Lowery Lonnie M
Full Text Available Abstract Resistance trainers continue to receive mixed messages about the safety of purposely seeking ample dietary protein in their quest for stimulating protein synthesis, improving performance, or maintaining health. Despite protein's lay popularity and the routinely high intakes exhibited by strength athletes, liberal and purposeful protein consumption is often maligned by "experts". University textbooks, instructors, and various forms of literature from personal training groups and athletic organizations continue to use dissuasive language surrounding dietary protein. Due to the widely known health benefits of dietary protein and a growing body of evidence on its safety profile, this is unfortunate. In response, researchers have critiqued unfounded educational messages. As a recent summarizing example, the International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN Position Stand: Protein and Exercise reviewed general literature on renal and bone health. The concluding remark that "Concerns that protein intake within this range [1.4 – 2.0 g/kg body weight per day] is unhealthy are unfounded in healthy, exercising individuals." was based largely upon data from non-athletes due to "a lack of scientific evidence". Future studies were deemed necessary. This assessment is not unique in the scientific literature. Investigators continue to cite controversy, debate, and the lack of direct evidence that allows it. This review discusses the few existing safety studies done specific to athletes and calls for protein research specific to resistance trainers. Population-specific, long term data will be necessary for effective education in dietetics textbooks and from sports governing bodies.
Dietary proteins influence body weight by affecting four targets for body weight regulation: satiety, thermogenesis, energy efficiency, and body composition. Protein ingestion results in higher ratings of satiety than equicaloric amounts of carbohydrates or fat. Their effect on satiety is mainly due to oxidation of amino acids fed in excess; this effect is higher with ingestion of specific "incomplete" proteins (vegetal) than with animal proteins. Diet-induced thermogenesis is higher for proteins than for other macronutrients. The increase in energy expenditure is caused by protein and urea synthesis and by gluconeogenesis. This effect is higher with animal proteins containing larger amounts of essential amino acids than with vegetable proteins. Specifically, diet-induced thermogenesis increases after protein ingestion by 20 - 30 %, but by only 5 - 10 % after carbohydrates and 0 - 5 % after ingestion of fat. Consumption of higher amounts of protein during dietary treatment of obesity resulted in greater weight loss than with lower amounts of protein in dietary studies lasting up to one year. During weight loss and decreased caloric intake, a relatively increased protein content of the diet maintained fat-free mass (i. e. muscle mass) and increased calcium balance, resulting in preservation of bone mineral content. This is of particular importance during weight loss after bariatric surgery because these patients are at risk for protein malnutrition. Adequate dietary protein intake in diabetes type 2 is of specific importance since proteins are relatively neutral with regard to glucose and lipid metabolism, and they preserve muscle and bone mass, which may be decreased in subjects with poorly controlled diabetes. Ingestion of dietary proteins in diabetes type 1 exerts a delayed postprandial increase in blood glucose levels due to protein-induced stimulation of pancreatic glucagon secretion. Higher than minimal amounts of protein in the diet needed for nitrogen
Wall, Benjamin T; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C
Given our rapidly aging world-wide population, the loss of skeletal muscle mass with healthy aging (sarcopenia) represents an important societal and public health concern. Maintaining or adopting an active lifestyle alleviates age-related muscle loss to a certain extent. Over time, even small losses of muscle tissue can hinder the ability to maintain an active lifestyle and, as such, contribute to the development of frailty and metabolic disease. Considerable research focus has addressed the application of dietary protein supplementation to support exercise-induced gains in muscle mass in younger individuals. In contrast, the role of dietary protein in supporting the maintenance (or gain) of skeletal muscle mass in active older persons has received less attention. Older individuals display a blunted muscle protein synthetic response to dietary protein ingestion. However, this reduced anabolic response can largely be overcome when physical activity is performed in close temporal proximity to protein consumption. Moreover, recent evidence has helped elucidate the optimal type and amount of dietary protein that should be ingested by the older adult throughout the day in order to maximize the skeletal muscle adaptive response to physical activity. Evidence demonstrates that when these principles are adhered to, muscle maintenance or hypertrophy over prolonged periods can be further augmented in active older persons. The present review outlines the current understanding of the role that dietary protein occupies in the lifestyle of active older adults as a means to increase skeletal muscle mass, strength and function, and thus support healthier aging.
Schönfeldt, Hettie Carina; Gibson Hall, Nicolette
The WHO (2007) Technical Report on protein and amino acid requirements in human nutrition states that the best estimate for a population average requirement is 105 mg nitrogen/kg body weight per day, or 0·66 g protein/kg body weight per day. In many developing countries protein intake falls significantly short of these values. Apart from protein quantity, protein quality including bioavailability and digestibility, from different food sources, are currently on the global agenda. The 1st International Symposium on Dietary Protein for Human Health held in Auckland, in March 2011, and the consecutive Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Expert Consultation on Dietary Protein Quality, both highlighted the importance of assessing the quality of protein from different food sources through determination of amino acid content. Throughout the developed world, animal products and cereals are the two most important sources of protein; in developing countries this order is reversed. In low income countries only 3 % of total dietary energy, as an indicator of diet composition, is derived from meat and offal, 11 % from roots and tubers and 6 % from pulses, nuts and oilseeds. The remainder of the dietary energy is mainly derived from cereal-based staple food. Although the production of livestock has increased in developing countries, the consumption of protein in these countries with people consuming the most limited amounts of protein are continually decreasing. Undernutrition, including insufficient consumption of protein, remains a persistent problem in the developing world, and although many diets within these developing countries are deficient in the quantity of protein compared to recommendations, the quality of the protein also strongly comes into focus.
Prehydrolyzed dietary protein reduces gastrocnemial DNA without impairing physical capacity in the rat. Viviane Costa Silva Zaffani, Carolina Cauduro Bensabath Carneiro-Leão, Giovana Ermetice de Almeida Costa, Pablo Christiano Barboza Lollo, Emilianne Miguel Salomão, Maria Cristina Cintra Gomes-Marcondes, ...
Jan 5, 2012 ... The effect of different dietary protein levels on growth performance and on feed utilization of catfish. (Heterobranchus ... Key words: Dietary protein, growth, nutrient utilization, body composition, Heterobranchus longifilis, fingerlings. INTRODUCTION ... good quality feed for economic production adversely.
Ko, Gang Jee; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Tortorici, Amanda R; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar
High-protein intake may lead to increased intraglomerular pressure and glomerular hyperfiltration. This can cause damage to glomerular structure leading to or aggravating chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hence, a low-protein diet (LPD) of 0.6-0.8 g/kg/day is often recommended for the management of CKD. We reviewed the effect of protein intake on incidence and progression of CKD and the role of LPD in the CKD management. Actual dietary protein consumption in CKD patients remains substantially higher than the recommendations for LPD. Notwithstanding the inconclusive results of the 'Modification of Diet in Renal Disease' (MDRD) study, the largest randomized controlled trial to examine protein restriction in CKD, several prior and subsequent studies and meta-analyses appear to support the role of LPD on retarding progression of CKD and delaying initiation of maintenance dialysis therapy. LPD can also be used to control metabolic derangements in CKD. Supplemented LPD with essential amino acids or their ketoanalogs may be used for incremental transition to dialysis especially on nondialysis days. The LPD management in lieu of dialysis therapy can reduce costs, enhance psychological adaptation, and preserve residual renal function upon transition to dialysis. Adherence and adequate protein and energy intake should be ensured to avoid protein-energy wasting. A balanced and individualized dietary approach based on LPD should be elaborated with periodic dietitian counseling and surveillance to optimize management of CKD, to assure adequate protein and energy intake, and to avoid or correct protein-energy wasting.
FCR) and proximate composition of fish and diets were determined. Also, productive protein value (PPV), the ratio of retained body protein-to-protein intake was determined. The average weekly feed intake increased with dietary P increase for ...
The effect of different dietary protein levels on growth performance and on feed utilization of catfish (Heterobranchus longifilis) fingerlings was carried out in aquaria. Five dietary protein levels 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45% were tried in triplicates. The result shows that 25% protein is too limited to ensure good growth and also the ...
Layman Donald K
Full Text Available Abstract Dietary Guidelines for Americans provide nutrition advice aimed at promoting healthy dietary choices for life-long health and reducing risk of chronic diseases. With the advancing age of the population, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines confront increasing risks for age-related problems of obesity, osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome, heart disease, and sarcopenia. New research demonstrates that the meal distribution and amount of protein are important in maintaining body composition, bone health and glucose homeostasis. This editorial reviews the benefits of dietary protein for adult health, addresses omissions in current nutrition guidelines, and offers concepts for improving the Dietary Guidelines.
Mangano, Kelsey M; Sahni, Shivani; Kiel, Douglas P; Tucker, Katherine L; Dufour, Alyssa B; Hannan, Marian T
Background: Above-average dietary protein, as a single nutrient, improves musculoskeletal health. Evaluating the link between dietary protein and musculoskeletal health from a whole-diet perspective is important, as dietary guidelines focus on dietary patterns. Objective: We examined the prospective association of novel dietary protein food clusters (derived from established dietary pattern techniques) with appendicular lean mass (ALM), quadriceps strength (QS), and bone mineral density (BMD) in 2986 men and women, aged 19-72 y, from the Framingham Third Generation Study. Design: Total protein intake was estimated by food-frequency questionnaire in 2002-2005. A cluster analysis was used to classify participants into mutually exclusive groups, which were determined by using the percentage of contribution of food intake to overall protein intake. General linear modeling was used to 1 ) estimate the association between protein intake (grams per day) and BMD, ALM, appendicular lean mass normalized for height (ALM/ht 2 ), and QS (2008-2011) and to 2 ) calculate adjusted least-squares mean outcomes across quartiles of protein (grams per day) and protein food clusters. Results: The mean ± SD age of subjects was 40 ± 9 y; 82% of participants met the Recommended Daily Allowance (0.8 g · kg body weight -1 · d -1 ). The following 6 dietary protein food clusters were identified: fast food and full-fat dairy, fish, red meat, chicken, low-fat milk, and legumes. BMD was not different across quartiles of protein intake ( P -trend range = 0.32-0.82); but significant positive trends were observed for ALM, ALM/ht 2 ( P dietary protein is associated with ALM and QS but not with BMD. In this study, dietary protein food patterns do not provide further insight into beneficial protein effects on muscle outcomes. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
Rietman, A.; Schwarz, J.; Tome, D.; Kok, F.J.; Mensink, M.R.
Dietary proteins have an insulinotropic effect and thus promote insulin secretion, which indeed leads to enhanced glucose clearance from the blood. In the long term, however, a high dietary protein intake is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Moreover, branched-chain amino acids
Bonsmara type steers were used to determine the effect of dietary zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) in combination with different dietary crude protein (CP) levels (100, 120 and 140 g CP/kg) on growth performance and meat quality. Treatment groups (T) consisted of 12 steers each. T1 – 100 g CP/kg + 0.15 mg ZH/kg live weight ...
A three months feeding trial was conducted to assess the effects of feeding varying levels of dietary protein on productive performance, egg quality characteristics and hatchability using 930 six weeks breeders quails. The birds were randomly divided into five dietary treatment groups of 186 birds, and were further replicated ...
Nilausen, Karin Johanne; Meinertz, H.
Lipoprotein(a), plasma lipoproteins, dietary proteins, soy protein, casein, liquid-formula, coronary artery disease, men, Denmark......Lipoprotein(a), plasma lipoproteins, dietary proteins, soy protein, casein, liquid-formula, coronary artery disease, men, Denmark...
Qaisrani, S.N.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.
High growth rates in modern-day broilers require diets concentrated in digestible protein and energy. In addition to affecting feed conversion efficiency, it is important to prevent surplus dietary protein because of greater amounts of undigested protein entering the hindgut that may be fermented by
Tieland, Michael; Borgonjen-Van den Berg, Karin J.; Van Loon, Luc J. C.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.
INTRODUCTION: Sufficient high quality dietary protein intake is required to prevent or treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Therefore, the intake of specific protein sources as well as their timing of intake are important to improve dietary protein intake in elderly people. OBJECTIVES: to assess the
Lee, Hyun-Wook; Osis, Gunars; Handlogten, Mary E.; Guo, Hui; Verlander, Jill W.
Dietary protein restriction has multiple benefits in kidney disease. Because protein intake is a major determinant of endogenous acid production, it is important that net acid excretion change in parallel during protein restriction. Ammonia is the primary component of net acid excretion, and inappropriate ammonia excretion can lead to negative nitrogen balance. Accordingly, we examined ammonia excretion in response to protein restriction and then we determined the molecular mechanism of the changes observed. Wild-type C57Bl/6 mice fed a 20% protein diet and then changed to 6% protein developed an 85% reduction in ammonia excretion within 2 days, which persisted during a 10-day study. The expression of multiple proteins involved in renal ammonia metabolism was altered, including the ammonia-generating enzymes phosphate-dependent glutaminase (PDG) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and the ammonia-metabolizing enzyme glutamine synthetase. Rhbg, an ammonia transporter, increased in expression in the inner stripe of outer medullary collecting duct intercalated cell (OMCDis-IC). However, collecting duct-specific Rhbg deletion did not alter the response to protein restriction. Rhcg deletion did not alter ammonia excretion in response to dietary protein restriction. These results indicate 1) dietary protein restriction decreases renal ammonia excretion through coordinated regulation of multiple components of ammonia metabolism; 2) increased Rhbg expression in the OMCDis-IC may indicate a biological role in addition to ammonia transport; and 3) Rhcg expression is not necessary to decrease ammonia excretion during dietary protein restriction. PMID:25925252
Bao, Wei; Bowers, Katherine; Tobias, Deirdre K.; Hu, Frank B.; Zhang, Cuilin
OBJECTIVE Dietary protein is an important modulator of glucose metabolism. However, studies regarding the association between dietary protein intake and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk are sparse. This study was to examine the association. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Our study included 21,457 singleton pregnancies reported among 15,294 participants of the Nurses' Health Study II cohort between 1991 and 2001. Included pregnancies were free of chronic diseases before pregnancy or previ...
Full Text Available Background: Proteins are known mainly based on their metabolic and nutritional functions including protein synthesis and a source of energy. In spite of various physiological properties attributed to proteins, their functions have neither been addressed by assessing quality of proteins nor by nutrition and dietetic practices. Methods: Studies were included if they were randomized animal studies, clinical trials and systematic reviews/meta-analysis published in English language. Results: The effect of maternal diet in general and dietary proteins in particular during development on health of offspring has been well-studied. Protein content as well as source of protein in the diet consumed during pregnancy and lactation influenced the risk of metabolic syndrome characteristics in offspring. Both high and low protein diets showed detrimental effects on health of offspring. Moreover, comparison of maternal casein-based diet with soy protein-based diet showed more favorable effect on body weight, body composition, blood pressure, and glucose metabolism in offspring. However, the role of maternal dietary proteins in developing the risk of metabolic syndrome characteristics in offspring in gestational obesity is still unclear and needs further study. Conclusions: Dietary proteins are determining factors in developmental programming. Both quantity and source of proteins in maternal diet influenced the development of metabolic syndrome characteristics in offspring. However, whether they have the same function in presence of gestational obesity is still unclear and needs further study.
Roasted maggots (Dipteran larvae) as a dietary protein source for laboratory animals. ... African Journal of Applied Zoology and Environmental Biology ... One set were fed with the convectional feed (set G,) with Clarias fish as its protein portion while the other set (M) were fed with same diet with maggots from poultry wastes ...
Jul 18, 2008 ... indicated that fish fed 40% dietary protein diet performed best in weight gain, food conversion ratio and nitrogen metabolism. Key words: ... great aquaculture potentials (Teugels et al., 1990;. Williams, 1997). ... Apparent feed conversion ratio = Wt of dry feed dispensed / Live wt gained. Apparent protein ...
The study was conducted to investigate the optimum dietary protein level needed for growing genetically male tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Diets containing crude protein levels 40, 42.5, 45, 47.5 and 50% were formulated and tried in triplicates. Test diets were fed to 20 fish/1m3 floating hapa at 5% of fish body weight daily ...
diet 2 (15,57 MJ ME/kg), however, consumed so much more dry matter that they actually had a higher energy intake than pigs on Treatment l. The fact that the pigs compensated for energy intake and that dietary protein content was almost constant (23D resulted in higher protein intakes by the pigs fed diets containing ...
This paper reports the allometric relationships between some of the physical parts and body protein weight of three commercial broiler strains reared, sexes separate, on four dietary protein levels to six weeks of age. Birds were sampled at day old and then weekly from each of the treatments to determine the weights of the ...
egg production, as well as predisposing the birds to greater stress with consequent high mortality during hot weather. Evidence is accruing (Reid, l97l) to show that the body composition of poultry is pliant to nutritional treatments,. i.e. body composition yields to dietary manipulation independently of the changes in body ...
Goraya, Nimrit; Wesson, Donald E
More kidney protective strategies are needed to reduce the burden of complete kidney failure from chronic kidney disease (CKD). Clinicians sometimes use protein restriction as kidney protection despite its demonstrated lack of effectiveness in the only large-scale study. Small-scale studies support that dietary acid reduction is kidney-protective, including when done with base-inducing foods like fruits and vegetables. We review these studies in light of current kidney-protective recommendations. Animal models of CKD show that acid-inducing dietary protein exacerbates and base-inducing protein ameliorates nephropathy progression, and that increased intake of acid-inducing but not base-inducing dietary protein exacerbates progression. Clinical studies show that dietary acid reduction with Na-based alkali reduces kidney injury and slows nephropathy progression in patients with CKD and reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR); base-inducing fruits and vegetables reduce kidney injury in patients with reduced GFR; and base-inducing fruits and vegetables improve metabolic acidosis in CKD. Protein type rather than amount might more importantly affect nephropathy progression. Base-inducing foods might be another way to reduce dietary acid, a strategy shown in small studies to slow nephropathy progression. Further studies will determine if CKD patients should be given base-inducing food as part of their management.
Panagiotis E Simitzis
Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of different dietary protein sources (soybean meal vs whey protein on piglet meat quality characteristics. Eighteen castrated male Large White × Duroc × Landrace piglets were randomly assigned to 2 groups. Piglets were kept in individual metabolic cages and fed ad libitum over a period of 38 days the following 2 diets: diet SB, which was formulated to meet the nutrient requirements of piglets using soybean meal as the main crude protein source and diet WP, where SB was totally replaced by a mixture of whey proteins on equal digestible energy and crude protein basis. At the end of the experiment, piglets were weighed and slaughtered. After overnight chilling, samples of Longissimus dorsi muscle were taken and were used for meat quality measurements. No significant differences were observed in the values of pH, colour, water holding capacity, shear force and intramuscular fat content of L. dorsi muscle between the dietary treatments. Measurement of lipid oxidation values showed that dietary supplementation with different protein sources did not influence meat antioxidant properties during refrigerated storage. The SB piglets had lower 14:0 (P<0.01 and higher 18:3n-3 (P<0.001 levels in intramuscular fat in comparison with WP piglets. However, these changes were attributed to background differences in the dietary FA profile and not to a direct protein source effect. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the examined dietary protein sources (soybean meal or whey protein do not have a significant effect on meat quality characteristics of piglets.
Millis, Richard M; Offiah, Godwin U
Previous studies suggest an association between dermal contact hypersensitivity and preterm delivery. We hypothesized that dietary protein deficiency produces cell-mediated immune hypersensitivity in pregnant animals and their offspring akin to those known to produce tissue damage. We compared the effects of feeding a 20% protein diet (controls) to those of feeding a 10% protein (deficient) diet ad libitum to pregnant BALB/c mice. We measured dermal contact sensitivity to 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) by the increment in ear skin thickness (swelling) 72 h after immunization and parity by the number of viable pups delivered. Dams fed the protein-deficient diet ingested less food, gained less weight and delivered fewer viable pups than the dams fed the control diet. Greater DNFB-stimulated increment in ear skin thickness was found in the protein-deficient mothers and in their offspring than in the control mothers and their offspring. We conclude that dietary protein deficiency limits parity and induces immune hypersensitivity. These findings suggest the potential for dietary protein deficiency to activate a T-cell-mediated branch of the immune response that may put pregnant animals at risk for preterm delivery.
Tieland, C.A.B.; Borgonjen-van den Berg, K.J.; Loon, van L.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.
Adequate dietary protein intake is required to postpone and treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Insight into dietary protein intake in this heterogeneous population segment is needed to locate dietary inadequacies and to identify target populations and feeding strategies for dietary interventions.
Eits, R.M.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hartog, den L.A.
1. An economic model was developed that calculates economic optimal dietary balanced protein (DBP) contents for broiler chickens, based on performance input and prices of meat and feed. 2. Input on broiler responses to DBP content (growth rate, feed conversion, carcase yield and breast meat yield)
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the utilization of silkworm caterpillar meat (SCM) blended with soybean meal (SBM) as a dietary protein source in the practical diet of Heterobranchus bidorsalis fingerlings (M±SE=17.04±_0.02g). The fish were fed five isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets containing blends of SCM ...
the small intestine may be quantitatively and qualitatively even more important. This results firstly because, since amino. S. Afr. Tydskr. Veek. 1996,26(314). Ruminal and postruminal digestion of dietary protein and starch in steers: 2. Multivariate model prediction of non-ammonia nitrogen and starch passage and digestibility.
banana flowers contained abundant dietary fiber (4.96-5.74 g/100g) and proteins (1.62-2.07 g/100 g). The major amino acids are glycine, ... as organic material and fertilizer in plantations in China until today (Yang et al., 2003). ..... banana flowers than in banana peel, in contrast to previous reports (Lima et al., 2008).
Oct 10, 2011 ... Effects of dietary crude protein (CP), calcium (Ca) and available phosphorus (Av. P) content on performance of Ross male broiler chickens from 0 to21 days of age. ..... 1pCo2, blood carbon dioxide pressure; pO2, blood oxygen pressure; sO2, blood oxygen saturation; Het, haematocrit; Hb, haemoglobin;.
portions of pooled samples of the foodstuff. The results showed significant variation in heavy metal concentration among ... Urban dietary heavy metal intake from protein foods … 86 serve breakfast and lunch packages. In the ... portion of the food samples were homogenized, stored in pre-cleaned polythene containers and ...
The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of a pure reduction in the dietary crude protein (CP) and metabolic energy (ME) contents on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profile, faecal microflora and odour gas emission in weaned pigs. A total of 80 weaned piglets ((Landrace × Yorkshire) ...
Jun 26, 2013 ... The effects of increasing dietary levels of crude protein (CP) on growth, feed intake, feed efficiency and nutrient ... increasing CP level in the diet, feed intake and body weight gain increased numerically, which was not significant (P> ..... Growth Performance and Meat Quality in Growing Korean Black. Goats.
A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of dietary protein degradability and supplemental rumen-inert fats on body mass gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratios in veal calves, as well as digestibility coefficients, carcass masses and meat characteristics. Results on meat characteristics and fatty acid profiles are, ...
The effects of increasing dietary levels of crude protein (CP) on growth, feed intake, feed efficiency and nutrient apparent digestibility on Iranian Saanen kids were studied. 24 Iranian Saanen weaned kids who were 86 ± 3 days old with live weight of 9 ± 03 kg were used in a completely randomized design. There were three ...
protein/kg feed, the analysed values were 219 and 224 g/kg. Nevertheless, the effect of dietary protein content on the growth, uniformity and mortality in the period to 21 d exhibited a similar pattern to that in the same period in Experiment 1 (Table 5). Cobb broilers consumed more food (4.1 g/d; P <0.001) and grew.
Hernández-Alonso, Pablo; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramón; Fitó, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Basora, Josep; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Saiz, Carmen; Bulló, Mònica
High dietary protein diets are widely used to manage overweight and obesity. However, there is a lack of consensus about their long-term efficacy and safety. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of long-term high-protein consumption on body weight changes and death outcomes in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. A secondary analysis of the PREDIMED trial was conducted. Dietary protein was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire during the follow-up. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for protein intake in relation to the risk of body weight and waist circumference changes, cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular death, cancer death and total death. Higher total protein intake, expressed as percentage of energy, was significantly associated with a greater risk of weight gain when protein replaced carbohydrates (HR: 1.90; 95%CI: 1.05, 3.46) but not when replaced fat (HR: 1.69; 95%CI: 0.94, 3.03). However, no association was found between protein intake and waist circumference. Contrary, higher total protein intake was associated with a greater risk of all-cause death in both carbohydrate and fat substitution models (HR: 1.59; 95%CI: 1.08, 2.35; and HR: 1.66; 95%CI: 1.13, 2.43, respectively). A higher consumption of animal protein was associated with an increased risk of fatal and non-fatal outcomes when protein substituted carbohydrates or fat. Higher dietary protein intake is associated with long-term increased risk of body weight gain and overall death in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Liu, Xingwang; Mai, Kangsen; Liufu, Zhiguo; Ai, Qinghui
The dietary protein requirement of juvenile turbot (initial average weight, 38.2 g ± 0.1 g) reared indoor in aerated aquaria was determined in this study. Five energy equal experimental diets were formulated with fish meal as protein source, which contained different concentrations of protein (47.2%, 51.0%, 54.6%, 59.3% and 63.6% of dry diet). Three groups of fish with 18 individuals in each, were cultured in 300-L tanks and fed twice a day for 8 weeks. During culture, temperature was controlled between 15.0 and 18.0°C, salinity was controlled between 28.5 and 32.0, acidity was controlled between pH7.8 and pH8.5, and ammonia nitrogen was maintained below 0.03 mg L-1 and dissolved oxygen was maintained about 7 mg L-1. Results showed that the growth of fish was significantly affected by dietary protein content ( P 0.05). Broken-line regression analysis of SGR showed that the optimal dietary protein requirement of turbot was about 57.0%.
Lind, Mads Vendelbo; Larnkjær, Anni; Mølgaard, Christian
: Recent observational and randomized controlled trials confirmed that high-protein intake in early life seems to increase early weight gain and the risk of later overweight and obesity. Recent studies have looked at the effect of different sources of protein, and especially high-animal protein intake...... and the role of different dietary protein sources and amino acids has increased, but intervention studies are needed to confirm the mechanisms. Avoiding high-protein intake in early life holds promise as a preventive strategy for childhood obesity.......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is an increasing problem and high-protein intake early in life seems to increase later risk of obesity. This review summarizes recent publications in the area including observational and intervention studies and publications on underlying mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS...
Kotler, Belinda M; Kerstetter, Jane E; Insogna, Karl L
The family of claudin proteins plays an important role in regulating the intestinal barrier by modulating the permeability of tight junctions. The impact of dietary protein on claudin biology has not been studied extensively. Whey proteins have been reported to improve intestinal barrier function, but their mechanism of action is not clear. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated increased intestinal claudin expression in response to milk protein components. Reviewed here are new findings suggesting that whey-protein-derived transforming growth factor β transcriptionally upregulates claudin-4 expression via a Smad-4-dependent pathway. These and other data, including limited clinical studies, are summarized below and, in the aggregate, suggest a therapeutic role for whey protein in diseases of intestinal barrier dysfunction, perhaps, in part, by regulating claudin expression. © 2013 International Life Sciences Institute.
Beddhu, Srinivasan; Wei, Guo; Chen, Xiaorui; Boucher, Robert; Kiani, Rabia; Raj, Dominic; Chonchol, Michel; Greene, Tom; Murtaugh, Maureen A
The associations of dietary protein and/or energy intakes with protein or energy wasting in patients on maintenance hemodialysis are controversial. We examined these in the Hemodialysis (HEMO) Study. In 1487 participants in the HEMO Study, baseline dietary protein intake (grams per kilogram per day) and dietary energy intake (kilocalories per kilograms per day) were related to the presence of the protein-energy wasting (PEW) syndrome at month 12 (defined as the presence of at least 1 criteria in 2 of the 3 categories of low serum chemistry, low body mass, and low muscle mass) in logistic regression models. In additional separate models, protein intake estimated from equilibrated normalized protein catabolic rate (enPCR) was also related to the PEW syndrome. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of baseline dietary protein intake was paradoxically associated with increased risk of the PEW syndrome at month 12 (odds ratio [OR]: 4.11; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.79-6.05). This relationship was completely attenuated (OR: 1.35; 95% CI: 0.88-2.06) with adjustment for baseline body weight, which suggested mathematical coupling. Results were similar for dietary energy intake. Compared with the lowest quartile of baseline enPCR, the highest quartile was not associated with the PEW syndrome at 12 months (OR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.54-1.12). These data do not support the use of dietary protein intake or dietary energy intake criteria in the definition of the PEW syndrome in patients on maintenance hemodialysis.
Moughan, Paul J
The first objective in evaluating protein quality is to permit a ranking of proteins according to their potential nutritive value and to permit detection of changes in nutritive value due to processing and/or storage. The second objective is to permit prediction of the contribution a food protein, or mixture of food proteins, makes toward meeting nitrogen and amino acid requirements for growth or maintenance. Different approaches are used in meeting these distinct aims. The preferred current method to meet the second aim is the protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS). This article introduces the concept of PDCAAS and places it in the context of the series of papers published in this Special Guest Editor Section addressing aspects of dietary amino acid utilization.
Bosse, John D; Dixon, Brian M
An appreciable volume of human clinical data supports increased dietary protein for greater gains from resistance training, but not all findings are in agreement. We recently proposed "protein spread theory" and "protein change theory" in an effort to explain discrepancies in the response to increased dietary protein in weight management interventions. The present review aimed to extend "protein spread theory" and "protein change theory" to studies examining the effects of protein on resistance training induced muscle and strength gains. Protein spread theory proposed that there must have been a sufficient spread or % difference in g/kg/day protein intake between groups during a protein intervention to see muscle and strength differences. Protein change theory postulated that for the higher protein group, there must be a sufficient change from baseline g/kg/day protein intake to during study g/kg/day protein intake to see muscle and strength benefits. Seventeen studies met inclusion criteria. In studies where a higher protein intervention was deemed successful there was, on average, a 66.1% g/kg/day between group intake spread versus a 10.2% g/kg/day spread in studies where a higher protein diet was no more effective than control. The average change in habitual protein intake in studies showing higher protein to be more effective than control was +59.5% compared to +6.5% when additional protein was no more effective than control. The magnitudes of difference between the mean spreads and changes of the present review are similar to our previous review on these theories in a weight management context. Providing sufficient deviation from habitual intake appears to be an important factor in determining the success of additional protein in enhancing muscle and strength gains from resistance training. An increase in dietary protein favorably effects muscle and strength during resistance training.
Full Text Available Introduction: Sufficient high quality dietary protein intake is required to prevent or treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Therefore, the intake of specific protein sources as well as their timing of intake are important to improve dietary protein intake in elderly people. Objectives: to assess the consumption of protein sources as well as the distribution of protein sources over the day in community-dwelling, frail and institutionalized elderly people. Methods: Habitual dietary intake was evaluated using 2- and 3-day food records collected from various studies involving 739 community-dwelling, 321 frail and 219 institutionalized elderly people. Results: Daily protein intake averaged 71 ± 18 g/day in community-dwelling, 71 ± 20 g/day in frail and 58 ± 16 g/day in institutionalized elderly people and accounted for 16% ± 3%, 16% ± 3% and 17% ± 3% of their energy intake, respectively. Dietary protein intake ranged from 10 to 12 g at breakfast, 15 to 23 g at lunch and 24 to 31 g at dinner contributing together over 80% of daily protein intake. The majority of dietary protein consumed originated from animal sources (≥60% with meat and dairy as dominant sources. Thus, 40% of the protein intake in community-dwelling, 37% in frail and 29% in institutionalized elderly originated from plant based protein sources with bread as the principle source. Plant based proteins contributed for >50% of protein intake at breakfast and between 34% and 37% at lunch, with bread as the main source. During dinner, >70% of the protein intake originated from animal protein, with meat as the dominant source. Conclusion: Daily protein intake in these older populations is mainly (>80% provided by the three main meals, with most protein consumed during dinner. More than 60% of daily protein intake consumed is of animal origin, with plant based protein sources representing nearly 40% of total protein consumed. During dinner, >70% of the protein intake originated from
Tieland, Michael; Borgonjen-Van den Berg, Karin J; Van Loon, Luc J C; de Groot, Lisette C P G M
Sufficient high quality dietary protein intake is required to prevent or treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Therefore, the intake of specific protein sources as well as their timing of intake are important to improve dietary protein intake in elderly people. to assess the consumption of protein sources as well as the distribution of protein sources over the day in community-dwelling, frail and institutionalized elderly people. Habitual dietary intake was evaluated using 2- and 3-day food records collected from various studies involving 739 community-dwelling, 321 frail and 219 institutionalized elderly people. Daily protein intake averaged 71 ± 18 g/day in community-dwelling, 71 ± 20 g/day in frail and 58 ± 16 g/day in institutionalized elderly people and accounted for 16% ± 3%, 16% ± 3% and 17% ± 3% of their energy intake, respectively. Dietary protein intake ranged from 10 to 12 g at breakfast, 15 to 23 g at lunch and 24 to 31 g at dinner contributing together over 80% of daily protein intake. The majority of dietary protein consumed originated from animal sources (≥60%) with meat and dairy as dominant sources. Thus, 40% of the protein intake in community-dwelling, 37% in frail and 29% in institutionalized elderly originated from plant based protein sources with bread as the principle source. Plant based proteins contributed for >50% of protein intake at breakfast and between 34% and 37% at lunch, with bread as the main source. During dinner, >70% of the protein intake originated from animal protein, with meat as the dominant source. Daily protein intake in these older populations is mainly (>80%) provided by the three main meals, with most protein consumed during dinner. More than 60% of daily protein intake consumed is of animal origin, with plant based protein sources representing nearly 40% of total protein consumed. During dinner, >70% of the protein intake originated from animal protein, while during breakfast and lunch a large proportion of
Abdelrahman, M M; Aljumaah, R S
A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding different levels of protein to black Baladi breed kids. Weanling Baladi kids (n=18; 75 to 90 days old) were selected and individually housed at our experimental farm. Kids were divided randomly to one of the three treatments for 12 weeks. The three dietary treatments were: T1: control ration, formulated according to NRC to cover the protein (level 1) and other nutrients requirements. T2: ration formulated to cover only 75% of protein (level 2) recommended by NRC. T3: control diet + 2.4 g undegradable methionine (Smartamine®)/day/kid (level 3). Feed intake, initial and monthly body weights were recorded. Blood samples were collected monthly and analyzed for metabolites and Co, Zn and Cu levels. Decreasing the dietary level of protein (T2) negatively affected (Pkids below the NRC requirements of protein negatively affect the growth performance and feed efficiency. The recommended protein level by NRC for growing kids cover the requirements of growing black Baladi kids for maximum growth and productivity.
A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate effects of feeding different dietary protein levels on reproductive biology of African mud catfish under hapa system. Catfish fingerlings (mean body weight (4.50± 0.01g) and total length (8.0±0.2cm) were randomly stocked at 20 fish per hapa (1m3). Five experimental diets with crude ...
Hu, Shengdi; Li, Xilong; Rezaei, Reza; Meininger, Cynthia J; McNeal, Catherine J; Wu, Guoyao
This study was conducted with a swine model to determine the safety of long-term dietary supplementation with L-arginine-HCl or L-arginine free base. Beginning at 30 days of age, pigs were fed a corn- and soybean meal-based diet (31.5 g/kg body weight/day) supplemented with 0, 1.21, 1.81 or 2.42 % L-arginine-HCl (Experiment 1) or with 0, 1, 1.5 or 2 % L-arginine (Experiment 2). The supplemental doses of 0, 1, 1.5, and 2 % L-arginine provided pigs with 0, 315, 473, and 630 mg L-arginine/kg body weight/day, respectively, which were equivalent to 0, 286, 430, and 573 mg L-arginine/kg body weight/day, respectively, in humans. At 121 days of age (91 days after initiation of supplementation), blood samples were obtained from the jugular vein of pigs at 1 and 4 h after feeding for hematological and clinical chemistry tests. Dietary supplementation with L-arginine increased plasma concentrations of arginine, ornithine, proline, albumin and reticulocytes, while reducing plasma concentrations of ammonia, free fatty acids, triglyceride, cholesterol, and neutrophils. L-Arginine supplementation enhanced protein gain and reduced white-fat deposition in the body. Other variables in standard hematology and clinical chemistry tests, serum concentrations of insulin, growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I did not differ among all the groups of pigs. These results indicate that dietary supplementation with L-arginine (up to 630 mg/kg body weight/day) is safe in pigs for at least 91 days. Our findings help guide clinical studies to determine the safety of long-term oral administration of L-arginine to humans.
Geerdink, P.; Diaz, J.; Jong, J. de; Bussmann, P.
The fractionation and isolation of leaf proteins, mostly in the form of a photosynthetic enzyme, RuBisCO, contributes to improving sustainability and increasing profitability for the agro-industrial sector.
Huang, Tao; Qi, Qibin; Li, Yanping; Hu, Frank B; Bray, George A; Sacks, Frank M; Williamson, Donald A; Qi, Lu
A common obesity-risk variant rs9939609 in the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene was recently shown to affect appetite, and the gene is sensitive to the regulation of amino acids. We examined the interaction between FTO genotype and protein intake on the long-term changes in appetite in a randomized controlled trial. We genotyped FTO rs9939609 in 737 overweight adults in the 2-y Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies trial and assessed 4 appetite-related traits including cravings, fullness, hunger, and prospective consumption. We showed that dietary protein significantly modified genetic effects on changes in food cravings and appetite scores at 6 mo after adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, baseline body mass index, weight change, and baseline value for respective outcomes (P-interaction = 0.027 and 0.048, respectively). The A allele was associated with a greater decrease in food cravings and appetite scores in participants with high-protein-diet intake (P = 0.027 and 0.047, respectively) but not in subjects in the low-protein-diet group (P = 0.384 and 0.078, respectively). The weight regain from 6 to 24 mo attenuated gene-protein interactions. Protein intakes did not modify FTO genotype effects on other appetite measures. Our data suggest that individuals with the FTO rs9939609 A allele might obtain more benefits in a reduction of food cravings and appetite by choosing a hypocaloric and higher-protein weight-loss diet. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995.
Dodman, N H; Reisner, I; Shuster, L; Rand, W; Luescher, U A; Robinson, I; Houpt, K A
To determine the effect that feeding diets containing a low (17%), medium (25%), or high (32%) protein content would have on behavior in dogs. Prospective, controlled study. 12 dogs with dominance aggression, 12 dogs with hyperactivity, 12 dogs with territorial aggression, and 14 control dogs without behavioral problems. Dogs were fed each of the diets for a 2-week period, and owners were instructed to score their dogs' behavior on a daily basis. Behavior of the dogs with dominance aggression, dogs with hyperactivity, and control dogs was unchanged by the dietary manipulations. Territorial aggression was significantly reduced when dogs were fed the low- or medium-protein diet, compared with territorial aggression when fed the high-protein diet. Post hoc analysis indicated that this effect was attributable to a marked reduction in aggression in a subset of the group (n = 7) in which territorial aggression was a result of fear. Results of this study suggest that a reduction in dietary protein content is not generally useful in the treatment of behavior problems in dogs, but may be appropriate in dogs with territorial aggression that is a result of fear.
Soumya K. Kar
Full Text Available Growth in world population will inevitably leads to increased demand for protein for humans and animals. Protein from insects and blood plasma are being considered as possible alternatives, but more research on their nutritional quality and health effects is needed. Here, we studied the effect of dietary protein source on metabolism and metabolic amine profiles in serum and urine of mice. Groups of mice were fed semi-purified diets containing 300 g/kg of soybean meal, casein, partially delactosed whey powder, spray-dried plasma protein, wheat gluten meal, and yellow mealworm. Feed and water intake as well as body weight gain were measured for 28 days. After 14 and 28 days, serum and urine samples were collected for measurement of a large panel of amine metabolites. MetaboAnalyst 3.0 was used for analysis of the raw metabolic data. Out of 68 targeted amine metabolites, we could detect 54 in urine and 41 in blood serum. Dietary protein sources were found to have profound effects on host metabolism, particularly in systemic amine profiles, considered here as an endophenotype. We recommend serum over urine to screen for the amine metabolic endophenotype based on partial least squares discriminant analysis. We concluded that metabolites like alpha-aminobutyric acid and 1-methylhistidine are sensitive indicators of too much or too little availability of specific amino acids in the different protein diets. Furthermore, we concluded that amine metabolic profiles can be useful for assessing the nutritional quality of different protein sources.
Vasdev, Sudesh; Stuckless, Jennifer
Hypertension is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Individuals with hypertension are at increased risk of stroke, heart disease and kidney failure. Both genetic and lifestyle factors, particularly diet, have been attributed an important role in the development of hypertension. Reducing dietary sugar and salt intake can help lower blood pressure; similarly, adequate protein intake may also attenuate hypertension. Observational, cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies, and controlled clinical trials, have documented significant inverse associations between protein intake and blood pressure. Human and animal studies have shown that specific amino acids within proteins may have antihypertensive effects. Cysteine, glutathione (a tripeptide), glutamate and arginine attenuate and prevent alterations that cause hypertension including insulin resistance, decreased nitric oxide bioavailability, altered renin angiotensin system function, increased oxidative stress and formation of advanced glycation end products. Leucine increases protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and improves insulin resistance by modulating hepatic gluconeogenesis. Taurine and tryptophan attenuate sympathetic nervous system activity. Soy protein helps lower blood pressure through its high arginine content and antioxidant activity exhibited by isoflavones. A diet containing an ample amount of protein may be a beneficial lifestyle choice for individuals with hypertension; one example is the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, which is low in salt and saturated fat; includes whole grains, lean meat, poultry, fish and nuts; and is rich in vegetables, fruits and low-fat dairy products, which are good sources of antioxidant vitamins, minerals and fibre. Including an adequate supply of soy in the diet should also be encouraged.
Altorf-van der Kuil, W.; Engberink, M.F.; Rooij, van F.J.A.; Hofman, A.; Veer, van 't P.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.
AB Background: Several observational studies suggest an inverse association of protein with blood pressure (BP). However, little is known about the role of dietary protein from specific sources in BP. Method: We examined the relation between several types of dietary protein (total, plant, animal,
Altorf-van der Kuil, W.; Engberink, M.F.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Boer, J.M.A.; Verschuren, W.M.M.
Evidence suggests a small beneficial effect of dietary protein on blood pressure (BP), especially for plant protein. We examined the relationship between several types of dietary protein (total, plant, animal, dairy, meat and grain) and the risk of hypertension in a general population of 3588 Dutch
Yang, Ying; Wu, Zhenlong; Jia, Sichao; Dahanayaka, Sudath; Feng, Shuo; Meininger, Cynthia J; McNeal, Catherine J; Wu, Guoyao
This study was conducted with rats to determine the safety of long-term dietary supplementation with L-arginine. Beginning at 6 weeks of age, male and female rats were fed a casein-based semi-purified diet containing 0.61 % L-arginine and received drinking water containing L-arginine-HCl (0, 1.8, or 3.6 g L-arginine/kg body-weight/day; n = 10/group). These supplemental doses of L-arginine were equivalent to 0, 286, and 573 mg L-arginine/kg body-weight/day, respectively, in humans. After a 13-week supplementation period, blood samples were obtained from rats for biochemical analyses. Supplementation with L-arginine increased plasma concentrations of arginine, ornithine, proline, homoarginine, urea, and nitric oxide metabolites without affecting those for lysine, histidine, or methylarginines, while reducing plasma concentrations of ammonia, glutamine, free fatty acids, and triglycerides. L-Arginine supplementation enhanced protein gain and reduced white-fat deposition in the body. Based on general appearance, feeding behavior, and physiological parameters, all animals showed good health during the entire experimental period; Plasma concentrations of all measured hormones (except leptin) did not differ between control and arginine-supplemented rats. L-Arginine supplementation reduced plasma levels of leptin. Additionally, L-arginine supplementation increased L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase activity in kidneys but not in the liver or small intestine, suggesting tissue-specific regulation of enzyme expression by L-arginine. Collectively, these results indicate that dietary supplementation with L-arginine (e.g., 3.6 g/kg body-weight/day) is safe in rats for at least 91 days. This dose is equivalent to 40 g L-arginine/kg body-weight/day for a 70-kg person. Our findings help guide clinical studies to determine the safety of long-term oral administration of L-arginine to humans.
Tauson, Anne-Helene; Fink, Rikke; Chwalibog, André
The mink is a strict carnivore and may therefore serve as a model for the cat. Current recommendations for protein supply for lactating mink are based on production experiments with preweaning kit growth as a measure of dietary adequacy (1,2). Recently, nitrogen balance and substrate oxidation ha...
Noori, Nazanin; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Bross, Rachelle; Benner, Debbie; Kopple, Joel D
Epidemiologic studies show an association between higher predialysis serum phosphorus and increased death risk in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. The hypothesis that higher dietary phosphorus intake and higher phosphorus content per gram of dietary protein intake are each associated with increased mortality in MHD patients was examined. Food frequency questionnaires were used to conduct a cohort study to examine the survival predictability of dietary phosphorus and the ratio of phosphorus to protein intake. At the start of the cohort, Cox proportional hazard regression was used in 224 MHD patients, who were followed for up to 5 years (2001 to 2006). Both higher dietary phosphorus intake and a higher dietary phosphorus to protein ratio were associated with significantly increased death hazard ratios (HR) in the unadjusted models and after incremental adjustments for case-mix, diet, serum phosphorus, malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome, and inflammatory markers. The HR of the highest (compared with lowest) dietary phosphorus intake tertile in the fully adjusted model was 2.37. Across categories of dietary phosphorus to protein ratios of or =16 mg/g, death HRs were 1.13, 1.00 (reference value), 1.80, and 1.99, respectively. Cubic spline models of the survival analyses showed similar incremental associations. Higher dietary phosphorus intake and higher dietary phosphorus to protein ratios are each associated with increased death risk in MHD patients, even after adjustments for serum phosphorus, phosphate binders and their types, and dietary protein, energy, and potassium intakes.
Tieland, Michael; Borgonjen-Van den Berg, Karin J; van Loon, Luc J C; de Groot, Lisette C P G M
Adequate dietary protein intake is required to postpone and treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Insight into dietary protein intake in this heterogeneous population segment is needed to locate dietary inadequacies and to identify target populations and feeding strategies for dietary interventions. Therefore, we assessed dietary protein intake, distribution of protein intake throughout the day, and the use of protein-containing food sources in community-dwelling, frail, and institutionalized elderly people in the Netherlands. Secondary analyses were carried out using dietary data collected from studies among community-dwelling, frail, and institutionalized elderly people to evaluate protein intake characteristics. Dietary protein intake averaged 1.1 ± 0.3 g/kg-bw/day in community-dwelling, 1.0 ± 0.3 g/kg-bw/day in frail, and 0.8 ± 0.3 g/kg-bw/day in institutionalized elderly men. Similar protein intakes were found in women. Ten percent of the community-dwelling and frail elderly and 35% of the institutionalized elderly people showed a protein intake below the estimated average requirement (0.7 g/kg-bw/day). Protein intake was particularly low at breakfast in community-dwelling (10 ± 10 g), frail (8 ± 5 g), and institutionalized elderly people (12 ± 6 g) with bread and dairy products as predominant protein sources. Whereas daily protein intake is generally well above the recommended dietary allowance in community-dwelling and frail elderly people, a significant proportion of institutionalized elderly showed an intake below the current protein requirement, making them an important target population for dietary interventions. Particularly at breakfast, there is scope for improving protein intake.
Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Larsen, Peter F.; Clausen, Tove
The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of the dietary protein level and the feeding strategy on growth, health and physiological blood and liver parameters in growing-furring male mink. Effects of dietary protein levels ranging from 22% of metabolizable energy (MEp) to experimental p...
The effect of dietary protein to energy ratio (P:E) on the growth of dusky kob Argyrosomus japonicus was investigated as a first step towards formulating a practical diet for this potential mariculture species in South Africa. The effects of dietary protein and lipid on growth, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and nitrogenous waste ...
D'Alessandro, Claudia; Rossi, Andrea; Innocenti, Maurizio; Ricchiuti, Guido; Bozzoli, Laura; Sbragia, Giulietta; Meola, Mario; Cupisti, Adamasco
The treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) consists of pharmacological, nutritional, and psychological-social approaches. The dietary therapy of CKD, namely a low-protein low-phosphorus diet, plays a crucial role in contributing to delay the onset of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and to protect cardiovascular and nutritional status. The protein-free food products represent a very important tool for the implementation of a low-protein diet to ensure adequate energy supply, reducing the production of nitrogenous waste products. This survey included 100 consecutive CKD patients who were asked their opinion about the use of protein-free foods. Ninety-eight patients (98%) reported a regular daily intake of protein-free pasta (as macaroni, spaghetti, etc.), which was the preferred product consumed. Actually, the taste and texture of protein-free pasta were considered as "good" or "very good" by 70% of patients. Conversely, 43% of CKD patients perceived the taste and texture of protein-free bread as "bad" or "very bad", and 30% found it "acceptable". Therefore, the main concern for the implementation of low-protein diets is the use and palatability of the protein-free products, bread in particular. The use of these products may help in reducing protein, phosphorus, and sodium intake while supplying an adequate energy intake, which represents the basis for a nutritionally safe and successful dietary treatment of advanced CKD patients. Manufacturers and food technology should make more efforts to finding new solutions to improve the taste and texture of protein-free products. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ADI) and Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) to estimate risk of toxicity and to the US Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) and/or Estimated Safe and Adequate Daily Dietary Intake (ESADDI) for a deficiency in intake. The average ...
Okada, M; Shibuya, M; Akazawa, T; Muya, H; Murakami, Y
Rats were fed 20 or 70% casein diets with varying amounts of vitamin B6 (B6), and the B6 content and B6-dependent enzymatic activity in their tissues were examined to determine the minimum requirement of B6 for animals subjected to different levels of dietary protein (i.e., 20%: 0, 1.45, 2.90, 5.80 mg pyridoxine (PN)/kg diet; 70%: 0, 2.90, 5.80, 8.70 mg PN/kg diet). B6 requirements for the rats were almost met in the 1.45 mg PN/kg 20% casein diet and the 2.90 mg PN/kg 70% casein diet when judged from the hepatic B6 content. However, almost twice the PN was required in both 20 and 70% casein diets when judged from PLP-enzymatic activity. The content of B6 vitamers in plasma appeared to be most sensitive to B6 status, though the satisfactory level is not known. It was confirmed that, in any case tested, a high-protein diet increased the requirement of B6.
Wei, Yalan; Huang, Ling; Cao, Jinghui; Wang, Chenghui; Yan, Jizhou
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is facing with growing demands of aquaculture and aquatic products. Although various genetically modified (GM) aquatics have been generated, it is important to evaluate biosafety of GM organisms on the human health before entering into our food chain. For this purpose, we establish a zebrafish wild adult feeding Flk1-transgenic larvae model to examine the predatory fish's histology in multiple tissues, and the global gene expression profile in the liver. 180 days of feeding trial show that there are no significantly morphological changes in intestine, liver, kidney, and sex gonads between fish fed with Flk1 transgenic fish diet (TFD) and fish fed with regular food meal (RFM). However, a characteristic skin spot and autofluorescence increase in the theca of follicle are observed in F1 generation of TFD fish. Liver RNA-sequencing analyses demonstrate that 53 out of 56712 genes or isoforms are differentially transcribed, and mostly involved in proteolysis in extracellular region. According to GO enrichment terms these deregulated genes function in catalytic activity, steroid storing, lipid metabolic process and N-Glycan biosynthesis. These results suggest that a long term of Flk1-transgenic fish diet could alter certain metabolic pathways and possibly cause related tissue deformation. Compared to the previous reports, our feasible transgenic dietary assess system could evaluate subchronic and potential health impact of transgenic fish diet by combining multi-tissue histology and liver transcriptome analyses.
Emous, van R.A.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Hendriks, W.H.
A study with a 2 × 3 × 2 factorial arrangement was conducted to determine the effects of 2 dietary protein levels (high = CPh and low = CPl) during rearing, 3 dietary energy levels (3,000, MEh1; 2,800, MEs1; and 2,600, MEl1, kcal/kg AMEn, respectively) during the first phase of lay, and 2 dietary
... sodium, potassium, phosphorus, and calcium and insufficient levels of iron, vitamin C, and linoleic acid for human infant requirements. Consequently, the early introduction of unmodified cow milk is associated with risks of iron deficiency anaemia, protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome and increased renal solute load.
Kar, S.K.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Boeren, S.; Kruijt, L.; Smits, M.A.
Replacement of current protein resources for novel or alternative sources may be one of the solutions to abolish the expected scarcity of dietary protein for animal feeds. However, little is known about the nutritional, protein composition, and potential functional value of such novel or
Energy deficit and dietary macronutrient intake are thought to independently modulate cognition, mood and sleep. To what extent manipulating the dietary ratio of protein-to-carbohydrate affects mood, cognition and sleep during short-term energy deficit is undetermined. Using a randomized, block desi...
Schepens, Marloes A. A.; Vink, Carolien; Schonewille, Arjan J.; Dijkstra, Gerard; van der Meer, Roelof; Bovee-Oudenhoven, Ingeborg M. J.
Objective: Research on dietary modulation of inflammatory bowel disease is in its infancy. Dietary heme, mimicking red meat, is cytotoxic to colonic epithelium and thus may aggravate colitis. Alternatively, heme-induced colonic stress might also result in potential protective heat-shock proteins
Stelt, van der B.; Vliet, van P.C.J.; Reijs, J.W.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.
Adjusting dietary composition is considered an effective way to reduce nutrient losses to the environment. The effects of various dietary protein and energy levels on manure composition (Ca, Mg, K, Na, N, P, and pH) were studied by determining total and direct available (free) nutrient
Lasker, Denise Ann
The goal of this dissertation was to investigate the impact of changing dietary carbohydrate (CARB) intakes within recommended dietary guidelines on metabolic outcomes specifically associated with glycemic regulations and carbohydrate metabolism. This research utilized both human and animal studies to examine changes in metabolism across a wide…
Rosebrough, R W; Poch, S M; Russell, B A; Richards, M P
The purpose of this experiment was to determine the possible relationship between certain indices of lipid metabolism and specific gene expression in chickens fed graded levels of dietary crude protein. Male, broiler chickens growing from 7 to 28 days of age were fed diets containing 12, 21 or 30% protein ad libitum. In addition, another group of birds was fed on a regimen consisting of a daily change in the dietary protein level (12 or 30%). This latter group was further subdivided such that one-half of the birds received each level of protein on alternating days. Birds were sampled from 28 to 30 days of age. Measurements taken included in vitro lipogenesis, malic enzyme activity the expression of the genes for malic enzyme, fatty acid synthase and acetyl coenzyme carboxylase. In vitro lipogenesis and malic enzyme activity were inversely related to dietary protein levels (12-30%) and to acute changes from 12 to 30%. In contrast, expression of malic enzyme, fatty acid synthase and acetyl CoA carboxylase genes were constant over a dietary protein range of 12-21%, but decreased by feeding a 30% protein diet (acute or chronic feeding). Results of the present study demonstrate a continued role for protein in the regulation of broiler metabolism. It should be pointed out, however, that metabolic regulation at the gene level only occurs when feeding very high levels of dietary protein.
Meyer, Rosan; Venter, Carina; Fox, Adam T; Shah, Neil
Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) affects between 1.9 and 4.9% of infants and young children. This food allergy requires the complete elimination of cow's milk and its derivatives, impacting on nutritional status. The risk of having protein energy malnutrition (PEM) in children with CMPA has been well documented. In 2007, the World Health Organisation published guidelines on the dietary management of PEM, which has impacted on the recommendations and composition on specialist feeds for many chronic diseases, but not on CMPA. The main change in management of the child with PEM is the protein energy ratio and energy requirements. The ideal protein energy ratio lies between 8.9 and 11.5%, which would ensure a deposition of about 70% lean and 30% fat mass. In addition, for optimal catch-up growth between 5 and 10 g/kg/day, energy requirements should be between 105 and 126 kcal/kg/day. Although most current hypoallergenic formulas fall well within the recommendation for protein, there is a problem in achieving energy requirements. As a result, modular additions are often made, disturbing the protein energy ratio or feeds are concentrated, which impacts on osmolality. We therefore aimed to review current guidelines on PEM and how these can be applied in the management of the malnourished child with CMPA. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Ozawa, Mio; Yoshida, Daigo; Hata, Jun; Ohara, Tomoyuki; Mukai, Naoko; Shibata, Mao; Uchida, Kazuhiro; Nagata, Masashi; Kitazono, Takanari; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Ninomiya, Toshiharu
The influence of dietary protein intake on stroke risk is an area of interest. We investigated the association between dietary protein intake and stroke risk in Japanese, considering sources of protein. A total of 2400 subjects aged 40 to 79 years were followed up for 19 years. Dietary protein intake was estimated using a 70-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. The risk estimates for incident stroke and its subtypes were calculated using a Cox proportional hazards model. During the follow-up, 254 participants experienced stroke events; of these, 172 had ischemic stroke, and 58 had intracerebral hemorrhage. Higher total protein intake was significantly associated with lower risks of stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage (both P for trend protein, the risks of total stroke and ischemic stroke significantly decreased by 40% (95% confidence interval, 12%-59%) and 40% (5%-62%), respectively, in subjects with the highest quartile of vegetable protein intake compared with those with the lowest one. In contrast, subjects with the highest quartile of animal protein intake had a 53% (4%-77%) lower risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. Vegetable protein intake was positively correlated with intakes of soybean products, vegetable, and algae, whereas animal protein intake was positively correlated with intakes of fish, meat, eggs, and milk/dairy products. Both types of protein intakes were negatively correlated with intakes of rice and alcohol. Our findings suggest that higher dietary protein intake is associated with a reduced risk of stroke in the general Japanese population. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Gillen, Jenna B.; Trommelen, Jorn; Wardenaar, Floris C.; Brinkmans, Naomi Y.J.; Versteegen, Joline J.; Jonvik, Kristin L.; Kapp, Christoph; Vries, de Jeanne; Borne, van den Joost J.G.C.; Gibala, Martin J.; Loon, van Luc J.C.
Dietary protein intake should be optimized in all athletes to ensure proper recovery and enhance the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training. In addition to total protein intake, the use of specific proteincontaining food sources and the distribution of protein throughout the day
BRACKGROUND: Protein is posited to play a dynamic role in energy balance and reward-driven eating behavior. However, little is known about the effect of increasing protein intake on snack food reinforcement. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the extent to which increasing dietary protein changes th...
The study was to ascertain the effect of quality and quantity of dietary protein on body growth, organ cellular and cytoplasmic size, serum protein concentration and molecular weights, erythrocyte fragility and bone mineralisation. Diets containing 20, 17 and 15% protein were fed to Sprague Dawley Albino rats weighing ...
Khan, Ikhlas A; Smillie, Troy
Natural products have provided a basis for health care and medicine to humankind since the beginning of civilization. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 80% of the world population still relies on herbal medicines for health-related benefits. In the United States, over 42% of the population claimed to have used botanical dietary supplements to either augment their current diet or to "treat" or "prevent" a particular health-related issue. This has led to the development of a burgeoning industry in the U.S. ($4.8 billion per year in 2008) to supply dietary supplements to the consumer. However, many commercial botanical products are poorly defined scientifically, and the consumer must take it on faith that the supplement they are ingesting is an accurate representation of what is listed on the label, and that it contains the purportedly "active" constituents they seek. Many dietary supplement manufacturers, academic research groups, and governmental organizations are progressively attempting to construct a better scientific understanding of natural products, herbals, and botanical dietary supplements that have co-evolved with Western-style pharmaceutical medicines. However, a deficiency of knowledge is still evident, and this issue needs to be addressed in order to achieve a significant level of safety, efficacy, and quality for commercial natural products. The authors contend that a "quality by design" approach for botanical dietary supplements should be implemented in order to ensure the safety and integrity of these products. Initiating this approach with the authentication of the starting plant material is an essential first step, and in this review several techniques that can aid in this endeavor are outlined.
Wang, Ping; Holst, Claus; Astrup, Arne
Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, a high-protein and low-glycaemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance. The objective of the present study was to identify (1) blood profiles associated with continued weight loss and weight regain (2......), evenly selected from four dietary groups that varied in protein and GI levels. The blood concentrations of twenty-nine proteins and three steroid hormones were measured. The changes in analytes during weight maintenance largely correlated negatively with the changes during weight loss, with some...
Teunissen-Beekman, Karianna F. M.; Dopheide, Janneke; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Brink, Elizabeth J.; de Leeuw, Peter W.; van Baak, Marleen A.
Background: Dietary protein intake may help to manage blood pressure (BP) and prevent complications associated with elevated BR Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether 4 wk of increased protein intake (similar to 25% compared with similar to 15% of energy intake that
Teunissen-Beekman, K.F.M.; Dopheide, J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Brink, E.J.; Leeuw, de P.W.; Baak, van M.A.
