    Compensatory growth (CG), an accelerated growth phenomenon which occurs following a period of dietary restriction is exploited worldwide in animal production systems as a method to lower feed costs. However the molecular mechanisms regulated CG expression remain to be elucidated fully. This study aimed to uncover the underlying biology regulating CG in cattle, through an examination of skeletal muscle transcriptional profiles utilising next generation mRNA sequencing technology. Twenty Holstein Friesian bulls were fed either a restricted diet for 125 days, with a target growth rate of 0.6 kg/day (Period 1), following which they were allowed feed ad libitum for a further 55 days (Period 2) or fed ad libitum for the entirety of the trial. M. longissimus dorsi biopsies were harvested from all bulls on days 120 and 15 of periods 1 and 2 respectively and RNAseq analysis was performed. During re-alimentation in Period 2, previously restricted animals displayed CG, growing at 1.8 times the rate of the ad libitum control animals. Compensating animals were also more feed efficient during re-alimentation and compensated for 48% of their previous dietary restriction. 1,430 and 940 genes were identified as significantly differentially expressed (Benjamini Hochberg adjusted P < 0.1) in periods 1 and 2 respectively. Additionally, 2,237 genes were differentially expressed in animals undergoing CG relative to dietary restriction. Dietary restriction in Period 1 was associated with altered expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and energy production. CG expression in Period 2 occurred in association with greater expression of genes involved in cellular function and organisation. This study highlights some of the molecular mechanisms regulating CG in cattle. Differentially expressed genes identified are potential candidate genes for the identification of biomarkers for CG and feed efficiency, which may be incorporated into future breeding programmes.

  6. Effect of Dietary Restriction and Subsequent Re-Alimentation on the Transcriptional Profile of Bovine Skeletal Muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Keogh

    Full Text Available Compensatory growth (CG, an accelerated growth phenomenon which occurs following a period of dietary restriction is exploited worldwide in animal production systems as a method to lower feed costs. However the molecular mechanisms regulated CG expression remain to be elucidated fully. This study aimed to uncover the underlying biology regulating CG in cattle, through an examination of skeletal muscle transcriptional profiles utilising next generation mRNA sequencing technology. Twenty Holstein Friesian bulls were fed either a restricted diet for 125 days, with a target growth rate of 0.6 kg/day (Period 1, following which they were allowed feed ad libitum for a further 55 days (Period 2 or fed ad libitum for the entirety of the trial. M. longissimus dorsi biopsies were harvested from all bulls on days 120 and 15 of periods 1 and 2 respectively and RNAseq analysis was performed. During re-alimentation in Period 2, previously restricted animals displayed CG, growing at 1.8 times the rate of the ad libitum control animals. Compensating animals were also more feed efficient during re-alimentation and compensated for 48% of their previous dietary restriction. 1,430 and 940 genes were identified as significantly differentially expressed (Benjamini Hochberg adjusted P < 0.1 in periods 1 and 2 respectively. Additionally, 2,237 genes were differentially expressed in animals undergoing CG relative to dietary restriction. Dietary restriction in Period 1 was associated with altered expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and energy production. CG expression in Period 2 occurred in association with greater expression of genes involved in cellular function and organisation. This study highlights some of the molecular mechanisms regulating CG in cattle. Differentially expressed genes identified are potential candidate genes for the identification of biomarkers for CG and feed efficiency, which may be incorporated into future breeding programmes.

  7. The effects of age and dietary restriction on the tissue-specific metabolome of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laye, Matthew J; Tran, ViLinh; Jones, Dean P; Kapahi, Pankaj; Promislow, Daniel E L

    2015-10-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) is a robust intervention that extends lifespan and slows the onset of age-related diseases in diverse organisms. While significant progress has been made in attempts to uncover the genetic mechanisms of DR, there are few studies on the effects of DR on the metabolome. In recent years, metabolomic profiling has emerged as a powerful technology to understand the molecular causes and consequences of natural aging and disease-associated phenotypes. Here, we use high-resolution mass spectroscopy and novel computational approaches to examine changes in the metabolome from the head, thorax, abdomen, and whole body at multiple ages in Drosophila fed either a nutrient-rich ad libitum (AL) or nutrient-restricted (DR) diet. Multivariate analysis clearly separates the metabolome by diet in different tissues and different ages. DR significantly altered the metabolome and, in particular, slowed age-related changes in the metabolome. Interestingly, we observed interacting metabolites whose correlation coefficients, but not mean levels, differed significantly between AL and DR. The number and magnitude of positively correlated metabolites was greater under a DR diet. Furthermore, there was a decrease in positive metabolite correlations as flies aged on an AL diet. Conversely, DR enhanced these correlations with age. Metabolic set enrichment analysis identified several known (e.g., amino acid and NAD metabolism) and novel metabolic pathways that may affect how DR effects aging. Our results suggest that network structure of metabolites is altered upon DR and may play an important role in preventing the decline of homeostasis with age. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Cardiometabolic and reproductive benefits of early dietary energy restriction and voluntary exercise in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane, Abdoulaye; Kupreeva, Maria; Borthwick, Faye; Proctor, Spencer D; Pierce, W David; Vine, Donna F

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine-metabolic disorders in women of reproductive age characterized by ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism and cardiometabolic risk. The overweight-obese PCOS phenotype appears to have exacerbated reproductive dysfunction and cardiometabolic risk. In overweight-obese adult women with PCOS, exercise and energy restricted diets have shown limited and inconsistent effects on both cardiometabolic indices and reproductive outcomes. We hypothesized that an early lifestyle intervention involving exercise and dietary energy restriction to prevent or reduce the propensity for adiposity would modulate reproductive indices and cardiometabolic risk in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model. Weanling obese PCOS-prone and Lean-Control JCR:LA-cp rodents were given a chow diet ad libitum or an energy-restricted diet combined with or without voluntary exercise (4  h/day) for 8 weeks. Dietary energy restriction and exercise lowered total body weight gain and body fat mass by 30% compared to free-fed sedentary or exercising obese PCOS-prone animals (Pexercise intensity compared to free-feeding plus exercise conditions. Energy restriction and exercise decreased fasting plasma triglycerides and apoB48 concentrations in obese PCOS-prone animals compared to free-fed and exercise or sedentary groups. The energy restriction and exercise combination in obese PCOS-prone animals significantly increased plasma sex-hormone binding globulin, hypothalamic cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and Kisspeptin mRNA expression to levels of the Lean-Control group, and this was further associated with improvements in estrous cyclicity. The combination of exercise and dietary energy restriction when initiated in early life exerts beneficial effects on cardiometabolic and reproductive indices in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model, and this may be associated with normalization of the hypothalamic neuropeptides, Kisspeptin and CART

  9. The Relationship Between Social Support and Adherence of Dietary and Fluids Restrictions among Hemodialysis Patients in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Ahrari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patient’s noncompliance dietary and fluids intake can lead to a build-up of toxic fluids and metabolic end-products in the blood stream which may result in an increased morbidity and premature death. The aim of the study is investigate relationship between the social support and adherence to dietary and fluid restrictions in hemodialysis patients. Methods: In this correlational study upon 237 hemodialysis patients, the data was collected with the dialysis diet and fluids non-adherences hemodialysis questionnaire (DDFQ, and the multidimensional scale of perceived Social Support (MSP. Interdialytic weight gain, predialytic serum potassium levels, and predialytic serum phosphate levels was considered as biochemical indicators of dietary and fluid adherence. Data were analyzed by SPSS Ver.11.5. Results: About 41.1% of patients reported non-adherence to diet and 45.2% of them reported non-adherence to fluid. Frequency of non-adherence to fluid was more common in patients. The highest level of perceived support was the family support 11.19 (1.34. There was a significant relationship between social support and adherence to dietary and fluid restrictions. Noncompliances to dietary and fluid restrictions were related to laboratory results. Conclusion: This way those patients who more supported had more adherences of diet and fluid restrictions and had lower level of phosphorus and potassium in laboratory results. Nurses have the main role to identify different methods providing social support for patients, also to encourage the families to support their hemodialysis patients.

  10. Lactobacillus salivarius strain FDB89 induced longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans by dietary restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Zhao, Liang; Zheng, Xiaonan; Fu, Tianjiao; Guo, Huiyuan; Ren, Fazheng

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we utilized the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to assess potential life-expanding effect of Lactobacillus salivarius strain FDB89 (FDB89) isolated from feces of centenarians in Bama County (Guangxi, China). This study showed that feeding FDB89 extended the mean life span in C. elegans by up to 11.9% compared to that of control nematodes. The reduced reproductive capacities, pharyngeal pumping rate, growth, and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and XTT reduction capacity were also observed in FDB89 feeding worms. To probe the anti-aging mechanism further, we incorporated a food gradient feeding assay and assayed the life span of eat-2 mutant. The results demonstrated that the maximal life span of C. elegans fed on FDB89 was achieved at the concentration of 1.0 mg bacterial cells/plate, which was 10-fold greater than that of C. elegans fed on E. coli OP50 (0.1 mg bacterial cells/plate). However, feeding FDB89 could not further extend the life span of eat-2 mutant. These results indicated that FDB89 modulated the longevity of C. elegans in a dietary restriction-dependent manner and expanded the understanding of anti-aging effect of probiotics.

  11. Insulin signaling and dietary restriction differentially influence the decline of learning and memory with age.

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    Amanda L Kauffman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Of all the age-related declines, memory loss is one of the most devastating. While conditions that increase longevity have been identified, the effects of these longevity-promoting factors on learning and memory are unknown. Here we show that the C. elegans Insulin/IGF-1 receptor mutant daf-2 improves memory performance early in adulthood and maintains learning ability better with age but, surprisingly, demonstrates no extension in long-term memory with age. By contrast, eat-2 mutants, a model of Dietary Restriction (DR, exhibit impaired long-term memory in young adulthood but maintain this level of memory longer with age. We find that crh-1, the C. elegans homolog of the CREB transcription factor, is required for long-term associative memory, but not for learning or short-term memory. The expression of crh-1 declines with age and differs in the longevity mutants, and CREB expression and activity correlate with memory performance. Our results suggest that specific longevity treatments have acute and long-term effects on cognitive functions that decline with age through their regulation of rate-limiting genes required for learning and memory.

  12. The effect of different levels of dietary restriction on glucose homeostasis and metabolic memory.

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    Matyi, Stephanie; Jackson, Jordan; Garrett, Karla; Deepa, Sathyaseelan S; Unnikrishnan, Archana

    2018-02-17

    Over the past 50 years, dietary restriction (DR) has been shown to extend the life span of a wide variety of organisms. A hallmark feature of DR is improved glucose homeostasis resulting in increased glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity of animals ranging from rodents to humans. In this study, we demonstrate the early effects of varying levels of DR on glucose tolerance. Within 10 days of 40% DR, glucose tolerance was significantly improved and by 120 days; 10 and 20% DR also showed enhanced glucose tolerance. All three levels of DR showed reduced adiposity, increased expression of genes involved in fat turnover, and a reduction in the expression for markers of inflammation. Studies have shown that mice fed a DR diet retained metabolic memory in terms of improved glucose tolerance even after DR is discontinued. We show that 40% DR not only has an early effect on glucose tolerance but also maintained it after DR was discontinued for 2 months. Therefore, improvement in glucose tolerance is brought about by all three levels of DR but the metabolic memory is not dose responsive.

  13. Dietary restriction improves repopulation but impairs lymphoid differentiation capacity of hematopoietic stem cells in early aging

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    Tang, Duozhuang; Tao, Si; Chen, Zhiyang; Koliesnik, Ievgen Oleksandrovich; Calmes, Philip Gerald; Hoerr, Verena; Han, Bing; Gebert, Nadja; Zörnig, Martin; Löffler, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) improves health, delays tissue aging, and elongates survival in flies and worms. However, studies on laboratory mice and nonhuman primates revealed ambiguous effects of DR on lifespan despite improvements in health parameters. In this study, we analyzed consequences of adult-onset DR (24 h to 1 yr) on hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function. DR ameliorated HSC aging phenotypes, such as the increase in number of HSCs and the skewing toward myeloid-biased HSCs during aging. Furthermore, DR increased HSC quiescence and improved the maintenance of the repopulation capacity of HSCs during aging. In contrast to these beneficial effects, DR strongly impaired HSC differentiation into lymphoid lineages and particularly inhibited the proliferation of lymphoid progenitors, resulting in decreased production of peripheral B lymphocytes and impaired immune function. The study shows that DR-dependent suppression of growth factors and interleukins mediates these divergent effects caused by DR. Supplementation of insulin-like growth factor 1 partially reverted the DR-induced quiescence of HSCs, whereas IL-6/IL-7 substitutions rescued the impairment of B lymphopoiesis exposed to DR. Together, these findings delineate positive and negative effects of long-term DR on HSC functionality involving distinct stress and growth signaling pathways. PMID:26951333

  14. Dietary Restriction Affects Neuronal Response Property and GABA Synthesis in the Primary Visual Cortex.

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    Jinfang Yang

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported inconsistent effects of dietary restriction (DR on cortical inhibition. To clarify this issue, we examined the response properties of neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1 of DR and control groups of cats using in vivo extracellular single-unit recording techniques, and assessed the synthesis of inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA in the V1 of cats from both groups using immunohistochemical and Western blot techniques. Our results showed that the response of V1 neurons to visual stimuli was significantly modified by DR, as indicated by an enhanced selectivity for stimulus orientations and motion directions, decreased visually-evoked response, lowered spontaneous activity and increased signal-to-noise ratio in DR cats relative to control cats. Further, it was shown that, accompanied with these changes of neuronal responsiveness, GABA immunoreactivity and the expression of a key GABA-synthesizing enzyme GAD67 in the V1 were significantly increased by DR. These results demonstrate that DR may retard brain aging by increasing the intracortical inhibition effect and improve the function of visual cortical neurons in visual information processing. This DR-induced elevation of cortical inhibition may favor the brain in modulating energy expenditure based on food availability.

  15. Dietary Restriction Affects Neuronal Response Property and GABA Synthesis in the Primary Visual Cortex.

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    Yang, Jinfang; Wang, Qian; He, Fenfen; Ding, Yanxia; Sun, Qingyan; Hua, Tianmiao; Xi, Minmin

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported inconsistent effects of dietary restriction (DR) on cortical inhibition. To clarify this issue, we examined the response properties of neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) of DR and control groups of cats using in vivo extracellular single-unit recording techniques, and assessed the synthesis of inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA in the V1 of cats from both groups using immunohistochemical and Western blot techniques. Our results showed that the response of V1 neurons to visual stimuli was significantly modified by DR, as indicated by an enhanced selectivity for stimulus orientations and motion directions, decreased visually-evoked response, lowered spontaneous activity and increased signal-to-noise ratio in DR cats relative to control cats. Further, it was shown that, accompanied with these changes of neuronal responsiveness, GABA immunoreactivity and the expression of a key GABA-synthesizing enzyme GAD67 in the V1 were significantly increased by DR. These results demonstrate that DR may retard brain aging by increasing the intracortical inhibition effect and improve the function of visual cortical neurons in visual information processing. This DR-induced elevation of cortical inhibition may favor the brain in modulating energy expenditure based on food availability.

  16. Intestinal IRE1 Is Required for Increased Triglyceride Metabolism and Longer Lifespan under Dietary Restriction.

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    Luis, Nuno Miguel; Wang, Lifen; Ortega, Mauricio; Deng, Hansong; Katewa, Subhash D; Li, Patrick Wai-Lun; Karpac, Jason; Jasper, Heinrich; Kapahi, Pankaj

    2016-10-25

    Dietary restriction (DR) is one of the most robust lifespan-extending interventions in animals. The beneficial effects of DR involve a metabolic adaptation toward increased triglyceride usage. The regulatory mechanism and the tissue specificity of this metabolic switch remain unclear. Here, we show that the IRE1/XBP1 endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling module mediates metabolic adaptation upon DR in flies by promoting triglyceride synthesis and accumulation in enterocytes (ECs) of the Drosophila midgut. Consistently, IRE1/XBP1 function in ECs is required for increased longevity upon DR. We further identify sugarbabe, a Gli-like zinc-finger transcription factor, as a key mediator of the IRE1/XBP1-regulated induction of de novo lipogenesis in ECs. Overexpression of sugarbabe rescues metabolic and lifespan phenotypes of IRE1 loss-of-function conditions. Our study highlights the critical role of metabolic adaptation of the intestinal epithelium for DR-induced lifespan extension and explores the IRE1/XBP1 signaling pathway regulating this adaptation and influencing lifespan. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Age- and calorie-independent life span extension from dietary restriction by bacterial deprivation in Caenorhabditis elegans

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    Sager Jennifer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary restriction (DR increases life span and delays age-associated disease in many organisms. The mechanism by which DR enhances longevity is not well understood. Results Using bacterial food deprivation as a means of DR in C. elegans, we show that transient DR confers long-term benefits including stress resistance and increased longevity. Consistent with studies in the fruit fly and in mice, we demonstrate that DR also enhances survival when initiated late in life. DR by bacterial food deprivation significantly increases life span in worms when initiated as late as 24 days of adulthood, an age at which greater than 50% of the cohort have died. These survival benefits are, at least partially, independent of food consumption, as control fed animals are no longer consuming bacterial food at this advanced age. Animals separated from the bacterial lawn by a barrier of solid agar have a life span intermediate between control fed and food restricted animals. Thus, we find that life span extension from bacterial deprivation can be partially suppressed by a diffusible component of the bacterial food source, suggesting a calorie-independent mechanism for life span extension by dietary restriction. Conclusion Based on these findings, we propose that dietary restriction by bacterial deprivation increases longevity in C. elegans by a combination of reduced food consumption and decreased food sensing.

  18. Temporary dietary iron restriction affects the process of thrombus resolution in a rat model of deep vein thrombosis.

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    Makiko Oboshi

    Full Text Available Deep vein thrombosis (DVT is a major cause of pulmonary thromboembolism and sudden death. Thus, it is important to consider the pathophysiology of DVT. Recently, iron has been reported to be associated with thrombotic diseases. Hence, in this study, we investigate the effects of dietary iron restriction on the process of thrombus resolution in a rat model of DVT.We induced DVT in 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats by performing ligations of their inferior venae cavae. The rats were then given either a normal diet (DVT group or an iron-restricted diet (DVT+IR group. Thrombosed inferior venae cavae were harvested at 5 days after ligation.The iron-restricted diet reduced venous thrombus size compared to the normal diet. Intrathrombotic collagen content was diminished in the DVT+IR group compared to the DVT group. In addition, intrathrombotic gene expression and the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 were increased in the DVT+IR group compared to the DVT group. Furthermore, the DVT+IR group had greater intrathrombotic neovascularization as well as higher gene expression levels of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and tissue-type plasminogen activator than the DVT group. The iron-restricted diet decreased intrathrombotic superoxide production compared to the normal diet.These results suggest that dietary iron restriction affects the process of thrombus resolution in DVT.

  19. Temporary dietary iron restriction affects the process of thrombus resolution in a rat model of deep vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboshi, Makiko; Naito, Yoshiro; Sawada, Hisashi; Hirotani, Shinichi; Iwasaku, Toshihiro; Okuhara, Yoshitaka; Morisawa, Daisuke; Eguchi, Akiyo; Nishimura, Koichi; Fujii, Kenichi; Mano, Toshiaki; Ishihara, Masaharu; Masuyama, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a major cause of pulmonary thromboembolism and sudden death. Thus, it is important to consider the pathophysiology of DVT. Recently, iron has been reported to be associated with thrombotic diseases. Hence, in this study, we investigate the effects of dietary iron restriction on the process of thrombus resolution in a rat model of DVT. We induced DVT in 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats by performing ligations of their inferior venae cavae. The rats were then given either a normal diet (DVT group) or an iron-restricted diet (DVT+IR group). Thrombosed inferior venae cavae were harvested at 5 days after ligation. The iron-restricted diet reduced venous thrombus size compared to the normal diet. Intrathrombotic collagen content was diminished in the DVT+IR group compared to the DVT group. In addition, intrathrombotic gene expression and the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 were increased in the DVT+IR group compared to the DVT group. Furthermore, the DVT+IR group had greater intrathrombotic neovascularization as well as higher gene expression levels of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and tissue-type plasminogen activator than the DVT group. The iron-restricted diet decreased intrathrombotic superoxide production compared to the normal diet. These results suggest that dietary iron restriction affects the process of thrombus resolution in DVT.

  20. Effect of dietary restriction on immune response of laboratory mice divergently selected for basal metabolic rate.

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    Książek, Aneta; Konarzewski, Marek

    2012-01-01

    To study whether dietary restriction (DR; 70% of ad lib. feeding)-elicited immunosuppression results from the trade-off between the costs of mounting an immune response and the metabolic costs of maintenance, we subjected mice from two divergent lines selected for high basal metabolic rate (H-BMR) and low BMR (L-BMR) to 4 wk of DR and then challenged them with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) antigen. Those line types differ genetically with respect to BMR and to the mass of metabolically expensive internal organs, which are larger in H-BMR mice. In mice of both line types, DR resulted in a significant reduction of body mass, an immune response, and the downsizing of spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, heart, and kidneys but not small intestines. DR resulted in a greater reduction of the spleen and lymph nodes in mice of the H-BMR line type, whereas the thymus was more affected in L-BMR line type. In contrast, immunization resulted in an increase of liver mass in DR mice of both line types. A comparison of the results of current and earlier studies on the same mouse line types suggests that metabolic trade-offs involving the costs of an immune response are more apparent when animals are forced to increase energy demands (e.g., by cold exposure) compared to when energy demands are decreased through DR. Our findings also suggest that divelrgent selection on BMR resulted in between-line-type differences in T-cell- and B-cell-mediated types of an immune response. More generally, our results indicate that production of a wide repertoire of antibodies is not correlated with high BMR.

  1. Dietary restriction of rodents decreases aging rate without affecting initial mortality rate -- a meta-analysis.

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    Simons, Mirre J P; Koch, Wouter; Verhulst, Simon

    2013-06-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan in multiple species from various taxa. This effect can arise via two distinct but not mutually exclusive ways: a change in aging rate and/or vulnerability to the aging process (i.e. initial mortality rate). When DR affects vulnerability, this lowers mortality instantly, whereas a change in aging rate will gradually lower mortality risk over time. Unraveling how DR extends lifespan is of interest because it may guide toward understanding the mechanism(s) mediating lifespan extension and also has practical implications for the application of DR. We reanalyzed published survival data from 82 pairs of survival curves from DR experiments in rats and mice by fitting Gompertz and also Gompertz-Makeham models. The addition of the Makeham parameter has been reported to improve the estimation of Gompertz parameters. Both models separate initial mortality rate (vulnerability) from an age-dependent increase in mortality (aging rate). We subjected the obtained Gompertz parameters to a meta-analysis. We find that DR reduced aging rate without affecting vulnerability. The latter contrasts with the conclusion of a recent analysis of a largely overlapping data set, and we show how the earlier finding is due to a statistical artifact. Our analysis indicates that the biology underlying the life-extending effect of DR in rodents likely involves attenuated accumulation of damage, which contrasts with the acute effect of DR on mortality reported for Drosophila. Moreover, our findings show that the often-reported correlation between aging rate and vulnerability does not constrain changing aging rate without affecting vulnerability simultaneously. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and the Anatomical Society.

  2. The effect of dietary restriction on reproduction: a meta-analytic perspective.

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    Moatt, Joshua P; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Lagisz, Malgorzata; Walling, Craig A

    2016-10-07

    Dietary restriction (DR), a reduction in the amount of food or particular nutrients eaten, is the most consistent environmental manipulation to extend lifespan and protect against age related diseases. Current evolutionary theory explains this effect as a shift in the resolution of the trade-off between lifespan and reproduction. However, recent studies have questioned the role of reproduction in mediating the effect of DR on longevity and no study has quantitatively investigated the effect of DR on reproduction across species. Here we report a comprehensive comparative meta-analysis of the effect of DR on reproduction. In general, DR reduced reproduction across taxa, but several factors moderated this effect. The effect of DR on reproduction was greater in well-studied model species (yeast, nematode worms, fruit flies and rodents) than non-model species. This mirrors recent results for longevity and, for reproduction, seems to result from a faster rate of decline with decreasing resources in model species. Our results also suggested that not all reproductive traits are affected equally by DR. High and moderate cost reproductive traits suffered a significant reduction with DR, but low cost traits, such as ejaculate production, did not. Although the effect of DR on reproduction was stronger in females than males, this sex difference reduced to near zero when accounting for other co-factors such as the costliness of the reproductive trait. Thus, sex differences in the effect of DR on longevity may be due to a failure to expose males to as complete a range of the costs of reproduction as females. We suggest that to better understand the generality of the effect of DR, future studies should attempt to address the cause of the apparent model species bias and ensure that individuals are exposed to as many of the costs of reproduction as possible. Furthermore, our meta-analytic approach reveals a general shortage of DR studies that record reproduction, particularly in

  3. Differential Regulation of Hippocampal IGF-1-Associated Signaling Proteins by Dietary Restriction in Aging Mouse.

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    Hadem, Ibanylla Kynjai Hynniewta; Sharma, Ramesh

    2017-08-01

    Time-dependent alterations in several biological processes of an organism may be characterized as aging. One of the effects of aging is the decline in cognitive functions. Dietary restriction (DR), an intervention where the consumption of food is lessened but without malnutrition, is a well-established mechanism that has a wide range of important outcomes including improved health span, delayed aging, and extension of lifespan of various species. It also plays a beneficial role in protecting against age-dependent deterioration of cognitive functions, and has neuroprotective properties against neurodegenerative diseases. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 plays an important role in the regulation of cellular and tissue functions, and relating to the aging process the most important pathway of IGF-1 is the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (Akt/PKB) signaling cascade. Although many have studied the changes in the level of IGF-1 and its effect on neural proliferation, the downstream signaling proteins have not been fully elucidated. Hence in the present investigation, the IGF-1 gene expression and the normal endogenous levels of IGF1R (IGF-1 receptor), PI3K, Akt, pAkt, and pFoxO in the hippocampus of young, adult, and old mice were determined using real-time PCR and Western blot analyses. The effects of DR on these protein levels were also studied. Results showed a decrease in the levels of IGF-1, IGF1R, PI3K, and pAkt, while pFoxO level increased with respect to age. Under DR, these protein levels are maintained in adult mice, but old mice displayed diminished expression levels of these proteins as compared to ad libitum-fed mice. Maintenance of PI3K/Akt pathway results in the phosphorylation of FoxOs, necessary for the enhancement of neural proliferation and survival in adult mice. The down-regulation of IGF-I signaling, as observed in old mice, leads to increasing the activity of FoxO factors that may be important for the neuroprotective

  4. Dietary sodium restriction in the prophylaxis of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: effects on the intake of other nutrients.

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    van Buul, B J; Steegers, E A; Jongsma, H W; Rijpkema, A L; Eskes, T K; Thomas, C M; Baadenhuysen, H; Hein, P R

    1995-07-01

    Dietary sodium restriction is used in the Netherlands in the prophylaxis of preeclampsia. To study the effects of long-term sodium restriction on the intake of other nutrients and the outcome of pregnancy, 68 healthy nulliparous pregnant women were randomly assigned to either a low-sodium diet (20 mmol/24 h) or an unrestricted diet. The diet was consumed between week 14 of gestation and delivery. The dietary intakes of energy, fat, protein, carbohydrate, sodium, potassium, and calcium were estimated with the dietary-history technique. A low-sodium diet reduced the intake of protein (by approximately 15 g/24 h), fat (by 20 g/24 h), and calcium (by 350 mg/24 h) and tended to decrease the energy intake (by approximately 0.7 MJ/24 h). The intakes of carbohydrate and potassium did not differ between the groups. The maternal weight gain was less in the low-sodium group (6.0 +/- 3.7 compared with 11.7 +/- 4.7 kg). Mean birth weight was not significantly different (3.2 +/- 0.5 compared with 3.4 +/- 0.5 kg).

  5. RELATION BETWEEN GLUCOLIPID PROFILE AND SMALL INTESTINE HISTOLOGICAL PATTERNS IN DIABETIC RATS EXPOSED TO AN INTERMITTENT DIETARY RESTRICTION

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    Noriyuki Hisano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of an intermittent and prolonged dietary restriction on biochemical variables and histological small intestinal patterns in 12-month-old male eSMT rats are examined. These spontaneously diabetic animals were separated in two groups after weaning: 10 rats fed ad libitum with standard rat chow and 10 rats fed a restricted diet by deprivation of the same food for 24 hours every 72. At 12 months of age, animals were weighed and euthanized after tail vein bleeding for plasma analysis (glycemia- both fasting and 120 minutes after an oral glucose challenge-, triglyceridemia and total cholesterolemia. Small intestines were removed, weighed and measured in length.Intestinal specimens were fixed, embedded in paraffin, semi serially cut at 6 µm and stained with PAS-Hematoxilyn and Hematoxilyn-Eosin. Histometry was performed through a linear devise attached to ocular lens and lectin histochemistry was accomplished employing Canavalis ensiformis, Dolichos biflorus, Arachis hypogea, Ulex europaeus-I, Triticum vulgaris, Ricinus communis and Soy Bean (Glicine Max Agglutinin. Essentially, eSMT rats, a suitable animal model for studying diabetes and/or its complications, revealed at 12 months of age after undergoing the dietary restriction: 1.- An expected improvement in body weight and determined biochemical variables (fasting and after glucose overload glycemias, triglyceridemia and total cholesterolemia without reaching euglycemic values. 2.- Changes in most of the analyzed histometric patterns with no relevant reflection on morphometric ones, and 3.- No modifications in lectinhistochemical patterns.

  6. Long-term dietary restriction up-regulates activity and expression of renal arginase II in aging mice.

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    Majaw, T; Sharma, R

    2017-06-01

    Arginase II is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of L-arginine into urea and ornithine. It is present in other extra-hepatic tissues that lack urea cycle. Therefore, it is plausible that arginase II has a physiological role other than urea cycle which includes polyamine, proline, glutamate synthesis and regulation of nitric oxide production. The high expression of arginase II in kidney, among extrahepatic tissues, might have an important role associated with kidney functions. The present study is aimed to determine the age-associated alteration in the activity and expression of arginase II in the kidney of mice of different ages. The effect of dietary restriction to modulate the agedependent changes of arginase II was also studied. Results showed that renal arginase II activity declines significantly with the progression of age (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001 in 6- and 18-month-old mice, respectively as compared to 2-month old mice) and is due to the reduction in its protein as well as the mRNA level (p less than 0.001 in both 6- and 18-month-old mice as compared to 2-month-old mice). Long-term dietary restriction for three months has significantly up-regulated arginase II activity and expression level in both 2- and 18-month-old mice (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively as compared to AL group). These findings clearly indicate that the reducing level of arginase II during aging might have an impact on the declining renal functions. This age-dependent down-regulation of arginase II in the kidney can be attenuated by dietary restriction which may help in the maintenance of such functions.

  7. Dietary Methionine Restriction Alleviates Hyperglycemia in Pigs with Intrauterine Growth Restriction by Enhancing Hepatic Protein Kinase B Signaling and Glycogen Synthesis.

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    Ying, Zhixiong; Zhang, Hao; Su, Weipeng; Zhou, Le; Wang, Fei; Li, Yue; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2017-10-01

    Background: Individuals with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are prone to developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Dietary methionine restriction (MR) improves insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis in individuals with normal birth weight (NBW). Objective: This study investigated the effects of MR on plasma glucose concentration and hepatic and muscle glucose metabolism in pigs with IUGR. Methods: Thirty female NBW and 60 same-sex spontaneous IUGR piglets (Landrace × Yorkshire) were selected. After weaning (day 21), the piglets were fed diets with adequate methionine (NBW-CON and IUGR-CON) or 30% less methionine (IUGR-MR) ( n = 6). At day 180, 1 pig with a body weight near the mean of each replication was selected for biochemical analysis. Results: The IUGR-CON group showed 41.6%, 68.6%, and 67.1% higher plasma glucose concentration, hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity, and glucose-6-phosphatase activity, respectively, than the NBW-CON group ( P glycogen content and glycogen synthase activity were 36.9% and 38.8% lower, respectively, in the IUGR-CON than the NBW-CON group ( P glycogen content and glycogen synthase activity of the IUGR-MR pigs were 62.9% and 50.8% higher than those of the IUGR-CON pigs ( P glycogen synthesis, implying a potential nutritional strategy to prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus in IUGR offspring. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Differences between health and ethical vegetarians. Strength of conviction, nutrition knowledge, dietary restriction, and duration of adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Sarah R; Stallings, Sarah F; Bessinger, Raymond C; Brooks, Gary T

    2013-06-01

    Little research has been published concerning the differences between health oriented and ethically oriented vegetarians. The present study compared differences in conviction, nutrition knowledge, dietary restriction, and duration of adherence to vegetarianism between the two groups. Subjects completed an online survey and were grouped by original reason for becoming vegetarian (n=292, 58 health, 234 ethical), and current reason for remaining vegetarian (n=281, 49 health, 232 ethical). Whether grouped by current or original motivation, ethical vegetarians scored higher on the conviction instrument than health vegetarians and exhibited somewhat greater dietary restriction (significant when grouped by current motivation) and had been vegetarian for longer (significant when grouped by original motivation). Nutrition knowledge did not differ between the two groups. The results suggest that ethical vegetarians could experience stronger feelings of conviction and consume fewer animal products than health vegetarians, and may remain vegetarian longer. More research is necessary to understand how vegetarians' eating behaviors are influenced by their motivational profiles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocks, Tanja; Angquist, Lars; Banasik, Karina

    2012-01-01

    Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction.......Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction....

  10. Changes in atherogenic dyslipidemia induced by carbohydrate restriction in men are dependent on dietary protein source.

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    Mangravite, Lara M; Chiu, Sally; Wojnoonski, Kathleen; Rawlings, Robin S; Bergeron, Nathalie; Krauss, Ronald M

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that multiple features of atherogenic dyslipidemia are improved by replacement of dietary carbohydrate with mixed sources of protein and that these lipid and lipoprotein changes are independent of dietary saturated fat content. Because epidemiological evidence suggests that red meat intake may adversely affect cardiovascular disease risk, we tested the effects of replacing dietary carbohydrate with beef protein in the context of high- vs. low-saturated fat intake in 40 healthy men. After a 3-wk baseline diet [50% daily energy (E) as carbohydrate, 13% E as protein, 15% E as saturated fat], participants consumed for 3 wk each in a randomized crossover design two high-beef diets in which protein replaced carbohydrate (31% E as carbohydrate, 31% E as protein, with 10% E as beef protein). The high-beef diets differed in saturated fat content (8% E vs. 15% E with exchange of saturated for monounsaturated fat). Two-week washout periods were included following the baseline diet period and between the randomized diets periods. Plasma TG concentrations were reduced after the 2 lower carbohydrate dietary periods relative to after the baseline diet period and these reductions were independent of saturated fat intake. Plasma total, LDL, and non-HDL cholesterol as well as apoB concentrations were lower after the low-carbohydrate, low-saturated fat diet period than after the low-carbohydrate, high-saturated fat diet period. Given our previous observations with mixed protein diets, the present findings raise the possibility that dietary protein source may modify the effects of saturated fat on atherogenic lipoproteins.

  11. Dietary restriction ameliorates haematopoietic ageing independent of telomerase, whilst lack of telomerase and short telomeres exacerbates the ageing phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ajmi, Nouf; Saretzki, Gabriele; Miles, Colin; Spyridopoulos, Ioakim

    2014-10-01

    Ageing is associated with an overall decline in the functional capacity of tissues and stem cells, including haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), as well as telomere dysfunction. Dietary restriction (DR) is a recognised anti-ageing intervention that extends lifespan and improves health in several organisms. To investigate the role of telomeres and telomerase in haematopoietic ageing, we compared the HSPC profile and clonogenic capacity of bone marrow cells from wild type with telomerase-deficient mice and the effect of DR on these parameters. Compared with young mice, aged wild type mice demonstrated a significant accumulation of HSPCs (1.3% vs 0.2%, P=0.002) and elevated numbers of granulocyte/macrophage colony forming units (CFU-GM, 26.4 vs 17.3, P=0.0037) consistent with myeloid "skewing" of haematopoiesis. DR was able to restrict the increase in HSPC number as well as the myeloid "skewing" in aged wild type mice. In order to analyse the influence of short telomeres on the ageing phenotype we examined mice lacking the RNA template for telomerase, TERC(-/-). Telomere shortening resulted in a similar bone marrow phenotype to that seen in aged mice, with significantly increased HSPC numbers and an increased formation of all myeloid colony types but at a younger age than wild type mice. However, an additional increase in erythroid colonies (BFU-E) was also evident. Mice lacking telomerase reverse transcriptase without shortened telomeres, TERT(-/-), also presented with augmented haematopoietic ageing which was ameliorated by DR, demonstrating that the effect of DR was not dependent on the presence of telomerase in HSPCs. We conclude that whilst shortened telomeres mimic some aspects of haematopoietic ageing, both shortened telomeres and the lack of telomerase produce specific phenotypes, some of which can be prevented by dietary restriction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation on the transcriptional profile of bovine ruminal epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Keogh

    Full Text Available Compensatory growth (CG is utilised worldwide in beef production systems as a management approach to reduce feed costs. However the underlying biology regulating the expression of CG remains to be fully elucidated. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation induced CG on the global gene expression profile of ruminal epithelial papillae. Holstein Friesian bulls (n = 60 were assigned to one of two groups: restricted feed allowance (RES; n = 30 for 125 days (Period 1 followed by ad libitum access to feed for 55 days (Period 2 or (ii ad libitum access to feed throughout (ADLIB; n = 30. At the end of each period, 15 animals from each treatment were slaughtered and rumen papillae harvested. mRNA was isolated from all papillae samples collected. cDNA libraries were then prepared and sequenced. Resultant reads were subsequently analysed bioinformatically and differentially expressed genes (DEGs are defined as having a Benjamini-Hochberg P value of <0.05. During re-alimentation in Period 2, RES animals displayed CG, growing at 1.8 times the rate of their ADLIB contemporary animals in Period 2 (P < 0.001. At the end of Period 1, 64 DEGs were identified between RES and ADLIB, with only one DEG identified at the end of Period 2. When analysed within RES treatment (RES, Period 2 v Period 1, 411 DEGs were evident. Genes identified as differentially expressed in response to both dietary restriction and subsequent CG included those involved in processes such as cellular interactions and transport, protein folding and gene expression, as well as immune response. This study provides an insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the expression of CG in rumen papillae of cattle; however the results suggest that the role of the ruminal epithelium in supporting overall animal CG may have declined by day 55 of re-alimentation.

  13. Vasopressin and oxytocin levels during normal pregnancy: effects of chronic dietary sodium restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Post, J. A.; van Buul, B. J.; Hart, A. A.; van Heerikhuize, J. J.; Pesman, G.; Legros, J. J.; Steegers, E. A.; Swaab, D. F.; Boer, K.

    1997-01-01

    Neurohypophysial hormones are thought to be involved in alterations in fluid balance during pregnancy and delivery. In the course of normal pregnancy intravascular volume is increased whereas sodium restriction is thought to reduce plasma volume and cardiac output. In the present study, we measured

  14. Vasopressin and oxytocin levels during normal pregnancy: effects of chronic dietary sodium restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Post, J A; van Buul, B J; Hart, A A; van Heerikhuize, J J; Pesman, G; Legros, J J; Steegers, E A; Swaab, D F; Boer, K

    1997-03-01

    Neurohypophysial hormones are thought to be involved in alterations in fluid balance during pregnancy and delivery. In the course of normal pregnancy intravascular volume is increased whereas sodium restriction is thought to reduce plasma volume and cardiac output. In the present study, we measured the effect of long-term severe sodium restriction on vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) levels during normal pregnancy and after delivery. Fifty-nine healthy nulliparous women were randomized either for a low sodium diet (20 mmol sodium daily) or for a normal diet from week 12 of pregnancy onwards. Circulating plasma levels and urinary excretion of AVP and OT, their neurophysins (Np-AVP and Np-OT) and AVP bound to platelets were determined at regular intervals during pregnancy and after delivery. After completion of the study, women on a sodium-restricted diet were compared with control women on a normal diet using repeated measurement ANOVA with adjustment for potentially confounding variables. After randomization, a reduction in urinary sodium excretion of, on average, 40-82% was found. In general, no effect of sodium restriction could be demonstrated on the various parameters (0.53 sodium restriction compared with non-smokers having a normal diet (P = 0.018). For all parameters, clear changes were found in the course of pregnancy and puerperium (P pregnancy. After birth, free plasma AVP, platelet-bound AVP, OT, osmolality, sodium and potassium increased, while Np-AVP and Np-OT decreased. Although elevated Np-AVP and Np-OT levels during pregnancy seem to indicate increased release of neurohypophysial hormones, pregnancy up to 36 weeks of gestation is accompanied by low circulating AVP and OT levels. Long-term severe sodium restriction diminishes urinary AVP excretion in (non-smoking) pregnant women, without changing circulating levels of AVP and OT, despite the known reduction in circulating volume. The reduced circulating (platelet-bound) AVP levels during pregnancy

  15. Validation of the effects of small differences in dietary metabolizable energy and feed restriction in first-cycle laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesan, G R; Persia, M E

    2013-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate energy utilization of laying hens fed diets containing 2 ME concentrations, using response criteria including performance, BW, abdominal fat pad, and energy digestibility. The experiment was a 2 × 2 factorial with 2 feeding regimens (ad libitum and restriction fed), and 2 dietary ME levels [2,880 kcal/kg of ME (CON); and 2,790 kcal/kg of ME (LME)]. A total of 60 Hy-Line W36 first-cycle laying hens were fed experimental diets, resulting in 15 individually caged hens for each of the 4 treatments. Hens in the restriction-fed group were fed 90 g of feed per day. The CON diet was formulated to meet or exceed the NRC (1994) recommendations with 2,880 kcal/kg, whereas the LME diet was similar with the exception of a 90 kcal/kg reduction in ME. Hens were fed experimental diets for 12 wk from hen 28 to 39 wk of age. Hen day egg production, weekly feed intake, and every 2 wk, egg weights and egg mass were recorded, whereas hen BW was measured every 4 wk. Excreta samples were collected over the last 5 d of experiment to determine AMEn. Abdominal fat pads were measured individually for all hens at the end of experiment. There were no interactions between feeding regimens and dietary ME levels throughout the experiment. Feed restriction resulted in reductions (P ≤ 0.01) in hen day egg production, BW, and abdominal fat pad, indicating reduced nutrient availability to partition toward production, maintenance, and storage functions. The reduction in energy intake between CON and LME fed birds (90 kcal/kg) did not change the energy partitioned toward production or maintenance, but reduced (P = 0.03) the energy stored (reduced fat pad) of LME-fed hens. These results suggest that energy is used following the pattern of production and maintenance before storage requirements and that fat pad (energy storage) may be the most sensitive indicator of dietary energy status over short-term in Hy-Line W36 laying hens.

  16. Modified lingguizhugan decoction incorporated with dietary restriction and exercise ameliorates hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and hypertension in a rat model of the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Limei; Wei, Jingjing; Shi, Si; Guo, Kunbin; Wang, Xiangyu; Wang, Qi; Chen, Dingsheng; Li, Weirong

    2017-02-28

    Modified Lingguizhugan Decoction (MLD) came from famous Chinese medicine Linggui Zhugan Decoction. The MLD is used for the treatment of metabolic syndrome in the clinical setting. Our study focuses on the comprehensive treatment of MLD incorporated with dietary restriction and exercise in a rat model of the metabolic syndrome (MS). Rats were divided into five groups: control group (Cont), high-fat diet group (HFD), high-fat diet incorporated with dietary restriction group (HFD-DR), exercise incorporated with dietary restriction group (HFD-DR-Ex) and MLD incorporated with dietary restriction and exercise group (HFD-DR-Ex-MLD). Treatments were conducted for 1 week after feeding high-fat diet for 12 weeks. The effects of treatments on high fat diet-induced obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hepatic injury and insulin resistance in rats of MS were examined. In addition, the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), leptin and protein kinase B (PKB) in rats serum and liver were also examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). After a week's intervention by dietary restriction, dietary restriction incorporated with exercise or MLD, compared with HFD rats, the relative weight of liver and fat, levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, free fatty acid, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and alkaline phosphatase, insulin, were significantly decreased (p exercise treatment exhibit effects in alleviating high-fat diet-induced obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hepatic injury and insulin resistance, which are possibly due to the down-regulation of TNF-α, leptin and PKB.

  17. Dietary Phosphate Restriction Normalizes Biochemical and Skeletal Abnormalities in a Murine Model of Tumoral Calcinosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ichikawa, Shoji; Austin, Anthony M.; Gray, Amie K.; Allen, Matthew R.; Econs, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the GALNT3 gene cause tumoral calcinosis characterized by ectopic calcifications due to persistent hyperphosphatemia. We recently developed Galnt3 knockout mice in a mixed background, which had hyperphosphatemia with increased bone mineral density (BMD) and infertility in males. To test the effect of dietary phosphate intake on their phenotype, Galnt3 knockout mice were generated in the C57BL/6J strain and fed various phosphate diets: 0.1% (low), 0.3% (low normal), 0.6% (normal),...

  18. Effect of dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation on the transcriptional profile of hepatic tissue in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Kate; Kenny, David A; Cormican, Paul; Kelly, Alan K; Waters, Sinead M

    2016-03-17

    Compensatory growth (CG) is an accelerated growth phenomenon observed in animals upon re-alimentation following a period of dietary restriction. It is typically utilised in livestock systems to reduce feed costs during periods of reduced feed availability. The biochemical mechanisms controlling this phenomenon, however, are yet to be elucidated. This study aimed to uncover the molecular mechanisms regulating the hepatic expression of CG in cattle, utilising RNAseq. RNAseq was performed on hepatic tissue of bulls following 125 days of dietary restriction (RES) and again following 55 days of subsequent re-alimentation during which the animals exhibited significant CG. The data were compared with those of control animals offered the same diet on an ad libitum basis throughout (ADLIB). Elucidation of the molecular control of CG may yield critical information on genes and pathways which could be targeted as putative molecular biomarkers for the selection of animals with improved CG potential. Following a period of differential feeding, body-weight and liver weight were 161 and 4 kg higher, respectively, for ADLIB compared with RES animals. At this time RNAseq analysis of liver tissue revealed 1352 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEG) between the two treatments. DEGs indicated down-regulation of processes including nutrient transport, cell division and proliferation in RES. In addition, protein synthesis genes were up-regulated in RES following a period of restricted feeding. The subsequent 55 days of ad libitum feeding for both groups resulted in the body-weight difference reduced to 84 kg, with no difference in liver weight between treatment groups. At the end of 55 days of unrestricted feeding, 49 genes were differentially expressed between animals undergoing CG and their continuously fed counterparts. In particular, hepatic expression of cell proliferation and growth genes were greater in animals undergoing CG. Greater expression of cell cycle and cell

  19. Dietary Restriction Behaviors and Binge Eating in Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder: Trans-diagnostic Examination of the Restraint Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elran-Barak, Roni; Sztainer, Maya; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B; Hill, Laura L; Crosby, Ross D; Powers, Pauline; Mitchell, James E; Le Grange, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    To compare dietary restriction behaviors among adults with eating disorders involving binge eating, including anorexia nervosa-binge/purge subtype (AN-BE/P), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED), and to examine whether dietary restriction behaviors impact binge eating frequency across diagnoses. Participants included 845 treatment seeking adults (M=30.42+10.76years) who met criteria for DSM-5 AN-BE/P (7.3%;n=62), BN (59.7%;n=504), and BED (33.0%;n=279). All participants self-reported their past and current eating disorder symptoms on the Eating Disorder Questionnaire. Adults with AN-BE/P and BN reported significantly more dietary restriction behaviors (e.g. eating fewer meals per day, higher frequency of fasting, consuming small and low calorie meals) in comparison to adults with BED. Adults with AN-BE/P and BN who reported restricting food intake via eating fewer meals per day had more frequent binge eating episodes. However, adults with BN who reported restricting food intake via eating small meals and low calorie meals had less frequent binge eating episodes. This study provides mixed support for the restraint model by suggesting that not all dietary restriction behaviors are associated with higher levels of binge eating. It may be that adults with BN who report a higher frequency of eating small and low calorie meals display more control over their eating in general, and therefore also have lower frequency of binge eating. Clinicians should assess for dietary restriction behaviors at the start of treatment prior to assuming that all forms of strict dieting and weight control behaviors similarly impact binge eating. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Dietary fat and carbohydrates differentially alter insulin sensitivity during caloric restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Erik; Reeds, Dominic N; Finck, Brian N; Mayurranjan, S Mitra; Mayurranjan, Mitra S; Patterson, Bruce W; Klein, Samuel

    2009-05-01

    We determined the effects of acute and chronic calorie restriction with either a low-fat, high-carbohydrate (HC) diet or a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet on hepatic and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. Twenty-two obese subjects (body mass index, 36.5 +/- 0.8 kg/m2) were randomized to an HC (>180 g/day) or LC (vs 8.9% +/- 1.4%; P vs 7.2% +/- 1.4%; P vs 7.9% +/- 1.2%; P < .05). Insulin-mediated glucose uptake did not change at 48 hours but increased similarly in both groups after 7% weight loss (48.4% +/- 14.3%; P < .05). In both groups, insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase decreased by 29% +/- 13% and phosphorylation of Akt and insulin receptor substrate 1 increased by 35% +/- 9% and 36% +/- 9%, respectively, after 7% weight loss (all P < .05). Moderate calorie restriction causes temporal changes in liver and skeletal muscle metabolism; 48 hours of calorie restriction affects the liver (IHTG content, hepatic insulin sensitivity, and glucose production), whereas moderate weight loss affects muscle (insulin-mediated glucose uptake and insulin signaling).

  1. Dietary protein restriction for renal patients: don't forget protein-free foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Claudia; Rossi, Andrea; Innocenti, Maurizio; Ricchiuti, Guido; Bozzoli, Laura; Sbragia, Giulietta; Meola, Mario; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2013-09-01

    The treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) consists of pharmacological, nutritional, and psychological-social approaches. The dietary therapy of CKD, namely a low-protein low-phosphorus diet, plays a crucial role in contributing to delay the onset of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and to protect cardiovascular and nutritional status. The protein-free food products represent a very important tool for the implementation of a low-protein diet to ensure adequate energy supply, reducing the production of nitrogenous waste products. This survey included 100 consecutive CKD patients who were asked their opinion about the use of protein-free foods. Ninety-eight patients (98%) reported a regular daily intake of protein-free pasta (as macaroni, spaghetti, etc.), which was the preferred product consumed. Actually, the taste and texture of protein-free pasta were considered as "good" or "very good" by 70% of patients. Conversely, 43% of CKD patients perceived the taste and texture of protein-free bread as "bad" or "very bad", and 30% found it "acceptable". Therefore, the main concern for the implementation of low-protein diets is the use and palatability of the protein-free products, bread in particular. The use of these products may help in reducing protein, phosphorus, and sodium intake while supplying an adequate energy intake, which represents the basis for a nutritionally safe and successful dietary treatment of advanced CKD patients. Manufacturers and food technology should make more efforts to finding new solutions to improve the taste and texture of protein-free products. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Toxicokinetics of chloral hydrate in ad libitum-fed, dietary-controlled, and calorically restricted male B6C3F1 mice following short-term exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seng, John E.; Agrawal, Nalini; Horsley, Elizabeth T.M.; Leakey, Tatiana I.; Scherer, Erin M.; Xia, Shijun; Allaben, William T.; Leakey, Julian E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Chloral hydrate is widely used as a sedative in pediatric medicine and is a by-product of water chlorination and a metabolic intermediate in the biotransformation of trichloroethylene. Chloral hydrate and its major metabolite, trichloroacetic acid, induce liver tumors in B6C3F 1 mice, a strain that can exhibit high rates of background liver tumor incidence, which is associated with increased body weight. This report describes the influence of diet and body weight on the acute toxicity, hepatic enzyme response, and toxickinetics of chloral hydrate as part of a larger study investigating the carcinogenicity of chloral hydrate in ad libitum-fed and dietary controlled mice. Dietary control involves moderate food restriction to maintain the test animals at an idealized body weight. Mice were dosed with chloral hydrate at 0, 50, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg daily, 5 days/week, by aqueous gavage for 2 weekly dosing cycles. Three diet groups were used: ad libitum, dietary control, and 40% caloric restriction. Both dietary control and caloric restriction slightly reduced acute toxicity of high doses of chloral hydrate and potentiated the induction of hepatic enzymes associated with peroxisome proliferation. Chloral hydrate toxicokinetics were investigated using blood samples obtained by sequential tail clipping and a microscale gas chromatography technique. It was rapidly cleared from serum within 3 h of dosing. Trichloroacetate was the major metabolite in serum in all three diet groups. Although the area under the curve values for serum trichloroacetate were slightly greater in the dietary controlled and calorically restricted groups than in the ad libitum-fed groups, this increase did not appear to completely account for the potentiation of hepatic enzyme induction by dietary restriction

  3. Effect of dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation on the transcriptional profile of bovine ruminal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Kate; Waters, Sinead M; Cormican, Paul; Kelly, Alan K; O'Shea, Emma; Kenny, David A

    2017-01-01

    Compensatory growth (CG) is utilised worldwide in beef production systems as a management approach to reduce feed costs. However the underlying biology regulating the expression of CG remains to be fully elucidated. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation induced CG on the global gene expression profile of ruminal epithelial papillae. Holstein Friesian bulls (n = 60) were assigned to one of two groups: restricted feed allowance (RES; n = 30) for 125 days (Period 1) followed by ad libitum access to feed for 55 days (Period 2) or (ii) ad libitum access to feed throughout (ADLIB; n = 30). At the end of each period, 15 animals from each treatment were slaughtered and rumen papillae harvested. mRNA was isolated from all papillae samples collected. cDNA libraries were then prepared and sequenced. Resultant reads were subsequently analysed bioinformatically and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) are defined as having a Benjamini-Hochberg P value of alimentation in Period 2, RES animals displayed CG, growing at 1.8 times the rate of their ADLIB contemporary animals in Period 2 (P alimentation.

  4. Middle age onset short-term intermittent fasting dietary restriction prevents brain function impairments in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rumani; Manchanda, Shaffi; Kaur, Taranjeet; Kumar, Sushil; Lakhanpal, Dinesh; Lakhman, Sukhwinder S; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2015-12-01

    Intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR) is recently reported to be an effective intervention to retard age associated disease load and to promote healthy aging. Since sustaining long term caloric restriction regimen is not practically feasible in humans, so use of alternate approach such as late onset short term IF-DR regimen which is reported to trigger similar biological pathways is gaining scientific interest. The current study was designed to investigate the effect of IF-DR regimen implemented for 12 weeks in middle age rats on their motor coordination skills and protein and DNA damage in different brain regions. Further, the effect of IF-DR regimen was also studied on expression of energy regulators, cell survival pathways and synaptic plasticity marker proteins. Our data demonstrate that there was an improvement in motor coordination and learning response with decline in protein oxidative damage and recovery in expression of energy regulating neuropeptides. We further observed significant downregulation in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and cytochrome c (Cyt c) levels and moderate upregulation of mortalin and synaptophysin expression. The present data may provide an insight on how a modest level of short term IF-DR, imposed in middle age, can slow down or prevent the age-associated impairment of brain functions and promote healthy aging by involving multiple regulatory pathways aimed at maintaining energy homeostasis.

  5. Altered gut microbiota in female mice with persistent low body weights following removal of post-weaning chronic dietary restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Toyomasu, Yoshitaka; Hayashi, Yujiro; Linden, David R; Szurszewski, Joseph H; Nelson, Heidi; Farrugia, Gianrico; Kashyap, Purna C; Chia, Nicholas; Ordog, Tamas

    2016-10-03

    Nutritional interventions often fail to prevent growth failure in childhood and adolescent malnutrition and the mechanisms remain unclear. Recent studies revealed altered microbiota in malnourished children and anorexia nervosa. To facilitate mechanistic studies under physiologically relevant conditions, we established a mouse model of growth failure following chronic dietary restriction and examined microbiota in relation to age, diet, body weight, and anabolic treatment. Four-week-old female BALB/c mice (n = 12/group) were fed ad libitum (AL) or offered limited food to abolish weight gain (LF). A subset of restricted mice was treated with an insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) analog. Food access was restored in a subset of untreated LF (LF-RF) and IGF1-treated LF mice (TLF-RF) on day 97. Gut microbiota were determined on days 69, 96-99 and 120 by next generation sequencing of the V3-5 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Microbiota-host factor associations were analyzed by distance-based PERMANOVA and quantified by the coefficient of determination R 2 for age, diet, and normalized body weight change (Δbwt). Microbial taxa on day 120 were compared following fitting with an overdispersed Poisson regression model. The machine learning algorithm Random Forests was used to predict age based on the microbiota. On day 120, Δbwt in AL, LF, LF-RF, and TLF-RF mice was 52 ± 3, -6 ± 1*, 40 ± 3*, and 46 ± 2 % (*, P < 0.05 versus AL). Age and diet, but not Δbwt, were associated with gut microbiota composition. Age explained a larger proportion of the microbiota variability than diet or Δbwt. Random Forests predicted chronological age based on the microbiota and indicated microbiota immaturity in the LF mice before, but not after, refeeding. However, on day 120, the microbiota community structure of LF-RF mice was significantly different from that of both AL and LF mice. IGF1 mitigated the difference from the AL group. Refed groups had a higher

  6. The Effect of Moderate Dietary Protein and Phosphate Restriction on Calcium-Phosphate Homeostasis in Healthy Older Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, R F; Biourge, V; Chang, Y; Syme, H M; Elliott, J

    2016-09-01

    Dietary phosphate and protein restriction decreases plasma PTH and FGF-23 concentrations and improves survival time in azotemic cats, but has not been examined in cats that are not azotemic. Feeding a moderately protein- and phosphate-restricted diet decreases PTH and FGF-23 in healthy older cats and thereby slows progression to azotemic CKD. A total of 54 healthy, client-owned cats (≥ 9 years). Prospective double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial. Cats were assigned to test diet (protein 76 g/Mcal and phosphate 1.6 g/Mcal) or control diet (protein 86 g/Mcal and phosphate 2.6 g/Mcal) and monitored for 18 months. Changes in variables over time and effect of diet were assessed by linear mixed models. A total of 26 cats ate test diet and 28 cats ate control diet. There was a significant effect of diet on urinary fractional excretion of phosphate (P = 0.045), plasma PTH (P = 0.005), and ionized calcium concentrations (P = 0.018), but not plasma phosphate, FGF-23, or creatinine concentrations. Plasma PTH concentrations did not significantly change in cats fed the test diet (P = 0.62) but increased over time in cats fed the control diet (P = 0.001). There was no significant treatment effect of the test diet on development of azotemic CKD (3 of 26 (12%) test versus 3 of 28 (11%) control, odds ratio 1.09 (95% CI 0.13-8.94), P = 0.92). Feeding a moderately protein- and phosphate-restricted diet has effects on calcium-phosphate homeostasis in healthy older cats and is well tolerated. This might have an impact on renal function and could be useful in early chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  7. Different modulation by dietary restriction of adipokine expression in white adipose tissue sites in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteve Montserrat

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background White adipose tissue (WAT is a disperse organ acting as energy storage depot and endocrine/paracrine controlling factor in the management of energy availability and inflammation. WAT sites response under energy-related stress is not uniform. In the present study we have analyzed how different WAT sites respond to limited food restriction as a way to better understand the role of WAT in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Methods Overweight male rats had their food intake reduced a 40% compared with free-feeding controls. On day ten, the rats were killed; circulating glucose, insulin, leptin, adiponectin, triacylglycerols and other parameters were measured. The main WAT sites were dissected: mesenteric, retroperitoneal, epididymal and subcutaneous inguinal, which were weighed and frozen. Later all subcutaneous WAT was also dissected and weighed. Samples were used for DNA (cellularity analysis and mRNA extraction and semiquantitarive RT-PCR analysis of specific cytokine gene expressions. Results There was a good correlation between serum leptin and cumulative WAT leptin gene mRNA, but not for adiponectin. Food restriction reduced WAT size, but not its DNA content (except for epididymal WAT. Most cytokines were correlated to WAT site weight, but not to DNA. There was WAT site specialization in the differential expression (and probably secretion of adipokines: subcutaneous WAT showed the highest concentration for leptin, CD68 and MCP-1, mesenteric WAT for TNFα (and both tissues for the interleukins 1β and 6; resistin was highly expressed in subcutaneous and retroperitoneal WAT. Conclusion Food restriction induced different patterns for mesenteric and the other WAT sites, which may be directly related to both the response to intestine-derived energy availability, and an inflammatory-related response. However, retroperitoneal WAT, and to a lower extent, subcutaneous and epididymal, reacted decreasing the expression of

  8. Systematic review and meta-analysis of dietary carbohydrate restriction in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snorgaard, Ole; Møller, Grith; Andersen, Henning K

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition therapy is an integral part of selfmanagement education in patients with type 2 diabetes. Carbohydrates with a low glycemic index are recommended, but the ideal amount of carbohydrate in the diet is unclear. We performed a meta-analysis comparing diets containing low...... to moderate amounts of carbohydrate (LCD) (energy percentage below 45%) to diets containing high amounts of carbohydrate (HCD) in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Research design and methods: We systematically reviewed Cochrane library databases, EMBASE, and MEDLINE in the period 2004–2014 for guidelines, meta...... to moderate carbohydrate diets have greater effect on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes compared with high-carbohydrate diets in the first year of intervention. The greater the carbohydrate restriction, the greater glucose lowering, a relationship that has not been demonstrated earlier. Apart from...

  9. Diet-related restrictive parenting practices. Impact on dietary intake of 2-year-old children and interactions with child characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Stafleu, A.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Vries, N.K.de; Thijs, C.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between diet-related parenting practices, parental characteristics, child characteristics, and 2-year-old child's dietary intake. Cross-sectional data (N = 2578) originated from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study. Principal component analyses revealed two restrictive

  10. If you can't eat what you like, like what you can: How coeliac disease patients and their families construct dietary restrictions as a matter of choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, M.; te Molder, Hedwig Frederica Maria; Gremmen, B.; van Woerkum, C.

    2013-01-01

    Although it is recognised that a gluten-free diet has many social implications for coeliac disease patients, not much is known about how such patients actually manage these implications in their everyday interactions. This article examines how dietary restrictions are treated by patients and their

  11. Effects of Dietary Sodium Restriction in Kidney Transplant Recipients Treated With Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Blockade: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Laura V.; Dobrowolski, Linn C.; van den Bosch, Jacqueline J. O. N.; Riphagen, Ineke J.; Krediet, C. T. Paul; Bemelman, Frederike J.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Navis, Gerjan

    2016-01-01

    In patients with chronic kidney disease receiving renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade, dietary sodium restriction is an often-used treatment strategy to reduce blood pressure (BP) and albuminuria. Whether these effects extend to kidney transplant recipients is unknown. We therefore

  12. Effects of Dietary Sodium Restriction in Kidney Transplant Recipients Treated With Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Blockade : A Randomized Clinical Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Laura V; Dobrowolski, Linn C; van den Bosch, Jacqueline J O N; Riphagen, Ineke J; Krediet, C T Paul; Bemelman, Frederike J; Bakker, Stephan J L; Navis, Gerjan

    BACKGROUND: In patients with chronic kidney disease receiving renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade, dietary sodium restriction is an often-used treatment strategy to reduce blood pressure (BP) and albuminuria. Whether these effects extend to kidney transplant recipients is unknown.

  13. Effects of dietary carbohydrate restriction versus low-fat diet on flow-mediated dilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volek, Jeff S; Ballard, Kevin D; Silvestre, Ricardo; Judelson, Daniel A; Quann, Erin E; Forsythe, Cassandra E; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Kraemer, William J

    2009-12-01

    We previously reported that a carbohydrate-restricted diet (CRD) ameliorated many of the traditional markers associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk compared with a low-fat diet (LFD). There remains concern how CRD affects vascular function because acute meals high in fat have been shown to impair endothelial function. Here, we extend our work and address these concerns by measuring fasting and postprandial vascular function in 40 overweight men and women with moderate hypertriacylglycerolemia who were randomly assigned to consume hypocaloric diets (approximately 1500 kcal) restricted in carbohydrate (percentage of carbohydrate-fat-protein = 12:59:28) or LFD (56:24:20). Flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery was assessed before and after ingestion of a high-fat meal (908 kcal, 84% fat) at baseline and after 12 weeks. Compared with the LFD, the CRD resulted in a greater decrease in postprandial triacylglycerol (-47% vs -15%, P = .007), insulin (-51% vs -6%, P = .009), and lymphocyte (-12% vs -1%, P = .050) responses. Postprandial fatty acids were significantly increased by the CRD compared with the LFD (P = .033). Serum interleukin-6 increased significantly over the postprandial period; and the response was augmented in the CRD (46%) compared with the LFD (-13%) group (P = .038). After 12 weeks, peak flow-mediated dilation at 3 hours increased from 5.1% to 6.5% in the CRD group and decreased from 7.9% to 5.2% in the LFD group (P = .004). These findings show that a 12-week low-carbohydrate diet improves postprandial vascular function more than a LFD in individuals with atherogenic dyslipidemia.

  14. Dietary Sodium Restriction Decreases Insulin Secretion Without Affecting Insulin Sensitivity in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Loretta M.; Yu, Chang; Wang, Thomas J.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Interruption of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system prevents incident diabetes in high-risk individuals, although the mechanism remains unclear. Objective: To test the hypothesis that activation of the endogenous renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system or exogenous aldosterone impairs insulin secretion in humans. Design: We conducted a randomized, blinded crossover study of aldosterone vs vehicle and compared the effects of a low-sodium versus a high-sodium diet. Setting: Academic clinical research center. Participants: Healthy, nondiabetic, normotensive volunteers. Interventions: Infusion of exogenous aldosterone (0.7 μg/kg/h for 12.5 h) or vehicle during low or high sodium intake. Low sodium (20 mmol/d; n = 12) vs high sodium (160 mmol/d; n = 17) intake for 5–7 days. Main Outcome Measures: Change in acute insulin secretory response assessed during hyperglycemic clamps while in sodium balance during a low-sodium vs high-sodium diet during aldosterone vs vehicle. Results: A low-sodium diet increased endogenous aldosterone and plasma renin activity, and acute glucose-stimulated insulin (−16.0 ± 5.6%; P = .007) and C-peptide responses (−21.8 ± 8.4%; P = .014) were decreased, whereas the insulin sensitivity index was unchanged (−1.0 ± 10.7%; P = .98). Aldosterone infusion did not affect the acute insulin response (+1.8 ± 4.8%; P = .72) or insulin sensitivity index (+2.0 ± 8.8%; P = .78). Systolic blood pressure and serum potassium were similar during low and high sodium intake and during aldosterone infusion. Conclusions: Low dietary sodium intake reduces insulin secretion in humans, independent of insulin sensitivity. PMID:25029426

  15. Dietary Salt Restriction in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials.

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    Garofalo, Carlo; Borrelli, Silvio; Provenzano, Michele; De Stefano, Toni; Vita, Carlo; Chiodini, Paolo; Minutolo, Roberto; Nicola, Luca De; Conte, Giuseppe

    2018-06-06

    A clear evidence on the benefits of reducing salt in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is still lacking. Salt restriction in CKD may allow better control of blood pressure (BP) as shown in a previous systematic review while the effect on proteinuria reduction remains poorly investigated. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of low versus high salt intake in adult patients with non-dialysis CKD on change in BP, proteinuria and albuminuria. Eleven RCTs were selected and included information about 738 CKD patients (Stage 1⁻4); urinary sodium excretion was 104 mEq/day (95%CI, 76⁻131) and 179 mEq/day (95%CI, 165⁻193) in low- and high-sodium intake subgroups, respectively, with a mean difference of −80 mEq/day (95%CI from −107 to −53; p <0.001). Overall, mean differences in clinic and ambulatory systolic BP were −4.9 mmHg (95%CI from −6.8 to −3.1, p <0.001) and −5.9 mmHg (95%CI from −9.5 to −2.3, p <0.001), respectively, while clinic and ambulatory diastolic BP were −2.3 mmHg (95%CI from −3.5 to −1.2, p <0.001) and −3.0 mmHg (95%CI from −4.3 to −1.7; p <0.001), respectively. Mean differences in proteinuria and albuminuria were −0.39 g/day (95%CI from −0.55 to −0.22, p <0.001) and −0.05 g/day (95%CI from −0.09 to −0.01, p = 0.013). Moderate salt restriction significantly reduces BP and proteinuria/albuminuria in patients with CKD (Stage 1⁻4).

  16. Dietary sodium restriction reverses vascular endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged/older adults with moderately elevated systolic blood pressure

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    Jablonski, Kristen L.; Racine, Matthew L.; Geolfos, Candace J.; Gates, Phillip E.; Chonchol, Michel; McQueen, Matthew B.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We determined the efficacy of dietary sodium restriction (DSR) for improving vascular endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged/older adults with moderately elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP; 130–159 mmHg) and the associated physiological mechanisms. Background Vascular endothelial dysfunction develops with advancing age and elevated SBP, contributing to increased cardiovascular risk. DSR lowers BP, but its effect on vascular endothelial function and mechanisms involved are unknown. Methods Seventeen subjects (11M/6F; 62±7 yrs, mean±S.D.) completed a randomized, crossover study of 4 weeks of both low and normal sodium intake. Vascular endothelial function (endothelium-dependent dilation; EDD), nitric oxide (NO)/tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) bioavailability and oxidative stress-associated mechanisms were assessed following each condition. Results Urinary sodium excretion was reduced by ~50% (to 70±30 mmol/day), and conduit (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation [FMDBA]) and resistance (forearm blood flow responses to acetylcholine [FBFACh]) artery EDD were 68% and 42% (peak FBFACh) higher following the low sodium diet (psodium markedly enhanced NO- mediated EDD (greater ΔFBFACh with endothelial NO synthase [eNOS] inhibition) without changing eNOS expression/activation (Ser1177 phosphorylation), restored BH4 bioactivity (less ΔFMDBA with acute BH4), abolished tonic superoxide suppression of EDD (less ΔFMDBA and ΔFBFACh with ascorbic acid infusion), and increased circulating superoxide dismutase activity (p<0.05). These effects were independent of ΔSBP. Other subject characteristics/dietary factors and endothelium-independent dilation were unchanged. Conclusions DSR largely reverses both macro- and microvascular endothelial dysfunction by enhancing NO and BH4 bioavailability and reducing oxidative stress. Our findings support the emerging concept that DSR induces “vascular protection” beyond that attributable to its BP-lowering effects. PMID

  17. Restricting dietary sodium reduces plasma sodium response to exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenders, E E; Franken, C P G; Cotter, J D; Thornton, S N; Rehrer, N J

    2017-11-01

    Exercise-associated hyponatremia can be life-threatening. Excessive hypotonic fluid ingestion is the primary etiological factor but does not explain all variability. Possible effects of chronic sodium intake are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether dietary sodium affects plasma sodium concentration [Na + ] during exercise in the heat, when water intake nearly matches mass loss. Endurance-trained men (n = 9) participated in this crossover experiment. Each followed a low-sodium (lowNa) or high-sodium (highNa) diet for 9 days with 24-h fluid intakes and urine outputs measured before experimental trials (day 10). The trials were ≥2 week apart. Trials comprised 3 h (or if not possible to complete, to exhaustion) cycling (55% VO 2max ; 34 °C, 65% RH) with water intake approximating mass loss. Plasma [Na + ], hematocrit, sweat and urine [Na + ], heart rate, core temperature, and subjective perceptions were monitored. Urine [Na + ] was lower on lowNa 24 h prior to (31 ± 24, 76 ± 30 mmol/L, P = 0.027) and during trials (10 ± 10, 52 ± 32 mmol/L, P = 0.004). Body mass was lower on lowNa (79.6 ± 8.5, 80.5 ± 8.9, P = 0.03). Plasma [Na + ] was lower on lowNa before (137 ± 2, 140 ± 3, P = 0.007) and throughout exercise (P = 0.001). Sweat [Na + ] was unaffected by diet (54.5 ± 40, 54.5 ± 23 mmol/L, P = 0.99). Heart rate and core temperature were higher on lowNa (P ≤ 0.001). Despite decreased urinary sodium losses, plasma sodium was lower on lowNa, with decreased mass indicating (extracellular) water may have been less, explaining greater heart rate and core temperature. General population health recommendations to lower salt intake may not be appropriate for endurance athletes, particularly those training in the heat. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effects of Dietary Sodium Restriction in Kidney Transplant Recipients Treated With Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Blockade: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Laura V; Dobrowolski, Linn C; van den Bosch, Jacqueline J O N; Riphagen, Ineke J; Krediet, C T Paul; Bemelman, Frederike J; Bakker, Stephan J L; Navis, Gerjan

    2016-06-01

    In patients with chronic kidney disease receiving renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade, dietary sodium restriction is an often-used treatment strategy to reduce blood pressure (BP) and albuminuria. Whether these effects extend to kidney transplant recipients is unknown. We therefore studied the effects of dietary sodium restriction on BP and urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in kidney transplant recipients receiving RAAS blockade. Two-center randomized crossover trial. Stable outpatient kidney transplant recipients with creatinine clearance > 30mL/min, BP ≥120/80mmHg, receiving stable RAAS blockade therapy. 6-week regular-sodium diet (target, 150mmol/24 h) and a 6-week low-sodium diet (target, 50mmol/24 h). Main outcome parameters were systolic and diastolic BP, UAE, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at the end of each diet period. Dietary adherence was assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. We randomly assigned 23 kidney transplant recipients, of whom 22 (mean age, 58±8 [SD] years; 50% men; mean eGFR, 51±21mL/min/1.73m(2)) completed the study. One patient withdrew from the study because of concerns regarding orthostatic hypotension on the low-sodium diet. Sodium excretion decreased from 164±50mmol/24 h during the regular-sodium diet to 87±55mmol/24 h during the low-sodium diet (mean difference, -77 [95% CI, -110 to -44] mmol/24 h; Padherence to sodium diet was achieved in 86% of patients. In stable kidney transplant recipients receiving RAAS blockade, dietary sodium restriction effectively reduces BP without affecting eGFR. Dietary sodium restriction is relevant to BP management in kidney transplant recipients receiving RAAS blockade. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dietary fat and not calcium supplementation or dairy product consumption is associated with changes in anthropometrics during a randomized, placebo-controlled energy-restriction trial

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    Zemel Michael B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Insufficient calcium intake has been proposed to cause unbalanced energy partitioning leading to obesity. However, weight loss interventions including dietary calcium or dairy product consumption have not reported changes in lipid metabolism measured by the plasma lipidome. Methods The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between dairy product or supplemental calcium intake with changes in the plasma lipidome and body composition during energy restriction. A secondary objective of this study was to explore the relationships among calculated macronutrient composition of the energy restricted diet to changes in the plasma lipidome, and body composition during energy restriction. Overweight adults (n = 61 were randomized into one of three intervention groups including a deficit of 500kcal/d: 1 placebo; 2 900 mg/d calcium supplement; and 3 3-4 servings of dairy products/d plus a placebo supplement. Plasma fatty acid methyl esters of cholesterol ester, diacylglycerol, free fatty acids, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and triacylglycerol were quantified by capillary gas chromatography. Results After adjustments for energy and protein (g/d intake, there was no significant effect of treatment on changes in weight, waist circumference or body composition. Plasma lipidome did not differ among dietary treatment groups. Stepwise regression identified correlations between reported intake of monounsaturated fat (% of energy and changes in % lean mass (r = -0.44, P P Conclusions Dairy product consumption or calcium supplementation during energy restriction over the course of 12 weeks did not affect plasma lipids. Independent of calcium and dairy product consumption, short-term energy restriction altered body composition. Reported dietary fat composition of energy restricted diets was associated with the degree of change in body composition in these overweight and obese individuals.

  20. Chronic Caloric Restriction and Exercise Improve Metabolic Conditions of Dietary-Induced Obese Mice in Autophagy Correlated Manner without Involving AMPK

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    Mingxia Cui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the role of AMPK activation and autophagy in mediating the beneficial effects of exercise and caloric restriction in obesity. Methods. Dietary-induced obesity mice were made and divided into 5 groups; one additional group of normal mice serves as control. Mice in each group received different combinations of interventions including low fat diet, caloric restriction, and exercise. Then their metabolic conditions were assessed by measuring serum glucose and insulin, serum lipids, and liver function. AMPK phosphorylation and autophagy activity were detected by western blotting. Results. Obese mice models were successfully induced by high fat diet. Caloric restriction consistently improved the metabolic conditions of the obese mice, and the effects are more prominent than the mice that received only exercise. Also, caloric restriction, exercise, and low fat diet showed a synergistic effect in the improvement of metabolic conditions. Western blotting results showed that this improvement was not related with the activation of AMPK in liver, skeletal muscle, or heart but correlates well with the autophagy activity. Conclusion. Caloric restriction has more prominent beneficial effects than exercise in dietary-induced obese mice. These effects are correlated with the autophagy activity and may be independent of AMPK activation.

  1. Combined treatment of rapamycin and dietary restriction has a larger effect on the transcriptome and metabolome of liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Wilson C; Bokov, Alex; Gelfond, Jonathan; Yu, Zhen; Zhang, Yiqiang; Doderer, Mark; Chen, Yidong; Javors, Martin; Wood, William H; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin G; Richardson, Arlan; Pérez, Viviana I

    2014-04-01

    Rapamycin (Rapa) and dietary restriction (DR) have consistently been shown to increase lifespan. To investigate whether Rapa and DR affect similar pathways in mice, we compared the effects of feeding mice ad libitum (AL), Rapa, DR, or a combination of Rapa and DR (Rapa + DR) on the transcriptome and metabolome of the liver. The principal component analysis shows that Rapa and DR are distinct groups. Over 2500 genes are significantly changed with either Rapa or DR when compared with mice fed AL; more than 80% are unique to DR or Rapa. A similar observation was made when genes were grouped into pathways; two-thirds of the pathways were uniquely changed by DR or Rapa. The metabolome shows an even greater difference between Rapa and DR; no metabolites in Rapa-treated mice were changed significantly from AL mice, whereas 173 metabolites were changed in the DR mice. Interestingly, the number of genes significantly changed by Rapa + DR when compared with AL is twice as large as the number of genes significantly altered by either DR or Rapa alone. In summary, the global effects of DR or Rapa on the liver are quite different and a combination of Rapa and DR results in alterations in a large number of genes and metabolites that are not significantly changed by either manipulation alone, suggesting that a combination of DR and Rapa would be more effective in extending longevity than either treatment alone. © 2013 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Intermittent fasting dietary restriction regimen negatively influences reproduction in young rats: a study of hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal axis.

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    Sushil Kumar

    Full Text Available Nutritional infertility is very common in societies where women fail to eat enough to match their energy expenditure and such females often present as clinical cases of anorexia nervosa. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that link energy balance and central regulation of reproduction are still not well understood. Peripheral hormones such as estradiol, testosterone and leptin, as well as neuropeptides like kisspeptin and neuropeptides Y (NPY play a potential role in regulation of reproduction and energy balance with their primary target converging on the hypothalamic median eminence-arcuate region. The present study was aimed to explore the effects of negative energy state resulting from intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR regimen on complete hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal axis in Wistar strain young female and male rats. Significant changes in body weight, blood glucose, estrous cyclicity and serum estradiol, testosterone and LH level indicated the negative role of IF-DR regimen on reproduction in these young animals. Further, it was elucidated whether serum level of metabolic hormone, leptin plays a mechanistic role in suppressing hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal (HPG axis via energy regulators, kisspeptin and NPY in rats on IF-DR regimen. We also studied the effect of IF-DR regimen on structural remodeling of GnRH axon terminals in median eminence region of hypothalamus along with the glial cell marker, GFAP and neuronal plasticity marker, PSA-NCAM using immunostaining, Western blotting and RT-PCR. Together these data suggest that IF-DR regimen negatively influences reproduction in young animals due to its adverse effects on complete hypothalamus-hypophysial-gonadal axis and may explain underlying mechanism(s to understand the clinical basis of nutritional infertility.

  3. The MDT-15 subunit of mediator interacts with dietary restriction to modulate longevity and fluoranthene toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

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    Jennifer Schleit

    Full Text Available Dietary restriction (DR, the limitation of calorie intake while maintaining proper nutrition, has been found to extend life span and delay the onset of age-associated disease in a wide range of species. Previous studies have suggested that DR can reduce the lethality of environmental toxins. To further examine the role of DR in toxin response, we measured life spans of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans treated with the mutagenic polyaromatic hydrocarbon, fluoranthene (FLA. FLA is a direct byproduct of combustion, and is one of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's sixteen priority environmental toxins. Treatment with 5 µg/ml FLA shortened the life spans of ad libitum fed nematodes, and DR resulted in increased sensitivity to FLA. To determine the role of detoxifying enzymes in the toxicity of FLA, we tested nematodes with mutations in the gene encoding the MDT-15 subunit of mediator, a transcriptional coactivator that regulates genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and detoxification. Mutation of mdt-15 increased the life span of FLA treated animals compared to wild-type animals with no difference observed between DR and ad libitum fed mdt-15 animals. We also examined mutants with altered insulin-IGF-1-like signaling (IIS, which is known to modulate life span and stress resistance in C. elegans independently of DR. Mutation of the genes coding for the insulin-like receptor DAF-2 or the FOXO-family transcription factor DAF16 did not alter the animals' susceptibility to FLA compared to wild type. Taken together, our results suggest that certain compounds have increased toxicity when combined with a DR regimen through increased metabolic activation. This increased metabolic activation appears to be mediated through the MDT-15 transcription factor and is independent of the IIS pathway.

  4. Effects of short-term dietary restriction and glutamine supplementation in vitro on the modulation of inflammatory properties.

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    C de Oliveira, Dalila; Santos, Ed Wilson; Nogueira-Pedro, Amanda; Xavier, José Guilherme; Borelli, Primavera; Fock, Ricardo Ambrósio

    2018-04-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) is a nutritional intervention that exerts profound effects on biochemical and immunologic parameters, modulating some inflammatory properties. Glutamine (GLN) is a conditionally essential amino acid that can modulate inflammatory properties. However, there is a lack of data evaluating the effects of DR and GLN supplementation, especially in relation to inflammatory cytokine production and the expression of transcription factors such as nuclear factor (NF)-κB. We subjected 3-mo-old male Balb/c mice to DR by reducing their food intake by 30%. DR animals lost weight and showed reduced levels of serum triacylglycerols, glucose, cholesterol, and calcium as well as a reduction in bone density. Additionally, blood, peritoneal, and spleen cellularity were reduced, lowering the number of peritoneal F4/80- and CD86-positive cells and the total number of splenic CD4- and CD8-positive cells. The production of interleukin (IL)-10 and the expression of NF-κB in splenic cells were not affected by DR or by GLN supplementation. However, peritoneal macrophages from DR animals showed reduced IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor-α production and increased IL-10 production with reduced phosphorylation of NF-κB expression. Additionally, GLN was able to modulate cytokine production by peritoneal cells from the control group, although no effects were observed in cells from the DR group. DR induces biochemical and immunologic changes, in particular by reducing IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor-α production by macrophages and clearly upregulating IL-10 production, whereas GLN supplementation did not modify these parameters in cells from DR animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intermittent fasting dietary restriction regimen negatively influences reproduction in young rats: a study of hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sushil; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional infertility is very common in societies where women fail to eat enough to match their energy expenditure and such females often present as clinical cases of anorexia nervosa. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that link energy balance and central regulation of reproduction are still not well understood. Peripheral hormones such as estradiol, testosterone and leptin, as well as neuropeptides like kisspeptin and neuropeptides Y (NPY) play a potential role in regulation of reproduction and energy balance with their primary target converging on the hypothalamic median eminence-arcuate region. The present study was aimed to explore the effects of negative energy state resulting from intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR) regimen on complete hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal axis in Wistar strain young female and male rats. Significant changes in body weight, blood glucose, estrous cyclicity and serum estradiol, testosterone and LH level indicated the negative role of IF-DR regimen on reproduction in these young animals. Further, it was elucidated whether serum level of metabolic hormone, leptin plays a mechanistic role in suppressing hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal (HPG) axis via energy regulators, kisspeptin and NPY in rats on IF-DR regimen. We also studied the effect of IF-DR regimen on structural remodeling of GnRH axon terminals in median eminence region of hypothalamus along with the glial cell marker, GFAP and neuronal plasticity marker, PSA-NCAM using immunostaining, Western blotting and RT-PCR. Together these data suggest that IF-DR regimen negatively influences reproduction in young animals due to its adverse effects on complete hypothalamus-hypophysial-gonadal axis and may explain underlying mechanism(s) to understand the clinical basis of nutritional infertility.

  6. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic Acid, the Major Lipid Component of Royal Jelly, Extends the Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans through Dietary Restriction and Target of Rapamycin Signaling

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    Yoko Honda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly (RJ produced by honeybees has been reported to possess diverse health-beneficial properties and has been implicated to have a function in longevity across diverse species as well as honeybees. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA, the major lipid component of RJ produced by honeybees, was previously shown to increase the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. The objective of this study is to elucidate signaling pathways that are involved in the lifespan extension by 10-HDA. 10-HDA further extended the lifespan of the daf-2 mutants, which exhibit long lifespan through reducing insulin-like signaling (ILS, indicating that 10-HDA extended lifespan independently of ILS. On the other hand, 10-HDA did not extend the lifespan of the eat-2 mutants, which show long lifespan through dietary restriction caused by a food-intake defect. This finding indicates that 10-HDA extends lifespan through dietary restriction signaling. We further found that 10-HDA did not extend the lifespan of the long-lived mutants in daf-15, which encodes Raptor, a target of rapamycin (TOR components, indicating that 10-HDA shared some longevity control mechanisms with TOR signaling. Additionally, 10-HDA was found to confer tolerance against thermal and oxidative stress. 10-HDA increases longevity not through ILS but through dietary restriction and TOR signaling in C. elegans.

  7. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic Acid, the Major Lipid Component of Royal Jelly, Extends the Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans through Dietary Restriction and Target of Rapamycin Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Yoko; Araki, Yoko; Hata, Taketoshi; Ichihara, Kenji; Ito, Masafumi; Tanaka, Masashi; Honda, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Royal jelly (RJ) produced by honeybees has been reported to possess diverse health-beneficial properties and has been implicated to have a function in longevity across diverse species as well as honeybees. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA), the major lipid component of RJ produced by honeybees, was previously shown to increase the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. The objective of this study is to elucidate signaling pathways that are involved in the lifespan extension by 10-HDA. 10-HDA further extended the lifespan of the daf-2 mutants, which exhibit long lifespan through reducing insulin-like signaling (ILS), indicating that 10-HDA extended lifespan independently of ILS. On the other hand, 10-HDA did not extend the lifespan of the eat-2 mutants, which show long lifespan through dietary restriction caused by a food-intake defect. This finding indicates that 10-HDA extends lifespan through dietary restriction signaling. We further found that 10-HDA did not extend the lifespan of the long-lived mutants in daf-15, which encodes Raptor, a target of rapamycin (TOR) components, indicating that 10-HDA shared some longevity control mechanisms with TOR signaling. Additionally, 10-HDA was found to confer tolerance against thermal and oxidative stress. 10-HDA increases longevity not through ILS but through dietary restriction and TOR signaling in C. elegans.

  8. Adaptação transcultural para o Brasil do Dietary Sodium Restriction Questionnaire (Questionário Restritivo da Dieta de Sódio (DSRQ Adaptación transcultural para Brasil del dietary sodium restriction questionnaire (Cuestionario Restrictivo de la Dieta de Sodio (DSRQ Cross-cultural adaptation into Brazilian portuguese of the Dietary Sodium Restriction Questionnaire (DSRQ

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    Karina Sanches Machado d'Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A restrição de sódio é uma medida não farmacológica frequentemente orientada aos pacientes com Insuficiência Cardíaca (IC. No entanto, a adesão é de baixa prevalência, ficando entre as causas mais frequentes de descompensação da IC. O Dietary Sodium Restriction Questionnaire (DSRQ tem como objetivo identificar fatores que afetam a adesão à restrição dietética de sódio para pacientes com IC. No Brasil, não existem instrumentos que avaliem tais fatores. OBJETIVO: Realizar a adaptação transcultural do DSRQ. MÉTODOS: Estudo metodológico que envolveu as seguintes etapas: tradução, síntese, retrotradução, revisão por um comitê de especialistas, pré-teste da versão final e análise de concordância interobservador. No pré-teste foram avaliados os itens e sua compreensão, além da consistência interna pelo coeficiente alfa de Cronbach. O instrumento foi aplicado por dois pesquisadores simultânea e independentemente, sendo utilizado o teste Kappa para análise da concordância. RESULTADOS: Apenas uma questão sofreu alterações semânticas e/ou culturais maiores. No pré-teste, o alfa de Cronbach obtido para o total foi de 0,77, e para as escalas de Atitude, Norma subjetiva e Controle Comportamental obtiveram-se, respectivamente, 0,66, 0,50 e 0,85. Na etapa de concordância, o Kappa foi calculado para 12 das 16 questões, com valores que variaram de 0,62 a 1,00. Nos itens em que o cálculo não foi possível, a incidência de respostas iguais variou de 95% a 97,5%. CONCLUSÃO: A partir da adaptação transcultural do DSRQ foi possível propor uma versão do questionário para posterior avaliação das propriedades psicométricas.FUNDAMENTO: La restricción de sodio es una medida no farmacológica a menudo dirigida a los pacientes con Insuficiencia Cardíaca (IC. Sin embargo, la adhesión es de baja prevalencia, y queda entre las causas más comunes de descompensación de la IC. El Dietary Sodium

  9. Changes in Atherogenic Dyslipidemia Induced by Carbohydrate Restriction in Men Are Dependent on Dietary Protein Source1234

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    Mangravite, Lara M.; Chiu, Sally; Wojnoonski, Kathleen; Rawlings, Robin S.; Bergeron, Nathalie; Krauss, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that multiple features of atherogenic dyslipidemia are improved by replacement of dietary carbohydrate with mixed sources of protein and that these lipid and lipoprotein changes are independent of dietary saturated fat content. Because epidemiological evidence suggests that red meat intake may adversely affect cardiovascular disease risk, we tested the effects of replacing dietary carbohydrate with beef protein in the context of high- vs. low-saturated fat intake i...

  10. Effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding on hepatic metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance in KK mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

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    Arai, Takeshi; Kim, Hyoun-ju; Hirako, Satoshi; Nakasatomi, Maki; Chiba, Hiroshige; Matsumoto, Akiyo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil intake on glucose and lipid metabolism in female KK mice with high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity. Mice were fed a lard/safflower oil (LSO50) diet consisting of 50 energy% (en%) lard/safflower oil as the fat source for 12 weeks. Then, the mice were fed various fat energy restriction (25 en% fat) diets - LSO, FO2.5, FO12.5 or FO25 - containing 0, 2.5, 12.5, or 25 en% fish oil, respectively, for 9 weeks. Conversion from a HF diet to each fat energy restriction diet significantly decreased final body weights and visceral and subcutaneous fat mass in all fat energy restriction groups, regardless of fish oil contents. Hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups, but not in the LSO group. Although plasma insulin levels did not differ among groups, the blood glucose areas under the curve in the oral glucose tolerance test were significantly lower in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed fatty acid synthase mRNA levels significantly decreased in the FO25 group, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 mRNA levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. These results demonstrate that body weight gains were suppressed by dietary fat energy restriction even in KK mice with HF diet-induced obesity. We also suggested that the combination of fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding decreased fat droplets and ameliorated hepatic hypertrophy and insulin resistance with suppression of de novo lipogenesis in these mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of dietary selenium supply and timing of nutrient restriction during gestation on maternal growth and body composition of pregnant adolescent ewes.

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    Carlson, D B; Reed, J J; Borowicz, P P; Taylor, J B; Reynolds, L P; Neville, T L; Redmer, D A; Vonnahme, K A; Caton, J S

    2009-02-01

    The objectives were to examine effects of dietary Se supplementation and nutrient restriction during defined periods of gestation on maternal adaptations to pregnancy in primigravid sheep. Sixty-four pregnant Western Whiteface ewe lambs were assigned to treatments in a 2 x 4 factorial design. Treatments were dietary Se [adequate Se (ASe; 3.05 microg/kg of BW) vs. high Se (HSe; 70.4 microg/kg of BW)] fed as Se-enriched yeast, and plane of nutrition [control (C; 100% of NRC requirements) vs. restricted (R; 60% of NRC requirements]. Selenium treatments were fed throughout gestation. Plane of nutrition treatments were applied during mid (d 50 to 90) and late gestation (d 90 to 130), which resulted in 4 distinct plane of nutrition treatments [treatment: CC (control from d 50 to 130), RC (restricted from d 50 to 90, and control d 90 to 130), CR (control from d 50 to 90, and restricted from d 90 to 130), and RR (restricted from d 50 to 130)]. All of the pregnant ewes were necropsied on d 132 +/- 0.9 of gestation (length of gestation approximately 145 d). Nutrient restriction treatments decreased ewe ADG and G:F, as a result, RC and CR ewes had similar BW and maternal BW (MBW) at necropsy, whereas RR ewes were lighter than RC and CR ewes. From d 90 to 130, the HSe-CC ewes had greater ADG (Se x nutrition; P = 0.05) than did ASe-CC ewes, whereas ADG and G:F (Se x nutrition; P = 0.08) were less for HSe-RR ewes compared with ASe-RR ewes. The CR and RR treatments decreased total gravid uterus weight (P = 0.01) as well as fetal weight (P = 0.02) compared with RC and CC. High Se decreased total (g; P = 0.09) and relative heart mass (g/kg of MBW; P = 0.10), but increased total and relative mass of liver (P RC. Total small intestine mass was similar between RC and CC ewes, but was markedly reduced (P RC than for CR ewes. Increased Se decreased jejunal DNA concentration (P = 0.07), total jejunal cell number (P = 0.03), and total proliferating jejunal cell number (P = 0.05) compared

  12. Reduced Insulin/Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Signaling and Dietary Restriction Inhibit Translation but Preserve Muscle Mass in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depuydt, Geert; Xie, Fang; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Shanmugam, Nilesh; Smolders, Arne; Dhondt, Ineke; Brewer, Heather M.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Braeckman, Bart P.

    2013-09-03

    Reduced signaling through the C. elegans insulin/IGF1 like tyrosine kinase receptor daf2 and dietary restriction via bacterial dilution are two well-characterized lifespan-extending interventions that operate in parallel or through (partially) independent mechanisms. Using accurate mass and time tag LCMS/MS quantitative proteomics we detected that the abundance of a large number of ribosomal subunits is decreased in response to dietary restriction as well as in the daf2(e1370) insulin/IGF1 receptor mutant. In addition, general protein synthesis levels in these long-lived worms are repressed. Surprisingly, ribosomal transcript levels were not correlated to actual protein abundance, suggesting that posttranscriptional regulation determines ribosome content. Proteomics also revealed increased presence of many structural muscle cell components in long-lived worms, which appears to result from prioritized preservation of muscle cell volume in nutrient-poor conditions or low insulin-like signaling. Activation of DAF16, but not diet-restriction, stimulates mRNA expression of muscle-related genes to prevent muscle atrophy. Important daf2 specific proteome changes include overexpression of aerobic metabolism enzymes and a general activation of stress responsive and immune defense systems, while increased abundance of many protein subunits of the proteasome core complex is a DR-specific characteristic.

  13. Self-monitoring urinary salt excretion in adults: A novel education program for restricting dietary salt intake

    OpenAIRE

    YASUTAKE, KENICHIRO; SAWANO, KAYOKO; YAMAGUCHI, SHOKO; SAKAI, HIROKO; AMADERA, HATSUMI; TSUCHIHASHI, TAKUYA

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the usefulness of the self-monitoring of urinary salt excretion for educating individuals about the risk of excessive dietary salt intake. The subjects were 30 volunteers (15 men and 15 women) not consuming anti-hypertensive medication. The subjects measured urinary salt excretion at home for 4 weeks using a self-monitoring device. Blood pressure (BP), anthropometric variables and nutritional variables (by a dietary-habits questionnaire) were measured before and af...

  14. Impact of caloric and dietary restriction regimens on markers of health and longevity in humans and animals: a summary of available findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabir Mohammad M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Considerable interest has been shown in the ability of caloric restriction (CR to improve multiple parameters of health and to extend lifespan. CR is the reduction of caloric intake - typically by 20 - 40% of ad libitum consumption - while maintaining adequate nutrient intake. Several alternatives to CR exist. CR combined with exercise (CE consists of both decreased caloric intake and increased caloric expenditure. Alternate-day fasting (ADF consists of two interchanging days; one day, subjects may consume food ad libitum (sometimes equaling twice the normal intake; on the other day, food is reduced or withheld altogether. Dietary restriction (DR - restriction of one or more components of intake (typically macronutrients with minimal to no reduction in total caloric intake - is another alternative to CR. Many religions incorporate one or more forms of food restriction. The following religious fasting periods are featured in this review: 1 Islamic Ramadan; 2 the three principal fasting periods of Greek Orthodox Christianity (Nativity, Lent, and the Assumption; and 3 the Biblical-based Daniel Fast. This review provides a summary of the current state of knowledge related to CR and DR. A specific section is provided that illustrates related work pertaining to religious forms of food restriction. Where available, studies involving both humans and animals are presented. The review includes suggestions for future research pertaining to the topics of discussion.

  15. Impact of caloric and dietary restriction regimens on markers of health and longevity in humans and animals: a summary of available findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepanowski, John F; Canale, Robert E; Marshall, Kate E; Kabir, Mohammad M; Bloomer, Richard J

    2011-10-07

    Considerable interest has been shown in the ability of caloric restriction (CR) to improve multiple parameters of health and to extend lifespan. CR is the reduction of caloric intake - typically by 20 - 40% of ad libitum consumption - while maintaining adequate nutrient intake. Several alternatives to CR exist. CR combined with exercise (CE) consists of both decreased caloric intake and increased caloric expenditure. Alternate-day fasting (ADF) consists of two interchanging days; one day, subjects may consume food ad libitum (sometimes equaling twice the normal intake); on the other day, food is reduced or withheld altogether. Dietary restriction (DR) - restriction of one or more components of intake (typically macronutrients) with minimal to no reduction in total caloric intake - is another alternative to CR. Many religions incorporate one or more forms of food restriction. The following religious fasting periods are featured in this review: 1) Islamic Ramadan; 2) the three principal fasting periods of Greek Orthodox Christianity (Nativity, Lent, and the Assumption); and 3) the Biblical-based Daniel Fast. This review provides a summary of the current state of knowledge related to CR and DR. A specific section is provided that illustrates related work pertaining to religious forms of food restriction. Where available, studies involving both humans and animals are presented. The review includes suggestions for future research pertaining to the topics of discussion.

  16. Impact of caloric and dietary restriction regimens on markers of health and longevity in humans and animals: a summary of available findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Considerable interest has been shown in the ability of caloric restriction (CR) to improve multiple parameters of health and to extend lifespan. CR is the reduction of caloric intake - typically by 20 - 40% of ad libitum consumption - while maintaining adequate nutrient intake. Several alternatives to CR exist. CR combined with exercise (CE) consists of both decreased caloric intake and increased caloric expenditure. Alternate-day fasting (ADF) consists of two interchanging days; one day, subjects may consume food ad libitum (sometimes equaling twice the normal intake); on the other day, food is reduced or withheld altogether. Dietary restriction (DR) - restriction of one or more components of intake (typically macronutrients) with minimal to no reduction in total caloric intake - is another alternative to CR. Many religions incorporate one or more forms of food restriction. The following religious fasting periods are featured in this review: 1) Islamic Ramadan; 2) the three principal fasting periods of Greek Orthodox Christianity (Nativity, Lent, and the Assumption); and 3) the Biblical-based Daniel Fast. This review provides a summary of the current state of knowledge related to CR and DR. A specific section is provided that illustrates related work pertaining to religious forms of food restriction. Where available, studies involving both humans and animals are presented. The review includes suggestions for future research pertaining to the topics of discussion. PMID:21981968

  17. Effect of moderate dietary restriction on visceral organ weight, hepatic oxygen consumption, and metabolic proteins associated with energy balance in mature pregnant beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, K M; Awda, B J; Fitzsimmons, C; Miller, S P; McBride, B W; Swanson, K C

    2013-09-01

    Twenty-two nonlactating multiparous pregnant beef cows (639 ± 68 kg) were used to investigate the effect of dietary restriction on the abundance of selected proteins regulating cellular energy metabolism. Cows were fed at either 85% (n = 11; LOW) or 140% (n = 11; HIGH) of total NE requirements. The diet consisted of a haylage-based total mixed ration containing 20% wheat straw. Cows were slaughtered by block (predicted date of parturition), beginning 83 d after the initiation of dietary treatments and every week thereafter for 6 wk, such that each block was slaughtered at approximately 250 d of gestation. Tissue samples from liver, kidney, sternomandibularis muscle, ruminal papilli (ventral sac), pancreas, and small intestinal muscosa were collected at slaughter and snap frozen in liquid N2. Western blots were conducted to quantify abundance of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), ATP synthase, ubiquitin, and Na/K+ ATPase for all tissues; PPARγ, PPARγ coactivator 1 α (PGC-1α), and 5´-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the activated form phosphorylated-AMPK (pAMPK) for liver, muscle, and rumen; phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) for liver and kidney; and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) for liver. Statistical analysis was conducted using Proc Mixed in SAS and included the fixed effects of dietary treatment, cow age, block, and the random effect of pen. Dietary treatments resulted in cows fed HIGH having greater (P ≤ 0.04) ADG and final BW than cows fed LOW. Abundance of ubiquitin in muscle was greater (P = 0.009) in cows fed LOW, and PCG-1 α in liver was greater (P = 0.03) in cows fed HIGH. Hepatic O2 consumption was greater in HIGH (P ≤ 0.04). Feed intake can influence the abundance of important metabolic proteins and suggest that protein degradation may increase in muscle from moderately nutrient restricted cows and that energy metabolism in liver increases in cows fed above NE requirements.

  18. Effects of Dietary Restriction on the Expression of Lipid Metabolism and Growth Hormone Signaling Genes in the Muscle of Korean Cattle Steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Kang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the effects of dietary restriction on growth and the expression of lipid metabolism and growth hormone signaling genes in the longissimus dorsi muscle (LM of Korean cattle. Thirty-one Korean cattle steers (average age 10.5 months were allocated to normal (N; n = 16 or dietary restriction (DR; n = 15 groups. The feeding trial consisted of two stages: for the 8-month growing period, the DR group was fed 80% of the food intake of the normal diet, and for the 6-month growth-finishing period, the DR group was fed a DR total mixed ration with 78.4% of the crude protein and 64% of the net energy for gain of the normal diet. The LM was biopsied 5 months (period 1 [P1] at 15.5 months of age and 14 months (period 2 [P2] at 24.5 months of age after the start of feeding. The mRNA levels were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Body weight, daily feed intake, average daily gain, and feed efficiency were lower in the DR group compared with the normal group at both P1 and P2. At P1, the lipogenic fatty acid synthase (FASN mRNA levels were lower (p<0.05 in the DR group compared with the normal group. The DR group tended (p = 0.06 to have higher of levels of growth hormone receptor (GHR mRNA than the normal group. At P2, the DR group tended to have lower (p = 0.06 androgen receptor (AR mRNA levels than the normal group. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that dietary restriction partially decreases the transcription of lipogenic FASN and growth hormone signaling AR genes, but increases transcription of the GHR gene. These changes in gene transcription might affect body fat accumulation and the growth of the animals.

  19. No impact of dietary iodine restriction in short term development of hypothyroidism following fixed dose radioactive iodine therapy for Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Jubbin Jagan; Stephen, Charles; Paul, Thomas V; Thomas, Nihal; Oommen, Regi; Seshadri, Mandalam S

    2015-01-01

    The increased incidence of autoimmune thyroid disease with increasing dietary iodine intake has been demonstrated both epidemiologically and experimentally. The hypothyroidism that occurs in the first year following radioactive iodine therapy is probably related to the destructive effects of the radiation and underlying ongoing autoimmunity. To study the outcomes at the end of six months after fixed dose I, (131)therapy for Graves' disease followed by an iodine restricted diet for a period of six months. Consecutive adult patients with Graves' disease planned for I(131) therapy were randomized either to receive instructions regarding dietary iodine restriction or no advice prior to fixed dose (5mCi) I(131) administration. Thyroid functions and urinary iodine indices were evaluated at 3(rd) and 6(th) month subsequently. Forty seven patients (13M and 34F) were assessed, 2 were excluded, 45 were randomized (Cases 24 and Controls 21) and 39 patients completed the study. Baseline data was comparable. Median urinary iodine concentration was 115 and 273 μg/gm creat (p = 0.00) among cases and controls respectively. Outcomes at the 3(rd) month were as follows (cases and controls); Euthyroid (10 and 6: P = 0.24), Hypothyroid (3 and 5: P = 0.38) and Hyperthyroid (7 and 8: P = 0.64). Outcomes at the end of six months were as follows (cases and controls); Euthyroid (10 and 5: P = 0.12), Hypothyroid (3 and 5: P = 0.38) and Hyperthyroid (7 and 9: P = 0.43). Of the hypothyroid patients 5 (cases 1 and controls 4: P = 0.13) required thyroxine replacement. There was no statistical significant difference in the outcome of patients with dietary iodine restriction following I(131) therapy for Graves' disease.

  20. Effects of long-term heat stress and dietary restriction on the expression of genes of steroidogenic pathway and small heat-shock proteins in rat testicular tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkaya, F; Atli, M O; Guzeloglu, A; Kayis, S A; Yildirim, M E; Kurar, E; Yilmaz, R; Aydilek, N

    2017-08-01

    The aim was to investigate the effects of long-term heat stress and dietary restriction on the expression of certain genes involving in steroidogenic pathway and small heat-shock proteins (sHSPs) in rat testis. Sprague Dawley rats (n = 24) were equally divided into four groups. Group I and II were kept at an ambient temperature of 22°C, while Groups III and IV were reared at 38°C for 9 weeks. Feed was freely available for Group I and Group III, while Group II and Group IV were fed 60% of the diet consumed by their ad libitum counterparts. At the end of 9 weeks, testicles were collected under euthanasia. Total RNA was isolated from testis tissue samples. Expression profiles of the genes encoding androgen-binding protein, follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, androgen receptor, luteinising hormone receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cyclooxygenase-2 and sHSP genes were assessed at mRNA levels using qPCR. Long-term heat stress decreased the expression of StAR and HspB10 genes while dietary restriction upregulated StAR gene expression. The results suggested that long-term heat stress negatively affected the expression of StAR and HspB10 genes and the dietary restriction was able to reverse negative effect of heat stress on the expression of StAR gene in rat testis. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Dietary phosphorus restriction in dialysis patients: potential impact of processed meat, poultry, and fish products as protein sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Richard A; Mehta, Ojas

    2009-07-01

    Dietary intake of phosphorus is derived largely from protein sources and is a critical determinant of phosphorus balance in patients with chronic kidney disease. Information about the phosphorus content of prepared foods generally is unavailable, but it is believed to contribute significantly to the phosphorus burden of patients with chronic kidney disease. Analysis of dietary components. We measured the phosphorus content of 44 food products, including 30 refrigerated or frozen precooked meat, poultry, and fish items, generally national brands. Measured and reported phosphorus content of foods. Phosphorus by using Association of Analytical Communities official method 984.27; protein by using Association of Analytical Communities official method 990.03. We found that the ratio of phosphorus to protein content in these items ranged from 6.1 to 21.5 mg of phosphorus per 1 g of protein. The mean ratio in the 19 food products with a label listing phosphorus as an additive was 14.6 mg/g compared with 9.0 mg/g in the 11 items without listed phosphorus. The phosphorus content of only 1 precooked food product was available in a widely used dietary database. Results cannot be extrapolated to other products. Manufacturers also may alter the phosphorus content of foods at any time. Protein content was not directly measured for all foods. Better reporting of phosphorus content of foods by manufacturers could result in improved dietary phosphorus control without risk of protein malnutrition.

  2. Design of a randomized controlled clinical trial assessing dietary sodium restriction and hemodialysis-related symptom profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya N. Clark-Cutaia

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: Curbing dietary sodium intake may lead to improvement in intradialytic symptom amelioration and potential for better long-term outcomes. Generating empirical support will be critical to ascertain, and espouse, the appropriate level of sodium intake for patients receiving HD.

  3. The efficacy of the appetite suppressant, diethylpropion, is dependent on both when it is given (day vs. night) and under conditions of high fat dietary restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanasundar, B; Solorio, Jessica; Perez, Claudia I; Hoyo-Vadillo, Carlos; Simon, Sidney A; Gutierrez, Ranier

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is a public health problem caused by excessive consumption of high caloric diets and/or lack of physical activity. Although treatments for obesity include low caloric diets and exercise programs, these activities frequently are supplemented with appetite suppressants. For the short-term treatment of weight loss, diethylpropion (DEP) is a commonly used appetite suppressant. However, little is known with regard to how to improve its weight loss efficacy. We therefore evaluated, in rats, two administration protocols where the animals received daily injections of DEP. First, when these nocturnal animals were normally active (at night) and when they were normally inactive (daytime), and second, with or without high fat dietary restriction (HFDR). We observed that DEP induced a greater weight-loss administered when the animals were in their active phase than in their inactive phase. Moreover, DEP's administration during the inactive phase (and to a lesser degree in the active phase) promotes the consumption of food during normal sleeping time. In addition, we found that DEP-induced weight loss under ad libitum access to a HF diet, but its efficacy significantly improved under conditions of HFDR. In summary, the efficacy of DEP, and presumably other like appetite suppressants, is enhanced by carefully controlling the time it is administered and under dietary restriction of HF diets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Green Tea Polyphenols, Mimicking the Effects of Dietary Restriction, Ameliorate High-Fat Diet-Induced Kidney Injury via Regulating Autophagy Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Xie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental studies reveal that Western dietary patterns contribute to chronic kidney disease, whereas dietary restriction (DR or dietary polyphenols such as green tea polyphenols (GTPs can ameliorate the progression of kidney injury. This study aimed to investigate the renal protective effects of GTPs and explore the underlying mechanisms. Sixty Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: standard diet (STD, DR, high-fat diet (HFD, and three diets plus 200 mg/kg(bw/day GTPs, respectively. After 18 weeks, HFD group exhibited renal injuries by increased serum cystatin C levels and urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase activity, which can be ameliorated by GTPs. Meanwhile, autophagy impairment as denoted by autophagy-lysosome related proteins, including LC3-II, Beclin-1, p62, cathepsin B, cathepsin D and LAMP-1, was observed in HFD group, whereas DR or GTPs promoted renal autophagy activities and GTPs ameliorated HFD-induced autophagy impairment. In vitro, autophagy flux suppression was detected in palmitic acid (PA-treated human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2, which was ameliorated by epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG. Furthermore, GTPs (or EGCG elevated phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase in the kidneys of HFD-treated rats and in PA-treated HK-2 cells. These findings revealed that GTPs mimic the effects of DR to induce autophagy and exert a renal protective effect by alleviating HFD-induced autophagy suppression.

  5. Carbohydrate restriction and dietary cholesterol modulate the expression of HMG-CoA reductase and the LDL receptor in mononuclear cells from adult men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volek Jeff S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The liver is responsible for controlling cholesterol homeostasis in the body. HMG-CoA reductase and the LDL receptor (LDL-r are involved in this regulation and are also ubiquitously expressed in all major tissues. We have previously shown in guinea pigs that there is a correlation in gene expression of HMG-CoA reductase and the LDL-r between liver and mononuclear cells. The present study evaluated human mononuclear cells as a surrogate for hepatic expression of these genes. The purpose was to evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate restriction with low and high cholesterol content on HMG-CoA reductase and LDL-r mRNA expression in mononuclear cells. All subjects were counseled to consume a carbohydrate restricted diet with 10–15% energy from carbohydrate, 30–35% energy from protein and 55–60% energy from fat. Subjects were randomly assigned to either EGG (640 mg/d additional dietary cholesterol or SUB groups [equivalent amount of egg substitute (0 dietary cholesterol contributions per day] for 12 weeks. At the end of the intervention, there were no changes in plasma total or LDL cholesterol (LDL-C compared to baseline (P > 0.10 or differences in plasma total or LDL-C between groups. The mRNA abundance for HMG-CoA reductase and LDL-r were measured in mononuclear cells using real time PCR. The EGG group showed a significant decrease in HMG-CoA reductase mRNA (1.98 ± 1.26 to 1.32 ± 0.92 arbitrary units P

  6. Self-monitoring urinary salt excretion in adults: A novel education program for restricting dietary salt intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutake, Kenichiro; Sawano, Kayoko; Yamaguchi, Shoko; Sakai, Hiroko; Amadera, Hatsumi; Tsuchihashi, Takuya

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the usefulness of the self-monitoring of urinary salt excretion for educating individuals about the risk of excessive dietary salt intake. The subjects were 30 volunteers (15 men and 15 women) not consuming anti-hypertensive medication. The subjects measured urinary salt excretion at home for 4 weeks using a self-monitoring device. Blood pressure (BP), anthropometric variables and nutritional variables (by a dietary-habits questionnaire) were measured before and after the measurement of urinary salt excretion. Statistical analyses were performed, including paired t-tests, Chi-square test, Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression analysis. In all subjects, the average urinary salt excretion over 4 weeks was 8.05±1.61 g/day and the range (maximum-minimum value) was 5.58±2.15 g/day. Salt excretion decreased significantly in weeks 3 and 4 (Pself-monitoring device appears to be an effective educational tool for improving the quality of life of healthy adults.

  7. Prolonged calorie restriction downregulates skeletal muscle mTORC1 signaling independent of dietary protein intake and associated microRNA expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee M Margolis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Short-term (5-10 days calorie restriction (CR downregulates muscle protein synthesis, with consumption of a high protein-based diet attenuating this decline. Benefit of increase protein intake is believed to be due to maintenance of amino acid-mediated anabolic signaling through the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1, however, there is limited evidence to support this contention. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of prolonged CR and high protein diets on skeletal muscle mTORC1 signaling and expression of associated microRNA (miR. 12-wk old male Sprague Dawley rats consumed ad libitum (AL or calorie restricted (CR; 40% adequate (10%, AIN-93M or high (32% protein milk-based diets for 16 weeks. Body composition was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle protein content was calculated from muscle homogenate protein concentrations expressed relative to fat-free mass to estimate protein content. Western blot and RT-qPCR were used to determine mTORC1 signaling and mRNA and miR expression in fasted mixed gastrocnemius. Independent of dietary protein intake, muscle protein content was 38% lower (P < 0.05 in CR compared to AL. Phosphorylation and total Akt, mTOR, rpS6 and p70S6K were lower (P < 0.05 in CR versus AL, and total rpS6 was associated with muscle protein content (r = 0.64, r2 = 0.36. Skeletal muscle miR expression was not altered by either energy or protein intake. This study provides evidence that chronic CR attenuates muscle protein content by downregulating mTORC1 signaling. This response is independent of skeletal muscle miR and dietary protein.

  8. Effects of Dietary Fructose Restriction on Liver Fat, De Novo Lipogenesis, and Insulin Kinetics in Children With Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Jean-Marc; Noworolski, Susan M; Erkin-Cakmak, Ayca; Korn, Natalie J; Wen, Michael J; Tai, Viva W; Jones, Grace M; Palii, Sergiu P; Velasco-Alin, Moises; Pan, Karen; Patterson, Bruce W; Gugliucci, Alejandro; Lustig, Robert H; Mulligan, Kathleen

    2017-09-01

    Consumption of sugar is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and cardiovascular disease. The conversion of fructose to fat in liver (de novo lipogenesis [DNL]) may be a modifiable pathogenetic pathway. We determined the effect of 9 days of isocaloric fructose restriction on DNL, liver fat, visceral fat (VAT), subcutaneous fat, and insulin kinetics in obese Latino and African American children with habitual high sugar consumption (fructose intake >50 g/d). Children (9-18 years old; n = 41) had all meals provided for 9 days with the same energy and macronutrient composition as their standard diet, but with starch substituted for sugar, yielding a final fructose content of 4% of total kilocalories. Metabolic assessments were performed before and after fructose restriction. Liver fat, VAT, and subcutaneous fat were determined by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. The fractional DNL area under the curve value was measured using stable isotope tracers and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Insulin kinetics were calculated from oral glucose tolerance tests. Paired analyses compared change from day 0 to day 10 within each child. Compared with baseline, on day 10, liver fat decreased from a median of 7.2% (interquartile range [IQR], 2.5%-14.8%) to 3.8% (IQR, 1.7%-15.5%) (P fructose restriction decreased liver fat, VAT, and DNL, and improved insulin kinetics in children with obesity. These findings support efforts to reduce sugar consumption. ClinicalTrials.gov Number: NCT01200043. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary restriction causes chronic elevation of corticosterone and enhances stress response in red-legged kittiwake chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Kitaiskaia, E.V.; Wingfield, J.C.; Piatt, John F.