Background: Dietary protein intake may help to manage blood pressure (BP) and prevent complications associated with elevated BP. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether 4 wk of increased protein intake (~25% compared with ~15% of energy intake that isoenergetically replaces
Teunissen-Beekman, K.F.M.; Dopheide, J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Brink, E.J.; Leeuw, P.W. de; Baak, M.A. van
Background: Dietary protein intake may help to manage blood pressure (BP) and prevent complications associated with elevated BP. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether 4 wk of increased protein intake (∼25% compared with ;15% of energy intake that isoenergetically replaces
Orwoll, E; Ware, M; Stribrska, L; Bikle, D; Sanchez, T; Andon, M; Li, H
The effects of dietary protein restriction on mineral and bone metabolism are uncharacterized. We studied growing rats fed a diet low in protein (5%) for 4, 6, and 8 wks (n = 10 animals/group) and compared them with animals pair-fed with a protein-replete (18%) diet. The low-protein diet rapidly induced a profound hypocalciuria that persisted for greater than or equal to 8 wk. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were not affected but serum total and free 25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations as well as gastrointestinal calcium absorption were lower in the low-protein animals. Skeletal dimensions were reduced in the protein-deprived rats but there were no significant differences in bone mineral content between control and low-protein animals at 4, 6, and 8 wks. Hence, dietary protein deprivation resulted in slower growth but bone mineral density was maintained when there was a marked reduction in urinary calcium excretion.
Meinertz, Hans; Nilausen, Karin; Hilden, Jørgen
We previously found that dietary soy protein produces higher lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] plasma concentrations than does casein. This study tested the hypothesis that soy protein contains Lp(a)-raising alcohol-removable components. Twelve normolipidemic women and men consumed, in a crossover design......, liquid-formula diets containing casein, soy protein, or alcohol-extracted soy protein. Dietary periods of 32 days were separated by washout periods on self-selected diets. Fasting lipid and Lp(a) levels were measured throughout. Median Lp(a) concentration was >2-fold greater after 28 to 32 days on a soy...... protein diet than after an extracted soy protein diet (Psoy protein diets were virtually identical. Women and men responded similarly. When the switch was made from a self-selected to a soy protein diet, median Lp(a) concentration increased 16...
Full Text Available The susceptibility of a dietary protein to proteolytic degradation by digestive enzymes, such as gastric pepsin, provides information on the likelihood of systemic exposure to a structurally intact and biologically active macromolecule, thus informing on the safety of proteins for human and animal consumption. Therefore, the purpose of standardized in vitro degradation studies that are performed during protein safety assessments is to distinguish whether proteins of interest are susceptible or resistant to pepsin degradation via a study design that enables study-to-study comparison. Attempting to assess pepsin degradation under a wide-range of possible physiological conditions poses a problem because of the lack of robust and consistent data collected under a large-range of sub-optimal conditions, which undermines the needs to harmonize in vitro degradation conditions. This report systematically compares the effects of pH, incubation time, and pepsin-to-substrate protein ratio on the relative degradation of five dietary proteins: three pepsin susceptible proteins [ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco, horseradish peroxidase (HRP, hemoglobin (Hb], and two pepsin resistant proteins [lipid transfer protein (LTP and soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI]. The results indicate that proteins susceptible to pepsin degradation are readily distinguishable from pepsin-resistant proteins when the reaction conditions are within the well-characterized optima for pepsin. The current standardized in vitro pepsin resistant assay with low pH and high pepsin-to-substrate ratio fits this purpose. Using non-optimal pH and/or pepsin-to-substrate protein ratios resulted in susceptible proteins no longer being reliably degraded by this stomach enzyme, which compromises the ability of this in vitro assay to distinguish between resistant and susceptible proteins and, therefore, no longer providing useful data to an overall weight-of-evidence approach to
F.E. Van Niekerk
Full Text Available Sixty-four Thoroughbred and Anglo-Arab mares aged 6-12 years were used, of which 40 were non-lactating and 24 lactating. Foals from these 24 mares were weaned at the age of 6 months. Non-lactating and lactating mares were divided into 4 dietary groups each. The total daily protein intake and the protein quality (essential amino-acid content differed in the 4 groups of non-lactating and 4 groups of lactating mares. The mares were covered and the effect of the quantity and quality of dietary protein on serum progestagen concentrations during pregnancy was studied. A sharp decline in serum progestagen concentrations was recorded in all dietary groups from Days 18 to 40 of pregnancy, with some individual mares reaching values of less than 4 ng/mℓ. Serum progestagen concentrations recorded in some of the non-lactating mares on the low-quality protein diet increased to higher values (p<0.05 than those of mares in the other 3 dietary groups at 35-140 days of pregnancy. A similar trend was observed for the lactating mares on a low-quality protein diet at 30-84 days of pregnancy. No such trends were observed in any of the other dietary groups. High-quality protein supplementation increased serum progestagen concentrations during the 1st 30 days of pregnancy. Lactation depressed serum progestagen concentrations until after the foals were weaned.
Altorf-van der Kuil, W.; Engberink, M.F.; Vedder, M.M.; Boer, J.M.A.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.
Background - Little is known about the relation of different dietary protein types with blood pressure (BP). We examined whether intake of total, plant, animal, dairy, meat, and grain protein was related to BP in a cross sectional cohort of 20,820 Dutch adults, aged 20–65 y and not using
Gravador, Rufielyn Sungcaya; Jongberg, Sisse; Andersen, Mogens Larsen
. The citrus pulp groups, Cp24 and Cp35, significantly decreased protein radicals and carbonyls, and preserved more thiols within six days of storage compared to the Control group. The citrus pulp groups significantly slowed down the rate of protein oxidation, indicating that dietary citrus pulp reduced...
Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Mortensen, Lene S; Astrup, Arne
Non-fasting triglyceridemia is much closer associated to cardiovascular risk compared to fasting triglyceridemia. We hypothesized that there would be acute differential effects of four common dietary proteins (cod protein, whey isolate, gluten, and casein) on postprandial lipemia in obese non......-diabetic subjects. To test the hypothesis we conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study with crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins i.e. cod protein, whey protein, gluten or casein. Eleven obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, body mass index: 30.......3-42.0 kg/m(2)) participated and blood samples were drawn in the 8-h postprandial period. Supplementation of a fat rich mixed meal with whey protein caused lower postprandial lipemia (P = .048) compared to supplementation with cod protein and gluten. This was primarily due to lower triglyceride...
Xu, Xiaoyue; Hall, John; Byles, Julie; Shi, Zumin
Epidemiological data of dietary patterns and anaemia among older Chinese remains extremely scarce. We examined the association between dietary patterns and anaemia in older Chinese, and to assess whether biomarkers of serum magnesium, C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum ferritin can mediate these associations. We analysed the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey data (2401 individuals aged ≥60 years for whom both dietary and biomarker data are available). Dietary data was obtained using 24 h-recall over three consecutive days. Fasting blood samples and anthropometry measurement were also collected. Factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Factor scores representing dietary patterns were used in Poisson regression models to explore the association between each dietary pattern and anaemia. Of the 2401 participants, 18.9% had anaemia, 1.9% had anaemia related to inflammation (AI), and 1.3% had iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA). A traditional dietary pattern (high intake of rice, pork and vegetables) was positively associated with anaemia; a modern dietary pattern (high intake of fruit and fast food) was inversely associated with anaemia. Progressively lower magnesium and BMI levels were associated with increasing traditional dietary quartiles; while a progressively higher magnesium and BMI levels were associated with increasing modern dietary quartiles (p 0.05) in CRP and serum ferritin across quartiles for either dietary pattern. In the fully adjusted model, the prevalence ratio (PR) of anaemia, comparing the fourth quartile to the first quartile, was 1.75 (95% CI: 1.33; 2.29) for a traditional dietary pattern, and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.68; 1.16) for a modern dietary pattern. The association between dietary patterns and anaemia is mediated by serum magnesium. Traditional dietary pattern is associated with a higher prevalence of anaemia among older Chinese. Future studies need to examine whether correcting micronutrient deficiency (e.g. magnesium) by
sasas.co.za/sajas.asp. 185. Interactive effect of dietary .... frequency of 12.5 Hz and classified as per SA Carcass Classification Standards. Warm carcass and cold .... Recent developments in the use and abuse of growth promoters. Anal. Chim.
research is needed to investigate the mechanism(s) of how dietary CP affects the thyroid. Acknowledgments. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Degussa AG and its technical service manager in Iran, Ali. Afsar, for conducting the amino acid analyses of our feedstuffs and providing crystalline amino acids. References.
Kang, C.W.; Tungsanga, K.; Walser, M.
The efficiency of alpha-ketoisocaproate (KIC) as a dietary substitute for leucine in rats on varying protein intake was estimated by an isotopic method, previously shown to yield the same results as comparative growth experiments. /sup 14/C-KIC and /sup 3/H-leucine are injected orally. Six hours later the ratio, R, of /sup 14/C//sup 3/H in isolated proteins, divided by the same ratio in the injectate is measured. This ratio has been shown to be approximately equal to nutritional efficiency of KIC relative to leucine. As dietary protein increased from 6.3% to 48.3%, whole body protein R decreased from 0.515 +/- 0.045 to 0.299 +/- 0.016. Variations with protein intake were noted in R of protein isolated from individual organs. The magnitude of R in these organs varied two-fold, in the following sequence: brain greater than heart greater than or equal to skeletal muscle greater than or equal to salivary gland greater than or equal to kidney greater than liver. Whole body protein R could be confidently predicted (r2 = 0.992) from R in the protein of kidney and muscle. Thus, the nutritional efficiency of KIC as a dietary substitute for leucine in individual organs as well as in the whole animal is strongly dependent on the level of protein intake.
Trommelen, Jorn; Kouw, Imre W K; Holwerda, Andrew M; Snijders, Tim; Halson, Shona L; Rollo, Ian; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of ingesting 30 g casein protein with and without 2 g free leucine prior to sleep on myofibrillar protein synthesis rates during post-exercise overnight recovery. 36 healthy young males performed a single bout of resistance-type exercise in the evening (19:45 h) after a full day of dietary standardization. Thirty min prior to sleep (23:30 h), subjects ingested 30 g intrinsically L-[1- 13 C]-phenylalanine-labeled protein with (PRO+leu, n=12) or without (PRO, n=12) 2 g free leucine, or a noncaloric placebo (PLA, n=12). Continuous intravenous L-[ring- 2 H 5 ]-phenylalanine, L-[1- 13 C]-leucine and L-[ring- 2 H 2 ]-tyrosine infusions were applied. Blood and muscle tissue samples were collected to assess whole-body protein net balance, myofibrillar protein synthesis rates and overnight incorporation of dietary protein-derived amino acids into myofibrillar protein. Protein ingestion prior to sleep improved overnight whole-body protein net balance (Psleep improves whole-body protein net balance and provides amino acids that are incorporated into myofibrillar protein during sleep. However, the ingestion of 30 g casein protein with or without additional free leucine prior to sleep does not increase muscle protein synthesis rates during post-exercise overnight recovery.
Damgaard, B.M.; Clausen, T.N.; Dietz, Hans Henrik
Effects of dietary protein levels ranging from 35% to 15% of metabolizable energy (ME) and dietary fat levels ranging in a reciprocal fashion from 47% to 67% of ME, and a constant dietary carbohydrate level of 18% of ME were investigated in male mink kits in the growing-furring period. Growth...
Emous, Van Rick A.; Kwakkel, René; Krimpen, van Marinus; Hendriks, Wouter
An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different dietary protein levels during rearing and different dietary energy levels during lay on behaviour and feather cover in broiler breeder females. A 2×3×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used. A total of 2880 Ross 308
This introductory review gives an overview on protein metabolism, and discusses protein quality, sources, and requirements as well as the results from recent studies on Swiss spontaneous protein consumption. To assess protein quality in protein mixes and foods, the "protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score" (PDCAAS) is presented as a valuable tool in addition to the biological value (BV). Considering protein intake recommendations, the lower limit recommended has been defined according to the minimal amount needed to maintain short-term nitrogen balance in healthy people with moderate activity. Evaluation of intakes in Switzerland from food consumption data is about 90 g/day of protein per person. Two-thirds of proteins consumed in Switzerland are animal proteins with high biological value [meat and meat products (28 %), milk and dairy products (28 %), fish (3 %), and eggs (3 %)] and about 1/3 of proteins are of plant origin (25 % of cereals, 3 - 4 % of vegetables). Actual spontaneous protein consumption in Switzerland by specific groups of subjects is well within the actual recommendations (10 - 20 % of energy) with only the frail elderly being at risk of not covering their requirements for protein.
Increased protein intake resulted into incresed rate of heat production and protein energy retention and low rate of fat energy retention. The energy requirement for maintenance was slightly lower in animals fed on the high compared with those on low-protein diets. The partial efficiency of ME utilisation for growth, was poor ...
Apr 24, 2012 ... Tel: 9018877446. loss of weight due to withdrawal of protein from less vital tissues to maintain the functions of more vital tissues. On the other hand, if too much protein is supplied in the diet, only part of it will be used to make new proteins and the remainder will be catabolized to produce energy (Alatise.
Experiments were conducted with young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) to investigate the effect of differing dietary protein levels and nondetrimental amounts of excess methionine on choline needs. Growth and feed consumption of quail fed an adequate (27.3%) protein purified diet supplemented with 2000 mg/kg of choline were unaffected by increasing the level of excess methionine to 1.75%; however, greater amounts (2.0%, 2.25%) of excess methionine depressed growth (P less than .01), reduced feed consumption (P less than .01), and decreased feed utilization (P less than .05). Quail fed a purified diet containing 13.85% protein and 515 mg/kg of choline grew poorly. Growth was unaffected by additional choline in this diet. Growth was suboptimal among quail fed purified diets containing adequate or high (41.55%) levels of protein in which choline was limiting; however, a high level of protein did not in itself affect performance. Growth was improved by supplemental choline in these diets. Growth of quail fed purified diets with up to 1.35% excess methionine which were limiting (531 mg/kg) in choline was less than that of groups fed 2000 mg/kg of added dietary choline (P less than .01); however, excess methionine did not significantly influence growth of quail fed choline-deficient diets. These experiments indicate that neither high dietary protein nor excess methionine, fed at non-growth-depressing levels, increases dietary choline needs for young Bobwhite quail.
Herring, Cassandra M; Bazer, Fuller W; Johnson, Gregory A; Wu, Guoyao
Maternal nutrition during gestation, especially dietary protein intake, is a key determinant in embryonic survival, growth, and development. Low maternal dietary protein intake can cause embryonic losses, intra-uterine growth restriction, and reduced postnatal growth due to a deficiency in specific amino acids that are important for cell metabolism and function. Of note, high maternal dietary protein intake can also result in intra-uterine growth restriction and embryonic death, due to amino acid excesses, as well as the toxicity of ammonia, homocysteine, and H 2 S that are generated from amino acid catabolism. Maternal protein nutrition has a pronounced impact on fetal programming and alters the expression of genes in the fetal genome. As a precursor to the synthesis of molecules (e.g. nitric oxide, polyamines, and creatine) with cell signaling and metabolic functions, L-arginine (Arg) is essential during pregnancy for growth and development of the conceptus. With inadequate maternal dietary protein intake, Arg and other important amino acids are deficient in mother and fetus. Dietary supplementation of Arg during gestation has been effective in improving embryonic survival and development of the conceptus in many species, including humans, pigs, sheep, mice, and rats. Both the balance among amino acids and their quantity are critical for healthy pregnancies and offspring. Impact statement This review aims at: highlighting adverse effects of elevated levels of ammonia in mother or fetus on embryonic/fetal survival, growth, and development; helping nutritionists and practitioners to understand the mechanisms whereby elevated levels of ammonia in mother or fetus results in embryonic/fetal death, growth restriction, and developmental abnormalities; and bringing, into the attention of nutritionists and practitioners, the problems of excess or inadequate dietary intake of protein or amino acids on pregnancy outcomes in animals and humans. The article provides new
Ruiz Valenzuela RE
Full Text Available Roxana E Ruiz Valenzuela, José A Ponce, Gloria Guadalupe Morales-Figueroa, Karina Aguilar Muro, Virginia Ramírez Carreón, Heliodoro Alemán-Mateo Nutrition and Metabolism Department, Division of Nutrition, Research Center for Food and Development, Hermosillo, Sonora, México Background: Both low dietary protein intake and inadequate distribution of protein over the three mealtimes have been reported in older Caucasian adults, but the association between protein intake at each meal and muscle mass has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate dietary protein intake and distribution by mealtimes, and to explore their association with appendicular skeletal muscle mass in apparently healthy older adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional pilot study that included 78 people over the age of 60 years. Caloric and protein intake were estimated on the basis of three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls and appendicular skeletal muscle mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: Men consumed 13.4 g of protein/day more than women (P < 0.05. The estimated value of dietary protein intake was 0.9 g/kg/day. In this sample, 28% of subjects did not cover 100% of the dietary reference intake for protein. Lower consumption of dietary protein was found at breakfast and dinnertime compared with the recommended amount of 25–30 g (P < 0.05. Also, the study observed that appendicular skeletal muscle mass in men and women who consumed <25 g of protein at each mealtime was different from that found in the group that consumed >25 g of protein at one, two, or three mealtimes. Conclusion: While protein intake was higher than current recommendations, it failed to achieve the values reported as necessary to prevent sarcopenia. In addition, there was under-consumption of protein per mealtime, especially at breakfast and dinner. Keywords: dietary protein intake, older adults, appendicular skeletal muscle mass
Finco, D R; Brown, S A; Crowell, W A; Duncan, R J; Barsanti, J A; Bennett, S E
Four diets were formulated to contain: 16% protein and 0.4% phosphorus--diet 1; 16% protein and 1.4% phosphorus--diet 2; 32% protein and 0.4% phosphorus--diet 3; and 32% protein and 1.4% phosphorus--diet 4. Forty-eight dogs were fed diet 1 for 3 months after surgical reduction of renal mass, then were allotted to 4 groups of 12 dogs each, with equal mean values for glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Dog of groups 1-4 were fed diets 1-4, respectively, for 24 months. Data collected from the dogs during and at termination of the study were analyzed statistically for effects of dietary protein, phosphorus (P), time, and interactions between these factors. During the 24 months of study, 24 dogs developed uremia and were euthanatized for necropsy. Necropsy also was performed on the remaining 24 dogs after they were euthanatized at the end of the study. Dog survival was significantly enhanced by 0.4% P diets (vs 1.4% P diets), but survival was not significantly influenced by amount of dietary protein. The 0.4% P diets (vs 1.4% P diets) significantly increased the period that GFR remained stable before it decreased, but dietary protein did not have significant effect. Significant blood biochemical changes attributed to P, protein, and time were identified during the study. Terminally, plasma parathyroid hormone concentration was significantly increased from prediet values in all groups of dogs. Urine protein excretion was not significantly affected by dietary amount of either protein or P, when measured by either timed urine collection or urine protein-to-creatinine ratio.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Kniskern, Megan A; Johnston, Carol S
The health benefits of vegetarian diets are well-recognized; however, long-term adherence to these diets may be associated with nutrient inadequacies, particularly vitamins B12 and D, calcium, iron, zinc, and protein. The dietary reference intakes (DRIs) expert panels recommended adjustments to the iron, zinc, and calcium DRIs for vegetarians to account for decreased bioavailability, but no adjustments were considered necessary for the protein DRI under the assumption that vegetarians consume about 50% of protein from animal (dairy/egg) sources. This study examined dietary protein sources in a convenience sample of 21 young adult vegetarian women who completed food logs on 4 consecutive days (3 weekdays and 1 weekend day). The daily contribution percentages of protein consumed from cereals, legumes, nuts/seeds, fruits/vegetables, and dairy/egg were computed, and the protein digestibility corrected amino acid score of the daily diets was calculated. The calculated total dietary protein digestibility score for participants was 82 ± 1%, which differed significantly (P bioavailability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sørensen, Allan; Mayntz, David; Simpson, Stephen James
Some vertebrates change the size of their digestive system in response to quantity and fibre content of ingested food, but the effects of dietary nutrients on gut structure remain poorly understood. Here we investigate how the protein to carbohydrate ratio of diets affects the mass of the gastroi......Some vertebrates change the size of their digestive system in response to quantity and fibre content of ingested food, but the effects of dietary nutrients on gut structure remain poorly understood. Here we investigate how the protein to carbohydrate ratio of diets affects the mass...
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether nutrient digestibility and reproductive performance of pregnant mink (Neovison vison were affected by different dietary protein levels. One hundred and twenty female mink were randomly assigned to four groups, receiving diets of fresh material with different protein levels. The dietary protein levels, expressed as percentage of dry matter (DM, were 32, 36, 40 and 44% respectively. These values corresponded to average 320, 360, 400 and 440 g protein/kg DM, respectively. Results were as follows. All of crude protein digestibility, nitrogen (N intake, N retention increased along with dietary protein level increasing. Low protein level (32% significantly reduced the above indicators (P < 0.05. DM digestibility and ether extract digestibility were not affected by dietary protein level. Results of mated females, barren females, kids per litter, live born kids per mated female, birth survival rate, and birth weight showed that mink achieved optimal reproductive performance when dietary protein level was 36%. In conclusion, dietary protein was anticipated to significantly influence some nutrients' utilization. Adopting the appropriate dietary protein level allow better reproduction performance. The most preferable reproductive performance was achieved when diet contained 275.5 g digestible protein per kg DM for female mink in gestation.
VanderMolen, Karen M; Little, Jason G; Sica, Vincent P; El-Elimat, Tamam; Raja, Huzefa A; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Baker, Timothy R; Mahony, Catherine
Despite growing popularity in dietary supplements, many medicinal mushrooms have not been evaluated for their safe human consumption using modern techniques. The multifaceted approach described here relies on five key principles to evaluate the safety of non-culinary fungi for human use: (1) identification by sequencing the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (commonly referred to as ITS barcoding), (2) screening an extract of each fungal raw material against a database of known fungal metabolites, (3) comparison of these extracts to those prepared from grocery store-bought culinary mushrooms using UHPLCPDA-ELS-HRMS, (4) review of the toxicological and chemical literature for each fungus, and (5) evaluation of data establishing presence in-market. This weight-of-evidence approach was used to evaluate seven fungal raw materials and determine safe human use for each. Such an approach may provide an effective alternative to conventional toxicological animal studies (or more efficiently identifies when studies are necessary) for the safety assessment of fungal dietary ingredients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Gurley, Bill J; Steelman, Susan C; Thomas, Sheila L
Our objective was to review the history, safety, and efficacy of caffeine-containing dietary supplements in the United States and Canada. PubMed and Web of Science databases (1980-2014) were searched for articles related to the pharmacology, toxicology, and efficacy of caffeine-containing dietary supplements with an emphasis on Ephedra-containing supplements, Ephedra-free supplements, and energy drinks or shots. Among the first and most successful dietary supplements to be marketed in the United States were those containing Ephedra—combinations of ephedrine alkaloids, caffeine, and other phytochemicals. A decade after their inception, serious tolerability concerns prompted removal of Ephedra supplements from the US and Canadian markets. Ephedra-free products, however, quickly filled this void. Ephedra-free supplements typically contain multiple caffeine sources in conjunction with other botanical extracts whose purposes can often be puzzling and their pharmacologic properties difficult to predict. Ingestion of these products in the form of tablets, capsules, or other solid dosage forms as weight loss aids, exercise performance enhancers, or energy boosters have once again brought their tolerability and efficacy into question. In addition to Ephedra-free solid dosage forms, caffeine-containing energy drinks have gained a foothold in the world market along with concerns about their tolerability. This review addresses some of the pharmacologic and pharmaceutical issues that distinguish caffeine-containing dietary supplement formulations from traditional caffeine-containing beverages. Such distinctions may account for the increasing tolerability concerns affiliated with these products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.
Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Müller, Martha; Ritz, Christian
For decades, it has been debated whether high protein intake compromises bone mineralisation, but no long-term randomised trial has investigated this in children. In the family-based, randomised controlled trial DiOGenes (Diet, Obesity and Genes), we examined the effects of dietary protein...... and glycaemic index (GI) on biomarkers of bone turnover and height in children aged 5-18 years. In two study centres, families with overweight parents were randomly assigned to one of five ad libitum-energy, low-fat (25-30 % energy (E%)) diets for 6 months: low protein/low GI; low protein/high GI; high protein...
Little, Jason G; Marsman, Daniel S; Baker, Timothy R; Mahony, Catherine
Botanicals used in dietary supplements industry can have toxicology concerns related to endpoint gaps that cannot be fully resolved by a history of use, or existence of conflicting safety data. However, traditional toxicological studies on botanicals are scientifically and pragmatically challenging due to testing of complex mixtures of constituents, cost, time, and animal usage. Alternatively, we developed an in silico decision-tree approach to address data gaps and inform need for further studies by toxicologically evaluating the chemical composition of botanicals. Following advanced multi-detector analytical characterization of a botanical, each chemical constituent is: (a.) quantitatively benchmarked against similar constituents in commonly consumed foods or botanicals with well-established safety profiles, (b.) systematically evaluated for toxicity data utilizing structure-activity relationships, and, (c.) compared to established thresholds of toxicological concern in absence of safety data or structural analogs. Finally, where safety endpoint gaps are identified which cannot be resolved without additional in vitro or in vivo studies, the botanical compositional data are critical to inform on study design. Results with three herbal preparations demonstrate the utility of this novel approach to identify potential hazards and establish safe human use levels for botanicals in a cost efficient and informative manner that minimizes animal use. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Bounous, G.; Shenouda, N.; Kongshavn, P.A.; Osmond, D.G.
The effect of 20 g/100 g dietary lactalbumin (L) or casein (C) diets or a nonpurified (NP) diet on the immune responsiveness of C57Bl/6J, C3H/HeJ and BALB/cJ mice has been investigated by measuring the response to the T cell-independent antigen, TNP-Ficoll. To investigate the possible influence of dietary protein type on the supply of B lymphocytes, bone marrow lymphocyte production has been examined by a radioautographic assay of small lymphocyte renewal and an immunofluorescent stathmokinetic assay of pre-B cells and their proliferation. The humoral response of all mice fed the L diet was found to be higher than that of mice fed the C diet or nonpurified diet. A similar pattern of dietary protein effect in (CBA/N X DBA/2J) F1 mice carrying the xid defect was observed following challenge with sheep red blood cells (SRBC). An even greater enhancing effect of dietary L was noted in normal (DBA/2J X CBA/N) F1 mice after immunization with SRBC, but in contrast, the normal large-scale production of B lymphocytes in mouse bone marrow was independent of the type of dietary protein. Dietary protein type did not affect blood level of minerals and trace metals. The free plasma amino acid profile essentially conformed to the amino acid composition of the ingested protein, suggesting that the changes in plasma amino acid profile might be a crucial factor in diet-dependent enhancement or depression of the B-cell response
Yamada, Keiko; Takeda, Takashi
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is psychosomatic disorder that are limited to the late luteal phase in the menstrual cycle. PMS could impair athletic performance. To investigate associations between proportions of dietary plant and animal protein and PMS-related impairment of athletic performance, we surveyed 135 female athletes aged 18-23 years attending Kindai University. Participants belonged to authorized university clubs, all of which have high rankings in Japanese university sports. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires on diet history, demographics, and PMS-related impairment of athletic performance. Total protein, animal protein, and plant protein intake were examined, and the proportion of dietary plant protein was calculated for each participant. We divided athletes into two groups: those without PMS-related impairment of athletic performance (n = 117) and those with PMS-related performance impairment (n = 18). A t-test was used to compare mean values and multivariable adjusted mean values between groups; adjustment variables were energy intake, body mass index, and daily training duration. Total protein intake was not significantly different between the groups. However, athletes whose performance was affected by PMS reported higher intake of animal protein (mean 50.6 g) than athletes whose performance was unaffected by PMS (mean 34.9 g). Plant protein intake was lower among athletes with PMS-related impairment (mean 25.4 g) than among athletes without impairment (mean 26.9 g). The proportion of dietary plant protein was lower among athletes with PMS-related impairment (39.3%) than those without impairment (45.9%). A low proportion of dietary plant protein may cause PMS-related athletic impairment among athletes.
Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Marino, R; Sevi, A; Albenzio, M
The aim of the present research was to evaluate the effects of protein level and flaxseed supplementation on the yield and quality of buffalo milk. In particular, the fatty acid profile of milk from buffalo cows subjected to different diets has been investigated. A 2×3 factorial design was tested with buffalo cows receiving 2 dietary crude protein (CP) and 3 flaxseed (FS) supplementation levels. Treatments were (1) low dietary CP level [12% of dry matter (DM)] and no flaxseed supplementation (LP); (2) low dietary CP level (12% of DM) and low flaxseed supplementation (500g/d) (LPFS500); (3) low dietary CP level (12% of DM) and moderate flaxseed supplementation (1,000g/d) (LPFS1000); (4) moderate dietary CP level (15% of DM) and no flaxseed supplementation (MP); (5) moderate dietary CP level (15% of DM) and low flaxseed supplementation (500g/d) (MPFS500); and (6) moderate dietary CP level (15% of DM) and moderate flaxseed supplementation (1,000g/d) (MPFS1000). Milk protein and casein were affected by flaxseed supplementation being higher in MP, intermediate in LP, and lower in flaxseed-supplemented diets. However, the results from the present study highlighted that low protein diets sustained milk yield, protein, and casein synthesis in milk when whole flaxseed was administered. Short-chain fatty acids, in particular C8:0 and C10:0, were the lowest in milk from buffalo cows fed the highest level of flaxseed supplementation. Medium-chain fatty acids were the lowest in FS1000, intermediate in FS500, and the highest in the HP and LP groups. Long-chain fatty acids were the highest in FS1000, intermediate in FS500 groups, and the lowest in milk from buffalo receiving no flaxseed supplementation. Protein level of the diet influenced the percentage of C18:0, which was higher in MP than LP groups. Total conjugated linoleic acid content evidenced the same trend of long-chain fatty acids, with an increase of about 7% in FL500 and of 22% in FL1000 than the control. Apart from
Two basal feeds (118 and 175 g protein/kg) with similar balanced amino acid mixtures were appropriately blended to produce six experimental diets differing in protein. These were fed for six weeks to 180 broiler breeder hens (Ross 308) housed in individual cages from 26 w of age. A 13 h photoperiod was applied. Half the ...
Reijnders, Lucas; Soret, Sam
Quantitative environmental evaluations of meat, fresh vegetables, and processed protein based on soybeans suggest that the environmental burden of vegetarian foods is usually relatively low when production and processing are considered. The environmental comparison of cheese varieties made from cow milk and directly from lupine and the evaluation of energy inputs in fish protein and vegetable protein also suggest an environmental advantage for vegetarian food. In the evaluation of processed protein food based on soybeans and meat protein, a variety of environmental impacts associated with primary production and processing are a factor 4.4-> 100 to the disadvantage of meat. The comparison of cheese varieties gives differences in specific environmental impacts ranging between a factor 5 and 21. And energy use for fish protein may be up to a factor 14 more than for protein of vegetable origin. Assessment suggests that on average the complete life cycle environmental impact of nonvegetarian meals may be roughly a factor 1.5-2 higher than the effect of vegetarian meals in which meat has been replaced by vegetable protein. Although on average vegetarian diets may well have an environmental advantage, exceptions may also occur. Long-distance air transport, deep-freezing, and some horticultural practices may lead to environmental burdens for vegetarian foods exceeding those for locally produced organic meat.
The effects were investigated of energy and protein concentrations (with associated amino acid concentrations) in ostrich diets on leather quality of the skins of 50 ostriches. Energy concentrations were 9.0, 10.5 and 12.0 MJ ME/kg diet and protein concentrations were 130, 150 and 170 g/kg diet. The physical leather ...
Jul 17, 2017 ... That means there is much more protein and energy that cannot be digested in diets for piglets than expected. Undigested protein causes a rapid increase in pathogenic bacteria and diarrhoea through fermentation gas (VFA, ammonia, amine, indoles, phenols and branched-chain fatty acids) in the ...
P. Annécie Benatrehina
Full Text Available In view of the continuous growth of the botanical dietary supplement industry and the increased popularity of lesser known or exotic botanicals, recent findings are described on the phytochemical composition and biological activities of five selected fruits consumed in the United States, namely, açaí, noni, mangosteen, black chokeberry, and maqui berry. A review of the ethnomedicinal uses of these plants has revealed some similarities ranging from wound-healing to the treatment of fever and infectious diseases. Laboratory studies on açaí have shown both its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in vitro, and more importantly, its neuroprotective properties in animals. Anthraquinones and iridoid glucosides isolated from noni fruit induce the phase II enzyme quinone reductase (QR, and noni fruit juice exhibited antitumor and antidiabetic activities in certain animal models. Antitumorigenic effects of mangosteen in animal xenograft models of human cancers have been attributed to its xanthone content, and pure α-mangostin was shown to display antineoplastic activity in mice despite a reported low oral bioavailability. Work on the less extensively investigated black chokeberry and maqui berry has focused on recent isolation studies and has resulted in the identification of bioactive secondary metabolites with QR-inducing and hydroxyl-radical scavenging properties. On the basis of the safety studies and toxicity case reports described herein, these fruits may be generally considered as safe. However, cases of adulteration found in a commercialized açaí product and some conflicting results from mangosteen safety studies warrant further investigation on the safety of these marketed botanical dietary supplements. Keywords: Açaí, Noni, Mangosteen, Black chokeberry, Maqui berry
G. Harvey Anderson
Full Text Available Dietary proteins elicit a wide range of nutritional and biological functions. Beyond their nutritional role as the source of amino acids for protein synthesis, they are instrumental in the regulation of food intake, glucose and lipid metabolism, blood pressure, bone metabolism and immune function. The interaction of dietary proteins and their products of digestion with the regulatory functions of the gastrointestinal (GI tract plays a dominant role in determining the physiological properties of proteins. The site of interaction is widespread, from the oral cavity to the colon. The characteristics of proteins that influence their interaction with the GI tract in a source-dependent manner include their physico-chemical properties, their amino acid composition and sequence, their bioactive peptides, their digestion kinetics and also the non-protein bioactive components conjugated with them. Within the GI tract, these products affect several regulatory functions by interacting with receptors releasing hormones, affecting stomach emptying and GI transport and absorption, transmitting neural signals to the brain, and modifying the microflora. This review discusses the interaction of dietary proteins during digestion and absorption with the physiological and metabolic functions of the GI tract, and illustrates the importance of this interaction in the regulation of amino acid, glucose, lipid metabolism, and food intake.
The effect of different combinations of dietary energy and protein on the composition of ostrich eggs. Z Brand, TS Brand, CR Brown. Abstract. Nutrition of breeding female birds can influence egg quality and is therefore extremely important for the development of the embryo and the successful hatching of a high quality chick.
Pencharz, P; Jahoor, F; Kurpad, A
Pregnancy and the first two years of life are periods of rapid growth and yet the knowledge of requirements for protein and dietary indispensable amino acids is very limited. The development of carbon oxidation methods opens the way to studies that should fill these important gaps in knowledge...
eggs (Angel, 1993). We consequently assessed the influence of different dietary energy and protein levels, with accompanied relevant amino acid levels, on egg production and the composition of ostrich eggs. Materials and Methods. Experimental birds used in the study were domesticated South African black ostriches.
Mar 2, 2015 ... Abstract. The objective of the trial reported here was to determine whether breast meat yield would improve in broilers reared on short daylengths if higher levels of dietary protein were fed. To that end, 3200 Ross 308. International broilers were reared to 35 d in eight light-tight rooms, each room being ...
Le, P.D.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) level on odour emission, odour intensity, odour hedonic tone, ammonia and greenhouse gaseous emission from pig manure, and on fresh faeces and manure characteristics. An experiment was conducted with finishing
Le, D.P.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary levels of crude protein (CP) and levels of fermentable carbohydrates (FC) and their interaction on odour emission, odour intensity, odour hedonic tone, and ammonia emission from pig manure, and manure characteristics. An experiment
The study investigated the effects of re-alimenting dietary protein or energy on growth, carcass characteristics and meat eating quality parameters of sheep. Twenty-seven intact rams (~9 months; 11.3 ± 0.5 kg) were randomly divided into three groups. Each group was fed a maintenance diet (MT) containing, on dry matter ...
May 2, 2011 ... The rumen microbes must convert the ammonia to ... micro-organisms to grow and synthesize the necessary amino acids (Rehman et al., 2007). If rumen ammonia. Ullah et al. 3625. Table 1. Analysis of variance at (α 0.01) for dietary plan. Source ... Since 4.5 pounds of microbial protein synthesis per day is.
Le, P.D.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) level on odour emission, odour intensity, hedonic tone, and ammonia emission from pig manure and on manure composition (pH, total nitrogen, ammonium, volatile fatty acids, indolic, phenolic and sulphur-containing
The objective of this study was to determine the undegradable dietary protein requirements of veal calves. Two experiments were carried out with Holstein bull calves from 3-10 days of age until slaughter at 20 weeks of age. Both experiments were divided into starter and finishing periods. Calves were offered starter pellets ...
Two experiments were conducted to determine the response in performance, including uniformity and mortality, of two broiler strains to dietary protein content. In Experiment 1, 480 Cobb 500 and 480 Ross 788 day-old sexed broiler chickens were housed in cages to 21 d with 10 chickens per cage, and in Experiment 2, ...
Wang, Ping; Holst, Claus; Andersen, Malene R
Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance.......Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance....
de Bruijn, K M; Blendis, L M; Zilm, D H; Carlen, P L; Anderson, G H
Eight stable cirrhotic patients with mild or subclinical portal-systemic encephalopathy (PSE) were studied after shunt surgery when they were off all antiencephalopathic therapy. Equal amounts of mixed proteins were alternated with animal or vegetable protein in a crossover protocol under metabolic conditions for five consecutive, one week periods. The different dietary periods were not associated with either a change in the neurological impairment score or the Trailmaking Tests, which showed...
Sharma, V. D.; Fernando, M. A.; Summers, J. D.
The effect of interaction of crude protein level in the diet and coccidiosis of the cecum and small intestine of chicks was investigated. A total of 390 day-old chicks were divided in 36 groups of ten and six groups of five chicks each. Twelve groups of ten and two groups of six chicks each were fed one of the three diets based on dietary crude protein level (16%, 20% and 24%). All diets contained an equal energy concentration. The chicks were on the appropriate diet for 15 days prior to infection. Each group was then subjected to one of the three treatments (a) control, (b) a single dose infection with 100,000 oocysts of Eimeria acervulina and (c) a single dose infection with 10,000 oocysts of Eimeria tenella. On the eighth day post infection all surviving E. tenella infected chicks and two replicates per dietary treatment of control and E. acervulina infected chicks were killed. An increase in dietary crude protein led to a linear (PCoccidiosis caused a reduction in daily gain, feed consumption and efficiency of feed utilization, the effect being more severe in E. tenella infection. The effect of dietary crude protein was protective against weight reduction. Chicks infected with E. tenella fed 24% crude protein had a higher (P<0.01) mortality rate than those fed on 16% or 20% crude protein level. The oocyst production by E. acervulina infected chicks was also higher (P<0.01) at the 24% crude protein level. The E. acervulina infected chicks exhibited compensatory growth during the eight to 14 days post infection. The compensatory growth was superior at the higher crude protein levels. The mechanism of compensatory growth is discussed. PMID:4266700
Aritz Urdampilleta; Néstor Vicente-Salar; José Miguel Martínez-Sanz
One of the most important effects of strength training is muscular hypertrophy. Athletes should optimize their nutritional management in order to compensate their own genetic limitations. The aim of this review is to analyze the scientific evidence concerning protein intake as a tool to achieve muscle hypertrophy. Depending on the expenditure and energy intake of athlete, a daily protein ranging between 10-15% of total dietary intake is needed. However in sports diets, it is preferable to est...
Meinertz, Hans; Nilausen, Karin; Hilden, Jørgen
, liquid-formula diets containing casein, soy protein, or alcohol-extracted soy protein. Dietary periods of 32 days were separated by washout periods on self-selected diets. Fasting lipid and Lp(a) levels were measured throughout. Median Lp(a) concentration was >2-fold greater after 28 to 32 days on a soy......% after 1 week (Pa) levels, and after 28 to 32 days, these levels were decreased >60% below baseline (P
Lancha, Antonio Herbert; Zanella, Rudyard; Tanabe, Stefan Gleissner Ohara; Andriamihaja, Mireille; Blachier, Francois
Supplementation with whey and other dietary protein, mainly associated with exercise training, has been proposed to be beneficial for the elderly to gain and maintain lean body mass and improve health parameters. The main objective of this review is to examine the evidence provided by the scientific literature indicating benefit from such supplementation and to define the likely best strategy of protein uptake for optimal objectified results in the elderly. Overall, it appears that an intake of approximately 0.4 g protein/kg BW per meal thus representing 1.2-1.6 g protein/kg BW/day may be recommended taking into account potential anabolic resistance. The losses of the skeletal muscle mass contribute to lower the capacity to perform activities in daily living, emphasizing that an optimal protein consumption may represent an important parameter to preserve independence and contribute to health status. However, it is worth noting that the maximal intake of protein with no adverse effect is not known, and that high levels of protein intake is associated with increased transfer of protein to the colon with potential deleterious effects. Thus, it is important to examine in each individual case the benefit that can be expected from supplementation with whey protein, taking into account the usual protein dietary intake.
Bito, Hiroyuki; Hamaguchi, Norihisa; Hirai, Hirokazu; Ogawa, Koichi
Resistant glucan mixture (RGM), a water-soluble dietary fiber produced by the random polymerization of glucose with activated carbon as a catalyst at a high temperature, has been recently developed by our group. There has been little physiological and safety research into RGM and therefore we now present our research into its safety. A reverse mutation assay indicated that RGM is not mutagenic either with or without metabolic activation. We conducted a 90-day subchronic oral toxicity study in rats. Male and female rats fed either a 3% or 5% w/w RGM diet had no muddy or watery stools, and there was no RGM-related death in any group. Although some parameters in the 3% and 5% w/w groups were significantly different from those in the control group, these changes were not due to any toxicity from RGM. The results indicated that the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of RGM was 3.3 and 3.9 g/kg body weight (BW) per day in male and female rats, respectively. We then studied the gastrointestinal effects of RGM in healthy adult humans. Gastrointestinal symptoms, such as gurgling sounds, flatus and tenesmus, were mild and transient. In men and women, the maximum no-effect dose for diarrhea was more than 0.9 g RGM /kg BW. The results of our current safety assessment studies suggest that RGM is safe for human consumption.
Sinclair, K D; Garnsworthy, P C; Mann, G E; Sinclair, L A
In light of increasing global protein prices and with the need to reduce environmental impact of contemporary systems of milk production, the current review seeks to assess the feasibility of reducing levels of dietary CP in dairy cow diets. At CP levels between 140 and 220 g/kg DM there is a strong positive relationship between CP concentration and dry matter intake (DMI). However, such effects are modest and reductions in DMI when dietary CP is below 180 g/kg DM can be at least partially offset by improving the digestibility and amino acid profile of the undegradable protein (UDP) component of the diet or by increasing rumen fermentable energy. Level and balance of intestinally absorbable amino acids, in particular methionine and lysine, may become limiting at lower CP concentrations. In general the amino acid composition of microbial protein is superior to that of UDP, so that dietary strategies that aim to promote microbial protein synthesis in the rumen may go some way to correcting for amino acid imbalances in low CP diets. For example, reducing the level of NDF, while increasing the proportion of starch, can lead to improvements in nitrogen (N) utilisation as great as that achieved by reducing dietary CP to below 150 g/kg. A systematic review and meta-analysis of responses to rumen protected forms of methionine and lysine was conducted for early/mid lactation cows fed diets containing ⩽150 g CP/kg DM. This analysis revealed a small but significant (P=0.002) increase in milk protein yield when cows were supplemented with these rumen protected amino acids. Variation in milk and milk protein yield responses between studies was not random but due to differences in diet composition between studies. Cows fed low CP diets can respond to supplemental methionine and lysine so long as DMI is not limiting, metabolisable protein (MP) is not grossly deficient and other amino acids such as histidine and leucine do not become rate limiting. Whereas excess dietary protein
Preis, Sarah Rosner; Stampfer, Meir J; Spiegelman, Donna; Willett, Walter C; Rimm, Eric B
Prospective studies in US women have suggested an inverse relation between dietary protein and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). However, no large-scale prospective studies have been conducted in US men. The objective was to examine the association between dietary protein and risk of IHD in a prospective study of US men. Intakes of protein and other nutrients were assessed by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire at 4 time points during follow-up of 43,960 men participating in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate multivariable-adjusted relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs. During 18 y of follow-up, we documented 2959 incident cases of IHD. The RR of IHD was 1.08 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.23; P for trend = 0.30) comparing the top with the bottom quintile of percentage of energy from total protein. RRs for animal and vegetable protein were 1.11 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.28; P for trend = 0.18) and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.78, 1.12; P for trend = 0.49), respectively. When the population was restricted to "healthy" men (those free of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes at baseline), the RR of IHD was 1.21 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.44; P for trend = 0.02) for total protein, 1.25 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.51; P for trend = 0.02) for animal protein, and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.72, 1.19; P for trend = 0.65) for vegetable protein. We observed no association between dietary protein and risk of total IHD in this group of men aged 40-75 y. However, higher intake of animal protein may be associated with an increased risk of IHD in "healthy" men.
Lemon, P W
For most of the 20th century, scientists have believed that protein needs are not altered by physical exercise. In contrast, athletes are typically convinced that additional dietary protein can significantly enhance exercise performance. Until recently, the opinion of the athletes has been largely unsubstantiated in the scientific literature. However, since the 1970s, an increasing number of studies have appeared that indicate dietary protein needs are elevated in individuals who are regularly physically active. Together, these data suggest that the RDA for those who engage in regular endurance exercise should be about 1.2-1.4 g protein/kg body mass/d (150-175% of the current RDA) and 1.7-1.8 g protein/kg body mass/d (212-225% of the current RDA) for strength exercisers. Fortunately, the typical North American diet contains protein near these quantities, so most individuals who decide to begin an exercise program will obtain sufficient protein as long as their diet is mixed and they are careful to consume adequate energy. Populations at greatest risk for consuming insufficient protein include any group that restricts energy intake (those on diets) or high quality protein sources (vegetarians) as well as any group that has a requirement higher than normal due to another existing condition (growing individuals). Future studies should focus on these groups. Moreover, few exercise performance measures have been made, so any negative effect of insufficient dietary protein on athletic success needs to be determined. Supplementation of several individual amino acids may be beneficial for physically active individuals, but considerable potential risk is also present. Intake of large quantities of individual amino acids is not recommended until much more information is available.
Protein is an important nutrient for growing broiler chickens, as it affects broiler performance, feed cost as well as nitrogen excretion. The objective of this dissertation was to develop a growth model for broiler chickens that could be easily used by practical nutritionists. The model should
This experiment was conducted to examine the effect of three levels of crude protein (CP) (NRC, 15% more than NRC and 15% less than NRC) and three levels of Ca and available P (Av. P) (NRC, 15% more than NRC and 15% less than NRC) on performance of broilers from hatching until 21 days of age. The experimental ...
formulated feeds and a control feed (each in a triplicate set), 6% of their body weight, three times a day, during 90 days. Feeds were formulated using ... a loss of weight due to withdrawal of protein from less vital tissues to maintain the functions of ... Experiments show that during starvation or food restriction in fish most of the ...
Aug 26, 2016 ... (1988) analysed the relative changes in rate of lay and egg weight and showed that rate of lay is influenced to a greater extent by a decrease in protein intake than is egg weight. This has important implications for broiler breeders where the marginal revenue for breeder eggs is considerably higher than is ...
In a 9· week long study, three hundred 5-day-old Cobb-100 commercial broiler chicks were fed five isocaloric diets containing 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 pet cent crude protein respectively. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum. Feed intake, final body weight and body weight gain significantly (P
Matsuoka, Ryosuke; Shirouchi, Bungo; Kawamura, Sayaka; Baba, Sanae; Shiratake, Sawako; Nagata, Kazuko; Imaizumi, Katsumi; Sato, Masao
Dietary egg white protein (EWP) decreases serum cholesterol levels. We previously showed that EWP decreased cholesterol absorption in the intestine. Rats subjected to permanent lymph duct cannulation were used to investigate the effects of dietary EWP on lipid transport. They were fed diets with 20% EWP and casein, and their lymph was collected to quantify lymphatic lipid levels. Dietary EWP decreased lymphatic cholesterol transport compared with casein. It was previously shown that EWP excluded cholesterol from bile acid micelles. Therefore, pepsin-hydrolyzed EWP and casein were prepared. EWP was not completely digested. Ovalbumin, which is the most abundant protein in EWP, showed resistance to digestion by pepsin. This study investigated the effects of EWP pepsin hydrolysate (EWP-ph) on cholesterol micellar solubility, cholesterol transfer from the micellar to the oil phase, water-holding capacity (WHC), settling volume in water (SV), and relative viscosity and compared them with the effects of casein pepsin hydrolysate (C-ph). EWP-ph significantly decreased the micellar solubility and transfer rate and increased the WHC, SV, and relative viscosity compared with C-ph. Moreover, the pepsin hydrolysate of ovalbumin, a major protein in EWP, played a role in decreasing cholesterol micellar solubility, leading to the inhibition of cholesterol absorption. In conclusion, dietary EWP decreased cholesterol intestinal absorption by exerting combined effects of these physicochemical properties in the gut.
MacKenzie, Kristen; Slater, Gary; King, Neil; Byrne, Nuala
Evidence suggests that increasing protein distribution may be desirable to promote muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in combination with resistance exercise. However, there is a threshold above which additional protein consumption has limited benefit for MPS and may promote protein loss due to increased oxidation. This study aimed to measure daily protein intake and protein distribution in a cohort of rugby players. Twenty-five developing elite rugby union athletes (20.5 ± 2.3 years, 100.2 ± 13.3 kg, 184.4 ± 7.4 cm) were assessed at the start and end of a rugby preseason. Using a 7-day food diary the reported daily protein intake was 2.2 ± 0.7 g · kg · day(-1) which exceeds daily recommendations. The reported carbohydrate intake was 3.6 ± 1.3 g · kg · day(-1) which may reflect a suboptimal intake or dietary underreporting. In general, the rugby athletes were regularly consuming more than 20 g of protein; 3.8 ± 0.9 times per day (68 ± 18% of eating occasions). In addition to documenting current dietary intakes, an excess protein estimation score was calculated to determine how frequently the rugby athletes consumed protein above a known effective dose with a margin of error. 2.0 ± 0.9 eating occasions contained protein in excess of doses (20 g) known to promote MPS. Therefore, it is currently unclear whether the consumption of regular large doses of protein will benefit rugby athletes via increasing protein distribution, or whether high protein intakes may have unintended effects including a reduction in carbohydrate and/or energy intake.
This study aimed to determine a feed formulation with the best protein to energy ratio that would result in a better viscera composition and organ indices (OI) of Cyprinus carpio communis. Fingerlings having average weight of 1.64 ± 0.13 g and length of 5.26 ± 0.10 cm were fed on four different formulated feeds and a control ...
Cerrate, S; Vignale, S K; Ekmay, R; England, J; Coon, C
An isotope dose technique was utilized (i) to determine endogenous amino acid (AA) and protein losses and (ii) to propose adjusted values for AA requirements. The endogenous flow rate was calculated from the pool of enrichment in plasma AA, assuming similitude to enrichment of endogenous AA. In experiment 1, chicks were orally administered D4-lysine at 2% of estimated lysine intake from 16 to 24 days to find the isotopic steady state of the atom percent excess (APE) of lysine for plasma and jejunal and ileal digesta. The APE of D4-lysine in plasma, jejunal digesta and ileal digesta reached the isotopic steady state at 5.5, 3.4 and 2.0 days, respectively, by using the broken-line model. It was assumed that the isotopic steady state at 5 days identified for D4-lysine is also representative for the 15N-labeled AA. In experiment 2, chicks were fed diets from 1 to 21 days with increasing levels of fat (6%, 8%, 12%, 13% extract ether), protein (26%, 28.5%, 31% CP) or fiber (14%, 16%, 18% NDF) by adding poultry fat, soybean meal, blended animal protein or barley. Chicks were orally administered 15N-threonine, 15N-cysteine, 15N-methionine, 15N-lysine and 15N-leucine at 2% of estimated daily intake for 5 days from 17 to 21 days of age. Dietary nutrients influenced endogenous losses (EL), where dietary fat stimulated EL of lysine (P=0.06), leucine and protein (P=0.07); dietary protein enhanced EL of leucine and protein; and finally the dietary fiber increased EL of leucine. Dietary nutrients also affected apparent ileal digestibility (AID). Dietary fat increased AID of cysteine but decreased AID of lysine. Dietary protein reduced AID of protein, threonine, lysine and leucine, and similarly dietary fiber decreased AID of protein, threonine, methionine, lysine and leucine. In contrast, dietary fat or protein did not affect real ileal digestibility (RID) of protein and AA except threonine and leucine. The dietary fiber reduced the RID of protein, threonine and leucine. This
Stuart M. Phillips
Full Text Available Protein needs for otherwise healthy individuals older than 19 years are defined by the recommended dietary allowance (RDA at 0.80 g protein/kg/day. There is no recommendation in the current RDA for subpopulations of older adults or people in various pathological situations. Despite the lack of a separate recommendation, there exists a growing body of evidence that is strongly suggestive of an increased need and/or benefit for protein in older persons. That is, intakes beyond the RDA are, in older persons, associated with benefits. In addition, a number of catabolic states including critical illness also result in a sharp elevation in the needs for protein and amino acids. An underappreciated issue in protein nutrition is the impact of protein quality on clinically relevant outcomes. The introduction of a new protein scoring system—the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS—for protein quality has raised a forgotten awareness of protein quality. The DIAAS, which replaces the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS, is based on ileal digestibility of protein and a different test protein than PDCAAS and has values greater than 1.0. The aim of this article is a brief review and summary recommendations for protein nutrition and protein requirements in populations who would benefit from more protein than the RDA. The emphasis of the review is on muscle protein turnover, and there is a discussion of the impact of protein quality, particularly as it applies to commercially available protein sources. The evidence for more optimal protein intakes is considered in light of the potential health risks of consumption of protein at levels greater than the RDA.
Phillips, Stuart M
Protein needs for otherwise healthy individuals older than 19 years are defined by the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) at 0.80 g protein/kg/day. There is no recommendation in the current RDA for subpopulations of older adults or people in various pathological situations. Despite the lack of a separate recommendation, there exists a growing body of evidence that is strongly suggestive of an increased need and/or benefit for protein in older persons. That is, intakes beyond the RDA are, in older persons, associated with benefits. In addition, a number of catabolic states including critical illness also result in a sharp elevation in the needs for protein and amino acids. An underappreciated issue in protein nutrition is the impact of protein quality on clinically relevant outcomes. The introduction of a new protein scoring system-the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS)-for protein quality has raised a forgotten awareness of protein quality. The DIAAS, which replaces the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS), is based on ileal digestibility of protein and a different test protein than PDCAAS and has values greater than 1.0. The aim of this article is a brief review and summary recommendations for protein nutrition and protein requirements in populations who would benefit from more protein than the RDA. The emphasis of the review is on muscle protein turnover, and there is a discussion of the impact of protein quality, particularly as it applies to commercially available protein sources. The evidence for more optimal protein intakes is considered in light of the potential health risks of consumption of protein at levels greater than the RDA.
Tastesen, Hanne Sørup
mice were fed obesity‐promoting diets with protein from different sources, in different forms and at different levels to evaluate the affect on development of obesity, glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia. Results: In the present study the dietary level of protein, 16 versus 32 percent energy from...... protein, was found to be negligible in development of obesity and co‐morbidities in mice. Seafood protein with high endogenous taurine and glycine contents was found to prevent diet‐induced adiposity and dyslipidemia, both in ad libitum and pair‐fed settings. The ability of seafood proteins to prevent...... that the source and form of protein has great impact on development and prevention of diet‐induced adiposity, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia and impairment of glucose tolerance through modulations of voluntary locomotor activity, energy expenditure and energy substrate metabolism in mice...
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study investigated the effects of dietary protein levels and betaine supplementation on nutrient digestibility and performance of Japanese quails. In total, 765 Japanese quails were randomly assigned to a 3×3 factorial arrangement, with five replicates of 17 quails each. Three basal diets were formulated to contain three crude protein levels (16.5, 18.0, and 19.5%. Each protein level was supplemented with 0, 0.06, and 0.12% betaine. The diet with 16.5% dietary crude protein with no betaine supplementation resulted in the lowest crude fiber digestibility, while the 18.0% CP diet supplemented with 0.12% betaine generated the highest crude fiber digestibility (p<0.05. The diets with 18.0 and 19.5% crude protein increased crude fiber digestibility, but reduced ether extract digestibility (p<0.01. Moreover, betaine supplementation increased dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber, and crude ash (p<0.01 digestibility and tended to increase ether extract digestibility (p=0.09. The increase in egg weight for the 18.0 and 19.5% protein diets was correlated with a decrease in feed conversion ratio (p<0.05. However, feed intake and egg production were not affected by protein levels. Betaine supplementation enhanced all performance variables (p<0.01. The diets with 18.0 and 19.5% crude protein resulted in heavier yolks and eggshells than the 16.5% crude protein diet (p<0.05, whereas betaine supplementation increased yolk, albumen, and eggshell weight (p<0.01. The 18.0 and 19.5% protein diets produced similar responses in most evaluated parameters. Laying Japanese quails can be fed diets with 18.0% crude protein. Moreover, betaine supplementation provided several benefits, and particularly improved nutrient digestibility, performance, and egg quality.
Barril-Cuadrado, Guillermina; Puchulu, M Bernardita; Sánchez-Tomero, José A
The K/DOQI guidelines recommend the use of phosphorus/protein food ratios for proper control of dietary phosphorus. Evidence exists from tables with phosphorus to protein ratios for common foods. No such table exists for common foods consumed by the Spanish population with ratio estimations. To estimate the phosphorus to protein ratio in foods commonly used by the Spanish population and to establish its usefulness in the selection of foods for patients with chronic kidney disease. Tables with the phosphorus to protein ratio were prepared from two data sources concerning Spanish food composition. We evaluated chemical composition per 100g of raw food. The tables do not include phosphorus additives. No foods with high ratio of phosphorus to protein were eliminated in order to allow comparisons between different foods from each group. Shown in the tables. The dietary prescription for patients with chronic kidney disease should take into consideration not only the absolute phosphorus value of food consumed, but also the phosphorus to protein ratio of each food and the total amount of phosphorus in the diet. The more "natural" a diet is, the more likely that the patient will reach an acceptable phosphorus to protein ratio of less than 16mg/g, which does not increase mortality. There is clearly a need for an educational program on nutrition and phosphorus sources in which food ratio tables could be a useful tool for the multidisciplinary teams caring for renal patients.
Warden Craig H
Full Text Available Abstract There has been intense interest in defining the functions of UCP2 and UCP3 during the nine years since the cloning of these UCP1 homologues. Current data suggest that both UCP2 and UCP3 proteins share some features with UCP1, such as the ability to reduce mitochondrial membrane potential, but they also have distinctly different physiological roles. Human genetic studies consistently demonstrate the effect of UCP2 alleles on type-2 diabetes. Less clear is whether UCP2 alleles influence body weight or body mass index (BMI with many studies showing a positive effect while others do not. There is strong evidence that both UCP2 and UCP3 protect against mitochondrial oxidative damage by reducing the production of reactive oxygen species. The evidence that UCP2 protein is a negative regulator of insulin secretion by pancreatic β-cells is also strong: increased UCP2 decreases glucose stimulated insulin secretion ultimately leading to β-cell dysfunction. UCP2 is also neuroprotective, reducing oxidative stress in neurons. UCP3 may also transport fatty acids out of mitochondria thereby protecting the mitochondria from fatty acid anions or peroxides. Current data suggest that UCP2 plays a role in the metabolic syndrome through down-regulation of insulin secretion and development of type-2 diabetes. However, UCP2 may protect against atherosclerosis through reduction of oxidative stress and both UCP2 and UCP3 may protect against obesity. Thus, these UCP1 homologues may both contribute to and protect from the markers of the metabolic syndrome.
Rothman, Jessica M; Chapman, Colin A; Pell, Alice N
Protein is essential for living organisms, but digestibility of crude protein is poorly understood and difficult to predict. Nitrogen is used to estimate protein content because nitrogen is a component of the amino acids that comprise protein, but a substantial portion of the nitrogen in plants may be bound to fiber in an indigestible form. To estimate the amount of crude protein that is unavailable in the diets of mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei) in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, foods routinely eaten were analyzed to determine the amount of nitrogen bound to the acid-detergent fiber residue. The amount of fiber-bound nitrogen varied among plant parts: herbaceous leaves 14.5+/-8.9% (reported as a percentage of crude protein on a dry matter (DM) basis), tree leaves (16.1+/-6.7% DM), pith/herbaceous peel (26.2+/-8.9% DM), fruit (34.7+/-17.8% DM), bark (43.8+/-15.6% DM), and decaying wood (85.2+/-14.6% DM). When crude protein and available protein intake of adult gorillas was estimated over a year, 15.1% of the dietary crude protein was indigestible. These results indicate that the proportion of fiber-bound protein in primate diets should be considered when estimating protein intake, food selection, and food/habitat quality.