    2001-01-01

    Release of corticosterone in hungry kittiwake chicks facilitates begging and allows them to restore depleted energy reserves by increasing parental food provisioning. However, in order to avoid detrimental effects of chronic elevation of corticosterone, chicks might suppress adrenocortical activity in response to prolonged food shortages. In this study we examined temporal dynamics of corticosterone release in red-legged kittiwake (Rissa brevirostris) chicks exposed to prolonged restrictions in energy content and/or nutritional quality (low versus high lipid content) of their food. Starting at the age of 15 days, chicks were fed either high- or low-lipid fish at 40%, 65%, and 100% of ad libitum energy intake. Body mass measurements and baseline plasma samples were taken on a weekly basis after beginning of the treatment. After 3 weeks of treatment, chicks were exposed to a standardized acute handling and restraint stress protocol, where in addition to a baseline sample, three plasma samples were taken at intervals up to 50 min. We found that food-restricted chicks had lower body mass, chronically (during 2-3 weeks) elevated baseline and higher acute stress-induced levels of corticosterone compared to chicks fed ad libitum. Low lipid content of food further exacerbated these effects. An increase in baseline levels of corticosterone was observed within a week after energy requirements of food-restricted chicks exceeded their daily energy intake. A tendency for suppression of adrenocortical activity was observed in treatments fed low-lipid diets only at the end of the experiment. We suggest that nest-bound chicks, if food-stressed, might suffer deleterious effects of chronic elevation of corticosterone.

  10. Dietary carbohydrates impair the protective effect of protein restriction against diabetes in NZO mice used as a model of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laeger, Thomas; Castaño-Martinez, Teresa; Werno, Martin W; Japtok, Lukasz; Baumeier, Christian; Jonas, Wenke; Kleuser, Burkhard; Schürmann, Annette

    2018-06-01

    Low-protein diets are well known to improve glucose tolerance and increase energy expenditure. Increases in circulating fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) have been implicated as a potential underlying mechanism. We aimed to test whether low-protein diets in the context of a high-carbohydrate or high-fat regimen would also protect against type 2 diabetes in New Zealand Obese (NZO) mice used as a model of polygenetic obesity and type 2 diabetes. Mice were placed on high-fat diets that provided protein at control (16 kJ%; CON) or low (4 kJ%; low-protein/high-carbohydrate [LP/HC] or low-protein/high-fat [LP/HF]) levels. Protein restriction prevented the onset of hyperglycaemia and beta cell loss despite increased food intake and fat mass. The effect was seen only under conditions of a lower carbohydrate/fat ratio (LP/HF). When the carbohydrate/fat ratio was high (LP/HC), mice developed type 2 diabetes despite the robustly elevated hepatic FGF21 secretion and increased energy expenditure. Prevention of type 2 diabetes through protein restriction, without lowering food intake and body fat mass, is compromised by high dietary carbohydrates. Increased FGF21 levels and elevated energy expenditure do not protect against hyperglycaemia and type 2 diabetes per se.

  11. Dietary Chromium Restriction of Pregnant Mice Changes the Methylation Status of Hepatic Genes Involved with Insulin Signaling in Adult Male Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Sun, Xiaofang; Xiao, Xinhua; Zheng, Jia; Li, Ming; Yu, Miao; Ping, Fan; Wang, Zhixin; Qi, Cuijuan; Wang, Tong; Wang, Xiaojing

    2017-01-01

    Maternal undernutrition is linked with an elevated risk of diabetes mellitus in offspring regardless of the postnatal dietary status. This is also found in maternal micro-nutrition deficiency, especial chromium which is a key glucose regulator. We investigated whether maternal chromium restriction contributes to the development of diabetes in offspring by affecting DNA methylation status in liver tissue. After being mated with control males, female weanling 8-week-old C57BL mice were fed a control diet (CON, 1.19 mg chromium/kg diet) or a low chromium diet (LC, 0.14 mg chromium/kg diet) during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, some offspring were shifted to the other diet (CON-LC, or LC-CON), while others remained on the same diet (CON-CON, or LC-LC) for 29 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, and oral glucose tolerance test was performed to evaluate the glucose metabolism condition. Methylation differences in liver from the LC-CON group and CON-CON groups were studied by using a DNA methylation array. Bisulfite sequencing was carried out to validate the results of the methylation array. Maternal chromium limitation diet increased the body weight, blood glucose, and serum insulin levels. Even when switched to the control diet after weaning, the offspring also showed impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. DNA methylation profiling of the offspring livers revealed 935 differentially methylated genes in livers of the maternal chromium restriction diet group. Pathway analysis identified the insulin signaling pathway was the main process affected by hypermethylated genes. Bisulfite sequencing confirmed that some genes in insulin signaling pathway were hypermethylated in livers of the LC-CON and LC-LC group. Accordingly, the expression of genes in insulin signaling pathway was downregulated. There findings suggest that maternal chromium restriction diet results in glucose intolerance in male offspring through alterations in DNA methylation which

  12. Dietary Chromium Restriction of Pregnant Mice Changes the Methylation Status of Hepatic Genes Involved with Insulin Signaling in Adult Male Offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    Full Text Available Maternal undernutrition is linked with an elevated risk of diabetes mellitus in offspring regardless of the postnatal dietary status. This is also found in maternal micro-nutrition deficiency, especial chromium which is a key glucose regulator. We investigated whether maternal chromium restriction contributes to the development of diabetes in offspring by affecting DNA methylation status in liver tissue. After being mated with control males, female weanling 8-week-old C57BL mice were fed a control diet (CON, 1.19 mg chromium/kg diet or a low chromium diet (LC, 0.14 mg chromium/kg diet during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, some offspring were shifted to the other diet (CON-LC, or LC-CON, while others remained on the same diet (CON-CON, or LC-LC for 29 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, and oral glucose tolerance test was performed to evaluate the glucose metabolism condition. Methylation differences in liver from the LC-CON group and CON-CON groups were studied by using a DNA methylation array. Bisulfite sequencing was carried out to validate the results of the methylation array. Maternal chromium limitation diet increased the body weight, blood glucose, and serum insulin levels. Even when switched to the control diet after weaning, the offspring also showed impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. DNA methylation profiling of the offspring livers revealed 935 differentially methylated genes in livers of the maternal chromium restriction diet group. Pathway analysis identified the insulin signaling pathway was the main process affected by hypermethylated genes. Bisulfite sequencing confirmed that some genes in insulin signaling pathway were hypermethylated in livers of the LC-CON and LC-LC group. Accordingly, the expression of genes in insulin signaling pathway was downregulated. There findings suggest that maternal chromium restriction diet results in glucose intolerance in male offspring through alterations in DNA

  13. Short-term meal replacements followed by dietary macronutrient restriction enhance weight loss in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Lisa J; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter M; Wittert, Gary A; Williams, Gemma; Norman, Robert J

    2006-07-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common condition in women, improves with weight loss. Meal replacements in short-term weight loss and strategies for weight maintenance have not been investigated in PCOS. We compared in overweight women with PCOS the effects of meal replacements in short-term weight-loss and longer-term carbohydrate- or fat-restriction strategies on weight maintenance and improvements in reproductive and metabolic variables. Overweight women with PCOS (n = 43; x +/- SD age: 32.1 +/- 5.2 y; weight: 96.1 +/- 18.4 kg) followed an 8-wk weight-loss regimen (2 meal replacements/d, 4904.4 +/- 127 kJ; phase 1) and then a 6-mo weight-maintenance carbohydrate- (weight (5.6 +/- 2.4 kg), waist circumference (6.1 +/- 2.5 cm), body fat (4.1 +/- 2.2 kg), insulin (2.8 +/- 1.1 mU/L), total testosterone (0.3 +/- 0.7 nmol/L), and free androgen index (3.1 +/- 4.6) occurred; these changes were sustained during phase 2. No significant differences between diet groups were seen for any variables. At 6 mo, both approaches resulted in a net weight loss of 4.7 +/- 4.6 kg. Improvements in menstrual cyclicity occurred for 16 (57.1%) of 28 subjects. Meal replacements are an effective strategy for the short-term management of PCOS. Advice on moderate fat or carbohydrate restriction was equally effective in maintaining weight reduction and improving reproductive and metabolic variables.

  14. THE LAWFUL CONSEQUENCES OF BIRTH CERTIFICATE ON CHILDREN ABROGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasya Immanuela Sandjojo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Research due to the law on the abrogation of birth certificates against children aims to know the effect of law affecting the child, as well as review of the determination and judgment in court that play a role in the birth certificate abrogation. This research describes the importance of birth certificate because of the low public awareness to perform birth registration. The study uses normative juridical research, which faces legal issues with the process of discovering legal rules, principles, and legal doctrines, with deductive methods, starting from the general thing and then generating specific and legitimate answers. Based on the results of the study, that the abrogation of birth certificate brings great lawful consequences for the child, especially the status and position of the child, as well as the right of alimentation,  which in this study included some examples of determination and court decision about the birth certificate abrogation.

  15. Skeletal Muscle CAP Expression Increases after Dietary Restriction and Aerobic Training in Women with a History of Gestational Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alice S; Serra, Monica C

    2016-01-01

    The purpose is to determine the effects of 6 months caloric restriction and aerobic training (3x/wk) (CR+AEX) on c-CBL associated protein (CAP) gene expression in women with a history of GDM. CAP is involved in cell signaling and protein ubiquitination, and is linked to the development of insulin resistance. Obese (BMI=32 ± 1 kg/m 2 , % fat=46 ± 2, X ± SEM), sedentary (VO2 max=21.2 ± 1.2 ml/kg/min), women aged 52 ± 2 years participated in 6 months D+WL (n=10) with body composition, fitness (VO2 max), and glucose tolerance testing. Insulin sensitivity was assessed during the last 30 min of 2-hour hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps (40 mU.m -2 .min -1 ) pre and post interventions. Vastus lateralis skeletal muscle biopsies (n=7) were conducted and CAP, GLUT4 and glycogen synthase (GS) gene expression measured by RT-PCR. No change in FFM by DXA was observed, but body weight decreased 8% with losses of total body fat mass (Prestriction and aerobic training in women with a history of gestational diabetes.

  16. Ebselen abrogates TNFα induced pro‐inflammatory response in glioblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Tewari, Richa; Sharma, Vivek; Koul, Nitin; Ghosh, Abhishek; Joseph, Christy; Hossain Sk, Ugir; Sen, Ellora

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the pro‐inflammatory response mediated by TNFα in glioblastoma and whether treatment with organoselenium Ebselen (2‐phenyl‐1,2‐benzisoselenazol‐3[2H]one) can affect TNFα induced inflammatory response. Exposure to TNFα increased the expression of pro‐inflammatory mediator interleukin IL‐6, IL‐8, monocyte chemoattractant protein‐1 (MCP‐1) and cyclooxygenase (COX‐2). Treatment with Ebselen abrogated TNFα induced increase in pro‐inflammatory mediators. Ebselen not only abrogated T...

  17. Effect of dietary restriction on metabolic, anatomic and molecular traits in mice depends on the initial level of basal metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzek, Pawel; Ksiazek, Aneta; Dobrzyn, Agnieszka; Konarzewski, Marek

    2012-09-15

    Dietary restriction (DR)-related delay of ageing is hypothesized to be mediated by the reduction of the metabolic rate (MR). However, studies on the effect of DR on MR have produced equivocal results. We demonstrated that this lack of congruency can be due to a variation in the initial level of MR within a given pool of experimental subjects. We subjected laboratory mice from two line types divergently selected for basal MR (BMR) to 30% DR lasting 6 months to test whether the effect of DR depends on the initial variation in BMR and peak MR. BMR and peak MR were independently affected by DR. The effect of DR was stronger in line types with higher initial levels of MR. Line-type-specific changes in the proportions of body components explained contrasting effects of DR on the mass-corrected BMR, which decreased in the high-BMR line type and did not change in the low-BMR line type. We conclude that the initial variation in MR can significantly affect response to DR. However, we found no association between the level of MR and mechanisms underlying the susceptibility to or protection against oxidative stress.

  18. Dietary restriction delays the secretion of senescence associated secretory phenotype by reducing DNA damage response in the process of renal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjuan; Cai, Guangyan; Chen, Xiangmei

    2017-09-13

    Dietary restriction (DR) has multiple and essential effects in protecting against DNA damage in model organisms. Persistent DNA damage plays a central role in the process of aging. Senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), as a product of cellular aging, can accelerate the process of cellular senescence as a feedback. In this study, we directly observed whether a DR of 30% for 6months in aged rats could retard SASP by delaying the progression of DNA damage and also found the specific mechanism. The results revealed that a 30% DR could significantly improve renal pathology and some metabolic characteristics. The biomarkers and products of DNA damage were decreased in the process of renal aging on a 30% DR. A series of SASP, notably cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor, were obviously reduced by DR during renal aging. The phosphorylation levels of NF-κB and IκBα in aged kidneys of DR group were markedly reduced. These findings suggest that a 30% DR for 6months can delay renal aging and reduce the accumulation of SASP by retarding the progression of DNA damage and decreasing the transcription activity of NF-κB, thus providing a target to delay renal aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. DAF-2/insulin-like signaling in C. elegans modifies effects of dietary restriction and nutrient stress on aging, stress and growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy B Iser

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Dietary restriction (DR and reduced insulin/IGF-I-like signaling (IIS are two regimens that promote longevity in a variety of organisms. Genetic analysis in C. elegans nematodes has shown that DR and IIS couple to distinct cellular signaling pathways. However, it is not known whether these pathways ultimately converge on overlapping or distinct targets to extend lifespan.We investigated this question by examining additional effects of DR in wildtype animals and in daf-2 mutants with either moderate or severe IIS deficits. Surprisingly, DR and IIS had opposing effects on these physiological processes. First, DR induced a stress-related change in intestinal vesicle trafficking, termed the FIRE response, which was suppressed in daf-2 mutants. Second, DR did not strongly affect expression of a daf-2- and stress-responsive transcriptional reporter. Finally, DR-related growth impairment was suppressed in daf-2 mutants.These findings reveal that an important biological function of DAF-2/IIS is to enhance growth and survival under nutrient-limited conditions. However, we also discovered that levels of DAF-2 pathway activity modified the effects of DR on longevity. Thus, while DR and IIS clearly affect lifespan through independent targets, there may also be some prolongevity targets that are convergently regulated by these pathways.

  20. DAF-2/insulin-like signaling in C. elegans modifies effects of dietary restriction and nutrient stress on aging, stress and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iser, Wendy B; Wolkow, Catherine A

    2007-11-28

    Dietary restriction (DR) and reduced insulin/IGF-I-like signaling (IIS) are two regimens that promote longevity in a variety of organisms. Genetic analysis in C. elegans nematodes has shown that DR and IIS couple to distinct cellular signaling pathways. However, it is not known whether these pathways ultimately converge on overlapping or distinct targets to extend lifespan. We investigated this question by examining additional effects of DR in wildtype animals and in daf-2 mutants with either moderate or severe IIS deficits. Surprisingly, DR and IIS had opposing effects on these physiological processes. First, DR induced a stress-related change in intestinal vesicle trafficking, termed the FIRE response, which was suppressed in daf-2 mutants. Second, DR did not strongly affect expression of a daf-2- and stress-responsive transcriptional reporter. Finally, DR-related growth impairment was suppressed in daf-2 mutants. These findings reveal that an important biological function of DAF-2/IIS is to enhance growth and survival under nutrient-limited conditions. However, we also discovered that levels of DAF-2 pathway activity modified the effects of DR on longevity. Thus, while DR and IIS clearly affect lifespan through independent targets, there may also be some prolongevity targets that are convergently regulated by these pathways.

  1. Integrating spot short-term measurements of carbon emissions and backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate intake in lactating dairy cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A B D; Utsumi, S A; Dorich, C D; Brito, A F

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to use spot short-term measurements of CH4 (QCH4) and CO2 (QCO2) integrated with backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate dry matter intake (DMI) in lactating dairy cows. Twelve multiparous cows averaging 173±37d in milk and 4 primiparous cows averaging 179±27d in milk were blocked by days in milk, parity, and DMI (as a percentage of body weight) and, within each block, randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: ad libitum intake (AL) or restricted intake (RI=90% DMI) according to a crossover design. Each experimental period lasted 22d with 14d for treatments adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. Diets contained (dry matter basis): 40% corn silage, 12% grass-legume haylage, and 48% concentrate. Spot short-term gas measurements were taken in 5-min sampling periods from 15 cows (1 cow refused sampling) using a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system (GreenFeed, C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD) with intervals of 12h between the 2daily samples. Sampling points were advanced 2h from a day to the next to yield 16 gas samples per cow over 8d to account for diurnal variation in QCH4 and QCO2. The following equations were used sequentially to estimate DMI: (1) heat production (MJ/d)=(4.96 + 16.07 ÷ respiratory quotient) × QCO2; respiratory quotient=0.95; (2) metabolizable energy intake (MJ/d)=(heat production + milk energy) ± tissue energy balance; (3) digestible energy (DE) intake (MJ/d)=metabolizable energy + CH4 energy + urinary energy; (4) gross energy (GE) intake (MJ/d)=DE + [(DE ÷ in vitro true dry matter digestibility) - DE]; and (5) DMI (kg/d)=GE intake estimated ÷ diet GE concentration. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) and Fit Model procedure in JMP (α=0.05; SAS Institute Inc.). Cows significantly differed in DMI measured (23.8 vs. 22.4kg/d for AL and RI, respectively). Dry matter intake estimated using QCH4 and QCO2 coupled with

  2. Dietary restriction but not angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade improves DNA damage-related vasodilator dysfunction in rapidly aging Ercc1Δ/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyan; van Thiel, Bibi S; Bautista-Niño, Paula K; Reiling, Erwin; Durik, Matej; Leijten, Frank P J; Ridwan, Yanto; Brandt, Renata M C; van Steeg, Harry; Dollé, Martijn E T; Vermeij, Wilbert P; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Essers, Jeroen; van der Pluijm, Ingrid; Danser, A H Jan; Roks, Anton J M

    2017-08-01

    DNA damage is an important contributor to endothelial dysfunction and age-related vascular disease. Recently, we demonstrated in a DNA repair-deficient, prematurely aging mouse model ( Ercc1 Δ/- mice) that dietary restriction (DR) strongly increases life- and health span, including ameliorating endothelial dysfunction, by preserving genomic integrity. In this mouse mutant displaying prominent accelerated, age-dependent endothelial dysfunction we investigated the signaling pathways involved in improved endothelium-mediated vasodilation by DR, and explore the potential role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Ercc1 Δ/- mice showed increased blood pressure and decreased aortic relaxations to acetylcholine (ACh) in organ bath experiments. Nitric oxide (NO) signaling and phospho-Ser 1177 -eNOS were compromised in Ercc1 Δ / - DR improved relaxations by increasing prostaglandin-mediated responses. Increase of cyclo-oxygenase 2 and decrease of phosphodiesterase 4B were identified as potential mechanisms. DR also prevented loss of NO signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells and normalized angiotensin II (Ang II) vasoconstrictions, which were increased in Ercc1 Δ/- mice. Ercc1 Δ/ - mutants showed a loss of Ang II type 2 receptor-mediated counter-regulation of Ang II type 1 receptor-induced vasoconstrictions. Chronic losartan treatment effectively decreased blood pressure, but did not improve endothelium-dependent relaxations. This result might relate to the aging-associated loss of treatment efficacy of RAS blockade with respect to endothelial function improvement. In summary, DR effectively prevents endothelium-dependent vasodilator dysfunction by augmenting prostaglandin-mediated responses, whereas chronic Ang II type 1 receptor blockade is ineffective. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  3. Basal and β-Adrenergic Cardiomyocytes Contractility Dysfunction Induced by Dietary Protein Restriction is Associated with Downregulation of SERCA2a Expression and Disturbance of Endoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+ Regulation in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlete R. Penitente

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mechanisms responsible for the cardiac dysfunction associated with dietary protein restriction (PR are poorly understood. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of PR on calcium kinetics, basal and β-adrenergic contractility in murine ventricular cardiomyocytes. Methods: After breastfeeding male Fisher rats were distributed into a control group (CG, n = 20 and a protein-restricted group (PRG, n = 20, receiving isocaloric diets for 35 days containing 15% and 6% protein, respectively. Biometric and hemodynamic variables were measured. After euthanasia left ventricles (LV were collected for histopathological evaluation, SERCA2a expression, cardiomyocytes contractility and Ca2+sparks analysis. Results: PRG animals showed reduced general growth, increased heart rate and arterial pressure. These animals presented extracellular matrix expansion and disorganization, cardiomyocytes hypotrophy, reduced amplitudes of shortening and maximum velocity of contraction and relaxation at baseline and after β-adrenergic stimulation. Reduced SERCA2a expression as well as higher frequency and lower amplitude of Ca2+sparks were observed in PRG cardiomyocytes. Conclusion: The observations reveal that protein restriction induces marked myocardial morphofunctional damage. The pathological changes of cardiomyocyte mechanics suggest the potential involvement of the β-adrenergic system, which is possibly associated with changes in SERCA2a expression and disturbances in Ca2+ intracellular kinetics.

  4. Whole Grain Compared with Refined Wheat Decreases the Percentage of Body Fat Following a 12-Week, Energy-Restricted Dietary Intervention in Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mette; Toubro, Søren; Jensen, Morten Georg

    2012-01-01

    ) with whole-grain wheat (WW) for 12 wk on body weight and composition after a 2-wk run-in period of consumption of RW-containing food intake. In this open-label randomized trial, 79 overweight or obese postmenopausal women were randomized to an energy-restricted diet (deficit of approximately 1250 k...

  5. Impact of caloric and dietary restriction regimens on markers of health and longevity in humans and animals: a summary of available findings

    OpenAIRE

    Trepanowski, John F; Canale, Robert E; Marshall, Kate E; Kabir, Mohammad M; Bloomer, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Considerable interest has been shown in the ability of caloric restriction (CR) to improve multiple parameters of health and to extend lifespan. CR is the reduction of caloric intake - typically by 20 - 40% of ad libitum consumption - while maintaining adequate nutrient intake. Several alternatives to CR exist. CR combined with exercise (CE) consists of both decreased caloric intake and increased caloric expenditure. Alternate-day fasting (ADF) consists of two interchanging days; one...

  6. Metformin and dietary advice to improve insulin sensitivity and promote gestational restriction of weight among pregnant women who are overweight or obese: the GRoW Randomised Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Jodie M; Grivell, Rosalie M; Deussen, Andrea R; Dekker, Gustaaf; Louise, Jennie; Hague, William

    2016-11-21

    Obesity is a significant global health problem, with approximately 50% of women entering pregnancy having a body mass index greater than or equal to 25 kg/m 2 . Obesity during pregnancy is associated with a well-recognised increased risk of adverse health outcomes both for the woman and her infant. Currently available data from large scale randomised trials and systematic reviews highlight only modest effects of antenatal dietary and lifestyle interventions in limiting gestational weight gain, with little impact on clinically relevant pregnancy outcomes. Further information evaluating alternative strategies is required. The aims of this randomised controlled trial are to assess whether the use of metformin as an adjunct therapy to dietary and lifestyle advice for overweight and obese women during pregnancy is effective in improving maternal, fetal and infant health outcomes. Design: Multicentre randomised, controlled trial. Women with a singleton, live gestation between 10 +0 -20 +0 weeks who are obese or overweight (defined as body mass index greater than or equal to 25 kg/m 2 ), at the first antenatal visit. Trial Entry & Randomisation: Eligible, consenting women will be randomised between 10 +0 and 20 +0 weeks gestation using an online computer randomisation system, and randomisation schedule prepared by non-clinical research staff with balanced variable blocks. Stratification will be according to maternal BMI at trial entry, parity, and centre where planned to give birth. Treatment Schedules: Women randomised to the Metformin Group will receive a supply of 500 mg oral metformin tablets. Women randomised to the Placebo Group will receive a supply of identical appearing and tasting placebo tablets. Women will be instructed to commence taking one tablet daily for a period of one week, increasing to a maximum of two tablets twice daily over four weeks and then continuing until birth. Women, clinicians, researchers and outcome assessors will be blinded to the

  7. Use of a Computerized Tracking System to Monitor and Provide Feedback on Dietary Goals for Calorie-Restricted Diets: The POUNDS LOST Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D.; LeBlanc, Eric; Allen, H. Raymond; Karabetian, Christy; Sacks, Frank; Bray, George; Williamson, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    The use of self-monitoring as a tool to facilitate behavioral modification is common in many lifestyle-based weight loss interventions. Electronic tracking programs, including computer-based systems and smart phone applications, have been developed to allow individuals to self-monitor their behavior digitally. These programs offer an advantage over traditional self-report modalities in that they can provide users with direct feedback about dietary and/or physical activity adherence levels and thereby assist them in real-time decision making. This article describes the use of an Internet-based computerized tracking system (CTS) that was developed specifically for the POUNDS LOST study, a 2-year randomized controlled trial designed to test the efficacy of four macronutrient diets for weight and fat reduction in healthy, overweight men and women (body mass index range = 25.0–39.9 kg/m2). The CTS served many functions in this study, including data collection, dietary and exercise assessment and feedback, messaging system, and report generation. Across all groups, participants with high usage of the CTS during the initial 8 weeks lost greater amounts of weight than participants with low usage (8.7% versus 5.5% of initial body weight, respectively; p < .001) at week 32. Rates of CTS utilization were highest during the first year of this 2-year intervention, and utilization of the CTS declined steadily over time. The unique features of the CTS combined with technological developments, such as smart phone applications, offer significant potential to improve the user’s self-monitoring experience and adherence to health promotion programs designed specifically for individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:23063049

  8. TSH Receptor Signaling Abrogation by a Novel Small Molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Rauf; Realubit, Ronald B; Karan, Charles; Mezei, Mihaly; Davies, Terry F

    2016-01-01

    Pathological activation of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is caused by thyroid-stimulating antibodies in patients with Graves' disease (GD) or by somatic and rare genomic mutations that enhance constitutive activation of the receptor influencing both G protein and non-G protein signaling. Potential selective small molecule antagonists represent novel therapeutic compounds for abrogation of such abnormal TSHR signaling. In this study, we describe the identification and in vitro characterization of a novel small molecule antagonist by high-throughput screening (HTS). The identification of the TSHR antagonist was performed using a transcription-based TSH-inhibition bioassay. TSHR-expressing CHO cells, which also expressed a luciferase-tagged CRE response element, were optimized using bovine TSH as the activator, in a 384 well plate format, which had a Z score of 0.3-0.6. Using this HTS assay, we screened a diverse library of ~80,000 compounds at a final concentration of 16.7 μM. The selection criteria for a positive hit were based on a mean signal threshold of ≥50% inhibition of control TSH stimulation. The screening resulted in 450 positive hits giving a hit ratio of 0.56%. A secondary confirmation screen against TSH and forskolin - a post receptor activator of adenylyl cyclase - confirmed one TSHR-specific candidate antagonist molecule (named VA-K-14). This lead molecule had an IC 50 of 12.3 μM and a unique chemical structure. A parallel analysis for cell viability indicated that the lead inhibitor was non-cytotoxic at its effective concentrations. In silico docking studies performed using a TSHR transmembrane model showed the hydrophobic contact locations and the possible mode of inhibition of TSHR signaling. Furthermore, this molecule was capable of inhibiting TSHR stimulation by GD patient sera and monoclonal-stimulating TSHR antibodies. In conclusion, we report the identification of a novel small molecule TSHR inhibitor, which has the

  9. Curcumin and folic acid abrogated methotrexate induced vascular endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankrityayan, Himanshu; Majumdar, Anuradha S

    2016-01-01

    Methotrexate, an antifolate drug widely used in rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and cancer, is known to cause vascular endothelial dysfunction by causing hyperhomocysteinemia, direct injury to endothelium or by increasing the oxidative stress (raising levels of 7,8-dihydrobiopterin). Curcumin is a naturally occurring polyphenol with strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action and therapeutic spectra similar to that of methotrexate. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of curcumin on methotrexate induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and also compare its effect with that produced by folic acid (0.072 μg·g(-1)·day(-1), p.o., 2 weeks) per se and in combination. Male Wistar rats were exposed to methotrexate (0.35 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), i.p.) for 2 weeks to induce endothelial dysfunction. Methotrexate exposure led to shedding of endothelium, decreased vascular reactivity, increased oxidative stress, decreased serum nitrite levels, and increase in aortic collagen deposition. Curcumin (200 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) and 400 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), p.o.) for 4 weeks prevented the increase in oxidative stress, decrease in serum nitrite, aortic collagen deposition, and also vascular reactivity. The effects were comparable with those produced by folic acid therapy. The study shows that curcumin, when concomitantly administered with methotrexate, abrogated its vascular side effects by preventing an increase in oxidative stress and abating any reduction in physiological nitric oxide levels.

  10. Attachment, invasion, chemotaxis, and proteinase expression of B16-BL6 melanoma cells exhibiting a low metastatic phenotype after exposure to dietary restriction of tyrosine and phenylalanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenkott, C E; Huijzer, J C; Cardeiro, D J; Elstad, C A; Meadows, G G

    1996-03-01

    We previously reported that low levels of tyrosine (Tyr) and phenylalanine (Phe) alter the metastatic phenotype of B16-BL6 (BL6) murine melanoma and select for tumor cell populations with decreased lung colonizing ability. To more specifically characterize the effects of Tyr and Phe restriction on the malignant phenotype of BL6, we investigated in vitro attachment, invasion, proteinase expression, and chemotaxis of high and low metastatic BL6 variants. High metastatic variant cells were isolated from subcutaneous tumors of mice fed a nutritionally complete diet (ND cells) and low metastatic variant cells were isolated from mice fed a diet restricted in Tyr and Phe (LTP cells). Results indicate that attachment to reconstituted basement membrane (Matrigel) was significantly reduced in LTP cells as compared to ND cells. Attachment to collagen IV, laminin, and fibronectin were similar between the two variants. Invasion through Matrigel and growth factor-reduced Matrigel were significantly decreased in LTP cells as compared to ND cells. Zymography revealed the presence of M(r) 92,000 and M(r) 72,000 progelatinases, tissue plasminogen activator, and urokinase plasminogen activator in the conditioned medium of both variants; however, there were no differences in activity of these secreted proteinases between the two variants. Growth of the variants on growth factor-reduced Matrigel similarly induced expression of the M(r) 92,000 progelatinase. The variants exhibited similar chemotactic responses toward laminin. However, the chemotactic response toward fibronectin by LTP cells was significantly increased. MFR5, a monoclonal antibody which selectively blocks function of the alpha 5 chain of the alpha 5 beta 1 integrin, VLA-5, decreased the chemotactic response toward fibronectin of ND cells by 37%; the chemotactic response by LTP cells was reduced by 49%. This effect was specific for fibronectin-mediated chemotaxis since the chemotaxis toward laminin and invasion through

  11. Combined moderate and high intensity exercise with dietary restriction improves cardiac autonomic function associated with a reduction in central and systemic arterial stiffness in obese adults: a clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study aimed to assess the effects of exercise with dietary restriction on cardiac autonomic activity, arterial stiffness, and cardiovascular biomarkers in obese individuals. Methods Seventeen obese adults completed an 8-week exercise and dietary program. Anthropometry, body composition, and multiple biochemical markers were measured. We used carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV, central blood pressure, and augmentation index (AIx to assess arterial stiffness. To determine cardiac autonomic activity, heart rate variability (HRV was analyzed by standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN, square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal-to-normal intervals (RMSSD, total power (TF, low-frequency power in normalized units (LFnu, high-frequency power in normalized units (HFnu, and low-frequency power/high-frequency power (LF/HF. Results Following the exercise and diet intervention, obese subjects had significant reductions in body weight, body mass index, body fat percentage, brachial systolic blood pressure, and resting heart rate, and they had shown improvements in blood chemistry markers such as lipid profiles, insulin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. There was a significant reduction in both cfPWV and baPWV following the intervention when compared to baseline levels. Moreover, the AIx and aortic systolic blood pressure were significantly reduced after the intervention. The diet and exercise intervention significantly increased cardiac autonomic modulation (determined by improved SDNN, RMSSD, TP LF, HF, and LF/HF, which was partly due to changes in heart rate, insulin resistance, and the inflammatory pattern. Furthermore, we observed a correlation between enhanced cardiac autonomic modulation (LF/HF and decreased arterial stiffness, as measured by central cfPWV and systemic baPWV. Discussion An 8-week combined intervention of diet and

  12. A bioavailable cathepsin S nitrile inhibitor abrogates tumor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Richard D A; Young, Andrew; Burden, Roberta E; Williams, Rich; Scott, Christopher J

    2016-04-21

    Cathepsin S has been implicated in a variety of malignancies with genetic ablation studies demonstrating a key role in tumor invasion and neo-angiogenesis. Thus, the application of cathepsin S inhibitors may have clinical utility in the treatment of cancer. In this investigation, we applied a cell-permeable dipeptidyl nitrile inhibitor of cathepsin S, originally developed to target cathepsin S in inflammatory diseases, in both in vitro and in vivo tumor models. Validation of cathepsin S selectivity was carried out by assaying fluorogenic substrate turnover using recombinant cathepsin protease. Complete kinetic analysis was carried out and true K i values calculated. Abrogation of tumour invasion using murine MC38 and human MCF7 cell lines were carried out in vitro using a transwell migration assay. Effect on endothelial tube formation was evaluated using primary HUVEC cells. The effect of inhibitor in vivo on MC38 and MCF7 tumor progression was evaluated using cells propagated in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice respectively. Subsequent immunohistochemical staining of proliferation (Ki67) and apoptosis (TUNEL) was carried out on MCF7 tumors. We confirmed that this inhibitor was able to selectively target cathepsin S over family members K, V, L and B. The inhibitor also significantly reduced MC38 and MCF7 cell invasion and furthermore, significantly reduced HUVEC endothelial tubule formation in vitro. In vivo analysis revealed that the compound could significantly reduce tumor volume in murine MC38 syngeneic and MCF7 xenograft models. Immunohistochemical analysis of MCF7 tumors revealed cathepsin S inhibitor treatment significantly reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis. In summary, these results highlight the characterisation of this nitrile cathepsin S inhibitor using in vitro and in vivo tumor models, presenting a compound which may be used to further dissect the role of cathepsin S in cancer progression and may hold therapeutic potential.

  13. Trial Protocol: randomised controlled trial of the effects of very low calorie diet, modest dietary restriction, and sequential behavioural programme on hunger, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers stopping smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycett, Deborah; Hajek, Peter; Aveyard, Paul

    2010-10-07

    Weight gain accompanies smoking cessation, but dieting during quitting is controversial as hunger may increase urges to smoke. This is a feasibility trial for the investigation of a very low calorie diet (VLCD), individual modest energy restriction, and usual advice on hunger, ketosis, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers trying to quit. This is a 3 armed, unblinded, randomized controlled trial in overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2), daily smokers (CO > 10 ppm); with at least 30 participants in each group. Each group receives identical behavioural support and NRT patches (25 mg(8 weeks),15 mg(2 weeks),10 mg(2 weeks)). The VLCD group receive a 429-559 kcal/day liquid formula beginning 1 week before quitting and continuing for 4 weeks afterwards. The modest energy restricted group (termed individual dietary and activity planning(IDAP)) engage in goal-setting and receive an energy prescription based on individual basal metabolic rate(BMR) aiming for daily reduction of 600 kcal. The control group receive usual dietary advice that accompanies smoking cessation i.e. avoiding feeling hungry but eating healthy snacks. After this, the VLCD participants receive IDAP to provide support for changing eating habits in the longer term; the IDAP group continues receiving this support. The control group receive IDAP 8 weeks after quitting. This allows us to compare IDAP following a successful quit attempt with dieting concurrently during quitting. It also aims to prevent attrition in the unblinded, control group by meeting their need for weight management. Follow-up occurs at 6 and 12 months.Outcome measures include participant acceptability, measured qualitatively by semi-structured interviewing and quantitatively by recruitment and attrition rates. Feasibility of running the trial within primary care is measured by interview and questionnaire of the treatment providers. Adherence to the VLCD is verified by the presence of urinary ketones measured weekly. Daily

  14. Trial Protocol: Randomised controlled trial of the effects of very low calorie diet, modest dietary restriction, and sequential behavioural programme on hunger, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers stopping smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajek Peter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight gain accompanies smoking cessation, but dieting during quitting is controversial as hunger may increase urges to smoke. This is a feasibility trial for the investigation of a very low calorie diet (VLCD, individual modest energy restriction, and usual advice on hunger, ketosis, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers trying to quit. Methods This is a 3 armed, unblinded, randomized controlled trial in overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2, daily smokers (CO > 10 ppm; with at least 30 participants in each group. Each group receives identical behavioural support and NRT patches (25 mg(8 weeks,15 mg(2 weeks,10 mg(2 weeks. The VLCD group receive a 429-559 kcal/day liquid formula beginning 1 week before quitting and continuing for 4 weeks afterwards. The modest energy restricted group (termed individual dietary and activity planning(IDAP engage in goal-setting and receive an energy prescription based on individual basal metabolic rate(BMR aiming for daily reduction of 600 kcal. The control group receive usual dietary advice that accompanies smoking cessation i.e. avoiding feeling hungry but eating healthy snacks. After this, the VLCD participants receive IDAP to provide support for changing eating habits in the longer term; the IDAP group continues receiving this support. The control group receive IDAP 8 weeks after quitting. This allows us to compare IDAP following a successful quit attempt with dieting concurrently during quitting. It also aims to prevent attrition in the unblinded, control group by meeting their need for weight management. Follow-up occurs at 6 and 12 months. Outcome measures include participant acceptability, measured qualitatively by semi-structured interviewing and quantitatively by recruitment and attrition rates. Feasibility of running the trial within primary care is measured by interview and questionnaire of the treatment providers. Adherence to the VLCD is verified by the presence of

  15. Resistance exercise and aerobic exercise when paired with dietary energy restriction both reduce the clinical components of metabolic syndrome in previously physically inactive males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potteiger, Jeffrey A; Claytor, Randal P; Hulver, Mathew W; Hughes, Michael R; Carper, Michael J; Richmond, Scott; Thyfault, John P

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare resistance exercise training (RT) to aerobic exercise training (AE) on the clinical risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) in physically inactive overweight males (age 27-48 years). Subjects with at least one risk factor for MetSyn performed RT (n = 13, age 35.1 ± 4.7 years, BMI 31.2 ± 2.7 kg/m(2)) or AE (n = 9, age 37.6 ± 4.9 years, BMI, 31.2 ± 3.2 kg/m(2)) for 6 months. Training frequency and exercise session duration were equal and by 3 months the subjects exercised 4 day/week for 45 min/session. Blood lipids and glucose, waist circumference, and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were measured at 0, 3, and 6 months. A MetSyn z score was calculated for each subject from triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, fasting glucose, waist circumference, and MAP. Statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. No significant differences existed between RT and AE groups at 0 month. AE showed a significant reduction in MetSyn z score from 0 (0.91 ± 3.57) to 6 months (-1.35 ± 2.95), while RT approached significance (p = 0.07) from 0 (0.09 ± 2.62) to 6 months (-1.30 ± 2.22). Triglycerides (mmol/L) significantly decreased in AE from 0 (1.93 ± 0.90) to 6 months (1.41 ± 0.70). Waist circumference (cm) significantly decreased in AE from 0 (106.8 ± 7.3) to 6 months (101.2 ± 6.5), and in RT from 0 (108.4 ± 9.0) to 6 months (105.7 ± 7.0). MAP (mmHg) decreased in RT from 0 (93.8 ± 5.8) to 6 months (87.5 ± 6.1) and in AE from 0 (97.6 ± 7.0) to 6 months (91.3 ± 6.8). With equal training frequency and exercise session duration, both RT and AE training, when paired with energy restriction improve the clinical risk factor profile for MetSyn.

  16. Protein restriction and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Ren, Wenkai; Huang, Xingguo; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2018-03-26

    Protein restriction without malnutrition is currently an effective nutritional intervention known to prevent diseases and promote health span from yeast to human. Recently, low protein diets are reported to be associated with lowered cancer incidence and mortality risk of cancers in human. In murine models, protein restriction inhibits tumor growth via mTOR signaling pathway. IGF-1, amino acid metabolic programing, FGF21, and autophagy may also serve as potential mechanisms of protein restriction mediated cancer prevention. Together, dietary intervention aimed at reducing protein intake can be beneficial and has the potential to be widely adopted and effective in preventing and treating cancers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of dietary protein restriction on the secretory dynamics of 1 alpha-hydroxycorticosterone and urea in the dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula: a possible role for 1 alpha-hydroxycorticosterone in sodium retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, K J; O'Toole, L B; Hazon, N

    1993-08-01

    The putative osmoregulatory role of the unique elasmobranch corticosteroid, 1 alpha-hydroxycorticosterone (1 alpha-OH-B), was investigated using dietary protein restriction as a means of limiting urea biosynthetic ability. Groups of dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) were adapted to either a high or a low protein diet (HPD and LPD respectively) and the secretory dynamics of urea and 1 alpha-OH-B were determined following acclimation to normal (100%), 130% and 50% sea water. In normal sea water, LPD fish showed significantly decreased blood production of urea compared with fish fed a HPD (P strategy adopted by these animals was the retention of high plasma concentrations of Na+ and Cl-, which increased plasma osmolality and tended to decrease osmotic water loss. Concomitant with the increased ion concentrations, plasma 1 alpha-OH-B concentration was also greatly elevated in LPD fish indicating that the steroid may be acting to minimize Na+ (and Cl-) excretion at osmoregulatory sites such as the rectal gland, kidney and gills. This and a previous study have also demonstrated that 1 alpha-OH-B concentration is elevated in 50% sea water. Decreases in plasma Na+ concentration are tolerated down to 75% sea water, whereafter Na+ is preferentially retained and further decreases in osmolality are achieved by reductions in plasma urea concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Beneficial Effects of Preoperative Dietary Restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. van Ginhoven (Tessa)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPeople have always been searching for methods to stay young and live longer. For example, in the European middle ages alchemists were looking for the “potion of life”. This elixir, also known as the elixir of immortality and sometimes equated with the philosopher’s stone, is a legendary

  19. Restrictive cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People with restrictive cardiomyopathy may be heart transplant candidates. The outlook depends on the cause of the ... www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. ...

  20. Heritable IUGR and adult metabolic syndrome are reversible and associated with alterations in the metabolome following dietary supplementation of 1-carbon intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seferovic, Maxim D; Goodspeed, Danielle M; Chu, Derrick M; Krannich, Laura A; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Pablo J; Cox, James E; Aagaard, Kjersti M

    2015-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), following intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), is epigenetically heritable. Recently, we abrogated the F2 adult phenotype with essential nutrient supplementation (ENS) of intermediates along the 1-carbon pathway. With the use of the same grandparental uterine artery ligation model, we profiled the F2 serum metabolome at weaning [postnatal day (d)21; n = 76] and adulthood (d160; n = 12) to test if MetS is preceded by alterations in the metabolome. Indicative of developmentally programmed MetS, adult F2, formerly IUGR rats, were obese (621 vs. 461 g; P metabolome at weaning (randomForest analysis; class error metabolome accompany heritable IUGR, precede adult-onset MetS, and are partially amenable to dietary intervention. © FASEB.

  1. Restrictive Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up in the circulatory system. In time, the heart fails. What causes it? Restrictive cardiomyopathy is often caused by diseases in other parts of the body. One known cause is cardiac ... build up in the heart tissue, making the tissue stiff and thickened. Cardiac ...

  2. G2 checkpoint abrogator abates the antagonistic interaction between antimicrotubule drugs and radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui Meihua; Zhang Hongfang; Di Xiaoyun; Chang Jinjia; Shen Youqing; Fan Weimin

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: We previously demonstrated that radiation may arrest tumor cells at G2 phase, which in turn prevents the cytotoxicity of antimicrotubule drugs and results in antagonistic interaction between these two modalities. Herein we tested whether G2 abrogators would attenuate the above antagonistic interaction and improve the therapeutic efficacy of combination therapy between radiation and antimicrotubule drugs. Materials and methods: Breast cancer BCap37 and epidermoid carcinoma KB cell lines were administered with radiation, UCN-01 (a model drug of G2 abrogator), paclitaxel or vincristine, alone or in combinations. The antitumor activities of single and combined treatments were analyzed by a series of cytotoxic, apoptotic, cell cycle, morphological and biochemical assays. Results: UCN-01 significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of radiation, antimitotic drugs, and their combined treatments in vitro. Further investigations demonstrated that UCN-01 attenuated radiation-induced G2 arrest, and subsequently repressed the inhibitory effect of radiation on drug-induced mitotic arrest and apoptosis. Conclusions: This is the first report demonstrating that G2 checkpoint abrogation represses the inhibitory effect of radiation on antimicrotubule drugs, which may be implicated in cancer combination therapy. Considering that G2 abrogators are under extensive evaluation for cancer treatment, our findings provide valuable information for this class of promising compounds.

  3. Aging, adiposity, and calorie restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Luigi; Klein, Samuel

    2007-03-07

    Excessive calorie intake and subsequent obesity increases the risk of developing chronic disease and decreases life expectancy. In rodent models, calorie restriction with adequate nutrient intake decreases the risk of developing chronic disease and extends maximum life span. To evaluate the physiological and clinical implications of calorie restriction with adequate nutrient intake. Search of PubMed (1966-December 2006) using terms encompassing various aspects of calorie restriction, dietary restriction, aging, longevity, life span, adiposity, and obesity; hand search of journals that focus on obesity, geriatrics, or aging; and search of reference lists of pertinent research and review articles and books. Reviewed reports (both basic science and clinical) included epidemiologic studies, case-control studies, and randomized controlled trials, with quality of data assessed by taking into account publication in a peer-reviewed journal, number of animals or individuals studied, objectivity of measurements, and techniques used to minimize bias. It is not known whether calorie restriction extends maximum life span or life expectancy in lean humans. However, calorie restriction in adult men and women causes many of the same metabolic adaptations that occur in calorie-restricted rodents and monkeys, including decreased metabolic, hormonal, and inflammatory risk factors for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and possibly cancer. Excessive calorie restriction causes malnutrition and has adverse clinical effects. Calorie restriction in adult men and women causes beneficial metabolic, hormonal, and functional changes, but the precise amount of calorie intake or body fat mass associated with optimal health and maximum longevity in humans is not known. In addition, it is possible that even moderate calorie restriction may be harmful in specific patient populations, such as lean persons who have minimal amounts of body fat.

  4. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    circumstances, especially where food intake or choice is restricted. For this reason, dietary ... health hazard to all consumers.[4,12] While ... physician experienced in the treatment of obesity and familiar with this agent, on a regular basis.

  5. Restricted Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette; Lassen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    communities and shopping centres through mobility lenses. The article shows how different mobility systems enable and restrict the public access to private-public spaces, and it points out that proprietary communities create an unequal potential for human movement and access in the city. The main argument......Privatisation of public spaces in the contemporary city has increased during the last decades but only few studies have approached this field from a mobility perspective. Therefore the article seeks to rectify this by exploring two Australian examples of private spaces in the city; gated...... and stratification mechanisms. In conclusion the article therefore suggests that future urban research and planning also needs a mobile understanding of spaces in the cities and how different mobility systems play an important role to sustain the exclusiveness that often characterises the private/public spaces...

  6. The effect of whole-grain compared to refined wheat on the gut microbial composition and integrity in a colonic epithelial cell model following a 12-week energy-restricted dietary intervention in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Licht, Tine Rask; Kristensen, M.

    in postmenopausal women who were randomized to either whole-grain wheat (WW) (n=38) or refined wheat (RW) (n=34) consumption as part of an energy-restricted diet for 12-weeks following a 2-week run-in period with RW. Percentage fat mass as well as serum total and LDL cholesterol were found to differ between the two...

  7. Metabolic Regulation of Methionine Restriction in Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Ren, Wenkai; Chen, Shuai; Li, Yuying; Han, Hui; Gao, Jing; Liu, Gang; Wu, Xin; Li, Tiejun; Kim, Sung Woo; Yin, Yulong

    2018-03-30

    Although the effects of dietary methionine restriction have been investigated in the physiology of aging and diseases related to oxidative stress, the relationship between methionine restriction and the development of metabolic disorders has not been explored extensively. This review summarizes studies of the possible involvement of dietary methionine restriction in improving insulin resistance, glucose homeostasis, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism, the pentose phosphate pathway, and inflammation, with an emphasis on the fibroblast growth factor 21 and protein phosphatase 2A signals and autophagy in diabetes. Diets deficient in methionine may be a useful nutritional strategy in patients with diabetes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. The culture of referendum in Albania: Technical and theoritecal reflections on the abrogative referendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valbona Pajo Bala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the Albanian constitutional and legal framework on referenda, in general, focusing special attention to the abrogative referenda of a law or part thereof. Given the absence of any concrete case of an abrogative referenda held in Albania, which does not creates very much room for discussion in that regard, the paper, through a comparative approach on the referenda culture in other european states, aims at offering to the reader a more complete view on the mechanisms and guarantees enjoyed by voters and the effective way of their use, in order to give life to the direct democracy, but without replacing the representative one. In addition, part of the analyses will be the powers of the Constitutional Court for the ex ante constitutional review of the issue subject to a referendum, the review of constitutionality of the referndum and of its results. In this context, the paper will focus on the constitutional case-law as a tool for increasing the referenda culture and shaping the constitional order, as well as a source of standards and values. Another objective of the paper is to open a discussion on the need for the reception of referenda-related standards elaborated in those European countries, where the culture of helding a referenda and the case-law on the regard is enriched and may serve as a qualitative basis for further reference.

  9. Effect Of Feed Restriction On Growth Performance And Economy Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dietary treatments consisted of providing feed ad libitum (ull fed) and two feed restriction treatments restrictingeedng 80 % of ad libitum ... A cost – benefit analysis was utilized for the economy of production. ... Feed efficiency was improved by restriction followed with re-alimentation. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  10. Abrogation of Early Apoptosis Does Not Alter Late Inhibition of Hippocampal Neurogenesis After Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuqing; Aubert, Isabelle; Wong, C. Shun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Irradiation of the adult brain results in acute apoptosis of neural progenitors and vascular endothelial cells, as well as late dysfunction of neural progenitors and inhibition of neurogenesis. We sought to determine whether the early apoptotic response has a causative role in late inhibition of neurogenesis after cranial irradiation. Methods and Materials: Using a genetic approach with p53 and smpd1 transgenic mice and a pharmacologic approach with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) to abrogate the early apoptotic response, we evaluated the late inhibition of neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus after cranial irradiation. Results: In dentate gyrus, subgranular neural progenitors underwent p53-dependent apoptosis within 24 h after irradiation. Despite a near abrogation of neural progenitor apoptosis in p53-/- mice, the reduction in newborn neurons in dentate gyrus at 9 weeks after irradiation in p53-/- mice was not different from that observed in wildtype controls. Endothelial cell apoptosis after radiation is mediated by membrane damage initiated by activation of acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase). Deletion of the smpd1 gene (which encodes ASMase) attenuated the apoptotic response of endothelial cells. At 9 weeks after irradiation, the inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis was not rescued by ASMase deficiency. Intravenous administration of bFGF protected both endothelial cells and neural progenitors against radiation-induced apoptosis. There was no protection against inhibition of neurogenesis at 9 weeks after irradiation in bFGF-treated mice. Conclusion: Early apoptotic death of neural progenitors, endothelial cells, or both does not have a causative association with late inhibition of neurogenesis after irradiation.

  11. Chromosomal instability and the abrogated G2/M arrest in x-irradiated myelodysplastic syndrome cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, S.; Sudo, H.; Saegusa, K.; Sagara, M.; Imai, T.; Kimura, A.

    2003-01-01

    A preliminary epidemiological study demonstrated that myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) has an excess relative risk per sievert of 13 in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima. MDS is the only other radiogenic blood disease apart from leukemia. Clinically, MDS involves dysplastic hematopoiesis and an increased risk of leukemic transformation. Because it is uncertain whether MDS pathogenesis affects lymphoid progenitor cells as well as myeloid progenitor cells, we investigated the karyotypes of bone marrow cells and the micronucleus (MN) frequency in peripheral T lymphocytes of twenty- three atomic bomb survivors with MDS and five normal individuals. Aneuploidy was observed in 10 of 23 patients. Chromosome aberrations were observed in 3 of 12 patients with mild symptoms, and six of 11 patients of severe symptoms. The spontaneous- and X-ray-induced-MN frequencies were significantly higher in MDS patients than in normal individuals. Interestingly, radiation sensitivity increased along with the severity of MDS clinical subtypes. Because many of the patients in this study had not been exposed to chemo- or radiation- therapy, their unusual radiosensitivity may be related to their chromosomal or genomic instability. Immortalized lymphoid cell lines were established from B-lymphocytes infected with Epstein-Barr virus in vitro. The abrogation of radiation-induced-G2/M arrest was observed in 10 of 12 MDS-B lymphoid cell lines, but not in the normal B lymphoid cell lines. Our data suggest that the control of chromosomal stability is impaired in pluripotent stem cells of MDS patients, and that the abrogated G2/M arrest may be involved in the pathophysiology of disease progression and the high radiation sensitivity of patients

  12. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...

  13. Dietary cholesterol, heart disease risk and cognitive dissonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Donald J

    2014-05-01

    In the 1960s, the thesis that dietary cholesterol contributes to blood cholesterol and heart disease risk was a rational conclusion based on the available science at that time. Fifty years later the research evidence no longer supports this hypothesis yet changing the dietary recommendation to limit dietary cholesterol has been a slow and at times contentious process. The preponderance of the clinical and epidemiological data accumulated since the original dietary cholesterol restrictions were formulated indicate that: (1) dietary cholesterol has a small effect on the plasma cholesterol levels with an increase in the cholesterol content of the LDL particle and an increase in HDL cholesterol, with little effect on the LDL:HDL ratio, a significant indicator of heart disease risk, and (2) the lack of a significant relationship between cholesterol intake and heart disease incidence reported from numerous epidemiological surveys. Over the last decade, many countries and health promotion groups have modified their dietary recommendations to reflect the current evidence and to address a now recognised negative consequence of ineffective dietary cholesterol restrictions (such as inadequate choline intake). In contrast, health promotion groups in some countries appear to suffer from cognitive dissonance and continue to promote an outdated and potentially hazardous dietary recommendation based on an invalidated hypothesis. This review evaluates the evidence for and against dietary cholesterol restrictions and the potential consequences of such restrictions.

  14. TARGETED DELETION OF INDUCIBLE HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN 70 ABROGATES THE LATE INFARCT-SPARING EFFECT OF MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIC PRECONDITIONING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract submitted for 82nd annual meeting of the American Association for Thoracic Surgery, May 4-8, 2002 in Washington D.C.Targeted Deletion of Inducible Heat Shock Protein 70 Abrogates the Late Infarct-Sparing Effect of Myocardial Ischemic PreconditioningCraig...

  15. Antigenotoxicity of Dietary Coconut Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Lim-Sylianco

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzo(apyrene, dimethylnitrosamine, methylmethanesulfonate and tetracycline induced formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes indicating that these substances are genotoxic to bone marrow cells of the experimental mice.Genotoxicity of these substances to germ cells was also observed when low fertility index and high percentage dead implants were induced in experimental mice.When each genotoxin was administered to mice fed with diets containing 18 % coconut oil for 23 days, the formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes was greatly reduced. Antigenotoxic activity of dietary coconut oil was very much greater than dietary soybean oil.Germ cell genotoxicity of each genotoxin was also reduced when male mice fed the 18 % coconut oil diet were used. When male mice treated with the genotoxin was mated with virgin females, fertility index was increased in the group fed with coconut oil diet. Percentage dead implants was reduced. The antigenotoxic activity of dietary coconut oil on germ cells far exceeds that of dietary soybean oil.Dietary restriction of coconut oil diets enhanced the antigenotoxic activity of coconut oil in bone marrow cells and germs cells.Among the triacylglycerols of coconut oil, trilaurin gave the best antigenotoxic activity in bone marrow cells. Trilaurin is the major triacylglycerol in coconut oil.

  16. Herpesvirus telomerase RNA (vTR with a mutated template sequence abrogates herpesvirus-induced lymphomagenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt B Kaufer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT and telomerase RNA (TR represent the enzymatically active components of telomerase. In the complex, TR provides the template for the addition of telomeric repeats to telomeres, a protective structure at the end of linear chromosomes. Human TR with a mutation in the template region has been previously shown to inhibit proliferation of cancer cells in vitro. In this report, we examined the effects of a mutation in the template of a virus encoded TR (vTR on herpesvirus-induced tumorigenesis in vivo. For this purpose, we used the oncogenic avian herpesvirus Marek's disease virus (MDV as a natural virus-host model for lymphomagenesis. We generated recombinant MDV in which the vTR template sequence was mutated from AATCCCAATC to ATATATATAT (vAU5 by two-step Red-mediated mutagenesis. Recombinant viruses harboring the template mutation replicated with kinetics comparable to parental and revertant viruses in vitro. However, mutation of the vTR template sequence completely abrogated virus-induced tumor formation in vivo, although the virus was able to undergo low-level lytic replication. To confirm that the absence of tumors was dependent on the presence of mutant vTR in the telomerase complex, a second mutation was introduced in vAU5 that targeted the P6.1 stem loop, a conserved region essential for vTR-TERT interaction. Absence of vTR-AU5 from the telomerase complex restored virus-induced lymphoma formation. To test if the attenuated vAU5 could be used as an effective vaccine against MDV, we performed vaccination-challenge studies and determined that vaccination with vAU5 completely protected chickens from lethal challenge with highly virulent MDV. Taken together, our results demonstrate 1 that mutation of the vTR template sequence can completely abrogate virus-induced tumorigenesis, likely by the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, and 2 that this strategy could be used to generate novel vaccine candidates

  17. Dietary management practices in phenylketonuria across European centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Kirsten; Bélanger-Quintana, Amaya; Dokoupil, Katharina

    2009-01-01

    , and the definition of foods that could be eaten without restriction ('free foods'). Eighty percent (n=8/10) of centres encouraged breastfeeding together with protein substitute in infants with PKU. CONCLUSIONS: Important differences exist among centres across Europe in the dietary management of PKU, and in support...... systems designed to assist patients in managing their diets. Further studies are needed to compare different dietary treatments with the aim of identifying best practice to optimise phenylalanine control and dietary adherence....

  18. Arsenic induces apoptosis in mouse liver is mitochondria dependent and is abrogated by N-acetylcysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santra, Amal; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Ghatak, Subhadip; Biswas, Ayan; Dhali, Gopal Krishna

    2007-01-01

    Arsenicosis, caused by arsenic contamination of drinking water supplies, is a major public health problem in India and Bangladesh. Chronic liver disease, often with portal hypertension occurs in chronic arsenicosis, contributes to the morbidity and mortality. The early cellular events that initiate liver cell injury due to arsenicosis have not been studied. Our aim was to identify the possible mechanisms related to arsenic-induced liver injury in mice. Liver injury was induced in mice by arsenic treatment. The liver was used for mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). Evidence of apoptosis was sought by TUNEL test, caspase assay and histology. Pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) was done to modulate hepatic GSH level. Arsenic treatment in mice caused liver injury associated with increased oxidative stress in liver mitochondria and alteration of MPT. Altered MPT facilitated cytochrome c release in the cytosol, activation of caspase 9 and caspase 3 activities and apoptotic cell death. Pretreatment of NAC to arsenic-treated mice abrogated all these alteration suggesting a glutathione (GSH)-dependent mechanism. Oxidative stress in mitochondria and inappropriate MPT are important in the pathogenesis of arsenic induced apoptotic liver cell injury. The phenomenon is GSH dependent and supplementation of NAC might have beneficial effects

  19. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside abrogates oxidative stress-induced damage in cardiac iron overload condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Puukila

    Full Text Available Cardiac iron overload is directly associated with cardiac dysfunction and can ultimately lead to heart failure. This study examined the effect of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG, a component of flaxseed, on iron overload induced cardiac damage by evaluating oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Cells were incubated with 50 μ5M iron for 24 hours and/or a 24 hour pre-treatment of 500 μ M SDG. Cardiac iron overload resulted in increased oxidative stress and gene expression of the inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-10 and interferon γ, as well as matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9. Increased apoptosis was evident by increased active caspase 3/7 activity and increased protein expression of Forkhead box O3a, caspase 3 and Bax. Cardiac iron overload also resulted in increased protein expression of p70S6 Kinase 1 and decreased expression of AMP-activated protein kinase. Pre-treatment with SDG abrogated the iron-induced increases in oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis, as well as the increased p70S6 Kinase 1 and decreased AMP-activated protein kinase expression. The decrease in superoxide dismutase activity by iron treatment was prevented by pre-treatment with SDG in the presence of iron. Based on these findings we conclude that SDG was cytoprotective in an in vitro model of iron overload induced redox-inflammatory damage, suggesting a novel potential role for SDG in cardiac iron overload.

  20. Loss of p53 induces M-phase retardation following G2 DNA damage checkpoint abrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minemoto, Yuzuru; Uchida, Sanae; Ohtsubo, Motoaki; Shimura, Mari; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Hirata, Masato; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Ishizaka, Yukihito; Yamashita, Katsumi

    2003-04-01

    Most cell lines that lack functional p53 protein are arrested in the G2 phase of the cell cycle due to DNA damage. When the G2 checkpoint is abrogated, these cells are forced into mitotic catastrophe. A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells, in which p53 was eliminated with the HPV16 E6 gene, exhibited efficient arrest in the G2 phase when treated with adriamycin. Administration of caffeine to G2-arrested cells induced a drastic change in cell phenotype, the nature of which depended on the status of p53. Flow cytometric and microscopic observations revealed that cells that either contained or lacked p53 resumed their cell cycles and entered mitosis upon caffeine treatment. However, transit to the M phase was slower in p53-negative cells than in p53-positive cells. Consistent with these observations, CDK1 activity was maintained at high levels, along with stable cyclin B1, in p53-negative cells. The addition of butyrolactone I, which is an inhibitor of CDK1 and CDK2, to the p53-negative cells reduced the floating round cell population and induced the disappearance of cyclin B1. These results suggest a relationship between the p53 pathway and the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of mitotic cyclins and possible cross-talk between the G2-DNA damage checkpoint and the mitotic checkpoint.

  1. Beclin1-induced autophagy abrogates radioresistance of lung cancer cells by suppressing osteopontin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Seung-Hee; Minai-Tehrani, Arash; Shin, Ji-Young

    2012-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) serves as an indicator of resistance to radiotherapy. However, the role of OPN in the development of acquired radioresistance in human lung cancer cells has not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, the potential importance of OPN as a marker of lung cancer with a potential significant role in the development of radioresistance against repeated radiotherapy has prompted us to define the pathways by which OPN regulates lung cancer cell growth. In addition, autophagy has been reported to play a key role in the radiosensitization of cancer cells. Here, we report that increased OPN expression through induction of nuclear p53 following irradiation was inhibited by exogenous beclin-1 (BECN1). Our results clearly show that BECN1 gene expression led to induction of autophagy and inhibition of cancer cell growth and angiogenesis. Our results suggest that the induction of autophagy abrogated the radioresistance of the cancer cells. Interestingly, we showed that knockdown of OPN by lentivirus-mediated shRNA induced the autophagy of human lung cancer cell. Taken together, these results suggest that OPN and BECN1 can be molecular targets for overcoming radioresistance by controlling autophagy. (author)

  2. Dietary Therapies for Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H Kossoff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since their introduction in 1921, high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diets have been used worldwide for refractory childhood epilepsy. Approximately half of the children have at least half their seizures reduced, including 15% who are seizure free. The mechanisms of action of dietary therapies are under active investigation and appear to involve mitochondria. Once perceived as a last resort, modifications to initiation and maintenance, as well as the widespread use of pre-made ketogenic formulas have allowed dietary treatment to be used earlier in the course of epilepsy. For infantile spasms (West syndrome specifically, the ketogenic diet is successful about 50% of the time as a first-line treatment. New "alternative" diets such as the modified Atkins diet were created in 2003 and can be started more easily and are less restrictive. They may have particular value for countries in Asia. Side effects include constipation, dyslipidemia, growth slowing, acidosis, and kidney stones. Additionally, neurologists are studying ketogenic diets for conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer's disease, autism, and brain tumors.

  3. Nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics of caloric restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abete, Itziar; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Marti, Amelia; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a complex disease resulting from a chronic and long-term positive energy balance in which both genetic and environmental factors are involved. Weight-reduction methods are mainly focused on dietary changes and increased physical activity. However, responses to nutritional intervention programs show a wide range of interindividual variation, which is importantly influenced by genetic determinants. In this sense, subjects carrying several obesity-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) show differences in the response to calorie-restriction programs. Furthermore, there is evidence indicating that dietary components not only fuel the body but also participate in the modulation of gene expression. Thus, the expression pattern and nutritional regulation of several obesity-related genes have been studied, as well as those that are differentially expressed by caloric restriction. The responses to caloric restriction linked to the presence of SNPs in obesity-related genes are reviewed in this chapter. Also, the influence of energy restriction on gene expression pattern in different tissues is addressed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Chrysin, an anti-inflammatory molecule, abrogates renal dysfunction in type 2 diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahad, Amjid [Lipid Metabolism Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi 110062 (India); Ganai, Ajaz Ahmad [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi 110062 (India); Mujeeb, Mohd [Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi 110062 (India); Siddiqui, Waseem Ahmad, E-mail: was.sid121@gmail.com [Lipid Metabolism Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi 110062 (India)

    2014-08-15

    Diabetic nepropathy (DN) is considered as the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide, but the current available treatments are limited. Recent experimental evidences support the role of chronic microinflammation in the development of DN. Therefore, the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) pathway has emerged as a new therapeutic target for the treatment of DN. We investigated the nephroprotective effects of chrysin (5, 7-dihydroxyflavone) in a high fat diet/streptozotocin (HFD/STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic Wistar albino rat model. Chrysin is a potent anti-inflammatory compound that is abundantly found in plant extracts, honey and bee propolis. The treatment with chrysin for 16 weeks post induction of diabetes significantly abrogated renal dysfunction and oxidative stress. Chrysin treatment considerably reduced renal TNF-α expression and inhibited the nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-kB) activation. Furthermore, chrysin treatment improved renal pathology and suppressed transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), fibronectin and collagen-IV protein expressions in renal tissues. Chrysin also significantly reduced the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and IL-6. Moreover, there were no appreciable differences in fasting blood glucose and serum insulin levels between the chrysin treated groups compared to the HFD/STZ-treated group. Hence, our results suggest that chrysin prevents the development of DN in HFD/STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats through anti-inflammatory effects in the kidney by specifically targeting the TNF-α pathway. - Highlights: • Chrysin reduced renal oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetic rats. • Chrysin reduced serum levels of pro-inflammatory in diabetic rats. • Chrysin exhibited renal protective effect by suppressing the TNF-α pathway.

  5. Targeting ILK and β4 integrin abrogates the invasive potential of ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yoon Pyo; Kim, Baek Gil; Gao, Ming-Qing; Kang, Suki; Cho, Nam Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The potential of targeting ILK and integrins for highly aggressive ovarian cancer. ► Unanticipated synergistic effect for the combination of ILK/β4 integrin. ► Combination of ILK/β4 integrin effectively inhibited the PI3K/Akt/Rac1 cascade. ► Targeting of β4 integrin/ILK had potent inhibitory effects in ovarian cancer. -- Abstract: Integrins and integrin-linked kinase (ILK) are essential to cancerous invasion because they mediate physical interactions with the extracellular matrix, and regulate oncogenic signaling pathways. The purpose of our study is to determine whether deletion of β1 and β4 integrin and ILK, alone or in combination, has antitumoral effects in ovarian cancer. Expression of β1 and β4 integrin and ILK was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 196 ovarian cancer tissue samples. We assessed the effects of depleting these molecules with shRNAs in ovarian cancer cells by Western blot, conventional RT-PCR, cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and in vitro Rac1 activity assays, and in vivo xenograft formation assays. Overexpression of β4 integrin and ILK in human ovarian cancer specimens was found to correlate with tumor aggressiveness. Depletion of these targets efficiently suppresses ovarian cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro and xenograft tumor formation in vivo. We also demonstrated that single depletion of ILK or combination depletion of β4 integrin/ILK inhibits phosphorylation of downstream signaling targets, p-Ser 473 Akt and p-Thr202/Tyr204 Erk1/2, and activation of Rac1, as well as reduce expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and increase expression of caspase-3 in vitro. In conclusion, targeting β4 integrin combined with ILK can instigate the latent tumorigenic potential and abrogate the invasive potential in ovarian cancer.

  6. Targeting ILK and {beta}4 integrin abrogates the invasive potential of ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yoon Pyo; Kim, Baek Gil [BK21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Pathology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gao, Ming-Qing; Kang, Suki [Department of Pathology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Nam Hoon, E-mail: cho1988@yuhs.ac [BK21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Pathology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The potential of targeting ILK and integrins for highly aggressive ovarian cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unanticipated synergistic effect for the combination of ILK/{beta}4 integrin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of ILK/{beta}4 integrin effectively inhibited the PI3K/Akt/Rac1 cascade. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Targeting of {beta}4 integrin/ILK had potent inhibitory effects in ovarian cancer. -- Abstract: Integrins and integrin-linked kinase (ILK) are essential to cancerous invasion because they mediate physical interactions with the extracellular matrix, and regulate oncogenic signaling pathways. The purpose of our study is to determine whether deletion of {beta}1 and {beta}4 integrin and ILK, alone or in combination, has antitumoral effects in ovarian cancer. Expression of {beta}1 and {beta}4 integrin and ILK was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 196 ovarian cancer tissue samples. We assessed the effects of depleting these molecules with shRNAs in ovarian cancer cells by Western blot, conventional RT-PCR, cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and in vitro Rac1 activity assays, and in vivo xenograft formation assays. Overexpression of {beta}4 integrin and ILK in human ovarian cancer specimens was found to correlate with tumor aggressiveness. Depletion of these targets efficiently suppresses ovarian cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro and xenograft tumor formation in vivo. We also demonstrated that single depletion of ILK or combination depletion of {beta}4 integrin/ILK inhibits phosphorylation of downstream signaling targets, p-Ser 473 Akt and p-Thr202/Tyr204 Erk1/2, and activation of Rac1, as well as reduce expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and increase expression of caspase-3 in vitro. In conclusion, targeting {beta}4 integrin combined with ILK can instigate the latent tumorigenic potential and abrogate the invasive potential in ovarian cancer.

  7. WNT activation by lithium abrogates TP53 mutation associated radiation resistance in medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, Nataliya; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Remke, Marc; Martin, Dianna C; Castelo-Branco, Pedro; Zhang, Cindy H; Fraser, Michael; Tse, Ken; Poon, Raymond; Shih, David J H; Baskin, Berivan; Ray, Peter N; Bouffet, Eric; Dirks, Peter; von Bueren, Andre O; Pfaff, Elke; Korshunov, Andrey; Jones, David T W; Northcott, Paul A; Kool, Marcel; Pugh, Trevor J; Pomeroy, Scott L; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Pietsch, Torsten; Gessi, Marco; Rutkowski, Stefan; Bognár, Laszlo; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Eberhart, Charles G; Conter, Cecile Faure; Fouladi, Maryam; French, Pim J; Grajkowska, Wieslawa A; Gupta, Nalin; Hauser, Peter; Jabado, Nada; Vasiljevic, Alexandre; Jung, Shin; Kim, Seung-Ki; Klekner, Almos; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Lach, Boleslaw; Leonard, Jeffrey R; Liau, Linda M; Massimi, Luca; Pollack, Ian F; Ra, Young Shin; Rubin, Joshua B; Van Meir, Erwin G; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Weiss, William A; Zitterbart, Karel; Bristow, Robert G; Alman, Benjamin; Hawkins, Cynthia E; Malkin, David; Clifford, Steven C; Pfister, Stefan M; Taylor, Michael D; Tabori, Uri

    2014-12-24

    TP53 mutations confer subgroup specific poor survival for children with medulloblastoma. We hypothesized that WNT activation which is associated with improved survival for such children abrogates TP53 related radioresistance and can be used to sensitize TP53 mutant tumors for radiation. We examined the subgroup-specific role of TP53 mutations in a cohort of 314 patients treated with radiation. TP53 wild-type or mutant human medulloblastoma cell-lines and normal neural stem cells were used to test radioresistance of TP53 mutations and the radiosensitizing effect of WNT activation on tumors and the developing brain. Children with WNT/TP53 mutant medulloblastoma had higher 5-year survival than those with SHH/TP53 mutant tumours (100% and 36.6%±8.7%, respectively (p<0.001)). Introduction of TP53 mutation into medulloblastoma cells induced radioresistance (survival fractions at 2Gy (SF2) of 89%±2% vs. 57.4%±1.8% (p<0.01)). In contrast, β-catenin mutation sensitized TP53 mutant cells to radiation (p<0.05). Lithium, an activator of the WNT pathway, sensitized TP53 mutant medulloblastoma to radiation (SF2 of 43.5%±1.5% in lithium treated cells vs. 56.6±3% (p<0.01)) accompanied by increased number of γH2AX foci. Normal neural stem cells were protected from lithium induced radiation damage (SF2 of 33%±8% for lithium treated cells vs. 27%±3% for untreated controls (p=0.05). Poor survival of patients with TP53 mutant medulloblastoma may be related to radiation resistance. Since constitutive activation of the WNT pathway by lithium sensitizes TP53 mutant medulloblastoma cells and protect normal neural stem cells from radiation, this oral drug may represent an attractive novel therapy for high-risk medulloblastomas.

  8. Inhibition of GRP78 abrogates radioresistance in oropharyngeal carcinoma cells after EGFR inhibition by cetuximab.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaonan Sun

    Full Text Available The EGFR-specific mAb cetuximab is one of the most effective treatments for oropharyngeal carcinoma, while patient responses to EGFR inhibitors given alone are modest. Combination treatment with radiation can improve the efficacy of treatment through increasing radiosensitivity, while resistance to radiation after administration of cetuximab limits its efficiency. Radiation and drugs can damage the endoplasmic reticulum (ER homeostatic state and result in ER stress (ERS, subsequently causing resistance to radiation and drugs. Whether the ERS pathway is involved in radioresistance after administration of cetuximab has not been reported. Herein, we show that cetuximab could increase the radiosensitivity of FaDu cells but not Detroit562 cells. In addition, cetuximab inhibited the radiation-induced activation of the ERS signalling pathway IRE1α/ATF6-GRP78 in FaDu cells, while this effect was absent in Detroit562 cells. Silencing GRP78 increased the radiosensitivity of oropharyngeal carcinoma cells and inhibited radiation-induced DNA double-strand-break (DSB repair and autophagy. More interestingly, silencing GRP78 abrogated resistance to cetuximab and radiation in Detroit562 cells and had a synergistic effect with cetuximab in increasing the radiosensitivity of FaDu cells. Immunohistochemistry showed that overexpression of both GRP78 and EGFR was associated with a poor prognosis in oropharyngeal carcinoma patients (P<0.05. Overall, the results of this study show that radioresistance after EGFR inhibition by cetuximab is mediated by the ERS signalling pathway IRE1α/ATF6-GRP78. This suppression was consequently unable to inhibit radiation-induced DSB repair and autophagy in oropharyngeal carcinoma cells, which conferred resistance to radiotherapy and cetuximab. These results suggest that the cooperative effects of radiotherapy and cetuximab could be further improved by inhibiting GRP78 in non-responsive oropharyngeal carcinoma patients.

  9. Chrysin, an anti-inflammatory molecule, abrogates renal dysfunction in type 2 diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahad, Amjid; Ganai, Ajaz Ahmad; Mujeeb, Mohd; Siddiqui, Waseem Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic nepropathy (DN) is considered as the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide, but the current available treatments are limited. Recent experimental evidences support the role of chronic microinflammation in the development of DN. Therefore, the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) pathway has emerged as a new therapeutic target for the treatment of DN. We investigated the nephroprotective effects of chrysin (5, 7-dihydroxyflavone) in a high fat diet/streptozotocin (HFD/STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic Wistar albino rat model. Chrysin is a potent anti-inflammatory compound that is abundantly found in plant extracts, honey and bee propolis. The treatment with chrysin for 16 weeks post induction of diabetes significantly abrogated renal dysfunction and oxidative stress. Chrysin treatment considerably reduced renal TNF-α expression and inhibited the nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-kB) activation. Furthermore, chrysin treatment improved renal pathology and suppressed transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), fibronectin and collagen-IV protein expressions in renal tissues. Chrysin also significantly reduced the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and IL-6. Moreover, there were no appreciable differences in fasting blood glucose and serum insulin levels between the chrysin treated groups compared to the HFD/STZ-treated group. Hence, our results suggest that chrysin prevents the development of DN in HFD/STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats through anti-inflammatory effects in the kidney by specifically targeting the TNF-α pathway. - Highlights: • Chrysin reduced renal oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetic rats. • Chrysin reduced serum levels of pro-inflammatory in diabetic rats. • Chrysin exhibited renal protective effect by suppressing the TNF-α pathway

  10. Selective induction of cyclin B protein abrogates the G2 delay after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, G.; Muschel, R.J.; Maity, A.; Kunig, A.; McKenna, W.G.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Irradiation of tumor cells commonly results in G2 delay, which has been postulated to allow DNA repair and cell survival. The G2 delay after irradiation is also often marked in some cell lines by delayed expression of cyclin B protein, suggesting a role for cyclin B regulation. Investigations of these hypotheses however has been hampered by the inability to selectively perturb the G2 delay in a physiologic manner. Materials and Methods: We have devised a system, with which we are able to selectively induce cyclin B protein expression in vivo at specific points in the cell cycle, by transfecting Hela cells with an expression vector under control of a dexamethasone-inducible promoter. Experiments were subsequently performed by synchronizing, releasing, irradiating, inducing, and harvesting these cells through the cell cycle. Results: Irradiation with 5 Gy led to a pronounced G2 delay, reflected by markedly slowed progression into mitosis, concomitant with reduced expression of cyclin B protein. Induction of cyclin B after radiation in these cells abrogated the G2 delay by approximately doubling the rate at which the cells re-enter mitosis. Treatment of irradiated untransfected control cells with dexamethasone, in which cyclin B is not induced, led to minimal changes. Studies of effects of cyclin B induction on cyclin B localization (using immunofluorescence), cdc2 phosphorylation and activation will also be presented. Conclusion: This system should allow further investigations into fundamental mechanisms of cell cycle regulation after irradiation and DNA damage. This also provides direct evidence for the first time that cyclin B protein regulation may play a role in the G2 delay following irradiation in Hela cells, perhaps complementing phosphorylation events

  11. Dietary Quality and Adherence to Dietary Recommendations in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Desiree; Zlatkis, Karyn; Comenge, Beatriz; García, Zoraida; Navarro, Juan F; Lorenzo, Victor; Carrero, Juan Jesús

    2016-05-01

    The multiple dietary restrictions recommended to hemodialysis patients may be difficult to achieve and, at the same time, may result in nutritional deficiencies rendering a poor dietary quality. We here assess the dietary quality and adherence to renal-specific guideline recommendations among hemodialysis patients from a single center in Canary Islands, Spain. Cross-sectional study, including 91 patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Clinical data and 3-day dietary records were collected. We compared patient's reported nutrients intake with guideline recommendations. We also evaluated their alignment with current American Heart Association dietary guidelines for cardiovascular prevention. Seventy-seven percent and 50% of patients consumed less than the recommended daily energy and protein, respectively. Although half of the patients met the recommendations for dietary fat intake, this was accounted by an excess of saturated fat in 92% of them. Only 22% consumed sufficient fiber. A very small proportion of patients (less than 50%) met the requirements for vitamins and other micronutrients. Insufficient dietary intake was observed in most patients for all vitamins except for cobalamin. Similarly, inadequate dietary intake was observed for many minerals, by both excess (phosphorus, calcium, sodium, and potassium) and defect (magnesium). Most patients met the recommendations for iron and zinc in their diets. A large proportion of hemodialysis patients at our center did not meet current renal-specific dietary recommendations. The quality of the diet was considered poor and proatherogenic according to American Heart Association guidelines. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dietary Advanced Glycation End Products and Cardiometabolic Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luévano-Contreras, Claudia; Gómez-Ojeda, Armando; Macías-Cervantes, Maciste Habacuc; Garay-Sevilla, Ma Eugenia

    2017-08-01

    This report analyzes emerging evidence about the role of dietary advanced glycation end products (AGEs) as a cardiometabolic risk factor. Two important aspects are discussed: First, the modulation of AGE load by dietary AGEs; second, if the evidence of clinical and observational studies is enough to make dietary recommendations towards lowering AGE intake. Clinical studies in subjects with diabetes mellitus have shown that high intake of dietary AGEs increases inflammation markers, oxidative stress, and could impair endothelial function. In subjects at risk for cardiometabolic diseases (with overweight, obesity, or prediabetes), dietary AGE restriction decreases some inflammatory molecules and improves insulin sensitivity. However, studies in healthy subjects are limited, and not all of the studies have shown a decrease in circulating AGEs. Therefore, it is still unclear if dietary AGEs represent a health concern for people potentially at risk for cardiometabolic diseases. The evidence shows that dietary AGEs are bioavailable and absorbed, and the rate of excretion depends on dietary intake. The metabolic fate of most dietary AGEs remains unknown. Regardless, most studies have shown that by diminishing AGE intake, circulating levels will also decrease. Thus, dietary AGEs can modulate the AGE load at least in patients with DM, overweight, or obesity. Studies with specific clinical outcomes and large-scale observational studies are needed for a better risk assessment of dietary AGEs and to establish dietary recommendations accordingly.

  13. KNK437, abrogates hypoxia-induced radioresistance by dual targeting of the AKT and HIF-1α survival pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oommen, Deepu; Prise, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► KNK437, a benzylidene lactam compound, is a novel radiosensitizer. ► KNK437 inhibits AKT signaling and abrogates the accumulation of HIF-1α under hypoxia. ► KNK437 abrogates hypoxia induced resistance to radiation. -- Abstract: KNK437 is a benzylidene lactam compound known to inhibit stress-induced synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSPs). HSPs promote radioresistance and play a major role in stabilizing hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). HIF-1α is widely responsible for tumor resistance to radiation under hypoxic conditions. We hypothesized that KNK437 sensitizes cancer cells to radiation and overrides hypoxia-induced radioresistance via destabilizing HIF-1α. Treatment of human cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and T98G with KNK437 sensitized them to ionizing radiation (IR). Surprisingly, IR did not induce HSPs in these cell lines. As hypothesized, KNK437 abrogated the accumulation of HIF-1α in hypoxic cells. However, there was no induction of HSPs under hypoxic conditions. Moreover, the proteosome inhibitor MG132 did not restore HIF-1α levels in KNK437-treated cells. This suggested that the absence of HIF-1α in hypoxic cells was not due to the enhanced protein degradation. HIF-1α is mainly regulated at the level of post-transcription and AKT is known to modulate the translation of HIF-1α mRNA. Interestingly, pre-treatment of cells with KNK437 inhibited AKT signaling. Furthermore, down regulation of AKT by siRNA abrogated HIF-1α levels under hypoxia. Interestingly, KNK437 reduced cell survival in hypoxic conditions and inhibited hypoxia-induced resistance to radiation. Taken together, these data suggest that KNK437 is an effective radiosensitizer that targets multiple pro-survival stress response pathways.

  14. Lifelong dietary intervention does not affect hematopoietic stem cell function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazare, Seka; Ausema, Albertina; Reijne, Aaffien C; van Dijk, Gertjan; van Os, Ronald; de Haan, Gerald

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) undergo a profound functional decline during normal aging. Because caloric or dietary restriction has been shown to delay multiple aspects of the aging process in many species, we explored the consequences of lifelong caloric restriction, or conversely, lifelong

  15. Restrictions and Proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses three central aspects of the freedoms under European Community law, namely 1) the prohibition against restrictions as an important extension of the prohibition against discrimination, 2) a prohibition against exit restrictions which is just as important as the prohibition...... against host country restrictions, but which is often not recognised to the same extent by national law, and 3) the importance of also identifying and recognising an exit restriction, so that it is possible to achieve the required test of appropriateness and proportionality in relation to the rule...

  16. Natural Mutations in Streptococcus agalactiae Resulting in Abrogation of β Antigen Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyeva, Anastasia; Santos Sanches, Ilda; Florindo, Carlos; Dmitriev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae genome encodes 21 two-component systems (TCS) and a variety of regulatory proteins in order to control gene expression. One of the TCS, BgrRS, comprising the BgrR DNA-binding regulatory protein and BgrS sensor histidine kinase, was discovered within a putative virulence island. BgrRS influences cell metabolism and positively control the expression of bac gene, coding for β antigen at transcriptional level. Inactivation of bgrR abrogated bac gene expression and increased virulence properties of S. agalactiae. In this study, a total of 140 strains were screened for the presence of bac gene, and the TCS bgrR and bgrS genes. A total of 53 strains carried the bac, bgrR and bgrS genes. Most of them (48 strains) expressed β antigen, while five strains did not express β antigen. Three strains, in which bac gene sequence was intact, while bgrR and/or bgrS genes had mutations, and expression of β antigen was absent, were complemented with a constructed plasmid pBgrRS(P) encoding functionally active bgrR and bgrS gene alleles. This procedure restored expression of β antigen indicating the crucial regulatory role of TCS BgrRS. The complemented strain A49V/BgrRS demonstrated attenuated virulence in intraperitoneal mice model of S. agalactiae infection compared to parental strain A49V. In conclusion we showed that disruption of β antigen expression is associated with: i) insertion of ISSa4 upstream the bac gene just after the ribosomal binding site; ii) point mutation G342A resulting a stop codon TGA within the bac gene and a truncated form of β antigen; iii) single deletion (G) in position 439 of the bgrR gene resulting in a frameshift and the loss of DNA-binding domain of the BgrR protein, and iv) single base substitutions in bgrR and bgrS genes causing single amino acid substitutions in BgrR (Arg187Lys) and BgrS (Arg252Gln). The fact that BgrRS negatively controls virulent properties of S. agalactiae gives a novel clue for understanding of S

  17. Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feinman, Richard D; Pogozelski, Wendy K; Astrup, Arne

    2015-01-01

    The inability of current recommendations to control the epidemic of diabetes, the specific failure of the prevailing low-fat diets to improve obesity, cardiovascular risk, or general health and the persistent reports of some serious side effects of commonly prescribed diabetic medications...... controversial results. The insistence on long-term randomized controlled trials as the only kind of data that will be accepted is without precedent in science. The seriousness of diabetes requires that we evaluate all of the evidence that is available. The 12 points are sufficiently compelling that we feel...

  18. Fasting or caloric restriction for healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2013-10-01

    Aging is associated with a host of biological changes that contribute to a progressive decline in cognitive and physical function, ultimately leading to a loss of independence, and increased risk of mortality. To date, prolonged caloric restriction (i.e., a reduction in caloric intake without malnutrition) is the only non-genetic intervention that has consistently been found to extend both mean and maximal life span across a variety of species. Most individuals have difficulty sustaining prolonged caloric restriction, which has led to a search for alternative approaches that can produce similar to benefits as caloric restriction. A growing body of evidence indicates that fasting periods and intermittent fasting regimens in particular can trigger similar biological pathways as caloric restriction. For this reason, there is increasing scientific interest in further exploring the biological and metabolic effects of intermittent fasting periods, as well as whether long-term compliance may be improved by this type of dietary approach. This special will highlight the latest scientific findings related to the effects of both caloric restriction and intermittent fasting across various species including yeast, fruit flies, worms, rodents, primates, and humans. A specific emphasis is placed on translational research with findings from basic bench to bedside reviewed and practical clinical implications discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Restricting wolves risks escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Ballard, Warren; Bangs, Ed; Ream, Bob

    2010-01-01

    Implementing the proposal set forth by Licht and colleagues (BioScience 60: 147–153) requires restricting wolves to tiny "islands," areas that are magnitudes smaller than the ranges of most wolf populations. Wolves naturally have large ranges; restricting their spatial needs increases the risk of wolves escaping, exacerbating public relations and political and legal problems.

  20. Transient sixth cranial nerve palsy following orgasm abrogated by treatment with sympathomimetic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Check, J H; Katsoff, B

    2014-01-01

    To describe a unique disorder where a transient 6th nerve palsy leading to diploplia following orgasm developed in a 28-year-old woman. This coincided with a weight gain of 100 pounds in a short time without a corresponding change in dietary habits. She was treated with the sympathomimetic amine dextroamphetamine sulfate. Indeed she immediately responded to treatment with dextroamphetamine sulfate sustained release capsules with complete resolution of the episodes of 6th nerve palsy following orgasm. The main importance of this case is that it suggests that orgasm causes a transient generalized decrease in sympathetic nervous system activity and that the achievement of an orgasm may require an increase in the sympathetic nervous system activity.

  1. Daily dietary intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    As part of study on ''Reference Asian Man'' to strengthen radiation protection, the data on the dietary consumption patterns of the Asian region were collected. Eight provided dietary data - Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, Philippines, and Viet Nam. Whereas the dietary information from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Pakistan and Viet Nam are preliminary in nature, the dietary information from China, India, Japan and Philippines, on the other hand, is quite substantial. The population of the countries from which sufficient dietary data are available represents more than 2/3 of the population of the Asian region. The details of the individual data available on dietary parameters from different Asian countries are listed below

  2. Measurement of Dietary Restraint: Validity Tests of Four Questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Donald A.; Martin, Corby K.; York-Crowe, Emily; Anton, Stephen D.; Redman, Leanne M.; Han, Hongmei; Ravussin, Eric

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the validity of four measures of dietary restraint: Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, Eating Inventory (EI), Revised Restraint Scale (RS), and the Current Dieting Questionnaire. Dietary restraint has been implicated as a determinant of overeating and binge eating. Conflicting findings have been attributed to different methods for measuring dietary restraint. The validity of four self-report measures of dietary restraint and dieting behavior was tested using: 1) factor analysis, 2) changes in dietary restraint in a randomized controlled trial of different methods to achieve calorie restriction, and 3) correlation of changes in dietary restraint with an objective measure of energy balance, calculated from the changes in fat mass and fat-free mass over a six-month dietary intervention. Scores from all four questionnaires, measured at baseline, formed a dietary restraint factor, but the RS also loaded on a binge eating factor. Based on change scores, the EI Restraint scale was the only measure that correlated significantly with energy balance expressed as a percentage of energy require d for weight maintenance. These findings suggest that that, of the four questionnaires tested, the EI Restraint scale was the most valid measure of the intent to diet and actual caloric restriction. PMID:17101191

  3. Children and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...

  4. The human papillomavirus type 58 E7 oncoprotein modulates cell cycle regulatory proteins and abrogates cell cycle checkpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weifang; Li Jing; Kanginakudru, Sriramana; Zhao Weiming; Yu Xiuping; Chen, Jason J.

    2010-01-01

    HPV type 58 (HPV-58) is the third most common HPV type in cervical cancer from Eastern Asia, yet little is known about how it promotes carcinogenesis. In this study, we demonstrate that HPV-58 E7 significantly promoted the proliferation and extended the lifespan of primary human keratinocytes (PHKs). HPV-58 E7 abrogated the G1 and the postmitotic checkpoints, although less efficiently than HPV-16 E7. Consistent with these observations, HPV-58 E7 down-regulated the cellular tumor suppressor pRb to a lesser extent than HPV-16 E7. Similar to HPV-16 E7 expressing PHKs, Cdk2 remained active in HPV-58 E7 expressing PHKs despite the presence of elevated levels of p53 and p21. Interestingly, HPV-58 E7 down-regulated p130 more efficiently than HPV-16 E7. Our study demonstrates a correlation between the ability of down-regulating pRb/p130 and abrogating cell cycle checkpoints by HPV-58 E7, which also correlates with the biological risks of cervical cancer progression associated with HPV-58 infection.

  5. Peptidomimetic hydroxamate metalloproteinase inhibitors abrogate local and systemic toxicity induced by Echis ocellatus (saw-scaled) snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Ana Silvia; Rucavado, Alexandra; Gutiérrez, José María

    2017-06-15

    The ability of two peptidomimetic hydroxamate metalloproteinase inhibitors, Batimastat and Marimastat, to abrogate toxic and proteinase activities of the venom of Echis ocellatus from Cameroon and Ghana was assessed. Since this venom largely relies for its toxicity on the action of zinc-dependent metalloproteinases (SVMPs), the hypothesis was raised that toxicity could be largely eliminated by using SVMP inhibitors. Both hydroxamate molecules inhibited local and pulmonary hemorrhagic, in vitro coagulant, defibrinogenating, and proteinase activities of the venoms in conditions in which venom and inhibitors were incubated prior to the test. In addition, the inhibitors prolonged the time of death of mice receiving 4 LD 50 s of venom by the intravenous route. Lower values of IC 50 were observed for in vitro and local hemorrhagic activities than for systemic effects. When experiments were performed in conditions that simulated the actual circumstances of snakebite, i.e. by administering the inhibitor after envenoming, Batimastat completely abrogated local hemorrhage if injected immediately after venom. Moreover, it was also effective at inhibiting lethality and defibrinogenation when venom and inhibitor were injected by the intraperitoneal route. Results suggest that these, and possibly other, metalloproteinase inhibitors may become an effective adjunct therapy in envenomings by E. ocellatus when administered at the anatomic site of venom injection rapidly after the bite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Abrogation of the presenilin 1/beta-catenin interaction and preservation of the heterodimeric presenilin 1 complex following caspase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesco, G; Kim, T W; Diehlmann, A; Beyreuther, K; Tanzi, R E

    1998-12-18

    beta-Catenin has previously been shown to interact with presenilin 1 (PS1) in transfected cells. Here we report that beta-catenin co-immunoprecipitates with the endogenous C-terminal fragment of presenilin 1 (PS1-CTF) but not with the endogenous CTF of presenilin 2 (PS2-CTF) in H4 human neuroglioma cells. During staurosporine (STS)-induced cell death, beta-catenin and PS1-CTF undergo a caspase-mediated cleavage. After 12 h of STS treatment, the beta-catenin.PS1-CTF interaction is abrogated. While PS1-CTF immunoprecipitated with all caspase-cleaved species of beta-catenin, beta-catenin holoprotein did not co-immunoprecipitate with the "alternative" caspase-derived PS1-CTF (PS1-aCTF). Thus, the abrogation of the beta-catenin.PS1-CTF complex was due to caspase cleavage of PS1-CTF. beta-Catenin co-immunoprecipitated with PS1-NTF, but only when PS1-NTF was associated with PS1-CTF. Even though PS1-NTF.CTF complex stability was not altered by caspase cleavage, its ability to bind beta-catenin was abolished. Thus, while the PS1-NTF.CTF complex is preserved after caspase cleavage, it may no longer be fully functional.

  7. Normal range of human dietary sodium intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarron, David A; Kazaks, Alexandra G; Geerling, Joel C

    2013-01-01

    The recommendation to restrict dietary sodium for management of hypertensive cardiovascular disease assumes that sodium intake exceeds physiologic need, that it can be significantly reduced, and that the reduction can be maintained over time. In contrast, neuroscientists have identified neural...... circuits in vertebrate animals that regulate sodium appetite within a narrow physiologic range. This study further validates our previous report that sodium intake, consistent with the neuroscience, tracks within a narrow range, consistent over time and across cultures....

  8. The comparative effect of fasting with and without caloric restriction in Rat on oxidative stress parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Nurina Tyagita; Taufiqurrachman Nasihun; Titiek Sumarawati

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Fasting, like Islamic Ramadan Fasting, has been associated with health benefits. Islamic Ramadan fasting, a form of caloric restriction (CR) or alternate day fasting that. Studies suggest a comparable effect of ADF and caloric restriction. Despite the fact that fasting can be considered as a form of dietary restriction, fasters tend to have difficulty to reduce their food intake during non-fasting period by overeating leading to the excessive calorie intake. To compare the effec...

  9. Troxerutin abrogates mitochondrial oxidative stress and myocardial apoptosis in mice fed calorie-rich diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geetha, Rajagopalan; Sathiya Priya, Chandrasekaran; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2017-12-25

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of myocardial apoptosis in metabolic syndrome (MS) patients. In this study, we investigated the effect of troxerutin (TX), an antioxidant on mitochondrial oxidative stress and apoptotic markers in heart of mice fed fat and fructose-rich diet. Adult male Mus musculus mice were fed either control diet or high fat, high fructose diet (HFFD) for 60 days to induce MS. Mice from each dietary group were divided into two on the 16th day and were either treated or untreated with TX (150 mg/kg bw, p.o) for the next 45 days. At the end of the study, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, oxidative stress markers, levels of intracellular calcium, cardiolipin content, cytochrome c release and apoptotic markers were examined in the myocardium. HFFD-feeding resulted in diminution of antioxidants and increased ROS production, lipid peroxidation and oxidatively modified adducts of 8-OHG, 4-HNE and 3-NT. Further increase in Ca 2+ levels, low levels of calcium transporters and decrease in cardiolipin content were noted. Changes in the mitochondrial structure were observed by electron microscopy. Furthermore, cytochrome c release, increase in proapoptotic proteins (APAF-1, BAX, caspases-9 and-3) and decrease in antiapoptotic protein (BCL-2) in HFFD-fed mice suggest myocardial apoptosis. These changes were significantly restored by TX supplementation. TX administration effectively attenuated cardiac apoptosis and exerted a protective role by increasing antioxidant potential and by improving mitochondrial function. Thus, TX could be a promising therapeutic candidate for treating cardiac disease in MS patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Intrauterine growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardita Donoso Bernales

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that the true prevalence of intrauterine growth restriction is 3-10% of all pregnancies, making this fetal condition one of the most frequent obstetric problems, together with premature labor and premature rupture of membranes. The article stresses the importance of early diagnosis because of the associated risks.

  11. Late gestational nutrient restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Nørgaard, Peder

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 50% nutrient restriction during the last 6 weeks of gestation on twin-pregnant ewes' plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acid, ß-hydroxybutyrate, insulin, IGF-1 and leptin concentrations and the effects on lamb birth weight and ewes' lactation performance. Plasma...

  12. Restricted Variance Interaction Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortina, Jose M.; Köhler, Tine; Keeler, Kathleen R.

    2018-01-01

    Although interaction hypotheses are increasingly common in our field, many recent articles point out that authors often have difficulty justifying them. The purpose of this article is to describe a particular type of interaction: the restricted variance (RV) interaction. The essence of the RV int...

  13. Effect of dietary molybdenum and sulphur on the copper status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in all groups receiving supplementary Mo. A dietary supplement of 70 mg Mo for a restricted period is ... Keywords: Sheep nutrition, copper toxicity, molybdenum toxicity, sulphur. ..... observation supports the suggestion by Dick, et af. (1975).

  14. Increase of CTGF mRNA expression by respiratory syncytial virus infection is abrogated by caffeine in lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzmann, Steffen; Krempl, Christine; Seidenspinner, Silvia; Glaser, Kirsten; Speer, Christian P; Fehrholz, Markus

    2018-04-16

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of severe lower respiratory tract infection in early childhood. Underlying pathomechanisms of elevated pulmonary morbidity in later infancy are largely unknown. We found that RSV-infected H441 cells showed increased mRNA expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a key factor in airway remodeling. Additional dexamethasone treatment led to further elevated mRNA levels, indicating additive effects. Caffeine treatment prevented RSV-mediated increase of CTGF mRNA. RSV may be involved in airway remodeling processes by increasing CTGF mRNA expression. Caffeine might abrogate these negative effects and thereby help to restore lung homeostasis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Combined with Caloric Restriction on Circulating Estrogens and IGF-I in Premenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    ...) to support her development as a breast cancer researcher, and to conduct a study to test whether a program of moderate aerobic exercise that is combined with a moderate level of dietary restriction...

  16. Intestinal microbiota shifts towards elevated commensal Escherichia coli loads abrogate colonization resistance against Campylobacter jejuni in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea-Maxie Haag

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial foodborne enterocolitis in humans worldwide. The understanding of immunopathology underlying human campylobacteriosis is hampered by the fact that mice display strong colonization resistance against the pathogen due to their host specific gut microbiota composition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Since the microbiota composition changes significantly during intestinal inflammation we dissected factors contributing to colonization resistance against C. jejuni in murine ileitis, colitis and in infant mice. In contrast to healthy animals C. jejuni could stably colonize mice suffering from intestinal inflammation. Strikingly, in mice with Toxoplasma gondii-induced acute ileitis, C. jejuni disseminated to mesenteric lymphnodes, spleen, liver, kidney, and blood. In infant mice C. jejuni infection induced enterocolitis. Mice suffering from intestinal inflammation and C. jejuni susceptible infant mice displayed characteristical microbiota shifts dominated by increased numbers of commensal Escherichia coli. To further dissect the pivotal role of those distinct microbiota shifts in abrogating colonization resistance, we investigated C. jejuni infection in healthy adult mice in which the microbiota was artificially modified by feeding live commensal E. coli. Strikingly, in animals harboring supra-physiological intestinal E. coli loads, colonization resistance was significantly diminished and C. jejuni infection induced enterocolitis mimicking key features of human campylobacteriosis. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Murine colonization resistance against C. jejuni is abrogated by changes in the microbiota composition towards elevated E. coli loads during intestinal inflammation as well as in infant mice. Intestinal inflammation and microbiota shifts thus represent potential risk factors for C. jejuni infection. Corresponding interplays between C. jejuni and microbiota might

  17. Vorinostat synergizes with ridaforolimus and abrogates the ridaforolimus-induced activation of AKT in synovial sarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sherif S; Cranmer, Lee D

    2014-11-18

    Curative treatments for patients with metastatic synovial sarcoma (SS) do not exist, and such patients have a poor prognosis. We explored combinations of molecularly-targeted and cytotoxic agents to identify synergistic treatment combinations in SS cells. Two SS cell lines (HS-SY-II and SYO-I) were treated with single agents or combinations of molecularly targeted therapies (HDAC inhibitor, vorinostat; mTOR inhibitor, ridaforolimus) and cytotoxic agents. After 72 hours, cell viability was measured using the MTS cell proliferation assay. Combination Indices (CI) were calculated to determine whether each combination was synergistic, additive, or antagonistic. Western Blot analysis assessed alterations in total and phospho-AKT protein levels in response to drug treatment. We determined the single-agent IC50 for ridaforolimus, vorinostat, doxorubicin, and melphalan in HS-SY-II and SYO-I. Synergism was apparent in cells co-treated with ridaforolimus and vorinostat: CI was 0.28 and 0.63 in HS-SY-II and SYO-I, respectively. Ridaforolimus/doxorubicin and ridaforolimus/melphalan exhibited synergism in both cell lines. An additive effect was observed with combination of vorinostat/doxorubicin in both cell lines. Vorinostat/melphalan was synergistic in HS-SY-II and additive in SYO-I. Western blot analysis demonstrated that ridaforolimus increased pAKT-ser473 levels; this effect was abrogated by vorinostat co-treatment. The combination of ridaforolimus and vorinostat demonstrates in vitro synergism in SS. Addition of vorinostat abrogated ridaforolimus-induced AKT activation. Since AKT activation is a possible mechanism of resistance to mTOR inhibitors, adding vorinostat (or another HDAC inhibitor) may be a route to circumvent AKT-mediated resistance to mTOR inhibitors.

  18. Selective abrogation of the uPA-uPAR interaction in vivo reveals a novel role in suppression of fibrin-associated inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, Brian M; Choi, Eun Young; Gårdsvoll, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    the interaction between endogenous uPA and uPAR is selectively abrogated, whereas other functions of both the protease and its receptor are retained. Specifically, we introduced 4 amino acid substitutions into the growth factor domain (GFD) of uPA that abrogate uPAR binding while preserving the overall structure...... a principal in vivo role of the uPA-uPAR interaction in cell-associated fibrinolysis critical for suppression of fibrin accumulation and fibrin-associated inflammation and provides a valuable model for further exploration of this multifunctional receptor....

  19. Maternal amino acid supplementation for intrauterine growth restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura D; Green, Alice S; Limesand, Sean W; Rozance, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    Maternal dietary protein supplementation to improve fetal growth has been considered as an option to prevent or treat intrauterine growth restriction. However, in contrast to balanced dietary supplementation, adverse perinatal outcomes in pregnant women who received high amounts of dietary protein supplementation have been observed. The responsible mechanisms for these adverse outcomes are unknown. This review will discuss relevant human and animal data to provide the background necessary for the development of explanatory hypotheses and ultimately for the development therapeutic interventions during pregnancy to improve fetal growth. Relevant aspects of fetal amino acid metabolism during normal pregnancy and those pregnancies affected by IUGR will be discussed. In addition, data from animal experiments which have attempted to determine mechanisms to explain the adverse responses identified in the human trials will be presented. Finally, we will suggest new avenues for investigation into how amino acid supplementation might be used safely to treat and/or prevent IUGR. PMID:21196387

  20. Dietary fructose and glucose differentially affect lipid and glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Ernst J; Gleason, Joi A; Dansinger, Michael L

    2009-06-01

    Absorbed glucose and fructose differ in that glucose largely escapes first-pass removal by the liver, whereas fructose does not, resulting in different metabolic effects of these 2 monosaccharides. In short-term controlled feeding studies, dietary fructose significantly increases postprandial triglyceride (TG) levels and has little effect on serum glucose concentrations, whereas dietary glucose has the opposite effects. When dietary glucose and fructose have been directly compared at approximately 20-25% of energy over a 4- to 6-wk period, dietary fructose caused significant increases in fasting TG and LDL cholesterol concentrations, whereas dietary glucose did not, but dietary glucose did increase serum glucose and insulin concentrations in the postprandial state whereas dietary fructose did not. When fructose at 30-60 g ( approximately 4-12% of energy) was added to the diet in the free-living state, there were no significant effects on lipid or glucose biomarkers. Sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) contain approximately equal amounts of fructose and glucose and no metabolic differences between them have been noted. Controlled feeding studies at more physiologic dietary intakes of fructose and glucose need to be conducted. In our view, to decrease the current high prevalence of obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and diabetes, the focus should be on restricting the intake of excess energy, sucrose, HFCS, and animal and trans fats and increasing exercise and the intake of vegetables, vegetable oils, fish, fruit, whole grains, and fiber.

  1. Nutritional adequacy of dietary intake in women with anorexia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the establishment of dietary treatment. Design: Women, aged 19 to 30 years, with both restricting and binge purge types of AN, participating in an ecological momentary assessment study, completed three nonc...

  2. 10506 nutritional knowledge and dietary diversity of cancer patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    diversity was used as an indicator of dietary practice. ... Cancer is a global concern with an estimated incidence of 12.7 milion and 7.6 million ... shown evidence that caloric restriction slows growth rates for breast cancer [3]. ... critically ill hence incapable of responding to questions. ... knowledge was rated on percentages.

  3. Narrative Dietary Counseling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard Jakobsen, Nina; Kaufmann, Lisbeth; Hennesser, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Using cases and empirical data from a research and development project at a Danish prevention center, this study explores whether and how the use of narrative dietary counseling can strengthen dietitians' relationships and collaboration with clients who are chronically ill. The results of the study...... dietary counseling empowered clients and improved relationship building and collaboration between client and dietitian....

  4. Dietary determinants of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly

  5. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The

  6. HIV-1 Nef mutations abrogating downregulation of CD4 affect other Nef functions and show reduced pathogenicity in transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, Zaher; Priceputu, Elena; Hu, Chunyan; Vincent, Patrick; Jolicoeur, Paul

    2006-01-01

    HIV-1 Nef has the ability to downmodulate CD4 cell surface expression. Several studies have shown that CD4 downregulation is required for efficient virus replication and high infectivity. However, the pathophysiological relevance of this phenomenon in vivo, independently of its role in sustaining high virus loads, remains unclear. We studied the impact of the CD4 downregulation function of Nef on its pathogenesis in vivo, in the absence of viral replication, in the CD4C/HIV transgenic (Tg) mouse model. Two independent Nef mutants (RD35/36AA and D174K), known to abrogate CD4 downregulation, were tested in Tg mice. Flow cytometry analysis showed that downregulation of murine CD4 was severely decreased or abrogated on Tg T cells expressing respectively Nef RD35/36AA and Nef D174K . Similarly, the severe depletion of double-positive CD4 + CD8 + and of single-positive CD4 + CD8 - thymocytes, usually observed with Nef Wt , was not detected in Nef RD35/36AA and Nef D174K Tg mice. However, both mutant Tg mice showed a partial depletion of peripheral CD4 + T cells. This was accompanied, as previously reported for Net Wt Tg mice, by the presence of an activated/memory-like phenotype (CD69 + , CD25 + , CD44 + , CD45RB Low , CD62 Low ) of CD4 + T cells expressing Nef RD35/36AA and to a lesser extent Nef D174K . In addition, both mutants retained the ability to block CD4 + T cell proliferation in vitro after anti-CD3 stimulation, but not to enhance apoptosis/death of CD4 + T cells. Therefore, it appears that Nef-mediated CD4 downregulation is associated with thymic defects, but segregates independently of the activated/memory-like phenotype, of the partial depletion and of the impaired in vitro proliferation of peripheral CD4 + T cells. Histopathological assessment revealed the total absence of or decrease severity and frequency of organ AIDS-like diseases (lung, heart and kidney pathologies) in respectively Nef RD35/36AA and Nef D174K Tg mice, relative to those developing in

  7. Essential nutrient supplementation prevents heritable metabolic disease in multigenerational intrauterine growth-restricted rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodspeed, Danielle; Seferovic, Maxim D.; Holland, William; Mcknight, Robert A.; Summers, Scott A.; Branch, D. Ware; Lane, Robert H.; Aagaard, Kjersti M.

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) confers heritable alterations in DNA methylation, rendering risk of adult metabolic syndrome (MetS). Because CpG methylation is coupled to intake of essential nutrients along the one-carbon pathway, we reasoned that essential nutrient supplementation (ENS) may abrogate IUGR-conferred multigenerational MetS. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats underwent bilateral uterine artery ligation causing IUGR in F1. Among the F2 generation, IUGR lineage rats were underweight at birth (6.7 vs. 8.0 g, P 30% elevated, P 5-fold less central fat mass, normal hepatic glucose efflux, and >70% reduced circulating triglycerides and very-LDLs compared with IUGR control-fed F2 offspring (P intrauterine growth-restricted rats. PMID:25395450

  8. Point mutations in EBV gH that abrogate or differentially affect B cell and epithelial cell fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Liguo; Hutt-Fletcher, Lindsey M.

    2007-01-01

    Cell fusion mediated by Epstein-Barr virus requires three conserved glycoproteins, gB and gHgL, but activation is cell type specific. B cell fusion requires interaction between MHC class II and a fourth virus glycoprotein, gp42, which complexes non-covalently with gHgL. Epithelial cell fusion requires interaction between gHgL and a novel epithelial cell coreceptor and is blocked by excess gp42. We show here that gp42 interacts directly with gH and that point mutations in the region of gH recognized by an antibody that differentially inhibits epithelial and B cell fusion significantly impact both the core fusion machinery and cell-specific events. Substitution of alanine for glycine at residue 594 completely abrogates fusion with either B cells or epithelial cells. Substitution of alanine for glutamic acid at residue 595 reduces fusion with epithelial cells, greatly enhances fusion with B cells and allows low levels of B cell fusion even in the absence of gL

  9. Dexamethasone abrogates the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of different drugs against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquila Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are part of the human microbiota and are also important bacterial pathogens, for which therapeutic options are lacking nowadays. The combined administration of corticosteroids and antimicrobials is commonly used in the treatment of infectious diseases to control inflammatory processes and to minimize potential toxicity of antimicrobials, avoiding sequelae. Although different pharmaceutical dosage forms of antimicrobials combined to corticosteroids are available, studies on the interference of corticosteroids on the pharmacological activity of antimicrobials are scarce and controversial. Here, we provide evidence of the interference of dexamethasone on the pharmacological activity of clinically important antimicrobial drugs against biofilms and planktonic cells of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Broth microdilution assays of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC, and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC of gentamicin, chloramphenicol, oxacillin, ceftriaxone and meropenem were conducted with and without the addition of dexamethasone. The effect of all drugs was abrogated by dexamethasone in their MIC, MBC, and MBEC, except gentamicin and meropenem, for which the MBC was not affected in some strains. The present study opens doors for more investigations on in vitro and in vivo effects and safety of the combination of antimicrobials and glucocorticoids.

  10. Mutations Abrogating VP35 Interaction with Double-Stranded RNA Render Ebola Virus Avirulent in Guinea Pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prins, Kathleen C.; Delpeut, Sebastien; Leung, Daisy W.; Reynard, Olivier; Volchkova, Valentina A.; Reid, St. Patrick; Ramanan, Parameshwaran; Cárdenas, Washington B.; Amarasinghe, Gaya K.; Volchkov, Viktor E.; Basler, Christopher F. (CNRS-INSERM); (Mount Sinai Hospital); (LB-Ecuador); (Iowa State)

    2010-10-11

    Ebola virus (EBOV) protein VP35 is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding inhibitor of host interferon (IFN)-{alpha}/{beta} responses that also functions as a viral polymerase cofactor. Recent structural studies identified key features, including a central basic patch, required for VP35 dsRNA binding activity. To address the functional significance of these VP35 structural features for EBOV replication and pathogenesis, two point mutations, K319A/R322A, that abrogate VP35 dsRNA binding activity and severely impair its suppression of IFN-{alpha}/{beta} production were identified. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography reveal minimal structural perturbations in the K319A/R322A VP35 double mutant and suggest that loss of basic charge leads to altered function. Recombinant EBOVs encoding the mutant VP35 exhibit, relative to wild-type VP35 viruses, minimal growth attenuation in IFN-defective Vero cells but severe impairment in IFN-competent cells. In guinea pigs, the VP35 mutant virus revealed a complete loss of virulence. Strikingly, the VP35 mutant virus effectively immunized animals against subsequent wild-type EBOV challenge. These in vivo studies, using recombinant EBOV viruses, combined with the accompanying biochemical and structural analyses directly correlate VP35 dsRNA binding and IFN inhibition functions with viral pathogenesis. Moreover, these studies provide a framework for the development of antivirals targeting this critical EBOV virulence factor.

  11. Disruption of IL-21 signaling affects T cell-B cell interactions and abrogates protective humoral immunity to malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Pérez-Mazliah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-21 signaling is important for germinal center B-cell responses, isotype switching and generation of memory B cells. However, a role for IL-21 in antibody-mediated protection against pathogens has not been demonstrated. Here we show that IL-21 is produced by T follicular helper cells and co-expressed with IFN-γ during an erythrocytic-stage malaria infection of Plasmodium chabaudi in mice. Mice deficient either in IL-21 or the IL-21 receptor fail to resolve the chronic phase of P. chabaudi infection and P. yoelii infection resulting in sustained high parasitemias, and are not immune to re-infection. This is associated with abrogated P. chabaudi-specific IgG responses, including memory B cells. Mixed bone marrow chimeric mice, with T cells carrying a targeted disruption of the Il21 gene, or B cells with a targeted disruption of the Il21r gene, demonstrate that IL-21 from T cells signaling through the IL-21 receptor on B cells is necessary to control chronic P. chabaudi infection. Our data uncover a mechanism by which CD4+ T cells and B cells control parasitemia during chronic erythrocytic-stage malaria through a single gene, Il21, and demonstrate the importance of this cytokine in the control of pathogens by humoral immune responses. These data are highly pertinent for designing malaria vaccines requiring long-lasting protective B-cell responses.

  12. Hesperidin protects against cyclophosphamide-induced hepatotoxicity by upregulation of PPARγ and abrogation of oxidative stress and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Ayman M

    2014-09-01

    The most important reason for the non-approval and withdrawal of drugs by the Food and Drug Administration is hepatotoxicity. Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effects of hesperidin against cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. The rats received a single intraperitoneal dose of CYP of 200 mg/kg body mass, followed by treatment with hesperidin, orally, at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg for 11 consecutive days. CYP induced hepatic damage, as evidenced by the significantly elevated levels of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines, serum transaminases, liver lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide. As a consequence, there was reduced glutathione content, and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, were markedly reduced. In addition, CYP administration induced a considerable downregulation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and upregulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression. Hesperidin, in a dose-dependent manner, rejuvenated the altered markers to an almost normal state. In conclusion, hesperidin showed a potent protective effect against CYP-induced oxidative stress and inflammation leading to hepatotoxicity. The study suggests that hesperidin exerts its protective effect against CYP-induced hepatotoxicity through upregulation of hepatic PPARγ expression and abrogation of inflammation and oxidative stress.