Backlund, Brianna; Zoran, Debra L; Nabity, Mary B; Norby, Bo; Bauer, John E
This study evaluates the effect of dietary protein content on renal parameters in 23 healthy spayed female cats. The objective was to determine if cats eating diets high in protein will have higher serum urea nitrogen (UN) and creatinine values without a detectable change in kidney function, as assessed by urinalysis. A single random cross-over design was used. Cats were fed a standard maintenance diet for at least 1 month prior to the dietary trial. They were fed in two phases. For the first phase, cats were randomly assigned to receive either a high protein [HP=46% metabolizable energy (ME)] or low protein (LP=26% ME) diet. For the second phase, cats were fed whichever diet they were not fed during the phase I period. Blood and urine samples were collected at 2-week intervals for the duration of the study (10 weeks). UN, albumin, alanine aminotransferase and urine specific gravity were significantly higher, and creatinine and phosphorus were significantly lower (P<0.05) when cats were fed the HP diet as compared to when they were fed the LP diet, although none of the mean values were found to be outside of the corresponding reference interval. Dietary intake can result in clinically significant changes in UN and statistically significantly changes in several other biochemical analytes, although all analytes are likely to remain within normal reference intervals. Therefore, an accurate dietary history is necessary to help determine if renal parameters are being influenced by diet in a particular patient. Copyright © 2011 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Decrease of urinary phosphate (P excretion and P retention triggers activation of phosphotonins and subsequent development of secondary hyperparathyroidism in progressing of chronic kidney disease (CKD. The main source of P is dietary protein. No large studies are presented to-date to evaluate the relationship between dietary protein intake and parameters of P metabolism in CKD patients. This was a goal of the cross-sectional cohort study .11315 CKD patients were entered (males 43%. Median (10th-90th percentile of age and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR were 46 (24-69 and 64 (24-104. The analyzed data were: age, gender, body mass index (BMI serum albumin, creatinine, calcium and phosphate; 24-h urine creatinine, phosphate (P,proteinuria (DP. Estimated parameters includes: eGFR, fractional P excretion (FEP, 24-h P excretion (24-h UP, and P clearance (CP. Dietary protein intake (DPI was based on 24-h urinary urea excretion. No significant differences in serum phosphate were found in groups with various DPI. FEP, 24-h UP and CP were significantly higher in higher DPI range. DPI was positively associated with 24-h UP (β=0,287, p<0.000001 in multivariate model adjusted for age, gender, DP, eGFR, serum P, FEP, BMI, and Ca. Thus, DPI is considered to be the independent factor influencing urinary P excretion and hence contributing to progression of mineral and bone disease in renal dysfunction.
Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Angquist, Lars; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre
and at follow-up about 5 years later were analyzed with multiple linear regression and dietary macronutrient substitution models. Interactions between dietary protein and baseline body mass index (BMI) and baseline WC adjusted for BMI (WCBMI ) (divided in tertiles; nine groups total), were analyzed in relation...... protein, whether replacing carbohydrate or fat, and weight change. However, individuals in the highest tertile of baseline BMI (irrespective of baseline WCBMI ) had significantly inverse change in waist circumference when protein replaced carbohydrate, but not when protein replaced fat. CONCLUSION......: Replacing carbohydrate with protein in the diet may prevent a relative increase in WC in individuals with a greater BMI....
Bray, G A; Ryan, D H; Johnson, W; Champagne, C M; Johnson, C M; Rood, J; Williamson, D A; Sacks, F M
To assess the association of markers for dietary protein intake, measures of dietary adherence and demographic variables with weight loss in the POUNDS Lost study over the first 6 months and again between 6 and 24 months using data from those who completed each period. This is a secondary analysis of pooled data on completers assigned to one of four diets: 65%C/15%P/20%F (AP/LF), 55%C/25%P/20%F (HP/LF), 45%C/15%P/40%F (AP/HF) or 35%C/25%P40%F (HP/HF) in the POUNDS Lost study. Urinary nitrogen excretion, dietary adherence measured by 24-h recall and attendance at sessions, age (above and below 50 years), gender, race/ethnicity and activity by pedometry were analysed. Increased spread between protein intake at baseline and protein at 6 or 24 months, assessed by urinary nitrogen excretion, was associated with greater weight loss from baseline to 2 years. At 6 and 24 months, older age, male gender, body mass index > 30 kg m -2 and adherence to the fat and protein diets were associated with more weight loss. None of these variables was associated with a regain from 6 to 24 months. Weight regain for women in the highest carbohydrate (65%) group was significantly greater (-4.4 kg [95% CI: -5.9, -3.0]) than for women in the lowest carbohydrate group (-1.8 kg [95% CI: -3.2, -0.4 kg]) (P for interaction = 0.012). An increased spread in the difference between baseline and follow-up protein intake was associated with greater weight loss, consistent with the 'protein spread theory'. Women eating the highest carbohydrate diet regained more weight from 6 to 24 months. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.
Mathesius, C A; Barnett, J F; Cressman, R F; Ding, J; Carpenter, C; Ladics, G S; Schmidt, J; Layton, R J; Zhang, J X Q; Appenzeller, L M; Carlson, G; Ballou, S; Delaney, B
Acetolactate synthase (ALS) enzymes have been isolated from numerous organisms including soybeans (Glycine max; GM-ALS) and catalyze the first common step in biosynthesis of branched chain amino acids. Expression of an ALS protein (GM-HRA) with two amino acid changes relative to native GM-ALS protein in genetically modified soybeans confers tolerance to herbicidal active ingredients and can be used as a selectable transformation marker. The safety assessment of the GM-HRA protein is discussed. Bioinformatics comparison of the amino acid sequence did not identify similarities to known allergenic or toxic proteins. In vitro studies demonstrated rapid degradation in simulated gastric fluid (protein expressed in planta is not glycosylated and genetically modified soybeans expressing the GM-HRA protein produced similar protein/allergen profiles as its non-transgenic parental isoline. No adverse effects were observed in mice following acute oral exposure at a dose of at least 436 mg/kg of body weight or in a 28-day repeated dose dietary toxicity study at doses up to 1247 mg/kg of body weight/day. The results demonstrate GM-HRA protein safety when used in agricultural biotechnology.
Liu, Ruru; Dang, Shaonong; Yan, Hong; Wang, Duolao; Zhao, Yaling; Li, Qiang; Liu, Xiaoning
Evidence for an association between dietary proteins and the risk of hypertension in rural Chinese adults, whose diets are protein-poor and unbalanced, is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary proteins on hypertension among adults of rural western China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Hanzhong, China, and 2241 residents were included in the analysis. Logistic regression models were used to examine whether dietary proteins (total, plant and animal protein) were independently correlated with hypertension. The total protein intake was inadequate (51.7 g per day for male and 40.1 g per day for female), accounting for 56-71% of the Chinese recommended nutrient intakes or adequate intakes. Nearly 80% of protein intake derived from plants, especially grains, and the proportion derived from plants was higher in females than in males. The daily animal protein intake was 12.1 g for males and 8.3 g for females. For females, no significant association was found between hypertension and total protein or plant protein intake. However, animal protein intake was significantly and negatively associated with the risk of hypertension after controlling for demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, body mass index and other dietary nutrients. In addition, the odds ratio for the upper quartile compared with the bottom quartile was 0.64 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.43-0.95, P for trend intake in females. For males, we did not observe a significant association between dietary proteins and hypertension or blood pressure. In conclusion, for the western rural Chinese population, especially women, whose dietary protein intake is low and largely derived from plants, the intake of animal protein may be related to a decreased risk of hypertension.
Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Hartvigsen, Merete; Mortensen, L.S.
Postprandial lipaemia is an established risk factor for atherosclerosis. To investigate the acute effect of four milk-derived dietary proteins (alpha-lactalbumin, whey isolate, caseinoglycomacropeptide and whey hydrolysate) on postprandial lipaemia, we have conducted a randomized, acute, single...
Ji, Y. J.; Liu, H. N.; Blachier, Francois; Geng, M. M.; Liu, Y. Y.
In the present study, 5% powders of Tenebrio molitor (TM), Musca domestica larvae (MDL), or Zophobas morio (ZM) were used as a source of dietary protein in piglets weaned at 14 +/- 2 d of age instead of 5% plasma protein powder in the basal diet (4 groups with 6 replicates of 6 piglets). Growth performance, diarrhea rate, plasma biochemical parameters, and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) were determined on Days 28 and 56 after the initiation of treatment. The ADFI in the TM and MDL groups ...
Green-Petersen, Ditte; Hyldig, Grethe; Jacobsen, Charlotte
The influence of dietary protein and lipid sources on the quality of organic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was studied. The protein and oil sources were fishmeal, fish oil, and organic vegetable protein and oils. Sensory profiling was performed during 3 to 14 days of ice storage along...
Needham, T; Hoffman, L C; Gous, R M
The interaction between dietary balanced protein, ractopamine (RAC) and Improvac (IMP) on the growth response of 120 individually penned male PIC© pigs was evaluated. The pigs entered the trial at 16 weeks of age and were assigned to 12 treatments using a 2×2×3 factorial design. Three balanced protein diets, formulated with standard illeal digestible lysine levels of 7.50 (low), 9.79 (medium) and 12.07 g/kg (high), were fed from 20 weeks. Improvac was administered at 16 and 20 weeks, the booster being given 4 weeks before slaughter. Ractopamine was supplemented at 10 mg/kg to the applicable treatments from 20 weeks. Live weight, backfat depth and food intake were measured on a weekly basis. Primary vaccination had no influence on the parameters measured. Immunocastration, RAC and higher protein diet treatments increased weight gain, but food intake was increased only with the use of IMP. Although weight gain increased in IMP-treated males, the increased feed intake resulted in their feed conversion efficiencies (FCE) being inferior to the intact controls. Feeding RAC only benefitted FCE when a high or medium protein diet was fed. Immunocastrates deposited more backfat after the booster vaccination than did entire males. Thus the cost of using RAC, IMP and of increasing dietary protein content needs to be weighed up against the additional revenue generated through the use of these interventions.
Ríos-Rincón, F G; Estrada-Angulo, A; Plascencia, A; López-Soto, M A; Castro-Pérez, B I; Portillo-Loera, J J; Robles-Estrada, J C; Calderón-Cortes, J F; Dávila-Ramos, H
Forty-eight Pelibuey×Katahdin male intact lambs (23.87±2.84 kg) were used in an 84-d feeding trial, with six pens per treatment in a 2×2 factorial design arrangement. The aim of the study was to evaluate the interaction of two dietary energy levels (3.05 and 2.83 Mcal/kg ME) and two dietary protein levels (17.5% and 14.5%) on growth performance, dietary energetics and carcass traits. The dietary treatments used were: i) High protein-high energy (HP-HE); ii) High protein-low energy (HP-LE); iii) Low protein-high energy (LP-HE), and iv) Low protein-low energy (LP-LE). With a high-energy level, dry matter intake (DMI) values were 6.1% lower in the low-protein diets, while with low-energy, the DMI values did not differ between the dietary protein levels. Energy levels did not influence the final weight and average daily gain (ADG), but resulted in lower DMI values and higher gain efficiencies. No effects of protein level were detected on growth performance. The observed dietary net energy (NE) ratio and observed DMI were closer than expected in all treatments and were not affected by the different treatments. There was an interaction (pefficiency than protein levels in finishing lambs with a high-energy diet (>2.80 Mcal/kg ME). Providing a level of protein above 14.5% does not improves growth-performance, dietary energetics or carcass dressing percentage.
Bianco, Antonino; Mammina, Caterina; Paoli, Antonio; Bellafiore, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Caramazza, Giovanni; Palma, Antonio; Jemni, Monèm
It is known that supplement use is a widespread and accepted practice by athletes and people who attend commercial gyms. Little is known about protein supplement amongst people undertaking strength training in commercial gyms in Italy when compared to the US. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of protein supplementation, alone or in association with other supplements, and dietary behavior amongst regular fitness center attendees in Palermo, Italy. Resistance training information have been collected from 800 regular fitness center attendees for the initial analysis. A specific questionnaire was generated for the experimentation. Data were collected using a face-to-face interview method. Supplement users were then compared to the non users and analyzed using a one-way ANOVA, Kruskall-Wallis, chi-square test or exact test of Fisher when appropriate. 30.1% of the respondents use dietary supplements during their training as a believe it is the "way to gain muscles and strength". Whey protein shakes (50.0%) mixed with creatine and amino-acids (48.3%) were the most frequent choices amongst the users. A majority of the subjects (34.0%) appeared to rely on their gym instructors' advice for their intake; a lower proportion (13.0%) consulted physicians, while none of them consulted nutritionists. A high consumption of milk has been noticed in both users (67,7%) and non-users (52,8%); supplement non-users consumed significantly more snacks and bakery products than users per week (P consumed significantly more protein-rich foods (P consume protein supplements mixed with other products (mainly creatine and amino-acids). Limited numbers consult "dietary specialists" and rely mainly on their instructors. We emphasize on the importance of the dissemination of scientifically based information about supplementation in this environment and the promotion of updated educational programs for the instructors.
Wu, Yangyang; Xu, Yan; Du, Yanan; Zhao, Xiao; Hu, Ruili; Fan, Xiaorui; Ren, Fangfang; Yao, Quanhong; Peng, Rihe; Tang, Xueming; Zhao, Kai
This 90-day study aimed to assess the dietary safety of transgenic rice EH which is rich in β-carotene. Two experimental groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing 45% rice flour of Zhonghua 11 rice and transgenic rice EH rich in β-carotene, respectively. The reference group was fed a diet containing standard feed nutrition. During the trial period, each rat was weighed and the food intake was recorded twice a week. Their behaviors were observed daily. In the end, blood samples were obtained from all anesthetized rats to measure the hematologic and serum chemistry indicators. Growth performance, anatomy and pathology of all organs in each group were analyzed. Although a few parameters were found to be statistically significantly different across groups, they were within the normal reference range for this breed and age of rats. Therefore, the changes were not considered to be diet related. The results revealed that the transgenic rice EH rich in β-carotene was as nutritious as Zhonghua 11 rice and showed a lack of biologically meaningful unintended effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wieke Altorf-van der Kuil
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the relation of different dietary protein types with blood pressure (BP. We examined whether intake of total, plant, animal, dairy, meat, and grain protein was related to BP in a cross sectional cohort of 20,820 Dutch adults, aged 20-65 y and not using antihypertensive medication. DESIGN: Mean BP levels were calculated in quintiles of energy-adjusted protein with adjustment for age, sex, BMI, education, smoking, and intake of energy, alcohol, and other nutrients including protein from other sources. In addition, mean BP difference after substitution of 3 en% carbohydrates or MUFA with protein was calculated. RESULTS: Total protein and animal protein were not associated with BP (p(trend = 0.62 and 0.71 respectively, both at the expense of carbohydrates and MUFA. Systolic BP was 1.8 mmHg lower (p(trend36 g/d than in the lowest (<27 g/d quintile of plant protein. This inverse association was present both at the expense of carbohydrates and MUFA and more pronounced in individuals with untreated hypertension (-3.6 mmHg than in those with normal (+0.1 mmHg or prehypertensive BP (-0.3 mmHg; p(interaction<0.01. Meat and grain protein were not related to BP. Dairy protein was directly associated with systolic BP (+1.6 mmHg, p(trend<0.01, but not with diastolic BP (p(trend = 0.24. CONCLUSIONS: Total protein and animal protein were not associated with BP in this general untreated Dutch population. Plant protein may be beneficial to BP, especially in people with elevated BP. However, because high intake of plant protein may be a marker of a healthy diet and lifestyle in general, confirmation from randomized controlled trials is warranted.
Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Madsen, Lise; Dethlefsen, Claus
. Dietary intake was determined at recruitment by using an FFQ that was designed for the study and validated. We applied linear regression models with 5-year change in weight or waist circumference as outcome and including a two-way interaction term between n-6 PUFA and carbohydrate intakes, lower......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between the intake of n-6 PUFA and subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference at different levels of the carbohydrate:protein ratio. DESIGN: Follow-up study with anthropometric measurements at recruitment and on average 5·3 years later......-order terms, protein intake, long-chain n-3 PUFA intake and other potential confounders. Due to adjustment for intake of protein, levels of carbohydrate indirectly reflect levels of the carbohydrate:protein ratio. SETTING: Diet, Cancer and Health follow-up study, Denmark. SUBJECTS: Women and men (n 29 152...
Mustafa Güçlü Sucak
Full Text Available Abstract Twenty eight Holstein cows (averaged 41±31.5 and 82±24 days in milk, and 30.4±3.49 and 29.0±2.22 kg/d milk yield were fed a high concentrate diet (70:30 concentrate to forage to examine effects on milk production and composition. The cows were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Factors were starch (14% and 22% and protein (15% and 18%. Wheat straw was used as forage source. The study lasted 6 weeks. Dry matter intake was not affected (P> 0.05 by the dietary treatments in the study. Milk yield increased with increased dietary protein level (P< 0.01. Milk urea nitrogen concentrations were affected by dietary protein and starch levels, but there was no interaction effect. Nitrogen efficiency (Milk N/N intake was decreased by increasing in dietary protein level (P< 0.01. In conclusion, the cows fed total mixed ration (TMR containing low level of wheat straw responded better when dietary protein increased. But, efficiency of N use and N excretion to the environment were worsened. Key words: Dairy cattle, milk composition, protein, starch, wheat straw
Parvin Mirmiran; Zahra Bahadoran; Saeed Esfandyari; Fereidoun Azizi
Considering the limited knowledge on the effects of dietary amino acid intake on dysglycemia, we assessed the possible association of dietary protein and amino acid patterns with the risk of pre-diabetes in a prospective population-based study. Participants without diabetes and pre-diabetes (n = 1878) were recruited from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study and were followed for a mean of 5.8 years. Their dietary protein and amino acid intakes were assessed at baseline (2006–2008); demographic,...
Shah, Romina; Kolanos, Renata; DiNovi, Michael J; Mattia, Antonia; Kaneko, Kotaro J
Dietary exposure assessment using food-consumption data and ingredient-use level is essential for assessing the safety of food ingredients. Dietary exposure estimates are compared with safe intake levels, such as the acceptable daily intake (ADI). The ADI is estimated by applying a safety factor to an experimentally determined no-observed-adverse-effect level of a test substance. Two food ingredients classified as emulsifiers, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and polysorbate 80 (P80), received attention recently due to their putative adverse effects on gut microbiota. Because no published dietary exposure estimates for commonly used emulsifiers exist for the US population, the current investigation focused on the estimation of dietary exposure to seven emulsifiers: CMC, P80, lecithin, mono- and diglycerides (MDGs), stearoyl lactylates, sucrose esters, and polyglycerol polyricinoleate. Using maximum-use levels obtained from publicly available sources, dietary exposures to these emulsifiers were estimated for the US population (aged 2 years and older) for two time periods (1999-2002 and 2003-10) using 1- and 2-day food-consumption data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and 10-14-day food-consumption data from NPD Group, Inc.'s National Eating Trends - Nutrient Intake Database. Our analyses indicated that among the emulsifiers assessed, lecithin and MDGs have the highest mean exposures at about 60 and about 80 mg kg -1 bw day -1 , respectively, whereas the exposure to CMC is half to one-third that of lecithin or MDGs; and the exposure to P80 is approximately half that of CMC. The review of available safety information such as ADIs established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), in light of our updated dietary exposure estimates for these seven emulsifiers, did not raise safety concerns at the current specified levels of use. Additionally, by examining two time periods (1999-2002, 2003-10), it was concluded that
Full Text Available Most contacts with food protein and microbiota antigens occur at the level of the gut mucosa. In animal models where this natural stimulation is absent, such as germ-free and antigen-free mice, the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT and systemic immunological activities are underdeveloped. We have shown that food proteins play a critical role in the full development of the immune system. C57BL/6 mice weaned to a diet in which intact proteins are replaced by equivalent amounts of amino acids (Aa diet have a poorly developed GALT as well as low levels of serum immunoglobulins (total Ig, IgG, and IgA, but not IgM. In the present study, we evaluated whether the introduction of a protein-containing diet in 10 adult Aa-fed C57BL/6 mice could restore their immunoglobulin levels and whether this recovery was dependent on the amount of dietary protein. After the introduction of a casein-containing diet, Aa-fed mice presented a fast recovery (after 7 days of secretory IgA (from 0.33 to 0.75 mg/mL, while in casein-fed mice this value was 0.81 mg/mL and serum immunoglobulin levels (from 5.39 to 10.25 mg/mL of total Ig. Five percent dietary casein was enough to promote the restoration of secretory IgA and serum immunoglobulin levels to a normal range after 30 days feeding casein diet (as in casein-fed mice - 15% by weight of diet. These data suggest that the defect detected in the immunoglobulin levels was a reversible result of the absence of food proteins as an antigenic stimulus. They also indicate that the deleterious consequences of malnutrition at an early age for some immune functions may be restored by therapeutic intervention later in life.
F. G. Ríos-Rincón
Full Text Available Forty-eight Pelibuey×Katahdin male intact lambs (23.87±2.84 kg were used in an 84-d feeding trial, with six pens per treatment in a 2×2 factorial design arrangement. The aim of the study was to evaluate the interaction of two dietary energy levels (3.05 and 2.83 Mcal/kg ME and two dietary protein levels (17.5% and 14.5% on growth performance, dietary energetics and carcass traits. The dietary treatments used were: i High protein-high energy (HP-HE; ii High protein-low energy (HP-LE; iii Low protein-high energy (LP-HE, and iv Low protein-low energy (LP-LE. With a high-energy level, dry matter intake (DMI values were 6.1% lower in the low-protein diets, while with low-energy, the DMI values did not differ between the dietary protein levels. Energy levels did not influence the final weight and average daily gain (ADG, but resulted in lower DMI values and higher gain efficiencies. No effects of protein level were detected on growth performance. The observed dietary net energy (NE ratio and observed DMI were closer than expected in all treatments and were not affected by the different treatments. There was an interaction (p2.80 Mcal/kg ME. Providing a level of protein above 14.5% does not improves growth-performance, dietary energetics or carcass dressing percentage.
Maida, Adriano; Zota, Annika; Sjøberg, Kim A.; Sijmonsma, Tjeerd P.; Pfenninger, Anja; Christensen, Marie M.; Gantert, Thomas; Fuhrmeister, Jessica; Rothermel, Ulrike; Schmoll, Dieter; Heikenwälder, Mathias; Iovanna, Juan L.; Stemmer, Kerstin; Herzig, Stephan; Rose, Adam J.
Dietary protein intake is linked to an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although dietary protein dilution (DPD) can slow the progression of some aging-related disorders, whether this strategy affects the development and risk for obesity-associated metabolic disease such as T2D is unclear. Here, we determined that DPD in mice and humans increases serum markers of metabolic health. In lean mice, DPD promoted metabolic inefficiency by increasing carbohydrate and fat oxidation. In nutritional and polygenic murine models of obesity, DPD prevented and curtailed the development of impaired glucose homeostasis independently of obesity and food intake. DPD-mediated metabolic inefficiency and improvement of glucose homeostasis were independent of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), but required expression of liver-derived fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in both lean and obese mice. FGF21 expression and secretion as well as the associated metabolic remodeling induced by DPD also required induction of liver-integrated stress response–driven nuclear protein 1 (NUPR1). Insufficiency of select nonessential amino acids (NEAAs) was necessary and adequate for NUPR1 and subsequent FGF21 induction and secretion in hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, these data indicate that DPD promotes improved glucose homeostasis through an NEAA insufficiency–induced liver NUPR1/FGF21 axis. PMID:27548521
Full Text Available Background/Aims: Age-related cerebrovascular dysfunction contributes to stroke, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases. One pathogenic mechanism underlying this effect is increased oxidative stress. Up-regulation of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 plays a crucial role in regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Dietary patterns are widely recognized as contributors to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that dietary curcumin, which has an antioxidant effect, can improve aging-related cerebrovascular dysfunction via UCP2 up-regulation. Methods: The 24-month-old male rodents used in this study, including male Sprague Dawley (SD rats and UCP2 knockout (UCP2-/- and matched wild type mice, were given dietary curcumin (0.2%. The young control rodents were 6-month-old. Rodent cerebral artery vasorelaxation was detected by wire myograph. The AMPK/UCP2 pathway and p-eNOS in cerebrovascular and endothelial cells were observed by immunoblotting. Results: Dietary curcumin administration for one month remarkably restored the impaired cerebrovascular endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in aging SD rats. In cerebral arteries from aging SD rats and cultured endothelial cells, curcumin promoted eNOS and AMPK phosphorylation, up-regulated UCP2 and reduced ROS production. These effects of curcumin were abolished by either AMPK or UCP2 inhibition. Chronic dietary curcumin significantly reduced ROS production and improved cerebrovascular endothelium-dependent relaxation in aging wild type mice but not in aging UCP2-/- mice. Conclusions: Curcumin improves aging-related cerebrovascular dysfunction via the AMPK/UCP2 pathway.
Sawashita, Naoko; Naemura, Aki; Shimizu, Muneshige; Morimatsu, Fumitake; Ijiri, Yoshinobu; Yamamoto, Junichiro
It is believed that vegetable and fish, but not animal, proteins prevent thrombosis. The present study compared the effect of long-term intake of purified vegetable and animal proteins (casein, pork, egg white, chicken, white and red fish, soybean, and potato) and powders from whole vegetable and animal meats (soybean, pork, chicken, and horse mackerel) on thrombotic tendency. Western-style high-fat diets with various proteins were given to mice deficient in apolipoprotein-E and low-density lipoprotein receptor for 8 or 12 wk. Thrombotic tendency was assessed by a laser-induced thrombosis test, severity of atherosclerosis was assessed by morphometric analysis of the aortic lesions, and reactivity of platelets was measured by a shear-induced platelet function test. There was no difference in thrombotic tendency between the vegetable and animal protein diets with the exception of pork protein, which showed a prothrombotic effect. The latter was not observed in animals kept on a high-protein diet. Thrombotic tendency was not affected by preparation of dietary powders from whole pork, chicken, or horse mackerel meats and casein (control), all of which contained the same percentages of protein and lipid. In contrast, soybean powder showed an antithrombotic effect, which was mainly due to an inhibition of atherogenesis rather than to platelet inhibition. Neither the purified animal nor the vegetable protein diet affected thrombotic tendency. Soybean powder inhibited atherothrombosis mainly by inhibiting the atherosclerotic process.
Dukkipati, Ramanath; Noori, Nazanin; Feroze, Usama; Kopple, Joel D
Many patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), particularly those with stage 5 CKD, have protein wasting. The degree to which increased morbidity and mortality seen in these patients is due to protein depletion rather than to the often accompanying comorbidity is not clear. High protein diets lead to the accumulation of metabolites of protein that are potentially toxic. The MDRD Study, which investigated the effects of three levels of dietary protein and phosphorus intakes and two blood pressure goals on the progression of CKD, has several limitations. Several meta-analyses have examined the effects of low protein diets (LPD) on the progression of CKD. It is possible that the lower SUN levels or lesser degree of uremic symptoms may have contributed to the positive findings of LPD in the meta-analyses of Fouque and Pedrini et al., when compared with the study of Kasiske et al. A number of published reports indicate that LPD provide adequate protein for almost all clinically stable CKD patients and do not adversely affect body composition. In general, there are no large differences in the protein intake recommended by different expert groups for a given stage of CKD.
Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that supplement use is a widespread and accepted practice by athletes and people who attend commercial gyms. Little is known about protein supplement amongst people undertaking strength training in commercial gyms in Italy when compared to the US. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the use of protein supplementation, alone or in association with other supplements, and dietary behavior amongst regular fitness center attendees in Palermo, Italy. Design Resistance training information have been collected from 800 regular fitness center attendees for the initial analysis. A specific questionnaire was generated for the experimentation. Data were collected using a face-to-face interview method. Supplement users were then compared to the non users and analyzed using a one-way ANOVA, Kruskall-Wallis, chi-square test or exact test of Fisher when appropriate. Results 30.1% of the respondents use dietary supplements during their training as a believe it is the "way to gain muscles and strength". Whey protein shakes (50.0% mixed with creatine and amino-acids (48.3% were the most frequent choices amongst the users. A majority of the subjects (34.0% appeared to rely on their gym instructors' advice for their intake; a lower proportion (13.0% consulted physicians, while none of them consulted nutritionists. A high consumption of milk has been noticed in both users (67,7% and non-users (52,8%; supplement non-users consumed significantly more snacks and bakery products than users per week (P Conclusions A considerable number of regular strength training adepts consume protein supplements mixed with other products (mainly creatine and amino-acids. Limited numbers consult "dietary specialists" and rely mainly on their instructors. We emphasize on the importance of the dissemination of scientifically based information about supplementation in this environment and the promotion of updated educational programs for the
Giller, K.; Huebbe, P.; Doering, F.; Pallauf, K.; Rimbach, G.
Major urinary proteins (Mups) are important for rodent scent communication and sexual behaviour. Recent evidence suggests that Mup1 may be regulated by fasting and re-feeding (RF). However, other Mup isoforms are poorly investigated, and data on the impact of long-term dietary restriction (DR) and ad libitum RF on Mup expression are missing. We investigated the effects of long-term 25 per cent DR and subsequent RF on Mup expression in male C57BL6 mice. DR significantly decreased Mup gene expr...
Meadows, Melissa G; Roudybush, Thomas E; McGraw, Kevin J
Many animal displays involve colorful ornamental traits that signal an individual's quality as a mate or rival. Brilliant iridescent ornaments are common, but little is currently known about their production cost and signaling value. One potential cost of colorful ornaments is the acquisition of limited dietary resources that may be involved, directly or indirectly, in their production. Protein, the primary component of bird feathers and of many nanostructural components of iridescent traits, is naturally restricted in hummingbird diets (comprised mostly of sugars), suggesting that iridescent coloration may be especially challenging to produce in these animals. In this study, we experimentally investigated the effect of dietary protein availability during molt on iridescent color expression in male Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna). We fed captive birds either a 6% (high) or a 3% (low) protein diet and stimulated molt by plucking half the gorget and crown ornaments on each bird as well as the non-ornamental iridescent green tail feathers. We found that birds receiving more protein grew significantly more colorful crown feathers (higher red chroma and redder hue) than those fed the low-protein diet. Diet did not affect gorget coloration, but regrowth of feathers in captivity affected both gorget and crown coloration. Additionally, birds on the high-protein diet grew yellower (higher hue) green tail feathers than birds on the low-protein diet. These results indicate that iridescent ornamental feathers are sensitive to diet quality and may serve as honest signals of nutrition to mates or rivals. Further, because both ornamental and non-ornamental iridescent coloration were affected by conditions during their growth, iridescent color in these birds appears to be generally condition dependent.
David W. Marsan
Full Text Available The cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA, from Upper-Klamath Lake, Oregon, are used to produce blue-green algal (BGA dietary supplements. The periodic co-occurrence of hepatotoxin-producing contaminant species prompted the Oregon Health Division to establish a limit of 1 μg/g microcystin (MC for products sold in Oregon in 1997. At the federal level, the current good manufacturing practice (CGMP regulations for dietary supplements require manufacturers establish a specification, and test, for limits on contaminants that may adulterate finished products. Despite this, several previous international surveys reported MC in BGA supplements in excess of 1 μg/g. The objectives of this study were (1 identify a reliable, easy to use test kit for the detection of MC in dried BGA materials and (2 use this kit to assess the occurrence of MC contamination in AFA-BGA dietary supplements in the U.S. A commercial protein phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA, based on the enzyme PP2A, was found to have acceptable relative enzyme inhibition and accuracy for the majority of MC variants tested, including those most commonly identified in commercial samples, making the kit fit for purpose. Using the PPIA kit, 51% (26 of 51 distinct AFA-BGA products had MC ≥0.25 μg/g (the detection limit of the kit, 10 products had MC concentrations between 0.5 and 1.0 μg/g, and 4 products exceeded the limit (1.1–2.8 μg/g. LC-MS/MS confirmed PPIA results ≥0.5 μg/g and determined that MC-LA and MC-LR were the main congeners present. PPIA is a reliable method for the detection of MC contamination in dried BGA dietary supplements produced in the U.S. While the majority of AFA-BGA products contained ≥0.25 μg/g MC, most were at or below 1.0 μg/g, suggesting that manufacturers have adopted this level as a specification in these products; however, variability in recommended serving sizes prevented further analysis of consumer exposure based on the concentrations of MC
Oliveira, C A A; Azevedo, J F; Martins, J A; Barreto, M P; Silva, V P; Julliand, V; Almeida, F Q
This study was performed to evaluate the impact of dietary protein levels on nutrient digestibility and water and nitrogen balances in conditioning eventing horses. Twenty-four Brazilian Sport Horses, male and female (8.0 to 15.0 yr; 488 ± 32 kg BW), were used in a randomized design with 4 levels of CP diets: 7.5%, 9.0%, 11.0%, and 13.0%. A digestion assay was performed with partial feces collection over 4 d, followed by 1 d of total urine collection. Data were submitted to regression analysis and adjusted to linear and quadratic models (P protein levels. Dry matter intake average was 1.7% of BW. CP and N intake showed a linear increase as a function of increasing protein level in diets. A quadratic response (P digestibility coefficients, with the maximum estimated level of digestibility at 11.6% and 11.4% CP in the diet, respectively. There was a linear effect on ADF digestibility coefficients, digestible DM and protein intake, and CP/DE ratio according to dietary protein levels. There was no impact of dietary protein levels on daily water intake, total water intake, or fecal water excretion. Urinary excretion values showed a linear increase in response to increased dietary protein levels, but no impact was observed on water balance, with an average of 8.4 L/d. Nitrogen intake (NI), N absorption (NA), and urinary N increased linearly as a function of increasing dietary protein levels. There was no impact of dietary protein levels on N retention (NR), with an average of 7.5 g N/d. Nitrogen retention as a percentage of NI or NA showed no significant changes in the function of dietary protein levels. There was an impact of dietary protein levels on the digestibility coefficient of CP, NDF, ADF, and digestible protein intake on conditioning eventing horses. The 11.6% CP level in the diet provided an intake of 2.25 g CP/kg BW and 0.37 g N/kg BW, and this intake was the most appropriate for the conditioning of intensely exercised horses, considering the responses
Villarroel, Pía; Flores, Sebastián; Pizarro, Fernando; de Romaña, Daniel López; Arredondo, Miguel
To study heme iron bioavailability and the role of dietary protein (animal and vegetable) on iron uptake using an in vitro model (Caco-2 cell line). Caco-2 cells were seeded in bicameral chambers with different animal (beef, chicken or fish) or vegetable (peas, lentils, and soybeans) proteins or with pure animal (collagen and casein) or vegetable (gliadin, zein, and glutein) protein extracts. The effect of each protein over heme iron absorption was assessed. Intact heme uptake was higher than either heme plus albumin or digested heme plus albumin, but lower than digested heme. White meal exerted the highest inhibitory effect on hemin uptake. Heme iron uptake decreased in the presence of all legume extracts, but was not significantly different among them (one-way ANOVA, NS). Pure animal (collagen and casein) and vegetable (zein and glutelin) proteins increased heme iron uptake, except for gliadin. Animal and vegetable protein in general decreased heme iron uptake. However, purified animal and vegetable protein induce an increase in heme iron uptake.
Full Text Available One of the most important effects of strength training is muscular hypertrophy. Athletes should optimize their nutritional management in order to compensate their own genetic limitations. The aim of this review is to analyze the scientific evidence concerning protein intake as a tool to achieve muscle hypertrophy. Depending on the expenditure and energy intake of athlete, a daily protein ranging between 10-15% of total dietary intake is needed. However in sports diets, it is preferable to estimate the amount of protein needed per kilogram of body weight in each individual. In this regard athletes should ingest an amount between 1.2 g and 1.8 g of proteins/kg of body mass/day to maintain their lean mass. In order to increase muscle mass (0.5 kg/week, athletes should take between 1.6 g and 1.8 g of protein/kg/day with an increase of 400-500 kcal in their daily diet. These needs will depend on the sport, muscular catabolic status, the athlete’s lean mass and glycogen stores. Protein needs will increase if muscle and liver glycogen stores are empty. Excess of protein intake (more than 2 g/kg/day, with full glycogen stores, does not benefit the athlete and could cause an increase in circulating ketones and urea, thereby producing an early dehydration.
Malik, Vasanti S; Li, Yanping; Tobias, Deirdre K; Pan, An; Hu, Frank B
Dietary proteins are important modulators of glucose metabolism. However, few longitudinal studies have evaluated the associations between intake of protein and protein type and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We investigated the associations between total, animal, and vegetable protein and incident T2D in 72,992 women from the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2008), 92,088 women from Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2009) and 40,722 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2008). During 4,146,216 person-years of follow-up, we documented 15,580 cases of T2D. In pooled multivariate models including body mass index, participants in the highest quintiles of percentage of energy derived from total protein and animal protein had 7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1, 17) and 13% (95% CI: 6, 21) increased risks of T2D compared with those in the lowest quintiles, respectively. Percentage of energy intake from vegetable protein was associated with a moderately decreased risk of T2D (comparing extreme quintiles, hazard ratio =0.91, 95% CI: 0.84, 0.98). Substituting 5% of energy intake from vegetable protein for animal protein was associated with a 23% (95% CI: 16, 30) reduced risk of T2D. In conclusion, higher intake of animal protein was associated with an increased risk of T2D, while higher intake of vegetable protein was associated with a modestly reduced risk. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Dubois-Ferrière, Victor; Brennan, Tara C; Dayer, Romain; Rizzoli, René; Ammann, Patrick
Elderly men and women with protein deficiencies have low levels of circulating IGF-I, and it is likely this contributes to reduced bone formation and increased bone resorption. We hypothesized that calcitropic hormones are involved in this effect and are affected by dietary protein. We therefore investigated the influence of a low-protein diet on the PTH-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)₂D₃] axis and IGF-I in rats, using pamidronate to block resorption that normally contributes to mineral homeostasis. We fed 6-month-old Sprague Dawley female rats isocaloric diets containing 2.5% or 15% casein for 2 wk. Pamidronate was then administered sc (0.6 mg/kg/) for 5 d. Blood samples were collected at different time points. Serum 1,25(OH)₂D₃, IGF-I, PTH, calcium, and phosphorus were determined in all rats; vertebral bone strength and histomorphometric analysis were performed in rats subject to the longest low-protein diets. We found 2 wk of low protein increased PTH levels, decreased 1,25(OH)₂D₃, calcium, and IGF-I, suggesting that increased PTH compensates for low-protein-induced decreases in 1,25(OH)₂D₃. Pamidronate augmented the increased PTH after 8 wk of low protein and prevented the 1,25(OH)₂D₃ decrease. IGF-I remained low. Protein malnutrition induced decreases in relative bone volume and trabecular thickness, which was prevented by pamidronate. Maximal load was reduced by protein restriction, but rescued by pamidronate. In summary, the low protein diet resulted in hyperparathyroidism, a reduction in circulating levels of IGF-I, and reduced 1,25(OH)₂D₃ despite hyperparathyroidism. Blocking resorption resulted in further increases in PTH and improved microarchitecture and biomechanical properties, irrespective of vitamin D status or protein intake.
Ekmann, Kim Schøn; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Holm, Jørgen
to trace the metabolic fate of dietary protein, 1·8% fishmeal was replaced with isotope-labelled whole protein (.98% 13C). The experiment was divided into a growth period lasting 89 d, growing fish from approximately 140 to 350 g, followed by a 3 d period feeding isotope-enriched diets. Isotope ratio MS...
Okpuzor, J; Ogbunugafor, H A; Okafor, U; Sofidiya, M O
This study aims to identify the types of proteins in malted and dry Bambara groundnut seeds and through a comparative analysis, identify similarities and their known uses. Dry viable bambara seed was stored for five days to malt. The proteins in the dry and malted seed were subsequently extracted in potassium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 and precipitated with saturated ammonium sulphate. MudPit (multidimensional protein identification technology) and LC-MALDI TOF-TOF (liquid chromatography - matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization tandem time-of-flight) mass spectrometry were thereafter used to identify the different types of proteins. A total of ten and twelve different types of proteins present in other legume species were identified in the malted and dry seeds respectively from the 214 peptides isolated after searching 586 proteins of the genus Vigna . Seed storage protein B and vicilin were observed to be the major proteins common to both malted and dry seeds and are similar to Vigna luteola . Some of the other proteins observed showed amino acid sequence homology with Vigna radiata and Vigna unguiculata species. The following proteins BV1, Heat shock and Bowman-Birk Inhibitor (a protease), were observed only in the malted state. This information may enhance the appreciation of the nutritional and health benefits of the seed.
Fabien J Démares
Full Text Available Over a decade, declines in honey bee colonies have raised worldwide concerns. Several potentially contributing factors have been investigated, e.g. parasites, diseases, and pesticides. Neonicotinoid pesticides have received much attention due to their intensive use in crop protection, and their adverse effects on many levels of honey bee physiology led the European Union to ban these compounds. Due to their neuronal target, a receptor expressed throughout the insect nervous system, studies have focused mainly on neuroscience and behaviour. Through the Geometric Framework of nutrition, we investigated effects of the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam on survival, food consumption and sucrose sensitivity of honey bees (Apis mellifera. Thiamethoxam did not affect protein and carbohydrate intake, but decreased responses to high concentrations of sucrose. Interestingly, when bees ate fixed unbalanced diets, dietary protein facilitated better sucrose detection. Both thiamethoxam and dietary protein influenced survival. These findings suggest that, in the presence of a pesticide and unbalanced food, honey bee health may be severely challenged. Consequences for foraging efficiency and colony activity, cornerstones of honey bee health, are also discussed.
Luciano de Oliveira Garcia
Full Text Available The objective this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary protein levels in pirapitinga, Piaractus brachypomus, submited to extremely acidic or alkaline pH. Juveniles were fed for 20 days with three diets with different crude protein (CP levels (25.3, 32.4 and 40.0% and then separated in five groups (n=10, three replicates each which were kept in 60 L aquaria and exposed to pH 3.0, 3.5, 7.0, 10, or 10.5. Fish were removed from aquaria when they showed loss of swimming balance, and then blood was collected and plasma separated for measurement of Na+, Cl- and K+ levels. The increase of dietary protein levels (up to 40.0% CP provided some protection for pirapitinga at pH 3.5 or 10.0 because the time to lose equilibrium increased after acute exposure, but was not effective for compensating ion loss at very acidic (Na+ and Cl- and alkaline (Cl- pH.
Karasov, W.H.; Solberg, D.H.; Diamond, J.M.
To understand how intestinal amino acid (AA) transport is regulated by dietary substrate levels, the authors measured uptake of seven radioactively-labelled AAs and glucose across the jejunal brush-border membrane of mice kept on one of three isocaloric rations differing in nitrogen content. In the high-protein ration, uptake increased by 77-81% for the nonessential, less toxic AAs, proline, and aspartate but only by 32-61% for the more toxic essential AAs tested. In the nitrogen-deficient ration, uptake decreased for the nonessential aspartate and proline but stayed constant or increased for essential AAs and for the nonessential alanine. These patterns imply independent regulation of the intestine's various AA transporters. With decreasing dietary AA (or protein), the imino acid and acidic AA private transporters are repressed, while activities of the basic AA transporter and the neutral AA public transporter decrease to an asymptote or else go through a minimum. These regulatory patterns can be understood as a compromise among conflicting constraints imposed by protein's multiple roles as a source of calories, nitrogen, and essential AAs and by the toxicity of essential AAs at high concentrations
Moe, Sharon M; Zidehsarai, Miriam P; Chambers, Mary A; Jackman, Lisa A; Radcliffe, J Scott; Trevino, Laurie L; Donahue, Susan E; Asplin, John R
Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) are in positive phosphorus balance, but phosphorus levels are maintained in the normal range through phosphaturia induced by increases in fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) and parathyroid hormone (PTH). This provides the rationale for recommendations to restrict dietary phosphate intake to 800 mg/d. However, the protein source of the phosphate may also be important. We conducted a crossover trial in nine patients with a mean estimated GFR of 32 ml/min to directly compare vegetarian and meat diets with equivalent nutrients prepared by clinical research staff. During the last 24 hours of each 7-day diet period, subjects were hospitalized in a research center and urine and blood were frequently monitored. The results indicated that 1 week of a vegetarian diet led to lower serum phosphorus levels and decreased FGF23 levels. The inpatient stay demonstrated similar diurnal variation for blood phosphorus, calcium, PTH, and urine fractional excretion of phosphorus but significant differences between the vegetarian and meat diets. Finally, the 24-hour fractional excretion of phosphorus was highly correlated to a 2-hour fasting urine collection for the vegetarian diet but not the meat diet. In summary, this study demonstrates that the source of protein has a significant effect on phosphorus homeostasis in patients with CKD. Therefore, dietary counseling of patients with CKD must include information on not only the amount of phosphate but also the source of protein from which the phosphate derives.
Démares, Fabien J.; Crous, Kendall L.; Pirk, Christian W. W.; Nicolson, Susan W.; Human, Hannelie
Over a decade, declines in honey bee colonies have raised worldwide concerns. Several potentially contributing factors have been investigated, e.g. parasites, diseases, and pesticides. Neonicotinoid pesticides have received much attention due to their intensive use in crop protection, and their adverse effects on many levels of honey bee physiology led the European Union to ban these compounds. Due to their neuronal target, a receptor expressed throughout the insect nervous system, studies have focused mainly on neuroscience and behaviour. Through the Geometric Framework of nutrition, we investigated effects of the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam on survival, food consumption and sucrose sensitivity of honey bees (Apis mellifera). Thiamethoxam did not affect protein and carbohydrate intake, but decreased responses to high concentrations of sucrose. Interestingly, when bees ate fixed unbalanced diets, dietary protein facilitated better sucrose detection. Both thiamethoxam and dietary protein influenced survival. These findings suggest that, in the presence of a pesticide and unbalanced food, honey bee health may be severely challenged. Consequences for foraging efficiency and colony activity, cornerstones of honey bee health, are also discussed. PMID:27272274
Cáceres, Patricio J; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Amigo, Lourdes; Frias, Juana
Germinated brown rice (GBR) is considered healthier than brown rice (BR) but its nutritive value has been hardly studied. Since nutritive quality of GBR depends on genetic diversity and germination conditions, six Ecuadorian BR varieties were germinated at 28 and 34 ºC for 48 and 96 h in darkness and proximate composition, dietary fiber fractions, phytic acid content as well as degree of protein hydrolysis and peptide content were studied. Protein, lipids, ash and available carbohydrate ranged 7.3-10.4%, 2.0-4.0%, 0.8-1.5% and 71.6 to 84.0%, respectively, in GBR seedlings. Total dietary fiber increased during germination (6.1-13.6%), with a large proportion of insoluble fraction, while phytic acid was reduced noticeably. In general, protein hydrolysis occurred during germination was more accused at 28 ºC for 48 h. These results suggest that GBR can be consumed directly as nutritive staple food for a large population worldwide contributing to their nutritional requirements.
Shah, Faiz-Ul-Hassan; Sharif, Mian Kamran; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Shahid, Muhammad
The study was aimed to develop protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrient enriched corn snacks through extrusion processing. Corn snacks supplemented with chickpea, defatted soy flour (20-40/100 g) and guar gum (7/100 g) were prepared through extrusion processing. Micronutrients (iron, zinc, iodine, and vitamins A, C, and folic acid) at recommended daily values were added in all formulations. Extruded corn snacks were analyzed for physical, textural, and sensory attributes. Results showed that piece density (0.34-0.44 g/cm 3 ), moisture (3.40-5.25%), water activity (0.203-0.361), hardness (64.4-133.2 N), and cohesiveness (0.25-0.44) was increased Whereas, expansion ratio (3.72-2.64), springiness (0.82-0.69), chewiness (1.63-0.42), and resilience (1.37-0.14) was decreased as supplementation with soy and chickpea flour increased from 20 to 40/100 g. Overall corn snack supplemented with 15/100 g of soy and 15/100 g of chickpea flour got the highest acceptance from the sensory panelists. The article focuses on physical, textural, and sensory attributes of extruded corn snacks enriched with protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrients Awareness about the importance of healthy snacks has grown among the consumers during the last decade. Extruded snacks developed using nutrient rich ingredients with good textural and sensory properties has always remained a challenge for the snack industry. Texture of the extruded snacks varies a lot with high levels of protein and dietary fiber. This study is helpful for the development of healthy snacks especially in developing countries lacking storage infrastructure or tropical environment. Nutrient rich extruded snacks can also be used to alleviate malnutrition by incorporating in school lunch programs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Background It is known that supplement use is a widespread and accepted practice by athletes and people who attend commercial gyms. Little is known about protein supplement amongst people undertaking strength training in commercial gyms in Italy when compared to the US. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the use of protein supplementation, alone or in association with other supplements, and dietary behavior amongst regular fitness center attendees in Palermo, Italy. Design Resistance training information have been collected from 800 regular fitness center attendees for the initial analysis. A specific questionnaire was generated for the experimentation. Data were collected using a face-to-face interview method. Supplement users were then compared to the non users and analyzed using a one-way ANOVA, Kruskall-Wallis, chi-square test or exact test of Fisher when appropriate. Results 30.1% of the respondents use dietary supplements during their training as a believe it is the "way to gain muscles and strength". Whey protein shakes (50.0%) mixed with creatine and amino-acids (48.3%) were the most frequent choices amongst the users. A majority of the subjects (34.0%) appeared to rely on their gym instructors' advice for their intake; a lower proportion (13.0%) consulted physicians, while none of them consulted nutritionists. A high consumption of milk has been noticed in both users (67,7%) and non-users (52,8%); supplement non-users consumed significantly more snacks and bakery products than users per week (P supplements mixed with other products (mainly creatine and amino-acids). Limited numbers consult "dietary specialists" and rely mainly on their instructors. We emphasize on the importance of the dissemination of scientifically based information about supplementation in this environment and the promotion of updated educational programs for the instructors. PMID:22206347
Linda S. Lamont
Full Text Available I was encouraged to read Dr. Longo and colleagues' Letter to the Editor entitled "The best athletes in ancient Rome were vegetarian!"(Longo et al., 2008. These writers ask that we rethink the issue of what is an optimal dietary protein content for athletes by considering the diets that sustained the ancient gladiators of Rome. Historical evidence shows that humans of ancient times performed at intense levels while consuming 78% of their diets' as plant protein (Kanz and Grosschmidt, 2007. This anthropological fact, and some recent laboratory evidence, argues against the need to increase the protein RDA for athletes from 0.8 g of protein per kilogram of body weight per day to 1.2 to 1.4 g per kilogram per day (ACSM, 2000. Our research group found that amino acids make a small contribution (2 - 3% of total to endurance energy needs (Lamont et al, 1999 and that athlete's have similar oxidation rates if corrections are made for oxygen consumption and fat-free body mass. Others report that a short-term training program of 38-days reduces amino acid use during exercise and down-regulates a critical enzyme in the oxidative pathway in order to spare this nutrient (McKenzie et al., 2000 Yet sport nutritionists and physiologists continue to recommend an increased protein RDA for this group. If one does a Google search using the words exercise and protein you would literally get millions of citations recommending the athlete to increase their protein intake. One reason for this continued recommendation, I believe, is that the laboratory procedure used to justify an increased protein RDA (field-based nitrogen balance measurements has many methodological shortcomings that are not recognized by the sports science community (Lamont, 2008. The problems with this technique are so great that its scientific fidelity has been questioned (Lamont, 2008. And as Longo and colleagues have highlighted (2008 the Institute of Medicine concluded that the evidence for
Zhang, T-T; Zhang, Z-Q; Gao, X-H; Yang, F-H; Xing, X-M
This study investigated digestibilities of nutrients and feed efficiency in female mink at the different dietary protein levels during the mink growth period. Effects of dietary protein on growth performance of minks were also measured. Sixty 45-day-old healthy female minks were randomly assigned to 6 treatment groups with 10 animals in each group. Animals were fed diets varying in protein levels: 28% (Group I), 30% (Group II), 32% (Group III), 34% (Group IV), 36% (Group V) and 38% (Group VI), respectively. The digestibilities of key nutrients were determined on Day 14 after initiating the experiment and the last 3 days. From the beginning of the study, body weight and feed intake were weighed and recorded every other week in order to calculate the average daily bodyweight gain and the feed efficiency. The trial had demonstrated that nitrogen intake was greatly significantly different, which was affected by dietary protein levels (p < 0.001). Growth performance of minks was impaired when dietary protein level was at 28%. When dietary protein level was at 34%, minks had the best daily gains, feed efficiency, and digestibilities of some key nutrients. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Du, Huaidong; Feskens, Edith
Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly summarized the mechanisms and influences of several major dietary determinants of weight change, with a focus on their potential in the prevention of weight gain or regain. We discussed the intake of fat, protein, total carbohydrates, fruits and vegetables, fibre, free sugars, fructose and sugar sweetened beverages, dietary energy density, portion size, eating outside home, glycaemic index and glycaemic load. Popular weight loss diets, including the Atkins diet, Weight Watchers, Ornish diet and Zone diet, are also briefly discussed for their safety and efficacy in the maintenance of weight loss.
Chronic and acute dietary exposure to pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) was estimated in the European population via the consumption of plant-derived foods. This resulted in highest estimates of mean chronic dietary exposure of 34.5–48.4 ng/kg body weight (bw) per day in ‘Toddlers’ (LB–UB) and 154...
Yang, Sun Young; Kim, Young Sun; Lee, Jung Eun; Seol, Jueun; Song, Ji Hyun; Chung, Goh Eun; Yim, Jeong Yoon; Lim, Sun Hee; Kim, Joo Sung
Consumption of red meat and alcohol are known risk factors for colorectal cancer, but associations for dietary fat remain unclear. We investigated the associations of dietary fat, protein, and energy intake with prevalence of colorectal adenoma.We performed a prospective cross-sectional study on asymptomatic persons who underwent a screening colonoscopy at a single center during a routine health check-up from May to December 2011. Dietary data were obtained via a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), assisted by a registered dietician. We also obtained information on alcohol consumption and smoking status, and measured metabolic syndrome markers including abdominal circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We calculated odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) to evaluate the associations using the polytomous logistic regression models. As a secondary analysis, we also conducted a matched analysis, matched by age and sex (557 cases and 557 non-cases).The study sample included 557 cases (406 males and 151 females) with histopathologically confirmed colorectal adenoma, and 1157 controls (650 males and 507 females). The proportion of advanced adenoma was 28.1% of men and 18.5% of female, respectively. Although vegetable protein intake was inversely associated with the prevalence of colorectal adenoma, further adjustment for potential confounding factors attenuated the association, resulting in no significant associations. There were no significant associations between dietary fat intake and colorectal adenoma in energy-adjusted models. For vegetable protein in women, the OR for the comparison of those in the highest tertile with those in the lowest tertile was 0.47 (95% CI 0.25-0.91, P for trend = 0.07) after adjustment for total energy intake. However, after controlling for metabolic syndrome markers, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and family history of
Genaro, Patrícia de Souza; Pinheiro, Marcelo de Medeiros; Szejnfeld, Vera Lúcia; Martini, Lígia Araújo
An inadequate food intake, mainly with regard to protein intake, seems to contribute to a reduction of skeletal muscle and bone mass in the elderly. This study was undertaken to evaluate differences in protein intake in women with or without sarcopenia and verify the intake level that is related to a better bone and muscle mass. Elderly women older than 65 years with sarcopenia (n = 35) and without sarcopenia (n = 165) participated in the study. Assessment of bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and femur was taken, body composition was evaluated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and an evaluation of protein intake was performed through 3-day dietary records. Muscle, bone, and fat mass was significantly higher in women who had protein intake >1.2 g/kg/d. A lower intake of essential amino acids in women with sarcopenia was also observed. Protein and energy intake were significant predictors of muscle mass. The presence of osteoporosis was a predictor of muscle strength. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that in elderly women, an adequate protein intake in terms of quality and quantity, without need of supplementation, could have a positive impact on bone mineral density, lean mass, and skeletal muscle mass. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.
Full Text Available A 3×2 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary protein and lipid levels on the growth and body composition of juvenile far eastern catfish. Six diets were formulated to contain three levels of protein (20%, 30% and 40% and two levels of lipid (9% and 17%. Triplicate groups of fish (initial body weight of 7.6 g were hand-fed to apparent satiation for 66 days. Final mean weight was improved with increasing dietary protein and lipid levels, and the highest final mean weight was observed in fish fed the 40/17 (% protein/% lipid diet. No significant difference was observed in final mean weight for fish fed between 30/17 diet and 40/9 diet. Feed efficiency of fish fed the diets containing over 30% protein levels with 9% and 17% lipid levels were significantly higher than those of fish fed the 20% protein levels. Feed efficiency of fish fed the 30/17 diet was not significantly different from that of fish fed the 40/9 diet or 40/17 diet. Feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio of fish fed the 20% protein diets with 17% lipid level were significantly higher than those of fish fed 9% lipid diet. Daily feed intake of fish tended to decrease with increasing dietary protein and lipid levels. Moisture content of whole body in fish fed the 9% lipid diets was significantly higher than that of fish fed the 17% lipid diets at the same protein level, but the opposite trends were found for crude lipid content. Significant effects of dietary lipid were observed for most fatty acids, according to their relative values in the diets. The results of this study suggest that the protein requirement for maximum growth of juvenile far eastern catfish may be higher than 40%, and an increase of dietary lipid level from 9% to 17% can improve growth and feed utilization.
H Mohammadi Emarat
Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein and methionine levels on quality and quantity of egg production. Fifteen diets formulated with 3 levels of protein (13, 14 and 15% and 5 levels of methionine (0.25, 0.28, 0.31, 0.34 and 0.37% and fed to 420 birds in a 3×5 factorial arrangement. Each diet was randomly fed to 4 replicates of 7 birds each and fed for 3 periods of 4 weeks (50-62wks of age each. Egg number and mortality was recorded daily, whereas feed consumption determined at the end of each period. The increased in dietary protein significantly increased egg production from 54 to 59.4 %. Egg weight, egg mass and feed intake increased by 1.7 g, 3.4 g, and 2.8 g, respectively during the whole experimental period. As the dietary protein increased, feed conversion, egg component (as a percent of whale egg and egg albumin percent were improved. However, the egg breaking, specific gravity and eggshell were significantly decreased with increased dietary protein. The egg yolk percent was not influenced by dietary protein levels. The increased in dietary methionine from 0.25% to 0.37% caused the overall egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake and egg component to improve by about 8.2%, 4g, 6.6g, 8.7g, and 6.0g, respectively. Feed conversion, specific gravity, egg breakage, egg shell, and egg yolk and albumin percent were not influenced by dietary methionine levels.
Lee, Y; Kang, D; Lee, S-A
C-reactive protein (CRP) is a marker of inflammation which has been shown in multiple prospective epidemiological studies to predict the risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Dietary patterns may influence the risk of diseases through the effects of CRP on inflammation. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of dietary patterns with CRP in blood, taking into consideration gender and blood pressure. The present cross-sectional analysis included 7574 participants from a large, population-based study of middle-aged Koreans. Four dietary patterns, including 'fruit', 'vegetable', 'meat' and 'coffee', were derived using factor analysis. Multiple linear regressions were used to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and CRP after adjusting for age, sex, education, waist circumference, smoke status and alcohol consumption. We found that the 'vegetable' pattern was inversely associated with CRP (Ptrend = 0.01). The adjusted mean CRP was 0.04 mg/dl lower (95% CI -0.07, -0.01) for subjects in the highest quartile of the 'vegetable' pattern compared with those in the lowest quartile. This inverse association was more pronounced in men with hypertensive blood; CRP concentrations across increasing quartile categories of the 'vegetable' pattern score were 0.1, 0.14, and 0.15 mg/dl reduction compared to the 1st quartile (the lowest quartile) (Ptrend = 0.04, Plinearity = 0.02). The inverse association of the 'vegetable' pattern with CRP was assessed, and the association appeared to be more predominant in men with hypertensive blood pressure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vidal-Lletjós, Sandra; Beaumont, Martin; Tomé, Daniel; Benamouzig, Robert; Blachier, François; Lan, Annaïg
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), after disease onset, typically progress in two cyclically repeated phases, namely inflammatory flare and remission, with possible nutritional status impairment. Some evidence, either from epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies indicate that the quantity and the quality of dietary protein consumption and amino acid supplementation may differently influence the IBD course according to the disease phases. For instance, although the dietary protein needs for mucosal healing after an inflammatory episode remain undetermined, there is evidence that amino acids derived from dietary proteins display beneficial effects on this process, serving as building blocks for macromolecule synthesis in the wounded mucosal area, energy substrates, and/or precursors of bioactive metabolites. However, an excessive amount of dietary proteins may result in an increased intestinal production of potentially deleterious bacterial metabolites. This could possibly affect epithelial repair as several of these bacterial metabolites are known to inhibit colonic epithelial cell respiration, cell proliferation, and/or to affect barrier function. In this review, we present the available evidence about the impact of the amount of dietary proteins and supplementary amino acids on IBD onset and progression, with a focus on the effects reported in the colon.