  13. Silencing of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase sensitizes lung cancer cells to radiation through the abrogation of DNA damage checkpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakadate, Yusuke [Shien-Lab, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Department of Bioengineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Kodera, Yasuo; Kitamura, Yuka [Shien-Lab, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Tachibana, Taro [Department of Bioengineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Tamura, Tomohide [Division of Thoracic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Koizumi, Fumiaki, E-mail: fkoizumi@ncc.go.jp [Division of Thoracic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •Radiosensitization by PARG silencing was observed in multiple lung cancer cells. •PAR accumulation was enhanced by PARG silencing after DNA damage. •Radiation-induced G2/M arrest and checkpoint activation were impaired by PARG siRNA. -- Abstract: Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) is a major enzyme that plays a role in the degradation of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). PARG deficiency reportedly sensitizes cells to the effects of radiation. In lung cancer, however, it has not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated whether PARG siRNA contributes to an increased radiosensitivity using 8 lung cancer cell lines. Among them, the silencing of PARG induced a radiosensitizing effect in 5 cell lines. Radiation-induced G2/M arrest was largely suppressed by PARG siRNA in PC-14 and A427 cells, which exhibited significantly enhanced radiosensitivity in response to PARG knockdown. On the other hand, a similar effect was not observed in H520 cells, which did not exhibit a radiosensitizing effect. Consistent with a cell cycle analysis, radiation-induced checkpoint signals were not well activated in the PC-14 and A427 cells when treated with PARG siRNA. These results suggest that the increased sensitivity to radiation induced by PARG knockdown occurs through the abrogation of radiation-induced G2/M arrest and checkpoint activation in lung cancer cells. Our findings indicate that PARG could be a potential target for lung cancer treatments when used in combination with radiotherapy.

  14. Surgical Stress Abrogates Pre-Existing Protective T Cell Mediated Anti-Tumor Immunity Leading to Postoperative Cancer Recurrence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhirami A Ananth

    Full Text Available Anti-tumor CD8+ T cells are a key determinant for overall survival in patients following surgical resection for solid malignancies. Using a mouse model of cancer vaccination (adenovirus expressing melanoma tumor-associated antigen (TAA-dopachrome tautomerase (AdDCT and resection resulting in major surgical stress (abdominal nephrectomy, we demonstrate that surgical stress results in a reduction in the number of CD8+ T cell that produce cytokines (IFNγ, TNFα, Granzyme B in response to TAA. This effect is secondary to both reduced proliferation and impaired T cell function following antigen binding. In a prophylactic model, surgical stress completely abrogates tumor protection conferred by vaccination in the immediate postoperative period. In a clinically relevant surgical resection model, vaccinated mice undergoing a positive margin resection with surgical stress had decreased survival compared to mice with positive margin resection alone. Preoperative immunotherapy with IFNα significantly extends survival in surgically stressed mice. Importantly, myeloid derived suppressor cell (MDSC population numbers and functional impairment of TAA-specific CD8+ T cell were altered in surgically stressed mice. Our observations suggest that cancer progression may result from surgery-induced suppression of tumor-specific CD8+ T cells. Preoperative immunotherapies aimed at targeting the prometastatic effects of cancer surgery will reduce recurrence and improve survival in cancer surgery patients.

  15. An exon 53 frameshift mutation in CUBN abrogates cubam function and causes Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, John C; Hemker, Shelby L; Venta, Patrick J; Fitzgerald, Caitlin A; Outerbridge, Catherine A; Myers, Sherry L; Giger, Urs

    2013-08-01

    Cobalamin malabsorption accompanied by selective proteinuria is an autosomal recessive disorder known as Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome in humans and was previously described in dogs due to amnionless (AMN) mutations. The resultant vitamin B12 deficiency causes dyshematopoiesis, lethargy, failure to thrive, and life-threatening metabolic disruption in the juvenile period. We studied 3 kindreds of border collies with cobalamin malabsorption and mapped the disease locus in affected dogs to a 2.9Mb region of homozygosity on canine chromosome 2. The region included CUBN, the locus encoding cubilin, a peripheral membrane protein that in concert with AMN forms the functional intrinsic factor-cobalamin receptor expressed in ileum and a multi-ligand receptor in renal proximal tubules. Cobalamin malabsorption and proteinuria comprising CUBN ligands were demonstrated by radiolabeled cobalamin uptake studies and SDS-PAGE, respectively. CUBN mRNA and protein expression were reduced ~10 fold and ~20 fold, respectively, in both ileum and kidney of affected dogs. DNA sequencing demonstrated a single base deletion in exon 53 predicting a translational frameshift and early termination codon likely triggering nonsense mediated mRNA decay. The mutant allele segregated with the disease in the border collie kindred. The border collie disorder indicates that a CUBN mutation far C-terminal from the intrinsic factor-cobalamin binding site can abrogate receptor expression and cause Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary macronutrient recommendations for optimal Dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both resistance and endurance-trained athletes have a higher dietary protein requirement of between 1.2 and 1.8 g protein/kg body weight (BW)/day, with an upper limit of 2 g protein/kg BW/day. To increase the rate of protein synthesis during the recovery period, immediate ingestion of protein postexercise is recommended ...

  17. Training Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Asja

    relies on sampling based approximations of the log-likelihood gradient. I will present an empirical and theoretical analysis of the bias of these approximations and show that the approximation error can lead to a distortion of the learning process. The bias decreases with increasing mixing rate......Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) are probabilistic graphical models that can also be interpreted as stochastic neural networks. Training RBMs is known to be challenging. Computing the likelihood of the model parameters or its gradient is in general computationally intensive. Thus, training...... of the applied sampling procedure and I will introduce a transition operator that leads to faster mixing. Finally, a different parametrisation of RBMs will be discussed that leads to better learning results and more robustness against changes in the data representation....

  18. Dietary salt reduction for control of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Tjan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In developed as well as developing countries, the four main factors affecting blood pressure are high salt intake, low potassium intake, overweight, and low physical activity level. This is also true for the increase in blood pressure with advancing age, occurring in all societies. It is now accepted that excess dietary salt raises blood pressure levels, whereas dietary salt reduction reduces blood pressure and prevents vascular complications.(1 The effect of salt on blood pressure is presumably due to the inability of the kidneys to excrete large amounts of salt, as humans are evolutionary adapted to ingest and excrete less than 1 gram of salt per day.(2 In this connection it should be noted that the more important element in common salt (sodium chloride is the sodium ion, and any restrictions applying to common salt also apply to all food items that contain sodium ions, such as sodium glutamate and baking soda.

  19. Adverse Effects of Nutraceuticals and Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronis, Martin J J; Pedersen, Kim B; Watt, James

    2018-01-06

    Over 70% of Americans take some form of dietary supplement every day, and the supplement industry is currently big business, with a gross of over $28 billion. However, unlike either foods or drugs, supplements do not need to be registered or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) prior to production or sales. Under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, the FDA is restricted to adverse report monitoring postmarketing. Despite widespread consumption, there is limited evidence of health benefits related to nutraceutical or supplement use in well-nourished adults. In contrast, a small number of these products have the potential to produce significant toxicity. In addition, patients often do not disclose supplement use to their physicians. Therefore, the risk of adverse drug-supplement interactions is significant. An overview of the major supplement and nutraceutical classes is presented here, together with known toxic effects and the potential for drug interactions.

  20. Dietary non-esterified oleic Acid decreases the jejunal levels of anorectic N-acylethanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diep, Thi Ai; Madsen, Andreas N; Krogh-Hansen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    mice respond to dietary fat (olive oil) by reducing levels of anorectic NAEs, and 3) whether dietary non-esterified oleic acid also can decrease levels of anorectic NAEs in mice. We are searching for the fat sensor in the intestine, which mediates the decreased levels of anorectic NAEs. METHODS: Male...... of anorectic NAEs in mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the down-regulation of the jejunal level of anorectic NAEs by dietary fat is not restricted to rats, and that the fatty acid component oleic acid, in dietary olive oil may be sufficient to mediate this regulation. Thus, a fatty acid sensor may...

  1. Incontinence Treatment: Dietary Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... helpful, please consider supporting IFFGD with a small tax-deductible donation. Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel ... arises requiring an expert’s care. © Copyright 1998-2018 International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, Inc. (IFFGD). All ...

  2. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Primary Mitochondrial Disorders Weight Loss A Acai Aloe Vera Anabolic Steroids Antioxidants (see Exercise and Athletic Performance ) ... Pills (see Weight Loss ) Dietary Supplements Vitamin D E Echinacea Ephedra Essiac/Flor-Essence European Elder Evening ...

  3. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  4. Protein and Amino Acid Restriction, Aging and Disease: from yeast to humans

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzaei, Hamed; Suarez, Jorge A.; Longo, Valter D.

    2014-01-01

    Many of the effects of dietary restriction (DR) on longevity and health span in model organisms have been linked to reduced protein and amino acid (AA) intake and the stimulation of specific nutrient signaling pathways. Studies in yeast have shown that addition of serine, threonine, and valine in media promotes cellular sensitization and aging by activating different but connected pathways. Protein or essential AA restriction extends both lifespan and healthspan in rodent models. In humans, p...

  5. Dietary Iron Intake and Serum Ferritin Concentration in 213 Patients Homozygous for the HFEC282Y Hemochromatosis Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor R Gordeuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HFEC282Y homozygotes have an increased risk for developing increased iron stores and related disorders. It is controversial whether dietary iron restrictions should be recommended to such individuals.

  6. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in first remission abrogates poor outcomes associated with high-risk pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Michael J; Wagner, John E; Cao, Qing; Ustun, Celalettin; Verneris, Michael R

    2013-07-01

    Despite remission rates of approximately 85% for children diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), greater than 40% will die from relapsed disease. Patients with poor-risk molecular/cytogenetics and/or inadequate response to up-front therapy are typically considered high-risk (HR) and historically have poor outcomes with chemotherapy alone. We investigated whether allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) with best available donor in first remission (CR1) would abrogate the poor outcomes associated with HR AML in children and young adults treated with chemotherapy. We reviewed the outcomes of 50 consecutive children and young adults (ages 0 to 30 years) with AML who received a myeloablative allo-HCT between 2001 and 2010. Thirty-six patients (72%) were HR, defined as having FLT3-ITD mutations, 11q23 MLL rearrangements, chromosome 5 or 7 abnormalities, induction failure, and/or having persistent disease. The majority of patients received cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation conditioning, and graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was cyclosporine based. Transplantation outcomes for HR patients were compared to standard-risk patients, with no significant differences observed in overall survival (72% versus 78%, P = .72), leukemia-free survival (69% versus 79%, P = .62), relapse (11% versus 7%, P = .71), or treatment-related mortality (17% versus 14%, P = .89). Children and young adults with HR-AML have comparable outcomes to standard-risk patients following allo-HCT in CR1. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mutations that abrogate transactivational activity of the feline leukemia virus long terminal repeat do not affect virus replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abujamra, Ana L.; Faller, Douglas V.; Ghosh, Sajal K.

    2003-01-01

    The U3 region of the LTR of oncogenic Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MuLV) and feline leukemia viruses (FeLV) have been previously reported to activate expression of specific cellular genes in trans, such as MHC class I, collagenase IV, and MCP-1, in an integration-independent manner. It has been suggested that transactivation of these specific cellular genes by leukemia virus U3-LTR may contribute to the multistage process of leukemogenesis. The U3-LTR region, necessary for gene transactivational activity, also contains multiple transcription factor-binding sites that are essential for normal virus replication. To dissect the promoter activity and the gene transactivational activity of the U3-LTR, we conducted mutational analysis of the U3-LTR region of FeLV-A molecular clone 61E. We identified minimal nucleotide substitution mutants on the U3 LTR that did not disturb transcription factor-binding sites but abrogated its ability to transactivate the collagenase gene promoter. To determine if these mutations actually have altered any uncharacterized important transcription factor-binding site, we introduced these U3-LTR mutations into the full-length infectious molecular clone 61E. We demonstrate that the mutant virus was replication competent but could not transactivate cellular gene expression. These results thus suggest that the gene transactivational activity is a distinct property of the LTR and possibly not related to its promoter activity. The cellular gene transactivational activity-deficient mutant FeLV generated in this study may also serve as a valuable reagent for testing the biological significance of LTR-mediated cellular gene activation in the tumorigenesis caused by leukemia viruses

  8. Combined inhibition of p38 and Akt signaling pathways abrogates cyclosporine A-mediated pathogenesis of aggressive skin SCCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arumugam, Aadithya; Walsh, Stephanie B.; Xu, Jianmin; Afaq, Farrukh [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Elmets, Craig A. [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Athar, Mohammad, E-mail: mathar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p38 and Akt are the crucial molecular targets in the pathogenesis of SCCs in OTRs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combined inhibition of these targets diminished tumor growth by 90%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of these targets act through downregulating mTOR signaling pathway. -- Abstract: Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) are the most common neoplasm in organ transplant recipients (OTRs). These cancers are more invasive and metastatic as compared to those developed in normal cohorts. Previously, we have shown that immunosuppressive drug, cyclosporine A (CsA) directly alters tumor phenotype of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) by activating TGF-{beta} and TAK1/TAB1 signaling pathways. Here, we identified novel molecular targets for the therapeutic intervention of these SCCs. We observed that combined blockade of Akt and p38 kinases-dependent signaling pathways in CsA-promoted human epidermoid carcinoma A431 xenograft tumors abrogated their growth by more than 90%. This diminution in tumor growth was accompanied by a significant decrease in proliferation and an increase in apoptosis. The residual tumors following the combined treatment with Akt inhibitor triciribine and p38 inhibitors SB-203580 showed significantly diminished expression of phosphorylated Akt and p38 and these tumors were less invasive and highly differentiated. Diminished tumor invasiveness was associated with the reduced epithelial-mesenchymal transition as ascertained by the enhanced E-cadherin and reduced vimentin and N-cadherin expression. Consistently, these tumors also manifested reduced MMP-2/9. The decreased p-Akt expression was accompanied by a significant reduction in p-mTOR. These data provide first important combinatorial pharmacological approach to block the pathogenesis of CsA-induced highly aggressive cutaneous neoplasm in OTRs.

  9. Further characterization of loss of heterozygosity enhanced by p53 abrogation in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells: disappearance of endpoint hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatagai, Fumio; Morimoto, Shigeko; Kato, Takesi; Honma, Masamitsu

    2004-06-13

    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) is the predominant mechanism of spontaneous mutagenesis at the heterozygous thymindine kinase locus (tk) in TK6 cells. LOH events detected in spontaneous TK(-) mutants (110 clones from p53 wild-type cells TK6-20C and 117 clones from p53-abrogated cells TK6-E6) were analyzed using 13 microsatellite markers spanning the whole of chromosome 17. Our analysis indicated an approximately 60-fold higher frequency of terminal deletions in p53-abrogated cells TK6-E6 compared to p53 wild-type cells TK6-20C whereas frequencies of point mutations (non-LOH events), interstitial deletions, and crossing over events were found to increase only less than twofold by such p53 abrogation. We then made use of an additional 17 microsatellite markers which provided an average map-interval of 1.6Mb to map various LOH endpoints on the 45Mb portion of chromosome 17q corresponding to the maximum length of LOH tracts (i.e. from the distal marker D17S932 to the terminal end). There appeared to be four prominent peaks (I-IV) in the distribution of LOH endpoints/Mb of Tk6-20C cells that were not evident in p53-abrogated cells TK6-E6, where they appeared to be rather broadly distributed along the 15-20Mb length (D17S1807 to D17S1607) surrounding two of the peaks that we detected in TK6-20C cells (peaks II and III). We suggest that the chromosomal instability that is so evident in TK6-E6 cells may be due to DNA double-strand break repair occurring through non homologous end-joining rather than allelic recombination.

  10. Property Rights, Restrictions and Responsibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    more to a social, ethical commitment or attitude to environmental sustainability and good husbandry. This paper provides an overall understanding of the concept of land administration systems for dealing with rights, restrictions and responsibilities in future spatially enabled government. Finally......Land Administration Systems are the basis for conceptualizing rights, restrictions and responsibilities related to people, policies and places. Property rights are normally concerned with ownership and tenure whereas restrictions usually control use and activities on land. Responsibilities relate...

  11. About 'restriction', 'justified' and 'necessary'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The article is an academic fairy tale about why and how all national corporate tax protection legislation should undergo a 3-part test to ensure its consistency with EU law. Each Member State introduce a compulsory 3-step test for each new (corporate) tax provision. The test is simple: (1) Does...... the tax provision constitute a restriction in the sense of EU law? (2) If the answer is yes: Is the restriction justified? (3) If the answer is yes: Is the restriction necessary?"...

  12. Sodium restriction potentiates the renoprotective effects of combined vitamin D receptor activation and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in established proteinuric nephropathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirkovic, K.; Frenay, A.S.; Born, J. van den; Goor, H van; Navis, G.; Borst, M.H. de; Bindels, R.J.M.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Hillebrands, J.L.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade provides renoprotective effects in chronic kidney disease (CKD); yet progressive renal function loss remains common. Dietary sodium restriction potentiates the renoprotective effects of RAAS blockade. Vitamin D receptor activator

  13. Evaluation of a new dietary strategy for the treatment of obesity and associated inflammation: endocrine and epigenetic mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Legarrea, P. (Patricia); Zulet, M.A. (María Ángeles); Martinez, J.A. (José Alfredo)

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) have become major public health problems worldwide. Dietary strategies represent the primary choice treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a new energy-restricted dietary strategy (RESMENA) involving different dietary aspects such us a modified macronutrient profile including a moderately increased amount of proteins, an augmented meal frequency, an enhancement of low GI/GL and high antioxidant content food and with a high adher...

  14. Dietary supplements for football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L

    2006-07-01

    Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed

  15. Aging, neurogenesis, and caloric restriction in different model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan-Ergul, Ayca; Ozdemir, A Tugrul; Adams, Michelle M

    2013-08-01

    Brain aging is a multifactorial process that is occurring across multiple cognitive domains. A significant complaint that occurs in the elderly is a decrement in learning and memory ability. Both rodents and zebrafish exhibit a similar problem with memory during aging. The neurobiological changes that underlie this cognitive decline are complex and undoubtedly influenced by many factors. Alterations in the birth of new neurons and neuron turnover may contribute to age-related cognitive problems. Caloric restriction is the only non-genetic intervention that reliably increases life span and healthspan across multiple organisms although the molecular mechanisms are not well-understood. Recently the zebrafish has become a popular model organism for understanding the neurobiological consequences but to date very little work has been performed. Similarly, few studies have examined the effects of dietary restriction in zebrafish. Here we review the literature related to memory decline, neurogenesis, and caloric restriction across model organisms and suggest that zebrafish has the potential to be an important animal model for understanding the complex interactions between age, neurobiological changes in the brain, and dietary regimens or their mimetics as interventions.

  16. Molecular motion in restricted geometries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular dynamics in restricted geometries is known to exhibit anomalous behaviour. Diffusion, translational or rotational, of molecules is altered significantly on confinement in restricted geometries. Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) offers a unique possibility of studying molecular motion in such systems. Both time ...

  17. Dietary ecology of human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minagawa, Masao

    1990-01-01

    The dietary life of humans varies with the environment where they live and has been changing with time. It has become possible to examine such changes by using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition as a chemical tool. The present report outlines recent developments in the application of this tool and compares the dietary ecologies of various human groups from the viewpoint of isotope geochemistry. The history of the application of this tool to dietary analysis is summarized first, and features of the carbon and nitrogen isotope composition in animals and their relations with the food chain are outlined. The dietary ecology of the current people is then discussed in relation to the isotope composition in food, the isotope composition in hair of the current people, and determination of food habit of specific groups of people from such isotope compositions. For prediction of dietary composition, the report presents a flow chart for an algorism which is based on the Monte Carlo method. It also outlines processes for analyzing food habits of people in the prehistoric age, focusing on distribution of isotope composition in humans over the world. (N.K.)

  18. Energy restriction during childhood and early adulthood and ovarian cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, L.J.; Dijk, B.A.C. van; Lumey, L.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2011-01-01

    Dietary energy restriction may protect against cancer. In parts of the Netherlands, mostly in larger cities, periods of chronically impaired nutrition and even severe famine (Hunger Winter 1944-1945) existed during the 1930s and World War II (1940-1945). We studied the association between energy

  19. Dietary antioxidants and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott K; DeRuisseau, Keith C; Quindry, John; Hamilton, Karyn L

    2004-01-01

    Muscular exercise promotes the production of radicals and other reactive oxygen species in the working muscle. Growing evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species are responsible for exercise-induced protein oxidation and contribute to muscle fatigue. To protect against exercise-induced oxidative injury, muscle cells contain complex endogenous cellular defence mechanisms (enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants) to eliminate reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, exogenous dietary antioxidants interact with endogenous antioxidants to form a cooperative network of cellular antioxidants. Knowledge that exercise-induced oxidant formation can contribute to muscle fatigue has resulted in numerous investigations examining the effects of antioxidant supplementation on human exercise performance. To date, there is limited evidence that dietary supplementation with antioxidants will improve human performance. Furthermore, it is currently unclear whether regular vigorous exercise increases the need for dietary intake of antioxidants. Clearly, additional research that analyses the antioxidant requirements of individual athletes is needed.

  20. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    A healthy diet is essential for healthy growth and development during childhood and may prevent obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases throughout life. Traditionally, diet has been investigated as single nutrients. However, people do not eat one single nutrient and they do not even eat one...... single food. People consume meals and these meals vary during a day, over a year and during a life time. To comprehend some of this complexity it could be advantageous to investigate dietary patterns representing the whole diet as patterns might be better markers of growth and health than single...... childhood. These associations might contribute to the identification of families, who would benefit from guidance to help them establish healthy dietary patterns for their infants. Finding tracking for some infants and changes in adherence to dietary patterns for others as well as the association between...

  1. Dietary hyperthyroidism in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, B; Stengel, C; Neiger, R

    2012-03-01

    Evaluation of dogs with elevated plasma thyroxine concentration fed raw food before and after changing the diet. Between 2006 and 2011 all dogs presented with an elevated plasma thyroxine concentration and a dietary history of feeding raw food were included. Thyroxine (reference interval: 19·3 to 51·5 nmol/L) and in many cases also thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations (reference interval: weight loss, aggressiveness, tachycardia, panting and restlessness while six dogs had no clinical signs. After changing the diet eight dogs were examined: thyroxine concentration normalised in all dogs and clinical signs resolved. Dietary hyperthyroidism can be seen in dogs on a raw meat diet or fed fresh or dried gullets. Increased plasma thyroxine concentration in a dog, either with or without signs of hyperthyroidism, should prompt the veterinarian to obtain a thorough dietary history. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  2. Dietary Guidelines for Breast Cancer Patients: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon-Miro, Ana Teresa; Lopez-Teros, Veronica; Astiazaran-Garcia, Humberto

    2017-07-01

    Current dietary guidelines for breast cancer patients (BCPs) fail to address adequate dietary intakes of macro- and micronutrients that may improve patients' nutritional status. This review includes information from the PubMed and Biomed Central databases over the last 15 y concerning dietary guidelines for BCPs and the potential impact of a personalized, nutrient-specific diet on patients' nutritional status during and after antineoplastic treatment. Results indicated that BCPs should receive a nutritional assessment immediately after diagnosis. In addition, they should be encouraged to pursue and maintain a healthy body weight [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ) 20-24.9], preserving their lean mass and avoiding an increase in fat mass. Therefore, after nutritional status diagnosis, a conservative energy restriction of 500-1000 kcal/d could be considered in the dietary intervention when appropriate. Based on the reviewed information, we propose a personalized nutrition intervention for BCPs during and after antineoplastic treatment. Specifications in the nutritional therapy should be based on the patients' nutritional status, dietary habits, schedule, activities, and cultural preferences. BCPs' daily energy intake should be distributed as follows: vegetables (∼75 g/serving) should be encouraged. Garlic and cruciferous vegetables must also be part of the nutrition therapy. Adequate dietary intakes of food-based macro- and micronutrients rich in β-carotene and vitamins A, E, and C can both prevent deterioration in BCPs' nutritional status and improve their overall health and prognosis. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Dietary Reference Values for choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for choline. In this Opinion, the Panel considers dietary choline including choline compounds (e.g. glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine...

  4. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tayyem, Reema F.; Bawadi, Hiba A.; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M.; AbuMweis, Suhad S.; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Bani-Hani, Kamal E.; Heath, Dennis D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background & aimsDietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of action of dietary factors in CRC disease is unclear. The aim of this study is the examination of several dietary choices and their potential association with the risk of developing CRC. MethodsDietary data was collected from 220 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 281 control subjects (matched by age, g...

  5. Macrophages and Adipocytes in Human Obesity Adipose Tissue Gene Expression and Insulin Sensitivity During Calorie Restriction and Weight Stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capel, F.; Klimcakova, E.; Viguerie, N.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-We investigated the regulation of adipose tissue gene expression during different phases of a dietary weight loss program and its relation with insulin sensitivity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-Twenty-two obese women followed a dietary intervention program composed of an energy restriction...... expression profiling was performed using a DNA microarray in a subgroup of eight women. RT-quantitative PCR was used for determination of mRNA levels of 31 adipose tissue macrophage markers (n = 22). RESULTS-Body weight, fat mass, and C-reactive protein level decreased and glucose disposal rate increased...... during the dietary intervention program. Transcriptome profiling revealed two main patterns of variations. The first involved 464 mostly adipocyte genes involved in metabolism that were downregulated during energy restriction, upregulated during weight stabilization, and unchanged during the dietary...

  6. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At

  7. How Harmful are Adaptation Restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Bruin, de, K.C.; Dellink, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    The dominant assumption in economic models of climate policy remains that adaptation will be implemented in an optimal manner. There are, however, several reasons why optimal levels of adaptation may not be attainable. This paper investigates the effects of suboptimal levels of adaptation, i.e. adaptation restrictions, on the composition and level of climate change costs and on welfare. Several adaptation restrictions are identified and then simulated in a revised DICE model, extended with ad...

  8. Calorie Restriction, Stem Cells, and Rejuvenation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiqurrachman Nasihun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aging may be defined as the time-dependent deterioration in function of an organism associated with or responsible for the increase in susceptibility to disease and probability of death with advancing age (Harman, 1981; Cefalu, 2011. Generally, the aging organisms are characterized by both biochemical and functional declines. Declining of basal metabolism rates, protein turnover, glucose tolerance, reproductive capacity, telomere shortening, and oxidative phosphorylation are related to the biochemical. Whilst, lung expansion volume, renal glomerular and tubular capacities, cardiovascular performance, musculoskeletal system, nerve conduction velocity, endocrine and exocrine systems, immunological defenses, and sensory systems are associated with the physiological declining (Baynes and Dominiczak, 2015. Some evidences indicated that, although members of a species develop into adults in the same way, even genetically similar or identical individuals, raised in identical conditions and eating identical food, but they may age differently (Baynes and Dominiczak, 2015. These aging differences are attributable to the life style particularly calorie and dietary restriction intakes, reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and thus its implication on severity of damage, repair capacity, and error accumulation in cellular genetic material (Baynes and Dominiczak, 2015; Mihaylova et al., 2014; Mazzoccoli et al., 2014. Therefore, in molecular terms, aging can be defined as a decline of the homeostatic mechanisms that ensure the function of cells, tissues, and organs systems (Mazzoccoli et al., 2014. Accordingly, if the homeostatic mechanism can be repaired, the result is rejuvenation.

  9. Calorie restriction in rodents: Caveats to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Donald K; de Cabo, Rafael

    2017-10-01

    The calorie restriction paradigm has provided one of the most widely used and most useful tools for investigating mechanisms of aging and longevity. By far, rodent models have been employed most often in these endeavors. Over decades of investigation, claims have been made that the paradigm produces the most robust demonstration that aging is malleable. In the current review of the rodent literature, we present arguments that question the robustness of the paradigm to increase lifespan and healthspan. Specifically, there are several questions to consider as follows: (1) At what age does CR no longer produce benefits? (2) Does CR attenuate cognitive decline? (3) Are there negative effects of CR, including effects on bone health, wound healing, and response to infection? (4) How important is schedule of feeding? (5) How long does CR need to be imposed to be effective? (6) How do genotype and gender influence CR? (7) What role does dietary composition play? Consideration of these questions produce many caveats that should guide future investigations to move the field forward. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Bill project aiming at abrogating exclusive search permits for unconventional hydrocarbon searches, and at prohibiting their exploration and exploitation of the national territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    After having briefly recalled the origin of shale gases, their extraction process and the evolution of their production in the USA, the authors outline the extremely negative environmental impacts of the fracking technique (hydraulic fracturing): water pollution, air pollution, soil pollution, existence of numerous drilling sites which would degrade landscapes, water and soil contamination risks. As some search permits have already been awarded, and while taking these negative consequences into account, the authors propose a bill project to prohibit these explorations, to abrogate the existing permits, and to ensure public information before bestowing such search permits and exploitation concessions

  11. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2015-12-22

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block's Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  12. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persephone Vargas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ. Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA. Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA and dietary intake was determined using the Block’s Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ. Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208 = 0.193, p < 0.01, percentage fat intake (r(208 = 0.154, p < 0.05, percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208 = −0.172, p < 0.05, Body Mass Index (BMI (r(208 = 0.216, p < 0.01 and waist circumference (r(208 = 0.161, p < 0.01. There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  13. Impact of diet restriction in the management of diabetes: evidences from preclinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Pawan; Bedi, Onkar; Rani, Monika

    2018-03-01

    The inappropriate dietary habits lead to the onset of age-related pathologies which include diabetes and cardiovascular ailments. Dietary restriction and nutritional therapy play an important role in the prevention of these chronic ailments. Preclinical research provides a basis for the therapeutic exploration of new dietary interventions for the clinical trials to potentiate the scientific management of diabetes and its related complications which further help in translating these nutritional improvements from bench to bedside. Within the same context, numerous therapeutically proved preclinical dietary interventions like high-fiber diet, caloric restriction, soy isoflavone-containing diets, etc., have shown the promising results for the management of diabetes and the associated complications. The focus of the present review is to highlight the various preclinical evidences of diet restriction for the management of diabetes and which will be helpful for enlightening the new ideas of nutritional therapy for future research exploration. In addition, some potential approaches are also discussed which are associated with various nutritional interventions to combat progressive diabetes and the associated disorders. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  14. Dietary Proteins and Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Medina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both defective and persistent angiogenesis are linked to pathological situations in the adult. Compounds able to modulate angiogenesis have a potential value for the treatment of such pathologies. Several small molecules present in the diet have been shown to have modulatory effects on angiogenesis. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the potential modulatory roles of dietary proteins on angiogenesis. There is currently limited available information on the topic. Milk contains at least three proteins for which modulatory effects on angiogenesis have been previously demonstrated. On the other hand, there is some scarce information on the potential of dietary lectins, edible plant proteins and high protein diets to modulate angiogenesis.

  15. [Dietary counseling in obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Nathalie; Haslebacher, Yvonne; Teuscher-Sick, Patricia; Fischer, Beatrice

    2013-02-01

    Information on weight management and a healthy eating is accessible to anyone. However, recommendations are inconsistent. This often leads to confusion rather than to real changes in eating behavior. The principle of a long-term weight reduction is based on the idea of achieving negative energy balance with a healthy, balanced and slightly hypocaloric diet. The regimen is neither supposed to be rigid nor should it ban any food products or food products. Changes in eating patterns come about step by step and the counseling approach should be based on the patient's habits and capabilities. The basic requirement to successfully treat obese patients is their own motivation Therefore, the timing of launching the therapy needs to be well chosen. Apart from goals directly concerning weight loss, goals related to well-being, general health and exercise should be set and pursued. However, the main focus should be on changes of dietary behavior. Dietary counseling is preferably embedded in a multidisciplinary treatment concept.

  16. Sensitization of Tumor to {sup 212}Pb Radioimmunotherapy by Gemcitabine Involves Initial Abrogation of G2 Arrest and Blocked DNA Damage Repair by Interference With Rad51

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yong, Kwon Joong; Milenic, Diane E.; Baidoo, Kwamena E. [Radioimmune and Inorganic Chemistry Section, Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Brechbiel, Martin W., E-mail: martinwb@mail.nih.gov [Radioimmune and Inorganic Chemistry Section, Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To elucidate the mechanism of the therapeutic efficacy of targeted α-particle radiation therapy using {sup 212}Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab together with gemcitabine for treatment of disseminated peritoneal cancers. Methods and Materials: Mice bearing human colon cancer LS-174T intraperitoneal xenografts were pretreated with gemcitabine, followed by {sup 212}Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab and compared with controls. Results: Treatment with {sup 212}Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab increased the apoptotic rate in the S-phase-arrested tumors induced by gemcitabine at earlier time points (6 to 24 hours). {sup 212}Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab after gemcitabine pretreatment abrogated G2/M arrest at the same time points, which may be associated with the inhibition of Chk1 phosphorylation and, in turn, cell cycle perturbation, resulting in apoptosis. {sup 212}Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab treatment after gemcitabine pretreatment caused depression of DNA synthesis, DNA double-strand breaks, accumulation of unrepaired DNA, and down-regulation of Rad51 protein, indicating that DNA damage repair was blocked. In addition, modification in the chromatin structure of p21 may be associated with transcriptionally repressed chromatin states, indicating that the open structure was delayed at earlier time points. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the cell-killing efficacy of {sup 212}Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab after gemcitabine pretreatment may be associated with abrogation of the G2/M checkpoint, inhibition of DNA damage repair, and chromatin remodeling.

  17. Sensitization of Tumor to 212Pb Radioimmunotherapy by Gemcitabine Involves Initial Abrogation of G2 Arrest and Blocked DNA Damage Repair by Interference With Rad51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, Kwon Joong; Milenic, Diane E.; Baidoo, Kwamena E.; Brechbiel, Martin W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To elucidate the mechanism of the therapeutic efficacy of targeted α-particle radiation therapy using 212 Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab together with gemcitabine for treatment of disseminated peritoneal cancers. Methods and Materials: Mice bearing human colon cancer LS-174T intraperitoneal xenografts were pretreated with gemcitabine, followed by 212 Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab and compared with controls. Results: Treatment with 212 Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab increased the apoptotic rate in the S-phase-arrested tumors induced by gemcitabine at earlier time points (6 to 24 hours). 212 Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab after gemcitabine pretreatment abrogated G2/M arrest at the same time points, which may be associated with the inhibition of Chk1 phosphorylation and, in turn, cell cycle perturbation, resulting in apoptosis. 212 Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab treatment after gemcitabine pretreatment caused depression of DNA synthesis, DNA double-strand breaks, accumulation of unrepaired DNA, and down-regulation of Rad51 protein, indicating that DNA damage repair was blocked. In addition, modification in the chromatin structure of p21 may be associated with transcriptionally repressed chromatin states, indicating that the open structure was delayed at earlier time points. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the cell-killing efficacy of 212 Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab after gemcitabine pretreatment may be associated with abrogation of the G2/M checkpoint, inhibition of DNA damage repair, and chromatin remodeling

  18. Effecting dietary change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Ashley J; Mathers, John C

    2004-11-01

    A world epidemic of diet-related chronic disease is currently being faced. In the UK incidence of obesity alone has tripled in the last 20 years and this trend is predicted to continue. Consensus exists for the urgent need for a change in diet and other lifestyle factors and for the direction and targets for this change. The evidence for how this change can be achieved is less certain. It has been established that disease processes begin in childhood. Recent evidence indicates that dietary habits too are established in childhood but that these habits are amenable to change. While establishing a healthy lifestyle in childhood is paramount, interventions have the potential to promote positive change throughout the life course. Success in reversing current trends in diet-related disease will depend on commitment from legislators, health professionals, industry and individuals, and this collaboration must seek to address not only the food choices of the individual but also the environment that influences such choices. Recent public health policy development in England, if fully supported and implemented, is a positive move towards this goal. Evidence for effective strategies to promote dietary change at the individual level is emerging and three reviews of this evidence are discussed. In addition, three recent dietary intervention studies, in three different settings and with different methods and aims, are presented to illustrate methods of effecting dietary change. Further work is required on what factors influence the eating behaviour and physical activity of individuals. There is a need for further theory-based research on which to develop more effective strategies to enable individuals to adopt healthier lifestyles.

  19. Dietary treatment of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Pita Lottenberg

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The fast global increased prevalence of obesity has been classifiedas an epidemics by the World Health Organization. The etiology ofobesity is very complex and involves genetic and environmentalfactors. One of the main factors that trigger obesity is sedentarylife, as well as the great availability of fat-rich foods that present ahigh energy density. According to the NHANES II, although thepopulation has decreased the ingestion of fat, the total consumptionof food has increased. The main factors that influence in choice offood are flavor, followed by cost, convenience and, finally, itsnutritional value. The dietary treatment of obesity should haverealistic goals concerning weight loss rate and amount. It issuggested to prescribe a balanced low-calorie diet, emphasizingmostly the quality of foods by using the food pyramid. Therefore,patients may learn the appropriate criteria to select food and makehealthy choices. The dietary treatment of obesity also includesthe use of behavioral techniques directed at dietary education,thus resulting in choice of healthy foods with adequate energyvalue.

  20. Natural Dietary Phytosterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Susan B; Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    Most clinical phytosterol studies are performed by adding purified supplements to smaller phytosterol amounts present in the natural diet. However, natural dietary phytosterols themselves may also have important effects on cholesterol metabolism. Epidemiological work using food frequency questionnaires to estimate dietary intake suggest that extremes of normal consumption may be associated with 3-14% changes in LDL cholesterol. Standardized food databases do not have enough phytosterol values to allow calculation of phytosterol intake for individuals outside of specialized studies. Natural diets contain phytosterol amounts ranging from less than 60 mg/2000 kcal to over 500 mg/2000 kcal. Physiological studies in which whole body cholesterol metabolism is investigated show large effects of natural dietary phytosterols on cholesterol absorption efficiency, cholesterol biosynthesis and cholesterol excretion which exceed the magnitude of changes in LDL cholesterol. The dual effects of natural phytosterols on both LDL-C and whole body cholesterol metabolism need to be considered in relating them to potential protection from coronary heart disease risk.

  1. Dietary methanol and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Ralph G; Monte, Woodrow C

    2015-10-01

    The authors sought to establish whether maternal dietary methanol during pregnancy was a factor in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders. A seven item questionnaire was given to women who had given birth to at least one child after 1984. The subjects were solicited from a large primary care practice and several internet sites and separated into two groups - mothers who had given birth to a child with autism and those who had not. Average weekly methanol consumption was calculated based on questionnaire responses. 550 questionnaires were completed by women who gave birth to a non-autistic child. On average these women consumed 66.71mg. of methanol weekly. 161 questionnaires were completed by women who had given birth to an autistic child. The average estimated weekly methanol consumption for this group was 142.31mg. Based on the results of the Wilcoxon rank sum-test, we see a significant difference between the reported methanol consumption rates of the two groups. This study suggests that women who have given birth to an autistic child are likely to have had higher intake of dietary sources of methanol than women who have not. Further investigation of a possible link of dietary methanol to autism is clearly warranted. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Protecting military personnel from high risk dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuster, Patricia A; Lieberman, Harris R

    2016-01-01

    It is legal tomarketmost naturally occurring substances as dietary supplements in the USA without manufacturers demonstrating they are safe or effective, and an endless variety of ingredients, from esoteric botanicals to unapproved pharmaceuticals, can be found in dietary supplements. Use of certain supplements can pose a risk, but since a robust reporting systemdoes not exist in the USA it is difficult to know which are problematic and the number of adverse events (AE) resulting from their use. Certain populations, includingmilitary personnel, aremore likely to use dietary supplements than the general population. Approximately 70% of military personnel take dietary supplements while about 50% of civilians do. Service members prefer supplements purported to enhance physical performance such as supposedly natural stimulants, protein and amino acids, and combination products. Since some of thesemay be problematic, Servicemembers are probably at higher risk of injury than the general population. Ten percent of military populations appear to be taking potentially risky supplements, and the US Department of Defense (DoD) has taken variousmeasures to protect uniformed personnel including education, policy changes, and restricting sales. Actions taken include launching Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS), introducing a High Risk Supplement list, educating health care professionals on reporting AE thatmight be associated with dietary supplements, recommending policy for reporting AE, and developing an online AE reporting system. OPSS is a DoD-wide effort to educate service members, leaders, health care providers, military families, and retirees on how to safely select supplements

  3. Determinants of dietary supplement use - healthy individuals use dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2015-01-01

    influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54 948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements...... and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation...... to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher...

  4. Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W

    2015-11-20

    While telomerase is expressed in ~90% of primary human tumors, most somatic tissue cells except transiently proliferating stem-like cells do not have detectable telomerase activity (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). Telomeres progressively shorten with each cell division in normal cells, including proliferating stem-like cells, due to the end replication (lagging strand synthesis) problem and other causes such as oxidative damage, therefore all somatic cells have limited cell proliferation capacity (Hayflick limit) (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961; Olovnikov, 1973). The progressive telomere shortening eventually leads to growth arrest in normal cells, which is known as replicative senescence (Shay et al. , 1991). Once telomerase is activated in cancer cells, telomere length is stabilized by the addition of TTAGGG repeats to the end of chromosomes, thus enabling the limitless continuation of cell division (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). Therefore, the link between aging and cancer can be partially explained by telomere biology. There are many rapid and convenient methods to study telomere biology such as Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF), Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) (Mender and Shay, 2015b) and Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci (TIF) analysis (Mender and Shay, 2015a). In this protocol paper we describe Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) analysis to determine average telomeric length of cells. Telomeric length can be indirectly measured by a technique called Telomere Restriction Fragment analysis (TRF). This technique is a modified Southern blot, which measures the heterogeneous range of telomere lengths in a cell population using the length distribution of the terminal restriction fragments (Harley et al. , 1990; Ouellette et al. , 2000). This method can be used in eukaryotic cells. The description below focuses on the measurement of human cancer cells telomere length. The principle of this method relies on the lack of

  5. Food restriction prevents an age-associated increase in rat liver beta-adrenergic receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dax, E.M.; Ingram, D.K.; Partilla, J.S.; Gregerman, R.I.

    1989-05-01

    In male Wistar rats fed ad libitum (24% protein, 4.5 Kcal/gm), the (/sup 125/I)iodopindolol binding capacity of the beta-adrenergic receptors in liver of 24-month-old animals is 3-4 times greater than that of 6-month-old counterparts. In rats fed the same diet, on alternate days from weaning, the receptor capacity did not increase significantly between 6 and 24 months (10.20 +/- 0.55 vs 9.20 +/- 0.72 fmol/mg) or between 24 and 30 months. This was not due to acute dietary deprivation, as rats food-restricted for only 2 weeks, at 23.5 months of age, also showed elevated receptor capacities compared to 6-month-old ad libitum fed animals. Moreover, intermittent feeding produced no significant effects among 6-month-old animals, whether restricted since weaning or for two weeks prior to sacrifice. Many biochemical parameters that decrease with aging in rats fed ad libitum are prevented by dietary restriction. Our results demonstrate that a reproducible biochemical process that increases with aging is also prevented with dietary restriction. The age-related, liver beta-receptor increase may be a potentially reliable marker for studying biochemical perturbations that modify life span.

  6. Food restriction prevents an age-associated increase in rat liver beta-adrenergic receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dax, E.M.; Ingram, D.K.; Partilla, J.S.; Gregerman, R.I.

    1989-01-01

    In male Wistar rats fed ad libitum (24% protein, 4.5 Kcal/gm), the [ 125 I]iodopindolol binding capacity of the beta-adrenergic receptors in liver of 24-month-old animals is 3-4 times greater than that of 6-month-old counterparts. In rats fed the same diet, on alternate days from weaning, the receptor capacity did not increase significantly between 6 and 24 months (10.20 +/- 0.55 vs 9.20 +/- 0.72 fmol/mg) or between 24 and 30 months. This was not due to acute dietary deprivation, as rats food-restricted for only 2 weeks, at 23.5 months of age, also showed elevated receptor capacities compared to 6-month-old ad libitum fed animals. Moreover, intermittent feeding produced no significant effects among 6-month-old animals, whether restricted since weaning or for two weeks prior to sacrifice. Many biochemical parameters that decrease with aging in rats fed ad libitum are prevented by dietary restriction. Our results demonstrate that a reproducible biochemical process that increases with aging is also prevented with dietary restriction. The age-related, liver beta-receptor increase may be a potentially reliable marker for studying biochemical perturbations that modify life span

  7. Gentile statistics and restricted partitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a recent paper (Tran et al, Ann. Phys. 311, 204 (2004)), some asymptotic number theoretical results on the partitioning of an integer were derived exploiting its connection to the quantum density of states of a many-particle system. We generalise these results to obtain an asymptotic formula for the restricted or coloured ...

  8. Dietary Determinants of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, Lisa W

    2005-01-01

    .... Epidemiologic studies suggest that dietary factors may be important in the etiology of PCa. The objective of our research is to determine how nutritional compounds genistein, betasitosterol (STT...

  9. Dietary protein intake and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gang Jee; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Tortorici, Amanda R; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2017-01-01

    High-protein intake may lead to increased intraglomerular pressure and glomerular hyperfiltration. This can cause damage to glomerular structure leading to or aggravating chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hence, a low-protein diet (LPD) of 0.6-0.8 g/kg/day is often recommended for the management of CKD. We reviewed the effect of protein intake on incidence and progression of CKD and the role of LPD in the CKD management. Actual dietary protein consumption in CKD patients remains substantially higher than the recommendations for LPD. Notwithstanding the inconclusive results of the 'Modification of Diet in Renal Disease' (MDRD) study, the largest randomized controlled trial to examine protein restriction in CKD, several prior and subsequent studies and meta-analyses appear to support the role of LPD on retarding progression of CKD and delaying initiation of maintenance dialysis therapy. LPD can also be used to control metabolic derangements in CKD. Supplemented LPD with essential amino acids or their ketoanalogs may be used for incremental transition to dialysis especially on nondialysis days. The LPD management in lieu of dialysis therapy can reduce costs, enhance psychological adaptation, and preserve residual renal function upon transition to dialysis. Adherence and adequate protein and energy intake should be ensured to avoid protein-energy wasting. A balanced and individualized dietary approach based on LPD should be elaborated with periodic dietitian counseling and surveillance to optimize management of CKD, to assure adequate protein and energy intake, and to avoid or correct protein-energy wasting.

  10. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than 50...

  11. Trajectories of higher- and lower-order dimensions of negative and positive affect relative to restrictive eating in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynos, Ann F; Berg, Kelly C; Cao, Li; Crosby, Ross D; Lavender, Jason M; Utzinger, Linsey M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Le Grange, Daniel; Peterson, Carol B; Crow, Scott J

    2017-07-01

    Despite robust support for the role of affect in the maintenance of binge eating and purging, the relationship between affect and restrictive eating remains poorly understood. To investigate the relationship between restrictive eating and affect, ecological momentary assessment data from 118 women with anorexia nervosa (AN) were used to examine trajectories of higher-order dimensions of negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA), as well as lower-order dimensions of NA (Fear, Guilt) and PA (Joviality, Self-Assurance) relative to restrictive eating. Affect trajectories were modeled before and after restrictive eating episodes and AN subtype was examined as a moderator of these trajectories. Across the sample, Guilt significantly increased before and decreased after restrictive eating episodes. Global NA, Global PA, Fear, Joviality, and Self-Assurance did not vary relative to restrictive eating episodes across the sample. However, significant subtype by trajectory interactions were detected for PA indices. Among individuals with AN restricting subtype, Global PA, Joviality, and Self-Assurance decreased prior to and Self-Assurance increased following restrictive eating episodes. In contrast, Global PA and Self-Assurance increased prior to, but did not change following, restrictive eating episodes among individuals with AN binge eating/purging subtype. Results suggest that dietary restriction may function to mitigate guilt across AN subtypes and to enhance self-assurance among individuals with AN restricting subtype. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Regulation of longevity and oxidative stress by nutritional interventions: role of methionine restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Roman, Ines; Barja, Gustavo

    2013-10-01

    Comparative studies indicate that long-lived mammals have low rates of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production (mtROSp) and oxidative damage in their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Dietary restriction (DR), around 40%, extends the mean and maximum life span of a wide range of species and lowers mtROSp and oxidative damage to mtDNA, which supports the mitochondrial free radical theory of aging (MFRTA). Regarding the dietary factor responsible for the life extension effect of DR, neither carbohydrate nor lipid restriction seems to modify maximum longevity. However protein restriction (PR) and methionine restriction (at least 80% MetR) increase maximum lifespan in rats and mice. Interestingly, only 7weeks of 40% PR (at least in liver) or 40% MetR (in all the studied organs, heart, brain, liver or kidney) is enough to decrease mtROSp and oxidative damage to mtDNA in rats, whereas neither carbohydrate nor lipid restriction changes these parameters. In addition, old rats also conserve the capacity to respond to 7weeks of 40% MetR with these beneficial changes. Most importantly, 40% MetR, differing from what happens during both 40% DR and 80% MetR, does not decrease growth rate and body size of rats. All the available studies suggest that the decrease in methionine ingestion that occurs during DR is responsible for part of the aging-delaying effect of this intervention likely through the decrease of mtROSp and ensuing DNA damage that it exerts. We conclude that lowering mtROS generation is a conserved mechanism, shared by long-lived species and dietary, protein, and methionine restricted animals, that decreases damage to macromolecules situated near the complex I mtROS generator, especially mtDNA. This would decrease the accumulation rate of somatic mutations in mtDNA and maybe finally also in nuclear DNA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bowel preparation in CT colonography. Is diet restriction necessary? A randomised trial (DIETSAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellini, Davide; De Santis, Domenico; Caruso, Damiano; Rengo, Marco; Biondi, Tommaso; Laghi, Andrea [Rome Univ. ' ' Sapienza' ' (Italy). Dept. of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology; I.C.O.T. Hospital, Latina (Italy); Ferrari, Riccardo [San Camillo Forlanini Hospital, Rome (Italy). Dept. of Emergency Radiology

    2018-01-15

    To investigate whether diet restriction affects quality of colon cleansing and patient tolerance during reduced bowel preparation for CT colonography (CTC). Asymptomatic and symptomatic patients were enrolled in this pragmatic, single-centre, randomised trial. All patients were randomly assigned (1:1 ratio, blocks of ten) to receive a reduced bowel preparation and faecal tagging with (Diet-Restriction-Group [DR]) or without (No-Diet-Restriction-Group [NDR]) dietary restriction. Five readers performed a blinded subjective image analysis, by means of 4-point Likert-scales from 0 (highest score) to 3 (worst score). Endpoints were the quality of large bowel cleansing and tolerance to the assigned bowel preparation regimen. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrial.gov (URomLSDBAL1). Ninety-five patients were randomly allocated to treatments (48 in NDR-group, 47 in DR-group). Both groups resulted in optimal colon cleansing. The mean residual stool (0.22, 95%CI 0.00-0.44) and fluid burden (0.39, 95%CI 0.25-0.53) scores for patients in DR-group were similar to those in patients in NDR-group (0.25, 95%CI 0.03-0.47 [p = 0.82] and 0.49, 95%CI 0.30-0.67 [p = 0.38], respectively). Tolerance was significantly better in NDR-group. A reduced bowel preparation in association with faecal tagging and without any dietary restriction demonstrated optimal colon cleansing effectiveness for CTC, providing better patient compliance compared with dietary restriction. (orig.)

  14. Bowel preparation in CT colonography. Is diet restriction necessary? A randomised trial (DIETSAN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellini, Davide; De Santis, Domenico; Caruso, Damiano; Rengo, Marco; Biondi, Tommaso; Laghi, Andrea; Ferrari, Riccardo

    2018-01-01

    To investigate whether diet restriction affects quality of colon cleansing and patient tolerance during reduced bowel preparation for CT colonography (CTC). Asymptomatic and symptomatic patients were enrolled in this pragmatic, single-centre, randomised trial. All patients were randomly assigned (1:1 ratio, blocks of ten) to receive a reduced bowel preparation and faecal tagging with (Diet-Restriction-Group [DR]) or without (No-Diet-Restriction-Group [NDR]) dietary restriction. Five readers performed a blinded subjective image analysis, by means of 4-point Likert-scales from 0 (highest score) to 3 (worst score). Endpoints were the quality of large bowel cleansing and tolerance to the assigned bowel preparation regimen. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrial.gov (URomLSDBAL1). Ninety-five patients were randomly allocated to treatments (48 in NDR-group, 47 in DR-group). Both groups resulted in optimal colon cleansing. The mean residual stool (0.22, 95%CI 0.00-0.44) and fluid burden (0.39, 95%CI 0.25-0.53) scores for patients in DR-group were similar to those in patients in NDR-group (0.25, 95%CI 0.03-0.47 [p = 0.82] and 0.49, 95%CI 0.30-0.67 [p = 0.38], respectively). Tolerance was significantly better in NDR-group. A reduced bowel preparation in association with faecal tagging and without any dietary restriction demonstrated optimal colon cleansing effectiveness for CTC, providing better patient compliance compared with dietary restriction. (orig.)

  15. Dietary change: what are the responses and roles of significant others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paisley, Judy; Beanlands, Heather; Goldman, Joanne; Evers, Susan; Chappell, Janet

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of one person's dietary change on the experiences of a significant other with whom they regularly shared meals. Qualitative constant comparison approach using semistructured interviews. Community-based. Forty-two participants were recruited using a stratified purposive sampling strategy. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using NUD*IST, version 4.0 software (Qualitative Solutions and Research, Melbourne, Australia, 1997) and manual coding. Most dietary changers had modified their diets in response to a disease diagnosis (eg, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, hypoglycemia, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), ulcer, allergies). Others had changed their diets for personal reasons (eg, weight loss, vegetarian diets). The dietary changes included dietary fat reduction, conversion to vegetarian or vegan diets, restriction of total kilocalorie intake, and elimination or reduction of specific food items. Significant others described a range of emotional responses to the dietary change, including cooperation, encouragement, skepticism, and anger. Significant others' descriptions of the roles that they played in the dietary change were positive (enabling), neutral (neither enabling nor inhibiting), or negative (inhibiting). Most significant others played positive roles; few played neutral or negative roles. Understanding dietary change from the perspective of significant others can enable nutrition professionals to develop strategies to promote dietary modifications as a shared activity.

  16. Certain dietary patterns are beneficial for the metabolic syndrome: reviewing the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calton, Emily K; James, Anthony P; Pannu, Poonam K; Soares, Mario J

    2014-07-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a global public health issue of increasing magnitude. The Asia-Pacific region is expected to be hardest hit due to large population numbers, rising obesity, and insulin resistance (IR). This review assessed the protective effects of dietary patterns and their components on MetS. A literature search was conducted using prominent electronic databases and search terms that included in combination: diet, dietary components, dietary patterns, and metabolic syndrome. Articles were restricted to prospective studies and high quality randomized controlled trials that were conducted on humans, reported in the English language, and within the time period of 2000 to 2012. Traditional factors such as age, gender, physical activity, and obesity were associated with risk of MetS; however, these potential confounders were not always accounted for in study outcomes. Three dietary patterns emerged from the review; a Mediterranean dietary pattern, dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet, and the Nordic Diet. Potential contributors to their beneficial effects on prevalence of MetS or reduction in MetS components included increases in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, dairy and dairy components, calcium, vitamin D, and whey protein, as well as monounsaturated fatty acids, and omega-3 fatty acids. Additional prospective and high quality randomized controlled trial studies that investigate Mediterranean dietary pattern, the dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet, and the Nordic Diet would cement the protective benefits of these diets against the MetS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence d'une période de restriction alimentaire sur les marqueurs salivaires du stress, les paramètres psychologiques et la performance chez des haltérophiles de haut niveau

    OpenAIRE

    Durguerian , Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Restricting dietary intake is a widespread method for losing weight in weight categories sports. Reduction of calorie intake results in an activation of the physiological stress systems, both at central and peripheral levels, aiming at preserving energy homeostasis. Nevertheless, the influence on physiological, psychological and physical parameters remains controversial and do not allows to clearly defining a negative impact of dietary restriction on health and performance level. The objectiv...

  18. National Children's Study Dietary Assessment Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Children's Study dietary assessment workshop was an opportunity for experts in dietary assessment methodology to gather and discuss the current state of knowledge about methodologies used to assess dietary intake during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

  19. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Home Food Resources for You Consumers Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know Share Tweet Linkedin ... and nutrients you personally need. What are dietary supplements? Dietary supplements include such ingredients as vitamins, minerals, ...

  20. The effect of protein restriction on the progression of renal insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihle, B.U.; Becker, G.J.; Whitworth, J.A.; Charlwood, R.A.; Kincaid-Smith, P.S.