Thorpe, Matthew; Mojtahedi, Mina C.; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen; McAuley, Edward; Evans, Ellen M.
Dietary protein is theorized to hold both anabolic effects on bone and demineralizing effects mediated by the diet acid load of sulfate derived from methionine and cysteine. The relative importance of these effects is unknown but relevant to osteoporosis prevention. Post-menopausal women (n=161, mean±SD 67.9±6.0 y) were assessed for areal bone mineral density (aBMD) of lumbar spine (LS) and total hip (TH) using dual X-ray absorptiometry, and dietary intakes of protein, sulfur-containing amino acids and minerals using a USDA multiple-pass 24 h recall. The acidifying influence of the diet was estimated using the ratio of protein / potassium intake, the potential renal acid load (PRAL) and intake of sulfate equivalents from protein. aBMD was regressed onto protein intake, then protein controlled for estimated dietary acid load. A step-down procedure assessed potential confounding influences (weight, age, physical activity and calcium and vitamin D intakes). Protein alone did not predict LS aBMD (P=0.81); however, after accounting for a negative effect of sulfate (β=− 0.28, Pload. If validated experimentally, these findings harmonize conflicting theories on the role of dietary protein in bone health. PMID:18156408
Pawlus, Alison D; Kinghorn, Douglas A
Morinda citrifolia, commonly called noni, has a long history as a medicinal plant and its use as a botanical dietary supplement has grown tremendously in recent years. This has prompted a concomitant increase in research on the phytochemical constituents and biological activity of noni. A relatively large number of scientific publications on noni have been published in recent years, including a number of review articles. The goals of this review are to provide an updated categorization of the phytochemical constituents found in noni and to provide perspective for its extensive utilization as a major botanical dietary supplement. Included herein are a comprehensive list of known ethnobotanical uses and common names of M. citrifolia, a brief summary of relevant biological studies and a discussion of the safety of noni as a supplement.
Pimentel, Filipa B; Alves, Rita C; Oliva-Teles, M Teresa; Costa, Anabela S G; Fernandes, Telmo J R; Almeida, Manuela F; Torres, Duarte; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P
Among aminoacidopathies, phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most prevalent one. Early diagnosis in the neonatal period with a prompt nutritional therapy (low natural-protein and phenylalanine diet, supplemented with phenylalanine-free amino acid mixtures and special low-protein foods) remains the mainstay of the treatment. Data considering nutrient contents of cooked dishes is lacking. In this study, fourteen dishes specifically prepared for PKU individuals were analysed, regarding the lipid profile and iron and zinc contents. These dishes are poor sources of essential nutrients like Fe, Zn or n-3 fatty acids, reinforcing the need for adequate supplementation to cover individual patients' needs. This study can contribute to a more accurate adjustment of PKU diets and supplementation in order to prevent eventual nutritional deficiencies. This study contributes to a better understanding of nutrient intake from PKU patients' meals, showing the need for dietary supplementation.
Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) have grown in prevalence around the world, and recently, related diseases have been considered epidemic. Given the high cost of treatment of obesity/DM-associated diseases, strategies such as dietary manipulation have been widely studied; among them, the whey protein diet has reached popularity because it has been suggested as a strategy for the prevention and treatment of obesity and DM in both humans and animals. Among its main actions, the following activities stand out: reduction of serum glucose in healthy individuals, impaired glucose tolerance in DM and obese patients; reduction in body weight; maintenance of muscle mass; increases in the release of anorectic hormones such as cholecystokinin, leptin, and glucagon like-peptide 1 (GLP-1); and a decrease in the orexigenic hormone ghrelin. Furthermore, studies have shown that whey protein can also lead to reductions in blood pressure, inflammation, and oxidative stress. PMID:22676328
Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the effect of different levels of dietary crude protein (CP on composition of odorous compounds and bacterial communities in pig manure. A total of 48 male pigs (average initial body weight 45 kg fed diets containing three levels of dietary CP (20%, 17.5%, and 15% and their slurry samples were collected from the pits under the floor every week for one month. Changes in composition of odorous compounds and bacterial communities were analyzed by gas chromatography and 454 FLX titanium pyrosequencing systems, respectively. Levels of phenols, indoles, short chain fatty acid and branched chain fatty acid were lowest (p<0.05 in CP 15% group among three CP levels. Relative abundance of Bacteroidetes phylum and bacterial genera including Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Atopostipes, Peptonphilus, Ruminococcaceae_uc, Bacteroides, and Pseudomonas was lower (p<0.05 in CP 15% than in CP 20% group. There was a positive correlation (p<0.05 between odorous compounds and bacterial genera: phenol, indole, iso-butyric acid, and iso-valeric acid with Atopostipes, p-cresol and skatole with Bacteroides, acetic acid and butyric acid with AM982595_g of Porphyromonadaceae family, and propionic acid with Tissierella. Taken together, administration of 15% CP showed less production of odorous compounds than 20% CP group and this result might be associated with the changes in bacterial communities especially whose roles in protein metabolism.
Butts, Christine A; Monro, John A; Moughan, Paul J
The development, refinement and validation of in vitro digestibility assays for dietary protein and amino acids for single stomached mammals are reviewed. The general principles of in vitro digestibility assays and their limitations are discussed. In vitro protein digestibility assays must be accurate, rapid, cheap, simple, robust, adaptable and relevant to the processes of digestion, absorption, and metabolism. Simple in vitro methods have the potential to give useful measures of in vivo amino acid and protein digestibility for humans. In vitro methods, including the complex multi-component models of digestion simulating the various physical and chemical processes, require independent validation with in vivo data from the target species or an acceptable animal model using the most appropriate in vivo measure of digestibility. For protein sources devoid of anti-nutritional factors or plant fibre, true ileal digestibility is the recommended in vivo baseline, while for plant proteins the recommended in vivo assay is real ileal digestibility. More published comparative studies are required to adequately validate in vitro digestibility assays.
Full Text Available Increased dietary protein consumption is thought to cause calciuresis, a negative calcium balance and increased bone loss that may result in skeletal deformities and fracture. To explore this hypothesis, 40 approximately 100-day-old meat-type Merino ram lambs were fed, for 6 months, diets with an increasing crude protein (CP content (114, 142, 171 and 190 g/kg DM but approximately on an iso-nutrient basis with regard to metabolisable energy, calcium and phosphorus. Increased protein consumption modestly (NS enhanced calciuresis and resulted in significant (P < 0.01 limb skewness. This could not, however, be ascribed to osteopaenic bones, and compared with animals consuming lower protein rations, the bone mineral density (BMD and vertebral trabecular bone volume of animals fed high protein diets were significantly increased: theBMDof thoracic vertebrae was positively related to the CP intake (r=0.62; P < 0.001. In animals consuming higher protein diets, skeletal radiology and quantitative bone histology revealed no evidence of increased bone turnover as would be expected in animals that are in negative calcium balance. No relationship existed between limb skewness and the growth rate of lambs. However, the ratio of Ca:P in the forelimb (r = -0.98, vertebrae (r = -0.72 and rib (r = -0.42 was found to be inversely correlated with increased protein intake and resulted from an increase in the phosphorus content of bone, while the amount of bone calcium was unaffected. We conclude that qualitative micro-architectural abnormalities, and not mere bone loss, may underlie the skeletal deformities induced by increased protein consumption in sheep.
Erami, Kazuo; Tanaka, Yasutake; Kawamura, Sayaka; Miyago, Motonori; Sawazaki, Ai; Imaizumi, Katsumi; Sato, Masao
Egg yolk is an important source of nutrients and contains different bioactive substances. In the present study, we studied the benefits of egg yolk in preventing low-protein-diet-induced fatty liver in rats. Rats were fed the following diets, which were based on the AIN-76 formula, for 2 wk: an adequate-protein diet containing 20% casein (C), a low-protein diet containing 5% casein (LP-C), a low-protein diet supplemented with 12.5% egg yolk (LP-EY), and a low-protein diet supplemented with 4.1% egg yolk oil (LP-EYO). The low-protein diets were adjusted to contain 4.13% protein and 4.7% lipids. The LP-C diet resulted in a greater increase in the liver trigriceride (TG) and the vacuolation and a greater decrease in the serum TG and free fatty acid (FFA) than did the C diet. These deviations in the serum and liver TG, serum FFA levels and the liver histopathology were corrected in rats fed the LP-EY diet but not in those fed the LP-EYO diet. Compared to rats fed the LP-C diet, although the activities of lipogenesis-related enzymes (fatty acid synthase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and malic enzyme) decreased in rats fed both of the LP-EY and LP-EYO diets, the level of the microsomal TG transfer protein (MTP) increased only in rats fed the LP-EY diet. Collectively, these results suggest that dietary egg yolk supplementation decreases the LP diet-induced accumulation of TG in the liver by increasing transport of TG in the liver, and egg yolk oil alone is not sufficient enough to bring about these benefits.
Ramzi J Khairallah
Full Text Available Athletes as well as elderly or hospitalized patients use dietary protein supplementation to maintain or grow skeletal muscle. It is recognized that high quality protein is needed for muscle accretion, and can be obtained from both animal and plant-based sources. There is interest to understand whether these sources differ in their ability to maintain or stimulate muscle growth and function. In this study, baseline muscle performance was assessed in 50 adult Sprague-Dawley rats after which they were assigned to one of five semi-purified "Western" diets (n = 10/group differing only in protein source, namely 19 kcal% protein from either milk protein isolate (MPI, whey protein isolate (WPI, soy protein isolate (SPI, soy protein concentrate (SPC or enzyme-treated soy protein (SPE. The diets were fed for 8 weeks at which point muscle performance testing was repeated and tissues were collected for analysis. There was no significant difference in food consumption or body weights over time between the diet groups nor were there differences in terminal organ and muscle weights or in serum lipids, creatinine or myostatin. Compared with MPI-fed rats, rats fed WPI and SPC displayed a greater maximum rate of contraction using the in vivo measure of muscle performance (p<0.05 with increases ranging from 13.3-27.5% and 22.8-29.5%, respectively at 60, 80, 100 and 150 Hz. When the maximum force was normalized to body weight, SPC-fed rats displayed increased force compared to MPI (p<0.05, whereas when normalized to gastrocnemius weight, WPI-fed rats displayed increased force compared to MPI (p<0.05. There was no difference between groups using in situ muscle performance. In conclusion, soy protein consumption, in high-fat diet, resulted in muscle function comparable to whey protein and improved compared to milk protein. The benefits seen with soy or whey protein were independent of changes in muscle mass or fiber cross-sectional area.
Buehlmeier, Judith; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Baecker, Natalie; Stehle, Peter; Heer, Martina
Human spaceflight is associated with a loss of body protein most likely caused by muscle degradation. Additionally astronauts tend towards a high dietary intake of sodium chloride (NaCl), which has recently been shown to induce low grade metabolic acidosis (Frings-Meuthen et al. JBMR, Epub 2007). In several patterns, e.g. chronical renal failure, metabolic acidosis is associated with protein catabolism. We therefore hypothesized that high dietary intake of NaCl enforces protein losses in HDBR, a model for physiological changes in microgravity (µG). Eight healthy male subjects (mean age 26.25 ± 3.5; mean body weight: 78.5 ± 4.1 kg) participated in a 14-day bed rest study in the metabolic ward of the DLR - Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne, Germany. The study was carried out in a cross over design, consisting of two phases, each lasting 22 days (5 days adaptation, 14 days 6° HDBR and 3 days recovery). Both study phases were identical with respect to environmental conditions and study protocol. Subjects received an individually tailored, weight-maintaining diet containing 1.3 g protein/kg/day. The diet was identical in both study phases with the exception of NaClintake: Every subject received a low NaCl diet (0.7 mmol/kg/day) in one phase and a high NaCl diet (7.7 mmol/kg/day) in another one. Blood gas for analysis of acid-base balance was implemented at days 4 and 5 of adaptation, days 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14 of HDBR and days 2, 3 of recovery. Continuous urine collection started on the first day in the metabolic ward to analyze nitrogen excretion. Nitrogen balance was calculated from the difference between protein intake and urinary nitrogen excretion, determined by use of chemiluminescence (Grimble et al. JPEN, 1988). Plasma pH did not change significantly (p=0.285), but plasma bicarbonate and base excess decreased (p=0.0175; p=0.0093) with high NaCl intake in HDBR compared to the low NaCl diet. Nitrogen balance in HDBR was negative, as expected in
Norton Layne E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Leucine (Leu regulates muscle protein synthesis (MPS producing dose-dependent plasma Leu and MPS responses from free amino acid solutions. This study examined the role of Leu content from dietary proteins in regulation of MPS after complete meals. Methods Experiment 1 examined 4 protein sources (wheat, soy, egg, and whey with different Leu concentrations (6.8, 8.0, 8.8, and 10.9% (w/w, respectively on the potential to increase plasma Leu, activate translation factors, and stimulate MPS. Male rats (~250 g were trained for 14 day to eat 3 meals/day consisting of 16/54/30% of energy from protein, carbohydrates and fats. Rats were killed on d14 either before or 90 min after consuming a 4 g breakfast meal. Experiment 2 compared feeding wheat, whey, and wheat + Leu to determine if supplementing the Leu content of the wheat meal would yield similar anabolic responses as whey. Results In Experiment 1, only whey and egg groups increased post-prandial plasma Leu and stimulated MPS above food-deprived controls. Likewise, greater phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1 and 4E binding protein-1 (4E-BP1 occurred in whey and egg groups versus wheat and soy groups. Experiment 2 demonstrated that supplementing wheat with Leu to equalize the Leu content of the meal also equalized the rates of MPS. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that Leu content is a critical factor for evaluating the quantity and quality of proteins necessary at a meal for stimulation of MPS.
Hvelplund, Torben; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Andersen, L. S.
Dietary protein degraded to various extents by varying the time of rumen incubation was prepared from eight concentrates and four roughages. Intestinal digestibility was obtained using the mobile bag technique on intact protein and on the samples of undegraded dietary protein from each feed...... the intestinal digestibility from information on the intestinal digestibility of the protein in the intact feed at any degradability estimated. The results clearly show that intestinal digestibility of undegraded dietary protein cannot be considered as a constant value as used in most protein evaluation systems...
Zhou, Ping; Zhang, Lin; Li, Jiaolong; Luo, Yiqiu; Zhang, Bolin; Xing, Shen; Zhu, Yuping; Sun, Hui; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong
Dietary protein levels and cysteamine (CS) supplementation can affect growth performance and protein metabolism of pigs. However, the influence of dietary protein intake on the growth response of CS-treated pigs is unclear, and the mechanisms involved in protein metabolism remain unknown. Hence, we investigated the interactions between dietary protein levels and CS supplementation and the effects of dietary crude protein levels and CS supplementation on protein synthetic and degradative signaling in skeletal muscle of finishing pigs. One hundred twenty barrows (65.84 ± 0.61 kg) were allocated to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with five replicates of six pigs each. The primary variations were dietary crude protein (CP) levels (14% or 10%) and CS supplemental levels (0 or 700 mg/kg). The low-protein (LP) diets (10% CP) were supplemented with enough essential amino acids (EAA) to meet the NRC AA requirements of pigs and maintain the balanced supply of eight EAA including lysine, methionine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, and leucine. After 41 days, 10 pigs per treatment were slaughtered. We found that LP diets supplemented with EAA resulted in decreased concentrations of plasma somatostatin (SS) (Pprotein levels did not affect other traits. However, CS supplementation increased the average daily gain (Psupplementation also increased the concentrations of plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) (Psupplementation increased the protein levels for the phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), eIF-4E binding protein 1, and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (Pprotein levels and CS supplementation for all traits. In conclusion, dietary protein levels and CS supplementation influenced growth and protein metabolism through independent mechanisms in pigs. In addition, LP diets supplemented with EAA did not affect growth performance and other traits except the concentrations of SS and PUN probably through maintenance of protein synthesis
Sherman, Richard A; Mehta, Ojas
Dietary intake of phosphorus is derived largely from protein sources and is a critical determinant of phosphorus balance in patients with chronic kidney disease. Information about the phosphorus content of prepared foods generally is unavailable, but it is believed to contribute significantly to the phosphorus burden of patients with chronic kidney disease. Analysis of dietary components. We measured the phosphorus content of 44 food products, including 30 refrigerated or frozen precooked meat, poultry, and fish items, generally national brands. Measured and reported phosphorus content of foods. Phosphorus by using Association of Analytical Communities official method 984.27; protein by using Association of Analytical Communities official method 990.03. We found that the ratio of phosphorus to protein content in these items ranged from 6.1 to 21.5 mg of phosphorus per 1 g of protein. The mean ratio in the 19 food products with a label listing phosphorus as an additive was 14.6 mg/g compared with 9.0 mg/g in the 11 items without listed phosphorus. The phosphorus content of only 1 precooked food product was available in a widely used dietary database. Results cannot be extrapolated to other products. Manufacturers also may alter the phosphorus content of foods at any time. Protein content was not directly measured for all foods. Better reporting of phosphorus content of foods by manufacturers could result in improved dietary phosphorus control without risk of protein malnutrition.
Chatterjee Ajay K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Alteration of glutamate and γ-aminobutyrate system have been reported to be associated with neurodegenerative disorders and have been postulated to be involved in aluminum-induced neurotoxicity as well. Aluminum, an well known and commonly exposed neurotoxin, was found to alter glutamate and γ-aminobutyrate levels as well as activities of associated enzymes with regional specificity. Protein malnutrition also reported to alter glutamate level and some of its metabolic enzymes. Thus the region-wise study of levels of brain glutamate and γ-aminobutyrate system in protein adequacy and inadequacy may be worthwhile to understand the mechanism of aluminum-induced neurotoxicity. Results Protein restriction does not have any significant impact on regional aluminum and γ-aminobutyrate contents of rat brain. Significant interaction of dietary protein restriction and aluminum intoxication to alter regional brain glutamate level was observed in the tested brain regions except cerebellum. Alteration in glutamate α-decarboxylase and γ-aminobutyrate transaminase activities were found to be significantly influenced by interaction of aluminum intoxication and dietary protein restriction in all the tested brain regions. In case of regional brain succinic semialdehyde content, this interaction was significant only in cerebrum and thalamic area. Conclusion The alterations of regional brain glutamate and γ-aminobutyrate levels by aluminum are region specific as well as dependent on dietary protein intake. The impact of aluminum exposure on the metabolism of these amino acid neurotransmitters are also influenced by dietary protein level. Thus, modification of dietary protein level or manipulation of the brain amino acid homeostasis by any other means may be an useful tool to find out a path to restrict amino acid neurotransmitter alterations in aluminum-associated neurodisorders.
Strasser, Barbara; Volaklis, Konstantinos; Fuchs, Dietmar; Burtscher, Martin
Muscle atrophy is an unfortunate effect of aging and many diseases and can compromise physical function and impair vital metabolic processes. Low levels of muscular fitness together with insufficient dietary intake are major risk factors for illness and mortality from all causes. Ultimately, muscle wasting contributes significantly to weakness, disability, increased hospitalization, immobility, and loss of independence. However, the extent of muscle wasting differs greatly between individuals due to differences in the aging process per se as well as physical activity levels. Interventions for sarcopenia include exercise and nutrition because both have a positive impact on protein anabolism but also enhance other aspects that contribute to well-being in sarcopenic older adults, such as physical function, quality of life, and anti-inflammatory state. The process of aging is accompanied by chronic immune activation, and sarcopenia may represent a consequence of a counter-regulatory strategy of the immune system. Thereby, the kynurenine pathway is induced, and elevation in the ratio of kynurenine to tryptophan concentrations, which estimates the tryptophan breakdown rate, is often linked with inflammatory conditions and neuropsychiatric symptoms. A combined exercise program consisting of both resistance-type and endurance-type exercise may best help to ameliorate the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, to prevent muscle aging comorbidities, and to improve physical performance and quality of life. In addition, the use of dietary protein supplementation can further augment protein anabolism but can also contribute to a more active lifestyle, thereby supporting well-being and active aging in the older population.
Meer, Yvonne van der; Gerrits, Walter J J; Jansman, Alfons J M; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth
The tendency to reduce crude protein (CP) levels in pig diets to increase protein efficiency may increase the occurrence of damaging behaviours such as ear and tail biting, particularly for pigs kept under suboptimal health conditions. We studied, in a 2×2×2 factorial design, 576 tail-docked growing-finishing entire male pigs in 64 pens, subjected to low (LSC) vs. high sanitary conditions (HSC), and fed a normal CP (NP) vs. a low CP diet (LP, 80% of NP) ad libitum, with a basal amino acid (AA) profile or supplemented AA profile with extra threonine, tryptophan and methionine. The HSC pigs were vaccinated in the first nine weeks of life and received antibiotics at arrival at experimental farm at ten weeks, after which they were kept in a disinfected part of the farm with a strict hygiene protocol. The LSC pigs were kept on the same farm in non-disinfected pens to which manure from another pig farm was introduced fortnightly. At 15, 18, and 24 weeks of age, prevalence of tail and ear damage and of tail and ear wounds was scored. At 20 and 23 weeks of age, frequencies of biting behaviour and aggression were scored for 10×10 min per pen per week. The prevalence of ear damage during the finisher phase (47 vs. 32% of pigs, P effect on ear biting was diet dependent, however, the supplemented AA profile reduced ear biting only in LSC pigs by 18% (SC × AA profile, P aggression (+30%, P effect on ear or tail damage. In conclusion, both low sanitary conditions and a reduction of dietary protein increase the occurrence of damaging behaviours in pigs and therefore may negatively impact pig welfare. Attention should be paid to the impact of dietary nutrient composition on pig behaviour and welfare, particularly when pigs are kept under suboptimal (sanitary) conditions.
Song, Guo-Bin; Xu, Juan; Zheng, Hua; Feng, Ying; Zhang, Wen-Wen; Li, Kun; Ge, Shuang-shuang; Li, Kai; Zhang, Hong
In this experiment, a natural promising protein protective film was fabricated through soluble dietary fiber (SDF)-tannin nanocluster self-assembly. FT-IR, XRD, and DSC tests were employed to investigate the interaction between the SDF and tannins before and after cross-linking induced by calcium ion. On the other hand, referring to the SEM and TEM results, the self-assembly process of the protein protective film could be indicated as follows: first, calcium ion, with its cross-ability, served as the "nucleus"; SDF and tannins were combined to prepare the nanoscale SDF-tannin clusters; then, the clusters were homogeneously deposited on the surface of protein to form a protective film by self-assembling hydrogen bond between tannin component of clusters as "adhesive" and protein in aqueous solutions under very mild conditions. Film thickness could also be controlled by tannin of different concentrations ranging from 114 to 1384 μm. Antibacterial test and in vitro cytotoxicity test proved that the film had a broad spectrum of antimicrobial properties and excellent cell biocompatibility, respectively, which might open up new applications in the food preservation and biomedical fields.
Pang, Wei Wei; Colega, Marjorelee; Cai, Shirong; Chan, Yiong Huak; Padmapriya, Natarajan; Chen, Ling-Wei; Soh, Shu-E; Han, Wee Meng; Tan, Kok Hian; Lee, Yung Seng; Saw, Seang-Mei; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Yap-Seng; van Dam, Rob M; Chong, Mary Ff
Background: Dietary protein may affect glucose metabolism through several mechanisms, but results from studies on dietary protein intake and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have been inconsistent. Objective: We examined the cross-sectional associations of dietary protein intake from different food sources during pregnancy with the risk of GDM in a multiethnic Asian population. Methods: We included 980 participants with singleton pregnancies from the Growing Up in Singapore Toward healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort. Protein intake was ascertained from 24-h dietary recall and 3-d food diaries at 26-28 wk gestation. GDM was defined as fasting glucose ≥7.0 mmol/L and/or 2-h postload glucose ≥7.8 mmol/L at 26-28 wk gestation. We evaluated the association of dietary protein intake with GDM risk by substituting carbohydrate with protein in an isocaloric model with the use of multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of GDM was 17.9% among our participants. After adjustment for potential confounders, a higher total dietary protein intake was associated with a higher risk of GDM; the OR comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of intake was 2.15 (95% CI: 1.27, 3.62; P -trend = 0.016). Higher intake levels of both animal protein (OR: 2.87; 95% CI: 1.58, 5.20; P -trend = 0.001) and vegetable protein (OR: 1.78; 95% CI: 0.99, 3.20; P -trend = 0.009) were associated with a higher risk of GDM. Among the animal protein sources, higher intake levels of seafood protein (OR: 2.17; 95% CI: 1.26, 3.72; P -trend = 0.023) and dairy protein (OR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.11, 3.15; P -trend = 0.017) were significantly associated with a higher GDM risk. Conclusion: Higher intake levels of both animal and vegetable protein were associated with a higher risk of GDM in Asian women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01174875. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
Madeira, Marta Sofia Morgado Dos Santos; Rolo, Eva Sofia Alves; Pires, Virgínia Maria Rico; Alfaia, Cristina Maria Riscado Pereira Mateus; Coelho, Diogo Francisco Maurício; Lopes, Paula Alexandra Antunes Brás; Martins, Susana Isabel Vargas; Pinto, Rui Manuel Amaro; Prates, José António Mestre
In the present study, the effect of arginine and leucine supplementation, and dietary protein level, were investigated in commercial crossbred pigs to clarify their individual or combined impact on plasma metabolites, hepatic fatty acid composition and mRNA levels of lipid sensitive factors. The experiment was conducted on fifty-four entire male pigs (Duroc × Pietrain × Large White × Landrace crossbred) from 59 to 92 kg of live weight. Each pig was randomly assigned to one of six experimental treatments (n = 9). The treatments followed a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, providing two levels of arginine supplementation (0 vs. 1%) and three levels of basal diet (normal protein diet, NPD; reduced protein diet, RPD; reduced protein diet with 2% of leucine, RPDL). Significant interactions between arginine supplementation and protein level were observed across plasma lipids. While dietary arginine increased total lipids, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerols in NPD, the inverse effect was observed in RPD. Overall, dietary treatments had a minor impact on hepatic fatty acid composition. RPD increased 18:1c9 fatty acid while the combination of leucine and RPD reduced 18:0 fatty acid. Arginine supplementation increased the gene expression of FABP1, which contributes for triacylglycerols synthesis without affecting hepatic fatty acids content. RPD, with or without leucine addition, upregulated the lipogenic gene CEBPA but downregulated the fat oxidation gene LPIN1. Arginine supplementation was responsible for a modulated effect on plasma lipids, which is dependent on dietary protein level. It consistently increased lipaemia in NPD, while reducing the correspondent metabolites in RPD. In contrast, arginine had no major impact, neither on hepatic fatty acids content nor on fatty acid composition. Likewise, leucine supplementation of RPD, regardless the presence of arginine, promoted no changes on total fatty acids in
Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Mandel, Ernest I; Curhan, Gary C; Gambaro, Giovanni; Taylor, Eric N
Protein and potassium intake and the resulting diet-dependent net acid load may affect kidney stone formation. It is not known whether protein type or net acid load is associated with risk of kidney stones. We prospectively examined intakes of protein (dairy, nondairy animal, and vegetable), potassium, and animal protein-to-potassium ratio (an estimate of net acid load) and risk of incident kidney stones in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study ( n =42,919), the Nurses' Health Study I ( n =60,128), and the Nurses' Health Study II ( n =90,629). Multivariable models were adjusted for age, body mass index, diet, and other factors. We also analyzed cross-sectional associations with 24-hour urine ( n =6129). During 3,108,264 person-years of follow-up, there were 6308 incident kidney stones. Dairy protein was associated with lower risk in the Nurses' Health Study II (hazard ratio for highest versus lowest quintile, 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.73 to 0.96; P value for trend animal protein were 1.15 (95% confidence interval, 0.97 to 1.36; P value for trend =0.04) in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study and 1.20 (95% confidence interval, 0.99 to 1.46; P value for trend =0.06) in the Nurses' Health Study I. Potassium intake was associated with lower risk in all three cohorts (hazard ratios from 0.44 [95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 0.53] to 0.67 [95% confidence interval, 0.57 to 0.78]; P values for trend Animal protein-to-potassium ratio was associated with higher risk ( P value for trend =0.004), even after adjustment for animal protein and potassium. Higher dietary potassium was associated with higher urine citrate, pH, and volume ( P values for trend protein type. Diets high in potassium or with a relative abundance of potassium compared with animal protein could represent a means of stone prevention. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Full Text Available Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI diet improved weight maintenance.To identify blood predictors for weight change after weight loss following the dietary intervention within the Diogenes study.Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 8-week low caloric diet-induced weight loss from 48 women who continued to lose weight and 48 women who regained weight during subsequent 6-month dietary intervention period with 4 diets varying in protein and GI levels. Thirty-one proteins and 3 steroid hormones were measured.Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE was the most important predictor. Its greater reduction during the 8-week weight loss was related to continued weight loss during the subsequent 6 months, identified by both Logistic Regression and Random Forests analyses. The prediction power of ACE was influenced by immunoproteins, particularly fibrinogen. Leptin, luteinizing hormone and some immunoproteins showed interactions with dietary protein level, while interleukin 8 showed interaction with GI level on the prediction of weight maintenance. A predictor panel of 15 variables enabled an optimal classification by Random Forests with an error rate of 24±1%. A logistic regression model with independent variables from 9 blood analytes had a prediction accuracy of 92%.A selected panel of blood proteins/steroids can predict the weight change after weight loss. ACE may play an important role in weight maintenance. The interactions of blood factors with dietary components are important for personalized dietary advice after weight loss.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00390637.
Wallace, R J; Broderick, G A; Brammall, M L
Ruminal fluid from sheep fed hay plus concentrate diets containing 1.8% urea, 6% casein, or 6% egg albumin had proteolytic activities of 4.12, 3.02, or 4.00 mg of [14C]casein hydrolyzed ml-1 h-1, respectively. Dietary albumin had no effect on the rate of albumin breakdown relative to that of casein (0.06). Greater numbers of highly proteolytic bacteria, mainly Butyrivibrio spp., were isolated from the rumens of sheep receiving albumin. Albumin hydrolysis by these isolates was even slower relative to that of casein (0.03) than in ruminal fluid and was similar to that found in isolates from urea- and casein-fed sheep. Hence, there appears to be no mechanism by which ruminal bacteria can alter their proteolytic activity to utilize resistant soluble protein more effectively. PMID:3579280
Shah, Bharat V
In the last 5 to 6 decades there has been a marked variation in use of dietary protein restriction (DPR) in treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Before availability of renal replacement therapy (RRT), DPR restriction was widely practised in uraemic patients to reduce generation of nitrogenous waste products and ameliorate uraemic symptoms. With availability of RRT, the interest in DPR was lost. There was a resurgence of interest in DPR when animal experimental studies suggested that DPR can retard the progression of CKD. Then there was concern about worsening nutritional status with DPR. This article reviews how the role of DPR in treatment of CKD as perceived by physicians has varied over the years and suggests a strategy that should be followed in India considering that RRT is available to a very small percentage of cases developing end stage kidney disease (ESKD).
Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Roswall, Nina; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Halkjær, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Linneberg, Allan; Toft, Ulla; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Heitmann, Berit L; Astrup, Arne; Sørensen, Thorkild I A
Genetic predisposition to adiposity may interact with dietary protein in relation to changes of anthropometry. To investigate the interaction between genetic predisposition to higher body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRBMI) and dietary protein in relation to subsequent change in body weight (ΔBW) or change in WC (ΔWC). Three different Danish cohorts were used. In total 7,054 individuals constituted the study population with information on diet, 50 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BMI, WC or WHRBMI, as well as potential confounders. Mean follow-up time was ∼5 years. Four genetic predisposition-scores were based on the SNPs; a complete-score including all selected adiposity- associated SNPs, and three scores including BMI, WC or WHRBMI associated polymorphisms, respectively. The association between protein intake and ΔBW or ΔWC were examined and interactions between SNP-score and protein were investigated. Analyses were based on linear regressions using macronutrient substitution models and meta-analyses. When protein replaced carbohydrate, meta-analyses showed no associations with ΔBW (41.0 gram/y/5 energy% protein, [95% CI: -32.3; 114.3]) or ΔWC (genetic predisposition to general and abdominal adiposity, assessed by gene-scores, does not seem to modulate the influence of dietary protein on ΔBW or ΔWC.
Giller, K.; Huebbe, P.; Doering, F.; Pallauf, K.; Rimbach, G.
Major urinary proteins (Mups) are important for rodent scent communication and sexual behaviour. Recent evidence suggests that Mup1 may be regulated by fasting and re-feeding (RF). However, other Mup isoforms are poorly investigated, and data on the impact of long-term dietary restriction (DR) and ad libitum RF on Mup expression are missing. We investigated the effects of long-term 25 per cent DR and subsequent RF on Mup expression in male C57BL6 mice. DR significantly decreased Mup gene expression, hepatic and urinary protein levels compared with ad libitum (AL) fed control mice, with the greatest downregulation found for Mup5 expression. The decline in Mup expression was inverted by six months of RF. Because of inhibitory glucocorticoid response elements in the genomic sequence of the Mup5 gene, the observed inverse correlation of nuclear glucocorticoid receptor levels with Mup expression in response to DR and subsequent RF is a possible regulatory mechanism. Additionally, gene-expression-inhibiting histone deacetylation (H3K9) occurred in the region of the Mup5 gene in response to DR. We assume that Mup may act as a molecular switch linking nutritional status to sexual behaviour of mice, and thereby regulating male fertility and reproduction in response to food supply. PMID:23446533
Timbo, Babgaleh B; Chirtel, Stuart J; Ihrie, John; Oladipo, Taiye; Velez-Suarez, Loy; Brewer, Vickery; Mozersky, Robert
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) oversees the safety of the nation's foods, dietary supplements, and cosmetic products. To present a descriptive analysis of the 2004-2013 dietary supplement adverse event report (AER) data from CAERS and evaluate the 2006 Dietary Supplements and Nonprescription Drug Consumer Protection Act as pertaining to dietary supplements adverse events reporting. We queried CAERS for data from the 2004-2013 AERs specifying at least 1 suspected dietary supplement product. We extracted the product name(s), the symptom(s) reported, age, sex, and serious adverse event outcomes. We examined time trends for mandatory and voluntary reporting and performed analysis using SAS v9.4 and R v3.3.0 software. Of the total AERs (n = 15 430) received from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2013, indicating at least 1 suspected dietary supplement product, 66.9% were mandatory, 32.2% were voluntary, and 0.9% were both mandatory and voluntary. Reported serious outcomes included death, life-threatening conditions, hospitalizations, congenital anomalies/birth defects and events requiring interventions to prevent permanent impairments (5.1%). The dietary supplement adverse event reporting rate in the United States was estimated at ~2% based on CAERS data. This study characterizes CAERS dietary supplement adverse event data for the 2004-2013 period and estimates a reporting rate of 2% for dietary supplement adverse events based on CAERS data. The findings show that the 2006 Dietary Supplements and Nonprescription Drug Consumer Protection Act had a substantial impact on the reporting of adverse events.
Yoon, Seon-Joo; Chu, Djong-Chi; Raj Juneja, Lekh
The ideal water-soluble dietary fiber for the fiber-enrichment of foods must be very low in viscosity, tasteless, odorless, and should produce clear solutions in beverages. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) produced from guar gum by enzymatic process has the same chemical structure with intact guar gum but less than one-tenth the original molecular length of guar gum, which make available to be used as film former, foam stabilizer and swelling agent. The viscosity of PHGG is about 10 mPa.s in 5% aqueous solution, whereas 1% solution of guar gum shows range from 2,000 to 3,000 mPa.s. In addition, PHGG is greatly stable against low pH, heat, acid and digestive enzyme. For these reasons, PHGG seems to be one of the most beneficial dietary fiber materials. It also showed that interesting physiological functions still fully exert the nutritional function of a dietary fiber. PHGG has, therefore, been used primarily for a nutritional purpose and became fully integrated food material without altering the rheology, taste, texture and color of final products. PHGG named as Benefiber(R) in USA has self-affirmation on GRAS status of standard grade PHGG. PHGG named as Sunfiber(R) is now being used in various beverages, food products and medicinal foods as a safe, natural and functional dietary fiber in all over the world.
Qin, Chunfu; Huang, Ping; Qiu, Kai; Sun, Wenjuan; Xu, Ling; Zhang, Xin; Yin, Jingdong
The current study was carried out to determine effects of dietary protein source and crude protein (CP) level on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and muscle amino acid (AA) profile in finishing gilts. The experiment was designed as a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with two sources of dietary proteins (cottonseed meal, CSM vs. soybean meal, SBM) and two levels of CP (12 % vs. 14 %, as-fed basis). Seventy-two crossbred gilts (89.5 ± 0.9 kg) were allotted to one of four dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design for a period of 28 d. All diets were formulated to be isoenergetic and similar concentrations of standardized ileal digestible essential AA covering the nutrient requirements of pigs. Growth, carcass characteristics and meat quality were not affected by dietary protein source nor crude protein level (P > 0.10) except that average daily feed intake was increased by CSM diets (P = 0.03). Gilts offered reduced protein diets had lower muscle pH45min (P gilts offered CSM diets, while muscle intracellular free valine concentration was increased (P = 0.03). The gilts offered reduced protein diets had greater intracellular concentrations of free methionine, lysine, and total AA in muscle (P < 0.05). These results suggest that CSM could replace SBM as a primary protein source in finishing pig diets in terms of performance, N efficiency, carcass characteristics, and meat quality, but decrease the concentrations of muscle specific AA. Furthermore, the reduced protein diet played an important role in increasing muscle intracellular concentrations of specific free amino acids (FAA), and in reducing the relative ratios of specific FAA to lysine in longissimus dorsi muscle of pig, whose biological meaning needs further studies.
Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Larsen, Sofus C; Angquist, Lars
BACKGROUND: Genetic predisposition to adiposity may interact with dietary protein in relation to changes of anthropometry. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the interaction between genetic predisposition to higher body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRBMI...
van den Broek, Merel; de Heide, Loek J. M.; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; van der Wal-Oost, Alies M.; van Beek, Andre P.
CONTEXT: Bariatric surgery is an effective method to reduce morbid obesity. Nutritional counseling is essential to achieve maximal treatment success and to avoid long-term complications. Increased dietary protein intake may improve various postoperative results. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic
Maida, Adriano; Chan, Jessica S K; Sjøberg, Kim Anker
OBJECTIVE: Dietary protein dilution (PD) has been associated with metabolic advantages such as improved glucose homeostasis and increased energy expenditure. This phenotype involves liver-induced release of FGF21 in response to amino acid insufficiency; however, it has remained unclear whether di...
Ponderosa pine trees occupy over 15 million hectares of rangeland in western North America. Pregnant cows often consume pine needles (PN), and subsequently abort. The protein-to-energy ratio may be important in the ability of cattle to tolerate dietary terpenes. Tannins often co-occur with terpenes ...
This opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) deals with the setting of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for protein. The Panel concludes that a Population Reference Intake (PRI) can be derived from nitrogen balance studies. Several health outcomes possibly...
Sirtori, F; Crovetti, A; Acciaioli, A; Pugliese, C; Bozzi, R; Campodoni, G; Franci, O
The aim of this study was to test the effect of various dietary protein contents (CP) on the carcass traits and the meat quality of Cinta Senese pigs. A total of 60 Cinta Senese pigs were equally distributed in four dietary groups that were balanced for sex (barrows and gilts) and live weight. The animals in the groups were fed one of four diets (80CP, 100CP, 130CP and 160CP) containing different CP contents (80, 100, 130 and 160 g/kg, respectively). The diets were administered to the pigs during the entire growing-fattening period in a controlled dose of 90 g/kg W0.75, to a maximum of 2.5 kg/day per animal. The duration of the trial was ~250 days, ending when the animals reached the target slaughter weight of 145 kg. The 80CP diet produced fatter carcasses than did the other diets; no differences in carcass composition were found among the animals fed the other three diets (total lean cuts: 57.4%, 61.4%, 60.8% and 61.3% for 80CP, 100CP, 130CP and 160CP diet, respectively). The sample joint composition confirmed the highest fatness and the lowest meatiness of pigs fed 80CP. This same pattern was evident for the composition of the muscle (Longissimus lumborum) containing the largest amount of i.m. fat, and the lowest protein content in the 80CP group. Moreover, the 80CP diet resulted in the lightest and yellowest meat with the highest cooking loss. A principal component analysis of the physical and chemical traits of the meat revealed three first factors that explained 56% of the total variance. Among them, only the intersection of Factor1, which combined mainly lower pH at 24 h postmortem and higher drip loss, cooking loss, lightness and yellowness, with Factor2, which associated higher toughness, higher protein and lower fat content, graphically appeared to discriminate the 80CP diet from the other ones. In conclusion, a diet with 80 g/kg of CP content was inadequate for this local breed, while, in consideration of the cost of protein feed and the need to reduce N
Shertzer, Howard G; Krishan, Mansi; Genter, Mary Beth
In humans and experimental animals, protein-enriched diets are beneficial for weight management, muscle development, managing early stage insulin resistance and overall health. Previous studies have shown that in mice consuming a high fat diet, whey protein isolate (WPI) reduced hepatosteatosis and insulin resistance due in part to an increase in basal metabolic rate. In the current study, we examined the ability of WPI to increase energy metabolism in mouse brain. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal AIN-93M diet for 12 weeks, with (WPI group) or without (Control group) 100g WPI/L drinking water. In WPI mice compared to controls, the oxidative stress biomarkers malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals were 40% lower in brain homogenates, and the production of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide were 25-35% less in brain mitochondria. Brain mitochondria from WPI mice remained coupled, and exhibited higher rates of respiration with proportionately greater levels of cytochromes a+a3 and c+c1. These results suggested that WPI treatment increased the number or improved the function of brain mitochondria. qRT-PCR revealed that the gene encoding a master regulator of mitochondrial activity and biogenesis, Pgc-1alpha (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha) was elevated 2.2-fold, as were the PGC-1alpha downstream genes, Tfam (mitochondrial transcription factor A), Gabpa/Nrf-2a (GA-binding protein alpha/nuclear respiratory factor-2a), and Cox-6a1 (cytochrome oxidase-6a1). Each of these genes had twice the levels of transcript in brain tissue from WPI mice, relative to controls. There was no change in the expression of the housekeeping gene B2mg (beta-2 microglobulin). We conclude that dietary whey protein decreases oxidative stress and increases mitochondrial activity in mouse brain. Dietary supplementation with WPI may be a useful clinical intervention to treat conditions associated with oxidative stress or diminished mitochondrial activity in the
Xu, Lianbin; Lin, Xueyan; White, Robin R; Hanigan, Mark D; Hu, Zhiyong; Hou, Qiuling; Wang, Yun; Wang, Zhonghua
Circulating amino acid (AA) and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations and hepatic gluconeogenesis are affected by previous protein intake. However, information about their relations and islet hormone responses is limited. This study investigated the associations between islet hormone concentrations with circulating AA and NO concentrations as well as with hepatic gluconeogenesis in lactating rats. At delivery, 18 Wistar rats aged 14 wk were assigned either to low-protein (LP; 9% protein), standard-protein (SP; 21% protein), or high-protein (HP; 35% protein) diets for 15 d in groups of 6 pups/dam. Circulating AA and NO concentrations, circulating and pancreas islet hormone concentrations, and the activities and gene expressions of hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) were measured at the end of treatment. Circulating insulin and glucagon concentrations were greater in the HP than in the LP (25% and 17%, respectively) and SP (37% and 31%) diet groups, whereas compared with the SP group, pancreatic concentrations were lower in the LP (32% and 49%) and HP (34% and 46%) groups (P < 0.01). Hepatic PEPCK and G6Pase activities in the HP group were greater than those in the SP (15% and 15%) and LP (8% and 19%) groups (P < 0.05). In all groups, plasma NO concentrations were correlated negatively to circulating insulin (r = -0.77, P = 0.0003) and positively to pancreas insulin and glucagon concentrations and the insulin-to-glucagon ratio (r = 0.50-0.63; P < 0.05). Some circulating AAs correlated positively to circulating insulin and pancreas insulin and glucagon (r = 0.50-0.82, P < 0.05) but negatively to circulating glucagon (r = -0.53-0.68, P < 0.05). Variations in circulating AA and NO concentrations and hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme activities are likely intermediary responses involved in the effects of dietary protein amounts on the synthesis and secretion of islet hormones in lactating rats.
Freedman, Laurence S.; Commins, John M.; Moler, James E.; Arab, Lenore; Baer, David J.; Kipnis, Victor; Midthune, Douglas; Moshfegh, Alanna J.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Prentice, Ross L.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Spiegelman, Donna; Subar, Amy F.; Tinker, Lesley F.; Willett, Walter
We pooled data from 5 large validation studies of dietary self-report instruments that used recovery biomarkers as references to clarify the measurement properties of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls. The studies were conducted in widely differing US adult populations from 1999 to 2009. We report on total energy, protein, and protein density intakes. Results were similar across sexes, but there was heterogeneity across studies. Using a FFQ, the average correlation coef...
Bushey, Dean F; Bannon, Gary A; Delaney, Bryan F; Graser, Gerson; Hefford, Mary; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Lee, Thomas C; Madduri, Krishna M; Pariza, Michael; Privalle, Laura S; Ranjan, Rakesh; Saab-Rincon, Gloria; Schafer, Barry W; Thelen, Jay J; Zhang, John X Q; Harper, Marc S
Genetically modified (GM) crops may contain newly expressed proteins that are described as "intractable". Safety assessment of these proteins may require some adaptations to the current assessment procedures. Intractable proteins are defined here as those proteins with properties that make it extremely difficult or impossible with current methods to express in heterologous systems; isolate, purify, or concentrate; quantify (due to low levels); demonstrate biological activity; or prove equivalency with plant proteins. Five classes of intractable proteins are discussed here: (1) membrane proteins, (2) signaling proteins, (3) transcription factors, (4) N-glycosylated proteins, and (5) resistance proteins (R-proteins, plant pathogen recognition proteins that activate innate immune responses). While the basic tiered weight-of-evidence approach for assessing the safety of GM crops proposed by the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) in 2008 is applicable to intractable proteins, new or modified methods may be required. For example, the first two steps in Tier I (hazard identification) analysis, gathering of applicable history of safe use (HOSU) information and bioinformatics analysis, do not require protein isolation. The extremely low level of expression of most intractable proteins should be taken into account while assessing safety of the intractable protein in GM crops. If Tier II (hazard characterization) analyses requiring animal feeding are judged to be necessary, alternatives to feeding high doses of pure protein may be needed. These alternatives are discussed here. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Matsuoka, Ryosuke; Shirouchi, Bungo; Umegatani, Minami; Fukuda, Meguri; Muto, Ayano; Masuda, Yasunobu; Kunou, Masaaki; Sato, Masao
Egg-white protein (EWP) is known to reduce lymphatic TAG transport in rats. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary EWP on body fat mass. Male rats, 4 weeks old, were fed diets containing either 20 % EWP or casein for 28 d. Carcass protein levels and gastrocnemius leg muscle weights in the EWP group were significantly higher than those in the casein group. In addition, carcass TAG levels and abdominal fat weights in the EWP group were significantly lower than those in the casein group; adipocyte size in abdominal fat in the EWP group was smaller than that in the casein group. To identify the involvement of dietary fat levels in the rats, one of two fat levels (5 or 10 %) was added to their diet along with the different protein sources (EWP and casein). Abdominal fat weight and serum and hepatic TAG levels were significantly lower in the EWP group than in the casein group. Moreover, significantly higher values of enzymatic activity related to β-oxidation in the liver were observed in the EWP group compared with the casein group. Finally, abdominal fat weight reduction in the EWP group with the 10 % fat diet was lower than that in the EWP group with the 5 % fat diet. In conclusion, our results indicate that, in addition to the inhibition of dietary TAG absorption reported previously, dietary EWP reduces body fat mass in rats through an increase of body protein mass and the acceleration of β-oxidation in the liver.
Wang, X C; Zhang, H J; Wu, S G; Yue, H Y; Wang, J; Li, J; Qi, G H
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; cottonseed protein, CSP; double-zero rapeseed meal, DRM) on the internal quality of refrigerated eggs. A total of 360 laying hens (32 wk of age) were randomly allotted to six treatment groups (five replicates per treatment) and fed diets containing SBM, CSP, or DRM individually or in combination with equal crude protein content (SBM-CSP, SBM-DRM, and CSP-DRM) as the protein ingredient(s). A 6×3 factorial arrangement was employed with dietary types and storage time (0 d, 2 wk, and 4 wk) as the main effects. After 12 wk of diet feeding, a total of 270 eggs were collected for egg quality determination. The egg Haugh unit (HU) in the CSP, SBM-DRM, and DRM groups were significantly lower than those in the SBM and SBM-CSP groups. The hardness and springiness of the cooked yolk in the CSP group were significantly higher than those in the other treatment groups. A lower HU, lower yolk index and higher albumen pH were observed in the DRM group compared to the SBM and SBM-CSP groups when the eggs were stored to 4 wk, and the HU was improved in the CSP-DRM group compared to the DRM group (pDRM groups showed no difference in comparison to the SBM group. In conclusion, CSP may ameliorate the negative effects of DRM on the HU of refrigerated eggs, and SBM or DRM may alleviate the adverse effects of CSP on yolk hardness.
Günther, Anke L B; Karaolis-Danckert, Nadina; Kroke, Anja; Remer, Thomas; Buyken, Anette E
Early puberty onset is associated with hormone-related cancers, but whether diet in childhood influences pubertal timing is controversial. We examined the association of protein intake in early and mid-childhood with the ages at take-off of the pubertal growth spurt (ATO), peak height velocity (APHV), and menarche in girls and voice break in boys using data from the longitudinal Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study. Among participants who provided 3-d weighed dietary records at 12 mo, 18-24 mo, 3-4 y, and 5-6 y, 112 had sufficient anthropometric measurements between 6 and 13 y to allow estimation of ATO. Life-course plots were used to identify critical periods of total, animal, and vegetable protein intake (percentage of total energy intake) for pubertal timing. At these ages, the association between tertiles of protein intake (T1-T3) and the outcomes was investigated using multiple linear regression analysis. A higher total and animal protein intake at 5-6 y was related to an earlier ATO. In the highest tertile of animal protein intake at 5-6 y, ATO occurred 0.6 y earlier than in the lowest [(mean, 95% CI) T1: 9.6, 9.4-9.9 vs. T2: 9.4, 9.1-9.7 vs. T3: 9.0, 8.7-9.3 y; P-trend = 0.003, adjusted for sex, total energy, breast-feeding, birth year, and paternal university degree]. Similar findings were seen for APHV (P-trend = 0.001) and the timing of menarche/voice break (P-trend = 0.02). Conversely, a higher vegetable protein intake at 3-4 and 5-6 y was related to later ATO, APHV, and menarche/voice break (P-trend = 0.02-0.04). These results suggest that animal and vegetable protein intake in mid-childhood might be differentially related to pubertal timing.
Shim, M Y; Song, E; Billard, L; Aggrey, S E; Pesti, G M; Sodsee, P
The effects of a series of balanced dietary protein levels on egg production and egg quality parameters of laying hens from 18 through 74 wk of age were investigated. One hundred forty-four pullets (Bovans) were randomly assigned to individual cages with separate feeders including 3 different protein level series of isocaloric diets. Diets were separated into 4 phases of 18-22, 23-32, 33-44, and 45-74 wk of age. The high protein (H) series contained 21.62, 19.05, 16.32, and 16.05% CP, respectively. Medium protein (M) and low protein (L) series were 2 and 4% lower in balanced dietary protein. The results clearly demonstrated that the balanced dietary protein level was a limiting factor for BW, ADFI, egg weight, hen day egg production (HDEP), and feed per kilogram of eggs. Feeding with the L series resulted in lower ADFI and HDEP (90.33% peak production) and more feed per kilogram of eggs compared with the H or M series (HDEP; 93.23 and 95.68% peak production, monthly basis). Egg weight responded in a linear manner to balanced dietary protein level (58.78, 55.94, and 52.73 g for H, M, and L, respectively). Feed intake of all hens, but especially those in the L series, increased considerably after wk 54 when the temperature of the house decreased due to winter conditions. Thus, hens fed the L series seemed particularly dependent on house temperature to maintain BW, ADFI, and HDEP. For egg quality parameters, percent yolk, Haugh units, and egg specific gravity were similar regardless of diets. Haugh units were found to be greatly affected by the variation of housing temperature (P = 0.025). Maximum performance cannot always be expected to lead to maximum profits. Contrary to the idea of a daily amino acid requirement for maximum performance, these results may be used to determine profit-maximizing levels of balanced dietary protein based on the cost of protein and returns from different possible protein levels that may be fed.
Cônsolo, N R B; Mesquita, B S; Rodriguez, F D; Rizzi, V G; Silva, L F P
Ractopamine hydrochloride (RH) alters protein metabolism and improves growth performance in Bos taurus cattle with high carcass fat. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of RH, dietary CP and RH×CP interaction on performance, blood metabolites, carcass characteristics and meat quality of young Nellore bulls. A total of 48 bulls were randomly assigned to four treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. The factors were two levels of dietary CP (100% and 120% of metabolizable protein requirement, defined as CP100 and CP120, respectively), and two levels of RH (0 and 300 mg/animal·per day). Treated animal received RH for the final 35 days before slaughter. Animals were weighed at the beginning of the feedlot period (day 63), at the beginning of ractopamine supplementation (day 0), after 18 days of supplementation (day 18) and before slaughter (day 34). Animals were slaughtered and hot carcass weights recorded. After chilling, carcass data was collected and longissimus samples were obtained for determination of meat quality. The 9-11th rib section was removed for carcass composition analysis. Supplementation with RH increased ADG independently of dietary CP. There was a RH×CP interaction on dry matter intake (DMI), where RH reduced DMI at CP120, with no effect at CP100. Ractopamine improved feed efficiency, without RH×CP interaction. Ractopamine had no effect on plasma creatinine and urea concentration. Greater dietary CP tended to increase blood urea, and there was a RH×CP interaction for plasma total protein. Ractopamine supplementation increased plasma total protein at CP120, and had no effect at CP100. Ractopamine also decreased plasma glucose concentration at CP100, but had no effect at CP120. Ractopamine increased alkaline phosphatase activity at CP120 and had no effect at CP100. There was a tendency for RH to increase longissimus muscle area, independently of dietary CP. Ractopamine did not alter fat thickness; however, fat thickness was reduced by
Full Text Available Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein levels on growth, biometrics, hematology and body composition in juvenile parrot fish Oplegnathus fasciatus. Fish averaging 7.1 ± 0.06 g (mean ± SD was randomly distributed into 15 net cages (each size: 60 × 40 × 90 cm, W × L × H as groups of 20 fish. Five isocaloric diets (16.7 kJ/g energy were formulated to contain crude protein levels (CP as 35 (CP35, 40 (CP40, 45 (CP45, 50 (CP50 and 60 % (CP60 in the diets. Fish were fed one of the experimental diets at apparent satiation twice a day in triplicate groups. At the end of 8-week feeding trial, weight gain (WG of fish fed with CP50 and CP60 diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed with CP35, CP40 and CP45 diets. Fish fed with CP45, CP50 and CP60 diets had higher feed efficiency (FE and specific growth rate (SGR than those of fish fed with CP35 and CP40 diets. Protein retention efficiency (PRE decreased with increase of dietary protein levels among fish fed with the experimental diets. Whole-body crude protein and lipid contents increased with the dietary protein level up to CP50 diet. In conclusion, analysis of variance (ANOVA revealed that the optimum dietary protein level could be 50 % for maximum growth of juvenile parrot fish, while the broken-line analysis of WG suggested that the level could be 48.5 %, in a diet containing 16.7 kJ/g energy.
Yvonne van der Meer
sanitary conditions and a reduction of dietary protein increase the occurrence of damaging behaviours in pigs and therefore may negatively impact pig welfare. Attention should be paid to the impact of dietary nutrient composition on pig behaviour and welfare, particularly when pigs are kept under suboptimal (sanitary conditions.
Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; low-gossypol cottonseed meal, LCSM; double-zero rapeseed meal, DRM on laying performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens. Methods A total of 432 32-wk-old laying hens were randomly divided into 6 treatments with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. The birds were fed diets containing SBM, LCSM100, or DRM100 individually or in combination with an equal amount of crude protein (CP (LCSM50, DRM50, and LCSM50-DRM50. The experimental diets, which were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 11.11 MJ/kg and isonitrogenous (CP, 16.5%, had similar digestible amino acid profile. The feeding trial lasted 12 weeks. Results The daily egg mass was decreased in the LCSM100 and LCSM50-DRM50 groups (p0.05 and showed increased yolk color at the end of the trial (p0.05. Conclusion Together, our results suggest that the LCSM100 or DRM100 diets may produce the adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality after feeding for 8 more weeks. The 100.0 g/kg LCSM diet or the148.7 g/kg DRM diet has no adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality.
Miller-Cushon, E K; Terré, M; DeVries, T J; Bach, A
Evidence has shown that soybean meal is perceived as more palatable than canola meal by dairy calves in short-term preference tests. This study evaluated the effect of protein source on longer-term dietary selection of dairy calves. In experiment 1, 40 Holstein bull calves (11.4 ± 4.3 d of age) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 choice diets for 6 wk: base starter pellet (S; 12% crude protein; CP) and high-protein pellet (40% CP) containing either (1) soybean meal (SB) or (2) canola meal (CM). In wk 7 to 8, all calves were offered a single pelleted diet containing the protein source to which they were previously exposed. In experiment 2, 22 Holstein bull calves (9.9 ± 4.6d of age) were offered, for 6 wk, a choice of 2 mixed pelleted diets: (1) 70% S and 30% SB (SB mix), or (2) 70% S and 30% CM (CM mix). In wk 7 to 8, calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 choice diets, as in experiment 1: (1) SB + S, or (2) CM + S. All feeds were provided ad libitum. Calves received 6 L/d of milk replacer [0.75 kg/d of dry matter (DM)] for the duration of both experiments. Feed intake was recorded daily and calves were weighed every 14 d. Feeds were sampled weekly to analyze DM and nutrient intake. Mixed diets in experiment 2 were analyzed for CP in wk 4 and 6 to assess feed sorting (calculated as actual CP intake as a percentage of predicted intake). In experiment 1, calves offered SB + S in wk 1 to 6 consumed more high-protein pellet than calves offered CM + S [73 vs. 42% of DM intake (DMI)] and, consequently, more CP (168 vs. 117 g/d). Solid feed DMI and average daily gain were similar between treatments. When offered a single diet in wk 7 to 8, calves offered starter containing soybean meal increased intake to a greater extent than calves offered the starter containing canola meal. In experiment 2, calves preferred the SB mix to CM mix (preference ratio: 0.7). Calves consumed more CP than predicted from SB mix in wk 4 and 6 (108 ± 2.0%), indicating that they were sorting in
Xiao, Weiwei; Jiang, Weidan; Feng, Lin; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Yongan; Zhou, Xiaoqiu
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of enzyme-treated soy protein (ETSP) supplementation in the low-protein diet on growth performance, digestive and absorptive capacities, and related signaling molecules' gene expressions in juvenile Jian carp. The results showed that percent weight gain (PWG), specific growth rate (SGR), and feed intake (FI) were decreased by reducing dietary protein from 34 to 32% (P 0.05). Compared with the low-protein diet, appropriate ETSP supplementation in the low-protein diet increased (P alkaline phosphatase (AKP), and Na + /K + -ATPase activities in all intestinal segments; and (4) the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of trypsin, lipase, and amylase in hepatopancreas and γ-GT in the mid (MI) and distal (DI) intestine, alkaline phosphatase in MI, and Na + /K + -ATPase and target of rapamycin in all intestinal segments. At the same time, appropriate ETSP supplementation in the low-protein diet downregulated the mRNA levels of AKP in the DI and eIF4E-binding protein 2 in all intestinal segments (P dietary protein. Supplementation of optimal ETSP in the low-protein diet enhanced the digestive and absorptive abilities and regulated the signaling molecules related to the TOR signaling pathway.
Holmer-Jensen, J; Hartvigsen, M L; Mortensen, L S; Astrup, A; de Vrese, M; Holst, J J; Thomsen, C; Hermansen, K
Postprandial lipaemia is an established risk factor for atherosclerosis. To investigate the acute effect of four milk-derived dietary proteins (alpha-lactalbumin, whey isolate, caseinoglycomacropeptide and whey hydrolysate) on postprandial lipaemia, we have conducted a randomized, acute, single-blinded clinical intervention study with crossover design. A total of 11 obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 44-74, BMI: 30-41.4 kg m(-2)) were included. On 4 different days the subjects ingested a high-fat meal with the following energy distribution: 66% energy from fat (100 g of butter), 15% of energy from carbohydrate (90 g of white wheat bread) and 19% of energy from protein (45 g of pure protein). Our primary variable was plasma triglyceride measured in the 8-h postprandial period. Secondarily, retinyl palmitate, non-esterified free fatty acids, glucose, insulin, glucagon, GLP-1 and GIP, active and total grehlin and cholecystokinin were measured. We observed no statistically significant (P=0.8) differences between meals on our primary variable that is, triglycerides. Whey hydrolysate was associated with a significantly (P=0.02) smaller postprandial suppression of non-esterified free fatty acids compared with the other dietary proteins. We did not observe significant differences in postprandial lipaemia to the four milk-derived dietary proteins. Whey hydrolysate caused less postprandial suppression of free fatty acids.
Havemeier, Stefanie; Erickson, Jennifer; Slavin, Joanne
Pulses are a dry, edible variety of beans, peas, and lentils that have been consumed for 10,000 years. Pulses are rich in plant-based protein and fiber, as well as micronutrients such as iron and potassium. The satiating effect of both fiber and protein assists in managing weight and combating obesity. The high fiber content and low glycemic index of pulses aid people with diabetes in maintaining blood glucose and insulin levels. Pulse consumption may improve serum lipid levels to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Pulses developed as a member of both the protein and vegetable food groups as a result of its high content of plant-based protein and dietary fiber. The last two revisions of the Dietary Guidelines saw the transformation from the MyPyramid "meat and beans group" to the MyPlate "protein foods group," a nutrient name rather than a food source. Research suggests that consumers better identify with food source examples rather than nutrient names. The 2015 Dietary Guidelines also came with a new area: sustainable diets. Encouraging the consumption of sustainable food sources, like pulses, is imperative to ensuring a secure, healthy food supply for the U.S. population over time and for future generations. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.
Full Text Available Background There has not been any published literature in Iran about the evaluation of hemodialysis patients’ knowledge in relation to dietary sources of protein, phosphorus, potassium, sodium and fluids. Objectives Therefore, the present study was performed with this aim, in patients with renal failure treated with hemodialysis. Patients and Methods Fifty hemodialysis patients were recruited. Demographic information, and anthropometric characteristics, were collected and measured. Awareness of nutrition in six parts (fluids, proteins, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and cooking methods was analyzed through a validated questionnaire. Results The mean age of the participants was 47.5 ± 14.9 years. In total, 26% of the patients had a poor knowledge of nutrition, 58% had a moderate understanding, and only 16% had good nutritional knowledge. In addition, the level of nutritional knowledge was significantly greater in patients with higher educational levels than those with primary education or lower. The mean score of knowledge about dietary sources of phosphorous and potassium was significantly lower than that of the other parts (P < 0.001. Furthermore, nutritional awareness regarding dietary sources of protein did not significantly differ from fluids restriction; however, it was significantly lower than sodium and cooking methods (P < 0.001 and significantly higher than phosphorus and potassium (P < 0.01. Conclusions Patients’ knowledge scores about dietary sources of phosphorous and potassium were significantly lower than those of other parts. It is worth noting that qualified doctors, nurses and dieticians, should educate hemodialysis patients in relation to their literacy levels, especially when describing dietary sources of phosphorus, potassium and protein.
Escobar, Berta; Estévez, Ana María; Fuentes, Carolina; Venegas, Daniela
Limiting amino acids of the protein from chilean "algarrobo" are isoleucine, theronine and methionine/cyteine. Cereals and legume blends allow to improve the amino acid balance, since legume have more lysine, and cereals are richer in sulphur amino acids. Due to the nutritional interest of "algarrobo" cotyledons, the use of "algarrobo cotyledon" flour (ACF) in sweet and salty snack manufacture was evaluated. Cookies and fried salty chips with 0%, 10% and 20% ACF were prepared. Flours were analyzed for color, particle size, moisture, proximate composition, available lysine, and soluble, insoluble and total dietary fiber. Cookies and chips were analyzed for the same characteristics (except for particle size); besides there were determined water activity, weight and size of the units, and also, the caloric value was computed. Sensory quality and acceptance of both products were evaluated. It is noticeable the high amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber (63.6; 10.2; 4.3 and 4.2 g/100 g dmb, respectively), available lysine (62.4 mg/g protein) and total dietary fiber (24.2 g/100 g dmb) of ACF. Both, cookies and chips with ACF, showed a significant increase in the amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber and, available lysine (from 15.5 to 19,3 and from 20.3 a 29.6 mg lisina/g protein, respectively), and total dietary fiber (from 1.39 to 2.80 and from 1.60 a 5.60 g/100 g dmb, respectively). All of the cookies trials were well accepted ("I like it very much"); chips with 10% of AFC showed the highest acceptance ("I like it"). It can be concluded that the use of ACF in cookies and chips manufacture increases the contribution of available lysine; their protein and dietary fiber content, improving the soluble/insoluble fiber ratio, without affect neither their physical nor their sensory acceptance.
Sissener, Nini H; Johannessen, Lene E; Hevrøy, Ernst M; Wiik-Nielsen, Christer R; Berdal, Knut G; Nordgreen, Andreas; Hemre, Gro-Ingunn
A 20-d zebrafish (Danio rerio) feeding trial, in which a near doubling of fish weight was achieved, was conducted with GM feed ingredients to evaluate feed intake, growth, stress response and uptake of dietary DNA. A partial aim of the study was to assess zebrafish as a model organism in GM safety assessments. Roundup Ready soya (RRS), YieldGard Bt maize (MON810) and their non-modified, maternal, near-isogenic lines were used in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Soya variety and maize variety were the main factors, both with two levels; non-GM and GM. Compared with fish fed non-GM maize, those fed GM maize exhibited significantly better growth, had lower mRNA transcription levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1 and a tendency (non-significant) towards lower transcription of heat shock protein 70 in liver. Sex of the fish and soya variety had significant interaction effects on total RNA yield from the whole liver and transcription of SOD-1, suggesting that some diet component affecting males and females differently was present in different levels in the GM and the non-GM soya used in the present study. Dietary DNA sequences were detected in all of the organs analysed, but not all of the samples. Soya and maize rubisco (non-transgenic, multicopy genes) were most frequently detected, while MON810 transgenic DNA fragments were detected in some samples and RRS fragments were not detected. In conclusion, zebrafish shows promise as a model for this application.
Nyoman Adiasmara Giri
Full Text Available Red snapper, Lutjanus sebae is favored in mariculture activities because it has a relatively good market and price. Technology for big scale seed production of this species has been developed and is now adequate to supply seed for grow-out activities. However, the availability of artifical diets for L. sebae is still a major constraint for grow-out production. Data on optimum dietary protein and lipid requirements for this fish as a basic information in feed development is not available yet. The objective of the present study was to find out dietary protein and lipid requirements for juvenile of L. sebae. A 70-day feeding experiment was conducted in 24 fiberglass tanks, 200 L volume. Each tank was equipped with a flow-through water system. Twenty five hatchery-produced juveniles of L. sebae (43.1 g BW were randomly selected and stocked in each tank. The fish were fed with the experimental diets twice everyday at a level of 3% of biomass for the first 4 weeks, and then 2% of biomass afterward. Twelve experimental diets were prepared in form of dry pellet containing casein and fish meal as the main protein sources. Experimental diet had 4 levels of crude protein (32%, 37%, 42%, and 47% and each protein level consisted of 3 levels of lipid (7%, 12%, and 17%. The experiment employed factorial method with completely random design using 12 combination treatments and 2 replications for each treatment. Result of the experiment showed that there was no significant effect of dietary protein and lipid on growth, feed consumption, and feed efficiency of tested fish. Growth and feed efficiency of fish fed on diet containing 42% and 47% crude protein were significantly higher than that of fish fed on diet containing 32% and 37% crude protein. High lipid content in the diet (17% resulted in poor growth and poor feed efficiency. This data indicates that Lutjanus sebae has limited ability to utilize dietary lipid as an energy
Dong, L F; Zhang, W B; Zhang, N F; Tu, Y; Diao, Q Y
Eighteen Chinese Holstein heifers average age 230 ± 14 days were allocated to 1 of 3 dietary crude protein (CP) to metabolizable energy (ME) ratios to examine the effects on growth performance, blood metabolites and rumen fermentation parameters with 90-days experiment. Three different dietary CP:ME ratios were targeted based on the formulation of dietary CP contents of 10.85%, 12.78% and 14.63% on dry matter (DM) basis with similar ME contents (10.42 MJ/kg DM), which were categorized as low, medium and high dietary CP:ME ratios. The actual CP:ME ratios obtained in this study significantly increased from low to high CP:ME ratio groups with a value of 10.59, 11.83 and 13.38 g/MJ respectively. Elevated CP:ME ratios significantly increased CP intake (kg/day) and feed efficiency (FE) which was defined as dry matter intake as a proportion of average daily gain (ADG), whereas little difference was observed in body weight (kg), ADG (kg/day), DM intake (kg/day) and ME intake (MJ/day) among the three different CP:ME ratio groups. Increasing dietary CP to ME ratios significantly increased CP digestibility, whereas digestibility of DM and gross energy remained constant in the current experiment. Blood urea nitrogen and insulin-like growth factor-1 linearly increased with increasing dietary CP:ME ratios. There was significantly dietary treatment effect on rumen fermentation parameters including acetate, propionate, butyrate and total volatile fatty acids. Therefore, this study indicated that increasing dietary CP levels with similar energy content contributed to increased protein intake and its digestibility, as well as FE. Holstein heifers between 200 and 341 kg subjected to 13.38 dietary CP:ME ratio showed improved feed efficiency, nutrient digestibility, some blood metabolites and rumen fermentation characteristics for 0.90 kg/day rate of gain. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Ota, Erika; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan; Mori, Rintaro; Farrar, Diane
Gestational weight gain is positively associated with fetal growth, and observational studies of food supplementation in pregnancy have reported increases in gestational weight gain and fetal growth. To assess the effects of advice during pregnancy to increase energy and protein intake, or of actual energy and protein supplementation, on energy and protein intakes, and the effect on maternal and infant health outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (22 July 2011) and contacted researchers in the field. We updated the search on 12 July 2012 and added the results to the awaiting classification section of the review. Randomised controlled trials of dietary advice to increase energy and protein intake, or of actual energy and protein supplementation, during pregnancy. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and assessed risk of bias. Two review authors independently extracted data and checked for accuracy. Extracted data were supplemented by additional information from the trialists we contacted. We examined 110 reports corresponding to 46 trials. Of these trials, 15 were included, 30 were excluded, and one is ongoing. Overall, 15 trials involving 7410 women were included.Nutritional advice (four trials, 790 women)Women given nutritional advice had a lower relative risk of having a preterm birth (two trials, 449 women) (risk ratio (RR) 0.46, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.98 ), head circumference at birth was increased in one trial (389 women) (mean difference (MD) 0.99 cm, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.55) and protein intake increased (three trials, 632 women) (protein intake: MD +6.99 g/day, 95% CI 3.02 to 10.97). No significant differences were observed on any other outcomes.Balanced energy and protein supplementation (11 trials, 5385 women)Risk of stillbirth was significantly reduced for women given balanced energy and protein supplementation (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.98, five trials, 3408 women), mean birthweight was
Full Text Available Five isocaloric (3200kcal/kg diets were used in an experiment designed to investigate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP and feeding regimens on broiler performance. Day-old broilers were randomly distributed into four groups using a completely randomized design. Each group was replicated three times with ten broiler chicks per replicate. The experiment lasted for eight weeks. Broilers in group 1 received 23% CP from 0 to 3 weeks, 20% CP from 3 to 6 weeks and 18% CP from 6 to 8 weeks, while broilers in group 2 received 23% CP between 0 and 6 weeks and 18% CP between 6 and 8 weeks. Besides, broilers in group 3 were fed 23% CP from 0 to 4 weeks and 16% CP from 4 to 8 weeks, whereas group 4 was given 18% CP from 0 to weeks. Water was supplied ad libitum for broilers in the different dietary groups. A metabolic trial was carried out on the third week of the experiment using a total collection method. Proximate analyses of diets and faecal samples were performed according to the methods outlined by the Association Of the Official Analytical Chemists. Results at market age showed that broiler performance with respect to feed intake, weight gain, feed to gain ratio and water intake were not significantly influenced by CP regimens (p>0.05. Furthermore, CP regimens did not significantly influence broilers liveability (p>0.05. Protein retention, fat utilization and available fiber were not significantly influenced among treatments (p> 0.05. Economic data showed that cost to benefit ratio of producing broilers was comparable among broilers for all CP regimens used in this trial (p>0.05. It was concluded that a single diet of 18% CP and 3200kcal/kg metabolizable energy would be most suitable and convenient for farmers who are engaged in on-farm feed production for broilers as compared with the standard feeding regimens of broiler starter and broiler finisher diets.
Yoon, Seon-Joo; Chu, Djong-Chi; Raj Juneja, Lekh
The ideal water-soluble dietary fiber for the fiber-enrichment of foods must be very low in viscosity, tasteless, odorless, and should produce clear solutions in beverages. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) produced from guar gum by enzymatic process has the same chemical structure with intact guar gum but less than one-tenth the original molecular length of guar gum, which make available to be used as film former, foam stabilizer and swelling agent. The viscosity of PHGG is about 10 mPa·s...
Villaseñor, Adriana; Ambs, Anita; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Baumgartner, Kathy B.; McTiernan, Anne; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Neuhouser, Marian L.
Inflammation is a suspected risk factor for breast cancer and its subsequent prognosis. The extent to which dietary and lifestyle factors might influence inflammation is important to examine. Specifically, dietary fiber may reduce systemic inflammation, but this relationship has not been examined among breast cancer survivors. We examined associations between dietary fiber and serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid-A (SAA), among 698 female breast cancer survivors from the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle (HEAL) Study. Data are from interviews and clinical visits conducted 24 months post-study enrollment. Multivariate-adjusted linear regression estimated associations of total, soluble and insoluble fiber with serum concentrations of CRP and SAA. Logistic regression estimated the odds of elevated CRP (defined as >3.0 mg/L) across tertiles of dietary fiber intake. Mean total dietary fiber intake was 13.9 ± 6.4 g/day. Mean CRP and SAA were 3.32 ± 3.66 mg/L and 7.73 ± 10.23 mg/L, respectively. We observed a multivariate-adjusted inverse association between total dietary fiber intake and CRP concentrations (β, −0.029; 95% CI, −0.049, −0.008). Results for insoluble fiber were similar (β, −0.039; 95% CI, −0.064, −0.013). Among survivors who consumed >15.5 g/day of insoluble dietary fiber, a 49% reduction in the likelihood of having elevated CRP concentrations (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.27, 0.95) was observed compared to those who consumed fiber may benefit breast cancer survivors via reductions in systemic inflammation; elevated inflammation may be prognostic for reduced survival. PMID:21455669
Villaseñor, Adriana; Ambs, Anita; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Baumgartner, Kathy B; McTiernan, Anne; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Neuhouser, Marian L
Inflammation is a suspected risk factor for breast cancer and its subsequent prognosis. The extent to which dietary and lifestyle factors might influence inflammation is important to examine. Specifically, dietary fiber may reduce systemic inflammation, but this relationship has not been examined among breast cancer survivors. We examined associations between dietary fiber and serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA), among 698 female breast cancer survivors from the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle (HEAL) Study. Data are from interviews and clinical visits conducted 24-months post-study enrollment. Multivariate-adjusted linear regression estimated associations of total, soluble, and insoluble fiber with serum concentrations of CRP and SAA. Logistic regression estimated the odds of elevated CRP (defined as >3.0 mg/l) across tertiles of dietary fiber intake. Mean total dietary fiber intake was 13.9 ± 6.4 g/day. Mean CRP and SAA were 3.32 ± 3.66 and 7.73 ± 10.23 mg/l, respectively. We observed a multivariate-adjusted inverse association between total dietary fiber intake and CRP concentrations (β, -0.029; 95% CI, -0.049, -0.008). Results for insoluble fiber were similar (β, -0.039; 95% CI, -0.064, -0.013). Among survivors who consumed >15.5 g/day of insoluble dietary fiber, a 49% reduction in the likelihood of having elevated CRP concentrations (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.27, 0.95) was observed compared to those who consumed fiber may benefit breast cancer survivors via reductions in systemic inflammation; elevated inflammation may be prognostic for reduced survival.
Sinatra, Stephen T; Caiazzo, Corby
d-Ribose is a popular dietary supplement for humans and the equine because of its crucial role in cellular bioenergetics. However, as a reducing sugar, it has been suggested that ingestion of d-ribose might promote the formation of glycated proteins in vivo with potential adverse consequences. The aim of this study was to examine if d-Ribose would promote the formation of glycated proteins in vivo following exercise in training thoroughbred racehorses. Two groups of horses received the supplement (30 and 50 g d-Ribose daily) for 17 weeks, during which period the horses were subjected to low-intensity exercises followed by high-intensity exercises. Blood samples were analyzed for glycated plasma proteins at baseline and following the 2 exercise regimens. This study shows that long-term ingestion of d-Ribose at 30-50 g a day does not promote the formation of glycated plasma proteins in thoroughbred racehorses. Ribose supplementation also protected the horses from cramping while enhancing muscle recovery at the same time. No adverse effects were reported. Ribose supplementation is safe and does not cause glycation in vivo. This investigation also establishes safety of d-Ribose in thoroughbred racehorses, suggesting similar implications in humans as well.
Bai, Gaowa; Ni, Kuikui; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Nishino, Naoki
Although diet has an important influence on the composition of gut microbiota, the impact of dietary protein sources has only been studied to a minor extent. In this study, we examined the influence of different dietary protein sources regarding the effects of prebiotic oligosaccharides on the composition and metabolic activity of gut microbiota. Thirty female rats were fed casein and soy protein isolate with cellulose, raffinose (RAF), and fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Microbiota composition was examined by real-time qPCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Dietary protein source affected cecum microbiota; acetic acid concentration and Lactobacillus spp. populations were greater with soy protein than with casein. Prebiotic oligosaccharides had distinctive effects on gut microbiota; RAF increased the acetic acid concentration and Bifidobacterium spp. populations, and FOS increased the butyric acid concentration regardless of the dietary protein. Likewise, Bifidobacterium sp., Collinsella sp., and Lactobacillus sp. were detected in microbiota of the rats fed RAF, and Bacteroides sp., Roseburia sp., and Blautia sp. were seen in microbiota of the rats fed FOS. Interactions between dietary proteins and prebiotic oligosaccharides were observed with Clostridium perfringens group populations and cecum IgA concentration. RAF and FOS decreased C. perfringens group populations in casein-fed rats, and the combination of soy protein and RAF substantially increased cecum IgA concentration. These results indicate that dietary proteins can differentially modulate the effects of prebiotic oligosaccharides on gut fermentation and microbiota, depending on the type of carbohydrate polymers involved. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®
Full Text Available The effectiveness of nutritional interventions to prevent and maintain cognitive functioning in older adults has been gaining interest due to global population ageing. A systematic literature review was conducted to obtain and appraise relevant studies on the effects of dietary protein or thiamine on cognitive function in healthy older adults. Studies that reported on the use of nutritional supplementations and/or populations with significant cognitive impairment were excluded. Seventeen eligible studies were included. Evidence supporting an association between higher protein and/or thiamine intakes and better cognitive function is weak. There was no evidence to support the role of specific protein food sources, such as types of meat, on cognitive function. Some cross-sectional and case-control studies reported better cognition in those with higher dietary thiamine intakes, but the data remains inconclusive. Adequate protein and thiamine intake is more likely associated with achieving a good overall nutritional status which affects cognitive function rather than single nutrients. A lack of experimental studies in this area prevents the translation of these dietary messages for optimal cognitive functioning and delaying the decline in cognition with advancing age.
Faust, K. M.; Wotring, V. E.
Liver function, especially the rate of metabolic enzyme activities, determines the concentration of circulating drugs and the duration of their efficacy. Most pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver, and clinically-used medication doses are given with normal liver function in mind. A drug overdose can result in the case of a liver that is damaged and removing pharmaceuticals from the circulation at a rate slower than normal. Alternatively, if liver function is elevated and removing drugs from the system more quickly than usual, it would be as if too little drug had been given for effective treatment. Because of the importance of the liver in drug metabolism, we want to understand any effects of spaceflight on the enzymes of the liver. Dietary factors and exposure to radiation are aspects of spaceflight that are potential oxidative stressors and both can be modeled in ground experiments. In this experiment, we examined the effects of high dietary iron and low dose gamma radiation (individually and combined) on the gene expression of enzymes involved in drug metabolism, redox homeostasis, and DNA repair. METHODS All procedures were approved by the JSC Animal Care and Use Committee. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups (n=8); control, high Fe diet (650 mg iron/kg), radiation (fractionated 3 Gy exposure from a Cs- 137 source) and combined high Fe diet + radiation exposure. Animals were euthanized 24h after the last treatment of radiation; livers were removed immediately and flash -frozen in liquid nitrogen. Expression of genes thought to be involved in redox homeostasis, drug metabolism and DNA damage repair was measured by RT-qPCR. Where possible, protein expression of the same genes was measured by western blotting. All data are expressed as % change in expression normalized to reference gene expression; comparisons were then made of each treatment group to the sham exposed/ normal diet control group. Data was considered significant at pprotein
Hill, Alison M; Harris Jackson, Kristina A; Roussell, Michael A; West, Sheila G; Kris-Etherton, Penny M
Background: Food-based dietary patterns emphasizing plant protein that were evaluated in the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and OmniHeart trials are recommended for the treatment of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the contribution of plant protein to total protein in these diets is proportionally less than that of animal protein. Objective: This study compared 3 diets varying in type (animal compared with plant) and amount of protein on MetS criteria. Design: Sixty-two overweight adults with MetS consumed a healthy American diet for 2 wk before being randomly allocated to either a modified DASH diet rich in plant protein (18% protein, two-thirds plant sources, n = 9 males, 12 females), a modified DASH diet rich in animal protein (Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet: 18.4% protein, two-thirds animal sources, n = 9 males, 11 females), or a moderate-protein diet (Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet Plus Protein: 27% protein, two-thirds animal sources, n = 10 males, 11 females). Diets were compared across 3 phases of energy balance: 5 wk of controlled (all foods provided) weight maintenance (WM), 6 wk of controlled weight loss (minimum 500-kcal/d deficit) including exercise (WL), and 12 wk of prescribed, free-living weight loss (FL). The primary endpoint was change in MetS criteria. Results: All groups achieved ∼5% weight loss at the end of the WL phase and maintained it through FL, with no between-diet differences (WM compared with WL, FL, P diets, P = NS). All MetS criteria decreased independent of diet composition (main effect of phase, P diets, P = NS). After WM, all groups had a MetS prevalence of 80–90% [healthy American diet (HAD) compared with WM, P = NS], which decreased to 50–60% after WL and was maintained through FL (HAD, WM vs WL, FL, P < 0.01). Conclusions: Weight loss was the primary modifier of MetS resolution in our study population regardless of protein source or amount. Our findings demonstrate that heart-healthy weight-loss dietary
Z. B. Wang
Full Text Available An in vitro fermentation was conducted to determine the effects of hainanmycin on protein degradation and populations of ammonia-producing bacteria. The substrates (DM basis for in vitro fermentation consisted of alfalfa hay (31.7%, Chinese wild rye grass hay (28.3%, ground corn grain (24.5%, soybean meal (15.5% with a forage: concentrate of 60:40. Treatments were the control (no additive and hainanmycin supplemented at 0.1 (H0.1, 1 (H1, 10 (H10, and 100 mg/kg (H100 of the substrates. After 24 h of fermentation, the highest addition level of hainanmycin decreased total VFA concentration and increased the final pH. The high addition level of hainanmycin (H1, H10, and H100 reduced (p0.05. After 24 h of fermentation, H10 and H100 increased (p<0.05 concentrations of peptide nitrogen and AA nitrogen and proteinase activity, and decreased (p<0.05 NH3-N concentration and deaminase activity compared with control. Peptidase activitives were not affected by hainanmycin. Hainanmycin supplementation only inhibited the growth of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, which is one of the species of low deaminative activity. Hainanmycin supplementation also decreased (p<0.05 relative population sizes of hyper-ammonia-producing species, except for H0.1 on Clostridium aminophilum. It was concluded that dietary supplementation with hainanmycin could improve ruminal fermentation and modify protein degradation by changing population size of ammonia-producing bacteria in vitro; and the addition level of 10 mg/kg appeared to achieve the best results.
Van Larebeke, Mélusine; Dockx, Guillaume; Larondelle, Yvan; Rollin, Xavier
The effect of dietary digestible protein (DP) and/or digestible energy (DE) levels on lysine (Lys) requirements, Lys utilisation efficiency and voluntary feed intake (VFI) were studied in rainbow trout fry when Lys was the first limiting indispensable amino acid or in excess in the diet. Two trials were conducted at 11·6°C with eighty-one experimental diets, containing 280 g DP/kg DM (low protein (LP), trial 1), 600 g DP/kg DM (high protein (HP), trial 1) or 440 g DP/kg DM (medium protein (MP), trial 2), 17 MJ DE/kg (low energy (LE)), 19·5 MJ DE/kg (medium energy (ME)) or 22 MJ DE/kg (high energy (HE)), and nine Lys levels from deeply deficient to large excess (2·3-36 g/kg DM). Each diet was given to apparent satiety to one group of fifty fry (initial body weight 0·85 g) for 24 (MP diets, trial 2) or 30 (LP and HP diets, trial 1) feeding days. Based on N gain data fitted with the broken-line model, the relative Lys requirement was significantly different with the dietary DP level, from 13·3-15·7 to 22·9-26·5 g/kg DM for LP and HP diets, respectively, but did not significantly change with the DE level for a same protein level. The Lys utilisation efficiency for protein growth above maintenance was constant across diets, suggesting no effect of either dietary DE or DP levels. In Lys excess, the VFI was markedly decreased by the DP level but not by the extra DE supply. Our results suggest that the relative Lys need is best expressed in terms of percentage of protein content for optimum fish feed formulation, at least in rainbow trout fry.
Pieper, Robert; Boudry, Christelle; Bindelle, Jérôme; Vahjen, Wilfried; Zentek, Jürgen
Although fermentable carbohydrates (CHO) can reduce metabolites derived from dietary protein fermentation in the intestine of pigs, the interaction between site of fermentation and substrate availability along the gut is still unclear. The current study aimed at determining the impact of two different sources of carbohydrates in diets with low or very high protein content on microbial metabolite profiles along the gastrointestinal tract of piglets. Thirty-six piglets (n = 6 per group) were fed diets high (26%, HP) or low (18%, LP) in dietary protein and with or without two different sources of carbohydrates (12% sugar beet pulp, SBP, or 8% lignocellulose, LNC) in a 2 × 3 factorial design. After 3 weeks, contents from stomach, jejunum, ileum, caecum, proximal and distal colon were taken and analysed for major bacterial metabolites (D-lactate, L-lactate, short chain fatty acids, ammonia, amines, phenols and indols). Results indicate considerable fermentation of CHO and protein already in the stomach. HP diets increased the formation of ammonia, amines, phenolic and indolic compounds throughout the different parts of the intestine with most pronounced effects in the distal colon. Dietary SBP inclusion in LP diets favoured the formation of cadaverine in the proximal parts of the intestine. SBP mainly increased CHO-derived metabolites such as SCFA and lactate and decreased protein-derived metabolites in the large intestine. Based on metabolite profiles, LNC was partly fermented in the distal large intestine and reduced mainly phenols, indols and cadaverine, but not ammonia. Multivariate analysis confirmed more diet-specific metabolite patterns in the stomach, whereas the CHO addition was the main determinant in the caecum and proximal colon. The protein level mainly influenced the metabolite patterns in the distal colon. The results confirm the importance of CHO source to influence the formation of metabolites derived from protein fermentation along the intestinal
Papineni, Sabitha; Murray, Jennifer A; Ricardo, Ekmay; Dunville, Christina M; Sura, Radha Krishna; Thomas, Johnson
A 90-day sub chronic toxicity study was conducted in rats to evaluate the safety of genetically modified DAS-444Ø6-6 soybeans expressing herbicide tolerant proteins when compared with its conventional comparators (non-transgenic near isoline control soybean and three commercially available non-transgenic line control soybeans). Rats were given diets formulated with either 10% or 20% w/w of soybean meal and 1% or 2% hulls of DAS-444Ø6-6 soybean with an equivalent amount of hulls from an isoline non-transgenic control soybean for at least 90 days. In addition, three separate 20% w/w non-transgenic commercially available soybean varieties were also given to groups of rats to serve as reference controls. Animals were evaluated by cage-side and hand-held detailed clinical observations, ophthalmic examinations, body weights/body weight gains, feed consumption, hematology, prothrombin time, urinalysis, clinical chemistry, selected organ weights, and gross and histopathologic examinations. Under the conditions of this study, the genetically modified DAS-444Ø6-6 diets did not cause any treatment-related effects in rats following 90 days of dietary administration as compared with rats fed diets with soybean of isoline control or commercial reference controls and are considered equivalent to the diets prepared from conventional comparators. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Leterme, P.; Théwis, A.; François, E.; Leeuwen, P. van; Wathelet, B.; Huisman, J.
We assessed the use of 15N-labeled dietary proteins as a possible tool for the determination of the true ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility in pigs. The first experiment was designed to study the dietary N excretion pattern at the ileum subsequent to the ingestion of a single 15N-labeled meal. In a
DeNapoli, J S; Dodman, N H; Shuster, L; Rand, W M; Gross, K L
To evaluate the effect of high- and low-protein diets with or without tryptophan supplementation on behavior of dogs with dominance aggression, territorial aggression, and hyperactivity. Prospective crossover study. 11 dogs with dominance aggression, 11 dogs with territorial aggression, and 11 dogs with hyperactivity. In each group, 4 diets were fed for 1 weeks each in random order with a transition period of not diet. Two diets had low protein content (approximately 18%), and 2 diets had high protein content (approximately 30%). Two of the diets (1 low-protein and 1 high-protein) were supplemented with tryptophan. Owners scored their dog's behavior daily by use of customized behavioral score sheets. Mean weekly values of 5 behavioral measures and serum concentrations of serotonin and tryptophan were determined at the end of each dietary period. For dominance aggression, behavioral scores were highest in dogs fed unsupplemented high-protein rations. For territorial aggression, [corrected] tryptophan-supplemented low-protein diets were associated with significantly lower behavioral scores than low-protein diets without tryptophan supplements. For dogs with dominance aggression, the addition of tryptophan to high-protein diets or change to a low-protein diet may reduce aggression. For dogs with territorial aggression, tryptophan supplementation of a low-protein diet may be helpful in reducing aggression.
Kristensen, Torsten N; Overgaard, Johannes; Loeschcke, Volker
The ability to use different food sources is likely to be under strong selection if organisms are faced with natural variation in macro-nutrient (protein, carbohydrate and lipid) availabilities. Here, we use experimental evolution to study how variable dietary protein content affects adult body...... composition and developmental success in Drosophila melanogaster. We reared flies on either a standard diet or a protein-enriched diet for 17 generations before testing them on both diet types. Flies from lines selected on protein-rich diet produced phenotypes with higher total body mass and relative lipid...... content when compared with those selected on a standard diet, irrespective of which of the two diets they were tested on. However, selection on protein-rich diet incurred a cost as flies reared on this diet had markedly lower developmental success in terms of egg-to-adult viability on both medium types...
Shinaberger, Christian S; Greenland, Sander; Kopple, Joel D; Van Wyck, David; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar
Dietary restrictions to control serum phosphorus, which are routinely recommended to persons with chronic kidney disease, are usually associated with a reduction in protein intake. This may lead to protein-energy wasting and poor survival. We aimed to ascertain whether a decline in serum phosphorus and a concomitant decline in protein intake are associated with an increase in the risk of death. In a 3-y study (7/2001-6/2004) of 30 075 prevalent maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients, we examined changes in serum phosphorus and in normalized protein nitrogen appearance (nPNA), a surrogate of dietary protein intake, during the first 6 mo and the subsequent mortality. Four groups of MHD patients were defined on the basis of the direction of the changes in serum phosphorus and nPNA. Baseline phosphorus had a J-shaped association with mortality, whereas higher baseline nPNA was linearly associated with greater survival. Compared with MHD patients whose serum phosphorus and nPNA both rose over 6 mo, those whose serum phosphorus decreased but whose nPNA increased had greater survival, with a case mix-adjusted death risk ratio of 0.90 (95% confidence limits: 0.86, 0.95; P protein intake may outweigh the benefit of controlled phosphorus and may lead to greater mortality. Additional studies including randomized controlled trials should examine whether nondietary control of phosphorus or restriction of nonprotein sources of phosphorus is safer and more effective.
Wang, Limei; Palme, Veronika; Schilcher, Nicole; Ladurner, Angela; Heiss, Elke H.; Stangl, Herbert; Bauer, Rudolf; Dirsch, Verena M.; Atanasov, Atanas G.
We report increased cholesterol efflux from macrophages in the presence of falcarindiol, an important dietary constituent present in commonly used vegetables and medicinal plants. Falcarindiol (3–20 μM) increased cholesterol efflux from THP-1-derived macrophages. Western blot analysis showed an increased protein level of ABCA1 upon falcarindiol exposure. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that also ABCA1 mRNA level rise with falcarindiol (10 μM) treatment. The effect of falcarindiol on ABCA1...
Coppens, Patrick; da Silva, Miguel Fernandes; Pettman, Simon
This article describes the legislation that is relevant in the marketing of functional foods in the European Union (EU), how this legislation was developed as well as some practical consequences for manufacturers, marketers and consumers. It also addresses some concrete examples of how the EU's safety requirements for food products have impacted a range of product categories. In the late nineties, research into functional ingredients was showing promising prospects for the use of such ingredients in foodstuffs. Due mainly to safety concerns, these new scientific developments were accompanied by an urgent call for legislation. The European Commission 2000 White Paper on Food Safety announced some 80 proposals for new and improved legislation in this field. Among others, it foresaw the establishment of a General Food Law Regulation, laying down the principles of food law and the creation of an independent Food Authority endowed with the task of giving scientific advice on issues based upon scientific risk assessment with clearly separated responsibilities for risk assessment, risk management and risk communication. Since then, more than 90% of the White Paper proposals have been implemented. However, there is not, as such, a regulatory framework for 'functional foods' or 'nutraceuticals' in EU Food Law. The rules to be applied are numerous and depend on the nature of the foodstuff. The rules of the general food law Regulation are applicable to all foods. In addition, legislation on dietetic foods, on food supplements or on novel foods may also be applicable to functional foods depending on the nature of the product and on their use. Finally, the two proposals on nutrition and health claims and on the addition of vitamins and minerals and other substances to foods, which are currently in the legislative process, will also be an important factor in the future marketing of 'nutraceuticals' in Europe. The cornerstone of EU legislation on food products, including
Coppens, Patrick; Fernandes da Silva, Miguel; Pettman, Simon
This article describes the legislation that is relevant in the marketing of functional foods in the European Union (EU), how this legislation was developed as well as some practical consequences for manufacturers, marketers and consumers. It also addresses some concrete examples of how the EU's safety requirements for food products have impacted a range of product categories. In the late nineties, research into functional ingredients was showing promising prospects for the use of such ingredients in foodstuffs. Due mainly to safety concerns, these new scientific developments were accompanied by an urgent call for legislation. The European Commission 2000 White Paper on Food Safety announced some 80 proposals for new and improved legislation in this field. Among others, it foresaw the establishment of a General Food Law Regulation, laying down the principles of food law and the creation of an independent Food Authority endowed with the task of giving scientific advice on issues based upon scientific risk assessment with clearly separated responsibilities for risk assessment, risk management and risk communication. Since then, more than 90% of the White Paper proposals have been implemented. However, there is not, as such, a regulatory framework for 'functional foods' or 'nutraceuticals' in EU Food Law. The rules to be applied are numerous and depend on the nature of the foodstuff. The rules of the general food law Regulation are applicable to all foods. In addition, legislation on dietetic foods, on food supplements or on novel foods may also be applicable to functional foods depending on the nature of the product and on their use. Finally, the two proposals on nutrition and health claims and on the addition of vitamins and minerals and other substances to foods, which are currently in the legislative process, will also be an important factor in the future marketing of 'nutraceuticals' in Europe. The cornerstone of EU legislation on food products, including
Wham, Carol; Baggett, Fiona; Teh, Ruth; Moyes, Simon; Kēpa, Mere; Connolly, Martin; Jatrana, Santosh; Kerse, Ngaire
To investigate factors related to hospital admission for infection, specifically examining nutrient intakes of Māori in advanced age (80+ years). Face-to-face interviews with 200 Māori (85 men) to obtain demographic, social and health information. Diagnoses were validated against medical records. Detailed nutritional assessment using the 24-hour multiple-pass recall method was collected on two separate days. FOODfiles was used to analyse nutrient intake. National Health Index (NHI) numbers were matched to hospitalisations over a two-year period (12 months prior and 12 months following dietary assessment). Selected International Classification of Disease (ICD) codes were used to identify admissions related to infection. A total of 18% of participants were hospitalised due to infection, most commonly lower respiratory tract infection. Controlling for age, gender, NZ deprivation index, diabetes, CVD and chronic lung disease, a lower energy-adjusted protein intake was independently associated with hospitalisation due to infection: OR (95%CI) 1.14 (1.00-1.29), p=0.046. Protein intake may have a protective effect on the nutrition-related morbidity of older Māori. Improving dietary protein intake is a simple strategy for dietary modification aiming to decrease the risk of infections that lead to hospitalisation and other morbidities. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.
Farias, Davi Felipe; Viana, Martônio Ponte; Oliveira, Gustavo Ramos; Santos, Vanessa Olinto; Pinto, Clidia Eduarda Moreira; Viana, Daniel Araújo; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fátima; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano
Cry8Ka5 is a mutant protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that has been proposed for developing transgenic plants due to promising activity against coleopterans, like Anthonomus grandis (the major pest of Brazilian cotton culture). Thus, an early food safety assessment of Cry8Ka5 protein could provide valuable information to support its use as a harmless biotechnological tool. This study aimed to evaluate the food safety of Cry8Ka5 protein following the two-tiered approach, based on weights of evidence, proposed by ILSI. Cry1Ac protein was used as a control Bt protein. The history of safe use revealed no convincing hazard reports for Bt pesticides and three-domain Cry proteins. The bioinformatics analysis with the primary amino acids sequence of Cry8Ka5 showed no similarity to any known toxic, antinutritional or allergenic proteins. The mode of action of Cry proteins is well understood and their fine specificity is restricted to insects. Cry8Ka5 and Cry1Ac proteins were rapidly degraded in simulated gastric fluid, but were resistant to simulated intestinal fluid and heat treatment. The LD50 for Cry8Ka5 and Cry1Ac was >5000 mg/kg body weight when administered by gavage in mice. Thus, no expected relevant risks are associated with the consumption of Cry8Ka5 protein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rossi, M; Johnson, D W; Xu, H; Carrero, J J; Pascoe, E; French, C; Campbell, K L
Indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) are uremic toxins derived solely from colonic bacterial fermentation of protein. Dietary fiber may counteract this by limiting proteolytic bacterial fermentation. However, the influence of dietary intake on the generation of IS and PCS has not been adequately explored in chronic kidney disease (CKD). This cross-sectional study included 40 CKD participants (60% male; age 69 ± 10 years; 45% diabetic) with a mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 24 ± 8 mL/min/1.73 m(2), who enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of synbiotic therapy. Total and free serum IS and PCS were measured at baseline by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Dietary intake was measured using in-depth diet histories collected by a dietitian. Associations between each toxin, dietary fiber (total, soluble and insoluble), dietary protein (total, and amino acids: tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine), and the protein-fiber index (ratio of protein to fiber) were assessed using linear regression. Dietary fiber was associated with free and total serum PCS (r = -0.42 and r = -0.44, both p protein and either toxin. The protein-fiber index was associated with total serum IS (r = 0.40, p = 0.012) and PCS (r = 0.43, p = 0.005), independent of eGFR, sex and diabetes. Dietary protein-fiber index is associated with serum IS and PCS levels. Such association, beyond fiber and protein alone, highlights the importance of the interplay between these nutrients. We speculate that dietary modification towards a lower protein-fiber index may contribute to lowering IS and PCS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC from different assays and serum C-reactive protein (CRP has not been assessed in non-Western populations. We examined the association between dietary TAC and serum CRP concentration in young Japanese women using different four TAC assays. Methods The subjects were 443 young Japanese women aged 18–22 years. Dietary TAC was assessed with a self-administered diet history questionnaire and the TAC value of each food using the following four assays: ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP; oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC; Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC; and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP. Serum CRP concentrations were measured by highly sensitive nephelometry. Results The major contributor to dietary TAC was green, barley, and oolong tea (FRAP: 53%, ORAC: 45%, TEAC: 36%, and TRAP: 44%. The prevalence of elevated CRP concentrations (≥ 1 mg/L was 5.6%. TAC from FRAP was inversely associated with serum CRP concentrations (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for elevated CRP concentration in high [compared with low] dietary TAC group: 0.39 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.16-0.98]; P = 0.04. TAC from ORAC was inversely associated with CRP, although the association was not significant (OR: 0.48 [95% CI: 0.20-1.14]; P = 0.10. TAC from TEAC was inversely associated with CRP (OR: 0.32 [95% CI: 0.12-0.82]; P = 0.02, as was TAC from TRAP (OR: 0.31 [95% CI: 0.12-0.81]; P = 0.02. Conclusions Dietary TAC was inversely associated with serum CRP concentration in young Japanese women regardless of assay. Further studies are needed in other populations to confirm these results.
Full Text Available Considering the limited knowledge on the effects of dietary amino acid intake on dysglycemia, we assessed the possible association of dietary protein and amino acid patterns with the risk of pre-diabetes in a prospective population-based study. Participants without diabetes and pre-diabetes (n = 1878 were recruited from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study and were followed for a mean of 5.8 years. Their dietary protein and amino acid intakes were assessed at baseline (2006–2008; demographic, lifestyle, and biochemical variables were evaluated at baseline and in follow-up examinations. Pre-diabetes was defined according to the American Diabetes Association criteria. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate the risk of pre-diabetes across tertiles of dietary protein and amino acid pattern scores. The mean age of the participants (44.9% men was 38.3 ± 12.7 years at baseline. Three major amino acid patterns were characterized: (1 higher loads of lysine, methionine, valine, aspartic acids, tyrosine, threonine, isoleucine, leucine, alanine, histidine, and serine; (2 higher loads of glycine, cysteine, arginine, and tryptophan; and (3 higher loads of proline and glutamic acid. Dietary total protein intake Hazard Ratio (HR = 1.13, 95% Confidence Interval (CI = 0.92–1.38 and HR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.81–1.23, in the second and third tertile, respectively was not related to the development of pre-diabetes. The highest score of second dietary amino acid pattern tended to be associated with a decreased risk of pre-diabetes (HR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.65–1.01, whereas the third pattern was related to an increased risk in the fully adjusted model (HR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.02–1.52; p for trend = 0.05. These novel data suggest that the amino acid composition of an individual’s diet may modify their risk of pre-diabetes.
Manzanilla, E G; Pérez, J F; Martín, M; Blandón, J C; Baucells, F; Kamel, C; Gasa, J
The plant extract mixture (XT) used in the present experiment, containing carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and capsicum oleoresin, has previously been shown to decrease diarrhea mortality and to modify the intestinal environment of pigs after weaning. However, results obtained among experiments have not been consistent. We hypothesized that dietary protein could be a main factor determining the effect of plant extracts on intestinal environment. Thus, in the present study we assessed the effects of XT in piglet diets with different protein sources and amounts. Pigs weaned at 20 +/- 1 d of age (n = 240) were allocated to 1 of 6 treatments, which followed a factorial arrangement, with 2 amounts (as-fed basis) of the XT (0 and 200 mg/kg) and 3 diets with various amounts of CP and protein sources. Diet FM18 contained 10% of low-temperature fish meal (LT-FM) and a CP level of 18%; diet SBM18 contained 5% of LT-FM plus 9% of full fat extruded soy and a CP level of 18%; and SBM20 diet contained 10% of LT-FM plus 6.3% of full fat extruded soy and a CP level of 20%. Growth performance of the animals was recorded for 14 d, but no differences were detected among treatments. Eight pigs per treatment were killed to examine variables describing aspects of gastrointestinal ecology. For diets containing 18% CP, FM18 and SBM18, XT tended to decrease ileal digestibility of OM (P = 0.064 and 0.071, respectively) and decreased starch digestibility (P = 0.032 and 0.014, respectively). It also reduced villi length (P = 0.003 and 0.013, respectively) and tended to decrease intraepithelial lymphocyte number (P = 0.051 and 0.100, respectively) in the proximal jejunum. The XT inclusion also increased ileal lactobacilli:enterobacteria (P = 0.017) ratio and decreased VFA production in the cecum (P = 0.045) for all diets. A decreased CP level appeared to favor the effects of the studied plant extracts in a positive or negative way depending on the variable measured. The microbial differences
Mikkel Z Ankarfeldt
Full Text Available Genetic predisposition to adiposity may interact with dietary protein in relation to changes of anthropometry.To investigate the interaction between genetic predisposition to higher body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRBMI and dietary protein in relation to subsequent change in body weight (ΔBW or change in WC (ΔWC.Three different Danish cohorts were used. In total 7,054 individuals constituted the study population with information on diet, 50 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with BMI, WC or WHRBMI, as well as potential confounders. Mean follow-up time was ∼5 years. Four genetic predisposition-scores were based on the SNPs; a complete-score including all selected adiposity- associated SNPs, and three scores including BMI, WC or WHRBMI associated polymorphisms, respectively. The association between protein intake and ΔBW or ΔWC were examined and interactions between SNP-score and protein were investigated. Analyses were based on linear regressions using macronutrient substitution models and meta-analyses.When protein replaced carbohydrate, meta-analyses showed no associations with ΔBW (41.0 gram/y/5 energy% protein, [95% CI: -32.3; 114.3] or ΔWC (<-0.1 mm/y/5 energy % protein, [-1.1; 1.1]. Similarly, there were no interactions for any SNP-scores and protein for either ΔBW (complete SNP-score: 1.8 gram/y/5 energy% protein/risk allele, [-7.0; 10.6] or ΔWC (complete SNP-score: <0.1 mm/y/5 energy% protein/risk allele, [-0.1; 0.1]. Similar results were seen when protein replaced fat.This study indicates that the genetic predisposition to general and abdominal adiposity, assessed by gene-scores, does not seem to modulate the influence of dietary protein on ΔBW or ΔWC.
Liu, Yingying; Li, Fengna; Kong, Xiangfeng; Tan, Bie; Li, Yinghui; Duan, Yehui; Blachier, François; Hu, Chien-An A; Yin, Yulong
Muscle growth is regulated by the homeostatic balance of the biosynthesis and degradation of muscle proteins. To elucidate the molecular interactions among diet, pig genotype, and physiological stage, we examined the effect of dietary protein concentration, pig genotype, and physiological stages on amino acid (AA) pools, protein deposition, and related signaling pathways in different types of skeletal muscles. The study used 48 Landrace pigs and 48 pure-bred Bama mini-pigs assigned to each of 2 dietary treatments: lower/GB (Chinese conventional diet)- or higher/NRC (National Research Council)-protein diet. Diets were fed from 5 weeks of age to respective market weights of each genotype. Samples of biceps femoris muscle (BFM, type I) and longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM, type II) were collected at nursery, growing, and finishing phases according to the physiological stage of each genotype, to determine the AA concentrations, mRNA levels for growth-related genes in muscles, and protein abundances of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Our data showed that the concentrations of most AAs in LDM and BFM of pigs increased (Prelated AA, including Met, Phe, Tyr, Pro, and Ser, compared with Landrace pigs. The mRNA levels for myogenic determining factor, myogenin, myocyte-specific enhancer binding factor 2 A, and myostatin of Bama mini-pigs were higher (P<0.05) than those of Landrace pigs, while total and phosphorylated protein levels for protein kinase B, mTOR, and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinases (p70S6K), and ratios of p-mTOR/mTOR, p-AKT/AKT, and p-p70S6K/p70S6K were lower (P<0.05). There was a significant pig genotype-dependent effect of dietary protein on the levels for mTOR and p70S6K. When compared with the higher protein-NRC diet, the lower protein-GB diet increased (P<0.05) the levels for mTOR and p70S6K in Bama mini-pigs, but repressed (P<0.05) the level for p70S6K in Landrace pigs. The higher protein-NRC diet increased ratio of p-mTOR/mTOR in
Xie, S.; Jokumsen, Alfred
and supplementation of methionine in the diet of rainbow trout. When the proportion of PPC exceeded 56 g kg-1 the growth of fish decreased while both growth and feed utilization decreased when the dietary PPC was 111 g kg-1. Protein productive value and condition factor of the fish decreased and mortality increased......Four diets (1, 2, 3 and 4) were formulated to contain different potato protein concentrate (PPC) levels (0, 22, 56, and 111 g kg-1). Diet 5 contained 56 g kg-1 PPC and 17 g kg-1 methionine. A growth trial was conducted to investigate the effect on growth and feed utilization of incorporation of PPC...
H Mohammadi Emarat; A Golian; A Tahmasbi; H Kermanshahi
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein and methionine levels on quality and quantity of egg production. Fifteen diets formulated with 3 levels of protein (13, 14 and 15%) and 5 levels of methionine (0.25, 0.28, 0.31, 0.34 and 0.37%) and fed to 420 birds in a 3×5 factorial arrangement. Each diet was randomly fed to 4 replicates of 7 birds each and fed for 3 periods of 4 weeks (50-62wks of age) each. Egg number and mortality was recorded daily, whereas feed ...
Larsson, Caroline; Fink, Rikke; Matthiesen, Connie Marianne Frank
to solid feed. The capacity to regulate the rate of gluconeogenesis was even more limited in young mink kits than in adult dams. However, young mink kits can regulate protein oxidation in response to dietary protein supply, probably by adapting the size of the liver and kidneys to the level of protein...
Full Text Available An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the responses of juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus to elevated dietary selenium (Se based on the determination of the RNA/DNA ratio in muscle, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70, and caspase-3/7 in muscle and/or liver tissues. Four semi-purified test diets were prepared by adding different levels of L-selenomethionine (0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg diet. The analytical determinations of total Se were 2.2, 19.7, 40.1, and 77.7 mg/kg diet. The sturgeon (initial body weight: 30 ± 2 g; mean ± SEM were raised in indoor tanks provided with flow through freshwater (18–19 °C. There were three replicates for each dietary treatment with 25 fish per replicate. The liver and muscle tissues were collected at 4 and 8 weeks after feeding the test diets. A significant interaction between duration and levels of dietary Se exposures on RNA/DNA ratio in the muscle tissue was detected (P < 0.05. Although there was no significant main effect due to the duration of dietary Se exposures (i.e., 4 weeks versus 8 weeks on muscle RNA/DNA ratio (P ≥ 0.05, the ratio was significantly decreased with increasing dietary Se levels. Significant main effects were caused by the duration and levels of dietary Se exposures on Hsp70 in both the muscle and liver tissues, with significant increases in Hsp70 due to a longer exposure (8 weeks and higher levels (40.1 and 77.7 mg Se/kg diet of dietary Se. The caspase-3/7 activity in the liver were significantly higher in fish fed the diets containing 40.1 and 77.7 mg Se/kg diet than those fed the other diets. The toxic thresholds of Se in the muscle were estimated to be 32.2 and 26.6 mg Se/kg for the depressed specific growth rate and the induced Hsp70 response in muscle, respectively. This result indicated that the Hsp70 response in muscle is a more sensitive biomarker than the SGR of sturgeon for evaluating Se toxicity in white sturgeon. Results of the
Konwar, Priyanka; Tiwari, S P; Gohain, M; Kumari, Kiran
The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with different levels of protein on fecal egg counts and hematological parameters in goat kids with subclinical nematodosis under semi-intensive condition. 20 goat kids (3-5 months old with an average body weight of 8.90 kg) were randomly allocated to four groups: T1, served as a negative control, without receiving concentrate feed, and T2, T3, and T4 that received concentrate feed containing 16, 20, and 24% digestible crude protein, respectively. The experiment was carried out for 60 days. In this study, protein supplementation had a significant (psupplementation, whereas monocyte (%) and neutrophil (%) values were not significantly influenced by protein supplementation effect during the entire experiment. The values of mean corpuscular volume (fl) were affected significantly (pprotein supplementation after 30 days, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH) (pg) after 45 days, but MCH concentration (g/dl) was not significantly different among the experimental groups during the entire experiment. The dietary supplementation with different levels of protein significantly improved the hematological profiles and inhibited the nematodosis infection in the experimental goat kids.
Aki Kiuchi; Yasushi Ohashi; Reibin Tai; Toshiyuki Aoki; Sonoo Mizuiri; Toyoko Ogura; Atsushi Aikawa; Ken Sakai
Reduced dietary protein intake in malnourished patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be associated with adverse clinical outcomes, which may mask any efficacy of a low-protein diet. The study included 126 patients with CKD who attended a dedicated dietary counseling clinic in 2005–2009 and were systematically followed until January 2015. Of these patients, 20 (15.9%) had moderate or severe nutrition-related risk of geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) < 92; these patients were ...
Wylie, L M; Robertson, G W; Hocking, P M
1. Two randomised block factorial experiments were conducted to investigate the relationships between the effects of dietary crude protein and specific amino acid concentrations on the relative growth of the body and feathers of young turkeys. 2. Decreasing dietary crude protein concentration from 300 to 180 g/kg in experiment 1 reduced the body and breast muscle weights of a large male line of turkeys proportionally by 0.44 and 0.52 compared with 0.19 and 0.24 in a small traditional line. 3. Decreasing dietary crude protein concentration was associated with a maximum reduction in feather weight of 0.18 and 0.24 respectively in male line and traditional turkeys. The length of the feathers in the cranial region of the breast decreased from 26 to 19mm in the traditional line compared with an increase from 14 to 25 mm in male line turkeys. 4. Decreasing dietary crude protein concentration was associated with an increase in the fat content of the feather-free carcase. Male line turkeys had a higher carcase fat and lower feather dry matter content than the traditional turkeys. 5. It was concluded that dietary crude protein was preferentially partitioned to feather rather than muscle growth in the male line in contrast to a traditional line of turkeys in which the growth of feathers and muscle were affected equally. 6. In experiment 2, the amino acids arginine, valine, methionine and tyrosine were added separately to a common basal ration (180g CP/kg) to raise their concentration to that of the control ration (260 g CP/kg). Each ration was fed ad libitum to male line turkeys from 2 to 6 weeks of age. 7. Amino acid supplementation increased body and breast muscle weights. 8. Compared with the basal ration, tyrosine was associated with a reduction in feather weight whereas valine had no effect. Supplementation with arginine and methionine resulted in increased feather weights that were similar to that of the controls. 9. It was concluded that arginine and methionine were
Ota, Erika; Hori, Hiroyuki; Mori, Rintaro; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan; Farrar, Diane
Gestational weight gain is positively associated with fetal growth, and observational studies of food supplementation in pregnancy have reported increases in gestational weight gain and fetal growth. To assess the effects of education during pregnancy to increase energy and protein intake, or of actual energy and protein supplementation, on energy and protein intake, and the effect on maternal and infant health outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 January 2015), reference lists of retrieved studies and contacted researchers in the field. Randomised controlled trials of dietary education to increase energy and protein intake, or of actual energy and protein supplementation, during pregnancy. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and assessed risk of bias. Two review authors independently extracted data and checked for accuracy. Extracted data were supplemented by additional information from the trialists we contacted. We examined 149 reports corresponding to 65 trials. Of these trials, 17 were included, 46 were excluded, and two are ongoing. Overall, 17 trials involving 9030 women were included. For this update, we assessed methodological quality of the included trials using the standard Cochrane criteria (risk of bias) and the GRADE approach. The overall risk of bias was unclear. Nutritional education (five trials, 1090 women) Women given nutritional education had a lower relative risk of having a preterm birth (two trials, 449 women) (risk ratio (RR) 0.46, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.98, low-quality evidence), and low birthweight (one trial, 300 women) (RR 0.04, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.14). Head circumference at birth was increased in one trial (389 women) (mean difference (MD) 0.99 cm, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.55), while birthweight was significantly increased among undernourished women in two trials (320 women) (MD 489.76 g, 95% CI 427.93 to 551.59, low-quality evidence), but did not significantly increase for
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of the feed additive alfalfa protein concentrate (APC, on pig health. The trial involved 40 crossbred gilts and 40 crossbred castrates (Polish Landrace × Polish Large White × Duroc of 29.0 ± 0.5 kg initial body weight. Allocation of experimental animals was into four treatment groups: the control group (C was fed standard mixtures, without APC addition; group E-15 was fed a basal diet supplemented with 1.5% APC; and groups E-30 and E-30P were fed diets with 3.0% APC inclusion. There were two feeding systems. In the first system, animals of groups C, E-15, and E-30 were fed continuously with suitable mixtures. The second feeding system was used in group E-30P where animals received the experimental or control mixture alternating at two-week intervals. The addition of APC supplement to diets significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05 red blood cell indices, i.e. haematocrit (Ht, red blood cell count (RBC, and haemoglobin concentration (Hb in growing and finishing periods. The analysis of enzyme activity demonstrated a markedly higher activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and especially alkaline phosphatase (ALP in the blood plasma of pigs fed APC supplement. This increase may indicate a negative impact of APC on the animal’s liver. A positive effect of dietary APC on blood lipid parameters was associated with a decreased level of total cholesterol and reduced low-density lipoprotein fraction. Analysis of the haematological and biochemical blood indices demonstrated that APC additive may affect animal health.
Li, Erchao; Arena, Leticia; Lizama, Gabriel; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Cuzon, Gerard; Rosas, Carlos; Chen, Liqiao; van Wormhoudt, Alain
Improvement in the osmoregulation capacity via nutritional supplies is vitally important in shrimp aquaculture. The effects of dietary protein levels on the osmoregulation capacity of the Pacific white shrimp ( L. vannamei) were investigated. This involved an examination of growth performance, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and Na+-K+ ATPase mRNA expression,, and GDH activity in muscles and gills. Three experimental diets were formulated, containing 25%, 40%, and 50% dietary protein, and fed to the shrimp at a salinity of 25. After 20 days, no significant difference was observed in weight gain, though GDH and Na+-K+ ATPase gene expression and GDH activity increased with higher dietary protein levels. Subsequently, shrimp fed diets with 25% and 50% dietary protein were transferred into tanks with salinities of 38 and 5, respectively, and sampled at weeks 1 and 2. Shrimp fed with 40% protein at 25 in salinity (optimal conditions) were used as a control. Regardless of the salinities, shrimp fed with 50% dietary protein had significantly higher growth performance than other diets; no significant differences were found in comparison with the control. Shrimp fed with 25% dietary protein and maintained at salinities of 38 and 5 had significantly lower weight gain values after 2 weeks. Ambient salinity change also stimulated the hepatosomatic index, which increased in the first week and then recovered to a relatively normal level, as in the control, after 2 weeks. These findings indicate that in white shrimp, the specific protein nutrient and energy demands related to ambient salinity change are associated with protein metabolism. Increased dietary protein level could improve the osmoregulation capacity of L. vannamei with more energy resources allocated to GDH activity and expression.
Remington, B.; Broekman, H. C. H.; Blom, W. M.
The development and introduction of new dietary protein sources has the potential to improve food supply sustainability. Understanding the potential allergenicity of these new or modified proteins is crucial to ensure protection of public health. Exposure to new proteins may result in de novo...... sensitization, with or without clinical allergy, or clinical reactions through cross-reactivity. In this paper we review the potential of current methodologies (in silico, in vitro degradation, in vitro IgE binding, animal models and clinical studies) to address these outcomes for risk assessment purposes...... for new proteins, and especially to identify and characterise the risk of sensitization for IgE mediated allergy from oral exposure. Existing tools and tests are capable of assessing potential crossreactivity. However, there are few possibilities to assess the hazard due to de novo sensitization. The only...