    1989-01-01

    Dietary protein intake may be an important determinant of the rate of decline in renal function in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. We conducted a prospective, randomized study of the efficacy of protein restriction in slowing the rate of progression of renal impairment. The study lasted 18 months and included 64 patients with serum creatinine concentrations ranging from 350 to 1000 micromol per liter. The patients were randomly assigned to follow either a regular diet or an isocaloric protein-restricted diet (0.4 g of protein per kilogram of the body weight per day). Blood-pressure levels and the balance between calcium and phosphate were similar in the two groups. End-stage renal failure developed in 9 of the 33 patients (27 percent) who followed the regular diet during the study, as compared with 2 of the 31 patients (6 percent) who followed the protein-restricted diet (P less than 0.05). The mean (+/- SE) glomerular filtration rate, as measured by the clearance of 51Cr bound to EDTA, fell from 0.25 +/- 0.03 to 0.10 +/- 0.05 ml per second (P less than 0.01) in the group on the regular diet, whereas it fell from 0.23 +/- 0.04 to 0.20 +/- 0.05 ml per second (P not significant) in the group on the protein-restricted diet. We conclude that dietary protein restriction is effective in slowing the rate of progression of chronic renal failure

  1. DNA demethylation by 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment abrogates 17 beta-estradiol-induced cell growth and restores expression of DNA repair genes in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kamaleshwar P; Treas, Justin; Tyagi, Tulika; Gao, Weimin

    2012-03-01

    Prolonged exposure to elevated levels of estrogen is a risk factor for breast cancer. Though increased cell growth and loss of DNA repair capacity is one of the proposed mechanisms for estrogen-induced cancers, the mechanism through which estrogen induces cell growth and decreases DNA repair capacity is not clear. DNA hypermethylation is known to inactivate DNA repair genes and apoptotic response in cancer cells. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the role of DNA hypermethylation in estrogen-induced cell growth and regulation of DNA repair genes expression in breast cancer cells. To achieve this objective, the estrogen-responsive MCF-7 cells either pretreated with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) or untreated (as control) were exposed to 17 beta-estradiol (E2), and its effect on cell growth and expression of DNA repair genes were measured. The result revealed that 5-aza-dC abrogates the E2-induced growth in MCF-7 cells. An increased expression of OGG1, MSH4, and MLH1 by 5-aza-dC treatment alone, suggest the DNA hypermethylation as a potential cause for decreased expression of these genes in MCF-7 cells. The decreased expression of ERCC1, XPC, OGG1, and MLH1 by E2 alone and its restoration by co-treatment with 5-aza-dC further suggest that E2 reduces the expression of these DNA repair genes potentially through promoter hypermethylation. Reactivation of mismatch repair (MMR) gene MLH1 and abrogation of E2-induced cell growth by 5-aza-dC treatment suggest that estrogen causes increased growth in breast cancer cells potentially through the inhibition of MMR-mediated apoptotic response. In summary, this study suggests that estrogen increases cell growth and decreases the DNA repair capacity in breast cancer cells, at least in part, through epigenetic mechanism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Inhibition of Hb Binding to GP1bα Abrogates Hb-Mediated Thrombus Formation on Immobilized VWF and Collagen under Physiological Shear Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annarapu, Gowtham K; Singhal, Rashi; Peng, Yuandong; Guchhait, Prasenjit

    2016-01-01

    Reports including our own describe that intravascular hemolysis increases the risk of thrombosis in hemolytic disorders. Our recent study shows that plasma Hb concentrations correlate directly with platelet activation in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). The binding of Hb to glycoprotein1bα (GP1bα) increases platelet activation. A peptide AA1-50, designed from N-terminal amino acid sequence of GP1bα significantly inhibits the Hb binding to GP1bα as well as Hb-induced platelet activation. This study further examined if the Hb-mediated platelet activation plays any significant role in thrombus formation on subendothelium matrix under physiological flow shear stresses and the inhibition of Hb-platelet interaction can abrogate the above effects of Hb. Study performed thrombus formation assay in vitro by perfusing whole blood over immobilized VWF or collagen type I in presence of Hb under shear stresses simulating arterial or venous flow. The Hb concentrations ranging from 5 to 10 μM, commonly observed level in plasma of the hemolytic patients including PNH, dose-dependently increased thrombus formation on immobilized VWF under higher shear stress of 25 dyne/cm2, but not at 5 dyne/cm2. The above Hb concentrations also increased thrombus formation on immobilized collagen under both shear stresses of 5 and 25 dyne/cm2. The peptide AA1-50 abrogated invariably the above effects of Hb on thrombus formation. This study therefore indicates that the Hb-induced platelet activation plays a crucial role in thrombus formation on immobilized VWF or collagen under physiological flow shear stresses. Thus suggesting a probable role of this mechanism in facilitating thrombosis under hemolytic conditions.

  3. Moderation of dietary sodium potentiates the renal and cardiovascular protective effects of angiotensin receptor blockers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Parving, Hans-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Dietary sodium restriction has been shown to enhance the short-term response of blood pressure and albuminuria to angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). Whether this also enhances the long-term renal and cardiovascular protective effects of ARBs is unknown. Here we conducted a post-hoc analysis of...

  4. Body image dissatisfaction and dietary patterns according to nutritional status in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Ribeiro‐Silva

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: Amongst overweight/obese adolescents, those with slight and moderate body image dissatisfaction were less likely to follow a Western‐like dietary pattern when compared with those satisfied with their body image. Additionally, in this group, adolescents with high body image dissatisfaction was more likely to follow a restrictive pattern.

  5. Effects of sodium restriction and hydrochlorothiazide on RAAS blockade efficacy in diabetic nephropathy : a randomised clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakernaak, Arjan J.; Krikken, Jan A.; Binnenmars, S. Heleen; Visser, Folkert W.; Hemmelder, Marc H.; Woittiez, Arend-Jan; Groen, Henk; Laverman, Gozewijn D.; Navis, Gerjan

    Background Reduction of dietary sodium intake or diuretic treatment increases renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade efficacy in non-diabetic nephropathy. We aimed to investigate the effect of sodium restriction and the diuretic hydrochlorothiazide, separately and in combination, added

  6. Curcumin and piperine supplementation of obese mice under caloric restriction modulates body fat and interleukin-1beta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Dietary bioactive compounds capable of improving metabolic profiles would be of great value, especially for overweight individuals undergoing a caloric restriction (CR) regimen. Curcumin (Cur), a possible anti-obesity compound, and piperine (Pip), a plausible enhancer of Cur's bioavailab...

  7. Dietary Advanced Glycation End Products and Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Chapman-Novakofski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced glycation end products (AGEs are a heterogeneous, complex group of compounds that are formed when reducing sugar reacts in a non-enzymatic way with amino acids in proteins and other macromolecules. This occurs both exogenously (in food and endogenously (in humans with greater concentrations found in older adults. While higher AGEs occur in both healthy older adults and those with chronic diseases, research is progressing to both quantify AGEs in food and in people, and to identify mechanisms that would explain why some human tissues are damaged, and others are not. In the last twenty years, there has been increased evidence that AGEs could be implicated in the development of chronic degenerative diseases of aging, such as cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s disease and with complications of diabetes mellitus. Results of several studies in animal models and humans show that the restriction of dietary AGEs has positive effects on wound healing, insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, the effect of restriction in AGEs intake has been reported to increase the lifespan in animal models. This paper will summarize the work that has been published for both food AGEs and in vivo AGEs and their relation with aging, as well as provide suggestions for future research.

  8. Dietary supplements for body-weight reduction: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittler, Max H; Ernst, Edzard

    2004-04-01

    Compliance with conventional weight-management programs is notoriously poor, and a plethora of over-the-counter slimming aids are sold with claims of effectiveness. The objective of the study was to assess the evidence from rigorous clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses on the effectiveness of dietary supplements in reducing body weight. The study was a systematic review. Literature searches were conducted on Medline, Embase, Amed, Cinahl, and the Cochrane Library until March 2003. Hand searches of medical journals, the authors' own files, and bibliographies of identified articles were conducted. There were no restrictions regarding the language of publication. The screening of studies, selection, validation, data extraction, and the assessment of methodologic quality were performed independently by the 2 reviewers. To be included, trials were required to be randomized and double-blind. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of dietary supplements were included if they were based on the results of randomized, double-blind trials. Five systematic reviews and meta-analyses and 25 additional trials were included and reviewed. Data on the following dietary supplements were identified: chitosan, chromium picolinate, Ephedra sinica, Garcinia cambogia, glucomannan, guar gum, hydroxy-methylbutyrate, plantago psyllium, pyruvate, yerba maté, and yohimbe. The reviewed studies provide some encouraging data but no evidence beyond a reasonable doubt that any specific dietary supplement is effective for reducing body weight. The only exceptions are E. sinica- and ephedrine-containing supplements, which have been associated with an increased risk of adverse events. The evidence for most dietary supplements as aids in reducing body weight is not convincing. None of the reviewed dietary supplements can be recommended for over-the-counter use.

  9. Bill project aiming at abrogating exclusive search permits for unconventional hydrocarbon searches, and at prohibiting their exploration and exploitation of the national territory; Proposition de Loi visant a abroger les permis exclusifs de recherches d'hydrocarbures non conventionnels et a interdire leur exploration et leur exploitation sur le territoire national

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    After having briefly recalled the origin of shale gases, their extraction process and the evolution of their production in the USA, the authors outline the extremely negative environmental impacts of the fracking technique (hydraulic fracturing): water pollution, air pollution, soil pollution, existence of numerous drilling sites which would degrade landscapes, water and soil contamination risks. As some search permits have already been awarded, and while taking these negative consequences into account, the authors propose a bill project to prohibit these explorations, to abrogate the existing permits, and to ensure public information before bestowing such search permits and exploitation concessions

  10. Bill project aiming at abrogating exclusive search permits for unconventional hydrocarbon searches, and at prohibiting their exploration and exploitation of the national territory; Proposition de Loi visant a abroger les permis exclusifs de recherches d'hydrocarbures non conventionnels et a interdire leur exploration et leur exploitation sur le territoire national

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    After having briefly recalled the origin of shale gases, their extraction process and the evolution of their production in the USA, the authors outline the extremely negative environmental impacts of the fracking technique (hydraulic fracturing): water pollution, air pollution, soil pollution, existence of numerous drilling sites which would degrade landscapes, water and soil contamination risks. As some search permits have already been awarded, and while taking these negative consequences into account, the authors propose a bill project to prohibit these explorations, to abrogate the existing permits, and to ensure public information before bestowing such search permits and exploitation concessions

  11. Dietary intervention in acne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the endocrine signaling of Western diet, a fundamental environmental factor involved in the pathogenesis of epidemic acne. Western nutrition is characterized by high calorie uptake, high glycemic load, high fat and meat intake, as well as increased consumption of insulin- and IGF-1-level elevating dairy proteins. Metabolic signals of Western diet are sensed by the nutrient-sensitive kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which integrates signals of cellular energy, growth factors (insulin, IGF-1) and protein-derived signals, predominantly leucine, provided in high amounts by milk proteins and meat. mTORC1 activates SREBP, the master transcription factor of lipogenesis. Leucine stimulates mTORC1-SREBP signaling and leucine is directly converted by sebocytes into fatty acids and sterols for sebaceous lipid synthesis. Over-activated mTORC1 increases androgen hormone secretion and most likely amplifies androgen-driven mTORC1 signaling of sebaceous follicles. Testosterone directly activates mTORC1. Future research should investigate the effects of isotretinoin on sebocyte mTORC1 activity. It is conceivable that isotretinoin may downregulate mTORC1 in sebocytes by upregulation of nuclear levels of FoxO1. The role of Western diet in acne can only be fully appreciated when all stimulatory inputs for maximal mTORC1 activation, i.e., glucose, insulin, IGF-1 and leucine, are adequately considered. Epidemic acne has to be recognized as an mTORC1-driven disease of civilization like obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. These new insights into Western diet-mediated mTORC1-hyperactivity provide a rational basis for dietary intervention in acne by attenuating mTORC1 signaling by reducing (1) total energy intake, (2) hyperglycemic carbohydrates, (3) insulinotropic dairy proteins and (4) leucine-rich meat and dairy proteins. The necessary dietary changes are opposed to the evolution of

  12. Dietary Sodium Modulation of Aldosterone Activation and Renal Function During the Progression of Experimental Heart Failure Miller: Dietary Sodium and Early Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Wayne L.; Borgeson, Daniel D.; Grantham, J. Aaron; Luchner, Andreas; Redfield, Margaret M.; Burnett, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Aldosterone activation is central to the sodium-fluid retention that marks the progression of heart failure (HF). The actions of dietary sodium restriction, a mainstay in HF management, on cardiorenal and neuroendocrine adaptations during the progression of HF are poorly understood. The study aim was to assess the role of dietary sodium during the progression of experimental HF. Methods and Results Experimental HF was produced in a canine model by rapid right ventricular pacing which evolves from early mild HF to overt, severe HF. Dogs were fed one of three diets: 1) high sodium [250 mEq (5.8 grams) per day, n=6]; 2) standard sodium [58 mEq (1.3 grams) per day, n=6]; and 3) sodium restriction [11 mEq (0.25 grams) per day, n=6]. During the 38 day study hemodynamics, renal function, renin activity (PRA), and aldosterone were measured. Changes in hemodynamics at 38 days were similar in all three groups, as were changes in renal function. Aldosterone activation was demonstrated in all three groups, however, dietary sodium restriction, in contrast to high sodium, resulted in early (10 days) activation of PRA and aldosterone. High sodium demonstrated significant suppression of aldosterone activation over the course of HF progression. Conclusions Excessive dietary sodium restriction particularly in early stage HF results in early aldosterone activation, while normal and excess sodium intake are associated with delayed or suppressed activation. These findings warrant evaluation in humans to determine if dietary sodium manipulation, particularly during early stage HF, may have a significant impact on neuroendocrine disease progression. PMID:25823360

  13. Molar macrowear reveals Neanderthal eco-geographic dietary variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Fiorenza

    Full Text Available Neanderthal diets are reported to be based mainly on the consumption of large and medium sized herbivores, while the exploitation of other food types including plants has also been demonstrated. Though some studies conclude that early Homo sapiens were active hunters, the analyses of faunal assemblages, stone tool technologies and stable isotopic studies indicate that they exploited broader dietary resources than Neanderthals. Whereas previous studies assume taxon-specific dietary specializations, we suggest here that the diet of both Neanderthals and early Homo sapiens is determined by ecological conditions. We analyzed molar wear patterns using occlusal fingerprint analysis derived from optical 3D topometry. Molar macrowear accumulates during the lifespan of an individual and thus reflects diet over long periods. Neanderthal and early Homo sapiens maxillary molar macrowear indicates strong eco-geographic dietary variation independent of taxonomic affinities. Based on comparisons with modern hunter-gatherer populations with known diets, Neanderthals as well as early Homo sapiens show high dietary variability in Mediterranean evergreen habitats but a more restricted diet in upper latitude steppe/coniferous forest environments, suggesting a significant consumption of high protein meat resources.

  14. Dietary Advice on Prescription: A novel approach to dietary counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Johansson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a novel approach to giving dietary advice, which is called “Dietary Advice on Prescription” (DAP; Matordning på Recept [MoR] in Swedish. It is the same principle as prescription on medicine and “Physical Activity on Prescription” (PAP; Fysisk aktivitet på Recept [FaR] in Swedish. The main idea is that a written prescription will strengthen the oral advice and emphasize certain aspects of the dietary recommendation. The DAP is on the brink of being tested in a planned study.

  15. Dietary caffeine, performance and mood: enhancing and restorative effects after controlling for withdrawal reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jack E; Gregg, M Elizabeth; Kane, Marian; Harte, Frances

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether sustained (i.e. dietary) use of caffeine has net effects on performance and mood compared with sustained abstinence, and whether dietary caffeine restores performance and mood adversely affected by sleep restriction. Participants (n = 96) alternated weekly between ingesting placebo and caffeine (1.75 mg/kg) three times daily for 4 consecutive weeks, while either rested or sleep restricted. Performance involved either a single task requiring sustained vigilance or a varied battery of brief psychomotor and cognitive tasks, and mood was assessed using the Profile of Mood States. Caffeine had no significant net enhancing effects for either performance or mood when participants were rested, and produced no net restorative effects when performance and mood were degraded by sleep restriction. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Revised dietary guidelines for Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Young Ai; Lee, Haeng Shin; Kim, Bok Hee; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Hae Jeung; Moon, Jae Jin; Kim, Cho-il

    2008-01-01

    With rapidly changing dietary environment, dietary guidelines for Koreans were revised and relevant action guides were developed. First, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was established with experts and government officials from the fields of nutrition, preventive medicine, health promotion, agriculture, education and environment. The Committee set dietary goals for Koreans aiming for a better nutrition state of all after a thorough review and analysis of recent information related to nutritional status and/or problems of Korean population, changes in food production/supply, disease pattern, health policy and agricultural policy. Then, the revised dietary guidelines were proposed to accomplish these goals in addition to 6 different sets of dietary action guides to accommodate specific nutrition and health problems of respective age groups. Subsequently, these guidelines and guides were subjected to the focus group review, consumer perception surveys, and a public hearing for general and professional comments. Lastly, the language was clarified in terms of public understanding and phraseology. The revised Dietary guidelines for Koreans are as follows: eat a variety of grains, vegetables, fruits, fish, meat, poultry and dairy products; choose salt-preserved foods less, and use less salt when you prepare foods; increase physical activity for a healthy weight, and balance what you eat with your activity; enjoy every meal, and do not skip breakfast; if you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation; prepare foods properly, and order sensible amounts; enjoy our rice-based diet.

  17. DIETARY SODIUM ADHERENCE IS POOR IN CHRONIC HEART FAILURE PATIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuray, Anupam; Dolansky, Mary; Josephson, Richard; Sattar, Abdus; Grady, Ellen M.; Vehovec, Anton; Gunstad, John; Redle, Joseph; Fang, James; Hughes, Joel W.

    2015-01-01

    Background We sought to determine the rates and predictors of dietary sodium restriction, while evaluating the reliability of the 24-hour urine collection as a tool to estimate dietary sodium intake in heart failure (HF) patients. Methods and Results We evaluated the 24-hour urinary sodium excretion of 305 outpatients with HF and reduced ejection fraction who were educated on following a sodium diet. The mean sodium excretion using a single sample from each participant was 3.15 ± 1.58 grams, and 23% were adherent to the sodium excretion of 3.21 ± 1.20 grams and lower adherence rates to the sodium and creatinine showed poor reproducibility between samples. Conclusions In this chronic HF population, sodium consumption probably exceeds recommended amounts, particularly in men and those with higher BMI. Urine analyses were not highly reproducible, suggesting variation in both diet and urine collection. PMID:25576680

  18. Rurality study of restricted areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rivaroli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Two main perspectives of investigation emerge from the study of a territory’s rurality: a geographical approach and a sociological approach. The research examines the sub-regional study case of ‘Nuovo circondario imolese’. The analysis shows that the combination of traditional institutional criteria with detailed informations about the territory, generates more accurate results which determine a better comprehension of the characteristics of restricted areas’ rurality. Over the period 1991-2001, the study highlights an increase in rural areas. This result could be interpreted as an effect of urban sprawl’s intensification, that increases the competition between non-farm residences and agricultural activities.

  19. Adequacy of nutrient intake in women with restrictive anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiurazzi, Chiara; Cioffi, Iolanda; De Caprio, Carmela; De Filippo, Emilia; Marra, Maurizio; Sammarco, Rosa; Di Guglielmo, Maria Luisa; Contaldo, Franco; Pasanisi, Fabrizio

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess energy and nutrient intake in a group of women with restrictive AN (r-AN) compared with a control group. Thirteen r-AN patients and 13 healthy female controls completed 7-d food records. Intake of macro- and micronutrients was compared between the two groups as well as to the Dietary Reference Intake for the Italian Population (LARN) for specific ages. Additionally, the r-AN patients underwent indirect calorimetry for measuring resting energy expenditure (REE). Total energy intake was significantly lower in the r-AN group than in controls (906 ± 224 vs 1660 ± 139, respectively; P nutritional gaps in these patients. According to these preliminary observations, nutritional counseling, mainly focused on calcium and vitamin D intake, should be suggested for healthy women, as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Parenting and restrictions in childhood epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, R.; Meijer, A.M.; Scherphof, C.; Carpay, J.A.; Augustijn, P.; Aldenkamp, A.P.; Deković, M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: From the overprotection literature, the predictive and interactional (moderation) effects of controlling and indulgent parenting on restrictions in children with epilepsy were examined. Methods: Parents of 73 children with epilepsy completed questionnaires on parenting, restrictions, and

  1. Dietary modification dampens liver inflammation and fibrosis in obesity-related fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larter, Claire Z; Yeh, Matthew M; Haigh, W Geoffrey; Van Rooyen, Derrick M; Brooling, John; Heydet, Deborah; Nolan, Christopher J; Teoh, Narci C; Farrell, Geoffrey C

    2013-06-01

    Alms1 mutant (foz/foz) mice develop hyperphagic obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver (steatosis). High-fat (HF) feeding converts pathology from bland steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with fibrosis, which leads to cirrhosis in humans. We sought to establish how dietary composition contributes to NASH pathogenesis. foz/foz mice were fed HF diet or chow 24 weeks, or switched HF to chow after 12 weeks. Serum ALT, NAFLD activity score (NAS), fibrosis severity, neutrophil, macrophage and apoptosis immunohistochemistry, uncoupling protein (UCP)2, ATP, NF-κB activation/expression of chemokines/adhesion molecules/fibrogenic pathways were determined. HF intake upregulated liver fatty acid and cholesterol transporter, CD36. Dietary switch expanded adipose tissue and decreased hepatomegaly by lowering triglyceride, cholesterol ester, free cholesterol and diacylglyceride content of liver. There was no change in lipogenesis or fatty acid oxidation pathways; instead, CD36 was suppressed. These diet-induced changes in hepatic lipids improved NAS, reduced neutrophil infiltration, normalized UCP2 and increased ATP; this facilitated apoptosis with a change in macrophage phenotype favoring M2 cells. Dietary switch also abrogated NF-κB activation and chemokine/adhesion molecule expression, and arrested fibrosis by dampening stellate cell activation. Reversion to a physiological dietary composition after HF feeding in foz/foz mice alters body weight distribution but not obesity. This attenuates NASH severity and fibrotic progression by suppressing NF-κB activation and reducing neutrophil and macrophage activation. However, adipose inflammation persists and is associated with continuing apoptosis in the residual fatty liver disease. Taken together, these findings indicate that other measures, such as weight reduction, may be required to fully reverse obesity-related NASH. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  2. Dietary Intake of Competitive Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendlove, Jessica; Mitchell, Lachlan; Gifford, Janelle; Hackett, Daniel; Slater, Gary; Cobley, Stephen; O'Connor, Helen

    2015-07-01

    Competitive bodybuilders are well known for extreme physique traits and extremes in diet and training manipulation to optimize lean mass and achieve a low body fat. Although many of the dietary dogmas in bodybuilding lack scientific scrutiny, a number, including timing and dosing of high biological value proteins across the day, have more recently been confirmed as effective by empirical research studies. A more comprehensive understanding of the dietary intakes of bodybuilders has the potential to uncover other dietary approaches, deserving of scientific investigation, with application to the wider sporting, and potential health contexts, where manipulation of physique traits is desired. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of dietary intake practices of competitive bodybuilders, evaluate the quality and currency of the existing literature, and identify research gaps to inform future studies. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted from the earliest record until March 2014. The search combined permutations of the terms 'bodybuilding', 'dietary intake', and 'dietary supplement'. Included studies needed to report quantitative data (energy and macronutrients at a minimum) on habitual dietary intake of competitive bodybuilders. The 18 manuscripts meeting eligibility criteria reported on 385 participants (n = 62 women). Most studies were published in the 1980-1990s, with three published in the past 5 years. Study methodological quality was evaluated as poor. Energy intake ranged from 10 to 24 MJ/day for men and from 4 to 14 MJ/day for women. Protein intake ranged from 1.9 to 4.3 g/kg for men and from 0.8 to 2.8 g/kg for women. Intake of carbohydrate and fat was 6 months from competition) or immediate post-competition period and lowest during competition preparation (≤6 months from competition) or competition week. The most commonly reported dietary supplements were protein powders/liquids and amino acids. The studies failed to provide

  3. Dietary adherence in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    This article describes adherence to a low-fat dietary pattern (less than 20% energy from fat, five or more fruit/vegetable and six or more grain servings daily) in Years 1 and 5 of the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial, which was designed to examine the effects of a low-fat dietary pattern on risk of breast and colorectal cancers and other chronic diseases in postmenopausal women. Participants were randomly assigned to a low-fat dietary intervention arm (40%, n=19,542) or a usual diet control arm (60%, n=29,294). Women in the intervention arm completed 18 group sessions during the first year, followed by quarterly annual maintenance sessions. Adherence was assessed as control minus intervention (C-I) group differences in percent total energy from fat as estimated by a food frequency questionnaire. Based on these self-reported dietary data, mean C-I was 10.9 percentage points of energy from fat at Year 1, decreasing to 9.0 at Year 5. Factors associated with poorer adherence were being older, being African American or Hispanic (compared with white), having low income, and being obese. Group session attendance was strongly associated with better dietary adherence. There are many limitations of self-reported dietary data, particularly related to social desirability and intervention-associated bias. Nonetheless, these data indicate that long-term dietary change was achieved in this clinical trial setting and reinforce the potential of the ongoing trial to answer questions of public health importance.

  4. 49 CFR 383.95 - Restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the skills test and the restriction, air brakes shall include any braking system operating fully or...; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Vehicle Groups and Endorsements § 383.95 Restrictions. (a) Air brake restrictions... skills test in a vehicle not equipped with air brakes, the State must indicate on the CDL, if issued...

  5. 9 CFR 92.3 - Movement restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement restrictions. 92.3 Section 92... ANIMAL PRODUCTS: PROCEDURES FOR REQUESTING RECOGNITION OF REGIONS § 92.3 Movement restrictions. Whenever... exist and the EC imposes prohibitions or other restrictions on the movement of animals or animal...

  6. 21 CFR 203.20 - Sales restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales restrictions. 203.20 Section 203.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Sales Restrictions § 203.20 Sales restrictions. Except as provided in § 203.22 or...

  7. Roles of caloric restriction, ketogenic diet and intermittent fasting during initiation, progression and metastasis of cancer in animal models: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Mengmeng; Zhu, Xingya; Wang, Hao; Wang, Feng; Guan, Wenxian

    2014-01-01

    The role of dietary restriction regimens such as caloric restriction, ketogenic diet and intermittent fasting in development of cancers has been detected via abundant preclinical experiments. However, the conclusions are controversial. We aim to review the relevant animal studies systematically and provide assistance for further clinical studies. Literatures on associations between dietary restriction and cancer published in PubMed in recent twenty years were comprehensively searched. Animal model, tumor type, feeding regimen, study length, sample size, major outcome, conclusion, quality assessment score and the interferential step of cancer were extracted from each eligible study. We analyzed the tumor incidence rates from 21 studies about caloric restriction. Fifty-nine studies were involved in our system review. The involved studies explored roles of dietary restriction during initiation, progression and metastasis of cancer. About 90.9% of the relevant studies showed that caloric restriction plays an anti-cancer role, with the pooled OR (95%CI) of 0.20 (0.12, 0.34) relative to controls. Ketogenic diet was also positively associated with cancer, which was indicated by eight of the nine studies. However, 37.5% of the related studies obtained a negative conclusion that intermittent fasting was not significantly preventive against cancer. Caloric restriction and ketogenic diet are effective against cancer in animal experiments while the role of intermittent fasting is doubtful and still needs exploration. More clinical experiments are needed and more suitable patterns for humans should be investigated.

  8. Roles of caloric restriction, ketogenic diet and intermittent fasting during initiation, progression and metastasis of cancer in animal models: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Lv

    Full Text Available The role of dietary restriction regimens such as caloric restriction, ketogenic diet and intermittent fasting in development of cancers has been detected via abundant preclinical experiments. However, the conclusions are controversial. We aim to review the relevant animal studies systematically and provide assistance for further clinical studies.Literatures on associations between dietary restriction and cancer published in PubMed in recent twenty years were comprehensively searched. Animal model, tumor type, feeding regimen, study length, sample size, major outcome, conclusion, quality assessment score and the interferential step of cancer were extracted from each eligible study. We analyzed the tumor incidence rates from 21 studies about caloric restriction.Fifty-nine studies were involved in our system review. The involved studies explored roles of dietary restriction during initiation, progression and metastasis of cancer. About 90.9% of the relevant studies showed that caloric restriction plays an anti-cancer role, with the pooled OR (95%CI of 0.20 (0.12, 0.34 relative to controls. Ketogenic diet was also positively associated with cancer, which was indicated by eight of the nine studies. However, 37.5% of the related studies obtained a negative conclusion that intermittent fasting was not significantly preventive against cancer.Caloric restriction and ketogenic diet are effective against cancer in animal experiments while the role of intermittent fasting is doubtful and still needs exploration. More clinical experiments are needed and more suitable patterns for humans should be investigated.

  9. Knockdown of platinum-induced growth differentiation factor 15 abrogates p27-mediated tumor growth delay in the chemoresistant ovarian cancer model A2780cis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, Julia C; Haendler, Bernard; Seidel, Henrik; Groth, Philip; Adams, Robert; Ziegelbauer, Karl; Kreft, Bertolt; Beckmann, Georg; Sommer, Anette; Kopitz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms underlying the development of resistance to platinum-based treatment in patients with ovarian cancer remain poorly understood. This is mainly due to the lack of appropriate in vivo models allowing the identification of resistance-related factors. In this study, we used human whole-genome microarrays and linear model analysis to identify potential resistance-related genes by comparing the expression profiles of the parental human ovarian cancer model A2780 and its platinum-resistant variant A2780cis before and after carboplatin treatment in vivo. Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) was identified as one of five potential resistance-related genes in the A2780cis tumor model. Although A2780-bearing mice showed a strong carboplatin-induced increase of GDF15 plasma levels, the basal higher GDF15 plasma levels of A2780cis-bearing mice showed no further increase after short-term or long-term carboplatin treatment. This correlated with a decreased DNA damage response, enhanced AKT survival signaling and abrogated cell cycle arrest in the carboplatin-treated A2780cis tumors. Furthermore, knockdown of GDF15 in A2780cis cells did not alter cell proliferation but enhanced cell migration and colony size in vitro. Interestingly, in vivo knockdown of GDF15 in the A2780cis model led to a basal-enhanced tumor growth, but increased sensitivity to carboplatin treatment as compared to the control-transduced A2780cis tumors. This was associated with larger necrotic areas, a lobular tumor structure and increased p53 and p16 expression of the carboplatin-treated shGDF15-A2780cis tumors. Furthermore, shRNA-mediated GDF15 knockdown abrogated p27 expression as compared to control-transduced A2780cis tumors. In conclusion, these data show that GDF15 may contribute to carboplatin resistance by suppressing tumor growth through p27. These data show that GDF15 might serve as a novel treatment target in women with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer

  10. EGFR-targeted plasmonic magnetic nanoparticles suppress lung tumor growth by abrogating G2/M cell-cycle arrest and inducing DNA damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuroda S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Shinji Kuroda,1 Justina Tam,2 Jack A Roth,1 Konstantin Sokolov,2 Rajagopal Ramesh3–5 1Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 2Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 3Department of Pathology, 4Graduate Program in Biomedical Sciences, 5Stephenson Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA Background: We have previously demonstrated the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-targeted hybrid plasmonic magnetic nanoparticles (225-NP produce a therapeutic effect in human lung cancer cell lines in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of 225-NP-mediated antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo using the EGFR-mutant HCC827 cell line. Methods: The growth inhibitory effect of 225-NP on lung tumor cells was determined by cell viability and cell-cycle analysis. Protein expression related to autophagy, apoptosis, and DNA-damage were determined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. An in vivo efficacy study was conducted using a human lung tumor xenograft mouse model. Results: The 225-NP treatment markedly reduced tumor cell viability at 72 hours compared with the cell viability in control treatment groups. Cell-cycle analysis showed the percentage of cells in the G2/M phase was reduced when treated with 225-NP, with a concomitant increase in the number of cells in Sub-G1 phase, indicative of cell death. Western blotting showed LC3B and PARP cleavage, indicating 225-NP-treatment activated both autophagy- and apoptosis-mediated cell death. The 225-NP strongly induced γH2AX and phosphorylated histone H3, markers indicative of DNA damage and mitosis, respectively. Additionally, significant γH2AX foci formation was observed in 225-NP-treated cells compared with control treatment groups, suggesting 225-NP induced cell death by triggering DNA damage. The 225-NP-mediated DNA damage involved abrogation of the

  11. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with information regarding dietary supplements and be advised to minimise risks for ... to promote strength and muscle mass, ... selective oestrogen receptor modulators or .... It has also come to the attention of the WADA that another sub-.

  12. Dietary polyphenol intake in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Rothwell, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    were collected using a standardized 24-h dietary recall software administered to 36,037 adult subjects. Dietary data were linked with Phenol-Explorer, a database with data on 502 individual polyphenols in 452 foods and data on polyphenol losses due to cooking and food processing. RESULTS: Mean total....... The current cross-sectional analysis aimed at estimating dietary intakes of all currently known individual polyphenols and total intake per class and subclass, and to identify their main food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. METHODS: Dietary data at baseline...... polyphenol intake was the highest in Aarhus-Denmark (1786 mg/day in men and 1626 mg/day in women) and the lowest in Greece (744 mg/day in men and 584 mg/day in women). When dividing the subjects into three regions, the highest intake of total polyphenols was observed in the UK health-conscious group...

  13. Evolutionary adaptations to dietary changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, F; Perry, G H; Di Rienzo, A

    2010-08-21

    Through cultural innovation and changes in habitat and ecology, there have been a number of major dietary shifts in human evolution, including meat eating, cooking, and those associated with plant and animal domestication. The identification of signatures of adaptations to such dietary changes in the genome of extant primates (including humans) may shed light not only on the evolutionary history of our species, but also on the mechanisms that underlie common metabolic diseases in modern human populations. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the major dietary shifts that occurred during hominin evolution, and we discuss the methods and approaches used to identify signals of natural selection in patterns of sequence variation. We then review the results of studies aimed at detecting the genetic loci that played a major role in dietary adaptations and conclude by outlining the potential of future studies in this area.

  14. Should You Take Dietary Supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2013 Print this issue Should You Take Dietary Supplements? A Look at Vitamins, Minerals, Botanicals and More ... Gut in Check Wise Choices Safe Use of Supplements Tell all of your health care providers about ...

  15. The First International Mini-Symposium on Methionine Restriction and Lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene eAbles

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been 20 years since the Orentreich Foundation for the Advancement of Science, under the leadership Dr. Norman Orentreich, first reported that low methionine (Met ingestion by rats extends lifespan [1]. Since then, several studies have replicated the effects of dietary methionine restriction (MR in delaying age-related diseases [2–5]. We report the abstracts from the First International Mini-Symposium on Methionine Restriction and Lifespan held in Tarrytown, NY last September 2013. The goals were 1 to gather researchers with an interest in methionine restriction and lifespan, 2 to exchange knowledge, 3 to generate ideas for future investigations, and 4 to strengthen relationships within this community. The presentations highlighted the importance of research on cysteine, growth hormone (GH, and ATF4 in the paradigm of aging. In addition, the effects of dietary restriction or MR in the kidneys, liver, bones and the adipose tissue were discussed. The symposium also emphasized the value of other species, e.g. the naked mole rat, Brandt’s bat and drosophila in aging research. Overall, the symposium consolidated scientists with similar research interests and provided opportunities to conduct future collaborative studies.

  16. Protein restriction does not affect body temperature pattern in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Goro A; Shichijo, Hiroki; Takahashi, Toshihiro; Shinohara, Akio; Morita, Tetsuo; Koshimoto, Chihiro

    2017-10-30

    Daily torpor is a physiological adaptation in mammals and birds characterized by a controlled reduction of metabolic rate and body temperature during the resting phase of circadian rhythms. In laboratory mice, daily torpor is induced by dietary caloric restriction. However, it is not known which nutrients are related to daily torpor expression. To determine whether dietary protein is a key factor in inducing daily torpor in mice, we fed mice a protein-restricted (PR) diet that included only one-quarter of the amount of protein but the same caloric level as a control (C) diet. We assigned six non-pregnant female ICR mice to each group and recorded their body weights and core body temperatures for 4 weeks. Body weights in the C group increased, but those in the PR group remained steady or decreased. Mice in both groups did not show daily torpor, but most mice in a food-restricted group (n=6) supplied with 80% of the calories given to the C group exhibited decreased body weights and frequently displayed daily torpor. This suggests that protein restriction is not a trigger of daily torpor; torpid animals can conserve their internal energy, but torpor may not play a significant role in conserving internal protein. Thus, opportunistic daily torpor in mice may function in energy conservation rather than protein saving.

  17. Evidence for Dietary Fibre Modification in the Recovery and Prevention of Reoccurrence of Acute, Uncomplicated Diverticulitis: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Camilla; Crichton, Megan; Jenkins, Julie; Nucera, Romina; Mahoney, Sophie; Marx, Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    In practice, nutrition recommendations vary widely for inpatient and discharge management of acute, uncomplicated diverticulitis. This systematic review aims to review the evidence and develop recommendations for dietary fibre modifications, either alone or alongside probiotics or antibiotics, versus any comparator in adults in any setting with or recently recovered from acute, uncomplicated diverticulitis. Intervention and observational studies in any language were located using four databases until March 2017. The Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and GRADE were used to evaluate the overall quality of the evidence and to develop recommendations. Eight studies were included. There was “very low” quality evidence for comparing a liberalised and restricted fibre diet for inpatient management to improve hospital length of stay, recovery, gastrointestinal symptoms and reoccurrence. There was “very low” quality of evidence for using a high dietary fibre diet as opposed to a standard or low dietary fibre diet following resolution of an acute episode, to improve reoccurrence and gastrointestinal symptoms. The results of this systematic review and GRADE assessment conditionally recommend the use of liberalised diets as opposed to dietary restrictions for adults with acute, uncomplicated diverticulitis. It also strongly recommends a high dietary fibre diet aligning with dietary guidelines, with or without dietary fibre supplementation, after the acute episode has resolved. PMID:29382074

  18. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyem, Reema F; Bawadi, Hiba A; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M; AbuMweis, Suhad S; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Heath, Dennis D

    2017-06-01

    Dietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of action of dietary factors in CRC disease is unclear. The aim of this study is the examination of several dietary choices and their potential association with the risk of developing CRC. Dietary data was collected from 220 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 281 control subjects (matched by age, gender, occupation and marital status). The data was collected between January 2010 and December 2012, using interview-based questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between dietary choices and risk of developing colorectal cancer. Factor analysis revealed three major dietary patterns. The first pattern we identified as the "Healthy Pattern", the second was identified as "High Sugar/High Tea Pattern" and the third as "Western Pattern". In the Healthy Pattern group we found a 10.54% variation in food intake, while the intake variation was 11.64% in the Western Pattern. After adjusting for confounding factors, the Western Pattern food choice was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of developing CRC (OR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.12-3.16). The results for the Healthy and High-Sugar/High Tea Patterns showed a decrease, but the statistic was not significant for the risk of CRC development. The Western Pattern of dietary choice was directly associated with CRC. The association between the dietary food choice in the Healthy and High-Sugar/High Tea Patterns and colorectal cancer needs further study in our Jordanian population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. Carbohydrate restriction improves the features of Metabolic Syndrome. Metabolic Syndrome may be defined by the response to carbohydrate restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volek, Jeff S; Feinman, Richard D

    2005-11-16

    Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) represents a constellation of markers that indicates a predisposition to diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other pathologic states. The definition and treatment are a matter of current debate and there is not general agreement on a precise definition or, to some extent, whether the designation provides more information than the individual components. We consider here five indicators that are central to most definitions and we provide evidence from the literature that these are precisely the symptoms that respond to reduction in dietary carbohydrate (CHO). Carbohydrate restriction is one of several strategies for reducing body mass but even in the absence of weight loss or in comparison with low fat alternatives, CHO restriction is effective at ameliorating high fasting glucose and insulin, high plasma triglycerides (TAG), low HDL and high blood pressure. In addition, low fat, high CHO diets have long been known to raise TAG, lower HDL and, in the absence of weight loss, may worsen glycemic control. Thus, whereas there are numerous strategies for weight loss, a patient with high BMI and high TAG is likely to benefit most from a regimen that reduces CHO intake. Reviewing the literature, benefits of CHO restriction are seen in normal or overweight individuals, in normal patients who meet the criteria for MetS or in patients with frank diabetes. Moreover, in low fat studies that ameliorate LDL and total cholesterol, controls may do better on the symptoms of MetS. On this basis, we feel that MetS is a meaningful, useful phenomenon and may, in fact, be operationally defined as the set of markers that responds to CHO restriction. Insofar as this is an accurate characterization it is likely the result of the effect of dietary CHO on insulin metabolism. Glucose is the major insulin secretagogue and insulin resistance has been tied to the hyperinsulinemic state or the effect of such a state on lipid metabolism. The conclusion is probably not

  20. Carbohydrate restriction improves the features of Metabolic Syndrome. Metabolic Syndrome may be defined by the response to carbohydrate restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feinman Richard D

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metabolic Syndrome (MetS represents a constellation of markers that indicates a predisposition to diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other pathologic states. The definition and treatment are a matter of current debate and there is not general agreement on a precise definition or, to some extent, whether the designation provides more information than the individual components. We consider here five indicators that are central to most definitions and we provide evidence from the literature that these are precisely the symptoms that respond to reduction in dietary carbohydrate (CHO. Carbohydrate restriction is one of several strategies for reducing body mass but even in the absence of weight loss or in comparison with low fat alternatives, CHO restriction is effective at ameliorating high fasting glucose and insulin, high plasma triglycerides (TAG, low HDL and high blood pressure. In addition, low fat, high CHO diets have long been known to raise TAG, lower HDL and, in the absence of weight loss, may worsen glycemic control. Thus, whereas there are numerous strategies for weight loss, a patient with high BMI and high TAG is likely to benefit most from a regimen that reduces CHO intake. Reviewing the literature, benefits of CHO restriction are seen in normal or overweight individuals, in normal patients who meet the criteria for MetS or in patients with frank diabetes. Moreover, in low fat studies that ameliorate LDL and total cholesterol, controls may do better on the symptoms of MetS. On this basis, we feel that MetS is a meaningful, useful phenomenon and may, in fact, be operationally defined as the set of markers that responds to CHO restriction. Insofar as this is an accurate characterization it is likely the result of the effect of dietary CHO on insulin metabolism. Glucose is the major insulin secretagogue and insulin resistance has been tied to the hyperinsulinemic state or the effect of such a state on lipid metabolism. The

  1. Effects of obesity, energy restriction and neutering on the faecal microbiota of cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Manuela M; Kessler, Alexandre M; Kieffer, Dorothy A; Knotts, Trina A; Kim, Kyoungmi; Wei, Alfreda; Ramsey, Jon J; Fascetti, Andrea J

    2017-10-01

    Surveys report that 25-57 % of cats are overweight or obese. The most evinced cause is neutering. Weight loss often fails; thus, new strategies are needed. Obesity has been associated with altered gut bacterial populations and increases in microbial dietary energy extraction, body weight and adiposity. This study aimed to determine whether alterations in intestinal bacteria were associated with obesity, energy restriction and neutering by characterising faecal microbiota using 16S rRNA gene sequencing in eight lean intact, eight lean neutered and eight obese neutered cats before and after 6 weeks of energy restriction. Lean neutered cats had a bacterial profile similar to obese rodents and humans, with a greater abundance (Pcats was due to a bloom in Peptostreptococcaceae. Obese cats had an 18 % reduction in fat mass after energy restriction (Pcats. Additional work is needed to understand how neutering, obesity and weight loss are related to changes in feline microbiota and how these microbial shifts affect host physiology.

  2. Restricted Predicates for Hypothetical Datalog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sáenz-Pérez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypothetical Datalog is based on an intuitionistic semantics rather than on a classical logic semantics, and embedded implications are allowed in rule bodies. While the usual implication (i.e., the neck of a Horn clause stands for inferring facts, an embedded implication plays the role of assuming its premise for deriving its consequence. A former work introduced both a formal framework and a goal-oriented tabled implementation, allowing negation in rule bodies. While in that work positive assumptions for both facts and rules can occur in the premise, negative assumptions are not allowed. In this work, we cover this subject by introducing a new concept: a restricted predicate, which allows negative assumptions by pruning the usual semantics of a predicate. This new setting has been implemented in the deductive system DES.

  3. Dietary Protein Intake and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gang Jee; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Tortoricci, Amanda R.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of review High protein intake may lead to increased intraglomerular pressure and glomerular hyperfiltration. This can cause damage to glomerular structure leading to or aggravating chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hence, a low protein diet (LPD) of 0.6–0.8 g/kg/day is often recommended for the management of CKD. We reviewed the effect of protein intake on incidence and progression of CKD and the role of LPD the CKD management. Recent findings Actual dietary protein consumption in CKD patients remain substantially higher than the recommendations for LPD. Notwithstanding the inconclusive results of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study, the largest randomized controlled trial to examine protein restriction in CKD, several prior and subsequent studies and meta-analyses including secondary analyses of the MDRD data appear to support the role of LPD on retarding progression of CKD and delaying initiation of maintenance dialysis therapy. LPD can also be used to control metabolic derangements in CKD. Supplemented LPD with essential amino acids or their keto-analogs may be used for incremental transition to dialysis especially in non-dialysis days. An LPD management in lieu of dialysis therapy can reduce costs, enhance psychological adaptation, and preserve residual renal function upon transition to dialysis. Adherence and adequate protein and energy intake should be ensured to avoid protein-energy wasting. Summary A balanced and individualized dietary approach based on LPD should be elaborated with periodic dietitian counselling and surveillance to optimize management of CKD, to assure adequate protein and energy intake and to avoid or correct protein-energy wasting. PMID:27801685

  4. A Traffic Restriction Scheme for Enhancing Carpooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of alleviating traffic congestion, this paper proposes a scheme to encourage travelers to carpool by traffic restriction. By a variational inequity we describe travelers’ mode (solo driving and carpooling and route choice under user equilibrium principle in the context of fixed demand and detect the performance of a simple network with various restriction links, restriction proportions, and carpooling costs. Then the optimal traffic restriction scheme aiming at minimal total travel cost is designed through a bilevel program and applied to a Sioux Fall network example with genetic algorithm. According to various requirements, optimal restriction regions and proportions for restricted automobiles are captured. From the results it is found that traffic restriction scheme is possible to enhance carpooling and alleviate congestion. However, higher carpooling demand is not always helpful to the whole network. The topology of network, OD demand, and carpooling cost are included in the factors influencing the performance of the traffic system.

  5. Protein-restricted diets plus keto/amino acids--a valid therapeutic approach for chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Michel; Bellizzi, Vincenzo; Chauveau, Philippe; Cupisti, Adamasco; Ecder, Tevfik; Fouque, Denis; Garneata, Liliana; Lin, Shanyan; Mitch, William E; Teplan, Vladimír; Zakar, Gábor; Yu, Xueqing

    2012-03-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasingly common, and there is an increasing awareness that every strategy should be used to avoid complications of CKD. Restriction of dietary protein intake has been a relevant part of the management of CKD for more than 100 years, but even today, the principal goal of protein-restricted regimens is to decrease the accumulation of nitrogen waste products, hydrogen ions, phosphates, and inorganic ions while maintaining an adequate nutritional status to avoid secondary problems such as metabolic acidosis, bone disease, and insulin resistance, as well as proteinuria and deterioration of renal function. This supplement focuses on recent experimental and clinical findings related to an optimized dietary management of predialysis, dialysis, and transplanted patients as an important aspect of patient care. Nutritional treatment strategies are linked toward ameliorating metabolic and endocrine disturbances, improving/maintaining nutritional status, as well as delaying the renal replacement initiation and improving outcomes in CKD patients. A final consensus states that dietary manipulations should be considered as one of the main approaches in the management program of CKD patients and that a reasonable number of patients with moderate or severe CKD benefit from dietary protein/phosphorus restriction. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Blueberry and malvidin inhibit cell cycle progression and induce mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis by abrogating the JAK/STAT-3 signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Abdul Basit; Nivetha, Ramesh; Chattopadhyay, Indranil; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2017-11-01

    Blueberries, a rich source of anthocyanins have attracted considerable attention as functional foods that confer immense health benefits including anticancer properties. Herein, we assessed the potential of blueberry and its major constituent malvidin to target STAT-3, a potentially druggable oncogenic transcription factor with high therapeutic index. We demonstrate that blueberry abrogates the JAK/STAT-3 pathway and modulates downstream targets that influence cell proliferation and apoptosis in a hamster model of oral oncogenesis. Further, we provide mechanistic evidence that blueberry and malvidin function as STAT-3 inhibitors in the oral cancer cell line SCC131. Blueberry and malvidin suppressed STAT-3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation thereby inducing cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. However, the combination of blueberry and malvidin with the STAT-3 inhibitor S3I-201 was more efficacious in STAT-3 inhibition relative to single agents. The present study has provided leads for the development of novel combinations of compounds that can serve as inhibitors of STAT-mediated oncogenic signalling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Increased expression of endosomal members of toll-like receptor family abrogates wound healing in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kanhaiya; Agrawal, Neeraj K; Gupta, Sanjeev K; Mohan, Gyanendra; Chaturvedi, Sunanda; Singh, Kiran

    2016-10-01

    The inflammatory phase of wound healing cascade is an important determinant of the fate of the wound. Acute inflammation is necessary to initiate proper wound healing, while chronic inflammation abrogates wound healing. Different endosomal members of toll-like receptor (TLR) family initiate inflammatory signalling via a range of different inflammatory mediators such as interferons, internal tissue damaged-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and hyperactive effector T cells. Sustained signalling of TLR9 and TLR7 contributes to chronic inflammation by activating the plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Diabetic wounds are also characterised by sustained inflammatory phase. The objective of this study was to analyse the differential expression of endosomal TLRs in human diabetic wounds compared with control wounds. We analysed the differential expression of TLR7 and TLR9 both at transcriptional and translational levels in wounds of 84 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and 6 control subjects without diabetes using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot and immunohistochemistry. TLR7 and TLR9 were significantly up-regulated in wounds of the patients with T2DM compared with the controls and were dependent on the infection status of the diabetic wounds, and wounds with microbial infection exhibited lower expression levels of endosomal TLRs. Altered endosomal TLR expression in T2DM subjects might be associated with wound healing impairment. © 2015 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Proteasome Inhibitor YSY01A Abrogates Constitutive STAT3 Signaling via Down-regulation of Gp130 and JAK2 in Human A549 Lung Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Proteasome inhibition interfering with many cell signaling pathways has been extensively explored as a therapeutic strategy for cancers. Proteasome inhibitor YSY01A is a novel agent that has shown remarkable anti-tumor effects; however, its mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Here we report that YSY01A is capable of suppressing cancer cell survival by induction of apoptosis. Paradoxically, we find that YSY01A abrogates constitutive activation of STAT3 via proteasome-independent degradation of gp130 and JAK2, but not transcriptional regulation, in human A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells. The reduction in gp130 and JAK2 can be restored by co-treatment with 3-methyladenine, an early-stage autophagy lysosome and type I/III PI3K inhibitor. YSY01A also effectively inhibits cancer cell migration and lung xenograft tumor growth with little adverse effect on animals. Thus, our findings suggest that YSY01A represents a promising candidate for further development of novel anticancer therapeutics targeting the proteasome.

  9. Beneficial impact of aerobic exercises on bone mineral density in obese premenopausal women under caloric restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, Iman Abbas; Elghawabi, Hamed Samir; Younan, Wael Bahat Fahmy; Sabbour, Adly Aly; Gobrial, Mona Abdel Messih

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of caloric restriction diet versus caloric restriction diet combined with aerobic exercises on bone mineral density (BMD) in obese premenopausal women. Forty premenopausal obese women were classified randomly into two groups equal in number. The first group (group A) received caloric restriction diet, while the second (group B) received caloric restriction diet combined with a program of aerobic exercises, over 3 months. The variables measured in this study included age, weight, height, body mass index, fat weight, lean mass, fat percent, basal metabolic rate, and BMD. The comparison between group A and group B showed significantly higher post-treatment lean mass, basal metabolic rate, and BMD in weight-bearing bones (L2-L4 lumbar spine and total hip) in group B compared to group A. In contrast to the BMD of the weight-bearing bones, the BMD of the radius showed significant decrease between the pre- and post-treatment results in groups A and B with no significant differences between the two groups. A greater improvement in the BMD of weight-bearing bones was observed in obese premenopausal women undergoing caloric restriction combined with exercise than in those not undergoing exercise. Anaerobic exercises incorporated into weight loss programs help offset the adverse effects of dietary restriction on bone.

  10. Restricted Interval Valued Neutrosophic Sets and Restricted Interval Valued Neutrosophic Topological Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Mukherjee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the concept of restricted interval valued neutrosophic sets (RIVNS in short. Some basic operations and properties of RIVNS are discussed. The concept of restricted interval valued neutrosophic topology is also introduced together with restricted interval valued neutrosophic finer and restricted interval valued neutrosophic coarser topology. We also define restricted interval valued neutrosophic interior and closer of a restricted interval valued neutrosophic set. Some theorems and examples are cites. Restricted interval valued neutrosophic subspace topology is also studied.

  11. Dietary sodium modulation of aldosterone activation and renal function during the progression of experimental heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Wayne L; Borgeson, Daniel D; Grantham, J Aaron; Luchner, Andreas; Redfield, Margaret M; Burnett, John C

    2015-02-01

    Aldosterone activation is central to the sodium–fluid retention that marks the progression of heart failure (HF). The actions of dietary sodium restriction, a mainstay in HF management, on cardiorenal and neuroendocrine adaptations during the progression of HF are poorly understood. The study aim was to assess the role of dietary sodium during the progression of experimental HF. Experimental HF was produced in a canine model by rapid right ventricular pacing which evolves from early mild HF to overt, severe HF. Dogs were fed one of three diets: (i) high sodium [250 mEq (5.8 g) per day, n =6]; (ii) standard sodium [58 mEq (1.3 g) per day, n =6]; and (iii) sodium restriction [11 mEq (0.25 g) per day, n =6]. During the 38-day study, haemodynamics, renal function, plasma renin activity (PRA), and aldosterone were measured. Changes in haemodynamics at 38 days were similar in all three groups, as were changes in renal function. Aldosterone activation was demonstrated in all three groups; however, dietary sodium restriction, in contrast to high sodium, resulted in early (10 days) activation of PRA and aldosterone. High sodium demonstrated significant suppression of aldosterone activation over the course of HF progression. Excessive dietary sodium restriction particularly in early stage HF results in early aldosterone activation, while normal and excess sodium intake are associated with delayed or suppressed activation. These findings warrant evaluation in humans to determine if dietary sodium manipulation, particularly during early stage HF, may have a significant impact on neuroendocrine disease progression.

  12. Impacts of maternal dietary protein intake on fetal survival, growth, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Cassandra M; Bazer, Fuller W; Johnson, Gregory A; Wu, Guoyao

    2018-03-01

    Maternal nutrition during gestation, especially dietary protein intake, is a key determinant in embryonic survival, growth, and development. Low maternal dietary protein intake can cause embryonic losses, intra-uterine growth restriction, and reduced postnatal growth due to a deficiency in specific amino acids that are important for cell metabolism and function. Of note, high maternal dietary protein intake can also result in intra-uterine growth restriction and embryonic death, due to amino acid excesses, as well as the toxicity of ammonia, homocysteine, and H 2 S that are generated from amino acid catabolism. Maternal protein nutrition has a pronounced impact on fetal programming and alters the expression of genes in the fetal genome. As a precursor to the synthesis of molecules (e.g. nitric oxide, polyamines, and creatine) with cell signaling and metabolic functions, L-arginine (Arg) is essential during pregnancy for growth and development of the conceptus. With inadequate maternal dietary protein intake, Arg and other important amino acids are deficient in mother and fetus. Dietary supplementation of Arg during gestation has been effective in improving embryonic survival and development of the conceptus in many species, including humans, pigs, sheep, mice, and rats. Both the balance among amino acids and their quantity are critical for healthy pregnancies and offspring. Impact statement This review aims at: highlighting adverse effects of elevated levels of ammonia in mother or fetus on embryonic/fetal survival, growth, and development; helping nutritionists and practitioners to understand the mechanisms whereby elevated levels of ammonia in mother or fetus results in embryonic/fetal death, growth restriction, and developmental abnormalities; and bringing, into the attention of nutritionists and practitioners, the problems of excess or inadequate dietary intake of protein or amino acids on pregnancy outcomes in animals and humans. The article provides new

  13. Growth, meat and feed efficiency traits of lambs born to ewes submitted to energy restriction during mid-gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaggio, L; Quintans, G; San Julián, R; Ferreira, G; Ithurralde, J; Fierro, S; Pereira, A S C; Baldi, F; Banchero, G E

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the energy restriction of gestation of adult ewes from day 45 to day 115 on lamb live performance parameters, carcass and meat traits. In experiment I, dietary energy was restricted at 70% of the metabolizable energy (ME) requirements, after which ewes were re-fed ad libitum until lambing. In experiment II, dietary energy was restricted at 60% of the ME requirements, and ewes were re-fed to ME requirements until lambing. All ewes grazed together from the end of the restriction periods to weaning. Lambs were weaned and lot fed until slaughter. Feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency were recorded, and body fat thickness and ribeye area (REA) were measured in the longissimus thoracis muscle. After slaughter, carcass weight and yield, fat depth, carcass and leg length, and frenched rack and leg weights and yields were determined. Muscle fiber type composition, Warner-Bratzler shear force, pH and color were determined in the longissimus lumborum muscle. In experiment I, energy restriction followed by ad libitum feeding affected lamb birth weight (P0.05) were observed on later BW, REA, BF or carcass traits. Lambs born to non-restricted-fed ewes had higher (Penergy restriction followed by ME requirements feeding, affected (Pefficient (P=0.16) than lambs from unrestricted dams. Ribeye area and BF were not influenced by treatment. Treatment significantly affected slaughter weight, but had no effects on carcass yield and traits or on meat traits. The results obtained in both experiments indicate submitting ewes to energy restriction during gestation affects the performance of their progeny but the final outcome would depend on the ewe's re-feeding level during late gestation and the capacity of the offspring to compensate the in utero restriction after birth.

  14. The ketogenic diet and other dietary treatments for refractory epilepsy in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvasini Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and restricted protein diet that is useful in patients with refractory epilepsy. The efficacy of the ketogenic diet is better than most of the new antiepileptic drugs. Other modifications of the diet are also beneficial, such as the modified Atkins diet and the low glycemic index treatment. There is a lack of awareness of the ketogenic diet as a treatment modality for epilepsy amongst pediatricians and neurologists. In this review, the use of the ketogenic diet and other dietary treatments in refractory epilepsy is discussed. The Indian experience with the use of these dietary treatments is also briefly reviewed.

  15. The ketogenic diet and other dietary treatments for refractory epilepsy in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suvasini; Jain, Puneet

    2014-01-01

    The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and restricted protein diet that is useful in patients with refractory epilepsy. The efficacy of the ketogenic diet is better than most of the new antiepileptic drugs. Other modifications of the diet are also beneficial, such as the modified Atkins diet and the low glycemic index treatment. There is a lack of awareness of the ketogenic diet as a treatment modality for epilepsy amongst pediatricians and neurologists. In this review, the use of the ketogenic diet and other dietary treatments in refractory epilepsy is discussed. The Indian experience with the use of these dietary treatments is also briefly reviewed. PMID:25221391

  16. Long-term dietary restriction up-regulates activity and expression of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Majaw

    2017-04-18

    Apr 18, 2017 ... ing (24 h fasting and re-feeding) reduces 30-40% of food intake (Qiu et al ... tween low calorie intake and increased lifespan (Anderson and Weindruch ..... may enter the TCA cycle and increase the intermediate flux for greater ...

  17. Long-term dietary restriction up-regulates activity and expression of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Majaw

    2017-04-18

    Apr 18, 2017 ... Urea, produced by arginase II in the mitochondria, plays a critical role in kidney functions. It serves as an important solute for the development of osmotic gradient in the renal medulla (Bankir et al. 1996; Sands 2007), lowers blood pressure in several rat models by acting as simple osmotic diuretics (Iwata et ...

  18. The success of dietary protein restriction in alkaptonuria patients is age-dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, V.; Carbasius Weber, E. C.; de Klerk, J. B.; Bakker, H. D.; Smit, G. P.; Huijbers, W. A.; Duran, M.; Poll-The, B. T.