Habig, Jeffrey W; Rowland, Aaron; Pence, Matthew G; Zhong, Cathy X
Resistance genes (R-genes) from wild potato species confer protection against disease and can be introduced into cultivated potato varieties using breeding or biotechnology. The R-gene, Rpi-vnt1, which encodes the VNT1 protein, protects against late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans. Heterologous expression and purification of active VNT1 in quantities sufficient for regulatory biosafety studies was problematic, making it impractical to generate hazard characterization data. As a case study for R-proteins, a weight-of-evidence, tiered approach was used to evaluate the safety of VNT1. The hazard potential of VNT1 was identified from relevant safety information including history of safe use, bioinformatics, mode of action, expression levels, and dietary intake. From the assessment it was concluded that Tier II hazard characterization was not needed. R-proteins homologous to VNT1 and identified in edible crops, have a history of safe consumption. VNT1 does not share sequence identity with known allergens. Expression levels of R-proteins are generally low, and VNT1 was not detected in potato varieties expressing the Rpi-vnt1 gene. With minimal hazard and negligible exposure, the risks associated with consumption of R-proteins in late blight protected potatoes are exceedingly low. R-proteins introduced into potatoes to confer late blight protection are safe for consumption. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Johnson, W.T.; Canfield, W.K.
65 Zn was used to examine the effects of dietary zinc and protein on true zinc absorption and intestinal excretion of endogenous zinc by an isotope dilution technique in streptozotocin-diabetic and control rats. Four groups each of diabetic and control rats were fed diets containing 20 ppm Zn, 20% egg white protein (HMHP); 20 ppm Zn, 10% egg white protein (HMLP); 10 ppm Zn, 20% egg white protein (LMHP); and 10 ppm Zn, 10% egg white protein (LMLP). Measurement of zinc balance was begun 9 d after an i.m. injection of 65 Zn. True zinc absorption and the contribution of endogenous zinc to fecal zinc excretion were calculated from the isotopically labeled and unlabeled zinc in the feces, duodenum and kidney. Results from the isotope dilution study indicated that diabetic rats, but not control rats, absorbed more zinc from 20 ppm zinc diets than from 10ppm zinc diets and that all rats absorbed more zinc from 20% protein diets than from 10% protein diets. Furthermore, all rats excreted more endogenous zinc from their intestines when dietary zinc and protein levels resulted in greater zinc absorption. In diabetic and control rats, consuming equivalent amounts of zinc, the amount of zinc absorbed was not significantly different, but the amount of zinc excreted by the intestine was less in the diabetic rats. Decreased intestinal excretion of endogenous zinc may be a homeostatic response to the increased urinary excretion of endogenous zinc in the diabetic rats and may also lead to the elevated zinc concentrations observed in some organs of the diabetic rats
Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Panel on Macronutrients; Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes
Responding to the expansion of scientific knowledge about the roles of nutrients in human health, the Institute of Medicine has developed a new approach to establish Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs...
Wilson Massamitu Furuya
Full Text Available Colliroja, Astyanax fasciatus, is a new aquaculture species, and information on its dietary essential amino acid requirements is lacking. The whole body composition of 120 farmed fish (16.2 ± 8.8 g was determined to estimate the dietary essential amino acid requirement based on the ideal protein concept ((each essential amino acid/lysine x100, and the findings were correlated to the whole body essential amino acid content of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. The dietary essential amino acids, including cysteine and tyrosine, accounted for 5.46, 4.62, 1.16, 3.28, 5.63, 2.01, 2.59, 2.84, 4.66, 3.39, 0.65, and 3.51% of the total protein for lysine, arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, methionine+tyrosine, phenylalanine, phenylalanine+tyrosine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine, respectively. There were positive linear and high correlations (r = 0.971 between the whole body amino acid profiles of colliroja and Nile tilapia. Thus, the whole body amino acid profile of colliroja might be used to estimate accurately the essential amino acid requirement.
Jang, Y D; Jang, S K; Kim, D H; Oh, H K; Kim, Y Y
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary CP levels in gestation under equal lysine content on reproductive performance, blood metabolites and milk composition of gilts. A total of 25 gilts (F1, Yorkshire×Landrace) were allotted to 4 dietary treatments at breeding in a completely randomized design, and fed 1 of 4 experimental diets containing different CP levels (11%, 13%, 15%, or 17%) at 2.0 kg/d throughout the gestation. Body weight of gilts at 24 h postpartum tended to increase linearly (p = 0.09) as dietary CP level increased. In lactation, backfat thickness, ADFI, litter size and weaning to estrus interval (WEI) did not differ among dietary treatments. There were linear increases in litter and piglet weight at 21 d of lactation (pgilts in gestation and at 24 h postpartum were linearly elevated as dietary CP level increased (pgilts increased as dietary CP level increased up to 15%, and then decreased with quadratic effects (15 d, pgilts and litter performance but does not affect litter size and milk composition. Feeding over 13% CP diet for gestating gilts could be recommended to improve litter growth.
Roushdy, H.; El-Husseini, M.; Saleh, F.
The effect of gamma-irradiation on plasma total protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen was studied in the desert rodent, psammomy obesus obesus and albino rats subjected to dietary protein deficiency. In albino rats kept on high protein diet, the radiation syndrome resulted in urine retention, while in those kept on non-protein diet, such phenomenon was recorded only with the high radiation level of 1170r. Radiation exposure to 780 and 1170r caused remarkable diuresis in psammomys obesus obesus whereas they induced significant urine retention in albino rats. The levels of plasma total protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen were higher in albino rats maintained on high protein diet than in those kept on non-protein diet. Radiation exposure caused an initial drop in plasma total protein nitrogen concentration, concomitant with an initial rise in total urinary nitrogen, radiation exposure of psammomys obesus obesus caused significant increase in the levels of plasma protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen. Psammomys obesus obesus seemed to be more affected by radiation exposure than did the albino rats
Nikravesh-Masouleh, Tahereh; Seidavi, Alireza; Kawka, Magdalena; Dadashbeiki, Mohammad
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different dietary energy and protein supplements on performance, weekly body sizes or body frame size, and microbiota of ostrich chicks during 2-9 weeks of age. Two metabolic energy levels of 2400 and 2600 kcal/kg live weight and three protein levels of 20, 22, and 24% were used. A total of 36 ostrich chickens (Struthio camelus) of the blue and black African breed were used. Body weight, 12 body measurements (i.e., circumference of the head, neck, breast, abdomen, thigh, body height, length of tail, list the other 5 here) and excretion of microbial population (Escherichia coli, Coliforms bacteria, and Lactobacillus bacteria) were measured. Mean body weight in each week of the experiment was generally the lowest when chicks were offered 2600 kcal/kg dietary energy and 24% protein. Of the 12 body measurements, the breast, abdomen, and thigh circumference and also body length were greater at the lower energy (2400 kcal/kg) and higher protein (24%) levels. Total Aerobic bacteria excretion was generally lower in response to the diet containing the higher level of energy. We conclude that ostrich chickens during 2-9 weeks of age can grow on diets that contain lower energy levels.
Marinangeli, Christopher P F; House, James D
Regulatory frameworks for protein content claims in Canada and the United States are underpinned by the protein efficiency ratio and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS), respectively, which are used to assess the protein quality of a given food. The digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) is a novel approach to measuring the protein quality of foods and is supported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Methodological concerns about the PDCAAS are addressed by the DIAAS through introduction of the use of ileal amino acid digestibility coefficients and untruncated protein scores. However, before the DIAAS is widely adopted within regulatory frameworks, a comprehensive assessment is required. Accordingly, this review addresses the potential impact of the DIAAS on regulation, communication, and public health, as well as knowledge gaps, analytical challenges, and cost of implementation. A pragmatic approach to addressing protein quality is advocated by suggesting the use of conservative coefficients of digestibility that are derived from in vitro methods. Before adopting the DIAAS as a framework for supporting protein content claims, updated food-related regulations and policies should also be evaluated through a lens that anticipates the impact on consumer-facing nutrition communication, the adoption of dietary patterns that are nutritionally adequate, and a food value chain that fosters a spirit of food and nutritional innovation. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute.
Chamorro, S; Gómez-Conde, M S; Pérez de Rozas, A M; Badiola, I; Carabaño, R; De Blas, J C
The aim of this work was to study the effect of protein source / availability on the intestinal microbiota, digestive traits and nutritional performance of early-weaned rabbits. The effects of supplemental antibiotics in the drinking water were also evaluated. Four isoenergetic and isofibrous diets were formulated: a control diet with a high protein (207 g/kg dry matter (DM)) and lucerne hay content (HPHL), a diet with low crude protein (CP) (179 g/kg DM) and high lucerne hay content (LPHL) and low protein diets in which the lucerne hay in diet LPHL was replaced partially (LPML) or totally (LPLL) with soya-bean protein concentrate. Rabbits, weaned at 25 days (52 per diet), were fed the experimental diets for a 2-week period and thereafter received a commercial diet until 56 days of age. The incidence of mortality was investigated using 70 animals per diet without supplemental medication. The profile of the ileal microbiota was studied at 35 days of age in rabbits treated (18 per diet) or not (12 per diet) with antibiotic. As expected, supplementation with antibiotics effectively reduced fattening mortality rate and microbial biodiversity. However, lowering of also the dietary CP content led to a reduction in the mortality rate ( P treated with (by 80%) or without (by 39%) antibiotics. In addition, there was a reduction ( P < 0.05) in the frequency of Clostridium perfringens in non-medicated animals. Neither jejunal morphology nor growth performance, over the whole fattening period, was affected by dietary CP content of the experimental diets. However, with HPHL, feed efficiency was higher (by 4.8%; P < 0.01) than with LPHL diets. Substitution of lucerne hay with soya-bean meal in low protein diets did not affect apparent faecal or ileal digestibility of DM and CP. However, the ileal digestibility of cystine, alanine, aspartic acid, and proline was lowered ( P < 0.05) with increasing substitution by soya bean. Nevertheless, ileal CP flow, incidence of
Ceglia, Lisa; Harris, Susan S.; Abrams, Steven A.; Rasmussen, Helen M.; Dallal, Gerard E.; Dawson-Hughes, Bess
Context: Protein is an essential component of muscle and bone. However, the acidic byproducts of protein metabolism may have a negative impact on the musculoskeletal system, particularly in older individuals with declining renal function. Objective: We sought to determine whether adding an alkaline salt, potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3), allows protein to have a more favorable net impact on intermediary indices of muscle and bone conservation than it does in the usual acidic environment. Design: We conducted a 41-d randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of KHCO3 or placebo with a 16-d phase-in and two successive 10-d metabolic diets containing low (0.5 g/kg) or high (1.5 g/kg) protein in random order with a 5-d washout between diets. Setting: The study was conducted in a metabolic research unit. Participants: Nineteen healthy subjects ages 54–82 yr participated. Intervention: KHCO3 (up to 90 mmol/d) or placebo was administered for 41 d. Main Outcome Measures: We measured 24-h urinary nitrogen excretion, IGF-I, 24-h urinary calcium excretion, and fractional calcium absorption. Results: KHCO3 reduced the rise in urinary nitrogen excretion that accompanied an increase in protein intake (P = 0.015) and was associated with higher IGF-I levels on the low-protein diet (P = 0.027) with a similar trend on the high-protein diet (P = 0.050). KHCO3 was also associated with higher fractional calcium absorption on the low-protein diet (P = 0.041) with a similar trend on the high-protein diet (P = 0.064). Conclusions: In older adults, KHCO3 attenuates the protein-induced rise in urinary nitrogen excretion, and this may be mediated by IGF-I. KHCO3 may also promote calcium absorption independent of the dietary protein content. PMID:19050051
Marleen A. van Baak
Full Text Available An increase in dietary protein intake has been shown to improve weight loss maintenance in the DIOGenes trial. Here, we analysed whether the source of the dietary proteins influenced changes in body weight, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors during the weight maintenance period while following an energy-restricted diet. 489 overweight or obese participants of the DIOGenes trial from eight European countries were included. They successfully lost >8% of body weight and subsequently completed a six month weight maintenance period, in which they consumed an ad libitum diet varying in protein content and glycemic index. Dietary intake was estimated from three-day food diaries. A higher plant protein intake with a proportional decrease in animal protein intake did not affect body weight maintenance or cardiometabolic risk factors. A higher plant protein intake from non-cereal products instead of cereal products was associated with benefits for body weight maintenance and blood pressure. Substituting meat protein for protein from other animal sources increased insulin and HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. This analysis suggests that not only the amount of dietary proteins, but also the source may be important for weight and cardiometabolic risk management. However, randomized trials are needed to test the causality of these associations.
Barszcz, Marcin; Taciak, Marcin; Tuśnio, Anna; Skomiał, Jacek
Tannic acid (TA) is a polyphenolic compound with a health-promoting potential for humans. It is hypothesised that TA effects on the relative weight of internal organs and biochemical blood indices are modified by dietary protein level in rats. The study involved 72 rats divided into 12 groups fed diets with 10 or 18% of crude protein (CP) and supplemented with 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5 or 2% of TA. After 3 weeks of feeding, the relative weight of the caecum was greater in rats fed TA diets, while feeding diets with 10% of CP increased the relative weight of the stomach, small intestine and caecum, but decreased that of kidneys and spleen. Albumin concentration was higher in rats fed 0.25% and 0.5% TA diets than in rats given the 2% TA diets. The 2% TA diets reduced creatine kinase (CK) activity compared to non-supplemented diets and those with 0.5, 1 and 1.5% of TA. Rats fed the 10% CP diets had a higher activity of alkaline phosphatase, amylase, and γ-glutamyltransferase as well as the concentration of iron and cholesterol, but lower that of urea and uric acid. The interaction affected only cholinesterase activity. In conclusion, TA induced caecal hypertrophy and could act as a cardioprotective agent, as demonstrated by reduced CK activity, but these effects were not modified by dietary protein level.
Full Text Available Tannic acid (TA is a polyphenolic compound with a health-promoting potential for humans. It is hypothesised that TA effects on the relative weight of internal organs and biochemical blood indices are modified by dietary protein level in rats. The study involved 72 rats divided into 12 groups fed diets with 10 or 18% of crude protein (CP and supplemented with 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5 or 2% of TA. After 3 weeks of feeding, the relative weight of the caecum was greater in rats fed TA diets, while feeding diets with 10% of CP increased the relative weight of the stomach, small intestine and caecum, but decreased that of kidneys and spleen. Albumin concentration was higher in rats fed 0.25% and 0.5% TA diets than in rats given the 2% TA diets. The 2% TA diets reduced creatine kinase (CK activity compared to non-supplemented diets and those with 0.5, 1 and 1.5% of TA. Rats fed the 10% CP diets had a higher activity of alkaline phosphatase, amylase, and γ-glutamyltransferase as well as the concentration of iron and cholesterol, but lower that of urea and uric acid. The interaction affected only cholinesterase activity. In conclusion, TA induced caecal hypertrophy and could act as a cardioprotective agent, as demonstrated by reduced CK activity, but these effects were not modified by dietary protein level.
Eze, J I; Okeke, M C; Ngene, A A; Omeje, J N; Abonyi, F O
Trypanosomosis has been associated with immunosuppression, anemia and oxidative damage while selenium possesses both immunostimulatory and antioxidative effects. This study was designed to assess the effect of dietary selenium supplementation on parasitemia, anemia, survival pattern and serum protein profiles of trypanosome-infected rats. Twenty five rats, divided into five groups (A-E) of 5 each, were treated as follows: 4, 8 and 16 ppm (ppm) of selenium in their feed, respectively throughout the experimental period and were infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei on day 14 post supplementation, infected not supplemented and the negative control. Supplementation at 4 and 8 ppm increased the packed cell volume (PCV) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration on day 7 of supplementation (PS) when compared with the unsupplemented groups. Following infection on day 14 PS, the PCV, Hb of 16 ppm and infected not supplemented groups were significantly (P Supplementation did not lead to significant (P > 0.05) changes on the total protein, albumin and globulin by day 14 PS. Infection, however, caused significant (P > 0.05) decrease in the total protein and albumin from day 28. The supplementation did not significantly (P > 0.05) increase the pre-patent period but caused a significant reduction in the parasitemia levels and increased survival intervals. Dietary selenium supplementation, from the results, may show promise in the management of African trypanosomosis as the supplementation was able to: reduce anemia and parasitemia and increase survival intervals of trypanosome infected rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mutsvangwa, T; Davies, K L; McKinnon, J J; Christensen, D A
The objective of this study was to determine how interactions between dietary crude protein (CP) and rumen-degradable protein (RDP) concentrations alter urea-nitrogen recycling, nitrogen (N) balance, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in lactating Holstein cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (711±21kg of body weight; 91±17d in milk at the start of the experiment) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments and 29-d experimental periods. Four cows in one Latin square were fitted with ruminal cannulas to allow ruminal and omasal sampling. The dietary treatment factors were CP (14.9 vs. 17.5%; dry matter basis) and RDP (63 vs. 69% of CP) contents. Dietary RDP concentration was manipulated by including unprocessed or micronized canola meal. Diet adaptation (d 1-20) was followed by 8d (d 21-29) of sample and data collection. Continuous intrajugular infusions of [(15)N(15)N]-urea (220mg/d) were conducted for 4d (d 25-29) with concurrent total collections of urine and feces to estimate N balance and whole-body urea kinetics. Proportions of [(15)N(15)N]- and [(14)N(15)N]-urea in urinary urea, and (15)N enrichment in feces were used to calculate urea kinetics. For the low-CP diets, cows fed the high-RDP diet had a greater DM intake compared with those fed the low-RDP diet, but the opposite trend was observed for cows fed the high-CP diets. Dietary treatment had no effect on milk yield. Milk composition and milk component yields were largely unaffected by dietary treatment; however, on the low-CP diets, milk fat yield was greater for cows fed the low-RDP diet compared with those fed the high-RDP diet, but it was unaffected by RDP concentration on the high-CP diets. On the high-CP diets, milk urea nitrogen concentration was greater in cows fed the high-RDP diet compared with those fed the low-RDP diet, but it was unaffected by RDP concentration on the low-CP diets. Ruminal NH3-N concentration tended to
Chen, Mei-En; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Chen, Hung-Chun; Hung, Chi-Chih; Hung, Hsin-Chia; Liu, Shao-Chun; Wu, Tsai-Jiin; Huang, Meng-Chuan
Dietary energy and protein intake can affect progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD complicated with diabetes is often associated with a decline in renal function. We investigated the relative importance of dietary energy intake (DEI) and dietary protein intake (DPI) to renal function indicators in nondiabetic and diabetic CKD patients. A total of 539 Stage 3-5 CKD patients [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)Disease equation] with or without diabetes were recruited from outpatient clinics of Nephrology and Nutrition in a medical center in Taiwan. Appropriateness of DEI and DPI was used to subcategorize CKD patients into four groups:(1) kidney diet (KD) A (KD-A), the most appropriate diet, was characterized by low DPI and adequate DEI; (2) KD-B, low DPI and inadequate DEI; (3) KD-C, excess DPI and adequate DEI; and (4) KD-D, the least appropriate diet, excess DPI and inadequate DEI. Inadequate DEI was defined as a ratio of actual intake/recommended intake less than 90% and adequate DEI as over 90%. Low DPI was defined as less than 110% of recommended intake and excessive when over 110%. Outcome measured was eGFR. In both groups of CKD patients, DEI was significantly lower (ppatients were KD-C and KD-D significantly correlated with reduced eGFR compared with KD-A at increments of -5.63 mL/min/1.73 m 2 (p = 0.029) and -7.72 mL/min/1.73 m 2 (p=0.015). In conclusion, inadequate energy and excessive protein intakes appear to correlate with poorer renal function in nondiabetic CKD patients. Patients with advanced CKD are in need of counseling by dietitians to improve adherence to diets. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.
Sluijs, Ivonne; Beulens, Joline W J; van der A, Daphne L; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Grobbee, Diederick E; van der Schouw, Yvonne T
Dietary recommendations are focused mainly on relative dietary fat and carbohydrate content in relation to diabetes risk. Meanwhile, high-protein diets may contribute to disturbance of glucose metabolism, but evidence from prospective studies is scarce. We examined the association among dietary total, vegetable, and animal protein intake and diabetes incidence and whether consuming 5 energy % from protein at the expense of 5 energy % from either carbohydrates or fat was associated with diabetes risk. A prospective cohort study was conducted among 38,094 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-NL study. Dietary protein intake was measured with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Incident diabetes was verified against medical records. During 10 years of follow-up, 918 incident cases of diabetes were documented. Diabetes risk increased with higher total protein (hazard ratio 2.15 [95% CI 1.77-2.60] highest vs. lowest quartile) and animal protein (2.18 [1.80-2.63]) intake. Adjustment for confounders did not materially change these results. Further adjustment for adiposity measures attenuated the associations. Vegetable protein was not related to diabetes. Consuming 5 energy % from total or animal protein at the expense of 5 energy % from carbohydrates or fat increased diabetes risk. Diets high in animal protein are associated with an increased diabetes risk. Our findings also suggest a similar association for total protein itself instead of only animal sources. Consumption of energy from protein at the expense of energy from either carbohydrates or fat may similarly increase diabetes risk. This finding indicates that accounting for protein content in dietary recommendations for diabetes prevention may be useful.
Falcón-Villa, María R; Barrón-Hoyos, Jesús M; Cinco-Moroyoqui, Francisco J
The beneficial effect of dietary fiber (DF) consumption has long been recognized. The global economy and open market trade policies have increased the availability of food products in Mexican markets, resulting in a wide variety of ready-to-eat commercial breakfast cereals classified as 'high fiber'. This research was aimed to evaluate the total dietary fiber contents, its fractions (soluble and insoluble) and β-glucan in 13 commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals, as well as to evaluate their protein quality by rat bioassays. Commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals had 7.42-39.82% insoluble dietary fiber, 2.53-12.85% soluble dietary fiber, and 0.45-4.96% β-glucan. These ready-to-eat commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals differed significantly in their total dietary fiber, their soluble and insoluble DF fractions, and also in their β-glucan contents. When supplied as experimental diets, in 14-day rat feeding trials, the 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals showed an adverse effect on the % N digestibility but protein utilization, as measured as net protein ratio (NPR), was not significantly affected. The consumption of these commercial breakfast cereals, especially those made of oats as the basic ingredient, is highly recommended, since these products, being a concentrated source of dietary fiber, do not affect their protein quality.
White, H B; Armstrong, J; Whitehead, C C
The concentration of riboflavin and riboflavin-binding protein were determined in the plasma, egg yolk and albumen from hens fed a riboflavin-deficient diet (1.2 mg/kg) supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 3, 10 and 40 mg of riboflavin/kg. We observed that the deposition of riboflavin in egg yolk and albumen is dependent on dietary riboflavin and reaches half-maximal values at about 2 mg of supplemental riboflavin/kg. The maximal amount of riboflavin deposited in the yolk is limited stoichiometrically ...
Haring, Bernhard; Selvin, Elizabeth; Liang, Menglu; Coresh, Josef; Grams, Morgan E; Petruski-Ivleva, Natalia; Steffen, Lyn M; Rebholz, Casey M
Dietary protein restriction is recommended for patients with moderate to severe renal insufficiency. Long-term data on the relationship between dietary protein sources and risk for incident kidney disease in individuals with normal kidney function are largely missing. This study aimed to assess the association between dietary protein sources and incident chronic kidney disease (CKD). Prospective cohort. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study participants from 4 US communities. A total of 11,952 adults aged 44-66 years in 1987-1989 who were free of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 60 mL/minute/1.73 m 2 . A 66-item food frequency questionnaire was used to assess food intake. CKD stage 3 was defined as a decrease in eGFR of ≥25% from baseline resulting in an eGFR of less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m 2 ; CKD-related hospitalization; CKD-related death; or end-stage renal disease. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. During a median follow-up of 23 years, there were 2,632 incident CKD cases. Red and processed meat consumption was associated with increased CKD risk (HR Q5 vs. Q1 : 1.23, 95% CI: 1.06-1.42, p trend = 0.01). In contrast, higher dietary intake of nuts, legumes, and low-fat dairy products was associated with lower CKD risk (nuts: HR Q5 vs. Q1 : 0.81, 95% CI: 0.72-0.92, p trend protein sources with risk of incident CKD; with red and processed meat being adversely associated with CKD risk; and nuts, low-fat dairy products, and legumes being protective against the development of CKD. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Neale, E P; Batterham, M J; Tapsell, L C
Consumption of healthy dietary patterns has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Dietary intervention targets disease prevention, so studies increasingly use biomarkers of underlying inflammation and metabolic syndrome progression to examine the diet-health relationship. The extent to which these biomarkers contribute to the body of evidence on healthy dietary patterns is unknown. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of healthy dietary patterns on biomarkers associated with adiposity, insulin resistance, and inflammation in adults. A systematic search of Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (all years to April 2015) was conducted. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials; effects of dietary patterns assessed on C-reactive protein (CRP), total adiponectin, high-molecular-weight adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α, adiponectin:leptin, resistin, or retinol binding protein 4. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to assess the weighted mean differences in change or final mean values for each outcome. Seventeen studies were included in the review. These reflected research on dietary patterns associated with the Mediterranean diet, Nordic diet, Tibetan diet, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet. Consumption of a healthy dietary pattern was associated with significant reductions in CRP (weighted mean difference, -0.75 [-1.16, -0.35]; P = .0003). Non-significant changes were found for all other biomarkers. This analysis found evidence for favorable effects of healthy dietary patterns on CRP, with limited evidence for other biomarkers. Future research should include additional randomized controlled trials incorporating a greater range of dietary patterns and biomarkers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available We report increased cholesterol efflux from macrophages in the presence of falcarindiol, an important dietary constituent present in commonly used vegetables and medicinal plants. Falcarindiol (3–20 μM increased cholesterol efflux from THP-1-derived macrophages. Western blot analysis showed an increased protein level of ABCA1 upon falcarindiol exposure. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that also ABCA1 mRNA level rise with falcarindiol (10 μM treatment. The effect of falcarindiol on ABCA1 protein as well as mRNA level were counteracted by co-treatment with BADGE, an antagonist of PPARγ. Furthermore, falcarindiol significantly inhibited ABCA1 protein degradation in the presence of cycloheximide. This post-translational regulation of ABCA1 by falcarindiol occurs most likely by inhibition of lysosomal cathepsins, resulting in decreased proteolysis and extended protein half-life of ABCA1. Taken together, falcarindiol increases ABCA1 protein level by two complementary mechanisms, i.e., promoting ABCA1 gene expression and inhibiting ABCA1 protein degradation, which lead to enhanced cholesterol efflux.
Wang, Limei; Palme, Veronika; Schilcher, Nicole; Ladurner, Angela; Heiss, Elke H; Stangl, Herbert; Bauer, Rudolf; Dirsch, Verena M; Atanasov, Atanas G
We report increased cholesterol efflux from macrophages in the presence of falcarindiol, an important dietary constituent present in commonly used vegetables and medicinal plants. Falcarindiol (3-20 μM) increased cholesterol efflux from THP-1-derived macrophages. Western blot analysis showed an increased protein level of ABCA1 upon falcarindiol exposure. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that also ABCA1 mRNA level rise with falcarindiol (10 μM) treatment. The effect of falcarindiol on ABCA1 protein as well as mRNA level were counteracted by co-treatment with BADGE, an antagonist of PPARγ. Furthermore, falcarindiol significantly inhibited ABCA1 protein degradation in the presence of cycloheximide. This post-translational regulation of ABCA1 by falcarindiol occurs most likely by inhibition of lysosomal cathepsins, resulting in decreased proteolysis and extended protein half-life of ABCA1. Taken together, falcarindiol increases ABCA1 protein level by two complementary mechanisms, i.e., promoting ABCA1 gene expression and inhibiting ABCA1 protein degradation, which lead to enhanced cholesterol efflux.
Morales, A; Ibarra, N; Chávez, M; Gómez, T; Suárez, A; Valle, J A; Camacho, R L; Cervantes, M
Feed intake and diet composition appear to affect the body temperature of pigs. Two trials were conducted to analyse the effect of feed intake level and dietary protein content on the intestinal temperature (IT) of pigs housed under thermo neutral conditions. Ten pigs (64.1 ± 1.3 kg initial body weight) fitted with an ileal cannula were used. A thermometer set to register the IT at 5-min intervals was implanted into the ileum through the cannula. In both trials, the ambient temperature ranged from 19.1 to 21.6°C and the pigs were fed at 07:00 and 19:00 hr (same amount each time). In trial 1, the pigs were fed daily 1.2 or 1.8 kg of a wheat-soybean meal diet. The IT followed a similar pattern along a 24-hr period regardless the feed intake level. The IT rapidly increased up to 0.61 and 0.74°C after the morning meal and up to 0.53 and 0.47°C after the evening meal in pigs fed 1.2 and 1.8 kg/d respectively. The postprandial IT was higher in pigs fed 1.8 kg after each meal (p level. The postprandial IT did not differ between pigs fed the low protein or the high protein (p > .10). The IT rapidly increased up to 0.66 and 0.62°C after the morning meal in pigs fed the high- and low-protein diet (p .10). In conclusion, the feed intake level affected the IT of pigs housed under TN conditions, but the dietary protein content had no effect. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Trabal, Joan; Hervas, Sonia; Forga, Maria; Leyes, Pere; Farran-Codina, Andreu
Malnutrition is a cause for concern among many admitted elderly patients, being common at hospital admission and discharge. The objective of this study was to assess if diet enrichment with small servings of energy and protein dense foods, improves energy and nutrient intake in elderly patients at risk of malnutrition discharged to home. This was a retrospective case series study in elderly patients at risk of malnutrition treated with diet enrichment. There was a data review of dietary and health records of elderly patients discharged to home. Forty-one patients, mean age of 83 ± 5 years, met the inclusion criteria; 13 patients had been lost after 4 weeks of treatment and a total of 24 patients after 12 weeks. Records contained food intake data assessed at baseline, and after 4 and 12 weeks of treatment. Mini Nutritional Assessment, anthropometric measurements, routine biochemical parameters and the Barthel Index were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. Compared to baseline, patients significantly improved their energy and protein intake after 4 weeks of treatment, fulfilling the mean nutritional requirements. The improvement in energy and protein intake was still manifest at week 12. After 12 weeks of dietary enrichment, a significant weight gain was observed (4.1%, p = 0.011), as well. No significant changes were detected in functional status. Using small servings of energy and protein dense foods to enrich meals seems a feasible nutritional treatment to increase energy and protein intake and meet nutritional goals among elderly patients discharged to home. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
F.E. Van Niekerk
Full Text Available Four rations that differed in their crude protein and essential amino-acid content were compiled. Digestibility of the crude protein and essential amino-acid contents were determined biologically in a feeding trial using 4 Anglo-Arab stallions. Their respective daily diets were: Diet 1: 2 kg cubes, 5 kg tef hay (Eragrostis tef; Diet 2: 2 kg cubes, 5 kg lucerne hay (Medicago sativa; Diet 3: 2 kg cubes, 5 kg tef hay, 200 g fishmeal; Diet 4: 2 kg cubes, 5 kg lucerne hay, 200 g fishmeal. The concentrations of the amino-acids threonine, iso-leucine, leucine and arginine were increased in the total ration when lucerne hay replaced the tef hay while fishmeal supplementation increased the methionine and lysine contents, which provided a wide range of concentrations of digestible amino-acids in each of the 4 rations.
The main objective of this study was to determine three diets for use in a National Pork Board primary trial of dietary effects on gilt development and retention of sows in the breeding herd to fourth parity. A second objective was to examine the influence of litter of origin traits on gilt developm...
Devassy, Jessay G; Yamaguchi, Tamio; Monirujjaman, Md; Gabbs, Melissa; Ravandi, Amir; Zhou, Jing; Aukema, Harold M
Oxylipins are bioactive lipids derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that are important regulators of kidney function and health. Targeted lipidomic analyses of renal oxylipins from four studies of rodent models of renal disease were performed to investigate the differential effects of dietary flax compared to fish oil, soy protein compared to casein, and sex. Across all studies, dietary fish oil was more effective than flax oil in reducing n-6 PUFA derived oxylipins and elevating eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) derived oxylipins, whereas dietary flax oil resulted in higher α-linolenic acid (ALA) oxylipins. Dietary soy protein compared to casein resulted in higher linoleic acid (LA) derived oxylipins. Kidneys from females had higher levels of arachidonic acid (AA) oxylipins, but similar or lower levels of oxylipins from other PUFA. Modulation of the oxylipin profile by diet and sex may help elucidate their effects on renal physiology and health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hanai, Miho; Esashi, Takatoshi
The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of nutrients on the gonadal development of male rats kept under constant darkness as a model of disturbed daily rhythm. The present study examined protein and vitamins, and their interactions. This study was based on three-way ANOVA; the three factors were lighting conditions, dietary protein and dietary vitamins, respectively. The levels of dietary protein were low or normal: 9% casein or 20% casein. The levels of dietary vitamins were low, normal or high: 1/3.3 of normal (AIN-93G diet) content, normal content, or three times the normal content, respectively. Other compositions were the same as those of the AIN-93G diet, and six kinds of experimental diet were prepared. Four-week-old rats (Fischer 344 strain) were kept under constant darkness or normal lighting (12-h light/dark cycle) for 4 wk. After 4 wk, the gonadal weights and serum testosterone content were evaluated. In the constant darkness groups (D-groups), the low-protein diet induced reduction of gonadal organ weights and serum testosterone concentrations. This reduction of gonadal organ weights was exacerbated by progressively higher levels of dietary vitamins. In the case of a normal-protein diet, the depression of gonadal development was not accelerated by high-vitamin intake. In the normal lighting groups (N-groups), the low-protein and high-vitamin diet slightly depressed gonadal development. These results suggest that the metabolism of protein and vitamins is different in rats being kept under constant darkness, and that excess dietary vitamins have an adverse effect on gonadal development in rats fed a low-protein diet.
Patrás, P; Nitrayová, S; Brestenský, M; Heger, J
Eight gilts (29.9 ± 1.7 kg initial BW) were used to evaluate effects of dietary (crude) fiber on N excretion via feces and urine at 2 levels of dietary CP. Pigs were fed 4 dietary treatments according to a double 4 × 4 Latin square. Treatments were low (14%) CP and low (3.25%) (crude) fiber (LPAA), low CP and high (4.46%) fiber (LPAABP), high (18.8%) CP and low fiber (HP), and high CP and high fiber (HPBP). Diets were based on soybean (Glycine max) meal, wheat (Triticum aestivum), and maize (Zea mays) and were supplemented with crystalline AA. High fiber diets contained 15% dried beet (Beta vulgaris) pulp. Pigs were housed in metabolic cages and fed 2 equal meals at 0700 and 1700 h at a daily rate of 90 g/kg BW(0.75). Water was offered ad libitum. Each experimental period consisted of a 6-d adaptation followed by a 4-d collection of feces and urine (bladder catheters). Data were analyzed using ANOVA. Differences between means (P fiber (HP vs. HPBR). With added fiber, urinary N excretion (g/d) was reduced (P fiber diets irrespective of dietary CP content. Dietary fiber level did not affect DMI. Fecal DM excretion (g/d) was higher (P fiber content than in pigs fed diets with high CP and low fiber content. In conclusion, beet pulp fiber added to diets increased fecal N and reduced urinary N and in diets with higher CP content increased overall N retention.
Takano, Yuji; Nouchi, Rui; Takano, Haruka; Kojima, Akiko; Sato, Shinichi
A scale was constructed to investigate the dietary life style of Japanese college students relating to dietary life, mental health, and eating disorders. Exploratory factor analysis found four factors, termed "dietary mood," "dietary regulation," "dietary stress avoidance behavior," and "food safety." Cluster analysis revealed four typical dietary habits of Japanese college students: "deprecating food safety," "dietary regulation oriented and infrequent dietary stress avoidance behavior," "deprecating dietary moods," and "frequent dietary stress avoidance behavior." Regarding eating disorders, a high percentage of the moderate eating disorder group exhibited frequent dietary stress avoidance behavior. Regarding mental health, a high percentage of the healthy group showed dietary regulation orientation and infrequent dietary stress avoidance behavior. A high percentage of the neurotic-level participants deprecated dietary moods. These results suggest that dietary regulation and deprecatory mood and infrequent dietary stress avoidance behavior lead to college students having a healthy dietary life.
van Baak, Marleen A; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Jebb, Susan A
An increase in dietary protein intake has been shown to improve weight loss maintenance in the DIOGenes trial. Here, we analysed whether the source of the dietary proteins influenced changes in body weight, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors during the weight maintenance period wh...... of dietary proteins, but also the source may be important for weight and cardiometabolic risk management. However, randomized trials are needed to test the causality of these associations.......An increase in dietary protein intake has been shown to improve weight loss maintenance in the DIOGenes trial. Here, we analysed whether the source of the dietary proteins influenced changes in body weight, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors during the weight maintenance period...... while following an energy-restricted diet. 489 overweight or obese participants of the DIOGenes trial from eight European countries were included. They successfully lost >8% of body weight and subsequently completed a six month weight maintenance period, in which they consumed an ad libitum diet varying...
Dideriksen, Kasper; Reitelseder, Søren; Holm, Lars
Ingestion of protein is crucial for maintenance of a variety of body functions and within the scope of this review we will specifically focus on the regulation of skeletal muscle mass. A quantitative limitation exists as to how much muscle protein the body can synthesize in response to protein...... intake. Ingestion of excess protein exerts an unwanted load to the body and therefore, it is important to find the least amount of protein that provides the maximal hypertrophic stimulus. Hence, research has focused on revealing the relationship between protein intake (dose) and its resulting stimulation...... of muscle protein synthesis (response). In addition to the protein amount, the protein digestibility and, hence, the availability of its constituent amino acids is decisive for the response. In this regard, recent studies have provided in-depth knowledge about the time-course of the muscle protein synthetic...
Full Text Available Muscle growth is regulated by the homeostatic balance of the biosynthesis and degradation of muscle proteins. To elucidate the molecular interactions among diet, pig genotype, and physiological stage, we examined the effect of dietary protein concentration, pig genotype, and physiological stages on amino acid (AA pools, protein deposition, and related signaling pathways in different types of skeletal muscles. The study used 48 Landrace pigs and 48 pure-bred Bama mini-pigs assigned to each of 2 dietary treatments: lower/GB (Chinese conventional diet- or higher/NRC (National Research Council-protein diet. Diets were fed from 5 weeks of age to respective market weights of each genotype. Samples of biceps femoris muscle (BFM, type I and longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM, type II were collected at nursery, growing, and finishing phases according to the physiological stage of each genotype, to determine the AA concentrations, mRNA levels for growth-related genes in muscles, and protein abundances of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathway. Our data showed that the concentrations of most AAs in LDM and BFM of pigs increased (P<0.05 gradually with increasing age. Bama mini-pigs had generally higher (P<0.05 muscle concentrations of flavor-related AA, including Met, Phe, Tyr, Pro, and Ser, compared with Landrace pigs. The mRNA levels for myogenic determining factor, myogenin, myocyte-specific enhancer binding factor 2 A, and myostatin of Bama mini-pigs were higher (P<0.05 than those of Landrace pigs, while total and phosphorylated protein levels for protein kinase B, mTOR, and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinases (p70S6K, and ratios of p-mTOR/mTOR, p-AKT/AKT, and p-p70S6K/p70S6K were lower (P<0.05. There was a significant pig genotype-dependent effect of dietary protein on the levels for mTOR and p70S6K. When compared with the higher protein-NRC diet, the lower protein-GB diet increased (P<0.05 the levels for mTOR and p70S6K in Bama mini-pigs, but
Md. Rakibul Hassan
Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary metabolizable energy (ME and crude protein (CP on the performance, egg quality, blood properties, bone characteristics and yolk fatty acid composition of organic laying hens. At 23 weeks, a total of 600 Brown nick laying hens were randomly distributed into 24 outdoor pens (4 replicate pens/treatment; 25 birds/pen and were given (2750, 2775 and 2800 kcal of ME/kg and CP (16 and 17% resulting in a 3×2 factorial arrangement of organic dietary treatments. The experiment lasted 23 weeks. The performance of laying hens were not affected by the dietary treatment while the egg weight was increased with energy and CP levels in the diet (P<0.05. Serum total protein was not affected by dietary energy and protein level. Total cholesterol and triglyceride tend to reduce with the increasing amount of CP in the diet. Thereafter, bone and egg quality characteristics were numerically increased in dietary 2775 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP treatment. On the other hand, docosahexanoic acid content in egg yolk was higher (P<0.01 in 2750 kcal of ME/kg and 17% CP treatment. As a result, the performance, blood and fatty acid composition were maximized in 2750 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP treatment. Thus, dietary 2750-2775 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP may enhance performance, blood and fatty acid composition of organic laying hens.
Zhang, H H; Jiang, Q K; Sun, W L; Xu, C; Cong, B; Yang, F H; Li, G Y
The effect of different dietary protein levels and DL-methionine (Met) supplementation on hair growth and the resulting pelt quality in mink was studied. Four groups of male mink were fed with four isocaloric diets containing 32% (P32), 24% (P24), 16% (P16) or P24+Met (0.8%) crude protein of dry matter (DM) from September to December. Skin biopsies were taken at the pelting. Histological techniques and computer-assisted light microscopy were used to determine the ratio of activity (ROA) of under hairs and guard hairs respectively. The results showed that when the dietary protein level reduced from 32% to 16%, body length, number and diameter of under hairs and guard hairs of minks declined, and pelt length and pelt weight of minks decreased significantly (p 0.05). The hair follicle density of the winter coat was not influenced by the dietary protein levels and Met supplementation (p > 0.05). Low-protein diets content led to a reduction of hair follicle developing to next phase. It was documented that 24% crude protein of DM with Met supplementation during growing-furring period was sufficient for minks to express their genetic capacity to develop hair follicles and achieve the prime fur characteristics. Overall this study demonstrated that hair growth and hair properties in pelts are very dependent on the dietary protein and Met supply in the growing-furring period of minks. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Speakman, J R; Mitchell, S E; Mazidi, M
Almost exactly 100years ago Osborne and colleagues demonstrated that restricting the food intake of a small number of female rats extended their lifespan. In the 1930s experiments on the impact of diet on lifespan were extended by Slonaker, and subsequently McCay. Slonaker concluded that there was a strong impact of protein intake on lifespan, while McCay concluded that calories are the main factor causing differences in lifespan when animals are restricted (Calorie restriction or CR). Hence from the very beginning the question of whether food restriction acts on lifespan via reduced calorie intake or reduced protein intake was disputed. Subsequent work supported the idea that calories were the dominant factor. More recently, however, this role has again been questioned, particularly in studies of insects. Here we review the data regarding previous studies of protein and calorie restriction in rodents. We show that increasing CR (with simultaneous protein restriction: PR) increases lifespan, and that CR with no PR generates an identical effect. None of the residual variation in the impact of CR (with PR) on lifespan could be traced to variation in macronutrient content of the diet. Other studies show that low protein content in the diet does increase median lifespan, but the effect is smaller than the CR effect. We conclude that CR is a valid phenomenon in rodents that cannot be explained by changes in protein intake, but that there is a separate phenomenon linking protein intake to lifespan, which acts over a different range of protein intakes than is typical in CR studies. This suggests there may be a fundamental difference in the responses of insects and rodents to CR. This may be traced to differences in the physiology of these groups, or reflect a major methodological difference between 'restriction' studies performed on rodents and insects. We suggest that studies where the diet is supplied ad libitum, but diluted with inert components, should perhaps be
Untersmayr, Eva; Schöll, Isabella; Swoboda, Ines; Beil, Waltraud J; Förster-Waldl, Elisabeth; Walter, Franziska; Riemer, Angelika; Kraml, Georg; Kinaciyan, Tamar; Spitzauer, Susanne; Boltz-Nitulescu, George; Scheiner, Otto; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika
Digestible proteins were supposed to be irrelevant for oral sensitization and induction of food allergy. Approximately 10% of the adult population uses antacids for the treatment of dyspeptic disorders, drugs that hinder peptic digestion. In these patients, proteins that are normally degradable might act as food allergens. We aimed to study the influence of antacid intake on the allergenicity of dietary proteins, taking sturgeon caviar and parvalbumin, the major fish allergen, as examples. Caviar proteins and recombinant parvalbumin from carp, rCyp c 1, were applied for intragastric feedings with or without the antacids sucralfate, ranitidine or omeprazole, using a Balb/c mouse model. Both caviar proteins and parvalbumin were rapidly degraded in an in vitro digestion assay at pH 2.0, but not at pH 5.0, imitating the effect of antacids. The groups fed with caviar in combination with ranitidine hydrochloride intramuscularly or sucralfate orally had significant levels of caviar-specific IgE antibodies (P allergy in these groups was further evidenced by oral provocation tests and positive immediate-type skin reactivity. In contrast, feedings with caviar alone led to antigen-specific T-cell tolerance. None of the groups showed immune reactivity against the daily mouse diet. As a proof of the principle, feeding mice with parvalbumin in combination with ranitidine or omeprazole intramuscularly induced allergen-specific IgE antibodies (P allergy.
Cohen, Pieter A; Bloszies, Clayton; Yee, Caleb; Gerona, Roy
The amphetamine isomer β-methylphenylethylamine (BMPEA) was first synthesized in the early 1930s, but its efficacy and safety in humans has not been studied. Recently, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) detected BMPEA in dietary supplements labelled as containing Acacia rigidula. Over a year after the FDA reported its findings, we analyzed Acacia rigidula dietary supplements to determine if BMPEA had been removed. Supplements were analyzed using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Diluted methanolic extract from each supplement was run three times and each data set obtained was analyzed using Agilent MassHunter Qualitative Analysis. The presence of BMPEA was confirmed by accurate mass, retention time and mass spectra match against a reference standard. Quantification of BMPEA was determined using an eight-point calibration curve of spiked standard to a matrix blank. Twenty-one brands of Acacia rigidula supplements were analyzed. More than half (11/21; 52.4%) of the Acacia rigidula supplement brands contained BMPEA. The stimulant was present at quantities such that consumers following recommended maximum daily servings would consume a maximum of 93.7 mg of BMPEA per day. Consumers of Acacia rigidula supplements may be exposed to pharmacological dosages of an amphetamine isomer that lacks evidence of safety in humans. The FDA should immediately warn consumers about BMPEA and take aggressive enforcement action to eliminate BMPEA in dietary supplements. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Teo, Boon Wee; Toh, Qi Chun; Xu, Hui; Yang, Adonsia Y T; Lin, Tingxuan; Li, Jialiang; Lee, Evan J C
Clinical practice guidelines recommend different levels of dietary protein intake in predialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. It is unknown how effectively these recommendations perform in a multi-ethnic Asian population, with varied cultural beliefs and diets. We assess the profi le of protein intake in a multi-ethnic Asian population, comparing healthy participants and CKD patients. We analysed the 24-hour urine collections of the Asian Kidney Disease Study (AKDS) and the Singapore Kidney Function Study (SKFS) to estimate total protein intake (TPI; g/day). We calculated ideal body weight (IDW; kg): 22.99 × height2 (m). Standard statistical tests were applied where appropriate, and linear regression was used to assess associations of continuous variables with protein intake. There were 232 CKD patients and 103 healthy participants with 35.5% diabetics. The mean TPI in healthy participants was 58.89 ± 18.42 and the mean TPI in CKD patients was 53.64 ± 19.39. By US National Kidney Foundation (NKF) guidelines, 29/232 (12.5%) of CKD patients with measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) patients had TPI-IDW >0.75g/kg/ day. By American Dietetic Association (ADA) guidelines, 34.7% (44/127) of CKD patients with GFR patients with GFR protein intake of between 0.3 to 0.5 g/kg/day. A total of 21.9% (25/114) of diabetic CKD patients had protein intake between 0.8 to 0.9 g/kg/day. On average, the protein intake of most CKD patients exceeds the recommendations of guidelines. Diabetic CKD patients should aim to have higher protein intakes.
Mohiti-Asli, M; Shivazad, M; Zaghari, M; Aminzadeh, S; Rezaian, M; Mateos, G G
The effects of inclusion of cellulose or inulin as a source of dietary fiber and CP content of the diet on hepatic fat deposition were investigated in hens fed restricted or close to ad libitum consumption. There were 12 dietary treatments forming a 2 × 3 × 2 factorial with 2 feeding regimens [restricted and liberal (close to ad libitum consumption; LIB)], 3 fiber sources (control, 3% inulin, and 3% cellulose), and 2 levels of CP (14.5 and 17.4%). Hens were assigned in groups of 6 to 60 floor pens. From 43 to 55 wk of age, hens fed LIB showed increased activity of the hepatic malic enzyme (MalE; P liver weight and hepatic lipid deposition and was associated with enhancements (P liver and abdominal fat weight, whereas cellulose inclusion decreased (P liver weight (P liver, as well as plasma triglyceride concentration and abdominal fat pad weight (P fiber inclusion reduced abdominal fat and liver weight, with effects being more pronounced with cellulose than with inulin. An increase in dietary CP reduced MalE activity and alleviated hepatic and plasma lipid concentration; therefore, it might be a practical approach to reduce the incidence of obesity-linked problems in broiler breeder hens. The combination of high-CP diets and the inclusion of a fiber source did not suppress liver lipid content over that observed with the high-CP diet, exclusively.
Henley, E C; Taylor, J R N; Obukosia, S D
Child malnutrition is increasing in Africa. Protein deficiency is an important cause since protein is essential for both growth and maintenance of muscle mass. Sorghum is a major staple food in Africa on account of its hardiness as a crop. However, sorghum protein is very deficient in the indispensable amino acid lysine and on cooking has poor protein digestibility. This results in sorghum having a very low Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS). The Africa Biofortified Sorghum project, a Grand Challenges in Global Heath project, is undertaking research to biofortify sorghum in terms of protein and micronutrient quality using genetic engineering. Lysine and protein digestibility have been improved by suppression of synthesis of the kafirin storage proteins. Transgenic biofortified sorghum has double the PDCAAS of conventional sorghum. This improvement should enable a young child to meet most of its protein and energy requirements from biofortified sorghum porridge. This together with the improvement in micronutrients could provide the basis of a sustainable and broadly comprehensive solution to child malnutrition in many African countries. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice in 1997 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Nuclear safety; (2) Industrial and health safety; (3) Radiation safety; and Fire protection
Wu, Chenglong; Wang, Jia; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ascorbic acid (AA) on transcriptional expression patterns of antioxidant proteins, heat shock proteins (HSP) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the hepatopancreas of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino (initial average length: 84.36 ± 0.24 mm) using real-time quantitative PCR assays. L-ascorbyl-2-molyphosphate (LAMP) was added to the basal diet to formulate four experimental diets containing 0.0, 70.3, 829.8 and 4967.5 mg AA equivalent kg(-1) diets, respectively. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of adult abalone in acrylic tanks (200 L) in a flow-through seawater system. Each tank was stocked with 15 abalone. Animals were fed once daily (17:00) to apparent satiation for 24 weeks. The results showed that the dietary AA (70.3 mg kg(-1)) could significantly up-regulate the expression levels of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), feritin (FT) and heat shock protein 26 (HSP26) in the hepatopancreas of abalone in this treatment compared to the controls. However, the expression levels of Mn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), selenium-binding protein (SEBP), HSP70 and HSP90 were significantly down-regulated. Compared with those in the group with 70.3 mg kg(-1) dietary AA, the expression levels of CAT, GST and HSP26 were decreased in abalone fed with very high dietary AA (4967.5 mg kg(-1)). In addition, significant up-regulations of expression levels of Mn-SOD, GPX, TPx, SEBP, FT, HSP70, HSP90 and NF-κB were observed in abalone fed with apparently excessive dietary AA (829.8 and 4967.5 mg kg(-1)) as compared to those fed 70.3 mg kg(-1) dietary AA. These findings showed that dietary AA influenced the expression levels of antioxidant proteins, heat shock proteins and NF-κB in the hepatopancreas of abalone at transcriptional level. Levels of dietary AA that appeared adequate (70.3 mg kg(-1)) reduced the oxidative stress
ature of rats giYen 'a low protein dieL However, low MEm vaiue 'tha(coinpute'd, by "mUltiple re- given that animals fed on .high protein diet depos- gression equatiOl)S' for anirhals fed on high pro- ited protein at a relatively higher rate and protein tein diet in the present study, , . . energy accounted :ror 0.71 of the total energy ...
Ohtsuka, Shizuko; Aoyama, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Nobuhiro; Kajiwara, Tomoko; Azami, Shoji; Kitano, Takao
We studied the effects of dietary mineral source and oil intake on kidney calcification in 4-wk-old female Fischer rats after consuming the AIN-76 purified diet (AIN-76). A modified AIN-76 mineral mixture was used, although the original calcium (Ca)/phosphorus (P) molar ratio remained unchanged. Rats were fed the modified diets for a period of 40 d before their kidneys were removed on the last day. Ca balance tests were performed on days 31 to 36 and biochemical analysis of urine was also studied. Kidney Ca, P, and magnesium (Mg) in the standard diet group (20% protein and 5% oil) were not affected by the mineral source. Kidney Ca, P, and Mg in the low-protein (10% protein) diet group, were found to be influenced by the dietary oil content and mineral source. In particular, the different mineral sources differentially increased kidney mineral accumulation. Pathological examination of the kidney showed that the degree of kidney calcification was proportional to the dietary oil content in the 10% dietary protein group, reflecting the calcium content of the kidney. The information gathered on mineral sources in this study will help future researchers studying the influence of dietary Ca/P molar ratios, and histological changes in the kidney.
Mitchell, Cameron J; Milan, Amber M; Mitchell, Sarah M
Background: The Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for protein intake in the adult population is widely promoted as 0.8 g · kg-1 · d-1 Aging may increase protein requirements, particularly to maintain muscle mass.Objective: We investigated whether controlled protein consumption at the current RDA ...
Mahrose, Kh M; Attia, A I; Ismail, I E; Abou-Kassem, D E; El-Hack, M E Abd
The present work was conducted to examine the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels (18, 21 and 24%) on growth performance (Initial and final body weight, daily body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio) during 2-9 weeks of age and certain body measurements (body height, tibiotarsus length and tibiotarsus girth) at 9 weeks of age. A total of 30 African Black unsexed ostrich chicks were used in the present study in simple randomized design. The results of the present work indicated that initial and final live body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion of ostrich chicks were insignificantly affected by dietary protein level used. Protein efficiency ratio was high in the group of chicks fed diet contained 18% CP. Results obtained indicated that tibiotarsus girth was decreased (P≤0.01) with the increasing dietary protein level, where the highest value of tibiotarsus girth (18.38 cm) was observed in chicks fed 18% dietary protein level. Body height and tibiotarsus length were not significantly different. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that ostrich chicks (during 2-9 weeks of age) could grow on diets contain lower levels of CP (18%).
El-Gawish, M.A.M.; Yousri, R.M.; Roushdy, H.M.; Abdel-Reheem, K.A.; Al-Mossallamy, N.A.
Investigations were planned to assess the changes in certain biochemical parameters as affected by the synergistic effect of exposure to fractionated doses of rays and / or feeding on different protein levels. The date showed that animals kept on normal or low protein diet exhibited a significant decrease in serum total protein and glucose. Also , a significant increase was recorded in insulin level in rats exposed at the radiation dose level of 20 Gy. Exposure to cumulative doses of irradiation has aggrevated the hyperglycemic effect of high protein diet with a significant and marked increase of insulin at all the applied doses. Animals fed normal high or low protein diet were found to exert significant decreases in T3, T4 while a significant increase in TSH of high protein group occurred as a result of exposure to cumulative doses of gamma-irradiation. Rats kept on low protein diet exhibited losses in body weight, hypercholesterolemia, low levels of phospholipids and triglycerides as compared with the normal protein diet group. In contrast high protein diet group showed no serious effects. Irradiation has potentiated body weight losses, hypotriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia in animal group fed low protein diet with a significant increase in serum phospholipids due to the higher radiation dose of 20 Gy. Protein deficiency acted synergistically with gamma irradiation and increased the susceptibility of body organs to radiation damage. Such findings contributed to the knowledge which stimulated the decrease of the internationally recognized occupational dose limits from 50 down to 20 m Sv (ICRP 1991)
Obarzanek, E; Kimm, SYS; Barton, BA; Van Horn, L; Kwiterovich, PO; Simons-Morton, DG; Hunsberger, SA; Lasser, NL; Robson, AM; Franklin, FA; Lauer, RM; Stevens, VJ; Friedman, LA; Dorgan, JF; Greenlick, MR
Objective. Diets reduced in fat and cholesterol are recommended for children over 2 years of age, yet long-term safety and efficacy are unknown. This study tests the long-term efficacy and safety of a cholesterol-lowering dietary intervention in children. Methods. Six hundred sixty-three children 8
Kulkarni, Anvita; Huerto, Ryan; Roberto, Christina A; Austin, S Bryn
The potential dangers associated with dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building are well documented and increasingly garnering the attention of the media, public, and government leaders. Public health professionals have an opportunity to improve population health in the context of dietary supplement use by translating scientific evidence into action. In this commentary, we discuss the potential to motivate corporate social responsibility (CSR) among manufacturers and retailers of dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building. We examine levers available to public health professionals for generating voluntary corporate self-regulation by reviewing examples from successful CSR initiatives in other domains of public health and offering recommendations highlighting effective advocacy strategies. We encourage public health professionals to use one or multiple advocacy strategies to improve consumer protections for dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building.
Amankwaah, Akua F.; Sayer, R. Drew; Wright, Amy J.; Chen, Ningning; McCrory, Megan A.; Campbell, Wayne W.
Dietary protein and fiber independently influence insulin-mediated glucose control. However, potential additive effects are not well-known. Men and women (n = 20; age: 26 ? 5 years; body mass index: 26.1 ? 0.2 kg/m2; mean ? standard deviation) consumed normal protein and fiber (NPNF; NP = 12.5 g, NF = 2 g), normal protein and high fiber (NPHF; NP = 12.5 g, HF = 8 g), high protein and normal fiber (HPNF; HP = 25 g, NF = 2 g), or high protein and fiber (HPHF; HP = 25 g, HF = 8 g) breakfast trea...
Song, Shangxin; Hooiveld, Guido J.; Li, Mengjie; Zhao, Fan; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Xinglian; Muller, Michael; Li, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong
This study reports on a comprehensive comparison of the effects of soy and meat proteins given at the recommended level on physiological markers of metabolic syndrome and the hepatic transcriptome. Male rats were fed semi-synthetic diets for 1 wk that differed only regarding protein source, with casein serving as reference. Body weight gain and adipose tissue mass were significantly reduced by soy but not meat proteins. The insulin resistance index was improved by soy, and to a lesser extent by meat proteins. Liver triacylglycerol contents were reduced by both protein sources, which coincided with increased plasma triacylglycerol concentrations. Both soy and meat proteins changed plasma amino acid patterns. The expression of 1571 and 1369 genes were altered by soy and meat proteins respectively. Functional classification revealed that lipid, energy and amino acid metabolic pathways, as well as insulin signaling pathways were regulated differently by soy and meat proteins. Several transcriptional regulators, including NFE2L2, ATF4, Srebf1 and Rictor were identified as potential key upstream regulators. These results suggest that soy and meat proteins induce distinct physiological and gene expression responses in rats and provide novel evidence and suggestions for the health effects of different protein sources in human diets. PMID:26857845
Laura A Velázquez-Villegas
Full Text Available During gestation and lactation, a series of metabolic changes that are affected by the diet occurs in various organs of the mother. However, little is known about how the dietary protein (DP/carbohydrate (DCH ratio regulates the expression of metabolic genes in the mother. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to study the effect of consuming different percentages of DP/DCH, specifically 10/73, 20/63 and 30/53%, on the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and protein synthesis in the mammary gland, liver and adipose tissue during gestation and lactation in dams. While the amount of weight gained during gestation was similar for all groups, only dams fed with 30/53% DP/DCH maintained their weight during lactation. In the mammary gland, the expression of the genes involved in lipogenesis, specifically SREBP1 and FAS, was dramatically increased, and the expression of the genes involved in protein synthesis, such as mTOR1, and the phosphorylation of its target protein, S6K, were also increased throughout pregnancy and lactation, regardless of the concentration of DP/DCH. In the liver and adipose tissue, the expression of the genes and proteins involved in lipid metabolism was dependent on the proportion of DP/DCH. The consumption of a low-protein/high-carbohydrate diet increased the expression of lipogenic genes in the liver and adipose tissue and the amount of lipid deposition in the liver. Conversely, the consumption of a high-protein/low-carbohydrate diet increased the expression of genes involved in amino acid oxidation in the liver during gestation. The metabolic adaptations reflected by the changes in the expression of metabolic genes indicate that the mammary gland has a priority for milk synthesis, whereas the adaptations in the liver and adipose tissue are responsible for providing nutrients to the mammary gland to sustain milk synthesis.
Hopper, Brian D.; Przybyszewski, Joseph; Chen, Haw-Wen; Hammer, Kimberly D.P.; Birt, Diane F.
The study examined the timing of modulation of activator protein 1(AP-1):DNA binding and production of AP-1 constituent proteins by ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation and effect of dietary energy restriction [DER, 40% calorie reduction from fat and carbohydrate compared to control ad-libitum (AL) diet] in SKH-1 mouse epidermis. AP-1:DNA binding by electromobility shift assay (EMSA) was increased in a biphasic manner after treatment with a tumor promoting suberythemal dose (750mJ/cm2) of UVB light (311-313nm) with peaks at 3 and 18 hours post irradiation. DER overall reduced AP-1:DNA binding in mock-treated and UVB treated skin at 3 and 18 hours after UVB treatment. The timing of modulation of production of AP-1 constituent proteins by western blot analysis was examined at 0hr (mock treatment), 3hr, 9hr, 18hr, and 24hr. We found that c-jun (9 hr), jun-B (9 and 18hrs), phosphorylated c-jun (3hr), and fra-1 (18hr) protein levels were increased after UVB treatment compared to mock controls. In a follow-up diet experiment, animals were placed on DER or AL diet for 10-12 weeks and treated with UVB as before. DER was found to completely block the UVB induced increase in phosphorylated c-jun protein levels and decrease in fra-2 protein levels at 18hr. In addition, DER enhanced UVB-induced increase in jun-B levels and lowered basal levels of c-fos seen 18 hours after UVB. These data suggest that DER may be able to assist in the prevention of UVB induced skin carcinogenesis by modulating AP-1:DNA binding and AP-1 constituent protein levels. PMID:19263438
Strathe, Anja V.; Bruun, Thomas S.; Geertsen, Niels
. On a subsample of 70 sows (parity 2 and 3) milk samples were obtained at day 3, 10 and 17 post-partum and analyzed for fat, CP and lactose. In the analysis of the dose-response data the dietary SID CP concentration were used as explanatory variable. The abovementioned response variables were fitted with linear...... broken-line, quadratic broken-line and linear regression models. Sow BW and BF loss reached a break point at 143 g SID CP/kg and 127 g SID CP/kg, where sows lost 0.58 kg/d and 3 mm, respectively (P
Full Text Available Dietary energy and protein intake can affect progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD. CKD complicated with diabetes is often associated with a decline in renal function. We investigated the relative importance of dietary energy intake (DEI and dietary protein intake (DPI to renal function indicators in nondiabetic and diabetic CKD patients. A total of 539 Stage 3–5 CKD patients [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2 using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation] with or without diabetes were recruited from outpatient clinics of Nephrology and Nutrition in a medical center in Taiwan. Appropriateness of DEI and DPI was used to subcategorize CKD patients into four groups:(1 kidney diet (KD A (KD-A, the most appropriate diet, was characterized by low DPI and adequate DEI; (2 KD-B, low DPI and inadequate DEI; (3 KD-C, excess DPI and adequate DEI; and (4 KD-D, the least appropriate diet, excess DPI and inadequate DEI. Inadequate DEI was defined as a ratio of actual intake/recommended intake less than 90% and adequate DEI as over 90%. Low DPI was defined as less than 110% of recommended intake and excessive when over 110%. Outcome measured was eGFR. In both groups of CKD patients, DEI was significantly lower (p<0.001 and DPI higher (p=0.002 than recommended levels. However, only in the nondiabetic CKD patients were KD-C and KD-D significantly correlated with reduced eGFR compared with KD-A at increments of −5.63 mL/min/1.73 m2 (p = 0.029 and −7.72 mL/min/1.73 m2 (p=0.015. In conclusion, inadequate energy and excessive protein intakes appear to correlate with poorer renal function in nondiabetic CKD patients. Patients with advanced CKD are in need of counseling by dietitians to improve adherence to diets.
Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Theall, Cynthia L.; Wurtman, Richard J.
Weaning (21-day-old; 40-50 g) male rats given simultaneous access to foods, containing 18 percent casein and 15 or 70 percent carbohydrate (dextrin), tended to consume only 29-35 percent as much protein as carbohydrate (i.e., protein/carbohydrate ratios were 0.29-0.35). With maturation, when animals weighed 100 g or more, about half continued this pattern of nutrient choice, but the others abruptly began to consume considerably larger proportions of protein, exhibiting protein/carbohydrate ratios as high as 0.80-1.00. Each adult animal's protein/carbohydrate ratio tended to vary only slightly (s.e. = 3 percent of means). Adult protein/carbohydrate ratios were not correlated with fasting brain 5-HT or 5-HIAA levels. These marked differences among rats in eating behavior would not be observed when--as is usually the case--animals are given access to only one diet.
Pinto, Clidia E M; Farias, Davi F; Carvalho, Ana F U; Oliveira, José T A; Pereira, Mirella L; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Freire, José E C; Viana, Daniel A; Vasconcelos, Ilka M
Mo-CBP3 is an antifungal protein produced by Moringa oleifera which has been investigated as potential candidate for developing transgenic crops. Before the use of novel proteins, food safety tests must be conducted. This work represents an early food safety assessment of Mo-CBP3, using the two-tiered approach proposed by ILSI. The history of safe use, mode of action and results for amino acid sequence homology using the full-length and short contiguous amino acids sequences indicate low risk associated to this protein. Mo-CBP3 isoforms presented a reasonable number of alignments (>35% identity) with allergens in a window of 80 amino acids. This protein was resistant to pepsin degradation up to 2 h, but it was susceptible to digestion using pancreatin. Many positive attributes were presented for Mo-CBP3. However, this protein showed high sequence homology with allergens and resistance to pepsin digestion that indicates that further hypothesis-based testing on its potential allergenicity must be done. Additionally, animal toxicity evaluations (e.g. acute and repeated dose oral exposure assays) must be performed to meet the mandatory requirements of several regulatory agencies. Finally, the approach adopted here exemplified the importance of performing an early risk assessment of candidate proteins for use in plant transformation programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Prospective data examining the relationship between dietary protein intake and incident coronary heart disease (CHD are inconclusive. Most evidence is derived from homogenous populations such as health professionals. Large community-based analyses in more diverse samples are lacking.We studied the association of protein type and major dietary protein sources and risk for incident CHD in 12,066 middle-aged adults (aged 45-64 at baseline, 1987-1989 from four U.S. communities enrolled in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC Study who were free of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease at baseline. Dietary protein intake was assessed at baseline and after 6 years of follow-up by food frequency questionnaire. Our primary outcome was adjudicated coronary heart disease events or deaths with following up through December 31, 2010. Cox proportional hazard models with multivariable adjustment were used for statistical analyses.During a median follow-up of 22 years, there were 1,147 CHD events. In multivariable analyses total, animal and vegetable protein were not associated with an increased risk for CHD before or after adjustment. In food group analyses of major dietary protein sources, protein intake from red and processed meat, dairy products, fish, nuts, eggs, and legumes were not significantly associated with CHD risk. The hazard ratios [with 95% confidence intervals] for risk of CHD across quintiles of protein from poultry were 1.00 [ref], 0.83 [0.70-0.99], 0.93 [0.75-1.15], 0.88 [0.73-1.06], 0.79 [0.64-0.98], P for trend = 0.16. Replacement analyses evaluating the association of substituting one source of dietary protein for another or of decreasing protein intake at the expense of carbohydrates or total fats did not show any statistically significant association with CHD risk.Based on a large community cohort we found no overall relationship between protein type and major dietary protein sources and risk for CHD.
Cristiane Freire Silvão
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study investigated the effect of dietary amino acid composition from proteins alternative to fishmeal on the growth performance of the common snook, Centropomus undecimalis. Fish of 10.79±0.71 g (n = 150 were stocked in 15 shaded outdoor tanks of 1 m3. The basal diet contained 643.4 g kg−1 salmon byproduct meal (SML and 200.0 g kg−1 soy protein concentrate (SPC. Two other diets replaced 39 and 29% of the SML with poultry byproduct meal (PBM, 170.1 g kg−1 and SPC (334.9 g kg−1, respectively. Fish were fed twice daily for 84 days under 32±1 g L−1 water salinity and 27.3±0.9 °C temperature. Final survival (99.5±2.6% was unaffected by dietary treatment. Snook grew slower (0.24±0.03 and 0.27±0.04 vs 0.35±0.06 g day−1 and achieved the lowest body weight (31.1±6.62 and 33.3±10.20 vs 40.4±13.18 g and the highest feed conversion ratio (3.69±0.29 and 3.11±0.51 vs 2.33±0.34 when fed SPC and basal diets compared with PBM, respectively. Retention of dietary crude protein varied from 36 to 38% for fish fed the basal and SPC diets, but exceeded 51% in fish fed PBM. Results indicate a greater ability of the common snook to gain weight and increase retention of nutrients when dietary protein is of terrestrial animal origin. Dietary protein from PBM yields a more balanced dietary amino acid composition relative to fish muscle, but possibly in excess of the species requirements.
Koo, Hyun-Young; Miyashita, Michio; Simon Cho, B.H.; Nakamura, Manabu T.
Diets high in fructose cause hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance in part due to simultaneous induction of gluconeogenic and lipogenic genes in liver. We investigated the mechanism underlying the unique pattern of gene induction by dietary fructose. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 per group) were meal-fed (4 h/d) either 63% (w/w) glucose or 63% fructose diet. After two weeks, animals were killed at the end of the last meal. Nuclear SREBP-1 was 2.2 times higher in fructose-fed rats than glucose-fed rats. Nuclear FoxO1 was elevated 1.7 times in fructose group, but did not reach significance (P = 0.08). Unexpectedly, no difference was observed in nuclear ChREBP between two groups. However, ChREBP DNA binding was 3.9x higher in fructose-fed animals without an increase in xylulose-5-phospate, a proposed ChREBP activator. In conclusion, the gene induction by dietary fructose is likely to be mediated in part by simultaneously increased ChREBP activity, SREBP-1 and possibly FoxO1 protein in nucleus.
Koo, Hyun-Young [Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 905 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Miyashita, Michio [Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 905 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Nihon University School of Medicine, Itabashi, Tokyo (Japan); Simon Cho, B.H. [Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 905 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Harlan E. Moore Heart Research Foundation, 503 South Sixth Street, Champaign, IL 61820 (United States); Nakamura, Manabu T., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 905 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)
Diets high in fructose cause hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance in part due to simultaneous induction of gluconeogenic and lipogenic genes in liver. We investigated the mechanism underlying the unique pattern of gene induction by dietary fructose. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 per group) were meal-fed (4 h/d) either 63% (w/w) glucose or 63% fructose diet. After two weeks, animals were killed at the end of the last meal. Nuclear SREBP-1 was 2.2 times higher in fructose-fed rats than glucose-fed rats. Nuclear FoxO1 was elevated 1.7 times in fructose group, but did not reach significance (P = 0.08). Unexpectedly, no difference was observed in nuclear ChREBP between two groups. However, ChREBP DNA binding was 3.9x higher in fructose-fed animals without an increase in xylulose-5-phospate, a proposed ChREBP activator. In conclusion, the gene induction by dietary fructose is likely to be mediated in part by simultaneously increased ChREBP activity, SREBP-1 and possibly FoxO1 protein in nucleus.
Smidowicz, Angelika; Regula, Julita
The inflammatory process plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus type 2, and metabolic syndrome. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are widely tested inflammatory markers involved in the development of these diseases. Several studies indicate a relation between nutritional status and the concentrations of human high-sensitivity CRP and IL-6. Similarly, the role of diet in reducing inflammation and thereby modulating the risk of non-communicable diseases is supported by numerous studies. This review focuses on the effects of the selected nutrition models in humans on the concentrations of CRP and IL-6. It seems that the Mediterranean diet model is most effective in inhibiting inflammation. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension model and the plant nutrition model also have proven to be beneficial. The data on low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets are inconclusive. Comprehensive studies are necessary, taking into account the cumulative effect of dietary and other factors on the inflammatory process. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Full Text Available Heme constitutes 95% of functional iron in the human body, as well as two-thirds of the average person’s iron intake in developed countries. Hence, a wide range of epidemiological studies have focused on examining the association of dietary heme intake, mainly from red meat, with the risks of common diseases. High heme intake is associated with increased risk of several cancers, including colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer and lung cancer. Likewise, the evidence for increased risks of type-2 diabetes and coronary heart disease associated with high heme intake is compelling. Furthermore, recent comparative metabolic and molecular studies of lung cancer cells showed that cancer cells require increased intracellular heme biosynthesis and uptake to meet the increased demand for oxygen-utilizing hemoproteins. Increased levels of hemoproteins in turn lead to intensified oxygen consumption and cellular energy generation, thereby fueling cancer cell progression. Together, both epidemiological and molecular studies support the idea that heme positively impacts cancer progression. However, it is also worth noting that heme deficiency can cause serious diseases in humans, such as anemia, porphyrias, and Alzheimer’s disease. This review attempts to summarize the latest literature in understanding the role of dietary heme intake and heme function in diverse diseases.
The aim of this study was to test the effects of balanced diets respectively containing soya protein isolate, zein and casein as the sole protein source on the amount of total bacteria, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Escherichia in cecal digesta of growing rats. The casein increased the amount of Lactobacillus and ...
Meer, van der M.B.
Colossoma macropomum is an indigenous fish species from the Amazon region. The amino acid profile of its body protein proved to be similar to that of other fish species. Soya meal and fish meal have, based on their amino acid profiles, a comparable protein quality. This
Meer, Van Der Yvonne; Gerrits, Walter J.J.; Jansman, Alfons J.M.; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, Liesbeth
The tendency to reduce crude protein (CP) levels in pig diets to increase protein efficiency may increase the occurrence of damaging behaviours such as ear and tail biting, particularly for pigs kept under suboptimal health conditions. We studied, in a 2×2×2 factorial design, 576 tail-docked
Feb 27, 2013 ... few data in the feeding and nutrition of H. longifilis. An essential consideration to enhance fish yield is protein concentration in the feed necessary to obtain satisfactory growth and conversion values for H. longifilis. Protein is essential in the diet of fishes as a source of amino acids,. *Corresponding author.
Feb 27, 2013 ... Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings of mean weight 1.648 g were stocked in plastic aquaria of 0.049 m3 at a rate of 10 fish per aquarium. Fish were fed with diets containing 30, 35 and 40% protein in triplicate for 10 weeks using fish meal as the main protein source. Growth of H. longifilis was significantly.
ABSTRACT: This study was aimed at observing the effects of protein-energy malnutrition on the morphometrical, histological and hormonal ... Key words: Carbendazim Effects, Protein-energy Malnutrition, Testis Structure, Testosterone, Quails ..... Kamala K (1987) Drug/Xenobiotic-Metabolism, Disposition and Toxicity in ...
May 9, 2011 ... The aim of this study was to test the effects of balanced diets respectively containing soya protein isolate, zein and casein as the sole protein source on the amount of total bacteria, Lactobacillus,. Bifidobacterium and Escherichia in cecal digesta of growing rats. The casein increased the amount of.
Feed back response of the caseins and whey proteins was observed in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) profile by resolving these proteins upon 15% SDS PAGE which showed remarkable variation in the banding pattern of all caseins i.e., α-caseins, β-caseins, κ-casein and whey ...
Use of peanut meal as an alternative protein source in diets for channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated in a 9-week study under controlled laboratory conditions. Five practical diets (28% crude protein and 6% crude lipid) were formulated to contain 0, 10, 15, 20, and 25% peanut meal as a ...
Mar 9, 2013 ... Data for breast meat and body protein weight from each bird sampled were used to calculate allometric equations for each strain, sex and feed protein level, which were compared using simple linear regression with groups in Genstat (2002), the respective coefficients for the main effects of the three factors ...
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the replacement of different levels of protein derived from soybean meal with that from peas in broiler diets on serum protein fractions. A corn-soybean meal basal diet was formulated as the control diet (Control=C (NRC, 1994, and then pea was added to the control diet to replace 20% (P20 or 40% (P40 of the crude protein of the control diet. The diets were randomly fed to 12 pens per treatment, each housing five birds, for 42 days. Blood samples were collected from 36 birds (3 birds x 4 pens x3 treatments and the serum protein fractions were separated. Gamma-globulin percentage was higher in group P20 compared with C and P40 groups. Total protein, beta-globulin, and gamma-globulin concentrations were significantly higher in group P20 compared with those of both control and P40 group (p<0.05.
Interaction between dietary content of protein and sodium chloride on milk urea concentration, urinary urea excretion, renal recycling of urea, and urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract in dairy cows
Spek, J.W.; Bannink, A.; Gort, G.; Hendriks, W.H.; Dijkstra, J.
Dietary protein and salt affect the concentration of milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and the relationship between MUN and excretion of urea nitrogen in urine (UUN; g of N/d) of dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of dietary protein and sodium chloride (NaCl)
Fan, Wenguang; Ren, Haiwei; Cao, Yingying; Wang, Yonggang; Huo, Guicheng
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a low dietary protein and high carbohydrate infant formula on the large intestine of neonatal rats. A total of 24 neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats (14-days-old) were randomly assigned to the low protein, high carbohydrate infant formula-fed group (I group) and a human breast milk-fed group (H group). After 7 days, we selected 6 rats at random from each group to study. No significantly different microbial colonization patterns were observed in the 2 groups at the phylum level. At the family level, Enterobacteriaceae and Bacteroidaceae were the dominant bacteria in I and H rats. While Bacteroides was the most abundant bacteria at the genus level, no significant difference was observed between the 2 groups. Methanoic acid, acetate, and butyrate increased in concentration in the I group compared with the H group. Protease activities, ammonia, and indole in the large intestine were lower in I rats than H rats. A significant increase in the expression of GADPH and decrease in the expression of aquaporin 8, aminopeptidase A, cathepsin F precursor, and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase FAF-Y were observed in I rats compared with H rats. These results suggest that a low protein diet could modulate the microbial ecology in the large intestine of neonatal rats.
Knowlton, K F; Herbein, J H; Meister-Weisbarth, M A; Wark, W A
To evaluate dietary N and P partitioning, 36 Holstein cows grouped by parity were assigned at calving to diets supplemented with soybean meal (S) or a combination of S and blood meal (B). Diets S and B were formulated to contain 16.2% CP and 0.35% P using mono- and dicalcium phosphate (PM) or wheat bran (WB) as the supplemental source of P. Actual dietary P contents were 0.38, 0.36, 0.34, and 0.34% for SPM, BPM, SWB, and BWB. Two-day total collections of feces, urine, and milk were conducted between 30 and 45 d in milk (DIM), then all cows were fed a control diet until 120 DIM. Between 120 and 150 DIM, cows were again fed the diet assigned at calving, then 2-d total collections of feces, urine, and milk were conducted. Milk production was similar for cows fed diets containing WB (SWB or BWB) when compared with cows fed PM. However, DMI tended to be lower, and P intake and total P excretion were lower in response to WB (20.7 kg/d, 71.9 g/d, and 40.3 g/d) compared with cows fed PM (23.0, 86.7, and 46.8 g/d). Apparent digestibility of dietary P did not differ due to source of supplemental P, averaging 45% across diets. The lower P intake by cows fed WB resulted in lower absorbed P and lower retained P (32.2 and 7.5 g/d) compared with those fed PM (40.6 and 13.4 g/d). Apparent N digestibility, urinary N, and N retention were not affected by P source. Blood meal decreased apparent N digestibility and absorbed N, and also decreased P retention compared with S. In later lactation, cows retained proportionately more absorbed N and P in body tissue and secreted less in milk than they did in early lactation. Results indicated the organic source of P (phytate-P) in WB can be used to provide a substantial portion of the P needed in dairy cattle diets after peak lactation, but the amount of WB in the diet during early lactation should be limited to prevent suppression of DMI and P retention.
Full Text Available Obesity has become a health epidemic in both humans and pets. A dysbiotic gut microbiota has been associated with obesity and other metabolic disorders. High-protein, low-carbohydrate (HPLC diets have been recommended for body weight loss, but little is known about their effects on the canine gut microbiome. Sixty-three obese and lean Labrador retrievers and Beagles (mean age, 5.72 years were fed a common baseline diet for 4 weeks in phase 1, followed by 4 weeks of a treatment diet, specifically, the HPLC diet (49.4% protein, 10.9% carbohydrate or a low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC diet (25.5% protein, 38.8% carbohydrate in phase 2. 16S rRNA gene profiling revealed that dietary protein and carbohydrate ratios have significant impacts on gut microbial compositions. This effect appeared to be more evident in obese dogs than in lean dogs but was independent of breed. Consumption of either diet increased the bacterial evenness, but not the richness, of the gut compared to that after consumption of the baseline diet. Macronutrient composition affected taxon abundances, mainly within the predominant phyla, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. The LPHC diet appeared to favor the growth of Bacteroides uniformis and Clostridium butyricum, while the HPLC diet increased the abundances of Clostridium hiranonis, Clostridium perfringens, and Ruminococcus gnavus and enriched microbial gene networks associated with weight maintenance. In addition, we observed a decrease in the Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes ratio and an increase in the Bacteroides to Prevotella ratio in the HPLC diet-fed dogs compared to these ratios in dogs fed other diets. Finally, analysis of the effect of diet on the predicted microbial gene network was performed using phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt.
Geddes, R F; Biourge, V; Chang, Y; Syme, H M; Elliott, J
Dietary phosphate and protein restriction decreases plasma PTH and FGF-23 concentrations and improves survival time in azotemic cats, but has not been examined in cats that are not azotemic. Feeding a moderately protein- and phosphate-restricted diet decreases PTH and FGF-23 in healthy older cats and thereby slows progression to azotemic CKD. A total of 54 healthy, client-owned cats (≥ 9 years). Prospective double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial. Cats were assigned to test diet (protein 76 g/Mcal and phosphate 1.6 g/Mcal) or control diet (protein 86 g/Mcal and phosphate 2.6 g/Mcal) and monitored for 18 months. Changes in variables over time and effect of diet were assessed by linear mixed models. A total of 26 cats ate test diet and 28 cats ate control diet. There was a significant effect of diet on urinary fractional excretion of phosphate (P = 0.045), plasma PTH (P = 0.005), and ionized calcium concentrations (P = 0.018), but not plasma phosphate, FGF-23, or creatinine concentrations. Plasma PTH concentrations did not significantly change in cats fed the test diet (P = 0.62) but increased over time in cats fed the control diet (P = 0.001). There was no significant treatment effect of the test diet on development of azotemic CKD (3 of 26 (12%) test versus 3 of 28 (11%) control, odds ratio 1.09 (95% CI 0.13-8.94), P = 0.92). Feeding a moderately protein- and phosphate-restricted diet has effects on calcium-phosphate homeostasis in healthy older cats and is well tolerated. This might have an impact on renal function and could be useful in early chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Full Text Available Flavokawain A (FKA, a major chalcone in the Kava plant, has recently demonstrated promising anti-cancer activities. A systematic evaluation of FKA's safety profile has not been reported before. In this study, male FVB/N mice were fed with an AIN-76A diet or AIN-76A diet supplemented with 0.6% (6 g/kg food FKA or 0.6% commercial kava root extract (KRE for three weeks. Dietary feeding of FKA did not affect food consumption and body weight. Histopathological examination of liver, kidney, colon, lung, heart, spleen, and thymus revealed no signs of FKA-induced toxicity. Biochemical serum analysis and histological examination confirmed normal organ function in FKA-treated mice. The cytotoxicity profile showed FKA had minimal side effects on bone marrow and small intestinal epithelial cells compared with Adriamycin. In addition, oral feeding of FKA increased activities of both glutathione S-transferase and quinone reductase in the liver, lung, prostate and bladder tissues of mice. In comparison, dietary feeding of 0.6% KRE increased liver/body weight ratio and decreased spleen, thymus, and testis/body weight ratios, as well as induced nodular proliferation in liver tissues. Therefore, dietary feeding FKA showed no adverse effects on major organ function and homeostasis in mice, suggesting the potential of FKA for chemoprevention study of human cancers.
Cholewa, Jason M; Dardevet, Dominique; Lima-Soares, Fernanda; de Araújo Pessôa, Kassiana; Oliveira, Paulo Henrique; Dos Santos Pinho, João Ricardo; Nicastro, Humberto; Xia, Zhi; Cabido, Christian Emmanuel Torres; Zanchi, Nelo Eidy
Dietary proteins/essential amino acids (EAAs) are nutrients with anabolic properties that may increase muscle mass or attenuate muscle loss during immobilization and aging via the stimulation of muscle protein synthesis (MPS). An EAA's anabolic threshold, capable to maximize the stimulation of MPS has been hypothesized, but during certain conditions associated with muscle loss, this anabolic threshold seems to increase which reduces the efficacy of dietary EAAs to stimulate MPS. Preliminary studies have demonstrated that acute ingestion of dietary proteins/EAA (with a sufficient amount of leucine) was capable to restore the postprandial MPS during bed rest, immobilization or aging; however, whether these improvements translate into chronic increases (or attenuates loss) of muscle mass is equivocal. For example, although free leucine supplementation acutely increases MPS and muscle mass in some chronic studies, other studies have reported no increases in muscle mass following chronic leucine supplementation. In contrast, chronically increasing leucine intake via the consumption of an overall increase in dietary protein appears to be the most effective dietary intervention toward increasing or attenuating lean mass during aging; however, more research investigating the optimal dose and timing of protein ingestion is necessary. Several studies have demonstrated that decreases in postprandial MPS as a result of increased circulating oxidative and inflammatory are more responsible than muscle protein breakdown for the decreases in muscle mass during disuse and health aging. Therefore, nutritional interventions that reduce oxidation or inflammation in conjunction with higher protein intakes that overcome the anabolic resistance may enhance the MPS response to feeding and either increase muscle mass or attenuate loss. In preliminary studies, antioxidant vitamins and amino acids with antioxidant or anti-inflammatory properties show potential to restore the anabolic
Van Den Broek, M.; De Heide, L.J.M.; Veeger, N.J.G.M.; Van Der Wal-Oost, A.M.; Van Beek, A.P.
Background and Aims: Bariatric surgery has emerged as an effective method to reduce morbid obesity. Nutritional counseling is essential in order to achieve maximal treatment success and to avoid long term complications. Increased dietary protein intake or its amino acid composition could have
Tastesen, Hanne Sørup
Background: Obesity and related co‐morbidities are increasing problems worldwide and nutritional approaches to prevent and alleviate these diseases are thus of great interest. High‐protein diets have been shown to prevent and alleviate obesity and co‐morbidities in rodents and humans through...... protein, was found to be negligible in development of obesity and co‐morbidities in mice. Seafood protein with high endogenous taurine and glycine contents was found to prevent diet‐induced adiposity and dyslipidemia, both in ad libitum and pair‐fed settings. The ability of seafood proteins to prevent...... these metabolic disturbances was found to associate with the high endogenous taurine and glycine concentrations and to concur with increased energy expenditure and a tendency towards increased voluntary locomotor activity. Consumption of a seafood protein‐mixture prevented diet‐induced development of obesity...
.... It has been established that women in Asian countries consume more soy protein than women in the United States and that the incidence of breast cancer in women in Asian countries is generally lower...
Stevenson, E J; Watson, A W; Brunstrom, J M; Corfe, B M; Green, M A; Johnstone, A M; Williams, E A
'Ageing well' has been highlighted as an important research area by the World Health Organization. In the UK, healthy ageing has been identified as a priority research area by multiple Research Councils and is a key NHS priority. Sarcopaenia, the decline of muscle mass/strength and a key component of healthy ageing, can have a major impact on quality of life and is associated with premature mortality. Increasing protein intake at all stages of the life course may help to reduce the rate of muscle decline and the onset of associated health conditions. However, there is a lack of understanding of the social, demographic and psychological drivers of food choices surrounding protein intake. This report describes the multidisciplinary approach that has been adopted by the Protein for Life project to create a framework for the development of palatable, cost-effective higher-protein foods suitable for an ageing population.
Carbone, John W.; McClung, James P.; Pasiakos, Stefan M.
Sustained periods of negative energy balance decrease body mass due to losses of both fat and skeletal muscle mass. Decreases in skeletal muscle mass are associated with a myriad of negative consequences, including suppressed basal metabolic rate, decreased protein turnover, decreased physical performance, and increased risk of injury. Decreases in skeletal muscle mass in response to negative energy balance are due to imbalanced rates of muscle protein synthesis and degradation. However, the ...
Feeding trial involving different protein levels on length–weight relationships and condition factor of Clarias gariepinus was conducted in floating hapa system. Fingerlings (average weight, 4.50± 0.01g and average length, 8.0±0.2 cm) were randomly stocked at 20 fish/1m3. Five diets with crude protein: 40.0, 42.5, 45.0, 47.5 ...
Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings of mean weight 1.648 g were stocked in plastic aquaria of 0.049 m3 at a rate of 10 fish per aquarium. Fish were fed with diets containing 30, 35 and 40% protein in triplicate for 10 weeks using fish meal as the main protein source. Growth of H. longifilis was significantly different (P < 0.05) ...
Full Text Available During the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, first cause of deaths in the world, diet has a vital role. While nutrition programs for the cardiovascular health generally focus on lipids and carbohydrates, effects of proteins are not well concerned. Thus this review is written in order to examine effect of proteins, amino acids, and the other amine consisting compounds on cardiovascular system. Because of that animal or plant derived proteins have different protein composition in different foods such as dairy products, egg, meat, chicken, fish, pulse and grains, their effects on blood pressure and regulation of lipid profile are unlike. In parallel amino acids made up proteins have different effect on cardiovascular system. From this point, sulfur containing amino acids, branched chain amino acids, aromatic amino acids, arginine, ornithine, citrulline, glycine, and glutamine may affect cardiovascular system in different metabolic pathways. In this context, one carbon metabolism, synthesis of hormone, stimulation of signaling pathways and effects of intermediate and final products that formed as a result of amino acids metabolism is determined. Despite the protein and amino acids, some other amine consisting compounds in diet include trimethylamine N-oxide, heterocyclic aromatic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and products of Maillard reaction. These amine consisting compounds generally increase the risk for cardiovascular diseases by stimulating oxidative stress, inflammation, and formation of atherosclerotic plaque.
Full Text Available Aim: The present study was investigated to determine the optimum energy and protein requirement for growth performance and nutrient digestibility of white plumage Japanese quail during starter (1 to 3 week and finisher (4 to 5 week phases. Materials and Methods: Japanese quails were fed with nine diets consisting of three levels of energy (2600, 2800 and 3000; 2800, 2900 and 3000 Kcal ME/kg and protein (23, 25 and 27; 18, 20 and 22% CP during starter and finisher phases, respectively, in 3×3 factorial design. Results: Protein and energy individually had no influence on final body weight (FBW and weight gain, while feed efficiency was significantly (P<0.05 increased. The protein × energy interaction had significant (P<0.05 effect on growth and nutrient utilization during both starter and finisher phases. Conclusion: The growth performance was higher (P<0.05 in quails fed on high protein-high energy (HP- HE combination (27% CP and 3000 Kcal ME/kg and medium protein-high energy (MP-HE combination (20% CP and 3000 Kcal ME/kg during starter and finisher phase, respectively in autumn season. The diet with 20% CP and 3000 Kcal ME/kg significantly (P<0.05 increased nutrients digestibility and major minerals (Ca& P balance.
Terpstra, A H; West, C E; Fennis, J T; Schouten, J A; van der Veen, E A
Ten mature female rhesus monkeys were alternately fed semipurified diets containing casein or soy protein for periods of 13 to 17 wk. Each diet was fed for two periods. When the animals were changed from the commercial diet to the semipurified diet containing soy protein, a significant elevation in serum cholesterol occurred. The serum cholesterol levels gradually increased further, when the soy protein in the diet was replaced by casein. However, when subsequently the casein in the diet was replaced by soy protein, a significant decrease in serum cholesterol levels was observed. Finally, when the animals were changed back to the casein diet, a significant increase in serum cholesterol again occurred. Changes in serum cholesterol due to modulations in the type of protein in the diet were reflected mainly by changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Thus, the results of this study clearly show that the type of protein in the diet markedly affects serum cholesterol levels not only in experimental animals such as the rabbit, as is well known, but also in the rhesus monkey, which is more akin to man.
Kh.M. Mahrose; A.I. Attia; I.E. Ismail; D.E. Abou-Kassem; M.E. Abd El-Hack
The present work was conducted to examine the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels (18, 21 and 24%) on growth performance (Initial and final body weight, daily body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio) during 2-9 weeks of age and certain body measurements (body height, tibiotarsus length and tibiotarsus girth) at 9 weeks of age. A total of 30 African Black unsexed ostrich chicks were used in the present study in simple randomized design. The res...
Sjödin, Anders Mikael
Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to provide a supplementary dietary exposure and safety assessment of synthetic L-ergothioneine for those groups of the population which had been excluded by the applicant...... as established in the original assessment also pertains to pregnant and breastfeeding women as well as to young children (i.e. toddlers) and infants. The corresponding margins of exposure (i.e. the ratio between the NOAEL and the maximum anticipated daily intakes) are 284 for infants, 236 for young children...
Full Text Available Dietary protein and energy utilisation of diets containing fresh and ensiled coffee pulp were studied on 3.2 ± 0.2 g Nile tilapia for 28 days. Diets formulation and feeding were designed on the basis of daily dietary protein and energy allowance. A control diet A (100 % protein and 100 % energy allowance corresponding to 15 g CP kg-1 day-1 and 750 kJ kg-1 day-1, a low protein control diet B (80 % protein and 100 % energy allowance, two diets C and E (100 % protein and 100 % energy allowance where 20 % of protein were supplied by coffee pulp, and two diets D and F with the same amount of coffee pulp than in C and E and supplementation in non-protein energy. Inclusion of coffee pulp in the diet strongly impaired growth and feed utilisation. Silage process improved overall feed utilisation comparing to fresh coffee pulp. Results showed that fresh or ensiled coffee pulp was not a suitable feedstuff for Nile tilapia. However, better knowledge on modification occurring during silage process could allow finding the way to significantly improve nutritive value of coffee pulp by-products.Polpa de café ensilada foi utilizada na dieta calórica-protéica de Tilápia do Nilo na razão de 3.2 g ± 0,2 durante um período de 28 dias. As dietas calórico-protéica foram formuladas com base na ingestão diária permitida. Uma dieta A controle (100% de proteína e 100% da energia que corresponde a g PC/kg/dia e 750 Kj/Kg/dia, uma dieta B baixa em proteína (80% de proteína e 100% da energia, duas dietas C e E (100% de proteína e 100% da energia onde 20% da proteína foi suplementada com polpa de café e duas dietas D e F com a mesma concentração de polpa de café é prejudicial a dieta de crescimento. O processo de ensilagem melhorou sua utilização como alimento em comparação com a polpa de café fresca. Os resultados demonstraram que a polpa fresca ou ensilada não é para ser usada como alimentação de Tilápia do Nilo. Entretanto, uma melhor
Rudolph, Michael C; Monks, Jenifer; Burns, Valerie; Phistry, Meridee; Marians, Russell; Foote, Monica R; Bauman, Dale E; Anderson, Steven M; Neville, Margaret C
The lactating mammary gland synthesizes large amounts of triglyceride from fatty acids derived from the blood and from de novo lipogenesis. The latter is significantly increased at parturition and decreased when additional dietary fatty acids become available. To begin to understand the molecular regulation of de novo lipogenesis, we tested the hypothesis that the transcription factor sterol regulatory element binding factor (SREBF)-1c is a primary regulator of this system. Expression of Srebf1c mRNA and six of its known target genes increased ≥2.5-fold at parturition. However, Srebf1c-null mice showed only minor deficiencies in lipid synthesis during lactation, possibly due to compensation by Srebf1a expression. To abrogate the function of both isoforms of Srebf1, we bred mice to obtain a mammary epithelial cell-specific deletion of SREBF cleavage-activating protein (SCAP), the SREBF escort protein. These dams showed a significant lactation deficiency, and expression of mRNA for fatty acid synthase (Fasn), insulin-induced gene 1 (Insig1), mitochondrial citrate transporter (Slc25a1), and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 2 (Scd2) was reduced threefold or more; however, the mRNA levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1α (Acaca) and ATP citrate lyase (Acly) were unchanged. Furthermore, a 46% fat diet significantly decreased de novo fatty acid synthesis and reduced the protein levels of ACACA, ACLY, and FASN significantly, with no change in their mRNA levels. These data lead us to conclude that two modes of regulation exist to control fatty acid synthesis in the mammary gland of the lactating mouse: the well-known SREBF1 system and a novel mechanism that acts at the posttranscriptional level in the presence of SCAP deletion and high-fat feeding to alter enzyme protein.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate nutrition in utero may retard foetal growth and alter physiological development of offspring. This study investigated the effects of low and high protein diets fed to primiparous German Landrace sows throughout pregnancy on the immune function of their offspring at different ages. Sows were fed diets with adequate (AP, 12.1%; n = 13, low (LP, 6.5%; n = 15, or high (HP, 30%; n = 14 protein content, made isoenergetic by varying carbohydrate levels. Cortisol, total protein and immunoglobulin (IgG, IgM, IgA concentrations were measured in the blood of sows over the course of pregnancy. Cortisol, total protein, immunoglobulins, lymphocyte proliferation, immune cell counts, and cytokines were assessed in the blood of offspring at baseline and under challenging conditions (weaning; lipopolysaccharide (LPS administration. Results In sows, the LP diet increased cortisol (P P P P + cell percentage and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio increased after weaning (P P = 0.09 and HP (P P Conclusions Our results indicate that both low and high protein:carbohydrate ratios in the diet of pregnant sows can induce short-term as well as long-lasting effects on immune competence in piglets that may have serious consequences for host defence against bacterial pathogens.
Full Text Available Trillions of microorganisms that inhabit the intestinal tract form a diverse and intricate ecosystem with a deeply embedded symbiotic relationship with their hosts. As more detailed information on gut microbiota complexity and functional diversity accumulates, we are learning more about how diet-microbiota interactions can influence the immune system within and outside the gut and host health in general. Heat shock proteins are a set of highly conserved proteins that are present in all types of cells, from microbes to mammals. These proteins carry out crucial intracellular housekeeping functions and unexpected extracellular immuno-regulatory features in order to maintain the mucosal barrier integrity and gut homeostasis. It is becoming evident that the enteric microbiota is one of the major determinants of heat shock protein production in intestinal epithelial cells. This review will focus on the interactions between diet, gut microbiota and their role for regulating heat shock protein production and, furthermore, how these interactions influence the immune system and the integrity of the mucosal barrier.
Full Text Available The present study aimed at investigating the effects of different dietary crude protein (CP and threonine (Thr levels on the performance, immune responses and jejunal morphology of broiler chicks. A total of 432 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to a 3×3 factorial arrangement of treatments including three different CP dietary levels (90, 95, and 100% of Ross 308 recommendations and Thr (100, 110, and 120% of Ross specifications dietary levels. Performance parameters were recorded for the starter (1-12 days, grower (13-24 days and finisher (25-42 days periods. Birds were subjected to different antigen inoculations to evaluate antibody responses. At day 42 of age, two randomly-selected birds per replicate were slaughtered to measure carcass traits. Although Thr dietary supplementation had no marked effect on Newcastle antibody titers, particularly the supplementation of Thr up to 110% of Ross specifications improved (p<0.05 antibody titers against sheep red blood cells during both primary and secondary responses. Reduction of dietary CP level resulted in significant decrease in villus height (p<0.05 and crypt depth (p<0.01 in jejunal epithelial cells, but the supplementation of low-CP diets with Thr up to 110 and 120% of the recommended values allowed overcoming these changes. Except for the starter period, reducing dietary CP level to 90% of Ross recommendations had no harmful effects on performance parameters; however, the best values were obtained with diets containing 110% Thr. The present results indicate that it is possible to reduce dietary CP level up to 10% after the starter period without any detrimental impact on growth performance, and dietary Thr supplementation up to 110% of Ross values may compensate for low CP-induced growth delay in broiler chicks.
CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...
Opapeju, Florence Omobola; Rademacher, Meike; Nyachoti, Charles Martin
Forty weaned pigs (7.0 ± 0.5 kg, mean ± SD) were used to determine the effects of feeding a low crude protein, amino acid-supplemented diet to piglets on the activities of jejunal brush border enzymes. Pigs were randomly allotted to two diets: a 222 g crude protein (HCP) per kg diet, or a 173 g crude protein per kg diet supplemented with amino acids (LCP). Pigs fed the HCP diet had higher small intestine weight compared with those fed the LCP diet on day 7 after weaning. Diet had no effect on the specific activities of jejunal sucrase, lactase, leucine aminopeptidase, aminopeptidase A, aminopeptidase N and dipeptidyl peptidase IV. The activities of sucrase and lactase decreased (p effect on the development of jejunal brush border enzymes.
van Vught, Anneke J A H; Heitmann, Berit L; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie G
, puberty stage and physical activity level. RESULTS: Among lean girls inverse associations were found between protein as well as arginine and lysine intake and change in fat mass index (beta=-1.12+/-0.56, p=0.03, beta=-1.10+/-0.53, p=0.04, beta=-1.13+/-0.51, p=0.03 respectively). Furthermore among girls......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Growth hormone (GH) affects body composition by a relatively reduced fat mass and increased fat free mass. The intake of protein as well as the specific amino acids arginine and lysine potently stimulate GH secretion. This study investigated associations between intakes...... of protein, arginine, lysine and subsequent 6-year change in body composition among 8-10-year-old children. METHODS: Data of 364 children were collected from Odense, Denmark, during 1997-1998 and 6-year later as part of the European Youth Heart Study. Body mass index among children was subdivided by fat free...
Full Text Available In Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L., and also in other fish species, certain plant protein ingredients can increase fecal water content creating a diarrhea-like condition which may impair gut function and reduce fish growth. The present study aimed to strengthen understanding of the underlying mechanisms by observing effects of various alternative plant protein sources when replacing fish meal on expression of genes encoding proteins playing key roles in regulation of water transport across the mucosa of the distal intestine (DI. A 48-day feeding trial was conducted with five diets: A reference diet (FM in which fish meal (72% was the only protein source; Diet SBMWG with a mix of soybean meal (30% and wheat gluten (22%; Diet SPCPM with a mix of soy protein concentrate (30% and poultry meal (6%; Diet GMWG with guar meal (30% and wheat gluten (14.5%; Diet PM with 58% poultry meal. Compared to fish fed the FM reference diet, fish fed the soybean meal containing diet (SBMWG showed signs of enteritis in the DI, increased fecal water content of DI chyme and higher plasma osmolality. Altered DI expression of a battery of genes encoding aquaporins, ion transporters, tight junction and adherens junction proteins suggested reduced transcellular transport of water as well as a tightening of the junction barrier in fish fed the SBMWG diet, which may explain the observed higher fecal water content and plasma osmolality. DI structure was not altered for fish fed the other experimental diets but alterations in target gene expression and fecal water content were observed, indicating that alterations in water transport components may take place without clear effects on intestinal structure.
Luo, Yiwen; Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Liufu, Zhiguo
A growth experiment was conducted on cobia ( Rachycentron canadum, initial weight 108.2 g ± 3.0 g) to investigate the effects of dietary corn gluten meal (CGM) levels on the fish growth, whole body composition and protein metabolism in relation to specific gene expression. Five isonitrogenous (crude protein 45%) and isoenergetic (gross energy 20 kJ g-1) practical diets were formulated by replacing 0% (the control), 17.5%, 35.0%, 52.5%, and 70.0% of fish meal (FM) protein with CGM protein. No significant differences were observed in the survival, feed intake (FI), specific growth rate (SGR), feed efficiency (FE) and protein productive value (PPV) among fish fed diets with 0%, 17.5%, 35.0%, and 52.5% of CGM protein. However, these indices were significantly lower in fish fed the diet with 70.0% of CGM protein than those in fish fed the control diet ( P replaced by CGM, plasma total protein and cholesterol contents were significantly lower than those in the control group ( P replaced by CGM in the diets without significant influences on the growth, feed utilization and protein metabolism of juvenile cobia. The present results might be useful for developing cost effective and sustainable cobia dietary formulations.
Hoffman, D.; Heinz, G.; Eisemann, J.; Pendleton, G.
High concentrations of Se have been found in aquatic food chains associated with irrigation drainwater and toxicity to fish and wildlife. Earlier studies have compared toxicities of Se as selenite and as seleno-DL-methionine (DL) in mallards. This study compares DL, seleno-L-methionine (L), selenized yeast (Y) and selenized wheat (W). Day-old mallard ducklings received an untreated diet (controls) containing 75% wheat (22% protein) or the same diet containing 15 or 30 ppm Se in the above forms. After 2 weeks blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical assays and Se analysis. All forms of selenium caused significant increases in plasma and hepatic glutathione peroxidase activities. Se as L was the most toxic, resulting in high mortality (64%) and impaired growth (>50%) and the greatest increase in ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione with 30 ppm in the diet. Se as Y accumulated the least in liver. In a subsequent experiment with 30% dietary protein Se as L was less toxic.
Miró, Lluïsa; Garcia-Just, Alba; Amat, Concepció; Polo, Javier; Moretó, Miquel; Pérez-Bosque, Anna
Increased life expectancy has promoted research on healthy aging. Aging is accompanied by increased non-specific immune activation (inflammaging) which favors the appearance of several disorders. Here, we study whether dietary supplementation with spray-dried animal plasma (SDP), which has been shown to reduce the activation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) in rodents challenged by S. aureus enterotoxin B (SEB), and can also prevent the effects of aging on immune system homeostasis. We first characterized GALT in a mouse model of accelerated senescence (SAMP8) at different ages (compared to mice resistant to accelerated senescence; SAMR1). Second, we analyzed the SDP effects on GALT response to an SEB challenge in SAMP8 mice. In GALT characterization, aging increased the cell number and the percentage of activated Th lymphocytes in mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches (all, p response to the SEB challenge, young mice showed increased expression of intestinal IL-6 and TNF-α, as well as lymphocyte recruitment and activation (all, p immune response of senescent mice to the SEB challenge was weak, since SEB did not change cell recruitment or the percentage of activated Th lymphocytes. Mice supplemented with SDP showed improved capacity to respond to the SEB challenge, similar to the response of the young mice. These results indicate that senescent mice have an impaired mucosal immune response characterized by unspecific GALT activation and a weak specific immune response. SDP supplementation reduces non-specific basal immune activation, allowing for the generation of specific responses.
Ober, John; Gillette, Robert L; Angle, Thomas Craig; Haney, Pamela; Fletcher, Daniel J; Wakshlag, Joseph J
Optimal dietary protocols for the athletic canine are often defined by requirements for endurance athletes that do not always translate into optimal dietary interventions for all canine athletes. Prior research studying detection dogs suggests that dietary fat sources can influence olfaction; however, as fat is added to the diet the protein calories can be diminished potentially resulting in decreased red blood cell counts or albumin status. Optimal macronutrient profile for detection dogs may be different considering the unique work they engage in. To study a calorically low protein: high fat (18:57% ME), high protein: high fat (27:57% ME), and high protein: low fat (27:32% ME) approach to feeding, 17 dogs were provided various diets in a 3 × 3 cross over design. Dogs were exercised on a treadmill and blood was taken pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise, 10- and 20-min post-exercise to assess complete blood count, serum chemistry, blood gases, and cortisol; as well as rectal and core body temperature. Exercise induced a decrease in serum phosphorus, potassium, and increases in non-esterified fatty acids and cortisol typical of moderate exercise bouts. A complete and balanced high protein: high-fat diet (27:57% ME) induced decreases in serum cortisol and alkaline phosphatase. Corn oil top dressed low protein: high-fat diet (18:57% ME) induced a slightly better thermal recovery than a complete and balanced high protein: high fat diet and a high protein: low fat (27%:32% ME) diet suggesting some mild advantages when using the low protein: high fat diet that warrant further investigation regarding optimal protein and fat calories and thermal recovery.
Joseph J Wakshlag
Full Text Available Optimal dietary protocols for the athletic canine are often defined by requirements for endurance athletes, that do not always translate into optimal dietary interventions for all canine athletes. Prior research studying detection dogs suggests that dietary fat sources can influence olfaction; however, as fat is added to the diet the protein calories can be diminished potentially resulting in decreased red blood cell counts or albumin status. Optimal macronutrient profile for detection dogs may be different considering the unique work they engage in. To study a calorically high protein: low fat (18:57% ME, high protein: high fat (27:57% ME, and high protein: low fat (27:32% ME approach to feeding, 17 dogs were provided various diets in a 3 x 3 cross over design. Dogs were exercised on a treadmill and blood was taken pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise, 10 minutes and 20 minutes post-exercise to assess complete blood count, serum chemistry, blood gases, and cortisol; as well as rectal and core body temperature. Exercise induced a decrease in serum phosphorus, potassium, and increases in non-esterified fatty acids and cortisol typical of moderate exercise bouts. A complete and balanced high protein: high fat diet (27:57% ME induced decreases in serum cortisol and alkaline phosphatase. Corn oil top dressed low protein: high fat diet (18:57% ME induced a slightly better thermal recovery than a complete and balanced high fat: high protein diet and a low fat: high protein (32:27% ME diet suggesting some mild advantages when using the high fat: low protein diet that warrant further investigation regarding optimal protein and fat calories and thermal recovery.
Introduction. Limited information is the main reason for the ineffective feeding of ostriches during the breeding season. The trend in the past was to feed breeding female ostriches diets with high energy and protein levels to elevate production, but this had the opposite effect. The aim of this study was determine production ...
This study was aimed at observing the effects of protein-energy malnutrition on the morphometrical, histological and hormonal changes associated with the testicular toxicity of Carbendazim (methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate) in the adult male Japanese quail. Carbendazim was administered at a single dose of 400 mg/kg ...
Fertility was assessed by determining the number of sperm trapped in the outer perivitelline layer of eggs laid after artificial insemination with a fixed volume of semen collected from 12 males per treatment. Semen concentration, motility and morphology were also determined. Crude protein intake had a significant effect on ...
Maida, Adriano; Zota, Annika; Sjøberg, Kim Anker
expression and secretion as well as the associated metabolic remodeling induced by DPD also required induction of liver-integrated stress response-driven nuclear protein 1 (NUPR1). Insufficiency of select nonessential amino acids (NEAAs) was necessary and adequate for NUPR1 and subsequent FGF21 induction...
Maslova, Ekaterina; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Astrup, Arne
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between the protein:carbohydrate (P/C) ratio and added sugar intake in pregnancy and gestational weight gain (GWG). DESIGN: A prebirth cohort including 103 119 pregnancies enrolled between 1996 and 2003. SETTING: All women in Denmark were eligible to participate...
Full Text Available The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and obesity has been increasing. Pre-natal environment has been suggested as a factor influencing the risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Both observational and experimental studies showed that maternal diet is a major modifier of the development of regulatory systems in the offspring in utero and post-natally. Both protein content and source in maternal diet influence pre- and early post-natal development. High and low protein dams’ diets have detrimental effect on body weight, blood pressure191 and metabolic and intake regulatory systems in the offspring. Moreover, the role of the source of protein in a nutritionally adequate maternal diet in programming of food intake regulatory system, body weight, glucose metabolism and blood pressure in offspring is studied. However, underlying mechanisms are still elusive. The purpose of this review is to examine the current literature related to the role of proteins in maternal diets in development of characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in offspring.
Salim, H M; Lee, H R; Jo, C; Lee, S K; Lee, B D
1. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary zinc proteinate (ZP) supplementation on growth performance and on skin and meat quality of male and female broiler chicks. 2. A total of 240 1-d-old male and 240 1-d-old female broiler chicks were randomly distributed into 24 floor pens (12 replicate pens/sex; 20 birds/pen) and were given either 0 (Control diet) or 40 mg/kg ZP (ZP 40), resulting in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. 3. The growth performance of male and female broiler chicks was not affected by the ZP supplementation, but the males showed significantly higher growth performance than did females. 4. ZP supplementation increased the total thickness of skin in both sexes, and males had thicker skin than females. It also increased the collagen content of skin, but not that of meat. Males had higher skin collagen contents than did females, but no sex difference was found in the meat collagen contents. 5. ZP supplementation did not affect the shear force values of skin and meat; however, males had higher shear force values of back skin than females. ZP supplementation increased the zinc contents of thigh meat and plasma in both sexes. Males had higher zinc contents in back skin than females. 6. It is concluded that dietary ZP supplementation could increase the skin quality of broiler chicks in both sexes, particularly in female broilers, without any effect on growth performance. Male broilers have better growth performance and skin quality than females.
Lu, Lu; Huang, Yan-Feng; Wang, Ming-Qing; Chen, De-Xiu; Wan, Heng; Wei, Lian-Bo; Xiao, Wei
Evidence suggests that dietary fiber benefits patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, this conclusion requires further validation. In this study, we examined the effects of dietary fiber on kidney function, inflammation, indoxyl sulfate, nutritional status, and cardiovascular risk in patients with advanced CKD. We performed linear regressions to assess the association between dietary fiber intake and CKD parameters. The aforementioned parameters were compared over an 18-month follow- up period. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to investigate the association between fiber intake and Cardiac vascular disease (CVD). In total, 157 patients were included in this study. Dietary fiber and inflammatory indices were associated (interleukin [IL]-6: β=-0.024, p=0.035). The differential estimated glomerular filtration rate (ΔeGFR) as well as levels of C-reactive protein, IL-6, indoxyl sulfate, and serum cholesterol in the higher fiber intake (>=25 g/day) group were lower than those in the lower fiber intake (patients in the higher protein intake group (pintake may be a protective factor associated with CVD (hazard ratio=0.537 and 0.305- 0.947). The protein nutritional status was not different between the two groups (p>0.05). Our results suggest that increasing fiber intake can retard the decrease in the eGFR; can reduce the levels of proinflammatory factors, indoxyl sulfate, and serum cholesterol; and is negatively associated with cardiovascular risk, but does not disrupt the nutritional status of patients with CKD.
LeBeau, A; Matulka, R; Comstock, B
TruActive™ NF is a novel, fat-free, milk-based protein powder to be added to food to increase protein content and is manufactured using non-thermal treatment to reduce potential pathogens most relevant to protecting public health. TruActive™ NF was evaluated for potential pathogens of concern to public health regulators; none were detected. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of TruActive™ NF at a 90 th percentile consumption for the powder in nutritional beverages and bars is 14,700 mg/day. In vitro genotoxicity testing revealed that concentrations of TruActive™ NF up to 5000 μg/plate did not induce point mutations in selected strains. Oral administration of TruActive™ NF to male Sprague-Dawley rats in an in vivo mammalian chromosomal aberration assay did not induce chromosomal aberrations or significantly affect mitosis in bone marrow cells at 2000 mg/kg. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered TruActive™ NF at concentrations of 7.5%, 15%, and 30% of the diet during a 28-day subacute dietary study followed by a 14-day recovery period. Some parameters were altered at the 30% diet concentration. The No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) in the 28-day dietary study was at 15% of the diet (11,812 mg/kg bw/day for male rats and 11,521 mg/kg bw/day for female rats). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Farrow, H A; Rand, J S; Morton, J M; O'Leary, C A; Sunvold, G D
Reducing carbohydrate intake is recommended in diabetic cats and might also be useful in some healthy cats to decrease diabetes risk. To compare postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations and energy intakes between cats fed diets high in protein, fat, or carbohydrate. Twenty-four lean cats with normal glucose tolerance. In a prospective randomized study, each of 3 matched groups (n = 8) received a different test diet for 5 weeks. Diets were high in either protein (46% of metabolizable energy [ME]), fat (47% ME), or carbohydrate (47% ME). Glucose and insulin were measured during glucose tolerance, ad libitum, and meal-feeding tests. During ad libitum feeding, cats fed the high-carbohydrate diet consumed 25% and 18% more carbohydrate than cats fed diets high in fat and protein, respectively, and energy intake was highest when the high-fat and high-protein diets were fed. Regardless of the feeding pattern, cats fed the high-carbohydrate diet had 10-31% higher peak and mean glucose compared with both other diets; peak glucose in some cats reached 10.4 mmol/L (188 mg/dL) in cats fed 47% ME carbohydrate and 9.0 mmol/L (162 mg/dL) in cats fed 23% ME. High-carbohydrate diets increase postprandial glycemia in healthy cats compared with diets high in fat or protein, although energy intake is lower. Avoidance of high- and moderate-carbohydrate diets can be advantageous in cats at risk of diabetes. Maintenance energy requirements should be fed to prevent weight gain when switching to lower carbohydrate diets. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Kedar Nath Mohanta
Full Text Available Earthworm, a non-conventional protein source with 520–530 g protein kg−1 on dry matter basis was used in three forms viz. (i whole earthworm (ii earthworm custard, and (iii pelleted earthworm diet to prepare three iso-nitrogenous (500 g protein kg−1 diet and iso-caloric (17.0 MJ kg−1 diet experimental diets. The formulated diets were fed ad libitum twice daily to Labeo rohita advanced fry (0.71 ± 0.04 g in triplicates for a period of 35 days. In each replicate, 10 fish were stocked. The 300 L fiberglass-reinforced plastic tanks containing 100 L of water with the provision of continuous aeration were used for rearing the fish. At the end of experiment, the weight gain (g, food conversion ratio, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio, protein retention efficiency (%, and energy retention efficiency (% of fish fed pelleted earthworm diet (2.19, 1.58, 4.21, 1.26, 23.0, and 18.6, respectively was significantly better (p < 0.05 than the corresponding values of whole earthworm (1.53, 2.30, 3.38, 0.84, 14.34, and 11.93, respectively and earthworm custard (0.94, 3.18, 2.42, 0.62, 10.50, and 8.21, respectively fed diets. The experiment results indicated that the pelleted earthworm diet could be used in rearing of rohu advanced fry.
Lee M Margolis
Full Text Available Short-term (5-10 days calorie restriction (CR downregulates muscle protein synthesis, with consumption of a high protein-based diet attenuating this decline. Benefit of increase protein intake is believed to be due to maintenance of amino acid-mediated anabolic signaling through the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1, however, there is limited evidence to support this contention. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of prolonged CR and high protein diets on skeletal muscle mTORC1 signaling and expression of associated microRNA (miR. 12-wk old male Sprague Dawley rats consumed ad libitum (AL or calorie restricted (CR; 40% adequate (10%, AIN-93M or high (32% protein milk-based diets for 16 weeks. Body composition was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle protein content was calculated from muscle homogenate protein concentrations expressed relative to fat-free mass to estimate protein content. Western blot and RT-qPCR were used to determine mTORC1 signaling and mRNA and miR expression in fasted mixed gastrocnemius. Independent of dietary protein intake, muscle protein content was 38% lower (P < 0.05 in CR compared to AL. Phosphorylation and total Akt, mTOR, rpS6 and p70S6K were lower (P < 0.05 in CR versus AL, and total rpS6 was associated with muscle protein content (r = 0.64, r2 = 0.36. Skeletal muscle miR expression was not altered by either energy or protein intake. This study provides evidence that chronic CR attenuates muscle protein content by downregulating mTORC1 signaling. This response is independent of skeletal muscle miR and dietary protein.
Hasan Mohammadi Emarat
Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein and lysine levels on quality and quantity of egg production. Fifteen diets consisted of 3 levels of protein (14, 15 and 16% and 5 levels of lysine (0.71, 0.74, 0.77, 0.80 and 0.83 % in a 35 factorial arrangement were provided. Each diet was randomly fed to 4 replicates of 12 birds, during four periods of 4 weeks (28-44wks of age. Egg number and mortality was recorded daily, whereas feed consumption determined for each period. Eggs from each replicate were weighed at the end of three consecutive days of each period and six eggs were used to measure the egg quality characteristics. Although the feed intake did not affected by dietary protein but the egg production, egg mass and feed conversion were improved significantly (p
Kiuchi, Aki; Ohashi, Yasushi; Tai, Reibin; Aoki, Toshiyuki; Mizuiri, Sonoo; Ogura, Toyoko; Aikawa, Atsushi; Sakai, Ken
Reduced dietary protein intake in malnourished patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be associated with adverse clinical outcomes, which may mask any efficacy of a low-protein diet. The study included 126 patients with CKD who attended a dedicated dietary counseling clinic in 2005-2009 and were systematically followed until January 2015. Of these patients, 20 (15.9%) had moderate or severe nutrition-related risk of geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) patients were more likely to be older, have a greater proteinuria, and have lower body mass index and serum albumin concentration. Dietary protein intake was significantly lower in older patients ( r = -0.33, p protein to nitrogen calorie ratio was independently associated with GNRI. Reduced GNRI was significantly associated with mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 4.94; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.61-15.42, p = 0.012) and cardiovascular events (HR = 9.37; 95% CI = 2.49-37.34, p = 0.006), but not with adverse renal outcomes. Restricting protein intake may be harmful to patients with any nutrition-related risk, suggesting that improvement of nutritional status should be a high priority.
Full Text Available Reduced dietary protein intake in malnourished patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD may be associated with adverse clinical outcomes, which may mask any efficacy of a low-protein diet. The study included 126 patients with CKD who attended a dedicated dietary counseling clinic in 2005–2009 and were systematically followed until January 2015. Of these patients, 20 (15.9% had moderate or severe nutrition-related risk of geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI < 92; these patients were more likely to be older, have a greater proteinuria, and have lower body mass index and serum albumin concentration. Dietary protein intake was significantly lower in older patients (r = −0.33, p < 0.001 and those with lower glomerular filtration rate (r = 0.47, p < 0.001. The non-protein to nitrogen calorie ratio was independently associated with GNRI. Reduced GNRI was significantly associated with mortality (hazard ratio (HR = 4.94; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.61–15.42, p = 0.012 and cardiovascular events (HR = 9.37; 95% CI = 2.49–37.34, p = 0.006, but not with adverse renal outcomes. Restricting protein intake may be harmful to patients with any nutrition-related risk, suggesting that improvement of nutritional status should be a high priority.