    1998-01-01

    Alkaptonuria is characterized by an increased urinary excretion of homogentisic acid, pigmentation of cartilage and connective tissues, and ultimately the development of inflammatory arthropathy. Various diets low in protein have been designed to decrease homogentisic acid excretion and to prevent

  19. Effects of restricted feeding and re-alimentation of dietary protein or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-03

    May 3, 2017 ... characteristics and meat eating quality parameters of sheep. ..... Data were analysed using the MIXED model procedure of SAS 9.3 (SAS Institute, Cary NC). All data ..... Nutrition Research Laboratory, Kuku, Khartoum North.

  20. The diet board: welfare impacts of a novel method of dietary restriction in laboratory rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasanen, I H E; Inhilä, K J; Vainio, O M

    2009-01-01

    adrenaline and noradrenaline content than the diet board animals. No gastric ulcers were found in any of the animals at necropsy. The diet board thus appears to cause a stress reaction when compared with AL-fed rats, but no apparent pathology was associated with this reaction. The diet board could help...... the stress physiology of diet board fed animals with that of AL-fed animals. Diet board feeding was associated with higher serum corticosterone levels and lower faecal secretion of IgA, suggesting the diet board causes a stress reaction. However, the AL-fed group had larger adrenal glands with higher...... to solve the health problems associated with AL feeding, while allowing the rats to be group-housed and to maintain their normal diurnal eating rhythms. The diet board can also be seen as a functional cage furniture item, dividing the cage into compartments and thus increasing the structural complexity...

  1. Comparison of a Restricted and Unrestricted Vegan Diet Plan with a Restricted Omnivorous Diet Plan on Health-Specific Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Richard J; Gunnels, Trint A; Schriefer, JohnHenry M

    2015-07-14

    We have previously noted beneficial health outcomes when individuals follow a dietary restriction plan in accordance with the Daniel Fast (DF). This is true whether individuals eliminate all animal products or include small amounts of meat and dairy in their plan. The present study sought to compare anthropometric and biochemical measures of health in individuals following a traditional DF (i.e., restricted vegan) or modified DF (i.e., restricted omnivorous; inclusive of ad libitum meat and skim milk consumption), with those following an unrestricted vegan diet plan. 35 subjects (six men; 29 women; 33 ± 2 years; range: 18-67 years) completed a 21-day diet plan. Subjects reported to the lab for pre- (day 1) and post-intervention testing (day 22) in a 10 h fasted state. Blood samples were collected and assayed for complete blood count, metabolic panel, lipid panel, insulin, HOMA-IR, C-reactive protein, and oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, and nitrate/nitrite). Heart rate and blood pressure were measured and body composition was determined via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects' self-reported compliance, mental and physical health, and satiety in relation to the dietary modification were recorded. No interaction effects were noted for our outcome measures (p > 0.05). However, subjects in the traditional DF group reported an approximate 10% increase in perceived mental and physical health, with a 25% reduction in malondialdehyde and a 33% reduction in blood insulin. Systolic BP was reduced approximately 7 mmHg in subjects assigned to the traditional DF, with an approximate 5 mmHg reduction in subjects assigned to the modified DF and the unrestricted vegan plan. A small (2 mmHg) reduction in diastolic BP was noted for subjects in both DF groups; a slight increase in diastolic BP was noted for subjects assigned to the unrestricted vegan group. An approximate 20% reduction was noted in total and LDL cholesterol

  2. Comparison of a Restricted and Unrestricted Vegan Diet Plan with a Restricted Omnivorous Diet Plan on Health-Specific Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Bloomer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: We have previously noted beneficial health outcomes when individuals follow a dietary restriction plan in accordance with the Daniel Fast (DF. This is true whether individuals eliminate all animal products or include small amounts of meat and dairy in their plan. The present study sought to compare anthropometric and biochemical measures of health in individuals following a traditional DF (i.e., restricted vegan or modified DF (i.e., restricted omnivorous; inclusive of ad libitum meat and skim milk consumption, with those following an unrestricted vegan diet plan. Methods: 35 subjects (six men; 29 women; 33 ± 2 years; range: 18–67 years completed a 21-day diet plan. Subjects reported to the lab for pre- (day 1 and post-intervention testing (day 22 in a 10 h fasted state. Blood samples were collected and assayed for complete blood count, metabolic panel, lipid panel, insulin, HOMA-IR, C-reactive protein, and oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, and nitrate/nitrite. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured and body composition was determined via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects’ self-reported compliance, mental and physical health, and satiety in relation to the dietary modification were recorded. Results: No interaction effects were noted for our outcome measures (p > 0.05. However, subjects in the traditional DF group reported an approximate 10% increase in perceived mental and physical health, with a 25% reduction in malondialdehyde and a 33% reduction in blood insulin. Systolic BP was reduced approximately 7 mmHg in subjects assigned to the traditional DF, with an approximate 5 mmHg reduction in subjects assigned to the modified DF and the unrestricted vegan plan. A small (2 mmHg reduction in diastolic BP was noted for subjects in both DF groups; a slight increase in diastolic BP was noted for subjects assigned to the unrestricted vegan group. An approximate 20

  3. Comparison of a Restricted and Unrestricted Vegan Diet Plan with a Restricted Omnivorous Diet Plan on Health-Specific Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Richard J.; Gunnels, Trint A.; Schriefer, JohnHenry M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We have previously noted beneficial health outcomes when individuals follow a dietary restriction plan in accordance with the Daniel Fast (DF). This is true whether individuals eliminate all animal products or include small amounts of meat and dairy in their plan. The present study sought to compare anthropometric and biochemical measures of health in individuals following a traditional DF (i.e., restricted vegan) or modified DF (i.e., restricted omnivorous; inclusive of ad libitum meat and skim milk consumption), with those following an unrestricted vegan diet plan. Methods: 35 subjects (six men; 29 women; 33 ± 2 years; range: 18–67 years) completed a 21-day diet plan. Subjects reported to the lab for pre- (day 1) and post-intervention testing (day 22) in a 10 h fasted state. Blood samples were collected and assayed for complete blood count, metabolic panel, lipid panel, insulin, HOMA-IR, C-reactive protein, and oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, and nitrate/nitrite). Heart rate and blood pressure were measured and body composition was determined via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects’ self-reported compliance, mental and physical health, and satiety in relation to the dietary modification were recorded. Results: No interaction effects were noted for our outcome measures (p > 0.05). However, subjects in the traditional DF group reported an approximate 10% increase in perceived mental and physical health, with a 25% reduction in malondialdehyde and a 33% reduction in blood insulin. Systolic BP was reduced approximately 7 mmHg in subjects assigned to the traditional DF, with an approximate 5 mmHg reduction in subjects assigned to the modified DF and the unrestricted vegan plan. A small (2 mmHg) reduction in diastolic BP was noted for subjects in both DF groups; a slight increase in diastolic BP was noted for subjects assigned to the unrestricted vegan group. An approximate 20% reduction was

  4. Intrauterine growth restriction - part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Farahbakhsh, Nazanin; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-12-01

    Small for gestational age (SGA) infants have been classically defined as having birth weight less than two standard deviations below the mean or less than the 10th percentile of a population-specific birth weight for specific gestational age, whereas intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been defined as a rate of foetal growth that is less than normal for the population and for the growth potential of a specific infant. SGA infants have more frequent problems such as perinatal asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycaemia, polycythaemia and many more when compared with their appropriate for gestational age counterpart. They too have growth retardation and various major and subtle neurodevelopmental handicaps, with higher rates of perinatal and neonatal mortality. With the advent of newer technologies, even though the perinatal diagnosis of these SGA/IUGR foetuses has increased, but still perinatal morbidity and mortality rates are higher than normal foetuses and infants. In this part, we have covered neonatal IUGR classification, postnatal diagnosis, short-term and long-term complications faced by these IUGR infants.

  5. Placental Adaptations in Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song; Regnault, Timothy R.H.; Barker, Paige L.; Botting, Kimberley J.; McMillen, Isabella C.; McMillan, Christine M.; Roberts, Claire T.; Morrison, Janna L.

    2015-01-01

    The placenta is the primary interface between the fetus and mother and plays an important role in maintaining fetal development and growth by facilitating the transfer of substrates and participating in modulating the maternal immune response to prevent immunological rejection of the conceptus. The major substrates required for fetal growth include oxygen, glucose, amino acids and fatty acids, and their transport processes depend on morphological characteristics of the placenta, such as placental size, morphology, blood flow and vascularity. Other factors including insulin-like growth factors, apoptosis, autophagy and glucocorticoid exposure also affect placental growth and substrate transport capacity. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is often a consequence of insufficiency, and is associated with a high incidence of perinatal morbidity and mortality, as well as increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in later life. Several different experimental methods have been used to induce placental insufficiency and IUGR in animal models and a range of factors that regulate placental growth and substrate transport capacity have been demonstrated. While no model system completely recapitulates human IUGR, these animal models allow us to carefully dissect cellular and molecular mechanisms to improve our understanding and facilitate development of therapeutic interventions. PMID:25580812

  6. Cardiac MRI in restrictive cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A. [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Singh Gulati, G., E-mail: gulatigurpreet@rediffmail.com [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Seth, S. [Department of Cardiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Sharma, S. [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India)

    2012-02-15

    Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is a specific group of heart muscle disorders characterized by inadequate ventricular relaxation during diastole. This leads to diastolic dysfunction with relative preservation of systolic function. Although short axis systolic function is usually preserved in RCM, the long axis systolic function may be severely impaired. Confirmation of diagnosis and information regarding aetiology, extent of myocardial damage, and response to treatment requires imaging. Importantly, differentiation from constrictive pericarditis (CCP) is needed, as only the latter is managed surgically. Echocardiography is the initial cardiac imaging technique but cannot reliably suggest a tissue diagnosis; although recent advances, especially tissue Doppler imaging and spectral tracking, have improved its ability to differentiate RCM from CCP. Cardiac catheterization is the reference standard, but is invasive, two-dimensional, and does not aid myocardial characterization. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is a versatile technique providing anatomical, morphological and functional information. In recent years, it has been shown to provide important information regarding disease mechanisms, and also been found useful to guide treatment, assess its outcome and predict patient prognosis. This review describes the CMR features of RCM, appearances in various diseases, its overall role in patient management, and how it compares with other imaging techniques.

  7. Assessing restrictiveness of national alcohol marketing policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Marissa B; Jernigan, David H

    2014-01-01

    To develop an approach for monitoring national alcohol marketing policies globally, an area of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Alcohol Strategy. Data on restrictiveness of alcohol marketing policies came from the 2002 and 2008 WHO Global Surveys on Alcohol and Health. We included four scales in a sensitivity analysis to determine optimal weights to score countries on their marketing policies and applied the selected scale to assess national marketing policy restrictiveness. Nearly, 36% of countries had no marketing restrictions. The overall restrictiveness levels were not significantly different between 2002 and 2008. The number of countries with strict marketing regulations did not differ across years. This method of monitoring alcohol marketing restrictiveness helps track progress towards implementing WHO'S Global Alcohol Strategy. Findings indicate a consistent lack of restrictive policies over time, making this a priority area for national and global action. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  8. Dietary patterns and chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional association in the Irish Nun Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Euan N; Neville, Charlotte E; Silvestri, Giuliana; Montgomery, Shannon; Moore, Evelyn; Silvestri, Vittorio; Cardwell, Christopher R; MacGillivray, Tom J; Maxwell, Alexander P; Woodside, Jayne V; McKay, Gareth J

    2018-04-27

    Associations between dietary patterns and chronic kidney disease are not well established, especially in European populations. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1033 older Irish women (age range 56-100 years) with a restricted lifestyle. Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Renal function was determined by estimated glomerular filtration rate. Two dietary patterns were identified within the study population using factor analysis. A significant negative association was found between unhealthy dietary pattern adherence and renal function in both unadjusted and adjusted models controlling for potential confounding variables (p for trend <0.001), with a mean difference in estimated glomerular filtration rate of -6 ml/min/1.73 m 2 between those in the highest fifth of adherence to the unhealthy dietary pattern compared to the lowest, in the fully adjusted model. Chronic kidney disease risk was significantly greater for the highest fifth, compared to the lowest fifth of unhealthy dietary pattern adherence in adjusted models (adjusted odds ratio = 2.62, p < 0.001). Adherence to the healthy dietary pattern was not associated with renal function or chronic kidney disease in adjusted models. In this cohort, an unhealthy dietary pattern was associated with lower renal function and greater prevalence of chronic kidney disease.

  9. Thiazolidinediones abrogate cervical cancer growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuertz, Beverly R., E-mail: knier003@umn.edu; Darrah, Lindsay, E-mail: ldarrah@obgynmn.com; Wudel, Justin, E-mail: drwudel@drwudel.com; Ondrey, Frank G., E-mail: ondre002@umn.edu

    2017-04-15

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) is activated by thiazolidinedione drugs (TZDs) and can promote anti-cancer properties. We used three TZDs (pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, and ciglitazone) to target cervical cancer cell lines and a nude mouse animal model. Each agent increased activation of PPAR γ, as judged by a luciferase reporter gene assay in three HPV-associated cell lines (CaSki, SiHa, and HeLa cells) while decreasing cellular proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. They also promoted Oil Red O accumulation in treated cell lines and upregulated the lipid differentiation marker adipsin. Interestingly, xenograft HeLa tumors in nude mice treated with 100 mg/kg/day pioglitazone exhibited decreased growth compared to control mice or mice treated with standard cervical chemotherapy. In conclusion, TZDs slow tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo with decreases in cell proliferation and increases in PPAR γ and adipsin. These agents may be interesting treatments or treatment adjuncts for HPV-associated cancers or perhaps even precancerous conditions. - Highlights: • Thiazolidinediones decreases cervical cancer proliferation. • Pioglitazone increases cervical cancer differentiation. • Pioglitazone decreases tumor growth in mice. • Pioglitazone may be a useful treatment adjunct.

  10. Curves of restricted type in euclidean spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Kılıç Bayram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Submanifolds of restricted type were introduced in [7]. In the present study we consider restricted type of curves in Em. We give some special examples. We also show that spherical curve in S2(r C E3 is of restricted type if and only if either ƒ(s is constant or a linear function of s of the form ƒ(s = ±s + b and every closed W - curve of rank k and of length 2(r in E2k is of restricted type.

  11. Biology of Ageing and Role of Dietary Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in relationship between diet and ageing is growing. Research has shown that dietary calorie restriction and some antioxidants extend lifespan in various ageing models. On the one hand, oxygen is essential to aerobic organisms because it is a final electron acceptor in mitochondria. On the other hand, oxygen is harmful because it can continuously generate reactive oxygen species (ROS, which are believed to be the factors causing ageing of an organism. To remove these ROS in cells, aerobic organisms possess an antioxidant defense system which consists of a series of enzymes, namely, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and glutathione reductase (GR. In addition, dietary antioxidants including ascorbic acid, vitamin A, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, and plant flavonoids are also able to scavenge ROS in cells and therefore theoretically can extend the lifespan of organisms. In this connection, various antioxidants including tea catechins, theaflavins, apple polyphenols, black rice anthocyanins, and blueberry polyphenols have been shown to be capable of extending the lifespan of fruit flies. The purpose of this review is to brief the literature on modern biological theories of ageing and role of dietary antioxidants in ageing as well as underlying mechanisms by which antioxidants can prolong the lifespan with focus on fruit flies as an model.

  12. Sodium phenylbutyrate abrogates African swine fever virus replication by disrupting the virus-induced hypoacetylation status of histone H3K9/K14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouco, Gonçalo; Freitas, Ferdinando B; Martins, Carlos; Ferreira, Fernando

    2017-10-15

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a highly lethal disease in swine for which neither a vaccine nor treatment are available. Recently, a new class of drugs that inhibit histone deacetylases enzymes (HDACs) has received an increasing interest as antiviral agents. Considering studies by others showing that valproic acid, an HDAC inhibitor (HDACi), blocks the replication of enveloped viruses and that ASFV regulates the epigenetic status of the host cell by promoting heterochromatinization and recruitment of class I HDACs to viral cytoplasmic factories, the antiviral activity of four HDACi against ASFV was evaluated in this study. Results showed that the sodium phenylbutyrate fully abrogates the ASFV replication, whereas the valproic acid leads to a significant reduction of viral progeny at 48h post-infection (-73.9%, p=0.046), as the two pan-HDAC inhibitors tested (Trichostatin A: -82.2%, p=0.043; Vorinostat: 73.9%, p=0.043). Further evaluation showed that protective effects of NaPB are dose-dependent, interfering with the expression of late viral genes and reversing the ASFV-induced histone H3 lysine 9 and 14 (H3K9K14) hypoacetylation status, compatible to an open chromatin state and possibly enabling the expression of host genes non-beneficial to infection progression. Additionally, a synergic antiviral effect was detected when NaPB is combined with an ASFV-topoisomerase II poison (Enrofloxacin). Altogether, our results strongly suggest that cellular HDACs are involved in the establishment of ASFV infection and emphasize that further in vivo studies are needed to better understand the antiviral activity of HDAC inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Chitosan-shelled oxygen-loaded nanodroplets abrogate hypoxia dysregulation of human keratinocyte gelatinases and inhibitors: New insights for chronic wound healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadjavi, Amina; Magnetto, Chiara; Panariti, Alice; Argenziano, Monica; Gulino, Giulia Rossana; Rivolta, Ilaria; Cavalli, Roberta; Giribaldi, Giuliana; Guiot, Caterina; Prato, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Background: : In chronic wounds, efficient epithelial tissue repair is hampered by hypoxia, and balances between the molecules involved in matrix turn-over such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are seriously impaired. Intriguingly, new oxygenating nanocarriers such as 2H,3H-decafluoropentane-based oxygen-loaded nanodroplets (OLNs) might effectively target chronic wounds. Objective: : To investigate hypoxia and chitosan-shelled OLN effects on MMP/TIMP production by human keratinocytes. Methods: : HaCaT cells were treated for 24 h with 10% v/v OLNs both in normoxia or hypoxia. Cytotoxicity and cell viability were measured through biochemical assays; cellular uptake by confocal microscopy; and MMP and TIMP production by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or gelatin zymography. Results: : Normoxic HaCaT cells constitutively released MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. Hypoxia strongly impaired MMP/TIMP balances by reducing MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-2, without affecting TIMP-1 release. After cellular uptake by keratinocytes, nontoxic OLNs abrogated all hypoxia effects on MMP/TIMP secretion, restoring physiological balances. OLN abilities were specifically dependent on time-sustained oxygen diffusion from OLN core. Conclusion: : Chitosan-shelled OLNs effectively counteract hypoxia-dependent dysregulation of MMP/TIMP balances in human keratinocytes. Therefore, topical administration of exogenous oxygen, properly encapsulated in nanodroplet formulations, might be a promising adjuvant approach to promote healing processes in hypoxic wounds. - Highlights: • Hypoxia impairs MMP9/TIMP1 and MMP2/TIMP2 balances in HaCaT human keratinocytes. • Chitosan-shelled oxygen-loaded nanodroplets (OLNs) are internalised by HaCaT cells. • OLNs are not toxic to HaCaT cells. • OLNs effectively counteract hypoxia effects on MMP/TIMP balances in HaCaT cells. • OLNs appear as promising and cost-effective therapeutic tools for hypoxic

  14. TGF-β1 induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT in human bronchial epithelial cells is enhanced by IL-1β but not abrogated by corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuraw Bruce L

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic persistent asthma is characterized by ongoing airway inflammation and airway remodeling. The processes leading to airway remodeling are poorly understood, and there is increasing evidence that even aggressive anti-inflammatory therapy does not completely prevent this process. We sought to investigate whether TGFβ1 stimulates bronchial epithelial cells to undergo transition to a mesenchymal phenotype, and whether this transition can be abrogated by corticosteroid treatment or enhanced by the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. Methods BEAS-2B and primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells were stimulated with TGFβ1 and expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers assessed by quantitative real-time PCR, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence microscopy and zymography. In some cases the epithelial cells were also incubated with corticosteroids or IL-1β. Results were analyzed using non-parametric statistical tests. Results Treatment of BEAS-2B or primary human bronchial epithelial cells with TGFβ1 significantly reduced the expression level of the epithelial adherence junction protein E-cadherin. TGFβ1 then markedly induced mesenchymal marker proteins such as collagen I, tenascin C, fibronectin and α-smooth muscle actin mRNA in a dose dependant manner. The process of mesenchymal transition was accompanied by a morphological change towards a more spindle shaped fibroblast cell type with a more motile and invasive phenotype. Corticosteroid pre-treatment did not significantly alter the TGFβ1 induced transition but IL-1β enhanced the transition. Conclusion Our results indicate, that TGFβ1 can induce mesenchymal transition in the bronchial epithelial cell line and primary cells. Since asthma has been strongly associated with increased expression of TGFβ1 in the airway, epithelial to mesenchymal transition may contribute to the contractile and fibrotic remodeling process that accompanies chronic asthma.

  15. Defective TCR stimulation in anergized type 2 T helper cells correlates with abrogated p56(lck) and ZAP-70 tyrosine kinase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, A; Akdis, C A; Akdis, M; Simon, H U; Blaser, K

    1997-07-01

    Development of IgE-mediated allergic conditions is dependent on the secretion of a Th2 cytokine pattern, including IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. The induction of anergy would be one mechanism to abrogate cytokine secretion by Th2 cells, which may be pivotal to the allergic response. We demonstrate here that incubation of cloned human CD4+ phospholipase A2 (PLA)-specific Th2 cells with antigenic peptide, in the absence of professional APC, results in a state of nonresponsiveness. The anergic T cells failed to proliferate or secrete IL-4 in response to optimal stimulation with PLA and autologous, professional APC. Secretion of IL-5 and IL-13, however, was only partially inhibited. The anergic state of the Th2 cells was not associated with CD3 or CD28 down-regulation. However, anergy did appear to be closely related to alterations in signaling pathways, mediated through the TCR, of the cells. In contrast to untreated Th2 cells, anergized Th2 cells failed to respond to anti-CD3 mAb with either increased tyrosine kinase activity or increased levels of tyrosine phosphorylation of p56(lck) or ZAP70. A strong and sustained intracellular calcium flux, observed in untreated Th2 cells in response to anti-CD3 mAb, was absent in anergic Th2 cells. Furthermore, the induction of anergy seems to represent an active process, associated with increased levels of basal tyrosine kinase activity, cytokine production, and CD25 up-regulation in anergic Th2 cells. Together, our results indicate that anergy in Th2 cells is associated with defective transmembrane signaling through the TCR.

  16. Keampferol-3-O-rhamnoside abrogates amyloid beta toxicity by modulating monomers and remodeling oligomers and fibrils to non-toxic aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharoar Md

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggregation of soluble, monomeric β- amyloid (Aβ to oligomeric and then insoluble fibrillar Aβ is a key pathogenic feature in development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Increasing evidence suggests that toxicity is linked to diffusible Aβ oligomers, rather than to insoluble fibrils. The use of naturally occurring small molecules for inhibition of Aβ aggregation has recently attracted significant interest for development of effective therapeutic strategies against the disease. A natural polyphenolic flavone, Kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside (K-3-rh, was utilized to investigate its effects on aggregation and cytotoxic effects of Aβ42 peptide. Several biochemical techniques were used to determine the conformational changes and cytotoxic effect of the peptide in the presence and absence of K-3-rh. Results K-3-rh showed a dose-dependent effect against Aβ42 mediated cytotoxicity. Anti-amyloidogenic properties of K-3-rh were found to be efficient in inhibiting fibrilogenesis and secondary structural transformation of the peptide. The consequence of these inhibitions was the accumulation of oligomeric structural species. The accumulated aggregates were smaller, soluble, non-β-sheet and non-toxic aggregates, compared to preformed toxic Aβ oligomers. K-3-rh was also found to have the remodeling properties of preformed soluble oligomers and fibrils. Both of these conformers were found to remodel into non-toxic aggregates. The results showed that K-3-rh interacts with different Aβ conformers, which affects fibril formation, oligomeric maturation and fibrillar stabilization. Conclusion K-3-rh is an efficient molecule to hinder the self assembly and to abrogate the cytotoxic effects of Aβ42 peptide. Hence, K-3-rh and small molecules with similar structure might be considered for therapeutic development against AD.

  17. Chitosan-shelled oxygen-loaded nanodroplets abrogate hypoxia dysregulation of human keratinocyte gelatinases and inhibitors: New insights for chronic wound healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khadjavi, Amina [Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); Magnetto, Chiara [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM), Torino (Italy); Panariti, Alice [Dipartimento di Scienze della Salute, Università di Milano Bicocca, Monza (Italy); Argenziano, Monica [Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco, Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); Gulino, Giulia Rossana [Dipartimento di Oncologia, Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); Rivolta, Ilaria [Dipartimento di Scienze della Salute, Università di Milano Bicocca, Monza (Italy); Cavalli, Roberta [Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco, Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); Giribaldi, Giuliana [Dipartimento di Oncologia, Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); Guiot, Caterina [Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); Prato, Mauro, E-mail: mauro.prato@unito.it [Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze della Sanità Pubblica e Pediatriche, Università di Torino, Torino (Italy)

    2015-08-01

    Background: : In chronic wounds, efficient epithelial tissue repair is hampered by hypoxia, and balances between the molecules involved in matrix turn-over such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are seriously impaired. Intriguingly, new oxygenating nanocarriers such as 2H,3H-decafluoropentane-based oxygen-loaded nanodroplets (OLNs) might effectively target chronic wounds. Objective: : To investigate hypoxia and chitosan-shelled OLN effects on MMP/TIMP production by human keratinocytes. Methods: : HaCaT cells were treated for 24 h with 10% v/v OLNs both in normoxia or hypoxia. Cytotoxicity and cell viability were measured through biochemical assays; cellular uptake by confocal microscopy; and MMP and TIMP production by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or gelatin zymography. Results: : Normoxic HaCaT cells constitutively released MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. Hypoxia strongly impaired MMP/TIMP balances by reducing MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-2, without affecting TIMP-1 release. After cellular uptake by keratinocytes, nontoxic OLNs abrogated all hypoxia effects on MMP/TIMP secretion, restoring physiological balances. OLN abilities were specifically dependent on time-sustained oxygen diffusion from OLN core. Conclusion: : Chitosan-shelled OLNs effectively counteract hypoxia-dependent dysregulation of MMP/TIMP balances in human keratinocytes. Therefore, topical administration of exogenous oxygen, properly encapsulated in nanodroplet formulations, might be a promising adjuvant approach to promote healing processes in hypoxic wounds. - Highlights: • Hypoxia impairs MMP9/TIMP1 and MMP2/TIMP2 balances in HaCaT human keratinocytes. • Chitosan-shelled oxygen-loaded nanodroplets (OLNs) are internalised by HaCaT cells. • OLNs are not toxic to HaCaT cells. • OLNs effectively counteract hypoxia effects on MMP/TIMP balances in HaCaT cells. • OLNs appear as promising and cost-effective therapeutic tools for hypoxic

  18. Abrogation of cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity in mice by xanthorrhizol is related to its effect on the regulation of gene transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwan Kim, Seong; Ok Hong, Kyoung; Chung, Won-Yoon; Kwan Hwang, Jae; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2004-01-01

    Cisplatin is a widely used anticancer drug, but at high dose, it can produce undesirable side effects such as hepatotoxicity. Because Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. (Zingiberaceae) has been traditionally used to treat liver disorders, the protective effect of xanthorrhizol, which is isolated from C. xanthorrhiza, on cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity was evaluated in mice. The pretreatment of xanthorrhizol (200 mg/kg/day, po) for 4 days prevented the hepatotoxicity induced by cisplatin (45 mg/kg, ip) with statistical significance. Interestingly, it abrogated cisplatin-induced DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), which consequently affected mRNA expression levels of NF-κB-dependent genes, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), even in part. It also attenuated the cisplatin-suppressed DNA-binding activity of activator protein 1 (AP-1). Using differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR), seven upregulated genes including S100 calcium binding protein A9 (S100A9) mRNA and antigenic determinant for rec-A protein mRNA and five downregulated genes including caseinolytic protease X (ClpX) mRNA and ceruloplasmin (CP) mRNA by cisplatin were identified. Although these mRNA expression patterns were not totally consistent with gel shift patterns, altered expression levels by cisplatin were reversed by the pretreatment of xanthorrhizol. In conclusion, the ability of xanthorrhizol to regulate the DNA-binding activities of transcription factors, NF-κB and AP-1, could be one possible mechanism to elucidate the preventive effect of xanthorrhizol on cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity. Furthermore, genes identified in this study could be helpful to understand the mechanism of cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity. Finally, the combination treatment of xanthorrhizol and cisplatin may provide more advantage than single treatment of cisplatin in cancer therapy

  19. Endothelial microparticle-mediated transfer of MicroRNA-126 promotes vascular endothelial cell repair via SPRED1 and is abrogated in glucose-damaged endothelial microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Felix; Yang, Xiaoyan; Hoelscher, Marion; Cattelan, Arianna; Schmitz, Theresa; Proebsting, Sebastian; Wenzel, Daniela; Vosen, Sarah; Franklin, Bernardo S; Fleischmann, Bernd K; Nickenig, Georg; Werner, Nikos

    2013-10-29

    Repair of the endothelium after vascular injury is crucial for preserving endothelial integrity and preventing the development of vascular disease. The underlying mechanisms of endothelial cell repair are largely unknown. We sought to investigate whether endothelial microparticles (EMPs), released from apoptotic endothelial cells (ECs), influence EC repair. Systemic treatment of mice with EMPs after electric denudation of the endothelium accelerated reendothelialization in vivo. In vitro experiments revealed that EMP uptake in ECs promotes EC migration and proliferation, both critical steps in endothelial repair. To dissect the underlying mechanisms, Taqman microRNA array was performed, and microRNA (miR)-126 was identified as the predominantly expressed miR in EMPs. The following experiments demonstrated that miR-126 was transported into recipient human coronary artery endothelial cells by EMPs and functionally regulated the target protein sprouty-related, EVH1 domain-containing protein 1 (SPRED1). Knockdown of miR-126 in EMPs abrogated EMP-mediated effects on human coronary artery endothelial cell migration and proliferation in vitro and reendothelialization in vivo. Interestingly, after simulating diabetic conditions, EMPs derived from glucose-treated ECs contained significantly lower amounts of miR-126 and showed reduced endothelial repair capacity in vitro and in vivo. Finally, expression analysis of miR-126 in circulating microparticles from 176 patients with stable coronary artery disease with and without diabetes mellitus revealed a significantly reduced miR-126 expression in circulating microparticles from diabetic patients. Endothelial microparticles promote vascular endothelial repair by delivering functional miR-126 into recipient cells. In pathological hyperglycemic conditions, EMP-mediated miR-126-induced EC repair is altered.

  20. Reduced dietary salt for the prevention of cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rod S; Ashton, Kate E; Moxham, Tiffany; Hooper, Lee; Ebrahim, Shah

    2014-01-01

    Background An earlier Cochrane review of dietary advice identified insufficient evidence to assess effects of reduced salt intake on mortality or cardiovascular events. Objectives To assess the long term effects of interventions aimed at reducing dietary salt on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity. To investigate whether blood pressure reduction is an explanatory factor in any effect of such dietary interventions on mortality and cardiovascular outcomes. Search methods The Cochrane Library (CENTRAL, Health Technology Assessment (HTA) and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effect (DARE)), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycInfo were searched through to October 2008. References of included studies and reviews were also checked. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Trials fulfilled the following criteria: (1) randomised with follow up of at least six-months, (2) intervention was reduced dietary salt (restricted salt dietary intervention or advice to reduce salt intake), (3) adults, (4) mortality or cardiovascular morbidity data was available. Two reviewers independently assessed whether studies met these criteria. Data collection and analysis Data extraction and study validity were compiled by a single reviewer, and checked by a second. Authors were contacted where possible to obtain missing information. Events were extracted and relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs calculated. Main results Six studies (including 6,489 participants) met the inclusion criteria - three in normotensives (n=3518), two in hypertensives (n=758), and one in a mixed population of normo- and hypertensives (n=1981) with end of trial follow-up of seven to 36 months and longest observational follow up (after trial end) to 12.7 yrs. Relative risks for all cause mortality in normotensives (end of trial RR 0.67, 95% CI: 0.40 to 1.12, 60 deaths; longest follow up RR 0.90, 95% CI: 0.58 to 1.40, 79 deaths) and hypertensives (end of trial RR 0.97, 95% CI: 0.83 to 1.13, 513 deaths

  1. Dietary reference values for thiamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived dietary reference values (DRVs) for thiamin (vitamin B1). The Panel considers that data from depletion–repletion studies in adults on the amount of dietary thiamin intake...... were measured. Results from other depletion–repletion studies are in agreement with this value. The Panel agrees on the coefficient of variation of 20% used by the SCF to cover uncertainties related to distribution of thiamin requirements in the general population, and endorses the population reference...

  2. Vitamin D-deficient osteomalacia due to excessive self-restrictions for atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikino, Kiyoshi; Ikusaka, Masatomi; Yamashita, Tomoko

    2014-07-04

    A 34-year-old Japanese woman presented with a 2-year history of generalised bone pain, muscle weakness and gait disturbance. The patient had been following a restricted diet (without fish or dairy products) and avoiding ultraviolet exposure for 8 years to manage her worsening atopic dermatitis. Physical examination revealed generalised bone tenderness and bilateral symmetric proximal muscle weakness. Vitamin D-deficient osteomalacia was diagnosed based on the laboratory examination findings, which indicated high serum alkaline phosphatase, high intact parathyroid hormone, and low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Her symptoms improved after oral active vitamin D and calcium administration. To the best our knowledge, this case is the first report of vitamin D-deficient osteomalacia in an adult patient due to excessive dietary restriction for managing atopic dermatitis. We emphasise the importance of increasing awareness of vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor for the development of osteomalacia, and caution against excessive avoidance of sun exposure and dietary restriction. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  3. Inuit dietary patterns in modern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Jeppesen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to apply two different approaches of dietary pattern definition to data from Greenland and to analyse the contemporary dietary patterns of the Inuit in Greenland in relation to urbanization and socio-economic positions.......The purpose of the study was to apply two different approaches of dietary pattern definition to data from Greenland and to analyse the contemporary dietary patterns of the Inuit in Greenland in relation to urbanization and socio-economic positions....

  4. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    OpenAIRE

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary...

  5. Metabolic changes and induction of hepatic lipidosis during feed restriction in llamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornquist, S J; Cebra, C K; Van Saun, R J; Smith, B B; Mattoon, J S

    2001-07-01

    To determine whether feed restriction induces hepatic lipidosis (HL) in llamas and to evaluate the metabolic changes that develop during feed restriction. 8 healthy adult female llamas. Llamas were fed grass hay at a rate of 0.25% of their body weight per day for 13 to 28 days. Llamas were monitored by use of clinical observation, serum biochemical analyses, and ultrasound-guided liver biopsies. All 8 llamas lost weight and mobilized fat. Five llamas developed HL, including 4 that were nursing crias. During the period of feed restriction, mean serum concentration of bile acids and activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were significantly higher in llamas that developed HL, compared with llamas that did not. Mean insulin-to-cortisol concentration ratios were lower in llamas with HL before and up to 7 days of feed restriction, compared with those that did not develop HL. HL in llamas may be induced by severe feed restriction, particularly in the face of increased energy demand. Llamas with weight loss attributable to inadequate dietary intake may develop biochemical evidence of hepatopathy and HL. Increases in serum concentration of bile acids and activities of GGT, AST, and SDH may indicate the development of HL in llamas and identify affected animals for aggressive therapeutic intervention.

  6. Universal Cycles of Restricted Classes of Words

    OpenAIRE

    Leitner, Arielle; Godbole, Anant

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that Universal Cycles of $k$-letter words on an $n$-letter alphabet exist for all $k$ and $n$. In this paper, we prove that Universal Cycles exist for restricted classes of words, including: non-bijections, equitable words (under suitable restrictions), ranked permutations, and "passwords".

  7. Freedom and Restrictions in Language Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Roy C.

    Since freedom of thought and expression is essential in a democracy, censorship of language is rightly regarded as a threat to all other freedoms. Still, it is inevitable that certain restrictions will occasionally be imposed on language in America and in other societies. Restrictions on language date back to the Ten Commandments, which condemned…

  8. Protein restriction in chronic renal failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ECHTEN, JEKT; NAUTA, J; HOP, WCJ; de Jong, MCJ; REITSMABIERENS, WCC; VANAMSTEL, SLBP; VANACKER, KJ; NOORDZIJ, CM; WOLFF, ED

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of a protein restricted diet on renal function and growth of children with chronic renal failure. In a multicentre prospective study 56 children (aged 2-18 years) with chronic renal failure were randomly assigned to the protein restricted (0.8-1.1

  9. Relationship Between Calorie Restriction, Lipid Peroxidation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the brain of the caloric restricted rats, there was little or no change in the tGSH and GSH, although the GSSG and GSSG/GSH% ratio were increased significantly. These results suggest that aging of rats had been decelerated by caloric restriction due to the decrease in the peroxidative damage in the lungs and brain.

  10. 7 CFR 3430.205 - Funding restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 3430.205 Section 3430.205... Funding restrictions. (a) Prohibition against construction. Funds made available under this subpart shall not be used for the construction of a new building or facility or the acquisition, expansion...

  11. 28 CFR 804.3 - Restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restrictions. 804.3 Section 804.3 Judicial Administration COURT SERVICES AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA ACCEPTANCE OF GIFTS § 804.3 Restrictions. (a) The Agency is not authorized to accept gifts of money, stock...

  12. Short-term preoperative calorie and protein restriction is feasible in healthy kidney donors and morbidly obese patients scheduled for surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Jongbloed (Franny); R.W.F. de Bruin (Ron); R.A. Klaassen (René); P. Beekhof (Piet); H. van Steeg (Harry); F.J.M.F. Dor (Frank); E. van der Harst (Erwin); M.E.T. Dollé (Martijn); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction. Surgery-induced oxidative stress increases the risk of perioperative complications and delay in postoperative recovery. In mice, short-term preoperative dietary and protein restriction protect against oxidative stress. We investigated the feasibility of a calorie- and

  13. Growth and clinical variables in nitrogen-restricted piglets fed an adjusted essential amino acid mix: Effects using free amino acid-based diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excess protein intake in early life has been linked to obesity and metabolic syndrome in later life. Yet, protein, and in particular the essential amino acids (EAA), need to be present in adequate quantity to support growth. Using a piglet model restricted in dietary amino acids (AA), our objective...

  14. Estimating the Distribution of Dietary Consumption Patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    In the United States the preferred method of obtaining dietary intake data is the 24-hour dietary recall, yet the measure of most interest is usual or long-term average daily intake, which is impossible to measure. Thus, usual dietary intake

  15. 22 CFR 71.12 - Dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dietary supplements. 71.12 Section 71.12... Incarcerated Abroad § 71.12 Dietary supplements. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the dietary supplement program under the following general criteria: (1) An evaluation by a...

  16. Restricted gravity: Abelian projection of Einstein's theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.M.

    2013-01-01

    Treating Einstein's theory as a gauge theory of Lorentz group, we decompose the gravitational connection Γμ into the restricted connection made of the potential of the maximal Abelian subgroup H of Lorentz group G and the valence connection made of G/H part of the potential which transforms covariantly under Lorentz gauge transformation. With this we show that Einstein's theory can be decomposed into the restricted gravity made of the restricted connection which has the full Lorentz gauge invariance which has the valence connection as gravitational source. The decomposition shows the existence of a restricted theory of gravitation which has the full general invariance but is much simpler than Einstein's theory. Moreover, it tells that the restricted gravity can be written as an Abelian gauge theory,

  17. Effects of niacin restriction on sirtuin and PARP responses to photodamage in human skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia A Benavente

    Full Text Available Sirtuins (SIRTs and poly(ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs, NAD(+-dependent enzymes, link cellular energy status with responses to environmental stresses. Skin is frequently exposed to the DNA damaging effects of UV irradiation, a known etiology in skin cancer. Thus, understanding the defense mechanisms in response to UV, including the role of SIRTs and PARPs, may be important in developing skin cancer prevention strategies. Here, we report expression of the seven SIRT family members in human skin. SIRTs gene expressions are progressively upregulated in A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells (SIRTs1 and 3, actinic keratoses (SIRTs 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 and squamous cell carcinoma (SIRTs 1-7. Photodamage induces dynamic changes in SIRT expression with upregulation of both SIRT1 and SIRT4 mRNAs. Specific losses of SIRT proteins occur early after photodamage followed by accumulation later, especially for SIRT4. Niacin restriction, which decreases NAD(+, the sirtuin substrate, results in an increase in acetylated proteins, upregulation of SIRTs 2 and 4, increased inherent DNA damage, alterations in SIRT responses to photodamage, abrogation of PARP activation following photodamage, and increased sensitivity to photodamage that is completely reversed by repleting niacin. These data support the hypothesis that SIRTs and PARPs play important roles in resistance to photodamage and identify specific SIRTs that respond to photodamage and may be targets for skin cancer prevention.

  18. Failure of lactose-restricted diets to prevent radiation-induced diarrhea in patients undergoing whole pelvis irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stryker, J.A.; Bartholomew, M.

    1986-01-01

    Sixty-four patients were randomized prior to pelvic radiotherapy into one of three dietary groups: the control group maintained a regular diet except that they drank at least 480 cc of milk daily; the lactose-restricted group was placed on a lactose-restricted diet; and the lactase group drank at least 480 cc of milk with lactase enzyme added to hydrolyze 90% of the lactose. The patients kept records of their stool frequency and the number of diphenoxylate tablets required to control their diarrhea during a 5 week course of standard whole pelvis irradiation. The data does not support the concept that one of the mechanisms of radiation-induced diarrhea associated with pelvic irradiation is a reduction the ability of the intestine to hydrolyze ingested lactose due to the effect of the radiation on the small intestine. There was not a significant difference in stool frequency or diphenoxylate usage among the dietary groups

  19. Dietary Patterns and Human Reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Vujkovic (Marijana)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPart 1 of the thesis focuses on dietary patterns and fatty acid intake in couples undergoing IVF/ICSI fertility treatment. The studies described in Chapter 2, 3 and 4 are based on the FOod Lifestyle and Fertility Outcome study (FOLFO), a prospective cohort study examining the influence

  20. Dietary reference values for riboflavin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives dietary reference values (DRVs) for riboflavin. The Panel considers that the inflection point in the urinary riboflavin excretion curve in relation to riboflavin intake...

  1. Dietary reference values for potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives dietary reference values (DRVs) for potassium. The Panel decides to set DRVs on the basis of the relationships between potassium intake and blood pressure and stroke...

  2. 9691 KNOWLEDGE OF RECOMMENDED DIETARY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    and obese body weight categories. Thus, this investigation indicated an ... understand the role of dietary cholesterol in disease progression or prevention. In addition, some consumers may regard all fats ... frequency of consumption of food rich in cholesterol, and medical check-up was used as an instrument for this study.

  3. Prohibited Contaminants in Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Neilson M

    With the increasing use of unregulated dietary supplements, athletes are at continued risk from adverse medical events and inadvertent doping. A review of Clinical Key, MEDLINE, and PubMed databases from 2012 to 2017 was performed using search terms, including dietary supplement, contamination, doping in athletes, inadvertent doping, and prohibited substances. The references of pertinent articles were reviewed for other relevant sources. Clinical review. Level 3. Poor manufacturing processes and intentional contamination with many banned substances continue to occur in dietary supplements sold in the United States. Certain sectors, such as weight loss and muscle-building supplements, pose a greater threat because they are more likely to be contaminated. Athletes will continue to be at risk for adverse events and failed doping tests due to contaminated dietary supplements until legislation changes how they are regulated. In the interim, there are several steps that can be taken to mitigate this risk, including improved education of medical staff and athletes and use of third party-certified products.

  4. Dietary trends and management of hyperphosphatemia among patients with chronic kidney disease: an international survey of renal care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouque, Denis; Cruz Casal, Maria; Lindley, Elizabeth; Rogers, Susan; Pancířová, Jitka; Kernc, Jennifer; Copley, J Brian

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to review the opinions and experiences of renal care professionals to examine dietary trends among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and problems associated with the clinical management of hyperphosphatemia. This was an online survey comprising open and closed questions requesting information on patient dietary trends and the clinical management of hyperphosphatemia. The study was conducted in 4 European countries (the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom). Participants were 84 renal care professionals. This was an online survey. Responder-reported experiences and perceptions of patient dietary trends and hyperphosphatemia management were assessed. Most survey responders (56%) observed an increase in the consumption of processed convenience food, 48% noticed an increase in the consumption of foods rich in phosphorus-containing additives, and 60% believed that there has been a trend of increasing patient awareness of the phosphorus content of food. Patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) were most likely to experience difficulties in following advice on dietary phosphorus restriction (38% of responders estimated that 25-50% of their patients experienced difficulties, and 29% estimated that 51-75% experienced difficulties). Maintaining protein intake and restricting dietary phosphorus were perceived as being equally important by at least half of responders for predialysis patients (56%) and for those undergoing peritoneal dialysis and HD (54% and 50%, respectively). There were international variations in dietary trends and hyperphosphatemia management. Although most responders have observed a trend of increasing awareness of the phosphorus content of food among patients with CKD, the survey results indicate that many patients continue to experience difficulties when attempting to restrict dietary phosphorus. The survey responses reflect the global trend of increasing consumption of processed convenience foods and

  5. Selectively starving cancer cells through dietary manipulation: methods and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Brittany A; Champ, Colin E; Rosenberg, Anne L; Berger, Adam C; Monti, Daniel A; Dicker, Adam P; Simone, Nicole L

    2013-07-01

    As the link between obesity and metabolic syndrome and cancer becomes clearer, the need to determine the optimal way to incorporate dietary manipulation in the treatment of cancer patients becomes increasingly important. Metabolic-based therapies, such as caloric restriction, intermittent fasting and a ketogenic diet, have the ability to decrease the incidence of spontaneous tumors and slow the growth of primary tumors, and may have an effect on distant metastases in animal models. Despite the abundance of preclinical data demonstrating the benefit of dietary modification for cancer, to date there are few clinical trials targeting diet as an intervention for cancer patients. We hypothesize that this may be due, in part, to the fact that several different types of diet modification exist with no clear recommendations regarding the optimal method. This article will delineate three commonly used methods of dietary manipulation to assess the potential of each as a regimen for cancer therapy.

  6. R Factor-Controlled Restriction and Modification of Deoxyribonucleic Acid: Restriction Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimori, Robert; Roulland-Dussoix, Daisy; Boyer, Herbert W.

    1972-01-01

    Restriction mutants of two different R factor-controlled host specificities (RI and RII) were isolated. All of the restriction mutants examined had a normal modification phenotype. No complementation was observed between the RI and RII host specificities. It is concluded that for each host specificity no protein subunit is shared by the restriction endonuclease and modification methylase. PMID:4565538

  7. Measuring the Restrictiveness of Living Environments for Children and Youth: Reconceptualizing Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauktis, Mary E.; Huefner, Jonathan C.; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.; Doucette, Ann; Thompson, Ronald W.

    2009-01-01

    The "Restrictiveness of Living Environment Scale" has long been the primary way to conceptualize the "restrictiveness" of a child's living situation. However, changes in systems of care and other factors have created a need to revisit how restrictiveness is conceptualized and measured. A measure was created to assess an environment's level of…

  8. Dietary nutraceuticals as novel radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra

    2012-01-01

    There is long standing need to protect humans from the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation in the event of radiation related calamities or otherwise. Various dietary ingredients have formed an integral part of daily human diets. Most of the ingredients used in the Indian diet possess medicinal properties. However, little attention has been paid to screen the radioprotective ability of dietary ingredients. It is possible that use of dietary agents could protect against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiations more effectively than other exotic synthetic agents simply because they are from natural biological sources, and may be more biocompatible than any other synthetic counterparts. Their acceptance for therapeutic purpose will be acceptable as they are part of daily human diets and do not have any known toxicity. This has been a stimulation to investigate the radioprotective ability of certain dietary ingredients including naringin and mangiferin in vivo and in vitro using micronuclei or survival assays. Treatment of mice with various doses of naringin or mangiferin reduced the symptoms of radiation-induced sickness including listlessness, irritability, lethargy, reduction in food and water intake, diarrhea, lacrimation, facial edema weight loss, emaciation, and epilation. Mice receiving various doses of naringin reduced the radiation-induced micronuclei formation and chromosome aberrations in bone marrow. Likewise, treatment of human peripheral blood lymphocytes with various concentrations of mangiferin reduced the radiation-induced DNA damage. The putative mechanisms of radioprotection are free radical scavenging, increased GSH accompanied by reduced lipid peroxidation. The use of dietary ingredients for radioprotection shall be encouraged as they are consumed daily and toxic implications are negligible. (author)

  9. Molecular biomarkers for weight control in obese individuals subjected to a multi-phase dietary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolton, Jennifer L; Montastier, Emilie; Carayol, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    Context: While calorie restriction has proven beneficial for weight loss, long-term weight control is variable between individuals. Objective: To identify biomarkers of successful weight control during a dietary intervention (DI). Design, Setting, and Participants: Adipose tissue (AT) transcripto......-controllers. Interestingly, ASPN is a TGFβ1 inhibitor. Conclusions: We found circulating biomarkers associated with weight control, which could influence weight management strategies, and genes that may be prognostic for successful weight control....

  10. Economic impact of feeding a phenylalanine-restricted diet to adults with previously untreated phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M C; Guest, J F

    1999-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the direct healthcare cost of managing adults with previously untreated phenylketonuria (PKU) for one year before any dietary restrictions and for the first year after a phenylalanine- (PHE-) restricted diet was introduced. The resource use and corresponding costs were estimated from medical records and interviews with health care professionals experienced in caring for adults with previously untreated PKU. The mean annual cost of caring for a client being fed an unrestricted diet was estimated to be 83 996 pound silver. In the first year after introducing a PHE-restricted diet, the mean annual cost was reduced by 20 647 pound silver to 63 348 pound silver as a result of a reduction in nursing time, hospitalizations, outpatient clinic visits and medications. However, the economic benefit of the diet depended on whether the clients were previously high or low users of nursing care. Nursing time was the key cost-driver, accounting for 79% of the cost of managing high users and 31% of the management cost for low users. In contrast, the acquisition cost of a PHE-restricted diet accounted for up to 6% of the cost for managing high users and 15% of the management cost for low users. Sensitivity analyses showed that introducing a PHE-restricted diet reduces the annual cost of care, provided that annual nursing time was reduced by more than 8% or more than 5% of clients respond to the diet. The clients showed fewer negative behaviours when being fed a PHE-restricted diet, which may account for the observed reduction in nursing time needed to care for these clients. In conclusion, feeding a PHE-restricted diet to adults with previously untreated PKU leads to economic benefits to the UK's National Health Service and society in general.

  11. Momentary Predictors of Insulin Restriction Among Adults With Type 1 Diabetes and Eating Disorder Symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwin, Rhonda M; Dmitrieva, Natalia O; Honeycutt, Lisa K; Moskovich, Ashley A; Lane, James D; Zucker, Nancy L; Surwit, Richard S; Feinglos, Mark; Kuo, Jennifer

    2015-11-01

    Individuals with type 1 diabetes who restrict insulin to control weight are at high risk for diabetes-related complications and premature death. However, little is known about this behavior or how to effectively intervene. The aim of the current study was to identify predictors of insulin restriction in the natural environment that might inform new treatment directions. Eighty-three adults with type 1 diabetes and a range of eating disorder symptomatology completed 3 days of ecological momentary assessment. Participants reported emotions, eating, and insulin dosing throughout the day using their cellular telephone. Linear mixed models were used to estimate the effects of heightened negative affect (e.g., anxiety) before eating and characteristics of the eating episode (e.g., eating a large amount of food) on the risk of insulin restriction. Individuals who reported greater-than-average negative affect (general negative affect and negative affect specifically about diabetes) during the study period were more likely to restrict insulin. Momentary increases in anxiety/nervousness and guilt/disgust with self before eating (relative to an individual's typical level) further increased the odds of restricting insulin at the upcoming meal. Insulin restriction was more likely when individuals reported that they broke a dietary rule (e.g., "no desserts"). Results suggest that insulin restriction might be decreased by helping patients with type 1 diabetes respond effectively to heightened negative affect (e.g., anxiety, guilt) and encouraging patients to take a less rigid, punitive approach to diabetes management. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  12. The Association between Taking Dietary Supplements and Healthy Habits among Korean Adults: Results from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Wook; Lee, So-Hye; Kim, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyung-Do; Kwack, Tae-Eung; Kim, Bo-Seon; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Jo, Eun-Bae; Park, Young-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, the number of people interested in health in South Korea has increased, and the rate of dietary supplement use is rising. Researchers have hypothesized that the rate of practicing healthy habits is higher among those who use dietary supplements than those who do not. Therefore, this study aimed to discover the association between taking dietary supplements and practicing various healthy habits in the Korean, adult population. Methods The sample included 15,789 adults over 19 years old who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The user group was defined as those taking dietary supplements for more than 2 weeks during the previous year or once during the past month. Measures for the seven healthy habits were based on those included in the Alameda study and were analyzed accounting for the complex sampling design. Results The rate of taking dietary supplements was significantly higher in women, middle aged participants, urban residents, those with a higher income, those with a higher education level, and nonsmokers as well as among women with a moderate subjective health status, women who limited their alcohol content, and women with dyslipidemia. In the adjusted analysis, the rate of performing three of the 'Alameda 7' habits—eating breakfast regularly, restricting snacking, and limiting drinking—was higher in the female dietary supplement user group than in the other groups. Women practiced more healthy habits and had a higher dietary supplement intake rate than men. Conclusion We found that taking dietary supplements in Korean adults is highly associated with demographic and social factors. Taking dietary supplements had a relationship with dietary habits, and there was no significant association between dietary supplement and other healthy habits. Thus in the health clinic, we suggest that taking dietary supplements complements a patient's healthy habits, with the exception of dietary habits, for

  13. The Association between Taking Dietary Supplements and Healthy Habits among Korean Adults: Results from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Wook; Lee, So-Hye; Kim, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyung-Do; Kwack, Tae-Eung; Kim, Bo-Seon; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Jo, Eun-Bae; Park, Young-Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Shik

    2016-05-01

    Recently, the number of people interested in health in South Korea has increased, and the rate of dietary supplement use is rising. Researchers have hypothesized that the rate of practicing healthy habits is higher among those who use dietary supplements than those who do not. Therefore, this study aimed to discover the association between taking dietary supplements and practicing various healthy habits in the Korean, adult population. The sample included 15,789 adults over 19 years old who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The user group was defined as those taking dietary supplements for more than 2 weeks during the previous year or once during the past month. Measures for the seven healthy habits were based on those included in the Alameda study and were analyzed accounting for the complex sampling design. The rate of taking dietary supplements was significantly higher in women, middle aged participants, urban residents, those with a higher income, those with a higher education level, and nonsmokers as well as among women with a moderate subjective health status, women who limited their alcohol content, and women with dyslipidemia. In the adjusted analysis, the rate of performing three of the 'Alameda 7' habits-eating breakfast regularly, restricting snacking, and limiting drinking-was higher in the female dietary supplement user group than in the other groups. Women practiced more healthy habits and had a higher dietary supplement intake rate than men. We found that taking dietary supplements in Korean adults is highly associated with demographic and social factors. Taking dietary supplements had a relationship with dietary habits, and there was no significant association between dietary supplement and other healthy habits. Thus in the health clinic, we suggest that taking dietary supplements complements a patient's healthy habits, with the exception of dietary habits, for health promotion.

  14. Dietary Composition Independent of Weight Loss in the Management of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tannaz Eslamparast

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Poor dietary composition is an important factor in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. The majority of NAFLD patients follow diets with overconsumption of simple carbohydrates, total and saturated fat, with reduced intake of dietary fiber and omega-3 rich foods. Although lifestyle modifications including weight loss and exercise remain the keystone of NAFLD management, modifying dietary composition with or without a calorie-restricted diet may also be a feasible and sustainable strategy for NAFLD treatment. In the present review article, we highlight the potential therapeutic role of a “high quality healthy diet” to improve hepatic steatosis and metabolic dysfunction in patients with NAFLD, independent of caloric restriction and weight loss. We provide a literature review evaluating the evidence behind dietary components including fiber-, meat- and omega-3-rich diets and, pending further evidence, we concur with the EASL-EASD-EASO Clinical Guidelines recommendation of the Mediterranean diet as the diet of choice in these patients.

  15. The BRCA1 variant p.Ser36Tyr abrogates BRCA1 protein function and potentially confers a moderate risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Charita M; Hadjisavvas, Andreas; Kyratzi, Maria; Flouri, Christina; Neophytou, Ioanna; Anastasiadou, Violetta; Loizidou, Maria A; Kyriacou, Kyriacos

    2014-01-01

    The identification of variants of unknown clinical significance (VUS) in the BRCA1 gene complicates genetic counselling and causes additional anxiety to carriers. In silico approaches currently used for VUS pathogenicity assessment are predictive and often produce conflicting data. Furthermore, functional assays are either domain or function specific, thus they do not examine the entire spectrum of BRCA1 functions and interpretation of individual assay results can be misleading. PolyPhen algorithm predicted that the BRCA1 p.Ser36Tyr VUS identified in the Cypriot population was damaging, whereas Align-GVGD predicted that it was possibly of no significance. In addition the BRCA1 p.Ser36Tyr variant was found to be associated with increased risk (OR = 3.47, 95% CI 1.13-10.67, P = 0.02) in a single case-control series of 1174 cases and 1109 controls. We describe a cellular system for examining the function of exogenous full-length BRCA1 and for classifying VUS. We achieved strong protein expression of full-length BRCA1 in transiently transfected HEK293T cells. The p.Ser36Tyr VUS exhibited low protein expression similar to the known pathogenic variant p.Cys61Gly. Co-precipitation analysis further demonstrated that it has a reduced ability to interact with BARD1. Further, co-precipitation analysis of nuclear and cytosolic extracts as well as immunofluorescence studies showed that a high proportion of the p.Ser36Tyr variant is withheld in the cytoplasm contrary to wild type protein. In addition the ability of p.Ser36Tyr to co-localize with conjugated ubiquitin foci in the nuclei of S-phase synchronized cells following genotoxic stress with hydroxyurea is impaired at more pronounced levels than that of the p.Cys61Gly pathogenic variant. The p.Ser36Tyr variant demonstrates abrogated function, and based on epidemiological, genetic, and clinical data we conclude that the p.Ser36Tyr variant is probably associated with a moderate breast cancer risk.

  16. The BRCA1 variant p.Ser36Tyr abrogates BRCA1 protein function and potentially confers a moderate risk of breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charita M Christou

    Full Text Available The identification of variants of unknown clinical significance (VUS in the BRCA1 gene complicates genetic counselling and causes additional anxiety to carriers. In silico approaches currently used for VUS pathogenicity assessment are predictive and often produce conflicting data. Furthermore, functional assays are either domain or function specific, thus they do not examine the entire spectrum of BRCA1 functions and interpretation of individual assay results can be misleading. PolyPhen algorithm predicted that the BRCA1 p.Ser36Tyr VUS identified in the Cypriot population was damaging, whereas Align-GVGD predicted that it was possibly of no significance. In addition the BRCA1 p.Ser36Tyr variant was found to be associated with increased risk (OR = 3.47, 95% CI 1.13-10.67, P = 0.02 in a single case-control series of 1174 cases and 1109 controls. We describe a cellular system for examining the function of exogenous full-length BRCA1 and for classifying VUS. We achieved strong protein expression of full-length BRCA1 in transiently transfected HEK293T cells. The p.Ser36Tyr VUS exhibited low protein expression similar to the known pathogenic variant p.Cys61Gly. Co-precipitation analysis further demonstrated that it has a reduced ability to interact with BARD1. Further, co-precipitation analysis of nuclear and cytosolic extracts as well as immunofluorescence studies showed that a high proportion of the p.Ser36Tyr variant is withheld in the cytoplasm contrary to wild type protein. In addition the ability of p.Ser36Tyr to co-localize with conjugated ubiquitin foci in the nuclei of S-phase synchronized cells following genotoxic stress with hydroxyurea is impaired at more pronounced levels than that of the p.Cys61Gly pathogenic variant. The p.Ser36Tyr variant demonstrates abrogated function, and based on epidemiological, genetic, and clinical data we conclude that the p.Ser36Tyr variant is probably associated with a moderate breast cancer risk.

  17. NS1-binding protein abrogates the elevation of cell viability by the influenza A virus NS1 protein in association with CRKL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Masaya [Department of Cancer Pathology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Nishihara, Hiroshi, E-mail: hnishihara@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Translational Pathology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Hasegawa, Hideki [Department of Pathology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Sinjuku-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Tashiro, Masato [Influenza Virus Research Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Sinjuku-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Wang, Lei [Department of Translational Pathology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Kimura, Taichi; Tanino, Mishie; Tsuda, Masumi [Department of Cancer Pathology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Tanaka, Shinya [Department of Cancer Pathology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Department of Translational Pathology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan)

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •NS1 induced excessive phosphorylation of ERK and elevated cell viability. •NS1-BP expression and CRKL knockdown abolished survival effect of NS1. •NS1-BP and NS1 formed the complex through the interaction with CRKL-SH3(N). -- Abstract: The influenza A virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is a multifunctional virulence factor consisting of an RNA binding domain and several Src-homology (SH) 2 and SH3 binding motifs, which promotes virus replication in the host cell and helps to evade antiviral immunity. NS1 modulates general host cell physiology in association with various cellular molecules including NS1-binding protein (NS1-BP) and signaling adapter protein CRK-like (CRKL), while the physiological role of NS1-BP during influenza A virus infection especially in association with NS1 remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed the intracellular association of NS1-BP, NS1 and CRKL to elucidate the physiological roles of these molecules in the host cell. In HEK293T cells, enforced expression of NS1 of A/Beijing (H1N1) and A/Indonesia (H5N1) significantly induced excessive phosphorylation of ERK and elevated cell viability, while the over-expression of NS1-BP and the abrogation of CRKL using siRNA abolished such survival effect of NS1. The pull-down assay using GST-fusion CRKL revealed the formation of intracellular complexes of NS1-BP, NS1 and CRKL. In addition, we identified that the N-terminus SH3 domain of CRKL was essential for binding to NS1-BP using GST-fusion CRKL-truncate mutants. This is the first report to elucidate the novel function of NS1-BP collaborating with viral protein NS1 in modulation of host cell physiology. In addition, an alternative role of adaptor protein CRKL in association with NS1 and NS1-BP during influenza A virus infection is demonstrated.

  18. Human LT-alpha-mediated resistance to autoimmune diabetes is induced in NOD, but not NOD-scid, mice and abrogated by IL-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaguchi, S; Satoh, J; Takahashi, K; Sakata, Y; Nakazawa, T; Miyazaki, J; Toyota, T

    2001-01-01

    the resistance was abrogated by IL-12 treatment, it is speculated that hLT-alpha treatment may have changed a local cytokine balance protective from beta cell destruction. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  19. Urban water restrictions: Attitudes and avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bethany; Burton, Michael; Crase, Lin

    2011-12-01

    In most urban cities across Australia, water restrictions remain the dominant policy mechanism to restrict urban water consumption. The extensive adoption of water restrictions as a means to limit demand, over several years, means that Australian urban water prices have consistently not reflected the opportunity cost of water. Given the generally strong political support for water restrictions and the likelihood that they will persist for some time, there is value in understanding households' attitudes in this context. More specifically, identifying the welfare gains associated with avoiding urban water restrictions entirely would be a nontrivial contribution to our knowledge and offer insights into the benefits of alternative policy responses. This paper describes the results from a contingent valuation study that investigates consumers' willingness to pay to avoid urban water restrictions. Importantly, the research also investigates the influence of cognitive and exogenous dimensions on the utility gain associated with avoiding water restrictions. The results provide insights into the impact of the current policy mechanism on economic welfare.

  20. Evaluation of the effects of dietary organic germanium, ge-132, and raffinose supplementation on caecal flora in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Nagura, Taizo; Sato, Katsuyuki; Ohnishi, Masao

    2012-01-01

    Poly-trans-[(2-carboxyethyl) germasesquioxane] (Ge-132) is the most common organic germanium compound. The ingestion of Ge-132 promotes bile secretion. We assessed the rat caecal characteristics after the administration of Ge-132 and raffinose, a prebiotic oligosaccharide, because both Ge-132 and some prebiotics can change the fecal color to yellow. We also compared the changes in the caecal flora caused by the two compounds. In addition, we evaluated the simultaneous administration of Ge-132 and raffinose and their effects on β-glucuronidase activity, which is known to be a factor related to colon cancer. Male Wistar rats (three weeks old) were given one of the following diets: 1) a control diet (control group), 2) a diet containing 0.05% Ge-132 (Ge-132 group), 3) a diet containing 5% raffinose (RAF group) or 4) a diet containing 0.05% Ge-132 + 5% raffinose (GeRAF group). The Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and total bacteria counts were significantly increased by the dietary raffinose, and Ge-132 did not suppress this increase. The raffinose intake increased caecal acetic acid production significantly. The activity of β-glucuronidase in the caecal contents was increased by dietary Ge-132, whereas dietary raffinose decreased the β-glucuronidase activity significantly. These results indicate that the simultaneous intake of dietary raffinose and Ge-132 does not inhibit the effects of either compound on intestinal fermentation and bile secretion. Additionally, the simultaneous intake of both raffinose and Ge-132 could abrogate the increase in β-glucuronidase activity induced by Ge-132 alone.

  1. Tailoring dietary approaches for weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, C D

    2012-07-01

    Although the 'Low-Fat' diet was the predominant public health recommendation for weight loss and weight control for the past several decades, the obesity epidemic continued to grow during this time period. An alternative 'low-carbohydrate' (Low-Carb) approach, although originally dismissed and even vilified, was comparatively tested in a series of studies over the past decade, and has been found in general to be as effective, if not more, as the Low-Fat approach for weight loss and for several related metabolic health measures. From a glass half full perspective, this suggests that there is more than one choice for a dietary approach to lose weight, and that Low-Fat and Low-Carb diets may be equally effective. From a glass half empty perspective, the average amount of weight lost on either of these two dietary approaches under the conditions studied, particularly when followed beyond 1 year, has been modest at best and negligible at worst, suggesting that the two approaches may be equally ineffective. One could resign themselves at this point to focusing on calories and energy intake restriction, regardless of macronutrient distributions. However, before throwing out the half-glass of water, it is worthwhile to consider that focusing on average results may mask important subgroup successes and failures. In all weight-loss studies, without exception, the range of individual differences in weight change within any particular diet groups is orders of magnitude greater than the average group differences between diet groups. Several studies have now reported that adults with greater insulin resistance are more successful with weight loss on a lower-carbohydrate diet compared with a lower-fat diet, whereas adults with greater insulin sensitivity are equally or more successful with weight loss on a lower-fat diet compared with a lower-carbohydrate diet. Other preliminary findings suggest that there may be some promise with matching individuals with certain genotypes to

  2. Assessing patients' attitudes towards dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzejska, Regina; Jarosz, Mirosław; Siuba, Magdalena; Rambuszek, Michał

    2014-01-01

    There is currently many over the counter products on the market that exert nutritional or physiological effects on the human body. The differences between dietary supplements and non-prescription drugs are however poorly understood by the average consumer and may thus affect their expectations as to the desired effect produced on the body. To evaluate patients' knowledge and attitudes towards dietary supplements as compared to non-prescription drugs. Subjects were 335 patients of the Mazowiecki Voivodeship Hospital in Warsaw, Poland. The data were collected from a face-to-face interview using a single and multiple choice questionnaire with 10 questions on dietary supplements. Statistical analysis used the Chi-square (χ2) test. The majority of respondents were found to be familiar with the term 'dietary supplements', but had difficulties in classifying these products into appropriate categories. Over 55% do not consider dietary supplements to be foodstuffs and more than 40% considered such products to be drugs. Most respondents thought that the main purpose of taking dietary supplements is to improve nutrition, but over one third expected them to also treat disease. Over 70% declared taking notice to which category the non-prescription products they bought belongs to ie. whether non-prescription drugs (medicinal products) or dietary supplements. Many patients mistakenly believe that dietary supplements are drugs and can be used to treat disease and health disorders. dietary supplements, opinion on dietary supplements, nutrition, dietary supplement vs. medicinal product.

  3. 6-tips diet: a simplified dietary approach in patients with chronic renal disease. A clinical randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Antonio; Riccio, Eleonora; Bellizzi, Vincenzo; Caputo, Donatella Luciana; Mozzillo, Giusi; Amato, Marco; Andreucci, Michele; Cianciaruso, Bruno; Sabbatini, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    The beneficial effects of dietary restriction of proteins in chronic kidney disease are widely recognized; however, poor compliance to prescribed low-protein diets (LPD) may limit their effectiveness. To help patients to adhere to the dietary prescriptions, interventions as education programmes and dietary counselling are critical, but it is also important to develop simple and attractive approaches to the LPD, especially when dietitians are not available. Therefore, we elaborated a simplified and easy to manage dietary approach consisting of 6 tips (6-tip diet, 6-TD) which could replace the standard, non-individualized LPD in Nephrology Units where dietary counselling is not available; hence, our working hypothesis was to evaluate the effects of such diet vs a standard moderately protein-restricted diet on metabolic parameters and patients' adherence. In this randomized trial, 57 CKD patients stage 3b-5 were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive the 6-TD (Group 6-TD) or a LPD containing 0.8 g/kg/day of proteins (Group LPD) for 6 months. The primary endpoint was to evaluate the effects of the two different diets on the main "metabolic" parameters and on patients' adherence (registration number NCT01865526). Both dietary regimens were associated with a progressive reduction in protein intake and urinary urea excretion compared to baseline, although the decrease was more pronounced in Group 6-TD. Effects on serum levels of urea nitrogen and urinary phosphate excretion were greater in Group 6-TD. Plasma levels of phosphate, bicarbonate and PTH, and urinary NaCl excretion remained stable in both groups throughout the study. 44 % of LPD patients were adherent to the dietary prescription vs 70 % of Group 6-TD. A simplified diet, consisting of 6 clear points easily managed by CKD patients, produced beneficial effects either on the metabolic profile of renal disease and on patients' adherence to the dietary plan, when compared to a standard LPD.

  4. Decoding restricted participation in sequential electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knaut, Andreas; Paschmann, Martin

    2017-06-15

    Restricted participation in sequential markets may cause high price volatility and welfare losses. In this paper we therefore analyze the drivers of restricted participation in the German intraday auction which is a short-term electricity market with quarter-hourly products. Applying a fundamental electricity market model with 15-minute temporal resolution, we identify the lack of sub-hourly market coupling being the most relevant driver of restricted participation. We derive a proxy for price volatility and find that full market coupling may trigger quarter-hourly price volatility to decrease by a factor close to four.

  5. Investigation of restricted baby Skyrme models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, C.; Romanczukiewicz, T.; Wereszczynski, A.; Sanchez-Guillen, J.

    2010-01-01

    A restriction of the baby Skyrme model consisting of the quartic and potential terms only is investigated in detail for a wide range of potentials. Further, its properties are compared with those of the corresponding full baby Skyrme models. We find that topological (charge) as well as geometrical (nucleus/shell shape) features of baby Skyrmions are captured already by the soliton solutions of the restricted model. Further, we find a coincidence between the compact or noncompact nature of solitons in the restricted model, on the one hand, and the existence or nonexistence of multi-Skyrmions in the full baby Skyrme model, on the other hand.

  6. Nutritional adequacy of energy restricted diets for young obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Helen; Munas, Zahra; Griffin, Hayley; Rooney, Kieron; Cheng, Hoi Lun; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2011-01-01

    Energy restricted meal plans may compromise nutrient intake. This study used diet modelling to assess the nutritional adequacy of energy restricted meal plans designed for weight management in young obese women. Diet modelling of 6000 kJ/d animal protein based meal plans was performed using Australian nutrient databases with adequacy compared to the Australian Nutrient Reference Values (NRVs) for women (19-30 years). One diet plan was based on the higher carbohydrate (HC) version of the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating for women 19-60 years. An alternative higher protein (HP) plan was adapted from the CSIRO Total Wellbeing Diet. Vegan and lacto-ovo versions of these plans were also modelled and compared to the appropriate vegetarian NRVs. Both animal protein diets met the estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI) for all nutrients analysed. The recommended dietary intake (RDI) was also satisfied, except for iron. HC met 75±30% and HP 81±31% of the iron RDI when red meat and iron fortified cereal were both included three days a week, and remained below the RDI even when red meat was increased to seven days. Iron for the modified vegan (57±5% HC; 66±4% HP) and lacto-ovo (48±6% HC; 59±7% HP) plans was below the RDI and zinc below the EAR for the vegan (76±8% HC; 84±9% HP) plans. The 6000 kJ/d animal protein meal plans met the RDI for all nutrients except iron. Iron and zinc failed to meet the vegetarian RDI and EAR respectively for the vegan plans.

  7. Adoption and Design of Emerging Dietary Policies to Improve Cardiometabolic Health in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Pomeranz, Jennifer; Wilde, Parke; Capewell, Simon; Gaziano, Tom; O'Flaherty, Martin; Kersh, Rogan; Whitsel, Laurie; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Micha, Renata

    2018-04-14

    Suboptimal diet is a leading cause of cardiometabolic disease and economic burdens. Evidence-based dietary policies within 5 domains-food prices, reformulation, marketing, labeling, and government food assistance programs-appear promising at improving cardiometabolic health. Yet, the extent of new dietary policy adoption in the US and key elements crucial to define in designing such policies are not well established. We created an inventory of recent US dietary policy cases aiming to improve cardiometabolic health and assessed the extent of their proposal and adoption at federal, state, local, and tribal levels; and categorized and characterized the key elements in their policy design. Recent federal dietary policies adopted to improve cardiometabolic health include reformulation (trans-fat elimination), marketing (mass-media campaigns to increase fruits and vegetables), labeling (Nutrition Facts Panel updates, menu calorie labeling), and food assistance programs (financial incentives for fruits and vegetables in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and Women, Infant and Children (WIC) program). Federal voluntary guidelines have been proposed for sodium reformulation and food marketing to children. Recent state proposals included sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxes, marketing restrictions, and SNAP restrictions, but few were enacted. Local efforts varied significantly, with certain localities consistently leading in the proposal or adoption of relevant policies. Across all jurisdictions, most commonly selected dietary targets included fruits and vegetables, SSBs, trans-fat, added sugar, sodium, and calories; other healthy (e.g., nuts) or unhealthy (e.g., processed meats) factors were largely not addressed. Key policy elements to define in designing these policies included those common across domains (e.g., level of government, target population, dietary target, dietary definition, implementation mechanism), and domain-specific (e.g., media channels

  8. distribution, abundance and properties of restriction enzymes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA of granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) I and II with a view to ... properties for manipulation of the genes for production of modified starch. .... procurement, storage and handling of the ..... been made on restriction enzymes of potato,.

  9. Health Benefits of Fasting and Caloric Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbidi, Saeid; Daiber, Andreas; Korac, Bato; Li, Huige; Essop, M Faadiel; Laher, Ismail

    2017-10-23

    Obesity and obesity-related diseases, largely resulting from urbanization and behavioral changes, are now of global importance. Energy restriction, though, is associated with health improvements and increased longevity. We review some important mechanisms related to calorie limitation aimed at controlling of metabolic diseases, particularly diabetes. Calorie restriction triggers a complex series of intricate events, including activation of cellular stress response elements, improved autophagy, modification of apoptosis, and alteration in hormonal balance. Intermittent fasting is not only more acceptable to patients, but it also prevents some of the adverse effects of chronic calorie restriction, especially malnutrition. There are many somatic and potentially psychologic benefits of fasting or intermittent calorie restriction. However, some behavioral modifications related to abstinence of binge eating following a fasting period are crucial in maintaining the desired favorable outcomes.

  10. Compensatory mechanisms activated with intermittent energy restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Sílvia Ribeiro; Halset, Eline Holli; Gåsbakk, Sigrid

    2018-01-01

    Background & aims: Strong compensatory responses, with reduced resting metabolic rate (RMR), increased exercise efficiency (ExEff) and appetite, are activated when weight loss (WL) is achieved with continuous energy restriction (CER), which try to restore energy balance. Intermittent energy...... restriction (IER), where short spells of energy restriction are interspaced by periods of habitual energy intake, may offer some protection in minimizing those responses. We aimed to compare the effect of IER versus CER on body composition and the compensatory responses induced by WL. Methods: 35 adults (age......: 39 ± 9 y) with obesity (BMI: 36 ± 4 kg/m2) were randomized to lose a similar weight with an IER (N = 18) or a CER (N = 17) diet over a 12 week period. Macronutrient composition and overall energy restriction (33% reduction) were similar between groups. Body weight/composition, RMR, fasting...

  11. Restricted Coherent Risk Measures and Actuarial Solvency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos E. Kountzakis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove a general dual representation form for restricted coherent risk measures, and we apply it to a minimization problem of the required solvency capital for an insurance company.

  12. Evolutionary genomics and HIV restriction factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyndiah, Nitisha; Telenti, Amalio; Rausell, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    To provide updated insights into innate antiviral immunity and highlight prototypical evolutionary features of well characterized HIV restriction factors. Recently, a new HIV restriction factor, Myxovirus resistance 2, has been discovered and the region/residue responsible for its activity identified using an evolutionary approach. Furthermore, IFI16, an innate immunity protein known to sense several viruses, has been shown to contribute to the defense to HIV-1 by causing cell death upon sensing HIV-1 DNA. Restriction factors against HIV show characteristic signatures of positive selection. Different patterns of accelerated sequence evolution can distinguish antiviral strategies--offense or defence--as well as the level of specificity of the antiviral properties. Sequence analysis of primate orthologs of restriction factors serves to localize functional domains and sites responsible for antiviral action. We use recent discoveries to illustrate how evolutionary genomic analyses help identify new antiviral genes and their mechanisms of action.

  13. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eating Disorder Bulimia Nervosa Pica Rumination Disorder Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder is characterized by eating very little food and/or avoiding eating certain foods. People with this disorder eat ...

  14. The welfare effects of mobility restrictions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeong, Byeongju

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2003), s. 685-696 ISSN 1094-2025 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : mobility restriction * partnership * search Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.600, year: 2003

  15. EGFR Activation by Spatially Restricted Ligands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clouse, Katherine N; Goodrich, Jennifer S

    2006-01-01

    ...) functions in the localization and translational regulation of grk mRNA. The purpose of this project is to identify factors that function with Sqd to produce spatially-restricted Egfr activation...

  16. EGFR Activation by Spatially Restricted Ligands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodrich, Jennifer S

    2005-01-01

    ...) functions in the localization and translational regulation of grk mRNA. The purpose of this project is to identify factors that function with Squid to produce spatially-restricted EGFR activation...

  17. A topological insight into restricted Boltzmann machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mocanu, D.C.; Mocanu, E.; Nguyen, H.P.; Gibescu, M.; Liotta, A.

    Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBMs) and models derived from them have been successfully used as basic building blocks in deep artificial neural networks for automatic features extraction, unsupervised weights initialization, but also as density estimators. Thus, their generative and discriminative

  18. EGFR Activation by Spatially Restricted Ligands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clouse, Katherine N; Goodrich, Jennifer S

    2006-01-01

    ...) activity has been associated with an increased prognosis of breast cancer. During cogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster local Egfr activation by the spatially-restricted TGFalpha-like ligand Gurken (Grk...

  19. EGFR Activation by Spatially Restricted Ligands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodrich, Jennifer S

    2005-01-01

    ...) activity has been associated with an increased prognosis of breast cancer. During oogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster, local EGFR activation by the spatially restricted TGF alpha-like ligand, Gurken (Grk...

  20. Dietary inadequacy in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquin, C G; Hernandez, M I; Hernandez, B M; Mancia, I Y

    1992-01-01

    Researchers conducted a dietary survey of 59 households selected at random in the marginal community of Peralta in San Salvador, El Salvador to ascertain nutritional needs of the families and identify factors which affect intrafamilial distribution and consumption of food. A nutritionist weighed all the food consumed by each family member in 1 day. 50% of the family members consumed just grain, sugar, oil, and/or beans. 93% of the people ate 90% of the required quantity of vitamin A. 88% ate inadequate amounts of riboflavin, 77% iron, and 40% protein. Moreover 58% of the households spent 61-100% of their income on food. No association occurred between caloric sufficiency and family size and between age and dietary adequacy. Therefore each family evenly distributed food among family members. Further poorer families consumed less food than the families of the higher socioeconomic group.

  1. The digestion of dietary triacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2004-01-01

    Dietary triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the major lipid components in the human diet and they are carriers of energy as well as important fatty acids. Many factors affect the digestion and absorption of TAGs. Evidence is accumulating that, in addition to the overall fatty acid profile, the TAG......, or one may speculate additionally on the possibilities of modifying the structure of fats to affect their absorption and the distribution of the fatty acids in the body after digestion and uptake. In this review we will summarize diverse aspects of TAG digestion and absorption, as well as the influences...... of the fatty acid composition and the intramolecular structure of dietary TAGs on their digestion and absorption....

  2. Public Investment, Revenue Shocks, and Borrowing Restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Büttner, Thiess; Wildasin, David E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper lays out a theory of taxation and public investment in an intertemporal setting under conditions of revenue shocks. Without borrowing restrictions, the optimal policy is characterized by smooth time paths of taxes and public investment. While the introduction of formal borrowing restrictions leads to some precautionary savings, it gives rise to fluctuations in public investment in response to adverse but also favorable revenue shocks. This theoretical result is tested empirically u...

  3. Dietary Carcinogens and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    detected by autoradiography on X-ray film with intensifying screens at - 70 0C. Using this TLC separation system, we have observed one abundant adduct...report in Science, published earlier this year, showed that resveratrol (a phytochemical found in many plant species) inhibited both cyclooxygenase I...the dietary phytochemical resveratrol significantly inhibits PhIP-DNA adduct formation in primary cultures of human mammary epithelial cells. From

  4. Calcium binding by dietary fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, W.P.T.; Branch, W.J.; Southgate, D.A.T.

    1978-01-01

    Dietary fibre from plants low in phytate bound calcium in proportion to its uronic-acid content. This binding by the non-cellulosic fraction of fibre reduces the availability of calcium for small-intestinal absorption, but the colonic microbial digestion of uronic acids liberates the calcium. Thus the ability to maintain calcium balance on high-fibre diets may depend on the adaptive capacity on the colon for calcium. (author)

  5. Issues in Nutrition: Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margaret E; Noel, Mary Barth

    2017-01-01

    The majority of American adults report use of one or more dietary supplements every day or occasionally. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 defines dietary supplements and regulates their manufacture and distribution. One of the most commonly used supplements is vitamin D. Measurement of serum levels of vitamin D must be undertaken with the caveats that different laboratories define normal levels differently, and that there is rarely a clinical correlation with the actual level. Patients should understand that supplements should not be used to excess, as there are toxicities and other adverse effects associated with most of them. There currently is considerable research being performed on probiotics and how the gut microbiome affects health and disease states. Protein supplements may be useful in reducing mortality rates in elderly patients but they do not appear to increase quality of life. If used, protein supplements should contain essential amino acids. Casein and whey supplements, derived from dairy sources, help transport essential amino acids to tissues. Although there have been many studies investigating the role of vitamin supplements in disease prevention, there have been few conclusive positive results. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  6. Marketing dietary supplements in the United States: A review of the requirements for new dietary ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noonan, Chris; Patrick Noonan, W.

    2006-01-01

    Since the passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act in 1994, the marketplace for dietary supplements has experienced dramatic growth. New products have redefined the entire marketplace, and new ingredients are introduced to consumers at lightning speed. As part of this act, laws were passed to ensure the safety of new dietary ingredients introduced into the United States marketplace. But more than 11 years later, these laws are frequently misunderstood, and more frequently ignored. This article reviews the regulatory landscape of new dietary ingredients and defines the issues manufacturers must contend with to legally market dietary supplements with new dietary ingredients in the U.S

  7. Nutrition targeting by food timing: time-related dietary approaches to combat obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofer, Sigal; Stark, Aliza H; Madar, Zecharia

    2015-03-01

    Effective nutritional guidelines for reducing abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome are urgently needed. Over the years, many different dietary regimens have been studied as possible treatment alternatives. The efficacy of low-calorie diets, diets with different proportions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates, traditional healthy eating patterns, and evidence-based dietary approaches were evaluated. Reviewing literature published in the last 5 y reveals that these diets may improve risk factors associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, each diet has limitations ranging from high dropout rates to maintenance difficulties. In addition, most of these dietary regimens have the ability to attenuate some, but not all, of the components involved in this complicated multifactorial condition. Recently, interest has arisen in the time of day foods are consumed (food timing). Studies have examined the implications of eating at the right or wrong time, restricting eating hours, time allocation for meals, and timing of macronutrient consumption during the day. In this paper we review new insights into well-known dietary therapies as well as innovative time-associated dietary approaches for treating obesity and metabolic syndrome. We discuss results from systematic meta-analyses, clinical interventions, and animal models. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Food parenting practices and child dietary behavior. Prospective relations and the moderating role of general parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleddens, Ester F C; Kremers, Stef P J; Stafleu, Annette; Dagnelie, Pieter C; De Vries, Nanne K; Thijs, Carel

    2014-08-01

    Research on parenting practices has focused on individual behaviors while largely failing to consider the context of their use, i.e., general parenting. We examined the extent to which food parenting practices predict children's dietary behavior (classified as unhealthy: snacking, sugar-sweetened beverage; and healthy: water and fruit intake). Furthermore, we tested the moderating role of general parenting on this relationship. Within the KOALA Birth Cohort Study, in the Netherlands, questionnaire data were collected at 6 and 8 years (N = 1654). Correlations were computed to assess the association between food parenting practices and general parenting (i.e., nurturance, behavioral control, structure, coercive control, and overprotection). Linear regression models were fitted to assess whether food parenting practices predict dietary behavior. Instrumental and emotional feeding, and pressure to eat were found to have associations with undesirable child dietary behavior (increased unhealthy intake/decreased healthy intake), whereas associations were in the desirable direction for covert control, encouragement and restriction. Moderation analyses were performed by evaluating interactions with general parenting. The associations of encouragement and covert control with desirable child dietary behaviors were found to be stronger for children who were reared in a positive parenting context. Future research should assess the influence of contextual parenting factors moderating the relationships between food parenting and child dietary behavior as the basis for the development of more effective family-based interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-12-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary sugars intake. Only thirteen countries (all in the developed world) appear to report estimates of sugars intake from national nutrition surveys at more than one point in time. Definitions of dietary sugars that were used include 'total sugars', 'non-milk extrinsic sugars', 'added sugars', sucrose' and 'mono- and disaccharides'. This variability in terminology across countries meant that comparisons were limited to within countries. Hence trends in dietary sugars intake were examined by country for the whole population (where data permitted), and for specific or combined age and sex subpopulations. Findings indicate that in the majority of population comparisons, estimated dietary sugars intake is either stable or decreasing in both absolute (g/d) and relative (% energy) terms. An increase in sugars intake was observed in few countries and only in specific subpopulations. In conclusion, the findings from the present review suggest that, in the main, dietary sugars intake are decreasing or stable. A consistent approach to estimation of dietary sugars intake from national nutrition surveys is required if more valid estimates of changes in dietary sugars intakes are required in the future.

  10. Mammary sensitivity to protein restriction and re-alimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwill, M G; Jessop, N S; Oldham, J D

    1996-09-01

    The present study tested the influence of protein undernutrition and re-alimentation on mammary gland size and secretory cell activity in lactating rats. During gestation, female Sprague-Dawley rats were offered a high-protein diet (215 g crude protein (N x 6.25; CP)/kg DM; H); litters were standardized to twelve pups at parturition. During lactation, two diets were offered ad libitum, diet H and a low-protein diet (90 g CP/kg DM; L). Lactational dietary treatments were the supply ad libitum of either diet H (HHH) or diet L (LLL) for the first 12 d of lactation, or diet L transferring to diet H on either day 6 (LHH) or 9 (LLH) of lactation. On days 1, 6, 9 and 12 of lactation, rats from each group (n > or = 6) were used to estimate mammary dry mass, fat, protein, DNA and RNA; the activities of lactose synthetase (EC 2.4.1.22) enzyme and Na+,K(+)-ATPase (EC 3.6.1.37) were also measured. Rats offered a diet considered protein sufficient (H) from day 1 of lactation showed a decrease in mammary dry mass and fat but an increase in DNA, RNA and protein on day 6, after which there was no further change, except for mammary protein which continued to increase. However, rats offered diet L showed a steady loss in mammary mass and fat throughout the 12 d lactation period and no change in mammary DNA, RNA or protein. Rats previously protein restricted for either the first 6 or 9 d of lactation had their mammary dry mass and mammary fat loss halted and showed a rapid increase in mammary DNA, RNA and protein on re-alimentation. Lactose production in group HHH, as measured by lactose synthetase activity, was similar on days 1 and 6 of lactation, after which a significant increase was seen. Protein-restricted rats showed no change in lactose synthetase activity during the 12 d experimental period. Changing from diet L to diet H led to a significant increase in lactose synthetase activity to levels comparable with those offered diet H from day 1. These results show that rats

  11. Policy Options for Reducing Dietary Sodium Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay McLaren

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Faced with soaring health-care costs, Canadian governments should consider creative ways to enable the population to stay healthy — and making it possible for Canadians to reduce their sodium intake is an extremely cost-effective way to do so. Excess sodium consumption is a risk factor for high blood pressure, stroke and heart disease. On average, Canadians consume 3,400 mg of sodium a day (1,100 mg over recommended levels, at least three-quarters of which comes from processed foods. Any attempt at sodium reduction must therefore involve the food industry. This paper surveys sodium reduction efforts in jurisdictions around the globe, as well as past Canadian attempts, to provide provincial and federal policymakers with a comprehensive suite of lessons learned and a host of far-sighted policy recommendations ranging from food procurement to legislation and private sector engagement. Provincial governments, individually or together, must launch multi-pronged efforts involving food service companies, manufacturers, post-secondary institutes and the media to ensure that low-sodium alternatives are readily available, and that consumers are aware of them. They must also support federal action on changing dietary guidelines and introducing restrictions on food advertising to children. The benefits to be had are very real. In light of evidence showing that population-level intervention is superior to clinical intervention in terms of cost-effectiveness, returning up to $11.10 for every dollar spent and generating tens of billions in direct health-care savings, there is a very strong case for investing in population-level sodium reduction interventions that will work. The time for governments to act is now.

  12. Testing the relative associations of different components of dietary restraint on psychological functioning in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linardon, Jake; Phillipou, Andrea; Newton, Richard; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Jenkins, Zoe; Cistullo, Leonardo L; Castle, David

    2018-05-25

    Although empirical evidence identifies dietary restraint as a transdiagnostic eating disorder maintaining mechanism, the distinctiveness and significance of the different behavioural and cognitive components of dietary restraint are poorly understood. The present study examined the relative associations of the purportedly distinct dietary restraint components (intention to restrict, delayed eating, food avoidance, and diet rules) with measures of psychological distress (depression, anxiety, and stress), disability, and core eating disorder symptoms (overvaluation and binge eating) in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Data were analysed from a treatment-seeking sample of individuals with AN (n = 124) and BN (n = 54). Intention to restrict, food avoidance, and diet rules were strongly related to each other (all r's > 0.78), but only weakly-moderately related to delayed eating behaviours (all r's psychological distress. Patient diagnosis did not moderate these associations. Overall, findings indicate that delayed eating behaviours may be a distinct component from other indices of dietary restraint (e.g., intention to restrict, food avoidance, diet rules). This study highlights the potential importance of ensuring that delayed eating behaviours are screened, assessed, and targeted early in treatment for patients with AN and BN. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary controlled carcinogenicity study of chloral hydrate in male B6C3F1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leakey, Julian E.A.; Seng, John E.; Latendresse, John R.; Hussain, Nursreen; Allen, Laura J.; Allaben, William T.

    2003-01-01

    Chloral hydrate, which is used as a sedative in pediatric medicine and is a by-product of water chlorination, is hepatocarcinogenic in B6C3F 1 mice, a strain that can exhibit high rates of background liver tumor incidence, which are associated with increased body weight. In this study, dietary control was used to manipulate body growth in male B6C3F 1 mice in a 2-year bioassay of chloral hydrate. Male B6C3F 1 mice were treated with water or 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg chloral hydrate by gavage. The study compared ad libitum-fed mice with dietary controlled mice. The latter received variably restricted feed allocations to maintain their body weights on a predetermined 'idealized' weight curve predictive of a terminal background liver tumor incidence of 15-20%. These mice exhibited less individual body weight variation than did their ad libitum-fed counterparts. This was associated with a decreased variation in liver to body weight ratios, which allowed the demonstration of a statistically significant dose response to chloral hydrate in the dietary controlled, but not the ad libitum-fed, test groups. Chloral hydrate increased terminally adjusted liver tumor incidence in both dietary controlled (23.4, 23.9, 29.7, and 38.6% for the four dose groups, respectively) and ad libitum-fed mice (33.4, 52.6, 50.6, and 46.2%), but a statistically significant dose response was observed only in the dietary controlled mice. This dose response positively correlated with markers of peroxisomal proliferation in the dietary controlled mice only. The study suggests that dietary control not only improves terminal survival and decreases interassay variation, but also can increase assay sensitivity by decreasing intra-assay variation

  14. Metabolic alterations due to caloric restriction and every other day feeding in normal and growth hormone receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Reyhan; Bonkowski, Michael S; Arum, Oge; Strader, April D; Bartke, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Mutations causing decreased somatotrophic signaling are known to increase insulin sensitivity and extend life span in mammals. Caloric restriction and every other day (EOD) dietary regimens are associated with similar improvements to insulin signaling and longevity in normal mice; however, these interventions fail to increase insulin sensitivity or life span in growth hormone receptor knockout (GHRKO) mice. To investigate the interactions of the GHRKO mutation with caloric restriction and EOD dietary interventions, we measured changes in the metabolic parameters oxygen consumption (VO2) and respiratory quotient produced by either long-term caloric restriction or EOD in male GHRKO and normal mice. GHRKO mice had increased VO2, which was unaltered by diet. In normal mice, EOD diet caused a significant reduction in VO2 compared with ad libitum (AL) mice during fed and fasted conditions. In normal mice, caloric restriction increased both the range of VO2 and the difference in minimum VO2 between fed and fasted states, whereas EOD diet caused a relatively static VO2 pattern under fed and fasted states. No diet significantly altered the range of VO2 of GHRKO mice under fed conditions. This provides further evidence that longevity-conferring diets cause major metabolic changes in normal mice, but not in GHRKO mice.

  15. Effect of melatonin or maternal nutrient restriction on vascularity and cell proliferation in the ovine placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eifert, Adam W; Wilson, Matthew E; Vonnahme, Kimberly A; Camacho, Leticia E; Borowicz, Pawel P; Redmer, Dale A; Romero, Sinibaldo; Dorsam, Sheri; Haring, Jodie; Lemley, Caleb O

    2015-02-01

    Previously we reported increased umbilical artery blood flow in ewes supplemented with melatonin from mid- to late-pregnancy, while maternal nutrient restriction decreased uterine artery blood flow. To further unravel these responses, this study was designed to assess placental cell proliferation and vascularity following supplementation with melatonin or maternal nutrient restriction. For the first experiment, 31 primiparous ewes were supplemented with 5mg of melatonin per day (MEL) or no melatonin (CON) and allocated to receive 100% (adequate fed; ADQ) or 60% (restricted; RES) of their nutrient requirements from day 50 to 130 of gestation. To examine melatonin receptor dependent effects, a second experiment was designed utilizing 14 primiparous ewes infused with vehicle, melatonin, or luzindole (melatonin receptor 1 and 2 antagonist) from day 62 to 90 of gestation. For experiment 1, caruncle concentrations of RNA were increased in MEL-RES compared to CON-RES. Caruncle capillary area density and average capillary cross-sectional area were decreased in MEL-RES compared to CON-RES. Cotyledon vascularity was not different across dietary treatments. For experiment 2, placental cellular proliferation and vascularity were not affected by infusion treatment. In summary, melatonin interacted with nutrient restriction to alter caruncle vascularity and RNA concentrations during late pregnancy. Although melatonin receptor antagonism alters feto-placental blood flow, these receptor dependent responses were not observed in placental vascularity. Moreover, placental vascularity measures do not fully explain the alterations in uteroplacental blood flow. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Restricting carbohydrates to fight head and neck cancer—is this realistic?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klement, Rainer J.

    2014-01-01

    Head and neck cancers (HNCs) are aggressive tumors that typically demonstrate a high glycolytic rate, which results in resistance to cytotoxic therapy and poor prognosis. Due to their location these tumors specifically impair food intake and quality of life, so that prevention of weight loss through nutrition support becomes an important treatment goal. Dietary restriction of carbohydrates (CHOs) and their replacement with fat, mostly in form of a ketogenic diet (KD), have been suggested to accommodate for both the altered tumor cell metabolism and cancer-associated weight loss. In this review, I present three specific rationales for CHO restriction and nutritional ketosis as supportive treatment options for the HNC patient. These are (1) targeting the origin and specific aspects of tumor glycolysis; (2) protecting normal tissue from but sensitizing tumor tissue to radiation- and chemotherapy induced cell kill; (3) supporting body and muscle mass maintenance. While most of these benefits of CHO restriction apply to cancer in general, specific aspects of implementation are discussed in relation to HNC patients. While CHO restriction seems feasible in HNC patients the available evidence indicates that its role may extend beyond fighting malnutrition to fighting HNC itself

  17. Decrease in Circulating Fatty Acids Is Associated with Islet Dysfunction in Chronically Sleep-Restricted Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Zhan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that sleep restriction-induced environmental stress is associated with abnormal metabolism, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In the current study, we investigated the possible lipid and glucose metabolism patterns in chronically sleep-restricted rat. Without changes in food intake, body weight was decreased and energy expenditure was increased in sleep-restricted rats. The effects of chronic sleep disturbance on metabolites in serum were examined using 1H NMR metabolomics and GC-FID/MS analysis. Six metabolites (lipoproteins, triglycerides, isoleucine, valine, choline, and phosphorylcholine exhibited significant alteration, and all the fatty acid components were decreased, which suggested fatty acid metabolism was impaired after sleep loss. Moreover, increased blood glucose, reduced serum insulin, decreased glucose tolerance, and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion of islets were also observed in sleep-restricted rats. The islet function of insulin secretion could be partially restored by increasing dietary fat to sleep-disturbed rats suggested that a reduction in circulating fatty acids was related to islet dysfunction under sleep deficiency-induced environmental stress. This study provides a new perspective on the relationship between insufficient sleep and lipid/glucose metabolism, which offers insights into the role of stressful challenges in a healthy lifestyle.

  18. Current perspectives on the health risks associated with the consumption of advanced glycation end products: recommendations for dietary management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palimeri S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sotiria Palimeri,* Eleni Palioura,* Evanthia Diamanti-KandarakisEndocrine Unit, Medical School University of Athens, Athens, Greece*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs constitute a complex group of compounds produced endogenously during the aging process and under conditions of hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. AGEs also have an emerging exogenous origin. Cigarette smoke and diet are the two main exogenous sources of AGEs (glycotoxins. Modern Western diets are rich in AGEs which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several metabolic and degenerative disorders. Accumulating evidence underlies the beneficial effect of the dietary restriction of AGEs not only in animal studies but also in patients with diabetic complications and metabolic diseases. This article reviews the evidence linking dietary glycotoxins to several disorders from diabetic complications and renal failure to liver dysfunction, female reproduction, eye and cognitive disorders as well as cancer. Furthermore, strategies for AGE reduction are discussed with a focus on dietary modification.Keywords: AGEs, dietary glycotoxins, dietary restriction, PCOS, MSR-1, RAGE

  19. Supplementation of Reduced Gluten Barley Diet with Oral Prolyl Endopeptidase Effectively Abrogates Enteropathy-Associated Changes in Gluten-Sensitive Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Sestak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is an autoimmune disorder that affects approximately three million people in the United States. Furthermore, non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS affects an estimated additional 6% of the population, e.g., 20 million in the U.S. The only effective treatment of CD and NCGS requires complete removal of gluten sources from the diet. While required adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD is extremely difficult to accomplish, efforts to develop additional supportive treatments are needed. To facilitate these efforts, we developed a gluten-sensitive (GS rhesus macaque model to study the effects of novel therapies. Recently reported results from phase one of this project suggest that partial improvement—but not remission—of gluten-induced disease can be accomplished by 100-fold reduction of dietary gluten, i.e., 200 ppm—by replacement of conventional dietary sources of gluten with a mutant, reduced gluten (RG barley (lys3a-derived source. The main focus of this (phase two study was to determine if the inflammatory effects of the residual gluten in lys3a mutant barley grain could be further reduced by oral supplementation with a prolylendopeptidase (PE. Results reveal that PE supplementation of RG barley diet induces more complete immunological, histopathological and clinical remission than RG barley diet alone. The combined effects of RG barley diet and PE supplementation resulted in a further decrease of inflammatory mediators IFN-γ and TNF secretion by peripheral lymphocytes, as well as decreased plasma anti-gliadin and anti-intestinal tissue transglutaminase (TG2 antibodies, diminished active caspase production in small intestinal mucosa, and eliminated clinical diarrhea—all comparable with a gluten-free diet induced remission. In summary, the beneficial results of a combined RG barley and PE administration in GS macaques may warrant the investigation of similar synergistic approaches.

  20. The comparative effect of fasting with and without caloric restriction in Rat on oxidative stress parameters

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    Nurina Tyagita

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting, like Islamic Ramadan Fasting, has been associated with health benefits. Islamic Ramadan fasting, a form of caloric restriction (CR or alternate day fasting that. Studies suggest a comparable effect of ADF and caloric restriction. Despite the fact that fasting can be considered as a form of dietary restriction, fasters tend to have difficulty to reduce their food intake during non-fasting period by overeating leading to the excessive calorie intake. To compare the effect of fasting with and without caloric restriction in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: The rats were assigned to one of three groups: ADF with 70 % calorie intake (30% CR, ADF with 100 % calorie intake (0% CR, and ADF with 140 % calorie intake (excessive calorie intake and AL (fed ad libitum. All groups were subjected to 6 hour fasting per day (9 a.m. until 3 p.m. or 15 days. The plasma sample was taken for MDA level assessment. Urinary 8-oxodG levels were determined by using ELISA. Results: ADF with 30% calorie restriction (F70 group had the lowest MDA level. Measurement of 8-oxodG level showed that group F70 had the highest production of 8-oxodG. There was an inverse relationship between MDA level and 8-oxodG level meaning the lower MDA level, the lower 8-oxodG levels were produced. Conclusion: ADF fasting with 30% caloric restriction reduce the MDA level but increase 8-oxodG levels. This study suggest the beneficial effect of fasting requires decrease in overall caloric intake.

  1. Reduced effectiveness of escitalopram in the forced swimming test is associated with increased serotonin clearance rate in food restricted rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, CP; Li, J-X; Owens, WA; Koek, W; Toney, GM; Daws, LC

    2012-01-01

    Efficacy of antidepressant drugs is often limited. One of the limiting factors may be diet. This study shows that the effect of escitalopram in the forced swimming test is diminished in rats by food restriction that decreased body weight by 8%. The primary target for escitalopram is the serotonin (5-HT) transporter. Using high-speed chronoamperometry to measure 5-HT clearance in vivo in rats fed the same food restricted diet, the rate of 5-HT clearance from extracellular fluid in brain was dramatically increased. Increased 5-HT transporter function under conditions of dietary restriction might contribute to the decreased effect of escitalopram. These results suggest that diet plays an integral role in determining efficacy of antidepressant drugs, and might well generalize to other psychoactive drugs that impinge upon the 5-HT transporter. PMID:19419596

  2. The Performance and Incidence of Ascites in Broiler Chickens in Response to Feed Restriction and Meal Feeding Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Dastar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of feed restriction (FR and meal feeding (MF on performance, carcass characteristics and related parameters to ascites in Ross 308 male broiler chickens. Five dietary treatments were 1 the control (ad libo. feeding, 2 feed restriction from 7 to 14 days (FR14, 3 feed restriction from 7 to 21 days (FR21, 4 meal feeding from 7 to 14 days (MF14 and 5 meal feeding from 7 to 21days (MF21. All birds were fed adlibitum for the first week post hatch and after 21 days of age. Four replicate of 12 birds were allocated to each treatment. The results indicated FR and MF21 groups had significantly (p

  3. Sirtuins as Mediator of the Anti-Ageing Effects of Calorie Restriction in Skeletal and Cardiac Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Zullo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fighting diseases and controlling the signs of ageing are the major goals of biomedicine. Sirtuins, enzymes with mainly deacetylating activity, could be pivotal targets of novel preventive and therapeutic strategies to reach such aims. Scientific proofs are accumulating in experimental models, but, to a minor extent, also in humans, that the ancient practice of calorie restriction could prove an effective way to prevent several degenerative diseases and to postpone the detrimental signs of ageing. In the present review, we summarize the evidence about the central role of sirtuins in mediating the beneficial effects of calorie restriction in skeletal and cardiac muscle since these tissues are greatly damaged by diseases and advancing years. Moreover, we entertain the possibility that the identification of sirtuin activators that mimic calorie restriction could provide the benefits without the inconvenience of this dietary style.

  4. Dietary Patterns in Urbanised Blacks*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E. B. MANNING, J. 1. MANN ... J. l MANN, M.B. CH. ... Maize, dried beans, wild edible leaves, tubers, ...... Restricted consumption of vegetables accounts for the .... Financial support was received from the South African Sugar ... W,Ison, E., Fisher, K. and Fuqua, M. (1965): Principles of Nwri- ... New York: John \\Viley & Sons.

  5. Effects of Long-Term Protein Restriction on Meat Quality, Muscle Amino Acids, and Amino Acid Transporters in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Li, Yuying; Zhu, Xiaotong; Han, Hui; Ren, Wenkai; Chen, Shuai; Bin, Peng; Liu, Gang; Huang, Xingguo; Fang, Rejun; Wang, Bin; Wang, Kai; Sun, Liping; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2017-10-25

    This study aimed to investigate the long-term effects of protein restriction from piglets to finishing pigs for 16 weeks on meat quality, muscle amino acids, and amino acid transporters. Thirty-nine piglets were randomly divided into three groups: a control (20-18-16% crude protein, CP) and two protein restricted groups (17-15-13% CP and 14-12-10% CP). The results showed that severe protein restriction (14-12-10% CP) inhibited feed intake and body weight, while moderate protein restriction (17-15-13% CP) had little effect on growth performance in pigs. Meat quality (i.e., pH, color traits, marbling, water-holding capacity, and shearing force) were tested, and the results exhibited that 14-12-10% CP treatment markedly improved muscle marbling score and increased yellowness (b*). pH value (45 min) was significantly higher in 17-15-13% CP group than that in other groups. In addition, protein restriction reduced muscle histone, arginine, valine, and isoleucine abundances and enhanced glycine and lysine concentrations compared with the control group, while the RT-PCR results showed that protein restriction downregulated amino acids transporters. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway was inactivated in the moderate protein restricted group (17-15-13% CP), while severe protein restriction with dietary 14-12-10% CP markedly enhanced mTOR phosphorylation. In conclusion, long-term protein restriction affected meat quality and muscle amino acid metabolism in pigs, which might be associated with mTOR signaling pathway.

  6. Social determinants of dietary habits in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Margit Velsing; Fagt, Sisse; Brøndsted, L.

    2001-01-01

    significantly associated with the intake of fruit and vegetables. Conclusions: Education seems to be the most important social variable to explain social differences in dietary habits. Additional variables are needed to explain dietary habits of women. Differences are seen for both foods and nutrients....... Sponsorship: The data analysis was financially supported by the Health Insurance Fund. Descriptors: socioeconomic status; education; dietary habits; diet surveys, E%; fat, fruit and vegetables....

  7. Increasing the biological value of dietary cutlets

    OpenAIRE

    SYZDYKOVA L.S.; DIKHANBAYEVA F.T.; BAZYLHANOVA E.CH

    2015-01-01

    Relevance of work: meat products are the main source of the proteins, necessary for activity of the person. In this article is determined the biological value of the cutlets with dietary properties. The purpose of this work is development of the production technology of dietary cutlets in branches of public catering and determination of their biological value. As a result of work dietary cutlets with the increased biological value due to addition of oatmeal are received.

  8. Dietary pattern associated with selenoprotein P and MRI-derived body fat volumes, liver signal intensity, and metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Giuseppe, Romina; Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra; Koch, Manja; Nöthlings, Ute; Schlesinger, Sabrina; Borggrefe, Jan; Both, Marcus; Müller, Hans-Peter; Kassubek, Jan; Jacobs, Gunnar; Lieb, Wolfgang

    2018-02-14

    The association of complex dietary patterns with circulating selenoprotein P (SELENOP) levels in humans is unknown. In a general population sample, we aimed to identify a dietary pattern explaining inter-individual variation in circulating SELENOP concentrations and to study this pattern in relation to prevalent diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MetS), MRI-determined total volumes of visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) abdominal adipose tissue, and liver signal intensity/fatty liver disease. In this cross-sectional study, serum SELENOP levels were measured in 853 individuals. In a subsample of 553 participants, whole-body MRI was performed to assess body fat distribution and liver fat. Dietary intake was assessed by a self-administered food frequency questionnaire and the dietary pattern identified using reduced-rank regression (RRR). Multivariable linear and logistic regressions were used to investigate associations between dietary pattern score and metabolic traits. Characterized by high intake of fruit, vegetables and antioxidant beverages, the RRR-derived dietary pattern displayed inverse associations with VAT, SAT, MetS, and prevalent diabetes in multivariable-adjusted restricted cubic splines. Each unit increase in dietary pattern score was associated with 31% higher SELENOP levels, 12% lower VAT (95% CI: - 19%; - 5%), 13% (95% CI: - 20%; - 6%) lower SAT values and 46% (95% CI: 27%; 60%) and 53% (95% CI: 22%; 72%) lower odds of having MetS or diabetes, respectively. No meaningful relations were observed between the dietary pattern and liver traits. Our observations propose diet-related regulation in SELENOP levels and that the identified dietary pattern is inversely related to VAT, SAT, MetS, and prevalent diabetes.

  9. Body image dissatisfaction and dietary patterns according to nutritional status in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Silva, Rita de Cássia; Fiaccone, Rosemeire Leovigildo; Conceição-Machado, Maria Ester Pereira da; Ruiz, Ana Santos; Barreto, Maurício Lima; Santana, Mônica Leila Portela

    There is a lack of data on the association between body self-perception and eating patterns in Brazil. Thus, this study aimed to explore the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and eating patterns by the anthropometric status in adolescents. A cross-sectional study of 1496 adolescents was conducted. The participants completed the Body Shape Questionnaire. Demographic, anthropometric, and socioeconomic data were collected, as well as information regarding the pubertal development and dietary intake. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the associations of interest. Body image dissatisfaction was identified in 19.5% of the adolescents. Three dietary patterns were identified: (1) the Western pattern was composed of sweets and sugars, soft drinks, typical dishes, pastries, fast food, beef, milk, and dairy products; (2) the Traditional pattern was composed of oils, chicken, fish, eggs, processed meat products, cereals (rice, cassava flour, pasta, etc.), baked beans, and bread; and (3) the Restrictive pattern was composed of granola, roots, vegetables, and fruit. Among overweight/obese adolescents, the data indicated a negative association of slight body image dissatisfaction (OR: 0.240 [0.100; 0.576]) and moderate body image dissatisfaction (OR: 0.235 [0.086; 0.645]) with the Western dietary pattern. Additionally, in this group, there was a positive association between high body image dissatisfaction and the Restrictive pattern (OR: 2.794 [1.178; 6.630]). Amongst overweight/obese adolescents, those with slight and moderate body image dissatisfaction were less likely to follow a Western-like dietary pattern when compared with those satisfied with their body image. Additionally, in this group, adolescents with high body image dissatisfaction was more likely to follow a restrictive pattern. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Curcumin Mimics the Neurocognitive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Caloric Restriction in a Mouse Model of Midlife Obesity.

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    Marjana Rahman Sarker

    Full Text Available Dietary curcumin was studied for its potential to decrease adiposity and reverse obesity- associated cognitive impairment in a mouse model of midlife sedentary obesity. We hypothesized that curcumin intake, by decreasing adiposity, would improve cognitive function in a manner comparable to caloric restriction (CR, a weight loss regimen. 15-month-old male C57BL/6 mice were assigned in groups to receive the following dietary regimens for 12 weeks: (i a base diet (Ain93M fed ad libitum (AL, (ii the base diet restricted to 70% of ad libitum (CR or (iii the base diet containing curcumin fed AL (1000 mg/kg diet, CURAL. Blood markers of inflammation, interleukin 6 (IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP, as well as an indicator of redox stress (GSH: GSSG ratio, were determined at different time points during the treatments, and visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue were measured upon completion of the experiment. After 8 weeks of dietary treatment, the mice were tested for spatial cognition (Morris water maze and cognitive flexibility (discriminated active avoidance. The CR group showed significant weight loss and reduced adiposity, whereas CURAL mice had stable weight throughout the experiment, consumed more food than the AL group, with no reduction of adiposity. However, both CR and CURAL groups took fewer trials than AL to reach criterion during the reversal sessions of the active avoidance task, suggesting an improvement in cognitive flexibility. The AL mice had higher levels of CRP compared to CURAL and CR, and GSH as well as the GSH: GSSG ratio were increased during curcumin intake, suggesting a reducing shift in the redox state. The results suggest that, independent of their effects on adiposity; dietary curcumin and caloric restriction have positive effects on frontal cortical functions that could be linked to anti-inflammatory or antioxidant actions.

  11. Cellular Restriction Factors of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

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    Carsten Münk

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Lentiviruses are known for their narrow cell- and species-tropisms, which are determined by cellular proteins whose absence or presence either support viral replication (dependency factors, cofactors or inhibit viral replication (restriction factors. Similar to Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1, the cat lentivirus Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV is sensitive to recently discovered cellular restriction factors from non-host species that are able to stop viruses from replicating. Of particular importance are the cellular proteins APOBEC3, TRIM5α and tetherin/BST-2. In general, lentiviruses counteract or escape their species’ own variant of the restriction factor, but are targeted by the orthologous proteins of distantly related species. Most of the knowledge regarding lentiviral restriction factors has been obtained in the HIV-1 system; however, much less is known about their effects on other lentiviruses. We describe here the molecular mechanisms that explain how FIV maintains its replication in feline cells, but is largely prevented from cross-species infections by cellular restriction factors.

  12. Cellular Restriction Factors of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, Jörg; Münk, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Lentiviruses are known for their narrow cell- and species-tropisms, which are determined by cellular proteins whose absence or presence either support viral replication (dependency factors, cofactors) or inhibit viral replication (restriction factors). Similar to Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the cat lentivirus Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is sensitive to recently discovered cellular restriction factors from non-host species that are able to stop viruses from replicating. Of particular importance are the cellular proteins APOBEC3, TRIM5α and tetherin/BST-2. In general, lentiviruses counteract or escape their species’ own variant of the restriction factor, but are targeted by the orthologous proteins of distantly related species. Most of the knowledge regarding lentiviral restriction factors has been obtained in the HIV-1 system; however, much less is known about their effects on other lentiviruses. We describe here the molecular mechanisms that explain how FIV maintains its replication in feline cells, but is largely prevented from cross-species infections by cellular restriction factors. PMID:22069525

  13. Newer antidiabetic drugs and calorie restriction mimicry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available De-acceleration of aging and delayed development of age-related morbidity accompanies the restriction of calories (without malnutrition in laboratory mice, nematodes, yeast, fish, and dogs. Recent results from long-term longitudinal studies conducted on primates have suggested longevity benefits of a 30% restriction of calories in rhesus monkeys as well. Among calorie restricted rhesus monkeys one of the mechanisms for the improvement in lifespan was the reduction in the development of glucose intolerance and cardiovascular disease. Although there are no comparable human studies, it is likely that metabolic and longevity benefits will accompany a reduction in calories in humans as well. However, considering the difficulties in getting healthy adults to limit food intake science has focused on understanding the biochemical processes that accompany calorie restriction (CR to formulate drugs that would mimic the effects of CR without the need to actually restrict calories. Drugs in this emerging therapeutic field are called CR mimetics. Some of the currently used anti-diabetic agents may have some CR mimetic like effects. This review focuses on the CR mimetic properties of the currently available anti-diabetic agents.

  14. Restriction of television food advertising in South Korea: impact on advertising of food companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyoung; Lee, Youngmi; Yoon, Jihyun; Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Hyogyoo

    2013-03-01

    The association between exposure to television (TV) food advertising and children's dietary habits has been well established in previous studies. However, the efficacy of restrictions on TV food advertising in the prevention of childhood obesity remains controversial. The South Korean government has recently enforced a regulation, termed the Special Act on Safety Management of Children's Dietary Life, which restricts TV advertising of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods targeting children. This study aimed to determine the impact of this regulation by examining changes in the TV advertising practices