Li, Qinghong; Lauber, Christian L; Czarnecki-Maulden, Gail; Pan, Yuanlong; Hannah, Steven S
Obesity has become a health epidemic in both humans and pets. A dysbiotic gut microbiota has been associated with obesity and other metabolic disorders. High-protein, low-carbohydrate (HPLC) diets have been recommended for body weight loss, but little is known about their effects on the canine gut microbiome. Sixty-three obese and lean Labrador retrievers and Beagles (mean age, 5.72 years) were fed a common baseline diet for 4 weeks in phase 1, followed by 4 weeks of a treatment diet, specifically, the HPLC diet (49.4% protein, 10.9% carbohydrate) or a low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet (25.5% protein, 38.8% carbohydrate) in phase 2. 16S rRNA gene profiling revealed that dietary protein and carbohydrate ratios have significant impacts on gut microbial compositions. This effect appeared to be more evident in obese dogs than in lean dogs but was independent of breed. Consumption of either diet increased the bacterial evenness, but not the richness, of the gut compared to that after consumption of the baseline diet. Macronutrient composition affected taxon abundances, mainly within the predominant phyla, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes The LPHC diet appeared to favor the growth of Bacteroides uniformis and Clostridium butyricum, while the HPLC diet increased the abundances of Clostridium hiranonis, Clostridium perfringens, and Ruminococcus gnavus and enriched microbial gene networks associated with weight maintenance. In addition, we observed a decrease in the Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes ratio and an increase in the Bacteroides to Prevotella ratio in the HPLC diet-fed dogs compared to these ratios in dogs fed other diets. Finally, analysis of the effect of diet on the predicted microbial gene network was performed using phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt). More than 50% of dogs are either overweight or obese in the United States. A dysbiotic gut microbiota is associated with obesity and other
Full Text Available Rationale for dietary advice in polycystic kidney disease (PKD is based in part on animal studies that have examined non-orthologous models with progressive development of cystic disease. Since no model completely mimics human PKD, the purpose of the current studies was to examine the effects of dietary soy protein (compared to casein or oils enriched in omega-3 fatty acids (fish or flax oil compared to soy oil on early disease progression in two orthologous models of PKD. The models studied were Pkd2WS25/- mice as a model of autosomal dominant PKD, and PCK rats as a model of autosomal recessive PKD. After 13 weeks of feeding, dietary fish (but not flax oil resulted in larger kidneys and greater kidney water content in female Pkd2WS25/- compared to control mice. After 12 weeks of feeding male PCK compared to control rats, both fish and flax compared to soy oil resulted in enlarged kidneys and livers, greater kidney water content and higher kidney cyst area in diseased rats. Dietary soy protein compared to casein had no effects in Pkd2WS25/- compared to control mice. In PCK rats, kidney and liver histology were not improved, but lower proteinuria and higher urine pH suggest that soy protein could be beneficial in the long term. Therefore, in contrast to studies in non-orthologous models during the progressive development phase, these studies in orthologous PKD models do not support dietary advice to increase soy protein or oils enriched in omega-3 oils in early PKD.
Full Text Available Increased life expectancy has promoted research on healthy aging. Aging is accompanied by increased non-specific immune activation (inflammaging which favors the appearance of several disorders. Here, we study whether dietary supplementation with spray-dried animal plasma (SDP, which has been shown to reduce the activation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT in rodents challenged by S. aureus enterotoxin B (SEB, and can also prevent the effects of aging on immune system homeostasis. We first characterized GALT in a mouse model of accelerated senescence (SAMP8 at different ages (compared to mice resistant to accelerated senescence; SAMR1. Second, we analyzed the SDP effects on GALT response to an SEB challenge in SAMP8 mice. In GALT characterization, aging increased the cell number and the percentage of activated Th lymphocytes in mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer’s patches (all, p < 0.05, as well as the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α in intestinal mucosa (both, p < 0.05. With respect to GALT response to the SEB challenge, young mice showed increased expression of intestinal IL-6 and TNF-α, as well as lymphocyte recruitment and activation (all, p < 0.05. However, the immune response of senescent mice to the SEB challenge was weak, since SEB did not change cell recruitment or the percentage of activated Th lymphocytes. Mice supplemented with SDP showed improved capacity to respond to the SEB challenge, similar to the response of the young mice. These results indicate that senescent mice have an impaired mucosal immune response characterized by unspecific GALT activation and a weak specific immune response. SDP supplementation reduces non-specific basal immune activation, allowing for the generation of specific responses.
This annual report of the Senior Inspector for the Nuclear Safety, analyses the nuclear safety at EDF for the year 1999 and proposes twelve subjects of consideration to progress. Five technical documents are also provided and discussed concerning the nuclear power plants maintenance and safety (thermal fatigue, vibration fatigue, assisted control and instrumentation of the N4 bearing, 1300 MW reactors containment and time of life of power plants). (A.L.B.)
Full Text Available Protein is important to the human body, and different sources of protein may have different effects on the risk of breast cancer. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the association between different dietary protein sources and breast cancer risk. PubMed and several databases were searched until December 2015. Relevant articles were retrieved according to specific searching criteria. Forty-six prospective studies were included. The summary relative risk (RR for highest versus lowest intake was 1.07 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.01–1.14, I2 = 34.6% for processed meat, 0.92 (95% CI 0.84–1.00, I2 = 0% for soy food, 0.93 (95% CI 0.85–1.00, I2 = 40.1% for skim milk, and 0.90 (95% CI 0.82–1.00, I2 = 0% for yogurt. Similar conclusions were obtained in dose-response association for each serving increase: total red meat (RR: 1.07; 95% CI 1.01–1.14, I2 = 7.1%, fresh red meat (RR: 1.13; 95% CI 1.01–1.26, I2 = 56.4%, processed meat (RR: 1.09; 95% CI 1.02–1.17, I2 = 11.8%, soy food (RR: 0.91; 95% CI 0.84–1.00, I2 = 0%, and skim milk (RR: 0.96; 95% CI 0.92–1.00, I2 = 11.9%. There was a null association between poultry, fish, egg, nuts, total milk, and whole milk intake and breast cancer risk. Higher total red meat, fresh red meat, and processed meat intake may be risk factors for breast cancer, whereas higher soy food and skim milk intake may reduce the risk of breast cancer.
Full Text Available Cereal grain fiber is an important health-promoting component in the human diet. One option to improve dietary fiber content and composition in wheat is to introduce genes from its wild relatives Aegilops biuncialis and Aegilops geniculata. This study showed that the addition of chromosomes 2Ug, 4Ug, 5Ug, 7Ug, 2Mg, 5Mg, and 7Mg of Ae. geniculata and 3Ub, 2Mb, 3Mb, and 7Mb of Ae. biuncialis into bread wheat increased the seed protein content. Chromosomes 1Ug and 1Mg increased the proportion of polymeric glutenin proteins, while the addition of chromosomes 1Ub and 6Ub led to its decrease. Both Aegilops species had higher proportions of β-glucan compared to arabinoxylan (AX than wheat lines, and elevated β-glucan content was also observed in wheat chromosome addition lines 5U, 7U, and 7M. The AX content in wheat was increased by the addition of chromosomes 5Ug, 7Ug, and 1Ub while water-soluble AX was increased by the addition of chromosomes 5U, 5M, and 7M, and to a lesser extent by chromosomes 3, 4, 6Ug, and 2Mb. Chromosomes 5Ug and 7Mb also affected the structure of wheat AX, as shown by the pattern of oligosaccharides released by digestion with endoxylanase. These results will help to map genomic regions responsible for edible fiber content in Aegilops and will contribute to the efficient transfer of wild alleles in introgression breeding programs to obtain wheat varieties with improved health benefits.Key Message: Addition of Aegilops U- and M-genome chromosomes 5 and 7 improves seed protein and fiber content and composition in wheat.
Birk, Tina; Kristensen, Kim; Harboe, Anne
The pH of the human stomach is dynamic and changes over time, depending on the composition of the food ingested and a number of host-related factors such as age. To evaluate the number of bacteria surviving the gastric acid barrier, we have developed a simple gastric acid model, in which we...... mimicked the dynamic pH changes in the human stomach. In the present study, model gastric fluid was set up to imitate pH dynamics in the stomachs of young and elderly people after ingestion of a standard meal. To model a serious foodborne pathogen, we followed the survival of Salmonella enterica serotype...... Dublin, and found that the addition of proteins such as pepsin, ovalbumin, and blended turkey meat to the simple gastric acid model significantly delayed pathogen inactivation compared with the control, for which no proteins were added. In contrast, no delay in inactivation was observed in the presence...
Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Angquist, Lars; Stocks, Tanja
into clinical trials. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Data were available from the European Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) post-weight-loss weight-maintenance trial and the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health (DCH) cohort. Participants of the DCH cohort were matched with participants from the DiOGenes trial on gender, diet...... between greater protein intake and weight gain. In both types of studies the results are based on average weight changes, and show considerable diversity in both directions. This study investigates whether the discrepancy in the evidence could be due to recruitment of overweight and obese individuals......, and body characteristics. Different subsets of the DCH-participants, comparable with the trial participants, were analyzed for weight maintenance according to the randomization status (high or low protein) of the matched trial participants. RESULTS: Trial participants were generally heavier, had larger...
Please note that the safety codes A9, A10 AND A11 (ex annexes of SAPOCO/42) entitled respectively "Safety responsibilities in the divisions" "The safety policy committee (SAPOCO) and safety officers' committees" and "Administrative procedure following a serious accident or incident" are available on the web at the following URLs: Code A9: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337016/LAST_RELEASED Code A10: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337019/LAST_RELEASED Code A11: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337026/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS divisional secretariat, e-mail: email@example.com. TIS Secretariat
E. I. Verboloz
Full Text Available For the baking of baked goods in order to save fats, different types of endorsement and protein-fatty emulsions which are used as ingredients in goods and for the protection of metal moulds from burning. Usually emulsion is prepared on bakery enterprises by National State Standard Р 51785–2001, involving mechanical beating up of ingredients. The authors suggested and studied the way of manufacturing of more stable food protein-fatty emulsions using ultrasonic transmitter with rigid neodymium magnets on its thickener. As ingredients, there were applied curd whey diluted with water, unpurified sunflower oil and sunflower phosphatides. Ratio of whey and water is 1:7. Physical effects of ultrasound and field of magnets in contact layer of liquid ingredients being dispersed have increased the viscosity and dispersion of protein-fatty emulsions. Hypothesis of increase of stability and sterility of protein-fatty emulsion by the selection of parameters of magnetic field and power of ultrasound transmitter is confirmed experimentally. Microscopic analysis shows high degree of homogeneity of emulsion under the time of processing 3-4 minutes and intensity of ultrasound 2 W/cm2, that is energetically profitable. There was revealed synergism of influence of physical effects of ultrasound and magnetic field on the durability and steadiness of emulsion to mechanical and temperature effect and also cidal effect, prolonging terms of product using. Manufacture of emulsions by the declared way using the ultrasound and magnetic field of constant neodymium magnets decreases number of injected elements-emulsifiers by 3-4 times or excludes their use at all. Existing piezoelectric ultrasound units as well as neodymium magnets have small sizes and low energy consumption, easily built into the line of continuous manufacture of emulsion for the bread production. Such emulsions are less demanding to the storage and transportation.
Full Text Available An experiment was done to evaluate the protein-energy requirement for growing Kacang goats. Twelve males and 18 female goats, seven to eight months old were used in this study and randomized into three treatment groups, with four and six animals each, and were kept in individual pens. The treatments used were: R1= Elephant grass (E.G. + concentrate C1 (21% CP; 3.9 Mcal GE/kg, R2 = E.G. + concentrate C2 (17% CP; 3.7 Mcal GE/kg, and R3 = E.G. + concentrate C3 (12% CP; 3.5 Mcal GE/kg, respectively. Fresh Elephant grass was offered in restricted, and concentrate was offered at 3% of body weight. The experiment was carried out for 12 weeks. Data were analysed by using factorial completely randomized design 2x3 (3 rations and 2 sexes. Parameters measured were: feed intake; average daily gain and feed conversion. The results indicated that among treatments there was no significant difference on dry matter (DM and gross energy (GE intake (P>0.05, but crude protein (CP intake of R1 was 23,6% higher than treatment R2; treatment R2 was 38.1% higher than R3 (P0.05, but treatment R1 was 36.9% and significantly higher than R3 (P0.05, but ration R1 was more efficient than R3 (P0.05. It was concluded that protein intake and average daily gain were increased, and feed conversion was more efficient as the crude protein-energy levels increased in the ration. Feed intake and average daily gain of male goats were higher and feed conversion was more efficient than the female goats.
Smith, Daniel L.; Barry, R. Jeff; Powell, Mickie L.; Nagy, Tim R.; D'Abramo, L.R.; Watts, Stephen A.
The importance of nutritional components on growth and body composition outcomes has been demonstrated in multiple model organisms. Although zebrafish (Danio rerio) have an established role in research laboratories for its utility in understanding developmental biology and genetics, the influence of diet composition on basic growth outcomes is less well demonstrated. In the current study, four protein sources were tested in isolation using isonitrogenous diets or combined using a defined lab ...
Destexhe, E.; Prinsen, M.K.; Schöll, I. van; Kuper, C.F.; Garçon, N.; Veenstra, S.; Segal, L.
Introduction: Inflammatory reactions are one of the potential safety concerns that are evaluated in the framework of vaccine safety testing. In nonclinical studies, the assessment of the inflammation relies notably on the measurement of biomarkers. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase plasma
De Henauw Stefaan
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to assess the intake of animal, plant and food group-specific protein, and to investigate their associations with socio-economic and lifestyle-related factors in Flemish preschoolers. Methods Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from 661 preschoolers aged 2.5-6.5 y (338 boys and 323 girls. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to investigate the association between animal, plant, and food group-specific protein intake and socio-economic and lifestyle factors. Results Animal proteins (mean 38 g/d were the main source of total protein (mean 56 g/d, while mean plant protein intake amounted to 18 g/d. The group of meat, poultry, fish and eggs was the main contributor (51% to animal protein intake, followed by milk and milk products (35%. Bread and cereals (41% contributed most to the plant protein intake, followed by low-nutritious, energy-dense foods (21%. With higher educated fathers and mothers as reference, respectively, preschoolers with lower secondary and secondary paternal education had lower animal, dairy-, and meat-derived protein intakes, and those with lower secondary and secondary maternal education consumed less plant, and bread and cereal-derived proteins. Compared to children with high physical activity levels, preschoolers with low and moderate physical activity had lower animal and plant protein intakes. Significantly higher potatoes and grains-, and fish- derived proteins were reported for children of smoking mothers and fathers, respectively, compared to those of non-smoking mothers and fathers. Conclusions The total protein intake of Flemish preschoolers was sufficient according to the recommendations of the Belgian Superior Health Council. Parental level of education and smoking status might play a role in the sources of children's dietary proteins.
Chelikani, P K; Ambrose, J D; Kennelly, J J
The objectives were to examine the effects of dietary energy and protein density on age and body composition at puberty, and on ovarian follicular dynamics during the pre- and peripubertal periods in Holstein heifers. In Phase 1, heifers were randomly allotted (n=10 per diet) at 100 kg body weight (BW) to diets with either low (P1L), medium (P1M) or high (P1H) energy and protein formulated for an average daily gain (ADG) of 0.5, 0.8 or 1.1 kg per day, respectively. During Phase 2 (P2), all heifers were fed ad libitum a common diet formulated for an ADG of 0.8 kg per day. Half the animals within the high (n=5) and low groups (n=5) entered P2 either at 12 months of age (P2H-12; P2L-12) or at 330 kg BW (P2H-330; P2L-330). Heifers fed P1H, P1M, P1L, and P2L-12 diets attained puberty at approximately 9, 11, 16, and 14 months of age, respectively (Pheifers compared to P1H or P1M heifers at similar chronological ages (P0.10). Compared to P1L heifers, P1H heifers had high amplitude LH pulses at 8 months, and high frequency low amplitude LH pulses at 10 months of age (Pheifers (10.6) compared to P1H (12.8) or P1M (12.2) heifers at 8 months. Maximum size and growth rate of the nonovulatory dominant follicle increased with age (Pheifers at puberty. The diameter (mm) of the nonovulatory dominant follicle, and the first and second ovulatory follicles were larger in P2L-12 heifers (14.0, 14.7, and 14.9) compared to P1M heifers (13.1, 12.5, and 11.9), while the peak progesterone levels and CL growth were lower (Pheifers attained puberty at a constant body weight and body composition independent of dietary manipulation, the size of dominant follicles increased with age in association with increased LH support, and heifers realimented from a low energy diet developed larger first ovulatory follicles and smaller CL with lower peak progesterone concentrations in the first cycle.
Full Text Available The K/DOQI guidelines recommend that MHD patients have a dietary protein intake (DPI of at least 1.2 g/ kg/day to avoid malnutrition. It is hard for most Chinese MHD patients to meet the criteria. To know the nutritional status and metabolic results of different DPI in our patients is necessary. Part 1: Cross–sectional study: 189 MHD patients using low-flux dialyzers were enrolled in April 2009 in our center. Three-day-dietary diaries were analyzed by dietitians. Serum cholesterol, albumin, calcium and phosphate and CO2CP (carbon dioxide combining power were examined. The nPCR was used to assess the accuracy of DPI. Part 2: Pilot study: A two–year, non-randomized controlled trial was carried out. The inclusion criteria were (1 MHD>3 years and Kt/V>1.2; (2 no residual renal function; (3 Serum albumin>35 g/l; (4 CRP90 g/l. Two groups were set: DPI>1.2 g/ kg/day ( NP group and DPI <1.2 g/ kg/day (LP group. Patients kept a serial three-day-dietary diary and assessed serum albumin, phosphate, cholesterol and CO2CP every 3 months. Part 1: 126 patients' diaries, which DPI from the three-day-dietary diary was similar to the nPCR, are analyzed. 99 patients' DPI was less than 1.2 g/kg/day with an average calorie intake of 26.93±4.17 KCal/ kg/day. 27 patients' DPI was more than 1.2 g/kg/day with an average calorie intake of 29.46±2.73 KCal/ kg/day. There was no difference on serum albumin. However, the patients in high DPI group have higher serum phosphate and lower CO2CP (TABLE 1. Part 2: The average DPI in LP group was 1.05±0.11 g/kg/day with an average calorie intake of 26.65±3.18 KCal/ kg/day. The average DPI in NP group was 1.34±0.15 g/kg/day with an average calorie intake of 29.1±2.87 KCal/ kg/day. Serum albumin and cholesterol remained stable in both groups. Similarly, the patients in NP group have higher serum phosphate and lower CO2CP compared to LP group (TABLE 2. Conclusion DPI around 1.05 g/kg/day can maintain the
Madsen, Trine; Skou, Helle Aarup; Hansen, Vibeke Ellegaard
The acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP) has emerged as an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. Experimental and clinical studies provide evidence of anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) derived from fish. We have studied the effect of marin.......003). The inverse correlation between CRP and DHA may reflect an anti-inflammatory effect of DHA in patients with stable coronary artery disease and suggest a novel mechanism by which fish consumption may decrease the risk of coronary artery disease. (C) 2001 by Excerpta Medica, Inc....
Miller-Cushon, E K; Montoro, C; Ipharraguerre, I R; Bach, A
In 3 experiments, we assessed preference of recently weaned dairy calves for (1) 8 high-energy feed types [barley meal, corn meal, corn gluten feed (CGF), oat meal, rice meal, sorghum meal, wheat meal, and wheat middlings meal]; (2) 6 high-protein feed types [corn gluten meal (CGM), wheat distillers dried grains, rapeseed meal, soybean meal (SBM), sunflower meal, and pea meal]; and (3) 4 mixtures (50:50) of the highest- and lowest-ranked high-energy and high-protein feeds, to assess whether calves maintain preference for feed ingredients that are included in a mixture. In all experiments, pairwise preference tests were conducted between all feed types (28 different pairwise preference tests in experiment 1, 15 tests in experiment 2, and 6 tests in experiment 3). Each pairwise preference test was conducted by offering ad libitum access to both feed types for 6h. All tests were repeated with 20 Holstein calves. Before this study, calves were offered milk replacer at a rate of 4 L/d and a pelleted starter feed ad libitum. After weaning at 62 d of age, each calf was involved in a pairwise preference test at 3 and 5d postweaning. A preference ratio was calculated for each calf in each test as (intake of feed type A)/(intake of feed type A + intake of feed type B). Preference for feed types was ranked across tests in each experiment using pairwise comparison charts. In experiment 1, the highest-ranked high-energy feed type was wheat meal and the lowest ranked were rice meal and CGF. In experiment 2, the highest-ranked high-protein feed type was SBM and the lowest ranked was CGM. According to the preference rankings from experiments 1 and 2, experiment 3 evaluated (50:50) mixtures of SBM + wheat meal, SBM + CGF, CGM + wheat meal, and CGM + CGF. The mixture of SBM + wheat meal was highest ranked, CGM + CGF was lowest ranked, and the mixtures containing one high-ranked and one low-ranked feed ingredient (SBM + CGF and CGM + wheat meal) were ranked equally. The results of
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate dietary concentrate: forage ratios (C:F and undegraded dietary protein (UDP on nitrogen balance and urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD in lambs. Four Dorper×thin-tailed Han crossbred castrated lambs with 62.3±1.9 kg body weight at 10 months of age were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement of two levels of C:F (40:60 and 60:40 and two levels of UDP (35% and 50% of CP, according to a complete 4×4 Latin-square design. Each experimental period lasted for 19 d. After a 7-d adaptation period, lambs were moved into individual metabolism crates for 12 d including 7 d of adaption and 5 d of metabolism trial. During the metabolism trial, total urine was collected for 24 h and spot urine samples were also collected at different times. Urinary PD was measured using a colorimetric method and creatinine was measured using an automated analyzer. Intake of dry matter (DM (p0.05 while urinary N increased as the level of UDP decreased (p0.05 or interaction between dietary treatments (p>0.05. Daily excretion of creatinine was not affected by dietary treatments (p0.05 and a good correlation was found between the PDC index (average value of three times of spot urine and daily excretion of PD (R2 = 0.88. These results suggest that for animals fed ad libitum, the PDC index in spot urine is effective to predict daily excretion of PD. In order to improve the accuracy of the spot sampling technique, an appropriate lag phase between the time of feeding and sampling should be determined so that the sampling time can coincide with the peak concentration of PD in the urine.
Full Text Available In order to improve fish health and reduce use of chemotherapeutants in aquaculture production, the immunomodulatory effect of various nutritional ingredients has been explored. In salmon, there is evidence that functional feeds can reduce the abundance of sea lice. This study aimed to determine if there were consistent changes in the skin mucus proteome that could serve as a biomarker for dietary yeast cell wall extract. The effect of dietary yeast cell wall extract on the skin mucus proteome of Atlantic salmon was examined using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Forty-nine spots showed a statistically significant change in their normalised volumes between the control and yeast cell wall diets. Thirteen spots were successfully identified by peptide fragment fingerprinting and LC-MS/MS and these belonged to a variety of functions and pathways. To assess the validity of the results from the proteome approach, the gene expression of a selection of these proteins was studied in skin mRNA from two different independent feeding trials using yeast cell wall extracts. A calreticulin-like protein increased in abundance at both the protein and transcript level in response to dietary yeast cell wall extract. The calreticulin-like protein was identified as a possible biomarker for yeast-derived functional feeds since it showed the most consistent change in expression in both the mucus proteome and skin transcriptome. The discovery of such a biomarker is expected to quicken the pace of research in the application of yeast cell wall extracts.
Pihl, Tina Holberg; Jørgensen, Charlotte Svaerke; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric
Gc globulin is an important protein of the plasma actin-scavenger system. As such, it has been shown to bind free actin and prevent hypercoagulation and shock in patients with massive actin release resulting from severe tissue injuries. Treatment of such patients with Gc globulin could therefore....... The half-life, T, for human Gc globulin was 12 hr in rats, 16 hr in horses and 30 hr in dogs. The safety profile of plasma-derived Gc globulin is concluded to be consistent to that required for use in man....
Marino, R; Albenzio, M; Caroprese, M; Napolitano, F; Santillo, A; Braghieri, A
Twenty-four young Podolian bulls were used to evaluate the effect of rearing system (extensive vs. intensive) in relation to postmortem aging (11 and 18 d) on the eating quality of the meat, with the diet of outdoor animals adjusted to the protein content of the indoor system (15% CP) or to the minimum protein content required for satisfactory growth (12% CP). At 415 ± 9.35 (SE) d of age, with a mean BW of 337.5 ± 16.51 (SE) kg, animals were allotted to 3 groups for the finishing period (172 d): 1) indoor group receiving a diet at 15% CP; 2) grazing animals receiving a diet at 15% CP of DM; and 3) grazing animals receiving a diet at 12% CP of DM. Longissimus dorsi lumborum muscle sampled from the right half and divided longitudinally into 2 sections was aged in vacuum packaging at 4°C until 11 and 18 d postmortem, respectively. Rearing system did not affect (P > 0.05) color, Warner-Bratzler shear force, texture profile, water-holding capacity, and most of the sensory attributes of the beef steaks. However, sensory tenderness was less in the meat from outdoor animals receiving a diet with 15% CP than in meat from outdoor animals receiving a diet with 12% CP or from the indoor group (P < 0.05). Meat aged 18 d showed decreased Warner-Bratzler shear force (P < 0.001), hardness (P < 0.001), cohesiveness (P < 0.05), springiness (P < 0.05), gumminess (P < 0.01), chewiness (P < 0.01), and thawing loss (P < 0.01) compared with meat aged for 11 d. Prolonging the aging time up to 18 d significantly increased b* (yellowness; P < 0.05), cooking losses (P < 0.001), and the intensity of all the texture sensory attributes, namely, juiciness and fatness (P < 0.05), chewiness, tenderness, and flavor (P < 0.01). Significant correlations were found between instrumental and sensory variables (range of r = -0.55 to -0.85, P < 0.05 to 0.001). Overall, in the present study, the rearing system did not markedly affect meat sensory and physical properties. Thus, we conclude that an
Full Text Available Iron homeostasis is tightly regulated to provide virtually all cells in the body, particularly red blood cells, with this essential element while defending against its toxicity. The peptide hormone hepcidin is central to the control of the amount of iron absorbed from the diet and iron recycling from macrophages. Previously, we have shown that hepcidin induction in macrophages following Toll-like receptor (TLR stimulation depends on the presence of myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88. In this study, we analyzed the regulation of iron metabolism in MyD88−/− mice to further investigate MyD88 involvement in iron sensing and hepcidin induction. We show that mice lacking MyD88 accumulate significantly more iron in their livers than wild-type counterparts in response to dietary iron loading as they are unable to appropriately control hepcidin levels. The defect was associated with inappropriately low levels of Smad4 protein and Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation in liver samples found in the MyD88−/− mice compared to wild-type mice. In conclusion, our results reveal a previously unknown link between MyD88 and iron homeostasis, and provide new insights into the regulation of hepcidin through the iron-sensing pathway.
Richardson, M Ryan; Arikawa, Andrea Y; Churilla, James R
Some evidence suggests an inverse association between increased fiber intake and C-reactive protein (CRP). However, few studies have examined the associations among CRP, dietary fiber, and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Sample (n = 8372) included adults (≥20 years of age) who participated in the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Tertiles of reported fiber intake were created. The dependent variable was elevated CRP (>3-10 mg/L). Logistic regression models were stratified by LTPA participation and adjusted for age, gender, race, waist circumference (WC), and standing height. In adults reporting any volume of LTPA participation, increased fiber intake was significantly (P < 0.05 for the upper tertile of fiber intake) associated with lower odds of having an elevated CRP concentration when compared with the lowest tertile. Similar associations were not revealed in analyses limited to adults reporting no LTPA participation. After additional adjustment for WC and standing height, this protective association was no longer statistically significant. Results suggest that WC and standing height may mediate the beneficial association between increased fiber intake and lower odds of elevated CRP in adults reporting LTPA participation.
Hoffman, D J; Heinz, G H; LeCaptain, L J; Eisemann, J D; Pendleton, G W
Concentrations of over 100 ppm (mg/kg) selenium (Se) have been found in aquatic plants and insects associated with irrigation drainwater and toxicity to fish and wildlife. Composition of diet for wild ducklings can vary in selenium-contaminated environments. Earlier studies have compared toxicities and oxidative stress of Se as selenite to those of seleno-DL-methionine (DL) in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). This study compares DL, seleno-L-methionine (L), selenized yeast (Y) and selenized wheat (W). Day-old mallard ducklings received an untreated diet (controls) containing 75% wheat (22% protein) or the same diet containing 15 or 30 ppm Se in the above forms except for 30 ppm Se as W. After 2 weeks, blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical assays and Se analysis. All forms of selenium caused significant increases in plasma and hepatic glutathione peroxidase activities. Se as L at 30 ppm in the diet was the most toxic form, resulting in high mortality (64%) and impaired growth (>50%) in survivors and the greatest increase in ratio of oxidized to reduced hepatic glutathione (GSH). Se as both L and DL decreased the concentrations of hepatic GSH and total thiols. Se as Y accumulated the least in liver (approximately 50% of other forms) and had less effect on GSH and total thiols. In a second experiment, in which the basal diet was a commercial duck feed (22% protein), survival was not affected by 30 ppm Se as DL, L, or Y and oxidative effects on GSH metabolism were less pronounced than with the wheat diet.
Hoffman, D.J.; Heinz, G.H.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Eisemann, J.D.; Pendleton, G.W.
Concentrations of over 100 ppm (mg/kg) selenium (Se) have been found in aquatic plants and insects associated with irrigation drainwater and toxicity to fish and wildlife. Composition of diet for wild ducklings may vary in selenium-contaminated environments. Earlier studies have compared toxicities and oxidative stress of Se as selenite to those of seleno-DL-methionine (DL) in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). This study compares DL, seleno-L-methionine (L), selenized yeast (Y) and selenized wheat (W). Day-old mallard ducklings received an untreated diet (controls) containing 75% wheat (22% protein) or the same diet containing 15 or 30 ppm Se in the above forms except for 30 ppm Se as W. After 2 weeks blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical assays and Se analysis. All forms of selenium caused significant increases in plasma and hepatic glutathione peroxidase activities. Se as L at 30 ppm in the diet was the most toxic form, resulting in high mortality (64%) and impaired growth (>50%) in survivors and the greatest increase in ratio of oxidized to reduced hepatic glutathione (GSH). Se as both L and DL decreased the concentrations of hepatic GSH and total thiols. Se as Y accumulated the least in liver (approximately 50% of other forms) and had less effect on GSH and total thiols. In a second experiment, in which the basal diet was a commercial duck feed (22 % protein), survival was not affected by 30 ppm Se as DL, L, or Y and oxidative effects on GSH metabolism were less pronounced than with the wheat diet.
van Houtert, M F; Barger, I A; Steel, J W; Windon, R G; Emery, D L
The effects of protein supplementation and infection with Trichostrongylus colubriformis on production responses and immune function in young sheep and on nematode population dynamics were assessed. Eighty-four 3-month-old Merino wether sheep were housed in individual pens and fed ad libitum chopped oaten hay containing 0.5% urea, together with 50 g day-1 lucerne meal. Fish meal (FM) was given as a source of protected protein at 0, 50 or 100 g day-1 (FM0, FM50, FM100; from Days --28 to 140). From Days 1 to 140, 0 or 1000 T. colubriformis infective larvae were given on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. Infected sheep were slaughtered after 35, 70, 105, or 140 days of infection. Live-weight gain was reduced significantly by infection with T. colubriformis in sheep given FM0, but not in sheep given FM50 or FM100. Greasy wool production and fibre diameter were increased by FM, whereas the effects of infection with T. colubriformis on wool measurements depended on the level of FM given. Worm egg concentrations in faeces were significantly lower for sheep given FM100 than for those given FM0 or FM50 during the last 28 days of infection. Similarly, the apparent rate of worm expulsion was considerably higher in sheep given FM than in those not given FM. The rate of expulsion of T. colubriformis correlated with levels of circulating eosinophils as well as with the concentration of intestinal sheep mast cell proteases. Levels of parasite-specific and non-specific circulating antibodies were either unaffected or reduced as a result of supplementation with FM, although lymphocyte stimulation in vitro in response to T. colubriformis third stage larval antigen was enhanced significantly in infected animals given FM100. It was concluded that supplementary feeding with FM substantially reduced the production losses attributable to infection with T. colubriformis and was associated with enhanced expulsion of the parasite burden.
Jose A. L. Calbet
Full Text Available The loss of fat-free mass (FFM caused by very-low-calorie diets (VLCD can be attenuated by exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the role played by exercise and dietary protein content in preserving the lean mass and performance of exercised and non-exercised muscles, during a short period of extreme energy deficit (~23 MJ deficit/day. Fifteen overweight men underwent three consecutive experimental phases: baseline assessment (PRE, followed by 4 days of caloric restriction and exercise (CRE and then 3 days on a control diet combined with reduced exercise (CD. During CRE, the participants ingested a VLCD and performed 45 min of one-arm cranking followed by 8 h walking each day. The VLCD consisted of 0.8 g/kg body weight/day of either whey protein (PRO, n = 8 or sucrose (SU, n = 7. FFM was reduced after CRE (P < 0.001, with the legs and the exercised arm losing proportionally less FFM than the control arm [57% (P < 0.05 and 29% (P = 0.05, respectively]. Performance during leg pedaling, as reflected by the peak oxygen uptake and power output (Wpeak, was reduced after CRE by 15 and 12%, respectively (P < 0.05, and recovered only partially after CD. The deterioration of cycling performance was more pronounced in the whey protein than sucrose group (P < 0.05. Wpeak during arm cranking was unchanged in the control arm, but improved in the contralateral arm by arm cranking. There was a linear relationship between the reduction in whole-body FFM between PRE and CRE and the changes in the cortisol/free testosterone ratio (C/FT, serum isoleucine, leucine, tryptophan, valine, BCAA, and EAA (r = −0.54 to −0.71, respectively, P < 0.05. C/FT tended to be higher in the PRO than the SU group following CRE (P = 0.06. In conclusion, concomitant low-intensity exercise such as walking or arm cranking even during an extreme energy deficit results in remarkable preservation of lean mass. The intake of proteins alone may be associated with greater
Influence of A Thermogenic Dietary Supplement on Safety Markers, Body Composition, Energy Expenditure, Muscular Performance and Hormone Concentrations: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial
Grant M. Tinsley, Stacie Urbina, Jacy Mullins, Jordan Outlaw, Sara Hayward, Matt Stone, Cliffa Foster, Colin Wilborn, Lem Taylor
Full Text Available Dietary supplementation is commonly employed by individuals seeking to improve body composition and exercise performance. The purpose of the present study was to examine the safety and effectiveness of a commercially available dietary supplement designed to promote thermogenesis and fat loss. In a randomized double-blind trial, participants were assigned to consume placebo or a multi-ingredient supplement containing caffeine, green tea extract, l-carnitine, evodiamine and other ingredients that purportedly enhance thermogenesis. The study included acute baseline testing, a 6-week progressive resistance training and supplementation intervention, and post-intervention testing. Laboratory assessments included resting energy expenditure responses to acute supplement ingestion, evaluation of body composition and muscular performance, and analysis of blood variables (metabolic panel, testosterone, estrogen and cortisol. Dependent variables were analyzed using ANOVA with repeated measures. No unfavorable effects of supplementation were reported, and the supplement did not adversely affect safety markers. However, the supplement did not reduce fat mass or increase lean mass relative to placebo. In the supplement group, lower body maximal strength was increased relative to placebo (+18%, d=1.1 vs. +10%, d=0.5, and cortisol concentrations were decreased relative to placebo (-16%; d=-0.4 vs. +15%, d=.75. However, no differences were observed for upper body maximal strength or muscular endurance. REE increased in response to both supplement and placebo ingestion (placebo: +5%; supplement: +11.5%, but the difference between conditions was not statistically significant. Overall, some select parameters may have been beneficially modified by supplementation, but this did not result in superior weight or fat loss over 6 weeks of supplementation and resistance training.
Stocks, Tanja; Ängquist, Lars Henrik; Hager, Jörg
Background: TFAP2B rs987237 is associated with obesity and has shown interaction with the dietary fat-to-carbohydrate ratio, which has an effect on weight loss. We investigated interactions between rs987237 and protein-to-carbohydrate ratio or glycemic index (GI) in relation to weight maintenance......987237 and dietary protein/carbohydrate interacted to modify weight maintenance. Considering the carbohydrate proportion of the diet, the interaction was different from the previously reported rs987237-fat-to-carbohydrate ratio interaction for weight loss. Thus, TFAP2B-macronutrient interactions might...... after weight loss. Methods: This study included 742 obese individuals from 8 European countries who participated in the Diet, Obesity, and Genes (DiOGenes) trial, lost ≥8% of their initial body weight during an 8-week low-calorie diet and were randomized to one of 5 ad libitum diets with a fixed energy...
Kwang Suk Ko
Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that large dogs who are fed lamb and rice diets are at increased risk to develop taurine-deficiency-induced dilated cardiomyopathy. Since dogs obligatorily conjugate bile acids (BA with taurine, we determined whether rice bran (RB or other fibers (cellulose; CL, beet pulp; BP would affect BA excretion and/or the taurine status of dogs. Results Eighteen medium/large mixed-breed dogs were given purified diets containing CL, BP, or RB for 12 weeks. Taurine concentrations in plasma and whole blood were significantly decreased at week 12. The BP group, compared to the CL or RB groups, showed significantly lower taurine concentrations in plasma (6.5 ± 0.5 vs 20.4 ± 3.9 and 13.1 ± 2.0 μmol/L, respectively, P < 0.01, mean ± SEM and in whole blood (79 ± 10 vs 143 ± 14 and 127 ± 14 μmol/L, respectively, P < 0.01, lower apparent protein digestibility (81.9 ± 0.6 vs 88.8 ± 0.6 and 88.1 ± 1.2 %, respectively, P < 0.01, and higher BA excretions (5.6 ± 0.1 vs 3.4 ± 0.5 and 3.4 ± 0.4 μmol/g feces, respectively, P < 0.05 at week 12. Conclusions These results do not support the hypothesis that RB is likely to be a primary cause of lamb meal and rice diets, increasing the risk of taurine deficiency in large dogs. However these indicate that BP may contribute to a decrease taurine status in dogs by increasing excretion of fecal BA and decreasing protein digestibility, thus decreasing the bioavailability of sulfur amino acids, the precursors of taurine.
Chen, Yi; Yang, Yan; Zhu, Haojun; Romeis, Jörg; Li, Yunhe; Peng, Yufa; Chen, Xiuping
Cry1C is a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal protein and it can be produced by transgenic rice lines developed in China. Cladocera species are common aquatic arthropods that may be exposed to insecticidal proteins produced in Bt-transgenic plants through ingestion of pollen or crop residues in water. As the cladoceran Daphnia magna plays an important role in the aquatic food chain, it is important to assess the possible effects of Bt crops to this species. To evaluate the safety of the Cry1C protein for D. magna, individuals were exposed to different concentrations of purified Cry1C protein in M4 medium for 21 days. Potassium dichromate (K 2 Cr 2 O 7 ), a known toxicant to D. magna, was added to M4 medium as a positive control treatment, and pure M4 medium was used as a negative control. Our results show that developmental, reproductive, and biochemical parameters of D. magna were not significantly different between Cry1C and negative control treatments but were significantly inhibited by the positive control. We thus conclude that D. magna is insensitive to Cry1C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sayer, R Drew; Amankwaah, Akua F; Tamer, Gregory G; Chen, Ningning; Wright, Amy J; Tregellas, Jason R; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kareken, David A; Talavage, Thomas M; McCrory, Megan A; Campbell, Wayne W
Increasing either protein or fiber at mealtimes has relatively modest effects on ingestive behavior. Whether protein and fiber have additive or interactive effects on ingestive behavior is not known. Fifteen overweight adults (5 female, 10 male; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.2 kg/m²; aged 26 ± 1 year) consumed four breakfast meals in a randomized crossover manner (normal protein (12 g) + normal fiber (2 g), normal protein (12 g) + high fiber (8 g), high protein (25 g) + normal fiber (2 g), high protein (25 g) + high fiber (8 g)). The amount of protein and fiber consumed at breakfast did not influence postprandial appetite or ad libitum energy intake at lunch. In the fasting-state, visual food stimuli elicited significant responses in the bilateral insula and amygdala and left orbitofrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypotheses, postprandial right insula responses were lower after consuming normal protein vs. high protein breakfasts. Postprandial responses in other a priori brain regions were not significantly influenced by protein or fiber intake at breakfast. In conclusion, these data do not support increasing dietary protein and fiber at breakfast as effective strategies for modulating neural reward processing and acute ingestive behavior in overweight adults.
R. Drew Sayer
Full Text Available Increasing either protein or fiber at mealtimes has relatively modest effects on ingestive behavior. Whether protein and fiber have additive or interactive effects on ingestive behavior is not known. Fifteen overweight adults (5 female, 10 male; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.2 kg/m2; aged 26 ± 1 year consumed four breakfast meals in a randomized crossover manner (normal protein (12 g + normal fiber (2 g, normal protein (12 g + high fiber (8 g, high protein (25 g + normal fiber (2 g, high protein (25 g + high fiber (8 g. The amount of protein and fiber consumed at breakfast did not influence postprandial appetite or ad libitum energy intake at lunch. In the fasting-state, visual food stimuli elicited significant responses in the bilateral insula and amygdala and left orbitofrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypotheses, postprandial right insula responses were lower after consuming normal protein vs. high protein breakfasts. Postprandial responses in other a priori brain regions were not significantly influenced by protein or fiber intake at breakfast. In conclusion, these data do not support increasing dietary protein and fiber at breakfast as effective strategies for modulating neural reward processing and acute ingestive behavior in overweight adults.
Raphael Alves Fonseca
Full Text Available In small-scale human settlements, the acquisition of animal protein is strictly related to subsistence activities, and yours dietary habits are determined by the availability and the selectivity permitted by the diversity of these resources. This study analyzed the consumption of animal protein sources in seven traditional riverine communities of the Tapajos National Forest, located in Eastern Brazilian Amazonia, considering fish, game meat and domestic animals. The analysis of animal protein consumption was based on the assumptions of the diet breadth model and the Optimal Foraging Theory. We compared diet breadths between communities and between rainy and dry seasons. The study focused on seven traditional riverside communities, six of them distributed along the right bank of the Tapajos River and one on the right bank of the Cupari River. Data collection was performed in four fields trips, two in the rainy season (May and July and two in the dry season (September and November in 2010. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews where the informant mentioned the source of animal protein consumed in the last three meals and which would be consumed at the next meal, if possible. We carried out a total of 470 interviews, where we documented 1 512 meals, and in only 12% of the meals there was no consumption of any animal protein source. The fish was consumed in 60.4% of the meals, being the most important source of animal protein consumed, differing significantly from other protein sources (χ²=23.79, df=5, pEn pequeños asentamientos rurales, la adquisición de proteína animal está estrechamente relacionada con actividades de subsistencia, y su hábitos alimentares son determinados por la disponibilidad y diversidad de estos recursos. Este estudio examinó el consumo de pescado, caza y animales domésticos en siete comunidades tradicionales ribereñas de la Floresta Nacional do Tapajós, ubicadas en la Amazonia oriental Brasile
van Emous, R A; de la Cruz, C E; Naranjo, V D
A study with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement was conducted to determine the effects of 2 dietary crude protein levels, high (CPh) or low (CPl), supplemented with free amino acids (AA), and 2 ages at photo stimulation (PS)-early (21 wk; PSe) or late (23 wk; PSl)-on reproduction traits of broiler breeders and progeny performance. Diets were isocaloric, and calculated CP content of the CPl diets was 15 g/kg lower than the CPh diets during all phases. A total of 480 female and 64 male Ross 308 breeders of 20 wk of age were used. Total egg production was similar between CPl and CPh birds during phase 1 and 2 but was reduced by 2.8 eggs for CPl birds during phase 3. For the overall laying period, CPl birds tended (P = 0.075) to produce 4.7 fewer total eggs. Hatchability of set eggs was similar between CPl and CPh birds during phases 1 and 2 but tended (P = 0.064) to be lower for CPl birds in phase 3. PSe birds showed an advanced age at sexual maturity and age at peak production of 4.6 and 5.3 d, respectively, resulting in 2.5 more total eggs during phase 1. During phase 1, PSe birds showed an almost 5% increased fertility. Chick production in phase 1 was higher for PSe birds resulting in a tendency (P = 0.071) to higher overall chick production of almost 8 chicks. Progeny from early PS breeders showed an overall significant lower feed conversion ratio (FCR). It was concluded that egg and chick production during phases 1 and 2 were not affected by dietary CP level, but egg and chick production was reduced for CPl birds during phase 3. On the other hand, PSe birds showed an increased number of chicks. It is possible to decrease CP level of breeder diets with comparable reproduction from 22 to 46 wk; however, this is questionable for phase 3. For maximal chick production, early PS is recommended.
Nawrocka, Agnieszka; Szymańska-Chargot, Monika; Miś, Antoni; Wilczewska, Agnieszka Z; Markiewicz, Karolina H
Interactions between gluten proteins and dietary fiber supplements at the stage of bread dough formation are crucial in the baking industry. The dietary fiber additives are regarded as a source of polysaccharides and antioxidants, which have positive effects on human health. The fiber enrichment of bread causes a significant reduction in its quality, which is connected with changes in the structure of gluten proteins. Changes in the structure of gluten proteins and their thermal properties induced by seven commercial dietary fibers (fruit, vegetable, and cereal) were studied by FT-Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetry (TGA), respectively. For this aim the bread dough at 500 FU consistency was made of a blend of wheat starch and wheat gluten as well as the fiber, the content of which ranged from 3 to 18% w/w. The obtained results revealed that all dietary fibers apart from oat caused similar changes in the secondary structure of gluten proteins. The most noticeable changes were observed in the regions connected with hydrogen-bonded β-sheets (1614 and 1684 cm(-1)) and β-turns (1640 and 1657 cm(-1)). Other changes observed in the gluten structure, concerning other β-structures, conformation of disulfide bridges, and aromatic amino acid microenvironment, depend on the fibers' chemical composition. The results concerning structural changes suggested that the observed formation of hydrogen bonds in the β-structures can be connected with aggregation or abnormal folding. This hypothesis was confirmed by thermogravimetric results. Changes in weight loss indicated the formation of a more complex and strong gluten network.
Liedo, Pablo; Carey, James R.; Ingram, Donald K.; Zou, Sige
Macronutrient balance is a critical contributor in modulating lifespan and health. Consumption of diets rich in fruits and vegetables provides numerous health benefits. The interactions among macronutrients and botanicals and how they influence aging and health remain elusive. Here we employed a nutritional geometry approach to investigate the interplay among dietary fat, sugar, protein and antioxidant- and polyphenolic-rich freeze-dried açai pulp in modulating lifespan and reproductive outpu...
Moore, Lori B; Liu, Sarah V; Halliday, Tanya M; Neilson, Andrew P; Hedrick, Valisa E; Davy, Brenda M
Background: Objective indicators of dietary intake (e.g., biomarkers) are needed to overcome the limitations of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods in adolescents. To our knowledge, no controlled feeding studies to date have evaluated the validity of urinary sodium, nitrogen, or sugar excretion as dietary biomarkers in adolescents. Objective: This investigation aimed to evaluate the validity of urinary sodium, nitrogen, and total sugars (TS) excretion as biomarkers for sodium, protein, and added sugars (AS) intake in nonobese adolescents. Methods: In a crossover controlled feeding study design, 33 adolescents [12-18 y of age, 47 ± 25th percentile (mean ± SD) of body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ) for age] consumed 5% AS [low added sugars (LAS)] and 25% AS [high added sugars (HAS)] isocaloric, macronutrient-matched (55% carbohydrate, 30% fat, and 15% protein) diets for 7 d each, in a randomly assigned order, with a 4-wk washout period between diets. On the final 2 d of each diet period, 24-h urine samples were collected. Thirty-two adolescents completed all measurements (97% retention). Results: Urinary sodium was not different from the expected 90% recovery (mean ± SD: 88% ± 18%, P = 0.50). Urinary nitrogen was correlated with protein intake ( r = 0.69, P sodium appears to be a valid biomarker for sodium intake in nonobese adolescents. Urinary nitrogen is associated with protein intake, but nitrogen excretion rates were less than previously reported for adults, possibly owing to adolescent growth rates. TS excretion reflects AS at 25% AS intake and was responsive to the change in AS intake. Thus, urinary biomarkers are promising objective indicators of dietary intake in adolescents, although larger-scale feeding trials are needed to confirm these findings. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02455388. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
Azadbakht, Leila; Surkan, Pamela J.; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Willett, Walter C.
Few studies exist regarding the effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on novel cardiovascular risk factors among type 2 diabetic patients. We evaluated the effects of the DASH eating pattern on C-reactive protein (CRP) level, coagulation abnormalities, and hepatic function tests in type 2 diabetic patients. In this randomized, crossover clinical trial, 31 type 2 diabetic patients consumed a control diet or the DASH diet for 8 wk. The DASH diet was rich in fruits, ...
Chalvon-Demersay, Tristan; Even, Patrick C; Chaumontet, Catherine; Piedcoq, Julien; Viollet, Benoit; Gaudichon, Claire; Tomé, Daniel; Foretz, Marc; Azzout-Marniche, Dalila
Background: Hepatic AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) activity is sensitive to the dietary carbohydrate-to-protein ratio. However, the role of AMPK in metabolic adaptations to variations in dietary macronutrients remains poorly understood. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the role of hepatic AMPK in the adaptation of energy metabolism in response to modulation of the dietary carbohydrate-to-protein ratio. Methods: Male 7-wk-old wild-type (WT) and liver AMPK-deficient (knockout) mice were fed either a normal-protein and normal-carbohydrate diet (NP-NC; 14% protein, 76% carbohydrate on an energy basis), a low-protein and high-carbohydrate diet (LP-HC; 5% protein, 85% carbohydrate), or a high-protein and low-carbohydrate diet (HP-LC; 55% protein, 35% carbohydrate) for 3 wk. During this period, after an overnight fast, metabolic parameters were measured and indirect calorimetry was performed in mice during the first hours after refeeding a 1-g calibrated meal of their own diet in order to investigate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Results: Knockout mice fed an LP-HC or HP-LC meal exhibited 24% and 8% lower amplitudes in meal-induced carbohydrate and lipid oxidation changes. By contrast, knockout mice fed an NP-NC meal displayed normal carbohydrate and lipid oxidation profiles. These mice exhibited a transient increase in hepatic triglycerides and a decrease in hepatic glycogen. These changes were associated with a 650% higher secretion of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) 2 h after refeeding. Conclusions: The consequences of hepatic AMPK deletion depend on the dietary carbohydrate-to-protein ratio. In mice fed the NP-NC diet, deletion of AMPK in the liver led to an adaptation of liver metabolism resulting in increased secretion of FGF21. These changes possibly compensated for the absence of hepatic AMPK, as these mice exhibited normal postprandial changes in carbohydrate and lipid oxidation. By contrast, in mice fed the LP-HC and HP-LC diets, the
Harimurti Februari Trisiwi
Full Text Available This research aims to examine the effects of various dietary protein levels during growing period crossbreed hens between cockerel native chickens and laying hens on performance at onset of lay. The effects of the dietary protein levels on weight and other components of eggs were also examined. Eighteen hens aged thirteen weeks were randomly divided into three different treatment groups. Each group consists of six replications. The replication contains a hen. All the treatment hens were grown in a battery-cage until reaching sexual maturity then were fed with three different dietary protein levels which are 13,54%, 12,00%, and 9,80% formulated with 2600 kcal/kg ME. The collected data were analyzed by a one-way classification of variance analysis (CRD followed by testing the significant means using The Duncan,s MultipleRange Test (DMRT. The experiment result suggested that the treatment during hen’s growing period did not cause significance on performance at onset lay, egg weight, and egg components weight.
Severance, Emily G; Gressitt, Kristin L; Yang, Shuojia; Stallings, Cassie R; Origoni, Andrea E; Vaughan, Crystal; Khushalani, Sunil; Alaedini, Armin; Dickerson, Faith B; Yolken, Robert H
Immune sensitivity to wheat glutens and bovine milk caseins may affect a subset of individuals with bipolar disorder. Digested byproducts of these foods are exorphins that have the potential to impact brain physiology through action at opioid receptors. Inflammation in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract might accelerate exposure of food antigens to systemic circulation and help explain elevated gluten and casein antibody levels in individuals with bipolar disorder. We measured a marker of GI inflammation, anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA), in non-psychiatric controls (n = 207), in patients with bipolar disorder without a recent onset of psychosis (n = 226), and in patients with bipolar disorder with a recent onset of psychosis (n = 38). We compared ASCA levels to antibodies against gluten, casein, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), influenza A, influenza B, measles, and Toxoplasma gondii. Elevated ASCA conferred a 3.5-4.4-fold increased odds ratio of disease association (age-, race-, and gender-corrected multinomial logistic regressions, p ≤ 0.00001) that was independent of type of medication received. ASCA correlated with food antibodies in both bipolar disorder groups (R(2) = 0.29-0.59, p ≤ 0.0005), and with measles and T. gondii immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the recent onset psychosis bipolar disorder group (R(2) = 0.31-0.36, p ≤ 0.004-0.01). Elevated seropositivity of a GI-related marker and its association with antibodies to food-derived proteins and self-reported GI symptoms suggest a GI comorbidity in at least a subgroup of individuals with bipolar disorder. Marker seroreactivity may also represent part of an overall heightened activated immune state inherent to this mood disorder. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Manegar, Ananda G; Jayanaik; Reddy, Venkata K; C S, Nagaraja; Siddaramanna; T N, Krishnamurthy; C, Basavanta Kumar
This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of broiler chickens fed low protein diets supplemented with L-threonine. Four hundred and sixty two 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to seven treatments with six replicates each and eleven chicks per replicate. Seven treatments included; T1-control, T2, T4, T6-without L-threonine and T3, T5 ,T7-with L-threonine supplementation with a CP reduction by 0.75, 1.50 and 2.25 per cent units, respectively. Feed was offered in pre-starter (0-14 days), starter (15-28 days) and finisher phases (29-42 days). On cumulative basis, body weight gain (BWG) was significantly (psupplementation and L-threonine supplementation significantly (psupplementation of L-threonine improved feed intake on par to control. The FCR with L-threonine supplementation improved only at 0.75 per cent CP reduction (T3) but not with further CP reduction. The breast, thigh and drumstick absolute and relative weights were significantly (psupplementation and with threonine, 1.5 per cent units CP reduced diet was similar to control. The relative AF weight was increased with the CP reduction of 0.75 per cent without L-threonine supplementation, while upon addition of L-threonine, AF per cent decreased as that of control. These results conclude that, with L-threonine supplementation, the CP can be reduced by 1.5 per cent units without affecting bird performance.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with the pathophysiology of both type-2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Prevention or reduction of chronic low-grade inflammation may be advantageous in relation to obesity related co-morbidity. In this study we investigated the acute effect of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammatory markers after a high-fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects. Methods We conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study in a crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins - cod protein, whey isolate, gluten or casein. 11 obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, BMI: 30.3-42.0 kg/m2 participated and blood samples were drawn in the 4 h postprandial period. Adiponectin was estimated by ELISA methods and cytokines were analyzed by multiplex assay. Results MCP-1 and CCL5/RANTES displayed significant postprandial dynamics. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals, but overall CCL5/RANTES incremental area under the curve (iAUC was significantly lower after the whey meal compared with the cod and casein meals (P = 0.0053. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all protein meals. However, the iAUC was significantly higher after whey meal compared to the cod and gluten meals (P = 0.04. Conclusion We have demonstrated acute differential effects on postprandial low grade inflammation of four dietary proteins in obese non-diabetic subjects. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals but the smallest overall postprandial increase was observed after the whey meal. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all 4 protein meals and the whey meal caused the smallest overall postprandial suppression. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00863564
Chupani, Latifeh; Zusková, Eliška; Niksirat, Hamid
information related to their toxicological endpoints. Proteomics was applied to evaluate the sub-lethal effects of dietary exposure to ZnO NPs on serum proteome profile of juvenile common carp, (Cyprinus carpio). Therefore, ZnO NPs solution (500mgkg-1 of feed) was added to a commercial carp feed for six weeks...... proteins were significantly altered (fold change (fc) ≥2 and p complement component C4-2 (fc 2.5) and the uncharacterised protein encoded by kng1 (fc 5.8) were increased and major histocompatibility class I (fc 4.9) and the uncharacterised...
Pandaran Sudheeran, Subash; Jacob, Della; Natinga Mulakal, Johannah; Gopinathan Nair, Gopakumar; Maliakel, Abhilash; Maliakel, Balu; Kuttan, Ramadasan; Im, Krishnakumar
Drug delivery systems capable of delivering free (unconjugated) curcuminoids is of great therapeutic significance, since the absorption of bioactive and permeable form plays a key factor in mediating the efficacy of a substance which undergoes rapid biotransformation. Considering the recent understanding on the relatively high bioactivities and blood-brain-barrier permeability of free curcuminoids over their conjugated metabolites, the present human study investigated the safety, antioxidant efficacy, and bioavailability of CurQfen (curcumagalactomannoside [CGM]), a food-grade formulation of natural curcumin with fenugreek dietary fiber that has shown to possess improved blood-brain-barrier permeability and tissue distribution in rats. In this randomized double-blinded and placebo-controlled trial, 60 subjects experiencing occupational stress-related anxiety and fatigue were randomized to receive CGM, standard curcumin, and placebo for 30 days (500 mg twice daily). The study demonstrated the safety, tolerance, and enhanced efficacy of CGM in comparison with unformulated standard curcumin. A significant improvement in the quality of life (P comparison of the free curcuminoids bioavailability after a single-dose (500 mg once per day) and repeated-dose (500 mg twice daily for 30 days) oral administration revealed enhanced absorption and improved pharmacokinetics of CGM upon both single- (30.7-fold) and repeated-dose (39.1-fold) administrations.
Nagao, Kenji; Oki, Mai; Tsukada, Akira; Kita, Kazumi
It is well known that in protein-starved chickens, small amounts of amino acid supplement, especially methionine, reduces nitrogen excretion and thereby improves nitrogen balance. On the other hand, excess intake of methionine causes growth depression and the growth-depressive effect of excess methionine can be alleviated by consumption of dietary glycine. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is one of various growth-promoting factors relating to the efficiency of animal production and is known to be very sensitive to changes in nutritional status. In the present study, the interactive effect of glycine on nitrogen sparing effect of methionine in protein-starved chickens was examined. In addition, the relation of IGF-I and its specific binding protein to the nitrogen sparing effect of supplemented methionine was also investigated. Two-days refeeding of methionine supplemented to protein-free diet could promptly alleviate body weight loss in protein-starved chickens, and the alleviation of body weight loss by methionine was not improved by glycine supplements. Moreover, such acute alleviation of body weight loss by dietary methionine was independent of the change in plasma IGF-I concentration. 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Ye, Changchuan; Zeng, Xiangzhou; Zhu, Jinlong; Liu, Ying; Ye, Qianhong; Qiao, Shiyan; Zeng, Xiangfang
The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) supplementation in a reduced protein diet affected carcass traits and meat quality in finishing pigs. A total of 120 gilts were randomly assigned to one of four treatments for 40 days, including a standard protein diet (SP), a reduced protein diet supplemented with 1.7% l-alanine (RP + Ala), a reduced protein diet supplemented with 1.0% l-arginine (RP + Arg), and a reduced protein diet supplemented with 0.1% NCG and 1.7% l-alanine (RP + NCG). NCG supplementation increased the endogenous synthesis of l-arginine. The RP + NCG diet significantly increased the loin eye area (p diet was effective to produce functional pork with a high content of leucine (p muscles was altered in finishing pigs with dietary NCG supplementation. In conclusion, the RP + NCG diet is effective to increase the longissimus dorsi muscle area, decrease back fat accretion, and produce functional pork with a high content of leucine but without a negative impact on the muscle fatty acid profile in finishing pigs.
Htoo, J K; Araiza, B A; Sauer, W C; Rademacher, M; Zhang, Y; Cervantes, M; Zijlstra, R T
Diarrhea incidence in weaned pigs may be associated with the concentration of intestinal microbial metabolites (ammonia, amines, and VFA) that are influenced by dietary CP content. Three experiments were conducted to determine effects of a low-protein, AA-supplemented diet on ileal AA digestibility, growth performance, diarrhea incidence, and concentration of microbial metabolites in ileal